WorldWideScience

Sample records for incipient fire detection

  1. Fire detection in warehouse facilities

    CERN Document Server

    Dinaburg, Joshua

    2013-01-01

    Automatic sprinklers systems are the primary fire protection system in warehouse and storage facilities. The effectiveness of this strategy has come into question due to the challenges presented by modern warehouse facilities, including increased storage heights and areas, automated storage retrieval systems (ASRS), limitations on water supplies, and changes in firefighting strategies. The application of fire detection devices used to provide early warning and notification of incipient warehouse fire events is being considered as a component of modern warehouse fire protection.Fire Detection i

  2. Current Signature Analysis as Diagnosis Media for Incipient Fault Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIHET-POPA, L.

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the experimental investigation for incipient fault detection and fault detection methods existing in the literature, using Wound Rotor Induction Machine (WRIM. Three main experiments (one for stator phase unbalance, one for rotor phase unbalance and one for turn-to-turn faults have been performed to study the electrical behavior of the WRIM. The article aims to provide further documentation for an advanced condition monitoring system, in order to avoid undesirable operating conditions and to detect and diagnose incipient electrical faults. A description of the measurement system and experimental investigation are presented and stator and rotor currents spectrum of the WRIM are analyzed.

  3. Incipient fault detection and power system protection for spaceborne systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, B. Don; Hackler, Irene M.

    1987-01-01

    A program was initiated to study the feasibility of using advanced terrestrial power system protection techniques for spacecraft power systems. It was designed to enhance and automate spacecraft power distribution systems in the areas of safety, reliability and maintenance. The proposed power management/distribution system is described as well as security assessment and control, incipient and low current fault detection, and the proposed spaceborne protection system. It is noted that the intelligent remote power controller permits the implementation of digital relaying algorithms with both adaptive and programmable characteristics.

  4. A measurement-based technique for incipient anomaly detection

    KAUST Repository

    Harrou, Fouzi

    2016-06-13

    Fault detection is essential for safe operation of various engineering systems. Principal component analysis (PCA) has been widely used in monitoring highly correlated process variables. Conventional PCA-based methods, nevertheless, often fail to detect small or incipient faults. In this paper, we develop new PCA-based monitoring charts, combining PCA with multivariate memory control charts, such as the multivariate cumulative sum (MCUSUM) and multivariate exponentially weighted moving average (MEWMA) monitoring schemes. The multivariate control charts with memory are sensitive to small and moderate faults in the process mean, which significantly improves the performance of PCA methods and widen their applicability in practice. Using simulated data, we demonstrate that the proposed PCA-based MEWMA and MCUSUM control charts are more effective in detecting small shifts in the mean of the multivariate process variables, and outperform the conventional PCA-based monitoring charts. © 2015 IEEE.

  5. Autonomous Forest Fire Detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breejen, E. den; Breuers, M.; Cremer, F.; Kemp, R.A.W.; Roos, M.; Schutte, K.; Vries, J.S. de

    1998-01-01

    Forest fire detection is a very important issue in the pre-suppression process. Timely detection allows the suppression units to reach the fire in its initial stages and this will reduce the suppression costs considerably. The autonomous forest fire detection principle is based on temporal contrast

  6. Incipient Stator Insulation Fault Detection of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Wind Generators Based on Hilbert–Huang Transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Chao; Liu, Xiao; Chen, Zhe

    2014-01-01

    Incipient stator winding fault in permanent magnet synchronous wind generators (PMSWGs) is very difficult to be detected as the fault generated variations in terminal electrical parameters are very weak and chaotic. This paper simulates the incipient stator winding faults at different degree...

  7. Acoustic Emission Monitoring of Incipient in Journal Bearings - Part I : Detectability and measurement for bearing damages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Dong Jin; Kwon, Oh Yang; Chung, Min Hwa; Kim, Kyung Woong

    1994-01-01

    In contrast to the machinery using rolling element bearings, systems with journal bearings generally operate in large scale and under severe loading condition such as steam generator turbines and internal combustion engines. Failure of the bearings in these machinery can result in the system breakdown. To avoid the time consuming repair and considerable economic loss, the detection of incipient failure in journal bearings becomes very important. In this experimental approach, acoustic emission monitoring is applied to the detection of incipient failure caused by several types of abnormal operating condition most probable in the journal bearing systems. It has been known that the intervention of foreign materials, insufficient lubrication and misassembly etc. are principal factors to cause bearing failure and distress. The experiment was conducted under such designed conditions as hard particles in the lubrication layer, insufficient lubrication, and metallic contact in the simulated journal bearing system. The results showed that acoustic emission could be an effective tool to detect the incipient failure in journal bearings

  8. Near-infrared hyperspectral imaging of water evaporation dynamics for early detection of incipient caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usenik, Peter; Bürmen, Miran; Fidler, Aleš; Pernuš, Franjo; Likar, Boštjan

    2014-10-01

    Incipient caries is characterized as demineralization of the tooth enamel reflecting in increased porosity of enamel structure. As a result, the demineralized enamel may contain increased amount of water, and exhibit different water evaporation dynamics than the sound enamel. The objective of this paper is to assess the applicability of water evaporation dynamics of sound and demineralized enamel for detection and quantification of incipient caries using near-infrared hyperspectral imaging. The time lapse of water evaporation from enamel samples with artificial and natural caries lesions of different stages was imaged by a near-infrared hyperspectral imaging system. Partial least squares regression was used to predict the water content from the acquired spectra. The water evaporation dynamics was characterized by a first order logarithmic drying model. The calculated time constants of the logarithmic drying model were used as the discriminative feature. The conducted measurements showed that demineralized enamel contains more water and exhibits significantly faster water evaporation than the sound enamel. By appropriate modelling of the water evaporation process from the enamel surface, the contrast between the sound and demineralized enamel observed in the individual near infrared spectral images can be substantially enhanced. The presented results indicate that near-infrared based prediction of water content combined with an appropriate drying model presents a strong foundation for development of novel diagnostic tools for incipient caries detection. The results of the study enhance the understanding of the water evaporation process from the sound and demineralized enamel and have significant implications for the detection of incipient caries by near-infrared hyperspectral imaging. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Experimental-theoretical approach to carbon monoxide density calculation at the incipient stage of the fire indoors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puzach, S. V.; Suleykin, E. V.; Akperov, R. G.; Nguyen, T. D.

    2017-11-01

    A new experimental-theoretical approach to the toxic gases concentrations assessment in case of fire indoors is offered. The analytical formulas for calculation of CO average volume density are received. These formulas do not contain the geometrical sizes of the room and surfaces dimensions of combustible materials and, therefore, are valid under conditions of as a small-scale fire as a large-scale fire. A small-scale experimental installation for modeling fire thermal and gas dynamics in the closed or open thermodynamic system has been designed. The results of the experiments on determining dependencies of CO average volume density from average volume temperature and oxygen average volume density as well as dependencies of specific coefficients of CO emission and specific mass rates of the combustible material gasification from the time of tests during the burning of wood, transformer oil and PVC cables shield are presented. The results of numerical experiments on CO density calculation in small and large scale rooms using the proposed analytical solutions, integral, zone and field models for calculation of fire thermal and gas dynamics are presented. The comparison with the experimental data obtained by the authors and given in the literature has been performed. It is shown that CO density calculation in the full-scale room at the incipient stage of the fire can be carried out taking into account only the experimental dependences of CO from temperature or O2 density, that have been obtained from small-scale experiments. Therefore the solution of the equation of carbon monoxide mass conservation law is not necessary.

  10. Review of candidate methods for detecting incipient defects due to aging of installed cables in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martzloff, F.D.

    1988-01-01

    Several types of test methods have been proposed for detecting incipient defects due to aging in cable insulation systems, none offering certainty of detecting all possible types of defects. Some methods apply direct detection of a defect in the cable; other methods detect changes in electrical or non-electrical parameters from which inference can be drawn on the integrity of the cable. The paper summarizes the first year of a program conducted at the National Bureau of Standards to assess the potential of success for in situ detection of incipient defects by the most promising of these methods

  11. Detecting incipient schizophrenia: a validation of the Azima battery in first episode psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafran, Hiba; Mazer, Barbara; Tallant, Beverlea; Chilingaryan, Gevorg; Gelinas, Isabelle

    2017-09-01

    Early psychosis intervention aims to accurately detect adolescents and young adults at risk for major mental disorders, particularly schizophrenia, yet early biomedical diagnostic accuracy remains poor. However, phenomenological approaches focusing on eliciting and understanding the subjective experience of help-seeking youth better detect incipient schizophrenia. The Azima Battery is an occupational therapy projective assessment that uses expressive media in a standard setup, in order to phenomenologically elicit and describe the activity performance and narratives of individuals at risk of, or on, the psychotic-spectrum.The purpose of this study was to estimate the predictive validity of the Azima Battery with youth seeking help for a first episode of psychosis, and identify patterns of performance distinctive of a diagnosis of schizophrenia 1-year later. A mixed methods phenomenological approach was used to calculate the predictive validity of the Azima Battery in detecting incipient schizophrenia, and to qualitatively identify patterns of performance. Study results demonstrate that the diagnostic accuracy of the Azima Battery is greater than psychiatric interviewing for a future diagnosis of schizophrenia (N = 62: 88.7 % vs 42 %). Performance elements and patterns statistically distinctive of schizophrenia are described, and relate to the structure of the created objects. Therefore, the Azima Battery is a valid measure for clinical use by occupational therapists working in early intervention for psychosis as a complement to traditional psychiatric interviewing.

  12. Defining Incipient Subduction by Detecting Serpentenised Mantle in the Regional Magnetic Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, Rui; Clark, Stuart; Reis, Rui

    2017-04-01

    Keywords: Subduction initiation, Incipient Subduction, Active Margins, Southeast Asia, Mantle wedge The mechanisms of subduction initiation are poorly understood. One idea is to look for incipient subduction zones in the present day and see what features are common in these zones. However, incipient subduction zones are very difficult to detect and debate surrounds particular cases as to whether they qualify as incipient or not. In the analysis conducted in this work, we use the signal of the presence of a mantle wedge in the magnetic anomaly field as an indicator of incipient subduction. Each subduction zone exhibits variations in the particular responses of the system, such as slab-dip angle, maximum earthquake depths and volcanism to various parameters. So far, attempts to reduce the system to a dominate controlling parameter have failed, probably as a result of the limited number of cases and the large variety of controlling parameters. Parameters such as down-going and overriding plate morphology and velocity, mantle flow, the presence of plumes or not, sediment transport into the trench are a few of the parameters that have been studied in the literature. However, one of the characteristics associated with a subduction zones is the presence of a mantelic wedge as a result of the partial melt of the subducting plate and the development of a mantle wedge between the subducting plate and the overriding plate. The wedge is characterised by the presence of water (coming from sediments in the down-going plate) as well as lower temperatures (because the wedge is between two relatively cold lithospheres). As a results a serpentinized mantle wedge is formed that contains hydrous minerals, of which magnetite is an example, that alter the composition and properties of this region. According to Blakely et.al. (2005), this region exhibits both higher magnetic susceptibility and lower densities than the surrounding medium. We analysed five active margin boundaries located

  13. Evaluation of diagnostic ability of CCD digital radiography in the detection of incipient dental caries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Wan; Lee, Byung Do [Wonkwang University College of Medicine, Iksan (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-03-15

    The purpose of this experiment was to evaluate the diagnostic ability of a CCD-based digital system (CDX-2000HQ) in the detection of incipient dental caries. 93 extracted human teeth with sound proximal surfaces and interproximal artificial cavities were radiographed using 4 imaging methods. Automatically processed No.2 Insight film (Eastman Kodak Co., U.S.A.) was used for conventional radiography, scanned images of conventional radiograms for indirect digital radiography were used. For the direct digital radiography, the CDX-2000HQ CCD system (Biomedisys Co. Korea) was used. The subtraction images were made from two direct digital images by Sunny program in the CDX-2000HQ system. Two radiologists and three endodontists examined the presence of lesions using a five-point confidence scale and compared the diagnostic ability by ROC (Receiver Operating Characteristic) analysis and one way ANOVA test. The mean ROC areas of conventional radiography, indirect digital radiography, direct digital radiography, and digital subtraction radiography were 0.9093, 0.9102, 0.9184, and 0.9056, respectively. The diagnostic ability of direct digital radiography was better than the other imaging modalities, but there were no statistical differences among these imaging modalities (p>0.05). These results indicate that new CCD-based digital systems (CDX-2000HQ) have the potential to serve as an alternative to conventional radiography in the detection of incipient dental caries.

  14. Evaluation of diagnostic ability of CCD digital radiography in the detection of incipient dental caries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Wan; Lee, Byung Do

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this experiment was to evaluate the diagnostic ability of a CCD-based digital system (CDX-2000HQ) in the detection of incipient dental caries. 93 extracted human teeth with sound proximal surfaces and interproximal artificial cavities were radiographed using 4 imaging methods. Automatically processed No.2 Insight film (Eastman Kodak Co., U.S.A.) was used for conventional radiography, scanned images of conventional radiograms for indirect digital radiography were used. For the direct digital radiography, the CDX-2000HQ CCD system (Biomedisys Co. Korea) was used. The subtraction images were made from two direct digital images by Sunny program in the CDX-2000HQ system. Two radiologists and three endodontists examined the presence of lesions using a five-point confidence scale and compared the diagnostic ability by ROC (Receiver Operating Characteristic) analysis and one way ANOVA test. The mean ROC areas of conventional radiography, indirect digital radiography, direct digital radiography, and digital subtraction radiography were 0.9093, 0.9102, 0.9184, and 0.9056, respectively. The diagnostic ability of direct digital radiography was better than the other imaging modalities, but there were no statistical differences among these imaging modalities (p>0.05). These results indicate that new CCD-based digital systems (CDX-2000HQ) have the potential to serve as an alternative to conventional radiography in the detection of incipient dental caries.

  15. Advanced power system protection and incipient fault detection and protection of spaceborne power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, B. Don

    1989-01-01

    This research concentrated on the application of advanced signal processing, expert system, and digital technologies for the detection and control of low grade, incipient faults on spaceborne power systems. The researchers have considerable experience in the application of advanced digital technologies and the protection of terrestrial power systems. This experience was used in the current contracts to develop new approaches for protecting the electrical distribution system in spaceborne applications. The project was divided into three distinct areas: (1) investigate the applicability of fault detection algorithms developed for terrestrial power systems to the detection of faults in spaceborne systems; (2) investigate the digital hardware and architectures required to monitor and control spaceborne power systems with full capability to implement new detection and diagnostic algorithms; and (3) develop a real-time expert operating system for implementing diagnostic and protection algorithms. Significant progress has been made in each of the above areas. Several terrestrial fault detection algorithms were modified to better adapt to spaceborne power system environments. Several digital architectures were developed and evaluated in light of the fault detection algorithms.

  16. Improved detection of incipient anomalies via multivariate memory monitoring charts: Application to an air flow heating system

    KAUST Repository

    Harrou, Fouzi

    2016-08-11

    Detecting anomalies is important for reliable operation of several engineering systems. Multivariate statistical monitoring charts are an efficient tool for checking the quality of a process by identifying abnormalities. Principal component analysis (PCA) was shown effective in monitoring processes with highly correlated data. Traditional PCA-based methods, nevertheless, often are relatively inefficient at detecting incipient anomalies. Here, we propose a statistical approach that exploits the advantages of PCA and those of multivariate memory monitoring schemes, like the multivariate cumulative sum (MCUSUM) and multivariate exponentially weighted moving average (MEWMA) monitoring schemes to better detect incipient anomalies. Memory monitoring charts are sensitive to incipient anomalies in process mean, which significantly improve the performance of PCA method and enlarge its profitability, and to utilize these improvements in various applications. The performance of PCA-based MEWMA and MCUSUM control techniques are demonstrated and compared with traditional PCA-based monitoring methods. Using practical data gathered from a heating air-flow system, we demonstrate the greater sensitivity and efficiency of the developed method over the traditional PCA-based methods. Results indicate that the proposed techniques have potential for detecting incipient anomalies in multivariate data. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd

  17. Incipient Fault Detection and Isolation of Field Devices in Nuclear Power Systems Using Principal Component Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaistha, Nitin; Upadhyaya, Belle R.

    2001-01-01

    An integrated method for the detection and isolation of incipient faults in common field devices, such as sensors and actuators, using plant operational data is presented. The approach is based on the premise that data for normal operation lie on a surface and abnormal situations lead to deviations from the surface in a particular way. Statistically significant deviations from the surface result in the detection of faults, and the characteristic directions of deviations are used for isolation of one or more faults from the set of typical faults. Principal component analysis (PCA), a multivariate data-driven technique, is used to capture the relationships in the data and fit a hyperplane to the data. The fault direction for each of the scenarios is obtained using the singular value decomposition on the state and control function prediction errors, and fault isolation is then accomplished from projections on the fault directions. This approach is demonstrated for a simulated pressurized water reactor steam generator system and for a laboratory process control system under single device fault conditions. Enhanced fault isolation capability is also illustrated by incorporating realistic nonlinear terms in the PCA data matrix

  18. Kullback-Leibler distance-based enhanced detection of incipient anomalies

    KAUST Repository

    Harrou, Fouzi

    2016-09-09

    Accurate and effective anomaly detection and diagnosis of modern engineering systems by monitoring processes ensure reliability and safety of a product while maintaining desired quality. In this paper, an innovative method based on Kullback-Leibler divergence for detecting incipient anomalies in highly correlated multivariate data is presented. We use a partial least square (PLS) method as a modeling framework and a symmetrized Kullback-Leibler distance (KLD) as an anomaly indicator, where it is used to quantify the dissimilarity between current PLS-based residual and reference probability distributions obtained using fault-free data. Furthermore, this paper reports the development of two monitoring charts based on the KLD. The first approach is a KLD-Shewhart chart, where the Shewhart monitoring chart with a three sigma rule is used to monitor the KLD of the response variables residuals from the PLS model. The second approach integrates the KLD statistic into the exponentially weighted moving average monitoring chart. The performance of the PLS-based KLD anomaly-detection methods is illustrated and compared to that of conventional PLS-based anomaly detection methods. Using synthetic data and simulated distillation column data, we demonstrate the greater sensitivity and effectiveness of the developed method over the conventional PLS-based methods, especially when data are highly correlated and small anomalies are of interest. Results indicate that the proposed chart is a very promising KLD-based method because KLD-based charts are, in practice, designed to detect small shifts in process parameters. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd

  19. A New MLP Approach for the Detection of the Incipient Bearing Damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SEKER, S.

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, it is aimed to track the aging trend of the incipient bearing damage in an induction motor which is subjected to an accelerated aging process. For this purpose, a new Multilayer perceptron (MLP neural network approach is introduced. The input signals are extracted from power spectral densities (PSD of the vibration signals taken from a 5-HP induction motor. Principal component analysis (PCA has been applied to select the best possible feature vectors as a dimensionality reduction purpose. Variance and entropy values are used as the targets of the MLP network. The healthy motor condition was modelled by the MLP network considering all load conditions. The results showed that the incipient bearing damage was clearly extracted by the oscillations of the MLP output error.

  20. The development of fire detection robot

    OpenAIRE

    Sucuoğlu, Hilmi Saygın

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to design and manufacture a fire detection robot that especially operates in industrial areas for fire inspection and early detection. Robot is designed and implemented to track prescribed paths with obstacle avoidance function through obstacle avoidance and motion planning units and to scan the environment in order to detect fire source using fire detection unit. Robot is able to track patrolling routes using virtual lines that defined to the motion planning unit. ...

  1. Fiber optic fire detection technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hering, D.W.

    1990-01-01

    Electrostatic application of paint was, and still is, the most technically feasible method of reducing VOC (volatile organic compounds) emissions, while reducing the cost to apply the coatings. Prior to the use of electrostatics, only two sides of the traditional fire triangle were normally present in the booth, fuel (solvent), and oxygen (air). Now the third leg (the ignition source) was present at virtually all times during the production operation in the form of the electrostatic charge and the resulting energy in the system. The introduction of fiber optics into the field of fire detection was for specific application to the electrostatic painting industry, but specifically, robots used in the application of electrostatic painting in the automotive industry. The use of fiber optics in this hazard provided detection for locations that have been previously prohibited or inaccessible with the traditional fire detection systems. The fiber optic technology that has been adapted to the field of fire detection operates on the principle of transmission of photons through a light guide (optic fiber). When the light guide is subjected to heat, the cladding on the light guide melts away from the core and allows the light (photons) to escape. The controller, which contains the emitter and receiver is set-up to distinguish between partial loss of light and a total loss of light. Glass optical fibers carrying light offer distinct advantages over wires or coaxial cables carrying electricity as a transmission media. The uses of fiber optic detection will be expanded in the near future into such areas as aircraft, cable trays and long conveyor runs because fiber optics can carry more information and deliver it with greater clarity over longer distances with total immunity to all kinds of electrical interference

  2. Fire protection for launch facilities using machine vision fire detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Douglas B.

    1993-01-01

    Fire protection of critical space assets, including launch and fueling facilities and manned flight hardware, demands automatic sensors for continuous monitoring, and in certain high-threat areas, fast-reacting automatic suppression systems. Perhaps the most essential characteristic for these fire detection and suppression systems is high reliability; in other words, fire detectors should alarm only on actual fires and not be falsely activated by extraneous sources. Existing types of fire detectors have been greatly improved in the past decade; however, fundamental limitations of their method of operation leaves open a significant possibility of false alarms and restricts their usefulness. At the Civil Engineering Laboratory at Tyndall Air Force Base in Florida, a new type of fire detector is under development which 'sees' a fire visually, like a human being, and makes a reliable decision based on known visual characteristics of flames. Hardware prototypes of the Machine Vision (MV) Fire Detection System have undergone live fire tests and demonstrated extremely high accuracy in discriminating actual fires from false alarm sources. In fact, this technology promises to virtually eliminate false activations. This detector could be used to monitor fueling facilities, launch towers, clean rooms, and other high-value and high-risk areas. Applications can extend to space station and in-flight shuttle operations as well; fiber optics and remote camera heads enable the system to see around obstructed areas and crew compartments. The capability of the technology to distinguish fires means that fire detection can be provided even during maintenance operations, such as welding.

  3. 46 CFR 108.405 - Fire detection system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) Each fire detection system must be divided into zones to limit the area covered by any particular alarm... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire detection system. 108.405 Section 108.405 Shipping... EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems § 108.405 Fire detection system. (a) Each fire detection system and...

  4. Preventive detection of incipient failure and improvement of availability of French PWR using acoustic emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Audenard, B.; Marini, J.

    1982-08-01

    Laboratory tests, on site experience gained on PWR during start up test as well as during nominal functioning have given FRAMATOME very great confidence in A.E. techniques for preventive detection of incidents. Loose part and leakage monitoring are already being used on an industrial basis. Crack growth detection and monitoring are still in the investigation phase and various. Research and Development programs are presently being carried out

  5. Pipeline oil fire detection with MODIS active fire products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogungbuyi, M. G.; Martinez, P.; Eckardt, F. D.

    2017-12-01

    We investigate 85 129 MODIS satellite active fire events from 2007 to 2015 in the Niger Delta of Nigeria. The region is the oil base for Nigerian economy and the hub of oil exploration where oil facilities (i.e. flowlines, flow stations, trunklines, oil wells and oil fields) are domiciled, and from where crude oil and refined products are transported to different Nigerian locations through a network of pipeline systems. Pipeline and other oil facilities are consistently susceptible to oil leaks due to operational or maintenance error, and by acts of deliberate sabotage of the pipeline equipment which often result in explosions and fire outbreaks. We used ground oil spill reports obtained from the National Oil Spill Detection and Response Agency (NOSDRA) database (see www.oilspillmonitor.ng) to validate MODIS satellite data. NOSDRA database shows an estimate of 10 000 spill events from 2007 - 2015. The spill events were filtered to include largest spills by volume and events occurring only in the Niger Delta (i.e. 386 spills). By projecting both MODIS fire and spill as `input vector' layers with `Points' geometry, and the Nigerian pipeline networks as `from vector' layers with `LineString' geometry in a geographical information system, we extracted the nearest MODIS events (i.e. 2192) closed to the pipelines by 1000m distance in spatial vector analysis. The extraction process that defined the nearest distance to the pipelines is based on the global practices of the Right of Way (ROW) in pipeline management that earmarked 30m strip of land to the pipeline. The KML files of the extracted fires in a Google map validated their source origin to be from oil facilities. Land cover mapping confirmed fire anomalies. The aim of the study is to propose a near-real-time monitoring of spill events along pipeline routes using 250 m spatial resolution of MODIS active fire detection sensor when such spills are accompanied by fire events in the study location.

  6. Software fires detection and extinction for forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos García Seco

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This article shows the most usual fire detection and forest extinction application technologies at present. We will see all different methods used by these applications that can be found in the Market and some examples. Also, some basic questions about the most influent parameters when a fire must be extinct are shown. Finally, after having shown all the technologies, we will build a model about an intelligent system which not only detects, but also extinguish wildfires.

  7. Comparison between RVG UI sensor and Kodak InSight film for detection of incipient proximal caries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuda, Yukiko; Hanazawa, Tomomi; Seki, Kenji; Araki, Kazuyuki; Okano, Tomohiro [Showa Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Dentistry

    2002-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of the four combination modes of Trophy Radio Visio Graphy (RVG) UI sensor (Trex-Trophy Radiology Inc., Marne-la-Valee, France) and Kodak InSight film (Eastman Kodak Co., Rochester, NY) for detecting proximal dental caries. Thirty extracted human upper premolars were selected. Of 60 surfaces, 25 had carious lesions in the form of small cavities, and the rest showed no evidence of caries as verified by a micro computed tomogram (micro CT; XCT Research SA+, Stratec Medizintechnik GmbH, Pforzheim, Germany). All teeth were radiographed with the paralleling technique (60 kV, 40 cm focus-to-sensor distance). Four combination modes (high-resolution caries mode-HRC; high-sensitivity caries mode-HSC; high-resolution periodontal mode-HRP; and high-resolution endo mode-HRE) were used. Exposure was set at 0.12 sec for HRC, 0.08 sec for HSC, 0.16 sec for HRP, 0.12 sec for HRE, and 0.16 sec for the Kodak InSight film. The resulting images were evaluated by three oral radiologists. The same three observers evaluated the digital images, and were allowed to use the contrast and brightness controls in doing so. Possible differences in receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve areas among image modalities were assessed by the Friedman test. The mean ROC curve areas were 0.66{+-}0.11 for HRC, 0.78{+-}0.02 for HSC, 0.76{+-}0.04 for HRE, 0.77{+-}0.04 for HRP, and 0.71{+-}0.09 for the Kodak InSight film. There were no statistically significant differences between HRC, HSC, HRE, HRP and the Kodak InSight film in terms of proximal caries detection. The four modes of RVG UI system are each a viable alternative to intraoral film for the detection of incipient dental caries. (author)

  8. Evaluating detection and monitoring tools for incipient and relictual non-native ungulate populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judge, Seth W.; Hess, Steve; Faford, Jonathan K.J.; Pacheco, Dexter; Leopold, Christina R.; Cole, Colleen; Deguzman, Veronica

    2016-01-01

    Hawai‘i Volcanoes National Park (HAVO) encompasses 1,308 km2 on Hawai‘i Island. The park harbors endemic plants and animals which are threatened by a variety of invasive species. Introduced ungulates have caused sharp declines of numerous endemic species and have converted ecosystems to novel grazing systems in many cases. Local ranchers and the Territorial Government of Hawai‘i had long conducted regional ungulate control even prior to the establishment of HAVO in 1916. In 1995 the park’s hunting team began a new hunt database that allowed managers to review hunt effort and effectiveness in each management unit. Target species included feral pigs (Sus scrofa), European mouflon sheep (Ovis gmelini musimon), feral goats (Capra hircus) and wild cattle (Bos taurus). Hunters removed 1,204 feral pigs from HAVO over a 19-year period (1996‒2014). A variety of methods were employed, but trapping, snaring and ground hunts with dogs accounted for the most kills. Trapping yielded the most animals per unit effort. Hunters and volunteers removed 6,657 mouflon from HAVO; 6,601 of those were from the 468 km2 Kahuku Unit. Aerial hunts yielded the most animals followed by ground hunt methods. Hunters completed eradications of goats in several management units over an 18- year period (1997‒2014) when they removed the last 239 known individuals in HAVO primarily with aerial hunts. There have also been seven cattle and five feral dogs (Canis familiaris) removed from HAVO. Establishing benchmarks and monitoring the success of on-the-ground ungulate removal efforts can improve the efficiency of protecting and restoring native forest for high-priority watersheds and native wildlife. We tested a variety of methods to detect small populations of ungulates within HAVO and the Hō‘ili Wai study area in the high-priority watershed of Ka‘ū Forest Reserve on Hawai‘i Island. We conducted ground surveys, aerial surveys and continuous camera trap monitoring in both fence

  9. Automatic Fire Detection: A Survey from Wireless Sensor Network Perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bahrepour, M.; Meratnia, Nirvana; Havinga, Paul J.M.

    2008-01-01

    Automatic fire detection is important for early detection and promptly extinguishing fire. There are ample studies investigating the best sensor combinations and appropriate techniques for early fire detection. In the previous studies fire detection has either been considered as an application of a

  10. Development of an incipient rotor crack detection method by acoustic emission techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Reverend, D.; Massouri, M.H.

    1988-01-01

    The objective of the program presented is to develop a method of detection and monitoring of crack growth in machine rotor by application of acoustic emission techniques. This program is performed by R and D Division of Electricite de France, jointly with INSA de Lyon. The first task of the program is relative to the characterization of acoustic emission during a progressive tensile test performed on a NCT specimen. The second task of the program deals with the experimentation of acoustic emission techniques for the monitoring of a specimen during cycling bending tests. The last task of the program is relative to evaluation of application of acoustic emission techniques for a small rotor integrity monitoring during fatigue rotation tests [fr

  11. Towards Improved Airborne Fire Detection Systems Using Beetle Inspired Infrared Detection and Fire Searching Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herbert Bousack

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Every year forest fires cause severe financial losses in many countries of the world. Additionally, lives of humans as well as of countless animals are often lost. Due to global warming, the problem of wildfires is getting out of control; hence, the burning of thousands of hectares is obviously increasing. Most important, therefore, is the early detection of an emerging fire before its intensity becomes too high. More than ever, a need for early warning systems capable of detecting small fires from distances as large as possible exists. A look to nature shows that pyrophilous “fire beetles” of the genus Melanophila can be regarded as natural airborne fire detection systems because their larvae can only develop in the wood of fire-killed trees. There is evidence that Melanophila beetles can detect large fires from distances of more than 100 km by visual and infrared cues. In a biomimetic approach, a concept has been developed to use the surveying strategy of the “fire beetles” for the reliable detection of a smoke plume of a fire from large distances by means of a basal infrared emission zone. Future infrared sensors necessary for this ability are also inspired by the natural infrared receptors of Melanophila beetles.

  12. 46 CFR 108.413 - Fusible element fire detection system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fusible element fire detection system. 108.413 Section... UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems § 108.413 Fusible element fire detection system. (a) A fusible element fire detection system may be installed. (b) The arrangements for the system...

  13. 46 CFR 108.404 - Selection of fire detection system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... space. (b) The fire detection system must be designed to minimize false alarms. ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Selection of fire detection system. 108.404 Section 108... DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems § 108.404 Selection of fire detection system. (a) If a...

  14. Comparison between RVG UI sensor and Kodak InSight film for detection of incipient proximal caries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Yukiko; Hanazawa, Tomomi; Seki, Kenji; Araki, Kazuyuki; Okano, Tomohiro

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of the four combination modes of Trophy Radio Visio Graphy (RVG) UI sensor (Trex-Trophy Radiology Inc., Marne-la-Valee, France) and Kodak InSight film (Eastman Kodak Co., Rochester, NY) for detecting proximal dental caries. Thirty extracted human upper premolars were selected. Of 60 surfaces, 25 had carious lesions in the form of small cavities, and the rest showed no evidence of caries as verified by a micro computed tomogram (micro CT; XCT Research SA+, Stratec Medizintechnik GmbH, Pforzheim, Germany). All teeth were radiographed with the paralleling technique (60 kV, 40 cm focus-to-sensor distance). Four combination modes (high-resolution caries mode-HRC; high-sensitivity caries mode-HSC; high-resolution periodontal mode-HRP; and high-resolution endo mode-HRE) were used. Exposure was set at 0.12 sec for HRC, 0.08 sec for HSC, 0.16 sec for HRP, 0.12 sec for HRE, and 0.16 sec for the Kodak InSight film. The resulting images were evaluated by three oral radiologists. The same three observers evaluated the digital images, and were allowed to use the contrast and brightness controls in doing so. Possible differences in receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve areas among image modalities were assessed by the Friedman test. The mean ROC curve areas were 0.66±0.11 for HRC, 0.78±0.02 for HSC, 0.76±0.04 for HRE, 0.77±0.04 for HRP, and 0.71±0.09 for the Kodak InSight film. There were no statistically significant differences between HRC, HSC, HRE, HRP and the Kodak InSight film in terms of proximal caries detection. The four modes of RVG UI system are each a viable alternative to intraoral film for the detection of incipient dental caries. (author)

  15. Potential fire detection based on Kalman-driven change detection

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Den Bergh, F

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available A new active fire event detection algorithm for data collected with the Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI) sensor, based on the extended Kalman filter, is introduced. Instead of using the observed temperatures of the spatial...

  16. Wireless Sensor Network for Forest Fire Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emansa Hasri Putra

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Forest fires are one of problems that threaten sustainability of the forest. Early prevention system for indications of forest fires is absolutely necessary. The extent of the forest to be one of the problems encountered in the forest condition monitoring. To overcome the problems of forest extent, designed a system of forest fire detection system by adopting the Wireless Sensor Network (WSN using multiple sensor nodes. Each sensor node has a microcontroller, transmitter/receiver and three sensors. Measurement method is performed by measuring the temperature, flame, the levels of methane, hydrocarbons, and CO2 in some forest area and the combustion of peat in a simulator. From results of measurements of temperature, levels of methane, a hydrocarbon gas and CO2 in an open area indicates there are no signs of fires due to the value of the temperature, methane, hydrocarbon gas, and CO2 is below the measurement in the space simulator.

  17. Individual-Based Modeling Approach to Assessment of the Impacts of Landscape Complexity and Climate on Dispersion, Detectability and Fate of Incipient Medfly Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slawomir A. Lux

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the presented study was to demonstrate the potential of a bottom-up “ethological” approach and individual-based model of Markov-like stochastic processes, employed to gain insights into the factors driving behavior and fate of the invasive propagule, which determine the initial stages of pest invasion and “cryptic” existence of the localized, ultra-low density incipient pest populations. The applied model, PESTonFARM, is driven by the parameters derived directly from the behavior and biology of the target insect species, and spatiotemporal traits of the local terrain and climate. The model projections are actively generated by behavior of the primary causative actors of the invasion processes—individual “virtual” insects—members of the initial propagules or incipient populations. Algorithms of the model were adjusted to reflect behavior and ecology of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata, used as a case-example in the presented study. The model was parametrized based on compiled published experimental information about C. capitata behavior and development, and validated using published data from dispersion and trapping studies. The model reliably simulated behavior, development and dispersion of individual members of an invasive cohort, and allowed to quantify pest establishment and detection chances in landscapes of varying spatiotemporal complexity, host availability and climates. The results support the common view that, under optimal conditions (farmland with continuous fruit availability and suitable climate, even a single propagule of medium size (100 females usually results in pest establishment and detection within the first year post-invasion. The results demonstrate, however, that under specific sub-optimal conditions determined by the local climate, weather fluctuations and landscape topography (e.g., sub-urban, the incipient cryptic populations may occasionally continue for several

  18. Decision algorithms in fire detection systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ristić Jovan D.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Analogue (and addressable fire detection systems enables a new quality in improving sensitivity to real fires and reducing susceptibility to nuisance alarm sources. Different decision algorithms types were developed with intention to improve sensitivity and reduce false alarm occurrence. At the beginning, it was free alarm level adjustment based on preset level. Majority of multi-criteria decision work was based on multi-sensor (multi-signature decision algorithms - using different type of sensors on the same location or, rather, using different aspects (level and rise of one sensor measured value. Our idea is to improve sensitivity and reduce false alarm occurrence by forming groups of sensors that work in similar conditions (same world side in the building, same or similar technology or working time. Original multi-criteria decision algorithms based on level, rise and difference of level and rise from group average are discussed in this paper.

  19. Early forest fire detection using radio-acoustic sounding system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Yasar Guneri; Ince, Turker

    2009-01-01

    Automated early fire detection systems have recently received a significant amount of attention due to their importance in protecting the global environment. Some emergent technologies such as ground-based, satellite-based remote sensing and distributed sensor networks systems have been used to detect forest fires in the early stages. In this study, a radio-acoustic sounding system with fine space and time resolution capabilities for continuous monitoring and early detection of forest fires is proposed. Simulations show that remote thermal mapping of a particular forest region by the proposed system could be a potential solution to the problem of early detection of forest fires.

  20. Detection and Characterization of Low Temperature Peat Fires during the 2015 Fire Catastrophe in Indonesia Using a New High-Sensitivity Fire Monitoring Satellite Sensor (FireBird)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwood, Elizabeth C.; Englhart, Sandra; Lorenz, Eckehard; Halle, Winfried; Wiedemann, Werner; Siegert, Florian

    2016-01-01

    Vast and disastrous fires occurred on Borneo during the 2015 dry season, pushing Indonesia into the top five carbon emitting countries. The region was affected by a very strong El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) climate phenomenon, on par with the last severe event in 1997/98. Fire dynamics in Central Kalimantan were investigated using an innovative sensor offering higher sensitivity to a wider range of fire intensities at a finer spatial resolution (160 m) than heretofore available. The sensor is onboard the TET-1 satellite, part of the German Aerospace Center (DLR) FireBird mission. TET-1 images (acquired every 2–3 days) from the middle infrared were used to detect fires continuously burning for almost three weeks in the protected peatlands of Sebangau National Park as well as surrounding areas with active logging and oil palm concessions. TET-1 detection capabilities were compared with MODIS active fire detection and Landsat burned area algorithms. Fire dynamics, including fire front propagation speed and area burned, were investigated. We show that TET-1 has improved detection capabilities over MODIS in monitoring low-intensity peatland fire fronts through thick smoke and haze. Analysis of fire dynamics revealed that the largest burned areas resulted from fire front lines started from multiple locations, and the highest propagation speeds were in excess of 500 m/day (all over peat > 2m deep). Fires were found to occur most often in concessions that contained drainage infrastructure but were not cleared prior to the fire season. Benefits of implementing this sensor system to improve current fire management techniques are discussed. Near real-time fire detection together with enhanced fire behavior monitoring capabilities would not only improve firefighting efforts, but also benefit analysis of fire impact on tropical peatlands, greenhouse gas emission estimations as well as mitigation measures to reduce severe fire events in the future. PMID:27486664

  1. Detection and Characterization of Low Temperature Peat Fires during the 2015 Fire Catastrophe in Indonesia Using a New High-Sensitivity Fire Monitoring Satellite Sensor (FireBird).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwood, Elizabeth C; Englhart, Sandra; Lorenz, Eckehard; Halle, Winfried; Wiedemann, Werner; Siegert, Florian

    2016-01-01

    Vast and disastrous fires occurred on Borneo during the 2015 dry season, pushing Indonesia into the top five carbon emitting countries. The region was affected by a very strong El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) climate phenomenon, on par with the last severe event in 1997/98. Fire dynamics in Central Kalimantan were investigated using an innovative sensor offering higher sensitivity to a wider range of fire intensities at a finer spatial resolution (160 m) than heretofore available. The sensor is onboard the TET-1 satellite, part of the German Aerospace Center (DLR) FireBird mission. TET-1 images (acquired every 2-3 days) from the middle infrared were used to detect fires continuously burning for almost three weeks in the protected peatlands of Sebangau National Park as well as surrounding areas with active logging and oil palm concessions. TET-1 detection capabilities were compared with MODIS active fire detection and Landsat burned area algorithms. Fire dynamics, including fire front propagation speed and area burned, were investigated. We show that TET-1 has improved detection capabilities over MODIS in monitoring low-intensity peatland fire fronts through thick smoke and haze. Analysis of fire dynamics revealed that the largest burned areas resulted from fire front lines started from multiple locations, and the highest propagation speeds were in excess of 500 m/day (all over peat > 2m deep). Fires were found to occur most often in concessions that contained drainage infrastructure but were not cleared prior to the fire season. Benefits of implementing this sensor system to improve current fire management techniques are discussed. Near real-time fire detection together with enhanced fire behavior monitoring capabilities would not only improve firefighting efforts, but also benefit analysis of fire impact on tropical peatlands, greenhouse gas emission estimations as well as mitigation measures to reduce severe fire events in the future.

  2. Colour based fire detection method with temporal intensity variation filtration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trambitckii, K; Musalimov, V; Anding, K; Linß, G

    2015-01-01

    Development of video, computing technologies and computer vision gives a possibility of automatic fire detection on video information. Under that project different algorithms was implemented to find more efficient way of fire detection. In that article colour based fire detection algorithm is described. But it is not enough to use only colour information to detect fire properly. The main reason of this is that in the shooting conditions may be a lot of things having colour similar to fire. A temporary intensity variation of pixels is used to separate them from the fire. These variations are averaged over the series of several frames. This algorithm shows robust work and was realised as a computer program by using of the OpenCV library

  3. [Detecting fire smoke based on the multispectral image].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Ying-Zhuo; Zhang, Shao-Wu; Liu, Yan-Wei

    2010-04-01

    Smoke detection is very important for preventing forest-fire in the fire early process. Because the traditional technologies based on video and image processing are easily affected by the background dynamic information, three limitations exist in these technologies, i. e. lower anti-interference ability, higher false detection rate and the fire smoke and water fog being not easily distinguished. A novel detection method for detecting smoke based on the multispectral image was proposed in the present paper. Using the multispectral digital imaging technique, the multispectral image series of fire smoke and water fog were obtained in the band scope of 400 to 720 nm, and the images were divided into bins. The Euclidian distance among the bins was taken as a measurement for showing the difference of spectrogram. After obtaining the spectral feature vectors of dynamic region, the regions of fire smoke and water fog were extracted according to the spectrogram feature difference between target and background. The indoor and outdoor experiments show that the smoke detection method based on multispectral image can be applied to the smoke detection, which can effectively distinguish the fire smoke and water fog. Combined with video image processing method, the multispectral image detection method can also be applied to the forest fire surveillance, reducing the false alarm rate in forest fire detection.

  4. Detecting fire in video stream using statistical analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koplík Karel

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The real time fire detection in video stream is one of the most interesting problems in computer vision. In fact, in most cases it would be nice to have fire detection algorithm implemented in usual industrial cameras and/or to have possibility to replace standard industrial cameras with one implementing the fire detection algorithm. In this paper, we present new algorithm for detecting fire in video. The algorithm is based on tracking suspicious regions in time with statistical analysis of their trajectory. False alarms are minimized by combining multiple detection criteria: pixel brightness, trajectories of suspicious regions for evaluating characteristic fire flickering and persistence of alarm state in sequence of frames. The resulting implementation is fast and therefore can run on wide range of affordable hardware.

  5. Combining satellite-based fire observations and ground-based lightning detections to identify lightning fires across the conterminous USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Massada, A.; Hawbaker, T.J.; Stewart, S.I.; Radeloff, V.C.

    2012-01-01

    Lightning fires are a common natural disturbance in North America, and account for the largest proportion of the area burned by wildfires each year. Yet, the spatiotemporal patterns of lightning fires in the conterminous US are not well understood due to limitations of existing fire databases. Our goal here was to develop and test an algorithm that combined MODIS fire detections with lightning detections from the National Lightning Detection Network to identify lightning fires across the conterminous US from 2000 to 2008. The algorithm searches for spatiotemporal conjunctions of MODIS fire clusters and NLDN detected lightning strikes, given a spatiotemporal lag between lightning strike and fire ignition. The algorithm revealed distinctive spatial patterns of lightning fires in the conterminous US While a sensitivity analysis revealed that the algorithm is highly sensitive to the two thresholds that are used to determine conjunction, the density of fires it detected was moderately correlated with ground based fire records. When only fires larger than 0.4 km2 were considered, correlations were higher and the root-mean-square error between datasets was less than five fires per 625 km2 for the entire study period. Our algorithm is thus suitable for detecting broad scale spatial patterns of lightning fire occurrence, and especially lightning fire hotspots, but has limited detection capability of smaller fires because these cannot be consistently detected by MODIS. These results may enhance our understanding of large scale patterns of lightning fire activity, and can be used to identify the broad scale factors controlling fire occurrence.

  6. Efficient video-equipped fire detection approach for automatic fire alarm systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Myeongsu; Tung, Truong Xuan; Kim, Jong-Myon

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes an efficient four-stage approach that automatically detects fire using video capabilities. In the first stage, an approximate median method is used to detect video frame regions involving motion. In the second stage, a fuzzy c-means-based clustering algorithm is employed to extract candidate regions of fire from all of the movement-containing regions. In the third stage, a gray level co-occurrence matrix is used to extract texture parameters by tracking red-colored objects in the candidate regions. These texture features are, subsequently, used as inputs of a back-propagation neural network to distinguish between fire and nonfire. Experimental results indicate that the proposed four-stage approach outperforms other fire detection algorithms in terms of consistently increasing the accuracy of fire detection in both indoor and outdoor test videos.

  7. 29 CFR 1910.164 - Fire detection systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... employer shall locate or otherwise protect detection equipment so that it is protected from mechanical or... of fire detectors is based upon design data obtained from field experience, or tests, engineering...

  8. Active fire detection using Landsat 8 reflective bands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathyachandran, S. K.; Roy, D. P.

    2015-12-01

    Vegetation fires can alter landscapes and are a significant source of atmospheric emissions, particulates and greenhouse gases. Currently, only coarse spatial resolution sensors with high temporal coverage, such as MODIS or VIIRS, are used for routine global active fire mapping. Higher spatial resolution satellites have not been used due to their low temporal coverage and so are less useful for monitoring fires at the time of satellite overpass. However, looking forward, combination of the recently launched Landsat-8 (2013), Sentinel-2A (2015) and upcoming Sentinel-2B (2016) sensor data will provide 10-30m global coverage multi-spectral reflective wavelength observations approximately every three days. Therefore the development of reflective wavelength active fire detections to take advantage of these new data is highly attractive. Conventional detection algorithms use the elevated thermal emission of fire to detect the location of fires burning at the time of satellite overpass and apply contextual checks to remove commission errors by examination of neighboring pixels. A Landsat 8 active fire detection algorithm that takes advantage of the improved 12-bit radiometric resolution and high reflectance saturation of the Landsat 8 OLI detectors is presented. The algorithm uses the 1.6 μm and 2.2 μm bands without the need for a contextual implementation, or thermal bands, and was parameterized using six months of Landsat 8 data over the conterminous United States. Active fire detection results for Landsat 8 scenes acquired over a range of fire sizes and temperatures in Canada, Brazil and Southern Africa are presented and compared to detections found using an existing Landsat 7 contextual algorithm adapted to the Landsat 8 bands. Results show that the Landsat 8 algorithm has potential for global application, with relatively low omission and commission errors, and is suitable for application to the corresponding Sentinel 2 reflectance wavelength bands.

  9. A Vision-Based Approach to Fire Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Gomes

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a vision-based method for fire detection from fixed surveillance smart cameras. The method integrates several well-known techniques properly adapted to cope with the challenges related to the actual deployment of the vision system. Concretely, background subtraction is performed with a context-based learning mechanism so as to attain higher accuracy and robustness. The computational cost of a frequency analysis of potential fire regions is reduced by means of focusing its operation with an attentive mechanism. For fast discrimination between fire regions and fire-coloured moving objects, a new colour-based model of fire's appearance and a new wavelet-based model of fire's frequency signature are proposed. To reduce the false alarm rate due to the presence of fire-coloured moving objects, the category and behaviour of each moving object is taken into account in the decision-making. To estimate the expected object's size in the image plane and to generate geo-referenced alarms, the camera-world mapping is approximated with a GPS-based calibration process. Experimental results demonstrate the ability of the proposed method to detect fires with an average success rate of 93.1% at a processing rate of 10 Hz, which is often sufficient for real-life applications.

  10. 46 CFR 27.203 - What are the requirements for fire detection on towing vessels?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...; (c) The system is arranged and installed so a fire in the engine room automatically sets off alarms... detection on towing vessels? You must have a fire-detection system installed on your vessel to detect engine... use an existing engine-room-monitoring system (with fire-detection capability) instead of a fire...

  11. Incipient Failure Detection Using Wavelets

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-12-01

    a Compact Image Code," IEEE Trans. Commun., Vol. 30, No. 4, April 1983, pp. 532-540. Cheung, J. and G. Stephanopoulos , "Representation of Process...Trends-Part I: A Formal Representation Framework," Computers Chem. Eng., Vol. 14, No. 4/5, 1990, pp. 495-510. Cheung, J. and G. Stephanopoulos

  12. Fire Detection Tradeoffs as a Function of Vehicle Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, David L.; Dietrich, Daniel L.; Brooker, John E.; Meyer, Marit E.; Ruff, Gary A.

    2016-01-01

    Fire survivability depends on the detection of and response to a fire before it has produced an unacceptable environment in the vehicle. This detection time is the result of interplay between the fire burning and growth rates; the vehicle size; the detection system design; the transport time to the detector (controlled by the level of mixing in the vehicle); and the rate at which the life support system filters the atmosphere, potentially removing the detected species or particles. Given the large differences in critical vehicle parameters (volume, mixing rate and filtration rate) the detection approach that works for a large vehicle (e.g. the ISS) may not be the best choice for a smaller crew capsule. This paper examines the impact of vehicle size and environmental control and life support system parameters on the detectability of fires in comparison to the hazard they present. A lumped element model was developed that considers smoke, heat, and toxic product release rates in comparison to mixing and filtration rates in the vehicle. Recent work has quantified the production rate of smoke and several hazardous species from overheated spacecraft polymers. These results are used as the input data set in the lumped element model in combination with the transport behavior of major toxic products released by overheating spacecraft materials to evaluate the necessary alarm thresholds to enable appropriate response to the fire hazard.

  13. Geostationary Fire Detection with the Wildfire Automated Biomass Burning Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, J.; Schmidt, C. C.; Brunner, J. C.; Prins, E. M.

    2010-12-01

    The Wild Fire Automated Biomass Burning Algorithm (WF_ABBA), developed at the Cooperative Institute for Meteorological Satellite Studies (CIMSS), has a long legacy of operational wildfire detection and characterization. In recent years, applications of geostationary fire detection and characterization data have been expanding. Fires are detected with a contextual algorithm and when the fires meet certain conditions the instantaneous fire size, temperature, and radiative power are calculated and provided in user products. The WF_ABBA has been applied to data from Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES)-8 through 15, Meteosat-8/-9, and Multifunction Transport Satellite (MTSAT)-1R/-2. WF_ABBA is also being developed for the upcoming platforms like GOES-R Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI) and other geostationary satellites. Development of the WF_ABBA for GOES-R ABI has focused on adapting the legacy algorithm to the new satellite system, enhancing its capabilities to take advantage of the improvements available from ABI, and addressing user needs. By its nature as a subpixel feature, observation of fire is extraordinarily sensitive to the characteristics of the sensor and this has been a fundamental part of the GOES-R WF_ABBA development work.

  14. Configuration of electro-optic fire source detection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabian, Ram Z.; Steiner, Zeev; Hofman, Nir

    2007-04-01

    The recent fighting activities in various parts of the world have highlighted the need for accurate fire source detection on one hand and fast "sensor to shooter cycle" capabilities on the other. Both needs can be met by the SPOTLITE system which dramatically enhances the capability to rapidly engage hostile fire source with a minimum of casualties to friendly force and to innocent bystanders. Modular system design enable to meet each customer specific requirements and enable excellent future growth and upgrade potential. The design and built of a fire source detection system is governed by sets of requirements issued by the operators. This can be translated into the following design criteria: I) Long range, fast and accurate fire source detection capability. II) Different threat detection and classification capability. III) Threat investigation capability. IV) Fire source data distribution capability (Location, direction, video image, voice). V) Men portability. ) In order to meet these design criteria, an optimized concept was presented and exercised for the SPOTLITE system. Three major modular components were defined: I) Electro Optical Unit -Including FLIR camera, CCD camera, Laser Range Finder and Marker II) Electronic Unit -including system computer and electronic. III) Controller Station Unit - Including the HMI of the system. This article discusses the system's components definition and optimization processes, and also show how SPOTLITE designers successfully managed to introduce excellent solutions for other system parameters.

  15. Using satellite fire detection to calibrate components of the fire weather index system in Malaysia and Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dymond, Caren C; Field, Robert D; Roswintiarti, Orbita; Guswanto

    2005-04-01

    Vegetation fires have become an increasing problem in tropical environments as a consequence of socioeconomic pressures and subsequent land-use change. In response, fire management systems are being developed. This study set out to determine the relationships between two aspects of the fire problems in western Indonesia and Malaysia, and two components of the Canadian Forest Fire Weather Index System. The study resulted in a new method for calibrating components of fire danger rating systems based on satellite fire detection (hotspot) data. Once the climate was accounted for, a problematic number of fires were related to high levels of the Fine Fuel Moisture Code. The relationship between climate, Fine Fuel Moisture Code, and hotspot occurrence was used to calibrate Fire Occurrence Potential classes where low accounted for 3% of the fires from 1994 to 2000, moderate accounted for 25%, high 26%, and extreme 38%. Further problems arise when there are large clusters of fires burning that may consume valuable land or produce local smoke pollution. Once the climate was taken into account, the hotspot load (number and size of clusters of hotspots) was related to the Fire Weather Index. The relationship between climate, Fire Weather Index, and hotspot load was used to calibrate Fire Load Potential classes. Low Fire Load Potential conditions (75% of an average year) corresponded with 24% of the hotspot clusters, which had an average size of 30% of the largest cluster. In contrast, extreme Fire Load Potential conditions (1% of an average year) corresponded with 30% of the hotspot clusters, which had an average size of 58% of the maximum. Both Fire Occurrence Potential and Fire Load Potential calibrations were successfully validated with data from 2001. This study showed that when ground measurements are not available, fire statistics derived from satellite fire detection archives can be reliably used for calibration. More importantly, as a result of this work, Malaysia and

  16. Fire detection behind a wall by using microwave techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkurt, Fatih Özkan; Baǧmancı, Mehmet; Karaaslan, Muharrem; Bakır, Mehmet; Altıntaş, Olcay; Karadaǧ, Faruk; Akgöl, Oǧuzhan; Ünal, Emin

    2018-02-01

    In this work, detection of the fire location behind a wall by using microwave techniques is illustrated. According to Planck's Law, Blackbody emits electromagnetic radiation in the microwave region of the electromagnetic spectrum. This emitted waves penetrates all materials except that metals. These radiated waves can be detected by using directional and high gain antennas. The proposed antenna consists of a simple microstrip patch antenna and a 2×2 microstrip patch antenna array. FIT based simulation results show that 2×2 array antenna can absorb emitted power from a fire source which is located behind a wall. This contribution can be inspirational for further works.

