WorldWideScience

Sample records for incineration system rose

  1. Incineration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmes, R.G.G.

    1988-01-01

    One of the methods of destroying organics in radwaste is incineration. This presentation will summarise some of the advantages and problems associated with incineration and will illustrate some of these points by discussing progress in an options study into methods of treating plutonium contaminated material waste, being carried out by British Nuclear Fuels plc. The wastes amenable for treatment, fall into two categories, low-level wastes and intermediate-level wastes. (author)

  2. Incineration systems for low level and mixed wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vavruska, J.

    1986-01-01

    A variety of technologies has emerged for incineration of combustible radioactive, hazardous, and mixed wastes. Evaluation and selection of an incineration system for a particular application from such a large field of options are often confusing. This paper presents several current incineration technologies applicable to Low Level Waste (LLW), hazardous waste, and mixed waste combustion treatment. The major technologies reviewed include controlled-air, rotary kiln, fluidized bed, and liquid injection. Coupled with any incineration technique is the need to select a compatible offgas effluent cleaning system. This paper also reviews the various methods of treating offgas emissions for acid vapor, particulates, organics, and radioactivity. Such effluent control systems include the two general types - wet and dry scrubbing with a closer look at quenching, inertial systems, fabric filtration, gas absorption, adsorption, and various other filtration techniques. Selection criteria for overall waste incineration systems are discussed as they relate to waste characterization

  3. Incineration system for solid and liquid radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krutman, J.K.Z.; Grosche Filho, C.E.; Alfonso, S.A.

    1986-01-01

    An incineration system that allows the burning of solid and liquid radioactive wastes transforming them to highly insoluble ashes, and volumetric reduction from 30 to 50 times, depending on the incinerated waste. The global factor of activity retention contained in the waste is the order of 99%. The proposed incineration system allows the total combustion of radioactive waste and the generated gases during the burning. The formation of gaseous secondary wastes is minimum and any liquid waste is formed, reducing the costs of installation and operation. (M.C.K.) [pt

  4. Development of an incineration system for radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chrubasik, A.

    1989-01-01

    NUKEM GmbH (W. Germany) has developed and built some plants for treatment of radioactive waste. In cooperation with Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Center and on the basis of non-nuclear incineration plants, NUKEM has designed and built a new incineration plant for low level radioactive solid waste. The main features of the plant are improvement of the waste handling during feeding, very low particulate load downstream the incinerator and simple flue-gas cleaning system. This process is suitable for treatment of waste generated above all in nuclear power plants. (author)

  5. Control system for high-temperature slagging incinerator plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuzaki, Yuji

    1986-01-01

    Low-level radioactive wastes generated in the nuclear generating plants are increasing year by year and to dispose them safely constitutes a big problem for the society. A few years ago, as the means of reducing them to as little volume as possible by incinerating and fusing the wastes, a high-temperature slagging incinerating method was developed, and this method is highly assessed. JGC Corp. has introduced that system technology and in order to prove the capacity of disposal and salubrity of the plant, and have constructed a full-sized pilot plant, then obtained the operational record and performance as they had planned. This report introduces the general processing of the wastes from their incineration and fusion as well as process control technology characteristic to high-temperature slagging incinerator furnaces and sensor technology. (author)

  6. Simulation of harvest operations in a static rose cultivation system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ooster, van 't A.; Bontsema, J.; Henten, van E.; Hemming, S.

    2014-01-01

    Labour is the most dominant cost factor in Dutch cut-rose production. To improve crop production systems and labour management, a generic process modelling approach was developed enabling the impact of different scenarios on labour productivity to be assessed. The crop production system with crop

  7. Sustainable waste management via incineration system: an Islamic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper would firstly examine solid waste management currently experienced in Malaysia with special concentration given to waste incineration. Its function and benefits entailed from this system shall then be identified. This paper attempts to emphasize this notion within the Islamic perspective, stressing on the needs to ...

  8. System of the incineration for the liquid scintillation garbage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naba, Katsumi

    1981-12-01

    In Japan from 1980 the incineration of the used scintillation liquid has been permitted according to the safety guide regulation of Japan Scientific Technology Agency. This incineration method would disperse the radioactivity in local site and destroy the chemicals at the same time. This system are consist of three parts. (1) Filtration and pH. adjustment of liquid garbage. (2) Bubbling vaporization in closed cycle. The temperature of the solution inside vessel is kept from 65 0 C to 85 0 C and the solution is bubbled with nealy 4 0 C circulated air. After the end of distillation, water layer is separated from the organic chemical layer and put it down the drain according to the regulation. (3) The residue is mixed with only the distilled organic chemicals according to the next classification, thereafter incineration is carried out. (a) For under the radioactive concentration of 1 x 10 -3 μCi/ml, the mixed scintillation liquid are burned up in specially designed incinerator. (b) For over the level of 1 x 10 -3 μCi/ml, only the distilled organic chemicals are burned up and the residue will be sent to the Waste Disposal Site. (c) For under the water content of 5% these liquid garbage can be directly are burned up without distillation The residue seemed to be suitable for the combustion of the dried carcased animals as the auxiliary fuels. This incinerator will be able to use as room heater or water heater for the bath without radioactive contamination inside of install room. (author)

  9. Development of Mitsui/Juelich Incineration System and hydro-thermal ash solidification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, S.; Kamada, S.; Nakamori, Y.; Katakura, M.; Yamazaki, N.

    1988-01-01

    This paper summarizes the developing program for Mitsui/Juelich Incinerated System combined with Hydrothermal ash solidification. The system is an integrated one and capable for volume reduction of various kind of radioactive waste and safe disposal of residual incinerator ash. The system also has an advantage of reducing construction and operation cost. An outline of the incineration plant is also presented in this paper

  10. An efficient transient expression system for gene function analysis in rose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jun; Bai, Mengjuan; Ren, Haoran; Liu, Jinyi; Wang, Changquan

    2017-01-01

    Roses are widely used as garden ornamental plants and cut flowers. Rosa chinensis cv 'Old Blush' has been used as a model genotype in rose studies due to its contribution to recurrent flowering and tea scent traits of modern roses. The deficiency of efficient genetic transformation systems is a handicap limiting functional genetics studies of roses. Agrobacterium -mediated transient transformation offers a powerful tool for the characterization of gene function in plants. A convenient and highly efficient Agrobacterium mediated genetic transformation protocol using R. chinensis cv 'Old Blush' seedlings in vitro as an expression system is described in this paper. The most important factor affecting transformation efficiency in this system is seedling age; 3/4-week-old rose shoots with or without roots from sub-culturing are optimal for transformation, requiring no complicated inoculation media, supplements, or carefully tuned plant growth conditions. This transient expression system was successfully applied to analysis of the gene promoter activities, DNA binding capacity of transcription factors, protein-protein interaction in physiological contexts using luciferase as a reporter gene. This transient transformation system was validated as a robust and efficient platform, thus providing a new option for gene function and signaling pathway investigation in roses and further extending the utility of R. chinensis cv 'Old Blush' as a model plant to study diverse gene function and signaling pathways in Rosaceae.

  11. Waste incineration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rumplmayr, A.; Sammer, G.

    2001-01-01

    Waste incineration can be defined as the thermal conversion processing of solid waste by chemical oxidation. The types of wastes range from solid household waste and infectious hospital waste through to toxic solid, liquid and gaseous chemical wastes. End products include hot incineration gases, composed primarily of nitrogen, carbon dioxide, water vapor and to a smaller extend of non-combustible residue (ash) and air pollutants (e. g. NO x ). Energy can be recovered by heat exchange from the hot incineration gases, thus lowering fossil fuel consumption that in turn can reduce emissions of greenhouse gases. Burning of solid waste can fulfil up to four distinctive objectives (Pera, 2000): 1. Volume reduction: volume reduction of about 90 %, weight reduction of about 70 %; 2. Stabilization of waste: oxidation of organic input; 3. Recovery of energy from waste; 4. Sanitization of waste: destruction of pathogens. Waste incineration is not a means to make waste disappear. It does entail emissions into air as well as water and soil. The generated solid residues are the topic of this task force. Unlike other industrial processes discussed in this platform, waste incineration is not a production process, and is therefore not generating by-products, only residues. Residues that are isolated from e. g. flue gas, are concentrated in another place and form (e. g. air pollution control residues). Hence, there are generally two groups of residues that have to be taken into consideration: residues generated in the actual incineration process and others generated in the flue gas cleaning system. Should waste incineration finally gain public acceptance, it will be necessary to find consistent regulations for both sorts of residues. In some countries waste incineration is seen as the best option for the treatment of waste, whereas in other countries it is seen very negative. (author)

  12. Feasibility and conceptual design for a mobile incineration system for combustible LLW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-09-01

    Since volume reduction by incineration, with subsequent solidification before shipping, can result in typical overall reductions between 40 to 1 and 60 to 1 (depending on density), there are strong economic incentives for small generators to incinerate their low-level radioactive wastes, and minimize the volumes for which they must pay to ship and bury. Because of these factors, the concept of a Mobile Incineration System (MIS) appears to be a viable alternative for small generators. This report covers the conceptual design of a MIS consisting of a controlled-air incinerator with the required off-gas treatment system mounted on two semi-trailers which can be brought to the site of the small generator. It also covers the regulatory and licensing aspects, as well as the economics related to the design. 17 tables

  13. Rose Hip

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... shows that taking rose hip powder mixed with apple juice does not affect weight or blood sugar ... Rose, Phool Gulab, Pink Rose, Poire d'oiseaux, Rosa alba, Rosa canina, Rosa centifolia, Rosa damascena, Rosa ...

  14. Design Study of an Incinerator Ash Conveyor Counting System - 13323

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaederstroem, Henrik; Bronson, Frazier

    2013-01-01

    A design study has been performed for a system that should measure the Cs-137 activity in ash from an incinerator. Radioactive ash, expected to consist of both Cs-134 and Cs-137, will be transported on a conveyor belt at 0.1 m/s. The objective of the counting system is to determine the Cs-137 activity and direct the ash to the correct stream after a diverter. The decision levels are ranging from 8000 to 400000 Bq/kg and the decision error should be as low as possible. The decision error depends on the total measurement uncertainty which depends on the counting statistics and the uncertainty in the efficiency of the geometry. For the low activity decision it is necessary to know the efficiency to be able to determine if the signal from the Cs-137 is above the minimum detectable activity and that it generates enough counts to reach the desired precision. For the higher activity decision the uncertainty of the efficiency needs to be understood to minimize decision errors. The total efficiency of the detector is needed to be able to determine if the detector will be able operate at the count rate at the highest expected activity. The design study that is presented in this paper describes how the objectives of the monitoring systems were obtained, the choice of detector was made and how ISOCS (In Situ Object Counting System) mathematical modeling was used to calculate the efficiency. The ISOCS uncertainty estimator (IUE) was used to determine which parameters of the ash was important to know accurately in order to minimize the uncertainty of the efficiency. The examined parameters include the height of the ash on the conveyor belt, the matrix composition and density and relative efficiency of the detector. (authors)

  15. Incineration for resource recovery in a closed ecological life support system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhye, R. S.; Wignarajah, K.; Wydeven, T.

    1993-01-01

    A functional schematic, including mass and energy balance, of a solid waste processing system for a controlled ecological life support system (CELSS) was developed using Aspen Plus, a commercial computer simulation program. The primary processor in this system is an incinerator for oxidizing organic wastes. The major products derived from the incinerator are carbon dioxide and water, which can be recycled to a crop growth chamber (CGC) for food production. The majority of soluble inorganics are extracted or leached from the inedible biomass before they reach the incinerator, so that they can be returned directly to the CGC and reused as nutrients. The heat derived from combustion of organic compounds in the incinerator was used for phase-change water purification. The waste streams treated by the incinerator system conceptualized in this work are inedible biomass from a CGC, human urine (including urinal flush water) and feces, humidity condensate, shower water, and trash. It is estimated that the theoretical minimum surface area required for the radiator to reject the unusable heat output from this system would be 0.72 sq m/person at 298 K.

  16. Waste Incinerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-05-01

    This book deals with plan and design of waste incinerator, which includes process outline of waste, method of measure, test, analysis, combustion way and classification of incineration facilities, condition of combustion and incineration, combustion calculation and heat calculation, ventilation and flow resistivity, an old body and component materials of supplementary installation, attached device, protection of pollution of incineration ash and waste gas, deodorization, prevention of noise in incineration facility, using heat and electric heat, check order of incineration plan.

  17. Columbia River System Operation Review final environmental impact statement. Appendix A: River Operation Simulation (ROSE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-11-01

    The System Operation Review (SOR) is a study and environmental compliance process being used by the three Federal agencies to analyze future operations of the system and river use issues. The goal of the SOR is to achieve a coordinated system operation strategy for the river that better meets the needs of all river users. This technical appendix addresses only the effects of alternative system operating strategies for managing the Columbia River system. The River Operation Simulation Experts (ROSE) work group is comprised of representatives of the Corps, BPA, Reclamation, NMFS, Pacific Northwest Utilities Conference Committee (PNUCC), and Northwest Power Planning Council (NPPC). ROSE was responsible for using computer hydroregulation models to simulate the operation of the river system for all of the alternatives evaluated in screening and full scale analysis in SOR. These models are complex computer programs which sequentially route streamflows through each dam in the system, calculating the streamflows, reservoir elevations, spill, power generation and other information at each project and pertinent locations on the river system. ROSE first reviewed specifications of proposed alternatives to determine whether such alternatives were formulated adequately to be run on hydroregulation models

  18. Comparison of high temperature gas particulate collectors for low level radwaste incinerator volume reduction systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moscardini, R.L.; Johnston, J.R.; Waters, R.M.; Zievers, J.F.

    1983-01-01

    Incinerator system off-gases must be treated to prevent the release of particulates, noxious gases and radioactive elements to the environment. Fabric filters, venturi scrubbers, cyclone separators, an ceramic or metal filter candles have been used for particulate removal. Dry high temperature particulate collectors have the advantage of not creating additional liquid wastes. This paper presents a graphical comparison of different methods for filtering particles from high temperature incineration system off-gases. Eight methods of off-gas handling are compared. A much larger group may be present, but some judicious selection of different, but related systems was done for this paper based on experience with the Combustion Engineering Waste Incineration System (CE/WIS) Prototype. The eight types are: Inertial Devices, Electrostatic Precipitators (ESP), Standard Fabric Bags, Woven Ceramic Bags, Granular Beds, Sintered Metal Tubes, Felted Ceramic Bags and Ceramic Filter Candles. For high temperature LLRW particulate collection in incinerator off-gas systems, ceramic filter candles are the best overall choice

  19. Rose Scent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guterman, Inna; Shalit, Moshe; Menda, Naama; Piestun, Dan; Dafny-Yelin, Mery; Shalev, Gil; Bar, Einat; Davydov, Olga; Ovadis, Mariana; Emanuel, Michal; Wang, Jihong; Adam, Zach; Pichersky, Eran; Lewinsohn, Efraim; Zamir, Dani; Vainstein, Alexander; Weiss, David

    2002-01-01

    For centuries, rose has been the most important crop in the floriculture industry; its economic importance also lies in the use of its petals as a source of natural fragrances. Here, we used genomics approaches to identify novel scent-related genes, using rose flowers from tetraploid scented and nonscented cultivars. An annotated petal EST database of ∼2100 unique genes from both cultivars was created, and DNA chips were prepared and used for expression analyses of selected clones. Detailed chemical analysis of volatile composition in the two cultivars, together with the identification of secondary metabolism–related genes whose expression coincides with scent production, led to the discovery of several novel flower scent–related candidate genes. The function of some of these genes, including a germacrene D synthase, was biochemically determined using an Escherichia coli expression system. This work demonstrates the advantages of using the high-throughput approaches of genomics to detail traits of interest expressed in a cultivar-specific manner in nonmodel plants. PMID:12368489

  20. Potential applications of artificial intelligence in computer-based management systems for mixed waste incinerator facility operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivera, A.L.; Singh, S.P.N.; Ferrada, J.J.

    1991-01-01

    The Department of Energy/Oak Ridge Field Office (DOE/OR) operates a mixed waste incinerator facility at the Oak Ridge K-25 Site, designed for the thermal treatment of incinerable liquid, sludge, and solid waste regulated under the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) and the Resource Conversion and Recovery Act (RCRA). Operation of the TSCA Incinerator is highly constrained as a result of the regulatory, institutional, technical, and resource availability requirements. This presents an opportunity for applying computer technology as a technical resource for mixed waste incinerator operation to facilitate promoting and sustaining a continuous performance improvement process while demonstrating compliance. This paper describes mixed waste incinerator facility performance-oriented tasks that could be assisted by Artificial Intelligence (AI) and the requirements for AI tools that would implement these algorithms in a computer-based system. 4 figs., 1 tab

  1. Robots in the Roses

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    2014-04 Robots in the Roses A CRUSER Sponsored Event. The 4th Annual Robots in the Roses provides a venue for Faculty & NPS Students to showcase unmanned systems research (current or completed) and recruit NPS Students to join in researching on your project. Posters, robots, vehicles, videos, and even just plain humans welcome! Families are welcome to attend Robots in the Roses as we'll have a STEM activity for children to participate in.

  2. Environmental impact of emissions from incineration plants in comparison to typical heating systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielgosiński, Grzegorz; Namiecińska, Olga; Czerwińska, Justyna

    2018-01-01

    In recent years, five modern municipal waste incineration plants have been built in Poland. Next ones are being constructed and at the same time building of several others is being considered. Despite positive experience with the operation of the existing installations, each project of building a new incinerator raises a lot of emotions and social protests. The main argument against construction of an incineration plant is the emission of pollutants. The work compares emissions from municipal waste incineration plants with those from typical heating plants: in the first part, for comparison large heating plants equipped with pulverized coal-fired boilers (OP-140), stoker-fired boilers (three OR-32 boilers) or gas blocks with heat output of about 100 MW have been selected, while the second part compares WR-10 and WR-25 stoker-fired boilers most popular in our heating industry with thermal treatment systems for municipal waste or refuse-derived-fuel (RDF) with similar heat output. Both absolute emission and impact - immission of pollutants in vicinity of the plant were analyzed.

  3. Environmental impact of emissions from incineration plants in comparison to typical heating systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wielgosiński Grzegorz

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, five modern municipal waste incineration plants have been built in Poland. Next ones are being constructed and at the same time building of several others is being considered. Despite positive experience with the operation of the existing installations, each project of building a new incinerator raises a lot of emotions and social protests. The main argument against construction of an incineration plant is the emission of pollutants. The work compares emissions from municipal waste incineration plants with those from typical heating plants: in the first part, for comparison large heating plants equipped with pulverized coal-fired boilers (OP-140, stoker-fired boilers (three OR-32 boilers or gas blocks with heat output of about 100 MW have been selected, while the second part compares WR-10 and WR-25 stoker-fired boilers most popular in our heating industry with thermal treatment systems for municipal waste or refuse-derived-fuel (RDF with similar heat output. Both absolute emission and impact - immission of pollutants in vicinity of the plant were analyzed.

  4. Incineration or autoclave? A comparative study in isfahan hospitals waste management system (2010).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferdowsi, Ali; Ferdosi, Masoud; Mehrani, Mohammd Javad

    2013-03-01

    Medical wastes are among hazardous wastes and their disposal requires special methods prior to landfilling. Medical wastes are divided into infected and non-infected wastes and the infected wastes require treatment. Incineration is one of the oldest methods for treatment of medical wastes, but their usage have faced wide objections due to emission of hazardous gases such as CO2 and CO as well as Carcinogenic gases such as Dioxins and Furans which are generated as a result of incomplete combustion of compositions like PVCs. Autoclave is one the newest methods of medical wastes treatment which works based on wet disinfection. The statistical population in this descriptive, comparative study includes hospitals located in Isfahan city and the sample hospitals were selected randomly. To environmentally evaluate the Autoclave method, TST (time, steam, temperature) and Spore tests were used. Also, samples were made from incinerator's stack gases and their analyses results were compared with WHO standards. TST and spore tests results were negative in all cases indicating the success of treatment process. The comparison of incinerator's stack gases with WHO standards showed the high concentration of CO in some samples indicating the incomplete combustion. Also, the incineration efficiency in some cases was less than 99.5 percent, which is the efficiency criterion according to the administrative regulations of wastes management law of Iran. No needle stick was observed in Autoclave method during the compaction of bags containing wastes, and the handlers were facing no danger in this respect. The comparison of costs indicated that despite higher capital investment for purchasing autoclave, its current costs (e.g. maintenance, etc) are much less than the incineration method. Totally, due to inappropriate operation of incinerators and lack of air pollution control devices, the use of incinerators doesn't seem rational anymore. Yet, despite the inefficiency of autoclaves in

  5. Waste incineration within the Swedish district heating systems - Sub-Project 4; Avfallsfoerbraenning inom Sveriges fjaerrvaermesystem - Delprojekt 4 inom projektet Perspektiv paa framtida avfallsbehandling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haraldsson, Maarten; Holmstroem; David

    2012-07-01

    Waste incineration within the Swedish district heating systems is one of the five sub-projects within the project Perspectives on sustainable waste treatment. The goal of this project is to evaluate the economic potential for waste incineration in the Swedish district heating systems. With the current expansion of incineration, we may relatively soon reach an upper limit for what is demanded by the Swedish district heating systems. How much more waste incineration that is economically attractive to build is of great importance for the development of the Swedish waste system, not least for the alternatives to incineration as for example biogas production. With continued rising quantities of waste and stagnant demand for waste incineration from the district heating systems, today's surplus of treatment capacity may change the market picture for other waste treatment options. How much more waste incineration requested and how quickly the market reaches this level is studied in this project.

  6. Design and operational experience with the off-gas cleaning system of the Seibersdorf incinerator plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patek, P.

    1982-05-01

    After a description of the design and the construction principles of the incinerator building, the furnace and its attached auxilary devices are explained. The incinerator is layed out for low level wastes. It has a vertical furnace, operates with discontinuous feeding for trashes with heat-values between 600 and 10000 kcal/kg waste. The maximum throughput ammounts 40 kg/h. The purification of the off-gas is guaranteed by a multistage filter system: 2 stages with ceramic candles, an electrostatic filter and a HEPA-filter system. The control of the off-gas cleaning is carried out by a stack instrumentation, consisting of an aerosol-, gas-, iodine- and tritium-monitor; the building is surveilled by doserate- and aerosolmonitors. Finally the experiences of the first year of operation and the main problems in running the plant are described. (Author) [de

  7. Design and operational experience with the off-gas cleaning system of the Seibersdorf incinerator plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patek, P.R.M.

    1983-01-01

    After a description of the design and the construction principles of the incinerator building, the furnace and its attached auxiliary devices are explained. The incinerator is layed out for low level wastes. It has a vertical furnace, operates with discontinuous feeding for trashes with heat-values between 600 and 10,000 kcal/kg waste. The maximum throughput amounts to 40 kg/h. The purification of the off-gas is guaranteed by a multistage filter system: 2 stages with ceramic candles, an electrostatic filter and a HEPA-filter system. The control of the off-gas cleaning is carried out by a stack instrumentation, consisting of an aerosol-, gas-, iodine- and tritium-monitor; the building is surveyed by doserate and aerosolmonitors. Finally the experiences of the first year of operation and the main problems in running the plant are described. (author)

  8. Balance carried out on an alpha waste incinerator in order to qualify its filtration system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cartier, R.; Burghofer, P.; Tregoures, A.; Maurel, J.M.; Vendel, J.

    1991-01-01

    A balance was carried out on a pilot incinerator of inactive solid waste running at 4 kg/h. Various measurements were taken in order to qualify the prefiltration system of the incineration process operating by pyrolysis, afterburning and calcination: determining the ventilation characteristics of the plant (gas flow rates and residence time) and the physico-chemical characteristics of the effluent (mass flow and granulometric range of particles, chemical composition of gases). Various methods of sampling and of analyzing the gases were adopted and a thermochemical model was produced. Its results are reasonably close to the experimental measurements. The emission consists of submicronic particles and porous layers are the best adapted cleaning system

  9. Noncondensable hydrogen sulfide incineration with brine scrubbing air emissions control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goddard, W.B.; Goddard, C.B.; McClain, D.W.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on the technical and institutional feasibility of incinerating hydrogen sulfide (H2S) contained in geothermal noncondensable gases, and the use of geothermal brine for sulfur dioxide scrubbing and absorption as an Air Emissions Control System (AECS), for geothermal power plant, that have been documented through engineering analysis in the Phase I grant study funded through the California Department of Health Services (DOHS), Hazardous Materials Reduction Grant Program and hosted by California Energy Company (CECI). Grant funding for Phase II now has been approved to proceed with the project through the pilot plant design phase. This innovative AECS does not necessitate the use of hazardous materials or produce hazardous wastes. Cost savings were documented compared to injection pump operation or conventional AECS without the use of hazardous materials. The phase II project is to design, improve, research and develop a source reduction demonstration pilot plant geothermal noncondensable H2S incineration AECS

  10. Operation of a 1/10 scale mixed water incinerator air pollution control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, D.B.; Wong, A.; Walker, W.

    1996-01-01

    The Consolidated Incineration Facility (CIF) at the Savannah River Site is designed to treat solid and liquid RCRA hazardous and mixed wastes generated by site operations and clean-up activities. The technologies selected for use in the CIF air pollution control system (APCS) were based on reviews of existing commercial and DOE incinerators, on-site air pollution control experience, and recommendations from contracted consultants. In order to study the CIF APCS prior to operation, a 1/10 scale pilot facility, known as the Offgas Components Test Facility (OCTF) was constructed and has been in operation since late 1994. Its current mission is to demonstrate the design integrity of the CIF APCS and optimize equipment/instrument performance of the full scale production facility. Due to the nature of the wastes to be incinerated at the CIF, High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filters are used to remove hazardous and radioactive particulates from the exhaust gas stream before being released into the atmosphere. The HEPA filter change-out frequency has been a potential issue and was the first technical issue to be studied at the OCTF. Tests were conducted to evaluate the performance of HEPA filters under different operating conditions. These tests included evaluating the impact on HEPA life of scrubber operating parameters and the type of HEPA prefilter used. This pilot-scale testing demonstrated satisfactory HEPA filter life when using cleanable metal prefilters and high flows of steam and water in the offgas scrubber

  11. Accelerator driven systems for energy production and waste incineration: Physics, design and related nuclear data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herman, M.; Stanculescu, A.; Paver, N.

    2003-01-01

    This volume contains the notes of lectures given at the workshops 'Hybrid Nuclear Systems for Energy Production, Utilisation of Actinides and Transmutation of Long-lived Radioactive Waste' and 'Nuclear Data for Science and Technology: Accelerator Driven Waste Incineration', held at the Abdus Salam ICTP in September 2001. The subject of the first workshop was focused on the so-called Accelerator Driven Systems, and covered the most important physics and technological aspects of this innovative field. The second workshop was devoted to an exhaustive survey on the acquisition, evaluation, retrieval and validation of the nuclear data relevant to the design of Accelerator Driven Systems

  12. Incineration or Autoclave? A Comparative Study in Isfahan Hospitals Waste Management System (2010)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferdowsi, Ali; Ferdosi, Masoud; Mehrani, Mohammd Javad

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Medical wastes are among hazardous wastes and their disposal requires special methods prior to landfilling. Medical wastes are divided into infected and non-infected wastes and the infected wastes require treatment. Incineration is one of the oldest methods for treatment of medical wastes, but their usage have faced wide objections due to emission of hazardous gases such as CO2 and CO as well as Carcinogenic gases such as Dioxins and Furans which are generated as a result of incomplete combustion of compositions like PVCs. Autoclave is one the newest methods of medical wastes treatment which works based on wet disinfection. Methods: The statistical population in this descriptive, comparative study includes hospitals located in Isfahan city and the sample hospitals were selected randomly. To environmentally evaluate the Autoclave method, TST (time, steam, temperature) and Spore tests were used. Also, samples were made from incinerator’s stack gases and their analyses results were compared with WHO standards. Findings: TST and spore tests results were negative in all cases indicating the success of treatment process. The comparison of incinerator’s stack gases with WHO standards showed the high concentration of CO in some samples indicating the incomplete combustion. Also, the incineration efficiency in some cases was less than 99.5 percent, which is the efficiency criterion according to the administrative regulations of wastes management law of Iran. No needle stick was observed in Autoclave method during the compaction of bags containing wastes, and the handlers were facing no danger in this respect. The comparison of costs indicated that despite higher capital investment for purchasing autoclave, its current costs (e.g. maintenance, etc) are much less than the incineration method. Discussion: Totally, due to inappropriate operation of incinerators and lack of air pollution control devices, the use of incinerators doesn’t seem rational anymore

  13. Incineration technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Buekens, Alfons

    2013-01-01

    Waste incineration is the art of completely combusting waste, while maintaining or reducing emission levels below current emission standards. Where possible, objectives include the recovering of energy as well as the  combustion residues.  Successful waste incineration makes it possible to achieve a deep reduction in waste volume, obtain a compact and sterile residue, and eliminate a wide array of pollutants. This book places waste incineration within the wider context of waste management, and demonstrates that, in contrast to landfills and composting, waste incineration can eliminate objectionable and hazardous properties such as flammability and toxicity, result in a significant reduction in volume, and destroy gaseous and liquid waste streams leaving little or no residues beyond those linked to flue gas neutralization and treatment. Moreover, waste incineration sterilizes and destroys putrescible matter, and produces usable heat.  Incineration Technologies first appeared as a peer-reviewed contribution ...

  14. Waste incineration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCormack, M.D.

    1981-01-01

    As a result of the information gained from retrieval projects, the decision was made to perform an analysis of all the available incinerators to determine which was best suited for processing the INEL waste. A number of processes were evaluated for incinerators currently funded by DOE and for municipal incinerators. Slagging pyrolysis included the processes of three different manufacturers: Andco-Torrax, FLK and Purox

  15. CO-incineration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehmer, S.; Rumplmayr, A.

    2001-01-01

    'Co-incineration plant means a stationary or mobile plant whose main purpose is the generation of energy or production of material products and which uses wastes as a regular or additional fuel; or in which waste is thermally treated for the purpose of disposal. This definition covers the site and the entire plant including all incineration lines, waste reception, storage, an site pre-treatment facilities; its waste-, fuel- and air-supply systems; the boiler; facilities for treatment or storage of the residues, exhaust gas and waste water; the stack; devices and systems for controlling incineration operations, recording and monitoring incineration conditions (proposal for a council directive an the incineration of waste - 98/C 372/07). Waste incinerators primarily aim at rendering waste inert, at reduction of its volume and at the generation of energy from waste. The main aim of co-incineration an the other hand is either the recovery of energy from waste, the recovery of its material properties or a combination of the latter in order to save costs for primary energy. Two main groups of interest have lately been pushing waste towards co-incineration: conventional fossil fuels are getting increasingly scarce and hence expensive and generate carbon dioxide (greenhouse gas). The use of high calorific waste fractions is considered as an alternative. In many countries land filling of waste is subject to increasingly strict regulations in order to reduce environmental risk and landfill volume. The Austrian Landfill Ordinance for instance prohibits the disposal of untreated waste from the year 2004. Incineration seems to be the most effective treatment option to destroy organic matter. However the capacities of waste incinerators are limited, giving rise to a search for additional incineration capacity. The obvious advantages of co-incineration, such as the saving of fossil fuels and raw materials, the thermal treatment of waste fractions and possible economic benefits by

  16. Radwaste incineration at CRNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beamer, N.V.

    A Waste Treatment Centre (WTC) is being constructed at CRNL to develop and demonstrate processes to convert reactor wastes to a form suitable for disposal. Combustible wastes can be reduced in volume to a stable ash by incineration. A prototype starved-air incinerator in the WTC is currently being commissioned on inactive waste. Overall performance to date is good. Satisfactory control of main process flows and temperatures has been achieved. Checking of system response to process failures has begun. So far, problems with a similar incinerator during initial operation at Ontario Hydro have not been encountered

  17. Operational improvement to the flue gas cleaning system in radioactive waste incineration facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Bowen; Li Xiaohai; Wang Peiyi

    2012-01-01

    After years of operation, some problems, such as corrosion and waste water treatment, have been found in the first domestic whole-scale radioactive waste incineration facility. According to the origin of the problems, the flue gas cleaning system has been optimized and improved in terms of technical process, material and structure. It improves the operational stability, extends the equipment life-time, and also reduces the amount of secondary waste. In addition, as major sources of problems, waste management, operational experiences and information exchange deserve more attention. (authors)

  18. Sensitivity analysis of a stochastic discrete event simulation model of harvest operations in a static rose cultivation system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ooster, van 't A.; Bontsema, J.; Henten, van E.J.; Hemming, S.

    2013-01-01

    Greenhouse crop system design for maximum efficiency and quality of labour is an optimisation problem that benefits from model-based design evaluation. This study focussed on the harvest process of roses in a static system as a step in this direction. The objective was to identify parameters with

  19. The Studsvik incinerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hetzler, F.

    1988-01-01

    The Studsvik Incinerator is a Faurholdt designed, multi-stage, partial pyrolysis, controlled-air system taken into operation in 1976. The incinerator was initially operated without flue-gas filtration from 1976 until 1979 and thereafter with a bag-house filter. The Studsvik site has been host to radioactive activities for approximately 30 years. The last 10 years have included on site incineration of more than 3,000 tons of LLW. During this time routine sampling for activity has been performed, of releases and in the environment, to carefully monitor the area. The author discusses records examined to determine levels of activity prior to incinerator start-up, without and with filter

  20. Impact of Capital and Current Costs Changes of the Incineration Process of the Medical Waste on System Management Cost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolanta Walery, Maria

    2017-12-01

    The article describes optimization studies aimed at analysing the impact of capital and current costs changes of medical waste incineration on the cost of the system management and its structure. The study was conducted on the example of an analysis of the system of medical waste management in the Podlaskie Province, in north-eastern Poland. The scope of operational research carried out under the optimization study was divided into two stages of optimization calculations with assumed technical and economic parameters of the system. In the first stage, the lowest cost of functioning of the analysed system was generated, whereas in the second one the influence of the input parameter of the system, i.e. capital and current costs of medical waste incineration on economic efficiency index (E) and the spatial structure of the system was determined. Optimization studies were conducted for the following cases: with a 25% increase in capital and current costs of incineration process, followed by 50%, 75% and 100% increase. As a result of the calculations, the highest cost of system operation was achieved at the level of 3143.70 PLN/t with the assumption of 100% increase in capital and current costs of incineration process. There was an increase in the economic efficiency index (E) by about 97% in relation to run 1.

  1. Ships & Roses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thomas; Vatrapu, Ravi

    2015-01-01

    International trade involves crossing several organizational boundaries. This revelatory case study follows fresh cut roses’ journey from the growers in Kenya to the retail distribution in Holland and shows relatively high barriers related to the associated activities, information and documents...... be useful for the actors’ collaboration in the trade lane of the roses. We discuss some of the benefits of our proposed approach (e.g. lower transaction cost and real time information) but also raise some concerns (e.g. about trust and governance) which calls for further research....

  2. Corrosion in the off-gas system of a radioactive-waste incinerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenkins, C.F.; Peters, J.J.

    1987-01-01

    Corrosion in a low-level radioactive-waste incinerator off-gas system at the Department of Energy's Savannah River Plant is discussed. Severe corrosive attack and failure of an alloy 600 part exposed to high-temperature (>1000 0 C) gases was observed. Rapid attack of carbon steel components, and cracking of austenitic stainless steel parts also occurred at locations where lower gas temperatures and periodic condensate exposure occurred. Investigation showed HCl, SO 2 , SO 3 and phosphorus-oxides were present and contributed to the failures. Mechanisms of high-temperature failure include alloy separation and reactions with phosphorus. Coupons placed in the exhaust stream have provided information for selection of future materials of construction for system components. Several nickel- and iron-base alloys, and a stainless steel with an aluminum-diffusion coating were investigated

  3. Modelling a district heating system: Introduction of waste incineration, policy instruments and co-operation with an industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The capacity for waste incineration in Swedish municipalities is increasing due to regulations aimed at decreasing landfill with waste. This has a large impact on the municipal energy systems, since waste is an important fuel for district heating production. The object of this study is a municipality, Skoevde, which is planning to build a waste incineration plant to produce electricity and heat. The municipality is also planning to extend the district heating grid to include a large industrial heat consumer. The economic effect on the energy system of these measures is analysed as well as environmental effects in terms of carbon dioxide emissions. The consequences of two different policy instruments, green electricity certificates and a tax on waste incineration, are also studied. Economic optimisations show that the advantage of co-operation with industry is twofold: lower heat production costs and a considerable reduction of carbon dioxide emissions. It is economically feasible to invest in a waste incineration plant for heat production. An important measure to lower carbon dioxide emissions is to introduce combined heat and power production on the assumption that locally produced electricity replaces electricity produced by coal condensing power

  4. Controlled air incineration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seitz, K.A.

    1991-01-01

    From 1960 to 1970, incineration was recognized as an economical method of solid waste disposal with many incinerators in operation through the country. During this period a number of legislation acts began to influence the solid waste disposal industry, namely, the Solid Waste Disposal Act of 1965; Resource Conservation Recovery Act (RCRA) of 1968; Resource Recovery Act of 1970; and Clean Air Act of 1970. This period of increased environmental awareness and newly created regulations began the closure of many excess air incineration facilities and encouraged the development of new controlled air, also known as Starved-Air incinerator systems which could meet the more stringent air emission standards without additional emission control equipment. The Starved-Air technology initially received little recognition because it was considered unproven and radically different from the established and accepted I.I.A. standards. However, there have been many improvements and developments in the starved-air incineration systems since the technology was first introduced and marketed, and now these systems are considered the proven technology standard

  5. Peer review panel summary report for technical determination of mixed waste incineration off-gas systems for Rocky Flats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    A Peer Review Panel was convened on September 15-17, 1992 in Boulder, Co. The members of this panel included representatives from DOE, EPA, and DOE contractors along with invited experts in the fields of air pollution control and waste incineration. The primary purpose of this review panel was to make a technical determination of a hold, test and release off gas capture system should be implemented in the proposed RF Pland mixed waste incineration system; or if a state of the art continuous air pollution control and monitoring system should be utilized as the sole off-gas control system. All of the evaluations by the panel were based upon the use of the fluidized bed unit proposed by Rocky Flats and cannot be generalized to other systems

  6. Life cycle assessment of waste paper management: The importance of technology data and system boundaries in assessing recycling and incineration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merrild, Hanna; Damgaard, Anders; Christensen, Thomas H. [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Miljoevej, Bygning 113, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)

    2008-10-15

    The significance of technical data, as well as the significance of system boundary choices, when modelling the environmental impact from recycling and incineration of waste paper has been studied by a life cycle assessment focusing on global warming potentials. The consequence of choosing a specific set of data for the reprocessing technology, the virgin paper manufacturing technology and the incineration technology, as well as the importance of the recycling rate was studied. Furthermore, the system was expanded to include forestry and to include fossil fuel energy substitution from saved biomass, in order to study the importance of the system boundary choices. For recycling, the choice of virgin paper manufacturing data is most important, but the results show that also the impacts from the reprocessing technologies fluctuate greatly. For the overall results the choice of the technology data is of importance when comparing recycling including virgin paper substitution with incineration including energy substitution. Combining an environmentally high or low performing recycling technology with an environmentally high or low performing incineration technology can give quite different results. The modelling showed that recycling of paper, from a life cycle point of view, is environmentally equal or better than incineration with energy recovery only when the recycling technology is at a high environmental performance level. However, the modelling also showed that expanding the system to include substitution of fossil fuel energy by production of energy from the saved biomass associated with recycling will give a completely different result. In this case recycling is always more beneficial than incineration, thus increased recycling is desirable. Expanding the system to include forestry was shown to have a minor effect on the results. As assessments are often performed with a set choice of data and a set recycling rate, it is questionable how useful the results from

  7. Effects of different additives on the performance of spray dryer system during incineration process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wey, M Y; Peng, C Y; Wu, H Y; Chiang, B C; Liu, Z S

    2002-06-01

    The spray dryer system was conventionally employed to remove the SOx, NOx, and HCl in the flue gas. However, the removal efficiency of acid gas in the practical incineration flue gas, which contains dust, heavy metals, and acid gas itself, was seldom mentioned in the literature. The alkaline sorbents possess large specific surface that was a main factor on the adsorption of heavy metals and acid gas. Therefore, the primary objective of this study was focused on the effect of different additives on the removal efficiency of acid gas and heavy metals (Cr, Cd and Pb). The mass and element size distribution of heavy metals in fly ash under different additives were also investigated. The results indicated that the removal efficiency of HCl in the spray dryer system was higher than 97.8%. The effects of additives on the removal efficiency of HCl, however, were undistinguished. In the desulfurization process, the highest removal efficiency was 71.3% when the additive of amorphous SiO2 was added in the spray dryer system. The removal efficiency was 66.0% with the additive of CaCl2 and 63.1% without any additives, respectively. It was also found that the spray dryer system could decrease the concentration of metal in fly ash but increase the amount of fly ash. In addition, amorphous SiO2 in the alkaline sorbent tended to increase the adsorption of heavy metal on reactant, because it could enhance the dispersion of alkaline sorbent.

  8. Design of Rose Bengal/FTO optical thin film system as a novel nonlinear media for infrared blocking windows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M. El-Bashir

    Full Text Available Rose Bengal (RB is a new organic semiconductor with the highly stable layer, was deposited on highly cleaned conductive glass substrate known as (FTO glass with different thickness in the range from 80 to 292 nm. XRD showed an entirely amorphous structure of the studied film thicknesses. The observed peaks are the indexed peaks for FTO layer. Spectrophotometric data as transmittance, reflectance, and absorbance were used for the analysis the optical constant of RB/FTO optical thin film system. Refractive index was calculated using Fresnel’s equation with the aid of reflectance and absorption index. The dielectric constant, dielectric loss and dissipation factor were discussed and analyzed according to the applied optical theories. Nonlinear parameters such as third order nonlinear optical susceptibility and the nonlinear refractive index were calculated based on the linear refractive index of the applications of this material in nonlinear media. The results showed that Rose Bengal is a proving material for wide scale optoelectronic applications such as infrared blocking windows. Keywords: Rose Bengal, Dielectric parameters, Linear/nonlinear optics, Dye/FTO, IR blocking windows

  9. Design of Rose Bengal/FTO optical thin film system as a novel nonlinear media for infrared blocking windows

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Bashir, S. M.; Yahia, I. S.; Binhussain, M. A.; AlSalhi, M. S.

    Rose Bengal (RB) is a new organic semiconductor with the highly stable layer, was deposited on highly cleaned conductive glass substrate known as (FTO glass) with different thickness in the range from 80 to 292 nm. XRD showed an entirely amorphous structure of the studied film thicknesses. The observed peaks are the indexed peaks for FTO layer. Spectrophotometric data as transmittance, reflectance, and absorbance were used for the analysis the optical constant of RB/FTO optical thin film system. Refractive index was calculated using Fresnel's equation with the aid of reflectance and absorption index. The dielectric constant, dielectric loss and dissipation factor were discussed and analyzed according to the applied optical theories. Nonlinear parameters such as third order nonlinear optical susceptibility and the nonlinear refractive index were calculated based on the linear refractive index of the applications of this material in nonlinear media. The results showed that Rose Bengal is a proving material for wide scale optoelectronic applications such as infrared blocking windows.

  10. Life Cycle Assessment of Thermal Treatment Technologies. An environmental and financial systems analysis of gasification, incineration and landfilling of waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assefa, Getachew; Eriksson, Ola [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Industrial Ecology; Jaeraas, Sven; Kusar, Henrik [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Chemical Technology

    2003-05-01

    A technology which is currently developed by researchers at KTH is catalytic combustion. which is one component of a gasification system. Instead of performing the combustion in the gas turbine by a flame, a catalyst is used. When the development of a new technology (as catalytic combustion) reaches a certain step where it is possible to quantify material-, energy- and capital flows, the prerequisites for performing a systems analysis is at hand. The systems analysis can be used to expand the know-how about the potential advantages of the catalytic combustion technology by highlighting its function as a component of a larger system. In this way it may be possible to point out weak points which have to be investigated more, but also strong points to emphasise the importance of further development. The aim of this project was to assess the energy turnover as well as the potential environmental impacts and economic costs of thermal treatment technologies in general and catalytic combustion in particular. By using a holistic assessment of the advantages and disadvantages of catalytic combustion of waste it was possible to identify the strengths and weaknesses of the technology under different conditions. Following different treatment scenarios have been studied: (1) Gasification with catalytic combustion, (2) Gasification with flame combustion, (3) Incineration with energy recovery and (4) Landfilling with gas collection. In the study compensatory district heating is produced by combustion. of biofuel. The power used for running the processes in the scenarios is supplied by the waste-to-energy technologies themselves while compensatory power is assumed to be produced. from natural gas. The emissions from the system studied were classified and characterised using methodology from Life Cycle Assessment into the following environmental impact categories: Global Warming Potential, Acidification Potential, Eutrophication Potential and finally Formation of Photochemical

  11. Computerized system for building 'the rose' of the winds and defining the velocity and the average density of the wind power for a given place

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valkov, I.; Dekova, I.; Arnaudov, A.; Kostadinov, A.

    2002-01-01

    This paper considers the structure and the working principle of a computerized system for building 'the rose' of the winds. The behaviour of the system has been experimentally investigated and on the basis of the received data 'the rose' of the winds has been built, a diagram of the average wind velocity at a predefined step in the course of time has been made, and the average density of the wind power has been quantitatively defined. The proposed system enables possibilities for creating a data base of wind parameters, their processing and graphical visualizing of the received results. The system allows to improve the work of devices of wild's wind gauge type. (authors)

  12. SRL incinerator components test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freed, E.J.

    1982-08-01

    A full-scale (5 kg waste/hour) controlled-air incinerator, the ICTF, is presently being tested with simulated waste as part of a program to develop technology for incineration of Savannah River Plant solid transuranic wastes. This unit is designed specifically to incinerate relatively small quantities of solid combustible waste that are contaminated up to 10 5 times the present nominal 10 nCi/g threshold value for such isotopes as 238 Pu, 239 Pu, 242 Cm, and 252 Cf. Automatic incinerator operation and control has been incorporated into the design, simulating the future plant design which minimizes operator radiation exposure. Over 3000 kg of nonradioactive wastes characteristic of plutonium finishing operations have been incinerated at throughputs exceeding 5 kg/hr. Safety and reliability were the major design objectives. In addition to the incinerator tests, technical data were gathered on two different off-gas systems: a wet system composed of three scrubbers in series, and a dry system employing sintered metal filters

  13. Disruption Rose Tinted II

    OpenAIRE

    Livingstone, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    'Disruption - Rose Tinted II' continues to engage narratives of historical English china as previously explored in the work 'Rose Tinted'. This work engages the sleepy rural idyll which is overlaid with visual contemporary social commentary.

  14. Incineration process fire and explosion protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziegler, D.L.

    1975-01-01

    Two incinerators will be installed in the plutonium recovery facility under construction at the Rocky Flats Plant. The fire and explosion protection features designed into the incineration facility are discussed as well as the nuclear safety and radioactive material containment features. Even though the incinerator system will be tied into an emergency power generation system, a potential hazard is associated with a 60-second delay in obtaining emergency power from a gas turbine driven generator. This hazard is eliminated by the use of steam jet ejectors to provide normal gas flow through the incinerator system during the 60 s power interruption. (U.S.)

  15. Consolidated incineration facility technical support

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, D.; Looper, M.G.

    1993-01-01

    In 1996, the Savannah River Site plans to begin operation of the Consolidated Incineration Facility (CIF) to treat solid and liquid RCRA hazardous and mixed wastes. The Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) leads an extensive technical support program designed to obtain incinerator and air pollution control equipment performance data to support facility start-up and operation. Key components of this technical support program include recently completed waste burn tests at both EPA's Incineration Research Facility and at Energy and Environmental Research Corporation's Solid Waste Incineration Test Facility. The main objectives for these tests were determining the fate of heavy metals, measuring organics destruction and removal efficiencies, and quantifying incinerator offgas particulate loading and size distribution as a function of waste feed characteristics and incineration conditions. In addition to these waste burning tests, the SRTC has recently completed installations of the Offgas Components Test Facility (OCTF), a 1/10 scale CIF offgas system pilot plant. This pilot facility will be used to demonstrate system operability and maintainability, evaluate and optimize equipment and instrument performance, and provide direct CIF start-up support. Technical support programs of this type are needed to resolve technical issues related with treatment and disposal of combustible hazardous, mixed, and low-level radioactive waste. Implementation of this program will minimize facility start-up problems and help insure compliance with all facility performance requirements

  16. USDOE radioactive waste incineration technology: status review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borduin, L.C.; Taboas, A.L.

    1980-01-01

    Early attempts were made to incinerate radioactive wastes met with operation and equipment problems such as feed preparation, corrosion, inadequate off-gas cleanup, incomplete combustion, and isotope containment. The US Department of Energy (DOE) continues to sponsor research, development, and the eventual demonstration of radioactive waste incineration. In addition, several industries are developing proprietary incineration system designs to meet other specific radwaste processing requirements. Although development efforts continue, significant results are available for the nuclear community and the general public to draw on in planning. This paper presents an introduction to incineration concerns, and an overview of the prominent radwaste incineration processes being developed within DOE. Brief process descriptions, status and goals of individual incineration systems, and planned or potential applications are also included

  17. Report: environmental assessment of Darmstadt (Germany) municipal waste incineration plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimaityte, Ingrida; Denafas, Gintaras; Jager, Johannes

    2007-04-01

    The focus of this study was the emissions from waste incineration plants using Darmstadt (Germany) waste incineration plant as an example. In the study the emissions generated by incineration of the waste were considered using three different approaches. Initially the emissions from the waste incineration plant were assessed as part of the impact of waste management systems on the environment by using a Municipal Solid Waste Management System (MSWMS) assessment tool (also called: LCA-IWM assessment tool). This was followed by a comparison between the optimal waste incineration process and the real situation. Finally a comparison was made between the emissions from the incineration plant and the emissions from a vehicle.

  18. Controlled air pyrolysis incinerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dufrane, K.H.; Wilke, M.

    1982-01-01

    An advanced controlled air pyrolysis incinerator has been researched, developed and placed into commercial operation for both radioactive and other combustible wastes. Engineering efforts cocentrated on providing an incinerator which emitted a clean, easily treatable off-gas and which produced a minimum amount of secondary waste. Feed material is continuously fed by gravity into the system's pyrolysis chamber without sorting, shredding, or other such pretreatment. Metal objects, liquids such as oil and gasoline, or solid products such as resins, blocks of plastic, tire, animal carcasses, or compacted trash may be included along with normal processed waste. The temperature of the waste is very gradually increased in a reduced oxygen atmosphere. Volatile pyrolysis gases are produced, tar-like substances are cracked and the resulting product, a relatively uniform, easily burnable material, is introduced into the combustion chamber. Steady burning is thus accomplished under easily controlled excess air conditions with the off-gasthen passing through a simple dry clean-up system. Gas temperatures are then reduced by air dilution before passing through final HEPA filters. Both commercial and nuclear installations have been operated with the most recent application being the central incinerator to service West Germany's nuclear reactors

  19. Controlled air incinerator conceptual design study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    This report presents a conceptual design study for a controlled air incinerator facility for incineration of low level combustible waste at Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2). The facility design is based on the use of a Helix Process Systems controlled air incinerator. Cost estimates and associated engineering, procurement, and construction schedules are also provided. The cost estimates and schedules are presented for two incinerator facility designs, one with provisions for waste ash solidification, the other with provisions for packaging the waste ash for transport to an undefined location

  20. Offgas treatment for radioactive waste incinerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stretz, L.A.; Koenig, R.A.

    1980-01-01

    Incineration of radioactive materials for resource recovery or waste volume reduction is recognized as an effective waste treatment method that will increase in usage and importance throughout the nuclear industry. The offgas cleanup subsystem of an incineration process is essential to ensure radionuclide containment and protection of the environment. Several incineration processes and associated offgas cleanup systems are discussed along with potential application of commercial pollution control components to radioactive service. Problems common to radioactive waste incinerator offgas service are identified and areas of needed research and development effort are noted

  1. Conceptual process description of M division incinerator project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, T.K.

    1989-04-13

    This interoffice memorandum describes an incineration system to be used for incinerating wood. The system is comprised of a shredder and an incinerator. The entire process is described in detail. A brief study of particulates, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and nitrogen oxides emission is presented.

  2. A Trail of Roses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørum, Tania

    2015-01-01

    and reality as as well as about what is endlessly the same and endlessly different. And thus the text is seen to voice an entire ontology which, in its utter simplicity, exemplifies the poetical power and philosophical depth of Gertrude Stein’s writing. From this point Gertrude Stein’s influence is visible...... as a trail of roses through Danish 1960s art. The trail leads from Nielsen’s reading of Stein’s rose to the Danish composer Henning Christiansen, who put the sentence to music in his orchestral work A Rose for Miss Stein (1965). The chain of roses was continued by the painter and performance artist John...

  3. 40 CFR 63.988 - Incinerators, boilers, and process heaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Incinerators, boilers, and process... Routing to a Fuel Gas System or a Process § 63.988 Incinerators, boilers, and process heaters. (a) Equipment and operating requirements. (1) Owners or operators using incinerators, boilers, or process...