  17. Forest Fire Finder - DOAS application to long-range forest fire detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valente de Almeida, Rui; Vieira, Pedro

    2017-06-01

    Fires are an important factor in shaping Earth's ecosystems. Plant and animal life, in almost every land habitat, are at least partially dependent on the effects of fire. However, their destructive force, which has often proven uncontrollable, is one of our greatest concerns, effectively resulting in several policies in the most important industrialised regions of the globe. This paper aims to comprehensively characterise the Forest Fire Finder (FFF), a forest fire detection system based mainly upon a spectroscopic technique called differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS). The system is designed and configured with the goal of detecting higher-than-the-horizon smoke columns by measuring and comparing scattered sunlight spectra. The article covers hardware and software, as well as their interactions and specific algorithms for day mode operation. An analysis of data retrieved from several installations deployed in the course of the last 5 years is also presented. Finally, this paper features a discussion on the most prominent future improvements planned for the system, as well as its ramifications and adaptations, such as a thermal imaging system for short-range fire seeking or environmental quality control.

  18. Combined hostile fire and optics detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brännlund, Carl; Tidström, Jonas; Henriksson, Markus; Sjöqvist, Lars

    2013-10-01

    Snipers and other optically guided weapon systems are serious threats in military operations. We have studied a SWIR (Short Wave Infrared) camera-based system with capability to detect and locate snipers both before and after shot over a large field-of-view. The high frame rate SWIR-camera allows resolution of the temporal profile of muzzle flashes which is the infrared signature associated with the ejection of the bullet from the rifle. The capability to detect and discriminate sniper muzzle flashes with this system has been verified by FOI in earlier studies. In this work we have extended the system by adding a laser channel for optics detection. A laser diode with slit-shaped beam profile is scanned over the camera field-of-view to detect retro reflection from optical sights. The optics detection system has been tested at various distances up to 1.15 km showing the feasibility to detect rifle scopes in full daylight. The high speed camera gives the possibility to discriminate false alarms by analyzing the temporal data. The intensity variation, caused by atmospheric turbulence, enables discrimination of small sights from larger reflectors due to aperture averaging, although the targets only cover a single pixel. It is shown that optics detection can be integrated in combination with muzzle flash detection by adding a scanning rectangular laser slit. The overall optics detection capability by continuous surveillance of a relatively large field-of-view looks promising. This type of multifunctional system may become an important tool to detect snipers before and after shot.

  19. Analysis of the moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer contextual algorithm for small fire detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. Wang; J.J. Qu; X. Hao; Y. Liu

    2009-01-01

    In the southeastern United States, most wildland fires are of low intensity. Asubstantial number of these fires cannot be detected by the MODIS contextual algorithm. Toimprove the accuracy of fire detection for this region, the remote-sensed characteristics ofthese fires have to be systematically...

  20. A high sensibility technique to detect the incipient defects in high tension bushings; Una tecnica de alta sensibilidad para detectar defectos incipientes en boquillas de alta tension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robles Pimentel, Edgar; Mestizo Rivera, Antolin; Romero Camberos, Ramon [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1995-12-31

    In this article a testing technique to locate incipient faults in transformer bushings is reported, specifically the one related to the internal disconnection of the capacitive tap, which is exemplified with a device having a problem of this kind. [Espanol] En el presente articulo se reporta una tecnica de prueba para localizar fallas incipientes en las boquillas de los transformadores, especificamente la relacionada con la desconexion interna del tap capacitivo, lo cual se ejemplifica con un dispositivo que padece un problema de ese tipo.

  1. The testing techniques of the automatics fire detection monitoring systems (A receiver and A transmitter)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Yon Woo; Soong, Woong Sup; Kim, Kee Ha [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    1999-04-01

    The major function of the automatic fire detection system is to use effectively the fire-fighting equipments and the shelter apparatus detecting immediately the fire and notifying the fire to a person in charge. To perform these functions, the automatic fire detection system is composed of a receiver and a transmitter which indicate the origin of a fire, sound facility, wiring and power supply. And the main purpose using this system is to stop the spread of the fire and minimize the damage of human life and properties of the facility. 12 refs., 17 figs., 11 tabs. (Author)

  2. 46 CFR 161.002-10 - Automatic fire detecting system control unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Automatic fire detecting system control unit. 161.002-10...-10 Automatic fire detecting system control unit. (a) General. The fire detecting system control unit... inches) or other audible alarm that has an equivalent sound level and that is mounted at the control unit...

  3. 33 CFR 149.414 - What are the requirements for a fire detection and alarm system?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... fire detection and alarm system? 149.414 Section 149.414 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... requirements for a fire detection and alarm system? (a) All accommodation and service spaces on a manned..., transferring, or regasifying liquefied natural gas, must have an automatic fire detection and alarm system that...

  4. 46 CFR 193.05-1 - Fire detecting, manual alarm, and supervised patrol systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Required § 193.05-1 Fire detecting, manual alarm, and supervised patrol systems. (a) Fire detecting, manual alarm, and supervised patrol systems are not required, but if installed, the systems shall meet the... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire detecting, manual alarm, and supervised patrol...

  5. 46 CFR 95.05-1 - Fire detecting, manual alarm, and supervised patrol systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Required § 95.05-1 Fire detecting, manual alarm, and supervised patrol systems. (a) Fire detecting, manual alarm, and supervised patrol systems are not required except in special cases; but if installed, the... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire detecting, manual alarm, and supervised patrol...

  6. Literature study regarding fire protection in nuclear power plants. Part 2: Fire detection and -extinguishing systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isaksson, S.

    1996-01-01

    This literature study has been made on behalf of the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate. The aim is to describe different aspects of fire protection in nuclear power plants. Detection and extinguishing systems in Swedish nuclear power plants have only to a limited extent been designed after functional demands, such as a maximum acceptable damage or a maximum time to detect a fire. The availability of detection systems is difficult to assess, partly because of lack of statistics. The user interface is very important in complex systems as nuclear plants. An extinguishing system designed according to the insurance companies' regulations will only fulfill the basic demands. It should be noted that normal sprinkler design does not aim for extinguishing fires, the objective is to control fire until manual extinguishment is possible. There is a great amount of statistics on wet and dry pipe sprinkler systems, while statistics are more scarce for deluge systems. The statistics on the reliability of gaseous extinguishing systems have been found very scarce. A drawback of these systems is that they are normally designed for one shot only. There are both traditional and more recent extinguishing systems that can replace halons. From now on there will be a greater need for a thorough examination of the properties needed for the individual application and a quantification of the acceptable damage. There are several indications on the importance of a high quality maintenance program as well as carefully developed routines for testing and surveillance to ensure the reliability of detection and extinguishing systems. 78 refs, 8 figs, 10 tabs

  7. Early Forest Fire Detection Using Low Energy Hydrogen Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jürgen Müller

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The North-east German Lowlands is a region with one of the highest forest fire risks in Europe. In order to keep damage levels as low as possible, it is important to have an effective early warning system. Such a system is being developed on the basis of a hydrogen sensor, which makes it possible to detect a smouldering forest fire before the development of open flames. The prototype hydrogen sensor produced at the Humboldt University Berlin has a metal/ solid electrolyte/insulator/ semiconductor (MEIS structure, which allows cost-effective production. Due to the low energy consumption, an autarchic working unit could be installed in the forest. Field trials have shown that it is possible to identify a forest fire in its early stages when hydrogen concentrations are still low. A significant change in the signal due to a fire was measured at a distance of about 100m. In view of the potential impacts of climate change, the innovative pre-ignition warning system is an important early diagnosis and monitoring module for the protection of the forests.

  8. Fire detection, fuel model estimation and fire propagation estimation/visualization for the protection of Cultural Heritage

    OpenAIRE

    Torri, Dino; Blonda, Alma; Chaabane, Ferdaous; Dimitropoulos, Kosmas; Tsalakanidou, Filareti; Grammalidis, Nikos

    2011-01-01

    FIRESENSE (Fire Detection and Management through a Multi-Sensor Network for the Protection of Cultural Heritage Areas from the Risk of Fire and Extreme Weather Conditions) is a project co-funded by EU FP7 Environment that aims to develop a multi-sensor early warning system to remotely monitor areas of archaeological and cultural interest from the risk of fire and extreme weather conditions. It will combine different sensing technologies, i.e. wireless networks of temperature/humidity sensors,...

  9. 46 CFR 161.002-9 - Automatic fire detecting system, power supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Automatic fire detecting system, power supply. 161.002-9 Section 161.002-9 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT Fire-Protective Systems § 161.002-9 Automatic fire detecting system, power...

  10. Comparison of Available Technologies for Fire Spots Detection via Linear Heat Detector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miksa František

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available It is very demanding to detect fire spots under difficult conditions with high occurrence of interfering external factors such as large distances, airflow difficultly, high dustiness, high humidity, etc. Spot fire sensors do not meet the requirements due to the aforementioned conditions as well as large distances. Therefore, the detection of a fire spot via linear heat sensing cables is utilized.

  11. 46 CFR 161.002-8 - Automatic fire detecting systems, general requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Automatic fire detecting systems, general requirements... Systems § 161.002-8 Automatic fire detecting systems, general requirements. (a) General. An automatic fire... combined with other power failure alarm systems when specifically approved. (b) [Reserved] [21 FR 9032, Nov...

  12. A Contextual Fire Detection Algorithm for Simulated HJ-1B Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangsheng Kong

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The HJ-1B satellite, which was launched on September 6, 2008, is one of the small ones placed in the constellation for disaster prediction and monitoring. HJ-1B imagery was simulated in this paper, which contains fires of various sizes and temperatures in a wide range of terrestrial biomes and climates, including RED, NIR, MIR and TIR channels. Based on the MODIS version 4 contextual algorithm and the characteristics of HJ-1B sensor, a contextual fire detection algorithm was proposed and tested using simulated HJ-1B data. It was evaluated by the probability of fire detection and false alarm as functions of fire temperature and fire area. Results indicate that when the simulated fire area is larger than 45 m2 and the simulated fire temperature is larger than 800 K, the algorithm has a higher probability of detection. But if the simulated fire area is smaller than 10 m2, only when the simulated fire temperature is larger than 900 K, may the fire be detected. For fire areas about 100 m2, the proposed algorithm has a higher detection probability than that of the MODIS product. Finally, the omission and commission error were evaluated which are important factors to affect the performance of this algorithm. It has been demonstrated that HJ-1B satellite data are much sensitive to smaller and cooler fires than MODIS or AVHRR data and the improved capabilities of HJ-1B data will offer a fine opportunity for the fire detection.

  13. Small Fire Detection Algorithm Development using VIIRS 375m Imagery: Application to Agricultural Fires in Eastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tianran; Wooster, Martin

    2016-04-01

    Until recently, crop residues have been the second largest industrial waste product produced in China and field-based burning of crop residues is considered to remain extremely widespread, with impacts on air quality and potential negative effects on health, public transportation. However, due to the small size and perhaps short-lived nature of the individual burns, the extent of the activity and its spatial variability remains somewhat unclear. Satellite EO data has been used to gauge the timing and magnitude of Chinese crop burning, but current approaches very likely miss significant amounts of the activity because the individual burned areas are either too small to detect with frequently acquired moderate spatial resolution data such as MODIS. The Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) on-board Suomi-NPP (National Polar-orbiting Partnership) satellite launched on October, 2011 has one set of multi-spectral channels providing full global coverage at 375 m nadir spatial resolutions. It is expected that the 375 m spatial resolution "I-band" imagery provided by VIIRS will allow active fires to be detected that are ~ 10× smaller than those that can be detected by MODIS. In this study the new small fire detection algorithm is built based on VIIRS-I band global fire detection algorithm and hot spot detection algorithm for the BIRD satellite mission. VIIRS-I band imagery data will be used to identify agricultural fire activity across Eastern China. A 30 m spatial resolution global land cover data map is used for false alarm masking. The ground-based validation is performed using images taken from UAV. The fire detection result is been compared with active fire product from the long-standing MODIS sensor onboard the TERRA and AQUA satellites, which shows small fires missed from traditional MODIS fire product may count for over 1/3 of total fire energy in Eastern China.

  14. Use of an Infrared Thermometer with Laser Targeting in Morphological Scene Change Detection for Fire Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tickle, Andrew J.; Singh, Harjap; Grindley, Josef E.

    2013-06-01

    Morphological Scene Change Detection (MSCD) is a process typically tasked at detecting relevant changes in a guarded environment for security applications. This can be implemented on a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) by a combination of binary differences based around exclusive-OR (XOR) gates, mathematical morphology and a crucial threshold setting. This is a robust technique and can be applied many areas from leak detection to movement tracking, and further augmented to perform additional functions such as watermarking and facial detection. Fire is a severe problem, and in areas where traditional fire alarm systems are not installed or feasible, it may not be detected until it is too late. Shown here is a way of adapting the traditional Morphological Scene Change Detector (MSCD) with a temperature sensor so if both the temperature sensor and scene change detector are triggered, there is a high likelihood of fire present. Such a system would allow integration into autonomous mobile robots so that not only security patrols could be undertaken, but also fire detection.

  15. Analysis of accelerants and fire debris using aroma detection technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barshick, S.A.

    1997-01-17

    The purpose of this work was to investigate the utility of electronic aroma detection technologies for the detection and identification of accelerant residues in suspected arson debris. Through the analysis of known accelerant residues, a trained neural network was developed for classifying suspected arson samples. Three unknown fire debris samples were classified using this neural network. The item corresponding to diesel fuel was correctly identified every time. For the other two items, wide variations in sample concentration and excessive water content, producing high sample humidities, were shown to influence the sensor response. Sorbent sampling prior to aroma detection was demonstrated to reduce these problems and to allow proper neural network classification of the remaining items corresponding to kerosene and gasoline.

  16. Animals as Mobile Biological Sensors for Forest Fire Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasar Guneri Sahin

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a mobile biological sensor system that can assist in earlydetection of forest fires one of the most dreaded natural disasters on the earth. The main ideapresented in this paper is to utilize animals with sensors as Mobile Biological Sensors(MBS. The devices used in this system are animals which are native animals living inforests, sensors (thermo and radiation sensors with GPS features that measure thetemperature and transmit the location of the MBS, access points for wireless communicationand a central computer system which classifies of animal actions. The system offers twodifferent methods, firstly: access points continuously receive data about animals’ locationusing GPS at certain time intervals and the gathered data is then classified and checked tosee if there is a sudden movement (panic of the animal groups: this method is called animalbehavior classification (ABC. The second method can be defined as thermal detection(TD: the access points get the temperature values from the MBS devices and send the datato a central computer to check for instant changes in the temperatures. This system may beused for many purposes other than fire detection, namely animal tracking, poachingprevention and detecting instantaneous animal death.

  17. Fire detection system using random forest classification for image sequences of complex background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Onecue; Kang, Dong-Joong

    2013-06-01

    We present a fire alarm system based on image processing that detects fire accidents in various environments. To reduce false alarms that frequently appeared in earlier systems, we combined image features including color, motion, and blinking information. We specifically define the color conditions of fires in hue, saturation and value, and RGB color space. Fire features are represented as intensity variation, color mean and variance, motion, and image differences. Moreover, blinking fire features are modeled by using crossing patches. We propose an algorithm that classifies patches into fire or nonfire areas by using random forest supervised learning. We design an embedded surveillance device made with acrylonitrile butadiene styrene housing for stable fire detection in outdoor environments. The experimental results show that our algorithm works robustly in complex environments and is able to detect fires in real time.

  18. The combined use of the RST-FIRES algorithm and geostationary satellite data to timely detect fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filizzola, Carolina; Corrado, Rosita; Marchese, Francesco; Mazzeo, Giuseppe; Paciello, Rossana; Pergola, Nicola; Tramutoli, Valerio

    2017-04-01

    Timely detection of fires may enable a rapid contrast action before they become uncontrolled and wipe out entire forests. Remote sensing, especially based on geostationary satellite data, can be successfully used to this aim. Differently from sensors onboard polar orbiting platforms, instruments on geostationary satellites guarantee a very high temporal resolution (from 30 to 2,5 minutes) which may be usefully employed to carry out a "continuous" monitoring over large areas as well as to timely detect fires at their early stages. Together with adequate satellite data, an appropriate fire detection algorithm should be used. Over the last years, many fire detection algorithms have been just adapted from polar to geostationary sensors and, consequently, the very high temporal resolution of geostationary sensors is not exploited at all in tests for fire identification. In addition, even when specifically designed for geostationary satellite sensors, fire detection algorithms are frequently based on fixed thresholds tests which are generally set up in the most conservative way to avoid false alarm proliferation. The result is a low algorithm sensitivity which generally means that only large and/or extremely intense events are detected. This work describes the Robust Satellite Techniques for FIRES detection and monitoring (RST-FIRES) which is a multi-temporal change-detection technique trying to overcome the above mentioned issues. Its performance in terms of reliability and sensitivity was verified using data acquired by the Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI) sensor onboard the Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) geostationary platform. More than 20,000 SEVIRI images, collected during a four-year-collaboration with the Regional Civil Protection Departments and Local Authorities of two Italian regions, were used. About 950 near real-time ground and aerial checks of the RST-FIRES detections were performed. This study also demonstrates the added value of

  19. Fire detection and incidents localization based on public information channels and social media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanos, Konstantinos-Georgios; Skroumpelou, Katerina; Rizogiannis, Konstantinos; Kyriazanos, Dimitris M.; Astyakopoulos, Alkiviadis; Thomopoulos, Stelios C. A.

    2017-05-01

    In this paper a solution is presented aiming to assist the early detection and localization of a fire incident by exploiting crowdsourcing and unofficial civilian online reports. It consists of two components: (a) the potential fire incident detection and (b) the visualization component. The first component comprises two modules that run in parallel and aim to collect reports posted on public platforms and conclude to potential fire incident locations. It collects the public reports, distinguishes reports that refer to a potential fire incident and store the corresponding information in a structured way. The second module aggregates all these stored reports and conclude to a probable fire location, based on the amount of reports per area, the time and location of these reports. In further the result is entered to a fusion module which combines it with information collected by sensors if available in order to provide a more accurate fire event detection capability. The visualization component is a fully - operational public information channel which provides accurate and up-to-date information about active and past fires, raises awareness about forest fires and the relevant hazards among citizens. The channel has visualization capabilities for presenting in an efficient way information regarding detected fire incidents fire expansion areas, and relevant information such as detecting sensors and reporting origin. The paper concludes with insight to current CONOPS end user with regards to the inclusion of the proposed solution to the current CONOPS of fire detection.

  20. Single vs. dual color fire detection systems: operational tradeoffs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danino, Meir; Danan, Yossef; Sinvani, Moshe

    2017-10-01

    In attempt to supply a reasonable fire plume detection, multinational cooperation with significant capital is invested in the development of two major Infra-Red (IR) based fire detection alternatives, single-color IR (SCIR) and dual-color IR (DCIR). False alarm rate was expected to be high not only as a result of real heat sources but mainly due to the IR natural clutter especially solar reflections clutter. SCIR uses state-of-the-art technology and sophisticated algorithms to filter out threats from clutter. On the other hand, DCIR are aiming at using additional spectral band measurements (acting as a guard), to allow the implementation of a simpler and more robust approach for performing the same task. In this paper we present the basics of SCIR & DCIR architecture and the main differences between them. In addition, we will present the results from a thorough study conducted for the purpose of learning about the added value of the additional data available from the second spectral band. Here we consider the two CO2 bands of 4-5 micron and of 2.5-3 micron band as well as off peak band (guard). The findings of this study refer also to Missile warning systems (MWS) efficacy, in terms of operational value. We also present a new approach for tunable filter to such sensor.

  1. Forest Monitoring and Wildland Early Fire Detection by a Hierarchical Wireless Sensor Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Molina-Pico

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A wildland fire is an uncontrolled fire that occurs mainly in forest areas, although it can also invade urban or agricultural areas. Among the main causes of wildfires, human factors, either intentional or accidental, are the most usual ones. The number and impact of forest fires are expected to grow as a consequence of the global warming. In order to fight against these disasters, it is necessary to adopt a comprehensive, multifaceted approach that enables a continuous situational awareness and instant responsiveness. This paper describes a hierarchical wireless sensor network aimed at early fire detection in risky areas, integrated with the fire fighting command centres, geographical information systems, and fire simulators. This configuration has been successfully tested in two fire simulations involving all the key players in fire fighting operations: fire brigades, communication systems, and aerial, coordination, and land means.

  2. Fire Detection Using tin Oxide Gas Sensors Installed in an Indoor Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Shin-Ichi; Higashino, Tsubasa; Sawada, Ayako; Oyabu, Takashi; Takei, Yoshinori; Nanto, Hidehito; Toko, Kiyoshi

    Many lives and facilities were lost by fire. Especially, there are many damages to elderly, toddlers and babies. In Japan, number of deaths over 65 years old reached to 53% in 2004. Number of over 81 years olds went to 20%. It takes for the elderly person more time to sense fire and also to evacuate to safe places. Although it is important to prevent the fire, it also needs to inform the fire breaking as early as possible. Human sense decreases with age and it is difficult to perceive the fire at an early stage. It is desired to develop a higher sensitive element for fire and its system which can detect fire at an early stage. In this experiment, tin oxide gas sensors were adopted to detect a smoldering fire at the early stage. Most common case of fire is the smoldering fire. The reliability of the sensor is higher and it is adopted in a gas alarm detector. The sensor can also detect slight amount of odor molecule. In our previous experiment, it became obvious that it was better to install the sensor to the ceiling to detect odor components generating from smoldering fire. Therefore, five sensors were installed in the ceiling away from each other and the method to detect the fire was examined. As a result, a characteristic was newly derived by adding the sensor outputs for one minute. The sensor output was input every 0.1s. The characteristic is called as the integrated characteristic. After that, the differential characteristic was derived using the integrated characteristic. The fire was determined using the differential characteristics. The materials causing a smoldering fire were woodchip, wallpaper and carpet as subjects. The system could detect the fire in several minutes for whole materials. The sensor is effective to detect the smoldering fire at an early stage. It is necessary to detect a cigarette smoke to distinguish as non fire. In this study, the discrimination was also examined using a quadratic function (ax2+b). The coefficients a and b were

  3. Chemical Sensor Systems and Associated Algorithms for Fire Detection: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Fonollosa

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Indoor fire detection using gas chemical sensing has been a subject of investigation since the early nineties. This approach leverages the fact that, for certain types of fire, chemical volatiles appear before smoke particles do. Hence, systems based on chemical sensing can provide faster fire alarm responses than conventional smoke-based fire detectors. Moreover, since it is known that most casualties in fires are produced from toxic emissions rather than actual burns, gas-based fire detection could provide an additional level of safety to building occupants. In this line, since the 2000s, electrochemical cells for carbon monoxide sensing have been incorporated into fire detectors. Even systems relying exclusively on gas sensors have been explored as fire detectors. However, gas sensors respond to a large variety of volatiles beyond combustion products. As a result, chemical-based fire detectors require multivariate data processing techniques to ensure high sensitivity to fires and false alarm immunity. In this paper, we the survey toxic emissions produced in fires and defined standards for fire detection systems. We also review the state of the art of chemical sensor systems for fire detection and the associated signal and data processing algorithms. We also examine the experimental protocols used for the validation of the different approaches, as the complexity of the test measurements also impacts on reported sensitivity and specificity measures. All in all, further research and extensive test under different fire and nuisance scenarios are still required before gas-based fire detectors penetrate largely into the market. Nevertheless, the use of dynamic features and multivariate models that exploit sensor correlations seems imperative.

  4. Chemical Sensor Systems and Associated Algorithms for Fire Detection: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonollosa, Jordi

    2018-01-01

    Indoor fire detection using gas chemical sensing has been a subject of investigation since the early nineties. This approach leverages the fact that, for certain types of fire, chemical volatiles appear before smoke particles do. Hence, systems based on chemical sensing can provide faster fire alarm responses than conventional smoke-based fire detectors. Moreover, since it is known that most casualties in fires are produced from toxic emissions rather than actual burns, gas-based fire detection could provide an additional level of safety to building occupants. In this line, since the 2000s, electrochemical cells for carbon monoxide sensing have been incorporated into fire detectors. Even systems relying exclusively on gas sensors have been explored as fire detectors. However, gas sensors respond to a large variety of volatiles beyond combustion products. As a result, chemical-based fire detectors require multivariate data processing techniques to ensure high sensitivity to fires and false alarm immunity. In this paper, we the survey toxic emissions produced in fires and defined standards for fire detection systems. We also review the state of the art of chemical sensor systems for fire detection and the associated signal and data processing algorithms. We also examine the experimental protocols used for the validation of the different approaches, as the complexity of the test measurements also impacts on reported sensitivity and specificity measures. All in all, further research and extensive test under different fire and nuisance scenarios are still required before gas-based fire detectors penetrate largely into the market. Nevertheless, the use of dynamic features and multivariate models that exploit sensor correlations seems imperative. PMID:29439490

  5. Integrate and fire pulse train automaton for QRS detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nallathambi, Gabriel; Príncipe, José C

    2014-02-01

    Monitoring heart activity from electrocardiograms (ECG) is crucial to avoid unnecessary fatalities; therefore, detection of QRS complex is fundamental to automated ECG monitoring. Continuous, portable 24/7 ECG monitoring requires wireless technology with constraints on power, bandwidth, area, and resolution. In order to provide continuous remote monitoring of patients and fast transmission of data to medical personnel for instantaneous intervention, we propose a methodology that converts analog inputs into pulses for ultralow power implementation. The signal encoding scheme is the time-based integrate and fire (IF) sampler from which a set of signal descriptors in the pulse domain are proposed. Furthermore, a logical decision rule for QRS detection based on morphological checking is derived. The proposed decision logic depends exclusively on relational and logical operators resulting in ultrafast recognition and can be implemented using combinatorial logic hardware to guarantee power consumption orders of magnitude lower than any microprocessor device. The algorithm was evaluated using the MIT-BIH arrhythmia database and results show that our algorithm performance is comparable to the state-of-the art software-based detection.

  6. Analysis of the moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer contextual algorithm for small fire detection, Journal of Applied Remote Sensing Vol.3

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. Wang; J.J. Qu; X. Hao; Y. Liu

    2009-01-01

    In the southeastern United States, most wildland fires are of low intensity. A substantial number of these fires cannot be detected by the MODIS contextual algorithm. To improve the accuracy of fire detection for this region, the remote-sensed characteristics of these fires have to be...

  7. Planning an Automatic Fire Detection, Alarm, and Extinguishing System for Research Laboratories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rostam Golmohamadi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objectives: Educational and research laboratories in universities have a high risk of fire, because they have a variety of materials and equipment. The aim of this study was to provide a technical plan for safety improvement in educational and research laboratories of a university based on the design of automatic detection, alarm, and extinguishing systems . Methods : In this study, fire risk assessment was performed based on the standard of Military Risk Assessment method (MIL-STD-882. For all laboratories, detection and fire alarm systems and optimal fixed fire extinguishing systems were designed. Results : Maximum and minimum risks of fire were in chemical water and wastewater (81.2% and physical agents (62.5% laboratories, respectively. For studied laboratories, we designed fire detection systems based on heat and smoke detectors. Also in these places, fire-extinguishing systems based on CO2 were designed . Conclusion : Due to high risk of fire in studied laboratories, the best control method for fire prevention and protection based on special features of these laboratories is using automatic detection, warning and fire extinguishing systems using CO2 .

  8. FUEGO — Fire Urgency Estimator in Geosynchronous Orbit — A Proposed Early-Warning Fire Detection System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Stephens

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Current and planned wildfire detection systems are impressive but lack both sensitivity and rapid response times. A small telescope with modern detectors and significant computing capacity in geosynchronous orbit can detect small (12 m2 fires on the surface of the earth, cover most of the western United States (under conditions of moderately clear skies every few minutes or so, and attain very good signal-to-noise ratio against Poisson fluctuations in a second. Hence, these favorable statistical significances have initiated a study of how such a satellite could operate and reject the large number of expected systematic false alarms from a number of sources. Here we present both studies of the backgrounds in Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES 15 data and studies that probe the sensitivity of a fire detection satellite in geosynchronous orbit. We suggest a number of algorithms that can help reduce false alarms, and show efficacy on a few. Early detection and response would be of true value in the United States and other nations, as wildland fires continue to severely stress resource managers, policy makers, and the public, particularly in the western US. Here, we propose the framework for a geosynchronous satellite with modern imaging detectors, software, and algorithms able to detect heat from early and small fires, and yield minute-scale detection times.

  9. Coal fires in Northwest China. Detection, monitoring, and prediction using remote sensing data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Xiangmin

    1998-01-01

    Coal fires in China occur within a region that stretches over 5,000 km in the east- western part and 750 km. in the north-southern part. These fires cause an economic and environmental threat by making a significant contribution to the global CO2 budget. The studies made in this thesis can be divided into two parts. Part one is based on field work and laboratory analysis that includes the dating of the paleo coal fires; part two concerns remote sensing applications for the active coal fires. In Chapter 2, the evolution of the paleo coal fires in Toutunhe and Xinjiang areas are studied. Several age groups of burnt rock have been recognized and their relationships with the river terraces will be discussed. The causes of the paleo coal fires are addressed, and the areas of coal fires with different ages have been dated. In Chapter 3, the physical basis of thermal infrared remote sensing for the detection and measurement of coal fires are addressed with an emphasis on the spatial, spectral, and radiometric resolution. In Chapter 4, a method to reduce the effect of solar heating, the main factor of confusion when investigating the thermal anomalies of coal fires, is discussed with the help of a DEM. In Chapter 5, as the coal fires normally occupy only part of one pixel of the Landsat TM thermal channel data, the capability of sub pixel coal fire detection is addressed. In Chapter 6, the airborne data from different wavelengths acquired at different times are studied to analyze the spatial thermal characteristics of the coal fires. Spreading direction and different types of coal fires are studied. Chapter 7 presents, based on multi-sensor data fusion techniques, a hierarchical methodology for detection and monitoring of the coal fires. 120 refs

  10. Progress in Fire Detection and Suppression Technology for Future Space Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Robert; Urban, David L.

    2000-01-01

    Fire intervention technology (detection and suppression) is a critical part of the strategy of spacecraft fire safety. This paper reviews the status, trends, and issues in fire intervention, particularly the technology applied to the protection of the International Space Station and future missions beyond Earth orbit. An important contribution to improvements in spacecraft fire safety is the understanding of the behavior of fires in the non-convective (microgravity) environment of Earth-orbiting and planetary-transit spacecraft. A key finding is the strong influence of ventilation flow on flame characteristics, flammability limits and flame suppression in microgravity. Knowledge of these flow effects will aid the development of effective processes for fire response and technology for fire suppression.

  11. Non-supervised method for early forest fire detection and rapid mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artés, Tomás; Boca, Roberto; Liberta, Giorgio; San-Miguel, Jesús

    2017-09-01

    Natural hazards are a challenge for the society. Scientific community efforts have been severely increased assessing tasks about prevention and damage mitigation. The most important points to minimize natural hazard damages are monitoring and prevention. This work focuses particularly on forest fires. This phenomenon depends on small-scale factors and fire behavior is strongly related to the local weather. Forest fire spread forecast is a complex task because of the scale of the phenomena, the input data uncertainty and time constraints in forest fire monitoring. Forest fire simulators have been improved, including some calibration techniques avoiding data uncertainty and taking into account complex factors as the atmosphere. Such techniques increase dramatically the computational cost in a context where the available time to provide a forecast is a hard constraint. Furthermore, an early mapping of the fire becomes crucial to assess it. In this work, a non-supervised method for forest fire early detection and mapping is proposed. As main sources, the method uses daily thermal anomalies from MODIS and VIIRS combined with land cover map to identify and monitor forest fires with very few resources. This method relies on a clustering technique (DBSCAN algorithm) and on filtering thermal anomalies to detect the forest fires. In addition, a concave hull (alpha shape algorithm) is applied to obtain rapid mapping of the fire area (very coarse accuracy mapping). Therefore, the method leads to a potential use for high-resolution forest fire rapid mapping based on satellite imagery using the extent of each early fire detection. It shows the way to an automatic rapid mapping of the fire at high resolution processing as few data as possible.

  12. A Novel Arc Fault Detector for Early Detection of Electrical Fires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Kai; Zhang, Rencheng; Yang, Jianhong; Liu, Canhua; Chen, Shouhong; Zhang, Fujiang

    2016-04-09

    Arc faults can produce very high temperatures and can easily ignite combustible materials; thus, they represent one of the most important causes of electrical fires. The application of arc fault detection, as an emerging early fire detection technology, is required by the National Electrical Code to reduce the occurrence of electrical fires. However, the concealment, randomness and diversity of arc faults make them difficult to detect. To improve the accuracy of arc fault detection, a novel arc fault detector (AFD) is developed in this study. First, an experimental arc fault platform is built to study electrical fires. A high-frequency transducer and a current transducer are used to measure typical load signals of arc faults and normal states. After the common features of these signals are studied, high-frequency energy and current variations are extracted as an input eigenvector for use by an arc fault detection algorithm. Then, the detection algorithm based on a weighted least squares support vector machine is designed and successfully applied in a microprocessor. Finally, an AFD is developed. The test results show that the AFD can detect arc faults in a timely manner and interrupt the circuit power supply before electrical fires can occur. The AFD is not influenced by cross talk or transient processes, and the detection accuracy is very high. Hence, the AFD can be installed in low-voltage circuits to monitor circuit states in real-time to facilitate the early detection of electrical fires.

  13. A Novel Arc Fault Detector for Early Detection of Electrical Fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Kai; Zhang, Rencheng; Yang, Jianhong; Liu, Canhua; Chen, Shouhong; Zhang, Fujiang

    2016-01-01

    Arc faults can produce very high temperatures and can easily ignite combustible materials; thus, they represent one of the most important causes of electrical fires. The application of arc fault detection, as an emerging early fire detection technology, is required by the National Electrical Code to reduce the occurrence of electrical fires. However, the concealment, randomness and diversity of arc faults make them difficult to detect. To improve the accuracy of arc fault detection, a novel arc fault detector (AFD) is developed in this study. First, an experimental arc fault platform is built to study electrical fires. A high-frequency transducer and a current transducer are used to measure typical load signals of arc faults and normal states. After the common features of these signals are studied, high-frequency energy and current variations are extracted as an input eigenvector for use by an arc fault detection algorithm. Then, the detection algorithm based on a weighted least squares support vector machine is designed and successfully applied in a microprocessor. Finally, an AFD is developed. The test results show that the AFD can detect arc faults in a timely manner and interrupt the circuit power supply before electrical fires can occur. The AFD is not influenced by cross talk or transient processes, and the detection accuracy is very high. Hence, the AFD can be installed in low-voltage circuits to monitor circuit states in real-time to facilitate the early detection of electrical fires. PMID:27070618

  14. A Validation of Automated and Quality Controlled Satellite Based Fire Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruminski, M. G.; Hanna, J.

    2010-12-01

    The Satellite Analysis Branch (SAB) of NOAA/NESDIS performs a daily fire analysis for North America utilizing GOES, NOAA POES and MODIS satellite data. Automated fire detection algorithms are employed for each of the sensors. The automated detections are evaluated against the underlying satellite imagery by analysts, with detections that are believed to be false positives removed and missed fires added to the analysis. Previous validation of automated detections has typically utilized very high resolution satellite data, such as ASTER (30m), coincident in space and time with the sensor being validated. While this approach is useful for evaluating algorithm detection capability at a specific time for fires that are not obscured there is a high likelihood that it does not provide a comprehensive evaluation based on all fire occurrences for the day. Fires that occur before or after the satellite overpass would not be included and those that are obscured by clouds would also not be accounted for. These are important considerations in assessing climatology and for emission estimates. This study utilizes ground based reports from Florida, Montana, Idaho and South Carolina which have well established reporting and permitting procedures. These ground reports are primarily agricultural and prescribe burns for which permits are required. While it is possible that permits are obtained but the burn is not performed it is felt that this represents a small fraction of the number reported based on communication with permitting officials. Only the Probability Of Detection (POD) is computed. A positive detection occurs for satellite detections within 8km of a reported fire. This buffer is employed to allow for known satellite navigation errors. Determining false positive detects would not be reliable since there is no way of knowing with certainty that a detected fire did not actually occur at a location. It could easily be an unreported fire. Results for Florida based on daily

  15. Sensor data monitoring and decision level fusion scheme for early fire detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizogiannis, Constantinos; Thanos, Konstantinos Georgios; Astyakopoulos, Alkiviadis; Kyriazanos, Dimitris M.; Thomopoulos, Stelios C. A.

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this paper is to present the sensor monitoring and decision level fusion scheme for early fire detection which has been developed in the context of the AF3 Advanced Forest Fire Fighting European FP7 research project, adopted specifically in the OCULUS-Fire control and command system and tested during a firefighting field test in Greece with prescribed real fire, generating early-warning detection alerts and notifications. For this purpose and in order to improve the reliability of the fire detection system, a two-level fusion scheme is developed exploiting a variety of observation solutions from air e.g. UAV infrared cameras, ground e.g. meteorological and atmospheric sensors and ancillary sources e.g. public information channels, citizens smartphone applications and social media. In the first level, a change point detection technique is applied to detect changes in the mean value of each measured parameter by the ground sensors such as temperature, humidity and CO2 and then the Rate-of-Rise of each changed parameter is calculated. In the second level the fire event Basic Probability Assignment (BPA) function is determined for each ground sensor using Fuzzy-logic theory and then the corresponding mass values are combined in a decision level fusion process using Evidential Reasoning theory to estimate the final fire event probability.

  16. GIS applied to location of fires detection towers in domain area of tropical forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eugenio, Fernando Coelho; Rosa Dos Santos, Alexandre; Fiedler, Nilton Cesar; Ribeiro, Guido Assunção; da Silva, Aderbal Gomes; Juvanhol, Ronie Silva; Schettino, Vitor Roberto; Marcatti, Gustavo Eduardo; Domingues, Getúlio Fonseca; Alves Dos Santos, Gleissy Mary Amaral Dino; Pezzopane, José Eduardo Macedo; Pedra, Beatriz Duguy; Banhos, Aureo; Martins, Lima Deleon

    2016-08-15

    In most countries, the loss of biodiversity caused by the fires is worrying. In this sense, the fires detection towers are crucial for rapid identification of fire outbreaks and can also be used in environmental inspection, biodiversity monitoring, telecommunications mechanisms, telemetry and others. Currently the methodologies for allocating fire detection towers over large areas are numerous, complex and non-standardized by government supervisory agencies. Therefore, this study proposes and evaluates different methodologies to best location of points to install fire detection towers considering the topography, risk areas, conservation units and heat spots. Were used Geographic Information Systems (GIS) techniques and unaligned stratified systematic sampling for implementing and evaluating 9 methods for allocating fire detection towers. Among the methods evaluated, the C3 method was chosen, represented by 140 fire detection towers, with coverage of: a) 67% of the study area, b) 73.97% of the areas with high risk, c) 70.41% of the areas with very high risk, d) 70.42% of the conservation units and e) 84.95% of the heat spots in 2014. The proposed methodology can be adapted to areas of other countries. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. LBA-ECO LC-35 GOES Imager Active Fire Detection Data, South America: 2000-2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set is an active fire detection product resulting from the application of The Wildfire Automated Biomass Burning Algorithm (WF_ABBA) to Geostationary...

  18. LBA-ECO LC-35 GOES Imager Active Fire Detection Data, South America: 2000-2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set is an active fire detection product resulting from the application of The Wildfire Automated Biomass Burning Algorithm (WF_ABBA) to...

  19. Prototype of microbolometer thermal infrared camera for forest fire detection from space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerin, Francois; Dantes, Didier; Bouzou, Nathalie; Chorier, Philippe; Bouchardy, Anne-Marie; Rollin, Joël.

    2017-11-01

    The contribution of the thermal infrared (TIR) camera to the Earth observation FUEGO mission is to participate; to discriminate the clouds and smoke; to detect the false alarms of forest fires; to monitor the forest fires. Consequently, the camera needs a large dynamic range of detectable radiances. A small volume, low mass and power are required by the small FUEGO payload. These specifications can be attractive for other similar missions.

  20. Raman water vapour concentration measurements for reduction of false alarms in forest fire detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellecci, C.; Gaudio, P.; Gelfusa, M.; Lo Feudo, T.; Malizia, A.; Richetta, M.; Ventura, P.

    2009-09-01

    Forest fires can be the cause of environmental catastrophe, with the natural outcomes of serious ecological and economic damages, together with the possibility to endanger human safety. At the aim to reduce this catastrophe several author have been shown that the Laser light scattering can be uses to reveals the particulate emitted in the smoke. Infact experimental and theoretical investigations have shown that lidar is a powerful tool to detect the tenuous smoke plumes produced by forest fires at an early stage. In early 90's Arbolino and Andreucci have shown the theoretical possibility to detect the particulate emitted in atmosphere from smoke forest fire. Vilar at all have shown experimentally the possibility to measure the density variation in atmosphere due to plume emitted in forest fire event. Gaudio at all. have already shown that it is possible to evaluate water vapor emitted in smoke of vegetable fuel using a CO2 dial system. In this paper a theoretical model to evaluate the capabilities of a lidar system in fire surveillance of wooded areas will be presented. In particular we intend propose a technique to minimizing the false alarm in the detection of forest fire by lidar based on a measurement of second components emitted in a combustion process. Usually to detect a fire alarm a rapid increase of aerosol amount is measured. If the backscattering signal report a peak, the presences of a forest fire will be probable. Our idea to confirm this hypothesis is measure the second components emitted in a forest fire at the aim to minimize the false alarm. The simulated measurements of the humidity amount within the smoke plume will be carried out by means of Raman analysis. Fixing the burning rate of the vegetable-fuels, the maximum range of detection will be evaluated.

  1. Detection and Elimination of a Potential Fire in Engine and Battery Compartments of Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macam S. Dattathreya

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel fuzzy deterministic noncontroller type (FDNCT system and an FDNCT inference algorithm (FIA. The FDNCT uses fuzzy inputs and produces a deterministic non-fuzzy output. The FDNCT is an extension and alternative for the existing fuzzy singleton inference algorithm. The research described in this paper applies FDNCT to build an architecture for an intelligent system to detect and to eliminate potential fires in the engine and battery compartments of a hybrid electric vehicle. The fuzzy inputs consist of sensor data from the engine and battery compartments, namely, temperature, moisture, and voltage and current of the battery. The system synthesizes the data and detects potential fires, takes actions for eliminating the hazard, and notifies the passengers about the potential fire using an audible alarm. This paper also presents the computer simulation results of the comparison between the FIA and singleton inference algorithms for detecting potential fires and determining the actions for eliminating them.

  2. A Forest Early Fire Detection Algorithm Based on Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHENG Qiang

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN adopt GHz as their communication carrier, and it has been found that GHz carrier attenuation model in transmission path is associated with vegetation water content. In this paper, based on RSSI mechanism of WSN nodes we formed vegetation dehydration sensors. Through relationships between vegetation water content and carrier attenuation, we perceived forest vegetation water content variations and early fire gestation process, and established algorithms of early forest fires detection. Experiments confirm that wireless sensor networks can accurately perceive vegetation dehydration events and forest fire events. Simulation results show that, WSN dehydration perception channel (P2P representing 75 % amounts of carrier channel or more, it can meet the detection requirements, which presented a new algorithm of early forest fire detection.

  3. Nighttime Fire/Smoke Detection System Based on a Support Vector Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao-Ching Ho

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, video surveillance-based early fire smoke detection is crucial to the prevention of large fires and the protection of life and goods. To overcome the nighttime limitations of video smoke detection methods, a laser light can be projected into the monitored field of view, and the returning projected light section image can be analyzed to detect fire and/or smoke. If smoke appears within the monitoring zone created from the diffusion or scattering of light in the projected path, the camera sensor receives a corresponding signal. The successive processing steps of the proposed real-time algorithm use the spectral, diffusing, and scattering characteristics of the smoke-filled regions in the image sequences to register the position of possible smoke in a video. Characterization of smoke is carried out by a nonlinear classification method using a support vector machine, and this is applied to identify the potential fire/smoke location. Experimental results in a variety of nighttime conditions demonstrate that the proposed fire/smoke detection method can successfully and reliably detect fires by identifying the location of smoke.

  4. SOLID-STATE CONTROLLED FIRE HAZARD DETECTION AND ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Shared data and instmction paths. •. Mostly computer embedded systems use micro controllers. In view of the superior features of microcontroller the fire fighting system is further updated by using microcontroller chip in place of microprocessor chip. Use of solid-state relllY unit: nle electromechanical relay is one of the most.

  5. Approach to fire-PSA study of KAPS IPHWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maiti, S.C.; Chatterjee, D.; Guptan, Rajee; Mohan, Nalini; Gadge, S.S.; Bajaj, S.S.

    2006-01-01

    Some safety significant fire events in nuclear power plants like Browns Ferry (U.S.A, 1975), NAPS (Narora, India, 1993) had serious implication on nuclear safety. Some of them had direct or indirect potential to cause sever reactor core damage. Therefore fire-induced core damage frequencies (FCDF) can be a significant contributor to the overall risk for a plant depending upon the design and operational characteristics of the NPP. Fire probabilistic safety assessment (Fire-PSA) studies for KAPS has been initiated using probabilistic and deterministic analysis like 'Fire Hazard Analysis' to identify the main contributing 'Fire Zone' and 'fire scenarios' to FCDF. The study is being done based on the IAEA guideline and as per international practice for carrying out Fire-PSA. Fire zone are screened out qualitatively and quantitatively based on their direct or indirect potential to Conditional Core Dantage frequency (CCDF). Fire database used for the analysis was for 25 Reactor-years of commercial operation of KAPS. Fire frequency was very low in most of the 'Fire Zone' and most of the fire were detected and suppressed at incipient stage. In most of the cases safety systems were not challenged, and all safety functions were fully available. It gives an insight to fire risk related strength- weaknesses of design and operation of IPHWR. Major contributor to fire risk i.e vulnerable area, vulnerable nuclear safety items, vulnerable fire risk action, and important fire safety components can be identified. It helps the designer and plant management to prioritize their effort in fire risk reduction. (author)

  6. The Hazard Mapping System (HMS)-a Multiplatform Remote Sensing Approach to Fire and Smoke Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibler, J.; Ruminski, M. G.

    2003-12-01

    The HMS is a multiplatform remote sensing approach to detecting fires and smoke over the US and adjacent areas of Canada and Mexico that has been in place since June 2002. This system is an integral part of the National Environmental Satellite and Data Information Service (NESDIS) near realtime hazard detection and mitigation efforts. The system utilizes NOAA's Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES), Polar Operational Environmental Satellites (POES) and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instrument on NASA's Terra and Aqua spacecraft. Automated detection algorithms are employed for each of the satellites for the fire detects while smoke is added by a satellite image analyst. In June 2003 the HMS underwent an upgrade. A number of features were added for users of the products generated on the HMS. Sectors covering Alaska and Hawaii were added. The use of Geographic Information System (GIS) shape files for smoke analysis is a new feature. Shape files show the progression and time of a single smoke plume as each analysis is drawn and then updated. The analyst now has the ability to view GOES, POES, and MODIS data in a single loop. This allows the fire analyst the ability to easily confirm a fire in three different data sets. The upgraded HMS has faster satellite looping and gives the analyst the ability to design a false color image for a particular region. The GOES satellites provide a relatively coarse 4 km infrared resolution at satellite subpoint for thermal fire detection but provide the advantage of a rapid update cycle. GOES imagery is updated every 15 minutes utilizing both GOES-10 and GOES-12. POES imagery from NOAA-15, NOAA-16 and NOAA-17 and MODIS from Terra and Aqua are employed with each satellite providing twice per day coverage (more frequent over Alaska). While the frequency of imagery is much less than with GOES the higher resolution of these satellites (1 km along the suborbital track) allows for detection of

  7. Methods of Fire Debris Preparation for Detection of Accelerants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caddy, B; Smith, F P; Macy, J

    1991-06-01

    Forensic scientists use various techniques to separate accelerants from fire debris samples before instrumental identification of added fuels. Among the choices available, traditional micro-distillation, steam distillation, vacuum distillation, headspace, heated headspace, and several vapor adsorption/desorption methods provide various advantages and disadvantages. This communication reviews the development of these techniques from the 1950s and comparison studies performed. Copyright © 1991 Central Police University.

  8. Evaluation of detection and response times of fire sensors using an atmospheric monitoring system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, J H; Litton, C D; Thomas, R A

    2016-01-01

    Atmospheric monitoring systems (AMS) are required when using air from conveyor belt entries to ventilate working sections in U.S. underground coal mines. AMS technology has the potential to increase fire safety mine-wide, but research is needed to determine the detection and response times for fires of a variety of combustible materials. To evaluate the potential of an AMS for fire detection in other areas of a coal mine, a series of full-scale fire experiments were conducted to determine detection and response times from fires of different combustible materials that are found in U.S. underground coal mines, including high- and low-volatility coals, conveyor belts, brattice materials, different types of wood, diesel fuel, and a foam sealant. These experiments were conducted in the Safety Research Coal Mine (SRCM) of the U.S. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) located in Pittsburgh, PA, using a commercially available AMS that is typical of current technology. The results showed that through proper selection of sensors and their locations, a mine-wide AMS can provide sufficient early fire warning times and improve the health and safety of miners.

  9. Network-Based Real-time Integrated Fire Detection and Alarm (FDA) System with Building Automation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwar, F.; Boby, R. I.; Rashid, M. M.; Alam, M. M.; Shaikh, Z.

    2017-11-01

    Fire alarm systems have become increasingly an important lifesaving technology in many aspects, such as applications to detect, monitor and control any fire hazard. A large sum of money is being spent annually to install and maintain the fire alarm systems in buildings to protect property and lives from the unexpected spread of fire. Several methods are already developed and it is improving on a daily basis to reduce the cost as well as increase quality. An integrated Fire Detection and Alarm (FDA) systems with building automation was studied, to reduce cost and improve their reliability by preventing false alarm. This work proposes an improved framework for FDA system to ensure a robust intelligent network of FDA control panels in real-time. A shortest path algorithmic was chosen for series of buildings connected by fiber optic network. The framework shares information and communicates with each fire alarm panels connected in peer to peer configuration and declare the network state using network address declaration from any building connected in network. The fiber-optic connection was proposed to reduce signal noises, thus increasing large area coverage, real-time communication and long-term safety. Based on this proposed method an experimental setup was designed and a prototype system was developed to validate the performance in practice. Also, the distributed network system was proposed to connect with an optional remote monitoring terminal panel to validate proposed network performance and ensure fire survivability where the information is sequentially transmitted. The proposed FDA system is different from traditional fire alarm and detection system in terms of topology as it manages group of buildings in an optimal and efficient manner.Introduction

  10. An improved algorithm for small and cool fire detection using MODIS data: A preliminary study in the southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanting Wang; John J. Qu; Xianjun Hao; Yongqiang Liu; William T. Sommers

    2006-01-01

    Traditional fire detection algorithms mainly rely on hot spot detection using thermal infrared (TIR) channels with fixed or contextual thresholds. Three solar reflectance channels (0.65 μm, 0.86 μm, and 2.1 μm) were recently adopted into the MODIS version 4 contextual algorithm to improve the active fire detection. In the southeastern United...

  11. Forest fires detection in Indonesia using satellite Himawari-8 (case study: Sumatera and Kalimantan on august-october 2015)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatkhuroyan; Wati, Trinah; Panjaitan, Andersen

    2017-01-01

    Forest fires in Indonesia are serious problem affecting widely in material losses, health and environment. Himawari-8 as one of meteorological satellites with high resolution 0,5 km x 0,5 km can be used for forest fire monitoring and detection. Combination between 3, 4 and 6 channels using Sataid (Satellite Animation and Interactive Diagnosis) software will visualize forest fire in the study site. Monitoring which used Himawari-8 data on August, September and October 2015 can detect the distribution of smoke and the extents of forest fire in Sumatera and Kalimantan. The result showed the extent of forest fire can be identified for anticipation in the next step.

  12. A Wireless Sensor Network Deployment for Rural and Forest Fire Detection and Verification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Sendra

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Forest and rural fires are one of the main causes of environmental degradation in Mediterranean countries. Existing fire detection systems only focus on detection, but not on the verification of the fire. However, almost all of them are just simulations, and very few implementations can be found. Besides, the systems in the literature lack scalability. In this paper we show all the steps followed to perform the design, research and development of a wireless multisensor network which mixes sensors with IP cameras in a wireless network in order to detect and verify fire in rural and forest areas of Spain. We have studied how many cameras, sensors and access points are needed to cover a rural or forest area, and the scalability of the system. We have developed a multisensor and when it detects a fire, it sends a sensor alarm through the wireless network to a central server. The central server selects the closest wireless cameras to the multisensor, based on a software application, which are rotated to the sensor that raised the alarm, and sends them a message in order to receive real-time images from the zone. The camera lets the fire fighters corroborate the existence of a fire and avoid false alarms. In this paper, we show the test performance given by a test bench formed by four wireless IP cameras in several situations and the energy consumed when they are transmitting. Moreover, we study the energy consumed by each device when the system is set up. The wireless sensor network could be connected to Internet through a gateway and the images of the cameras could be seen from any part of the world.

  13. A wireless sensor network deployment for rural and forest fire detection and verification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloret, Jaime; Garcia, Miguel; Bri, Diana; Sendra, Sandra

    2009-01-01

    Forest and rural fires are one of the main causes of environmental degradation in Mediterranean countries. Existing fire detection systems only focus on detection, but not on the verification of the fire. However, almost all of them are just simulations, and very few implementations can be found. Besides, the systems in the literature lack scalability. In this paper we show all the steps followed to perform the design, research and development of a wireless multisensor network which mixes sensors with IP cameras in a wireless network in order to detect and verify fire in rural and forest areas of Spain. We have studied how many cameras, sensors and access points are needed to cover a rural or forest area, and the scalability of the system. We have developed a multisensor and when it detects a fire, it sends a sensor alarm through the wireless network to a central server. The central server selects the closest wireless cameras to the multisensor, based on a software application, which are rotated to the sensor that raised the alarm, and sends them a message in order to receive real-time images from the zone. The camera lets the fire fighters corroborate the existence of a fire and avoid false alarms. In this paper, we show the test performance given by a test bench formed by four wireless IP cameras in several situations and the energy consumed when they are transmitting. Moreover, we study the energy consumed by each device when the system is set up. The wireless sensor network could be connected to Internet through a gateway and the images of the cameras could be seen from any part of the world.

  14. InSAR detects increase in surface subsidence caused by an Arctic tundra fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lin; Jafarov, Elchin E.; Schaefer, Kevin M.; Jones, Benjamin M.; Zebker, Howard A.; Williams, Christopher A.; Rogan, John; Zhang, Tingjun

    2014-01-01

    Wildfire is a major disturbance in the Arctic tundra and boreal forests, having a significant impact on soil hydrology, carbon cycling, and permafrost dynamics. This study explores the use of the microwave Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) technique to map and quantify ground surface subsidence caused by the Anaktuvuk River fire on the North Slope of Alaska. We detected an increase of up to 8 cm of thaw-season ground subsidence after the fire, which is due to a combination of thickened active layer and permafrost thaw subsidence. Our results illustrate the effectiveness and potential of using InSAR to quantify fire impacts on the Arctic tundra, especially in regions underlain by ice-rich permafrost. Our study also suggests that surface subsidence is a more comprehensive indicator of fire impacts on ice-rich permafrost terrain than changes in active layer thickness alone.

  15. InSAR detects increase in surface subsidence caused by an Arctic tundra fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lin; Jafarov, Elchin E.; Schaefer, Kevin M.; Jones, Benjamin M.; Zebker, Howard A.; Williams, Christopher A.; Rogan, John; Zhang, Tingjun

    2014-06-01

    Wildfire is a major disturbance in the Arctic tundra and boreal forests, having a significant impact on soil hydrology, carbon cycling, and permafrost dynamics. This study explores the use of the microwave Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) technique to map and quantify ground surface subsidence caused by the Anaktuvuk River fire on the North Slope of Alaska. We detected an increase of up to 8 cm of thaw-season ground subsidence after the fire, which is due to a combination of thickened active layer and permafrost thaw subsidence. Our results illustrate the effectiveness and potential of using InSAR to quantify fire impacts on the Arctic tundra, especially in regions underlain by ice-rich permafrost. Our study also suggests that surface subsidence is a more comprehensive indicator of fire impacts on ice-rich permafrost terrain than changes in active layer thickness alone.

  16. Multiple-Parameter, Low-False-Alarm Fire-Detection Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Gary W.; Greensburg, Paul; McKnight, Robert; Xu, Jennifer C.; Liu, C. C.; Dutta, Prabir; Makel, Darby; Blake, D.; Sue-Antillio, Jill

    2007-01-01

    Fire-detection systems incorporating multiple sensors that measure multiple parameters are being developed for use in storage depots, cargo bays of ships and aircraft, and other locations not amenable to frequent, direct visual inspection. These systems are intended to improve upon conventional smoke detectors, now used in such locations, that reliably detect fires but also frequently generate false alarms: for example, conventional smoke detectors based on the blockage of light by smoke particles are also affected by dust particles and water droplets and, thus, are often susceptible to false alarms. In contrast, by utilizing multiple parameters associated with fires, i.e. not only obscuration by smoke particles but also concentrations of multiple chemical species that are commonly generated in combustion, false alarms can be significantly decreased while still detecting fires as reliably as older smoke-detector systems do. The present development includes fabrication of sensors that have, variously, micrometer- or nanometer-sized features so that such multiple sensors can be integrated into arrays that have sizes, weights, and power demands smaller than those of older macroscopic sensors. The sensors include resistors, electrochemical cells, and Schottky diodes that exhibit different sensitivities to the various airborne chemicals of interest. In a system of this type, the sensor readings are digitized and processed by advanced signal-processing hardware and software to extract such chemical indications of fires as abnormally high concentrations of CO and CO2, possibly in combination with H2 and/or hydrocarbons. The system also includes a microelectromechanical systems (MEMS)-based particle detector and classifier device to increase the reliability of measurements of chemical species and particulates. In parallel research, software for modeling the evolution of a fire within an aircraft cargo bay has been developed. The model implemented in the software can

  17. Effectiveness of fire-detection systems in light-water-reactor facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DiNenno, P.J.; Dungan, K.W.

    1981-08-01

    This report presents a critical review of methods for evaluating fire detection system capabilities. These capabilities must include some measurement of success. The problem of evaluating the effectiveness in terms of probability of success or certainty of success of fire detection systems must be answered either to enable the correct selection of system when a need is identified, or to assess the acceptability of an existing system in meeting an identified need. These methods are complementary to a hazards analysis, which identifies the need, but can be quite independent in their development and use

  18. Incipient plasticity in metallic thin films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soer, W. A.; De Hosson, J. Th. M.; Minor, A. M.; Shan, Z.; Asif, S. A. Syed; Warren, O. L.

    2007-01-01

    The authors have compared the incipient plastic behaviors of Al and Al-Mg thin films during indentation under load control and displacement control. In Al-Mg, solute pinning limits the ability of dislocations to propagate into the crystal and thus substantially affects the appearance of plastic

  19. Incipient motion of gravel and coal beds

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    2Department of Civil Engineering, S R K R Engineering College, Bhimavaram. 534202, India e-mail: sdey@civil.iitkgp.ernet.in. MS received 15 January 2002. Abstract. An experimental study on incipient motion of gravel and coal beds under unidirectional steady-uniform flow is presented. Experiments were carried out in a ...

  20. Influence of the input database in detecting fire space-time clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Mário; Costa, Ricardo; Tonini, Marj; Vega Orozco, Carmen; Parente, Joana

    2015-04-01

    Fire incidence variability is influenced by local environmental variables such as topography, land use, vegetation and weather conditions. These induce a cluster pattern of the fire events distribution. The space-time permutation scan statistics (STPSS) method developed by Kulldorff et al. (2005) and implemented in the SaTScanTM software (http://www.satscan.org/) proves to be able to detect space-time clusters in many different fields, even when using incomplete and/or inaccurate input data. Nevertheless, the dependence of the STPSS method on the different characteristics of different datasets describing the same environmental phenomenon has not been studied yet. In this sense, the objective of this study is to assess the robustness of the STPSS for detecting real clusters using different input datasets and to justify the obtained results. This study takes advantage of the existence of two very different official fire datasets currently available for Portugal, both provided by the Institute for the Conservation of Nature and Forests. The first one is the aggregated Portuguese Rural Fire Database PRFD (Pereira et al., 2011), which is based on ground measurements and provides detailed information about the ignition and extinction date/time and the area burnt by each fire in forest, scrubs and agricultural areas. However, in the PRFD, the fire location of each fire is indicated by the name of smallest administrative unit (the parish) where the ignition occurred. Consequently, since the application of the STPSS requires the geographic coordinates of the events, the centroid of the parishes was considered. The second fire dataset is the national mapping burnt areas (NMBA), which is based on satellite measurements and delivered in shape file format. The NMBA provides a detailed spatial information (shape and size of each fire) but the temporal information is restricted to the year of occurrence. Besides these differences, the two datasets cover different periods, they

  1. Using the sensor web to detect and monitor the spread of wild fires

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Moodley, D

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available of information. The Sensor Web is an emerging technology concept that can enhance the tempo of disaster response. In this paper the authors describe how a satellite-based system for regional wild fire detection is being evolved into a fully-fledged Sensor Web...

  2. Fault prediction for nonlinear stochastic system with incipient faults based on particle filter and nonlinear regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Bo; Fang, Huajing

    2017-05-01

    This paper is concerned with the fault prediction for the nonlinear stochastic system with incipient faults. Based on the particle filter and the reasonable assumption about the incipient faults, the modified fault estimation algorithm is proposed, and the system state is estimated simultaneously. According to the modified fault estimation, an intuitive fault detection strategy is introduced. Once each of the incipient fault is detected, the parameters of which are identified by a nonlinear regression method. Then, based on the estimated parameters, the future fault signal can be predicted. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed method is verified by the simulations of the Three-tank system. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. 46 CFR 76.05-1 - Fire detecting systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... having sleeping accommodations for passengers. Table 76.05-1(a) Space Detecting systems Fixed... elevator enclosures do 1 Do.1 Communication corridors do 1 Do.1 Lifeboat embarkation and lowering stations do Do. Radio room do 1 Do.1 Accommodations Staterooms, toilet spaces, isolated pantries, etc do 1 Do...

  4. Highly Sensitive Sensors Based on Metal-Oxide Nanocolumns for Fire Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwangjae Lee

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available A fire detector is the most important component in a fire alarm system. Herein, we present the feasibility of a highly sensitive and rapid response gas sensor based on metal oxides as a high performance fire detector. The glancing angle deposition (GLAD technique is used to make the highly porous structure such as nanocolumns (NCs of various metal oxides for enhancing the gas-sensing performance. To measure the fire detection, the interface circuitry for our sensors (NiO, SnO2, WO3 and In2O3 NCs is designed. When all the sensors with various metal-oxide NCs are exposed to fire environment, they entirely react with the target gases emitted from Poly(vinyl chlorides (PVC decomposed at high temperature. Before the emission of smoke from the PVC (a hot-plate temperature of 200 °C, the resistances of the metal-oxide NCs are abruptly changed and SnO2 NCs show the highest response of 2.1. However, a commercial smoke detector did not inform any warning. Interestingly, although the NiO NCs are a p-type semiconductor, they show the highest response of 577.1 after the emission of smoke from the PVC (a hot-plate temperature of 350 °C. The response time of SnO2 NCs is much faster than that of a commercial smoke detector at the hot-plate temperature of 350 °C. In addition, we investigated the selectivity of our sensors by analyzing the responses of all sensors. Our results show the high potential of a gas sensor based on metal-oxide NCs for early fire detection.

  5. Highly Sensitive Sensors Based on Metal-Oxide Nanocolumns for Fire Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kwangjae; Shim, Young-Seok; Song, Young Geun; Han, Soo Deok; Lee, Youn-Sung; Kang, Chong-Yun

    2017-02-07

    A fire detector is the most important component in a fire alarm system. Herein, we present the feasibility of a highly sensitive and rapid response gas sensor based on metal oxides as a high performance fire detector. The glancing angle deposition (GLAD) technique is used to make the highly porous structure such as nanocolumns (NCs) of various metal oxides for enhancing the gas-sensing performance. To measure the fire detection, the interface circuitry for our sensors (NiO, SnO₂, WO₃ and In₂O₃ NCs) is designed. When all the sensors with various metal-oxide NCs are exposed to fire environment, they entirely react with the target gases emitted from Poly(vinyl chlorides) (PVC) decomposed at high temperature. Before the emission of smoke from the PVC (a hot-plate temperature of 200 °C), the resistances of the metal-oxide NCs are abruptly changed and SnO₂ NCs show the highest response of 2.1. However, a commercial smoke detector did not inform any warning. Interestingly, although the NiO NCs are a p -type semiconductor, they show the highest response of 577.1 after the emission of smoke from the PVC (a hot-plate temperature of 350 °C). The response time of SnO₂ NCs is much faster than that of a commercial smoke detector at the hot-plate temperature of 350 °C. In addition, we investigated the selectivity of our sensors by analyzing the responses of all sensors. Our results show the high potential of a gas sensor based on metal-oxide NCs for early fire detection.

  6. Efficient Forest Fire Detection Index for Application in Unmanned Aerial Systems (UASs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Cruz

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes a novel method for detecting forest fires, through the use of a new color index, called the Forest Fire Detection Index (FFDI, developed by the authors. The index is based on methods for vegetation classification and has been adapted to detect the tonalities of flames and smoke; the latter could be included adaptively into the Regions of Interest (RoIs with the help of a variable factor. Multiple tests have been performed upon database imagery and present promising results: a detection precision of 96.82% has been achieved for image sizes of 960 × 540 pixels at a processing time of 0.0447 seconds. This achievement would lead to a performance of 22 f/s, for smaller images, while up to 54 f/s could be reached by maintaining a similar detection precision. Additional tests have been performed on fires in their early stages, achieving a precision rate of p = 96.62%. The method could be used in real-time in Unmanned Aerial Systems (UASs, with the aim of monitoring a wider area than through fixed surveillance systems. Thus, it would result in more cost-effective outcomes than conventional systems implemented in helicopters or satellites. UASs could also reach inaccessible locations without jeopardizing people’s safety. On-going work includes implementation into a commercially available drone.

  7. A Fully Automatic Instantaneous Fire Hotspot Detection Processor Based on AVHRR Imagery—A TIMELINE Thematic Processor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Plank

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The German Aerospace Center’s (DLR TIMELINE project aims to develop an operational processing and data management environment to process 30 years of National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA—Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR raw data into L1b, L2 and L3 products. This article presents the current status of the fully automated L2 active fire hotspot detection processor, which is based on single-temporal datasets in orbit geometry. Three different probability levels of fire detection are provided. The results of the hotspot processor were tested with simulated fire data. Moreover, the processing results of real AVHRR imagery were validated with five different datasets: MODIS hotspots, visually confirmed MODIS hotspots, fire-news data from the European Forest Fire Information System (EFFIS, burnt area mapping of the Copernicus Emergency Management Service (EMS and data of the Piedmont fire database.

  8. Proposal for the award of a blanket purchase contract for the design, supply, installation and maintenance of automatic fire-detection, fire-protection and voice-alarm systems for the Super Proton Synchrotron

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    Proposal for the award of a blanket purchase contract for the design, supply, installation and maintenance of automatic fire-detection, fire-protection and voice-alarm systems for the Super Proton Synchrotron

  9. 33 CFR 149.421 - What is the requirement for a previously approved fire detection and alarm system on a deepwater...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... previously approved fire detection and alarm system on a deepwater port? 149.421 Section 149.421 Navigation... Requirements § 149.421 What is the requirement for a previously approved fire detection and alarm system on a deepwater port? An existing fire detection and alarm system on a deepwater port need not meet the...

  10. Optimal Detection of a Localized Perturbation in Random Networks of Integrate-and-Fire Neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardi, Davide; Lindner, Benjamin

    2017-06-01

    Experimental and theoretical studies suggest that cortical networks are chaotic and coding relies on averages over large populations. However, there is evidence that rats can respond to the short stimulation of a single cortical cell, a theoretically unexplained fact. We study effects of single-cell stimulation on a large recurrent network of integrate-and-fire neurons and propose a simple way to detect the perturbation. Detection rates obtained from simulations and analytical estimates are similar to experimental response rates if the readout is slightly biased towards specific neurons. Near-optimal detection is attained for a broad range of intermediate values of the mean coupling between neurons.

  11. Application of a CO2 dial system for infrared detection of forest fire and reduction of false alarm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellecci, C.; Francucci, M.; Gaudio, P.; Gelfusa, M.; Martellucci, S.; Richetta, M.; Lo Feudo, T.

    2007-04-01

    Forest fires can be the cause of serious environmental and economic damages. For this reason considerable effort has been directed toward forest protection and fire fighting. The means traditionally used for early fire detection mainly consist in human observers dispersed over forest regions. A significant improvement in early warning capabilities could be obtained by using automatic detection apparatus. In order to early detect small forest fires and minimize false alarms, the use of a lidar system and dial technique will be considered. A first evaluation of the lowest detectable concentration will be estimated by numerical simulation. The theoretical model will also be used to get the capability of the dial system to control wooded areas. Fixing the burning rate for several fuels, the maximum range of detection will be evaluated. Finally results of simulations will be reported.

  12. Detecting Local Drivers of Fire Cycle Heterogeneity in Boreal Forests: A Scale Issue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annie Claude Bélisle

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Severe crown fires are determining disturbances for the composition and structure of boreal forests in North America. Fire cycle (FC associations with continental climate gradients are well known, but smaller scale controls remain poorly documented. Using a time since fire map (time scale of 300 years, the study aims to assess the relative contributions of local and regional controls on FC and to describe the relationship between FC heterogeneity and vegetation patterns. The study area, located in boreal eastern North America, was partitioned into watersheds according to five scales going from local (3 km2 to landscape (2800 km2 scales. Using survival analysis, we observed that dry surficial deposits and hydrography density better predict FC when measured at the local scale, while terrain complexity and slope position perform better when measured at the middle and landscape scales. The most parsimonious model was selected according to the Akaike information criterion to predict FC throughout the study area. We detected two FC zones, one short (159 years and one long (303 years, with specific age structures and tree compositions. We argue that the local heterogeneity of the fire regime contributes to ecosystem diversity and must be considered in ecosystem management.

  13. Detection and characterization of small hot fires: Comparing FireBird, BIRD, S-NPP VIIRS and MODIS capacities over gas flares

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruecker, Gernot; Schroeder, Wilfrid; Lorenz, Eckehard; Kaiser, Johannes; Caseiro, Alexandre

    2016-04-01

    According to recent research, black carbon has the second strongest effect on the earth climate system after carbon dioxide. In high Northern latitudes, industrial gas flares are an important source of black carbon, especially in winter. This fact is particularly relevant for the relatively fast observed climate change in the Arctic since deposition of black carbon changes the albedo of snow and ice, thus leading to a positive feedback cycle. Here we explore gas flare detection and Fire Radiative Power (FRP) retrievals of the German FireBird TET-1 and BIRD Hotspot Recognition Systems (HSRS), the VIIRS sensor on board of the S-NPP satellite, and the MODIS sensor using temporally close to near coincident data acquisitions. Comparison is based on level 2 products developed for fire detection for the different sensors; in the case of S-NPP VIIRS we use two products: the new VIIRS 750m algorithm based on MODIS collection 6, and the 350 m algorithm based on the VIIRS mid-infrared I (Imaging) band, which offers high resolution, but no FRP retrievals. Results indicate that the highest resolution FireBird sensors offer the best detection capacities, though the level two product shows false alarms, followed by the VIIRS 350 m and 750 m algorithms. MODIS has the lowest detection rate. Preliminary results of FRP retrievals show that FireBird and VIIRS algorithms have a good agreement. Given the fact that most gas flaring is at the detection limit for medium to coarse resolution space borne sensors - and hence measurement errors may be high - our results indicates that a quantitative evaluation of gas flaring using these sensors is feasible. Results shall be used to develop a gas flare detection algorithm for Sentinel-3, and a similar methodology will be employed to validate the capacity of Sentinel 3 to detect and characterize small high temperature sources such as gas flares.

  14. AN ARCHITECTURE FOR AUTOMATED FIRE DETECTION EARLY WARNING SYSTEM BASED ON GEOPROCESSING SERVICE COMPOSITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Samadzadegan

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Rapidly discovering, sharing, integrating and applying geospatial information are key issues in the domain of emergency response and disaster management. Due to the distributed nature of data and processing resources in disaster management, utilizing a Service Oriented Architecture (SOA to take advantages of workflow of services provides an efficient, flexible and reliable implementations to encounter different hazardous situation. The implementation specification of the Web Processing Service (WPS has guided geospatial data processing in a Service Oriented Architecture (SOA platform to become a widely accepted solution for processing remotely sensed data on the web. This paper presents an architecture design based on OGC web services for automated workflow for acquisition, processing remotely sensed data, detecting fire and sending notifications to the authorities. A basic architecture and its building blocks for an automated fire detection early warning system are represented using web-based processing of remote sensing imageries utilizing MODIS data. A composition of WPS processes is proposed as a WPS service to extract fire events from MODIS data. Subsequently, the paper highlights the role of WPS as a middleware interface in the domain of geospatial web service technology that can be used to invoke a large variety of geoprocessing operations and chaining of other web services as an engine of composition. The applicability of proposed architecture by a real world fire event detection and notification use case is evaluated. A GeoPortal client with open-source software was developed to manage data, metadata, processes, and authorities. Investigating feasibility and benefits of proposed framework shows that this framework can be used for wide area of geospatial applications specially disaster management and environmental monitoring.

  15. An Architecture for Automated Fire Detection Early Warning System Based on Geoprocessing Service Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samadzadegan, F.; Saber, M.; Zahmatkesh, H.; Joze Ghazi Khanlou, H.

    2013-09-01

    Rapidly discovering, sharing, integrating and applying geospatial information are key issues in the domain of emergency response and disaster management. Due to the distributed nature of data and processing resources in disaster management, utilizing a Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) to take advantages of workflow of services provides an efficient, flexible and reliable implementations to encounter different hazardous situation. The implementation specification of the Web Processing Service (WPS) has guided geospatial data processing in a Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) platform to become a widely accepted solution for processing remotely sensed data on the web. This paper presents an architecture design based on OGC web services for automated workflow for acquisition, processing remotely sensed data, detecting fire and sending notifications to the authorities. A basic architecture and its building blocks for an automated fire detection early warning system are represented using web-based processing of remote sensing imageries utilizing MODIS data. A composition of WPS processes is proposed as a WPS service to extract fire events from MODIS data. Subsequently, the paper highlights the role of WPS as a middleware interface in the domain of geospatial web service technology that can be used to invoke a large variety of geoprocessing operations and chaining of other web services as an engine of composition. The applicability of proposed architecture by a real world fire event detection and notification use case is evaluated. A GeoPortal client with open-source software was developed to manage data, metadata, processes, and authorities. Investigating feasibility and benefits of proposed framework shows that this framework can be used for wide area of geospatial applications specially disaster management and environmental monitoring.

  16. Post-mortem detection of gasoline residues in lung tissue and heart blood of fire victims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahor, Kevin; Olson, Greg; Forbes, Shari L

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether gasoline residues could be detected post-mortem in lung tissue and heart blood of fire victims. The lungs and heart blood were investigated to determine whether they were suitable samples for collection and could be collected without contamination during an autopsy. Three sets of test subjects (pig carcasses) were investigated under two different fire scenarios. Test subjects 1 were anaesthetized following animal ethics approval, inhaled gasoline vapours for a short period and then euthanized. The carcasses were clothed and placed in a house where additional gasoline was poured onto the carcass post-mortem in one fire, but not in the other. Test subjects 2 did not inhale gasoline, were clothed and placed in the house and had gasoline poured onto them in both fires. Test subjects 3 were clothed but had no exposure to gasoline either ante- or post-mortem. Following controlled burns and suppression with water, the carcasses were collected, and their lungs and heart blood were excised at a necropsy. The headspace from the samples was analysed using thermal desorption-gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. Gasoline was identified in the lungs and heart blood from the subjects that were exposed to gasoline vapours prior to death (test subjects 1). All other samples were negative for gasoline residues. These results suggest that it is useful to analyse for volatile ignitable liquids in lung tissue and blood as it may help to determine whether a victim was alive and inhaling gases at the time of a fire.

  17. Fire Models and Design Fires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Annemarie

    The aim of this project is to perform an experimental study on the influence of the thermal feedback on the burning behavior of well ventilated pre-flashover fires. For the purpose an experimental method has been developed. Here the same identical objects are tested under free burn conditions...... documented a simple relation that can be used for estimating the impact of thermal feedback for pre-flashover design fires. A rapid increase of the heat release rate commenced after the incipient phase. This is seen as thermal runaway caused by the energy gain in the smoke layer exceeding the energy that can...... and in two different rooms, which only are varied by linings of significantly different thermal inertia. As all linings were non-combustible the heat release rate could be found without the influence of thermal feedback and for two different levels of thermal feedback. The ISO 9705 Room Corner Test facility...

  18. Using Space Technologies for a timely detection of forest fires: the experience of end-users in 3 Italian Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filizzola, Carolina; Belloni, Antonella; Benigno, Giuseppe; Biancardi, Alberto; Corrado, Rosita; Coviello, Irina; De Costanzo, Giovanni; Genzano, Nicola; Lacava, Teodosio; Lisi, Mariano; Marchese, Francesco; Mazzeo, Giuseppe; Merzagora, Cinzio; Paciello, Rossana; Pergola, Nicola; Sannazzaro, Filomena; Serio, Salvatore; Tramutoli, Valerio

    2013-04-01

    Every year, hundreds of thousands of hectares of European forests are destroyed by fires. Due to the particular topography, landscape and demographic distribution in Europe (very different from typical scenarios of China, USA, Canada and Australia), rapidity in fire sighting is still the determining factor in limiting damages to people and goods. Moreover, the possibility of early fire detection means also potentially to reduce the size of the event to be faced, the necessary fire fighting resources and, therefore, even the reaction times. In such a context, integration of satellite technologies (mainly high temporal resolution data) and traditional surveillance systems within the fire fighting procedures seems to positively impact on the effectiveness of active fire fighting as demonstrated by recent experiences over Italian territory jointly performed by University of Basilicata, IMAA-CNR and Local Authorities. Real time implementation was performed since 2007, during fire seasons, over several Italian regions with different fire regimes and features, in order to assess the actual potential of different satellite-based fire detection products to support regional and local authorities in efficiently fighting fires and better mitigating their negative effects. Real-time campaigns were carried out in strict collaboration with end-users within the framework of specific projects (i.e. the AVVISA, AVVISTA and AVVISA-Basilicata projects) funded by Civil Protection offices of Regione Lombardia, Provincia Regionale di Palermo and Regione Basilicata in charge of fire risk management and mitigation. A tailored training program was dedicated to the personnel of Regional Civil Protection offices in order to ensure the full understanding and the better integration of satellite based products and tools within the existing fire fighting protocols. In this work, outcomes of these practices are shown and discussed, especially highlighting the impact that a real time satellite

  19. Early diagnosis of incipient caries based on non-invasive lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velescu, A.; Todea, C.; Vitez, B.

    2016-03-01

    AIM: The aim of this study is to detect incipient caries and enamel demineralization using laser fluorescence.This serves only as an auxilary aid to identify and to monitor the development of these lesions. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 6 patients were involved in this study, three females and three male. Each patient underwent a professional cleaning, visual examination of the oral cavity, and then direct inspection using DiagnoCam and DIAGNOdent. After data recording each patient was submitted to retro-alveolar X-ray on teeth that were detected with enamel lesions. All data was collected and analyzed statistically. RESULTS: Of 36 areas considered in clinically healthy, 24 carious surfaces were found using laser fluorescence, a totally non-invasive method for detecting incipient carious lesions compared with the radiographic examination. CONCLUSIONS: This method has good applicability for patients because it improves treatment plan by early detection of caries and involves less fear for anxious patients and children.

  20. Fire protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janetzky, E.

    1980-01-01

    Safety and fire prevention measurements have to be treated like the activities developing, planning, construction and erection. Therefore it is necessary that these measurements have to be integrated into the activities mentioned above at an early stage in order to guarantee their effectiveness. With regard to fire accidents the statistics of the insurance companies concerned show that the damage caused increased in the last years mainly due to high concentration of material. Organization of fire prevention and fire fighting, reasons of fire break out, characteristics and behaviour of fire, smoke and fire detection, smoke and heat venting, fire extinguishers (portable and stationary), construction material in presence of fire, respiratory protection etc. will be discussed. (orig./RW)

  1. The link between Movability Number and Incipient Motion in river ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This allowed for a firmer definition of Incipient Motion as well as a new bedload transportation equation. Additional laboratory experimentation for Particle Reynolds number over the range 0.12-486 facilitated the improved prediction of Incipient Motion from a plot of the critical Movability Number vs. Particle Reynolds number ...

  2. Historical Fire Detection of Tropical Forest from NDVI Time-series Data: Case Study on Jambi, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyah R. Panuju

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In addition to forest encroachment, forest fire is a serious problem in Indonesia. Attempts at managing its widespread and frequent occurrence has led to intensive use of remote sensing data. Coarse resolution images have been employed to derive hot spots as an indicator of forest fire. However, most efforts to verify the hot spot data and to verify fire accidents have been restricted to the use of medium or high resolution data. At present, it is difficult to verify solely upon those data due to severe cloud cover and low revisit time. In this paper, we present a method to validate forest fire using NDVI time series data. With the freely available NDVI data from SPOT VEGETATION, we successfully detected changes in time series data which were associated with fire accidents.

  3. The course of incipient diabetic nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Cramer; Mogensen, C E

    1985-01-01

    (incipient diabetic nephropathy) were studied. For comparison 18 normals, 23 diabetics with normal albumin excretion and 10 patients with overt nephropathy were also examined. Diastolic blood pressure (DBP) was elevated to 88 +/- 9 mmHg (mean +/- S.D.) compared to patients with normal urinary albumin...... excretion: 80 +/- 7 (S.D.) (2p = 0.13%) but was below pressures in patients with overt diabetic nephropathy 109 +/- 15 (2p = 0.002%). Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was elevated to 142 +/- 21 ml/min (mean +/- S.D.) compared to 132 +/- 9 in patients with normal urinary albumin excretion (2p = 4.3%). Renal......With the aim of defining the transitional phase from normal or near normal albumin excretion to overt diabetic nephropathy, 23 male diabetics of more than 7 years' duration, below 40 years of age and a baseline urinary albumin excretion above 15 micrograms/min but without clinical proteinuria...

  4. Correlation between laser fluorescence readings and volume of tooth preparation in incipient occlusal caries in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaname, Eduardo S; Ritter, André V; Heymann, Harald O; Vann, William F; Shugars, Daniel A; Bader, James D

    2010-02-01

    This study evaluated the correlation between laser fluorescence readings and the extent of incipient occlusal caries as measured by the volume of tooth preparation in vitro. One hundred and three permanent molars and premolars containing incipient occlusal pit-and-fissure caries and sound occlusal surfaces (1/4 of the sample, control) were selected. DIAGNOdent (KaVo Dental Corporation, Lake Zurich, IL, USA) readings were obtained according to manufacturer instructions. Caries was removed with 1/4 round burs in high speed. The volume of tooth preparation was measured using a surrogate measure based on the amount of composite needed to fill the preparations. Sensitivity and specificity using different cutoff values were calculated for lesions/preparations extending into dentin. The results were analyzed statistically. The Pearson correlation for preparation volume and DIAGNOdent reading measurements was low (r = 0.285). Sensitivity and specificity of DIAGNOdent for detection of dentinal lesions were 0.83 and 0.60, and 0.66 and 0.73 for the cutoff values of 20 and 30, respectively. Within the limitations of this study, laser fluorescence measured with DIAGNOdent does not correlate well with extent of carious tooth structure in incipient occlusal caries. Clinicians should not rely only on DIAGNOdent readings to determine the extension of incipient occlusal caries.

  5. A research on coalfield fire detection in Daliuta mining area at Inner Mongolia based on hyperspectral thermal infrared remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guo-fang; Zhou, Jia-jing; Tian, Xin-guang

    2016-10-01

    Daliuta mining coal fires at Inner Mongolia were not reported at present in remote sensing. However, they still pose a serious threat to the surroundings. In order to extract combustion range of the coal mine, we used the wintertime thermal airborne infrared hyperspectral images of TASI acquired in 2016 to detect the coal fire of Daliuta mining. The synchronous in situ measured temperature was used to establish space-to-ground regression equation with the image temperature for retrieving land surface temperature. Extracted coal fire through the reasonable threshold by the processed image data, identified a region where the surface temperatures was -0.5°C to 300°C. MODTRAN4 code was used to estimate the upward and downward radiation and transmission of the atmosphere. On this basis, the non-coal fire anomaly areas, such as the cooling water of power plant, heat buildings, chimney, were separated from the coal fire heat anomaly areas by the characteristic difference of the emissivity spectrum in the objectives. The results show that the bands 1-16 of TASI are suitable for infrared inversion temperature for the coalfield fire. There was a linear relationship between synchronous in situ observation temperature and the image temperature, and the determination coefficient R2 was 0.9938. The extracted coal fire anomaly range is able to provide some decision support for underground coal fire extinguishing. A detailed fire map of shallow coal areas can help to prioritize fire fighting operations in order to avoid the chance of starting a new coal fire.

  6. SITHON: A Wireless Network of in Situ Optical Cameras Applied to the Early Detection-Notification-Monitoring of Forest Fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsiourlis, Georgios; Andreadakis, Stamatis; Konstantinidis, Pavlos

    2009-01-01

    The SITHON system, a fully wireless optical imaging system, integrating a network of in-situ optical cameras linking to a multi-layer GIS database operated by Control Operating Centres, has been developed in response to the need for early detection, notification and monitoring of forest fires. This article presents in detail the architecture and the components of SITHON, and demonstrates the first encouraging results of an experimental test with small controlled fires over Sithonia Peninsula in Northern Greece. The system has already been scheduled to be installed in some fire prone areas of Greece. PMID:22408536

  7. Literature study regarding fire protection in nuclear power plants. Part 2: Fire detection and -extinguishing systems; Litteraturstudie angaaende brandskydd i kaernkraftverk. Del 2: Branddetektionssystem och slaecksystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isaksson, S. [Swedish Testing and Research Inst., Boraas (Sweden)

    1996-01-01

    This literature study has been made on behalf of the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate. The aim is to describe different aspects of fire protection in nuclear power plants. Detection and extinguishing systems in Swedish nuclear power plants have only to a limited extent been designed after functional demands, such as a maximum acceptable damage or a maximum time to detect a fire. The availability of detection systems is difficult to assess, partly because of lack of statistics. The user interface is very important in complex systems as nuclear plants. An extinguishing system designed according to the insurance companies` regulations will only fulfill the basic demands. It should be noted that normal sprinkler design does not aim for extinguishing fires, the objective is to control fire until manual extinguishment is possible. There is a great amount of statistics on wet and dry pipe sprinkler systems, while statistics are more scarce for deluge systems. The statistics on the reliability of gaseous extinguishing systems have been found very scarce. A drawback of these systems is that they are normally designed for one shot only. There are both traditional and more recent extinguishing systems that can replace halons. From now on there will be a greater need for a thorough examination of the properties needed for the individual application and a quantification of the acceptable damage. There are several indications on the importance of a high quality maintenance program as well as carefully developed routines for testing and surveillance to ensure the reliability of detection and extinguishing systems. 78 refs, 8 figs, 10 tabs.

  8. Multiple incipient sensor faults diagnosis with application to high-speed railway traction devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yunkai; Jiang, Bin; Lu, Ningyun; Yang, Hao; Zhou, Yang

    2017-03-01

    This paper deals with the problem of incipient fault diagnosis for a class of Lipschitz nonlinear systems with sensor biases and explores further results of total measurable fault information residual (ToMFIR). Firstly, state and output transformations are introduced to transform the original system into two subsystems. The first subsystem is subject to system disturbances and free from sensor faults, while the second subsystem contains sensor faults but without any system disturbances. Sensor faults in the second subsystem are then formed as actuator faults by using a pseudo-actuator based approach. Since the effects of system disturbances on the residual are completely decoupled, multiple incipient sensor faults can be detected by constructing ToMFIR, and the fault detectability condition is then derived for discriminating the detectable incipient sensor faults. Further, a sliding-mode observers (SMOs) based fault isolation scheme is designed to guarantee accurate isolation of multiple sensor faults. Finally, simulation results conducted on a CRH2 high-speed railway traction device are given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach. Copyright © 2016 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Microwave Radiometers for Fire Detection in Trains: Theory and Feasibility Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Alimenti

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces the theory of fire detection in moving vehicles by microwave radiometers. The system analysis is discussed and a feasibility study is illustrated on the basis of two implementation hypotheses. The basic idea is to have a fixed radiometer and to look inside the glass windows of the wagon when it passes in front of the instrument antenna. The proposed sensor uses a three-pixel multi-beam configuration that allows an image to be formed by the movement of the train itself. Each pixel is constituted by a direct amplification microwave receiver operating at 31.4 GHz. At this frequency, the antenna can be a 34 cm offset parabolic dish, whereas a 1 K brightness temperature resolution is achievable with an overall system noise figure of 6 dB, an observation bandwidth of 2 GHz and an integration time of 1 ms. The effect of the detector noise is also investigated and several implementation hypotheses are discussed. The presented study is important since it could be applied to the automatic fire alarm in trains and moving vehicles with dielectric wall/windows.

  10. Latest heat sensing technology for real-time detection of endogenic fires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makarius, R. (Cesky Bansky Urad, Prague (Czechoslovakia))

    1989-04-01

    Briefly discusses problem of endogenic fires in coal mines and describes principles used in design of modern heat sensors that record intensity of electromagnetic radiation emitted by the body in question (e.g. coal mass) and compare this with radiation from an ideal blackbody. Mentions Raytek-Raynger R-38, R-45 and R-450 instruments, which are currently in use in the Ostrava-Karvina, Kladno and Sokolov coalfields. Describes tests on a Swedish AGA 750 thermovision videocamera that is nitrogen cooled and produces thermograms from infrared radiation converted into electrical signals. It is powered either by 110-240 V 50 Hz mains electricity or by 12 V batteries and operates in 3-5.6 micrometer band. With the addition of special filters it can measure temperatures of up to 1600 C and has a resolution of 0.2 C for body temperatures of 30 C. Tests using an arch support in a 70 m section of a coal face as the body to be monitored showed that this instrument could detect even initial stages of self-ignition and give accurate location of mine fires. However, its sensitivity to mechanical shock means that it cannot be used in underground mining.

  11. Algorithm and assessment work of active fire detection based on FengYun-3C/VIRR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Z.; Chen, F.

    2017-12-01

    The wildfire is one of the most destructive and uncontrollable disasters and causes huge environmental, ecological, social effects. To better serve scientific research and practical fire management, an algorithm and corresponding validation work of active fire detection based on FengYun-3C/VIRR data, which is an optical sensor onboard the Chinese polar-orbiting meteorological sun-synchronous satellite, is hereby introduced. While the main structure heritages the `contextual algorithm', some new concepts including `infrared channel slope' are introduced for better adaptions to different situations. The validation work contains three parts: 1) comparing with the current FengYun-3C fire product GFR; 2) comparing with MODIS fire products; 3) comparing with Landsat series data. Study areas are selected from different places all over the world from 2014 to 2016. The results showed great improvement on GFR files on accuracy of both positioning and detection rate. In most study areas, the results match well with MODIS products and Landsat series data (with over 85% match degree) despite the differences in imaging time. However, detection rates and match degrees in Africa and South-east Asia are not satisfied (around 70%), where the occurrences of numerous small fire events and corresponding smokes may strongly affect the results of the algorithm. This is our future research direction and one of the main improvements requires achieving.

  12. A TBB-CUDA Implementation for Background Removal in a Video-Based Fire Detection System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a parallel TBB-CUDA implementation for the acceleration of single-Gaussian distribution model, which is effective for background removal in the video-based fire detection system. In this framework, TBB mainly deals with initializing work of the estimated Gaussian model running on CPU, and CUDA performs background removal and adaption of the model running on GPU. This implementation can exploit the combined computation power of TBB-CUDA, which can be applied to the real-time environment. Over 220 video sequences are utilized in the experiments. The experimental results illustrate that TBB+CUDA can achieve a higher speedup than both TBB and CUDA. The proposed framework can effectively overcome the disadvantages of limited memory bandwidth and few execution units of CPU, and it reduces data transfer latency and memory latency between CPU and GPU.

  13. AF-DHNN: Fuzzy Clustering and Inference-Based Node Fault Diagnosis Method for Fire Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Shan; Cui, Wen; Jin, Zhigang; Wang, Ying

    2015-07-17

    Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) have been utilized for node fault diagnosis in the fire detection field since the 1990s. However, the traditional methods have some problems, including complicated system structures, intensive computation needs, unsteady data detection and local minimum values. In this paper, a new diagnosis mechanism for WSN nodes is proposed, which is based on fuzzy theory and an Adaptive Fuzzy Discrete Hopfield Neural Network (AF-DHNN). First, the original status of each sensor over time is obtained with two features. One is the root mean square of the filtered signal (FRMS), the other is the normalized summation of the positive amplitudes of the difference spectrum between the measured signal and the healthy one (NSDS). Secondly, distributed fuzzy inference is introduced. The evident abnormal nodes' status is pre-alarmed to save time. Thirdly, according to the dimensions of the diagnostic data, an adaptive diagnostic status system is established with a Fuzzy C-Means Algorithm (FCMA) and Sorting and Classification Algorithm to reducing the complexity of the fault determination. Fourthly, a Discrete Hopfield Neural Network (DHNN) with iterations is improved with the optimization of the sensors' detected status information and standard diagnostic levels, with which the associative memory is achieved, and the search efficiency is improved. The experimental results show that the AF-DHNN method can diagnose abnormal WSN node faults promptly and effectively, which improves the WSN reliability.

  14. From Data to Knowledge — Faster: GOES Early Fire Detection System to Inform Operational Wildfire Response and Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koltunov, A.; Quayle, B.; Prins, E. M.; Ambrosia, V. G.; Ustin, S.

    2014-12-01

    Fire managers at various levels require near-real-time, low-cost, systematic, and reliable early detection capabilities with minimal latency to effectively respond to wildfire ignitions and minimize the risk of catastrophic development. The GOES satellite images collected for vast territories at high temporal frequencies provide a consistent and reliable source for operational active fire mapping realized by the WF-ABBA algorithm. However, their potential to provide early warning or rapid confirmation of initial fire ignition reports from conventional sources remains underutilized, partly because the operational wildfire detection has been successfully optimized for users and applications for which timeliness of initial detection is a low priority, contrasting to the needs of first responders. We present our progress in developing the GOES Early Fire Detection (GOES-EFD) system, a collaborative effort led by University of California-Davis and USDA Forest Service. The GOES-EFD specifically focuses on first detection timeliness for wildfire incidents. It is automatically trained for a monitored scene and capitalizes on multiyear cross-disciplinary algorithm research. Initial retrospective tests in Western US demonstrate significantly earlier identification detection of new ignitions than existing operational capabilities and a further improvement prospect. The GOES-EFD-β prototype will be initially deployed for the Western US region to process imagery from GOES-NOP and the rapid and 4 times higher spatial resolution imagery from GOES-R — the upcoming next generation of GOES satellites. These and other enhanced capabilities of GOES-R are expected to significantly improve the timeliness of fire ignition information from GOES-EFD.

  15. High Spatial resolution remote sensing for salt marsh change detection on Fire Island National Seashore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, A.; Wang, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Salt marshes are under increasing pressure due to anthropogenic stressors including sea level rise, nutrient enrichment, herbivory and disturbances. Salt marsh losses risk the important ecosystem services they provide including biodiversity, water filtration, wave attenuation, and carbon sequestration. This study determines salt marsh change on Fire Island National Seashore, a barrier island along the south shore of Long Island, New York. Object-based image analysis was used to classifying Worldview-2, high resolution satellite, and topobathymetric LiDAR. The site was impacted by Hurricane Sandy in October of 2012 causing a breach in the Barrier Island and extensive overwash. In situ training data from vegetation plots were used to train the Random Forest classifier. The object-based Worldview-2 classification achieved an overall classification accuracy of 92.75. Salt marsh change for the study site was determined by comparing the 2015 classification with a 1997 classification. The study found a shift from high marsh to low marsh and a reduction in Phragmites on Fire Island. Vegetation losses were observed along the edge of the marsh and in the marsh interior. The analysis agreed with many of the trends found throughout the region including the reduction of high marsh and decline of salt marsh. The reduction in Phragmites could be due to the species shrinking niche between rising seas and dune vegetation on barrier islands. The complex management issues facing salt marsh across the United States including sea level rise and eutrophication necessitate very high resolution classification and change detection of salt marsh to inform management decisions such as restoration, salt marsh migration, and nutrient inputs.

  16. The relationship between particulate pollution levels in Australian cities, meteorology, and landscape fire activity detected from MODIS hotspots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Owen F; Williamson, Grant J; Henderson, Sarah B; Johnston, Fay; Bowman, David M J S

    2012-01-01

    Smoke from bushfires is an emerging issue for fire managers because of increasing evidence for its public health effects. Development of forecasting models to predict future pollution levels based on the relationship between bushfire activity and current pollution levels would be a useful management tool. As a first step, we use daily thermal anomalies detected by the MODIS Active Fire Product (referred to as "hotspots"), pollution concentrations, and meteorological data for the years 2002 to 2008, to examine the statistical relationship between fire activity in the landscapes and pollution levels around Perth and Sydney, two large Australian cities. Resultant models were statistically significant, but differed in their goodness of fit and the distance at which the strength of the relationship was strongest. For Sydney, a univariate model for hotspot activity within 100 km explained 24% of variation in pollution levels, and the best model including atmospheric variables explained 56% of variation. For Perth, the best radius was 400 km, explaining only 7% of variation, while the model including atmospheric variables explained 31% of the variation. Pollution was higher when the atmosphere was more stable and in the presence of on-shore winds, whereas there was no effect of wind blowing from the fires toward the pollution monitors. Our analysis shows there is a good prospect for developing region-specific forecasting tools combining hotspot fire activity with meteorological data.

  17. No Sexual Dimorphism Detected in Digit Ratios of the Fire Salamander (Salamandra salamandra).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balogová, Monika; Nelson, Emma; Uhrin, Marcel; Figurová, Mária; Ledecký, Valent; Zyśk, Bartłomiej

    2015-10-01

    It has been proposed that digit ratio may be used as a biomarker of early developmental effects. Specifically, the second-to-fourth digit ratio (2D:4D) has been linked to the effects of sex hormones and their receptor genes, but other digit ratios have also been investigated. Across taxa, patterns of sexual dimorphism in digit ratios are ambiguous and a scarcity of studies in basal tetrapods makes it difficult to understand how ratios have evolved. Here, we focus on examining sex differences in digit ratios (2D:3D, 2D:4D, and 3D:4D) in a common amphibian, the fire salamander (Salamandra salamandra). We used graphic software to measure soft tissue digit length and digit bone length from X-rays. We found a nonsignificant tendency in males to have a lower 2D:3D than females; however, no sexual differences were detected in the other ratios. We discuss our results in the context of other studies of digit ratios, and how sex determination systems, as well as other factors, might impact patterns of sexual dimorphism, particularly in reptiles and in amphibians. Our findings suggest that caution is needed when using digit ratios as a potential indicator of prenatal hormonal effects in amphibians and highlight the need for more comparative studies to elucidate the evolutionary and genetic mechanisms implicated in sexually dimorphic patterns across taxonomic groups. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Evidence of Incipient Forest Transition in Southern Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaca, Raúl Abel; Golicher, Duncan John; Cayuela, Luis; Hewson, Jenny; Steininger, Marc

    2012-01-01

    Case studies of land use change have suggested that deforestation across Southern Mexico is accelerating. However, forest transition theory predicts that trajectories of change can be modified by economic factors, leading to spatial and temporal heterogeneity in rates of change that may take the form of the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC). This study aimed to assess the evidence regarding potential forest transition in Southern Mexico by classifying regional forest cover change using Landsat imagery from 1990 through to 2006. Patterns of forest cover change were found to be complex and non-linear. When rates of forest loss were averaged over 342 municipalities using mixed-effects modelling the results showed a significant (p<0.001) overall reduction of the mean rate of forest loss from 0.85% per year in the 1990–2000 period to 0.67% in the 2000–2006 period. The overall regional annual rate of deforestation has fallen from 0.33% to 0.28% from the 1990s to 2000s. A high proportion of the spatial variability in forest cover change cannot be explained statistically. However analysis using spline based general additive models detected underlying relationships between forest cover and income or population density of a form consistent with the EKC. The incipient forest transition has not, as yet, resulted in widespread reforestation. Forest recovery remains below 0.20% per year. Reforestation is mostly the result of passive processes associated with reductions in the intensity of land use. Deforestation continues to occur at high rates in some focal areas. A transition could be accelerated if there were a broader recognition among policy makers that the regional rate of forest loss has now begun to fall. The changing trajectory provides an opportunity to actively restore forest cover through stimulating afforestation and stimulating more sustainable land use practices. The results have clear implications for policy aimed at carbon sequestration through reducing

  19. Evidence of incipient forest transition in Southern Mexico.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Abel Vaca

    Full Text Available Case studies of land use change have suggested that deforestation across Southern Mexico is accelerating. However, forest transition theory predicts that trajectories of change can be modified by economic factors, leading to spatial and temporal heterogeneity in rates of change that may take the form of the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC. This study aimed to assess the evidence regarding potential forest transition in Southern Mexico by classifying regional forest cover change using Landsat imagery from 1990 through to 2006. Patterns of forest cover change were found to be complex and non-linear. When rates of forest loss were averaged over 342 municipalities using mixed-effects modelling the results showed a significant (p<0.001 overall reduction of the mean rate of forest loss from 0.85% per year in the 1990-2000 period to 0.67% in the 2000-2006 period. The overall regional annual rate of deforestation has fallen from 0.33% to 0.28% from the 1990s to 2000s. A high proportion of the spatial variability in forest cover change cannot be explained statistically. However analysis using spline based general additive models detected underlying relationships between forest cover and income or population density of a form consistent with the EKC. The incipient forest transition has not, as yet, resulted in widespread reforestation. Forest recovery remains below 0.20% per year. Reforestation is mostly the result of passive processes associated with reductions in the intensity of land use. Deforestation continues to occur at high rates in some focal areas. A transition could be accelerated if there were a broader recognition among policy makers that the regional rate of forest loss has now begun to fall. The changing trajectory provides an opportunity to actively restore forest cover through stimulating afforestation and stimulating more sustainable land use practices. The results have clear implications for policy aimed at carbon sequestration through

  20. Detection of the incipient oxidation of coal by petrographic techniques

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kruszewska, KJ

    1996-05-01

    Full Text Available % daf) value Coal H20 Ash VM (MJkg -l daf) C H O Swelling Roga N S no. index 1 3.2 10.5 36.2 33.9 81.5 5.9 2 2.6 7.1 33.2 34.5 84.4 5.5 3 1.6 11.9 29.9 35.5 85.3 5.6 4 1.2 13.7 24.2 36.0 88.7 5.0 5 0.8 18... of the petrographic and other analyses of the weathered samples are shown in Tables 3-7. Only those results relevant to changes due to oxidation are reported in this paper. Computed daf values are provided for the calorific value...

  1. A Fully Automatic Instantaneous Fire Hotspot Detection Processor Based on AVHRR Imagery—A TIMELINE Thematic Processor

    OpenAIRE

    Plank, Simon; Fuchs, Eva-Maria; Frey, Corinne

    2017-01-01

    The German Aerospace Center’s (DLR) TIMELINE project aims to develop an operational processing and data management environment to process 30 years of National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) —Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) raw data into L1b, L2 and L3 products. This article presents the current status of the fully automated L2 active fire hotspot detection processor, which is based on single-temporal datasets in orbit geometry. Three different probability le...

  2. Incipient-signature identification of mechanical anomalies in a ship-borne satellite antenna system using an ensemble multiwavelet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Shuilong; Zi, Yanyang; Chen, Jinglong; Chen, Binqiang; He, Zhengjia; Zhao, Chenlu; Yuan, Jing

    2014-01-01

    The instrumented tracking and telemetry ship with a ship-borne satellite antenna (SSA) is the critical device to ensure high quality of space exploration work. To effectively detect mechanical anomalies that can lead to unexpected downtime of the SSA, an ensemble multiwavelet (EM) is presented for identifying the anomaly related incipient-signatures within the measured dynamic signals. Rather than using a predetermined basis as in a conventional multiwavelet, an EM optimizes the matching basis which satisfactorily adapts to the anomaly related incipient-signatures. The construction technique of an EM is based on the conjunction of a two-scale similarity transform (TST) and lifting scheme (LS). For the technique above, the TST improves the regularity by increasing the approximation order of multiscaling functions, while subsequently the LS enhances the smoothness and localizability via utilizing the vanishing moment of multiwavelet functions. Moreover, combining the Hilbert transform with EM decomposition, we identify the incipient-signatures induced by the mechanical anomalies from the measured dynamic signals. A numerical simulation and two successful applications of diagnosis cases (a planetary gearbox and a roller bearing) demonstrate that the proposed technique is capable of dealing with the challenging incipient-signature identification task even though spectral complexity, as well as the strong amplitude/frequency modulation effect, is present in the dynamic signals. (paper)

  3. The link between Movability Number and Incipient Motion in river ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-06-05

    Jun 5, 2009 ... The concept of incipient motion has been of continuing interest to researchers and engineers working with sediment move- ...... pipe laws. J. Inst. Civ. Eng. 11 133-156. EINSTEIN HA (1942) Formulas for the transportation of bed load. Trans. ASCE 107 575-577. EINSTEIN HA (1950) The Bed Load Function ...

  4. Three feasible strategies to minimize kidney injury in 'incipient AKI'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perazella, Mark A; Coca, Steven G

    2013-08-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is common and increasing in hospitalized patients. The earlier recognition of renal injury, at a stage described as 'incipient AKI', may allow renoprotective strategies to be initiated at a time when more kidney tissue is salvageable. 'Incipient AKI' represents renal injury as manifested by new-onset proteinuria, cellular activity on urine microscopy, or elevated novel biomarkers of kidney injury in the absence of clinical data that meet current diagnostic criteria for AKI. We propose three strategies to preserve kidney function and minimize further kidney injury in patients with 'incipient AKI'. These include--when appropriate for the prevailing cause of 'incipient AKI'--use of low-chloride-containing intravenous solutions, continued use of renin-angiotensin system antagonists, and use of diuretics to achieve adequate control of intravascular volume. The combined approach of the early diagnosis of AKI and early employment of feasible therapeutic strategies may slow the growth of clinical AKI, AKI requiring renal replacement therapy and chronic kidney disease, and might reduce AKI-associated mortality.

  5. Developing countries and incipient industrialization: a case study of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Botswana's small and large towns offer good examples of incipient industrialization and enterprise clustering in a developing economy. Using data from Lobatse, a small industrial centre in Botswana, this brief paper shows that clustering in developing countries does not necessarily induce high inter-firm relationships as is ...

  6. Incipient sexual isolation in the nasuta-albomicans complex of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences; Volume 26; Issue 3. Incipient sexual isolation in the nasuta-albomicans complex of Drosophila: mating preference in male-, female– and multiple-choice mating experiments. M T Tanuja N B Ramachandra H A Ranganath. Articles Volume 26 Issue 3 September 2001 pp 365-371 ...

  7. Fire Extinguisher Designated Worker and Fire Watch: Self-Study Course 15672

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, Jimmy D. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-07-08

    At Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), all workers must be aware of LANL fire protection policies and be trained on what to do in the event of a fire. This course, Fire Extinguisher Training for Fire Watch and Designated Workers (#9893), provides awareness-level and hands-on training for fire watch personnel and designated workers. Fire watch personnel and designated workers are appointed by line management and must receive both awareness-level training and hands-on training in the use of portable fire extinguishers to extinguish an incipient-stage fire. This training meets the requirements of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 29 CFR 1910.157, Portable Fire Extinguishers, and Procedure (P) 101-26, Welding, Cutting, and Other Spark-/Flame-Producing Operations.

  8. Fire Extinguisher Training for Fire Watch and Designated Workers, Course 9893

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, Jimmy D. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-04-19

    At Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), all workers must be aware of LANL fire protection policies and be trained on what to do in the event of a fire. This course, Fire Extinguisher Training for Fire Watch and Designated Workers (#9893), provides awareness-level and hands-on training for fire watch personnel and designated workers. Fire watch personnel and designated workers are appointed by line management and must receive both awareness-level training and hands-on training in the use of portable fire extinguishers to extinguish an incipient-stage fire. This training meets the requirements of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 29 CFR 1910.157, Portable Fire Extinguishers, and Procedure (P) 101-26, Welding, Cutting, and Other Spark-/Flame-Producing Operations.

  9. A New Approach for More Effective Fire Detection Method Using NOAA AVHRR Images

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kalpoma, Kazi A; Haramoto, Yoshiaki; Kudoh, Jun-ich

    2005-01-01

    .... The Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) flown on the NOAA satellite series is one of the best systems for fire monitoring due to the combination of a very good temporal resolution of several images a day...