  4. Test and evaluation of the heat recovery incinerator system at Naval Station, Mayport, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-05-01

    This report describes test and evaluation of the two-ton/hr heat recovery incinerator (HRI) facility located at Mayport Naval Station, Fla., carried out during November and December 1980. The tests included: (1) Solid Waste: characterization, heating value, and ultimate analysis, (2) Ash: moisture, combustibles, and heating values of both bottom and cyclone ashes; Extraction Procedure toxicity tests on leachates from both bottom and cyclone ashes; trace metals in cyclone particulates, (3) Stack Emissions: particulates (quantity and size distribution), chlorides, oxygen, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, and trace elements, and (4) Heat and Mass Balance: all measurements required to carry out complete heat and mass balance calculations over the test period. The overall thermal efficiency of the HRI facility while operating at approximately 1.0 ton/hr was found to be 49% when the primary Btu equivalent of the electrical energy consumed during the test program was included.

  5. Mound cyclone incinerator. Volume I. Description and performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klingler, L.M.

    1981-01-01

    The Mound cyclone incinerator was developed to fill a need for a simple, relaible incinerator for volume reduction of dry solid waste contaminated with plutonium-238. Although the basic design of the incinerator is for batch burning of solid combustible waste, the incinerator has also been adapted to volume reduction of other waste forms. Specialized waste feeding equipment enables continuous burning of both solid and liquid waste, including full scintillation vials. Modifications to the incinerator offgas system enable burning of waste contaminated with isotopes other than plutonium-238. This document presents the design and performance characteristics of the Mound Cyclone Incinerator for incineration of both solid and liquid waste. Suggestions are included for adaptation of the incinerator to specialized waste materials

  6. Encyclopedia of Rose Science

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roberts, A.; Debener, T.; Gudin, S.; Byrne, D.B.; Cairns, T.; Vries, de D.P.; Dubois, L.A.M.; Forkmann, G.; Fruchter, M.; Helsper, J.P.F.G.; Horst, R.K.; Jay, M.; Kwakkenbosch, T.A.M.; Pemberton, B.; Put, H.M.C.; Rajapakse, S.; Reid, M.; Schum, A.; Shorthouse, J.D.; Ueda, Y.; Vainstein, A.; Pol, van de P.A.; Zieslin, N.

    2003-01-01

    The Encyclopedia of Rose Science brings together a wealth of information on the rose, long treasured for its captivating perfumes and splendid colors. Now, more than ever, science plays a central place in the production of this flower at the center of one of the world's biggest floricultural

  7. Pilot solid-waste incinerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farber, M.G.; Hootman, H.E.; Trapp, D.J.

    1982-01-01

    An experimental program to develop and confirm technology for incinerating solid radioactive waste is in progress at the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) in support of the short-term and long-term waste management objectives of the Savannah River Plant (SRP). This report reviews the experience of a pilot incinerator with a capacity of 1.0 lb/hr. The facility was tested with nonradioactive materials similar to the radioactive waste generated at the Savannah River site. The experimental program included determining operating parameters, testing wet and dry off-gas treatment systems, and evaluating materials of construction

  8. Field Evaluation of MERCEM Mercury Emission Analyzer System at the Oak Ridge TSCA Incinerator East Tennessee Technology Park Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2000-03-01

    The authors reached the following conclusions: (1) The two-month evaluation of the MERCEM total mercury monitor from Perkin Elmer provided a useful venue in determining the feasibility of using a CEM to measure total mercury in a saturated flue gas. (2) The MERCEM exhibited potential at a mixed waste incinerator to meet requirements proposed in PS12 under conditions of operation with liquid feeds only at stack mercury concentrations in the range of proposed MACT standards. (3) Performance of the MERCEM under conditions of incinerating solid and liquid wastes simultaneously was less reliable than while feeding liquid feeds only for the operating conditions and configuration of the host facility. (4) The permeation tube calibration method used in this test relied on the CEM internal volumetric and time constants to relate back to a concentration, whereas a compressed gas cylinder concentration is totally independent of the analyzer mass flowmeter and flowrates. (5) Mercury concentration in the compressed gas cylinders was fairly stable over a 5-month period. (6) The reliability of available reference materials was not fully demonstrated without further evaluation of their incorporation into routine operating procedures performed by facility personnel. (7) The degree of mercury control occurring in the TSCA Incinerator off-gas cleaning system could not be quantified from the data collected in this study. (8) It was possible to conduct the demonstration at a facility incinerating radioactively contaminated wastes and to release the equipment for later unrestricted use elsewhere. (9) Experience gained by this testing answered additional site-specific and general questions regarding the operation and maintenance of CEMs and their use in compliance monitoring of total mercury emissions from hazardous waste incinerators.

  9. The solid waste contaminated incineration technique used incinerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sukosrono; Prayitno; Isman, M. T.

    1996-01-01

    The research of the incinerator radioactive waste used incinerator has been done. The aim of the experiment is to determine the number of the organic liquid waste which added on the incineration of the solid radioactive waste. The research was done by incinerate waste in the incinerator prototype which was designed for capacity 2500 gram, and the investigated variables are capacity of the incinerator, specific of the waste, and the method of the incineration. Simulated waste was used in the experiment, the waste specific which was used in the experiment was the mixture between liquid organic waste (TBPK-10%) with solid waste was coming from rice paper, tissue, carton. Two way method were investigated in the experiment, were direct incineration and indirect incineration. The direct incineration was done by incineration solid waste and organic liquid waste in the incinerator together. The indirect incineration was done by incineration of solid waste which have been used to absorb organic liquid waste. The result showed that either direct or indirect incineration independent to the incineration result. The best result have taken place on the 2250 gram capacity of the incinerator, ratio liquid organic waste to solid waste 1% - 20%. In the condition will be found reduction of volume = 43.90 - 35.91 and reduction of the waste = 13.85% - 12.15% and the ash which was resulted from incineration colored white silver with contain a little color black. (author)

  10. Stabilization of lead in an alkali-activated municipal solid waste incineration fly ash-Pyrophyllite-based system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiota, Kenji; Nakamura, Takafumi; Takaoka, Masaki; Aminuddin, Siti Fatimah; Oshita, Kazuyuki; Fujimori, Takashi

    2017-10-01

    This work focuses on the stabilization and speciation of lead (Pb) in a composite solid produced from an alkali-activated municipal solid waste incineration fly ash (MSWIFA)-pyophyllite-based system. The solid product was synthesized after mixtures of raw materials (dehydrated pyrophyllite, MSWIFA, 14 mol/L aqueous sodium hydroxide, and sodium silicate solution) were cured at 105 °C for 24 h. The product could reduce the leaching of Pb and the Pb concentration in the leachate was 7.0 × 10 -3 using the Japanese leaching test and 9.7 × 10 -4  mg/L using toxicity characteristics leaching procedure method, which satisfied the respective test criteria and successfully stabilized Pb in this system. The solid product had a compressive strength of 2 MPa and consisted mainly of crystalline phases. Scanning electron microscopy with X-ray analysis and X-ray absorption fine structure suggested that Pb was present along with Al, Si, and O, and that the atomic environment around the Pb was similar to that of PbSiO 3 . These results suggest that the alkali-activated MSWIFA-pyrophyllite-based system could be used to stabilize Pb in MSWIFA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Defense waste cyclone incinerator demonstration program: October--March 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klinger, L.M.

    1979-01-01

    The cyclone incinerator developed at Mound has proven to be an effective tool for waste volume reduction. During the first half of FY-1979, efforts have been made to increase the versatility of the system. Incinerator development was continued in three areas. Design changes were drafted for the present developmental incinerator to rectify several minor operational deficiencies of the system. Improvements will be limited to redesign unless installation is required to prove design or to permit implementation of other portions of the plan. The applications development portion of the feasibility plan is focused upon expanding the versatility of the incinerator. An improved delivery system was installed for burning various liquids. An improved continuous feed system was installed and will be demonstrated later this year. Late in FY-1979, work will begin on the conceptual design of a production cyclone incinerator which will handle nonrecoverable TRU waste, and which will fully demonstrate the capabilities of the cyclone incinerator system. Data generated in past years and during FY-1979 are being collected to establish cyclone incineration effects on solids, liquids, and gases in the system. Data reflecting equipment life cycles and corrosion have been tabulated. Basic design criteria for a cyclone incinerator system based on developmental work on the incinerator through FY-1979 have been assembled. The portion of the material dealing with batch-type operation of the incinerator will be published later this year

  12. Renewable energy in Switzerland - Potential of waste-water treatment plants, waste-incineration plants and drinking water supply systems - Strategical decisions in politics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kernen, M.

    2006-01-01

    This article discusses how waste-water treatment plants, waste-incineration plants and drinking water supply systems make an important contribution to the production of renewable energy in Switzerland. Financing by the 'Climate-Cent' programme, which finances projects involving the use of renewable energy, is discussed. Figures are quoted on the electrical energy produced in waste-water treatment plants, waste-incineration plants and combined heat and power generation plant. Eco-balances of the various systems are discussed. Political efforts being made in Switzerland, including the 'Climate Cent', are looked at and promotion provided by new energy legislation is discussed. Eco-power and the processing of sewage gas to meet natural gas quality standards are discussed, as are energy analysis, co-operation between various research institutions and external costs

  13. Emissions and dioxins formation from waste incinerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbone, A.I.; Zagaroli, M.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes current knowledge on dioxins formation and emission from waste incinerators. The pertinent Italian law and effects on man health are dealt with, too. The picture of existing municipal incinerators is presented concerning both the actual emission levels and the monitored levels in the environment. Sampling and analysis systems of these organic chlorinated micro-pollutants and current theories on precursors, formation mechanisms, and influence of different parameters are also described. The last section deals with some of the techniques that can be used to reduce dioxins formation and emission from municipal incinerators. (author)

  14. Addition of liquid waste incineration capability to the INEL's low-level waste incinerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steverson, E.M.; Clark, D.P.; McFee, J.N.

    1986-01-01

    A liquid waste system has recently been installed in the Waste Experimental Reduction Facility (WERF) incinerator at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). In this paper, aspects of the incineration system such as the components, operations, capabilities, capital cost, EPA permit requirements, and future plans are discussed. The principal objective of the liquid incineration system is to provide the capability to process hazardous, radioactively contaminated, non-halogenated liquid wastes. The system consists primarily of a waste feed system, instrumentation and controls, and a liquid burner, which were procured at a capital cost of $115,000

  15. ORGDP RCRA/PCB incinerator facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, T.

    1987-01-01

    A dual purpose solid/liquid incinerator is currently being constructed at the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant [ORGDP (K-25)] to destroy uranium contaminated, hazardous organic wastes in compliance with the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). These wastes are generated by the gaseous diffusion plants in Oak Ridge, TN; Paducah, KY; and Portsmouth, OH. In addition, waste will also be received from the Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and the Feed Materials Production Center (FMPC). Destruction of PCBs and hazardous liquid organic wastes will be accomplished in a rotary kiln incinerator with an afterburner. This system was selected faster a study of various alternatives. Incineration was chosen because it is dependable, permanent, detoxifies organics, and reduces volume. The rotary kiln incinerator was selected because it can thermally destroy organic constituents of liquids, solids, and sludges to produce an organically inert ash. In addition to the incineration off-gas treatment system, the facility includes a tank farm, drum storage buildings, a solids preparation area, a control room, and a data management system. The incineration system, off-gas treatment system, and related instrumentation and controls are being provided by International Waste Energy Systems (IWES) which is responsible for design, construction, startup, and performances testing

  16. Evolution and perspectives in waste incineration emissions and flue gas cleaning systems in the last 20 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giugliano, M.; Cernuschi, S.; Grosso, M.

    2006-01-01

    The evolution of the technology of waste combustion, energy recovery and flue gas treatment allows to redefine the role of the incineration plant as a basic component of integrated waste management systems. Starting with an overview of the evaluation of emission limits and of the new Best Available Techniques (BAT) approach, strongly recommended by the European Union, the paper reports an overview of the stack emission concentrations measured in recent plants in Italy compared to older ones, with special attention to the dioxin issue. Concerning this topic, it is demonstrated that BAT-equipped plants can act as actual dioxin destroyer rather than producers, even when all the fluxes released in the environment (gaseous, solid and liquid residues) are taken into account. The second part of the paper deals with the evolution of the flue gas control technologies of the last 20 years, pointing out the major trends and the future perspectives for further increases of the removal monitoring of conventional and trace pollutants are briefly described [it

  17. Incineration of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eid, C.

    1985-01-01

    The incineration process currently seems the most appropriate way to solve the problems encountered by the increasing quantities of low and medium active waste from nuclear power generation waste. Although a large number of incinerators operate in the industry, there is still scope for the improvement of safety, throughput capacity and reduction of secondary waste. This seminar intends to give opportunity to scientists working on the different aspects of incineration to present their most salient results and to discuss the possibilities of making headway in the management of LL/ML radioactive waste. These proceedings include 17 contributions ranging over the subjects: incineration of solid β-γ wastes; incineration of other radwastes; measurement and control of wastes; off-gas filtration and release. (orig./G.J.P.)

  18. Los Alamos controlled-air incineration studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koenig, R.A.; Warner, C.L.

    1983-01-01

    Current regulations of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) require that PCBs in concentrations greater than 500 ppM be disposed of in EPA-permitted incinerators. Four commercial incineration systems in the United States have EPA operating permits for receiving and disposing of concentrated PCBs, but none can accept PCBs contaminated with nuclear materials. The first section of this report presents an overview of an EPA-sponsored program for studying PCB destruction in the large-scale Los Alamos controlled-air incinerator. A second major FY 1983 program, sponsored by the Naval Weapons Support Center, Crane, Indiana, is designed to determine operating conditions that will destroy marker smoke compounds without also forming polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), some of which are known or suspected to be carcinogenic. We discuss the results of preliminary trial burns in which various equipment and feed formulations were tested. We present qualitative analyses for PAHs in the incinerator offgas as a result of these tests

  19. Nuclear waste incineration technology status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziegler, D.L.; Lehmkuhl, G.D.; Meile, L.J.

    1981-01-01

    The incinerators developed and/or used for radioactive waste combustion are discussed and suggestions are made for uses of incineration in radioactive waste management programs and for incinerators best suited for specific applications. Information on the amounts and types of radioactive wastes are included to indicate the scope of combustible wastes being generated and in existence. An analysis of recently developed radwaste incinerators is given to help those interested in choosing incinerators for specific applications. Operating information on US and foreign incinerators is also included to provide additional background information. Development needs are identified for extending incinerator applications and for establishing commercial acceptance

  20. Commercial incineration demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vavruska, J.S.; Borduin, L.C.

    1982-01-01

    Low-level radioactive wastes (LLW) generated by nuclear utilities presently are shipped to commercial burial grounds for disposal. Increasing transportation and disposal costs have caused industry to consider incineration as a cost-effective means of volume reduction of combustible LLW. Repeated inquiries from the nuclear industry regarding the applicability of the Los Alamos controlled air incineration (CAI) design led the DOE to initiate a commercial demonstration program in FY-1980. Development studies and results in support of this program involving ion exchange resin incineration and fission/activation product distributions within the Los Alamos CAI are described

  1. Commercial Cyclone Incinerator Demonstration Program: April-September 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexander, B.M.

    1979-01-01

    The commercial cyclone incinerator program was designed to study the effects of burning low-level waste contaminated with beta and gamma emitters in a cyclone system. The ultimate program goal is the demonstration of a cyclone incinerator at a nuclear power plant. During the past six months, the first program objective, NRC review of the Feasibility Plan, was achieved, and work began on the second objective, Complete Incinerator Feasibility Plan. Potential applications for the cyclone incinerator have been investigated. The feasibility plan for the incinerator system was reviewed with the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Following a series of cold checkout burns, implementation of the feasibility plan was begun with the start of laboratory-scale experiments. Inconel 601 is being investigated as a material of construction for the incinerator burn chamber

  2. Incinerators for radioactive wastes in Japanese nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karita, Yoichi

    1983-01-01

    As the measures of treatment and disposal of radioactive wastes in nuclear power stations, the development of the techniques to decrease wastes, to reduce the volume of wastes, to treat wastes by solidification and to dispose wastes has been advanced energetically. In particular, efforts have been exerted on the volume reduction treatment from the viewpoint of the improvement of storage efficiency and the reduction of transport and disposal costs. Incineration as one of the volume reduction techniques has been regarded as the most effective method with large reduction ratio, but it was not included in waste treatment system. NGK Insulators Ltd. developed NGK type miscellaneous solid incinerators, and seven incinerators were installed in nuclear power stations. These incinerators have been operated smoothly, and the construction is in progress in six more plants. The necessity of incinerators in nuclear power stations and the problems in their adoption, the circumstance of the development of NGK type miscellaneous solid incinerators, the outline of the incinerator of Karlsruhe nuclear power station and the problems, the contents of the technical development in NGK, the outline of NGK type incinerators and the features, the outline of the pretreatment system, incinerator system, exhaust gas treatment system, ash taking out system and accessory equipment, the operational results and the performance are described. (Kako, I.)

  3. CRNL active waste incinerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McQuade, D.W.

    1965-02-01

    At CRNL the daily collection of 1200 pounds of active combustible waste is burned in a refractory lined multi-chamber incinerator. Capacity is 500-550 pounds per hour; volume reduction 96%. Combustion gases are cooled by air dilution and decontaminated by filtration through glass bags in a baghouse dust collector. This report includes a description of the incinerator plant, its operation, construction and operating costs, and recommendations for future designs. (author)

  4. Oxygen enrichment incineration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jeong Guk; Yang, Hee Chul; Park, Geun Il; Kim, Joon Hyung

    2000-10-01

    Oxygen enriched combustion technology has recently been used in waste incineration. To apply the oxygen enrichment on alpha-bearing waste incineration, which is being developed, a state-of-an-art review has been performed. The use of oxygen or oxygen-enriched air instead of air in incineration would result in increase of combustion efficiency and capacity, and reduction of off-gas product. Especially, the off-gas could be reduced below a quarter, which might reduce off-gas treatment facilities, and also increase an efficiency of off-gas treatment. However, the use of oxygen might also lead to local overheating and high nitrogen oxides (NOx) formation. To overcome these problems, an application of low NOx oxy-fuel burner and recycling of a part of off-gas to combustion chamber have been suggested

  5. Oxygen enrichment incineration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jeong Guk; Yang, Hee Chul; Park, Geun Il; Kim, Joon Hyung

    2000-10-01

    Oxygen enriched combustion technology has recently been used in waste incineration. To apply the oxygen enrichment on alpha-bearing waste incineration, which is being developed, a state-of-an-art review has been performed. The use of oxygen or oxygen-enriched air instead of air in incineration would result in increase of combustion efficiency and capacity, and reduction of off-gas product. Especially, the off-gas could be reduced below a quarter, which might reduce off-gas treatment facilities, and also increase an efficiency of off-gas treatment. However, the use of oxygen might also lead to local overheating and high nitrogen oxides (NOx) formation. To overcome these problems, an application of low NOx oxy-fuel burner and recycling of a part of off-gas to combustion chamber have been suggested.

  6. The selection, licensing, and operation of a low-level radioactive waste incinerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arrowsmith, H.W.; Dalton, D.

    1990-01-01

    The Scientific Ecology Group has just completed the selection, procurement, licensing, and start-up of a low-level radioactive waste incinerator. This incinerator is the only commercial radioactive waste incinerator in the US and was licensed by the Environmental Protection Agency, the State of Tennessee, the City of Oak Ridge, and the Tennessee Valley Authority. This incinerator has a thermal capacity of 13,000,000 BTUs and can burn approximately 1,000 pounds per hour of typical radioactive waste. Waste to be incinerated is sorted in a new waste sorting system at the SEG facility. The sorting is essential to assure that the incinerator will not be damaged by any unexpected waste and to maintain the purity of the incinerator off-gas. The volume reduction expected for typical waste is approximately 100:1. After burning, the incinerator ash is compacted or vitrified before shipment to burial sites

  7. Fluidized bed incineration system for U.S. Department of Energy Defense Waste, July--December 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, D.L.; Meyer, F.G.; Feng, P.K.

    1978-01-01

    A fluidized-bed incineration facility has been designed for installation at the Rocky Flats Plant to develop and demonstrate the process for the combustion of transuranic waste. The unit capacity will be about 82 kg/hr of combustible waste. The combustion process will utilize in situ neutralization of acid gases generated in the process. The equipment design is based on data generated on a pilot scale unit and represents a scale-up factor of nine. Building modifications are complete and equipment installation has begun

  8. Fluidized bed incineration system for U.S. Department of Energy Defense Waste, January--June 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, D.L.; Bell, B.A.; Feng, P.K.; Meyer, F.G.

    1978-12-01

    A fluidized bed incineration facility has been designed for installation at the Rocky Flats Plant to develop and demonstrate the process for the combustion of transuranic waste. The unit capacity will be about 82 kg/hour of combustible waste. The combustion process will utilize in situ neutralization of acid gases generated in the process. The equipment design is based on data generated on a pilot scale unit and represents a scale-up factor of nine. Equipment installation was completed on April 30, 1978. Equipment checkout and startup is in progress

  9. Fluidized bed incineration system for U.S. Department of Energy defense waste. Status report, July--December 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richey, L.L.; Faccini, P.T.; Feng, P.K.

    1978-01-01

    A fluidized-bed incineration facility has been designed for installation at the Rocky Flats Plant. The purpose is to develop and demonstrate the process for the combustion of transuranic waste. The unit capacity will be about 82 kg/hr of combustible waste. The combustion process will utilize in situ neutralization of acid gases generated in the process. The equipment design is based on data generated on a pilot scale unit and represents a scale-up factor of nine. Title II engineering is complete and construction work has begun

  10. Quantifying capital goods for waste incineration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brogaard, L K; Riber, C; Christensen, T H

    2013-06-01

    Materials and energy used for the construction of modern waste incineration plants were quantified. The data was collected from five incineration plants (72,000-240,000 tonnes per year) built in Scandinavia (Norway, Finland and Denmark) between 2006 and 2012. Concrete for the buildings was the main material used amounting to 19,000-26,000 tonnes per plant. The quantification further included six main materials, electronic systems, cables and all transportation. The energy used for the actual on-site construction of the incinerators was in the range 4000-5000 MW h. In terms of the environmental burden of producing the materials used in the construction, steel for the building and the machinery contributed the most. The material and energy used for the construction corresponded to the emission of 7-14 kg CO2 per tonne of waste combusted throughout the lifetime of the incineration plant. The assessment showed that, compared to data reported in the literature on direct emissions from the operation of incinerators, the environmental impacts caused by the construction of buildings and machinery (capital goods) could amount to 2-3% with respect to kg CO2 per tonne of waste combusted. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. High temperature incineration. Densification of granules from high temperature incineration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voorde, N. van de; Claes, J.; Taeymans, A.; Hennart, D.; Gijbels, J.; Balleux, W.; Geenen, G.; Vangeel, J.

    1982-01-01

    The incineration system of radioactive waste discussed in this report, is an ''integral'' system, which directly transforms a definite mixture of burnable and unburnable radioactive waste in a final product with a sufficient insolubility to be safely disposed of. At the same time, a significant volume reduction occurs by this treatment. The essential part of the system is a high temperature incinerator. The construction of this oven started in 1974, and while different tests with simulated inactive or very low-level active waste were carried out, the whole system was progressively and continuously extended and adapted, ending finally in an installation with completely remote control, enclosed in an alpha-tight room. In this report, a whole description of the plant and of its auxiliary installations will be given; then the already gained experimental results will be summarized. Finally, the planning for industrial operation will be briefly outlined. An extended test with radioactive waste, which was carried out in March 1981, will be discussed in the appendix

  12. Incineration of low level and mixed wastes: 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    The University of California at Irvine, in cooperation with the Department of Energy, American Society of Mechanical Engineers, and chapters of the Health Physics Society, coordinated this conference on the Incineration of Low-Level Radioactive and Mixed Wastes, with the guidance of professionals active in the waste management community. The conference was held in April 22-25, 1986 at Sheraton airport hotel Charlotte, North Carolina. Some of the papers' titles were: Protection and safety of different off-gas treatment systems in radioactive waste incineration; performance assessment of refractory samples in the Los Alamos controlled-Air incinerator; incineration systems for low-level and mixed wastes; incineration of low-level radioactive waste in Switzerland-operational experience and future activities

  13. Fluidized bed incinerator development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziegler, D.L.; Johnson, A.J.

    1976-01-01

    A fluidized bed incinerator is being developed for burning rad contaminated solid and liquid waste materials. In situ neutralization of acid gases by the bed material, catalytic afterburning, and gas filtration are used to produce a clean flue gas without the use of aqueous scrubbing

  14. PERMITTING HAZARDOUS WASTE INCINERATORS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This publication is a compilation of information presented at a seminar series designed to address the issues that affect the issuance of hazardous waste incineration permits and to improve the overall understanding of trial burn testing. pecifically, the document provides guidan...

  15. Hazardous and radioactive waste incineration studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vavruska, J.S.; Stretz, L.A.; Borduin, L.C.

    1981-01-01

    Development and demonstration of a transuranic (TRU) waste volume-reduction process is described. A production-scale controlled air incinerator using commercially available equipment and technology has been modified for solid radioactive waste service. This unit successfully demonstrated the volume reduction of transuranic (TRU) waste with an average TRU content of about 20 nCi/g. The same incinerator and offgas treatment system is being modified further to evaluate the destruction of hazardous liquid wastes such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and hazardous solid wastes such as pentachlorophenol (PCP)-treated wood

  16. Axillary bud development in rose

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marcelis - van Acker, C.A.M.

    1994-01-01

    Axillary buds form the basis of flower production of a rose crop. Within a rose crop there exists an undesired large variation in shoot number and size, which affects flower yield. Part of this variation may be traced back to early variation in axillary buds. The aim of the research

  17. Licensing requirements for backfit incinerators at commercial nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodge, R.L.; Edwards, C.W.; Wilson, B.

    1984-01-01

    This paper, and the project it reports on, examines the licensing requirements for backfit incinerators at operating power plants. Analysis was made of incinerating low-level dry radioactive waste in a backfit incinerator at an existing power plant. The operation of the incinerator has been studied from viewpoints of operator safety, consequence of system failures including worst case scenarios, and radiological impact for normal and upset conditions. Analysis showed that releases under all normal operating or upset conditions are an extremely small fraction of the applicable limits. Nuclear Regulatory Commission review concluded that the document produced as a result of this project was useful as a design guide and of value in licensing backfit incinerators. 1 table

  18. LCA Comparison of waste incineration in Denmark and Italy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turconi, Roberto; Butera, Stefania; Boldrin, Alessio

    2011-01-01

    Every year around 50 millions Mg solid waste are incinerated in Europe. Large differences exist in different regions, mainly regarding energy recovery, flue gas treatment and management of solid residues. This paper aims to identify and quantify those differences, providing a Life Cycle Assessment...... of two incinerator systems that are representative of conditions in Northern and Southern Europe. The two case studies are Aarhus (Denmark) and Milan (Italy). The results show that waste incineration appears more environmentally friendly in the Danish case than in the Italian one, due to the higher...... energy recovery and to local conditions, e.g. substitution of electricity and heat in the area. Focusing on the incineration process, Milan incinerator performs better than Aarhus, since its upstream impacts (related to the production of chemicals used in flue gas cleaning) are more than compensated...

  19. Optimisation of environmental gas cleaning routes for solid wastes cogeneration systems. Part II - Analysis of waste incineration combined gas/steam cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holanda, Marcelo R.; Perrella Balestieri, Jose A.

    2008-01-01

    In the first paper of this paper (Part I), conditions were presented for the gas cleaning technological route for environomic optimisation of a cogeneration system based in a thermal cycle with municipal solid waste incineration. In this second part, an environomic analysis is presented of a cogeneration system comprising a combined cycle composed of a gas cycle burning natural gas with a heat recovery steam generator with no supplementary burning and a steam cycle burning municipal solid wastes (MSW) to which will be added a pure back pressure steam turbine (another one) of pure condensation. This analysis aims to select, concerning some scenarios, the best atmospheric pollutant emission control routes (rc) according to the investment cost minimisation, operation and social damage criteria. In this study, a comparison is also performed with the results obtained in the Case Study presented in Part I

  20. Apparatus for incinerating hazardous waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, R.C.W.

    1994-12-20

    An apparatus is described for incinerating wastes, including an incinerator having a combustion chamber, a fluid-tight shell enclosing the combustion chamber, an afterburner, an off-gas particulate removal system and an emergency off-gas cooling system. The region between the inner surface of the shell and the outer surface of the combustion chamber forms a cavity. Air is supplied to the cavity and heated as it passes over the outer surface of the combustion chamber. Heated air is drawn from the cavity and mixed with fuel for input into the combustion chamber. The pressure in the cavity is maintained at least approximately 2.5 cm WC higher than the pressure in the combustion chamber. Gases cannot leak from the combustion chamber since the pressure outside the chamber (inside the cavity) is higher than the pressure inside the chamber. The apparatus can be used to treat any combustible wastes, including biological wastes, toxic materials, low level radioactive wastes, and mixed hazardous and low level transuranic wastes. 1 figure.

  1. Electrically fired incineration of combustible radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charlesworth, D.; Hill, M.

    1985-01-01

    Du Pont Company and Shirco, Inc. are developing a process to incinerate plutonium-contaminated combustible waste in an electrically fired incineration system. Preliminary development was completed at Shirco, Inc. prior to installing an incineration system at the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL), which is operated by Du Pont for the US Department of Energy (DOE). The waste consists of disposable protective clothing, cleaning materials, used filter elements, and miscellaneous materials exposed to plutonium contamination. Incinerator performance testing, using physically representative nonradioactive materials, was completed in March 1983 at Shirco's Pilot Test Facility in Dallas, TX. Based on the test results, equipment sizing and mechanical begin of a full-scale process were completed by June 1983. The full-scale unit is being installed at SRL to confirm the initial performance testing and is scheduled to begin in June 1985. Remote operation and maintenance of the system is required, since the system will eventually be installed in an isolated process cell. Initial operation of the process will use nonradioactive simulated waste. 2 figs., 2 tabs

  2. Incineration as a radioactive waste volume reduction process for CEA nuclear centers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atabek, R.; Chaudon, L.

    1994-01-01

    Incineration processes represent a promising solution for waste volume reduction, and will be increasingly used in the future. The features and performance specifications of low-level waste incinerators with capacities ranging from 10 to 20 kg - h -1 at the Fontenay-aux-Roses, Grenoble and Cadarache nuclear centers in France are briefly reviewed. More extensive knowledge of low-level wastes produced in facilities operated by the Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (CEA) has allowed us to assess the volume reduction obtained by processing combustible waste in existing incinerators. Research and development work is in progress to improve management procedures for higher-level waste and to build facilities capable of incinerating α - contaminated waste. (authors). 6 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  3. Waste wood incineration: long-lasting, environment-friendly and CO2-neutral

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouma, J.W.J.

    1993-01-01

    The economic aspects of energy production from waste wood are evaluated. Heating systems based on the incineration of wood have been considerably improved recently. Several aspects of the incineration of waste wood are reviewed: the implications with regard to the greenhouse effect, the calorific value of wood, the incineration process, and the cost price calculation of energy production by waste wood incineration. In conclusion is stated that energy production by waste wood incineration is a valuable economic alternative for heat production by oil products, especially in view of the current anti-pollution taxes in Belgium. (A.S.)

  4. Commercial incineration demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borduin, L.C.; Neuls, A.S.

    1981-01-01

    Low-level radioactive wastes (LLW) generated by nuclear utilities presently are shipped to commercial burial grounds for disposal. Substantially increasing shipping and disposal charges have sparked renewed industry interest in incineration and other advanced volume reduction techniques as potential cost-saving measures. Repeated inquiries from industry sources regarding LLW applicability of the Los Alamos controlled-air incineration (CAI) design led DOE to initiate this commercial demonstration program in FY-1980. The selected program approach to achieving CAI demonstration at a utility site is a DOE sponsored joint effort involving Los Alamos, a nuclear utility, and a liaison subcontractor. Required development tasks and responsibilities of the particpants are described. Target date for project completion is the end of FY-1985

  5. Incineration by accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cribier, M.; FIoni, G.; Legrain, R.; Lelievre, F.; Leray, S.; Pluquet, A.; Safa, H.; Spiro, M.; Terrien, Y.; Veyssiere, Ch.

    1997-01-01

    The use MOX fuel allows to hope a stabilization of plutonium production around 500 tons for the French park. In return, the flow of minor actinides is increased to several tons. INCA (INCineration by Accelerator), dedicated instrument, would allow to transmute several tons of americium, curium and neptunium. It could be able to reduce nuclear waste in the case of stopping nuclear energy use. This project needs: a protons accelerator of 1 GeV at high intensity ( 50 m A), a window separating the accelerator vacuum from the reactor, a spallation target able to produce 30 neutrons by incident proton, an incineration volume where a part of fast neutrons around the target are recovered, and a thermal part in periphery with flows at 2.10 15 n/cm 2 .s; a chemical separation of elements burning in thermal (americium) from the elements needing a flow of fast neutrons. (N.C.)

  6. The calcination process in a system for washing, calcinating, and converting treated municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash into raw material for the cement industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Fenfen; Takaoka, Masaki; Oshita, Kazuyuki; Morisawa, Shinsuke

    2011-07-01

    Calcination is the second step in a washing-calcination-conversion system in which treated municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash and bottom ash can be reused as raw material in the cement industry and can decompose or stabilize hazardous compounds, reduce residue amounts, and alter residue characteristics. In this research, only fly ash is discussed. Chloride reduction is important if treated fly ash is to be reused in cement; however, the relationship between washed fly ash properties and chloride reduction by calcination is not well understood. This study used washed residues of three types of fly ash-raw fly ash (RFA) from the boiler or economizer of an incineration system, fly ash collected in a bag filter injected with calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2) for acid removal (CaFA), and fly ash collected in a bag filter injected with sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) for acid removal (NaFA)-in calcination experiments with varying temperature (400-1100 degrees C) and atmosphere (100% nitrogen [N2] at 25 mL/min or 10% oxygen [O2] [90% N2] at fluxes of 25, 50, and 75 mL/min). From the perspective of chloride reduction, heating to 1000 degrees C with 1-hr heating time, 1-hr holding time, and an atmosphere of 10% O2/90% N2 was most suitable for calcination. Under these conditions, chloride levels were reduced by 91, 52, and 96% in washed residues of RFA, CaFA, and NaFA, respectively. Among the washed residues, the weight of the washed residue of NaFA decreased the most.

  7. Permitting a hazardous waste incinerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambrose, M.L.

    1987-01-01

    In recent years, changes in the laws and regulations have produced an increased emphasis on proper solid waste disposal. Experience with various types of industrial wastes has shown that a large segment of these materials should not go to a landfill. If these wastes are prohibited from landfills, an effective alternative is incineration. The Department of Energy (DOE) has seen the need to build an incinerator at the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant to treat wastes that are generated at the DOE-Oak Ridge Operations facilities, many of which are contaminated with low levels of radioactivity. An extensive effort has been put forth to bring this project to reality. Several permits from the Environmental Protection Agency and the Tennessee Department of Health and Environment are required before the facility can operate. These permits include: (1) Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Part B Permit, (2) Toxic Substances Control Act Permit, (3) National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System Permit, (4) Tennessee State Air Permit, and (5) National Emission Standard for Hazardous Air Pollutants Approval Letter. The permitting process has been very long and involved and has taken nearly three years to complete. Currently, plans are to have the facility fully operational by January 1988

  8. CIF---Design basis for an integrated incineration facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, G.F.

    1991-01-01

    This paper discusses the evolution of chosen technologies that occurred during the design process of the US Department of Energy (DOE) incineration system designated the Consolidated Incineration Facility (CIF) as the Savannah River Plant, Aiken, South Carolina. The Plant is operated for DOE by the Westinghouse Savannah River Company. The purpose of the incineration system is to treat low level radioactive and/or hazardous liquid and solid wastes by combustion. The objective for the facility is to thermally destroy toxic constituents and volume reduce waste material. Design criteria requires operation be controlled within the limits of RCRA's permit envelope

  9. Incineration of Non-radioactive Simulated Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, A.Z.; Abdelrazek, I.D.

    1999-01-01

    An advanced controlled air incinerator has been investigated, developed and put into successful operation for both non radioactive simulated and other combustible solid wastes. Engineering efforts concentrated on providing an incinerator which emitted a clean, easily treatable off-gas and which produced minimum amounts of secondary waste. Feed material is fed by gravity into the gas reactor without shredding or other pretreatment. The temperature of the waste is gradually increased in a reduced oxygen atmosphere as the resulting products are introduced into the combustion chamber. Steady burning is thus accomplished under easily controlled excess air conditions with the off-gas then passing through a simple dry cleaning-up system. Experimental studies showed that, at lower temperature, CO 2 , and CH 4 contents in gas reactor effluent increase by the increase of glowing bed temperature, while H 2 O, H 2 and CO decrease . It was proved that, a burn-out efficiency (for ash residues) and a volume reduction factor appeared to be better than 95.5% and 98% respectively. Moreover, high temperature permits increased volumes of incinerated material and results in increased gasification products. It was also found that 8% by weight of ashes are separated by flue gas cleaning system as it has chemical and size uniformity. This high incineration efficiency has been obtained through automated control and optimization of process variables like temperature of the glowing bed and the oxygen feed rate to the gas reactor

  10. Properties of Rose Hip Marmalades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oktay Yildiz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Rose hip, also known as wild rose, is a summer fruit. The aim of this research is to present physical, chemical, rheological, sensory and antioxidant properties of rose hip marmalades. Rose hips cultivated in Turkey are processed into pulp and then marmalade is made by using vacuum evaporator or classical method. For the purposes of this investigation, marmalades produced on a factory scale using two methods were compared to commercial marmalades purchased on market. The marmalades exhibited high levels of antioxidant activity as well as total phenolic content. The consistency indices for the marmalades were determined to be between 64.2 and 321 Pa·s^n. Colour parameters, namely L, a, b, were measured and correlations between the examined parameters were calculated.

  11. Analysis of Discharged Gas from Incinerator using Simulated Organic Solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seungil; Kim, Hyunki; Heo, Jun; Kang, Dukwon; Kim, Yunbok; Kwon, Youngbock

    2014-01-01

    Korea has no experience of treatment of RI organic waste and appropriate measures for treatment of organic waste did not suggested. RI organic wastes which are occurring in KOREA are stored at the RI waste storage building of KORAD. But they can't no more receive the RI organic waste because the storage facility for RI organic waste was saturated with these organic wastes. In case of Japan, they recognized the dangerousness of long-term storage for RI organic wastes. In case of Korea, the released concentration of gaseous pollutant from the incinerator is regulated by attached table No.1 of the Notification No. 2012-60 of Nuclear Safety Commission and attached table No.8 of Clean Air Conservation Act. And the dioxin from the incinerator is regulated by attached table No.3 of Persistent Organic Pollutants Control Act. This experiment was performed to examine whether the incinerator introduced from Japan is manufactured suitably for municipal law regulation and to confirm the compliance about the gaseous pollutant released from incinerator with the above-mentioned laws especially attached table No.1 of NSC using simulated organic waste solution. In this experiment, we examined whether the incinerator was manufactured suitably for municipal law regulation and confirmed the compliance about the gaseous pollutant released from incinerator with the above-mentioned laws using simulated organic waste solution. The design requirement of incinerator for RI organic waste in the municipal law regulation is proposed briefly but the requirements for more detail about the incinerator are proposed in regulation of Japan. The incinerator used in this experiment is satisfied with all clauses of the domestic as well as Japan. Multiple safety functions were installed in the incinerator such as air purge system to remove unburned inflammable gases in the furnace and earthquake detector. Also, perfect combustion of RI organic waste is achieved because the temperature in the furnace

  12. Current practice of incineration of low-level institutional radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooley, L.R.; McCampbell, M.R.; Thompson, J.D.

    1981-02-01

    During 1972, 142 medical and academic institutions were surveyed to assess the current practice of incineration of low-level radioactive waste. This was one activity carried out by the University of Maryland as part of a contract with EG and G Idaho, Inc., to site a radioactive waste incineration system. Of those surveyed, 46 (approximately 32%) were presently incinerating some type of radioactive waste. All were using controlled-air, multistage incinerators. Incinerators were most often used to burn animal carcasses and other biological wastes (96%). The average size unit had a capacity of 113 kg/h. Disposal of liquid scintillation vials posed special problems; eight institutions incinerated full scintillation vials and five incinerated scintillation fluids in bulk form. Most institutions (87%) used the incinerator to dispose of other wastes in addition to radioactive wastes. About half (20) of the institutions incinerating radioactive wastes reported shortcomings in their incineration process; those most often mentioned were: problems with liquid scintillation wastes, ash removal, melting glass, and visible smoke. Frequently cited reasons for incinerating wastes were: less expensive than shipping for commercial shallow land burial, volume reduction, convenience, and closure of existing disposal sites

  13. Recovery of plutonium from incinerator ash at Rocky Flats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, T.C.

    1976-01-01

    Incineration of combustible materials highly contaminated with plutonium produces a residue of incinerator ash. Recovery of plutonium from incinerator ash residues at Rocky Flats is accomplished by a continuous leaching operation with nitric acid containing fluoride ion. Special equipment used in the leaching operation consists of a screw feeder, air-lift dissolvers, filters, solids dryer, and vapor collection system. Each equipment item is described in detail. The average dissolution efficiency of plutonium experienced with the process was 68% on the first pass, 74% on the second pass, and 64% on each subsequent pass. Total-solids dissolution efficiencies averaged 47% on the first pass and about 25% on each subsequent pass

  14. Solidification of radioactive incinerator ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuler, T.F.; Charlesworth, D.L.

    1986-01-01

    The Ashcrete process will solidify ash generated by the Beta Gamma Incinerator (BGI) at the Savannah River Plant (SRP). The system remotely handles, adds material to, and tumbles drums of ash to produce ashcrete, a stabilized wasteform. Full-scale testing of the Ashcrete unit began at Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) in January 1984, using nonradioactive ash. Tests determined product homogeneity, temperature distribution, compressive strength, and final product formulation. Product formulations that yielded good mix homogeneity and final product compressive strength were developed. Drum pressurization and temperature rise (resulting from the cement's heat of hydration) were also studied to verify safe storage and handling characteristics. In addition to these tests, an expert system was developed to assist process troubleshooting

  15. Incineration as treatment system of urban solid wastes. La incineracion como parte del sistem integral de tratamiento de residuos solidos urbanos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serrano Martinez, F. (IDAE. Madrid (Spain))

    1993-01-01

    Spain produces 12 million tons of municipal solid wastes. The incineration is the cleanest process and, at the moment, its use is complementary with the recycling. This article analyzes the Spanish situation and the process in USA and European Community.

  16. 3D Constraints On Fault Architecture and Strain Distribution of the Newport-Inglewood Rose Canyon and San Onofre Trend Fault Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, J. J.; Driscoll, N. W.; Kent, G. M.

    2017-12-01

    The Inner California Borderlands (ICB) is situated off the coast of southern California and northern Baja. The structural and geomorphic characteristics of the area record a middle Oligocene transition from subduction to microplate capture along the California coast. Marine stratigraphic evidence shows large-scale extension and rotation overprinted by modern strike-slip deformation. Geodetic and geologic observations indicate that approximately 6-8 mm/yr of Pacific-North American relative plate motion is accommodated by offshore strike-slip faulting in the ICB. The farthest inshore fault system, the Newport-Inglewood Rose Canyon (NIRC) Fault is a dextral strike-slip system that is primarily offshore for approximately 120 km from San Diego to the San Joaquin Hills near Newport Beach, California. Based on trenching and well data, the NIRC Fault Holocene slip rate is 1.5-2.0 mm/yr to the south and 0.5-1.0 mm/yr along its northern extent. An earthquake rupturing the entire length of the system could produce an Mw 7.0 earthquake or larger. West of the main segments of the NIRC Fault is the San Onofre Trend (SOT) along the continental slope. Previous work concluded that this is part of a strike-slip system that eventually merges with the NIRC Fault. Others have interpreted this system as deformation associated with the Oceanside Blind Thrust Fault purported to underlie most of the region. In late 2013, we acquired the first high-resolution 3D Parallel Cable (P-Cable) seismic surveys of the NIRC and SOT faults as part of the Southern California Regional Fault Mapping project. Analysis of stratigraphy and 3D mapping of this new data has yielded a new kinematic fault model of the area that provides new insight on deformation caused by interactions in both compressional and extensional regimes. For the first time, we can reconstruct fault interaction and investigate how strain is distributed through time along a typical strike-slip margin using 3D constraints on fault

  17. Waste incineration. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egede Rasmussen, Anja

    2004-06-15

    This prepatory thesis is a literature study on the incineration of waste. It deals with the concepts of municipal solid waste, the composition and combustion of it. A main focus is on the European emission regulations and the formation of dioxins, as well as a big effort is put into the treatment of solid residues from municipal solid waste incineration. In the latter area, concepts of treatment, such as physical and chemical separations, solidification and stabilization techniques, thermal methods, and extraction methods have been discussed. Evaluation of possible methods of treatment has been done, but no conclusions made of which is the best. Though, indications exist that especially two methods have shown positive qualities and must be further investigated. These methods are the acid extraction and sulfide stabilization (AES) process and the phosphate stabilization method of WES-PHix. Economic potentials of the two methods have been evaluated, and with the information obtained, it seems that the price for treatment and later landfilling of a material with improved leaching characteristics, will be approximately the same as the presently most used solution of export to Norway. However, more tests, investigations and economic evaluations are necessary in order for support of the findings in this work. (au)

  18. Rose breeding: past, present, prospects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de D.P.; Dubois, L.A.M.

    1996-01-01

    In this review the PAST, PRESENT and PROSPECT will be considered as three separate periods in the history of the breeding and development of rose cultivars. The recurring theme is the genetic variation. This theme was chosen because there is justified doubt as to sufficient genetic variation

  19. Micropropagation of rose cultivar 'Pareo'

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-08-22

    Aug 22, 2011 ... Serik Mukhambetzhanov*, Svetlana Nam, Valentina Mursalieva and Izbasar Rakhimbaev. Laboratory of Clonal Propagation, Institute of Plant Biology and Biotechnology, 050040 Almaty, Kazakhstan. Accepted 1 July, 2011. A protocol was developed for micropropagation of rose cv. 'Pareo'. Nodal segments ...

  20. Multiplication of Patio roses by cutting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denysko Iryna Leonidivna

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The experiment involved plants of 10 Patio rose cultivars of the National Dendrological Park "Sofiyivka" collection. The methods of propagation by cuttings worked out by Moscow Timiryazev Agricultural Academy were assumed as a basis. Callogenesis and regenerative capacity were estimated in accordance with Z.J. Ivanova scale (1982. The fact is ascertained that the success of rooting substantially depends on particularities of certain Patio rose cultivar. It is advisable to use cuttings from basal and medial parts of stems, with remaining leaves, taken within the last ten-day period of May – the first ten-day period of June. The pretreatment with rhizogenic medium "Kornevin" (reactant — indolebutyric acid is the most effective for rooting cuttings. The optimal for rooting is the two-layered substrate: the lower layer is a multicomponent soil compound of peat, perlite, sod soil and humus in ratio 1:1:1:1; the upper layer consists of sand. Seedlings of Patio roses cultivated in open ground during vegetation period form stems 1.8 times more vigorously than ones grown on the same place where they were rooted. The optimal period to transfer into bed is May. It is reasonable to use top removal in order to form vigorous stem system.

  1. Environmental impact assessment of the incineration of municipal solid waste with auxiliary coal in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Yan; Xing, Wei; Lu, Wenjing

    2012-01-01

    The environmental impacts of waste incineration with auxiliary coal were investigated using the life-cycle-based software, EASEWASTE, based on the municipal solid waste (MSW) management system in Shuozhou City. In the current system, MSW is collected, transported, and incinerated with 250kg of co...... political reduction targets. Results indicate that heavy metal and acidic gas emissions should be given more attention in waste incineration. This study provides scientific support for the management of MSW systems dominated by incineration with auxiliary coal in China.......The environmental impacts of waste incineration with auxiliary coal were investigated using the life-cycle-based software, EASEWASTE, based on the municipal solid waste (MSW) management system in Shuozhou City. In the current system, MSW is collected, transported, and incinerated with 250kg of coal...... per ton of waste. Based on observed environmental impacts of incineration, fossil CO2 and heavy metals were primary contributors to global warming and ecotoxicity in soil, respectively. Compared with incinerators using excess coal, incineration with adequate coal presents significant benefits...

  2. Waste treatment activities incineration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, D.A.

    1985-01-01

    The waste management policy at SRP is to minimize waste generation as much as possible and detoxify and/or volume reduce waste materials prior to disposal. Incineration is a process being proposed for detoxification and volume reduction of combustion nonradioactive hazardous, low-level mixed and low-level beta-gamma waste. Present operation of the Solvent Burner Demonstration reduces the amount of solid combustible low-level beta-gamma boxed waste disposed of by shallow land burial by approximately 99,000 ft 3 per year producing 1000 ft 3 per year of ash and, by 1988, will detoxify and volume reduce 150,000 gallons or organic Purex solvent producing approximately 250 ft 3 of ash per year

  3. Effects of particulates, heavy metals and acid gas on the removals of NO and PAHs by V2O5-WO3 catalysts in waste incineration system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Feng-Yim; Chen, Jyh-Cherng; Wey, Ming-Yen; Tsai, Shih-An

    2009-10-15

    This study investigated the activities of prepared and commercial V(2)O(5)-WO(3) catalysts for simultaneous removals of NO and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and the influences of particulates, heavy metals, SO(2), and HCl on the performances of catalysts. The experiments were carried out in a laboratory-scale waste incineration system equipped with a catalyst reactor. The DREs of PAHs by prepared and commercial V(2)O(5)-WO(3) catalysts were 64% and 72%, respectively. Increasing the particulate concentrations in flue gas suppressed the DRE of PAHs, but increasing the carbon content on surface of catalysts promotes the NO conversions. The DRE of PAHs by the catalysts was significantly decreased by the increased concentrations of heavy metal Cd, but was promoted by high concentration of Pb. The influence level of SO(2) was higher than HCl on the performances of V(2)O(5)-WO(3) catalysts for PAHs removal, but was lower than HCl for NO removal. Prepared and commercial V(2)O(5)-WO(3) catalysts have similar trends on the effects of particulates, heavy metals, SO(2), and HCl. The results of ESCA analysis reveal that the presence of these pollutants on the surface of catalysts did not change the chemical state of V and W.

  4. Conditioning processes for incinerator ashes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jouan, A.; Ouvrier, N.; Teulon, F.

    1990-01-01

    Three conditioning processes for alpha-bearing solid waste incineration ashes were investigated and compared according to technical and economic criteria: isostatic pressing, cold-crucible direct-induction melting and cement-resin matrix embedding

  5. Activated carbon for incinerator uses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Che Seman Mahmood; Norhayati Alias; Mohd Puad Abu

    2002-01-01

    This paper reports the development of the activated carbon from palm oil kernel shell for use as absorbent and converter for incinerator gas. The procedure is developed in order to prepare the material in bulk quantity and be used in the incinerator. The effect of the use of activating chemicals, physical activation and the preparation parameter to the quality of the carbon products will be discussed. (Author)

  6. Rocky Flats Plant fluidized-bed incinerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meile, L.J.; Meyer, F.G.; Johnson, A.J.; Ziegler, D.L.