  10. First open field measurements with a portable CO2 lidar/dial system for early forest fires detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudio, Pasquale; Gelfusa, Michela; Lupelli, Ivan; Malizia, Andrea; Moretti, Alessandro; Richetta, Maria; Serafini, Camilla; Bellecci, Carlo

    2011-11-01

    Lidar and dial are well established methods to explore the atmosphere. Different groups have already shown experimentally the possibility to measure the density variation of aerosol and particulate in the atmosphere due to plumes emitted in forest fires with this kind of systems. The aim of the present work is to demonstrate the capabilities of our mobile Lidar system, based on a CO2 laser, to detect forest fires and minimizing false alarms. For this purpose, our system can be operated in both lidar and dial configurations in sequence. The first Lidar measurement is performed to evaluate the variation of the local density into the atmosphere, using a nonabsorption water wavelength 10R18 (10.571 μm). If the returned signal reports a backscattering peak, the presence of a fire is probable. To confirm this hypothesis, a second dial measurement is carried out to reveal a second component emitted during the combustion process. The chosen second component is water vapour, which is, as it is well-known, largely produced during the first combustion stage. Measuring the water concentration peak after the detection of the aerosol density increment (referred to the standard mean atmospheric value) represents a good method to reduce false alarms with a dial system. In order to test this methodology, a first set of measurements has been performed in a field near the Engineering Faculty of the University of Rome "Tor Vergata". A quite small controlled-fire has been lighted into a box at a distance of about one kilometre from the system. The data acquired at the two wavelengths (10R18 and 10R20) have been averaged on 100 elastic backscattered Lidar signals. The first results confirm the effectiveness of the measurement strategy for reducing the number of false alarm preserving the early detection.

  11. Self-Adaptive Gradient-Based Thresholding Method for Coal Fire Detection Using ASTER Thermal Infrared Data, Part I: Methodology and Decadal Change Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaomin Du

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Coal fires that are induced by natural spontaneous combustion or result from human activities occurring on the surface and in underground coal seams destroy coal resources and cause serious environmental degradation. Thermal infrared image data, which directly measure surface temperature, can be an important tool to map coal fires over large areas. As the first of two parts introducing our coal fire detection method, this paper proposes a self-adaptive threshold-based approach for coal fire detection using ASTER thermal infrared data: the self-adaptive gradient-based thresholding method (SAGBT. This method is based on an assumption that the attenuation of temperature along the coal fire’s boundaries generates considerable numbers of spots with extremely high gradient values. The SAGBT method applied mathematical morphology thinning to skeletonize the potential high gradient buffers into the extremely high gradient lines, which provides a self-adaptive mechanism to generate thresholds according to the thermal spatial patterns of the images. The final threshold was defined as an average temperature value reading from the high temperature buffers (segmented by 1.0 σ from the mean and along a sequence of extremely high gradient lines (thinned from the potential high gradient buffers and segmented within the lower bounds, ranging from 0.5 σ to 1.5 σ and with an upper bound of 3.2 σ, where σ is the standard deviation, marking the coal fire areas. The SAGBT method used the basic outer boundary of the coal-bearing strata to simply exclude false alarms. The intermediate thresholds reduced the coupling with the temperature and converged by changing the potential high gradient buffers. This simple approach can be economical and accurate in identifying coal fire areas. In addition, it allows for the identification of thresholds using multiple ASTER TIR scenes in a consistent and uniform manner, and supports long-term coal fire change analyses using

  12. Detection, Emission Estimation and Risk Prediction of Forest Fires in China Using Satellite Sensors and Simulation Models in the Past Three Decades—An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Liu

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Forest fires have major impact on ecosystems and greatly impact the amount of greenhouse gases and aerosols in the atmosphere. This paper presents an overview in the forest fire detection, emission estimation, and fire risk prediction in China using satellite imagery, climate data, and various simulation models over the past three decades. Since the 1980s, remotely-sensed data acquired by many satellites, such as NOAA/AVHRR, FY-series, MODIS, CBERS, and ENVISAT, have been widely utilized for detecting forest fire hot spots and burned areas in China. Some developed algorithms have been utilized for detecting the forest fire hot spots at a sub-pixel level. With respect to modeling the forest burning emission, a remote sensing data-driven Net Primary productivity (NPP estimation model was developed for estimating forest biomass and fuel. In order to improve the forest fire risk modeling in China, real-time meteorological data, such as surface temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and direction,have been used as the model input for improving prediction of forest fire occurrence and its behavior. Shortwave infrared (SWIR and near infrared (NIR channels of satellite sensors have been employed for detecting live fuel moisture content (FMC, and the Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI was used for evaluating the forest vegetation condition and its moisture status.

  13. Detection, emission estimation and risk prediction of forest fires in China using satellite sensors and simulation models in the past three decades--an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jia-Hua; Yao, Feng-Mei; Liu, Cheng; Yang, Li-Min; Boken, Vijendra K

    2011-08-01

    Forest fires have major impact on ecosystems and greatly impact the amount of greenhouse gases and aerosols in the atmosphere. This paper presents an overview in the forest fire detection, emission estimation, and fire risk prediction in China using satellite imagery, climate data, and various simulation models over the past three decades. Since the 1980s, remotely-sensed data acquired by many satellites, such as NOAA/AVHRR, FY-series, MODIS, CBERS, and ENVISAT, have been widely utilized for detecting forest fire hot spots and burned areas in China. Some developed algorithms have been utilized for detecting the forest fire hot spots at a sub-pixel level. With respect to modeling the forest burning emission, a remote sensing data-driven Net Primary productivity (NPP) estimation model was developed for estimating forest biomass and fuel. In order to improve the forest fire risk modeling in China, real-time meteorological data, such as surface temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and direction, have been used as the model input for improving prediction of forest fire occurrence and its behavior. Shortwave infrared (SWIR) and near infrared (NIR) channels of satellite sensors have been employed for detecting live fuel moisture content (FMC), and the Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI) was used for evaluating the forest vegetation condition and its moisture status.

  14. Fire, safety and ventilation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hindle, D.

    1999-02-01

    Correct ventilation in tunnel environments is vital for the comfort and safety of the people passing through. This article gives details of products from several manufacturers of safety rescue and fire fighting equipment, fire and fume detection equipment, special fire resistant materials, fire resistant hydraulic oils and fire dampers, and ventilation systems. Company addresses and fax numbers are supplied. 4 refs., 5 tabs., 10 photos.

  15. Fast and safe gas detection from underground coal fire by drone fly over.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunnington, Lucila; Nakagawa, Masami

    2017-10-01

    Underground coal fires start naturally or as a result of human activities. Besides burning away the important non-renewable energy resource and causing financial losses, burning coal seams emit carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, sulfur oxide and methane, and is a leading cause of smog, acid rain, global warming, and air toxins. In the U.S. alone, the combined cost of coal-fire remediation projects that have been completed, budgeted, or projected by the U.S. Department of the Interior's Office of Surface Mining Remediation and Enforcement (OSM), exceeds $1 billion. It is estimated that these fires generate as much as 3% of the world's annual carbon dioxide emissions and consume as much as 5% of its minable coal. Considering the magnitude of environmental impact and economic loss caused by burning underground coal seams, we have developed a new, safe, reliable surface measurement of coal fire gases to assess the nature of underground coal fires. We use a drone mounted with gas sensors. Drone collected gas concentration data provides a safe alternative for evaluating the rank of a burning coal seam. In this study, a new method of determining coal rank by gas ratios is developed. Coal rank is valuable for defining parameters of a coal seam such as burn temperature, burn rate, and volume of burning seam. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Application of Different HSI Color Models to Detect Fire-Damaged Mortar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Luo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available To obtain a better understanding of the effect of vehicle fires on rigid pavement, a nondestructive test method utilizing an ordinary digital camera to capture images of mortar at five elevated temperatures was undertaken. These images were then analyzed by “image color-intensity analyzer” software. In image analysis, the RGB color model was the basic system used to represent the color information of images. HSI is a derived-color model that is transformed from an RGB model by formulae. In order to understand more about surface color changes and temperatures after a vehicle fire, various transformation formulae used in different research areas were applied in this study. They were then evaluated to obtain the optimum HSI model for further studies of fire-damaged mortar through the use of image analysis.

  17. Detection of Variability of the Motor Unit Action Potential Shape by Means of the Firing Patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krarup, Christian; Nikolic, Mile; Dahl, Kristian

    1997-01-01

    The motor unit action potential is a summation of the potentials of the individual muscle fibers from the same motor unit.By using a newly developed automatic EMG decomposition system, variability of the firing patterns of the muscle fibers are analyzed.......The motor unit action potential is a summation of the potentials of the individual muscle fibers from the same motor unit.By using a newly developed automatic EMG decomposition system, variability of the firing patterns of the muscle fibers are analyzed....

  18. Adaptive divergence with gene flow in incipient speciation of Miscanthus floridulus / sinensis complex (Poaceae)

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Chao-Li

    2014-11-11

    Young incipient species provide ideal materials for untangling the process of ecological speciation in the presence of gene flow. The Miscanthus floridulus/sinensis complex exhibits diverse phenotypic and ecological differences despite recent divergence (approximately 1.59million years ago). To elucidate the process of genetic differentiation during early stages of ecological speciation, we analyzed genomic divergence in the Miscanthus complex using 72 randomly selected genes from a newly assembled transcriptome. In this study, rampant gene flow was detected between species, estimated as M=3.36x10(-9) to 1.20x10(-6), resulting in contradicting phylogenies across loci. Nevertheless, beast analyses revealed the species identity and the effects of extrinsic cohesive forces that counteracted the non-stop introgression. As expected, early in speciation with gene flow, only 3-13 loci were highly diverged; two to five outliers (approximately 2.78-6.94% of the genome) were characterized by strong linkage disequilibrium, and asymmetrically distributed among ecotypes, indicating footprints of diversifying selection. In conclusion, ecological speciation of incipient species of Miscanthus probably followed the parapatric model, whereas allopatric speciation cannot be completely ruled out, especially between the geographically isolated northern and southern M.sinensis, for which no significant gene flow across oceanic barriers was detected. Divergence between local ecotypes in early-stage speciation began at a few genomic regions under the influence of natural selection and divergence hitchhiking that overcame gene flow.

  19. Assessment of the Proximity of MODIS Active Fire Detections to Roads and Navigable Rivers in the Brazilian Tropical Moist Forest Biome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, S.; Roy, D. P.; Souza, C., Jr.; Cochrane, M. A.; Boschetti, L.

    2011-12-01

    The Brazilian tropical moist forest biome supports the world's largest contiguous area of tropical forests and is experiencing high rates of deforestation. Fires are proxy indicators of human pressure and deforestation. Previous studies using satellite active fire detections and the official Brazilian road vector data (IBGE- Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics), including state, federal and some private roads, indicate that the majority of fires occur close to roads. In this quantitative study a new data set that also includes unofficial roads and navigable rivers acquired from Imazon (a non-profit research institution with a mission to promote sustainable development in the Amazon) are used to quantify annual distance distributions of MODIS Aqua and Terra satellite active fire detections for 2003 to 2009. The majority (> 93%) of active fire detections are within 10 km of a road or a navigable river bank. Inter-state and inter-annual differences in the distance distributions, that may capture inter-annual rates of road expansion and fire variability, are also presented. These results may be useful for improvement of regional fire prediction models.

  20. Incipient Movement : designing the seamless and the scaleless

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brabrand, Helle

    2012-01-01

    -space-presentations, confronting the actual time-space-depth of a viewer/player with virtual time-space-depth of transformation and deformation of drawing. Architectonic space limits and orients body movement. Conversely, architecture has the potential of setting free and expanding kinesthetic feeling-out in space. This twist......My project Incipient Movement relates seamless and scaleless parameters directly to the drawing of body-space. The project operates with a kind of topological sensing and taking form, by setting up series of relations between simple tectonic forces and forces of movement. The work twists body...... between oriented movement and movement in its incipiency is a basic dimension of architectural experience and related to dimensions in dance. Nevertheless these twists of movement-forces are rather neglected as architectonic design parameters....

  1. Software System for Finding the Incipient Faults in Power Transformers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolina Petkova

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a new software system for finding of incipient faultsis presented.An experiment is made with real measurement of partial discharge(PD that appeared in power transformer. The software system usesacquisition data to define the real state of this transformer. One of the most important criteria for the power transformer’s state is the presence of partial discharges. The wave propagation caused by partial discharge depends on scheme of the winding and construction of the power equipment. In all cases, the PD source had a specific position so the wave measured from the PD –coupling device had a specific waveform. The waveform is different when PDcoupling device is put on a specific place. The waveform and the time of propagation are criteria for the localization of the source of incipient faults in the volume of power transformer.

  2. [Incipient cariogenic demineralization of human enamel].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, M M; Uribe Echevarría, J; Gendelman, H

    1991-09-01

    32 teeth (12 premolars and 20 molars) were studied under light microscopy, polarized microscopy, transparence light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. These teeth presented changes in colour in their free and proximal surface as well as close to pits and fissures. As an extra diagnostic test the PAS reaction was used to assess descalcifying processes in both light and transparence microscopy. Polarized light was used to assess normal enamel. Scanning electron microscopy corroborated the lesions produced in the enamel surface in the form of micropores. PAS reaction diagnosed decalcifying processes in yellow, brown and brownish stains. White staims not always were PAS-positive and when they reacted in the same manner as other positive stains, with the immersion technique. This penetrated 40-60 umtrs. and in some areas in relation to lamellae they reached dentin. Light, polarized and scanning electron microscopy showed the presence of micropores in the external surface of enamel in PAS-positive cases. The possibility of a modified PAS technique to use in clinical practice is discussed. It is concluded that PAS relation is useful as "ex situ" test to detect the first signs of mineral salt loss at the enamel surface. More research is needed to transfer these results to clinical practice.

  3. Review of practices for the prevention, detection and control of underground fires in coal mines.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Holding, W

    1994-09-01

    Full Text Available A statistical review is given of the frequency of fires and flammable gas ignitions in South African underground coal mines, both on a simple numerical basis and in relation to underground coal production, for the years 1970-1992.previously...

  4. Rare-earth doped optical fiber approach to an alarm system for fire and heat detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, T.; Grattan, K. T. V.; Sun, W. M.; Wade, S. A.; Powell, B. D.

    2003-01-01

    A fluorescence based optical fiber fire alarm system has been further refined in this work to determine the presence of a localized temperature excursion (as low as 50-100 °C) against a varying background at temperatures up to 500-600 °C.

  5. Temperature measurement and damage detection in concrete beams exposed to fire using PPP-BOTDA based fiber optic sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Yi; Hoehler, Matthew S.; Smith, Christopher M.; Bundy, Matthew; Chen, Genda

    2017-10-01

    In this study, Brillouin scattering-based distributed fiber optic sensor is implemented to measure temperature distributions and detect cracks in concrete structures subjected to fire for the first time. A telecommunication-grade optical fiber is characterized as a high temperature sensor with pulse pre-pump Brillouin optical time domain analysis (PPP-BODTA), and implemented to measure spatially-distributed temperatures in reinforced concrete beams in fire. Four beams were tested to failure in a natural gas fueled compartment fire, each instrumented with one fused silica, single-mode optical fiber as a distributed sensor and four thermocouples. Prior to concrete cracking, the distributed temperature was validated at locations of the thermocouples by a relative difference of less than 9%. The cracks in concrete can be identified as sharp peaks in the temperature distribution since the cracks are locally filled with hot air. Concrete cracking did not affect the sensitivity of the distributed sensor but concrete spalling broke the optical fiber loop required for PPP-BOTDA measurements.

  6. Detection of Biomass Fires and Tracking of Plumes in Southeast Brazil with S-Band Radars and TITAN Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Held, Gerhard; Saraiva, Ernandes A.; Gomes, Ana M.; Lopes, Fabio J. S.; Ramires, Thiago

    2013-04-01

    The S-band radars of the Meteorological Research Institute (IPMet) in Bauru and Presidente Prudente are situated within major sugar cane producing regions in the State of São Paulo, where the sugar cane is harvested from April until November, generally by burning sectors of the plantations prior to manual harvesting, resulting in large quantities of aerosols being emitted into the atmosphere, not only negatively affecting local towns, but also regions much further away. In the absence of rain during the dry winter season, the actual fires and subsequent plumes can be observed by IPMet's S-band Doppler radars within their 240 km quantitative ranges, deploying a special scanning cycle which was configured to provide a better vertical resolution up to the anticipated detectable top of the plumes (10 elevations from 10,0° down to 0,3°; resolution of 250 m in range and 1° in azimuth; 7,5 min per volume scan). During August 2010, a one-month multi-disciplinary pilot study was executed with two-fold objectives in two separate regions of the Bauru radar range: to verify the onset of the actual fire and quantify the combustion process and to characterize the effects of those emissions on the atmosphere. The TITAN (Thunderstorm Identification, Tracking, Analysis and Nowcasting) Software was deployed to determine the intensity of the initial fire (based on radar reflectivity in dBZ), and subsequently the horizontal and vertical dimensions of the smoke plume and the velocity of dispersion. The thresholds used for tracking the smoke envelopes were 10 dBZ with a minimum volume of 2 km3, but the position and extent of already diluted plumes could be identified up to 100-150 km range at -6 dBZ. Samples of the biomass material were collected to characterize and quantify the fuel mass before and after burning, which could be related to the fire intensity and subsequent aerosol density of the smoke plume (experimental site ca 50 km east of Bauru). At another remote site (Ourinhos

  7. Identification and application of the valid wavelength bands for burnt area detection and fire severity classification using Landsat/TM data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maki, M.; Tamura, M.

    2003-01-01

    Firstly, by using Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) imagery before and after forest fire, the valid wavelength bands for detecting burnt areas were examined and compared to NDVI. Secondly, by using the valid wavelength bands, mapping of burnt area and classification of fire severity were examined. The results show that (a) channel 4 and 7 were more sensitive than other channels for detecting burnt area, (b) BAI (Burnt Area Index) [(ch. 4-ch. 7)/(ch. 4+ch. 7)] was more useful than NDVI for detecting burnt areas, and (c) BAI imagery was more useful for classification of burn severity than NDVI imagery

  8. Detecting post-fire burn severity and vegetation recovery using multitemporal remote sensing spectral indices and field-collected composite burn index data in a ponderosa pine forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xuexia; Vogelmann, James E.; Rollins, Matt; Ohlen, Donald; Key, Carl H.; Yang, Limin; Huang, Chengquan; Shi, Hua

    2011-01-01

    It is challenging to detect burn severity and vegetation recovery because of the relatively long time period required to capture the ecosystem characteristics. Multitemporal remote sensing data can providemultitemporal observations before, during and after a wildfire, and can improve the change detection accuracy. The goal of this study is to examine the correlations between multitemporal spectral indices and field-observed burn severity, and to provide a practical method to estimate burn severity and vegetation recovery. The study site is the Jasper Fire area in the Black Hills National Forest, South Dakota, that burned during August and September 2000. Six multitemporal Landsat images acquired from 2000 (pre-fire), 2001 (post-fire), 2002, 2003, 2005 and 2007 were used to assess burn severity. The normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), enhanced vegetation index (EVI), normalized burn ratio (NBR), integrated forest index (IFI) and the differences of these indices between the pre-fire and post-fire years were computed and analysed with 66 field-based composite burn index (CBI) plots collected in 2002. Results showed that differences of NDVI and differences of EVI between the pre-fire year and the first two years post-fire were highly correlated with the CBI scores. The correlations were low beyond the second year post-fire. Differences of NBR had good correlation with CBI scores in all study years. Differences of IFI had low correlation with CBI in the first year post-fire and had good correlation in later years. A CBI map of the burnt area was produced using regression tree models and the multitemporal images. The dynamics of four spectral indices from 2000 to 2007 indicated that both NBR and IFI are valuable for monitoring long-term vegetation recovery. The high burn severity areas had a much slower recovery than the moderate and low burn areas.

  9. Development of a lateral flow immunoassay for rapid field detection of the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valles, Steven M; Strong, Charles A; Callcott, Anne-Marie A

    2016-07-01

    The red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta, is an aggressive, highly invasive pest ant species from South America that has been introduced into North America, Asia, and Australia. Quarantine efforts have been imposed in the USA to minimize further spread of the ant. To aid the quarantine efforts, there remains an acute need for a rapid, field portable method for the identification of these ants. In this report, we describe two novel monoclonal antibodies that specifically bind the S. invicta venom protein 2 produced by S. invicta. Using these monoclonal antibodies we developed a lateral flow immunoassay that provides a rapid and portable method for the identification of S. invicta ants. The lateral flow immunoassay was validated against purified S. invicta venom protein 2 and 33 unique ant species (representing 15 % of the total species and 42 % of the Myrmicinae genera found in Florida), and only S. invicta and the S. invicta/richteri hybrid produced a positive result. These monoclonal antibodies were selective to S. invicta venom protein 2 and did not bind to proteins from congeners (i.e., S. geminata or S. richteri) known to produce a S. invicta venom protein 2 ortholog. This S. invicta lateral flow immunoassay provides a new tool for regulatory agencies in the USA to enforce quarantine protocols and limit the spread of this invasive ant. Graphical Abstract Field method to detect and identify the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta.

  10. Incipient cognition solves the spatial reciprocity conundrum of cooperation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeromos Vukov

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: From the simplest living organisms to human societies, cooperation among individuals emerges as a paradox difficult to explain and describe mathematically, although very often observed in reality. Evolutionary game theory offers an excellent toolbar to investigate this issue. Spatial structure has been one of the first mechanisms promoting cooperation; however, alone it only opens a narrow window of viability. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we equip individuals with incipient cognitive abilities, and investigate the evolution of cooperation in a spatial world where retaliation, forgiveness, treason and mutualism may coexist, as individuals engage in Prisoner's Dilemma games. In the model, individuals are able to distinguish their partners and act towards them based on previous interactions. We show how the simplest level of cognition, alone, can lead to the emergence of cooperation. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Despite the incipient nature of the individuals' cognitive abilities, cooperation emerges for unprecedented values of the temptation to cheat, being also robust to invasion by cheaters, errors in decision making and inaccuracy of imitation, features akin to many species, including humans.

  11. Controlling incipient oxidation of pyrite for improved rejection. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, R.H.; Richardson, P.E.; Tao, D.P.

    1996-04-01

    It is well known that superficial oxidation of pyrite produces a hydrophobic sulfur-rich surface and creates problems in separating the mineral from coal using surface-based processes such as flotation and agglomeration. Numerous studies of pyrite oxidation have been conducted but most of them were concerned with the advanced stages of oxidation, and as a result it was not possible to establish a relationship between oxidation and flotation behavior. A better understanding of the mechanisms and kinetics of the incipient oxidation reactions, which may vary with the origin, morphology, texture, and solid state properties of pyrite, can lead to the development of new processes that can improve pyrite rejection from coal. This project is aimed at better understanding of the mechanisms involved during the initial stages of pyrite oxidation to foster the development of advanced coal cleaning technologies. Studies were conducted by fracturing pyrite electrodes in-situ in an electrochemical cell to create virgin surfaces. Electrochemical and photoelectrochemical techniques were employed to characterize the incipient oxidation of pyrite in aqueous solutions. Microflotation tests were conducted to obtain information on the hydrophobicity of pyrite under controlled E{sub h} and pH conditions, and the results were correlated with electrochemical studies.

  12. Incipient ferroelectricity of water molecules confined to nano-channels of beryl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorshunov, B. P.; Torgashev, V. I.; Zhukova, E. S.; Thomas, V. G.; Belyanchikov, M. A.; Kadlec, C.; Kadlec, F.; Savinov, M.; Ostapchuk, T.; Petzelt, J.; Prokleška, J.; Tomas, P. V.; Pestrjakov, E. V.; Fursenko, D. A.; Shakurov, G. S.; Prokhorov, A. S.; Gorelik, V. S.; Kadyrov, L. S.; Uskov, V. V.; Kremer, R. K.; Dressel, M.

    2016-09-01

    Water is characterized by large molecular electric dipole moments and strong interactions between molecules; however, hydrogen bonds screen the dipole-dipole coupling and suppress the ferroelectric order. The situation changes drastically when water is confined: in this case ordering of the molecular dipoles has been predicted, but never unambiguously detected experimentally. In the present study we place separate H2O molecules in the structural channels of a beryl single crystal so that they are located far enough to prevent hydrogen bonding, but close enough to keep the dipole-dipole interaction, resulting in incipient ferroelectricity in the water molecular subsystem. We observe a ferroelectric soft mode that causes Curie-Weiss behaviour of the static permittivity, which saturates below 10 K due to quantum fluctuations. The ferroelectricity of water molecules may play a key role in the functioning of biological systems and find applications in fuel and memory cells, light emitters and other nanoscale electronic devices.

  13. Radiographic diagnosis of incipient proximal caries: an ex-vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva Neto, José Moreira; dos Santos, Rosenês Lima; Sampaio, Maria Carmeli Correia; Sampaio, Fábio Correia; Passos, Isabela Albuquerque

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this ex vivo study was to compare visual clinical and radiographic examinations to the histological analysis for proximal caries diagnosis in extracted permanent molars and premolars. The relationship between clinical aspects and carious lesions was also evaluated. Eighty-eight proximal surfaces (44 freshly extracted teeth) were longitudinally sectioned with a 370-microm diamond disk, thinned with wet silicon carbide paper and observed with a stereomicroscope at x40 magnification. Sensitivity and specificity were 65.6% and 83.3% for clinical examination and 29.7% and 95.8% for radiographic examination, respectively. Kappa values ranged from 0.64 to 0.91. The white spots corresponded to lesions restricted to enamel, while the dark spots corresponded to lesions that reached the dentinoenamel junction. In most cases, cavitation corresponded to dentin lesions. It may be concluded that interproximal radiographic examination is not a reliable method for detection of incipient proximal carious lesions.

  14. Tunnel fire dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Ingason, Haukur; Lönnermark, Anders

    2015-01-01

    This book covers a wide range of issues in fire safety engineering in tunnels, describes the phenomena related to tunnel fire dynamics, presents state-of-the-art research, and gives detailed solutions to these major issues. Examples for calculations are provided. The aim is to significantly improve the understanding of fire safety engineering in tunnels. Chapters on fuel and ventilation control, combustion products, gas temperatures, heat fluxes, smoke stratification, visibility, tenability, design fire curves, heat release, fire suppression and detection, CFD modeling, and scaling techniques all equip readers to create their own fire safety plans for tunnels. This book should be purchased by any engineer or public official with responsibility for tunnels. It would also be of interest to many fire protection engineers as an application of evolving technical principles of fire safety.

  15. Fire History

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The Fire Perimeters data consists of CDF fires 300 acres and greater in size and USFS fires 10 acres and greater throughout California from 1950 to 2002. Some fires...

  16. Fire Perimeters

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The Fire Perimeters data consists of CDF fires 300 acres and greater in size and USFS fires 10 acres and greater throughout California from 1950 to 2003. Some fires...

  17. Fire Perimeters

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — The Fire Perimeters data consists of CDF fires 300 acres and greater in size and USFS fires 10 acres and greater throughout California from 1950 to 2003. Some fires...

  18. Fire History

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — The Fire Perimeters data consists of CDF fires 300 acres and greater in size and USFS fires 10 acres and greater throughout California from 1950 to 2002. Some fires...

  19. Brazilian and Mexican experiences in the study of incipient domestication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lins Neto, Ernani Machado de Freitas; Peroni, Nivaldo; Casas, Alejandro; Parra, Fabiola; Aguirre, Xitlali; Guillén, Susana; Albuquerque, Ulysses Paulino

    2014-04-02

    diverse cultural and ecological contexts for a better understanding of evolution under incipient processes of domestication. Higher research effort is particularly required in Brazil, where studies on this topic are scarcer than in Mexico but where diversity of human cultures managing their also high plant resources diversity offer high potential for documenting the diversity of mechanisms of artificial selection and evolutionary trends. Comparisons and evaluations of incipient domestication in the regions studied as well as the Andean area would significantly contribute to understanding origins and diffusion of the experience of managing and domesticating plants.

  20. Proposal for the award of an industrial services contract for maintenance of fire and gas detection and evacuation alarm systems

    CERN Document Server

    2001-01-01

    This document concerns the award of an Industrial Services contract for maintenance of fire and gas detection and evacuation alarm systems. Following a market survey carried out among 48 firms in fourteen Member States, a call for tenders (IT-2818/ST) was sent on 15 December 2000 to four firms and three consortia, each consisting of two firms, in five Member States. By the closing date, CERN had received tenders from one firm and three consortia in four Member States. The Finance Committee is invited to agree to the negotiation of a contract with the consortium SCHRACK SECONET (AT) - SOTEB (FR), the lowest bidder, for an initial period of three years from 1 October 2001 for an amount not exceeding 5 800 000 Swiss francs, not subject to revision. The contract will include options for two one-year extensions beyond the initial three-year period. The consortium has indicated the following distribution by country of the contract value covered by this adjudication proposal: AT-50%, FR-50%.

  1. Genomics of Rapid Incipient Speciation in Sympatric Threespine Stickleback.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A Marques

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Ecological speciation is the process by which reproductively isolated populations emerge as a consequence of divergent natural or ecologically-mediated sexual selection. Most genomic studies of ecological speciation have investigated allopatric populations, making it difficult to infer reproductive isolation. The few studies on sympatric ecotypes have focused on advanced stages of the speciation process after thousands of generations of divergence. As a consequence, we still do not know what genomic signatures of the early onset of ecological speciation look like. Here, we examined genomic differentiation among migratory lake and resident stream ecotypes of threespine stickleback reproducing in sympatry in one stream, and in parapatry in another stream. Importantly, these ecotypes started diverging less than 150 years ago. We obtained 34,756 SNPs with restriction-site associated DNA sequencing and identified genomic islands of differentiation using a Hidden Markov Model approach. Consistent with incipient ecological speciation, we found significant genomic differentiation between ecotypes both in sympatry and parapatry. Of 19 islands of differentiation resisting gene flow in sympatry, all were also differentiated in parapatry and were thus likely driven by divergent selection among habitats. These islands clustered in quantitative trait loci controlling divergent traits among the ecotypes, many of them concentrated in one region with low to intermediate recombination. Our findings suggest that adaptive genomic differentiation at many genetic loci can arise and persist in sympatry at the very early stage of ecotype divergence, and that the genomic architecture of adaptation may facilitate this.

  2. Incipient microphase separation in short chain perfluoropolyether-block-poly(ethylene oxide) copolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chintapalli, Mahati; Timachova, Ksenia; Olson, Kevin R; Banaszak, Michał; Thelen, Jacob L; Mecham, Sue J; DeSimone, Joseph M; Balsara, Nitash P

    2017-06-07

    Incipient microphase separation is observed by wide angle X-ray scattering (WAXS) in short chain multiblock copolymers consisting of perfluoropolyether (PFPE) and poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) segments. Two PFPE-PEO block copolymers were studied; one with dihydroxyl end groups and one with dimethyl carbonate end groups. Despite having a low degree of polymerization (N ∼ 10), these materials exhibited significant scattering intensity, due to disordered concentration fluctuations between their PFPE-rich and PEO-rich domains. The disordered scattering intensity was fit to a model based on a multicomponent random phase approximation to determine the value of the interaction parameter, χ, and the radius of gyration, R g . Over the temperature range 30-90 °C, the values of χ were determined to be very large (∼2-2.5), indicating a high degree of immiscibility between the PFPE and PEO blocks. In PFPE-PEO, due to the large electron density contrast between the fluorinated and non-fluorinated block and the high value of χ, disordered scattering was detected at intermediate scattering angles, (q ∼ 2 nm -1 ) for relatively small polymer chains. Our ability to detect concentration fluctuations was enabled by both a relatively large value of χ and significant scattering contrast.

  3. Fire safety engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.N.

    1989-01-01

    The periodic occurrence of large-scale, potentially disastrous industrial accidents involving fire in hazardous environments such as oilwell blowouts, petrochemical explosions and nuclear installations highlights the need for an integrated approach to fire safety engineering. Risk reduction 'by design' and rapid response are of equal importance in the saving of life and property in such situations. This volume of papers covers the subject thoroughly, touching on such topics as hazard analysis, safety design and testing, fire detection and control, and includes studies of fire hazard in the context of environment protection. (author)

  4. Robust Fault Diagnosis Design for Linear Multiagent Systems with Incipient Faults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingping Xia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The design of a robust fault estimation observer is studied for linear multiagent systems subject to incipient faults. By considering the fact that incipient faults are in low-frequency domain, the fault estimation of such faults is proposed for discrete-time multiagent systems based on finite-frequency technique. Moreover, using the decomposition design, an equivalent conclusion is given. Simulation results of a numerical example are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed techniques.

  5. Fire Safety's My Job. Eighth Grade. Fire Safety for Texans: Fire and Burn Prevention Curriculum Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texas State Commission on Fire Protection, Austin.

    This booklet comprises the eighth grade component of a series of curriculum guides on fire and burn prevention. Designed to meet the age-specific needs of eighth grade students, its objectives include: (1) focusing on technical aspects of fire hazards and detection, and (2) exploring fire hazards outside the home. Texas essential elements of…

  6. Hydrogen Fire Spectroscopy Issues

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The detection of hydrogen fires is important to the aerospace community. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has devoted significant effort to...

  7. speed related defect detection in a seta 4-ball life testing machine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Obe

    1987-09-01

    Sep 1, 1987 ... detection of incipient defect in a Seta mechanism is investigated using a number of techniques. It is shown that for-an analysis bandwidth optimum for incipient defect detection, the detection sensitivity is improved if the diagnostic inspection of the mechanism is carried out at lower rather than higher speeds.

  8. WSN-Visual-Based Fire Detection And Improved Dijkstra Algorithm Forced-Dijkstra For Exit Safe Path

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loay Bushara

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper is about developing a php algorithm that sense real time data by a distributed WSN from the area under consideration and uses that information to define the exact location of fire amp provides the shortest safest path for affected people. This algorithm also sends information immediately to the nearest firefighter center amp help them to reach the spot for rescue operation using shortest possible path. The area considered to test amp validate the applicability of algorithm is Elshagra GAS depots in south Khartoum Sudan.This algorithm takes into account all the fired spots amp predicts level of support needed based on intensity of fire. The algorithm is demonstrated on a scattered wireless sensor network test platform and in simulation. The results of simulations are presented in subsequent sections to demonstrate the applicability of algorithm.

  9. Contribution of peat fires to the 2015 Indonesian fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Johannes W.; Heil, Angelika; Wooster, Martin J.; van der Werf, Guido R.

    2016-04-01

    Indonesia experienced widespread fires and severe air quality degradation due to smoke during September and October 2015. The fires are thought to have originated from the combination of El-Niño-induced drought and human activities. Fires ignited for land clearing escaped into drained peatlands and burned until the onset of the monsoonal rain. In addition to the health impact, these fires are thought to have emitted large amounts of greenhouse gases, e.g. more than Japan over the entire year. The Copernicus Atmosphere Monitoring Service (CAMS) has detected and quantified the fires with the Global Fire Assimilation System (GFAS) and the smoke dispersion with the Chemistry-Integrated Forecasting System (C-IFS) in near real time. GFAS and C-IFS are constrained by satellite-based observations of fire and smoke constituents, respectively. The distinction between peat and above-ground fires is a crucial and difficult step in fire emission estimation as it introduces errors of up to one order of magnitude. Here, we quantify the contribution of peat fires to the total emission flux of the 2015 Indonesian fires by (1) using an improved peat map in GFAS and (2) analysing the observed diurnal cycle of the fire activity as represented in a new development for GFAS. Furthermore, we link the fires occurrence to economic activity by analysing the coincidence with concessions for palm oil plantations and other industrial forest uses.

  10. Development of a lateral flow immunoassay for rapid field detection of the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta, is an aggressive, highly invasive pest ant species from South America that has been introduced into North America, Asia and Australia. Quarantine efforts have been imposed in the United States to minimize the spread of the ant. There remains an acute ...

  11. The Lund University Checklist for Incipient Exhaustion: a prospective validation of the onset of sustained stress and exhaustion warnings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Österberg

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The need for instruments that can assist in detecting the prodromal stages of stress-related exhaustion has been acknowledged. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether the Lund University Checklist for Incipient Exhaustion (LUCIE could accurately and prospectively detect the onset of incipient exhaustion and to what extent work stressor exposure and private burdens were associated with increasing LUCIE scores. Methods Using surveys, 1355 employees were followed for 11 quarters. Participants with prospectively elevated LUCIE scores were targeted by three algorithms entailing 4 quarters: (1 abrupt onset to a sustained Stress Warning (n = 18, (2 gradual onset to a sustained Stress Warning (n = 42, and (3 sustained Exhaustion Warning (n = 36. The targeted participants’ survey reports on changes in work situation and private life during the fulfillment of any algorithm criteria were analyzed, together with the interview data. Participants untargeted by the algorithms constituted a control group (n = 745. Results Eighty-seven percent of participants fulfilling any LUCIE algorithm criteria (LUCIE indication cases rated a negative change in their work situation during the 4 quarters, compared to 48 % of controls. Ratings of negative changes in private life were also more common in the LUCIE indication groups than among controls (58 % vs. 29 %, but free-text commentaries revealed that almost half of the ratings in the LUCIE indication groups were due to work-to-family conflicts and health problems caused by excessive workload, assigned more properly to work-related negative changes. When excluding the themes related to work-stress-related private life compromises, negative private life changes in the LUCIE indication groups dropped from 58 to 32 %, while only a negligible drop from 29 to 26 % was observed among controls. In retrospective interviews, 79 % of the LUCIE indication participants

  12. The Lund University Checklist for Incipient Exhaustion: a prospective validation of the onset of sustained stress and exhaustion warnings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Österberg, Kai; Persson, Roger; Viborg, Njördur; Jönsson, Peter; Tenenbaum, Artur

    2016-09-29

    The need for instruments that can assist in detecting the prodromal stages of stress-related exhaustion has been acknowledged. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether the Lund University Checklist for Incipient Exhaustion (LUCIE) could accurately and prospectively detect the onset of incipient exhaustion and to what extent work stressor exposure and private burdens were associated with increasing LUCIE scores. Using surveys, 1355 employees were followed for 11 quarters. Participants with prospectively elevated LUCIE scores were targeted by three algorithms entailing 4 quarters: (1) abrupt onset to a sustained Stress Warning (n = 18), (2) gradual onset to a sustained Stress Warning (n = 42), and (3) sustained Exhaustion Warning (n = 36). The targeted participants' survey reports on changes in work situation and private life during the fulfillment of any algorithm criteria were analyzed, together with the interview data. Participants untargeted by the algorithms constituted a control group (n = 745). Eighty-seven percent of participants fulfilling any LUCIE algorithm criteria (LUCIE indication cases) rated a negative change in their work situation during the 4 quarters, compared to 48 % of controls. Ratings of negative changes in private life were also more common in the LUCIE indication groups than among controls (58 % vs. 29 %), but free-text commentaries revealed that almost half of the ratings in the LUCIE indication groups were due to work-to-family conflicts and health problems caused by excessive workload, assigned more properly to work-related negative changes. When excluding the themes related to work-stress-related private life compromises, negative private life changes in the LUCIE indication groups dropped from 58 to 32 %, while only a negligible drop from 29 to 26 % was observed among controls. In retrospective interviews, 79 % of the LUCIE indication participants confirmed exclusively/predominantly work stressors

  13. The French fire protection concept. Vulnerability analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaercher, M.

    1998-01-01

    The French fire protection concept is based on a principle of three levels of defence in depth: fire prevention, fire containing and fire controlling. Fire prevention is based on arrangements which prevent the fire from starting or which make difficult for the fire to start. Fire containing is based on design measures so that the fire will have no impact on the safety of the installation. For fire controlling, equipment nad personnel are on duty in order to detect, to fight and to gain control over the fire as early as possible. The French fire protection concept gives priority to fire containing based on passive structural measures. All buildings containing safety equipment are divided into fire compartments (or fire areas) and fire cells (or fire zones). Basically, a compartment houses safety equipment belonging to one division (or train) so that the other division is always available to reach the plant safe shut down or to mitigate an accident. Because there is a large number of fire compartments and fire cells, deviations from the general principle can be observed. To this reason the RCC-I (Design and Construction Rules applicable for fire protection) requires to implement an assessment of the principle of division. This assessment is called vulnerability analysis. The vulnerability analysis is usually performed at the end of the project, before erection. It is also possible to perform a vulnerability analysis in an operating nuclear power plant in the scope of a fire safety upgrading programme. In the vulnerability analysis, the functional failure of all the equipment (except for those protected by a qualified fire barrier, designed or able to withstand the fire consequences) within the fire compartment or cell, where the fire breaks out, is postulated. The potential consequences for the plant safety are analysed

  14. Proposal for the award of a blanket contract for automatic air-sampling systems for fire and gas detection in the LHC experiments

    CERN Document Server

    2004-01-01

    This document concerns the award of a blanket contract for automatic air-sampling systems for fire and gas detection in the LHC experiments. Following a market survey carried out among 119 firms in ten Member States, a call for tenders (IT-2891/ST) was sent on 1 August 2003 to four firms, in three Member States. By the closing date, CERN had received two tenders from one firm and one consortium, in three Member States. The Finance Committee is invited to agree to the negotiation of a blanket contract with ICARE (FR), the lowest bidder, for the supply of automatic air-sampling systems for fire and gas detection in the LHC experiments for a total amount not exceeding 1 750 000 euros (2 714 000 Swiss francs), subject to revision for inflation from 1 January 2007 with options for air-sampling smoke detection systems for electrical racks, for an additional amount of 400 000 euros (620 000 Swiss francs), subject to revision for inflation from 1 January 2007, bringing the total amount to a maximum of 2 150 000 euros...

  15. Detection of frequently-burn locations using multi-temporal Terra/Aqua MODIS fire product (MOD14) in Oudomxay province, Laos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phonekeo, V; Samarakoon, L; Saphangthong, T

    2014-01-01

    Wildfire is natural and man-made disaster that relates to global warming and climate change. Wildfire is prominent disaster that destroys natural resources, and causes enormous danger to human life and property. The study on the spatial and temporal distribution of wildfire is significant to understand wildfire occurrence and behavior. In the past, people usually study on the pattern of wildfire and open-space burning according to the daily number of active fire detected by MODIS sensor onboard of Terra and Aqua satellites for a particular area at the time of satellite over pass. However, there is no study that focused on the active fire that frequently occurred at the same location for a given period of time. Therefore, in this paper, the authors has focused on the study of frequently-burn locations in Oudomxay province of Laos, which has the 3rd highest active fire number in burning season of year 2007-2009 using spatial and statistical analysis of the active fire distribution and occurrence by time and space. The results of the study show that the highest number of burning frequency is 6 and 7 times within the study period and these numbers are located at 3 districts. One is Xai district which has the highest frequently-burn location for 7 times during the study period at the coordinate of N20.72° and E101.88°. The second districts are Beng and Nga districts which has the 2nd highest frequently-burn location for 6 times during the study period at the coordinate of N 20.28°, E101.68°, and N20.17°, E102.02°, respectively. The obtained information on frequently-burn locations in the province would be useful to identify the repeat burning activity by the local people occurred in the same location and allows the forestry and agricultural officers understand the wildfire distribution pattern

  16. Localization of incipient tip vortex cavitation using ray based matched field inversion method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dongho; Seong, Woojae; Choo, Youngmin; Lee, Jeunghoon

    2015-10-01

    Cavitation of marine propeller is one of the main contributing factors of broadband radiated ship noise. In this research, an algorithm for the source localization of incipient vortex cavitation is suggested. Incipient cavitation is modeled as monopole type source and matched-field inversion method is applied to find the source position by comparing the spatial correlation between measured and replicated pressure fields at the receiver array. The accuracy of source localization is improved by broadband matched-field inversion technique that enhances correlation by incoherently averaging correlations of individual frequencies. Suggested localization algorithm is verified through known virtual source and model test conducted in Samsung ship model basin cavitation tunnel. It is found that suggested localization algorithm enables efficient localization of incipient tip vortex cavitation using a few pressure data measured on the outer hull above the propeller and practically applicable to the typically performed model scale experiment in a cavitation tunnel at the early design stage.

  17. Fire investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomberg, A.

    There was considerable progress made on several fronts of fire investigation in the United States in recent years. Progress was made in increasing the quantity of fire investigation and reporting, through efforts to develop the National Fire Incident Reporting System. Improving overall quality of fire investigation is the objective of efforts such as the Fire Investigation Handbook, which was developed and published by the National Bureau of Standards, and the upgrading and expanding of the ""dictionary'' of fire investigation and reporting, the NFPA 901, Uniform Coding for Fire Protection, system. The science of fire investigation as furthered also by new approaches to post fire interviews being developed at the University of Washington, and by in-depth research into factors involved in several large loss fires, including the MGM Grand Hotel in Las Vegas. Finally, the use of special study fire investigations - in-depth investigations concentrating on specific fire problems - is producing new glimpses into the nature of the national fire problem. A brief description of the status of efforts in each of these areas is discussed.

  18. Temperature Measurement and Damage Detection in Concrete Beams Exposed to Fire Using PPP-BOTDA Based Fiber Optic Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Yi; Hoehler, Matthew S; Smith, Christopher M; Bundy, Matthew; Chen, Genda

    2017-10-01

    In this study, distributed fiber optic sensors based on pulse pre-pump Brillouin optical time domain analysis (PPP-BODTA) are characterized and deployed to measure spatially-distributed temperatures in reinforced concrete specimens exposed to fire. Four beams were tested to failure in a natural gas fueled compartment fire, each instrumented with one fused silica, single-mode optical fiber as a distributed sensor and four thermocouples. Prior to concrete cracking, the distributed temperature was validated at locations of the thermocouples by a relative difference of less than 9 %. The cracks in concrete can be identified as sharp peaks in the temperature distribution since the cracks are locally filled with hot air. Concrete cracking did not affect the sensitivity of the distributed sensor but concrete spalling broke the optical fiber loop required for PPP-BOTDA measurements.

  19. Fire Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Fire Stations in the United States Any location where fire fighters are stationed or based out of, or where equipment that such personnel use in carrying out their...

  20. Proposal for the award of a blanket contract for the supply and installation of automatic fire-detection and emergency-evacuation equipment

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    This document concerns the award of a blanket contract for the supply and installation of automatic fire-detection and emergency-evacuation equipment. Following a market survey carried out among 54 firms in ten Member States, a call for tenders (IT-3090/ST) was sent on 29 August 2003 to one firm and four consortia in five Member States. By the closing date, CERN had received four tenders from four consortia in four Member States. The Finance Committee is invited to agree to the negotiation of a blanket contract with the consortium HEKATRON (DE) - SOTEB (FR), the lowest bidder, for the supply and installation of automatic fire-detection and emergency-evacuation equipment for a total amount not exceeding 1 900 000 euros (2 946 650 Swiss francs), subject to revision for inflation from 1 January 2007. The rate of exchange used is that stipulated in the tender. The firm has indicated the following distribution by country of the contract value covered by this adjudication proposal: DE - 70%; FR - 30%.

  1. Incipient and Progressive Damage in Polyethylene Under Extreme Tensile Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furmanski, Jevan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Brown, Eric [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Trujillo, Carl P. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Martinez, Daniel Tito [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Gray, George T. III [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-06-07

    The Dynamic-Tensile-Extrusion (Dyn-Ten-Ext) test was developed at LANL by Gray and coworkers to probe the tensile response of materials at large strains (>1) and high strain-rates (>1000/s) by firing projectiles through a conical die at 300-700 m/s. This technique has recently been applied to various polymers, such as the fluoropolymers PTFE (Teflon) and the chemically similar PCTFE, which respectively exhibited catastrophic fragmentation and distributed dynamic necking. This work details investigations of the Dyn-Ten-Ext response of high density polyethylene, both to failure and sub-critical conditions. At large extrusion ratios ({approx}7.4) and high velocities, such as those previously employed, HDPE catastrophically fragmented in a craze-like manner in the extruded jet. At more modest extrusion ratios and high velocities the specimen extruded a stable jet that ruptured cleanly, and at lower velocities was recovered intact after sustaining substantial internal damage. Thermomechanical finite element simulations showed that the damage corresponded to a locus of shear stress in the presence of hydrostatic tension. X-ray computed tomography corroborated the prediction of a shear damage mechanism by finding the region of partially damaged material to consist of macroscopic shear-mode cracks nearly aligned with the extrusion axis, originating from the location of damage inception.

  2. Fire precautions at petroleum refineries and bulk storage installations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-01

    Topics covered in this Code of Practice include petroleum products and combustion, site evaluation for fire defence, and fire prevention, protection, detection, systems, fighting, and fire fighting facilities in storage areas. Appendices cover legal requirements and enforcement arrangements, application rates for fire water and foam, codes of practice, flammable limits of petroleum compounds, flash points and spontaneous ignition temperatures and classification of fires. (UK)

  3. US Fire Administration Fire Statistics

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The U.S. Fire Administration collects data from a variety of sources to provide information and analyses on the status and scope of the fire problem in the United...

  4. Incipient merger of Cls 11 and 5 in Xhosa? | Gowlett | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Xhosa, there appears to be an incipient merger between Noun Classes 5 and 11, as revealed by frequent mismatches between Cl. 11 nouns and various concordial elements, and even the replacement of the Cl. 11 noun prefix by that of Cl. 5. In this article we explore possible reasons for this putative merger, and present ...

  5. Transformer Incipient Fault Prediction Using Combined Artificial Neural Network and Various Particle Swarm Optimisation Techniques.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hazlee Azil Illias

    Full Text Available It is important to predict the incipient fault in transformer oil accurately so that the maintenance of transformer oil can be performed correctly, reducing the cost of maintenance and minimise the error. Dissolved gas analysis (DGA has been widely used to predict the incipient fault in power transformers. However, sometimes the existing DGA methods yield inaccurate prediction of the incipient fault in transformer oil because each method is only suitable for certain conditions. Many previous works have reported on the use of intelligence methods to predict the transformer faults. However, it is believed that the accuracy of the previously proposed methods can still be improved. Since artificial neural network (ANN and particle swarm optimisation (PSO techniques have never been used in the previously reported work, this work proposes a combination of ANN and various PSO techniques to predict the transformer incipient fault. The advantages of PSO are simplicity and easy implementation. The effectiveness of various PSO techniques in combination with ANN is validated by comparison with the results from the actual fault diagnosis, an existing diagnosis method and ANN alone. Comparison of the results from the proposed methods with the previously reported work was also performed to show the improvement of the proposed methods. It was found that the proposed ANN-Evolutionary PSO method yields the highest percentage of correct identification for transformer fault type than the existing diagnosis method and previously reported works.

  6. Incipient ovarian failure and premature ovarian failure show the same immunological profile

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Kasteren, YM; von Blomberg, M; Hoek, A; de Koning, C; Lambalk, N; van Montfrans, J; Kuik, J

    PROBLEM: Incipient ovarian failure (IOF) is characterized by regular menstrual cycles, infertility and a raised early-follicular FSH in women under 40. IOF might be a precursor or a mitigated form of premature ovarian failure (POF). Disturbances in the immune system may play a role in ovarian

  7. Abnormal albuminuria and blood pressure rise in incipient diabetic nephropathy induced by exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Cramer

    1984-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of light to moderate dynamic work (450 kpm/min followed by 600 kpm/min during 20 min each) on the blood pressure and renal protein handling in insulin-dependent diabetic patients with incipient nephropathy (D3) (elevated baseline albumin excretio...

  8. CSF biomarkers and incipient Alzheimer disease in patients with mild cognitive impairment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mattsson, N.; Zetterberg, H.; Hansson, O.; Andreasen, N.; Parnetti, L.; Jonsson, M.; Herukka, S.K.; Flier, W.M. van der; Blankenstein, M.A.; Ewers, M.; Rich, K.; Kaiser, E.; Verbeek, M.M.; Tsolaki, M.; Mulugeta, E.; Rosen, E.; Aarsland, D.; Visser, P.J.; Schroder, J.; Marcusson, J.; Leon, M.; Hampel, H.; Scheltens, P.; Pirttilä, T.; Wallin, A.; Jonhagen, M.E.; Minthon, L.; Winblad, B.; Blennow, K.

    2009-01-01

    CONTEXT: Small single-center studies have shown that cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers may be useful to identify incipient Alzheimer disease (AD) in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), but large-scale multicenter studies have not been conducted. OBJECTIVE: To determine the diagnostic

  9. Incipient ferroelectric properties of NaTaO.sub.3./sub

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kamba, Stanislav; Goian, Veronica; Bovtun, Viktor; Nuzhnyy, Dmitry; Kempa, Martin; Spreitzer, M.; König, J.; Suvorov, D.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 426, SI (2012), s. 206-214 ISSN 0015-0193 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA202/09/0682 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : incipient ferroelectricity * infrared and THz spectroscopy * phonons * microwave ceramics Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.415, year: 2012

  10. Influence of decelerating flow on incipient motion of a gravel-bed ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Influence of decelerating flow on incipient motion of a gravel-bed stream. HOSSEIN AFZALIMHR. ∗,1. , SUBHASISH DEY. 2 and. POONEH RASOULIANFAR. 1. 1Department of Water Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan, Iran. 2Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology,. Kharagpur ...

  11. Transformer Incipient Fault Prediction Using Combined Artificial Neural Network and Various Particle Swarm Optimisation Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    It is important to predict the incipient fault in transformer oil accurately so that the maintenance of transformer oil can be performed correctly, reducing the cost of maintenance and minimise the error. Dissolved gas analysis (DGA) has been widely used to predict the incipient fault in power transformers. However, sometimes the existing DGA methods yield inaccurate prediction of the incipient fault in transformer oil because each method is only suitable for certain conditions. Many previous works have reported on the use of intelligence methods to predict the transformer faults. However, it is believed that the accuracy of the previously proposed methods can still be improved. Since artificial neural network (ANN) and particle swarm optimisation (PSO) techniques have never been used in the previously reported work, this work proposes a combination of ANN and various PSO techniques to predict the transformer incipient fault. The advantages of PSO are simplicity and easy implementation. The effectiveness of various PSO techniques in combination with ANN is validated by comparison with the results from the actual fault diagnosis, an existing diagnosis method and ANN alone. Comparison of the results from the proposed methods with the previously reported work was also performed to show the improvement of the proposed methods. It was found that the proposed ANN-Evolutionary PSO method yields the highest percentage of correct identification for transformer fault type than the existing diagnosis method and previously reported works. PMID:26103634

  12. Burned Area Detection and Burn Severity Assessment of a Heathland Fire in Belgium Using Airborne Imaging Spectroscopy (APEX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lennert Schepers

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Uncontrolled, large fires are a major threat to the biodiversity of protected heath landscapes. The severity of the fire is an important factor influencing vegetation recovery. We used airborne imaging spectroscopy data from the Airborne Prism Experiment (APEX sensor to: (1 investigate which spectral regions and spectral indices perform best in discriminating burned from unburned areas; and (2 assess the burn severity of a recent fire in the Kalmthoutse Heide, a heathland area in Belgium. A separability index was used to estimate the effectiveness of individual bands and spectral indices to discriminate between burned and unburned land. For the burn severity analysis, a modified version of the Geometrically structured Composite Burn Index (GeoCBI was developed for the field data collection. The field data were collected in four different vegetation types: Calluna vulgaris-dominated heath (dry heath, Erica tetralix-dominated heath (wet heath, Molinia caerulea (grass-encroached heath, and coniferous woodland. Discrimination between burned and unburned areas differed among vegetation types. For the pooled dataset, bands in the near infrared (NIR spectral region demonstrated the highest discriminatory power, followed by short wave infrared (SWIR bands. Visible wavelengths performed considerably poorer. The Normalized Burn Ratio (NBR outperformed the other spectral indices and the individual spectral bands in discriminating between burned and unburned areas. For the burn severity assessment, all spectral bands and indices showed low correlations with the field data GeoCBI, when data of all pre-fire vegetation types were pooled (R2 maximum 0.41. Analysis per vegetation type, however, revealed considerably higher correlations (R2 up to 0.78. The Mid Infrared Burn Index (MIRBI had the highest correlations for Molinia and Erica (R2 = 0.78 and 0.42, respectively. In Calluna stands, the Char Soil Index (CSI achieved the highest correlations, with R2 = 0

  13. Advanced Ultra-Violet (UV) Aircraft Fire Detection System. Volume 2. System Hardware Design, Software Design, and Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-08-01

    per FIG. 7. Wen printer stops observe that GSE I LED (Side 1) an GSECU lights. 4.12. Systernfunction Tosh . All fire and Wout indiations refer to fR...Of 13 REPORT :Lt V 379 1.3 Single and Dual (J-tqt. At.. ,sesonanca Search In Axis I (see Fig.5), there was rocking on the mountings of the dual...detector head between 368 and 385 Fix..There wasl nodetectable resonances of the single detector head in this axis. In Axis 2, the single head was rocking

  14. Forest fires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuller, M.

    1991-01-01

    This book examines the many complex and sensitive issues relating to wildland fires. Beginning with an overview of the fires of 1980s, the book discusses the implications of continued drought and considers the behavior of wildland fires, from ignition and spread to spotting and firestorms. Topics include the effects of weather, forest fuels, fire ecology, and the effects of fire on plants and animals. In addition, the book examines firefighting methods and equipment, including new minimum impact techniques and compressed air foam; prescribed burning; and steps that can be taken to protect individuals and human structures. A history of forest fire policies in the U.S. and a discussion of solutions to fire problems around the world completes the coverage. With one percent of the earth's surface burning every year in the last decade, this is a penetrating book on a subject of undeniable importance

  15. Forest fires in Pennsylvania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald A. Haines; William A. Main; Eugene F. McNamara

    1978-01-01

    Describes factors that contribute to forest fires in Pennsylvania. Includes an analysis of basic statistics; distribution of fires during normal, drought, and wet years; fire cause, fire activity by day-of-week; multiple-fire day; and fire climatology.

  16. Determination and microscopic study of incipient defects in irradiated power reactor fuel rods. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasupathi, V.; Perrin, J.S.; Roberts, E.

    1978-05-01

    This report presents the results of nondestructive and destructive examinations carried out on the Point Beach-1 (PWR) and Dresden-3 (BWR) candidate fuel rods selected for the study of pellet-clad interaction (PCI) induced incipient defects. In addition, the report includes results of examination of sections from Oskarshamn-1 (BWR) fuel rods. Eddy current examination of Point Beach-1 rods showed indications of possible incipient defects in the fuel rods. The profilometry and the gamma scan data also indicated that the source of the eddy current indications may be incipient defects. No failed rods or rods with incipient failure were found in the sample from Point Beach-1. Despite the lack of success in finding incipient defects and filed rods, the mechanism for fuel rod failures in Point Beach-1 is postulated to be PCI-related, with high startup rates and fuel handling being the key elements. Nine out of the 10 candidate fuel rods from Dresden-3 (BWR) were failed, and all the failed rods had leaked water so that the initial mechanism was observed. Examination of clad inner surfaces of the specimens from failed and unfailed rods showed fuel deposits of widely varying appearance. The deposits were found to contain uranium, cesium, and tellurium. Transmission electron microscopy of clad specimens showed evidence of microscopic strain. Metallographic examination of fuel pellets from the peak transient power location showed extensive grain boundary separation and axial movement of the fuel indicative of rapid release of fission products. Examination of Oskarshamn clad specimens did not show any stress corrosion crack (SCC) type defects. The defects found in the examinations appear to be related to secondary hydriding. The clad inner surface of the Oskarshamn specimens also showed uranium-rich deposits of varying features

  17. Incipient cytotoxicity: A time-independent measure of cytotoxic potency in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gülden, Michael; Kähler, Daria; Seibert, Hasso

    2015-09-01

    Time is an important determinant of toxicity but largely ignored in in vitro toxicity assays where exposure times chosen are rather arbitrary. To investigate the impact of time on the cytotoxic potency of chemicals in vitro, the concentration dependent cytotoxic action of selected chemicals (surfactants, metals, oxidative stressors, a mitochondrial poison) was determined after various exposure times (1-72 h) in cultures of Balb/c 3T3 cells. Time affected the cytotoxic potency as well as the cytotoxic efficacy. The median cytotoxic concentrations, EC50, decreased and in most cases approached an "incipient" value, EC50,∞, within 72 h. Cytotoxicity due to mitochondrial insult occurred after a threshold time which was dependent on the medium glucose concentration. Within the chemicals studied the extent of potency change with time ranged from 3- to >1000-fold and the "time to incipient cytotoxicity", tic, from 4 to >72 h. Hence, also the relative cytotoxic potencies depend on exposure time. Ignoring this may lead to severe bias in toxicological hazard and risk assessment. Therefore it is recommended to determine the incipient cytotoxic potency of chemical compounds, represented by, e.g., the incipient median effect (EC50,∞), no effect (NEC∞) or lowest effect concentrations (LEC∞) instead of measures obtained after arbitrary exposure times. If this is not possible, the 72 h-potency measurements appear to be useful surrogates. These time-independent incipient potency values can be reasonably compared between substances, endpoints, cells and biological test systems and may serve to define points of departure for quantitative in vitro-in vivo extrapolations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Hydrogen Fire Spectroscopy Issues Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youngquist, Robert C. (Compiler)

    2014-01-01

    The detection of hydrogen fires is important to the aerospace community. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has devoted significant effort to the development, testing, and installation of hydrogen fire detectors based on ultraviolet, near-infrared, mid-infrared, andor far-infrared flame emission bands. Yet, there is no intensity calibrated hydrogen-air flame spectrum over this range in the literature and consequently, it can be difficult to compare the merits of different radiation-based hydrogen fire detectors.

  19. Fire blight in Georgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dali L. Gaganidze

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Fire blight is distinguished among the fruit tree diseases by harmfulness. Fire blight damages about 180 cultural and wild plants belonging to the Rosaceae family. Quince, apple and pear are the most susceptible to the disease. At present, the disease occurs in over 40 countries of Europe and Asia. Economic damage caused by fire blight is expressed not only in crop losses, but also, it poses threat of eradication to entire fruit tree gardens. Erwinia amylovora, causative bacteria of fire blight in fruit trees, is included in the A2 list of quarantine organisms. In 2016, the employees of the Plant Pest Diagnostic Department of the Laboratory of the Georgian Ministry of Agriculture have detected Erwinia amylovora in apple seedlings from Mtskheta district. National Food Agency, Ministry of Agriculture of Georgia informed FAO on pathogen detection. The aim of the study is detection of the bacterium Erwinia amylovora by molecular method (PCR in the samples of fruit trees, suspicious on fire blight collected in the regions of Eastern (Kvemo Kartli, Shida Kartli and Kakheti and Western Georgia (Imereti.The bacterium Erwinia amylovora was detected by real time and conventional PCR methods using specific primers and thus the fire blight disease confirmed in 23 samples of plant material from Shida Kartli (11 apples, 6 pear and 6 quince samples, in 5 samples from Kvemo Kartli (1 quince and 4 apple samples, in 2 samples of apples from Kakheti region and 1 sample of pear collected in Imereti (Zestafoni. Keywords: Fire blight, Erwinia amylovora, Conventional PCR, Real time PCR, DNA, Bacterium

  20. Wildland fire limits subsequent fire occurrence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sean A. Parks; Carol Miller; Lisa M. Holsinger; Scott Baggett; Benjamin J. Bird

    2016-01-01

    Several aspects of wildland fire are moderated by site- and landscape-level vegetation changes caused by previous fire, thereby creating a dynamic where one fire exerts a regulatory control on subsequent fire. For example, wildland fire has been shown to regulate the size and severity of subsequent fire. However, wildland fire has the potential to influence...

  1. Wildland fire in ecosystems: fire and nonnative invasive plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristin Zouhar; Jane Kapler Smith; Steve Sutherland; Matthew L. Brooks

    2008-01-01

    This state-of-knowledge review of information on relationships between wildland fire and nonnative invasive plants can assist fire managers and other land managers concerned with prevention, detection, and eradication or control of nonnative invasive plants. The 16 chapters in this volume synthesize ecological and botanical principles regarding relationships between...

  2. Detecting a hierarchical genetic population structure: the case study of the Fire Salamander (Salamandra salamandra) in Northern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisa, Giulia; Orioli, Valerio; Spilotros, Giulia; Fabbri, Elena; Randi, Ettore; Bani, Luciano

    2015-02-01

    The multistep method here applied in studying the genetic structure of a low dispersal and philopatric species, such as the Fire Salamander Salamandra salamandra, was proved to be effective in identifying the hierarchical structure of populations living in broad-leaved forest ecosystems in Northern Italy. In this study, 477 salamander larvae, collected in 28 sampling populations (SPs) in the Prealpine and in the foothill areas of Northern Italy, were genotyped at 16 specie-specific microsatellites. SPs showed a significant overall genetic variation (Global F ST = 0.032, P < 0.001). The genetic population structure was assessed by using STRUCTURE 2.3.4. We found two main genetic groups, one represented by SPs inhabiting the Prealpine belt, which maintain connections with those of the Eastern foothill lowland (PEF), and a second group with the SPs of the Western foothill lowland (WF). The two groups were significantly distinct with a Global F ST of 0.010 (P < 0.001). While the first group showed a moderate structure, with only one divergent SP (Global F ST = 0.006, P < 0.001), the second group proved more structured being divided in four clusters (Global F ST = 0.017, P = 0.058). This genetic population structure should be due to the large conurbations and main roads that separate the WF group from the Prealpine belt and the Eastern foothill lowland. The adopted methods allowed the analysis of the genetic population structure of Fire Salamander from wide to local scale, identifying different degrees of genetic divergence of their populations derived from forest fragmentation induced by urban and infrastructure sprawl.

  3. On the effect of cross sectional shape on incipient motion and deposition of sediments in fixed bed channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safari Mir-Jafar-Sadegh

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The condition of incipient motion and deposition are of the essential issues for the study of sediment transport. This phenomenon is of great importance to hydraulic engineers for designing sewers, drainage, as well as other rigid boundary channels. This is a study carried out with the objectives of describing the effect of cross-sectional shape on incipient motion and deposition of particles in rigid boundary channels. In this research work, the experimental data given by Loveless (1992 and Mohammadi (2005 are used. On the basis of the critical velocity approach, a new incipient motion equation for a V-shaped bottom channel and incipient deposition of sediment particles equations for rigid boundary channels having circular, rectangular, and U-shaped cross sections are obtained. New equations were compared to the other incipient motion equations. The result shows that the cross-sectional shape is an important factor for defining the minimum velocity for no-deposit particles. This study also distinguishes incipient motion of particles from incipient deposition for particles. The results may be useful for designing fixed bed channels with a limited deposition condition.

  4. Geomorphology of coal seam fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuenzer, Claudia; Stracher, Glenn B.

    2012-02-01

    Coal fires occur in underground natural coal seams, in exposed surface seams, and in coal storage or waste piles. The fires ignite through spontaneous combustion or natural or anthropogenic causes. They are reported from China, India, USA, South Africa, Australia, and Russia, as well as many other countries. Coal fires lead to loss of a valuable resource (coal), the emission of greenhouse-relevant and toxic gases, and vegetation deterioration. A dangerous aspect of the fires is the threat to local mines, industries, and settlements through the volume loss underground. Surface collapse in coal fire areas is common. Thus, coal fires are significantly affecting the evolution of the landscape. Based on more than a decade of experience with in situ mapping of coal fire areas worldwide, a general classification system for coal fires is presented. Furthermore, coal seam fire geomorphology is explained in detail. The major landforms associated with, and induced by, these fires are presented. The landforms include manifestations resulting from bedrock surface fracturing, such as fissures, cracks, funnels, vents, and sponges. Further manifestations resulting from surface bedrock subsidence include sinkholes, trenches, depressions, partial surface subsidence, large surface subsidence, and slides. Additional geomorphologic coal fire manifestations include exposed ash layers, pyrometamorphic rocks, and fumarolic minerals. The origin, evolution, and possible future development of these features are explained, and examples from in situ surveys, as well as from high-resolution satellite data analyses, are presented. The geomorphology of coal fires has not been presented in a systematic manner. Knowledge of coal fire geomorphology enables the detection of underground coal fires based on distinct surface manifestations. Furthermore, it allows judgments about the safety of coal fire-affected terrain. Additionally, geomorphologic features are indicators of the burning stage of fires

  5. Study of formation mechanism of incipient melting in thixo-cast Al–Si–Cu–Mg alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du, Kang, E-mail: du126kang@126.com; Zhu, Qiang, E-mail: zhu.qiang@grinm.com; Li, Daquan, E-mail: lidaquan@grinm.com; Zhang, Fan, E-mail: sk_zf@163.com

    2015-08-15

    Mechanical properties of thixo-cast Al–Si–Cu–Mg alloys can be enhanced by T61 heat treatment. Copper and magnesium atoms in aluminum matrix can form homogeneously distributed precipitations after solution and aging treatment which harden the alloys. However, microsegregation of these alloying elements could form numerous tiny multi-compound phases during solidification. These phases could cause incipient melting defects in subsequent heat treatment process and degrade the macro-mechanical properties of productions. This study is to present heterogeneous distribution of Cu, Si, and Mg elements and formation of incipient melting defects (pores). In this study, incipient melting pores that occurred during solution treatment at various temperatures, even lower than common melting points of various intermetallic phases, were identified, in terms of a method of investigating the same surface area in the samples before and after solution treatment in a vacuum environment. The results also show that the incipient melting mostly originates at the clusters with fine intermetallic particles while also some at the edge of block-like Al{sub 2}Cu. The fine particles were determined being Al{sub 2}Cu, Al{sub 5}Cu{sub 2}Mg{sub 8}Si{sub 6} and Al{sub 8}Mg{sub 3}FeSi{sub 2}. Tendency of the incipient melting decreases with decreases of the width of the clusters. The formation mechanism of incipient melting pores in solution treatment process was discussed using both the Fick law and the LSW theory. Finally, a criterion of solution treatment to avoid incipient melting pores for the thixo-cast alloys is proposed. - Highlights: • In-situ comparison technique was used to analysis the change of eutectic phases. • The ralationship between eutectic phase size and incipient melting was studied. • Teat treatment criterion for higher incipient melting resistance was proposed.

  6. Detection of Poly- and Perfluoroalkyl Substances (PFASs) in U.S. Drinking Water Linked to Industrial Sites, Military Fire Training Areas, and Wastewater Treatment Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xindi C; Andrews, David Q; Lindstrom, Andrew B; Bruton, Thomas A; Schaider, Laurel A; Grandjean, Philippe; Lohmann, Rainer; Carignan, Courtney C; Blum, Arlene; Balan, Simona A; Higgins, Christopher P; Sunderland, Elsie M

    2016-10-11

    Drinking water contamination with poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) poses risks to the developmental, immune, metabolic, and endocrine health of consumers. We present a spatial analysis of 2013-2015 national drinking water PFAS concentrations from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (US EPA) third Unregulated Contaminant Monitoring Rule (UCMR3) program. The number of industrial sites that manufacture or use these compounds, the number of military fire training areas, and the number of wastewater treatment plants are all significant predictors of PFAS detection frequencies and concentrations in public water supplies. Among samples with detectable PFAS levels, each additional military site within a watershed's eight-digit hydrologic unit is associated with a 20% increase in PFHxS, a 10% increase in both PFHpA and PFOA, and a 35% increase in PFOS. The number of civilian airports with personnel trained in the use of aqueous film-forming foams is significantly associated with the detection of PFASs above the minimal reporting level. We find drinking water supplies for 6 million U.S. residents exceed US EPA's lifetime health advisory (70 ng/L) for PFOS and PFOA. Lower analytical reporting limits and additional sampling of smaller utilities serving PFAS contamination sources.

  7. Stratifying Tropical Fires by Land Cover: Insights into Amazonian Fires, Aerosol Loading, and Regional Deforestation

    Science.gov (United States)

    TenHoeve, J. E.; Remer, L. A.; Jacobson, M. Z.

    2010-01-01

    This study analyzes changes in the number of fires detected on forest, grass, and transition lands during the 2002-2009 biomass burning seasons using fire detection data and co-located land cover classifications from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). We find that the total number of detected fires correlates well with MODIS mean aerosol optical depth (AOD) from year to year, in accord with other studies. However, we also show that the ratio of forest to savanna fires varies substantially from year to year. Forest fires have trended downward, on average, since the beginning of 2006 despite a modest increase in 2007. Our study suggests that high particulate matter loading detected in 2007 was likely due to a large number of savanna/agricultural fires that year. Finally, we illustrate that the correlation between annual Brazilian deforestation estimates and MODIS fires is considerably higher when fires are stratified by MODIS-derived land cover classifications.

  8. Behavior based safety approach towards fire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suresh Kumar, R.

    2009-01-01

    The behavior of the individual who notice fire first is very important because it affect the safety of all occupants of the area. Human behavior on fire depends on variables of the buildings in which fire occurs and by the appearance of the fire when it is detected. Altruistic behavior of human being will help to handle the critical conditions due to fire emergencies. NPCIL have developed a culture of systematic approach to safeguard men and materials from fire by training and awareness. In our Nuclear Power Plants, we have an effective plan and system to test the plans. In each emergency exercises, the behavior of individuals will be monitored and recorded

  9. Sensitivity of gap symmetry to an incipient band: Application to iron based superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Vivek; Scalapino, Douglas; Maier, Thomas

    Observation of high temperature superconductivity in iron-based superconductors with a submerged hole band has attracted wide interest. A spin fluctuation mediated pairing mechanism has been proposed as a possible explanation for the high transition temperatures observed in these systems. Here we discuss the importance of the submerged band in the context of the gap symmetry. We show that the incipient band can lead to an attractive pairing interaction and thus have significant effects on the pairing symmetry. We propose a framework to include the effect of the incipient band in the standard multi-orbital spin-fluctuation theories which are widely used for studying various iron-based superconductors. Research sponsored by the Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program of Oak Ridge National Laboratory, managed by UT-Battelle, LLC, for the U. S. Department of Energy.

  10. Are Guidelines Needed for the Diagnosis and Management of Incipient Alzheimer's Disease and Mild Cognitive Impairment?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katie Palmer

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Current research is aiming to push the boundaries of the point at which a diagnosis of Alzheimer Disease (AD can be made. Clinical syndromes such as Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI and various clinical and biological markers of AD may help to identify people in the early stage of AD, before a full dementia syndrome is present. In the first part of this paper, we discuss whether MCI represents incipient AD, and examine some of the methods currently used in research to identify AD patients in the preclinical phase. In the second part, we discuss whether specific guidelines are needed for the diagnosis and management of MCI and incipient AD, and consider the potential impact of this on clinical practice and public health from the perspective of patients, caregivers, and healthcare providers.

  11. Fire Whirls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tohidi, Ali; Gollner, Michael J.; Xiao, Huahua

    2018-01-01

    Fire whirls present a powerful intensification of combustion, long studied in the fire research community because of the dangers they present during large urban and wildland fires. However, their destructive power has hidden many features of their formation, growth, and propagation. Therefore, most of what is known about fire whirls comes from scale modeling experiments in the laboratory. Both the methods of formation, which are dominated by wind and geometry, and the inner structure of the whirl, including velocity and temperature fields, have been studied at this scale. Quasi-steady fire whirls directly over a fuel source form the bulk of current experimental knowledge, although many other cases exist in nature. The structure of fire whirls has yet to be reliably measured at large scales; however, scaling laws have been relatively successful in modeling the conditions for formation from small to large scales. This review surveys the state of knowledge concerning the fluid dynamics of fire whirls, including the conditions for their formation, their structure, and the mechanisms that control their unique state. We highlight recent discoveries and survey potential avenues for future research, including using the properties of fire whirls for efficient remediation and energy generation.

  12. On fire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Helle Rabøl

    The title of this paper: “On fire”, refers to two (maybe three) aspects: firstly as a metaphor of having engagement in a community of practice according to Lave & Wenger (1991), and secondly it refers to the concrete element “fire” in the work of the fire fighters – and thirdly fire as a signifie...... of frustrations and riots...

  13. Fire Synthesis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    1000ºC or special infrastructure which require careful maintenance. In such a situation fire synthesis is a simpler method that can be adopted for the bulk production of high purity alumina and related oxides. Fire Synthesis. Preparation of Alumina ...

  14. Fire Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denker, Deb; West, Lee

    2009-01-01

    For education administrators, campus fires are not only a distressing loss, but also a stark reminder that a campus faces risks that require special vigilance. In many ways, campuses resemble small communities, with areas for living, working and relaxing. A residence hall fire may raise the specter of careless youth, often with the complication of…

  15. On fire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Helle Rabøl

    The title of this paper: “On fire”, refers to two (maybe three) aspects: firstly as a metaphor of having engagement in a community of practice according to Lave & Wenger (1991), and secondly it refers to the concrete element “fire” in the work of the fire fighters – and thirdly fire as a signifie...

  16. IoT-Based Intelligent Modeling of Smart Home Environment for Fire Prevention and Safety

    OpenAIRE

    Faisal Saeed; Anand Paul; Abdul Rehman; Won Hwa Hong; Hyuncheol Seo

    2018-01-01

    Fires usually occur in homes because of carelessness and changes in environmental conditions. They cause threats to the residential community and may result in human death and property damage. Consequently, house fires must be detected early to prevent these types of threats. The immediate notification of a fire is the most critical issue in domestic fire detection systems. Fire detection systems using wireless sensor networks sometimes do not detect a fire as a consequence of sensor failure....

  17. Forest-fire models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haiganoush Preisler; Alan Ager

    2013-01-01

    For applied mathematicians forest fire models refer mainly to a non-linear dynamic system often used to simulate spread of fire. For forest managers forest fire models may pertain to any of the three phases of fire management: prefire planning (fire risk models), fire suppression (fire behavior models), and postfire evaluation (fire effects and economic models). In...

  18. Survey of the current state of knowledge of incipient boiling superheat in sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greer, B.

    1979-01-01

    Superheat data obtained by various investigators indicate that many parameters affect this phenomenon. Controlling parameters appear to be inert gas concentration, oxide concentration, system pressure, pressure-temperature history, rate of temperature rise, heat flux, flow rate, operating time on the system, surface conditions, and radiation. Of these, the two believed most influential in controlling incipient boiling superheat are the inert gas concentration and oxide concentration. Experimental results for the heat flux and rate of temperature rise appear to be the most inconsistent

  19. Mycobacterium tuberculosis thymidylate kinase antigen assays for designating incipient, high-risk latent M.tb infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayengera, Misaki; Kateete, David P; Asiimwe, Benon; Joloba, Moses L

    2018-03-16

    Precise designation of high risk forms of latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis-M.tb infections (LTBI) is impossible. Delineation of high-risk LTBI can, however, allow for chemoprophylaxis and curtail majority cases of active tuberculosis (ATB). There is epidemiological evidence to support the view that LTBI in context of HIV-1 co-infection is high-risk for progression to ATB relative to LTBI among HIV-ve persons. We recently showed that assays of M.tb thymidylate kinase (TMKmt) antigen and host specific IgG can differentiate ATB from LTBI and or no TB (NTB, or healthy controls). In this study, we aimed to expose the differential levels of TMKmt Ag among HIV+ve co-infected LTBI relative to HIV-ve LTBI as a strategy to advance these assays for designating incipient LTBI. TMKmt host specific IgM and IgG detection Enzyme Immuno-Assays (EIA) were conducted on 40 TB exposed house-hold contacts (22 LTBI vs. 18 no TB (NTB) by QunatiFERON-TB GOLD®); and TMKmt Ag detection EIA done on 82 LTBI (46 HIV+ve vs 36 HIV-ve) and 9 NTB (American donors). Purified recombinant TMKmt protein was used as positive control for the Ag assays. IgM levels were found to be equally low across QuantiFERON-TB GOLD® prequalified NTB and TB exposed house-hold contacts. Higher TMKmt host specific IgG trends were found among TB house-hold contacts relative to NTB controls. TMKmt Ag levels among HIV+ve LTBI were 0.2676 ± 0.0197 (95% CI: 0.2279 to 0.3073) relative to 0.1069 ± 0.01628 (95% CI: 0.07385 to 0.14) for HIV-ve LTBI (supporting incipient nature of LTBI in context of HIV-1 co-infection). NTB had TMKmt Ag levels of 0.1013 ± 0.02505 (5% CI: 0.0421 to 0.1606) (intimating that some were indeed LTBI). TMKmt Ag levels represent a novel surrogate biomarker for high-risk LTBI, while host-specific IgG can be used to designate NTB from LTBI.

  20. Incipient multiple fault diagnosis in real time with applications to large-scale systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, H.Y.; Bien, Z.; Park, J.H.; Seon, P.H.

    1994-01-01

    By using a modified signed directed graph (SDG) together with the distributed artificial neutral networks and a knowledge-based system, a method of incipient multi-fault diagnosis is presented for large-scale physical systems with complex pipes and instrumentations such as valves, actuators, sensors, and controllers. The proposed method is designed so as to (1) make a real-time incipient fault diagnosis possible for large-scale systems, (2) perform the fault diagnosis not only in the steady-state case but also in the transient case as well by using a concept of fault propagation time, which is newly adopted in the SDG model, (3) provide with highly reliable diagnosis results and explanation capability of faults diagnosed as in an expert system, and (4) diagnose the pipe damage such as leaking, break, or throttling. This method is applied for diagnosis of a pressurizer in the Kori Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) unit 2 in Korea under a transient condition, and its result is reported to show satisfactory performance of the method for the incipient multi-fault diagnosis of such a large-scale system in a real-time manner

  1. Incipient toxicity of lithium to freshwater organisms representing a salmonid habitat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emery, R.; Klopfer, D.C.; Skalski, J.R.

    1981-07-01

    Because the eventual development of fusion power reactors could increase the mining, use and disposal of lithium five-fold by the year 2000, potential effects from unusual amounts of lithium in aquatic environments were investigated. Freshwater oganisms representing a Pacific Northwest salmonid habitat were exposed to elevated conentrations of lithium. Nine parameters were used to determine the incipient toxicity of lithium to rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri), insect larvae (Chironomus sp.), and Columbia River periphyton. All three groups of biota were incipiently sensitive to lithium at concentrations ranging between 0.1 and 1 mg/L. These results correspond with the incipient toxicity of beryllium, a chemically similar component of fusion reactor cores. A maximum lithium concentration of 0.01 mg/L occurs naturally in most freshwater environments (beryllium is rarer). Therefore, a concentration range of 0.01 to 0.1 mg/L may be regarded as approaching toxic concentrations when assessing the hazards of lithium in freshwaters

  2. Incipient toxicity of lithium to freshwater organisms representing a salmonid habitat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emery, R.; Klopfer, D.C.; Skalski, J.R.

    1981-07-01

    Because the eventual development of fusion power reactors could increase the mining, use and disposal of lithium five-fold by the year 2000, potential effects from unusual amounts of lithium in aquatic environments were investigated. Freshwater oganisms representing a Pacific Northwest salmonid habitat were exposed to elevated conentrations of lithium. Nine parameters were used to determine the incipient toxicity of lithium to rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri), insect larvae (Chironomus sp.), and Columbia River periphyton. All three groups of biota were incipiently sensitive to lithium at concentrations ranging between 0.1 and 1 mg/L. These results correspond with the incipient toxicity of beryllium, a chemically similar component of fusion reactor cores. A maximum lithium concentration of 0.01 mg/L occurs naturally in most freshwater environments (beryllium is rarer). Therefore, a concentration range of 0.01 to 0.1 mg/L may be regarded as approaching toxic concentrations when assessing the hazards of lithium in freshwaters.

  3. [Preventive and remineralization effect over incipient lesions of caries decay by phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juárez-López, María Lilia Adriana; Hernández-Palacios, Rosa Diana; Hernández-Guerrero, Juan Carlos; Jiménez-Farfán, Dolores; Molina-Frechero, Nelly

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION. Dental caries continues to affect a large percentage of Mexican children and currently advises that if diagnosed at an early stage can be reversed with minimally invasive treatments. The casein phosphopeptide amorphous calcium phosphate known as CPP-ACP is a phosphoprotein capable of releasing calcium and phosphate ions in the oral environment promoting remineralization. OBJECTIVE. To evaluate the effect of CPP-ACP with fluoride added in a scholar preventive program. MATERIAL AND METHODS. A cuasi- experimental study was conducted in 104 schools of six years old. The children were classified into three groups and received six months biweekly applications of different treatments: casein phosphopeptide amorphous calcium phosphate added fluoride (CPP-ACPF), sodium fluoride (NaF) and a control group. Clinical evaluation was performed with the laser fluorescence technique (Diagnodent model 2095). 1340 teeth were included: 294 teeth with incipient lesions and 1,046 healthy teeth. Statistical tests of χ2 y Mc Nemar were used. RESULTS. In the group that received the application of CPP-ACPF, 38% of incipient carious lesions were remineralizing compared with 21% in the group receiving the NaF (p application biweekly for six months of CPP-ACPF showed a protective and remineralizing effect on incipient carious lesions. His action was better than the application of NaF. However, to reduce the impact from dental caries in schoolchildren is important to have a comprehensive preventive approach that includes promoting self-care, as well as the application of sealants.

  4. ESA fire_cci product assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heil, Angelika; Yue, Chao; Mouillot, Florent; Storm, Thomas; Chuvieco, Emilio; Ramo Sanchez, Ruben; Kaiser, Johannes W.

    2017-04-01

    Vegetation fires are a major disturbance in the Earth System. Fires change the biophysical properties and dynamics of ecosystems and alter terrestrial carbon pools. By altering the atmosphere's composition, fire emissions exert a significant climate forcing. To realistically model past and future changes of the Earth System, fire disturbances must be taken into account. Related modelling efforts require consistent global burned area observations covering at least 10 to 20 years. Guided by the specific requirements of a wide range of end users, the ESA fire_cci project has computed a new global burned area dataset. It applies a newly developed spectral change detection algorithm upon the ENVISAT-MERIS archive. The algorithm relies on MODIS active fire information as "seed". It comprises a pixel burned area product (spatial resolution of 333 m) with date detection information and a biweekly grid product at 0.25 degree spatial resolution. We compare fire_cci burned area with other global burned area products (MCD64 Collection 6, MCD45, GFED4, GFED4s and GEOLAND) and a set of active fires data (hotspots from MODIS, TRMM, AATSR and fire radiative power from GFAS). The analysis of patterns of agreement and disagreement between fire_cci and other products provides a better understanding of product characteristics and uncertainties. The intercomparison of the 2005-2011 fire_cci time series shows a close agreement with GFED4 data in terms of global burned area and the general spatial and temporal patterns. Pronounced differences, however, emerge for specific regions or fire events. Burned area mapped by fire_cci tends to be notably higher in regions where small agricultural fires predominate. The improved detection of small agricultural fires by fire_cci can be related to the increased spatial resolution of the MERIS sensor (333 m compared to 500 in MODIS). This is illustrated in detail using the example of the extreme 2006 spring fires in Eastern Europe.

  5. Development of a Computational Approach to Detect Instability and Incipient Motion of Large Riprap Rocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bojanowski, C. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Lottes, S. A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Flora, K. [California Dept. of Transportation, Sacramento, CA (United States); Suaznabar, O. [Genex Systems, McLean, VA (United States); Shen, J [Genex Systems, McLean, VA (United States); Kerenyi, K [U.S. Dept. of Transportation, Washington, DC (United States)

    2017-08-01

    Local scour at bridge piers is a potential safety hazard of major concern to transportation agencies. If it is determined that scour at bridge piers can adversely affect the stability of a bridge, scour countermeasures to protect the pier should be considered.

  6. Fire, carbon, and climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amiro, B.; Flannigan, M.

    2005-01-01

    One million hectares of forest are harvested in Canada annually, with 1 to 8 million hectares destroyed by fire and a further 10 to 25 million hectares consumed by insects. Enhanced disturbances have meant that Canadian forests are becoming carbon sources instead of carbon sinks. Canadian fire statistics from the year 1920 were provided along with a map of large fires between 1980 and 1999. A cycle of combustion losses, decomposition and regeneration of forests was presented, along with a stylized concept of forest carbon life cycles with fire. Direct emissions from forests fires were evaluated. An annual net ecosystem production in Canadian boreal forests and stand age was presented. Projections of areas burned were presented based on weather and fire danger relationships, with statistics suggesting that a 75 to 120 per cent increase is likely to occur by the end of this century. Trend observations show that areas burned are correlated with increasing temperature caused by anthropogenic effects. Prevention, detection, suppression and fuels management were presented as areas that needed improvement in fire management. However, management strategies may only postpone an increase in forest fires. Changes in disturbances such as fire and insects will be a significant early impact of climate change on forests. tabs., figs

  7. Mitochondrial DNA evidences reflect an incipient population structure in Atlantic goliath grouper (Epinephelus itajara, Epinephelidae in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júnio S. Damasceno

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Atlantic goliath grouper is a critically endangered species that inhabits estuarine and reef environments and is threatened primarily by fishing activities and habitat destruction. Despite the urgent need for protection, its genetic conservation status remains unknown. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the gene flow among the populations of the species along the coast of Brazil based on the control region of the mitochondrial DNA. The results indicate low haplotype diversity (0.40-0.86 and very low nucleotide diversity (0.1-0.5%. They also show that the genetic diversity of the species varies considerably along the coast and that this finding may be especially important for the identification of priority areas for its conservation. The population analyses indicate a low but significant degree of genetic structuring (ΦST =0.111, probably due to the occurrence of rare haplotypes at some locations, although the genetic differentiation between sites was not correlated with geographic distance (r=0.0501; p=0.7719, and the shared haplotypes indicate that gene flow occurs among all locations along the Brazilian coast. The results of the pairwise FST indicate a high degree of genetic differentiation between locations. The incipient population structuring detected in the present study is not related systematically to the geological or physical features of the Brazilian coast. The complex interaction of fluctuations in sea level, marine currents, and the reproductive characteristics of the species hampers the identification of the specific role of each of these processes in the gene flow dynamics of the population units of the Atlantic goliath grouper. The low overall levels of genetic diversity, the pairwise FST values and the significant population structuring among groups (ΦCT identified in the present study all reinforce the critically endangered status of the species and are inconsistent with the presence of a single, panmictic

  8. Prevalencia de lesiones incipientes de caries dental en niños escolares Prevalence of incipient lesions of dental caries in school children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayda Nasco Hidalgo

    2008-06-01

    School in Plaza de la Revolución municipality from January to December 2006, and to identify in the studied group the frequency of children according to the number of incipient lesion, as well as the frequency of incipient lesions per tooth localization in the arcade and per dental surface. METHODS: an observational descriptive cross-sectional study was undertaken. The universe consisted of all the children aged 6-11 that fulfilled the inclusion criteria for a total of 236, who were examined in the open-air and with natural light by using the soft visual-tactile method. The teeth were cleaned with cotton and were dried with air to detect the presence of incipient carious lesions, which were indicated in a dentigram model in the place corresponding to the surface affected. RESULTS: it was found that 22.5 % of the school children examined presented these lesions. Of them, 60.1 % were females, 19.5 % of the total of children presented a lesion and just 3 % had 2 incipient lesions of dental caries; 79.2 % of them were observed in the posterior tooth. The smooth surfaces were the most affected with 45.3 %. CONCLUSIONS: Approximately the fourth part of the studied children presented incipient carious lesions. Females were the most affected. Of all the children with incipient lesions, the highest figure corresponded to those having a lesion. The posterior teeth were the most affected by incipient lesions. The smooth surfaces showed more incipient lesions than the occlusal and proximal

  9. Fire ants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 222-1222) from anywhere in the United States. Poisonous Ingredient Fire ant venom contains a chemical called ... Elsevier Saunders; 2013:chap 140. Otten EJ. Venomous animal injuries. In: Walls RM, Hockberger RS, Gausche-Hill ...

  10. Background dust emission following grassland fire: a snapshot across the particle-size spectrum highlights how high-resolution measurements enhance detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whicker, Jeffrey J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Martin, Luis M [UNIV OF ARIZONA; Field, Jason P [UNIV OF ARIZONA; Villegas, Juan C [UNIV OF ARIZONA; Brehsears, David D [UNIV OF ARIZONA; Law, Darin J [UNIV OF ARIZONA; Urgeghe, Anna M [UNIV OF ARIZONA

    2009-01-01

    Dust emission rates vary temporally and with particle size. Many studies of dust emission focus on a particular temporal scale and the portion of the particle-size spectrum associated with a single instrument; fewer studies have assessed dust emission across the particle-size spectrum and associated temporal scales using multiple instruments. Particularly lacking are measurements following disturbances such as fire that are high-resolution and focused on finer particles - those with direct implications for human health and potential for long-distance biogeochemical transport - during less windy but more commonly occurring background conditions. We measured dust emissions in unburned and burned semiarid grassland using four different instruments spanning different combinations of temporal resolution and particle-size spectrum: Big Springs Number Eight (BSNE) and Sensit instruments for larger saltating particles, DustTrak instruments for smaller suspended particles, and Total Suspended Particulate (TSP) samplers for measuring the entire range of particle sizes. Unburned and burned sites differed in vegetation cover and aerodynamic roughness, yet surprisingly differences in dust emission rates were only detectable for saltation using BSNE and for smaller aerosols using DustTrak. Our results, surprising in the lack of consistently detected differences, indicate that high-resolution DustTrak measurements offered the greatest promise for detecting differences in background emission rates and that BSNE samplers, which integrate across height, were effective for longer intervals. More generally, our results suggest that interplay between particle size, temporal resolution, and integration across time and height can be complex and may need to be considered more explicitly for effective sampling for background dust emissions.

  11. Fire safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keski-Rahkonen, O.; Bjoerkman, J.; Hostikka, S.; Mangs, J.; Huhtanen, R.; Palmen, H.; Salminen, A.; Turtola, A.

    1998-01-01

    According to experience and probabilistic risk assessments, fires present a significant hazard in a nuclear power plant. Fires may be initial events for accidents or affect safety systems planned to prevent accidents and to mitigate their consequences. The project consists of theoretical work, experiments and simulations aiming to increase the fire safety at nuclear power plants. The project has four target areas: (1) to produce validated models for numerical simulation programmes, (2) to produce new information on the behavior of equipment in case of fire, (3) to study applicability of new active fire protecting systems in nuclear power plants, and (4) to obtain quantitative knowledge of ignitions induced by important electric devices in nuclear power plants. These topics have been solved mainly experimentally, but modelling at different level is used to interpret experimental data, and to allow easy generalisation and engineering use of the obtained data. Numerical fire simulation has concentrated in comparison of CFD modelling of room fires, and fire spreading on cables on experimental data. So far the success has been good to fair. A simple analytical and numerical model has been developed for fire effluents spreading beyond the room of origin in mechanically strongly ventilated compartments. For behaviour of equipment in fire several full scale and scaled down calorimetric experiments were carried out on electronic cabinets, as well as on horizontal and vertical cable trays. These were carried out to supply material for CFD numerical simulation code validation. Several analytical models were developed and validated against obtained experimental results to allow quick calculations for PSA estimates as well as inter- and extrapolations to slightly different objects. Response times of different commercial fire detectors were determined for different types of smoke, especially emanating from smoldering and flaming cables to facilitate selection of proper detector

  12. High-performance, event-driven, low-cost, and SWaP imaging sensor for hostile fire detection, homeland protection, and border security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizk, Charbel G.; Lin, Joseph H.; Kennerly, Stephen W.; Pouliquen, Philippe; Goldberg, Arnold C.; Andreou, Andreas G.

    2012-06-01

    The advanced imagers team at JHU APL and ECE has been advocating and developing a new class of sensor systems that address key system level performance bottlenecks but are sufficiently flexible to allow optimization of associated cost and size, weight, and power (SWaP) for different applications and missions. A primary component of this approach is the innovative system-on-chip architecture: Flexible Readout and Integration Sensors (FRIS). This paper reports on the development and testing of a prototype based on the FRIS concept. It will include the architecture, a summary of test results to date relevant to the hostile fire detection challenge. For this application, this prototype demonstrates the potential for this concept to yield the smallest SWaP and lowest cost imaging solution with a low false alarm rate. In addition, a specific solution based on the visible band is proposed. Similar performance and SWaP gains are expected for other wavebands such as SWIR, MWIR, and LWIR and/or other applications like persistent surveillance for critical infrastructure and border control in addition to unattended sensors.

  13. A new warning system for fires of electrical origin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pietersen, A.H.

    1977-01-01

    The method described enables overheating to be detected at the incipient stage of a five. Freon-filled microcapsules are applied in the form of powder or paint to the surfaces being monitored. The microcapsules burst at a given temperature and the released freon can be sensed by halogen detectors coupled to the normal smoke-detector system. Alternatively, the noise of the bursting microcapsules can be simply detected by microphones. (Auth.)

  14. Development of a custom-made "smart-sphere" to assess incipient entrainment by rolling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valyrakis, Manousos; Kitsikoudis, Vasileios; Alexakis, Athanasios; Trinder, Jon

    2017-04-01

    The most widely applied criterion for sediment incipient motion in engineering applications is the time- and space-averaged approach of critical Shields shear stress. Nonetheless, in the recent years published research has highlighted the importance of turbulence fluctuations in sediment incipient motion and its stochastic character. The present experimental study investigates statistically the link of the response of a "smart-pebble" to hydrodynamics in near-critical flow conditions and discusses how such a device can be utilized in engineering design. A set of specifically designed fluvial experiments monitoring the entrainment conditions for a "smart-pebble", were carried out in a tilting, recirculating flume in turbulent flow conditions while three-dimensional flow measurements were obtained with an acoustic Doppler velocimeter. The "smart-pebble" employed herein is a custom-made instrumented sphere with 7 cm diameter, which has a number of sensors embedded within its waterproof 3D-printed plastic shell. Specifically, the "smart-pebble" is equipped with miniaturized, off the shelf, low-cost, three-dimensional acceleration, orientation and angular displacement sensors. A 3D-printed local micro topography of known geometry was installed in the flume's test section and the "smart-pebble" was placed there in order to facilitate the analysis. Every time the "smart-sphere" is displaced by the flow a downstream located pin blocks its full entrainment. This allows for continuous recording of the entrainment events due to the passage of energetic events, after which the "smart-pebble" returns to its resting pocket. The "smart-pebble" device under such a configuration allows the recording of normally indiscernible (with the naked eye) vibrations, twitching motions, and full entrainments for the studied particle, allowing its analysis from a Langrangian framework. During the incipient motion experiments the retrieved data are stored in an internal memory unit or

  15. Micro-topography controls on incipient motion in very steep, ephemeral streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheingross, J. S.; Winchell, E. W.; Lamb, M. P.; Dietrich, W. E.

    2010-12-01

    Much of the drainage network in hilly and mountainous areas is composed of small, steep streams, and predicting incipient sediment motion in these streams is critical to modeling bedload transport, bedrock incision, and landscape evolution. While the conditions for incipient motion in low lying rivers have been well established, field measurements on initial motion in steep, mountainous streams remain sparse, and existing models remain relatively untested. To fill this knowledge gap, we monitored initial motion of sediment in six small (drainage areas of 0.05 - 2 km2) and steep (slopes of 3.5 - 35%) tributaries of the South Fork Eel River, CA. Sites were monitored for three winters from 2007 - 2010 using automated field cameras, water stage height recorders, and painted sediment. We calculated critical shear stress for grain entrainment using a number of methods including a 1D non-uniform hydraulic model (HEC-RAS), a normal flow model (i.e. τ = ρghS), and a form-drag-corrected model that accounts for immobile grains (i.e. Yager et al, 2007). In all cases, the available empirical and theoretical predictions do not adequately describe the observed transport. Furthermore, the data itself is highly scattered suggesting that the traditional non-dimensional framework used to describe incipient motion in low slope rivers (e.g. Shields number and relative grain roughness) may not adequately capture the physics of sediment transport in small, steep streams. We hypothesize that this discrepancy is due to centimeter-scale topographic variations and grain-size patchiness that appear to play an important role in controlling variations in sediment transport in these streams, especially at low-stage. Small steps and depressions within the channel bed create low-stage chutes and pools that result in highly variable flow velocities and basal shear stresses even within a single channel cross section. By changing shear stress distributions, these micro-topographic variations

  16. WASTE HANDLING BUILDING FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM DESCRIPTION DOCUMENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    J. D. Bigbee

    2000-01-01

    The Waste Handling Building Fire Protection System provides the capability to detect, control, and extinguish fires and/or mitigate explosions throughout the Waste Handling Building (WHB). Fire protection includes appropriate water-based and non-water-based suppression, as appropriate, and includes the distribution and delivery systems for the fire suppression agents. The Waste Handling Building Fire Protection System includes fire or explosion detection panel(s) controlling various detectors, system actuation, annunciators, equipment controls, and signal outputs. The system interfaces with the Waste Handling Building System for mounting of fire protection equipment and components, location of fire suppression equipment, suppression agent runoff, and locating fire rated barriers. The system interfaces with the Waste Handling Building System for adequate drainage and removal capabilities of liquid runoff resulting from fire protection discharges. The system interfaces with the Waste Handling Building Electrical Distribution System for power to operate, and with the Site Fire Protection System for fire protection water supply to automatic sprinklers, standpipes, and hose stations. The system interfaces with the Site Fire Protection System for fire signal transmission outside the WHB as needed to respond to a fire emergency, and with the Waste Handling Building Ventilation System to detect smoke and fire in specific areas, to protect building high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters, and to control portions of the Waste Handling Building Ventilation System for smoke management and manual override capability. The system interfaces with the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) Operations Monitoring and Control System for annunciation, and condition status

  17. WASTE HANDLING BUILDING FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM DESCRIPTION DOCUMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. D. Bigbee

    2000-06-21

    The Waste Handling Building Fire Protection System provides the capability to detect, control, and extinguish fires and/or mitigate explosions throughout the Waste Handling Building (WHB). Fire protection includes appropriate water-based and non-water-based suppression, as appropriate, and includes the distribution and delivery systems for the fire suppression agents. The Waste Handling Building Fire Protection System includes fire or explosion detection panel(s) controlling various detectors, system actuation, annunciators, equipment controls, and signal outputs. The system interfaces with the Waste Handling Building System for mounting of fire protection equipment and components, location of fire suppression equipment, suppression agent runoff, and locating fire rated barriers. The system interfaces with the Waste Handling Building System for adequate drainage and removal capabilities of liquid runoff resulting from fire protection discharges. The system interfaces with the Waste Handling Building Electrical Distribution System for power to operate, and with the Site Fire Protection System for fire protection water supply to automatic sprinklers, standpipes, and hose stations. The system interfaces with the Site Fire Protection System for fire signal transmission outside the WHB as needed to respond to a fire emergency, and with the Waste Handling Building Ventilation System to detect smoke and fire in specific areas, to protect building high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters, and to control portions of the Waste Handling Building Ventilation System for smoke management and manual override capability. The system interfaces with the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) Operations Monitoring and Control System for annunciation, and condition status.

  18. Aging assessment for active fire protection systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, S.B.; Nowlen, S.P.; Tanaka, T.

    1995-06-01

    This study assessed the impact of aging on the performance and reliability of active fire protection systems including both fixed fire suppression and fixed fire detection systems. The experience base shows that most nuclear power plants have an aggressive maintenance and testing program and are finding degraded fire protection system components before a failure occurs. Also, from the data reviewed it is clear that the risk impact of fire protection system aging is low. However, it is assumed that a more aggressive maintenance and testing program involving preventive diagnostics may reduce the risk impact even further

  19. Hypertension and hyperglycemia synergize to cause incipient renal tubular alterations resulting in increased NGAL urinary excretion in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana M Blázquez-Medela

    Full Text Available Hypertension and diabetes are the two leading causes of chronic kidney disease (CKD eventually leading to end stage renal disease (ESRD and the need of renal replacement therapy. Mortality among CKD and ESRD patients is high, mostly due to cardiovascular events. New early markers of risk are necessary to better anticipate the course of the disease, to detect the renal affection of additive risk factors, and to appropriately handle patients in a pre-emptive and personalized manner.Renal function and NGAL urinary excretion was monitored in rats with spontaneous (SHR or L-NAME induced hypertension rendered hyperglycemic (or not as controls.Combination of hypertension and hyperglycemia (but not each of these factors independently causes an increased urinary excretion of neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL in the rat, in the absence of signs of renal damage. Increased NGAL excretion is observed in diabetic animals with two independent models of hypertension. Elevated urinary NGAL results from a specific alteration in its tubular handling, rather than from an increase in its renal expression. In fact, when kidneys of hyperglycaemic-hypertensive rats are perfused in situ with Krebs-dextran solution containing exogenous NGAL, they excrete more NGAL in the urine than hypertensive rats. We also show that albuminuria is not capable of detecting the additive effect posed by the coexistence of these two risk factors.Our results suggest that accumulation of hypertension and hyperglycemia induces an incipient and quite specific alteration in the tubular handling of NGAL resulting in its increased urinary excretion.

  20. Current Status of Fire Risk Assessment in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, H. P.

    2002-01-01

    The approach for fire risk assessment to be applied within periodic safety reviews of nuclear power plants in Germany starts with a screening process providing critical fire zones in which a fully developed fire has the potential to both cause an initiating event and impair the function of at least one component or system critical to safety. The second step is to perform a quantitative analysis. For that purpose, a standard event tree has been developed with elements for fire initiation, ventilation of the room, fire detection, fire suppression, and fire propagation. This standard event tree has to be adapted to each critical fire zone or room. In a final step, the fire induced frequency of initiating events, the main contributors and the calculated hazard state frequency for the fire event are determined. In order to perform a quantitative fire risk assessment, a basic data base must be established which should, e.g., include initiating frequencies, reliability data for all fire protection measures, fire barriers, etc. Detailed plant-specific information is needed on ignition sources, detection and extinguishing systems, manual fire fighting, stationary fire suppression systems. As one contributor to fire specific PSA input data, reliability data for the active fire protection measures are required for the application in the fire specific event tree analysis. These data needed to be estimated are unavailabilities per demand or failure rates per hour of plant operation for those components or systems belonging to the active fire protection means. The data on potential failures or unavailabilities per demand of the respective fire protection measures were gained from the plant specific documentation of inspection and maintenance. The assessment whether the detected findings are estimated as failures or only as deficiencies or deteriorations requires a deep insight in the plant specific operating conditions for the fire protection means and needs careful engineering

  1. Development of a Smart Residential Fire Protection System

    OpenAIRE

    Juhwan Oh; Zhongwei Jiang; Henry Panganiban

    2013-01-01

    Embedded system is applied for the development of smart residential fire detection and extinguishing system. Wireless communication capability is integrated into various fire sensors and alarm devices. The system activates the fire alarm to warn occupants, executes emergency and rescue calls to remote residents and fire-fighting facility in an intelligent way. The effective location of extra-sprinklers within the space of interest for the fire extinguishing system is also investigated. Actual...

  2. Evaluation of CO2 laser irradiation effect on enamel microhardness after incipient caries creation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loghman Rezaei-Soufi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The important mission in modern science of caries prevention is identification and providing the necessary actions for caries prevention to patients with an elevated risk of caries. The aim of this study was evaluation of CO2 laser irradiation effect on enamel microhardness after incipient caries creation. Material and methods: In this in vitro-experimental study, for evaluation of enamel microhardness 30 teeth after disinfection process were divided randomly into three groups A, B, C [n=10]: A] Control [normal saline] B] Immersed in cariogenic solution for 1 month C] Immersed in cariogenic solution for 1 month + CO2 laser [10.6µm, 10Hz, 0.5W, 20s, beam diameter 0.2 mm]. Data analyzing was used by 16 SPSS software. Parametric one-way ANOVA and Tukey were used for surface microhardness at 0.05% significance level. Results: According to one-way ANOVA parametric test, there was a significant difference between three groups [p=0.047]. In the following, results of Tukey test showed that there was a significant statistical difference between the microhardness of control and other groups [P=0.038]. On the other hand, there wasn’t statistical difference between A, C and B, C group means [P>0.05]. Conclusion: These study findings showed that CO2 laser irradiation on enamel surface with incipient caries had no significant effect on surface microhardness enhancement.

  3. Velocity-based analysis of sediment incipient deposition in rigid boundary open channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksoy, Hafzullah; Safari, Mir Jafar Sadegh; Unal, Necati Erdem; Mohammadi, Mirali

    2017-11-01

    Drainage systems must be designed in a way to minimize undesired problems such as decrease in hydraulic capacity of the channel, blockage and transport of pollutants due to deposition of sediment. Channel design considering self-cleansing criteria are used to solve the sedimentation problem. Incipient deposition is one of the non-deposition self-cleansing design criteria that can be used as a conservative method for channel design. Experimental studies have been carried out in five different cross-section channels, namely trapezoidal, rectangular, circular, U-shape and V-bottom. Experiments were performed in a tilting flume using four different sizes of sands as sediment in nine different channel bed slopes. Two well-known methods, namely the Novak & Nalluri and Yang methods are considered for the analysis of sediment motion. Equations developed using experimental data are found to be in agreement with the literature. It is concluded that the design velocity depends on the shape of the channel cross-section. Rectangular and V-bottom channels need lower and higher incipient deposition velocities, respectively, in comparison with other channels.

  4. Ecosystem Composition Controls the Fate of Rare Earth Elements during Incipient Soil Genesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaharescu, Dragos G.; Burghelea, Carmen I.; Dontsova, Katerina; Presler, Jennifer K.; Maier, Raina M.; Huxman, Travis; Domanik, Kenneth J.; Hunt, Edward A.; Amistadi, Mary K.; Gaddis, Emily E.; Palacios-Menendez, Maria A.; Vaquera-Ibarra, Maria O.; Chorover, Jon

    2017-02-01

    The rare earth elements (REE) are increasingly important in a variety of science and economic fields, including (bio)geosciences, paleoecology, astrobiology, and mining. However, REE distribution in early rock-microbe-plant systems has remained elusive. We tested the hypothesis that REE mass-partitioning during incipient weathering of basalt, rhyolite, granite and schist depends on the activity of microbes, vascular plants (Buffalo grass), and arbuscular mycorrhiza. Pore-water element abundances revealed a rapid transition from abiotic to biotic signatures of weathering, the latter associated with smaller aqueous loss and larger plant uptake. Abiotic dissolution was 39% of total denudation in plant-microbes-mycorrhiza treatment. Microbes incremented denudation, particularly in rhyolite, and this resulted in decreased bioavailable solid pools in this rock. Total mobilization (aqueous + uptake) was ten times greater in planted compared to abiotic treatments, REE masses in plant generally exceeding those in water. Larger plants increased bioavailable solid pools, consistent with enhanced soil genesis. Mycorrhiza generally had a positive effect on total mobilization. The main mechanism behind incipient REE weathering was carbonation enhanced by biotic respiration, the denudation patterns being largely dictated by mineralogy. A consistent biotic signature was observed in La:phosphate and mobilization: solid pool ratios, and in the pattern of denudation and uptake.