    1982-01-01

    Laboratory and pilot-scale testing of a fluidized-bed incineration process for radioactive wastes led to the installation of an 82-kg/hr demonstration unit at Rocky Flats Plant in 1978. Design philosophy and criteria were formulated to fulfill the needs and objectives of an improved radwaste-incineration system. Unique process concepts include low-temperature (550 0 C), flameless, fluidized-bed combustion and catalytic afterburning; in-situ neutralization of acid gases; and dry off-gas cleanup. Detailed descriptions of the process and equipment are presented along with a summary of the equipment and process performance during a 2-1/2 year operational-testing period. Equipment modifications made during the test period are described. Operating personnel requirements for solid-waste burning are shown to be greater than those required for liquid-waste incineration; differences are discussed. Process-utility and raw-materials consumption rates for full-capacity operation are presented and explained. Improvements in equipment and operating procedures are recommended for any future installations. Process flow diagrams, an area floor plan, a process-control-system schematic, and equipment sketches are included

  7. Obituary: William K. Rose (1935-2010)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimble, Virginia

    2011-12-01

    Stellar astrophysicist William Kenneth Rose died near his home in Potomac, Maryland, on September 30, 2010, after an extended illness. Rose was the son of pharmacist Kenneth William Rose and Shirley Near Rose and was born in Ossining, New York, on August 10, 1935. He received an AB from Columbia College in 1957 and a PhD in physics from Columbia University in 1963, with a thesis on "measurements of linear polarization in discrete radio sources using a 9.4 cm maser," under the direction of Charles H. Townes. Rose played a major role in designing and constructing the maser and used it at a radio telescope at Maryland Point that belonged to the Naval Research Lab. He observed Jupiter and Saturn and a number of extra-solar-system sources, and also diffuse centimeter emission (see appendix). The thesis was not published in an archival journal, but can be found under Library of Congress code QB 475.R67. While in graduate School, Bill married Sheila Tuchman, whose primary scientific interests were biological. None of their three children chose to be scientists, but two are CPAs. Bill moved successfully through the academic hurdles) from a research position at Princeton (1963-67), where a collaboration with Nick Woolf and Martin Schwarzchild on the infrared spectra of giant stars became one of his most-cited papers, to assistant and associate professorships at MIT (1967-71), and then associate and full professorships at the University of Maryland (1971 to retirement in 2005). His most innovative work was probably that on nova explosions arising from degenerate ignition of hydrogen accreted on white dwarfs in close binary systems, published in 1968. The same idea occurred to others at about the same time, and Bill did not, perhaps, get quite his fair share of the credit. I first met Sheila and Bill in summer 1969 at the Stony Brook summer school on stellar evolution (not published until 1972). He lectured on the nature of nova explosions and on nuclear burning in thin

  8. The Purple Rose of Virgo

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-01

    Until now NGC 5584 was just one galaxy among many others, located to the West of the Virgo Cluster. Known only as a number in galaxy surveys, its sheer beauty is now revealed in all its glory in a new VLT image. Since 1 March, this purple cosmic rose also holds the brightest stellar explosion of the year, known as SN 2007af. Located about 75 million light years away towards the constellation Virgo ('the Virgin'), NGC 5584 is a galaxy slightly smaller than the Milky Way. It belongs, however, to the same category: both are barred spirals. ESO PR Photo 16/07 ESO PR Photo 16/07 The Purple Rose of Virgo Spiral galaxies are composed of a 'bulge' and a flat disc. The bulge hosts old stars and usually a central supermassive black hole. Younger stars reside in the disc, forming the characteristic spiral structures from which the galaxies get their name. Barred spirals are crossed by a bright band of stars. In 2000, using ESO's Very Large Telescope, astronomers discovered the smallest, faintest, and most massive spirals (see ESO PR 12/00 and 25/00). In this amazing new image of NGC 5584 two dominant spiral arms are clearly visible, while the others are deformed, probably due to interactions with other galaxies. Luminous patches are spread all over the disc, indicating that stars are being formed in this gigantic rose at a frantic pace. Something even brighter, however, catches the eye in this picture. Any image taken before the end of February would not have shown the luminous spot located at the lower right of the galaxy's centre. As can be seen, the newly found object is much brighter than the centre of the galaxy itself. Its name? SN 2007af, the 32nd supernova discovered this year. Its presence signals the dramatic death of a star with a mass comparable to that of the Sun. SN 2007af, the brightest supernova of the year (so far), was discovered on 1 March by the Japanese supernova hunter Koichi Itagaki. He pointed his 60-centimetre telescope towards the Virgo constellation

  9. Dual purpose absorption machines in an energy system based on waste incineration; Absorptionsmaskiner foer kyl- och vaermeproduktion i energisystem med avfallsfoerbraenning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brorsson, Maria [Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Technology

    2005-03-01

    The demand for district cooling in Sweden has been increasing during the recent years and is expected to increase even more. The reason for this is for example more frequent use of computers and higher demand for indoor climate control via air conditioning. During the summer there is also a surplus of heat, especially in energy systems that includes waste incineration. This surplus makes it interesting to consider heat-driven cooling as an alternative to satisfy the increasing demand of district cooling. Today many energy systems in Sweden use absorption heat pumps, for production of district heating using waste heat from the combustion units. To this point the absorption heat pumps have not been considered as chillers due to their relatively high investment cost in combination with the short cooling season. However, the surplus of heat during the summer season means that there is access to 'free' driving heat for the absorption chillers. This would be a cheap and environmentally friendly way to produce district cooling. The aim of this study was to examine the opportunities for using absorption machines for production of district heating during wintertime and district cooling during summertime. Factors to be considered were how this change would be made technically and during which months the absorption heat pumps should be used for cold and heat production, respectively. In addition a comparison between absorption cooling and other cooling techniques was made. The study was based on Vattenfall Vaerme Uppsala ABs (VVU) energy system in Uppsala. VVU has recently invested in two new absorption heat pumps that, together with four old ones, are planned to produce district heating as well as district cooling depending on the season. The results of the study are: The technical change between heat and cold production with absorption heat pumps is relatively simple. When used as a chiller the evaporator heat is taken from the district cooling return water, which

  10. Operational testing of an electrically fired Pu-238 waste incineration process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmes, H.; Charlesworth, D.L.

    1987-01-01

    Combustible 238 Pu waste is generated from normal operation and decommissioning activity at the Savannah River Plant and is being retrievably stored at the Plant. An electrically fired, two-stage incineration process is being developed to use incineration to process and recovery plutonium from the waste. A prototype incinerator is being tested to assess its capability to be remotely operated and maintained. Technical development is focusing on continuous feeding, vacuum control, remote operability and mechanical integrity of the system, ash burnout, and life of the belt in the primary incinerator chamber. 6 figs., 5 tabs

  11. Mixed incineration of RAIW and liquid scintillator waste after storage for decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naba, K.; Nakazato, K.; Kataoka, K.

    1993-01-01

    Most medical radioactive waste is combustible after radioactive decay. Moreover mixed incineration of LLW with biomedical radioactive waste will lessen radiation exposure to the public. This paper describes the total system flowsheet for the processing of liquid scintillator wastes and radioimmunoassay tube wastes containing iodine 125 (after a two-year storage for decay). The process was tested with a 60 kg/hr capacity incinerator from 1987 to 1991; this has been upgraded to a 150 kg/hr incinerator which is used for nonradioactive biomedical waste incineration as well

  12. The Savannah River Plant Consolidated Incineration Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, D.A.

    1987-01-01

    A full scale incinerator is proposed for construction at the Savannah River Plant (SRP) beginning in August 1989 for detoxifiction and volume reduction of liquid and solid low-level radioactive, mixed and RCRA hazardous waste. Wastes to be burned include drummed liquids, sludges and solids, liquid process wastes, and low-level boxed job control waste. The facility will consist of a rotary kiln primary combustion chamber followed by a tangentially fired cylindrical secondary combustion chamber (SCC) and be designed to process up to 12 tons per day of solid and liquid waste. Solid waste packaged in combustible containers will be fed to the rotary kiln incinerator using a ram feed system and liquid wastes will be introduced to the rotary kiln through a burner nozzle. Liquid waste will also be fed through a high intensity vortex burner in the SCC. Combustion gases will exit the SCC and be cooled to saturation in a spray quench. Particulate and acid gas are removed in a free jet scrubber. The off-gas will then pass through a cyclone separator, mist eliminator, reheater high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filtration and induced draft blowers before release to the atmosphere. Incinerator ash and scrubber blowdown will be immobilized in a cement matrix and disposed of in an onsite RCRA permitted facility. The Consolidated Incineration Facility (CIF) will provide detoxification and volume reduction for up to 560,000 CUFT/yr of solid waste and up to 35,700 CUFT/yr of liquid waste. Up to 50,500 CUFT/yr of cement stabilized ash and blowdown will beproduced for an average overall volume reduction fator of 22:1. 3 figs., 2 tabs

  13. Opportunities for artificial intelligence application in computer- aided management of mixed waste incinerator facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivera, A.L.; Ferrada, J.J.; Singh, S.P.N.

    1992-01-01

    The Department of Energy/Oak Ridge Field Office (DOE/OR) operates a mixed waste incinerator facility at the Oak Ridge K-25 Site. It is designed for the thermal treatment of incinerable liquid, sludge, and solid waste regulated under the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). This facility, known as the TSCA Incinerator, services seven DOE/OR installations. This incinerator was recently authorized for production operation in the United States for the processing of mixed (radioactively contaminated-chemically hazardous) wastes as regulated under TSCA and RCRA. Operation of the TSCA Incinerator is highly constrained as a result of the regulatory, institutional, technical, and resource availability requirements. These requirements impact the characteristics and disposition of incinerator residues, limits the quality of liquid and gaseous effluents, limit the characteristics and rates of waste feeds and operating conditions, and restrict the handling of the waste feed inventories. This incinerator facility presents an opportunity for applying computer technology as a technical resource for mixed waste incinerator operation to facilitate promoting and sustaining a continuous performance improvement process while demonstrating compliance. Demonstrated computer-aided management systems could be transferred to future mixed waste incinerator facilities

  14. Numerical model for a watering plan to wash out organic matter from the municipal solid waste incinerator bottom ash layer in closed system disposal facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Kazuei; Furuichi, Toru; Tanikawa, Noboru

    2009-02-01

    Bottom ash from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) is a main type of waste that is landfilled in Japan. The long-term elution of organic matter from the MSWI bottom ash layers is a concern because maintenance and operational costs of leachate treatment facilities are high. In closed system disposal facilities (CSDFs), which have a roof to prevent rainfall from infiltrating into the waste layers, water must be supplied artificially and its quantity can be controlled. However, the quantity of water needed and how to apply it (the intensity, period and frequency) have not been clearly defined. In order to discuss an effective watering plan, this study proposes a new washout model to clarify a fundamental mechanism of total organic carbon (TOC) elution behavior from MSWI bottom ash layers. The washout model considers three phases: solid, immobile water and mobile water. The parameters, including two mass transfer coefficients of the solid-immobile water phases and immobile-mobile water phases, were determined by one-dimensional column experiments for about 2 years. The intensity, period and frequency of watering and other factors were discussed based on a numerical analysis using the above parameters. As a result, our washout model explained adequately the elution behavior of TOC from the MSWI bottom ash layer before carbonation occurred (pH approximately 8.3). The determined parameters and numerical analysis suggested that there is a possibility that the minimum amount of water needed for washing out TOC per unit weight of MSWI bottom ash layer could be determined, which depends on the two mass transfer coefficients and the depth of the MSWI bottom ash layer. Knowledge about the fundamental mechanism of the elution behavior of TOC from the MSWI bottom ash layer before carbonation occurs, clarified by this study, will help an effective watering plan in CSDFs.

  15. Alpha waste incineration prototype incinerator and industrial project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caramelle, D.; Meyere, A.

    1988-01-01

    To meet our requirements with respect to the processing of solid alpha wastes, a pilot cold incinerator has been used for R and D. This unit has a capacity of 5 kg/hr. The main objectives assigned to this incineration process are: a good reduction factor, controlled combustion, ash composition compatible with plutonium recovery, limited secondary solid and fluid wastes, releases within the nuclear and chemical standards, and in strict observance of the confinement and criticality safety rules. After describing the process we will discuss the major results of the incineration test campaigns with representative solid wastes (50 % PVC). We will then give a description of an industrial project with a capacity of 7 kg/hr, followed by a cost estimate

  16. Emission of greenhouse gases from waste incineration in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Kum-Lok; Choi, Sang-Min; Kim, Moon-Kyung; Heo, Jong-Bae; Zoh, Kyung-Duk

    2017-07-01

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) emission factors previously reported from various waste incineration plants have shown significant variations according to country-specific, plant-specific, and operational conditions. The purpose of this study is to estimate GHG emissions and emission factors at nine incineration facilities in Korea by measuring the GHG concentrations in the flue gas samples. The selected incineration plants had different operation systems (i.e., stoker, fluidized bed, moving grate, rotary kiln, and kiln & stoker), and different nitrogen oxide (NO x ) removal systems (i.e., selective catalytic reduction (SCR) and selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR)) to treat municipal solid waste (MSW), commercial solid waste (CSW), and specified waste (SW). The total mean emission factors for A and B facilities for MSW incineration were found to be 134 ± 17 kg CO 2 ton -1 , 88 ± 36 g CH 4 ton -1 , and 69 ± 16 g N 2 O ton -1 , while those for CSW incineration were 22.56 g CH 4 ton -1 and 259.76 g N 2 O ton -1 , and for SW incineration emission factors were 2959 kg CO 2 ton -1 , 43.44 g CH 4 ton -1 and 401.21 g N 2 O ton -1 , respectively. Total emissions calculated using annual incineration for MSW were 3587 ton CO 2 -eq yr -1 for A facility and 11,082 ton CO 2 -eq yr -1 for B facility, while those of IPCC default values were 13,167 ton CO 2- eq yr -1 for A facility and 32,916 ton CO 2- eq yr -1 , indicating that the emissions of IPCC default values were estimated higher than those of the plant-specific emission factors. The emission of CSW for C facility was 1403 ton CO 2 -eq yr -1 , while those of SW for D to I facilities was 28,830 ton CO 2 -eq yr -1 . The sensitivity analysis using a Monte Carlo simulation for GHG emission factors in MSW showed that the GHG concentrations have a greater impact than the incineration amount and flow rate of flue gas. For MSW incineration plants using the same stoker type in operation, the estimated emissions and

  17. Incineration demonstration at Savannah River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewandowski, K.E.; Becker, G.W.; Mersman, K.E.; Roberson, W.A.

    1983-01-01

    A full-scale incineration process for Savannah River Plant (SRP) low level beta-gamma combustible waste was demonstrated at the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) using nonradioactive wastes. From October 1981 through September 1982, 15,700 kilograms of solid waste and 5.7 m 3 of solvent were incinerated. Emissions of off-gas components (NO/sub x/, SO 2 , CO, and particulates) were well below South Carolina state standards. Volume reductions of 20:1 for solid waste and 7:1 for Purex solvent/lime slurry were achieved. Presently, the process is being upgraded by SRP to accept radioactive wastes. During a two-year SRP demonstration, the facility will be used to incinerate slightly radioactive ( 3 ) solvent and suspect level (<1 mR/hr at 0.0254 meter) solid wastes

  18. Savannah River Plant incinerator demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewandowski, K.E.

    1983-01-01

    A full-scale incineration process was demonstrated at the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) using nonradioactive waste. From October 1981 through September 1982, 15,700 kilograms of solid waste and 5.7 m 3 of solvent were incinerated. Emissions of off-gas components (NO/sub x/, SO 2 , CO, and particulates) were well below South Carolina state standards. Volume reductions of 20:1 for solid waste and 7:1 for Purex solvent/lime slurry were achieved. The process has been relocated and upgraded by the Savannah River Plant to accept low-level beta-gamma combustibles. During a two-year demonstration, the facility will incinerate slightly radioactive ( 3 ) solvent and suspect level (< 1 mR/h at 0.0254 meter) solid wastes. This demonstration will begin in early 1984

  19. HANDBOOK: HAZARDOUS WASTE INCINERATION MEASUREMENT GUIDANCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    This publication, Volume III of the Hazardous Waste Incineration Guidance Series, contains general guidance to permit writers in reviewing hazardous waste incineration permit applications and trial burn plans. he handbook is a how-to document dealing with how incineration measure...

  20. Effects of Non Process Elements in the chemical recovery system of a kraft pulp mill from the incineration in the recovery boiler of biological sludge; Effekter av PFG vid indunstning och foerbraenning av bioslam i ett massabruks sodapanna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahlbom, Johan

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to investigate the effects of incineration of biological sludge in the recovery boiler of a Swedish Kraft pulp mill, StoraEnso Pulp AB Skutskaers Bruk, which has practiced incineration of sludge in the recovery boiler during the last two years. The following aspects of the technique were investigated: Experience from operation of incineration of biological sludge in the recovery boiler; The content of Non-Process Elements (NPE) in process flows and evaluate the risks of incrustations in the system; The build-up of NPE in the chemicals recovery system and the estimated increase in make-up lime demand; and Technical risks for mills with different process equipment. This study comprises the following NPE: aluminium, silicon, phosphorus, magnesium, calcium, chloride, iron, manganese, potassium, copper, and nitrogen. The operational experience from the system for hydrolysis of the biological sludge and evaporation/incineration in the recovery boiler is excellent. The handling of the sludge takes place in a closed system that demands little supervision and maintenance. Overall, the mill has not seen any negative effects that can be explained by increased intake of NPEs to the chemical recovery system. Aluminium can lead to troublesome incrustations of sodium-aluminium-silicates on the heat surfaces in the evaporation plant. An effective elimination of aluminium by the green liquor dreg is obtained with the double salt hydrotalcite if the quotient Mg/Al is kept higher than 4-5 in the black liquor. The need for make-up lime has increased due to the build-up of phosphorus in the lime. Depending on the level of make-up lime the need will increase 2-5 kg/ t{sub 90} at a price of 2-5 kr/t{sub 90}. If a higher level of phosphorus is accepted instead of increasing lime make-up the running costs will be somewhat higher, 0,5-1 kr/t{sub 90} due to increased ballast. NO{sub x} in the flue gases from the recovery boiler has not increased since the

  1. SUPERFUND TREATABILITY CLEARINGHOUSE: FINAL REPORT: ON-SITE INCINERATION OF SHIRCO INFRARED SYSTEMS PORTABLE PILOT TEST UNIT, TIMES BEACH, MISSOURI

    Science.gov (United States)

    During the period of July 8 - July 12, 1985, the Shirco Infrared Systems Portable Pilot Test Unit was in operation at the Times Beach Dioxin Research Facility to demonstrate the capability of Shirco's infrared technology to decontaminate silty soil laden with 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorod...

  2. Progress on radioactive waste slurry incineration with oxygen and steam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoshino, M.; Hayashi, M.; Oda, I.; Nonaka, N.; Kuwayama, K.; Shigeta, T.

    1988-01-01

    The radioactive waste (radwaste) slurry generated from the nuclear power plant operation, such as spent ion-exchange resins (powdered, bead), fire-retardant oils including phosphate ester and concentrated laundry (by the wet method) liquid waste, has been stored in an untreated condition on the plant site. Recently, since the Condensate Filter Demineralizer (CFD) has been applied in advanced BWR plants, the discharged volume of untreated spent powered resin slurry has been increasing steadily. TEE and NCE have been developing an effective new volume reduction system to treat this radwaste slurry based on an innovative incineration concept. The new system is called the IOS process, the feature of which is incineration with oxygen and steam admixture instead of conventional air. The IOS process, which consists mainly of high heat load incineration with slurry atomization, and combustion gas cooling and condensation by the wet method, has several advantages which are summarized in this paper

  3. Toward a sustainable waste management system: a comprehensive assessment of thermal and electric energy recovery from waste incineration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salvia, Monica; Cosmi, Carmelina; Cuomo, Vincenzo; Macchiato, Maria [Istituto Nazionale per la Fisica della Materia, Napoli (Italy); Mangiamele, Lucia [Univ. della Basilicata, Potenza (Italy). Dipt. Ingegneria e Fisica dell Ambiente; Pietrapertosa, Filomena [Univ. di Napoli Federico II, (Italy). Dipt. di Scienze Fisiche

    2002-12-01

    Energy-environmental planning must join normative, environmental and socio-economic features to obtain effective strategies aimed to a sustainable development. Therefore a comprehensive methodology for the analysis and the optimisation of the anthropogenic activities system configuration, can usefully support decision-makers in the definition of harmonised sector plans, joining waste management issues with resource use problems and exploiting energy and materials feedback among supply and demand sectors. In this paper we present an innovative application of the Advanced Local Energy Environmental Planning methodology (ALEP), aimed to the definition of optimal waste management strategies which comply with comprehensive as well as sectorial issues.

  4. A sustainability analysis of an incineration project in Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikic, Miljan; Naunovic, Zorana

    2013-11-01

    The only option for municipal solid waste (MSW) treatment adopted so far in Serbia is landfilling. Similarly to other south-eastern European countries, Serbia is not recovering any energy from MSW. Fifty percent of electricity in Serbia is produced in coal-fired power plants with emission control systems dating from the 1980s. In this article, the option of MSW incineration with energy recovery is proposed and examined for the city of Novi Sad. A sustainability analysis consisting of financial, economic and sensitivity analyses was done in the form of a cost-benefit analysis following recommendations from the European Commission. Positive and negative social and environmental effects of electricity generation through incineration were valuated partly using conversion factors and shadow prices, and partly using the results of previous studies. Public aversion to MSW incineration was considered. The results showed that the incineration project would require external financial assistance, and that an increase of the electricity and/or a waste treatment fee is needed to make the project financially positive. It is also more expensive than the landfilling option. However, the economic analysis showed that society would have net benefits from an incineration project. The feed-in tariff addition of only €0.03 (KWh)(-1) to the existing electricity price, which would enable the project to make a positive contribution to economic welfare, is lower than the actual external costs of electricity generation from coal in Serbia.

  5. White Rose development plan amendment production volume increase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-09-01

    In January 2001, Husky Oil Operations Limited (Husky), in joint-venture with Petro-Canada, submitted a Benefits Plan for the White Rose Development to the Canada- Newfoundland and Labrador Offshore Petroleum Board (C-NLOPB). This revised document provided the case for requesting an increase in the facility maximum daily production rate and the average annual production rate for the White Rose field from 100,000 barrels per day (bpd) as stated in the approved White Rose Development Plan to 140,000 bpd. In order to determine the potential for increasing oil production through the Floating Production, Storage and Offloading (FPSO) vessel, two things were considered, namely the proper reservoir management of the White Rose field to ensure optimum resource recovery, and the capacity of the FPSO topsides processing system and supporting utilities to accommodate increased production. This document presented a detailed review of all the implications of increased production on the South White Rose Reservoir. In addition, the results from FPSO performance testing were reviewed, including a study of options for de-bottlenecking the process plant on the topsides and capacity testing of selected process streams and support systems. Vibration analysis was conducted before and during performance testing in July 2006 and a small number of areas addressed. The document also addressed flow metering, resource management, certifying authority review, safety plan revisions, environmental effects, as well as benefits to Canada and Newfoundland. 21 tabs., 60 refs

  6. Flaring versus thermal incineration of waste gases in the oil and gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smolarski, G.M.

    1999-01-01

    The efficient combustion of waste gases at oil processing plants, battery or well sites is discussed. Several problem situations are examined, field test results are reviewed, and custom design systems are explained including modifications to systems to conserve fuel. It is shown that combustion of waste gases in fuel efficient thermal incinerators is a practical means of disposal, particularly for sour or toxic gas of low heating value. These gases contain noxious compounds that may cause odours or adverse health effects. Results of a field tests of a portable in-situ incinerator show that compared to flaring (to oxide waste gas), incineration is a more efficient form of waste management. Emission tests also prove the superior performance of incineration. The feasibility of incinerating oil storage tank vapours was also demonstrated. Tests were also conducted with a fuel-efficient Glycol Still Off-Gas Incinerator which was developed to control toxic waste emissions. Glycol dehydration removes water vapour from natural gas. The key compounds that are removed by glycol are aromatic hydrocarbons or BTEX compounds (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene), and sulphur compounds. The main design considerations for any incinerator are temperature, turbulence and residence time. An incinerator exit temperature of 760 degrees C is generally needed to reduce sulphur compounds. 2 refs., 8 tabs., 7 figs

  7. A process for treatment of residues from dry/semidry APC systems at municipal solid waste incinerators. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hjelmar, O. [VKI, Hoersholm (Denmark)] Holland, D. [FLS miljoe a/s, Valby (Denmark)] Poulsen, B. [KARA, Roskilde (Denmark)

    1997-08-01

    The main objective of the project has been to establish and test a process for treatment of residues from the semidry (and dry) lime injection based APC processes at MSWIs, which will ensure that the residues can be managed in an environmentally safe manner. In pursuit of this goal, the following activities have been carried out: Performance of pilot scale extractions (approximately 50 kg of residue per batch) at the KARA MSWI in Roskilde of semidry APC system residues in order to establish and optimize process conditions. The optimization includes consideration of the possibilities for subsequent treatment/stabilization of the extracted solid phase as well as the possibility of treatment and safe discharge/utilization of the extract; Performance of chemical characterization, hydrogeochemical model calculations and experimental work in order to improve the understanding of the mechanisms and factors which for several contaminants control the equilibrium between the solid and liquid phases, both in the short and the long germ, and to use this information to obtain an environmentally acceptable method for stabilization/treatment of the extracted residues while at the same time minimizing the necessary amount of additives; production of treated residues and performance of leaching tests on these to assess and demonstrate the effectiveness of the entire process (extraction + stabilization/treatment); Evaluation of the technical, economical and environmental consequences of full scale implementation of the process. (EG) EFP-94. 19 refs.

  8. Incineration of organic solar cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Søndergaard, Roar R.; Zimmermann, Yannick Serge; Espinosa, Nieves; Lenz, Markus; Krebs, Frederik

    2016-01-01

    Recovery of silver from the electrodes of roll-to-roll processed organic solar cells after incineration has been performed quantitatively by extraction with nitric acid. This procedure is more than 10 times faster than previous reports and the amount of acid needed for the extraction is reduced

  9. Plutonium waste incineration using pyrohydrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, M.L.

    1991-12-31

    Waste generated by Savannah River Site (SRS) plutonium operations includes a contaminated organic waste stream. A conventional method for disposing of the organic waste stream and recovering the nuclear material is by incineration. When the organic material is burned, the plutonium remains in the incinerator ash. Plutonium recovery from incinerator ash is highly dependent on the maximum temperature to which the oxide is exposed. Recovery via acid leaching is reduced for a high fired ash (>800{degree}C), while plutonium oxides fired at lower decomposition temperatures (400--800{degrees}C) are more soluble at any given acid concentration. To determine the feasibility of using a lower temperature process, tests were conducted using an electrically heated, controlled-air incinerator. Nine nonradioactive, solid, waste materials were batch-fed and processed in a top-heated cylindrical furnace. Waste material processing was completed using a 19-liter batch over a nominal 8-hour cycle. A processing cycle consisted of 1 hour for heating, 4 hours for reacting, and 3 hours for chamber cooling. The water gas shift reaction was used to hydrolyze waste materials in an atmosphere of 336% steam and 4.4% oxygen. Throughput ranged from 0.14 to 0.27 kg/hr depending on the variability in the waste material composition and density.

  10. Plutonium waste incineration using pyrohydrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, M.L.

    1991-01-01

    Waste generated by Savannah River Site (SRS) plutonium operations includes a contaminated organic waste stream. A conventional method for disposing of the organic waste stream and recovering the nuclear material is by incineration. When the organic material is burned, the plutonium remains in the incinerator ash. Plutonium recovery from incinerator ash is highly dependent on the maximum temperature to which the oxide is exposed. Recovery via acid leaching is reduced for a high fired ash (>800{degree}C), while plutonium oxides fired at lower decomposition temperatures (400--800{degrees}C) are more soluble at any given acid concentration. To determine the feasibility of using a lower temperature process, tests were conducted using an electrically heated, controlled-air incinerator. Nine nonradioactive, solid, waste materials were batch-fed and processed in a top-heated cylindrical furnace. Waste material processing was completed using a 19-liter batch over a nominal 8-hour cycle. A processing cycle consisted of 1 hour for heating, 4 hours for reacting, and 3 hours for chamber cooling. The water gas shift reaction was used to hydrolyze waste materials in an atmosphere of 336% steam and 4.4% oxygen. Throughput ranged from 0.14 to 0.27 kg/hr depending on the variability in the waste material composition and density.

  11. Plutonium waste incineration using pyrohydrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, M.L.

    1991-01-01

    Waste generated by Savannah River Site (SRS) plutonium operations includes a contaminated organic waste stream. A conventional method for disposing of the organic waste stream and recovering the nuclear material is by incineration. When the organic material is burned, the plutonium remains in the incinerator ash. Plutonium recovery from incinerator ash is highly dependent on the maximum temperature to which the oxide is exposed. Recovery via acid leaching is reduced for a high fired ash (>800 degree C), while plutonium oxides fired at lower decomposition temperatures (400--800 degrees C) are more soluble at any given acid concentration. To determine the feasibility of using a lower temperature process, tests were conducted using an electrically heated, controlled-air incinerator. Nine nonradioactive, solid, waste materials were batch-fed and processed in a top-heated cylindrical furnace. Waste material processing was completed using a 19-liter batch over a nominal 8-hour cycle. A processing cycle consisted of 1 hour for heating, 4 hours for reacting, and 3 hours for chamber cooling. The water gas shift reaction was used to hydrolyze waste materials in an atmosphere of 336% steam and 4.4% oxygen. Throughput ranged from 0.14 to 0.27 kg/hr depending on the variability in the waste material composition and density

  12. Landfilling of waste incineration residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Astrup, Thomas; Cai, Zuansi

    2002-01-01

    Residues from waste incineration are bottom ashes and air-pollution-control (APC) residues including fly ashes. The leaching of heavy metals and salts from the ashes is substantial and a wide spectrum of leaching tests and corresponding criteria have been introduced to regulate the landfilling...

  13. Experiences with waste incineration for energy production in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkeby, Janus; Grohnheit, Poul Erik; Møller Andersen, Frits

    The Bioenergy Department in SENER have requested assistance with planning for the deployment of bioenergy (Biomass, biogas and waste incineration) in Mexico and information on Danish experiences with developing policy initiatives promoting bioenergy. This introduction to the Danish experiences...... with waste incineration for energy production use is compiled as preparation for SENER’s potential visit to Denmark in 2014. This report was prepared 19 June, 2014 by COWI DTU System Analysis to Danish Energy Agency (DEA) as part of a frame contract agreement....

  14. Life cycle assessment of sewage sludge co-incineration in a coal-based power station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jingmin; Xu, Changqing; Hong, Jinglan; Tan, Xianfeng; Chen, Wei

    2013-09-01

    A life cycle assessment was conducted to evaluate the environmental and economic effects of sewage sludge co-incineration in a coal-fired power plant. The general approach employed by a coal-fired power plant was also assessed as control. Sewage sludge co-incineration technology causes greater environmental burden than does coal-based energy production technology because of the additional electricity consumption and wastewater treatment required for the pretreatment of sewage sludge, direct emissions from sludge incineration, and incinerated ash disposal processes. However, sewage sludge co-incineration presents higher economic benefits because of electricity subsidies and the income generating potential of sludge. Environmental assessment results indicate that sewage sludge co-incineration is unsuitable for mitigating the increasing pressure brought on by sewage sludge pollution. Reducing the overall environmental effect of sludge co-incineration power stations necessitates increasing net coal consumption efficiency, incinerated ash reuse rate, dedust system efficiency, and sludge water content rate. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Environmental impact assessment of the incineration of municipal solid waste with auxiliary coal in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yan; Xing, Wei; Lu, Wenjing; Zhang, Xu; Christensen, Thomas H

    2012-10-01

    The environmental impacts of waste incineration with auxiliary coal were investigated using the life-cycle-based software, EASEWASTE, based on the municipal solid waste (MSW) management system in Shuozhou City. In the current system, MSW is collected, transported, and incinerated with 250 kg of coal per ton of waste. Based on observed environmental impacts of incineration, fossil CO(2) and heavy metals were primary contributors to global warming and ecotoxicity in soil, respectively. Compared with incinerators using excess coal, incineration with adequate coal presents significant benefits in mitigating global warming, whereas incineration with a mass of coal can avoid more impacts to acidification, photochemical ozone and nutrient enrichment because of increased electricity substitution and reduced emission from coal power plants. The "Emission standard of air pollutants for thermal power plants (GB13223-2011)" implemented in 2012 introduced stricter policies on controlling SO(2) and NO(x) emissions from coal power plants. Thus, increased use of auxiliary coal during incineration yields fewer avoided impacts on acidification and nutrient enrichment. When two-thirds of ash is source-separated and landfilled, the incineration of rest-waste presents better results on global warming, acidification, nutrient enrichment, and even ecotoxicity in soil. This process is considered a promising solution for MSW management in Shuozhou City. Weighted normalized environmental impacts were assessed based on Chinese political reduction targets. Results indicate that heavy metal and acidic gas emissions should be given more attention in waste incineration. This study provides scientific support for the management of MSW systems dominated by incineration with auxiliary coal in China. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Waste incineration and immobilization for nuclear facilities, April--September 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, A.J.; Fong, L.Q.

    1978-01-01

    Fluidized bed incineration and waste immobilization processes are being developed to process the types of waste expected from nuclear facilities. An air classification system has been developed to separate tramp metal from shredded combustible solid waste prior to the waste being fed to a fluidized-bed pilot-plant incinerator. Used organic ion exchange resin with up to 55 percent water has been effectively burned in the fluidized bed incinerator. Various methods of feeding waste into the incinerator were investigated as alternatives to the present compression screw; an extrusion ram was found to suffer extensive damage from hard particles in tested waste. A bench-scale continuous waste immobilization process has been operated and has produced glass from incinerator residue and other types of waste materials

  17. Low-level waste incineration: experience at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohrer, H.A.; Dalton, J.D.

    1987-01-01

    The Waste Experimental Reduction Facility (WERF) is a low level radioactive waste treatment facility being operated at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). A key component of the facility is a dual chambered controlled air incinerator with a dry off-gas treatment system. The incinerator began processing radioactive waste in September, 1984. Limited operations continued from that data until October, 1985, at which time all INEL generators began shipping combustible waste for incineration. The incinerator is presently processing all available INEL combustible Dry Active Waste (DAW) (approximately 1700 m 3 per year) operating about five days per month. Performance to date has demonstrated the effectiveness, viability and safety of incineration as a volume reduction method of DAW. 3 figures

  18. A feasibility study of adaptive plasma-assisted incineration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filion, Julie

    Rising awareness in the need for environmental protection has brought into question the adequacy of conventional hazardous waste treatment operations. Regulatory standards are increasingly strict, and there is growing concern over the safety of incineration facilities. This research project examines the technoeconomic potential of thermal plasma technology in this context. Adaptive Plasma-Assisted Incineration (APAI) is a novel concept for secondary gas treatment in hazardous waste incineration. As an energy source for waste destruction, a thermal plasma can provide conditions far higher in temperature and in reactivity than those obtained using a combustion flame. Thus, the plasma is more effective at destroying hazardous materials, albeit at a higher cost. APAI features a thermal plasma afterburner with continual on-line optical monitoring of the gas product and feedback optimization of the plasma conditions. This approach allows complete destruction of persistent organic compounds and cost-effective response to feed load variations. The process supplements conventional incineration techniques with the effectiveness and flexibility of thermal plasma treatment. The main objectives are to reduce the risk of harmful emissions during hazardous waste incineration and to facilitate compliance with new environmental regulations. In this project, the technical feasibility of APAI was demonstrated experimentally using a laboratory-scale plasma afterburner model. The work focused on the development of a spectroscopic monitoring procedure and on the application of optimization techniques for cost-effective operation of the model system. The techno-economic potential and limitations of APAI were addressed in a conceptual study. Preliminary designs and cost estimates were developed for specific applications. The costs of plasma-assisted and conventional methods were compared for contaminated soil remediation (by incineration and desorption) and for organic liquid waste

  19. Transformation of Silver Nanoparticles in Sewage Sludge during Incineration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Christoph; Voegelin, Andreas; Pradas del Real, Ana; Sarret, Geraldine; Mueller, Christoph R; Kaegi, Ralf

    2016-04-05

    Silver nanoparticles (Ag-NP) discharged into the municipal sewer system largely accumulate in the sewage sludge. Incineration and agricultural use are currently the most important strategies for sewage sludge management. Thus, the behavior of Ag-NP during sewage sludge incineration is essential for a comprehensive life cycle analysis and a more complete understanding of the fate of Ag-NP in the (urban) environment. To address the transformation of Ag-NP during sewage sludge incineration, we spiked metallic Ag(0)-NP to a pilot wastewater treatment plant and digested the sludge anaerobically. The sludge was then incinerated on a bench-scale fluidized bed reactor in a series of experiments under variable conditions. Complementary results from X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray (EM-EDX) analysis revealed that Ag(0)-NP transformed into Ag2S-NP during the wastewater treatment, in agreement with previous studies. On the basis of a principal component analysis and subsequent target testing of the XAS spectra, Ag(0) was identified as a major Ag component in the ashes, and Ag2S was clearly absent. The reformation of Ag(0)-NP was confirmed by EM-EDX. The fraction of Ag(0) of the total Ag in the ashes was quantified by linear combination fitting (LCF) of XAS spectra, and values as high as 0.8 were found for sewage sludge incinerated at 800 °C in a synthetic flue gas atmosphere. Low LCF totals (72% to 94%) indicated that at least one relevant reference spectrum was missing in the LCF analysis. The presence of spherical Ag-NP with a diameter of sewage sludge incineration, as demonstrated in this study, needs to be considered in the life cycle assessment of engineered Ag-NP.

  20. The Use of Microwave Incineration to Process Biological Wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Sidney C.; Srinivasan, Venkatesh; Covington, Alan (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    The handling and disposal of solid waste matter that has biological or biohazardous components is a difficult issue for hospitals, research laboratories, and industry. NASA faces the same challenge as it is developing regenerative systems that will process waste materials into materials that can be used to sustain humans living in space for extended durations. Plants provide critical functions in such a regenerative life support scheme in that they photosynthesize carbon dioxide and water into glucose and oxygen. The edible portions of the plant provide a food source for the crew. Inedible portions can be processed into materials that are more recyclable. The Advanced Life Support Division at NASA Ames Research Center has been evaluating a microwave incinerator that will oxidize inedible plant matter into carbon dioxide and water. The commercially available microwave incinerator is produced by Matsushita Electronic Instruments Corporation of Japan. Microwave incineration is a technology that is simple, safe, and compact enough for home use. It also has potential applications for institutions that produce biological or biohazardous waste. The incinerator produces a sterile ash that has only 13% of the mass of the original waste. The authors have run several sets of tests with the incinerator to establish its viability in processing biological material. One goal of the tests is to show that the incinerator does not generate toxic compounds as a byproduct of the combustion process. This paper will describe the results of the tests, including analyses of the resulting ash and exhaust gases. The significance of the results and their implications on commercial applications of the technology will also be discussed.

  1. Waste processing building with incineration technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasilah, Wasilah; Zaldi Suradin, Muh.

    2017-12-01

    In Indonesia, waste problem is one of major problem of the society in the city as part of their life dynamics. Based on Regional Medium Term Development Plan of South Sulawesi Province in 2013-2018, total volume and waste production from Makassar City, Maros, Gowa, and Takalar Regency estimates the garbage dump level 9,076.949 m3/person/day. Additionally, aim of this design is to present a recommendation on waste processing facility design that would accommodate waste processing process activity by incineration technology and supported by supporting activity such as place of education and research on waste, and the administration activity on waste processing facility. Implementation of incineration technology would reduce waste volume up to 90% followed by relative negative impact possibility. The result planning is in form of landscape layout that inspired from the observation analysis of satellite image line pattern of planning site and then created as a building site pattern. Consideration of building orientation conducted by wind analysis process and sun path by auto desk project Vasari software. The footprint designed by separate circulation system between waste management facility interest and the social visiting activity in order to minimize the croos and thus bring convenient to the building user. Building mass designed by inseparable connection series system, from the main building that located in the Northward, then connected to a centre visitor area lengthways, and walked to the waste processing area into the residue area in the Southward area.

  2. Incineration experience at Oconee Nuclear Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terrell, M.S.

    1986-01-01

    The Radwaste Facility at Oconee Nuclear Station contains a Fluidized Bed Dryer/Incinerator System which will be used to process contaminated trash (DAW), oil, powdex resin, and chemical cleaning waste. This system was designed by Aerojet Energy Conversion Company. The ash and salts resulting from this process will be solidified using the Stock Equipment Company Polymer Solidification System. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the results of start-up and pre-operational testing of these systems, describe the mass balance program the authors will be using to meet the requirements of 10CFR61, and to discuss the sampling of the ash and salts that will be produced as a result of the process. Additionally, tests which are designed to verify the mass balance for the Aeroject System, are discussed

  3. Status report on the fluidized bed incineration system for U.S. Department of Energy, Defense Waste, January--June 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richey, L.L.; Feng, P.K.

    1978-01-01

    A fluidized-bed incineration facility has been designed for installation at the Rocky Flats Plant to develop and demonstrate the process for the combustion of transuranic waste. The unit capacity will be about 82 kg/hr of combustible waste. The combustion process will utilize in situ neutralization of acid gases generated in the process. The equipment design is based on data generated on a pilot scale unit, and represents a scale-up factor of nine. Building modifications are complete and equipment installation has begun

  4. Status report on the fluidized bed incineration system for U.S. Energy Research and Development Administration transuranic waste, January--June 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziegler, D.L.; Richey, L.L.; Johnson, A.J.; Teter, A.L.; Feng, P.K.; Peterson, D.J.; Meile, L.J.

    1977-01-01

    A fluidized-bed incineration facility is being designed for installation at the Rocky Flats Plant to develop and demonstrate the process for the combustion of transuranic waste. The unit capacity will be about 82 kg/hr of combustible waste. The combustion process will utilize in situ neutralization of acid gases generated in the process. The equipment design is based on data generated on a pilot scale unit and represents a scale-up factor of nine. Title II engineering is at least 70 percent complete and construction work has begun

  5. Treatment of off-gas from radioactive waste incinerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    An effective process reducing volume of radioactive wastes is incineration of combustible wastes. Appropriate design of the off-gas treatment system is necessary to ensure that any releases of airborne radionuclides into the environment are kept below acceptable limits. In many cases, the off-gas system must be designed to accommodate chemical constituents in the gas stream. The purpose of this publication is to provide the most up-to-date information regarding off-gas treatment as well as an account of some of the developments so as to aid users in the selection of an integrated system for a particular application. The choice of incinerator/off-gas system combination depends on the wastes to be treated, as well as other factors, such as regulatory requirements. Current problems and development needs are discussed. Following comprehensive discussions of the various factors affecting a choice, various incinerator and off-gas treatment systems are recommended for the various types of wastes that may be treated: low PVC content solid, high PVC content solid, organic liquid and resins. The economics or costs of the off-gas system and an evaluation of the overall cost effectiveness of incineration or direct burial is not discussed in detail. This publication is specifically directed toward technical aspects and addresses: incineration types and origin, sources and characteristics of off-gas streams; descriptions of available technologies for off-gas treatment; basic component design requirements and component description; operational experience of plants in active operation and their current practices; legal aspects and safety requirements; remaining problems to be solved and development trends in plant design and component structure. This report seeks to broaden and enhance the understanding of the developed technology and to indicate areas where improvements can be made by further research and development. 110 refs

  6. Strategy for nuclear wastes incineration in hybrid reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lelievre, F.

    1998-01-01

    The transmutation of nuclear wastes in accelerator-driven nuclear reactors offers undeniable advantages. But before going into the detailed study of a particular project, we should (i) examine the possible applications of such systems and (ii) compare the different configurations, in order to guide technological decisions. We propose an approach, answering both concerns, based on the complete description of hybrid reactors. It is possible, with only the transmutation objective and a few technological constraints chosen a posteriori, to determine precisely the essential parameters of such reactors: number of reactors, beam current, size of the core, sub-criticality... The approach also clearly pinpoints the strategic decisions, for which the scientist or engineer is not competent. This global scheme is applied to three distinct nuclear cycles: incineration of solid fuel without recycling, incineration of liquid fuel without recycling and incineration of liquid fuel with on-line recycling; and for two spectra, either thermal or fast. We show that the radiotoxicity reduction with a solid fuel is significant only with a fast spectrum, but the incineration times range from 20 to 30 years. The liquid fuel is appropriate only with on-line recycling, at equilibrium. The gain on the radiotoxicity can be considerable and we describe a number of such systems. The potential of ADS for the transmutation of nuclear wastes is confirmed, but we should continue the description of specific systems obtained through this approach. (author)

  7. Incinerator carryover tests with dysprosium as a stand-in for plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hooker, R.L.

    1981-11-01

    A full-scale (5 kg/h) incinerator is being tested with nonradioactive feed materials which simulate SRP-generator combustible transuranic wastes. The incinerator is two-stage and is designed to provide relatively quiescent conditions in the primary chamber where the ash is formed. This feature should minimize entrainment of Pu-bearing particles into the off-gas system. A series of runs have been completed in which incinerator feed was spiked with dysprosium to simulate Pu. Carryover of Dy into the off-gas system was found to be low (about 1/4%). 4 figures, 3 tables

  8. Vegetative growth of rose flower in cocopeat and soil in Naivasha, Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ketter, N.C.; Kariuki, W.; Wesonga, J.M.; Elings, A.; Hoogerwerf, F.

    2015-01-01

    Roses in Kenya are mostly grown in soil with an open drip irrigation system which is inefficient as water and nutrients are lost through drainage. A study was carried out from January to December 2013 at a commercial rose farm in Naivasha, Kenya, to evaluate the potential of a cocopeat-based

  9. Arc plasma incineration of surrogate radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girold, C.; Cartier, R.; Taupiac, J.P.; Vandensteendam, C.; Baronnet, J.M.

    1995-01-01

    The aim of this presentation is to demonstrate the feasibility to substitute a single plasma reactor, where the arc is transferred on a melt glass bath, for several steps in an existing nuclear technological wastes incinerator. The incineration of wastes, the produced gas treatment and the vitrification of ashes issued from waste incineration are the three simultaneous functions of this new kind of reactor. The three steps of the work are described: first, post-combustion in an oxygen plasma of gases generated from the waste pyrolysis, then, vitrification of ashes from the calcination of wastes in the transferred plasma furnace and finally, incineration/vitrification of wastes in the same furnace

  10. Incineration By-Products of AA2, NC Fines, and NG Slums

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cropek, Donald

    2001-01-01

    ...) and associated energetic wastes (EW). Knowledge of the by-products from incineration is invaluable for the proper design of emission control systems and selection of operating parameters to ensure maximum destruction efficiency...

  11. Thermodynamic analysis on heavy metals partitioning impacted by moisture during the MSW incineration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yanguo; Li Qinghai; Jia Jinyan; Meng Aihong

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Partitioning of HMs affected by moisture was investigated by thermodynamic analysis. ► Increase in moisture and in temperature was opposite impact on HMs contribution. ► The extent of temperature decreased by increase in moisture determines the impact. - Abstract: A thermodynamic calculation was carried out to predict the behavior and speciation of heavy metals (HMs), Pb, Zn, Cu, and Cd, during municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration with the different moisture levels. The calculation was based on the minimization of the total Gibbs free energy of the multi-components and multi-phases closed system reaching chemical equilibrium. The calculation also indicated the reaction directions and tendencies of HMs components. The impacts of chlorine additives (No PVC, 1%PVC, and 5%PVC) and moisture on the behavior of HMs were investigated at different temperature levels in the system (750 °C, 950 °C, and 1150 °C). Furthermore, because the incineration temperature falls down with the increase in moisture in waste, the co-influence of moisture and temperature in combusting MSW on the HMs was also studied with the given chlorine (as 1%PVC + 0.5%NaCl). The results showed that in the non-chlorine system, the impact of the moisture on Pb, Zn, and Cu was not significant, and the ratio of compound transformation was less than 10%, except the Cd compounds at 950 °C and 1150 °C. In the system with low chlorine (as 1%PVC) at constant temperature, the chlorides of HMs (Cd, Pb, Zn, and Cu) transferred to oxides, and when the content of chlorine rose up (as 5%PVC), the ratio of the chlorides of HMs (Cd, Pb, Zn, and Cu) transferring to oxides fell down noticeably. When the moisture varied together with the temperature, the Zn and Cu compounds transferred from chlorides to oxides with increase in moisture as well as decrease in temperature. At the temperature of 700–1000 °C, the impact of temperature on Pb and Cd was little and the moisture was the main factor

  12. Controlled-air incineration of transuranic-contaminated solid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borduin, L.C.; Draper, W.E.; Koenig, R.A.; Neuls, A.S.; Warner, C.L.

    1976-01-01

    A controlled-air incinerator and an associated high-energy aqueous off-gas cleaning system are being installed at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) Transuranic Waste Treatment Development Facility (TDF) for evaluation as a low-level transuranic-contaminated (TRU) solid waste volume reduction process. Program objectives are: (1) assembly and operation of a production scale (45 kg/hr) operation of ''off-the-shelf'' components representative of current incineration and pollution control technology; (2) process development and modification to meet radioactive health and safety standards, and (3) evaluation of the process to define the advantages and limitations of conventional technology. The results of the program will be the design specifications and operating procedures necessary for successful incineration of TRU waste. Testing, with nonradioactive waste, will begin in October 1976. This discussion covers commercially available incinerator and off-gas cleaning components, the modifications required for radioactive service, process components performance expectations, and a description of the LASL experimental program

  13. Comparison of slagging pyrolysis and molten salt incinerators for treating TRU waste at the INEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-11-01

    For the comparison, it is assumed that the waste product is required to meet the acceptance criteria of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, i.e., low leachability. Slagging pyrolysis incinerates combustible waste and melts noncombustible waste; the resulting slag forms a glass of low leachability. In the molten salt incinerator, combustion occurs at low temperatures with no accumulation of explosive gases, but the waste must have been previously sorted into combustibles and noncombustibles and then shredded. The economics, safety, and technical features are compared. Advantages, disadvantages, and areas of technical uncertainty of the two systems are listed. Development costs and schedules for the two types of incinerators are discussed

  14. Process modeling study of the CIF incinerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hang, T.

    1995-01-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) plans to begin operating the Consolidated Incineration Facility (CIF) in 1996. The CIF will treat liquid and solid low-level radioactive, mixed and RCRA hazardous wastes generated at SRS. In addition to experimental test programs, process modeling was applied to provide guidance in areas of safety, environmental regulation compliances, process improvement and optimization. A steady-state flowsheet model was used to calculate material/energy balances and to track key chemical constituents throughout the process units. Dynamic models were developed to predict the CIF transient characteristics in normal and abnormal operation scenarios. Predictions include the rotary kiln heat transfer, dynamic responses of the CIF to fluctuations in the solid waste feed or upsets in the system equipments, performance of the control system, air inleakage in the kiln, etc. This paper reviews the modeling study performed to assist in the deflagration risk assessment

  15. Experimental study of the energy efficiency of an incinerator for medical waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bujak, J.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to explore the flux of usable energy and the coefficient of energy efficiency of an incinerator for medical waste combustion. The incineration facility incorporates a heat recovery system. The installation consists of a loading unit, a combustion chamber, a thermoreactor chamber, and a recovery boiler. The analysis was carried out in the Oncological Hospital in Bydgoszcz (Poland). The primary fuel was comprised of medical waste, with natural gas used as a secondary fuel. The study shows that one can obtain about 660-800 kW of usable energy from 100 kg of medical waste. This amount corresponds to 1000-1200 kg of saturated steam, assuming that the incinerator operates at a heat load above φ > 65%. The average heat flux in additional fuel used for incinerating 100 kg of waste was 415 kW. The coefficient of energy efficiency was set within the range of 47% and 62% depending on the incinerator load. The tests revealed that the flux of usable energy and the coefficient of energy efficiency depend on the incinerator load. In the investigated range of the heat load, this dependence is significant. When the heat load of the incinerator increases, the flux of usable energy and the coefficient of energy efficiency also increase.

  16. 782-IJBCS-Article-Rose Masalu

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR GATSING

    indexmedicus.afro.who.int. Induction of early apoptosis and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production by. Tanzanian basidiomycete (Cantharellus miomboensis). Rose MASALU 1*, Ken M. HOSEA 1, Mervin MEYER 2, Sylvester LYANTAGAYE 1 ...

  17. Uudised : Guns N' Roses Soomes. Valmis ulmeraadio

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    Ameerika hard-rock-bändi Guns N' Roses kontserdist 5. juulil Hartwall Areenal Soomes. Kord kuus on Ulmeplaatide kodulehekülel www. ulmeplaadid.ee võimalus kuulata ulmeraadiot, kus esitusel eesti kergemuusika

  18. Materials for Waste Incinerators and Biomass Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rademakers, P.; Grossmann, G.; Karlsson, A.

    1998-01-01

    This paper reviews the projects of the sub-package on waste incineration and biomass firing carried out within COST 501 Round III, Work Package 13.......This paper reviews the projects of the sub-package on waste incineration and biomass firing carried out within COST 501 Round III, Work Package 13....

  19. FUEL-EFFICIENT SEWAGE SLUDGE INCINERATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    A study was performed to evaluate the status of incineration with low fuel use as a sludge disposal technology. The energy requirements, life-cycle costs, operation and maintenance requirements, and process capabilities of four sludge incineration facilities were evaluated. These...

  20. Incineration and flue gas cleaning in China - a Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buekens, Alfons; Yan, Mi; Jiang, Xuguan; Li, Xiaodong; Lu, Shengyong; Chi, Yong; Yan, Jianhua; Cen, Kefa

    2010-01-01

    Waste incineration is rapidly developing in China. Different technologies are proposed for Municipal Solid Waste (MSW), Hazardous Waste (HW), and Medical Waste (MW). The required technologies are either imported, or developed locally. Some data are cited to illustrate these rapid developments. Incinerator flue gas arises at rather limited scale (10,000-100,000 Nm 3 /h), compared to power generation, yet the number of pollutants to be counted with is huge: dust and grit, acid gases, NO x , selected heavy metals, aerosols and nanoparticles, Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons, and dioxins. Major options in flue gas cleaning can be derived from Best Available Technologies (BAT), as were developed in the European Union. Hence, E.U. practice is analyzed in some detail, by considering the present situation in selected E.U. countries (Germany, Sweden, the Netherlands, Denmark, Belgium). A comparison is made with China. Also, the situation in Japan is examined. Based on this wide experience, a number of technical suggestions regarding incineration, flue gas cleaning, and emission control are formulated. Also, the possibility of co incineration is considered. Starting from the particular experience of Zhejiang University (as a designer of Fluid Bed and Rotary Kiln plant, with large experience in Fluid Bed processes, coal firing, gasification and pyrolysis, and actively monitoring thermal units throughout China) some specific Case Studies are examined, e.g., a fluidized bed incinerator and its gas cleaning system (MSWI and HWI from ITPE). Some attention is paid to the potential threats in China from uncontrolled combustion sources. As a conclusion, some recommendations are formulated regarding flue gas cleaning in Developing Nations at large and in China in particular. (author)

  1. Organic waste incineration processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemort, F.; Charvillat, J.P.; Nabot, J.P.; Chateauvieux, H.; Thiebaut, C.