  5. 46 CFR 28.820 - Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses... REQUIREMENTS FOR COMMERCIAL FISHING INDUSTRY VESSELS Aleutian Trade Act Vessels § 28.820 Fire pumps, fire mains... pump connected to a fixed piping system. This pump must be capable of delivering an effective stream of...

  6. 46 CFR 28.315 - Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses... After September 15, 1991, and That Operate With More Than 16 Individuals on Board § 28.315 Fire pumps... be equipped with a self-priming, power driven fire pump connected to a fixed piping system. (1) A...

  7. Fire Distribution in Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra and Borneo in 2015 with Special Emphasis on Peatland Fires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miettinen, Jukka; Shi, Chenghua; Liew, Soo Chin

    2017-10-01

    In this paper, we analyze the spatio-temporal distribution of vegetation fires in Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra, and Borneo in the severe El Niño year of 2015, concentrating on the distribution of fires between mineral soils and peatland areas, and between land cover types in peatland areas. The results reveal that 53% of all Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) fire detections were recorded in peatlands that cover only 12% of the study area. However, fire occurrence in the peatland areas was highly dependent on land cover type. Pristine peat swamp forests (PSF) experienced only marginal fire activity (30 fire detections per 1000 km 2 ) compared to deforested undeveloped peatlands (831-915 fire detections per 1000 km 2 ). Our results also highlight the extreme fire vulnerability of the southern Sumatran and Bornean peatlands under strong El Niño conditions: 71% of all peatland hotspots were detected in the provinces of South Sumatra and Central Kalimantan, which contain 29% of peatlands in the study area. Degraded PSF and all deforested peatland land cover types, including managed areas, in the two provinces were severely affected, demonstrating how difficult it is to protect even managed drained agricultural areas from unwanted fires during dry periods. Our results thereby advocate rewetting and rehabilitation as the primary management option for highly fire prone degraded undeveloped peatland areas, whenever feasible, as a means to reduce fire risk during future dry episodes.

  8. Acute and long-term effect of antihypertensive treatment on exercise-induced albuminuria in incipient diabetic nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Cramer; Mogensen, C E

    1986-01-01

    . In the acute study, using placebo/metoprolol 10 mg i.v. in patients with normal UAE, the maximal SBP at 600 kpm/min was reduced by 17 mmHg +/- 10 (SD) (2p less than 1.0%) and the maximal SBP at 600 kpm/min in the patients with incipient nephropathy was reduced by 15 mmHg +/- 11 (SD) (2p less than 1.......0%). However, no difference was observed in UAE, in patients with normal UAE or those with incipient nephropathy. Five of the patients with incipient nephropathy were followed with repeated exercise tests before and during 2.6 years of antihypertensive treatment, using metoprolol 200 mg/24 h and subsequently...

  9. Development of a Smart Residential Fire Protection System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juhwan Oh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Embedded system is applied for the development of smart residential fire detection and extinguishing system. Wireless communication capability is integrated into various fire sensors and alarm devices. The system activates the fire alarm to warn occupants, executes emergency and rescue calls to remote residents and fire-fighting facility in an intelligent way. The effective location of extra-sprinklers within the space of interest for the fire extinguishing system is also investigated. Actual fire test suggests that the developed wireless system for the smart residential fire protection system is reliable in terms of sensors and their communication linkage.

  10. Fire Synthesis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    special infrastructure which require careful maintenance. In such situation fire synthesis is a simpler method that can be adopted for the bulk production of high purity .... reaction between Ti and B to form titanium boride. The reaction between titanium (fuel- electron donor) and boron (oxidiser-electron acceptor) once initiated ...

  11. Forest Fires

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 6; Issue 11. Forest Fires - Origins and Ecological Paradoxes. K Narendran. General Article Volume 6 Issue 11 November 2001 pp 34-41. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/006/11/0034-0041 ...

  12. Fire Synthesis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 16; Issue 12. Fire Synthesis - Preparation of Alumina Products. Tanu Mimani. Volume 16 Issue 12 December 2011 pp 1324-1332. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/016/12/1324-1332 ...

  13. Fire Synthesis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 5; Issue 2. Fire Synthesis - Preparation of Alumina Products. Tanu Mimani. General Article Volume 5 Issue 2 February 2000 pp 50-57. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/005/02/0050-0057 ...

  14. 46 CFR 161.002-2 - Types of fire-protective systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., but not be limited to, automatic fire and smoke detecting systems, manual fire alarm systems, sample... alarms of any other system not indicating fire. (c) Manual fire alarm systems. For the purpose of this subpart, manual fire alarm systems will be considered to consist of normal and emergency power supplies, a...

  15. Decreasing Fires in Mediterranean Europe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Turco

    Full Text Available Forest fires are a serious environmental hazard in southern Europe. Quantitative assessment of recent trends in fire statistics is important for assessing the possible shifts induced by climate and other environmental/socioeconomic changes in this area. Here we analyse recent fire trends in Portugal, Spain, southern France, Italy and Greece, building on a homogenized fire database integrating official fire statistics provided by several national/EU agencies. During the period 1985-2011, the total annual burned area (BA displayed a general decreasing trend, with the exception of Portugal, where a heterogeneous signal was found. Considering all countries globally, we found that BA decreased by about 3020 km2 over the 27-year-long study period (i.e. about -66% of the mean historical value. These results are consistent with those obtained on longer time scales when data were available, also yielding predominantly negative trends in Spain and France (1974-2011 and a mixed trend in Portugal (1980-2011. Similar overall results were found for the annual number of fires (NF, which globally decreased by about 12600 in the study period (about -59%, except for Spain where, excluding the provinces along the Mediterranean coast, an upward trend was found for the longer period. We argue that the negative trends can be explained, at least in part, by an increased effort in fire management and prevention after the big fires of the 1980's, while positive trends may be related to recent socioeconomic transformations leading to more hazardous landscape configurations, as well as to the observed warming of recent decades. We stress the importance of fire data homogenization prior to analysis, in order to alleviate spurious effects associated with non-stationarities in the data due to temporal variations in fire detection efforts.

  16. Review of methods for modelling forest fire risk and hazard

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    -Leal et al., 2006). Stolle and Lambin (2003) noted that flammable fuel depends on ... advantages over conventional fire detection and fire monitoring methods because ofits repetitive andconsistent coverage over large areas of land (Martin et ...

  17. Advanced Fire Detector for Space Applications, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Reliable and efficient fire detection is a precondition for safe spaceflight. The threat of onboard fire is constant and requires early, fast and unfailing...

  18. Experimental Constraints on Fluid-Rock Reactions during Incipient Serpentinization of Harzburgite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, F.; Grozeva, N. G.; Seewald, J.; McCollom, T. M.; Humphris, S. E.; Moskowitz, B. M.; Berquo, T. S.; Kahl, W. A.

    2014-12-01

    The exposure of mantle peridotite to water at crustal levels leads to a cascade of interconnected dissolution-precipitation and reduction-oxidation reactions - a process referred to as serpentinization. These reactions have major implications for microbial life through the provision of hydrogen (H2). To simulate incipient serpentinization and the release of H2 under well-constrained conditions, we reacted uncrushed harzburgite with chemically modified seawater at 300°C and 35 MPa for ca. 1.5 years (13441 hours), monitored changes in fluid chemistry over time, and examined the secondary mineralogy at the termination of the experiment. Approximately 4 mol % of the protolith underwent alteration forming serpentine, accessory magnetite, chlorite, and traces of calcite and heazlewoodite. Alteration textures bear remarkable similarities to those found in partially serpentinized abyssal peridotites. Neither brucite nor talc precipitated during the experiment. Given that the starting material contained ~3.8 times more olivine than orthopyroxene on a molar basis, mass balance requires that dissolution of orthopyroxene was significantly faster than dissolution of olivine. However, the H2 release rate was not uniform, slowing from ~2 nmol H2(aq) gperidotite-1 s-1 at the beginning of the experiment to ~0.2 nmol H2(aq) gperidotite-1 s-1 at its termination. Serpentinization consumed water but did not release significant amounts of dissolved species (other than H2) suggesting that incipient hydration reactions involved a volume increase of ~40%. The reduced access of water to olivine surfaces due to filling of fractures and coating of primary minerals with alteration products led to decreased rates of serpentinization and H2 release. While this concept might seem at odds with completely serpentinized seafloor peridotites, reaction-driven fracturing offers an intriguing solution to the seemingly self-limiting nature of serpentinization. Indeed, the reacted sample revealed a

  19. An underdamped stochastic resonance method with stable-state matching for incipient fault diagnosis of rolling element bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Yaguo; Qiao, Zijian; Xu, Xuefang; Lin, Jing; Niu, Shantao

    2017-09-01

    Most traditional overdamped monostable, bistable and even tristable stochastic resonance (SR) methods have three shortcomings in weak characteristic extraction: (1) their potential structures characterized by single stable-state type are insufficient to match with the complicated and diverse mechanical vibration signals; (2) they vulnerably suffer the interference from multiscale noise and largely depend on the help of highpass filters whose parameters are selected subjectively, probably resulting in false detection; and (3) their rescaling factors are fixed as constants generally, thereby ignoring the synergistic effect among vibration signals, potential structures and rescaling factors. These three shortcomings have limited the enhancement ability of SR. To explore the SR potential, this paper initially investigates the SR in a multistable system by calculating its output spectral amplification, further analyzes its output frequency response numerically, then examines the effect of both damping and rescaling factors on output responses and finally presents a promising underdamped SR method with stable-state matching for incipient bearing fault diagnosis. This method has three advantages: (1) the diversity of stable-state types in a multistable potential makes it easy to match with various vibration signals; (2) the underdamped multistable SR, equivalent to a moving nonlinear bandpass filter that is dependent on the rescaling factors, is able to suppress the multiscale noise; and (3) the synergistic effect among vibration signals, potential structures and rescaling and damping factors is achieved using quantum genetic algorithms whose fitness functions are new weighted signal-to-noise ratio (WSNR) instead of SNR. Therefore, the proposed method is expected to possess good enhancement ability. Simulated and experimental data of rolling element bearings demonstrate its effectiveness. The comparison results show that the proposed method is able to obtain higher

  20. Fire Behavior (FB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert E. Keane

    2006-01-01

    The Fire Behavior (FB) method is used to describe the behavior of the fire and the ambient weather and fuel conditions that influence the fire behavior. Fire behavior methods are not plot based and are collected by fire event and time-date. In general, the fire behavior data are used to interpret the fire effects documented in the plot-level sampling. Unlike the other...

  1. Smouldering Fires in the Earth System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rein, G.

    2012-04-01

    Smouldering fires, the slow, low-temperature, flameless burning, represent the most persistent type of combustion phenomena and the longest continuously fires on Earth system. Indeed, smouldering mega-fires of peatlands occur with some frequency during the dry session in, for example, Indonesia, Canada, Russia, UK and USA. Smouldering fires propagate slowly through organic layers of the ground and can reach depth >5 m if large cracks, natural piping or channel systems exist. It threatens to release sequestered carbon deep into the soil. Once ignited, they are particularly difficult to extinguish despite extensive rains, weather changes or fire-fighting attempts, and can persist for long periods of time (months, years) spreading deep and over extensive areas. Recent figures at the global scale estimate that average annual greenhouse gas emissions from smouldering fires are equivalent to 15% of man-made emissions. These fires are difficult or impossible to detect with current remote sensing methods because the chemistry is significantly different, their thermal radiation signature is much smaller, and the plume is much less buoyant. These wildfires burn fossil fuels and thus are a carbon-positive fire phenomena. This creates feedbacks in the climate system because soil moisture deficit and self-heating are enchanted under warmer climate scenarios and lead to more frequent fires. Warmer temperatures at high latitudes are resulting in more frequent Artic fires. Unprecedented permafrost thaw is leaving large soil carbon pools exposed to smouldering fires for the fist time since millennia. Although interactions between flaming fires and the Earth system have been a central focus, smouldering fires are as important but have received very little attention. DBut differences with flaming fires are important. This paper reviews the current knowledge on smouldering fires in the Earth system regarding combustion dynamics, damage to the soil, emissions, remote sensing and

  2. Fire Symfonier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Svend Hvidtfelt

    2009-01-01

    sidste fire symfonier. Den er måske snarere at opfatte som et præludium til disse. At påstå, at symfonierne fra Holmboes side er planlagt til at være beslægtede, ville være at gå for vidt. Alene de 26 år, der skiller den 10. fra den 13., gør påstanden - i bedste fald - dubiøs. Når deres udformning...... udkrystallisering som i de sidste små 30 år af hans virke har afkastet disse fire variationer over en grundlæggende central holmboesk fornemmelse for form, melodi, klang og rytme. Denne oplevelse har fået mig til at udforske symfonierne, for at finde til bunds i dette holmboeske fællestræk, som jeg mener her står...

  3. White coat hypertension in NIDDM patients with and without incipient and overt diabetic nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, F S; Gaede, P; Vedel, P

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Early data have suggested a high prevalence of white coat hypertension (approximately 50%) in NIDDM patients. To study this phenomenon further, we determined the prevalence of white coat hypertension in NIDDM patients with normo- or microalbuminuria or with diabetic nephropathy. RESEARCH...... DESIGN AND METHODS: Three groups of hypertensive NIDDM patients (repeated clinic blood pressure > 140/90 mmHg or antihypertensive treatment) attending the Steno Diabetes Center were investigated in a cross-sectional study. Group 1 had normoalbuminuria (a urinary albumin excretion [UAE] rate ... in normoalbuminuric NIDDM patients resembles that observed in nondiabetic subjects with essential hypertension, whereas the prevalence is significantly lower in NIDDM patients with incipient or overt diabetic nephropathy, suggesting a difference between primary and secondary hypertension....

  4. Monitoring kidney function in type 2 diabetic patients with incipient and overt diabetic nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossing, Peter; Rossing, Kasper; Gaede, Peter

    2006-01-01

    -EDTA. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We followed a cohort of 156 microalbuminuric type 2 diabetic patients for 8 years with four measurements of GFR and another cohort of 227 type 2 diabetic patients with overt diabetic nephropathy for 6.5 (range 3-17) years with seven (3-22) measurements of GFR. RESULTS...... is also significantly underestimated with both equations. This makes GFR estimations based upon these equations unacceptable for monitoring kidney function in type 2 diabetic patients with incipient and overt diabetic nephropathy.......OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to assess agreement between glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and the decline in GFR estimated with the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) Study Group equation or the Cockcroft-Gault formula and measured by the plasma clearance of 51Cr...

  5. White coat hypertension in NIDDM patients with and without incipient and overt diabetic nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, F S; Gaede, P; Vedel, P

    1997-01-01

    in normoalbuminuric NIDDM patients resembles that observed in nondiabetic subjects with essential hypertension, whereas the prevalence is significantly lower in NIDDM patients with incipient or overt diabetic nephropathy, suggesting a difference between primary and secondary hypertension.......OBJECTIVE: Early data have suggested a high prevalence of white coat hypertension (approximately 50%) in NIDDM patients. To study this phenomenon further, we determined the prevalence of white coat hypertension in NIDDM patients with normo- or microalbuminuria or with diabetic nephropathy. RESEARCH...... DESIGN AND METHODS: Three groups of hypertensive NIDDM patients (repeated clinic blood pressure > 140/90 mmHg or antihypertensive treatment) attending the Steno Diabetes Center were investigated in a cross-sectional study. Group 1 had normoalbuminuria (a urinary albumin excretion [UAE] rate

  6. Incipient Social Groups: An Analysis via In-Vivo Behavioral Tracking.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamin Halberstadt

    Full Text Available Social psychology is fundamentally the study of individuals in groups, yet there remain basic unanswered questions about group formation, structure, and change. We argue that the problem is methodological. Until recently, there was no way to track who was interacting with whom with anything approximating valid resolution and scale. In the current study we describe a new method that applies recent advances in image-based tracking to study incipient group formation and evolution with experimental precision and control. In this method, which we term "in vivo behavioral tracking," we track individuals' movements with a high definition video camera mounted atop a large field laboratory. We report results of an initial study that quantifies the composition, structure, and size of the incipient groups. We also apply in-vivo spatial tracking to study participants' tendency to cooperate as a function of their embeddedness in those crowds. We find that participants form groups of seven on average, are more likely to approach others of similar attractiveness and (to a lesser extent gender, and that participants' gender and attractiveness are both associated with their proximity to the spatial center of groups (such that women and attractive individuals are more likely than men and unattractive individuals to end up in the center of their groups. Furthermore, participants' proximity to others early in the study predicted the effort they exerted in a subsequent cooperative task, suggesting that submergence in a crowd may predict social loafing. We conclude that in vivo behavioral tracking is a uniquely powerful new tool for answering longstanding, fundamental questions about group dynamics.

  7. Incipient Social Groups: An Analysis via In-Vivo Behavioral Tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halberstadt, Jamin; Jackson, Joshua Conrad; Bilkey, David; Jong, Jonathan; Whitehouse, Harvey; McNaughton, Craig; Zollmann, Stefanie

    2016-01-01

    Social psychology is fundamentally the study of individuals in groups, yet there remain basic unanswered questions about group formation, structure, and change. We argue that the problem is methodological. Until recently, there was no way to track who was interacting with whom with anything approximating valid resolution and scale. In the current study we describe a new method that applies recent advances in image-based tracking to study incipient group formation and evolution with experimental precision and control. In this method, which we term "in vivo behavioral tracking," we track individuals' movements with a high definition video camera mounted atop a large field laboratory. We report results of an initial study that quantifies the composition, structure, and size of the incipient groups. We also apply in-vivo spatial tracking to study participants' tendency to cooperate as a function of their embeddedness in those crowds. We find that participants form groups of seven on average, are more likely to approach others of similar attractiveness and (to a lesser extent) gender, and that participants' gender and attractiveness are both associated with their proximity to the spatial center of groups (such that women and attractive individuals are more likely than men and unattractive individuals to end up in the center of their groups). Furthermore, participants' proximity to others early in the study predicted the effort they exerted in a subsequent cooperative task, suggesting that submergence in a crowd may predict social loafing. We conclude that in vivo behavioral tracking is a uniquely powerful new tool for answering longstanding, fundamental questions about group dynamics.

  8. Plucking in Mixed Alluvial-Bedrock Rivers: The Incipient Motion Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, A. A.; Furbish, D. J.

    2015-12-01

    Bedrock river channel erosion is an important factor in the evolution of landscapes, driving the relief of mountainous drainage basins and setting the lowest erosional positions of terrestrial landscapes. The mechanics behind erosional processes (predominantly plucking and abrasion) in these rivers are only recently being explored in depth. Plucking, the fracture and extraction of jointed blocks, is observationally an order of magnitude more efficient than abrasion, but if a river cannot provide the force necessary to move the plucked block, erosion by plucking cannot proceed. Therefore, incipient motion of blocks starting at rest on a solid surface is an important factor in erosion by plucking. Calculations of forces necessary for incipient motion require values of drag coefficients, which do not exist for bedrock contact geometry. We discovered from experiments on a flume that drag coefficients (CD) are inversely proportional to aspect ratios (RA), defined as the frontal block height to width. We used the relationship with field data from plucked blocks at a stream at Montgomery Bell State Park in Burns, TN, a mixed-alluvial bedrock channel with an actively incising knick zone, to support our theory and experimental data. Sizes of plucked blocks were compared to the velocities needed to move them, and then calculations done for bankfull velocities at the stream at Montgomery Bell to determine if it could attain these velocities. It was discovered that this stream has a bankfull depth-averaged velocity of 1.26 m s-1 and is capable of moving a large range of plucked block sizes. Therefore, erosion of this particular stream is plucking-limited, not transport-limited.

  9. Controls on variations in MODIS fire radiative power in Alaskan boreal forests: implications for fire severity conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Kirsten; Kasischke, Eric S.

    2013-01-01

    Fire activity in the Alaskan boreal forest, though episodic at annual and intra-annual time scales, has experienced an increase over the last several decades. Increases in burned area and fire severity are not only releasing more carbon to the atmosphere, but likely shifting vegetation composition in the region towards greater deciduous dominance and a reduction in coniferous stands. While some recent studies have addressed qualitative differences between large and small fire years in the Alaskan boreal forest, the ecological effects of a greater proportion of burning occurring during large fire years and during late season fires have not yet been examined. Some characteristics of wildfires that can be detected remotely are related to fire severity and can provide new information on spatial and temporal patterns of burning. This analysis focused on boreal wildfire intensity (fire radiative power, or FRP) contained in the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) daily active fire product from 2003 to 2010. We found that differences in FRP resulted from seasonality and intra-annual variability in fire activity levels, vegetation composition, latitudinal variation, and fire spread behavior. Our studies determined two general categories of active fire detections: new detections associated with the spread of the fire front and residual pixels in areas that had already experienced front burning. Residual pixels had a lower average FRP than front pixels, but represented a high percentage of all pixels during periods of high fire activity (large fire years, late season burning, and seasonal periods of high fire activity). As a result, the FRP from periods of high fire activity was less intense than those from periods of low fire activity. Differences related to latitude were greater than expected, with higher latitudes burning later in the season and at a higher intensity than lower latitudes. Differences in vegetation type indicate that coniferous vegetation

  10. FIRE ALARM SYSTEM OUTDATED.

    Science.gov (United States)

    CHANDLER, L.T.

    AN EFFICIENT FIRE ALARM SYSTEM SHOULD--(1) PROVIDE WARNING OF FIRES THAT START IN HIDDEN OR UNOCCUPIED LOCATIONS, (2) INDICATE WHERE THE FIRE IS, (3) GIVE ADVANCE WARNING TO FACULTY AND ADMINISTRATION SO THAT PANIC AND CONFUSION CAN BE AVOIDED AND ORDERLY EVACUATION OCCUR, (4) AUTOMATICALLY NOTIFY CITY FIRE HEADQUARTERS OF THE FIRE, (5) OPERATE BY…

  11. Radiological control in fires involving radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franco, J.O.A.; Coelho, C.P.

    1984-01-01

    The copies used during the chatter by techniques from CDTN in the I Mineiro Symposium of Fire Engineering, are presented. The chatter was based on emergency radiation control course, given by CDTN. Basic concepts, such as nuclear physics fundaments, radiation nature and detection, radiation protection and practical aspects of radiological fire emergency, were enphasized. (M.C.K.) [pt

  12. Synchronization of two coupled turbulent fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takagi, Kazushi; Gotoda, Hiroshi; Miyano, Takaya; Murayama, Shogo; Tokuda, Isao T.

    2018-04-01

    We numerically study the scale-free nature of a buoyancy-induced turbulent fire and synchronization of two coupled turbulent fires. A scale-free structure is detected in weighted networks between vortices, while its lifetime obeys a clear power law, indicating intermittent appearances, disappearances, and reappearances of the scale-free property. A significant decrease in the distance between the two fire sources gives rise to a synchronized state in the near field dominated by the unstable motion of large-scale of transverse vortex rings. The synchronized state vanishes in the far field forming well-developed turbulent plumes, regardless of the distance between the two fire sources.

  13. Fire Ant Bites

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Favorite Name: Category: Share: Yes No, Keep Private Fire Ant Bites Share | Fire ants are aggressive, venomous insects that have pinching ... across the United States, even into Puerto Rico. Fire ant stings usually occur on the feet or ...

  14. Crown Fire Potential

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Crown fire potential was modeled using FlamMap, an interagency fire behavior mapping and analysis program that computes potential fire behavior characteristics. The...

  15. Can Monitoring Fetal Intestinal Inflammation Using Heart Rate Variability Analysis Signal Incipient Necrotizing Enterocolitis of the Neonate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hai Lun; Garzoni, Luca; Herry, Christophe; Durosier, Lucien Daniel; Cao, Mingju; Burns, Patrick; Fecteau, Gilles; Desrochers, André; Patey, Natalie; Seely, Andrew J E; Faure, Christophe; Frasch, Martin G

    2016-04-01

    Necrotizing enterocolitis of the neonate is an acute inflammatory intestinal disease that can cause necrosis and sepsis. Chorioamnionitis is a risk factor of necrotizing enterocolitis. The gut represents the biggest vagus-innervated organ. Vagal activity can be measured via fetal heart rate variability. We hypothesized that fetal heart rate variability can detect fetuses with incipient gut inflammation. Prospective animal study. University research laboratory. Chronically instrumented near-term fetal sheep (n = 21). Animals were surgically instrumented with vascular catheters and electrocardiogram to allow manipulation and recording from nonanesthetized animals. In 14 fetal sheep, inflammation was induced with lipopolysaccharide (IV) to mimic chorioamnionitis. Fetal arterial blood samples were drawn at selected time points over 54 hours post lipopolysaccharide for blood gas and cytokines (interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α enzymelinked immunosorbent assay). Fetal heart rateV was quantified throughout the experiment. The time-matched fetal heart rate variability measures were correlated to the levels of interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α. Upon necropsy, ionized calcium binding adaptor molecule 1+ (Iba1+), CD11c+ (M1), CD206+ (M2 macrophages), and occludin (leakiness marker) immunofluorescence in the terminal ileum was quantified along with regional Iba1+ signal in the brain (microglia). Interleukin-6 peaked at 3 hours post lipopolysaccharide accompanied by mild cardiovascular signs of sepsis. At 54 hours, we identified an increase in Iba1+ and, specifically, M1 macrophages in the ileum accompanied by increased leakiness, with no change in Iba1 signal in the brain. Preceding this change on tissue level, at 24 hours, a subset of nine fetal heart rate variability measures correlated exclusively to the Iba+ markers of ileal, but not brain, inflammation. An additional fetal heart rate variability measure, mean of the differences of R-R intervals

  16. Fire safety concerns in space operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Robert

    1987-01-01

    This paper reviews the state-of-the-art in fire control techniques and identifies important issues for continuing research, technology, and standards. For the future permanent orbiting facility, the space station, fire prevention and control calls for not only more stringent fire safety due to the long-term and complex missions, but also for simplified and flexible safety rules to accommodate the variety of users. Future research must address a better understanding of the microgravity space environment as it influences fire propagation and extinction and the application of the technology of fire detection, extinguishment, and material assessment. Spacecraft fire safety should also consider the adaptation of methods and concepts derived from aircraft and undersea experience.

  17. Geochemical Consequence of Extraction of Incipient CO2-rich melts from Earth's Deep Upper Mantle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, R.; Withers, A. C.; McDonough, W. F.; Hirschmann, M. M.

    2007-12-01

    The initiation of partial melting beneath mid-oceanic ridges and ocean islands likely produces incipient carbonatitic melts. These highly mobile melts generated at great depth may not only affect geophysical properties of deep upper mantle but can also influence Earth's geochemical evolution by releasing incompatible parent and/or daughter elements, heat producing elements, and volatiles. But constraints on the fractionation of the key trace elements between the peridotitic residue and carbonatitic melts are lacking at conditions of initiation of partial melting beneath ridges.Experiments at 6.6-8.6 GPa and 1265-1470 °C on carbonated peridotite doped with a blend of trace elements produced cpx + garnet + magnesite ± opx ± olivine + carbonatitic melt (cbL) similar in composition to that expected at the solidus of carbonated peridotite (Ca# = 0.52 at 6.6 GPa and 0.45 at 8.6 GPa; Na2O = ~4 wt.% at 6.6 GPa and ~2.5 wt.% at 8.6 GPa). Compared to previous studies at lower pressures (2.0-4.6 GPa), Dcpx/cbL from the present study are smaller for elements substituting into the cpx M2 site, especially trivalent cations ( DLu = 0.17, DLa = 0.006). Dcpx/cbL for U (0.001) and Th (0.002) are also noticeably lower than the previous estimates. In contrast, Dgarnet/cbL values are higher for REEs ( DLu = 4.6, DLa = 0.039) and HFSEs, U (0.023) and Th (0.017).Our estimate of Dperidotite/cbL indicates that incipient carbonatite extraction from the deep upper mantle will produce a residue with a more depleted Rb/Sr, U/Pb, Th/U, and enriched Sm/Nd, which may evolve to produce the most common of the mantle end member components, PREMA. Metasomatic implantation of deep carbonatitic melt into the lithosphere can generate a high-μ (238U/204Pb) signature, whereas mixing of carbonatite with elevated Th/U can contribute to the observed 230Th-excesses in MORBs. However, carbonatites derived by incipient melting of depleted (DMM) mantle have limited trace element enrichments, ~10-100

  18. MODIS/Aqua Thermal Anomalies/Fire 5-Min L2 Swath 1km V005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MODIS Thermal Anomalies/Fire products are primarily derived from MODIS 4- and 11-micrometer radiances. The fire detection strategy is based on absolute detection of...

  19. MODIS/Terra Thermal Anomalies/Fire 5-Min L2 Swath 1km V005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MODIS Thermal Anomalies/Fire products are primarily derived from MODIS 4- and 11-micrometer radiances. The fire detection strategy is based on absolute detection of...

  20. Fire and fire ecology: Concepts and principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark A. Cochrane; Kevin C. Ryan

    2009-01-01

    Fire has been central to terrestrial life ever since early anaerobic microorganisms poisoned the atmosphere with oxygen and multicellular plant life moved onto land. The combination of fuels, oxygen, and heat gave birth to fire on Earth. Fire is not just another evolutionary challenge that life needed to overcome, it is, in fact, a core ecological process across much...

  1. Countermeasure for minimize unwanted alarm of automatic fire notification system in the Republic of Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Kong, Hasung

    2015-01-01

    In this article investigated the cause of error through survey to building officials for minimizing the unwanted alarm of automatic fire notification and suggested countermeasure for minimizing the unwanted alarm. The main cause of the unwanted alarm is defective fire detector, interlocking with automatic fire detection system, lack in fire safety warden’s ability, worn-out fire detect receiving system. The countermeasure for minimizing unwanted alarm is firstly, tightening up the standard of...

  2. Incipient mantle plume evolution: Constraints from ancient landscapes buried beneath the North Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stucky de Quay, G.; Roberts, G. G.; Watson, J. S.; Jackson, C. A.-L.

    2017-03-01

    Geological observations that constrain the history of mantle convection are sparse despite its importance in determining vertical and horizontal plate motions, plate rheology, and magmatism. We use a suite of geological and geophysical observations from the northern North Sea to constrain evolution of the incipient Paleocene-Eocene Icelandic plume. Well data and a three-dimensional seismic survey are used to reconstruct a 58-55 Ma landscape now buried ˜1.5 km beneath the seabed in the Bressay region. Geochemical analyses of cuttings from wells that intersect the landscape indicate the presence of angiosperm debris. These observations, combined with presence of coarse clastic material, interpreted beach ridges, and a large dendritic drainage network, indicate that this landscape formed subaerially. Longitudinal profiles of paleo-rivers were extracted and inverted for an uplift rate history, indicating three distinct phases of uplift and total cumulative uplift of ˜350 m. Dinoflagellate cysts in the surrounding marine stratigraphy indicate that this terrestrial landscape formed in ˜150 km/Ma.

  3. Transcriptome analysis of synaptoneurosomes identifies neuroplasticity genes overexpressed in incipient Alzheimer's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celia Williams

    Full Text Available In Alzheimer's disease (AD, early deficits in learning and memory are a consequence of synaptic modification induced by toxic beta-amyloid oligomers (oAbeta. To identify immediate molecular targets downstream of oAbeta binding, we prepared synaptoneurosomes from prefrontal cortex of control and incipient AD (IAD patients, and isolated mRNAs for comparison of gene expression. This novel approach concentrates synaptic mRNA, thereby increasing the ratio of synaptic to somal mRNA and allowing discrimination of expression changes in synaptically localized genes. In IAD patients, global measures of cognition declined with increasing levels of dimeric Abeta (dAbeta. These patients also showed increased expression of neuroplasticity related genes, many encoding 3'UTR consensus sequences that regulate translation in the synapse. An increase in mRNA encoding the GluR2 subunit of the alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid receptor (AMPAR was paralleled by elevated expression of the corresponding protein in IAD. These results imply a functional impact on synaptic transmission as GluR2, if inserted, maintains the receptors in a low conductance state. Some overexpressed genes may induce early deficits in cognition and others compensatory mechanisms, providing targets for intervention to moderate the response to dAbeta.

  4. Evidence of incipient speciation in Astyanax scabripinnis species complex (Teleostei: Characidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan P. Castro

    Full Text Available Two populations of the Astyanax scabripinniscomplex, isolated by a waterfall with over 100 meters depth and inhabiting different altitudes of the same river (1850 m a.s.l. and 662 m a.s.l. were compared in reproductive data, geometric morphometry, tooth morphology, anal-fin rays counts, and karyotype, in order to test the hypothesis of speciation between the two populations. The results in the geometric morphometry analysis showed differences between the populations. Discriminant function analysis (DFA and canonical variance analysis revealed sexual dimorphism. Secondary sexual characters, such as hooks in the anal fin rays of the males are absent in the lower altitude population. Both populations had the same macro karyotype structure, except for the absence of B chromosomes in the lower altitude population. The fluorescence in situ hybridization showed differences for both markers (18S rDNA and 5S rDNA, and reproductive data suggests pre-zygotic reproductive isolation among the two populations. The data showed the absence of gene flow, indicating that an incipient speciation process has occurred, which leads the two populations to follow independent evolutionary pathways.

  5. Threshold Criteria for Incipient Grain Motion with Turbulent Fluctuations on a Horizontal Bed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan, M.W.H.M.

    2015-01-01

    The effect of turbulent fluctuations on the threshold criteria for incipient grain motion over a wide range of sediment size is investigated. In this work, attention is paid to the comparison of the critical Shields parameter θ c profile obtained when the near-bed fluid forces induced sediment motion are oscillating-grid turbulence and a single idealised eddy of vortex ring. For experimental work, near-spherical monodisperse sediments were used throughout with relative densities of 1.2 and 2.5 and mean diameters d ranging between 80 and 1087 μm. The measured values of θ c on a horizontal bed α = 0 (hence denoted as θ c0 ), were compared to the θ c0 profiles obtained by grid turbulence and vortex ring experiments. Although different in magnitude, the θ c0 profiles were comparable, that is the θ c0 were seen to increase monotonically for hydraulically smooth bed forms and to be approximately constant for hydraulically rough bed forms. However the limit of hydraulically smooth region was found to vary between the oscillating-grid turbulence experiments, where wider smooth region was found when the turbulent fluctuations used to calculate θ c0 is not the near-bed velocity. (author)

  6. On the Shape of the Crest of Short Wavelength Water Waves at Incipient Breaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diorio, J. D.; Liu, X.; Duncan, J. H.

    2007-11-01

    Breaking waves with wavelengths ranging from about 0.1 to 1.2 m are studied experimentally in a wind wave tank that is 11.8 m long, 1.15 m wide and 1.8 m high (1.0 m of water). The tank includes a wind tunnel with speeds up to 10 m/s and a programmable wave maker that resides at the upwind end of the tank. The shortest waves are generated by wind with speeds ranging from about 4 to 7 m/s. The longest waves are generated mechanically from focused wave packets with average frequencies ranging from 1.15 to 1.42 Hz. Waves with intermediate lengths are formed either by wind or by a nonlinear wave train with unstable sidebands generated by the wave maker. At incipient breaking, all the waves have a capillary-ripple pattern at the crest rather than a plunging jet. It is found that in spite of the wide range of wavelengths and major differences in the generation methods, the shapes of the capillary-ripple pattern are remarkably similar. Various geometrical parameters including the length of the first capillary wave and the length and thickness of the bulge that forms at the crest are extracted from the data. The variation of these parameters with gravity wavelength and slope of the front face of the wave is examined.

  7. Abnormal albuminuria and blood pressure rise in incipient diabetic nephropathy induced by exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Cramer

    1984-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of light to moderate dynamic work (450 kpm/min followed by 600 kpm/min during 20 min each) on the blood pressure and renal protein handling in insulin-dependent diabetic patients with incipient nephropathy (D3) (elevated baseline albumin excretion...... but without clinical proteinuria). Fifteen male diabetic patients (D3) with a mean age of 26.5 +/- 4.8 years (SD) and a diabetes duration of 15.6 +/- 3.4 years (SD), 11 comparable diabetic patients with normal urinary albumin excretion (D2), and ten non-diabetic subjects (C) were studied. In D3 baseline....../min in D3 (193.0 mm Hg +/- 23.0) compared to D2 (170.5 +/- 17.3, 2P = 1.2%) and C (157.5 mm Hg +/- 20.9, 2P = 0.07%). Baseline albumin excretion in D3 was 82.6 micrograms/min X/ divided by 2.5 (geometric mean X/ divided by tolerance factor) and during exercise the maximal albumin excretion rose to 195...

  8. Comparison of nano-hydroxyapatite and sodium fluoride mouthrinse for remineralization of incipient carious lesions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roza Haghgoo

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Dental caries is an infectious disease that can be prevented in several ways. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of sodium fluoride mouthrinse and nano- hydroxyapatite (nano-HA for the remineralization of incipient caries.After obtaining different concentrations of nano-HA (0-2-5-10%, 60 sound premolars fixed in acrylic blocks were coated with nail polish except for one surface. Ten teeth (control group were stored in distilled water and the remaining 50 samples were demineralized by immersion in 13 ml of 0.1 M lactic acid and 0.2% poly acrylic acid for 48 hours. Their microhardness was then measured and compared to that of the control group. Next, the 50 test teeth were randomly divided into 5 groups of group1 (negative, group 2 (2% nano-HA, group 3 (5% nano-HA, group 4(10% nano-HA and group 5 (0.2 NAF mouthrinse. The microhardness of the teeth was measured after 12 hours of immersion in the above-mentioned solutions. Data were analyzed using repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA.Microhardness of all samples decreased significantly after immersion in the demineralization solution and increased following immersion in nano-HA and NAF mouthrinses; however, this increase was not statistically significant (P=0.711.Nano-HA and NAF mouthrinses can greatly enhance remineralization and increase tooth microhardness.

  9. Fires, ecological effects of

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. J. Bond; Robert Keane

    2017-01-01

    Fire is both a natural and anthropogenic disturbance influencing the distribution, structure, and functioning of terrestrial ecosystems around the world. Many plants and animals depend on fire for their continued existence. Others species, such as rainforest plants species, are extremely intolerant of burning and need protection from fire. The properties of a fire...

  10. Analysis of Fire Data in Oman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.S. Al-Jabri

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to illustrate the problem of fire accidents in the Sultanate of Oman and their causes in order to find out how the existing data could be used as a base to improve fire resistance, to detect the weak points (vulnerability to fire in existing structures, and to minimize fire occurrences in places where it is high. This will also provide useful recommendations with regard to fire safety including causes, people’s awareness and education, etc.  Fire data in Oman were collected from two sources: The Directorate General of Civil Defence (Public Relations Department and Sultan Qaboos University library. The collected data represent the number of fires in Oman during the last decade.  It also includes fire distribution by type and averages.  The analysis shows that there is a linear increase in the number of fire accidents in the last decade with time.  Many factors are included as potential sources, which are explained in the paper, and suggestions are made for possible control.

  11. Fire-Walking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willey, David

    2010-01-01

    This article gives a brief history of fire-walking and then deals with the physics behind fire-walking. The author has performed approximately 50 fire-walks, took the data for the world's hottest fire-walk and was, at one time, a world record holder for the longest fire-walk (www.dwilley.com/HDATLTW/Record_Making_Firewalks.html). He currently…

  12. Smoldering - The Fire Scenario

    OpenAIRE

    Torero, Jose L

    2000-01-01

    There are certain fire initiation scenarios that are particularly common, one of great significance is a fire initiated from the ignition of a porous fuel. Nearly 40% of the deaths due to fire can be traced to cigarette induced smolder of upholstered furniture and the mechanisms that control the process that transforms the weak smolder reaction occurring in the cigarette to a fire are still mostly unknown. A general description of this fire scenario and a discussion of its threats is pr...

  13. Advanced Fire Information System - A real time fire information system for Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, P. E.; Roy, D. P.

    2012-12-01

    The Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) lead by the Meraka Institute and supported by the South African National Space Agency (SANSA) developed the Advanced Fire Information System (AFIS) to provide near real time fire information to a variety of operational and science fire users including disaster managers, fire fighters, farmers and forest managers located across Southern and Eastern Africa. The AFIS combines satellite data with ground based observations and statistics and distributes the information via mobile phone technology. The system was launched in 2004, and Eskom (South Africa' and Africa's largest power utility) quickly became the biggest user and today more than 300 Eskom line managers and support staff receive cell phone and email fire alert messages whenever a wildfire is within 2km of any of the 28 000km of Eskom electricity transmission lines. The AFIS uses Earth observation satellites from NASA and Europe to detect possible actively burning fires and their fire radiative power (FRP). The polar orbiting MODIS Terra and Aqua satellites provide data at around 10am, 15pm, 22am and 3am daily, while the European Geostationary MSG satellite provides 15 minute updates at lower spatial resolution. The AFIS processing system ingests the raw satellite data and within minutes of the satellite overpass generates fire location and FRP based fire intensity information. The AFIS and new functionality are presented including an incident report and permiting system that can be used to differentiate between prescribed burns and uncontrolled wild fires, and the provision of other information including 5-day fire danger forecasts, vegetation curing information and historical burned area maps. A new AFIS mobile application for IOS and Android devices as well as a fire reporting tool are showcased that enable both the dissemination and alerting of fire information and enable user upload of geo tagged photographs and on the fly creation of fire reports

  14. Fire history in interior ponderosa pine communities of the Black Hills, South Dakota, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter M. Brown; Carolyn Hull Sieg

    1996-01-01

    Chronologies of fire events were reconstructed from crossdated fire-scarred ponderosa pine trees for four sites in the south-central Black Hills. Compared to other ponderosa pine forests in the southwest US or southern Rocky Mountains, these communities burned less frequently. For all sites combined, and using all fires detected, the mean fire interval (MFI), or number...

  15. Suomi NPP VIIRS active fire product status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellicott, E. A.; Csiszar, I. A.; Schroeder, W.; Giglio, L.; Wind, B.; Justice, C. O.

    2012-12-01

    We provide an overview of the evaluation and development of the Active Fires product derived from the Visible Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) sensor on the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (SNPP) satellite during the first year of on-orbit data. Results from the initial evaluation of the standard SNPP Active Fires product, generated by the SNPP Interface Data Processing System (IDPS), supported the stabilization of the VIIRS Sensor Data Record (SDR) product. This activity focused in particular on the processing of the dual-gain 4 micron VIIRS M13 radiometric measurements into 750m aggregated data, which are fundamental for active fire detection. Following the VIIRS SDR product's Beta maturity status in April 2012, correlative analysis between VIIRS and near-simultaneous fire detections from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on the NASA Earth Observing System Aqua satellite confirmed the expected relative detection rates driven primarily by sensor differences. The VIIRS Active Fires Product Development and Validation Team also developed a science code that is based on the latest MODIS Collection 6 algorithm and provides a full spatially explicit fire mask to replace the sparse array output of fire locations from a MODIS Collection 4 equivalent algorithm in the current IDPS product. The Algorithm Development Library (ADL) was used to support the planning for the transition of the science code into IDPS operations in the future. Product evaluation and user outreach was facilitated by a product website that provided end user access to fire data in user-friendly format over North America as well as examples of VIIRS-MODIS comparisons. The VIIRS fire team also developed an experimental product based on 375m VIIRS Imagery band measurements and provided high quality imagery of major fire events in US. By August 2012 the IDPS product achieved Beta maturity, with some known and documented shortfalls related to the processing of

  16. The Frequency and Fate of Understory Forest Fires in Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, D. C.; le page, Y.; Wang, D.; Chen, Y.; Randerson, J. T.; Collatz, G. J.; Giglio, L.; Hurtt, G. C.; DeFries, R. S.

    2012-12-01

    Fires for deforestation or agricultural management frequently escape their intended boundaries and burn standing Amazon forests. The extent and frequency of understory forest fires are critical to assess forest carbon emissions and the long-term legacy of understory fires in Amazonia. Patterns of understory fire activity under current climate conditions also offer a blueprint for potential changes in Amazon forests under scenarios of future climate and land use. Here, we estimated of the extent and frequency of understory forest fires for the entire arc of deforestation in southern Amazonia using a time series of annual Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data. Understory forest fires burned more than 80,000 km2 during 1999-2010. Fires were widespread along the southern and eastern extents of Amazon forests during the four years with highest fire activity (1999, 2005, 2007, 2010). The interannual variability in understory fires offered new insights into fire-climate dynamics in Amazonia over a range of temporal scales, based on the combination of burned area, MODIS active fire detections, and reanalysis climate data. Initial fire exposure reduces aboveground carbon stocks, and frequent fires are one possible mechanism for long-term changes the structure of Amazon forests. Repeated burning was concentrated in southeastern Amazonia, and >95% of all repeated fires occurred in the Brazilian states of Mato Grosso and Pará. Forests that burned two or more times during this period accounted for 16% of understory fire activity. Finally, deforestation of burned forests was rare, suggesting that forest degradation from understory fires was an independent source of carbon emissions during this period. Modeling the time scales of carbon loss and recovery in burned forests is therefore critical to estimate the net carbon emissions from these fires. The results of this study suggest that understory fires operate as a large-scale edge effect in Amazonia, as

  17. Stress intensity factor at the tip of cladding incipient crack in RIA-simulating experiments for high-burnup PWR fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Udagawa, Yutaka; Suzuki, Motoe; Sugiyama, Tomoyuki; Fuketa, Toyoshi

    2009-01-01

    RIA-simulating experiments for high-burnup PWR fuels have been performed in the NSRR, and the stress intensity factor K 1 at the tip of cladding incipient crack has been evaluated in order to investigate its validity as a PCMI failure threshold under RIA conditions. An incipient crack depth was determined by observation of metallographs. The maximum hydride-rim thickness in the cladding of the test fuel rod was regarded as the incipient crack depth in each test case. Hoop stress in the cladding periphery during the pulse power transient was calculated by the RANNS code. K 1 was calculated based on crack depth and hoop stress. According to the RANNS calculation, PCMI failure cases can be divided into two groups: failure in the elastic phase and failure in the plastic phase. In the former case, elastic deformation was predominant around the incipient crack at failure time. K 1 is available only in this case. In the latter, plastic deformation was predominant around the incipient crack at failure time. Failure in the elastic phase never occurred when K 1 was less than 17 MPa m 1/2 . For failure in the plastic phase, the plastic hoop strain of the cladding periphery at failure time clearly showed a tendency to decrease with incipient crack depth. The combination of K 1 , for failure in the elastic phase, and plastic hoop strain at failure, for failure in the plastic phase, can be an effective index of PCMI failure under RIA conditions. (author)

  18. Incipiently drowned platform deposit in cyclic Ordovician shelf sequence: Lower Ordovician Chepultepec Formation, Virginia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bova, J.A.; Read, J.F.

    1983-03-01

    The Chepultepec interval, 145 to 260 m (476 to 853 ft) thick, in Virginia contains the Lower Member up to 150 m (492 ft) thick, and the Upper Member, up to 85 m (279 ft) thick, of peritidal cyclic limestone and dolomite, and a Middle Member, up to 110 m (360 ft) thick, of subtidal limestone and bioherms, passing northwestward into cyclic facies. Calculated long term subsidence rates were 4 to 5 cm/1000 yr (mature passive margin rates), shelf gradients were 6 cm/km, and average duration of cycles was 140,00 years. Peritidal cyclic sequences are upward shallowing sequences of pellet-skeletal limestone, thrombolites, rippled calcisiltites and intraclast grainstone, and laminite caps. They formed by rapid transgression with apparent submergence increments averaging approximately 2 m (6.5 ft) in Lower Member and 3.5 m (11.4 ft), Upper Member. Deposition during Middle Member time was dominated by skeletal limestone-mudstone, calcisiltite with storm generated fining-upward sequences, and burrow-mixed units that were formed near fair-weather wave base, along with thrombolite bioherms. Locally, there are upward shallowing sequences, of basal wackestone/mudstone to calcisiltite to bioherm complexes (locally with erosional scalloped tops). Following each submergence, carbonate sedimentation was able to build to sea level prior to renewed submergence. Large submergence events caused tidal flats to be shifted far to the west, and they were unable to prograde out onto the open shelf because of insufficient time before subsidence was renewed, and because the open shelf setting inhibited tidal flat deposition. The Middle Member represents an incipiently drowned sequence that developed by repeated submergence events.

  19. Interactions of C+(2PJ) with rare gas atoms: incipient chemical interactions, potentials and transport coefficients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuttle, William D.; Thorington, Rebecca L.; Viehland, Larry A.; Breckenridge, W. H.; Wright, Timothy G.

    2018-03-01

    Accurate interatomic potentials were calculated for the interaction of a singly charged carbon cation, C+, with a single rare gas atom, RG (RG = Ne-Xe). The RCCSD(T) method and basis sets of quadruple-ζ and quintuple-ζ quality were employed; each interaction energy was counterpoise corrected and extrapolated to the basis set limit. The lowest C+(2P) electronic term of the carbon cation was considered, and the interatomic potentials calculated for the diatomic terms that arise from these: 2Π and 2Σ+. Additionally, the interatomic potentials for the respective spin-orbit levels were calculated, and the effect on the spectroscopic parameters was examined. In doing this, anomalously large spin-orbit splittings for RG = Ar-Xe were found, and this was investigated using multi-reference configuration interaction calculations. The latter indicated a small amount of RG → C+ electron transfer and this was used to rationalize the observations. This is taken as evidence of an incipient chemical interaction, which was also examined via contour plots, Birge-Sponer plots and various population analyses across the C+-RG series (RG = He-Xe), with the latter showing unexpected results. Trends in several spectroscopic parameters were examined as a function of the increasing atomic number of the RG atom. Finally, each set of RCCSD(T) potentials was employed, including spin-orbit coupling to calculate the transport coefficients for C+ in RG, and the results were compared with the limited available data. This article is part of the theme issue `Modern theoretical chemistry'.

  20. Incipient balancing selection through adaptive loss of aquaporins in natural Saccharomyces cerevisiae populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Will, Jessica L; Kim, Hyun Seok; Clarke, Jessica; Painter, John C; Fay, Justin C; Gasch, Audrey P

    2010-04-01

    A major goal in evolutionary biology is to understand how adaptive evolution has influenced natural variation, but identifying loci subject to positive selection has been a challenge. Here we present the adaptive loss of a pair of paralogous genes in specific Saccharomyces cerevisiae subpopulations. We mapped natural variation in freeze-thaw tolerance to two water transporters, AQY1 and AQY2, previously implicated in freeze-thaw survival. However, whereas freeze-thaw-tolerant strains harbor functional aquaporin genes, the set of sensitive strains lost aquaporin function at least 6 independent times. Several genomic signatures at AQY1 and/or AQY2 reveal low variation surrounding these loci within strains of the same haplotype, but high variation between strain groups. This is consistent with recent adaptive loss of aquaporins in subgroups of strains, leading to incipient balancing selection. We show that, although aquaporins are critical for surviving freeze-thaw stress, loss of both genes provides a major fitness advantage on high-sugar substrates common to many strains' natural niche. Strikingly, strains with non-functional alleles have also lost the ancestral requirement for aquaporins during spore formation. Thus, the antagonistic effect of aquaporin function-providing an advantage in freeze-thaw tolerance but a fitness defect for growth in high-sugar environments-contributes to the maintenance of both functional and nonfunctional alleles in S. cerevisiae. This work also shows that gene loss through multiple missense and nonsense mutations, hallmarks of pseudogenization presumed to emerge after loss of constraint, can arise through positive selection.

  1. Interactions of C+(2 PJ ) with rare gas atoms: incipient chemical interactions, potentials and transport coefficients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuttle, William D; Thorington, Rebecca L; Viehland, Larry A; Breckenridge, W H; Wright, Timothy G

    2018-03-13

    Accurate interatomic potentials were calculated for the interaction of a singly charged carbon cation, C + , with a single rare gas atom, RG (RG = Ne-Xe). The RCCSD(T) method and basis sets of quadruple-ζ and quintuple-ζ quality were employed; each interaction energy was counterpoise corrected and extrapolated to the basis set limit. The lowest C + ( 2 P ) electronic term of the carbon cation was considered, and the interatomic potentials calculated for the diatomic terms that arise from these: 2 Π and 2 Σ + Additionally, the interatomic potentials for the respective spin-orbit levels were calculated, and the effect on the spectroscopic parameters was examined. In doing this, anomalously large spin-orbit splittings for RG = Ar-Xe were found, and this was investigated using multi-reference configuration interaction calculations. The latter indicated a small amount of RG → C + electron transfer and this was used to rationalize the observations. This is taken as evidence of an incipient chemical interaction, which was also examined via contour plots, Birge-Sponer plots and various population analyses across the C + -RG series (RG = He-Xe), with the latter showing unexpected results. Trends in several spectroscopic parameters were examined as a function of the increasing atomic number of the RG atom. Finally, each set of RCCSD(T) potentials was employed, including spin-orbit coupling to calculate the transport coefficients for C + in RG, and the results were compared with the limited available data.This article is part of the theme issue 'Modern theoretical chemistry'. © 2018 The Author(s).

  2. Persistently elevated right ventricular index of myocardial performance in preterm infants with incipient bronchopulmonary dysplasia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Czernik

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Elevated pulmonary vascular resistance occurs during the first days after birth in all newborn infants and persists in infants at risk for bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD. It is difficult to measure in a non-invasive fashion. We assessed the usefulness of the right ventricular index of myocardial performance (RIMP to estimate pulmonary vascular resistance in very low birth weight infants. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective echocardiography on day of life (DOL 2, 7, 14, and 28 in 121 preterm infants (median [quartiles] gestational age 28 [26]-[29] weeks, birth weight 998 [743-1225] g of whom 36 developed BPD (oxygen supplementation at 36 postmenstrual weeks. RESULTS: RIMP derived by conventional pulsed Doppler technique was unrelated to heart rate or mean blood pressure. RIMP on DOL 2 was similar in infants who subsequently did (0.39 [0.33-0.55] and did not develop BPD (0.39 [0.28-0.51], p = 0.467. RIMP declined steadily in non-BPD infants but not in BPD infants (DOL 7: 0.31[0.22-0.39] vs. 0.35[0.29-0.48], p = 0.014; DOL 14: 0.23[0.17-0.30] vs. 0.35[0.25-0.43], p<0.001; DOL 28: 0.21[0.15-0.28] vs. 0.31 [0.21-0.35], p = 0.015. CONCLUSIONS: In preterm infants, a decline in RIMP after birth was not observed in those with incipient BPD. The pattern of RIMP measured in preterm infants is commensurate with that of pulmonary vascular resistance.

  3. History of the incipient Icelandic plume: Observations from ancient buried landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stucky de Quay, Gaia; Roberts, Gareth G.; Watson, Jonathan S.; Jackson, Christopher A.-L.

    2017-04-01

    Ancient buried terrestrial landscapes contain records of vertical motions which can be used to probe histories of geodynamical processes. In the North Atlantic Ocean, sedimentary basins contain excellent evidence that the continental shelf experienced staged subaerial exposure. For example, now buried landscapes were uplifted, rapidly eroded, and drowned close to the Paleocene-Eocene boundary. We use commercial wells and three-dimensional seismic data to reconstruct a 57-55 Ma landscape now buried 1.5 km beneath the seabed in the Bressay area of the northern North Sea. Geochemical analyses of organic matter from core samples intersecting the erosional landscape indicate the presence of angiosperm (flowering plant) debris. Combined with the presence of coarse clastic material, mapped beach ridges, and dendritic drainage patterns, these observations indicate that this landscape was of terrestrial origin. Longitudinal profiles of ancient rivers were extracted and inverted for an uplift rate history. The best-fitting uplift rate history has three phases and total cumulative uplift of 350 m. Biostratigraphic data from surrounding marine stratigraphy indicate that this landscape formed within 1-1.5 Ma. This uplift history is similar to that of a slightly older buried landscape in the Faeroe-Shetland basin 400 km to the west. These records of vertical motion can explained by pulses of anomalously hot asthenosphere spreading out from the incipient Icelandic plume. Using simple isostatic calculations we estimate that the maximum thermal anomaly beneath Bressay was 50˚. Our observations suggest that a thermal anomaly departed the Icelandic plume as early as 58.5 Ma and had highest average temperatures at 55.6 Ma.

  4. Fluid flow and mud volcanism in the Eastern Mediterranean incipient collision zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zitter, T. A. C.; Woodside, J. M.; Mascle, J.

    2003-04-01

    Fluid venting activity, either coupled with mud volcanism or along deep active faults or both, has been investigated in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea, mainly in two areas associated with the incipient collision process between Africa and Eurasia. Mud volcanoes are abundant on the crestal part of the Mediterranean Ridge accretionary prism, in association with thrusts, back-thrusts and transcurrent features. They are also found in the Anaximander Mountains/Florence Rise area, to the west of Cyprus, where a wrench system accommodates the pre-collisional deformation. Combined swath multibeam bathymetry and imagery, seismic profiling (ANAXIPROBE survey, 1995 and PRISMED II survey, 1998) and O.R.E.Tech sidescan sonar data (MEDINETH survey, 1999) indicate the genetic relationship between mud volcanoes and tectonics, particularly potential influence of strike-slip faulting. The in situ observations of mud volcanoes (MEDINAUT survey, 1998) have revealed common characteristics at cold seeps, such as carbonate crust constructions and specific chemosynthetic-based fauna. Ground-truth of the sonar data shows that the geophysical signature of mud volcanoes may be related to spatial and temporal evolution of mud volcanism activity, because the seafloor characteristics (surface of the mud flows, distribution and nature of the crusts) and the degree of colonization by benthic fauna vary with the intensity and age of the fluid seepage. Moreover, clay mineralogy studies on the mud matrix samples give insights into the depositional environment, age, and depth of the lithological unit from which the mud breccia is extruded. The shallow signature of the mud reservoir tends to indicate that the overpressured fluids originate from deeper strata than the solid phase of the expelled material.

  5. Davis Fire: Fire behavior and fire effects analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaWen T. Hollingsworth

    2010-01-01

    The Davis Fire presents an interesting example of fire behavior in subalpine fir, partially dead lodgepole pine with multiple age classes, and moist site Douglas-fir vegetation types. This has been summer of moderate temperatures and intermittent moisture that has kept live herbaceous and live woody moistures fairly high and dead fuel moistures at a moderate level....

  6. Cold Vacuum Drying facility fire protection system design description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PITKOFF, C.C.

    1999-01-01

    This document describes the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF) fire protection system (FPS). The FPS provides fire detection, suppression, and loss limitation for the CVDF structure, personnel, and in-process spent nuclear fuel. The system provides, along with supporting interfacing systems, detection, alarm, and activation instrumentation and controls, distributive piping system, isolation valves, and materials and controls to limit combustibles and the associated fire loadings

  7. FIRES: Fire Information Retrieval and Evaluation System - A program for fire danger rating analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patricia L. Andrews; Larry S. Bradshaw

    1997-01-01

    A computer program, FIRES: Fire Information Retrieval and Evaluation System, provides methods for evaluating the performance of fire danger rating indexes. The relationship between fire danger indexes and historical fire occurrence and size is examined through logistic regression and percentiles. Historical seasonal trends of fire danger and fire occurrence can be...

  8. Engineering of Bacteriophages Y2::dpoL1-C and Y2::luxAB for Efficient Control and Rapid Detection of the Fire Blight Pathogen, Erwinia amylovora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Born, Yannick; Fieseler, Lars; Thöny, Valentin; Leimer, Nadja; Duffy, Brion; Loessner, Martin J

    2017-06-15

    Erwinia amylovora is the causative agent of fire blight, a devastating plant disease affecting members of the Rosaceae Alternatives to antibiotics for control of fire blight symptoms and outbreaks are highly desirable, due to increasing drug resistance and tight regulatory restrictions. Moreover, the available diagnostic methods either lack sensitivity, lack speed, or are unable to discriminate between live and dead bacteria. Owing to their extreme biological specificity, bacteriophages are promising alternatives for both aims. In this study, the virulent broad-host-range E. amylovora virus Y2 was engineered to enhance its killing activity and for use as a luciferase reporter phage, respectively. Toward these aims, a depolymerase gene of E. amylovora virus L1 ( dpoL1-C ) or a bacterial luxAB fusion was introduced into the genome of Y2 by homologous recombination. The genes were placed downstream of the major capsid protein orf68 , under the control of the native promoter. The modifications did not affect viability of infectivity of the recombinant viruses. Phage Y2:: dpoL1-C demonstrated synergistic activity between the depolymerase degrading the exopolysaccharide capsule and phage infection, which greatly enhanced bacterial killing. It also significantly reduced the ability of E. amylovora to colonize the surface of detached flowers. The reporter phage Y2:: luxAB transduced bacterial luciferase into host cells and induced synthesis of large amounts of a LuxAB luciferase fusion. After the addition of aldehyde substrate, bioluminescence could be readily monitored, and this enabled rapid and specific detection of low numbers of viable bacteria, without enrichment, both in vitro and in plant material. IMPORTANCE Fire blight, caused by Erwinia amylovora , is the major threat to global pome fruit production, with high economic losses every year. Bacteriophages represent promising alternatives to not only control the disease, but also for rapid diagnostics. To enhance

  9. The Angra 1 fire PRA project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Luiz E. Massiere de C.; Kassawara, Robert

    2009-01-01

    The Angra 1 Fire PRA (Probabilistic Risk Assessment) is under development by ELETRONUCLEAR jointly with EPRI (Electric Power Research Institute). The project was started January of 2007 and it is foreseen to be finished in the middle of the next year. The study is being conducted according to the newest methodology developed by EPRI and NRC/RES (U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission - Office of Regulatory Research) published in 2005 as Fire PRA Methodology for Nuclear Power Facilities (NUREG/CR-6850 or EPRI TR-1011989) [1]. Starting from the Internal Events Angra 1 PRA model Level 1 the project aims to be a comprehensive plant-specific fire analysis to identify the possible consequences of a fire in the plant vital areas which threaten the integrity of systems relevant to the safety, challenging the safety functions and representing a risk of accident that can lead to a core damage. The main tasks include the plant boundary and partitioning, the fire PRA component selection and the identification of the possible fire scenarios (ignition, propagation, detection, extinction and hazards) considering human failure events to establish the fire-induced risk model for quantification of the risk for nuclear core damage taking into account the plant design and its fire protection resources. This work presents a general discussion on the methodology applied to the completed steps of the project. (author)

  10. Wildland fire in ecosystems: effects of fire on flora

    Science.gov (United States)

    James K. Brown; Jane Kapler Smith

    2000-01-01

    VOLUME 2: This state-of-knowledge review about the effects of fire on flora and fuels can assist land managers with ecosystem and fire management planning and in their efforts to inform others about the ecological role of fire. Chapter topics include fire regime classification, autecological effects of fire, fire regime characteristics and postfire plant community...

  11. Establishment of fire protection code in Nuclear Power Station (JEAC 4626-2010) and revision of fire protection guide in Nuclear Power Station (JEAG 4607-2010)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narama, Takeshi; Ushijima, Koji; Tanaka, Tsutomu

    2011-01-01

    This article reviewed basic design against fire protection measures in nuclear power plants, need of these measures enhancement by the rule with the Chuetsu-Oki earthquake, and then major point of establishment and revision of private rule (design). Fire protection of nuclear power plants should be provided with well-balanced activities of design and management, where the design means fire prevention, fire detection and extinguishment, and mitigation of fire effects. After the Chuetsu-Oki earthquake, need of private fire brigade and information dissemination was stressed as management of fire protection. When a massive earthquake occurs, the design shall lower the possibilities of fire breakouts at the structures, systems, or components of higher safety importance. However the possibility of a fire occurrence shall be considered in the planning of fire protection. (T. Tanaka)

  12. Modeling Urban Fire Growth,

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuclear explosion damage, *Explosion effects, *Fires, *Flame propagation, Growth (General), Area coverage, Ignition, Combustion, Casualties...Computerized simulation, Predictions, Countermeasures, Fire suppression, Damage assessment, Urban areas, Vulnerability, Data acquisition, Methodology, Symposia

  13. Fire Stations - 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — Fire Stations in Kansas Any location where fire fighters are stationed or based out of, or where equipment that such personnel use in carrying out their jobs is...

  14. Fire Stations - 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — Fire Station Locations in Kansas Any location where fire fighters are stationed at or based out of, or where equipment that such personnel use in carrying out their...

  15. Buildings exposed to fire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The 24 lectures presented to the colloquium cover the following subject fields: (1) Behaviour of structural components exposed to fire; (2) Behaviour of building materials exposed to fire; (3) Thermal processes; (4) Safety related, theoretical studies. (PW) [de

  16. Filosofiens historiografi: Fire genrer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rorty, Richard

    2007-01-01

    Oversættelse af Richard Rortys artikel "Filosofiens historiografi: Fire genrer" Udgivelsesdato: 26 Oktober......Oversættelse af Richard Rortys artikel "Filosofiens historiografi: Fire genrer" Udgivelsesdato: 26 Oktober...

  17. Spacecraft Fire Safety Demonstration

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of the Spacecraft Fire Safety Demonstration project is to develop and conduct large-scale fire safety experiments on an International Space Station...

  18. Fire Making, Part I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Kathryn R.

    2002-04-01

    In the late 1930's and early 1940's, JCE published several historical accounts on methods for igniting fires. This "From Past Issues" summarizes an article by Warren N. Watson on the fire making arts of primitive peoples.

  19. Fires and Food Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Forms FSIS United States Department of Agriculture Food Safety and Inspection Service About FSIS District Offices Careers ... JSR 286) Actions ${title} Loading... Fires and Food Safety Fire! Few words can strike such terror. Residential ...

  20. Interagency Wildland Fire Cooperation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2004-01-01

    Wildlife Fire Assistance includes training personnel, forms partnerships for prescribed burns, state and regional data for fire management plans, develops agreements for DoD civilians to be reimbursed...

  1. COUNTERMEASURE FOR MINIMIZE UNWANTED ALARM OF AUTOMATIC FIRE NOTIFICATION SYSTEM IN THE REPUBLIC OF KOREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasung Kong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article investigated the cause of error through survey to building officials for minimizing the unwanted alarm of automatic fire notification and suggested countermeasure for minimizing the unwanted alarm. The main cause of the unwanted alarm is defective fire detector, interlocking with automatic fire detection system, lack in fire safety warden’s ability, worn-out fire detect receiving system. The countermeasure for minimizing unwanted alarm is firstly, tightening up the standard of model approval, Secondly, interlocking with cross-section circuit method fire extinguishing system or realizing automatic fire notification system interlocking with home network, thirdly, tightening up licensing examination of fire safety warden, lastly, it suggested term of use rule of fire detect receiving system. 

  2. COUNTERMEASURE FOR MINIMIZE UNWANTED ALARM OF AUTOMATIC FIRE NOTIFICATION SYSTEM IN THE REPUBLIC OF KOREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasung Kong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article investigated the cause of error through survey to building officials for minimizing the unwanted alarm of automatic fire notification and suggested countermeasure for minimizing the unwanted alarm. The main cause of the unwanted alarm is defective fire detector, interlocking with automatic fire detection system, lack in fire safety warden’s ability, worn-out fire detect receiving system. The countermeasure for minimizing unwanted alarm is firstly, tightening up the standard of model approval, Secondly, interlocking with cross-section circuit method fire extinguishing system or realizing automatic fire notification system interlocking with home network, thirdly, tightening up licensing examination of fire safety warden, lastly, it suggested term of use rule of fire detect receiving system.

  3. The Lund University Checklist for Incipient Exhaustion–a cross–sectional comparison of a new instrument with similar contemporary tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Persson

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Stress-related health problems (e.g., work-related exhaustion are a societal concern in many postindustrial countries. Experience suggests that early detection and intervention are crucial in preventing long-term negative consequences. In the present study, we benchmark a new tool for early identification of work-related exhaustion–the Lund University Checklist for Incipient Exhaustion (LUCIE–against other contextually relevant inventories and two contemporary Swedish screening scales. Methods A cross-sectional population sample (n = 1355 completed: LUCIE, Karolinska Exhaustion Disorder Scale (KEDS, Self-reported Exhaustion Disorder Scale (s-ED, Shirom-Melamed Burnout Questionnaire (SMBQ, Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES-9, Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ, Big Five Inventory (BFI, and items concerning work-family interference and stress in private life. Results Increasing signs of exhaustion on LUCIE were positively associated with signs of exhaustion on KEDS and s-ED. The prevalence rates were 13.4, 13.8 and 7.8 %, respectively (3.8 % were identified by all three instruments. Increasing signs of exhaustion on LUCIE were also positively associated with reports of burnout, job demands, stress in private life, family-to-work interference and neuroticism as well as negatively associated with reports of job control, job support and work engagement. Conclusions LUCIE, which is intended to detect pre-stages of ED, exhibits logical and coherent positive relations with KEDS and s-ED as well as other conceptually similar inventories. The results suggest that LUCIE has the potential to detect mild states of exhaustion (possibly representing pre-stages to ED that if not brought to the attention of the healthcare system and treated, may develop in to ED. The prospective validity remains to be evaluated.

  4. The Lund University Checklist for Incipient Exhaustion-a cross-sectional comparison of a new instrument with similar contemporary tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, Roger; Österberg, Kai; Viborg, Njördur; Jönsson, Peter; Tenenbaum, Artur

    2016-04-21

    Stress-related health problems (e.g., work-related exhaustion) are a societal concern in many postindustrial countries. Experience suggests that early detection and intervention are crucial in preventing long-term negative consequences. In the present study, we benchmark a new tool for early identification of work-related exhaustion-the Lund University Checklist for Incipient Exhaustion (LUCIE)-against other contextually relevant inventories and two contemporary Swedish screening scales. A cross-sectional population sample (n = 1355) completed: LUCIE, Karolinska Exhaustion Disorder Scale (KEDS), Self-reported Exhaustion Disorder Scale (s-ED), Shirom-Melamed Burnout Questionnaire (SMBQ), Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES-9), Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ), Big Five Inventory (BFI), and items concerning work-family interference and stress in private life. Increasing signs of exhaustion on LUCIE were positively associated with signs of exhaustion on KEDS and s-ED. The prevalence rates were 13.4, 13.8 and 7.8 %, respectively (3.8 % were identified by all three instruments). Increasing signs of exhaustion on LUCIE were also positively associated with reports of burnout, job demands, stress in private life, family-to-work interference and neuroticism as well as negatively associated with reports of job control, job support and work engagement. LUCIE, which is intended to detect pre-stages of ED, exhibits logical and coherent positive relations with KEDS and s-ED as well as other conceptually similar inventories. The results suggest that LUCIE has the potential to detect mild states of exhaustion (possibly representing pre-stages to ED) that if not brought to the attention of the healthcare system and treated, may develop in to ED. The prospective validity remains to be evaluated.

  5. Population structure of guppies in north-eastern Venezuela, the area of putative incipient speciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herdegen, Magdalena; Alexander, Heather J; Babik, Wiesław; Mavárez, Jesús; Breden, Felix; Radwan, Jacek

    2014-02-17

    Geographic barriers to gene flow and divergence among populations in sexual traits are two important causes of genetic isolation which may lead to speciation. Genetic isolation may be facilitated if these two mechanisms act synergistically. The guppy from the Cumaná region (within the Cariaco drainage) of eastern Venezuela has been previously described as a case of incipient speciation driven by sexual selection, significantly differentiated in sexual colouration and body shape from the common guppy, Poecilia reticulata. The latter occurs widely in northern Venezuela, including the south-eastern side of Cordillera de la Costa, where it inhabits streams belonging to the San Juan drainage. Here, we present molecular and morphological analyses of differentiation among guppy populations in the Cariaco and San Juan drainages. Our analyses are based on a 953 bp long mtDNA fragment, a set of 15 microsatellites (519 fish from 20 populations), and four phenotypic traits. Both microsatellite and mtDNA data showed that guppies inhabiting the two drainages are characterised by a significant genetic differentiation, but a higher proportion of the genetic variance was distributed among populations within regions. Most guppies in the Cariaco drainage had mtDNA from a distinct lineage, but we also found evidence for widespread introgression of mtDNA from the San Juan drainage into the Cariaco drainage. Phenotypically, populations in the two regions differed significantly only in the number of black crescents. Phenotypic clustering did not support existence of two distinct groupings, but indicated a degree of distinctiveness of Central Cumaná (CC) population. However, CC population showed little differentiation at the neutral markers from the proximate populations within the Cariaco drainage. Our findings are consistent with only partial genetic isolation between the two geographic regions and indicate that the geographic barrier of Cordillera de la Costa has not played an

  6. FIRE CHARACTERISTICS FOR ADVANCED MODELLING OF FIRES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otto Dvořák

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarizes the material and fire properties of solid flammable/combustible materials /substances /products, which are used as inputs for the computer numerical fire models. At the same time it gives the test standards for their determination.

  7. Mass Fire Model Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-05-31

    done by several investigators, the theoretical work of Nielsen (Reference 12) and Nielsen and Tao (Refer- ence 13) specifically models the global...which are approximately equal. This procedure permits computation of the fire..induced wind by a superpositlon of effects from each usub -fire." Outsid...Storm Analysis, ITT Research Institute, Janu- ary 1970. .324 13. Nielsen , H.J. and L.N. Tao, "The Fire Plume Above a Large Free- Burning Fire,’ Tenth S

  8. IoT-Based Intelligent Modeling of Smart Home Environment for Fire Prevention and Safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faisal Saeed

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Fires usually occur in homes because of carelessness and changes in environmental conditions. They cause threats to the residential community and may result in human death and property damage. Consequently, house fires must be detected early to prevent these types of threats. The immediate notification of a fire is the most critical issue in domestic fire detection systems. Fire detection systems using wireless sensor networks sometimes do not detect a fire as a consequence of sensor failure. Wireless sensor networks (WSN consist of tiny, cheap, and low-power sensor devices that have the ability to sense the environment and can provide real-time fire detection with high accuracy. In this paper, we designed and evaluated a wireless sensor network using multiple sensors for early detection of house fires. In addition, we used the Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM to avoid false alarms. To test the results of our fire detection system, we simulated a fire in a smart home using the Fire Dynamics Simulator and a language program. The simulation results showed that our system is able to detect early fire, even when a sensor is not working, while keeping the energy consumption of the sensors at an acceptable level.

  9. MODIS/Aqua Thermal Anomalies/Fire 8-Day L3 Global 1km SIN Grid V005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MODIS Thermal Anomalies/Fire products are primarily derived from MODIS 4- and 11-micrometer radiances. The fire detection strategy is based on absolute detection of...

  10. MODIS/Aqua Thermal Anomalies/Fire Daily L3 Global 1km SIN Grid V005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MODIS Thermal Anomalies/Fire products are primarily derived from MODIS 4- and 11-micrometer radiances. The fire detection strategy is based on absolute detection of...

  11. MODIS/Terra Thermal Anomalies/Fire 8-Day L3 Global 1km SIN Grid V005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MODIS Thermal Anomalies/Fire products are primarily derived from MODIS 4- and 11-micrometer radiances. The fire detection strategy is based on absolute detection of...

  12. MODIS/Aqua Coarse Thermal Anomalies/Fire 5-Min L2 Swath 5km V005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MODIS Thermal Anomalies/Fire products are primarily derived from MODIS 4- and 11-micrometer radiances. The fire detection strategy is based on absolute detection of...

  13. MODIS/Terra Coarse Thermal Anomalies/Fire 5-Min L2 Swath 5km V005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MODIS Thermal Anomalies/Fire products are primarily derived from MODIS 4- and 11-micrometer radiances. The fire detection strategy is based on absolute detection of...

  14. MODIS/Terra Thermal Anomalies/Fire Daily L3 Global 1km SIN Grid V005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MODIS Thermal Anomalies/Fire products are primarily derived from MODIS 4- and 11-micrometer radiances. The fire detection strategy is based on absolute detection of...

  15. Fire Department Emergency Response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanchard, A. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States); Bell, K.; Kelly, J.; Hudson, J.

    1997-09-01

    In 1995 the SRS Fire Department published the initial Operations Basis Document (OBD). This document was one of the first of its kind in the DOE complex and was widely distributed and reviewed. This plan described a multi-mission Fire Department which provided fire, emergency medical, hazardous material spill, and technical rescue services.

  16. Fire as Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolph, Robert N.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a project that deals with fire production as an aspect of technology. The project challenges students to be survivors in a five-day classroom activity. Students research various materials and methods to produce fire without the use of matches or other modern combustion devices, then must create "fire" to keep…

  17. Fire and forest meteorology

    Science.gov (United States)

    SA Ferguson; T.J. Brown; M. Flannigan

    2005-01-01

    The American Meteorological Society symposia series on Fire and Forest Meteorology provides biennial forums for atmospheric and fire scientists to introduce and discuss the latest and most relevant research on weather, climate and fire. This special issue highlights significant work that was presented at the Fifth Symposium in Orlando, Florida during 16-20 November...

  18. Fire debris analysis for forensic fire investigation using laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Soojin; Yoh, Jack J.

    2017-08-01

    The possibility verification of the first attempt to apply LIBS to arson investigation was performed. LIBS has capabilities for real time in-situ analysis and depth profiling. It can provide valuable information about the fire debris that are complementary to the classification of original sample components and combustion residues. In this study, fire debris was analyzed to determine the ignition source and existence of a fire accelerant using LIBS spectra and depth profiling analysis. Fire debris chemical composition and carbon layer thickness determines the possible ignition source while the carbon layer thickness of combusted samples represents the degree of sample carbonization. When a sample is combusted with fire accelerants, a thicker carbon layer is formed because the burning rate is increased. Therefore, depth profiling can confirm the existence of combustion accelerants, which is evidence of arson. Also investigation of fire debris by depth profiling is still possible when a fire is extinguished with water from fire hose. Such data analysis and in-situ detection of forensic signals via the LIBS may assist fire investigation at crime scenes.

  19. Petrogenesis of incipient charnockite in the Ikalamavony sub-domain, south-central Madagascar: New insights from phase equilibrium modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Takahiro; Tsunogae, Toshiaki; Santosh, M.; Shaji, E.; Rambeloson, Roger A.

    2017-06-01

    Incipient charnockites representing granulite formation on a mesoscopic scale occur in the Ambodin Ifandana area of Ikalamavony sub-domain in south-central Madagascar. Here we report new petrological data from these rocks, and discuss the process of granulite formation on the basis of petrography, mineral equilibrium modeling, and fluid inclusion studies. The incipient charnockites occur as brownish patches, lenses, and layers characterized by an assemblage of biotite + orthopyroxene + K-feldspar + plagioclase + quartz + magnetite + ilmenite within host orthopyroxene-free biotite gneiss with an assemblage of biotite + K-feldspar + plagioclase + quartz + magnetite + ilmenite. Lenses and layers of calc-silicate rock (clinopyroxene + garnet + plagioclase + quartz + titanite + calcite) are typically associated with the charnockite. Coarse-grained charnockite occurs along the contact between the layered charnockite and calc-silicate rock. The application of mineral equilibrium modeling on the mineral assemblages in charnockite and biotite gneiss employing the NCKFMASHTO system as well as fluid inclusion study on coarse-grained charnockite defines a P-T range of 8.5-10.5 kbar and 880-900 °C, which is nearly consistent with the inferred P-T condition of the Ikalamavony sub-domain (8.0-10.5 kbar and 820-880 °C). The result of T versus H2O activity (a(H2O)) modeling demonstrates that orthopyroxene-bearing assemblage in charnockite is stable under relatively low a(H2O) condition of 0.42-0.43, which is consistent with the popular models of incipient-charnockite formation related to the lowering of water activity and stabilization of orthopyroxene through dehydration of biotite. The occurrence of calc-silicate rocks adjacent to the charnockite suggests that the CO2-bearing fluid that caused dehydration and incipient-charnockite formation might have been derived through decarbonation of calc-silicate rocks during the initial stage of decompression slightly after the peak

  20. Advanced methods for a probabilistic safety analysis of fires. Development of advanced methods for performing as far as possible realistic plant specific fire risk analysis (fire PSA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofer, E.; Roewekamp, M.; Tuerschmann, M.

    2003-07-01

    In the frame of the research project RS 1112 'Development of Methods for a Recent Probabilistic Safety Analysis, Particularly Level 2' funded by the German Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology (BMWi), advanced methods, in particular for performing as far as possible realistic plant specific fire risk analyses (fire PSA), should be developed. The present Technical Report gives an overview on the methodologies developed in this context for assessing the fire hazard. In the context of developing advanced methodologies for fire PSA, a probabilistic dynamics analysis with a fire simulation code including an uncertainty and sensitivity study has been performed for an exemplary scenario of a cable fire induced by an electric cabinet inside the containment of a modern Konvoi type German nuclear power plant taking into consideration the effects of fire detection and fire extinguishing means. With the present study, it was possible for the first time to determine the probabilities of specified fire effects from a class of fire events by means of probabilistic dynamics supplemented by uncertainty and sensitivity analyses. The analysis applies a deterministic dynamics model, consisting of a dynamic fire simulation code and a model of countermeasures, considering effects of the stochastics (so-called aleatory uncertainties) as well as uncertainties in the state of knowledge (so-called epistemic uncertainties). By this means, probability assessments including uncertainties are provided to be used within the PSA. (orig.) [de

  1. Remote sensing techniques in monitoring areas affected by forest fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karagianni, Aikaterini Ch.; Lazaridou, Maria A.

    2017-09-01

    Forest fire is a part of nature playing a key role in shaping ecosystems. However, fire's environmental impacts can be significant, affecting wildlife habitat and timber, human settlements, man-made technical constructions and various networks (road, power networks) and polluting the air with emissions harmful to human health. Furthermore, fire's effect on the landscape may be long-lasting. Monitoring the development of a fire occurs as an important aspect at the management of natural hazards in general. Among the used methods for monitoring, satellite data and remote sensing techniques can be proven of particular importance. Satellite remote sensing offers a useful tool for forest fire detection, monitoring, management and damage assessment. Especially for fire scars detection and monitoring, satellite data derived from Landsat 8 can be a useful research tool. This paper includes critical considerations of the above and concerns in particular an example of the Greek area (Thasos Island). This specific area was hit by fires several times in the past and recently as well (September 2016). Landsat 8 satellite data are being used (pre and post fire imagery) and digital image processing techniques are applied (enhancement techniques, calculation of various indices) for fire scars detection. Visual interpretation of the example area affected by the fires is also being done, contributing to the overall study.

  2. Effects of fire on woody vegetation structure in African savanna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smit, Izak P J; Asner, Gregory P; Govender, Navashni; Kennedy-Bowdoin, Ty; Knapp, David E; Jacobson, James

    2010-10-01

    Despite the importance of fire in shaping savannas, it remains poorly understood how the frequency, seasonality, and intensity of fire interact to influence woody vegetation structure, which is a key determinant of savanna biodiversity. We provide a comprehensive analysis of vertical and horizontal woody vegetation structure across one of the oldest savanna fire experiments, using new airborne Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) technology. We developed and compared high-resolution woody vegetation height surfaces for a series of large experimental burn plots in the Kruger National Park, South Africa. These 7-ha plots (total area approximately 1500 ha) have been subjected to fire in different seasons and at different frequencies, as well as no-burn areas, for 54 years. Long-term exposure to fire caused a reduction in woody vegetation up to the 5.0-7.5 m height class, although most reduction was observed up to 4 m. Average fire intensity was positively correlated with changes in woody vegetation structure. More frequent fires reduced woody vegetation cover more than less frequent fires, and dry-season fires reduced woody vegetation more than wet-season fires. Spring fires from the late dry season reduced woody vegetation cover the most, and summer fires from the wet season reduced it the least. Fire had a large effect on structure in the densely wooded granitic landscapes as compared to the more open basaltic landscapes, although proportionally, the woody vegetation was more reduced in the drier than in the wetter landscapes. We show that fire frequency and fire season influence patterns of vegetation three-dimensional structure, which may have cascading consequences for biodiversity. Managers of savannas can therefore use fire frequency and season in concert to achieve specific vegetation structural objectives.

  3. An open-source, FireWire camera-based, Labview-controlled image acquisition system for automated, dynamic pupillometry and blink detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, John Kennedy Schettino; Pinto, Marcos Antonio da Silva; Vieira, Pedro Gabrielle; Baron, Jerome; Tierra-Criollo, Carlos Julio

    2013-12-01

    The dynamic, accurate measurement of pupil size is extremely valuable for studying a large number of neuronal functions and dysfunctions. Despite tremendous and well-documented progress in image processing techniques for estimating pupil parameters, comparatively little work has been reported on practical hardware issues involved in designing image acquisition systems for pupil analysis. Here, we describe and validate the basic features of such a system which is based on a relatively compact, off-the-shelf, low-cost FireWire digital camera. We successfully implemented two configurable modes of video record: a continuous mode and an event-triggered mode. The interoperability of the whole system is guaranteed by a set of modular software components hosted on a personal computer and written in Labview. An offline analysis suite of image processing algorithms for automatically estimating pupillary and eyelid parameters were assessed using data obtained in human subjects. Our benchmark results show that such measurements can be done in a temporally precise way at a sampling frequency of up to 120 Hz and with an estimated maximum spatial resolution of 0.03 mm. Our software is made available free of charge to the scientific community, allowing end users to either use the software as is or modify it to suit their own needs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Influence of Fire Mosaics, Habitat Characteristics and Cattle Disturbance on Mammals in Fire-Prone Savanna Landscapes of the Northern Kimberley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radford, Ian J; Gibson, Lesley A; Corey, Ben; Carnes, Karin; Fairman, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Patch mosaic burning, in which fire is used to produce a mosaic of habitat patches representative of a range of fire histories ('pyrodiversity'), has been widely advocated to promote greater biodiversity. However, the details of desired fire mosaics for prescribed burning programs are often unspecified. Threatened small to medium-sized mammals (35 g to 5.5 kg) in the fire-prone tropical savannas of Australia appear to be particularly fire-sensitive. Consequently, a clear understanding of which properties of fire mosaics are most instrumental in influencing savanna mammal populations is critical. Here we use mammal capture data, remotely sensed fire information (i.e. time since last fire, fire frequency, frequency of late dry season fires, diversity of post-fire ages in 3 km radius, and spatial extent of recently burnt, intermediate and long unburnt habitat) and structural habitat attributes (including an index of cattle disturbance) to examine which characteristics of fire mosaics most influence mammals in the north-west Kimberley. We used general linear models to examine the relationship between fire mosaic and habitat attributes on total mammal abundance and richness, and the abundance of the most commonly detected species. Strong negative associations of mammal abundance and richness with frequency of late dry season fires, the spatial extent of recently burnt habitat (post-fire age fire age classes in the models. Our results indicate that both a high frequency of intense late dry season fires and extensive, recently burnt vegetation are likely to be detrimental to mammals in the north Kimberley. A managed fire mosaic that reduces large scale and intense fires, including the retention of ≥4 years unburnt patches, will clearly benefit savanna mammals. We also highlighted the importance of fire mosaics that retain sufficient shelter for mammals. Along with fire, it is clear that grazing by introduced herbivores also needs to be reduced so that habitat quality is

  5. Fire Protection Program Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharry, J A

    2012-05-18

    This manual documents the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Fire Protection Program. Department of Energy (DOE) Orders 420.1B, Facility Safety, requires LLNL to have a comprehensive and effective fire protection program that protects LLNL personnel and property, the public and the environment. The manual provides LLNL and its facilities with general information and guidance for meeting DOE 420.1B requirements. The recommended readers for this manual are: fire protection officers, fire protection engineers, fire fighters, facility managers, directorage assurance managers, facility coordinators, and ES and H team members.

  6. Early detection of dental caries using photoacoustics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, K.; Witte, R.; Koh, I.; Ashkenazi, S.; O'Donnell, M.

    2006-02-01

    For decades, visual, tactile and radiographic examinations have been the standard for diagnosing caries. Nonetheless, the extent of variation in the diagnosis of dental caries is substantial among dental practitioners using these traditional techniques. Therefore, a more reliable standard for detecting incipient caries would be desirable. Using photoacoustics, near-infrared (NIR) optical contrast between sound and carious dental tissues can be relatively easily and accurately detected at ultrasound resolution. In this paper, a pulsed laser (Nd:YAG, Quanta-Ray) was used to probe extracted human molars at different disease stages determined from periapical radiographs. Both fundamental (1064nm) and first harmonic (532nm) pulses (15ns pulse length, 100mJ at fundamental and 9mJ at first harmonic , 10Hz pulse repetition rate) were used to illuminate the occlusal surface of tooth samples placed in a water tank. The photoacoustic signal was recorded with an unfocused wideband single-element piezoelectric transducer (centered at 12 MHz, bandwidth 15 MHz) positioned at small angle (less than 30 degrees) to the laser beam close to the occlusal surface. At the fundamental wavelength, total photoacoustic energy increases from normal to incipient stage disease by as much as a factor of 10. Differences between photoacoustic energy at the fundamental and first harmonic wavelength further indicate spectral absorption changes of the underlying structure with disease progression. Using a focused laser beam, an extracted molar with suspected incipient caries was scanned along the occulusal surface to help localize the caries inside enamel and dentin. The significantly increasing photoacoustic signal at a specific scan line both at fundamental and first harmonic indicates the local development of the incipient caries. The photoacoustic results compare well with visual inspection after layer by layer dissection. Preliminary results demonstrate the feasibility of detecting incipient

  7. Study of validity of autofluorescence-based incipient occlusal caries detection in vitro compared to DIAGNOdent pen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, H. H.; Chen, Q. G.; Lin, B.; Chen, H.

    2012-03-01

    The validity of laser induced fluorescence spectroscopy for early diagnosis of occlusal caries irradiated by 403 nm diode laser compared to commercial device DIAGNOdent pen was investigated. The quantitative evaluation parameter based on the fluorescence intensity area ratio of different bands F(440-480 nm)/F(540-700 nm) was built. And the linear correlation analysis between fluorescence result and corresponding DIAGNOdent reading is performed to be r = -0.9085. Moreover, the factors of irradiation laser power and excited site influencing the fluorescence distribution was experimentally investigated. The result shows that the fluorescence spectra at different site of sound occlusal surface is different and the higher laser power will lower the sensitivity of evaluation parameter based on the red fluorescence region increasing. The work is of great significance for practical application of laser induced fluorescence at 403 nm.

  8. Management and climate contributions to satellite-derived active fire trends in the contiguous United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hsiao-Wen; McCarty, Jessica L; Wang, Dongdong; Rogers, Brendan M; Morton, Douglas C; Collatz, G James; Jin, Yufang; Randerson, James T

    2014-04-01

    Fires in croplands, plantations, and rangelands contribute significantly to fire emissions in the United States, yet are often overshadowed by wildland fires in efforts to develop inventories or estimate responses to climate change. Here we quantified decadal trends, interannual variability, and seasonality of Terra Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) observations of active fires (thermal anomalies) as a function of management type in the contiguous U.S. during 2001-2010. We used the Monitoring Trends in Burn Severity database to identify active fires within the perimeter of large wildland fires and land cover maps to identify active fires in croplands. A third class of fires defined as prescribed/other included all residual satellite active fire detections. Large wildland fires were the most variable of all three fire types and had no significant annual trend in the contiguous U.S. during 2001-2010. Active fires in croplands, in contrast, increased at a rate of 3.4% per year. Cropland and prescribed/other fire types combined were responsible for 77% of the total active fire detections within the U.S and were most abundant in the south and southeast. In the west, cropland active fires decreased at a rate of 5.9% per year, likely in response to intensive air quality policies. Potential evaporation was a dominant regulator of the interannual variability of large wildland fires, but had a weaker influence on the other two fire types. Our analysis suggests it may be possible to modify landscape fire emissions within the U.S. by influencing the way fires are used in managed ecosystems. Wildland, cropland, and prescribed fires had different trends and patternsSensitivity to climate varied with fire typeIntensity of air quality regulation influenced cropland burning trends.

  9. Fire retardant formulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    The present invention relates to compositions where a substrate is liable to catch fire such as bituminous products, paints, carpets or the like. The invention relates to a composition comprising 40-95 weight % of a substrate to be rendered fire resistant such as bituminous material or paint......, carpets which substrate is mixed with 5-60 weight % of a fire retardant component. The invention relates to a fire retardant component comprising or being constituted of attapulgite, and a salt being a source of a blowing or expanding agent, where the attapulgite and the salt are electrostatically...... connected by mixing and subjecting the mixture of the two components to agitation. Also, the invention relates to compositions comprising 40-95 weight % of a substrate to be rendered fire resistant mixed with 5-60 weight % of a fire retardant according to claim 1 or 2, which fire retardant component...

  10. Precipitation-fire linkages in Indonesia (1997-2015)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanin, Thierry; van der Werf, Guido R.

    2017-09-01

    Over the past decades, fires have burned annually in Indonesia, yet the strength of the fire season is for a large part modulated by the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO). The two most recent very strong El Niño years were 2015 and 1997. Both years involved high incidences of fire in Indonesia. At present, there is no consistent satellite data stream spanning the full 19-year record, thereby complicating a comparison between these two fire seasons. We have investigated how various fire and precipitation datasets can be merged to better compare the fire dynamics in 1997 and 2015 as well as in intermediary years. We combined nighttime active fire detections from the Along Track Scanning Radiometer (ATSR) World Fire Atlas (WFA) available from 1997 until 2012 and the nighttime subset of the Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor from 2001 until now. For the overlapping period, MODIS detected about 4 times more fires than ATSR, but this ratio varied spatially. Although the reasons behind this spatial variability remain unclear, the coefficient of determination for the overlapping period was high (R2 = 0. 97, based on monthly data) and allowed for a consistent time series. We then constructed a rainfall time series based on the Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP, 1997-2015) and the Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission Project (TRMM, 1998-2015). Relations between antecedent rainfall and fire activity were not uniform in Indonesia. In southern Sumatra and Kalimantan, we found that 120 days of rainfall accumulation had the highest coefficient of determination with annual fire intensity. In northern Sumatra, this period was only 30 days. Thresholds of 200 and 305 mm average rainfall accumulation before each active fire were identified to generate a high-incidence fire year in southern Sumatra and southern Kalimantan, respectively. The number of active fires detected in 1997 was 2.2 times higher than in 2015. Assuming the ratio between

  11. Global Burned Area and Biomass Burning Emissions from Small Fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randerson, J. T.; Chen, Y.; vanderWerf, G. R.; Rogers, B. M.; Morton, D. C.

    2012-01-01

    In several biomes, including croplands, wooded savannas, and tropical forests, many small fires occur each year that are well below the detection limit of the current generation of global burned area products derived from moderate resolution surface reflectance imagery. Although these fires often generate thermal anomalies that can be detected by satellites, their contributions to burned area and carbon fluxes have not been systematically quantified across different regions and continents. Here we developed a preliminary method for combining 1-km thermal anomalies (active fires) and 500 m burned area observations from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) to estimate the influence of these fires. In our approach, we calculated the number of active fires inside and outside of 500 m burn scars derived from reflectance data. We estimated small fire burned area by computing the difference normalized burn ratio (dNBR) for these two sets of active fires and then combining these observations with other information. In a final step, we used the Global Fire Emissions Database version 3 (GFED3) biogeochemical model to estimate the impact of these fires on biomass burning emissions. We found that the spatial distribution of active fires and 500 m burned areas were in close agreement in ecosystems that experience large fires, including savannas across southern Africa and Australia and boreal forests in North America and Eurasia. In other areas, however, we observed many active fires outside of burned area perimeters. Fire radiative power was lower for this class of active fires. Small fires substantially increased burned area in several continental-scale regions, including Equatorial Asia (157%), Central America (143%), and Southeast Asia (90%) during 2001-2010. Globally, accounting for small fires increased total burned area by approximately by 35%, from 345 Mha/yr to 464 Mha/yr. A formal quantification of uncertainties was not possible, but sensitivity

  12. Efficacy of 1.23% APF gel applications on incipient carious lesions: a double-blind randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Laura Menezes Bonow

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this double-blind randomized clinical trial was to evaluate the efficacy of 1.23% APF gel application on the arrest of active incipient carious lesions in children. Sixty 7- to 12-year-old children, with active incipient lesions were included in the study. Children were divided randomly into 2 groups: 1.23% APF gel and placebo gel applications. Each group received 8 weekly applications of treatment. The lesions were re-evaluated at the 4th and 8th appointments. Poisson regression analysis was used to estimate relative risks of the presence of active white spot lesions. Groups showed similar results (PR = 1.67; CI 95% 0.69–3.98. The persistence of at least 1 active lesion was associated with a higher number of lesions in the baseline (PR = 2.67; CI 95% 1.19–6.03, but not with sugar intake (PR = 1.06; CI 95% 0.56–2.86 and previous exposure to fluoride dentifrice (PR = 1.26; CI 95% 0.49–2.29. The trial demonstrates the equivalence of the treatments. The use of the APF gel showed no additional benefits in this sample of children exposed to fluoridated water and dentifrice. The professional dental plaque removal in both groups may also account for the resulting equivalence of the treatments.

  13. Nuclear Power Plant Fire Protection Research Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Datta, A.

    1985-07-01

    The goal is to develop test data and analytical capabilities to support the evaluation of: (1) the contribution of fires to the risk from nuclear power plants; (2) the effects of fires on control room equipment and operations; and (3) the effects of actuation of fire suppression systems on safety equipment. A range of fire sources will be characterized with respect to their energy and mass evolution, including smoke, corrosion products, and electrically conductive products of combustion. An analytical method for determining the environment resulting from fire will be developed. This method will account for the source characteristics, the suppression action following detection of the fire, and certain parameters specific to the plant enclosure in which the fire originates, such as the geometry of the enclosure and the ventilation rate. The developing local environment in the vicinity of safety-related equipment will be expressed in terms of temperatures, temperature rise rates, heat fluxes, and moisture and certain species content. The response of certain safe shutdown equipment and components to the environmental conditions will be studied. The objective will be to determine the limits of environmental conditions that a component may be exposed to without impairment of its ability to function

  14. Fire protection for telecommunications central offices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKenna, L.A. Jr.

    1990-01-01

    The provision of continuous, uninterrupted telecommunications service is vital to modern life. In order to provide uninterrupted service to customers, a service continuity program has been in place with AT and T for many years. This program integrates many different protection strategies and plans, each designed to mitigate one of the many threats to service continuity. The fire protection program implemented within AT and T is a part of this service continuity program. In the design of this program, a number of unusual problems had to be addressed due to the service continuity requirements. Typical solutions to fire protection problems (ignition prevention, detection, and suppression) which are embodied in building and fire prevention codes are inadequate to provide service continuity. This presentation outlines the basic arrangement of a telecommunications central office, the specific fire protection problems encountered, the fire protection philosophy developed through the use of a systems approach, and the implementation of the fire protection program. Special emphasis is placed on the strategies employed in lieu of more traditional fire protection schemes and the stimuli for selecting them

  15. Visibility analysis of fire lookout towers in the Boyabat State Forest Enterprise in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucuk, Omer; Topaloglu, Ozer; Altunel, Arif Oguz; Cetin, Mehmet

    2017-07-01

    For a successful fire suppression, it is essential to detect and intervene forest fires as early as possible. Fire lookout towers are crucial assets in detecting forest fires, in addition to other technological advancements. In this study, we performed a visibility analysis on a network of fire lookout towers currently operating in a relatively fire-prone region in Turkey's Western Black Sea region. Some of these towers had not been functioning properly; it was proposed that these be taken out of the grid and replaced with new ones. The percentage of visible areas under the current network of fire lookout towers was 73%; it could rise to 81% with the addition of newly proposed towers. This study was the first research to conduct a visibility analysis of current and newly proposed fire lookout towers in the Western Black Sea region and focus on its forest fire problem.

  16. Fire Danger and Fire Weather Records

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Weather Service (formerly Weather Bureau) and Forest Service developed a program to track meteorological conditions conducive to forest fires, resulting...

  17. All fired up

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2013-01-01

    Members of the Directorate and their support staff took part in a fire-fighting course organised by the CERN Fire Brigade just before the end-of-year break.  The Bulletin takes a look at the fire-fighting training on offer at CERN.   At CERN the risk of fire can never be under-estimated. In order to train personnel in the use of fire extinguishers, CERN's fire training centre in Prévessin acquired a fire-simulation platform in 2012. On the morning of 17 December 2012, ten members of the CERN directorate and their support staff tried out the platform, following in the footsteps of 400 other members of the CERN community who had already attended the course. The participants were welcomed to the training centre by Gilles Colin, a fire-fighter and instructor, who gave them a 30-minute introduction to general safety and the different types of fire and fire extinguishers, followed by an hour of practical instruction in the simulation facility. There they were able to pract...

  18. Glovebox fire experiment, (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kono, Keiichi; Sunaoshi, Mitsugu; Mishima, Tsuyoshi; Endo, Koichi.

    1979-01-01

    The gloveboxes used for plutonium facilities in Japan and foreign countries have considerable combustibles as their components, so that the fire resistivity of the gloveboxes is a serious problem in the safety evaluation of the facilities. Actually, a big fire having burned gloveboxes occurred in a foreign weapon facility. But the fire in the weapon facility should be distinguished from that in nuclear fuel facilities, since the former handles quite combustible plutonium metal, while the latter handle quite stable plutonium oxide. The countermeasures to fires should be decided, considering the properties and quantity of combustibles around gloveboxes and ventilation systems, as the probability and scale of fires can be presumed from them. From the viewpoint of safety, the experiment on glovebox fires was carried out by the Plutonium Fuel Division, PNC. The experimental conditions are explained. The samples were the acrylic resin panels with four glove ports and a small glovebox currently used. The glovebox showed the considerable fire resistance, and the panel hardly burned. The weakest component of the glovebox against fire was the gloves. The countermeasure to curtain the gloves with an insulating material seemed to be effective. The ventilation of the room and the glovebox worked as fire preventer at least in the first stage of fire. (Kako, I.)

  19. Managing wildland fires: integrating weather models into fire projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anne M. Rosenthal; Francis Fujioka

    2004-01-01

    Flames from the Old Fire sweep through lands north of San Bernardino during late fall of 2003. Like many Southern California fires, the Old Fire consumed susceptible forests at the urban-wildland interface and spread to nearby city neighborhoods. By incorporating weather models into fire perimeter projections, scientist Francis Fujioka is improving fire modeling as a...

  20. Reconstructing Fire Records from Ground-Based Routine Aerosol Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongmei Zhao

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Long-term fire records are important to understanding the trend of biomass burning and its interactions with air quality and climate at regional and global scales. Traditionally, such data have been compiled from ground surveys or satellite remote sensing. To obtain aerosol information during a fire event to use in analyzing air quality, we propose a new method of developing a long-term fire record for the contiguous United States using an unconventional data source: ground-based aerosol monitoring. Assisted by satellite fire detection, the mass concentration, size distribution, and chemical composition data of surface aerosols collected from the Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments (IMPROVE network are examined to identify distinct aerosol characteristics during satellite-detected fire and non-fire periods. During a fire episode, elevated aerosol concentrations and heavy smoke are usually recorded by ground monitors and satellite sensors. Based on the unique physical and chemical characteristics of fire-dominated aerosols reported in the literature, we analyzed the surface aerosol observations from the IMPROVE network during satellite-detected fire events to establish a set of indicators to identify fire events from routine aerosol monitoring data. Five fire identification criteria were chosen: (1 high concentrations of PM2.5 and PM10 (particles smaller than 2.5 and 10 in diameters, respectively; (2 a high PM2.5/PM10 ratio; (3 high organic carbon (OC/PM2.5 and elemental carbon (EC/PM2.5 ratios; (4 a high potassium (K/PM2.5 ratio; and (5 a low soil/PM2.5 ratio. Using these criteria, we are able to identify a number of fire episodes close to 15 IMPROVE monitors from 2001 to 2011. Most of these monitors are located in the Western and Central United States. In any given year within the study period fire events often occurred between April and September, especially in the two months of April and September. This ground-based fire

  1. Comprehensive methods for earlier detection and monitoring of forest decline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennifer Pontius; Richard Hallett

    2014-01-01

    Forested ecosystems are threatened by invasive pests, pathogens, and unusual climatic events brought about by climate change. Earlier detection of incipient forest health problems and a quantitatively rigorous assessment method is increasingly important. Here, we describe a method that is adaptable across tree species and stress agents and practical for use in the...

  2. Little Bear Fire Summary Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarah McCaffrey; Melanie Stidham; Hannah. Brenkert-Smith

    2013-01-01

    In June 2012, immediately after the Little Bear Fire burned outside Ruidoso, New Mexico, a team of researchers interviewed fire managers, local personnel, and residents to understand perceptions of the event itself, communication, evacuation, and pre-fire preparedness. The intensity of fire behavior and resulting loss of 242 homes made this a complex fire with a...

  3. The human and fire connection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theresa B. Jain

    2014-01-01

    We refer to fire as a natural disturbance, but unlike other disturbances such as forest insects and diseases, fire has had an intimate relationship with humans. Fire facilitated human evolution over two million years ago when our ancestors began to use fire to cook. Fire empowered our furbearers to adapt to cold climates, allowing humans to disperse and settle into...

  4. Emissions from Coal Fires and Their Impact on the Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolker, Allan; Engle, Mark; Stracher, Glenn; Hower, James; Prakash, Anupma; Radke, Lawrence; ter Schure, Arnout; Heffern, Ed

    2009-01-01

    extinguishing underground fires (fig. 2) (see 'Controlling Coal Fires'). In this fact sheet we review how coal fires occur, how they can be detected by airborne and remote surveys, and, most importantly, the impact coal-fire emissions may have on the environment and human health. In addition, we describe recent efforts by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and collaborators to measure fluxes of CO2, CO, CH4, and Hg, using groundbased portable detectors, and combining these approaches with airborne thermal imaging and CO2 measurements. The goal of this research is to develop approaches that can be extrapolated to large fires and to extrapolate results for individual fires in order to estimate the contribution of coal fires as a category of global emissions.

  5. Wildland Fire Management Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwager, K. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2017-09-30

    The Wildland Fire Management Plan (FMP) for Brookhaven National Lab (BNL) is written to comply with Department of Energy (DOE) Integrated Safety Management Policy; Federal Wildland Fire Management Policy and Program Review; and Wildland and Prescribed Fire Management Policy and Implementation Procedures Reference Guide. This current plan incorporates changes resulting from new policies on the national level as well as significant changes to available resources and other emerging issues, and replaces BNL's Wildland FMP dated 2014.

  6. Fundamentals of Fire Phenomena

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quintiere, James

    analyses. Fire phenomena encompass everything about the scientific principles behind fire behaviour. Combining the principles of chemistry, physics, heat and mass transfer, and fluid dynamics necessary to understand the fundamentals of fire phenomena, this book integrates the subject into a clear...... as a visiting professor at BYG.DTU financed by the Larsen and Nielsen Foundation, and is entered to the research database by Kristian Hertz responsible for the visiting professorship....

  7. Bugaboo Fire Rages in Georgia and Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Subtropical Storm Andrea apparently did little to quench numerous large wildfires burning in the U.S. Southeast in early May 2007. On May 11, 2007, when the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer Terra satellite captured this image, the remnants of the storm had dwindled to a small ball of clouds in the Atlantic Ocean, and huge plumes of smoke snaked across Georgia, Florida, and the Gulf of Mexico. Areas where MODIS detected actively burning fires are outlined in red. A huge fire is burning in and near the Okefenokee Swamp, which straddles the state line between Georgia and Florida. For logistical purposes, fire officials are calling the part of the fire in Florida the Florida Bugaboo Fire and the part in Georgia the Bugaboo Scrub Fire. The distinction is simply administrative, however; in reality, it is single, continuous swath of burning timber, swamp land, grass, and scrubland. The blaze was more than 133,000 thousand acres as of May 11, and it appeared to be spreading on virtually all perimeters at the time of the image, with active fire locations detected in a circle that surrounds an already burned (or partially burned) area. According to reports form the Southern Area Coordination Center, the fire grew by at least 20,000 acres on May 10. Numerous communities were threatened and hundreds of people were evacuated, while parts of Interstate 10 were closed to all but emergency vehicles. To the northeast of the Bugaboo Fire, other large wildfires were burning in Georgia as well. The Floyds Prairie Fire, to the immediate north, was threatening endangered species and their habitat, while farther north the 116,000-plus-acre Sweat Farm Road/Big Turnaround Complex Fire was still burning in the area south of the city of Waycross, nearly a month after the fires first started in mid-April. Southern Georgia and Florida are in the grip of moderate to extreme drought. The state line area where the Bugaboo Fire is burning is one of the areas in extreme drought. The

  8. WebFIRE

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Factor Information Retrieval (FIRE) Data System is a database management system containing EPA's recommended emission estimation factors for criteria and...

  9. Global burned area and biomass burning emissions from small fires

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Randerson, J.T; Chen, Y.; van der Werf, G.R.; Rogers, B.M.; Morton, D.C.

    2012-01-01

    In several biomes, including croplands, wooded savannas, and tropical forests, many small fires occur each year that are well below the detection limit of the current generation of global burned area products derived from moderate resolution surface reflectance imagery. Although these fires often

  10. Monitoring subsurface coal fires in Jharia coalfield using ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Coal fires in the Jharia coalfield pose a serious threat to India's vital resource of primary coking coal and the regional environment. In order to undertake effective preventative measures, it is critical to detect the occurrence of subsurface coal fires and to monitor the extent of the existing ones. In this study, Differential ...