    2001-01-01

    Nuclear activities produce organic waste compatible with thermal processes designed to obtain a significant weight and volume reduction as well as to stabilize the inorganic residue in a form suitable for various interim storage or disposal routes. Several processes may be implemented (e.g. excess air, plasma, fluidized bed or rotating furnace) depending on the nature of the waste and the desired objectives. The authors focus on the IRIS rotating-kiln process, which was used for the first time with radioactive materials during the first half of 1999. IRIS is capable of processing highly chlorinated and α-contaminated waste at a rate of several kilograms per hour, while limiting corrosion due to chlorine as well as mechanical entrainment of radioactive particles in the off-gas stream. Although operated industrially, the process is under continual development to improve its performance and adapt it to a wider range of industrial applications. The main focus of attention today is on adapting the pyrolytic processes to waste with highly variable compositions and to enhance the efficiency of the off-gas purification systems. These subjects are of considerable interest for a large number of heat treatment processes (including all off-gas treatment systems) for which extremely durable, high-performance and low-flow electrostatic precipitators are now being developed. (author)

  2. Organic household waste - incineration or recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The Danish Environmental Protection Agency has carried out a cost benefit analysis of the consequences of increasing recycling of organic household waste. In the cost benefit analysis both the economic consequences for the affected parties and the welfare-economic consequences for the society as a whole have been investigated. In the welfare-economic analysis the value of the environmental effects has been included. The analysis shows that it is more expensive for the society to recycle organic household waste by anaerobic digestion or central composting than by incineration. Incineration is the cheapest solution for the society, while central composting is the most expensive. Furthermore, technical studies have shown that there are only small environmental benefits connected with anaerobic digestion of organic waste compared with incineration of the waste. The primary reason for recycling being more expensive than incineration is the necessary, but cost-intensive, dual collection of the household waste. Treatment itself is cheaper for recycling compared to incinerating. (BA)

  3. Biomedical waste management: Incineration vs. environmental safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gautam V

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Public concerns about incinerator emissions, as well as the creation of federal regulations for medical waste incinerators, are causing many health care facilities to rethink their choices in medical waste treatment. As stated by Health Care Without Harm, non-incineration treatment technologies are a growing and developing field. Most medical waste is incinerated, a practice that is short-lived because of environmental considerations. The burning of solid and regulated medical waste generated by health care creates many problems. Medical waste incinerators emit toxic air pollutants and toxic ash residues that are the major source of dioxins in the environment. International Agency for Research on Cancer, an arm of WHO, acknowledged dioxins cancer causing potential and classified it as human carcinogen. Development of waste management policies, careful waste segregation and training programs, as well as attention to materials purchased, are essential in minimizing the environmental and health impacts of any technology.

  4. Determination of the optimal area of waste incineration in a rotary kiln using a simulation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bujak, J

    2015-08-01

    The article presents a mathematical model to determine the flux of incinerated waste in terms of its calorific values. The model is applicable in waste incineration systems equipped with rotary kilns. It is based on the known and proven energy flux balances and equations that describe the specific losses of energy flux while considering the specificity of waste incineration systems. The model is universal as it can be used both for the analysis and testing of systems burning different types of waste (municipal, medical, animal, etc.) and for allowing the use of any kind of additional fuel. Types of waste incinerated and additional fuel are identified by a determination of their elemental composition. The computational model has been verified in three existing industrial-scale plants. Each system incinerated a different type of waste. Each waste type was selected in terms of a different calorific value. This allowed the full verification of the model. Therefore the model can be used to optimize the operation of waste incineration system both at the design stage and during its lifetime. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Waste incineration and immobilization for nuclear facilities. Status report, April-September 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, A.J.; Williams, P.M.; Burkhardt, S.C.; Ledford, J.A.; Gallagher, K.Y.

    1980-01-01

    The fluidized bed incinerator and waste immobilization processes are being developed to process various liquid and solid wastes that are generated by a nuclear facility. The versatility of the incinerator liquid waste handling system has been enhanced by recent changes made in the pumping and related piping system. Tributyl phosphate-solvent incineration has been evaluated thoroughly using the pilot plant fluidized bed incinerator. Vitrified glass pellets were made to determine operating parameters of a resistance-heated reactor and to produce samples for testing. Procedures were developed for testing the product pellets. A simplified start-up procedure was devised as development continued on a second type of reactor, the Joule-heated melter

  6. Cultivo hidropônico da roseira com recírculo prolongado e com emprego de baixa tecnologia Hydroponic system for roses with prolonged recycling of nutrient solution and low tecnology requirements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto José Resende Rodrigues

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available O experimento sobre cultivo sem solo a ciclo fechado da roseira foi conduzidos no "Istituto Sperimentale per la Floricoltura di Sanremo". O objetivo foi encontrar um sistema simples com baixo emprego de capital, compatível com propriedades de pequeno e médio porte. O sistema se baseia no emprego de duas caixas, em terrenos de declive natural, uma caixa posicionada na parte mais baixa do terreno, de onde a solução nutritiva é bombeada e distribuída nas fertirrigações subsequentes. Nesta caixa, são também recolhidos os drenados que posteriormente irão recircular. Quando o volume se torna excessivamente reduzido, por efeito do consumo, coloca-se solução nutritiva nova, que se mistura ao drenado remanescente. A solução permanece sendo reciclada até ser considerada ruim para uso (a solução é considerada exaurida quando a Condutividade elétrica (CE supera o teto máximo estipulado para a roseira que foi de 4000mS/cm. A partir deste momento, a solução é retirada de circulação e armazenada na caixa superior; desta é retirada uma amostra para as análises químicas, e sucessivamente reequilibrada para retornar ao sistema, como solução nova. No caso, para remoção da solução exaurida da caixa posicionada na parte inferior do conjunto, o sistema continua em funcionamento, com a administração de solução nova. A CE do drenado, em reciclo, da caixa inferior é monitorado diariamente. Nesta pesquisa, são relatados dados de 18 meses de cultivo da roseira sem solo a ciclo fechado contínuo, parâmetros de uso do sistema, metodologias usadas, suporte de cálculo, dados do balanço hídrico/nutricional e produtividade.An experiment of rose cultivation in a closed hidroponic system was carried out from October 1996 to May 1998. The aim was to evaluate a simple equipment suitable for the management of the nutrition, in a closed system of low input for small floricultural farms. Seldomly chemical analysis of nutrient levels in the

  7. Suicide by self-incineration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth, Peter Mygind; Hardt-Madsen, Michael

    1997-01-01

    During a 10-year period (1980-1989), at least 43 cases of self-incineration with lethal outcome took place in Denmark. The incidence seems to be increasing: 11 cases took place in the first 5 years and 32 cases in the last 5 years. An even sex ratio as found (male:female = 23:20). The median age...... was 43 years, with a broad age range (20-87). Many incidents of self-incineration as a form of political protest were reported in the press especially during the 1960s and 1970s, and the press reports often inspired others to commit suicide in the same way. None of the cases in our investigation were...... victims were of Danish origin, and a religious motive played no significant role. Most of the victims were suffering from mental illness, and a majority had tried to commit suicide before. None of the victims left a suicide note. The scene was most often at home and indoors--only a minority committed...

  8. Possibilities for adjustable power from waste incineration plants; Mulighed for regulerkraft fra affaldsforbraendingsanlaeg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-12-15

    This report presents results, methods and more from a project which has examined the technical possibilities present in the waste incineration sector for offering standby regulating power in the form of regulated reduction of power production when there is surplus production. An important element has been to test different regulation strategies on a waste incineration plant with steam turbine system, thus identify the strategies which would be optimal for operations and most efficient in connection with a fast regulation of power production. (BA)

  9. Development of thermal conditioning technology for Alpha-containment wastes: Alpha-contaminated waste incineration technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Joon Hyung; Kim, Jeong Guk; Yang, Hee Chul; Choi, Byung Seon; Jeong, Myeong Soo

    1999-03-01

    As the first step of a 3-year project named 'development of alpha-contaminated waste incineration technology', the basic information and data were reviewed, while focusing on establishment of R and D direction to develop the final goal, self-supporting treatment of α- wastes that would be generated from domestic nuclear industries. The status on α waste incineration technology of advanced states was reviewed. A conceptual design for α waste incineration process was suggested. Besides, removal characteristics of volatile metals and radionuclides in a low-temperature dry off-gas system were investigated. Radiation dose assessments and some modification for the Demonstration-scale Incineration Plant (DSIP) at Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) were also done

  10. Radioactive-waste incineration at Purdue University

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-11-01

    A study conducted at Purdue University to evaluate the feasibility of using a small (45 kg/h), inexpensive (less than $10K) incinerator for incinerating low-level radioactive waste is described. An oil-fired, dual-chamber pathological waste incinerator was installed on a 12.7-cm-thick concrete floor in a metal quonset building. A standard EPA Method 5 sampling train was used to obtain stack samples. Also, stack gas velocity was measured with a type 5 pitot tube; stack temperature was measured with a thermocouple and pyrometer. The incinerator was tested for emissions from incineration of laboratory animal carcasses, liquid scintillation fluid, and trash. Emissions measured were particulates, SO/sub x/, NO/sub x/, Cl, CO, CO 2 , H 2 O, and unburned hydrocarbons in the particulate fraction. Three analyses were then averaged to arrive at the final determinations. Results of the study demonstrated the feasibility and cost-effectiveness of incinerating radioactive animal carcasses and liquid scintillation fluids, since emissions from those waste types were within EPA and State of Indiana limits. However, emissions from burning of trash exceeded State of Indiana limits. Therefore, incineration of trash alone, particularly if it contains glass or significant amounts of plastic, is not a recommended use of the tested equipment

  11. Systems Analysis of Technologies for Energy Recovery from Waste. Part I. Gasification followed by Catalytic Combustion, PEM Fuel Cells and Solid Oxide Fuel Cells for Stationary Applications in Comparison with Incineration. Part - II. Catalytic combustion - Experimental part

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assefa, Getachew; Frostell, Bjoern; Jaeraas, Sven; Kusar, Henrik

    2005-02-01

    This project is entitled 'Systems Analysis: Energy Recovery from waste, catalytic combustion in comparison with fuel cells and incineration'. Some of the technologies that are currently developed by researchers at the Royal Institute of Technology include catalytic combustion and fuel cells as downstream units in a gasification system. The aim of this project is to assess the energy turnover as well as the potential environmental impacts of biomass/waste-to-energy technologies. In second part of this project economic analyses of the technologies in general and catalytic combustion and fuel cell technologies in particular will be carried out. Four technology scenarios are studied: (1) Gasification followed by Low temperature fuel cells (Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cells) (2) Gasification followed by high temperature fuel cells (Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC) (3) Gasification followed by catalytic combustion and (4) Incineration with energy recovery. The waste used as feedstock is an industrial waste containing parts of household waste, paper waste, wood residues and poly ethene. In the study compensatory district heating is produced by combustion of biofuel. The power used for running the processes in the scenarios will be supplied by the waste-to-energy technologies themselves while compensatory power is assumed to be produced from natural gas. The emissions from the system studied are classified and characterised using methodology from Life Cycle Assessment in to the following environmental impact categories: Global Warming Potential, Acidification Potential, Eutrophication Potential and finally Formation of Photochemical Oxidants. Looking at the result of the four technology chains in terms of the four impact categories with impact per GWh electricity produced as a unit of comparison and from the perspective of the rank each scenario has in all the four impact categories, SOFC appears to be the winner technology followed by PEM and CC as second and third

  12. Systems Analysis of Technologies for Energy Recovery from Waste. Part I. Gasification followed by Catalytic Combustion, PEM Fuel Cells and Solid Oxide Fuel Cells for Stationary Applications in Comparison with Incineration. Part - II. Catalytic combustion - Experimental part

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assefa, Getachew; Frostell, Bjoern [Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden). Div. of Industrial Ecology; Jaeraas, Sven; Kusar, Henrik [Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden). Div. of Chemical Technology

    2005-02-01

    This project is entitled 'Systems Analysis: Energy Recovery from waste, catalytic combustion in comparison with fuel cells and incineration'. Some of the technologies that are currently developed by researchers at the Royal Institute of Technology include catalytic combustion and fuel cells as downstream units in a gasification system. The aim of this project is to assess the energy turnover as well as the potential environmental impacts of biomass/waste-to-energy technologies. In second part of this project economic analyses of the technologies in general and catalytic combustion and fuel cell technologies in particular will be carried out. Four technology scenarios are studied: (1) Gasification followed by Low temperature fuel cells (Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cells) (2) Gasification followed by high temperature fuel cells (Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC) (3) Gasification followed by catalytic combustion and (4) Incineration with energy recovery. The waste used as feedstock is an industrial waste containing parts of household waste, paper waste, wood residues and poly ethene. In the study compensatory district heating is produced by combustion of biofuel. The power used for running the processes in the scenarios will be supplied by the waste-to-energy technologies themselves while compensatory power is assumed to be produced from natural gas. The emissions from the system studied are classified and characterised using methodology from Life Cycle Assessment in to the following environmental impact categories: Global Warming Potential, Acidification Potential, Eutrophication Potential and finally Formation of Photochemical Oxidants. Looking at the result of the four technology chains in terms of the four impact categories with impact per GWh electricity produced as a unit of comparison and from the perspective of the rank each scenario has in all the four impact categories, SOFC appears to be the winner technology followed by PEM and CC as second

  13. Solid waste treatment volume reduction by compaction or incineration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vigreux, B.; Carpentier, S.

    1986-01-01

    A short presentation is made of various techniques available for volume reduction by compaction of solid waste produced during nuclear plant operation. A long industrial experience has been accumulated in France on such compactors. Incineration is the most performing method of volume reduction for combustible waste. The CEA Group and SGN have developed a very reliable, simple and safe incinerator which operates with excess air and at high temperature. Sorting and feeding of the waste, ash discharge and transportation to the conditioning unit, gas treatment, are included in the system. The adding of a programmable controller makes it fully automated. The system is described with some detail and recent performance measurements are given [fr

  14. Solid waste treatment volume reduction by compaction or incineration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vigreux, B.; Carpentier, S.

    1985-01-01

    A short presentation is made of various techniques available for volume reduction by compaction of solid waste produced during nuclear plant operation. A long industrial experience has been accumulated in France on such compactors. Incineration is the most performing method of volume reduction for combustible waste. The CEA Group and SGN have developed a very reliable, simple and safe incinerator which operates with excess air and at high temperature. Sorting and feeding of the waste, ash discharge and transportation to the conditioning unit, gas treatment, are included in the system. The adding of a programmable controller makes it fully automated. The system is described with some detail and recent performance measurements are given [fr

  15. Description of the Seibersdorf incineration plant for low level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chalupa, G.; Petschnik, G.

    1986-09-01

    After a description of the design and the construction principles of the incinerator building, the furnace and its attached auxilary devices are explained. The incinerator is layed out for low level wastes. It has a vertical furnace, operates with discontinuous feeding for trashes with heat-values between 600 and 10000 kcal/kg waste. The maximum throughput amounts 40 kg/h. The purification of the off-gas is guaranteed by a multistage filter system: 2 stages with ceramic candles, cooling column and a HEPA-filter system. The control of the off-gas cleaning is carried out by a stack instrumentation, consisting of an aerosol-, gas-, Iodine- and Tritium-monitor; the building is surveilled by doserate- and aerosolmonitors. (Author)

  16. Design of a Pu-238 waste incineration process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charlesworth, D.L.; McCampbell, R.B.

    1985-01-01

    Combustible 238 Pu waste is generated as a result of normal operation and decommissioning activity at the Savannah River Plant and is being retrievably stored at the Plant. As part of the long-term plan to process the stored waste and current waste in preparation for future disposition, a 238 Pu incinceration process is being cold-tested at SRL. The incineration process consists of a continuous-feed preparation system, a two-stage, electrically fired incinerator, and a filtration off-gas system. Process equipment has been designed, fabricated, and installed for nonradioactive testing and cold run-in. Design features to maximize the ability to remotely maintain the equipment were incorporated into the process. Interlock, alarm, and control functions are provided by a programmable controller. Cold testing is scheduled to be completed in 1986

  17. Radwaste incineration, is it ready for use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coplan, B.W.

    1982-01-01

    The incinerator installed at JAERI in 1973 has the record of being operated continually for eight years without noticeable damage even in the refractories. We are convinced that it can be used for along period of time. These incinerators in Japan are now regarded as the useful and reliable waste management facilities, though they are processing the restricted sorts of wastes, such as low level ombustible solids and oils. In the future, incinerators of these types are supposed to increase in number in Japan, and they will continue to contribute as an important volume reduction measure which can also convert the wastes to chemically stable substances

  18. Development and testing of a mobile incinerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eggett, D.R.

    1986-01-01

    The development and testing of a mobile incinerator for processing of combustible dry active waste (DAW) and contaminated oil generated at Nuclear Power Plants is presented. Topics of discussion include initial thoughts on incineration as applied to nuclear waste; DOE's Aerojet's, and CECo's role in the Project; design engineering concepts; site engineering support; licensability; generation of test data; required reports of the NRC and Illinois and California EPA's; present project schedule for incinerating DAW at Dresden and other CECo Stations; and lessons learned from the project

  19. Incineration facilities for treatment of radioactive wastes: a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perkins, B.L.

    1976-02-01

    A description is given of incinerator installations in the US and in foreign countries. Included are descriptions of inactive incinerators, incinerator facilities currently in operation, and incinerator installations under construction. Special features of each installation and operational problems of each facility are emphasized. Problems in the incineration of radioactive waste are discussed in relation to the composition of the waste and the amount and type of radioactive contaminant.

  20. Incineration facilities for treatment of radioactive wastes: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perkins, B.L.

    1976-02-01

    A description is given of incinerator installations in the US and in foreign countries. Included are descriptions of inactive incinerators, incinerator facilities currently in operation, and incinerator installations under construction. Special features of each installation and operational problems of each facility are emphasized. Problems in the incineration of radioactive waste are discussed in relation to the composition of the waste and the amount and type of radioactive contaminant

  1. Shredder and incinerator technology for volume reduction of commercial transuranic wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oma, K.H.

    1986-06-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is evaluating alternatives and developing technology for treatment of radioactive wastes generated during commercial nuclear activities. Transuranic wastes that require volume reduction include spent HEPA filters, sample and analytical cell waste, and general process trash. A review of current technologies for volume reduction of these wastes led to the selection and testing of several low-speed shredder systems and three candidate incineration processes. The incinerators tested were the electrically heated control-led-air, gas-heated controlled-air, and rotary kiln. Equipment tests were conducted using simulated commercial transuranic wastes to provide a data base for the comparison of the various technologies. The electrically driven, low-speed shredder process was selected as the preferred method for size reduction of the wastes prior to incineration. All three incinerators effectively reduced the waste volume. Based on a technical and economic evaluation on the incineration processes, the recommended system for the commercial waste application is the gas-heated controlled-air incinerator with a single stage of shredding for feed pretreatment

  2. Suicide by self-incineration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth, Peter Mygind; Hardt-Madsen, Michael

    1997-01-01

    was 43 years, with a broad age range (20-87). Many incidents of self-incineration as a form of political protest were reported in the press especially during the 1960s and 1970s, and the press reports often inspired others to commit suicide in the same way. None of the cases in our investigation were...... victims were of Danish origin, and a religious motive played no significant role. Most of the victims were suffering from mental illness, and a majority had tried to commit suicide before. None of the victims left a suicide note. The scene was most often at home and indoors--only a minority committed...... suicide in remote areas of the countryside. Most were found dead at the scene, and the cause of death was usually heat exposure. Only a minority had a lethal carboxy-hemoglobin (CO-Hb) concentration. It is concluded that close cooperation between police, fire experts, and the forensic pathologist...

  3. The structural color of red rose petals and their duplicates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Lin; Zhang, Yanan; Li, Mingzhu; Zheng, Yongmei; Shen, Weizhi; Jiang, Lei

    2010-09-21

    The observation of the surface of a red rose petal indicates that there are micropapillae on the surface and many nanofolders exist on each papilla. Here, much tinier nanorods with periodic pattern on the nanofolders can be seen by in situ atomic force microscopy (AFM). Angle-resolved UV-vis spectral measurement and reflectance UV-vis spectra by immersion red rose petal in solvents with different refractive indices demonstrate that such periodic nanostructures can induce structural color. The combination of structural color, driven by the nanostructures, and chemical color, driven by pigments, provide flowers bright color and special functions for human and animals' visual system. Biomimic polymer films, that fabricated by duplicating the petal's hierarchical micro/nano structures, exhibit only structural color by UV-vis spectra since there is no pigment introduced.

  4. Quantifying capital goods for waste incineration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brogaard, Line Kai-Sørensen; Riber, C.; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2013-01-01

    Materials and energy used for the construction of modern waste incineration plants were quantified. The data was collected from five incineration plants (72,000–240,000tonnes per year) built in Scandinavia (Norway, Finland and Denmark) between 2006 and 2012. Concrete for the buildings was the main...... of producing the materials used in the construction, steel for the building and the machinery contributed the most. The material and energy used for the construction corresponded to the emission of 7–14kg CO2 per tonne of waste combusted throughout the lifetime of the incineration plant. The assessment showed...... that, compared to data reported in the literature on direct emissions from the operation of incinerators, the environmental impacts caused by the construction of buildings and machinery (capital goods) could amount to 2–3% with respect to kg CO2 per tonne of waste combusted....

  5. Solid waste combustion for alpha waste incineration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orloff, D.I.

    1981-02-01

    Radioactive waste incinerator development at the Savannah River Laboratory has been augmented by fundamental combustion studies at the University of South Carolina. The objective was to measure and model pyrolysis and combustion rates of typical Savannah River Plant waste materials as a function of incinerator operating conditions. The analytical models developed in this work have been incorporated into a waste burning transient code. The code predicts maximum air requirement and heat energy release as a function of waste type, package size, combustion chamber size, and temperature. Historically, relationships have been determined by direct experiments that did not allow an engineering basis for predicting combustion rates in untested incinerators. The computed combustion rates and burning times agree with measured values in the Savannah River Laboratory pilot (1 lb/hr) and full-scale (12 lb/hr) alpha incinerators for a wide variety of typical waste materials

  6. Highly Efficient Fecal Waste Incinerator, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Volume reduction is a critical element of Solid Waste Management for manned spacecraft and planetary habitations. To this end, the proposed fecal waste incinerator...

  7. Status and perspectives of municipal solid waste incineration in China: A comparison with developed regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jia-Wei; Zhang, Sukun; Hai, Jing; Lei, Ming

    2017-11-01

    With the rapid expansion of municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration, the applicability, technical status, and future improvement of MSW incineration attract much attention in China. This paper aims to be a sensible response, with the aid of a comparison between China and some representative developed regions including the EU, the U.S., Japan, South Korea, and Taiwan area. A large number of up-to-date data and information are collected to quantitatively and impartially support the comparison, which covers a wider range of key points including spatial distribution, temporal evolution, technologies, emissions, and perspectives. Analysis results show that MSW incineration is not an outdated choice; however, policy making should prevent the potentially insufficient utilization of MSW incinerators. The structure of MSW incineration technologies is changing in China. The ratio of plants using fluidized bed is decreasing due to various realistic reasons. Decision-makers would select suitable combustion technologies by comprehensive assessments, rather than just by costs. Air pollution control systems are improved with the implementation of China's new emission standard. However, MSW incineration in China is currently blamed for substandard emissions. The reasons include the particular elemental compositions of Chinese MSW, the lack of operating experience, deficient fund for compliance with the emission standard, and the lack of reliable supervisory measures. Some perspectives and suggestions from both technical and managerial aspects are given for the compliance with the emission standard. This paper can provide strategic enlightenments for MSW management in China and other developing countries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Envirotoxins from waste incineration - how does the supervision work?; Miljoegifter fraan avfallsfoerbraenningen - hur fungerar tillsynen?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-02-01

    Incineration of household wastes has increased rapidly in Sweden during the last few years, and new plants are being built. The volume of residues from waste incineration is expected to grow from 450,000 tons in 1999 to 1,100,000 tons in 2008. The National Audit Office (SNAO) has made an inquiry into the supervision by responsible authorities of incineration plants and landfills in order to how the environmental legislation is applied in practise. The investigation includes case studies of six incineration plants and seven landfills where the residues from the plants are disposed. The supervision is part of a complex system made up of state, local and private actors who all have a responsibility for applying the environmental legislation. SNAO has found serious shortcomings in the operational supervision of all incineration plants studied and several landfills concerning the risk of toxins leaching into the environment. SNAO also points at the lack of knowledge at the Swedish EPA regarding the potential environmental problems of incineration residues and the need for evaluation of the supervisory function. SNAO recommends that the government take an initiative for making more detailed demands in the environmental legislation, and that the Swedish EPA should improve its knowledge about the quality of the operational supervision in accordance with the legislation.

  9. Recycling ampersand incineration: Evaluating the choices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denison, R.A.; Ruston, J.

    1993-01-01

    Conflicts between proponents of municipal solid waste incineration and advocates of recycling have escalated with efforts to reduce the volume of waste that ends up in landfills. Central to this debate is competition for materials that are both combustible and recyclable. Environmental and economic concerns also play a major role. This book, produced by the Environmental Defense Fund, compares recycling and incineration. It is intended for 'citizens, government officials, and business people who want to help resolve the solid-waste crisis.' The book is divided into three parts: recycling and incineration; health and environmental risk of incineration; and planning, public participation, and environmental review requirements. The book does an excellent job of discussing the benefits of recycling and the pitfalls of incineration. It provides helpful information for identifying questions that should be raised about incineration, but it does not raise similar queries about recycling. There is much worthwhile information here, but the book would be more useful if it identified critical issues for all waste reduction and management options

  10. Where Is the Next Rose Director?

    OpenAIRE

    John Blundell

    2013-01-01

    Rose Friedman (née Director), the Chicago-trained economist, was a very important contributor to Milton Friedman’s scholarly output, popular writings, and television series. His remarkable role in society was to a significant extent a joint role from which she cannot be separated.

  11. Process control in municipal solid waste incinerators: survey and assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Asri, R; Baxter, D

    2004-06-01

    As there is only rare and scattered published information about the process control in industrial incineration facilities for municipal solid waste (MSW), a survey of the literature has been supplemented by a number of waste incineration site visits in Belgium and The Netherlands, in order to make a realistic assessment of the current status of technology in the area. Owing to the commercial character, and therefore, the confidentiality restrictions imposed by plant builders and many of the operators, much of the information collected has either to be presented in a generalized manner, and in any case anonymously. The survey was focused on four major issues: process control strategy, process control systems, monitors used for process control and finally the correlation between the 850 degrees C/2 s rule in the European waste incineration directive and integrated process control. The process control strategies range from reaching good and stable emissions at the stack to stabilizing and maximizing the energy output from the process. The main indicator to be monitored, in cases in which the focus is controlling emissions, is the oxygen content in the stack. Keeping the oxygen concentration in a determined range (usually between 8 and 12 vol.%) ensures stable and tolerated concentrations of the gaseous emissions. In the case for which stabilization of energy production is the principal aim, the main controlled parameter is the steam temperature and flow-rate, which is usually related to the fuel energetic input. A lot of other parameters are used as alarm criteria, the most common of which is the carbon monoxide concentration. The process control systems used most commonly feature partially automated classical proportional integral derivative (PID) controllers. New and innovative process control systems, such as fuzzy-logic control systems, are still unknown to most plant managers while their performance is reported to be unsatisfactory in plants in which such systems

  12. Design and operation of radioactive waste incineration facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this guide is to provide safety guidance for the design and operation of radioactive waste incineration facilities. The guide emphasizes the design objectives and system requirements to be met and provides recommendations for the procedure of process selection and equipment design and operation. It is recognized that some incinerators may handle only very low or 'insignificant' levels of radioactivity, and in such cases some requirements or recommendations of this guide may not fully apply. Nevertheless, it is expected that any non-compliance with the guide will be addressed and justified in the licensing process. It is also recognized that the regulatory body may place a limit on the level of the radioactivity of the waste to be incinerated at a specific installation. For the purpose of this guide an insignificant level of release of radioactivity may typically be defined as either the continuous or single event release of the design basis radionuclide inventory that represents a negligible risk to the population, the operating personnel, and/or the environment. The guidance on what constitutes a negligible risk and how to translate negligible risk or dose into level of activity can be found in Safety Series No. 89, IAEA, Vienna. 20 refs, 1 fig

  13. Chemical kinetics of Cs species in an alkali-activated municipal solid waste incineration fly ash and pyrophyllite-based system using Cs K-edge in situ X-ray absorption fine structure analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiota, Kenji; Nakamura, Takafumi; Takaoka, Masaki; Nitta, Kiyofumi; Oshita, Kazuyuki; Fujimori, Takashi; Ina, Toshiaki

    2017-05-01

    We conducted in situ X-ray absorption fine structure (in situ XAFS) analysis at the Cs K-edge to investigate the chemical kinetics of Cs species during reaction in an alkali-activated municipal solid waste incineration fly ash (MSWIFA) and pyrophyllite-based system. Understanding the kinetics of Cs is essential to the design of appropriate conditions for Cs stabilization. In situ XAFS analysis of four pastes, prepared from NaOHaq, sodium silicate solution, pyrophyllite, and MSWIFA with the addition of CsCl, was conducted in custom-built reaction cells at four curing temperatures (room temperature, 60 °C, 80 °C, 105 °C) for approximately 34 h. The results indicated that the change in Cs species during reaction at room temperature was small, while changes at higher temperatures were faster and more extreme, with the fastest conversion to pollucite occurring at 105 °C. Further analysis using a leaching test and a simple reaction model for Cs species during reaction showed that the pollucite formation rate was dependent on the curing temperature and had a significant negative correlation with Cs leaching. The activation energy of pollucite formation was estimated to be 31.5 kJ/mol. These results revealed that an important change in the chemical state of Cs occurs during reaction in the system.

  14. Conventional incinerator redesign for the incineration of low level radioactive solid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lara Z, L.E.C.

    1997-01-01

    From several years ago have been detected some problems with the storage of low level radioactive solids wastes, they are occasioned growth in volume and weight, one of most effective treatment for its reduction, the incineration has been. In the work was designed an incinerator of low level radioactive solid wastes, the characteristics, range of temperatures, that operate and the excess of air in order to get a near incineration at 100 %; thickness of refractory material in the combustion chamber, materials and forms of installation, the balances of mass, energy and radioactive material necessary for the design of the auxiliary peripheral equipment is discussed. In theory the incineration is a viable option for the treatment of low level radioactive solid wastes, upon getting an approximate reduction to 95 % of the wastes introduced to the incinerator in the Department of Radioactive Wastes of the National Institute of Nuclear Research, avoiding the dispersion of combustion gases and radioactive material at the environment. (Author)

  15. Incineration of contaminated oil from Sellafield - 16246

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broadbent, Craig; Cassidy, Helen; Stenmark, Anders

    2009-01-01

    Studsvik have been incinerating Low Level Waste (LLW) at its licensed facility in Sweden since the mid-1970's. This process not only enables the volume of waste to be significantly reduced but also produces an inert residue suitable for final disposal. The facility has historically incinerated only solid dry LLW, however in 2008 an authorisation was obtained to permit the routine incineration of LLW contaminated oil at the facility. Prior to obtaining the authorisation to incinerate oils and other organic liquids - both from clean-up activities on the Studsvik site and on a commercial basis - a development program was established. The primary aims of this were to identify the optimum process set-up for the incinerator and also to demonstrate to the regulatory authorities that the appropriate environmental and radiological parameters would be maintained throughout the new process. The final phase of the development program was to incinerate a larger campaign of contaminated oil from the nuclear industry. A suitable accumulation of oil was identified on the Sellafield site in Cumbria and a commercial contract was established to incinerate approximately 40 tonnes of oil from the site. The inventory of oil chosen for the trial incineration represented a significant challenge to the incineration facility as it had been generated from various facilities on-site and had degraded significantly following years of storage. In order to transport the contaminated oil from the Sellafield site in the UK to the Studsvik facility in Sweden several challenges had to be overcome. These included characterisation, packaging and international transportation (under a Transfrontier Shipment (TFS) authorisation) for one of the first transports of liquid radioactive wastes outside the UK. The incineration commenced in late 2007 and was successfully completed in early 2008. The total volume reduction achieved was greater than 97%, with the resultant ash packaged and returned to the UK (for

  16. Conditioning of alpha and beta-gamma ashes of incinerator, obtained by radioactive wastes incinerating and encapsulation in several matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kertesz, C.J.; Chenavas, P.R.; Auffret, L.

    1993-01-01

    In this final report, the work carried out, and the results, obtained on the ash incinerator conditioning study, by means of encapsulation in several matrices, are presented. Three encapsulation matrices were checked: - a ternary cement, containing OPC, blast furnace slag and flying ash, - a two component epoxide system, - an epoxide-cement compound matrix. Three ash categories were employed: - real alpha ash, coming from plutonium bearing wastes, - ash, from inactive combustible waste, obtained by treatment in an incinerator prototype, - ash coming from inactive waste incineration plant. Using three different matrices, the encapsulated form properties were determined: at the laboratory scale, the encapsulating formulation was established, and physico mechanical data were obtained, - on active encapsulated forms, containing a calculated amount of 238 Pu, a radiolysis study was performed in order to measure the composition and volume of the radiolytic gas flow, - at the industrial scale, a pilot plant operating the polyvalent encapsulating process, was designed and put into service. Bench-scale experiments were done, on alpha ash embedded forms using the modified sulphur cement matrix as embedding agent. 4 refs., 30 figs., 27 tabs

  17. Volume reduction through incineration of low-activity radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eymeri, J.; Gauthey, J.C.; Chaise, D.; Lafite, G.

    1993-01-01

    The aim of the waste treatment plant, designed by Technicatome (CEA) for an Indonesian Nuclear Research Center, is to reduce through incineration the volume of low-activity radioactive wastes such as technological solids (cotton, PVC, paper board), biological solids (animal bones) and liquids (cutting fluids...). The complete combustion is realized with a total air multi-fuel burner (liquid wastes) and flash pyrolysis-complete combustion (solid wastes). A two stage flue gas filtration system, a flue gas washing system, and an ash recovery system are used. A test platform has been built. 3 figs

  18. 40 years of experience in incineration of radioactive waste in Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanbrabant, R.; Deckers, J.; Luycx, P.; Detilleux, M.; Beguin, Ph.

    2001-01-01

    Since the very beginning of the nuclear activities in Belgium, the incineration of radioactive waste was chosen as a suitable technique for achieving an optimal volume reduction of the produced waste quantities; several R and D projects were realised in this specific field and different facilities were erected and operated. An experimental furnace ''Evence Coppee'' was built in 1960 for treatment of LLW produced by the Belgian Research Centre (SCK/CEN). Regularly this furnace has been modified, improved and equipped with additional installations to obtain better combustion conditions and a more efficient gas cleaning system. Based on the 35 years experience gained by the operation of the ''Evence Coppee'', a completely new industrial incineration installation has been designed in the nineties and commissioned in May 1995, in the frame of the erection of the Belgian Centralised Treatment/Conditioning Facility CILVA. At the end of 1998, the new furnace has burnt 455 tons of solid waste and 246 tons of liquid waste. Besides the conventional incineration process, a High Temperature Slagging Incinerator (HTSI) has been developed, constructed and operated for 10 years in the past. This installation was the combination of an incinerator and a melter producing melted granulated material instead of ashes, and provided experience in the incineration of hazardous waste, such as chlorinated organic compounds and waste with PCB content. The paper presents ''the Belgian Experience'' accumulated year after year with the design and the operation of the above mentioned facilities and demonstrates how the needs required today for a modern installation are met. The paper covers the following aspects; design particularities and description of the systems, operational results for different solid waste categories (bulk waste, precompacted waste, ion exchange resins) and for different liquid waste categories (organic, aqueous, oil), required pretreatment of the waste, ashes conditioning

  19. Recovery of polyphenols from rose oil distillation wastewater using adsorption resins--a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusanov, Krasimir; Garo, Eliane; Rusanova, Mila; Fertig, Orlando; Hamburger, Matthias; Atanassov, Ivan; Butterweck, Veronika

    2014-11-01

    The production of rose oil from rose flowers by water steam distillation leaves a water fraction of the distillate as main part of the waste. Therefore, the rose oil distillation wastewater represents a serious environmental problem due to the high content of polyphenols which are difficult to decompose and have to be considered as biopollutants when discarded into the drainage system and rivers. On the other hand, natural polyphenols are valuable compounds with useful properties as bioactive substances. Until now there is no established practice for processing of rose oil distillation wastewater and utilization of contained substances. Thus, it was the aim of this study to develop a strategy to separate this wastewater into a polyphenol depleted water fraction and a polyphenol enriched fraction which could be developed into innovative value-added products. In a first step, the phytochemical profile of rose oil distillation wastewater was determined. Its HPLC-PDA-MS analysis revealed the presence of flavan-3-ols, flavanones, flavonols and flavones. In a second step, the development of a stepwise concentration of rose oil distillation wastewater was performed. The concentration process includes a filtration process to eliminate suspended solids in the wastewater, followed by adsorption of the contained phenolic compounds onto adsorption resins (XAD and SP). Finally, desorption of the polyphenol fraction from the resin matrix was achieved using ethanol and/or aqueous ethanol. The result of the process was a wastewater low in soluble organic compounds and an enriched polyphenol fraction (RF20 SP-207). The profile of this fraction was similar to that of rose oil distillation wastewater and showed the presence of flavonols such as quercetin and kaempferol glycosides as major metabolites. These compounds were isolated from the enriched polyphenol fraction and their structures confirmed by NMR. In summary, a pilot medium scale system was developed using adsorption resins

  20. Les Brulures Chimiques Par Le Laurier Rose

    OpenAIRE

    Bakkali, H.; Ababou, M.; Nassim Sabah, T.; Moussaoui, A.; Ennouhi, A.; Fouadi, F.Z.; Siah, S.; Ihrai, H.

    2010-01-01

    Le laurier rose ou Nerium oleander est un arbuste qui pousse naturellement dans les régions méditerranéennes. Au Maroc on le trouve dans les lieux humides. Il est réputé par ses risques de toxicité systémique en cas d'empoisonnement à cause de la présence de deux alcaloïdes, surtout l'oléandrine. La littérature illustre des cas d'utilisation locale des feuilles de cette plante contre la gale, les hémorroïdes et les furoncles. Nous rapportons deux cas de brûlures chimiques par le laurier rose ...

  1. Theoretical aspects of solid waste incineration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarbell, J.M.

    1975-01-01

    Theoretical considerations that may be incorporated into the design basis of a prototype incinerator for solid transuranic wastes are described. It is concluded that primary pyrolysis followed by secondary afterburning is a very unattractive incineration strategy unless waste resource recovery is a process goal. The absence of primary combustion air leads to poor waste dispersion with associated diffusion and conduction limitations rendering the process inefficient. Single step oxidative incineration is most attractive when volume reduction is of primary importance. The volume of this type of incinerator (including afterburner) should be relatively much smaller than the pyrolysis type. Afterburning is limited by soot oxidation when preceded by pyrolysis, but limited by turbulent mixing when preceded by direct solid waste oxidation. In either case, afterburner temperatures above 1300 0 K are not warranted. Results based on a nominal solid waste composition and anticipated throughput indicate that NO/sub x/, HF, and SO 2 will not exceed the ambient air quality standards. Control of radioactive particulates, which can be achieved by multiple HEPA filtration, will reduce the conventional particulate emission to the vanishing point. Chemical equilibrium calculations also indicate that chlorine and to a lesser extent fluorine may be precipitated out in the ash as sodium salts if a sufficient flux of sodium is introduced into the incinerator

  2. Clinical waste incinerators in Cameroon--a case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mochungong, Peter Ikome Kuwoh; Gulis, Gabriel; Sodemann, Morten

    2012-01-01

    Incinerators are widely used to treat clinical waste in Cameroon's Northwest Region. These incinerators cause public apprehension owing to purported risks to operators, communities and the environment. This article aims to summarize findings from an April 2008 case study....

  3. Downy mildew: a serious disease threat to rose health worldwide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peronospora sparsa is a downy mildew-causing oomycete that can infect roses, blackberries and other members of the rose family. During the last 20 years, this disease has become a serious problem for rose growers in the U.S. and worldwide. While much is known about the disease and its treatment, inc...

  4. Incineration of spent ion exchange resins in a triphasic mixture at Belgoprocess

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deckers, J.; Luycx, P.

    2003-01-01

    Up to 1998, spent ion exchange resins have been fed to the incinerator in combination with various other solid combustible wastes at Belgoprocess. However, thanks to sustained efforts to reduce radioactive waste production in all nuclear facilities in Belgium, the annual production of solid combustible waste is now much too small to allow this practice to be continued. Since the incinerator at Belgoprocess is not capable of treating spent ion exchange resins as such, it was decided to adopt the use of foam as a carrier to feed the resins to the incinerator. The mixture is a pseudohomogeneous charged foam, ensuring easy handling and allowing incineration in the existing furance, while a number of additives may be included, such as oil to increase the calorific value of the mixture and accelerate combustion. The first incineration campaign of spent ion exchange resins in a triphasic foam mixture, in conjunction with other liquid and solid combustible wastes, will be started in January 2000. The foam, comprising 70% by weight of resins, 29% by weight of water and 1% by weight of surfactant will be pulverized in the incinerator through an injection lance, at a feed rate of 40 to 100 kg/h. The incinerator and associated off-gas treatment system can be operated at standard conditions. Belgoprocess is the subsidiary of the Belgian national agency for the management of radioactive waste, known by its Dutch and French acronyms, NIRAS and ONDRAF respectively. The company ensures the treatment, conditioning and interim storage of nearly all radioactive waste produced in Belgium. (orig.)

  5. The potential impact of municipal solid waste incinerators ashes on the anthropogenic osmium budget

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Funari, Valerio; Meisel, Thomas; Braga, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Osmium release from Municipal Solid Waste Incinerators (MSWI), even if acknowledged to occur at least over the last fifteen years, remains overlooked in the majority of recent studies. We present the osmium concentration and 187 Os/ 188 Os isotopic measurements of different kinds of bottom and fly ash samples from MSWI plants and reference materials of incinerator fly ash (BCR176 and BCR176R). The analysis of the unknown ash samples shows a relatively wide range of 187 Os/ 188 Os ratios (0.24–0.70) and Os concentrations (from 0.026 ng/g to 1.65 ng/g). Osmium concentrations and isotopic signatures differ from those of other known Os sources, either natural or manmade, suggesting a mixture of both contributions in the MSWI feedstock material. Furthermore, the comparison between the BCR176 and the renewed BCR176R indicates a decrease in Os concentration of one order of magnitude over the years (from 1 to 0.1 ng/g) due to improved recycling efficiency of Os-bearing waste. The estimated annual amount of Os from a typical incinerator (using average Os values and MSWI mass balance) is 13.4 g/a. The osmium potentially released from MSWI smokestacks is predicted to be from 16 to 38 ng Os/m 2 /a, considering a medium size country having 50 MSWI facilities; therefore much higher than the naturally transported osmium from continental dust in the atmosphere (about 1 pg Os/m 2 /a). MSWI systems are considered one of the best options for municipal solid waste management in industrialised countries, but their contribution to the Os budget can be significant. - Highlights: • Bottom and fly ashes from municipal solid waste incinerators are investigated. • Their Os levels and Os isotopic signatures are discussed. • An estimate of Os release from incinerators and incinerated ashes is given. • Os contamination from incineration plants impacts the geochemical Os cycle.

  6. Life cycle assessment of selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) of nitrous oxides in a full-scale municipal solid waste incinerator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Jacob; Munk, Bjarne; Crillesen, Kim

    2011-01-01

    Selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) of nitrous oxides in a full-scale municipal solid waste incinerator was investigated using LCA. The relationship between NOx-cleaning and ammonia dosage was measured at the plant. Un-reacted ammonia – the ammonia slip – leaving the flue-gas cleaning system......-removal in flue-gas cleaning from waste incineration....

  7. Alkali activation processes for incinerator residues management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancellotti, Isabella; Ponzoni, Chiara; Barbieri, Luisa; Leonelli, Cristina

    2013-08-01

    Incinerator bottom ash (BA) is produced in large amount worldwide and in Italy, where 5.1 millionstons of municipal solid residues have been incinerated in 2010, corresponding to 1.2-1.5 millionstons of produced bottom ash. This residue has been used in the present study for producing dense geopolymers containing high percentage (50-70 wt%) of ash. The amount of potentially reactive aluminosilicate fraction in the ash has been determined by means of test in NaOH. The final properties of geopolymers prepared with or without taking into account this reactive fraction have been compared. The results showed that due to the presence of both amorphous and crystalline fractions with a different degree of reactivity, the incinerator BA geopolymers exhibit significant differences in terms of Si/Al ratio and microstructure when reactive fraction is considered. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Secondary incinerator for radioactive gaseous waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, Tadashi; Masuda, Takashi.

    1997-01-01

    A vessel incorporated with packings, in which at least either of the packings and the vessel is put to induction-heating by high frequency induction coils, is disposed in a flow channel of radioactive gaseous wastes exhausted from a radioactive waste incinerator. The packings include metals such as stainless pipes and electroconductive ceramics such as C-SiC ceramics. Since only electricity is used as an energy source, in the secondary incinerator for the radioactive gaseous wastes, it can be installed in a cell safely. In addition, if ceramics are used, there is no worry of deterioration of the incinerator due to organic materials, and essential functions are not lowered. (T.M.)

  9. Strategy for nuclear wastes incineration in hybrid reactors; Strategies pour l'incineration de dechets nucleaires dans des reacteurs hybrides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lelievre, F

    1998-12-11

    The transmutation of nuclear wastes in accelerator-driven nuclear reactorsoffers undeniable advantages. But before going into the detailed study of a particular project, we should (i) examine the possible applications of such systems and (ii) compare the different configurations, in order to guide technological decisions. We propose an approach, answering both concerns, based on the complete description of hybrid reactors. It is possible, with only the transmutation objective and a few technological constraints chosen a posteriori, to determine precisely the essential parameters of such reactors: number of reactors, beam current, size of the core, sub-criticality... The approach also clearly pinpoints the strategic decisions, for which the scientist or engineer is not competent. This global scheme is applied to three distinct nuclear cycles: incineration of solid fuel without recycling, incineration of liquid fuel without recycling and incineration of liquid fuel with on-line recycling; and for two spectra, either thermal or fast. We show that the radiotoxicity reduction with a solid fuel is significant only with a fast spectrum, but the incineration times range from 20 to 30 years. The liquid fuel is appropriate only with on-line recycling, at equilibrium. The gain on the radiotoxicity can be considerable and we describe a number of such systems. The potential of ADS for the transmutation of nuclear wastes is confirmed, but we should continue the description of specific systems obtained through this approach. (author)

  10. Environmental assessment of waste incineration and alternatives; Miljoevurdering af affaldsforbraending og alternativer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moeller, J.; Fruergaard, T.; Riber, C.; Astrup, T.; Hoejlund Christensen, T.

    2008-06-15

    Life cycle environmental assessment of waste combustion and alternatives were made using the LCA model EASEWASTE. Possible environmental effects for nine effect categories and the resource consumption of fossil fuels through treating 1 ton combustible waste were defined for several waste systems, including waste-only incineration, co-combustion in a fossil-fueled cogeneration plant, and combined biogas and compost production from household waste. The main conclusions of the analyses are: 1) with an optimum location, i.e. in the vicinity to a coal-fueled cogeneration plant, waste-only incineration, co-combustion , and combined biogas and compost production are all equal environmentally viable alternatives . 2) Regarding potential toxic impacts in the area of a coal-fueled cogeneration plant, waste-only incineration and combined biogas and compost production will result in slightly less net emissions compared to co-combustion because of better flue gas cleaning of heavy metals in incinerators than in power plants. 3) Siting the incinerator in a decentralized natural gas cogeneration area, co-combustion in a cogeneration plant is a better solution. 4) Combined biogas and compost production and waste-only combustion are environmentally equal treatments in all power plant areas. (ln)

  11. Air pollutant emissions and their control with the focus on waste incineration facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loeschau, Margit [Wandschneider + Gutjahr, Hamburg (Germany)

    2017-07-01

    This text and practical handbook thoroughly presents the control of air pollutant emissions from combustion processes focusing on waste incinerators. Special characteristics are emphasised and the differences to emission control from combustion processes with other fuels are explained. The author illustrates the origin and effects of air pollutants from incineration processes, the mechanics of their appearance in the incineration process, primary and secondary measures for their reduction, processes of measuring the emissions as well as the methods of disposing the residues. In particular, the pros and cons of procedural steps and their appropriate combination under various conditions are emphasised. Moreover, the book contains information and analyses of the emissions situation, the consumption of operating materials and of backlog quantities as well as of the cost structure of waste incinerators with regard to their applied control system. Furthermore, the author explicates the contemporary legal, scientific and technological developments and their influence on air pollutant emission control. An evaluation of the status quo of air pollutant control at waste incinerators in Germany, practical examples about possible combinations and typical performance data complete the content. Accordingly, this book is a guideline for planing a reasonable overall concept of an air pollutant control that takes the location and the segregation tasks into consideration.

  12. Pilot-scale incineration of comtaminated soils from the drake chemical superfund site. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, C.; Lee, J.W.; Waterland, L.R.

    1993-03-01

    A series of pilot-scale incineration tests were performed at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) Incineration Research Facility to evaluate the potential of incineration as an option to treat contaminated soils from the Drake Chemical Superfund site in Lock Haven, Pennsylvania. The soils at the Drake site are reported to be contaminated to varying degrees with various organic constituents and several hazardous constituent trace metals. The purpose of the test program was to evaluate the incinerability of selected site soils in terms of the destruction of contaminant organic constituents and the fate of contaminant trace metals. All tests were conducted in the rotary kiln incineration system at the IRF. Test results show that greater than 99.995 percent principal organic hazardous constituent (POHC) destruction and removal efficiencies (DRE) can be achieved at kiln exit gas temperatures of nominally 816 C (1,500 F) and 538 C (1,000 F). Complete soil decontamination of semivolatile organics was achieved; however, kiln ash levels of three volatile organic constituents remained comparable to soil levels

  13. Acid gas control process and apparatus for waste fired incinerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubin, P.Z.; Stepan, J.E.

    1992-01-01

    This patent describes a process for reducing noxious emission produced in a waste material incinerator. It comprises incinerating solid waste material in a furnace section of the waste material incinerator; providing an additive to an additive supply storage unit; conveying the additive to an additive injection means that communicates with the furnace section of the waste material incinerator; injecting the additive into a turbulent reaction zone of the furnace section such that acid gas content, acid dewpoint temperature and the level of corrosion in the incinerator are reduced

  14. Safety and human factors engineering analysis. Heat recovery incinerator installation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-09-01

    This report contains a safety and human factors analysis of the Navy's heat recovery incinerator (HRI) systems. These requirements were based on current military standards and an evaluation of the HRI's at NAS, Jacksonville and NS, Mayport, Fl. The data collected were used to develop preliminary design criteria for future HRIs. The safety analysis lists specific areas where problems can occur and what should be done to prevent injury to plant personnel. The human factors design criteria section lists steps that can be taken to improve personnel and plant operating efficiency. Finally, specific problems that are occurring at NAS, Jacksonville and NS, Mayport are given.

  15. Effects of ionizing radiations on roses, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lata, P.

    1975-01-01

    A comparative study of the male meiosis in the rose cultivar ''Pink Parfait'' and its two, Deep and Light pink flowered mutants was conducted. ''Pink Parfait'' was found to be a segmental allotetraploid. The frequency of univalents and quadrivalents at metaphase I was higher in the mutants. Anaphase I revealed a higher incidence of lagging chromosomes in Deep pink mutant and an increased frequency of chromosome bridges in both the mutants. The deleterious effects of radiations were evident from the higher percentage of chromosomal aberrations and pollen sterility found in mutants as compared with the control. (auth.)

  16. Incineration of wastes from nuclear installations with the Juelich incineration process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilke, M.

    1979-01-01

    In the Juelich Research Center a two-stage incineration process has been developed which, due to an integral thermal treatment stage, is most suitable for the incineration of heterogeneous waste material. The major advantages of this technique are to be seen in the fact that mechanical treatment of the waste material is no longer required and that off gas treatment is considerably facilitated. (orig.) [de

  17. EIA for a waste incinerator in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Sanne Vammen

    2017-01-01

    A planned new waste incinerator will be located in an area which is at risk of flooding – a risk that will increase under climate change. During public hear- ings as part of the project’s EIA, inclusion of climate risks was requested. This led to mitigation measures which will decrease the risk...

  18. Nitrous Oxide Emissions from Waste Incineration

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Svoboda, Karel; Baxter, D.; Martinec, J.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 60, č. 1 (2006), s. 78-90 ISSN 0366-6352 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA4072201 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : nitrous oxide * waste * incineration Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 0.360, year: 2006

  19. OVERVIEW OF HAZARDOUS/TOXIC WASTE INCINERATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effective hazardous/toxic waste disposal and safe dumpsite cleanup are two of EPA's major missions in the 1980s. Incineration has been recognized as a very efficient process to destroy the hazardous wastes generated by industry or by the dumpsite remediations. The paper provides ...

  20. Use plan for demonstration radioactive-waste incinerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooley, L.R.; McCampbell, M.R.; Thompson, J.D.

    1982-04-01

    The University of Maryland at Baltimore was awarded a grant from the Department of Energy to test a specially modified incinerator to burn biomedical radioactive waste. In preparation for the incinerator, the Radiation Safety Office devised a comprehensive plan for its safe and effective use. The incinerator plan includes a discussion of regulations regarding on-site incineration of radioactive waste, plans for optimum use in burning four principal waste forms, controlled air incineration technology, and standard health physics safety practices; a use plan, including waste categorization and segregation, processing, and ash disposition; safety procedures, including personnel and area monitoring; and methods to evaluate the incinerator's effectiveness by estimating its volume reduction factors, mass and activity balances, and by determining the cost effectiveness of incineration versus commercial shallow land burial

  1. Oxygen incineration process for treatment of alpha-contaminated wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jeong Guk; Yang, Hee Chul; Park, Geun Il; Kim, In Tae; Kim, Joon Hyung

    2001-07-01

    As a part of development of a treatment technology for burnable alpha-bearing (or -contaminated) wastes using an oxygen incineration process, which would be expected to produce in Korea, the off-gas volume and compositions were estimated form mass and heat balance, and then compared to those of a general air incineration process. A laboratory-scale oxygen incineration process, to investigate a burnable wastes from nuclear fuel fabricatin facility, was designed, constructed, and then operated. The use of oxygen instead of air in incineratin would result in reduction on off-gas product below one seventh theoretically. In addition, the trends on incineration and melting processes to treat the radioactive alpha-contaminated wastes, and the regulations and guide lines, related to design, construction, and operation of incineration process, were reviewed. Finallu, the domestic regulations related incineration, and the operation and maintenance manuals for oxy-fuel burner and oxygen incineration process were shown in appendixes

  2. On site clean up with a hazardous waste incinerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cross, F.L. Jr.; Tessitore, J.L.

    1987-01-01

    The Army Corps of Engineers and the EPA have determined that on-site incineration for the detoxification of soils, sediments, and sludges is a viable, safe, and economic alternative. This paper discusses an approach to on-site incineration as a method of detoxification of soils/sediments contaminated with organic hazardous wastes. Specifically, this paper describes the procedures used to evaluate on-site incineration at a large Superfund site with extensive PCB contaminated soils and sediments. The paper includes the following: (1) a discussion of site waste quantities and properties, (2) a selection of an incineration technology with a resulting concept and design, (3) a discussion of incinerator permitting requirements, (4) discussion and rationale for an incinerator sub-scale testing approach, and (5) analysis of on-site incineration cost

  3. Environmental assessment of waste incineration in a life-cycle-perspective (EASEWASTE)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riber, Christian; Bhander, Gurbakhash Singh; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2008-01-01

    is defined by 48 material fractions and their chemical composition. The model was used to quantify the environmental performance of the incineration plant in Aarhus, Denmark before and after its upgrading in terms of improved flue gas cleaning and energy recovery. It demonstrated its usefulness...... is a module in the life-cycle assessment model EASEWASTE. The module accounts for all uses of materials and energy and credits the incinerator for electricity and heat recovered. The energy recovered is defined by the user as a percentage of the energy produced, calculated on the lower heating value...... in identifying the various processes and substances that contributed to environmental loadings as well as to environmental savings. The model was instrumental in demonstrating the importance of the energy recovery system not only for electricity but also heat from the incinerator....

  4. Incinerator development program for processing transuranic waste at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedahl, T.G.

    1982-01-01

    In the fall of 1981, two short-term tests were conducted on a controlled air and a rotary kiln incinerator to assess their potential for processing transuranic (TRU) contaminated waste at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The primary purpose of the test program was a proof-of-principle verification that the incinerators could achieve near-complete combustion of the combustible portion of the waste, while mixed with high percentages of noncombustible and metal waste materials. Other important test objectives were to obtain system design information including off-gas and end-product characteristics and incinerator operating parameters. Approximately 7200 kg of simulated (non-TRU) waste from the INEL were processed during the two tests

  5. Automation as a tool for safe and discontinuous operation of the KEMA incinerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beuse, R.H.J.; Doorn, J.J. van; Eenink, A.H.; Gertsen, B.M.G.

    1985-01-01

    An automatic control system has been developed and implemented for the KEMA cyclone-type incinerator. This paper describes the process analysis and the development of a control program required to obtain carbon-free ashes and clean flue gases. The automatic control will allow the KEMA incinerator to burn solid low-level waste of various compositions and to be easily handled by one operator. An overview of the resulting control structure and some details of the implementation of the control structure are given. (orig.)

  6. Using Rose and Compass for Authentication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, G

    2009-07-09

    Many recent non-proliferation software projects include a software authentication component. In this context, 'authentication' is defined as determining that a software package performs only its intended purpose and performs that purpose correctly and reliably over many years. In addition to visual inspection by knowledgeable computer scientists, automated tools are needed to highlight suspicious code constructs both to aid the visual inspection and to guide program development. While many commercial tools are available for portions of the authentication task, they are proprietary, and have limited extensibility. An open-source, extensible tool can be customized to the unique needs of each project. ROSE is an LLNL-developed robust source-to-source analysis and optimization infrastructure currently addressing large, million-line DOE applications in C, C++, and FORTRAN. It continues to be extended to support the automated analysis of binaries (x86, ARM, and PowerPC). We continue to extend ROSE to address a number of security specific requirements and apply it to software authentication for non-proliferation projects. We will give an update on the status of our work.

  7. High temperature slagging incinerator for TRU-waste treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van De Voorde, N.; Hennart, D.; Gijbels, J.; Mergan, L.

    1984-01-01

    Since 1974 the Belgian Nuclear Study Center (SCK/CEN) at Mol, with the support of the European Communities, has developed an ''integral'' system for the treatment and the conditioning of radioactive contaminated wastes. The system converts directly, at high temperature (1500 0 C), mixtures of combustibles (paper, plastics, rubber etc.) and non-combustibles (metals, soil, sludge, concrete.) contaminated with transuranium elements as well as beta-gamma emitting isotopes, into a chemically inert and physically stable slag. More than 4000 hours of successful operation, with wide variety of simulated waste composition as well as real waste, have confirmed the safe operability of the high temperature sl'Gging incinerator and the connected installations, such as sorting cells, waste shredder, off-gas purification train, slag extraction system, remoted control, and the alpha-containment building. During the fall of 1983, a final confirmation of the performance of the installation was given by the successful accomplishment of an incineration campaign of 16 to 17 tons of simulated solid plutonium contaminated wastes

  8. An assessment of dioxin contamination from the intermittent operation of a municipal waste incinerator in Japan and associated remediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Nobuo; Takaoka, Masaki

    2013-04-01

    Significant dioxin (polychlorinated dibenzo-para-dioxins (PCDDs)/polychlorinated dibenzo-furans (PCDFs)) pollution from a municipal solid waste incinerator was discovered in 1997 in Osaka prefecture/Japan. The cause and mechanism of pollution was identified by a detailed assessment of the environment and incinerator plant. The primary sources of PCDD/PCDF pollution were high dioxin releases from an intermittently operated waste incinerator with PCDD/PCDF emissions of 150 ng-TEQ/Nm(3). PCDD/PCDF also accumulated in the wet scrubber system (3,000 μg TEQ/L) by adsorption and water recirculation in the incinerator. Scrubber water was air-cooled with a cooling tower located on the roof of the incinerator. High concentrations of dioxins in the cooling water were released as aerosols into the surrounding and caused heavy soil pollution in the area near the plant. These emissions were considered as the major contamination pathway from the plant. Decontamination and soil remediation in and around the incinerator plant were conducted using a variety of destruction technologies (including incineration, photochemical degradation and GeoMelt technology). Although the soil remediation process was successfully finished in December 2006 about 3% of the waste still remains. The case demonstrates that releases from incinerators which do not use best available technology or which are not operated according to best environmental practices can contaminate their operators and surrounding land. This significant pollution had a large impact on the Japanese government's approach toward controlling dioxin pollution. Since this incident, a ministerial conference on dioxins has successfully strengthened control measures.

  9. In vitro germination of desert rose varieties(

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiane Lemos Varella

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The drought stress resistance is a characteristic of the desert rose and its estimable beauty flowers, which gave it great relevance in the ornamental market. However, the desert rose production and germination is hampered by possible sterility of their male and female flowers and frequent problems in pollination, so the tissue culture is a promising alternative to the propagation of these plants. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of gibberellic acid on four commercial varieties of desert rose (Adenium obesum cultivated in vitro. The seeds of the varieties ‘Orange Pallet’, ‘Carnation violet’, ‘Diamond ring’ and ‘Vermiliont’ were sterilized and inoculated on Water + Agar (T0, medium MS (T1, ½ MS (T2, MS + 0.25 mg L-1 GA3 (T3, MS + 0.5 mg L-1 GA3 (T4, ½ MS + 0.25 mg L-1 GA3 (T5, ½ MS 0.5 mg L-1 GA3 (T6. The seeds germination of A. obesum was initiated on the fourth day of cultivation and on the tenth day was possible to observe the expansion of the cotyledons and leaf expansion with subsequent development of early secondary root. The ‘Orange pallet’ variety germinated 100% of seeds on water + agar and MS ½ + 0.5 mg L-1 of GA3. For ‘Diamond Ring’ and ‘Carnation violet’ the highest rate of germination occurred in treatments MS ½; 0.25 mg L-1 GA3; MS + 0.5 mg L-1 GA3 MS ½ + 0.5 mg L-1 GA3 averaging 80% and 70%, respectively. For ‘Vermiliont’ the best response was in MS and MS ½ + 0.5 mg L-1 GA3 ranging between 70-90% germinated embryos. It was registered different malformations in all treatments like absence of roots and apexes during seedling development. The concentrations of GA3 did not affect significantly the seed germination.

  10. CRUSER 2015, TechCon, Robots in the Roses, Robo-Ethics [video

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    CRUSER 2015 events Technical Consortium Robots in the Roses Robo-Ethics Ray Buettner, CRUSER Director Tim Chung, CRUSER Deputy Director LT Raymond Davis, Systems Engineering student LT Patrick Livesay, Systems Engineering student LT Eric Beaty, National Security Affairs student Matt Kiefer, recent distance learning graduate

  11. Quantification of the resource recovery potential of municipal solid waste incineration bottom ashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allegrini, Elisa; Maresca, Alberto; Olsson, Mikael Emil; Holtze, Maria Sommer; Boldrin, Alessio; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2014-09-01

    Municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) plays an important role in many European waste management systems. However, increasing focus on resource criticality has raised concern regarding the possible loss of critical resources through MSWI. The primary form of solid output from waste incinerators is bottom ashes (BAs), which also have important resource potential. Based on a full-scale Danish recovery facility, detailed material and substance flow analyses (MFA and SFA) were carried out, in order to characterise the resource recovery potential of Danish BA: (i) based on historical and experimental data, all individual flows (representing different grain size fractions) within the recovery facility were quantified, (ii) the resource potential of ferrous (Fe) and non-ferrous (NFe) metals as well as rare earth elements (REE) was determined, (iii) recovery efficiencies were quantified for scrap metal and (iv) resource potential variability and recovery efficiencies were quantified based on a range of ashes from different incinerators. Recovery efficiencies for Fe and NFe reached 85% and 61%, respectively, with the resource potential of metals in BA before recovery being 7.2%ww for Fe and 2.2%ww for NFe. Considerable non-recovered resource potential was found in fine fraction (below 2mm), where approximately 12% of the total NFe potential in the BA were left. REEs were detected in the ashes, but the levels were two or three orders of magnitude lower than typical ore concentrations. The lack of REE enrichment in BAs indicated that the post-incineration recovery of these resources may not be a likely option with current technology. Based on these results, it is recommended to focus on limiting REE-containing products in waste for incineration and improving pre-incineration sorting initiatives for these elements. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Healing incisional surgical wounds using Rose Hip oil in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Lainy Carollyne da Costa Cavalcante; Thyago Cezar Prado Pessôa; Rubens Fernando Gonçalves Ribeiro Júnior; Edson Yuzur Yasojima; Rosa Helena de Figueiredo Chaves Soares; Marcus Vinicius Henriques Brito; Eduardo Henrique Herbster Gouveia; Lucas Nascimento Galvão; Suzana Rodrigues Ramos; Adan Kristian Almeida Carneiro; Yuri Aarão Amaral Serruya; Mateus Malta de Moraes

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate incisional surgical wound healing in rats by using Rose Hip (Rosa rubiginosa L.) oil. Methods: Twenty-one days after the oophorectomy procedure, twenty-seven female, adult, Wistar rats were distributed into three groups: Control group (wound treatment with distilled water); Collagenase group (treatment with collagenase ointment); and Rose Hip group (wound treatment with Rose Hip oil). Each group was distributed according to the date of euthanasia: 7, 14 and 21 days. ...

  13. Efficiencies of different flue gas purification systems in waste incinerators. Experimental report; Untersuchungen zur Effizienz von unterschiedlichen Systemen zur Rauchgasreinigung bei Muellverbrennungsanlagen. Untersuchungsbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berghoff, R. (comp.)

    2001-07-01

    This investigation was carried out on behalf of the Environmental Office of the state of Nordrhein-Westfalen. Apart from the current and projected exhaust purification systems, also three exemplary systems were analyzed from the ecological and economic point of view. Effects on pollutant freights were established in consideration of energy consumption and the specific cost of waste treatment for each technology. [German] Das konkrete Ziel dieser vom Landesumweltamt NRW vergebenen Untersuchung war es, neben einer Uebersicht ueber die zzt. eingesetzten und auch geplanten Abgasreinigungssysteme (RGR) bei Muellverbrennungsanlagen, die Vor- und die Nachteile von 3 beispielhaft ausgewaehlten Systemen in einem oekologischen und oekonomischen Vergleich knapp und begrenzt darstellen zu lassen. Als Ergebnis wurden die Auswirkungen der unterschiedlichen Verfahren auf die Frachten der emittierten Schadstoffe unter Beruecksichtigung der unterschiedlichen Energieverbraeuche ermittelt und dargestellt. Darueber hinaus wurden die spezifischen Muellbehandlungskosten bei den jeweiligen Gasreinigungstechniken errechnet. (orig.)

  14. DEVELOPMENT OF A HAZARDOUS WASTE INCINERATOR TARGET ANALYTE LIST OF PRODUCTS OF INCOMPLETE COMBUSTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of pilot-scale incineration testing to develop a comprehensive list of products of incomplete combustion (PICs) from hazardous waste combustion (HWC) systems. Project goals were to: (1) identify the total mass of organic compounds sufficiently to estimate...

  15. Monitoring the infective process of the downy mildew causal agent within micropropagated rose plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Yamile Gómez

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Downy mildew in the rose caused by a species of the Peronospora genus is a very restrictive disease for the Colombian greenhouse rose production. The damage observed in the susceptible varieties of commercial rose include symptoms affect young steams and tiny leaves causing reddish and brown spots and defoliation; leading to 10% production losses. The infective behavior of this pathogen was studied with the aim of increasing the knowledge about the biology of the rose downy mildew. The study of the infective process was performed on the Charlotte variety using micropropagated roses inoculated with suspensions of sporangia. A germinal tube was observed during the germination process, it came from a lateral papilla and reached up to 300 microns in length. During this study, the ability of the pathogen to use vascular sieves as communication systems within the plant was determined. Oogonia and antheridia were also observed inside the epidermal cells, and oospores inside the parenchymal tissue close to xylem vessels. To the best of our knowledge, these sexual structures have not been reported on in Colombia before. This study verifies the ability of the downy mildew causal agent to move through the xylem vessels and produce sexual structures, such as oogonia, antheridia and oospores within those tissues.

  16. The compass rose pattern in electricity prices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batten, Jonathan A; Hamada, Mahmoud

    2009-12-01

    The "compass rose pattern" is known to appear in the phase portraits, or scatter diagrams, of the high-frequency returns of financial series. We first show that this pattern is also present in the returns of spot electricity prices. Early researchers investigating these phenomena hoped that these patterns signaled the presence of rich dynamics, possibly chaotic or fractal in nature. Although there is a definite autoregressive and conditional heteroscedasticity structure in electricity returns, we find that after simple filtering no pattern remains. While the series is non-normal in terms of their distribution and statistical tests fail to identify significant chaos, there is evidence of fractal structures in periodic price returns when measured over the trading day. The phase diagram of the filtered returns provides a useful visual check on independence, a property necessary for pricing and trading derivatives and portfolio construction, as well as providing useful insights into the market dynamics.

  17. Postharvest quality of essential oil treated roses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Mariano Manfredini

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The loss of commercial quality during storage and transportation of roses is one of the factors that reflect on production costs, leading producers to preventively apply harmful chemicals, mainly to hamper Botrytis cinerea development and reduce further losses. An alternative to increase flower longevity without contaminating the environment with harmful chemicals is the use of natural products, such as essential oils, which have fungistatic and insecticide properties, as well as low toxicity. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of essential oils on the vase life of Rosa cv. Avalanche: 12 treatments were tested, resulting from the combination of 5 types of essential oils plus the control in two cold storage periods (2 to 6 days at 1 °C, 90-95% RH. The essential oils tested were eucalyptus, cinnamon, lemongrass and peppermint (1%, clove (0.1%, plus a control with distilled water. Application was made by spraying the flower buds. After storage at low temperatures, the flower stems were kept in a room (16 °C, 70% RH during 10 days for evaluation. Flower stems stored for 2 days in a cold chamber showed better means for darkening, turgor and bent neck, as well as a lower weight loss by the stems. The application of lemongrass essential oil at 1% caused burns on the petals, compromising quality and pot life. The essential oils of peppermint and eucalyptus allowed flower quality maintenance until the 10th day of evaluation. It is possible to conclude that post-harvest spraying with peppermint or eucalyptus essential oil at 1%, combined with cold storage for 2 days, provided greater longevity and quality for cv. Avalanche roses.

  18. Volume reduction by the incineration of the combustible radioactive solid samples from radioisotope usage at the utilization facility. Estimation of the distribution of low energy β-emitter using the imaging plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yumoto, Yasuhiro; Hanafusa, Tadashi; Nagamatsu, Tomohiro; Okada, Shigeru

    1999-01-01

    We want to establish a system of volume reduction by the incineration of the combustible radioactive solid wastes from radioisotope usage at the utilization facility. We have been performing experiments using an experimental incineration system to examine the distribution of radionuclides during incineration and to collect basic data. To reproduce the realistic conditions of incineration of low-level radioactive wastes in an experimental system, we adopted new incineration methods in this study. Low level radioactive samples (LLRS) were set up in a mesh container of stainless steel and incinerated at high temperature (over 800 degC) generated by two sets of high calorie gas burners. Low energy β-emitters 35 S, 45 Ca, 33 P, and a high energy β-emitter 32 P were used for the experiment. Their translocation percentages in exhaust air and dust were estimated using the Imaging Plate. Distribution of radionuclides during the incineration was similar to that estimated by conventional methods by our study or to that reported in incineration of liquid scintillation cocktail waste. We concluded that the use of the Imaging Plates is a simple and reliable method for estimation of the distribution of low energy β-emitters in incineration gas and ash. (author)

  19. Ohio incinerator given the go-ahead

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kemezis, P.

    1992-01-01

    A federal judge has denied a request for an injunction against the startup of the long-stalled Waste Technologies Industries (WTI) commercial hazardous waste incinerator in East Liverpool, OH. The $140-million plant, owned by a US subsidiary of Swiss engineering group Von Roll Ltd. (Zuerich), will go through a startup stage and a seven-day trial burn during the next two months, according to WTI. In testimony in federal court in Huntington, WV, WTI had said it was losing $115,000/day in fixed costs because of the plant's startup delay. The company also said that long-term contracts with Chemical Waste Management (CWM; Oak Brook, IL), Du Pont (Wilmington, DE), and BASF Corp. (Parsippany, NJ) to use plant services could be jeopardized by the delay. WTI is believed to have 10-year service contracts with the three companies and also will use CWM to dispose of the ash from the incinerator

  20. Conceptual design report for alpha waste incinerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-04-01

    The Alpha Waste Incinerator, a new facility in the SRP H-Area, will process transuranic or alpha-contaminated combustible solid wastes. It will seal the radioactive ash and scrubbing salt residues in cans for interim storage in drums on site burial ground pads. This report includes objectives, project estimate, schedule, standards and criteria, excluded costs, safety evaluation, energy consumption, environmental assessment, and key drawings

  1. Arsenic burden survey among refuse incinerator workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Chung-Liang

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Incinerator workers are not considered to have arsenic overexposure although they have the risk of overexposure to other heavy metals. Aim: To examine the relationship between arsenic burden and risk of occupational exposure in employees working at a municipal refuse incinerator by determining the concentrations of arsenic in the blood and urine. Settings and Design: The workers were divided into three groups based on their probability of contact with combustion-generated residues, namely Group 1: indirect contact, Group 2: direct contact and Group 3: no contact. Healthy age- and sex-matched residents living in the vicinity were enrolled as the control group. Materials and Methods: Heavy metal concentrations were measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Downstream rivers and drinking water of the residents were examined for environmental arsenic pollution. A questionnaire survey concerning the contact history of arsenic was simultaneously conducted. Statistical analysis: Non-parametric tests, cross-tabulation and multinomial logistic regression. Results: This study recruited 122 incinerator workers. The urine and blood arsenic concentrations as well as incidences of overexposure were significantly higher in the workers than in control subjects. The workers who had indirect or no contact with combustion-generated residues had significantly higher blood arsenic level. Arsenic contact history could not explain the difference. Airborne and waterborne arsenic pollution were not detected. Conclusion: Incinerator workers run the risk of being exposed to arsenic pollution, especially those who have incomplete protection in the workplace even though they only have indirect or no contact with combustion-generated pollutants.

  2. Possibilities of municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash utilisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Silvie; Koval, Lukáš; Škrobánková, Hana; Matýsek, Dalibor; Winter, Franz; Purgar, Amon

    2015-08-01

    Properties of the waste treatment residual fly ash generated from municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash were investigated in this study. Six different mortar blends with the addition of the municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash were evaluated. The Portland cement replacement levels of the municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash used were 25%, 30% and 50%. Both, raw and washed municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash samples were examined. According to the mineralogical composition measurements, a 22.6% increase in the pozzolanic/hydraulic properties was observed for the washed municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash sample. The maximum replacement level of 25% for the washed municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash in mortar blends was established in order to preserve the compressive strength properties. Moreover, the leaching characteristics of the crushed mortar blend was analysed in order to examine the immobilisation of its hazardous contents. © The Author(s) 2015.

  3. Geotechnical engineering properties of incinerator ash mixes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhunthan, B; Taha, R; Said, J

    2004-08-01

    The incineration of solid waste produces large quantities of bottom and fly ash. Landfilling has been the primary mode of disposal of these waste materials. Shortage in landfill space and the high cost of treatment have, however, prompted the search for alternative uses of these waste materials. This study presents an experimental program that was conducted to determine the engineering properties of incinerator ash mixes for use as construction materials. Incinerator ash mixes were tested as received and around optimum compacted conditions. Compaction curves, shear strength, and permeability values of fly ash, bottom ash, and their various blends were investigated. Bottom ash tends to achieve maximum dry density at much lower water content than does fly ash. The mixes displayed a change in their cohesion and friction angle values when one of the two mix components was altered or as a result of the addition of water. The permeability of bottom ash is quite comparable to that of sand. The permeability of fly ash lies in the range of those values obtained for silts and clays. A 100% bottom ash compacted at the optimum water content has a lower density value and yields a higher friction angle and cohesion values than most construction fills. This would encourage the use of bottom ash as a fill or embankment material because free drainage of water will prevent the buildup of pore water pressures.

  4. Mobility of organic carbon from incineration residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ecke, Holger; Svensson, Malin

    2008-01-01

    Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) may affect the transport of pollutants from incineration residues when landfilled or used in geotechnical construction. The leaching of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) bottom ash and air pollution control residue (APC) from the incineration of waste wood was investigated. Factors affecting the mobility of DOC were studied in a reduced 2 6-1 experimental design. Controlled factors were treatment with ultrasonic radiation, full carbonation (addition of CO 2 until the pH was stable for 2.5 h), liquid-to-solid (L/S) ratio, pH, leaching temperature and time. Full carbonation, pH and the L/S ratio were the main factors controlling the mobility of DOC in the bottom ash. Approximately 60 weight-% of the total organic carbon (TOC) in the bottom ash was available for leaching in aqueous solutions. The L/S ratio and pH mainly controlled the mobilization of DOC from the APC residue. About 93 weight-% of TOC in the APC residue was, however, not mobilized at all, which might be due to a high content of elemental carbon. Using the European standard EN 13 137 for determination of total organic carbon (TOC) in MSWI residues is inappropriate. The results might be biased due to elemental carbon. It is recommended to develop a TOC method distinguishing between organic and elemental carbon

  5. Research and development plan for the Slagging Pyrolysis Incinerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedahl, T.G.; McCormack, M.D.

    1979-01-01

    Objective is to develop an incinerator for processing disposed transuranium waste. This R and D plan describes the R and D efforts required to begin conceptual design of the Slagging Pyrolysis Incinerator (Andco-Torrax). The program includes: incinerator, off-gas treatment, waste handling, instrumentation, immobilization analyses, migration studies, regulations, Belgium R and D test plan, Disney World test plan, and remote operation and maintenance

  6. Synchronization of ;light-sensitive; Hindmarsh-Rose neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castanedo-Guerra, Isaac; Steur, Erik; Nijmeijer, Henk

    2018-04-01

    The suprachiasmatic nucleus is a network of synchronized neurons whose electrical activity follows a 24 h cycle. The synchronization phenomenon (among these neurons) is not completely understood. In this work we study, via experiments and numerical simulations, the phenomenon in which the synchronization threshold changes under the influence of an external (bifurcation) parameter in coupled Hindmarsh-Rose neurons. This parameter ;shapes; the activity of the individual neurons the same way as some neurons in the brain react to light. We corroborate this experimental finding with numerical simulations by quantifying the amount of synchronization using Pearson's correlation coefficient. In order to address the local stability problem of the synchronous state, Floquet theory is applied in the case where the dynamic systems show continuous periodic solutions. These results show how the sufficient coupling strength for synchronization between these neurons is affected by an external cue (e.g. light).

  7. Viability study for the implantation of an incineration unit for low level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade, Andre Wagner Oliani

    1995-01-01

    Incineration have been a world-wide accepted volume reduction technique for combustible materials due to its high efficiency and excellent results. This technique is used since the last century as an alternative to reduce cities garbage and during the last four decades for the hazardous wastes. The nuclear industry is also involved in this technique development related to the low level radioactive waste management. There are different types of incineration installations and the definition of the right system is based on a criterious survey of its main characteristics, related to the rad wastes as well technical, economical and burocratic parameters. After the autonomous Brazilian nuclear programme development and the onlook of the future intensive nuclear energy uses, a radwaste generation increase is expected. One of the installations where these radwastes volumes are awaited to be high is the Experimental Center of ARAMAR (CEA). Nuclear reactors for propulsion and power generation have been developed in CEA beyond other nuclear combustible cycle activities. In this panorama it is important to evaluate the incineration role in CEA installations, as a volume reduction technique for an appropriate radioactive wastes management implementation. In this work main aspects related to the low level radwaste incineration systems were up rised. This information are important to a coherent viability study and also to give a clear and impartial about a topic that is still non discussed in the national scenery. (author)

  8. Nuclear incineration method for long life radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Takaaki; Uematsu, Kunihiko.

    1987-01-01

    Nuclear incineration method is the method of converting the long life radioactive nuclides in wastes to short life or stable nuclides by utilizing the nuclear reaction caused by radiation, unlike usual chemical incineration. By the nuclear incineration, the radioactivity of wastes increases in a short period, but the problems at the time of the disposal are reduced because of the decrease of long life radioactive nuclides. As the radiation used for the nuclear incineration, the neutron beam from fission and fusion reactors and accelerators, the proton beam and gamma ray from accelerators have been studied. The object of the nuclear incineration is actinide, Sr-90, Cs-137, I-129 and Tc-99. In particular, waste actinide emits alpha ray, and is strongly toxic, accordingly, the motive of attempting the nuclear incineration is strong. In Japan, about 24t of waste actinide will accumulate by 2000. The principle of the nuclear incineration, and the nuclear incineration using nuclear fission and fusion reactors and accelerators are described. The nuclear incineration using fission reactors was examined for the first time in 1972 in USA. It is most promising because it is feasible by the present technology without particular research and development. (Kako, I.)

  9. Waste incineration industry and development policies in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yun; Zhao, Xingang; Li, Yanbin; Li, Xiaoyu

    2015-12-01

    The growing pollution from municipal solid waste due to economic growth and urbanization has brought great challenge to China. The main method of waste disposal has gradually changed from landfill to incineration, because of the enormous land occupation by landfills. The paper presents the results of a study of the development status of the upstream and downstream of the waste incineration industry chain in China, reviews the government policies for the waste incineration power industry, and provides a forecast of the development trend of the waste incineration industry. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Inheritance of determinants of flower colour in tetraploid roses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gitonga, V.W.; Stolker, R.; Ribot, S.A.; Keizer, L.C.P.; Koning-Boucoiran, C.F.S.; Krens, F.A.

    2009-01-01

    The choice of selection breeding for crop improvement in cut roses requires a better understanding of biological mechanisms and knowledge of the inheritance of the major target traits which can lead to new or improved screening methods. Colour is still the most important trait in cut roses. A

  11. Molecular and biochemical studies of fragrance biosynthesis in rose

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sun, P.

    2017-01-01

    Roses are one of the most popular ornamental plants, whose floral volatiles are not only involved in environmental interactions but also widely used by industries. The biosynthesis of many of these volatiles in roses is not well understood. This thesis describes alternative pathways for the

  12. Environmental life cycle assessment of Ethiopian rose cultivation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sahle, A.H.; Potting, J.

    2013-01-01

    A life cycle assessment (LCA) was conducted for Ethiopian rose cultivation. The LCA covered the cradle-togate production of all inputs to Ethiopian rose cultivation up to, and including transport to the Ethiopian airport. Primary data were collected about materials and resources used as inputs to,

  13. Characterizing and identifying black spot resistance genes in polyploid roses

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ornamental quality of outdoor grown roses (Rosa hybrida) is under constant threat from foliar diseases, such as black spot caused by Diplocarpon rosae. Fungicides are primarily used to manage black spot; however, there is a high consumer demand for disease resistant roses which eliminate the nee...

  14. ROSE: A Staff Development Program for the Elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bane, M. Share; Sigler, Jack E.

    This paper presents the Realizing Opportunities for Self Exploration (ROSE) program for noninstitutionalized older adults and older adults in nursing home settings. The ROSE program is described in detail, including: (1) use of creative excercise and body movements; (2) stress reduction practices such as meditation; (3) self-awareness, social…

  15. Leaching from municipal solid waste incineration residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyks, J.

    2008-02-15

    Leaching of pollutants from Municipal Solid Waste Incineration (MSWI) residues has been investigated combining a range of laboratory leaching experiments with geochemical modeling. Special attention was paid to assessing the applicability of laboratory data for subsequent modeling with respect to presumed full-scale conditions; both sample pretreatment and actual influence of leaching conditions on the results of laboratory experiments were considered. It was shown that sample pretreatment may have large impact on leaching test data. In particular, a significant fraction of Pb was shown mobile during the washing of residues with water. In addition, drying of residues (i.e. slow oxidation) prior to leaching experiments increased the leaching of Cr significantly. Significant differences regarding the leaching behavior of individual elements with respect to (non)equilibrium conditions in column percolation experiments were observed in the study. As a result, three groups of elements were identified based on the predominant leaching control and the influence of (non)equilibrium on the results of the laboratory column experiments: I. Predominantly availability-controlled elements (e.g. Na, K, Cl) II. Solubility-controlled elements (e.g. Ca, S, Si, Al, Ba, and Zn) III. Complexation-controlled elements (e.g. Cu and Ni) With respect to the above groups it was suggested that results of laboratory column experiments can, with consideration, be used to estimate full-scale leaching of elements from Group I and II. However, in order to avoid large underestimations in the assessment of leaching from Group III, it is imperative to describe the time-dependent transport of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in the tested system or to minimize the physical non-equilibrium during laboratory experiments (e.g. bigger column, slower flow velocity). Forward geochemical modeling was applied to simulate long-term release of elements from a MSWI air-pollution-control residue. Leaching of a

  16. Epidemiology of Botrytis spotting on gerbera and rose flowers grown under glass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerssies, A.

    1994-01-01

    Experiments described in this thesis were performed to improve the knowledge on the epidemiology of Botrytis cinerea in glasshouses, with gerbera and rose as model systems. B. cinerea is an airborne fungus, with conidia as the most important

  17. Genetics and genomics of flower initiation and development in roses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendahmane, Mohammed; Dubois, Annick; Raymond, Olivier; Bris, Manuel Le

    2013-02-01

    Roses hold high symbolic value and great cultural importance in different societies throughout human history. They are widely used as garden ornamental plants, as cut flowers, and for the production of essential oils for the perfume and cosmetic industries. Domestication of roses has a long and complex history, and the rose species have been hybridized across vast geographic areas such as Europe, Asia, and the Middle East. The domestication processes selected several flower characters affecting floral quality, such as recurrent flowering, double flowers, petal colours, and fragrance. The molecular and genetic events that determine some of these flower characters cannot be studied using model species such as Arabidopsis thaliana, or at least only in a limited manner. In this review, we comment on the recent development of genetic, genomic, and transcriptomic tools for roses, and then focus on recent advances that have helped unravel the molecular mechanisms underlying several rose floral traits.

  18. Healing incisional surgical wounds using Rose Hip oil in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lainy Carollyne da Costa Cavalcante

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate incisional surgical wound healing in rats by using Rose Hip (Rosa rubiginosa L. oil. Methods: Twenty-one days after the oophorectomy procedure, twenty-seven female, adult, Wistar rats were distributed into three groups: Control group (wound treatment with distilled water; Collagenase group (treatment with collagenase ointment; and Rose Hip group (wound treatment with Rose Hip oil. Each group was distributed according to the date of euthanasia: 7, 14 and 21 days. The wound was evaluated considering the macroscopic and microscopic parameters. Results: The results indicated differences in the healing of incisional wounds between treatments when compared to control group. Accelerated wound healing was observed in the group treated with Rose Hip oil in comparison to the control and collagenase, especially after the 14th day. Morphometric data confirmed the structural findings. Conclusion: There was significant effect in topical application of Rose Hip oil on incisional surgical wound healing.

  19. Investigating the effect of ecommerce on export development of rose water and essences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Nataghi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available There are some issues in marketing, supply and after-sales services for customers in global markets for production of rose water and essences extracts. Despite the fact that the products are genuine, there is a downward trend for the production of rose water and essences extracts in recent years. The present study aims to evaluate the identified structural barriers affecting exports of rose water and essences of Kashan to United Arabic Emirates. The population consisted of 77 managers of exporter companies in Kashan. Self-made questionnaire approved by supervisor to be valid and reliable, were distributed. The study tried to deliver a model for barriers to e-commerce in the context of Iran's rose water and essences extracts Export by examining different models of and studied in the field of electronic commerce and the application and advantages of systems based on it. The study also tried to identify current obstacles in the way of electronic commerce in export of rose water and essences extracts by using the questionnaire as an indicator in five-point Likert scale. There were three factors associated with the proposed model. Barriers to electronic commerce in export of rose water and essences extracts were determined in the order of priority as follows: 1 Problems and obstacles related to information infrastructure, 2 problems related to legislative, legal and secure infrastructure, 3 problems and obstacles to human, educational, cultural and behavioral infrastructure, 4 problems related to infrastructure of customs, trade and taxation, 5 internet problem, 6 Problems related to technical and hardware infrastructure, 7 Problems related to financial and software infrastructure.

  20. New concepts in treatment of gaseous emissions at solid wastes incinerators. Nuevos conceptos de depuracion de gases de incineradores de residuos solidos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narvaez, I.; Corella, J.; Aznar, M.P.; Borque, J.A.

    1993-01-01

    New systems for treatment of gaseous emissions from solid wastes incinerators are described, with special emphasis on those developed in Spain. It consists of processes with two and three steps of exhaustive cleaning, catalytic and at high temperatures. (Author)

  1. Simulation of co-incineration of sewage sludge with municipal solid waste in a grate furnace incinerator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hai; Ma, Xiaoqian

    2012-03-01

    Incineration is one of the most important methods in the resource recovery disposal of sewage sludge. The combustion characteristics of sewage sludge and an increasing number of municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration plants provide the possibility of co-incineration of sludge with MSW. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis was used to verify the feasibility of co-incineration of sludge with MSW, and predict the effect of co-incineration. In this study, wet sludge and semi-dried sludge were separately blended with MSW as mixed fuels, which were at a co-incineration ratios of 5 wt.% (wet basis, the same below), 10 wt.%, 15 wt.%, 20 wt.% and 25 wt.%. The result indicates that co-incineration of 10 wt.% wet sludge with MSW can ensure the furnace temperature, the residence time and other vital items in allowable level, while 20 wt.% of semi-dried sludge can reach the same standards. With lower moisture content and higher low heating value (LHV), semi-dried sludge can be more appropriate in co-incineration with MSW in a grate furnace incinerator. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Significance of waste incineration in Germany; Stellenwert der Abfallverbrennung in Deutschland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-10-15

    The report on the relevance of waste incineration in Germany is covering the following issues: change of the issue waste incineration in the last century, the controversy on waste incineration in the 80ies; environmental relevance of waste incineration; utilization of incineration residues; contribution to environmental protection; possible hazards for human health due are waste incinerator plants; the central challenges of waste incineration today; potential restraints to energy utilization in thermal waste processing; optimization of the energetic utilization of municipal wastes; future of the waste management and the relevance of waste incineration.

  3. Dieback of rose caused by Acremonium sclerotigenum as a new causal agent of rose dieback in Iran

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirtalebi, M.; Banihashemi, Z.; Sabahi, F.; Mafakheri, H.

    2016-07-01

    Severe dieback of rose has been recently observed in several rose greenhouses in Fars province of Iran. During 2014 and 2015, stems of rose plants showing yellow to brown discoloration and dieback were collected from rose greenhouses. Coniothyrium fuckelii, Botrytis cinerea and Acremonium were subsequently isolated from the margin between healthy and symptomatic tissue. B. cinerea and C. fuckelii isolates were similar to those previously reported for dieback of rose worldwide. Morphological and cultural characters along with molecular analysis based on partial sequences of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of the ribosomal RNA genome allowed confirming the affiliation of the Acremonium isolates, corresponding to A. sclerotigenum as a new causal agent of rose dieback. To determine its pathogenicity on rose, Koch's postulates were fulfilled by stem inoculation of nine rose cultivars under greenhouse conditions. While A. sclerotigenum is considered as a soil-born pathogen, and produces sclerotia that are resistant to adverse conditions enables the fungus to survive extended period in soil, propagule trapping in our study revealed that conidia can become airborn, imply that an aerial phase, forms an important component of the disease cycle.

  4. Dieback of rose caused by Acremonium sclerotigenum as a new causal agent of rose dieback in Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirtalebi, M.; Banihashemi, Z.; Sabahi, F.; Mafakheri, H.

    2016-01-01

    Severe dieback of rose has been recently observed in several rose greenhouses in Fars province of Iran. During 2014 and 2015, stems of rose plants showing yellow to brown discoloration and dieback were collected from rose greenhouses. Coniothyrium fuckelii, Botrytis cinerea and Acremonium were subsequently isolated from the margin between healthy and symptomatic tissue. B. cinerea and C. fuckelii isolates were similar to those previously reported for dieback of rose worldwide. Morphological and cultural characters along with molecular analysis based on partial sequences of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of the ribosomal RNA genome allowed confirming the affiliation of the Acremonium isolates, corresponding to A. sclerotigenum as a new causal agent of rose dieback. To determine its pathogenicity on rose, Koch's postulates were fulfilled by stem inoculation of nine rose cultivars under greenhouse conditions. While A. sclerotigenum is considered as a soil-born pathogen, and produces sclerotia that are resistant to adverse conditions enables the fungus to survive extended period in soil, propagule trapping in our study revealed that conidia can become airborn, imply that an aerial phase, forms an important component of the disease cycle.

  5. Mixed-waste treatment -- What about the residuals? A comparative analysis of MSO and incineration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-06-01

    This report examines the issues concerning final waste forms, or residuals, that result from the treatment of mixed waste in molten salt oxidation (MSO) and incinerator systems. MSO is a technology with the potential to treat a certain segment of the waste streams at US Department of Energy (DOE) sites. MSO was compared with incineration because incineration is the best demonstrated available technology (BDAT) for the same waste streams. The Grand Junction Projects Office (GJPO) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) prepared this report for the DOE Office of Environmental Restoration (OER). The goals of this study are to objectively evaluate the anticipated residuals from MSO and incineration, examine regulatory issues for these final waste forms, and determine secondary treatment options. This report, developed to address concerns that MSO residuals present unique disposal difficulties, is part of a larger effort to successfully implement MSO as a treatment technology for mixed and hazardous waste. A Peer Review Panel reviewed the MSO technology in November 1991, and the implementation effort is ongoing under the guidance of the MSO Task Force.

  6. Mixed-waste treatment -- What about the residuals? A comparative analysis of MSO and incineration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-06-01

    This report examines the issues concerning final waste forms, or residuals, that result from the treatment of mixed waste in molten salt oxidation (MSO) and incinerator systems. MSO is a technology with the potential to treat a certain segment of the waste streams at US Department of Energy (DOE) sites. MSO was compared with incineration because incineration is the best demonstrated available technology (BDAT) for the same waste streams. The Grand Junction Projects Office (GJPO) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) prepared this report for the DOE Office of Environmental Restoration (OER). The goals of this study are to objectively evaluate the anticipated residuals from MSO and incineration, examine regulatory issues for these final waste forms, and determine secondary treatment options. This report, developed to address concerns that MSO residuals present unique disposal difficulties, is part of a larger effort to successfully implement MSO as a treatment technology for mixed and hazardous waste. A Peer Review Panel reviewed the MSO technology in November 1991, and the implementation effort is ongoing under the guidance of the MSO Task Force

  7. Numerical study of radiation effect on the municipal solid waste combustion characteristics inside an incinerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jingfu, E-mail: jfwang@bjut.edu.cn; Xue, Yanqing; Zhang, Xinxin; Shu, Xinran

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • A 3-D model for the MSW incinerator with preheated air was developed. • Gas radiative properties were obtained from a statistical narrow-band model. • Non-gray body radiation model can provide more accurate simulation results. - Abstract: Due to its advantages of high degree volume reduction, relatively stable residue, and energy reclamation, incineration becomes one of the best choices for Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) disposal. However, detailed measurements of temperature and gas species inside a furnace are difficulty by conventional experimental techniques. Therefore, numerical simulation of MSW incineration in the packed bed and gas flow field was applied. In this work, a three dimensional (3-D) model of incinerator system, including flow, heat transfer, detailed chemical mechanisms, and non-gray gas models, was developed. Radiation from the furnace wall and the flame formed above the bed is of importance for drying and igniting the waste. The preheated air with high temperature is used for the MSW combustion. Under the conditions of high temperature and high pressure, MSW combustion produces a variety of radiating gases. The wavelength-depend radiative properties of flame adopted in non-gray radiation model were obtained from a statistical narrow-band model. The influence of radiative heat transfer on temperature, flow field is researched by adiabatic model (without considering radiation), gray radiation model, and non-gray radiation model. The simulation results show that taking into account the non-gray radiation is essential.

  8. Design, operation and management of waste incinerators; Design, Betrieb und Management von Muellverbrennungsanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, U.; Swithenbank, J.; Nasserzadeh, V.; Ewan, B.; Lee, P.H. [Sheffield Univ. (United Kingdom). Waste Incineration Centre; Lawrence, D.; Garrod, N.P. [Sheffield Heat and Power Ltd. (United Kingdom); Jones, B.; Sykes, G. [Sheffield Incinerator Plant (United Kingdom); Bernet, U. [Electrowatt Engineering Ltd. (Switzerland)

    1998-09-01

    Design of combustion chambers for solid residues combution is hampered by the non-existence of accurate mathematical models of the combustion process, so that semi-empirical correlations must be used. Modern flow simulation programs (computational fluid dynamics), on the other hand, offer the pssibility of predicting flow in the gaseous phase although further tests are still required for validation. Since experiments on a laboratory scale hardly ever provide reliable data material, research in the field of waste incineration must make tests on industrial-scale systems. For this reason, the Sheffield University Waste Incineration Centre (SUWIC) cooperated with Sheffield Heat and Power Ltd and was therefore able to carry out extensive research at the Bernard Road waste incinerator in Sheffield. (orig./SR) [Deutsch] Die Konstruktion von Feueraeumen zur Feststoffverbrennung wird dadurch behindert, dass kein genaues mathematisches Modell fuer den Verbrennungsprozess existiert. Statt dessen muss noch immer auf halb-empirische Korrelationen zurueckgegriffen werden. Aufgrund moderner Stroemungssimulationsprogramme (Computational Fluid Dynamics) ist hingegen die Vorhersage des Stroemungsverhaltens der Gasphase in Verbrennungsanlagen weiter entwickelt, obwohl zusaetzliche Tests zur Validierung noch erforderlich sind. Da Versuche im Testmassstab selten verlaessliches Datenmaterial liefern, ist die Forschung im Bereich der Muellverbrennung auf Tests an Grossanlagen angewiesen. Dank der guten Beziehungen zu Sheffield Heat and Power Ltd hat Sheffield University Waste Incineration Centre (SUWIC) an der Bernard Road Muellverbrennungsanlage in Sheffield ein umfangreiches Forchungsprogramm durchfuehren koennen. (orig./SR)

  9. Determination of volatile compounds of the first rose oil and the first ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Rose water and rose oil are used in the perfume, cosmetic, pharmaceutical and food industries. The determination of volatile compounds in rose oil and rose water obtained from oil-bearing rose is highly important in terms of availability in the industry and in human health. Materials and Methods: Twenty four ...

  10. Genetic dissection of scent metabolic profiles in diploid rose populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiller, M; Berger, R G; Debener, Thomas

    2010-05-01

    The scent of flowers is a very important trait in ornamental roses in terms of both quantity and quality. In cut roses, scented varieties are a rare exception. Although metabolic profiling has identified more than 500 scent volatiles from rose flowers so far, nothing is known about the inheritance of scent in roses. Therefore, we analysed scent volatiles and molecular markers in diploid segregating populations. We resolved the patterns of inheritance of three volatiles (nerol, neryl acetate and geranyl acetate) into single Mendelian traits, and we mapped these as single or oligogenic traits in the rose genome. Three other volatiles (geraniol, beta-citronellol and 2-phenylethanol) displayed quantitative variation in the progeny, and we mapped a total of six QTLs influencing the amounts of these volatiles onto the rose marker map. Because we included known scent related genes and newly generated ESTs for scent volatiles as markers, we were able to link scent related QTLs with putative candidate genes. Our results serve as a starting point for both more detailed analyses of complex scent biosynthetic pathways and the development of markers for marker-assisted breeding of scented rose varieties.

  11. Expansion control for cementation of incinerated ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakayama, T.; Suzuki, S.; Hanada, K.; Tomioka, O.; Sato, J.; Irisawa, K.; Kato, J.; Kawato, Y.; Meguro, Y.

    2015-01-01

    A method, in which incinerated ash is solidified with a cement material, has been developed to dispose of radioactive incinerated ash waste. A small amount of metallic Al, which was not oxidized in the incineration, existed in the ash. When such ash was mixed with a cement material and water, alkaline components in the ash and the cement were dissolved in the mixing water and then metallic Al reaction with the alkaline compounds resulted in generation of H 2 . Because the H 2 generation began immediately just after the mixing, H 2 bubbles pushed up the mixed grout material and an expanded solidified form was obtained. The expansion leads to lowering the strength of the solidified form and making harmful void. In this study, we tried to control H 2 generation from the reaction of metallic Al in the cementation by means of following two methods, one was a method to let metallic Al react prior to the cementation and the other was a method to add an expansion inhibitor that made an oxide film on the surface of metallic Al. In the pre-treatment, the ash was soaked in water in order to let metallic Al react with it, and then the ash with the immersion solution was dried at 105 Celsius degrees. The pre-treated ash was mixed with an ordinary portland cement and water. The inhibitor of lithium nitrite, sodium nitrite, phosphoric acid, or potassium dihydrogen phosphate was added at the mixing process. The solidified forms prepared using the pre-treated ash and lithium nitrite were not expanded. Phosphoric acid and sodium nitrite were effective for expansion control, but potassium dihydrogen phosphate did not work. (authors)

  12. Radioactivity partitioning in incinerators for miscellaneous low-level wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kyle, S.; Bellinger, E.

    1988-03-01

    Her Majesty's Inspectorate of Pollution (HMIP) authorises the use of hospital, university and Local Authority incinerators for the disposal of solid radioactive wastes. At present these authorisations are calculated on ''worst case'' assumptions, this report aims to review the experimental data on radioactivity partitioning in these incinerators, in order to improve the accuracy of HMIP predictions. The types of radionuclides used in medicine were presented and it is noted there is no literature on the composition of university waste. The different types of incinerators are detailed, with diagrams. Major differences in design are apparent, particularly the offgas cleaning equipment in nuclear incinerators which hinders comparisons with institutional incinerators. A comprehensive literature review revealed 17 references on institutional radioactive waste incineration, 11 of these contained data sets. The partitioning experiments were described and show a wide range of methodology from incinerating guinea pigs to filter papers. In general, only ash composition data were presented, with no details of emissions or plating out in the incinerator. Thus the data sets were incomplete, often with a poor degree of accuracy. The data sets contained information on 40 elements; those were compared and general trends were apparent such as the absence of H-3, C-14 and I-125 in the ash in contrast to the high retention of Sc-46. Large differences between data sets were noted for P-32, Sr-85 and Sn-113 and within one experiment for S-35. (author)

  13. 10 CFR 20.2004 - Treatment or disposal by incineration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Treatment or disposal by incineration. 20.2004 Section 20.2004 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Waste Disposal § 20.2004 Treatment or disposal by incineration. (a) A licensee may treat or dispose of licensed...

  14. Refuse derived fuel incineration: Fuel gas monitoring and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranaldi, E.; Coronidi, M.; De Stefanis, P.; Di Palo, C.; Zagaroli, M.

    1993-11-01

    Experience and results on refuse derived fuel (selected from municipal solid wastes) incineration are reported. The study involved the investigation of inorganic compounds (heavy metals, acids and toxic gases) emissions, and included feeding materials and incineration residues characterization and mass balance

  15. The potential impact of municipal solid waste incinerators ashes on the anthropogenic osmium budget

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Funari, Valerio, E-mail: valerio.funari@unibo.it [Dipartimento di Scienze Biologiche, Geologiche e Ambientali (BiGeA), University of Bologna, Piazza di Porta San Donato 1, Bologna (Italy); Meisel, Thomas [General and Analytical Chemistry, Montanuniversität Leoben, Franz-Josef-Str. 18, Leoben (Austria); Braga, Roberto [Dipartimento di Scienze Biologiche, Geologiche e Ambientali (BiGeA), University of Bologna, Piazza di Porta San Donato 1, Bologna (Italy)

    2016-01-15

    Osmium release from Municipal Solid Waste Incinerators (MSWI), even if acknowledged to occur at least over the last fifteen years, remains overlooked in the majority of recent studies. We present the osmium concentration and {sup 187}Os/{sup 188}Os isotopic measurements of different kinds of bottom and fly ash samples from MSWI plants and reference materials of incinerator fly ash (BCR176 and BCR176R). The analysis of the unknown ash samples shows a relatively wide range of {sup 187}Os/{sup 188}Os ratios (0.24–0.70) and Os concentrations (from 0.026 ng/g to 1.65 ng/g). Osmium concentrations and isotopic signatures differ from those of other known Os sources, either natural or manmade, suggesting a mixture of both contributions in the MSWI feedstock material. Furthermore, the comparison between the BCR176 and the renewed BCR176R indicates a decrease in Os concentration of one order of magnitude over the years (from 1 to 0.1 ng/g) due to improved recycling efficiency of Os-bearing waste. The estimated annual amount of Os from a typical incinerator (using average Os values and MSWI mass balance) is 13.4 g/a. The osmium potentially released from MSWI smokestacks is predicted to be from 16 to 38 ng Os/m{sup 2}/a, considering a medium size country having 50 MSWI facilities; therefore much higher than the naturally transported osmium from continental dust in the atmosphere (about 1 pg Os/m{sup 2}/a). MSWI systems are considered one of the best options for municipal solid waste management in industrialised countries, but their contribution to the Os budget can be significant. - Highlights: • Bottom and fly ashes from municipal solid waste incinerators are investigated. • Their Os levels and Os isotopic signatures are discussed. • An estimate of Os release from incinerators and incinerated ashes is given. • Os contamination from incineration plants impacts the geochemical Os cycle.