  11. Do multiple fires interact to affect vegetation structure in temperate eucalypt forests?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haslem, Angie; Leonard, Steve W J; Bruce, Matthew J; Christie, Fiona; Holland, Greg J; Kelly, Luke T; MacHunter, Josephine; Bennett, Andrew F; Clarke, Michael F; York, Alan

    2016-12-01

    Fire plays an important role in structuring vegetation in fire-prone regions worldwide. Progress has been made towards documenting the effects of individual fire events and fire regimes on vegetation structure; less is known of how different fire history attributes (e.g., time since fire, fire frequency) interact to affect vegetation. Using the temperate eucalypt foothill forests of southeastern Australia as a case study system, we examine two hypotheses about such interactions: (1) post-fire vegetation succession (e.g., time-since-fire effects) is influenced by other fire regime attributes and (2) the severity of the most recent fire overrides the effect of preceding fires on vegetation structure. Empirical data on vegetation structure were collected from 540 sites distributed across central and eastern Victoria, Australia. Linear mixed models were used to examine these hypotheses and determine the relative influence of fire and environmental attributes on vegetation structure. Fire history measures, particularly time since fire, affected several vegetation attributes including ground and canopy strata; others such as low and sub-canopy vegetation were more strongly influenced by environmental characteristics like rainfall. There was little support for the hypothesis that post-fire succession is influenced by fire history attributes other than time since fire; only canopy regeneration was influenced by another variable (fire type, representing severity). Our capacity to detect an overriding effect of the severity of the most recent fire was limited by a consistently weak effect of preceding fires on vegetation structure. Overall, results suggest the primary way that fire affects vegetation structure in foothill forests is via attributes of the most recent fire, both its severity and time since its occurrence; other attributes of fire regimes (e.g., fire interval, frequency) have less influence. The strong effect of environmental drivers, such as rainfall and

  12. Advanced ATSR World Fire Atlas Based On SWIR Channel: 21 Years Of Fire Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramonio, Fabrizio; Casadio, Stefano; Arino, Olivier; Serpe, Danilo

    2013-12-01

    A new fire detection algorithm ALGO3, has been tested and validated for ATSR-1/-2 and AATSR. This extends the ATSR World Fire Atlas (WFA) to 21 years of global night-time fire series (Arino, Casadio and Serpe, 2011). Based on detection of the ATSRs 1.6 μm SWIR band radiances during night-time observations, ALGO3 fully extends the ATSR-WFA time series back to 1991 using the ATSR-1 measurements. But the ALGO3 can only be used outside the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA) zone of influence (Casadio and Arino, 2011). The detection capability of ALGO3 has been estimated in certain case to be an order of magnitude more efficient than the 3.7 μm ATSR-WFA algorithms (ALGO1/2). The validation has been performed comparing ALGO3 products with respect to the ones generates by MODIS-Terra. Global night-time fire trends have been evaluated by inspecting the time series of hot spots aggregated at Continental and Country scale. The Advanced ATSR-WFA products covering 21 years of global night-time fire monitoring, generated applying ALGO3, will be soon freely available for the scientific community on ESA DUE World Fire Atlas web page.

  13. Avian community responses to post-fire forest structure: Implications for fire management in mixed conifer forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Angela M.; Manley, Patricia N.; Tarbill, Gina; Richardson, T.L.; Russell, Robin E.; Safford, Hugh D.; Dobrowski, Solomon Z.

    2015-01-01

    Fire is a natural process and the dominant disturbance shaping plant and animal communities in many coniferous forests of the western US. Given that fire size and severity are predicted to increase in the future, it has become increasingly important to understand how wildlife responds to fire and post-fire management. The Angora Fire burned 1243 hectares of mixed conifer forest in South Lake Tahoe, California. We conducted avian point counts for the first 3 years following the fire in burned and unburned areas to investigate which habitat characteristics are most important for re-establishing or maintaining the native avian community in post-fire landscapes. We used a multi-species occurrence model to estimate how avian species are influenced by the density of live and dead trees and shrub cover. While accounting for variations in the detectability of species, our approach estimated the occurrence probabilities of all species detected including those that were rare or observed infrequently. Although all species encountered in this study were detected in burned areas, species-specific modeling results predicted that some species were strongly associated with specific post-fire conditions, such as a high density of dead trees, open-canopy conditions or high levels of shrub cover that occur at particular burn severities or at a particular time following fire. These results indicate that prescribed fire or managed wildfire which burns at low to moderate severity without at least some high-severity effects is both unlikely to result in the species assemblages that are unique to post-fire areas or to provide habitat for burn specialists. Additionally, the probability of occurrence for many species was associated with high levels of standing dead trees indicating that intensive post-fire harvest of these structures could negatively impact habitat of a considerable proportion of the avian community.

  14. Specialists' meeting on sodium fires and prevention. Summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-03-01

    The purpose of the specialists' meeting was to summarize the IWGFR member countries' knowledge of sodium combustion and extinguishment technology, including prevention and detection of sodium fires and protective clothes and to review and discuss critical features of sodium fires contaminated with fission products and fuel, evolution and filtration of aerosols and to determine the critical gaps in our knowledge and what should be done to develop knowledge in this area. The technical parts of the meeting were divided into three major sections, as follows: sodium fires; prevention and extinguishing of sodium fires, and aerosols

  15. Incipient crystallization of transition-metal tungstates under microwaves probed by Raman scattering and transmission electron microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siqueira, Kisla P. F.; Dias, Anderson

    2011-01-01

    Microwave synthesis was used to produce nanosized transition-metal tungstates in environmentally friendly conditions not yet reported by the literature: 110 and 150 °C, for times of 10 and 20 min. X-ray diffraction evidenced incipient crystallized materials, while transmission electron microscopy indicates nanostructured regions of about 2–5 nm inside an amorphous matrix. Raman spectroscopy was used to probe short-range ordering in the achieved samples and also to obtain a reliable set of spectra containing all the Raman-active bands predicted by group-theory calculations. The vibrational spectra showed no extra feature, indicating that the microwave processing was able to produce short-range ordered materials without tetrahedral distortions. These distortions are frequently reported when commercially modified kitchen microwave units are employed. In this work, the syntheses were conducted in a commercial apparatus especially designed for fully controlled temperature–time–pressure conditions.

  16. Incipient colonisation of Lutzomyia longipalpis in the city of Resistencia, province of Chaco, Argentina (2010-2012).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szelag, Enrique Alejandro; Parras, Matías Ariel; Fabiani, Mariela; Rosa, Juan Ramón; Salomón, Oscar Daniel

    2014-07-01

    Lutzomyia longipalpis was recorded for the first time in Argentina in 2004, in the province of Formosa. In the following years, the vector spread to the south and west in the country and was recorded in the province of Chaco in 2010. From November 2010-May 2012, captures of Phlebotominae were made in the city of Resistencia and its surroundings, to monitor the spread and possible colonisation of Lu. longipalpis in the province of Chaco. In this monitoring, Lu. longipalpis was absent in urban sampling sites and its presence was restricted to Barrio de los Pescadores. This suggests that the incipient colonisation observed in 2010 was not followed by continuous installation of vector populations and expansion of their spatial distribution as in other urban centres of Argentina.

  17. Providing satellite-based early warnings of fires to reduce fire flashovers on South Africa’s transmission lines

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Frost, PE

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The Advanced Fire Information System (AFIS) is the first near real time operational satellite-based fire monitoring system of its kind in Africa. The main aim of AFIS is to provide information regarding the prediction, detection and assessment...

  18. National Fire News- Current Wildfires

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 1 to 5) Current hours for the National Fire Information Center are (MST) 8:00 am - 4: ... information. March 9, 2018 Nationally, 35 new large fires were reported. Fire activity picked up in the ...

  19. Combined use of weather forecasting and satellite remote sensing information for fire risk, fire and fire impact monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Knorr

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The restoration of fire-affected forest areas needs to be combined with their future protection from renewed catastrophic fires, such as those that occurred in Greece during the 2007 summer season. The present work demonstrates that the use of various sources of satellite data in conjunction with weather forecast information is capable of providing valuable information for the characterization of fire danger with the purpose of protecting the Greek national forest areas. This study shows that favourable meteorological conditions have contributed to the fire outbreak during the days of the unusually damaging fires in Peloponnese as well as Euboia (modern Greek: Evia at the end of August 2007. During those days, Greece was located between an extended high pressure system in Central Europe and a low pressure system in the Middle East. Their combination resulted in strong north-northeasterly winds in the Aegean Sea. As a consequence, strong winds were also observed in the regions of Evia and Peloponnese, especially in mountainous areas. The analysis of satellite images showing smoke emitted from the fires corroborates the results from the weather forecasts. A further analysis using the Fraction of Absorbed Photosyntetically Active Radiation (FAPAR as an indicator of active vegetation shows the extent of the destruction caused by the fire. The position of the burned areas coincides with that of the active fires detected in the earlier satellite image. Using the annual maximum FAPAR as an indicator of regional vegetation density, it was found that only regions with relatively high FAPAR were burned.

  20. General fire protection guidelines for egyptian nuclear facilities. Vol. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radhad, S.; Hussien, A.Z.; Hammad, F.H.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to establish the regulatory requirements of that will provide and ensure fire protection of egyptian nuclear facilities. Those facilities that use, handle and store low and/or medium radioactive substances are included. Two or more classes of occupancy are considered to occur in the same building or structure. Fir protection measures and systems were reviewed for three of the egyptian Nuclear facilities. These are egypt first nuclear reactor (ETRR-1) building and systems, hot laboratories buildings and facilities, and the building including the AECL type Is-6500 industrial cobalt-60 gamma irradiator E gypt's mega gamma I . The study includes the outlines of the various aspects of fire protection with a view to define the relevant highlights and scope of egyptian guideline for nuclear installations. The study considers fire protection aspects including the following items: 1- Site selection. 2- General facility design. 3- Fire alarm, detection and suppression systems. 4- Protection for specific areas/control room, cable spreading room, computer room) 5- Fire emergency response planning. 6- Fire water supply. 7- Emergency lighting and communication. 8- Rescue and escape routes. 9- Explosion protection. 10-Manual fire fighting. 11- Security consideration in the interest of fire protection. 12- quality assurance programme. Therefore, first of all the design stage, then during the construction stage, and later during the operation stage, measures must be taken to forestall the risks associated with the outbreak of fire and to ensure that consequences of fire accidents remain limited

  1. The Safety Analysis of Shipborne Ammunition in Fire Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Junpeng; Wang, Xudong; Yue, Pengfei

    2017-12-01

    The safety of Ammunition has always been the focus of national military science and technology issues. And fire is one of the major safety threats to the ship’s ammunition storage environment, In this paper, Mk-82 shipborne aviation bomb has been taken as the study object, simulated the whole process of fire by using the FDS (Fire Detection System) software. According to the simulation results of FDS, ANSYS software was used to simulate the temperature field of Mk-82 carrier-based aviation bomb under fire environment, and the safety of aviation bomb in fire environment was analyzed. The result shows that the aviation bombs under the fire environment can occur the combustion or explosion after 70s constant cook-off, and it was a huge threat to the ship security.

  2. Evaluation of fire safety measures at local universities in Kenya with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Despite the selected public and private universities having a mean existence of 47 years and 14.25 years respectively, there is equally low compliance with the requirement to provide emergency lighting, automatic fire suppression systems, fire detection and alarm systems and fire Hydrants. Private universities however ...

  3. New global fire emission estimates and evaluation of volatile organic compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    C. Wiedinmyer; L. K. Emmons; S. K. Akagi; R. J. Yokelson; J. J. Orlando; J. A. Al-Saadi; A. J. Soja

    2010-01-01

    A daily, high-resolution, global fire emissions model has been built to estimate emissions from open burning for air quality modeling applications: The Fire INventory from NCAR (FINN version 1). The model framework uses daily fire detections from the MODIS instruments and updated emission factors, specifically for speciated non-methane organic compounds (NMOC). Global...

  4. Thermal remote sensing of active vegetation fires and biomass burning events [Chapter 18

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin J. Wooster; Gareth Roberts; Alistair M.S. Smith; Joshua Johnston; Patrick Freeborn; Stefania Amici; Andrew T. Hudak

    2013-01-01

    Thermal remote sensing is widely used in the detection, study, and management of biomass burning occurring in open vegetation fires. Such fires may be planned for land management purposes, may occur as a result of a malicious or accidental ignition by humans, or may result from lightning or other natural phenomena. Under suitable conditions, fires may spread rapidly...

  5. Forest Fires 3

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    heat from within the Earth could be transferred to the charcoal layers above, from there onto the peat and other vegetation in the soil and finally when it comes in contact with forest litter it would develop into a natural forest fire. Ironically, in regions usually thought of as cool and wet, forest fires do occur naturally frop1 time to ...

  6. Fire research issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard E. McArdle; Donald N. Matthews

    1934-01-01

    This number of Forest Research Motes is primarily for the forest fire protectionist. It consists of a number of very short articles, each of which gives the essence of the results of a study made recently by this Forest Experiment Station. These so-called fire studies which are represented herein by brief fragments are all part of an organized research program, having...

  7. Biomass co-firing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, Chungen

    2013-01-01

    Co-firing biomass with fossil fuels in existing power plants is an attractive option for significantly increasing renewable energy resource utilization and reducing CO2 emissions. This chapter mainly discusses three direct co-firing technologies: pulverized-fuel (PF) boilers, fluidized-bed combus...

  8. Fire forum 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    The conference contains 18 presentations on various aspects of fire prevention and protection within the power production plants and industry, safety of building constructions, cable and transformer problems, risk and safety evaluation methods, management aspects, relevant Norwegian and Icelandic laws and regulations and oil analysis. Some examples of fires and explosions are also presented. (tk)

  9. Hot fire, cool soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoof, C.R.; Moore, D.; Fernandes, P.; Stoorvogel, J.J.; Fernandes, R.; Ferreira, A.J.D.; Ritsema, C.J.

    2013-01-01

    Wildfires greatly increase a landscape's vulnerability to flooding and erosion events by removing vegetation and changing soils. Fire damage to soil increases with increasing soil temperature, and, for fires where smoldering combustion is absent, the current understanding is that soil temperatures

  10. The fire brigade renovates

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The new fire engine at CERN's Fire Station. A shiny brand-new fire engine is now attracting all the attention of the members of CERN's fire brigade. Since the beginning of last week this engine has taken over from an 18-year-old one, which has now been 'retired' from service. This modern vehicle, built in Brescia, Italy, is much lighter and more powerful than the old one and is equipped to allow the fire service to tackle most call-outs without the support of at least one other vehicle, as is currently necessary. The new fire engine is designed to transport six fire-fighters, 2000 litres of water, and is equipped not only for fire fighting actions but also to respond initially to any other kind of call-out, such as traffic accidents, chemical incidents, pollution, lightning, etc. It goes almost without saying that it is provided with the most modern safety measures, a low centre of gravity, as well as a special chassis and a combination pump (low and high pressure), which improve the safety and performance ...

  11. Advanced fire information system

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Frost, PE

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The South African Advanced Fire Information System (AFIS) is the first near real-time satellite-based fire monitoring system in Africa. It was originally developed for, and funded by, the electrical power utility Eskom, to reduce the impact of wild...

  12. Fire exposed aluminium structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maljaars, J.; Fellinger, J.; Soetens, F.

    2005-01-01

    Material properties and mechanical response models for fire design of steel structures are based on extensive research and experience. Contrarily, the behaviour of aluminium load bearing structures exposed to fire is relatively unexplored. This article gives an overview of physical and mechanical

  13. Fire exposed aluminium structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maljaars, J.; Fellinger, J.H.H.; Soetens, F.

    2006-01-01

    Material properties and mechanical response models for fire design of steel structures are based on extensive research and experience. Contrarily, the behaviour of aluminium load bearing structures exposed to fire is relatively unexplored. This article gives an overview of physical and mechanical

  14. Spacecraft Fire Safety Research at NASA Glenn Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Marit

    2016-01-01

    Appropriate design of fire detection systems requires knowledge of both the expected fire signature and the background aerosol levels. Terrestrial fire detection systems have been developed based on extensive study of terrestrial fires. Unfortunately there is no corresponding data set for spacecraft fires and consequently the fire detectors in current spacecraft were developed based upon terrestrial designs. In low gravity, buoyant flow is negligible which causes particles to concentrate at the smoke source, increasing their residence time, and increasing the transport time to smoke detectors. Microgravity fires have significantly different structure than those in 1-g which can change the formation history of the smoke particles. Finally the materials used in spacecraft are different from typical terrestrial environments where smoke properties have been evaluated. It is critically important to detect a fire in its early phase before a flame is established, given the fixed volume of air on any spacecraft. Consequently, the primary target for spacecraft fire detection is pyrolysis products rather than soot. Experimental investigations have been performed at three different NASA facilities which characterize smoke aerosols from overheating common spacecraft materials. The earliest effort consists of aerosol measurements in low gravity, called the Smoke Aerosol Measurement Experiment (SAME), and subsequent ground-based testing of SAME smoke in 55-gallon drums with an aerosol reference instrument. Another set of experiments were performed at NASAs Johnson Space Center White Sands Test Facility (WSTF), with additional fuels and an alternate smoke production method. Measurements of these smoke products include mass and number concentration, and a thermal precipitator was designed for this investigation to capture particles for microscopic analysis. The final experiments presented are from NASAs Gases and Aerosols from Smoldering Polymers (GASP) Laboratory, with selected

  15. FIRE_AX_MALBAL_SONDE

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — First ISCCP Regional Experiment (FIRE) Atlantic Stratocumulus Transition Experiment (ASTEX) Malcolm Baldridge Radiosonde Data in native format (FIRE_AX_MALBAL_SONDE)

  16. FIRE_AX_VALDIV_SONDE

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — First ISCCP Regional Experiment (FIRE) Atlantic Stratocumulus Transition Experiment (ASTEX) Malcolm Baldridge Radiosonde Data in Native format (FIRE_AX_VALDIV_SONDE)

  17. Sodium fire protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raju, C.; Kale, R.D.

    1979-01-01

    Results of experiments carried out with sodium fires to develop extinguishment techniques are presented. Characteristics, ignition temperature, heat evolution and other aspects of sodium fires are described. Out of the powders tested for extinguishment of 10 Kg sodium fires, sodium bi-carbonate based dry chemical powder has been found to be the best extinguisher followed by large sized vermiculite and then calcium carbonate powders distributed by spray nozzles. Powders, however, do not extinguish large fires effectively due to sodium-concrete reaction. To control large scale fires in a LMFBR, collection trays with protective cover have been found to cause oxygen starvation better than flooding with inert gas. This system has an added advantage in that there is no damage to the sodium facilities as has been in the case of powders which often contain chlorine compounds and cause stress corrosion cracking. (M.G.B.)

  18. METHOD OF FOREST FIRES PROBABILITY ASSESSMENT WITH POISSON LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Plotnikova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the method for the forest fire burn probability estimation on a base of Poisson distribution. The λ parameter is assumed to be a mean daily number of fires detected for each Forest Fire Danger Index class within specific period of time. Thus, λ was calculated for spring, summer and autumn seasons separately. Multi-annual daily Forest Fire Danger Index values together with EO-derived hot spot map were input data for the statistical analysis. The major result of the study is generation of the database on forest fire burn probability. Results were validated against EO daily data on forest fires detected over Irkutsk oblast in 2013. Daily weighted average probability was shown to be linked with the daily number of detected forest fires. Meanwhile, there was found a number of fires which were developed when estimated probability was low. The possible explanation of this phenomenon was provided.

  19. USFA NFIRS 2000 Basic Fire Incident Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The 2000 US Fire Administration Fire (USFA) Fire Incident & Cause Data was provided by the U.S. Fire Administration's (USFA) National Fire Data Center's (NFDC's)...

  20. USFA NFIRS 2002 Basic Fire Incident Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The 2002 US Fire Administration Fire (USFA) Fire Incident & Cause Data was provided by the U.S. Fire Administration's (USFA) National Fire Data Center's (NFDC's)...

  1. USFA NFIRS 2004 Basic Fire Incident Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The 2004 US Fire Administration Fire (USFA) Fire Incident & Cause Data was provided by the U.S. Fire Administration's (USFA) National Fire Data Center's (NFDC's)...

  2. USFA NFIRS 2009 Basic Fire Incident Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The 2009 US Fire Administration Fire (USFA) Fire Incident & Cause Data was provided by the U.S. Fire Administration's (USFA) National Fire Data Center's (NFDC's)...

  3. USFA NFIRS 2001 Basic Fire Incident Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The 2001 US Fire Administration Fire (USFA) Fire Incident & Cause Data was provided by the U.S. Fire Administration's (USFA) National Fire Data Center's (NFDC's)...

  4. Fire science at LLNL: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasegawa, H.K. (ed.)

    1990-03-01

    This fire sciences report from LLNL includes topics on: fire spread in trailer complexes, properties of welding blankets, validation of sprinkler systems, fire and smoke detectors, fire modeling, and other fire engineering and safety issues. (JEF)

  5. USFA NFIRS 2003 Basic Fire Incident Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The 2003 US Fire Administration Fire (USFA) Fire Incident & Cause Data was provided by the U.S. Fire Administration's (USFA) National Fire Data Center's (NFDC's)...

  6. USFA NFIRS 1999 Basic Fire Incident Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The 1999 US Fire Administration Fire (USFA) Fire Incident & Cause Data was provided by the U.S. Fire Administration's (USFA) National Fire Data Center's (NFDC's)...

  7. Fire risk analysis, fire simulation, fire spreading and impact of smoke and heat on instrumentation electronics - State-of-the-Art Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roewekamp, M.; Bertrand, R.; Bonneval, F.; Hamblen, D.; Siu, N.; Aulamo, H.; Martila, J.; Sandberg, J.; Virolainen, R.

    2000-01-01

    OECD countries. The contents of each chapter are based on the writers' knowledge on his or her national practices and on the results of the questionnaire. The emphasis in the descriptions of the national practices also reflects the information supplied by the responding countries. Fire PSA is also used in other OECD countries, but the scope of this report is limited to those countries which responded to the questionnaire. The contents of this report are as follows: Fire PSA methodology overview - Based on a review of fire risk studies performed in the contributing countries, the report addresses different methodology and applications issues. Methodology issues, treated in Chapter 2, include the treatment of physical barriers, fire detection and suppression systems and fire fighting. They also include the treatment of operator actions and dependencies (both direct and indirect) between a fire and the plant's safety systems, definition of initiating events, and screening methods. Key assumptions and the effect of plant operational state (i.e., full power vs. low power operation) are dealt with in the report as well. Fire simulation models and codes applied or available - Chapter 3 of the report identifies which fire simulation codes have been used in actual PSAs. The models and scenarios used in different codes are described. To build confidence on fire simulation models, validation against experimental results in different types of fires is necessary. Fire experiments and the pre- and post experiment calculation used for code validation as well as ongoing fire simulation code development projects are discussed. Examples of fire scenarios and typical modeling assumptions are treated and numerous references are given in Chapter 3. References for experimental case studies and related simulation models and codes used for analyzing the production and spreading of smoke are also provided. The impact of smoke and heat - The immediate consequences of fires are caused by heat

  8. Miniature Intelligent Wireless Fire Detector System, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of this project is to develop a wireless intelligent dual-band photodetector system for advanced fire detection/recognition, combining UV/IR III...

  9. Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) Facility, Diesel Generator Fire Protection

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, G

    2000-01-01

    This Acceptance Test Procedure (ATP) has been prepared to demonstrate that the Fire Protection and Detection System installed by Project W-441 (Cold Vacuum Drying Facility and Diesel Generator Building) functions as required by project specifications.

  10. High-Performance Fire Detector for Spacecraft, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The danger from fire aboard spacecraft is immediate with only moments for detection and suppression. Spacecraft are unique high-value systems where the cost of...

  11. NESDIS Hazard Mapping System Fire and Smoke Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Satellite Services Division of NESDIS/NOAA created an interactive Web-based GIS used to display satellite data of fire detects in near-real time. It converts the...

  12. Humans, Fires, and Forests - Social science applied to fire management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna J. Cortner; Donald R. Field; Pam Jakes; James D. Buthman

    2003-01-01

    The 2000 and 2002 fire seasons resulted in increased political scrutiny of the nation's wildland fire threats, and given the fact that millions of acres of lands are still at high risk for future catastrophic fire events, the issues highlighted by the recent fire seasons are not likely to go away any time soon. Recognizing the magnitude of the problem, the...

  13. The contribution of natural fire management to wilderness fire science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carol Miller

    2014-01-01

    When the federal agencies established policies in the late 1960s and early 1970s to allow the use of natural fires in wilderness, they launched a natural fire management experiment in a handful of wilderness areas. As a result, wildland fire has played more of its natural role in wilderness than anywhere else. Much of what we understand about fire ecology comes from...

  14. Mapping landscape fire frequency for fire regime condition class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale A. Hamilton; Wendel J. Hann

    2015-01-01

    Fire Regime Condition Class (FRCC) is a departure index that compares the current amounts of the different vegetation succession classes, fire frequency, and fire severity to historic reference conditions. FRCC assessments have been widely used for evaluating ecosystem status in many areas of the U.S. in reports such as land use plans, fire management plans, project...

  15. MODIS/Aqua Near Real Time (NRT) Coarse Thermal Anomalies/Fire 5-Min L2 Swath 5km

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MODIS Near Real Time (NRT) Thermal Anomalies/Fire products are primarily derived from MODIS 4- and 11-micrometer radiances. The fire detection strategy is based on...

  16. MODIS/Aqua Near Real Time (NRT) Thermal Anomalies/Fire 5-Min L2 Swath 1km

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MODIS Near Real Time (NRT) Thermal Anomalies/Fire products are primarily derived from MODIS 4- and 11-micrometer radiances. The fire detection strategy is based on...

  17. MODIS/Terra Near Real Time (NRT) Coarse Thermal Anomalies/Fire 5-Min L2 Swath 5km

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MODIS Near Real Time (NRT) Thermal Anomalies/Fire products are primarily derived from MODIS 4- and 11-micrometer radiances. The fire detection strategy is based on...

  18. MODIS/Terra Near Real Time (NRT) Thermal Anomalies/Fire 5-Min L2 Swath 1km

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MODIS Near Real Time (NRT) Thermal Anomalies/Fire products are primarily derived from MODIS 4- and 11-micrometer radiances. The fire detection strategy is based on...

  19. The GOES-R ABI Wild Fire Automated Biomass Burning Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, J.; Schmidt, C. C.; Prins, E. M.; Brunner, J. C.

    2011-12-01

    The global Wild Fire Automated Biomass Burning Algorithm (WF_ABBA) at the Cooperative Institute for Meteorological Satellite Studies (CIMSS) provides fire detection and characterization using data from a global constellation of geostationary satellites, currently including GOES, MTSAT, and Meteosat. CIMSS continues to enhance the legacy of the WF_ABBA by adapting the algorithm to utilize the advanced spatial, spectral, and temporal capabilities of GOES-R ABI. A wide range of simulated ABI data cases have been generated and processed with the GOES-R fire detection and characterization algorithm. Simulated cases included MODIS derived projections as well as model derived simulations that span a variety of satellite zenith angles and ecosystems. The GOES-R ABI fire product development focuses on active fire detection and sub-pixel characterization, including fire radiative power (FRP) and instantaneous fire size and temperature. With the algorithm delivered to the system contractor, the focus has moved to developing innovative new validation techniques.

  20. Electronic firing systems and methods for firing a device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frickey, Steven J [Boise, ID; Svoboda, John M [Idaho Falls, ID

    2012-04-24

    An electronic firing system comprising a control system, a charging system, an electrical energy storage device, a shock tube firing circuit, a shock tube connector, a blasting cap firing circuit, and a blasting cap connector. The control system controls the charging system, which charges the electrical energy storage device. The control system also controls the shock tube firing circuit and the blasting cap firing circuit. When desired, the control system signals the shock tube firing circuit or blasting cap firing circuit to electrically connect the electrical energy storage device to the shock tube connector or the blasting cap connector respectively.

  1. Smoke detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warmack, Robert J. Bruce; Wolf, Dennis A.; Frank, Steven Shane

    2017-10-17

    Various apparatus and methods for smoke detection are disclosed. In one embodiment, a method of training a classifier for a smoke detector comprises inputting sensor data from a plurality of tests into a processor. The sensor data is processed to generate derived signal data corresponding to the test data for respective tests. The derived signal data is assigned into categories comprising at least one fire group and at least one non-fire group. Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) training is performed by the processor. The derived signal data and the assigned categories for the derived signal data are inputs to the LDA training. The output of the LDA training is stored in a computer readable medium, such as in a smoke detector that uses LDA to determine, based on the training, whether present conditions indicate the existence of a fire.

  2. Smoke detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warmack, Robert J. Bruce; Wolf, Dennis A.; Frank, Steven Shane

    2015-10-27

    Various apparatus and methods for smoke detection are disclosed. In one embodiment, a method of training a classifier for a smoke detector comprises inputting sensor data from a plurality of tests into a processor. The sensor data is processed to generate derived signal data corresponding to the test data for respective tests. The derived signal data is assigned into categories comprising at least one fire group and at least one non-fire group. Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) training is performed by the processor. The derived signal data and the assigned categories for the derived signal data are inputs to the LDA training. The output of the LDA training is stored in a computer readable medium, such as in a smoke detector that uses LDA to determine, based on the training, whether present conditions indicate the existence of a fire.

  3. Incipient ferroelectricity of water molecules confined to nano-channels of beryl

    OpenAIRE

    Gorshunov, B. P.; Torgashev, V. I.; Zhukova, E. S.; Thomas, V. G.; Belyanchikov, M. A.; Kadlec, C.; Kadlec, F.; Savinov, M.; Ostapchuk, T.; Petzelt, J.; Prokle?ka, J.; Tomas, P. V.; Pestrjakov, E. V.; Fursenko, D. A.; Shakurov, G. S.

    2016-01-01

    Water is characterized by large molecular electric dipole moments and strong interactions between molecules; however, hydrogen bonds screen the dipole?dipole coupling and suppress the ferroelectric order. The situation changes drastically when water is confined: in this case ordering of the molecular dipoles has been predicted, but never unambiguously detected experimentally. In the present study we place separate H2O molecules in the structural channels of a beryl single crystal so that they...

  4. [Relationships of forest fire with lightning in Daxing' anling Mountains, Northeast China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Xiao-Li; Zhou, Guang-Sheng; Jia, Bing-Rui; Li, Shuai

    2012-07-01

    Forest fire is an important factor affecting forest ecosystem succession. Recently, forest fire, especially forest lightning fire, shows an increasing trend under global warming. To study the relationships of forest fire with lightning is essential to accurately predict the forest fire in time. Daxing' anling Mountains is a region with high frequency of forest lightning fire in China, and an important experiment site to study the relationships of forest fire with lightning. Based on the forest fire records and the corresponding lightning and meteorological observation data in the Mountains from 1966 to 2007, this paper analyzed the relationships of forest fire with lightning in this region. In the period of 1966-2007, both the lightning fire number and the fired forest area in this region increased significantly. The meteorological factors affecting the forest lighting fire were related to temporal scales. At yearly scale, the forest lightning fire was significantly correlated with precipitation, with a correlation coefficient of -0.489; at monthly scale, it had a significant correlation with air temperature, the correlation coefficient being 0.18. The relationship of the forest lightning fire with lightning was also related to temporal scales. At yearly scale, there was no significant correlation between them; at monthly scale, the forest lightning fire was strongly correlated with lightning and affected by precipitation; at daily scale, a positive correlation was observed between forest lightning fire and lightning when the precipitation was less than 5 mm. According to these findings, a fire danger index based on ADTD lightning detection data was established, and a forest lightning fire forecast model was developed. The prediction accuracy of this model for the forest lightning fire in Daxing' anling Mountains in 2005-2007 was > 80%.

  5. Using the Canadian Forest Fire Weather Index (FWI) System to assess the performance of fire management in Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, P. M.; Pereira, M. G.

    2009-04-01

    The success of fire management policies can be gauged by changes on the fire regime characteristics. Climate, vegetation (fuel) and topography determine the fire regime, and exert their influences at distinct temporal and spatial scales whose relative importance is quite debated. Climate factors are expected to prevail at the regional scale, while the local control of fire behaviour is determined by fuel and terrain. Recent modifications - 2001-2005 versus 2006-2008 - in wildfire incidence in Portugal are quantified by eliminating the noise associated to fire weather conditions. The following indicators of fire management performance are used, each reflecting a distinct fire management activity: number of fires, proportion of fires larger than 1 ha, proportion of fires larger than 100 ha, and median size of wildfires larger than 100 ha. The performance indicators calculated on a daily basis were examined as a function of the Canadian Forest Fire Weather Index (FWI) System components. Analysis of covariance was used to identify differences in performance between the two study periods, and non-linear regression analysis was employed to model performance indicators from FWI components for 2001-2005. The resulting models were then applied to 2006-2008 and the deviation between observed and predicted values was determined. Least square means (adjusted for neutral weather conditions) revealed statistically significant differences between the two periods for all indicators but the median size of wildfires > 100 ha. The remaining indicators were in 2006-2008 reduced by 21% (no. fires), 37% (proportion of fires >1 ha) and 63% (proportion of fires >100 ha) in comparison with 2001-2005. The results indicate that the combined performance of fire prevention, fire detection, first intervention and initial attack have improved after 2005. Reduction in the number of large fires is especially relevant, given their impact and weight in total burned area. However, no evidences were

  6. Cable tray fire tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klamerus, L.J.

    1978-01-01

    Funds were authorized by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to provide data needed for confirmation of the suitability of current design standards and regulatory guides for fire protection and control in water reactor power plants. The activities of this program through August 1978 are summarized. A survey of industry to determine current design practices and a screening test to select two cable constructions which were used in small scale and full scale testing are described. Both small and full scale tests to assess the adequacy of fire retardant coatings and full scale tests on fire shields to determine their effectiveness are outlined

  7. Coal-fired generation

    CERN Document Server

    Breeze, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Coal-Fired Generation is a concise, up-to-date and readable guide providing an introduction to this traditional power generation technology. It includes detailed descriptions of coal fired generation systems, demystifies the coal fired technology functions in practice as well as exploring the economic and environmental risk factors. Engineers, managers, policymakers and those involved in planning and delivering energy resources will find this reference a valuable guide, to help establish a reliable power supply address social and economic objectives. Focuses on the evolution of the traditio

  8. Ames T-3 fire test facility - Aircraft crash fire simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fish, R. H.

    1976-01-01

    There is a need to characterize the thermal response of materials exposed to aircraft fuel fires. Large scale open fire tests are costly and pollute the local environment. This paper describes the construction and operation of a subscale fire test that simulates the heat flux levels and thermochemistry of typical open pool fires. It has been termed the Ames T-3 Test and has been used extensively by NASA since 1969 to observe the behavior of materials exposed to JP-4 fuel fires.

  9. Laboratory fire behavior measurements of chaparral crown fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    C. Sanpakit; S. Omodan; D. Weise; M Princevac

    2015-01-01

    In 2013, there was an estimated 9,900 wildland fires that claimed more than 577,000 acres of land. That same year, about 542 prescribed fires were used to treat 48,554 acres by several agencies in California. Being able to understand fires using laboratory models can better prepare individuals to combat or use fires. Our research focused on chaparral crown fires....

  10. AT89S52 microcontroller Based A Fire Extinguisher Robot Using Ultrasonic and Ultraviolet Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahyu Sapto Aji

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The fire often takes many victims. Fire detection system sometime can not prevent this from happening. Therefore, it is essential to develop a robot that can detect the present of fire as well as extinguish it. This research aimed to design a fire extinguisher robot using AT89S52 microcontroller as its controller. A DC fan controlled by a relay is utilized to put out the fire and a fire sensor (UV-Tron is used to detect the presence of fire. The movement of the robot is driven by motor DC. The robot can detect the surrounding obstacles and possess an ultrasound-based navigation system. If the ultrasound system detects an obstacle, the robot will automatically turn without colliding the obstacle or other things around it. The result has shown that this fire extinguisher robot can be built using hardware and software controlled by an AT89S52 microcontroller. It can be concluded from the tests that the robot can detect fire as far as 5 meter distance and able to successfully put out the fire.

  11. East bay fire chiefs' consortium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael Bradley

    1995-01-01

    The traditional approach to planning for public fire protection has been based on independent actions by each fire department or district. The county fire chiefs’ associations, while providing interagency communication, were not adequate to deal with the regional nature of the wildland urban interface problem. The formation of the East Bay Fire Chiefs’ Consortium grew...

  12. Fire safety of wood construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert H. White; Mark A. Dietenberger

    2010-01-01

    Fire safety is an important concern in all types of construction. The high level of national concern for fire safety is reflected in limitations and design requirements in building codes. These code requirements and related fire performance data are discussed in the context of fire safety design and evaluation in the initial section of this chapter. Because basic data...

  13. An 800-year fire history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley G. Kitchen

    2010-01-01

    "Fire in the woods!" The words are a real heart stopper. Yet in spite of its capacity to destroy, fire plays an essential role in shaping plant communities. Knowledge of the patterns of fire over long time periods is critical for understanding this role. Trees often retain evidence of nonlethal fires in the form of injuries or scars in the annual growth rings...

  14. Management impacts on fire occurrence: A comparison of fire regimes of African and South American tropical savannas in different protected areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado, Swanni T; Silva, Thiago Sanna Freire; Archibald, Sally

    2018-04-14

    Humans can alter fire dynamics in grassland systems by changing fire frequency, fire seasonality and fuel conditions. These changes have effects on vegetation structure and recovery, species composition, and ecosystem function. Understanding how human management can affect fire regimes is vital to detect potential changes in the resilience of plant communities, and to predict vegetation responses to human interventions. We evaluated the fire regimes of two recently protected areas in Madagascar (Ibity and Itremo NPA) and one in Brazil (Serra do Cipó NP) before and after livestock exclusion and fire suppression policies. We compare the pre- and post-management fire history in these areas and analyze differences in terms of total annual burned area, density of ignitions, burn scar size distribution, fire return period and seasonal fire distribution. More than 90% of total park areas were burned at least once during the studied period, for all parks. We observed a significant reduction in the number of ignitions for Ibity NPA and Serra do Cipó NP after livestock exclusion and active fire suppression, but no significant change in total burned area for each protected area. We also observed a seasonal shift in burning, with fires happening later in the fire season (October-November) after management intervention. However, the protected areas in Madagascar had shorter fire return intervals (3.23 and 1.82 years) than those in Brazil (7.91 years). Our results demonstrate that fire exclusion is unattainable, and probably unwarranted in tropical grassland conservation areas, but show how human intervention in fire and vegetation patterns can alter various aspects of the fire regimes. This information can help with formulating realistic and effective fire management policies in these valuable conservation areas. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Specialists' meeting on sodium fires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozlov, F.A.; Kuznetsova, R.I.

    1989-01-01

    The four sessions of the meeting covered the following topics: 1. general approach to fast reactor safety, standards of fire safety, maximum design basis accidents for sodium leaks and fires, status of sodium fires in different countries; 2. physical and chemical processes during combustion of sodium and its interaction with structural and technological materials and methods for structural protection; 3. methods of sodium fires extinguishing and measures for localizing aerosol combustion products, organization of fire fighting procedures, instruction and training of fire personnel; 4. elimination of the consequences of sodium fires

  16. FIRE HAZARDS ANALYSIS - BUSTED BUTTE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longwell, R.; Keifer, J.; Goodin, S.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this fire hazards analysis (FHA) is to assess the risk from fire within individual fire areas at the Busted Butte Test Facility and to ascertain whether the DOE fire safety objectives are met. The objective, identified in DOE Order 420.1, Section 4.2, is to establish requirements for a comprehensive fire and related hazards protection program for facilities sufficient to minimize the potential for: (1) The occurrence of a fire related event. (2) A fire that causes an unacceptable on-site or off-site release of hazardous or radiological material that will threaten the health and safety of employees. (3) Vital DOE programs suffering unacceptable interruptions as a result of fire and related hazards. (4) Property losses from a fire and related events exceeding limits established by DOE. Critical process controls and safety class systems being damaged as a result of a fire and related events

  17. The economics of fire protection

    CERN Document Server

    Ramachandran, Ganapathy

    2003-01-01

    This important new book, the first of its kind in the fire safety field, discusses the economic problems faced by decision-makers in the areas of fire safety and fire precautions. The author considers the theoretical aspects of cost-benefit analysis and other relevant economic problems with practical applications to fire protection systems. Clear examples are included to illustrate these techniques in action. The work covers: * the performance and effectiveness of passive fire protection measures such as structural fire resistance and means of escape facilities, and active systems such as sprinklers and detectors * the importance of educating for better understanding and implementation of fire prevention through publicity campaigns and fire brigade operations * cost-benefit analysis of fire protection measures and their combinations, taking into account trade-offs between these measures. The book is essential reading for consultants and academics in construction management, economics and fire safety, as well ...

  18. The interaction of a vortex ring with a sloped sediment layer: Critical criteria for incipient grain motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munro, R. J.

    2012-02-01

    Experiments were performed to analyse the interaction between a vortex ring and a sloped sediment layer. Attention focussed on interactions under "critical" conditions, in which sediment motion was only just induced by the ring's flow field. Both hydraulically smooth and hydraulically rough bedforms were analysed, using near-spherical monodisperse sediments with relative densities of 1.2 and 2.5 and mean diameters (dp) ranging between 80 and 1087 μm. Measurements of the vortex-ring flow field were obtained, during the interaction, using two-dimensional particle imaging velocimetry. The threshold conditions for incipient sediment motion were analysed in terms of the critical Shields parameter (Nc), defined in terms of the peak tangential velocity measured adjacent to the bed surface. Bed-slope effects were investigated by tilting the sediment layer at various angles between the horizontal and the repose limit for the sediment. In all cases, the propagation axis of the vortex ring was aligned normal to the bed surface. The measured values of Nc were compared with a force-balance model based on the conditions for incipient grain motion on a sloping bed. For hydraulically smooth bedforms, where the bed roughness is small compared to the boundary-layer depth, the model was derived to account for how viscous stresses affect the drag and lift forces acting on the near surface sediment. For hydraulically rough bedforms, where this viscous-damping effect is not present, the model assumes the drag and lift forces scale with the square of the near-bed (inviscid) velocity scale. In both cases, the model predicts that bedforms become more mobile as the bed slope is increased. However, the damping effect of the viscous sublayer acts as a stabilizing influence for hydraulically smooth bedforms, to reduce the rate at which the bed mobility increases with bed slope. The measured values of Nc were in agreement with the trends predicted by this model, and exhibit a transition in

  19. RETRO_FIRES_WCS

    Data.gov (United States)

    Washington University St Louis — Within the RETRO project, global gridded data sets for anthropogenic and vegetation fire emissions of several trace gases were generated, covering the period from...

  20. RETRO Fires Aggr

    Data.gov (United States)

    Washington University St Louis — Within the RETRO project, global gridded data sets for anthropogenic and vegetation fire emissions of several trace gases were generated, covering the period from...

  1. Aircraft Fire Protection Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Navy Aircraft Protection Laboratory provides complete test support for all Navy air vehicle fire protection systems.The facility allows for the simulation of a...

  2. Fire Mapper, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The design of a UAV mounted Fire Mapper system is proposed. The system consists of a multi-band imaging sensor, a data processing system and a data communication...

  3. Fire and smoke retardants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drews, M. J.

    Despite a reduction in Federal regulatory activity, research concerned with flame retardancy and smoke suppression in the private sector appears to be increasing. This trend seem related to the increased utilization of plastics for end uses which traditionally have employed metal or wood products. As a result, new markets have appeared for thermally stable and fire resistance thermoplastic materials, and this in turn has spurred research and development activity. In addition, public awareness of the dangers associated with fire has increased as a result of several highly publicized hotel and restaurant fires within the past two years. The consumers recognition of flammability characteristics as important materials property considerations has increased. The current status of fire and smoke retardant chemistry and research are summarized.

  4. Basic Research Firing Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Basic Research Firing Facility is an indoor ballistic test facility that has recently transitioned from a customer-based facility to a dedicated basic research...

  5. Burns and Fire Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Control Website. Unintentional fire/burn fatalities and nonfatal injuries, children ages 19 and under. Available from: http: / / www. ... Prevention and Control. Protect the ones you love: child injuries are preventable. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention ...

  6. National Fire Protection Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Harvey became 'a landmark in the evolution of drone usage.' Learn more in NFPA Journal Storm stats ... YouTube GooglePlus Blogger Pinterest RSSFeeds Instagram Terms of Use Privacy Policy © National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) 2017

  7. Forest Fire Ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucca, Carol; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Presents a model that integrates high school science with the needs of the local scientific community. Describes how a high school ecology class conducted scientific research in fire ecology that benefited the students and a state park forest ecologist. (MKR)

  8. Fire Perimeters (2012)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Geospatial Multi-Agency Coordination Group, or GeoMAC, is an internet-based mapping tool originally designed for fire managers to access online maps of current...

  9. Fire History Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Records of past fire occurrence from tree rings, charcoal found in lake sediments, and other proxies. Parameter keywords describe what was measured in this data set....

  10. Findings From Fire Inspections

    Data.gov (United States)

    Nuclear Regulatory Commission — The purpose of this study data is to provide a metric with which to assess the effectiveness of improvements to the U.S. NRC's fire protection regulations in support...

  11. Aircraft Fire Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-05-01

    fabrics of seats, carpets, drapes, lap robes, and sound deadening insulation. Also of concern are the polymeric based plastics used in interior walls...intumescent paints and foams is considered to be feasible; cabin transparencies with improved fire resistance and structure integrity over thermoformed...aircraft fire safety as well as provide a sound basis for further : long-term imp-ovem nts in new aircraft. REFERENCES 1. Final Report of the Special

  12. Sodium fire suppression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malet, J.C.

    1979-01-01

    Ignition and combustion studies have provided valuable data and guidelines for sodium fire suppression research. The primary necessity is to isolate the oxidant from the fuel, rather than to attempt to cool the sodium below its ignition temperature. Work along these lines has led to the development of smothering tank systems and a dry extinguishing powder. Based on the results obtained, the implementation of these techniques is discussed with regard to sodium fire suppression in the Super-Phenix reactor. (author)

  13. Angora Fire, Lake Tahoe

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    On the weekend of June 23, 2007, a wildfire broke out south of Lake Tahoe, which stretches across the California-Nevada border. By June 28, the Angora Fire had burned more than 200 homes and forced some 2,000 residents to evacuate, according to The Seattle Times and the Central Valley Business Times. On June 27, the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite captured this image of the burn scar left by the Angora fire. The burn scar is dark gray, or charcoal. Water bodies, including the southern tip of Lake Tahoe and Fallen Leaf Lake, are pale silvery blue, the silver color a result of sunlight reflecting off the surface of the water. Vegetation ranges in color from dark to bright green. Streets are light gray, and the customary pattern of meandering residential streets and cul-de-sacs appears throughout the image, including the area that burned. The burn scar shows where the fire obliterated some of the residential areas just east of Fallen Leaf Lake. According to news reports, the U.S. Forest Service had expressed optimism about containing the fire within a week of the outbreak, but a few days after the fire started, it jumped a defense, forcing the evacuation of hundreds more residents. Strong winds that had been forecast for June 27, however, did not materialize, allowing firefighters to regain ground in controlling the blaze. On June 27, authorities hoped that the fire would be completely contained by July 3. According to estimates provided in the daily report from the National Interagency Fire Center, the fire had burned 3,100 acres (about 12.5 square kilometers) and was about 55 percent contained as of June 28. Some mandatory evacuations remained in effect. NASA image by Jesse Allen, using data provided courtesy of the NASA/GSFC/MITI/ERSDAC/JAROS, and U.S./Japan ASTER Science Team.

  14. Fire characteristics charts for fire behavior and U.S. fire danger rating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faith Ann Heinsch; Pat Andrews

    2010-01-01

    The fire characteristics chart is a graphical method of presenting U.S. National Fire Danger Rating indices or primary surface or crown fire behavior characteristics. A desktop computer application has been developed to produce fire characteristics charts in a format suitable for inclusion in reports and presentations. Many options include change of scales, colors,...

  15. FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS AND TECHNOLOGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aristov Denis Ivanovich

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The All-Russian Congress “Fire Stop Moscow” was de-voted to the analysis of the four segments of the industry of fire protection systems and technologies: the design of fire protec-tion systems, the latest developments and technologies of active and passive fire protection of buildings, the state and the devel-opment of the legal framework, the practice of fire protection of buildings and structures. The forum brought together the repre-sentatives of the industry of fire protection systems, scientists, leading experts, specialists in fire protection and representatives of construction companies from different regions of Russia. In parallel with the Congress Industrial Exhibition of fire protection systems, materials and technology was held, where manufacturers presented their products. The urgency of the “Fire Stop Moscow” Congress in 2015 organized by the Congress Bureau ODF Events lies primarily in the fact that it considered the full range of issues related to the fire protection of building and construction projects; studied the state of the regulatory framework for fire safety and efficiency of public services, research centers, private companies and busi-nesses in the area of fire safety. The main practical significance of the event which was widely covered in the media space, was the opportunity to share the views and information between management, science, and practice of business on implementing fire protection systems in the conditions of modern economic relations and market realities. : congress, fire protection, systems, technologies, fire protection systems, exhibition

  16. Human and biophysical influences on fire occurrence in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawbaker, Todd J; Radeloff, Volker C; Stewart, Susan I; Hammer, Roger B; Keuler, Nicholas S; Clayton, Murray K

    2013-04-01

    National-scale analyses of fire occurrence are needed to prioritize fire policy and management activities across the United States. However, the drivers of national-scale patterns of fire occurrence are not well understood, and how the relative importance of human or biophysical factors varies across the country is unclear. Our research goal was to model the drivers of fire occurrence within ecoregions across the conterminous United States. We used generalized linear models to compare the relative influence of human, vegetation, climate, and topographic variables on fire occurrence in the United States, as measured by MODIS active fire detections collected between 2000 and 2006. We constructed models for all fires and for large fires only and generated predictive maps to quantify fire occurrence probabilities. Areas with high fire occurrence probabilities were widespread in the Southeast, and localized in the Mountain West, particularly in southern California, Arizona, and New Mexico. Probabilities for large-fire occurrence were generally lower, but hot spots existed in the western and south-central United States The probability of fire occurrence is a critical component of fire risk assessments, in addition to vegetation type, fire behavior, and the values at risk. Many of the hot spots we identified have extensive development in the wildland--urban interface and are near large metropolitan areas. Our results demonstrated that human variables were important predictors of both all fires and large fires and frequently exhibited nonlinear relationships. However, vegetation, climate, and topography were also significant variables in most ecoregions. If recent housing growth trends and fire occurrence patterns continue, these areas will continue to challenge policies and management efforts seeking to balance the risks generated by wildfires with the ecological benefits of fire.

  17. Evaluation of Alternative Atomistic Models for the Incipient Growth of ZnO by Atomic Layer Deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, Manh-Hung; Tian, Liang; Chaker, Ahmad; Skopin, Evgenii; Cantelli, Valentina; Ouled, Toufik; Boichot, Raphaël; Crisci, Alexandre; Lay, Sabine; Richard, Marie-Ingrid; Thomas, Olivier; Deschanvres, Jean-Luc; Renevier, Hubert; Fong, Dillon; Ciatto, Gianluca

    2017-03-20

    ZnO thin films are interesting for applications in several technological fields, including optoelectronics and renewable energies. Nanodevice applications require controlled synthesis of ZnO structures at nanometer scale, which can be achieved via atomic layer deposition (ALD). However, the mechanisms governing the initial stages of ALD had not been addressed until very recently. Investigations into the initial nucleation and growth as well as the atomic structure of the heterointerface are crucial to optimize the ALD process and understand the structure-property relationships for ZnO. We have used a complementary suite of in situ synchrotron x-ray techniques to investigate both the structural and chemical evolution during ZnO growth by ALD on two different substrates, i.e., SiO2 and Al2O3, which led us to formulate an atomistic model of the incipient growth of ZnO. The model relies on the formation of nanoscale islands of different size and aspect ratio and consequent disorder induced in the Zn neighbors' distribution. However, endorsement of our model requires testing and discussion of possible alternative models which could account for the experimental results. In this work, we review, test, and rule out several alternative models; the results confirm our view of the atomistic mechanisms at play, which influence the overall microstructure and resulting properties of the final thin film.

  18. Fire protection and fire fighting in nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    Fires are a threat to all technical installations. While fire protection has long been a well established conventional discipline, its application to nuclear facilities requires special considerations. Nevertheless, for a long time fire engineering has been somewhat neglected in the design and operation of nuclear installations. In the nuclear industry, the Browns Ferry fire in 1975 brought about an essential change in the attention paid to fire problems. Designers and plant operators, as well as insurance companies and regulators, increased their efforts to develop concepts and methods for reducing fire risks, not only to protect the capital investment in nuclear plants but also to consider the potential secondary effects which could lead to nuclear accidents. Although the number of fires in nuclear installations is still relatively large, their overall importance to the safety of nuclear power plants was not considered to be very high. Only more recently have probabilistic analyses changed this picture. The results may well have to be taken into account more carefully. Various aspects of fire fighting and fire protection were discussed during the Symposium, the first of its kind to be organized by the IAEA. It was convened in co-operation with several organizations working in the nuclear or fire protection fields. The intention was to gather experts from nuclear engineering areas and the conventional fire protection field at one meeting with a view to enhancing the exchange of information and experience and to presenting current knowledge on the various disciplines involved. The presentations at the meeting were subdivided into eight sessions: standards and licensing (6 papers); national fire safety practices (7 papers); fire safety by design (11 papers); fire fighting (2 papers); computer fire modeling (7 papers); fire safety in fuel center facilities (7 papers); fire testing of materials (3 papers); fire risk assessment (5 papers). A separate abstract was

  19. Fire propagation equation for the explicit identification of fire scenarios in a fire PSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Ho Gon; Han, Sang Hoon; Moon, Joo Hyun

    2011-01-01

    When performing fire PSA in a nuclear power plant, an event mapping method, using an internal event PSA model, is widely used to reduce the resources used by fire PSA model development. Feasible initiating events and component failure events due to fire are identified to transform the fault tree (FT) for an internal event PSA into one for a fire PSA using the event mapping method. A surrogate event or damage term method is used to condition the FT of the internal PSA. The surrogate event or the damage term plays the role of flagging whether the system/component in a fire compartment is damaged or not, depending on the fire being initiated from a specified compartment. These methods usually require explicit states of all compartments to be modeled in a fire area. Fire event scenarios, when using explicit identification, such as surrogate or damage terms, have two problems: there is no consideration of multiple fire propagation beyond a single propagation to an adjacent compartment, and there is no consideration of simultaneous fire propagations in which an initiating fire event is propagated to multiple paths simultaneously. The present paper suggests a fire propagation equation to identify all possible fire event scenarios for an explicitly treated fire event scenario in the fire PSA. Also, a method for separating fire events was developed to make all fire events a set of mutually exclusive events, which can facilitate arithmetic summation in fire risk quantification. A simple example is given to confirm the applicability of the present method for a 2x3 rectangular fire area. Also, a feasible asymptotic approach is discussed to reduce the computational burden for fire risk quantification

  20. Cold Vacuum Dryer (CVD) Facility Fire Protection System Design Description (SYS 24)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SINGH, G.

    2000-10-17

    This system design description (SDD) addresses the Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) Facility fire protection system (FPS). The primary features of the FPS for the CVD are a fire alarm and detection system, automatic sprinklers, and fire hydrants. The FPS also includes fire extinguishers located throughout the facility and fire hydrants to assist in manual firefighting efforts. In addition, a fire barrier separates the operations support (administrative) area from the process bays and process bay support areas. Administrative controls to limit combustible materials have been established and are a part of the overall fire protection program. The FPS is augmented by assistance from the Hanford Fire Department (HED) and by interface systems including service water, electrical power, drains, instrumentation and controls. This SDD, when used in conjunction with the other elements of the definitive design package, provides a complete picture of the FPS for the CVD Facility.