  16. Gamma ray induced somatic mutations in rose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Datta, S.K.

    1989-01-01

    Budwood of 32 rose cultivars (Rosa spp.) was exposed to 3-4 krad of gamma rays and eyes were grafted on Rosa indica var. odorata root stock. Radiosensitivity with respect to sprouting, survival and plant height, and mutation frequency varied with the cultivar and dose of gamma rays. Somatic mutations in flower colour/shape were detected as chimera in 21 cultivars. The size of the mutant sector varied from a narrow streak on a petal to a whole flower and from a portion of a branch to an entire branch. 14 mutants were detected in M 1 V 1 , four in M 1 V 2 and three in M 1 V 3 . Maximum number of mutations was detected following 3 krad treatment. Eyes from mutant branches were grafted again on root stock and non-chimeric mutants were aimed at by vegetative propagation. Mutants from 11 cultivars only could be isolated in pure form. Isolation of non-chimeric mutants sometimes is difficult due to weak growth of a mutant branch. In such a case, all normal looking branches are removed to force a better growth of the mutant branch. It is advisable to maintain irradiated plants at least for four years with drastic pruning in each year. Nine mutants viz. 'Sharada', 'Sukumari', 'Tangerine Contempo', 'Yellow Contempo', 'Pink Contempo', 'Striped Contempo', 'Twinkle', 'Curio' and 'Light Pink Prize' have already been released as new cultivars for commercialization [ref. MBNL No. 23 and 31] and others are being multiplied and assessed. The mutation spectrum appears to be wider for the cultivars 'Contempo' and 'Imperator'. Pigment composition of the original variety is relevant for the kind of flower colour mutations that can be induced

  17. Review of organic nitrile incineration at the Toxic Substances Control Act Incinerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-10-01

    Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc. (LMES) operates the East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP), formerly called the Oak Ridge K-25 Site, where uranium was enriched under contract with the US Department of Energy (DOE). Currently, ETTP missions include environmental management, waste management (WM), and the development of new technologies. As part of its WM mission, ETTP operates the TSCA (Toxic Substances Control Act) Incinerator (TSCAI) for treatment of hazardous waste and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) contaminated with low-level radioactivity. Beginning in the autumn of 1995, employees from diverse ETTP buildings and departments reported experiencing headaches, fatigue, depression, muscle aches, sleeplessness, and muscle tremors. These symptoms were judged by a physician in the ETTP Health Services Department to be consistent with chronic exposures to hydrogen cyanide (HCN). The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) was called in to perform a health hazard evaluation to ascertain whether the employees' illnesses were in fact caused by occupational exposure to HCN. The NIOSH evaluation found no patterns for employees' reported symptoms with respect to work location or department. NIOSH also conducted a comprehensive air sampling study, which did not detect airborne cyanides at the ETTP. Employees, however, expressed concerns that the burning of nitrile-bearing wastes at the TSCAI might have produced HCN as a combustion product. Therefore, LMES and DOE established a multidisciplinary team (TSCAI Technical Review Team) to make a more detailed review of the possibility that combustion of nitrile-bearing wastes at the TSCAI might have either released nitriles or created HCN as a product of incomplete combustion (PIC)

  18. Project No. 4 - Waste incineration facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    There are currently 12000 m 3 of combustible waste stored at the Ignalina NPP site. It is estimated that by 2005 the volume will have increase to 15000 m 3 (filters, personnel protection, clothing and plastics). As a part of the preparation for the closure of the Ignalina NPP an incineration facility will be required to process combustible wastes to reduce the overall volume of short-lived radioactive wastes stored at the Ignalina NPP site, thus reducing the overall risk to the environment. Project activities includes the design, construction and commissioning of the proposed facility, including all licensing documentation

  19. High temperature filter for incinerator gas purification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billard, Francois; Brion, Jacques; Cousin, Michel; Delarue, Roger

    1969-01-01

    This note describes a regenerable filter for the hot filtering of incinerator gases. The filter is made of several wire gauze candles coated with asbestos fibers as filtering medium. Unburnt products, like carbon black, terminate their combustion on the filter, reducing the risk of clogging and enhancing the operation time to several hundreds of hours between two regeneration cycles. The filter was tested on a smaller scale mockup, and then on an industrial pilot plant with a 20 kg/h capacity during a long duration. This note describes the installation and presents the results obtained [fr

  20. Incineration, pyrolysis and gasification of electronic waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurgul Agnieszka

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Three high temperature processes of the electronic waste processing: smelting/incineration, pyrolysis and gasification were shortly discussed. The most distinctive feature of electronic waste is complexity of components and their integration. This type of waste consists of polymeric materials and has high content of valuable metals that could be recovered. The purpose of thermal treatment of electronic waste is elimination of plastic components (especially epoxy resins while leaving non-volatile mineral and metallic phases in more or less original forms. Additionally, the gaseous product of the process after cleaning may be used for energy recovery or as syngas.

  1. Incineration, pyrolysis and gasification of electronic waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurgul, Agnieszka; Szczepaniak, Włodzimierz; Zabłocka-Malicka, Monika

    2017-11-01

    Three high temperature processes of the electronic waste processing: smelting/incineration, pyrolysis and gasification were shortly discussed. The most distinctive feature of electronic waste is complexity of components and their integration. This type of waste consists of polymeric materials and has high content of valuable metals that could be recovered. The purpose of thermal treatment of electronic waste is elimination of plastic components (especially epoxy resins) while leaving non-volatile mineral and metallic phases in more or less original forms. Additionally, the gaseous product of the process after cleaning may be used for energy recovery or as syngas.

  2. ATUE: the end of the incinerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lilbonne, P.

    1997-01-01

    The CEA's ATUE incinerator is used to burn low-level contaminated solvents and oils since 1981, in order to transform them into chemically stable ashes, thus leading to an important volume reduction: it is composed of an horizontal burner and a vertical gas cooling chamber. Combustion temperature is 900 C; ashes are collected and blocked into cement, with a new special process (PICC). 5 m 3 of liquid produces 350 kg of a solid and stable mixture. This equipment is due to be closed in December 1997, and will then be dismantled

  3. Pilot-scale incineration of wastes with high content of chlorinated and non-halogenated organophosphorus flame retardants used as alternatives for PBDEs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsukami, Hidenori, E-mail: matsukami.hidenori@nies.go.jp [Center for Material Cycles and Waste Management Research, National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES), 16-2 Onogawa, Tsukuba 305-8506 (Japan); Graduate School of Frontier Sciences, The University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa 277-8563 (Japan); Kose, Tomohiro [Faculty of Applied Life Sciences, Niigata University of Pharmacy and Applied Life Sciences, 265-1, Higashijima, Akiha-ku, Niigata 956-8603 (Japan); Watanabe, Mafumi [Center for Material Cycles and Waste Management Research, National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES), 16-2 Onogawa, Tsukuba 305-8506 (Japan); Takigami, Hidetaka [Center for Material Cycles and Waste Management Research, National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES), 16-2 Onogawa, Tsukuba 305-8506 (Japan); Graduate School of Frontier Sciences, The University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa 277-8563 (Japan)

    2014-09-15

    OPFRs and unintentional POPs. Incineration is regarded as a best available technology (BAT) for waste management systems. - Highlights: • Organophosphorus flame retardants (OPFRs) in waste were destroyed with destruction efficiencies greater than 99.999% by using a pilot-scale incinerator. • Almost all the phosphorus in waste was partitioned into the ash. • Chlorine atoms in chlorinated OPFRs did not contribute to unintentional formation of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) markedly. • Incineration by the current regulations for the waste incinerators can control environmental emissions of OPFRs and unintentional POPs. • Incineration is regarded as a best available technology for waste management systems.

  4. [Treatment of skin ulcer using oil of mosqueta rose].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno Gimenez, J C; Bueno, J; Navas, J; Camacho, F

    1990-01-01

    Oil rose of mosqueta (Rosa aff. Rubiginosa L.) is a concentrated solution in linoleic (41%) and linolenic acid (39%), that offers benefit therapeutic effects in the wound healing. Ten patients affected of leg ulcers and post-surgical wounds were treated by 26% oil concentrated rose of mosqueta with very notable improvement on its healing compared with the control group. Due to the lack of side effects, we believe rose of mosqueta oil is very usefull to these conditions. Mechanism of actions and others indications are discussed.

  5. Thermal analysis of an enriched flame incinerator for aqueous residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacava, Pedro Teixeira; Pimenta, Amilcar Porto [Divisao de Engenharia Aeronautica, Instituto Tecnologico de Aeronautica, Pca. Mal. Eduardo Gomes, 50, Vila das Acacias, 12228-900, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Carvalho, Joao A. [Departamento de Energia, Campus de Guaratingueta, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Av. Dr. Ariberto Pereira da Cunha, 333, 12516-410, Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil); Ferreira, Marco Aurelio [Laboratorio Associado de Combustao e Propulsao, Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais, Rod. Presidente Dutra, km 40, 12630-000, Cachoeira Paulista, SP (Brazil)

    2006-03-01

    The use of oxygen to enrich the combustion air can be an attractive technique to increase capacity of an incinerator originally designed to operate with air. If incinerator parameters such as operation temperature, turbulence level and residence time are fixed for a certain fuel supply rate, it is possible to increase the residue consumption rate using enriched air. This paper presents the thermal analysis for operation with enriched air of an aqueous residue experimental incinerator. The auxiliary fuel was diesel oil. The theoretical results showed that there is a considerable increase in the incineration ratio up to approximately 50% of O{sub 2} in the oxidiser. The tendency was confirmed experimentally. Thermal analysis was demonstrated to be an important tool to predict possible incinerator capacity increase. (author)

  6. A pilot study on the effectiveness of a rose hip shell powder in patients suffering from chronic musculoskeletal pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrubasik-Hausmann, S; Chrubasik, C; Neumann, E; Müller-Ladner, U

    2014-11-01

    We carried out a 3-month preliminary investigation on the effectiveness of a rose hip shell powder and its mechanism of action. Of 52 patients suffering from acute exacerbations of low back pain (n = 39) or knee pain (n = 13), 29 had participated earlier in the pilot study with the pseudofruit powder Litozin(®) . After assessing the baseline values, patients were offered up to 20 g of a rose hip shell powder per day. Patients were encouraged to adjust the daily dose upwards or downwards according to their symptoms for the period of 3 months. The examination for possible effectiveness was by intention-to-treat analysis with last observation carried forward. There was no difference in any generic or disease-specific outcome variables between the patients consuming the rose hip shell powder and those consuming the pseudofruit powder Litozin(®) in the previous surveillance study. A human protein array system and fractions from the rose powders were used to study their effect on cytokine expression in vitro. The data indicate that lipophilic rose hip fractions from the shell and the pseudofruit inhibit cytokine expression and that the shell powder may be the better starting material for a future rose hip extract prepared with a lipophilic solvent. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. The emission of fluorine gas during incineration of fluoroborate residue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Yuheng, E-mail: fengyh@tongji.edu.cn [Thermal & Environmental Engineering Institute, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Jiang, Xuguang [State Key Laboratory of Clean Energy Utilization, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Chen, Dezhen [Thermal & Environmental Engineering Institute, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China)

    2016-05-05

    Highlights: • Gaseous fluorine products were identified when combusting fluoroborate residue. • BF{sub 3} and SiF{sub 4} tend to be hydrolyzed into HF with the increase of temperature. • The emission of BF{sub 3} and SiF{sub 4} from the chamber could be negligible at 1100 °C. - Abstract: The emission behaviors of wastes from fluorine chemical industry during incineration have raised concerns because multiple fluorine products might danger human health. In this study, fluorine emission from a two-stage incineration system during the combustion of fluoroborate residue was examined. In a TG-FTIR analysis BF{sub 3}, SiF{sub 4} and HF were identified as the initial fluorine forms to be released, while fluorine gases of greenhouse effect such as CF{sub 4} and SF{sub 6} were not found. Below 700 °C, NaBF{sub 4} in the sample decomposed to generate BF{sub 3}. Then part of BF{sub 3} reacted with SiO{sub 2} in the system to form SiF{sub 4} or hydrolyzed to HF. At higher temperatures, the NaF left in the sample was gradually hydrolyzed to form HF. A lab-scale two-stage tube furnace is established to simulate the typical two-stage combustion chamber in China. Experimental tests proved that HF was the only fluorine gas in the flue gas, and emissions of BF{sub 3} and SiF{sub 4} can be negligible. Thermodynamic equilibrium model predicted that all SiF{sub 4} would be hydrolyzed at 1100 °C in the secondary-chamber, which agreed well with the experimental results.

  8. Determination of diagnostic standards on saturated soil extracts for cut roses grown in greenhouses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco-Hermida, John Jairo; Quintero, María Fernanda; Cabrera, Raúl Iskander; Guzman, José Miguel

    2017-01-01

    This work comprises the theoretical determination and validation of diagnostic standards for the analysis of saturated soil extracts for cut rose flower crops (Rosa spp.) growing in the Bogota Plateau, Colombia. The data included 684 plant tissue analyses and 684 corresponding analyses of saturated soil extracts, all collected between January 2009 and June 2013. The tissue and soil samples were selected from 13 rose farms, and from cultivars grafted on the 'Natal Briar' rootstock. These concurrent samples of soil and plant tissues represented 251 production units (locations) of approximately 10,000 m2 distributed across the study area. The standards were conceived as a tool to improve the nutritional balance in the leaf tissue of rose plants and thereby define the norms for expressing optimum productive potential relative to nutritional conditions in the soil. To this end, previously determined diagnostic standard for rose leaf tissues were employed to obtain rates of foliar nutritional balance at each analyzed location and as criteria for determining the diagnostic norms for saturated soil extracts. Implementing this methodology to foliar analysis, showed a higher significant correlation for diagnostic indices. A similar behavior was observed in saturated soil extracts analysis, becoming a powerful tool for integrated nutritional diagnosis. Leaf analyses determine the most limiting nutrients for high yield and analyses of saturated soil extracts facilitate the possibility of correcting the fertigation formulations applied to soils or substrates. Recommendations are proposed to improve the balance in soil-plant system with which the possibility of yield increase becomes more probable. The main recommendations to increase and improve rose crop flower yields would be: continuously check pH values of SSE, reduce the amounts of P, Fe, Zn and Cu in fertigation solutions and carefully analyze the situation of Mn in the soil-plant system.

  9. Inventory Analysis and Social Life Cycle Assessment of Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Waste-to-Energy Incineration in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Tsang Lu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Waste-to-energy (WtE incineration technology is widely used to solve the energy supply, greenhouse gas emissions, and waste generation problems in urban areas. In Taiwan, there are new laws and regulations that would affect greenhouse gas management of WtE incineration plants. This research aims to identify or raise key issues to be promoted for WtE incineration plants due to existing management systems and complex issues mixed with GHG, energy, and solid waste treatment. This study utilizes inventory analysis and social LCA (SLCA approach on GHG management of WtE incineration plants in Taiwan to systematically identify materiality issues to be promoted. According to the results of materiality analysis for SLCA, this study generalizes four stakeholders, nine subcategories, and their 15 inventory indicators; and concludes that, among assessment results of 15 inventory indicators, three indicators are at a high level, four at a medium level, and eight at a low level. In total, 12 materiality issues are recognized. This study suggests WtE incineration plants should consider the following materiality issues with respect to priority: a systematic database and calculation methods, the goal and criteria of the laws and regulations, technology development toward circular economy and promotion activity or opportunity for local community and organization level.

  10. Luminescence dating at Rose cottage cave: a progress report

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Woodborne, S

    1997-10-01

    Full Text Available Deal with infrared-stimulated luminescence and thermoluminescence dates from Rose Cottage Cave in South Africa. Discrepancy between luminescence and radiocarbon dates; Concentration of radioactive elements in sediments before and after leaching...

  11. Rose bengal-sensitized nanocrystalline ceria photoanode for dye ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rose bengal-sensitized nanocrystalline ceria photoanode for dye-sensitized solar cell application ... injection and transportation, wide bandgap nanostructured metal oxide semiconductors with dye adsorption surface and higher electron mobility are essential properties for photoanode in dyesensitizedsolar cells (DSSCs).

  12. Incineration facility for combustible solid and liquid radioactive wastes in IPEN-CNEN - Sao Paulo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krutman, I.; Grosche Filho, C.E.; Chandra, U.; Suarez, A.A.

    1987-01-01

    A system for incinerating the combustible solid and liquid radioactive wastes was developed in order to achieve higher mass and volume reduction of the wastes generated at IPEN-CNEN/SP or received from other institutions. The radioactive wastes for incineration are: animal carcasses, ion-exchange resins, contaminated lubricant oils, cellulosic materials, plastics, etc. The optimization of the process was achieved by considering the following factors: selection of better construction and insulating material; dimensions; modular design of combustion chambers to increase burning capacity in future; applicability for various types of wastes; choise of gas cleaning system. The off-gas system utilizes dry treatment. The operation is designed to function with a negative pressure. (Author) [pt

  13. Bioactive and rheological properties of rose hip marmalade

    OpenAIRE

    Sagdic, Osman; Toker, Omer Said; Polat, Busra; Arici, Muhammet; Yilmaz, Mustafa Tahsin

    2015-01-01

    In this study, bioactive (total phenolic, antioxidant and antiradical activity) and rheological properties (steady and dynamic) of rose hip marmalade were investigated. Bioactive properties were determined in rose hip marmalade and extract. Extract had higher total phenolic content (38.5 mg GAE/g dry extract), antioxidant activity (124 mg AAE/g dry extract) and antiradical activity (49.98 %) than marmalade. Steady and dynamic rheological properties of the marmalade were determined at differen...

  14. Water Control in Cut Stems of Rose and Carnation

    OpenAIRE

    Di Stasio, Emilio

    2010-01-01

    This PhD Thesis address, on cut flowers vase life, physiological mechanisms aimed at maintaining and regulating tissues hydration, cellular turgor, water use and senescence phenomena. Specifically we considered the effect of compatible solutes (osmoregulation) on water status, hydration state and vase life of cut stems of rose and carnation (chapter 1). In the second chapter we evaluated the application of anti-transpirant compounds that may act indirectly or directly on rose cut stems trans...

  15. Postharvest quality of cut roses following electron-beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, A.Y.; Gladon, R.J.; Gleason, M.L.; Parker, S.K.; Agnew, N.H.; Olson, D.G.

    1997-01-01

    Cut Rosa x hybrida L. 'Royalty' flowers were used to determine the efficacy of electron-beam irradiation for increasing postharvest quality and decreasing petal infection by Botrytis cinerea Pers. In an experiment for determining the injury threshold, roses received electron-beam irradiation of 0, 0.5, 1, 2, and 4 kGy. Irradiation dosages greater than or equal to 4 kGy caused necrosis on petal tissue and decreased postharvest life at 20 degrees C. In a second experiment to evaluate postharvest quality, roses were irradiated at 0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, and 1 kGy. Dosages of 0.25 and 0.5 kGy slowed the rate of flower bud opening for 2 days but did not decrease postharvest quality when compared with nonirradiated roses. Roses that received irradiation dosages of 0.75 and 1 kGy showed unacceptable quality. In a third experiment, roses that had or had not been inoculated with B. cinerea were irradiated at 0, 0.25, 0.5, and 0.75 kGy. Irradiation did not control B. cinerea populations, and rose quality decreased as dosage increased. In a fourth experiment to determine the effect of irradiation on B. cinerea, conidia on water-agar plates exposed to dosages less than or equal to 1, 2, and 4 kGy germinated at rates of approximately 90%, 33%, and 2%, respectively, within 24 h

  16. Investigating impact of waste reuse on the sustainability of municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration industry using emergy approach: A case study from Sichuan province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanqing; Zhang, Xiaohong; Liao, Wenjie; Wu, Jun; Yang, Xiangdong; Shui, Wei; Deng, Shihuai; Zhang, Yanzong; Lin, Lili; Xiao, Yinlong; Yu, Xiaoyu; Peng, Hong

    2018-04-25

    China has become the largest generator of municipal solid waste (MSW) in the world with its rapid urbanization, population growth and raising living standard. Among diverse solid waste disposal technologies, MSW incineration has been becoming an attractive choice. In terms of systematic point, an integrated MSW incineration system should include an incineration subsystem and a bottom ash (BA) disposal subsystem. This paper employed an extend emergy assessment method with several improved indicators, which considers the emissions' impact, to evaluate the comprehensive performances of an integrated MSW incineration system. One existing incineration plant in Yibin City, Sichuan Province, China, as a case study, is evaluated using the proposed method. Three alternative scenarios (scenario A: the incineration subsystem + the BA landfill subsystem; scenario B: the incineration subsystem + the concrete paving brick production subsystem using BA as raw material; scenario C: the incineration subsystem + the non-burnt wall brick production subsystem using BA as raw material) were compared. The study results reveal that the ratio of positive output is 1.225, 2.861 and 1.230, the improved environmental loading ratio is 2.715, 2.742 and 1.533, and the improved environmental sustainability index is 0.451, 1.043 and 0.803 for scenario A, B and C respectively. Therefore, reuse of BA can enhance the sustainability level of this integrated system greatly. Comparatively, scenario B has the best comprehensive performance among the three scenarios. Finally, some targeted recommendations are put forward for decision-making. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Low-level waste institutional waste incinerator program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, J.D.

    1980-04-01

    Literature surveyed indicated that institutional LLW is composed of organic solids and liquids, laboratory equipment and trash, and some pathological waste. Some toxic and hazardous chemicals are included in the variety of LLW generated in the nation's hospitals, universities, and research laboratories. Thus, the incinerator to be demonstrated in this program should be able to accept each of these types of materials as feedstock. Effluents from the DOE institutional incinerator demonstration should be such that all existing and proposed environmental standards be met. A design requirement was established to meet the most stringent flue gas standards. LLW incineration practice was reviewed in a survey of institutional LLW generators. Incinerator manufacturers were identified by the survey, and operational experience in incineration was noted for institutional users. Manufacturers identified in the survey were contacted and queried with regard to their ability to supply an incinerator with the desired capability. Special requirements for ash removal characteristics and hearth type were imposed on the selection. At the present time, an incinerator type, manufacturer, and model have been chosen for demonstration

  18. Volume Reduction of Decommissioning Burnable Waste with Oxygen Enrich Incinerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Min, B. Y.; Yang, D. S.; Lee, K. W.; Choi, J. W. [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    The incineration technology is an effective treatment method that contains hazardous chemicals as well as radioactive contamination. The volume reduction of the combustible wastes through the incineration technologies has merits from the view point of a decrease in the amount of waste to be disposed of resulting in a reduction of the disposal cost. Incineration is generally accepted as a method of reducing the volume of radioactive waste. The incineration technology is an effective treatment method that contains hazardous chemicals as well as radioactive contamination. This paper covers the general facility operation of an oxygen-enriched incinerator for the treatment of decommissioning wastes generated from a decommissioning project. The combustible wastes have been treated by the utilization of incinerator the capacity of the average 20 kg/hr. The decommissioning combustible waste of about 31 tons has been treated using Oxygen Enriched incinerator by at the end of 2016. The off-gas flow and temperature were maintained constant or within the desired range. The measured gases and particulate materials in the stack were considerably below the regulatory limits.

  19. Volume Reduction of Decommissioning Burnable Waste with Oxygen Enrich Incinerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Min, B. Y.; Yang, D. S.; Lee, K. W.; Choi, J. W.

    2016-01-01

    The incineration technology is an effective treatment method that contains hazardous chemicals as well as radioactive contamination. The volume reduction of the combustible wastes through the incineration technologies has merits from the view point of a decrease in the amount of waste to be disposed of resulting in a reduction of the disposal cost. Incineration is generally accepted as a method of reducing the volume of radioactive waste. The incineration technology is an effective treatment method that contains hazardous chemicals as well as radioactive contamination. This paper covers the general facility operation of an oxygen-enriched incinerator for the treatment of decommissioning wastes generated from a decommissioning project. The combustible wastes have been treated by the utilization of incinerator the capacity of the average 20 kg/hr. The decommissioning combustible waste of about 31 tons has been treated using Oxygen Enriched incinerator by at the end of 2016. The off-gas flow and temperature were maintained constant or within the desired range. The measured gases and particulate materials in the stack were considerably below the regulatory limits.

  20. Destruction and formation of organic micropollutants in incineration process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mascolo, G.; Bagnuolo, G.; Lotito, V.; Spinosa, L.; Mininni, G.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper are presented the results obtained from a lab-scale investigation carried out with a system for Thermal Diagnostic Studies (STDS) aimed to study the effect of some process variables during incineration. The study has been focused on (I) gas phase dioxins formation during precursors thermal degradation, (II) thermal degradation of toxic organic compounds, (III) products of incomplete combustion (PICs) formation during thermal degradation of urban sludge spiked with toxic organics, (IV) PICs formation during process failure modes, (V) polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) formation during urban sludge thermal degradation and (VI) influence of conditioning polymer on PICs emission during sludge incineration. The study about gas phase dioxins formation during precursors thermal degradation has been carried out with 2, 4, 6-trichloro- and 2, 4, 6 -tribromo-phenol that were thermal degraded at temperatures between 300 and 800 0 C in an air atmosphere. Both phenols showed the formation of the same tetra-halo-dioxin isomers that were further degraded at higher temperature. Furthermore, chlorine-containing dioxins showed higher thermal stability than bromine-containing dioxins. The study about thermal degradation of toxic organic compounds has been carried out with chlorobenzene, tetrachloroethylene and toluene that were thermal degraded at temperatures between 300 and 1000 0 C in an inert as well as air atmosphere. Results show that in all experimental conditions tetrachloroethylene and toluene are the most and less thermal stable compounds respectively. Also, all compounds are more thermal resistant during pyrolytic experiments and less thermal resistant when they are treated as a whole mixture. The study about PICs formation during thermal degradation of urban sludge spiked with toxic organics has been carried out by thermally degrading urban sludge alone or spiked with the above reported three organics at different conditions of temperature and oxygen

  1. Heavy metals behavior during thermal plasma vitrification of incineration residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerqueira, N.; Vandensteendam, C.; Baronnet, J.M.

    2005-01-01

    In the developed world, incineration of wastes is widely and increasingly practiced. Worldwide, a total of approximately 100 millions of tons of municipal solid waste (MSW) material is incinerated annually. Incineration of one ton of MSW leads to the formation of 30 to 50 kg of fly ash, depending on the type of incinerator. The waste disposal of these dusts already causes great problems today; they are of low bulk density, they contain high concentrations of hazardous water-soluble heavy metal compounds, organohalogen compounds (dioxines, furanes), sulfur, and chlorinated compounds. Thermal processes, based mainly on electrical arc processes, show great promise: the residues are melted at high temperature and converted in a relatively inert glass. A few tens of plants, essentially in Japan and Taiwan, have been in industrial operation for a few years. To be authorized to be dumped in a common landfill, the glassy product has to satisfy the leaching test procedure to ensure long-term durability. But to satisfy the regulation to be reused, for example as a nonhazardous standard material in road building, the glassy product would probably include contents in some heavy metals lower than critical limits. So today, there are two alternatives: the first one is to improve the heavy toxic metals evaporation to get a 'light' glassy product and to recycle separately the said separated metals; the second is on the contrary to improve the incorporation of a maximum of heavy metals into the vitreous silicate matrix. Whatever, it is highly required to control, in situ and in real time, volatility of these metals during ash melting under electrical arc. The objective of this work was to reach basic data about metals volatility under the plasma column of an electrical arc transferred on the melt: an experiment has been designed to examine the effects of processing conditions, such as melt temperature, melt composition, and furnace atmosphere, upon volatilization and glassy slag

  2. Los Alamos Controlled Air Incinerator for hazardous chemical and mixed radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vavruska, J.S.; Borduin, L.C.; Hutchins, D.A.; Koenig, R.A.; Warner, C.L.

    1986-01-01

    The Los Alamos Controlled Air Incinerator (CAI) is currently the only radioactive waste incineration facility in the US permitted to treat polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The CAI was developed in the mid-1970's as a demonstration system for volume reduction of transuranic (TRU) contaminated combustible solid wastes. It has since undergone additions and modifications to accommodate hazardous chemical wastes in response to a need within the Department of Energy (DOE) to treat mixed radioactive/chemical wastes. An overview of these additions which include a liquid feed system, a high intensity liquid injection burner, and an activated carbon adsorption unit is presented here. Also included is a discussion of the procedures required for Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) and Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) permitting of the CAI

  3. Incineration in low-level radioactive waste management at the University of Maryland at Baltimore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooley, L.R.

    1986-01-01

    The selection of an incinerator by the University of Maryland at Baltimore was carried out under a demonstration grant from the Department of Energy (DOE). The system selected is a 300 lb per hour dual-chambered, controlled air incinerator. The cost of the unit was $130,000, excluding installation. The interior is lined with high temperature brick rather than a castable refractory. The burners in the upper and lower chambers are ''oversized'' to insure responsive temperature control of 2.5 million Btu/h in the upper chamber and 1.3 million Btu/h in the lower. The prescribed operating temperatures are 1900 to 2100 0 F in the upper chamber and 900 to 1200 0 F in the lower chamber. The system has a rated capacity of 300 lbs/h of type IV, pathological waste, but operational experience has limited our feed rate to 150 lbs/h

  4. Controlled-air incineration studies at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borduin, L.C.; Neuls, A.S.; Thompson, T.K.; Warner, C.L.

    1978-01-01

    An overview of the LASL controlled-air incineration (CAI) program is provided through a description of the process, a summary of component selection and system design criteria, a statement of project status, and discussion of experimental and process improvement study plans. The results of the program will be used to formulate the design criteria and operating parameters for a production model controlled-air transuranic (TRU) waste incineration system and govern the construction and operation of a facility for this purpose. The objective of the LASL CAI project is to develop and demonstrate an effective, safe, and reliable process for volume reduction and chemical stabilization of TRU solid wastes using proven technology whenever possible. The benefits of this process will be realized in reduced handling and storage hazards potentials, lower packaging, transportation, and storage expenses, less storage space requirements, and fewer monitoring needs

  5. Metal recovery from municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash (MSWIBA): state of the art, potential and environmental benefits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allegrini, Elisa; Holtze, Maria S.; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    Incineration has a central role in the waste management system in Denmark (e.g. 52% of the household waste) resulting in approximately 726000t of solid residues each year. However, the targets imposed by the Danish Waste Strategy and the increasing discussions about resource in waste raise an issue...... on resource losses through waste incineration. In this framework, this study provides actual data on the state of the art of the recovery of resource in MSWIBA in Denmark (i.e. metals), on the potential for further recovery and on the environmental benefits or burdens assessed through the Life Cycle...

  6. Research and development and its importance for eco-efficient waste incineration - a review and an outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vehlow, Jurgen

    2010-01-01

    Research and development played a paramount role for waste incineration from the early beginning. The development of suited combustion systems, of measures to control dioxin formation in and emission from waste incineration plants, the simplification of gas cleaning processes while maintaining their environmental quality and the inertnesses of hazardous residues like filter ashes are few examples to illustrate this importance. There are still areas which need further research and development support, e.g. the optimisation of energy recovery or the final disposal of soluble APC residues. (author)

  7. Recycle of Inorganic Nutrients for Hydroponic Crop Production Following Incineration of Inedible Biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bubenheim, David L.; Wignarajah, Kanapathipillai; Kliss, Mark H. (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    Recovery of resources from waste streams is essential for future implementation and reliance on a regenerative life support system. The major waste streams of concern are from human activities and plant wastes. Carbon, water and inorganics are the primary desired raw materials of interest. The goal of resource recovery is maintenance of product quality to insure support of reliable and predictable levels of life support function performance by the crop plant component. Further, these systems must be maintained over extended periods of time, requiring maintenance of nutrient solutions to avoid toxicity and deficiencies. Today, reagent grade nutrients are used to make nutrient solutions for hydroponic culture and these solutions are frequently changed during the life cycle or sometimes managed for only one crop life cycle. The focus of this study was to determine the suitability of the ash product following incineration of inedible biomass as a source of inorganic nutrients for hydroponic crop production. Inedible wheat biomass was incinerated and ash quality characterized. The incinerator ash was dissolved in adequate nitric acid to establish a consistent nitrogen concentration in all nutrient solution treatments. Four experimental nutrient treatments were included: control, ash only, ash supplemented to match control, and ash only quality formulated with reagent grade chemicals. When nutrient solutions are formulated using only ash following-incineration of inedible biomass, a balance in solution is established representing elemental retention following incineration and nutrient proportions present in the original biomass. The resulting solution is not identical to the control. This imbalance resulted in suppression of crop growth. When the ash is supplemented with nutrients to establish the same balance as in the control, growth is identical to the control. The ash appears to carry no phytotoxic materials. Growth in solution formulated with reagent grade chemicals

  8. Assessing potential health effects from municipal sludge incinerators: screening methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fradkin, L.; Bruins, J.F.; Lutkenhoff, S.D.; Stara, J.F.; Lomnitz, E.; Rubin, A.

    1987-04-01

    This paper describes a risk assessment methodology for preliminary assessment of municipal sludge incineration. The methodology is a valuable tool in that it can be used for determining the hazard indices of chemical contaminants that might be present in sewage sludge used in incineration. The paper examines source characteristics (i.e., facility design), atmospheric dispersion of emission, and resulting human exposure and risk from sludge incinerators. Seven of the ten organics were screened for further investigation. An example of the calculations are presented for cadmium.

  9. Operation of chemical incinerator for disposal of legacy chemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singhal, R.K.; Basu, H.; Saha, S.; Pimple, M.V.; Naik, P.D.

    2017-01-01

    For safe disposal of age-old legacy and unused chemicals in BARC, Trombay, oil-fired chemical incinerator with a capacity of 20 kg h -1 for solid and liquid chemical is installed adjacent to trash incinerator near RSMS, Gamma Field. The Incinerator was supplied by M/s B. L. Engineering Works, Ahmedabad. Commission of the same at Trombay site was carried out, under the supervision of Civil Engineering (CED), Technical Services Division (TSD) and Analytical Chemistry Division (custodian of the facility)

  10. Municipal Solid Waste Incineration For Accra Brewery Limited (Ghana)

    OpenAIRE

    Akoore, Alfred Akelibilna

    2016-01-01

    Waste incineration is a common practice of waste management tool in most developed countries, for the purpose of converting mass and volumes of waste into a very useful energy content. The aim of this study was to compare the costs benefits of waste incineration for Accra Brewery boiler plant and to investigate also the availability of waste and it´s compositions in Accra, as well as to determine the feasibility of using this waste as a source of fuel to the waste incineration plant. T...

  11. Beta-gamma contaminated solid waste incinerator facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hootman, H.E.

    1979-10-01

    This technical data summary outlines a reference process to provide a 2-stage, 400 lb/hour incinerator to reduce the storage volume of combustible process waste contaminated with low-level beta-gamma emitters in response to DOE Manual 0511. This waste, amounting to more than 200,000 ft/sup 3/ per year, is presently buried in trenches in the burial ground. The anticipated storage volume reduction from incineration will be a factor of 20. The incinerator will also dispose of 150,000 gallons of degraded solvent from the chemical separations areas and 5000 gallons per year of miscellaneous nonradioactive solvents which are presently being drummed for storage.

  12. Incineration in the nuclear field. The SGN experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpentier, S.

    1993-01-01

    The operation of power reactors, like that of fuel fabrication and nuclear fuel reprocessing plants, generated substantial quantities of waste. A large share of this waste is low- and medium-level waste, which is also combustible. Similarly, a number of institutes, laboratories, and hospitals, in the course of their activities, generated waste which a portion is radioactive and combustible. The chief advantage of incineration is to minimize the volume of burnable waste treated, and to produce a residue termed 'ash'. SGN has built up 25 years of experience in this field. The incinerators have been designed and the incineration processes are specially studied by SGN

  13. Incineration of a Commercial Coating with Nano CeO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Bihan, Olivier; Ounoughene, Ghania; Meunier, Laurent; Debray, Bruno; Aguerre-Chariol, Olivier

    2017-06-01

    The potential environmental risk arising from the incineration of waste containing nanomaterials is a new field which deserves further attention. Some recent studies have begun to focus on this topic but the data are incomplete. In addition, there is a need to consider real life waste. The present study gives some insight into the fate and behavior of a commercial coating containing a commercial additive (7% w/w) based on nano-CeO2 (aggregates of 10 to 40 nm, with elemental particles of 2-3 nm). The tests have been conducted with a system developed in the frame of the NanoFlueGas project. The test protocol was designed to respect the regulatory criteria of a good combustion in incineration plants (temperature around 850°C, highly ventilated combustion, at least 2 s residence time for the combustion gas in a post-combustion chamber at 850°C, and high oxygen/fuel contact). Time tracking by electric low pressure impaction (ELPI) shows that the incineration produces aerosol with number concentration dominated by sub-100 nm particles. Cerium is observed by TEM and EDS analysis but as a minor compound of a sub-group of particles. No nanoCeO2 particles have been observed in the aerosol. ICP-MS analysis indicates that the residual material consists mainly of CeO2 (60% of the mass). Observation by TEM establishes that this material is in the form of aggregates with individual particle of 40-200 nm and suggests that sintering occurred during incineration. As a conclusion, the lab scale incineration study led mainly to the release of nano-CeO2 in the residual material, as the major component. Its size distribution is different than the one of the nano-CeO2 observed in the initial sample before incineration. Additional research is needed to improve the understanding of nanoCeO2 behavior, and to integrate experiments at lab and real scale.

  14. Putting ROSE to Work: A Proposed Application of a Request-Oriented Scheduling Engine for Space Station Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaap, John; Muery, Kim

    2000-01-01

    Scheduling engines are found at the core of software systems that plan and schedule activities and resources. A Request-Oriented Scheduling Engine (ROSE) is one that processes a single request (adding a task to a timeline) and then waits for another request. For the International Space Station, a robust ROSE-based system would support multiple, simultaneous users, each formulating requests (defining scheduling requirements), submitting these requests via the internet to a single scheduling engine operating on a single timeline, and immediately viewing the resulting timeline. ROSE is significantly different from the engine currently used to schedule Space Station operations. The current engine supports essentially one person at a time, with a pre-defined set of requirements from many payloads, working in either a "batch" scheduling mode or an interactive/manual scheduling mode. A planning and scheduling process that takes advantage of the features of ROSE could produce greater customer satisfaction at reduced cost and reduced flow time. This paper describes a possible ROSE-based scheduling process and identifies the additional software component required to support it. Resulting changes to the management and control of the process are also discussed.

  15. Relationship Between Distance of Schools from the Nearest Municipal Waste Incineration Plant and Child Health in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyake, Y.; Yura, A.; Misaki, H.; Ikeda, Y.; Usui, T.; Iki, M.; Shimizu, T.

    2005-01-01

    In Japan, the main source of dioxins is incinerators. This study examined the relationship between the distance of schools from municipal waste incineration plants and the prevalence of allergic disorders and general symptoms in Japanese children. Study subjects were 450,807 elementary school children aged 6-12 years who attended 996 public elementary schools in Osaka Prefecture in Japan. Parents of school children completed a questionnaire that included items about illnesses and symptoms in the study child. Distance of each of the public elementary schools from all of the 37 municipal waste incineration plants in Osaka Prefecture was measured using geographical information systems packages. Adjustment was made for grade, socioeconomic status and access to health care per municipality. Decreases in the distance of schools from the nearest municipal waste incineration plant were independently associated with an increased prevalence of wheeze, headache, stomach ache, and fatigue (adjusted odds ratios [95% confidence intervals] for shortest vs. longest distance categories =1.08 [1.01-1.15], 1.05 [1.00-1.11], 1.06 [1.01-1.11], and 1.12 [1.08-1.17], respectively). A positive association with fatigue was pronounced in schools within 4 km of the second nearest municipal waste incineration plant. There was no evident relationship between the distance of schools from such a plant and the prevalence of atopic dermatitis or allergic rhinitis. The findings suggest that proximity of schools to municipal waste incineration plants may be associated with an increased prevalence of wheeze, headache, stomach ache, and fatigue in Japanese children

  16. Behavior of TiO₂ nanoparticles during incineration of solid paint waste: a lab-scale test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massari, Andrea; Beggio, Marta; Hreglich, Sandro; Marin, Riccardo; Zuin, Stefano

    2014-10-01

    In order to assess the potential impacts posed by products containing engineered nanoparticles, it is essential to generate more data about the release of these particles from products' life cycle. Although first studies were performed to investigate the release of nanoparticles from use phase, very few data are available on the potential release from recycling or disposal of nano-enhanced products. In this work, we investigated the behavior of TiO2 nanoparticles from incineration of solid paint waste containing these particles. Solid paint debris with and without TiO2 nanoparticles were treated in a lab scale incineration plant at 950°C (combustion temperature) and in oxidizing atmosphere. The obtained ashes were also vitrified with additives and the release of Ti was finally evaluated by leaching test. From our incineration lab-scale experiment, we did not observe a release of TiO2 nanoparticles into the atmosphere, and Ti was attached to the surface of obtained solid residues (i.e. ashes). The characterization of ashes showed that TiO2 nanoparticles reacted during the incineration to give calcium titanate. Finally, a very low release of Ti was measured, less 1 mg/kg, during the leaching test of ashes vitrified with glass cullet and feldspathic inert. Our work suggests that TiO2 nanoparticles added in paints may undergo to physicochemical transformation during the incineration, and that Ti found in ashes may be strongly immobilized in glass matrix. Since this conclusion is based on lab-scale experiment, further research is required to identify which nanoparticles will be emitted to the environment from a real-word-incineration system of household hazardous waste. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Bifurcations and multistability in the extended Hindmarsh–Rose neuronal oscillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Megam Ngouonkadi, E.B.; Fotsin, H.B.; Louodop Fotso, P.; Kamdoum Tamba, V.; Cerdeira, Hilda A.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • We investigate the bifurcation and multistability in the extended Hindmarsh–Rose neuronal oscillator. • With the help of the normal form theory, we analyze the emergence and the direction of the Hopf bifurcation. • We also find that the extended Hindmarsh–Rose presents the multistability of oscillatory and silent regimes. • The results are helpful for enhancing our knowing on the way by which the neuronal system works, and encodes information. - Abstract: We report on the bifurcation analysis of an extended Hindmarsh–Rose (eHR) neuronal oscillator. We prove that Hopf bifurcation occurs in this system, when an appropriate chosen bifurcation parameter varies and reaches its critical value. Applying the normal form theory, we derive a formula to determine the direction of the Hopf bifurcation and the stability of bifurcating periodic flows. To observe this latter bifurcation and to illustrate its theoretical analysis, numerical simulations are performed. Hence, we present an explanation of the discontinuous behavior of the amplitude of the repetitive response as a function of system’s parameters based on the presence of the subcritical unstable oscillations. Furthermore, the bifurcation structures of the system are studied, with special care on the effects of parameters associated with the slow current and the slower dynamical process. We find that the system presents diversity of bifurcations such as period-doubling, symmetry breaking, crises and reverse period-doubling, when the afore mentioned parameters are varied in tiny steps. The complexity of the bifurcation structures seems useful to understand how neurons encode information or how they respond to external stimuli. Furthermore, we find that the extended Hindmarsh–Rose model also presents the multistability of oscillatory and silent regimes for precise sets of its parameters. This phenomenon plays a practical role in short-term memory and appears to give an evolutionary

  18. Low-level waste incineration at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillins, R.L.; Davis, J.N.; Maughan, R.Y.; Logan, J.A.

    1985-01-01

    A facility for the incineration of low-level beta/gamma contaminated combustible waste has been constructed at the Waste Experimental Reduction Facility (WERF) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The incineration facility was established to: (1) reduce the volume of currently generated contaminated combustible waste being disposed at the INEL's radioactive waste disposal site and thereby prolong the site's useful life; and (2) develop waste processing technology by providing a facility where full-size processes and equipment can be demonstrated and proven during production-scale operations. Cold systems testing has been completed, and contaminated operations began in September of 1984. Currently the facility is processing waste packaged in 2 x 2 x 2 ft cardboard boxes and measuring <10mR/h at contact. 3 figs

  19. Feasibility study on the efficient Pu incineration and 3S features in TRISO fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, Takeshi; Sagara, Hiroshi; Han, Chi Young

    2014-01-01

    After the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station accident, it is strongly demanded to enhance 3S (safety, security, safeguards) features of nuclear system. Accountable narrative of plutonium balance and high-level radioactive waste management are also the strong social interests. In the present study, feasibility of tristructural-isotropic (TRISO) coated fuel particle is studied as one of the options to incinerate Transuranium (TRU) nuclide efficiently without multi-recycling in Light-Water-Reactors or in High-Temperature-Gas-Cooled-Reactors (HTGRs), and its mechanical robustness is also evaluated in the aspects of 3S features. As a result of graphite fuel compact cell calculation in HTGR, more efficient incineration mechanism was revealed by introducing inert matrix into TRISO fuel kernel, reducing the self-shielding of plutonium-240 or else. Afterward safety and security analyses are being performed assuming loss of coolant event and external shock event. (author)

  20. Life cycle assessment modelling of waste-to-energy incineration in Spain and Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margallo, M; Aldaco, R; Irabien, A; Carrillo, V; Fischer, M; Bala, A; Fullana, P

    2014-06-01

    In recent years, waste management systems have been evaluated using a life cycle assessment (LCA) approach. A main shortcoming of prior studies was the focus on a mixture of waste with different characteristics. The estimation of emissions and consumptions associated with each waste fraction in these studies presented allocation problems. Waste-to-energy (WTE) incineration is a clear example in which municipal solid waste (MSW), comprising many types of materials, is processed to produce several outputs. This paper investigates an approach to better understand incineration processes in Spain and Portugal by applying a multi-input/output allocation model. The application of this model enabled predictions of WTE inputs and outputs, including the consumption of ancillary materials and combustibles, air emissions, solid wastes, and the energy produced during the combustion of each waste fraction. © The Author(s) 2014.

  1. Bioactive and rheological properties of rose hip marmalade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagdic, Osman; Toker, Omer Said; Polat, Busra; Arici, Muhammet; Yilmaz, Mustafa Tahsin

    2015-10-01

    In this study, bioactive (total phenolic, antioxidant and antiradical activity) and rheological properties (steady and dynamic) of rose hip marmalade were investigated. Bioactive properties were determined in rose hip marmalade and extract. Extract had higher total phenolic content (38.5 mg GAE/g dry extract), antioxidant activity (124 mg AAE/g dry extract) and antiradical activity (49.98 %) than marmalade. Steady and dynamic rheological properties of the marmalade were determined at different temperature levels (5, 25 and 45 °C). Rose hip marmalade exhibited shear thinning behavior and Ostwald de Waele model best described flow behavior of the sample (R (2)  ≥ 0.9880) at different temperature levels. Consistency index and apparent viscosity values (η 50 ) at shear rate 50 s(-1) decreased with increase in temperature level. Viscoelastic properties were determined by oscillatory shear measurements and G' (storage modulus) values were found to be higher than G'' (loss modulus) values, indicating that the rose hip marmalade had a weak gel-like structure with solid-like behavior. G', G'', G (*) (complex modulus) and η* (complex viscosity) values decreased with increase in temperature level. Modified Cox-Merz rule was satisfactorily applied to correlate apparent and complex viscosity values of the rose hip marmalade at all temperatures studied.

  2. Indolbutyric acid on rooting of cuttings of mini rose bush

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    kelli Pirola

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The roses are considered as the main cut flowers exported from Brazil and also the most popular in the domestic market. Usually, roses can be propagated by grafting or cutting. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cuttings’ size and IBA concentration on mini-cutting rooting of roses variety Mary Rose. Cuttings were obtained from mother plants grown in gardens, with sizes of 3, 5 and 7 cm of length, 1.0 cm in diameter, and treated with IBA, in the concentrations of 0; 500 and 1000 mg L-1. The experimental design was installed in randomized blocks, in a factorial 3 x 3 (mini-cutting sizes x IBA concentration, with 4 repetitions and 10 mini-cuttings per plot. After 60 days rooted cuttings (%, cuttings with callus (%, primary sprouting, leaves and roots numbers, length of the three major roots (cm and mortality (% were evaluated. It is recommended to propagate roses by the use of mini-cuttings with 7 cm treated with 500 mg L-1 of IBA.

  3. Production of desert rose seedlings in different potting media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronan Carlos Colombo

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decade the desert rose received fame in the flower market due to its striking and sculptural forms; however, the commercial production of these species is quite recent and little is known about its crop management, including substrates recommendation. The objectives of this study were to investigate the effect of different substrates on desert rose seed germination and production of its seedlings. Experiment I: freshly harvested seeds of desert rose were sown in different substrates e.g. sand, coconut fiber, semi-composted pine bark, sand + coconut fiber, semi-composted pine bark + sand and coconut fiber + semicomposted pine bark. These substrates were evaluated to study the emergence percentage of seeds, initial growth of seedlings and seedling emergence speed index (ESI. Experiment II: desert rose from the experiment I were transferred to plastic pots filled with the same substrates as in experiment I. The pH and electrical conductivity (EC of the substrates were noted every 30 days while the growth parameters of seedlings were recorded after 240 days. Results from experiment I showed higher germination rate and seedling growth in substrates containing semi-composted pine bark. Similarly, in experiment II, better quality seedlings were observed in substrates containing semi-composted pine bark. Thus, for desert rose seed germination and seedling growth, it is recommended to use substrates containing semi-composted pine bark.

  4. Back to Hegel? On Gillian Rose's critique of sociological reason.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Brian W

    2017-08-22

    Thirty-five years ago, Gillian Rose articulated a significant critique of classical sociological reason, emphasizing its relationship to its philosophical forebears. In a series of works, but most significantly in her Hegel contra Sociology, Rose worked to specify the implications of sociology's failure, both in its critical Marxist and its 'scientific' forms, to move beyond Kant and to fully come to terms with the thought of Hegel. In this article, I unpack and explain the substance of her criticisms, developing the necessary Hegelian philosophical background on which she founded them. I argue that Rose's attempted recuperation of 'speculative reason' for social theory remains little understood, despite its continued relevance to contemporary debates concerning the nature and scope of sociological reason. As an illustration, I employ Rose to critique Chernilo's recent call for a more philosophically sophisticated sociology. From the vantage point of Rose, this particular account of a 'philosophical sociology' remains abstract and rooted in the neo-Kantian contradictions that continue to characterize sociology. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2017.

  5. An incineration technology for low level radioactive solid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suyari, Mamoru; Nakanishi, Ryota; Noura, Tsuyoshi; Fujitomi, Masashi; Ano, Shintaroh

    2003-01-01

    Low-level radioactive solid waste, mainly consisting of rag paper and cloth, is usually incinerated. However, polymeric waste, including rubber and polyvinyl chloride plastic, is securely stored in view of safe treatment. Kobe Steel has developed a new kind of incinerator which can be used for polymeric waste. It has the following characteristics: (a) A controlled air type furnace with a unique grate design (b) In order to control dioxin emissions, the furnace wall is refractory-lined to maintain furnace temperatures at 900degC or higher (c) Secondary combustion air is injected into the furnace to mix with gas from the primary combustion zone. In this paper, the following non-radioactive test results using an actual incinerator, (feed rate: 130 kg/hr.) are presented: (1) Polymeric waste, including rubber, polyethylene and polyvinyl chloride plastic, was incinerated under stable operation; (2) Design specifications including treatment capacity, emission limits were satisfactorily achieved. (author)

  6. Experimentation with a prototype incinerator for beta-gamma waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farber, M.G.; Lewandowski, K.E.; Becker, G.W.

    1982-01-01

    A test facility for the incineration of suspect and low-level beta-gamma waste has been built and operated at the Savannah River Laboratory. The processing steps include waste feeding, incineration, ash residue packaging, and off-gas cleanup. Demonstration of the full-scale (180 kg/hr) facility with nonradioactive, simulated waste is currently in progress. At the present time, over nine metric tons of material including rubber, polyethylene, and cellulose have been incinerated during three burning campaigns. A comprehensive test program of solid and liquid waste incineration is being implemented. The data from the research program is providing the technical basis for a phase of testing with low-level beta-gamma waste generated at the Savannah River Plant

  7. Elemental composition of suspended particles released in refuse incineration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mamuro, Tetsuo; Mizohata, Akira

    1979-01-01

    Suspended particles released in refuse incineration were subjected to multielement analysis by means of instrumental neutron activation method and energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry. The analytical results were compared with the elemental concentrations observed in the urban atmosphere, and the contribution of the refuse incineration to the urban atmosphere was roughly estimated. Greenberg et al. pointed out on the basis of their analyses that the refuse incineration can account for major portions of the Zn, Cd and Sb observed on urban aerosols. According to our results, the contribution of the refuse incineration for Zn, Cd and Sb is not negligible, but not so serious as in U.S.A. big cities. In Japan big cities there must be other more important sources of these elements. (author)

  8. Numerical modeling of batch formation in waste incineration plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obroučka Karel

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is a mathematical description of algorithm for controlled assembly of incinerated batch of waste. The basis for formation of batch is selected parameters of incinerated waste as its calorific value or content of pollutants or the combination of both. The numerical model will allow, based on selected criteria, to compile batch of wastes which continuously follows the previous batch, which is a prerequisite for optimized operation of incinerator. The model was prepared as for waste storage in containers, as well as for waste storage in continuously refilled boxes. The mathematical model was developed into the computer program and its functionality was verified either by practical measurements or by numerical simulations. The proposed model can be used in incinerators for hazardous and municipal waste.

  9. Pretreatment and utilization of waste incineration bottom ashes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    Within recent years, researchers and authorities have had increasing focus on leaching properties from waste incineration bottom ashes. Researchers have investigated processes such as those related to carbonation, weathering, metal complexation, and leaching control. Most of these investigations...

  10. Enrichment and distribution of 24 elements within the sub-sieve particle size distribution ranges of fly ash from wastes incinerator plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raclavská, Helena; Corsaro, Agnieszka; Hartmann-Koval, Silvie; Juchelková, Dagmar

    2017-12-01

    The management of an increasing amount of municipal waste via incineration has been gaining traction. Fly ash as a by-product of incineration of municipal solid waste is considered a hazardous waste due to the elevated content of various elements. The enrichment and distribution of 24 elements in fly ash from three wastes incinerators were evaluated. Two coarse (>100 μm and sieve (12-16, 16-23, 23-34, 34-49, and 49-100 μm) particle size fractions separated on a cyclosizer system were analyzed. An enhancement in the enrichment factor was observed in all samples for the majority of elements in >100 μm range compared with sieve particle size ranges. These variations were attributed primarily to: (i) the vaporization and condensation mechanisms, (ii) the different design of incineration plants, (iii) incineration properties, (iv) the type of material being incinerated, and (v) the affinity of elements. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Application of CFD in Investigation of Ventilation Strategies for Improvement of Working Environment in a Waste Incineration Plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Per; Svidt, Kjeld; Kragh, Hans

    In this study CFD was applied to investigate the ability of different ventilation systems and strategies to improve working conditions in a waste incineration plant. The plant, VS Amagerforbn:ending, had expanded to supply both district heating and power. Because of that too high temperatures were...

  12. Corrosion Problems in Incinerators and Biomass-Fuel-Fired Boilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepa Mudgal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Incinerators are widely used to burn the municipal waste, biowaste, wood, straw, and biomedical waste. Combustion of these types of waste results in generation of chlorides of sodium and potassium which may attack the metallic part of the incinerator. In biofuel-fired boilers, similar type of highly corrosive environment is present. Attempt has been made to review the corrosion problems and their solutions as per the available literature.

  13. Corrosion Problems in Incinerators and Biomass-Fuel-Fired Boilers

    OpenAIRE

    Mudgal, Deepa; Singh, Surendra; Prakash, Satya

    2014-01-01

    Incinerators are widely used to burn the municipal waste, biowaste, wood, straw, and biomedical waste. Combustion of these types of waste results in generation of chlorides of sodium and potassium which may attack the metallic part of the incinerator. In biofuel-fired boilers, similar type of highly corrosive environment is present. Attempt has been made to review the corrosion problems and their solutions as per the available literature.

  14. Method for controlling incineration in combustor for radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takaoku, Y.; Uehara, A.

    1991-01-01

    This invention relates to a method for controlling incineration in a combustor for low-level radioactive wastes. In particular, it relates to a method for economizing in the consumption of supplemental fuel while maintaining a stable incineration state by controlling the amount of fuel and of radioactive wastes fed to the combustor. The amount of fuel supplied is determined by the outlet gas temperature of the combustor. (L.L.)

  15. Design considerations for incineration of transuranic-contaminated solid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koenig, R.A.

    1977-01-01

    The Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory has established a development program to evaluate alternate production-level (100-200 lb/hr throughput) volume reduction processes for transuranic-contaminated solid waste. The first process selected for installation and study is based on controlled-air incineration. Design considerations leading to selection of feed preparation, incineration, residue removal, and off-gas cleanup components and their respective radioactive containment provisions will be presented

  16. Test Operation of Oxygen-Enriched Incinerator for Wastes From Nuclear Fuel Fabrication Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J.-G.; Yang, H.cC.; Park, G.-I.; Kim, I.-T.; Kim, J.-K.

    2002-01-01

    The oxygen-enriched combustion concept, which can minimize off-gas production, has been applied to the incineration of combustible uranium-containing wastes from a nuclear fuel fabrication facility. A simulation for oxygen combustion shows the off-gas production can be reduced by a factor of 6.7 theoretically, compared with conventional air combustion. The laboratory-scale oxygen enriched incineration (OEI) process with a thermal capacity of 350 MJ/h is composed of an oxygen feeding and control system, a combustion chamber, a quencher, a ceramic filter, an induced draft fan, a condenser, a stack, an off-gas recycle path, and a measurement and control system. Test burning with cleaning paper and office paper in this OEI process shows that the thermal capacity is about 320 MJ/h, 90 % of design value and the off-gas reduces by a factor of 3.5, compared with air combustion. The CO concentration for oxygen combustion is lower than that of air combustion, while the O2 concentration in off-gas is kept above 25 vol % for a simple incineration process without any grate. The NOx concentration in an off-gas stream does not reduce significantly due to air incoming by leakage, and the volume and weight reduction factors are not changed significantly, which suggests a need for an improvement in sealing

  17. Two stage, low temperature, catalyzed fluidized bed incineration with in situ neutralization for radioactive mixed wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wade, J.F.; Williams, P.M.

    1995-01-01

    A two stage, low temperature, catalyzed fluidized bed incineration process is proving successful at incinerating hazardous wastes containing nuclear material. The process operates at 550 degrees C and 650 degrees C in its two stages. Acid gas neutralization takes place in situ using sodium carbonate as a sorbent in the first stage bed. The feed material to the incinerator is hazardous waste-as defined by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act-mixed with radioactive materials. The radioactive materials are plutonium, uranium, and americium that are byproducts of nuclear weapons production. Despite its low temperature operation, this system successfully destroyed poly-chlorinated biphenyls at a 99.99992% destruction and removal efficiency. Radionuclides and volatile heavy metals leave the fluidized beds and enter the air pollution control system in minimal amounts. Recently collected modeling and experimental data show the process minimizes dioxin and furan production. The report also discusses air pollution, ash solidification, and other data collected from pilot- and demonstration-scale testing. The testing took place at Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, a US Department of Energy facility, in the 1970s, 1980s, and 1990s

  18. The Design of a Portable Municipal Waste Incinerator With Fuzzy Logic Based Support for Emission Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jude C. Akpe

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A fuzzy logic interface system to estimate oxygen requirement for complete combustion as well as the level of pollution from incinerator gas flue in order to manage solid waste from domestic, institutional, medical and industrial sources was designed. The designed incinerator is double chambered operating with a maximum temperature of 760 °C in the lower chamber and 1000°C in the upper chamber.  The insulating wall is made up of a refractory brick of 55mm in thickness having a 2mm thickness low carbon steel as the outer wall.  Hydrogen Chloride (HCl and Nitrous oxides (NOx are the gases was used to demonstrate the Fuzzy Inference System (FIS model. The FIS was built with five input variables (Food, PVC, Polythene, Paper and Textile and three input variables with two membership functions. The FIS was developed to estimation the degree of possibility distribution of pollution that should be expected when a certain composition of waste is incinerated. The plots of composition of waste high in food against oxygen require for combustion gives a possibility distribution of about 0.9 which is high according to the fuzzy set definition while the plot of waste composition high in PVC against HCL shows linearity.

  19. Consolidated Incineration Facility waste burn test. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, D.B.

    1995-01-01

    The Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) is Providing technical support for start-up and operation of the Consolidated Incineration Facility. This support program includes a series of pilot incineration tests performed at the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) Incineration Research Facility (MF) using surrogate CIF mixed wastes. The objectives for this test program included measuring incinerator offgas particulate loading and size distributions as a function of several operating variables, characterizing kiln bottom ash and offgas particulates, determining heavy metal partition between the kiln bottom ash and incinerator stack gas, and measuring kiln organics emissions (particularly polychlorinated dioxins and furans). These tests were designed to investigate the effect of the following operating parameters: Incineration Temperature; Waste Feed Rate; Waste Density; Kiln Solids Residence Time; and Waste Composition. Tests were conducted at three kiln operating temperatures. Three solid waste simulants were burned, two waste mixtures (paper, plastic, latex, and PVC) with one containing spiked toxic organic and metal compounds, and one waste type containing only paper. Secondary Combustion Chamber (SCC) offgases were sampled for particulate loading and size distribution, organic compounds, polychlorinated dibenzo[p]dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/PCDF), metals, and combustion products. Kiln bottom ash and offgas particulates were characterized to determine the principal elements and compounds comprising these secondary wastes

  20. Experience with radioactive waste incineration at Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le, V.T.; Beamer, N.V.; Buckley, L.P.

    1988-06-01

    Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories is a nuclear research centre operated by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited. A full-scale waste treatment centre has been constructed to process low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes generated on-site. A batch-loaded, two-stage, starved-air incinerator for solid combustible waste is one of the processes installed in this facility. The incinerator has been operating since 1982. It has consistently reduced combustible wastes to an inert ash product, with an average volume reduction factor of about 150:1. The incinerator ash is stored in 200 L drums awaiting solidification in bitumen. The incinerator and a 50-ton hydraulic baler have provided treatment for a combined volume of about 1300 m 3 /a of solid low-level radioactive waste. This paper presents a review of the performance of the incinerator during its six years of operation. In addition to presenting operational experience, an assessment of the starved-air incineration technique will also be discussed

  1. Incineration technology for alpha-bearing radioactive waste in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dirks, Friedlich; Pfeiffer, Reinhard

    1997-01-01

    Since 1971 the Karlsruhe Research Center has developed and operated plants for the incineration of radioactive waste. Three incineration plants for pure β/γ solid, α-bearing solid and radioactive liquid waste have been successfully utilized during last two decades. Recently more than 20 year-old β/γ plant was shut down with the economic point of view, mainly due to the recently reduced volume of burnable β/γ waste. Burnable β/γ solid waste is now being treated with α-bearing waste in a α solid incineration plant. The status of incineration technology for α-bearing waste and other radioactive waste treatment technologies, which are now utilized in Karlsruhe Research Center, such as conditioning of incineration ash, supercompaction, scrapping, and decontamination of solid radioactive waste, etc. are introduced in this presentation. Additionally, operational results of the recently installed new dioxin adsorber and fluidized-bed drier for scrubber liquid in α incineration plant are also described in this presentation. (author) 1 tab., 13 figs

  2. [Separation and purification of proanthocyanidins from rose by macroporous resins].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yu-cui; Li, Xiang-rong

    2008-08-01

    To study the separation and purification technology for proanthocyanidins from rose and establish the best operating conditions. Evaluated by static adsorption capacity and elution ratio, five types of macroporous resins including D101, D1300, NKA, AB-8, NKA-II were tested to separate and purify proanthocyanidins. And evaluated by product purity, the concentration of extract sample, pH of extract sample, concentration of eluant and flow rate of elution had been investigated. D101 type macroporous resin showed the best property and was suitable for purifying proanthocyanidins from rose. The best operating conditions were as follows: 1.25 mg/ml as the concentration of extract sample, 2 as the pH value of extract sample, 70% ethanol equeous solution as the eluant and 2 ml/min as the flow rate of elution. This study can supply a method to separate and purify proanthocyanidins from rose.

  3. Rose hip (Rosa canina L: A functional food perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cui Fan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Rose hip (Rosa canina L. is the pseudo-fruit of the rose plant, which is widely known as a valuable source of polyphenols and vitamin C. Both in vivo and in vitro studies have demonstrated that this fruit exhibits anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and antiobesogenic activities. The health benefits of Rose hip (RH have been attributed to its wide range of bioactive compounds including the anti-inflammatory galactolipid: (2S-1,2-di-O-[(9Z,12Z,15Z-octadeca-9,12,15-trienoyl]-3-O-β-D galactopyranosyl glycerol (GOPO, vitamin C, phenolics, lycopene, lutein, zeaxanthin, and other carotenoids. As cyclooxygenase inhibitors, RH compounds may reduce the risk of cancer, heart disease, and various inflammatory conditions. The aim of this review is to present an overview of the functional, medical, and physiological properties of RH.

  4. Downey mildew, powdery mildew and black spot in the agroecological production of roses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia de Nazaré Oliveira Ribeiro

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The rosebush is a crop with high nutritional requirements, requiring frequent replacement of fertilizers, which can lead to soil salinity. The agroecological farming is an alternative to prevent the environmental impacts provided by the overuse of fertilizers and pesticides. The objective was to assess the incidence and severity of downey mildew, powdery mildew and black spot in cultivars of roses and observe which one would have better adjustment to agroecological farming system. The experiment was conducted at EPAMIG in São João del-Rei, MG, in open fields, in two production systems: agroecological and conventional. The experimental design was randomized blocks with six treatments corresponding to the agroecological farming of six cultivars of roses plus two additional treatments corresponding to the conventional cultivation of two cultivars of rose, totaling eight treatments (6+2 with four repetitions giving 32 experimental plots. Agroecosystem were tested in six cultivars of roses, which are: Hollywood, Capri, Carola, Grand Gala, Greta and Vegas. In the conventional system were tested cultivars Carola and Vegas. Agroecosystem production management used only authorized/registered products for organic agriculture and production techniques inherent in this system. Green manures Canavalia ensiformis and Arachis pintoi were planted between the lines and bed edges and fertilization was performed with biofertilizers. Weekly samples were taken assess incidence and severity of downy mildew, powdery mildew and black spot. Incidence was determined by the presence or absence of leaves with lesions in the experimental unit. Severity was obtained with aid of diagrammatic scales. Percentages of severity and incidence were transformed into areas under the curve of progress of severity (AUCPS and of incidence (AUCPI. It was observed that the cultivars Capri, Hollywood and Vegas in agroecological farming were more susceptible to black spot due to higher

  5. Fuel optimization in a multi chamber incinerator by the moisture control of oily sludge and medical wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haider, I.; Hussain, S.; Khan, S.; Mehran, T.

    2011-01-01

    Experiments have been performed to study the effects of %age moisture content on fuel optimization during the waste feed combustion of oily sludge, medical waste and mix blend waste in a 50 kg/hr multi chamber incinerator installed at NCPC- ARL RWP. Intention is to find out the optimum and in compliance with NEQs incinerator performance at various moisture contents in the different waste feeds. Optimum performances of the incinerator, so that optimum operating moisture conditions, which has been used for multi purpose waste, feeds, may be defined. Three waste feeds of 10 kg batch size were used for the experimentation namely; Oily Sludge, Medical waste and Mix blend waste (oily sludge and medical), with the primary chamber preheating temperature 655 deg. C for 15 mins. interval monitoring. The secondary chamber temperature was set to 850 deg. C. By the data obtained it is apparent that rising the waste moisture content tend to increase fuel consumption specifically in case of medical waste and hence lowering the overall combustion efficiency. In the emissions the CO/sub 2/ concentration is showing the incineration efficiency. Higher efficiency of the system could have been achieved by increasing the CO/sub 2/ in the gases leaving the incinerator, lower fuel usage per kg waste feed and maintain proper operating conditions. Fuel consumption for the oily sludge with 10% moisture content, was found to be least as compared with the same %age of medical waste and mix blend waste. However environmental compliance of the operation is shown by the flue gas analysis. The results shows that using mix blend(oily sludge and medical) waste having 12-13% moisture content would be suitable for incineration in multi-chamber incinerator .Other makes it possible to determine the optimum incinerator temperature control settings and operating conditions, as well as to assure continuous, efficient, environmentally satisfactory operation. The optimum fuel consumption for 10 kg each waste

  6. The incineration of absorbed liquid wastes in the INEL's [Idaho National Engineering Laboratory] WERF [Waste Experimental Reduction Facility] incinerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steverson, E.M.; McFee, J.N.

    1987-01-01

    The concept of burning absorbed flammable liquids in boxes in the WERF incinerator was evaluated as a waste treatment method. The safety and feasibility of this procedure were evaluated in a series of tests. In the testing, the effect on incinerator operations of burning various quantities of absorbed flammable liquids was measured and compared to normal operations conducted on low-level radioactive waste (LLW). The test results indicated that the proposed procedure is safe and practical for use on a wide variety of solvents with quantities as high as one liter per box. No adverse or unacceptable operating conditions resulted from burning any of the solvents tested. Incineration of the solvents in this fashion was no different than burning LLW during normal incineration. 6 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs

  7. COX-1 and -2 activity of rose hip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jäger, A K; Eldeen, I M S; van Staden, J

    2007-12-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate whether the clinically observed efficacy of rose hip in the treatment of osteoarthritis is due to inhibition of cyclooxygenase-1 and -2. Water, methanol, dichloromethane and hexane extracts of rose hip were tested for in vitro COX-1 and 2 activity. The organic solvent extracts showed good inhibition of both COX-1 and 2. The methanol extract was most active in both assays with IC(50) values of 12 microg/mL for COX-1 and 19 microg/mL for COX-2. The clinically observed effect might be due to inhibition of cyclooxygenase. Copyright (c) 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Experience with high-temperature filtration of incinerator flue gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpentier, S.; de Tassigny, C.

    1990-01-01

    It is always preferable to filter incinerator flue gases as close as possible to their origin, i.e. in a high-temperature zone, and means must be provided to destroy the other organic parts of the flyash resulting from these gases by in-filter combustion. The filter also traps a mineral part of the flyash, which eventually causes clogging and requires replacement or regeneration. Such filtration systems are available and can be operated on an industrial scale. They include candles made of micro-expanded refractory alloys supporting filtering media, porous ceramic candles and other devices. Research and subsequent pilot facility testing have enabled development of alumina fiber filter cartridges that offer more advantages than other equipment employed to date. Specifically, these advantages are: ultralight weight, which enables construction of systems that are relatively unaffected by creep and high-temperature deformations; excellent refractory qualities, which permit a use above 1000 degrees C; insensitivity to thermal shocks and in-situ carbon fines combustion capability; anti-acid quality of the material, which enables high-temperature filtration of acidic flue gases (chlorine and hydrochloric acid, SO x , etc.); low initial pressure drop of the cartridges; dimensional stability of the cartridges, which can be machined to a given tolerance with specific contours after casting and drying. This paper reports the results obtained during the last filtration system test campaign. Details are given for operating conditions, grain sizes and real-time monitoring of various parameters

  9. Mobile incineration services at Commonwealth Edison's nuclear stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, K.R.

    1985-01-01

    As the costs for low-level waste disposal escalate, and as the January 1, 1986 date draws nearer, utilities throughout the United States are formulating and implementing plans to reduce the volumes of the low-level radioactive waste being generated at their nuclear power stations. Techniques being used to accomplish this goal range from sorting of dry active waste to complete volume reduction systems, like the Aerojet VR Systems being installed at Commonwealth Edison's Byron and Braidwood Stations. In between these extremes are partial solutions to the problem, including compaction, shredding and compaction, super-compaction, resin dewatering, liquid drying, and now, mobile incineration. In June, 1983, Commonwealth Edison Company (CECO) of Chicago, Illinois, contracted Aerojet Energy Conversion Company (AECC) of Sacramento, California, to supply mobile VR services to the Dresden, La Salle, Quad Cities, and Zion Nuclear Stations. Per the contract, AECC is responsible for the design, fabrication, delivery, operation, and maintenance of a Mobile Volume Reduction System (MVRS) capable of processing combustible dry active waste and contaminated oil generated at these Com-Ed facilities. Initial commercial operation of the MVRS is planned for the Dresden Nuclear Power Station in May, 1985. This paper is intended to summarize some of the key elements resulting from the design, fabrication, and testing of the MVRS. In addition, it is intended to identify the tasks a potential user of the MVRS service must complete in order to receive permission from the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to operate the MVRS at their site

  10. Energy and exergy optimization of food waste pretreatment and incineration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yuanjun; Dong, Jun; Chi, Yong; Zhou, Zhaozhi; Ni, Mingjiang

    2017-08-01

    With the aim of upgrading current food waste (FW) management strategy, a novel FW hydrothermal pretreatment and air-drying incineration system is proposed and optimized from an energy and exergy perspective. Parameters considered include the extracted steam quality, the final moisture content of dehydrated FW, and the reactor thermal efficiency. Results show that optimal working condition can be obtained when the temperature and pressure of extracted steam are 159 °C and 0.17 MPa, the final moisture content of dehydrated FW is 10%, and the reactor thermal efficiency is 90%. Under such circumstance, the optimal steam energy and exergy increments reach 194.92 and 324.50 kJ/kg-FW, respectively. The novel system is then applied under the local conditions of Hangzhou, China. Results show that approximately 2.7 or 11.6% (from energy or exergy analysis perspective) of electricity can be additionally generated from 1 ton of MSW if the proposed novel FW system is implemented. Besides, comparisons between energy and exergy analysis are also discussed.

  11. Emission and speciation of mercury from waste incinerators with mass distribution investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Yong-Chil; Kim, Jeong-Hun; Pudasainee, Deepak; Yoon, Young-Sik; Jung, Seung Jae; Bhatta, Dhruba

    2010-01-01

    In this paper mercury emission and removal characteristics in municipal wastes incinerators (MWIs), hazardous waste incinerators (HWIs) and hospital medical and infectious waste incinerators (HMIWIs) with mercury mass distribution within the system are presented. Mercury speciation in flue gas at inlet and outlet of each air pollution control devices (APCDs) were sampled and analyzed by Ontario Hydro Method. Solid and liquid samples were analyzed by U.S. EPA method 7470A and 7471A, respectively. Cold vapor atomic absorption spectroscopy was used for analysis. On an average, Hg emission concentrations in flue gas from MWIs ranged 173.9 to 15.3 μg Sm -3 at inlet and 10.5 to 3.8 μg Sm -3 at outlet of APCDs respectively. Mercury removal efficiency ranged 50 to 95% in MWIs, 7.2 to 59.9% in HWIs as co-beneficial results of APCDs for removing other air pollutants like particulate matter, dioxin and acidic gases. In general, mercury in incineration facilities was mainly distributed in fly ash followed by flue gas and bottom ash. In MWIs 94.4 to 74% of Hg were distributed in fly ash. In HWIs with dry type APCDs, Hg removal was less and 70.6% of mercury was distributed in flue gas. The variation of Hg concentration, speciation and finally the distribution in the tested facilities was related to the non-uniform distribution of Hg in waste combined with variation in waste composition (especially Cl, S content), operating parameters, flue gas components, fly ash properties, operating conditions, APCDs configuration. Long term data incorporating more number of tests are required to better understand mercury behavior in such sources and to apply effective control measures. (author)

  12. Environmental impacts of residual municipal solid waste incineration: a comparison of 110 French incinerators using a life cycle approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beylot, Antoine; Villeneuve, Jacques

    2013-12-01

    Incineration is the main option for residual Municipal Solid Waste treatment in France. This study compares the environmental performances of 110 French incinerators (i.e., 85% of the total number of plants currently in activity in France) in a Life Cycle Assessment perspective, considering 5 non-toxic impact categories: climate change, photochemical oxidant formation, particulate matter formation, terrestrial acidification and marine eutrophication. Mean, median and lower/upper impact potentials are determined considering the incineration of 1 tonne of French residual Municipal Solid Waste. The results highlight the relatively large variability of the impact potentials as a function of the plant technical performances. In particular, the climate change impact potential of the incineration of 1 tonne of waste ranges from a benefit of -58 kg CO2-eq to a relatively large burden of 408 kg CO2-eq, with 294 kg CO2-eq as the average impact. Two main plant-specific parameters drive the impact potentials regarding the 5 non-toxic impact categories under study: the energy recovery and delivery rate and the NOx process-specific emissions. The variability of the impact potentials as a function of incinerator characteristics therefore calls for the use of site-specific data when required by the LCA goal and scope definition phase, in particular when the study focuses on a specific incinerator or on a local waste management plan, and when these data are available. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. A chemical basis for the partitioning of radionuclides in incinerator operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burger, L.L.

    1995-01-01

    Incineration as a method of treating radioactive or mixed waste is attractive because of volume reduction, but may result in high concentrations of some hazardous components. For safety reasons during operation, and because of the environmental impact of the plant, it is important to know how these materials partition between the furnace slay, the fly ash, and the stack emission. The chemistry of about 50 elements is discussed and through consideration of high temperature thermodynamic equilibria, an attempt is made to provide a basis for predicting how various radionuclides and heavy metals behave in a typical incinerator. The chemistry of the individual elements is first considered and a prediction of the most stable chemical species in the typical incinerator atmosphere is made. The treatment emphasizes volatility and the parameters considered are temperature, acidity, oxygen, sulfur, and halogen content, and the presence of several other key non-radioactive elements. A computer model is used to calculate equilibrium concentrations of many species in several systems at temperatures ranging from 500 to 1600 degrees K. It is suggested that deliberate addition of various feed chemicals can have a major impact on the fate of many radionuclides and heavy metals. Several problems concerning limitations and application of the data are considered

  14. Oxidation and waste-to-energy output of aluminium waste packaging during incineration: A laboratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Félix A; Román, Carlos Pérez; García-Díaz, Irene; Alguacil, Francisco J

    2015-09-01

    This work reports the oxidation behaviour and waste-to-energy output of different semi-rigid and flexible aluminium packagings when incinerated at 850°C in an air atmosphere enriched with 6% oxygen, in the laboratory setting. The physical properties of the different packagings were determined, including their metallic aluminium contents. The ash contents of their combustion products were determined according to standard BS ISO 1171:2010. The net calorific value, the required energy, and the calorific gain associated with each packaging type were determined following standard BS EN 13431:2004. Packagings with an aluminium lamina thickness of >50μm did not fully oxidise. During incineration, the weight-for-weight waste-to-energy output of the packagings with thick aluminium lamina was lower than that of packagings with thin lamina. The calorific gain depended on the degree of oxidation of the metallic aluminium, but was greater than zero for all the packagings studied. Waste aluminium may therefore be said to act as an energy source in municipal solid waste incineration systems. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The safety of non-incineration waste disposal devices in four hospitals of Tehran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farshad, Aliasghar; Gholami, Hamid; Farzadkia, Mahdi; Mirkazemi, Roksana; Kermani, Majid

    2014-01-01

    Background: The safe management of hospital waste is a challenge in many developing countries. Objectives: The aim of this study was to compare volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emissions and the microbial disinfectant safety in non-incineration waste disposal devices. Methods: VOC emissions and microbial infections were measured in four non-incineration waste disposal devices including: autoclave with and without a shredder, dry heat system, and hydroclave. Using NIOSH and US EPA-TO14 guidelines, the concentration and potential risk of VOCs in emitted gases from four devices were assessed. ProSpore2 biological indicators were used to assess the microbial analysis of waste residue. Results: There was a significant difference in the type and concentration of VOCs and microbial infection of residues in the four devices. Emissions from the autoclave with a shredder had the highest concentration of benzene, ethyl benzene, xylene, and BTEX, and emissions from the hydroclave had the highest concentration of toluene. The highest level of microbial infection was observed in the residues of the autoclave without a shredder. Conclusions: There is an increased need for proper regulation and control of non-incinerator devices and for monitoring and proper handling of these devices in developing countries. PMID:25000113

  16. Assessing recycling versus incineration of key materials in municipal waste: The importance of efficient energy recovery and transport distances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrild, Hanna; Larsen, Anna W; Christensen, Thomas H

    2012-05-01

    Recycling of materials from municipal solid waste is commonly considered to be superior to any other waste treatment alternative. For the material fractions with a significant energy content this might not be the case if the treatment alternative is a waste-to-energy plant with high energy recovery rates. The environmental impacts from recycling and from incineration of six material fractions in household waste have been compared through life cycle assessment assuming high-performance technologies for material recycling as well as for waste incineration. The results showed that there are environmental benefits when recycling paper, glass, steel and aluminium instead of incinerating it. For cardboard and plastic the results were more unclear, depending on the level of energy recovery at the incineration plant, the system boundaries chosen and which impact category was in focus. Further, the environmental impact potentials from collection, pre-treatment and transport was compared to the environmental benefit from recycling and this showed that with the right means of transport, recyclables can in most cases be transported long distances. However, the results also showed that recycling of some of the material fractions can only contribute marginally in improving the overall waste management system taking into consideration their limited content in average Danish household waste. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Investigation of waste incineration of fluorotelomer-based polymers as a potential source of PFOA in the environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, P H; Yamada, T; Striebich, R C; Graham, J L; Giraud, R J

    2014-09-01

    In light of the widespread presence of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) in the environment, a comprehensive laboratory-scale study has developed data requested by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to determine whether municipal and/or medical waste incineration of commercial fluorotelomer-based polymers (FTBPs) at end of life is a potential source of PFOA that may contribute to environmental and human exposures. The study was divided into two phases (I and II) and conducted in accordance with EPA Good Laboratory Practices (GLPs) as described in the quality assurance project plan (QAPP) for each phase. Phase I testing determined that the PFOA transport efficiency across the thermal reactor system to be used in Phase II was greater than 90%. Operating at 1000°C over 2s residence time with 3.2-6.6mgdscm(-1) hydrogen fluoride (HF), corrected to 7% oxygen (O2), and continuously monitored exhaust oxygen of 13%, Phase II testing of the FTBP composites in this thermal reactor system yielded results demonstrating that waste incineration of fluorotelomer-based polymers does not result in the formation of detectable levels of PFOA under conditions representative of typical municipal waste combustor (MWC) and medical waste incinerator (MWI) operations in the U.S. Therefore, waste incineration of these polymers is not expected to be a source of PFOA in the environment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Controlled-air incineration of alpha-bearing solid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koenig, R.A.; Draper, W.E.; Neuls, A.S.; Newmyer, J.M.

    1980-01-01

    The Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory is completing a study of controlled-air incineration (CAI) as a technique for volume reduction and stabilization of combustible transuranic-contaminated solid wastes. To demonstrate feasibility, a process has been assembled and operated on synthetic and contaminated combustibles. This paper summarizes the CAI project history, process design, provisions for radioactive operation, experimental results to date, and future plans. Achievements include operation at the design feed rate as well as combustion of separate feed compositions including cellulosics, polyethylene, polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and latex rubber. Refractory life has been satisfactory to date, with studies continuing. The offgas cleanup system has proven to be extremely effective; the final high-efficiency filters showing virtually no pressure drop increase. The ability of the system to process high concentrations of PVC has been demonstrated with no chloride-induced degradation detected. Chloride and sulfate removal from the offgas has been excellent with concentrations reaching 8 and 10 ppM maximum, respectively, in the process condensate

  19. A comparative assessment of waste incinerators in the UK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nixon, J.D., E-mail: j.nixon@kingston.ac.uk [Sustainable Environment Research Group, School of Engineering and Applied Science, Aston University, Aston Triangle, Birmingham B4 7ET (United Kingdom); Wright, D.G.; Dey, P.K. [Aston Business School, Aston University, Aston Triangle, Birmingham B4 7ET (United Kingdom); Ghosh, S.K. [Mechanical Engineering Department, Centre for Quality Management System, Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700 032 (India); Davies, P.A. [Sustainable Environment Research Group, School of Engineering and Applied Science, Aston University, Aston Triangle, Birmingham B4 7ET (United Kingdom)

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: • We evaluate operational municipal solid waste incinerators in the UK. • The supply chain of four case study plants are examined and compared in detail. • Technical, financial and operational data has been gathered for the four plants. • We suggest the best business practices for waste incinerators. • Appropriate strategy choices are the major difficulties for waste to energy plants. - Abstract: The uptake in Europe of Energy from Waste (EfW) incinerator plants has increased rapidly in recent years. In the UK, 25 municipal waste incinerators with energy recovery are now in operation; however, their waste supply chains and business practices vary significantly. With over a hundred more plant developments being considered it is important to establish best business practices for ensuring efficient environmental and operational performance. By reviewing the 25 plants we identify four suitable case study plants to compare technologies (moving grate, fluidised bed and rotary kiln), plant economics and operations. Using data collected from annual reports and through interviews and site visits we provide recommendations for improving the supply chain for waste incinerators and highlight the current issues and challenges faced by the industry. We find that plants using moving grate have a high availability of 87–92%. However, compared to the fluidised bed and rotary kiln, quantities of bottom ash and emissions of hydrogen chloride and carbon monoxide are high. The uptake of integrated recycling practices, combined heat and power, and post incineration non-ferrous metal collections needs to be increased among EfW incinerators in the UK. We conclude that one of the major difficulties encountered by waste facilities is the appropriate selection of technology, capacity, site, waste suppliers and heat consumers. This study will be of particular value to EfW plant developers, government authorities and researchers working within the sector of waste

  20. A comparative assessment of waste incinerators in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nixon, J.D.; Wright, D.G.; Dey, P.K.; Ghosh, S.K.; Davies, P.A.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • We evaluate operational municipal solid waste incinerators in the UK. • The supply chain of four case study plants are examined and compared in detail. • Technical, financial and operational data has been gathered for the four plants. • We suggest the best business practices for waste incinerators. • Appropriate strategy choices are the major difficulties for waste to energy plants. - Abstract: The uptake in Europe of Energy from Waste (EfW) incinerator plants has increased rapidly in recent years. In the UK, 25 municipal waste incinerators with energy recovery are now in operation; however, their waste supply chains and business practices vary significantly. With over a hundred more plant developments being considered it is important to establish best business practices for ensuring efficient environmental and operational performance. By reviewing the 25 plants we identify four suitable case study plants to compare technologies (moving grate, fluidised bed and rotary kiln), plant economics and operations. Using data collected from annual reports and through interviews and site visits we provide recommendations for improving the supply chain for waste incinerators and highlight the current issues and challenges faced by the industry. We find that plants using moving grate have a high availability of 87–92%. However, compared to the fluidised bed and rotary kiln, quantities of bottom ash and emissions of hydrogen chloride and carbon monoxide are high. The uptake of integrated recycling practices, combined heat and power, and post incineration non-ferrous metal collections needs to be increased among EfW incinerators in the UK. We conclude that one of the major difficulties encountered by waste facilities is the appropriate selection of technology, capacity, site, waste suppliers and heat consumers. This study will be of particular value to EfW plant developers, government authorities and researchers working within the sector of waste

  1. Scion - rootstock relationships and root behaviour in glasshouse roses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fuchs, H.W.M.

    1994-01-01

    In the Netherlands, the cultivation of cut roses in the glasshouse is commonly carried out yearround. Most cultivars are grown on a rootstock. The first part of this study investigates various rootstocks for their ability to influence production and quality throughout the year. The mutual influence

  2. Evaluation of the Photostability and Photodynamic Efficacy of Rose ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... uptake and different localization pattern in the cell, in addition to increased photostability. Conclusion: Loading RB in MVL is a promising approach to improve the photodynamic efficacy of RB, by enhancing its photostability and delivery into cells. Keywords: Rose Bengal, Photodynamic therapy, Multivesicular liposomes, ...

  3. Erythrocyte Antioxidant Protection of Rose Hips (Rosa spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Widén

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Rose hips are popular in health promoting products as the fruits contain high content of bioactive compounds. The aim of this study was to investigate whether health benefits are attributable to ascorbic acid, phenols, or other rose-hip-derived compounds. Freeze-dried powder of rose hips was preextracted with metaphosphoric acid and the sample was then sequentially eluted on a C18 column. The degree of amelioration of oxidative damage was determined in an erythrocyte in vitro bioassay by comparing the effects of a reducing agent on erythrocytes alone or on erythrocytes pretreated with berry extracts. The maximum protection against oxidative stress, 59.4±4.0% (mean ± standard deviation, was achieved when incubating the cells with the first eluted meta-phosphoric extract. Removal of ascorbic acid from this extract increased the protection against oxidative stress to 67.9±1.9%. The protection from the 20% and 100% methanol extracts was 20.8±8.2% and 5.0±3.2%, respectively. Antioxidant uptake was confirmed by measurement of catechin by HPLC-ESI-MS in the 20% methanol extract. The fact that all sequentially eluted extracts studied contributed to protective effects on the erythrocytes indicates that rose hips contain a promising level of clinically relevant antioxidant protection.

  4. Factors affecting the germination of hybrid rose achenes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, De D.P.; Dubois, L.A.M.

    2015-01-01

    The smooth germination of mature Hybrid rose achenes is hampered by (i) hardseededness (HS), (ii) primary dormancy (PD) and (iii) germination polymorphism (GP). HS is owing to the hard pericarp. PD is, in principle, a natural phenomenon that protects the seeds from precocious germination. For

  5. Pomological and phenological characteristics of promising rose hip ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to determine pomological and phenological characteristics of eleven promising rose hip (Rosa) genotypes chosen from wild populations in Tokat region of northern Anatolia, Turkey. Plants were propagated by cuttings and planted in 2000 at the research station of the Horticultural Department of ...

  6. Erythrocyte antioxidant protection of rose hips (Rosa spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widén, C; Ekholm, A; Coleman, M D; Renvert, S; Rumpunen, K

    2012-01-01

    Rose hips are popular in health promoting products as the fruits contain high content of bioactive compounds. The aim of this study was to investigate whether health benefits are attributable to ascorbic acid, phenols, or other rose-hip-derived compounds. Freeze-dried powder of rose hips was preextracted with metaphosphoric acid and the sample was then sequentially eluted on a C(18) column. The degree of amelioration of oxidative damage was determined in an erythrocyte in vitro bioassay by comparing the effects of a reducing agent on erythrocytes alone or on erythrocytes pretreated with berry extracts. The maximum protection against oxidative stress, 59.4 ± 4.0% (mean ± standard deviation), was achieved when incubating the cells with the first eluted meta-phosphoric extract. Removal of ascorbic acid from this extract increased the protection against oxidative stress to 67.9 ± 1.9%. The protection from the 20% and 100% methanol extracts was 20.8 ± 8.2% and 5.0 ± 3.2%, respectively. Antioxidant uptake was confirmed by measurement of catechin by HPLC-ESI-MS in the 20% methanol extract. The fact that all sequentially eluted extracts studied contributed to protective effects on the erythrocytes indicates that rose hips contain a promising level of clinically relevant antioxidant protection.

  7. Cultural and religious unification through music in Desert Rose's ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Silence of the Musicis a musical theatre piece produced by Desert Rose in 2010. The production not only addresses themes of prejudice and intercultural discrepancies in post-apartheid South Africa, but also carries a message of love and unity. The unifying factor in the show is music – the fusing together of the musics of ...

  8. Sexual preferences linked to rose taxonomy and cytology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nybom, H.; Werlemark, G.; Esselink, G.D.; Vosman, B.J.

    2005-01-01

    The genus Rosa is usually subdivided into four subgenera, the largest of these is subgenus Rosa with 10 sections. Most of the genetically analysed rose species appear to be sexual and diploid (2n = 14) or tetraploid (2n = 28) although there are a few triploid (2n = 21), hexaploid (2n = 42) and

  9. Vascular occlusion in cut rose flowers - a survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doorn, van W.G.

    1995-01-01

    The causes of low water uptake and water stress symptoms in cut rose flowers are briefly reviewed. Low water uptake is due to an occlusion, mainly located in the basal stem end. No evidence has been found for a reaction of the plant after cutting, in the formation of this occlusion. The blockage has

  10. Relationship between cavitation and water uptake in rose stems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doorn, van W.G.; Suiro, V.

    1996-01-01

    Cavitation in rose stems (Rosa hybrida L.) was assessed in both intact plants and excised flowers, by measurement of ultrasonic acoustic emissions at the stem surface and determination of the air-conductivity of 2.5-cm segments that were attached at one end to air at low pressure (0.01 MPa). On

  11. Vascular occlusion in stems of cut rose flowers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doorn, van W.G.

    1993-01-01

    The quality of cut rose flowers, a major horticultural crop in the Netherlands, is often unsatisfactory. During vase-life premature signs of water stress occur, such as slow growth of the bud which often results in poor flower opening, wilting of both the flowers and the leaves, and bending

  12. Spreading tendencies of multiflora rose in the Southeast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosene, W.

    1950-01-01

    In 1948-49 studies were made on the spreading of multiflora rose at the sites of three old plantings in Alabama and Georgia. The age of these plantings varied from 14-40 years. Roses were invading surrounding land at each site. Observations indicated that seeds are carried by water and birds. Seedlings were numerous in drainageways leading from old shrubs. Birds had deposited seed under trees, in thickets, and along hedgerows. Seedlings growing under a single tree varied in number from a few to 50. Two rose bushes were found under a tree a mile from the probable point of origin. Seedlings were spreading in unimproved pastures by growing in thickets where they were protected from grazing and mowing. Plants were not found in cultivated fields. Spreading was similar near all three locations in like plant communities. Competition from trees affected multiflora more than that of any other type of vegetation. Plants thrive in pine woodlands with an open canopy, but growth is weak in a thick hardwood stand. Control will be necessary if multiflora rose is to be kept from spreading in idle land and unimproved pastures.

  13. Rose Windows: A Bridge Between Heaven And Earth

    OpenAIRE

    Gaiko, Jennifer Lynn

    2017-01-01

    The rose window is a bridge between heaven and earth, a spiritual encounter, and an expression from within to allow the love of joy. Ornament and beauty are the adoration of light. Layers of composition and layers of light allow form to follow feeling through the structural repetition and thought of light as a material itself. MARCH

  14. Bayesian MCMC estimation of the rose of directions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Prokešová, Michaela

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 39, č. 6 (2003), s. 703-718 ISSN 0023-5954 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA1075201; GA ČR GA201/03/0946 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1075907 Keywords : rose of directions * space of compact sets Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.319, year: 2003

  15. Using possibility of dried rose (Rosa damascena Mill

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ahnir Anida

    Abstract. The present study was carried out to determine the effects of using dried rose dreg (DRD) as an alternative litter material for broiler performance and microbiological characteristics of litter. A total of 225 day-old broiler chicks was raised on pine wood shavings (PS), DRD and PS+DRD until 42 days. The effects.

  16. Tips From Former Smokers – Rose

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-07-07

    Rose developed lung cancer from smoking cigarettes and needed surgery. She talks about the difficulties she faced recovering from surgery.  Created: 7/7/2014 by Office on Smoking and Health, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion.   Date Released: 7/7/2014.

  17. PEMUNGUTAN MINYAK ATSIRI MAWAR (Rose Oil DENGAN METODE MASERASI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astrilia Damayanti

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Minyak mawar merupakan salah satu produk minyak bunga yang memungkinkan diproduksi di Indonesia dengan kualitas ekspor. Manfaat dari minyak mawar adalah untuk parfum, kosmestik, dan obat-obatan. Minyak mawar dapat diproduksi dengan menggunakan metode diantaranya maserasi. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah mengetahui rendemen minyak atsiri mawar merah (Rosa damascena dan komponen minyak atsiri yang terambil dengan etanol dan n-heksana. Bahan baku yang digunakan berupa mahkota bunga mawar sebanyak 50 gram yang dipotong kecil-kecil, kemudian direndam dalam pelarut dengan perbandingan 1:3. Pelarut yang digunakan yaitu etanol dan n-heksana. Proses maserasi dilakukan dengan pengadukan selama 1 menit secara manual pada suhu ruang dan didiamkan selama 12 jam di tempat tertutup dan gelap (tanpa terkena cahaya. Hasil maserasi berupa ekstrak mawar dipisahkan dengan cara penyaringan dan pemerasan bunga. Filtrat yang mengandung minyak bunga mawar dievaporasi dengan  rotary vacuum evaporator. Maserasi menggunakan etanol pada suhu 60ºC selama 20 menit, sedangkan maserasi menggunakan n-heksana pada suhu 55 ºC selama 10 menit. Minyak atsiri hasil maserasi bunga mawar merah dilakukan uji GC-MS. Komponen utama minyak atsiri dari bunga mawar dengan pelarut etanol dan pelarut n-heksana secara berurutan adalah phenyl ethyl alcohol (2,73% dan (31,69%. Rendemen hasil maserasi minyak bunga mawar dengan pelarut etanol adalah 8,76%, sedangkan pelarut n-heksana menghasilkan 0,34 %. Rose oil is one of the flower oil products which is potentially produced in Indonesia with export quality. The uses of rose oils are for perfume, cosmestics, and medicine. Rose oil can be produced using methods such as maceration. The purpose of this reasearch was to determine the yield of essential oil of red roses (Rosa damascena and the essential oil components taken using ethanol and n-hexane. The raw material used was 50 grams of red roses which subsequently soaked into solvent with

  18. Endogenous Auxin Profile in the Christmas Rose (Helleborus niger L.) Flower and Fruit: Free and Amide Conjugated IAA

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Brcko, A.; Pěnčík, Aleš; Magnus, V.; Prebeg, T.; Mlinaric, S.; Antunovic, J.; Lepeduš, H.; Cesar, V.; Strnad, Miroslav; Rolčík, Jakub; Salopek-Sondi, B.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 31, č. 1 (2012), s. 63-78 ISSN 0721-7595 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KAN200380801 Keywords : Auxin * Indole-3-acetic acid * Amide conjugates * Christmas rose * Helleborus niger L. * Flower and fruit development * Perianth greening * Peduncle elongation * Vascular system Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.990, year: 2012

  19. Risk of congenital anomalies around a municipal solid waste incinerator: a GIS-based case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garavelli Livia

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Waste incineration releases into the environment toxic substances having a teratogenic potential, but little epidemiologic evidence is available on this topic. We aimed at examining the relation between exposure to the emissions from a municipal solid waste incinerator and risk of birth defects in a northern Italy community, using Geographical Information System (GIS data to estimate exposure and a population-based case-control study design. By modelling the incinerator emissions, we defined in the GIS three areas of increasing exposure according to predicted dioxins concentrations. We mapped the 228 births and induced abortions with diagnosis of congenital anomalies observed during the 1998–2006 period, together with a corresponding series of control births matched for year and hospital of birth/abortion as well as maternal age, using maternal address in the first three months of pregnancy to geocode cases and controls. Results Among women residing in the areas with medium and high exposure, prevalence of anomalies in the offspring was substantially comparable to that observed in the control population, nor dose-response relations for any of the major categories of birth defects emerged. Furthermore, odds ratio for congenital anomalies did not decrease during a prolonged shut-down period of the plant. Conclusion Overall, these findings do not lend support to the hypothesis that the environmental contamination occurring around an incineration plant such as that examined in this study may induce major teratogenic effects.

  20. Did we choose the best one? A new site selection approach based on exposure and uptake potential for waste incineration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirarslan, K Onur; Korucu, M Kemal; Karademir, Aykan

    2016-08-01

    Ecological problems arising after the construction and operation of a waste incineration plant generally originate from incorrect decisions made during the selection of the location of the plant. The main objective of this study is to investigate how the selection method for the location of a new municipal waste incineration plant can be improved by using a dispersion modelling approach supported by geographical information systems and multi-criteria decision analysis. Considering this aim, the appropriateness of the current location of an existent plant was assessed by applying a pollution dispersion model. Using this procedure, the site ranking for a total of 90 candidate locations and the site of the existing incinerator were determined by a new location selection practice and the current place of the plant was evaluated by ANOVA and Tukey tests. This ranking, made without the use of modelling approaches, was re-evaluated based on the modelling of various variables, including the concentration of pollutants, population and population density, demography, temporality of meteorological data, pollutant type, risk formation type by CALPUFF and re-ranking the results. The findings clearly indicate the impropriety of the location of the current plant, as the pollution distribution model showed that its location was the fourth-worst choice among 91 possibilities. It was concluded that the location selection procedures for waste incinerators should benefit from the improvements obtained by the articulation of pollution dispersion studies combined with the population density data to obtain the most suitable location. © The Author(s) 2016.

  1. Environmental impacts of residual Municipal Solid Waste incineration: A comparison of 110 French incinerators using a life cycle approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beylot, Antoine, E-mail: a.beylot@brgm.fr; Villeneuve, Jacques

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • 110 French incinerators are compared with LCA based on plant-specific data. • Environmental impacts vary as a function of plants energy recovery and NO{sub x} emissions. • E.g. climate change impact ranges from −58 to 408 kg CO{sub 2}-eq/tonne of residual MSW. • Implications for LCA of waste management in a decision-making process are detailed. - Abstract: Incineration is the main option for residual Municipal Solid Waste treatment in France. This study compares the environmental performances of 110 French incinerators (i.e. 85% of the total number of plants currently in activity in France) in a Life Cycle Assessment perspective, considering 5 non-toxic impact categories: climate change, photochemical oxidant formation, particulate matter formation, terrestrial acidification and marine eutrophication. Mean, median and lower/upper impact potentials are determined considering the incineration of 1 tonne of French residual Municipal Solid Waste. The results highlight the relatively large variability of the impact potentials as a function of the plant technical performances. In particular, the climate change impact potential of the incineration of 1 tonne of waste ranges from a benefit of −58 kg CO{sub 2}-eq to a relatively large burden of 408 kg CO{sub 2}-eq, with 294 kg CO{sub 2}-eq as the average impact. Two main plant-specific parameters drive the impact potentials regarding the 5 non-toxic impact categories under study: the energy recovery and delivery rate and the NO{sub x} process-specific emissions. The variability of the impact potentials as a function of incinerator characteristics therefore calls for the use of site-specific data when required by the LCA goal and scope definition phase, in particular when the study focuses on a specific incinerator or on a local waste management plan, and when these data are available.

  2. Development of the WagRhSNP AXIOM SNP Array Based on Sequences from Tetraploid Cut Roses and Garden Roses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smulders, M.J.M.; Voorrips, R.E.; Esselink, G.; Santos Leonardo, T.M.; Westende, van 't W.P.C.; Vukosavljev, M.; Koning-Boucoiran, C.F.S.; Weg, van de W.E.; Arens, P.F.P.; Schulz, D.; Debener, T.; Bellon, L.; Mittmann, M.; Pirani, A.; Webster, T.; Brew, F.; Cox, P.; Maliepaard, C.A.

    2015-01-01

    Rose, as many other important ornamental, vegetable and field crops, is polyploid. This poses constraints in genetic analyses due to the occurrence of multiple alleles at marker and trait loci and the existence of multiple allele dosages. Developments in marker discovery (next generation

  3. Hazardous waste incineration in context with carbon dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhardt, Tim; Richers, Ulf; Suchomel, Horst

    2008-02-01

    The Kyoto Protocol of 1997 demands an emission reduction of climate-affecting gases in various industrial sectors. In this context CO2 is one of the relevant gases and waste management is one of the relevant sectors. Referring to the situation in Europe, waste incineration is one of the major sources of CO2 in the waste management sector. The Kyoto Protocol, however, only covers CO2-emissions originating from fossil fuels, whereas the incineration of renewable materials, e.g. wood, is considered to be climate-neutral since it does not make any net contribution to the CO2 inventory of the atmosphere. Unlike the situation with municipal waste, there is little if any information on the CO2-emissions caused by the incineration of hazardous waste in specialized plants, and the renewable fraction in these materials. The present paper focuses on this gap of knowledge. Taking the full-scale hazardous waste incineration plant in Biebesheim, Germany, as an example, a carbon balance was set up for the whole-plant taking into account all other material flows. Afterwards the determination of the proportion of renewable materials in the hazardous waste incinerated by means of the radiocarbon method (14C) is reported. On the basis of the results, optimization potentials are discussed.

  4. A comparative assessment of waste incinerators in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, J D; Wright, D G; Dey, P K; Ghosh, S K; Davies, P A

    2013-11-01

    The uptake in Europe of Energy from Waste (EfW) incinerator plants has increased rapidly in recent years. In the UK, 25 municipal waste incinerators with energy recovery are now in operation; however, their waste supply chains and business practices vary significantly. With over a hundred more plant developments being considered it is important to establish best business practices for ensuring efficient environmental and operational performance. By reviewing the 25 plants we identify four suitable case study plants to compare technologies (moving grate, fluidised bed and rotary kiln), plant economics and operations. Using data collected from annual reports and through interviews and site visits we provide recommendations for improving the supply chain for waste incinerators and highlight the current issues and challenges faced by the industry. We find that plants using moving grate have a high availability of 87-92%. However, compared to the fluidised bed and rotary kiln, quantities of bottom ash and emissions of hydrogen chloride and carbon monoxide are high. The uptake of integrated recycling practices, combined heat and power, and post incineration non-ferrous metal collections needs to be increased among EfW incinerators in the UK. We conclude that one of the major difficulties encountered by waste facilities is the appropriate selection of technology, capacity, site, waste suppliers and heat consumers. This study will be of particular value to EfW plant developers, government authorities and researchers working within the sector of waste management. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Processing of combustible radioactive waste using incineration techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maestas, E.

    1981-01-01

    Among the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency Member countries numerous incineration concepts are being studied as potential methods for conditioning alpha-bearing and other types of combustible radioactive waste. The common objective of these different processes is volume reduction and the transformation of the waste to a more acceptable waste form. Because the combustion processes reduce the mass and volume of waste to a form which is generally more inert than the feed material, the resulting waste can be more uniformly compatible with safe handling, packaging, storage and/or disposal techniques. The number of different types of combustion process designed and operating specifically for alpha-bearing wastes is somewhat small compared with those for non-alpha radioactive wastes; however, research and development is under way in a number of countries to develop and improve alpha incinerators. This paper provides an overview of most alpha-incineration concepts in operation or under development in OECD/NEA Member countries. The special features of each concept are briefly discussed. A table containing characteristic data of incinerators is presented so that a comparison of the major programmes can be made. The table includes the incinerator name and location, process type, capacity throughput, operational status and application. (author)

  6. Operation of a pilot incinerator for solid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hootman, H.E.; Trapp, D.J.; Warren, J.H.

    1979-01-01

    A laboratory-scale incinerator (0.5 kg waste/hr) was built and operated for more than 18 months as part of a program to adapt and confirm technology for incineration of Savannah River Plant solid wastes, which are contaminated with about 0.3 Ci/kg of alpha-emitting transuranium (TRU) nuclides (Slide 1). About 4000 packages of simulated nonradioactive wastes were burned, including HEPA (high-efficiency particulate air) filters, resins, and other types of solid combustible waste from plutonium finishing operations. Throughputs of more than 3 kg/hr for periods up to 4 hours were demonstrated. The incinerator was oerated at temperatures above 750 0 C for more than 7700 hours during a period of 12 months, for an overall availability of 88%. The incinerator was shut down three times during the year: once to replace the primary combustion chamber electrical heater, and twice to replace oxidized electrical connectors to the secondary chamber heaters. Practical experience with this pilot facility provided the design basis for the full-size (5 kg waste/hr) nonradioactive test incinerator, which began operation in March 1979

  7. DEMOLITION OF HANFORD'S 232-Z WASTE INCINERATION FACILITY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LLOYD, E.R.

    2006-01-01

    The 232-Z Plutonium Incinerator Facility was a small, highly alpha-contaminated, building situated between three active buildings located in an operating nuclear complex. Approximately 500 personnel worked within 250 meters (800 ft) of the structure and expectations were that the project would neither impact plant operations nor result in any restrictions when demolition was complete. Precision demolition and tight controls best describe the project. The team used standard open-air demolition techniques to take the facility to slab-on-grade. Several techniques were key to controlling contamination and confining it to the demolition area: spraying fixatives before demolition began; using misting systems, frequently applying fixatives, and using a methodical demolition sequence and debris load-out process. Detailed air modeling was done before demolition to determine necessary facility source-term levels, establish radiological boundaries, and confirm the adequacy of the proposed demolition approach. By only removing the major source term in equipment, HEPA filters, gloveboxes, and the like, and leaving fixed contamination on the walls, ceilings and floors, the project showed considerable savings and reduced worker hazards and exposure. The ability to perform this demolition safely and without the spread of contamination provides confidence that similar operations can be performed successfully. By removing the major source terms, fixing the remaining contamination in the building, and using controlled demolition and contamination control techniques, similar structures can be demolished cost effectively and safely

  8. A COMPARISON: ORGANIC EMISSIONS FROM HAZARDOUS WASTE INCINERATORS VERSUS THE 1990 TOXICS RELEASE INVENTORY AIR RELEASES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Incineration is often the preferred technology for disposing of hazardous waste, and remediating Superfund sites. The effective implementation of this technology is frequently impeded by strong public opposition `to hazardous waste' incineration HWI). One of the reasons cited for...

  9. Alternatives to incineration. Technical area status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwinkendorf, W.E. [BDM Federal, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); McFee, J.; Devarakonda, M. [International Technology Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Nenninger, L.L.; Fadullon, F.S. [Science Applications International Corp., Gaithersburg, MD (United States); Donaldson, T.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Dickerson, K. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)]|[Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, Golden, CO (United States)

    1995-04-01

    Recently, the DOE`s Mixed Waste Integrated Program (MWIP) (superseded by the Mixed Waste Focus Area) initiated an evaluation of alternatives to incineration to identify technologies capable of treating DOE organically contaminated mixed wastes and which may be more easily permitted. These technologies have the potential of alleviating stakeholder concerns by decreasing off-gas volurties and the associated emissions of particulates, volatilized metals and radionuclides, PICs, NO{sub x}, SO{sub x}, and recombination products (dioxins and furans). Ideally, the alternate technology would be easily permitted, relatively omnivorous and effective in treating a variety of wastes with varying constituents, require minimal pretreatment or characterization, and be easy to implement. In addition, it would produce secondary waste stream volumes significantly smaller than the original waste stream, and would minimize the environmental health and safety effects on workers and the public. The purpose of this report is to provide an up-to-date (as of early 1995) compendium of iternative technologies for designers of mixed waste treatment facilities, and to identify Iternate technologies that may merit funding for further development. Various categories of non-thermal and thermal technologies have been evaluated and are summarized in Table ES-1. Brief descriptions of these technologies are provided in Section 1.7 of the Introduction. This report provides a detailed description of approximately 30 alternative technologies in these categories. Included in the report are descriptions of each technology; applicable input waste streams and the characteristics of the secondary, or output, waste streams; the current status of each technology relative to its availability for implementation; performance data; and costs. This information was gleaned from the open literature, governments reports, and discussions with principal investigators and developers.

  10. Alternatives to incineration. Technical area status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwinkendorf, W.E.; McFee, J.; Devarakonda, M.; Nenninger, L.L.; Fadullon, F.S.; Donaldson, T.L.; Dickerson, K.

    1995-04-01

    Recently, the DOE's Mixed Waste Integrated Program (MWIP) (superseded by the Mixed Waste Focus Area) initiated an evaluation of alternatives to incineration to identify technologies capable of treating DOE organically contaminated mixed wastes and which may be more easily permitted. These technologies have the potential of alleviating stakeholder concerns by decreasing off-gas volurties and the associated emissions of particulates, volatilized metals and radionuclides, PICs, NO x , SO x , and recombination products (dioxins and furans). Ideally, the alternate technology would be easily permitted, relatively omnivorous and effective in treating a variety of wastes with varying constituents, require minimal pretreatment or characterization, and be easy to implement. In addition, it would produce secondary waste stream volumes significantly smaller than the original waste stream, and would minimize the environmental health and safety effects on workers and the public. The purpose of this report is to provide an up-to-date (as of early 1995) compendium of iternative technologies for designers of mixed waste treatment facilities, and to identify Iternate technologies that may merit funding for further development. Various categories of non-thermal and thermal technologies have been evaluated and are summarized in Table ES-1. Brief descriptions of these technologies are provided in Section 1.7 of the Introduction. This report provides a detailed description of approximately 30 alternative technologies in these categories. Included in the report are descriptions of each technology; applicable input waste streams and the characteristics of the secondary, or output, waste streams; the current status of each technology relative to its availability for implementation; performance data; and costs. This information was gleaned from the open literature, governments reports, and discussions with principal investigators and developers

  11. Speciation of Chromium in Bottom Ash Obtained by the Incineration of the Leather Waste Shavings

    OpenAIRE

    k. louhab; H. Assas

    2006-01-01

    The evolution of bottom ash morphology and chromium metals behavior during incineration of a leather waste shavings at different incineration temperature have been studied. The Cr, Ca, Mg, Cl rates in bottom ashes, flay ashes and emitted gases in different incineration temperature of the tannery wastes are also determined. The morphology of the bottom ashes obtained by incineration at different temperature from the leather waste shavings was examined by MEB. The result sho...

  12. [Composition and content of biologically active substances in rose hips].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubtsova, G N; Negmatulloeva, R N; Bessonov, V V; Baĭkov, V G; Sheviakova, L V; Makhova, N N; Perederiaev, O I; Bogachuk, M N; Baĭgarin, E K

    2012-01-01

    The paper studies the chemical composition of the powders obtained from the pulp with the skins and seeds of fruits of wild rose hips. Research results have shown that the main fraction of the powder is dietary fiber, powder of seeds of insoluble fiber in 1,6 and 2,3 higher than in the powder of the fruit with a thin skin and pulp, respectively. The greatest amount of carbohydrates and protein found in powders and pulp of the fruit with a thin skin, and lipids predominate in the powder from the seeds. Found that the lipid powder rosehip richest in oleic, linoleic and linolenic acids, the share of oleic acid has 6,4-19,2%, linoleic and linolenic 19,7-45,8 and 23,3-33,9% of the amount of fatty acids. Lipids powders of hips and seeds of rose have higher levels of essential linoleic acid and powder from the pulp with the skins - linolenic acid. In the study established the presence of sterols 7 fractions, the predominant of which is the beta-sitosterol. In the powder from the pulp with the skins found the greatest amount of ascorbic acid, carotenoids, and the powder of seeds - vitamin E. Carotenoids in powders are beta-carotene and lycopene. The high content of ascorbic acid, vitamin E and carotenoids in powder from wild rose hips makes them a good source of antioxidants. Therefore, we studied the possibility of using vegetable powders obtained from hips of wild rose, to enrich biologically active substances such as vitamins C, E and carotenoids, food supply, particularly of health care use. Rosehip powder from the pulp with the skins had the highest antioxidant activity, antioxidant activity of hips powders was 74% of the activity of powder from the pulp with the skins, the lowest antioxidant activity was observed in the powder from the wild rose seeds. That's way, based on the analysis of the chemical composition of rose hip powder found high levels they ascorbic acid, carotenoids, flavonoids,found their high antioxidant activity. It allows to recommend powders

  13. Performance evaluation of non-incineration treatment facilities for disinfection of medical infectious and sharps wastes in educational hospitals of Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences in 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anooshiravan Mohseni Band-pay

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: In 2007, a rule prohibiting the use of incinerators was ratified by the Iranian Islamic Parliament. Based on this rule, the Ministry of Health emphasized the sterilization of infectious waste at its production source by means of non-incineration equipment and methods. This research examined the performance of non-incineration technologies in treating medical infectious and sharps wastes at educational hospitals affiliated with Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences. Methods: This cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted in 12 educational hospitals of Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences. First, a questionnaire was designed and its validity approved. Then the required data was gathered during visits to participating hospitals. Finally, the collected data were analyzed using Microsoft Excel and SPSS version 16. Results: Findings showed that the daily production of infectious and sharps wastes in the studied hospitals generally equaled 3387 kg. All hospitals were equipped with non-incineration systems; however, only 83.3% of them were active. Some infectious waste was disposed of along with urban wastes without being sterilized. Monthly biological assessments of treatment equipment were implemented for only 41.7% of the equipment. Conclusion: The failures of the non-incineration systems demand that appropriate investigations be conducted prior to the purchase of these devices. Monthly biological assessments are essential to ensure the accuracy of the systems’ performance in hospitals.

  14. Vitrification of bottom ash from a municipal solid waste incinerator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Y; Oorsprong, M; Yang, Y; Voncken, J H L

    2008-01-01

    During incineration of municipal solid waste (MSW), various environmentally harmful elements and heavy metals are liberated either into bottom ash, or carried away with the off-gases and subsequently trapped in fly-ash. If these minor but harmful elements are not properly isolated and immobilized, it can lead to secondary environmental pollution to the air, soil and water. The stricter environmental regulations to be implemented in the near future in The Netherlands require a higher immobilization efficiency of the bottom ash treatment. In the present study, MSW incinerator bottom ash was vitrified at higher temperatures and the slag formed and metal recovered were examined. The behaviour of soluble elements that remain in the slag is evaluated by standard leaching test. The results obtained can provide a valuable route to treat the ashes from incinerators, and to make recycling and more efficient utilization of the bottom ash possible.

  15. Disposal of waste or excess high explosives. Final report. [Incineration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-01-01

    The ''Disposal of Waste or Excess High Explosives'' project began January 1971. Various methods of disposal were investigated with the conclusion that incineration, at major ERDA facilities, would be the most feasible and safest method with the least cost and development time required. Two independent incinerator concepts were investigated: a rotary type for continuous processing and an enclosed pit type for batch processing. Both concepts are feasible; however, it is recommended that further investigations would be required to render them acceptable. It is felt that a larger effort would be required in the case of the rotary incinerator. The project was terminated (December 1976) prior to completion as a result of a grant of authority by the Texas Air Control Board allowing the ERDA Pantex Plant to continue indefinitely outdoor burning of explosives.

  16. Radiation safety for incineration of radioactive waste contaminated by cesium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veryuzhs'kij, Yu.V.; Gryin'ko, O.M.; Tokarevs'kij, V.V.

    2016-01-01

    Problems in the treatment of radioactive waste contaminated by cesium nuclides are considered in the paper. Chornobyl experience in the management of contaminated soil and contaminated forests is analyzed in relation to the accident at Fukushima-1. The minimization of release of cesium aerosols into atmosphere is very important. Radiation influence of inhaling atmosphere aerosols polluted by cesium has damage effect for humans. The research focuses on the treatment of forests contaminated by big volumes of cesium. One of the most important technologies is a pyro-gasification incineration with chemical reactions of cesium paying attention to gas purification problems. Requirements for process, physical and chemical properties of treatment of radioactive waste based on the dry pyro-gasification incineration facilities are considered in the paper together with the discussion of details related to incineration facilities. General similarities and discrepancies in the environmental pollution caused by the accidents at Chornobyl NPP and Fukushima-1 NPP in Japan are analyzed

  17. Economic sensitivity of DAW incineration to PVC content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossmassler, R.L.

    1986-01-01

    Economic analyses of the volume reduction of low level radwaste, including the incinerator of Dry Active Waste (DAW), spent resins and filter sludges, are performed using the microcomputer code VOLREDUCER. Based on BWR and PWR data taken from previous EPRI work, the sensitivity of incinerator economics to polyvinyl chloride (PVC) content in DAW is examined. An annual cost penalty associated with the presence of PVC in the waste is formulated, and the sensitivity of this penalty to a variety of parameters is determined. The alternative of sorting out PVC from the rest of the waste is compared to incineration with regard to this annual cost penalty. These penalties may range as high as $100,000 annually depending on the waste characteristics and percent of PVC

  18. Incineration of Low Level Radioactive Vegetation for Waste Volume Reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malik, N.P.S.; Rucker, G.G.; Looper, M.G.

    1995-01-01

    The DOE changing mission at Savannah River Site (SRS) are to increase activities for Waste Management and Environmental Restoration. There are a number of Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) locations that are contaminated with radioactivity and support dense vegetation, and are targeted for remediation. Two such locations have been studied for non-time critical removal actions under the National Contingency Plan (NCP). Both of these sites support about 23 plant species. Surveys of the vegetation show that radiation emanates mainly from vines, shrubs, and trees and range from 20,000 to 200,000 d/m beta gamma. Planning for removal and disposal of low-level radioactive vegetation was done with two principal goals: to process contaminated vegetation for optimum volume reduction and waste minimization, and for the protection of human health and environment. Four alternatives were identified as candidates for vegetation removal and disposal: chipping the vegetation and packing in carbon steel boxes (lined with synthetic commercial liners) and disposal at the Solid Waste Disposal Facility at SRS; composting the vegetation; burning the vegetation in the field; and incinerating the vegetation. One alternative 'incineration' was considered viable choice for waste minimization, safe handling, and the protection of the environment and human health. Advantages and disadvantages of all four alternatives considered have been evaluated. For waste minimization and ultimate disposal of radioactive vegetation incineration is the preferred option. Advantages of incineration are that volume reduction is achieved and low-level radioactive waste are stabilized. For incineration and final disposal vegetation will be chipped and packed in card board boxes and discharged to the rotary kiln of the incinerator. The slow rotation and longer resident time in the kiln will ensure complete combustion of the vegetative material

  19. Dioxins from medical waste incineration: Normal operation and transient conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tong; Zhan, Ming-xiu; Yan, Mi; Fu, Jian-ying; Lu, Sheng-yong; Li, Xiao-dong; Yan, Jian-hua; Buekens, Alfons

    2015-07-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) are key pollutants in waste incineration. At present, incinerator managers and official supervisors focus only on emissions evolving during steady-state operation. Yet, these emissions may considerably be raised during periods of poor combustion, plant shutdown, and especially when starting-up from cold. Until now there were no data on transient emissions from medical (or hospital) waste incineration (MWI). However, MWI is reputed to engender higher emissions than those from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI). The emission levels in this study recorded for shutdown and start-up, however, were significantly higher: 483 ± 184 ng Nm(-3) (1.47 ± 0.17 ng I-TEQ Nm(-3)) for shutdown and 735 ng Nm(-3) (7.73 ng I-TEQ Nm(-3)) for start-up conditions, respectively. Thus, the average (I-TEQ) concentration during shutdown is 2.6 (3.8) times higher than the average concentration during normal operation, and the average (I-TEQ) concentration during start-up is 4.0 (almost 20) times higher. So monitoring should cover the entire incineration cycle, including start-up, operation and shutdown, rather than optimised operation only. This suggestion is important for medical waste incinerators, as these facilities frequently start up and shut down, because of their small size, or of lacking waste supply. Forthcoming operation should shift towards much longer operating cycles, i.e., a single weekly start-up and shutdown. © The Author(s) 2015.

  20. Evaluation of a new SNCR intermixing technique applied on a waste incinerator at Uppsala Energi (System ROTAMIX{sup TM}); Utvaerdering av ny SNCR inblandningsteknik vid avfallspanna hos Uppsala Energi (System ROTAMIX{sup TM})

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moberg, G. [Mobotec AB (Sweden); Sollenberg, H.; Westas, H. [Uppsala Energi AB, Uppsala (Sweden)

    1996-04-01

    A good intermixing of reductants in the exhaust gas is essential for good combustion and high NO{sub x} reduction. Good intermixing cuts down on the levels of reducing chemicals required for NO{sub x} reduction. Conventional SNCR is built on intermixing of reductants through a series of lances which are mounted to cover several cross sectional areas of the furnace. System ROTAMIX{sup TM} is a technique based on premixing the SNCR chemicals with air before entering the furnace by rotation. As a consequence, fewer numbers of mixing nozzles are needed. As a result; The investment cost can be kept down. Also the creation of unwanted byproducts are reduced. The reason for this is that a homogeneous mixture of gases inside the furnace results in more even temperature distribution through the cross-section of the furnace. Increasing the effectiveness of the reductants, so reducing the levels of chemicals required and so reducing the unwanted by-products. Furthermore; System ROTAMIX reduces levels of NO{sub x} by a further 50% over existing SNCR technology system; An increase in efficiency carried by needed lower levels of excess air; The actual levels of NO{sub x} are down to as low as 120-125 mg/MJ without the need for any addition, reducing chemical with Rotating Over Fire Air (ROFA). 4 figs, 9 tabs, 18 appendices

  1. Radioactive waste incineration studies at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stretz, L.A.; Borduin, L.C.; Draper, W.E.; Koenig, R.A.; Newmyer, J.M.

    1980-01-01

    Development and demonstration of a transuranic (TRU) waste volume-reduction process is described. A controlled-air incinerator, based upon commercially available equipment and technology, was modified for radioactive service and was successfully tested and demonstrated with contaminated waste. Demonstration of the production-scale unit was completed in May 1980 with the incineration of 272 kg of waste with an average TRU content of about 20 nCi/g. Weight and volume reduction factors for the demonstration run were 40:1 and 120:1, respectively

  2. Incineration of tyres, radioactive and photographic industry waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpentier, S.

    1977-01-01

    In the list every day longer of 'industrial' wastes, there is a special place for combustible waste usually presenting a solution for their elimination, i. e. incineration with or without calory recovery. Three categories are well-known as they concern the general public. The overall data of the problem are first considered, then three incineration plants in three different fields are described: motor-car tyres, nuclear industry, photographic industry. In the last field, well-conducted recovery processes may result in surprising results as to the damping of the plant cost, which finally is both pleasant and useful [fr

  3. Radioactivity partitioning of oil sludge undergoing incineration process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhamat Omar; Suhaimi Hamzah; Muhd Noor Muhd Yunus

    1997-01-01

    Oil sludge waste is a controlled item under the Atomic Energy Act (Act 304) 1984 of which the radioactivity content shall be subjected to analysis. Apart from that the treatment method also shall be approved by Atomic Energy Licensing Board (AELB). Thus, an analysis of the oil sludge for MSE fluidized incinerator was conducted to comply with above requirements using various techniques. Further screening analysis of fly ash as well as bed material were done to study the effect of incinerating the sludge. This paper highlights the analysis techniques and discusses the results with respect to the radioactivity level and the fate of radionuclides subjected to the processing of the waste

  4. Therapeutic Applications of Rose Hips from Different Rosa Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inés Mármol

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Rosa species, rose hips, are widespread wild plants that have been traditionally used as medicinal compounds for the treatment of a wide variety of diseases. The therapeutic potential of these plants is based on its antioxidant effects caused by or associated with its phytochemical composition, which includes ascorbic acid, phenolic compounds and healthy fatty acids among others. Over the last few years, medicinal interest in rose hips has increased as a consequence of recent research that has studied its potential application as a treatment for several diseases including skin disorders, hepatotoxicity, renal disturbances, diarrhoea, inflammatory disorders, arthritis, diabetes, hyperlipidaemia, obesity and cancer. In this review, the role of different species of Rosa in the prevention of treatment of various disorders related to oxidative stress, is examined, focusing on new therapeutic approaches from a molecular point of view.

  5. Therapeutic Applications of Rose Hips from Different Rosa Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mármol, Inés; Sánchez-de-Diego, Cristina; Jiménez-Moreno, Nerea; Ancín-Azpilicueta, Carmen; Rodríguez-Yoldi, María Jesús

    2017-05-25

    Rosa species, rose hips, are widespread wild plants that have been traditionally used as medicinal compounds for the treatment of a wide variety of diseases. The therapeutic potential of these plants is based on its antioxidant effects caused by or associated with its phytochemical composition, which includes ascorbic acid, phenolic compounds and healthy fatty acids among others. Over the last few years, medicinal interest in rose hips has increased as a consequence of recent research that has studied its potential application as a treatment for several diseases including skin disorders, hepatotoxicity, renal disturbances, diarrhoea, inflammatory disorders, arthritis, diabetes, hyperlipidaemia, obesity and cancer. In this review, the role of different species of Rosa in the prevention of treatment of various disorders related to oxidative stress, is examined, focusing on new therapeutic approaches from a molecular point of view.

  6. Bekæmpelse af rynket rose II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buttenschøn, Rita M.; Ransijn, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    Rynket rose er en invasiv art, der har spredt sig voldsomt gennem de seneste år – ikke kun i Danmark men i hele Europa. Den er svær at bekæmpe, og derfor har Naturstyrelsen Thy og Thisted Kommune i perioden 2010-2013 gennemført en række kontrollerede forsøg med slåning, græsning og kemisk...

  7. Preparation of Labelled I131 Rose-Bengal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayani, Mbutyabo; Chabouri, Galaal.

    1978-01-01

    Rose bengal purified on a Sephadex G-25 column has been labelled with iodine-131. The exchange reaction has been undertaken in an ether - alcohol medium. The influence of different factors (iodine concentration, Psup(h), purity and chemical form of the substratum, reaction rate) on the labelling yield has been studied. Radiochemical yield of 90% have been obtained in some conditions instead of the normal 80% reported in the literature

  8. Mutation induction of roses through in vitro propagation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amran Abd Halim; Azhar Mohamad; Rusli Ibrahim

    2002-01-01

    The genus Rosa has been exploited for a variety used extensively in commercial production for many cultivars. Mutation induction is an alternative way of creating more variations in a single variety. Radiosensitivity test was carried out to identify optimum doses in mutation induction. Shoot tips of excises from in vitro plantlets were irradiated with doses of 0, 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 Gy using a gamma cell with a 60 Co source at dose rate of 0.25 Gy s -1 . Irradiated shoot tips were cultured on semi solid modified Murashige and Skoog (MS) containing cytokinin (BAP) hormone and incubated at 24 with a photoperiod of 16 hours (3500 lux). Radiosensitivity was assessed by the rate of shoot proliferation four weeks after treatment. Increasing gamma ray doses caused a reduction of survival rate as well as the average shoots produced per plantlet. Through linear estimation of buds and shoots proliferation, radiation dose that reduced the growth to 50% of the control treatment (LD 50 ) was 53 Gy for miniature roses and 60 Gy for cut roses. Based on the radiosensitivity test 20 and 40 Gy were selected for irradiation to get new mutant varieties of roses. Changes in flower characters were found in three treated plants after three months in the green house. (Author)

  9. 76 FR 28315 - Security Zone; Portland Rose Festival on Willamette River

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-17

    ... Zone; Portland Rose Festival on Willamette River AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of enforcement of regulation. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard will enforce the Portland Rose Festival Security Zone in... River during the Portland Rose festival. During the enforcement period, no person or vessel may enter or...

  10. 75 FR 20778 - Security Zone; Portland Rose Festival Fleet Week, Willamette River, Portland, OR

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-21

    ...-AA87 Security Zone; Portland Rose Festival Fleet Week, Willamette River, Portland, OR AGENCY: Coast... during the Portland Rose Festival Fleet Week from June 2, 2010, through June 7, 2010. The security zone... is a need to provide a security zone for the 2010 Portland Rose Festival Fleet Week, and there is...

  11. [Morbidity in a population living close to urban waste incinerator plants in Lazio Region (Central Italy): a retrospective cohort study using a before-after design].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golini, Martina Nicole; Ancona, Carla; Badaloni, Chiara; Bolignano, Andrea; Bucci, Simone; Sozzi, Roberto; Davoli, Marina; Forastiere, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    exposure areas in respect to the reference group (hazard ratio - HR: 1.26; 95%CI 0.99-1.60, and HR: 1.86; 95%CI 1.04-3.33, respectively). There were associations between exposure to background pollution from other sources and hospitalizations for diseases of the circulatory system (HR: 1.08; 95%CI 1.03-1.13) and respiratory diseases (HR: 1.07; 95%CI 1.02-1.11) (for a unitary increment of PM₁₀, μg/m³). living in areas with high PM₁₀ levels due to incinerators was associated with increased morbidity levels for respiratory disorders among men. The study area is critical from an environmental point of view, hence an epidemiological surveillance is recommended.

  12. Determination of inorganic radioiodine in 131I- Rose Bengal and 131I- bromosulphthalein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toledo e Souza, I.T. de; Pereira, N.P.S. de; Silva, C.P.G. da.

    1985-01-01

    A rapid miniaturized chromatographic system was developed for fast determination of the proportion of inorganic radioactive iodide from radiopharmaceuticals 131 I-Rose Bengal and 131 I-Bromosulphthalein. Using 33% W/V aqueous solution of ammonium sulphate pH 7,5 as a solvent Rf values for radiopharmaceuticals, iodide, iodate to Rf 0,0 0,5 0,9 respectively. The chromatographic quality control procedures are easy to use, rapid and can be incorporated in a routine quality control program. (Author) [pt

  13. Chaotic synchronization of nearest-neighbor diffusive coupling Hindmarsh-Rose neural networks in noisy environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang Xiaoling; Yu Hongjie; Jiang Zonglai

    2009-01-01

    The chaotic synchronization of Hindmarsh-Rose neural networks linked by a nonlinear coupling function is discussed. The HR neural networks with nearest-neighbor diffusive coupling form are treated as numerical examples. By the construction of a special nonlinear-coupled term, the chaotic system is coupled symmetrically. For three and four neurons network, a certain region of coupling strength corresponding to full synchronization is given, and the effect of network structure and noise position are analyzed. For five and more neurons network, the full synchronization is very difficult to realize. All the results have been proved by the calculation of the maximum conditional Lyapunov exponent.

  14. Exposure dose evaluation of worker at radioactive waste incineration facility on KAERI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Sang Kyu; Jeon, Jong Seon; Kim, Youn Hwa; Lee, Jae Min; Lee, Gi Won

    2011-01-01

    An incineration treatment of inflammable radioactive wastes leads to have a reduction effect of disposal cost and also to contribute an enhancement of safety at a disposal site by taking the advantage of stabilization of the wastes which is accomplished by converting organic materials into inorganic materials. As it was required for an incineration technology, KAERI (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute) has developed a pilot incineration process and then constructed a demonstration incineration facility having based on the operating experiences of the pilot process. In this study, worker exposure doses were evaluated to confirm safety of workers before the demonstration incineration facility will commence a commercial. (author)

  15. The domestic wastes incinerators; Les incinerateurs d'ordures menegares: quels risques? quelles politiques?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-10-01

    This document presents the opinion of the Committee of Prevention and Precaution (CPP), on the domestic wastes incinerators, in the framework of the global wastes policy. The seven chapters detail and bring advices on the following topics: the elements which are going in and out of the incinerators, the technical processes, the occupational activities and the risks bound to the incinerators use, the transfer modes towards the different environmental areas, the exposure estimation, the risks of people living near the domestic wastes incinerators compared to the other concerning a cancer development, the legislation concerning the domestic wastes and the social acceptability of the incinerators. (A.L.B.)

  16. Heavy Metals Behavior During Thermal Plasma Vitrification Of Incineration Residues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerqueira, Nuno; Vandensteendam, Colette; Baronnet, Jean Marie

    2006-01-01

    Incineration of wastes, widely and increasingly used nowadays, produces residues, mainly bottom ash and filter fly ash. Fly ash is especially problematic because of its high content in heavy metals easily drawn out. Thermal processes, based mainly on electrical arc processes, are used to melt the residues at high temperature and convert them into a relatively inert glass. Consequently, to improve the process and get a glass satisfying regulation, control of heavy metals (lead, zinc, cadmium and chromium…) volatility during plasma fly ash melting and vitrification is needed and basic data concerning vaporization of these metals are required. According to the volatility of these compounds observed during vitrification of fly ash, a predictive model has been used to simulate the elimination of Pb, Zn and S from the melt as a function of time and temperature for a system including chlorides, oxides and sulfates. The objective of this work was the experimental study of heavy metals volatility using optical emission spectroscopy. A twin torch plasma system, mounted above a cold crucible with Ar (or Ar + O2) as plasma gas, has been used. The crucible was filled with synthetic glass in which known amounts of metallic salts were added to obtain the same chemical composition as used in the model. From spectral lines intensities of Ar, the plasma temperature profiles along the observation direction has been first established, before using ratios of spectral lines of Ar and metallic (Pb, Zn) or Cl vapors to reach the evolution of the elements concentrations above the melt. Off-gases have been analyzed by mass spectrometry. The influence of the atmosphere (Ar or Ar + O2) above the crucible has been studied and differences in elements behaviors have been pointed out. The results of the spectroscopic measurements have been compared to the ones issued of modeling, in order to validate our model of vaporization.

  17. 40 CFR 60.1445 - What are the emission limits for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? 60.1445 Section 60.1445 Protection of Environment... Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste § 60.1445 What are the emission limits for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? If your air curtain incinerator combusts...

  18. Radiological site assessment at sun rose claim utilizing ScanPlot{sup SM} technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Downey, H., E-mail: heath.downey@amecfw.com [Amec Foster Wheeler, Portland, ME (United States)

    2015-07-01

    ScanPlot{sup SM} gamma spectroscopy land survey system was utilized for the overland survey of uranium at the Sun Rose Claim in the Northwest Territories. The Sun Rose Claim is a former uranium exploration site and previous investigations had identified uranium ore and waste rock. ScanPlot{sup SM} radiological scan surveys were performed utilizing a backpack system. ScanPlot{sup SM} platform utilized spectroscopy grade sodium iodide detectors configured for optimal spatial coverage and radiation detection. Survey locations were recorded using an on-board global positioning system (GPS). The radiological spectral data from the radiation detectors is automatically logged and linked with the GPS coordinates to an on-board computer to create isocontour figures using a color scale to represent radioactivity levels. The advantage of utilizing the ScanPlot{sup SM} system for this assessment is that the nature and extent of uranium is provided without having to collect and assay a large number of samples. (author)

  19. Heavy Metal Concentrations around a Hospital Incinerator and a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies to determine the concentrations of heavy metals in the surrounding soils and bottom ash of a hospital incinerator and a municipal dumpsite were carried out in Ibadan City, South-West Nigeria from November 2010 to January 2011. Samples were analyzed for Pb, Fe, Cu, Zn, Cr and Ni using Flame Atomic Absorption ...

  20. Design, construction and test operation of a thermal incinerator for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Montfort type intermittent incinerator for combusting medical wastes were the waste types, fuel, chimney size, and flue gas residence time. The design analysis was based on flue gas flow rate of 0.13 m3/s, maximum primary chamber ...

  1. Initial emission assessment of hazardous-waste-incineration facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrington, E.S.; Holton, G.A.; O'Donnell, F.R.

    1982-01-01

    Health and Safety Research Division, sponsored by EPA, conducted a study to quantify emission factors from stacks, spills, fugitives, storage, and treatment for a typical hazardous waste incinerator facility. Engineering participated in preparing flowsheets and providing calculations for fugitive emissions. Typical block-flow diagrams were developed two types of hazardous waste incinerators (rotary kiln and liquid-injector) and for three capacities (small: 1 MM Btu/hr, median: 10 MM Btu/hr, and large: 150 MM Btu/hr). Storage reqirements and support services were determined in more detail. Using the properties of a typical waste, fugitive emissions were determined, including emissions from pump leaks, valve leaks, flange leaks, and tank vents. An atmospheric dispersion model was then employed to calculate atmospheric concentration and population exposure estimates. With these estimates, an assessment was performed to determine the percentage of concentrations and exposure associated with selected emissions from each source at the incineration facility. Results indicated the relative importance of each source at the incineration facility. Results indicated the relative importance of each source both in terms of public health and pollution control requirements

  2. Development of gas boy medical incinerator as a substitute for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The stench that emanates from the burial of placentas, limbs etc especially after rainfall, are unbearable and awful within most hospital environments. A solution has been found in the engineering of all-in-one medical gas boy incinerator with quick rise in temperature and even distribution of heat, with drying and firing cycles ...

  3. The impact of incinerators on human health and environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Raman; Sharma, Meenakshi; Sharma, Ratika; Sharma, Vivek

    2013-01-01

    Of the total wastes generated by health-care organizations, 10%-25% are biomedical wastes, which are hazardous to humans and the environment and requires specific treatment and management. For decades, incineration was the method of choice for the treatment of such infectious wastes. Incinerator releases a wide variety of pollutants depending on the composition of the waste, which leads to health deterioration and environmental degradation. The significant pollutants emitted are particulate matter, metals, acid gases, oxides of nitrogen, and sulfur, aside from the release of innumerable substances of unknown toxicity. This process of waste incineration poses a significant threat to public health and the environment. The major impact on health is the higher incidence of cancer and respiratory symptoms; other potential effects are congenital abnormalities, hormonal defects, and increase in sex ratio. The effect on the environmental is in the form of global warming, acidification, photochemical ozone or smog formation, eutrophication, and human and animal toxicity. Thus, there is a need to skip to newer, widely accepted, economical, and environment-friendly technologies. The use of hydroclaves and plasma pyrolysis for the incineration of biomedical wastes leads to lesser environmental degradation, negligible health impacts, safe handling of treated wastes, lesser running and maintenance costs, more effective reduction of microorganisms, and safer disposal.

  4. Effectiveness of incinerators in the management of medical wastes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction and Objectives Medical waste incinerators release into the air a host of pollutants that have serious adverse consequences on public health and the environment. This study aimed at determining ... Questionnaires, researcher observation and laboratory investigations of ash samples were used in data collection.

  5. Transformation of Silver Nanoparticles in Fresh, Aged, and Incinerated Biosolids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abstract The purpose of this research was to assess the chemical transformation of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in aged, fresh, and incinerated biosolids in order to provide information for AgNP life cycle analyses. Silver nanoparticles were introduced to the influent of a pilot...

  6. the development of new generation of solid waste refuse incinerators

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MATERIALS AND METHODS. These new generation of solid waste refuse incinerators are designed in the round with various locally manufactured special bricks for maximum stability and with minimal use of angle irons except for the doors since they are susceptible to rusting. The four fire boxes apart from allowing the ...

  7. Thermal Stability and Material Balance of Nanomaterials in Waste Incineration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paur, H.-R.; Baumann, W.; Hauser, M.; Lang, I.; Teuscher, N.; Seifert, H.; Stapf, D.

    2017-06-01

    Nanostructured materials are widely used to improve the properties of consumer products such as tires, cosmetics, light weight equipment etc. Due to their complex composition these products are hardly recycled and thermal treatment is preferred. In this study we investigated the thermal stability and material balance of nanostructured metal oxides in flames and in an industrial waste incinerator. We studied the size distribution of nanostructured metal oxides (CeO2, TiO2, SiO2) in a flame reactor and in a heated reaction tube. In the premixed ethylene/air flame, nano-structured CeO2 partly evaporates forming a new particle mode. This is probably due to chemical reactions in the flame. In addition sintering of agglomerates takes place in the flame. In the electrically heated reaction tube however only sintering of the agglomerated nanomaterials is observed. Ceria has a low background in waste incinerators and is therefore a suitable tracer for investigating the fate of nanostructured materials. Low concentrations of Ceria were introduced by a two-phase nozzle into the post-combustion zone of a waste incinerator. By the incineration of coal dust in a burning chamber the Ceria nanoparticles are mainly found in the size range of the fly ash (1 - 10 µm) because of agglomeration. With gas as a fuel less agglomeration was observed and the Ceria nanoparticles were in the particle size range below 1 µm.

  8. EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF CRITICAL FUNDAMENTAL ISSUES IN HAZARDOUS WASTE INCINERATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of a laboratory-scale program investigating several fundamental issues involved in hazardous waste incineration. The key experiment for each study was the measurement of waste destruction behavior in a sub-scale turbulent spray flame. (1) Atomization Qual...

  9. Danish Emission Inventory for Waste Incineration and Other Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjelgaard, Katja

    2013-01-01

    This report contains detailed methodological issues, activity data, emission factors, uncertainties and references for waste incineration without energy recovery and other waste source categories of the Danish emission inventories 2013. The emissions are calculated for the years 1980-2011 according...

  10. Thermal Stability and Material Balance of Nanomaterials in Waste Incineration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paur, H.-R.; Baumann, W.; Hauser, M.; Lang, I.; Teuscher, N.; Seifert, H.; Stapf, D.

    2017-01-01

    Nanostructured materials are widely used to improve the properties of consumer products such as tires, cosmetics, light weight equipment etc. Due to their complex composition these products are hardly recycled and thermal treatment is preferred. In this study we investigated the thermal stability and material balance of nanostructured metal oxides in flames and in an industrial waste incinerator. We studied the size distribution of nanostructured metal oxides (CeO 2 , TiO 2 , SiO 2 ) in a flame reactor and in a heated reaction tube. In the premixed ethylene/air flame, nano-structured CeO 2 partly evaporates forming a new particle mode. This is probably due to chemical reactions in the flame. In addition sintering of agglomerates takes place in the flame. In the electrically heated reaction tube however only sintering of the agglomerated nanomaterials is observed. Ceria has a low background in waste incinerators and is therefore a suitable tracer for investigating the fate of nanostructured materials. Low concentrations of Ceria were introduced by a two-phase nozzle into the post-combustion zone of a waste incinerator. By the incineration of coal dust in a burning chamber the Ceria nanoparticles are mainly found in the size range of the fly ash (1 – 10 µm) because of agglomeration. With gas as a fuel less agglomeration was observed and the Ceria nanoparticles were in the particle size range below 1 µm. (paper)

  11. Design and Fabrication of a Domestic Incinerator *1OMOREGIE, MJ ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    JASEM https://dx.doi.org/10.4314/jasem.v21i5.27. Keywords: Incinerator, wastes, combustion, scrubber, lagging, conductivity ... Combustion Process: Waste material is burnt in the combustion chamber using a proportionate air/ ... pipe, r1= internal radius of the pipe, r2 = external radius of the pipe; Rf = thermal resistance of ...

  12. Mathematical modelling of MSW incineration in a packed bed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Guanyi; Gu, Tianbao; He, Xiao

    2017-01-01

    Grate-firing is the most commonly used technology for municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration for heat and power generation, in which MSW undergoes thermochemical conversion (e.g., drying, devolatilization, char gasification and oxidation) in the fuel bed on the grate while the combustible gases...

  13. Forensic considerations when dealing with incinerated human dental remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reesu, Gowri Vijay; Augustine, Jeyaseelan; Urs, Aadithya B

    2015-01-01

    Establishing the human dental identification process relies upon sufficient post-mortem data being recovered to allow for a meaningful comparison with ante-mortem records of the deceased person. Teeth are the most indestructible components of the human body and are structurally unique in their composition. They possess the highest resistance to most environmental effects like fire, desiccation, decomposition and prolonged immersion. In most natural as well as man-made disasters, teeth may provide the only means of positive identification of an otherwise unrecognizable body. It is imperative that dental evidence should not be destroyed through erroneous handling until appropriate radiographs, photographs, or impressions can be fabricated. Proper methods of physical stabilization of incinerated human dental remains should be followed. The maintenance of integrity of extremely fragile structures is crucial to the successful confirmation of identity. In such situations, the forensic dentist must stabilise these teeth before the fragile remains are transported to the mortuary to ensure preservation of possibly vital identification evidence. Thus, while dealing with any incinerated dental remains, a systematic approach must be followed through each stage of evaluation of incinerated dental remains to prevent the loss of potential dental evidence. This paper presents a composite review of various studies on incinerated human dental remains and discusses their impact on the process of human identification and suggests a step by step approach. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  14. Possibilities for gas turbine and waste incinerator integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korobitsyn, M.A.; Jellema, P.; Hirs, Gerard

    1999-01-01

    The aggressive nature of the flue gases in municipal waste incinerators does not allow the temperature of steam in the boiler to rise above 400°C. An increase in steam temperature can be achieved by external superheating in a heat recovery steam generator positioned behind a gas turbine, so that

  15. Behavior of radioactive cesium during incineration of radioactively contaminated wastes from decontamination activities in Fukushima.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Hiroshi; Kuramochi, Hidetoshi; Nomura, Kazutaka; Maeseto, Tomoharu; Osako, Masahiro

    2017-11-01

    Large volumes of decontamination wastes (DW) generated by off-site decontamination activities in Fukushima Prefecture have been incinerated since 2015. The behavior of radioactive cesium during incineration of DW was investigated at a working incineration plant. The incineration discharged bottom ash (BA) and fly ash (FA) with similar levels of radiocesium, and the leachability of the radiocesium from both types of ash was very low (incineration of contaminated municipal solid waste (CMSW) reported in earlier studies. The source of radiocesium in DW-FA is chiefly small particles derived from DW and DW-BA blown into the flue gas, not the deposition of gaseous synthesized radiocesium compounds on the surfaces of ash particles in the flue gas as observed in CMSW incineration. This source difference causes the behavior of radiocesium during waste incineration to differ between DW and CMSW. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Therapeutic efficacy of rose oil: A comprehensive review of clinical evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safieh Mohebitabar

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Rose oil is obtained from the petals of difference Rosa species especially Rosa centifolia L. and Rosa damascena Mill. Various pharmacological properties have been attributed to rose oil. The aim of the present study was to review the rose oil therapeutic effects which had been clinically evaluated in trial studies. Materials and Methods: Google scholar, PubMed, Cochrane Library, and Scopus were searched for human studies which have evaluated the therapeutic effects of rose oil and published in English language until August 2015. Results: Thirteen clinical trials (772 participants were included in this review. Rose oil was administered via inhalation or used topically. Most of the studies (five trials evaluated the analgesic effect of rose oil. Five studies evaluated the physiological relaxation effect of rose oil. Anti-depressant, psychological relaxation, improving sexual dysfunction, and anti-anxiety effects were the other clinical properties reported for rose oil. Conclusion: Numerous studies on the pharmacological properties of rose oil have been done in animals, but studies in humans are few.  In this study, it was observed that rose oil had physiological and psychological relaxation, analgesic and anti-anxiety effects. To obtain conclusive results on the efficacy and safety of rose oil, further clinical trials with larger sample size and better designation are required.

  17. Dangerous waste incineration and its impact on air quality. Case study: the incinerator SC Mondeco SRL Suceava

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumitru MIHĂILĂ

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Dangerous waste, such as oil residues, pesticides, lacquers, stains, glues, organic solvents, hospital and food industry residues represent a major risk for all components of the environment (water, air, earth, soil, flora, fauna, people as well. Consequently, their incineration with high-performance burning installations lessens the impact on the environment, especially on the air quality, and it gives the possibility to recuperate the warmth of the incineration. This research presents a representative technique of incineration of dangerous waste at S.C. Mondeco S.R.L. Suceava, which runs according to the European standards, located in the industrial zone of Suceava, on the Suceava river valley Suceava. Also it is analysed the impact of this unit on the quality of nearby air. Moreover, not only the concentrations of gases and powders during the action of the incineration process (paramaters that are continuously monitored by highly methods are analysed, but also here are described the dispersions of those pollutants in the air, taking into account the characteristics of the source and the meteorological parametres that are in the riverbed. 

  18. Althea Gyles’ Symbolic (DeCodification of William Butler Yeats’ ‘Rose and Wind Poetry’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arianna Antonielli

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In 1897, Yeats’s The Secret Rose was published in London by Lawrence & Bullen, while two years later, in 1899, the London editor Elkin Mathews published The Wind Among the Reeds. Both volumes are extremely interesting, not only for their acknowledged poetical value but also for their material worth. This is due to their elaborate designs: gold stamps on the spine and cover 1897 edition of the Secret Rose and intertwining reeds on The Wind Among the Reeds cover. Both  were done by the Irish artist Althea Gyles (1867-1949. Gyles was frequently described by Yeats as a “symbolic artist” producing a “symbolic art” (Memoirs: Autobiography – A First Draft, 1972. Her paintings deeply influenced Yeats’s symbolical and imaginary system, to such a degree that they formed its perfect iconic counterpart. Following this hypothesis, Antonielli concentrates on Yeats’s main esoteric topoi, symbols and images emerging from the poems in The Secret Rose and The Wind Among the Reeds, and on their ‘translation’ into Althea Gyles’s iconic visions and artistic output. She examines how Yeats’s poems were clarified or further complicated by Gyles’s corresponding designs and how Yeats and Gyles, through their own peculiar artistic expressions, exemplified a shared symbolic vision of phenomenal reality.

  19. Substrates and irrigation levels for growing desert rose in pots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronan Carlos Colombo

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In the past decades, desert rose has become a very popular ornamental plant, especially among collectors, due to its exotic and sculptural forms. However, it has been grown on a commercial scale only recently, and little is known about how to best manage it as a container-grown plant, or even which potting medium (substrate to recommend. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the interactions between potting media and irrigation levels for growing desert rose as a potted ornamental plant. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse using a 6 x 2 factorial arrangement with six replications, six potting media and two irrigation levels. The mixes were characterized by measuring their physical properties, specifically the density and water retention capacity (WRC, as well as chemical properties, such as the pH and electrical conductivity (EC. After 210 days, plant growth and plant water consumption were evaluated and measured. A lower dry density for the vermiculite mixes was observed in comparison to that for the sand mixes. However, WRC ranged from 428 to 528 mL L-1 among the mixes, values considered close to ideal. In general, plant growth exhibited higher increases in mixes consisting of coconut fiber + sand or vermiculite, regardless of the irrigation level. Mixes of vermiculite + coconut fiber and sand + coconut fiber can be used to grow desert rose in pots, as long as irrigation is used to maintain the moisture content of the potting medium (mix between 60-70% and 80-90% of the WRC.

  20. Strengthening Software Authentication with the ROSE Software Suite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, G

    2006-01-01

    Many recent nonproliferation and arms control software projects include a software authentication regime. These include U.S. Government-sponsored projects both in the United States and in the Russian Federation (RF). This trend toward requiring software authentication is only accelerating. Demonstrating assurance that software performs as expected without hidden ''backdoors'' is crucial to a project's success. In this context, ''authentication'' is defined as determining that a software package performs only its intended purpose and performs said purpose correctly and reliably over the planned duration of an agreement. In addition to visual inspections by knowledgeable computer scientists, automated tools are needed to highlight suspicious code constructs, both to aid visual inspection and to guide program development. While many commercial tools are available for portions of the authentication task, they are proprietary and not extensible. An open-source, extensible tool can be customized to the unique needs of each project (projects can have both common and custom rules to detect flaws and security holes). Any such extensible tool has to be based on a complete language compiler. ROSE is precisely such a compiler infrastructure developed within the Department of Energy (DOE) and targeted at the optimization of scientific applications and user-defined libraries within large-scale applications (typically applications of a million lines of code). ROSE is a robust, source-to-source analysis and optimization infrastructure currently addressing large, million-line DOE applications in C and C++ (handling the full C, C99, C++ languages and with current collaborations to support Fortran90). We propose to extend ROSE to address a number of security-specific requirements, and apply it to software authentication for nonproliferation and arms control projects

  1. Environmental life cycle assessment of Ethiopian rose cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahle, Abiy; Potting, José

    2013-01-15

    A life cycle assessment (LCA) was conducted for Ethiopian rose cultivation. The LCA covered the cradle-to-gate production of all inputs to Ethiopian rose cultivation up to, and including transport to the Ethiopian airport. Primary data were collected about materials and resources used as inputs to, and about the product outputs from 21 farms in 4 geographical regions (i.e. Holleta, Sebeta, Debre Ziet, and Ziway). The primary data were imported in, and analyzed with the SimaPro7.3 software. Data for the production of used inputs were taken from the EcoInvent®2.0 database. Emissions from input use on the farms were quantified based on estimates and emission factors from various studies and guidelines. The resulting life cycle inventory (LCI) table was next evaluated with the CML 2 baseline 2000 V2/world, 1990/characterization method to quantify the contribution of the rose cultivation chain to 10 environmental impact categories. The set of collected primary data was comprehensive and of high quality. The data point to an intensive use of fertilizers, pesticides, and greenhouse plastic. Production and use of these inputs also represent the major contributors in all environmental impact categories. The largest contribution comes from the production of the used fertilizers, specifically nitrogen-based fertilizers. The use of calcium nitrate dominates Abiotic Depletion (AD), Global Warming (GW), Human Toxicity (HT) and Marine Aquatic Ecotoxicity (MAET). It also makes a large contribution to Ozone Depletion (OD), Acidification (AD) and Fresh water Aquatic Ecotoxicity (FAET). Acidification (AC) and Eutrophication (EU) are dominated by the emission of fertilizers. The emissions from the use of pesticides, especially insecticides dominate Terrestrial Ecotoxicity (TE) and make a considerable contribution to Freshwater Aquatic Ecotoxicity (FAET) and Photochemical Oxidation (PhO). There is no visible contribution from the use of pesticides to the other toxicity categories

  2. LCA of management strategies for RDF incineration and gasification bottom ash based on experimental leaching data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Gianfilippo, Martina; Costa, Giulia; Pantini, Sara; Allegrini, Elisa; Lombardi, Francesco; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2016-01-01

    The main characteristics and environmental properties of the bottom ash (BA) generated from thermal treatment of waste may vary significantly depending on the type of waste and thermal technology employed. Thus, to ensure that the strategies selected for the management of these residues do not cause adverse environmental impacts, the specific properties of BA, in particular its leaching behavior, should be taken into account. This study focuses on the evaluation of potential environmental impacts associated with two different management options for BA from thermal treatment of Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF): landfilling and recycling as a filler for road sub bases. Two types of thermal treatment were considered: incineration and gasification. Potential environmental impacts were evaluated by life-cycle assessment (LCA) using the EASETECH model. Both non-toxicity related impact categories (i.e. global warming and mineral abiotic resource depletion) and toxic impact categories (i.e. human toxicity and ecotoxicity) were assessed. The system boundaries included BA transport from the incineration/gasification plants to the landfills and road construction sites, leaching of potentially toxic metals from the BA, the avoided extraction, crushing, transport and leaching of virgin raw materials for the road scenarios, and material and energy consumption for the construction of the landfills. To provide a quantitative assessment of the leaching properties of the two types of BA, experimental leaching data were used to estimate the potential release from each of the two types of residues. Specific attention was placed on the sensitivity of leaching properties and the determination of emissions by leaching, including: leaching data selection, material properties and assumptions related to emission modeling. The LCA results showed that for both types of BA, landfilling was associated with the highest environmental impacts in the non-toxicity related categories. For the toxicity

  3. Laboratory study on the behaviour of spent AA household alkaline batteries in incineration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Manuel F; Xará, Susana M; Delgado, Julanda; Costa, Carlos A

    2009-01-01

    The quantitative evaluation of emissions from incineration is essential when Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) studies consider this process as an end-of-life solution for some wastes. Thus, the objective of this work is to quantify the main gaseous emissions produced when spent AA alkaline batteries are incinerated. With this aim, batteries were kept for 1h at 1273K in a refractory steel tube hold in a horizontal electric furnace with temperature control. At one end of the refractory steel tube, a constant air flow input assures the presence of oxygen in the atmosphere and guides the gaseous emissions to a filter system followed by a set of two bubbler flasks having an aqueous solution of 10% (v/v) nitric acid. After each set of experiments, sulphur, chlorides and metals (As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sb, Tl and Zn) were analyzed in both the solutions obtained from the steel tube washing and from the bubblers. Sulphur, chlorides and metals were quantified, respectively, using barium sulfate gravimetry, the Volhard method and atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS). The emissions of zinc, the most emitted metal, represent about 6.5% of the zinc content in the batteries. Emissions of manganese (whose oxide is the main component of the cathode) and iron (from the cathode collector) are negligible when compared with their amount in AA alkaline batteries. Mercury is the metal with higher volatility in the composition of the batteries and was collected even in the second bubbler flask. The amount of chlorides collected corresponds to about 36% of the chlorine in the battery sleeve that is made from PVC. A considerable part of the HCl formed in PVC plastic sleeve incineration is neutralized with KOH, zinc and manganese oxides and, thus, it is not totally released in the gas. Some of the emissions are predictable through a thermodynamic data analysis at temperatures in the range of 1200-1300K taking into account the composition of the batteries. This analysis was done

  4. Assessing recycling versus incineration of key materials in municipal waste: The importance of efficient energy recovery and transport distances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merrild, Hanna; Larsen, Anna W.; Christensen, Thomas H.

    2012-01-01

    Recycling of materials from municipal solid waste is commonly considered to be superior to any other waste treatment alternative. For the material fractions with a significant energy content this might not be the case if the treatment alternative is a waste-to-energy plant with high energy recovery...... rates. The environmental impacts from recycling and from incineration of six material fractions in household waste have been compared through life cycle assessment assuming high-performance technologies for material recycling as well as for waste incineration. The results showed...... of the material fractions can only contribute marginally in improving the overall waste management system taking into consideration their limited content in average Danish household waste....

  5. LCA Of The “Renescience” Concept: An Alternative To Incineration For The Treatment Of Residual Municipal Solid Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tonini, Davide; Astrup, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    be separated for recycling. In this study the environmental assessment of a number of scenarios for the “REnescience” concept is presented. The scenarios assessed are co-combustion of solid and liquid fraction in coal-fired power plants (CC-CC), co-combustion of the liquid fraction and incineration......The “REnescience” system consists on a pretreatment of the waste based on heat and enzymes which liquefy the biogenic fraction of the waste (paper and organics). The outputs of the process are then liquid slurry and a remaining solid fraction from which metals, plastic and glass can eventually...... of the solid fraction (CC-INC), anaerobic digestion of the liquid fraction to produce biogas and co-combustion of the solid fraction (BG-CC) and anaerobic digestion of the liquid fraction to produce biogas and incineration of the solid fraction (BG-INC). The reference technology for the comparison...

  6. The remote management optimizes the geothermal district heating network of Chevilly-Larue and l'Hay-les-Roses; La telegestion optimise le reseau de chaleur geothermique de Chevilly-Larue et l'Hay-les-Roses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2003-11-01

    The installation of a new remote control system for the management of the district heating network of Chevilly-Larue and l'Hay-les-Roses cities (Paris region, France) has permitted to optimize the use of the different energy sources (geothermal, cogeneration, fuel-oil and natural gas) supplying the network and to better adjust the control of the production means. (J.S.)

  7. Behavior of cesium in municipal solid waste incineration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oshita, Kazuyuki; Aoki, Hiroshi; Fukutani, Satoshi; Shiota, Kenji; Fujimori, Takashi; Takaoka, Masaki

    2015-01-01

    As a result of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident on March 11, 2011 in Japan radioactive nuclides, primarily 134 Cs and 137 Cs were released, contaminating municipal solid waste and sewage sludge in the area. Although stabilizing the waste and reducing its volume is an important issue differing from Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident, secondary emission of radioactive nuclides as a result of any intermediate remediation process is of concern. Unfortunately, there is little research on the behavior of radioactive nuclides during waste treatment. This study focuses on waste incineration in an effort to clarify the behavior of radioactive nuclides, specifically, refuse-derived fuel (RDF) with added 133 Cs (stable nuclide) or 134 Cs (radioactive nuclide) was incinerated in laboratory- and pilot-scale experiments. Next, thermogravimetric (TG) and differential thermal analysis (DTA) of stable Cs compounds, as well as an X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) analysis of Cs concentrated in the ashes were performed to validate the behavior and chemical forms of Cs during the combustion. Our results showed that at higher temperatures and at larger equivalence ratios, 133 Cs was distributed to the bottom ash at lower concentration, and the influence of the equivalence ratio was more significant at lower temperatures. 134 Cs behaved in a similar fashion as 133 Cs. We found through TG–DTA and XAFS analysis that a portion of Cs in RDF vaporizes and is transferred to fly ash where it exists as CsCl in the MSW incinerator. We conclude that Cs-contaminated municipal solid wastes could be incinerated at high temperatures resulting in a small amount of fly ash with a high concentration of radioactive Cs, and a bottom ash with low concentrations. - Highlights: • Behaviors of Cs on the incineration of the model waste were investigated. • More Cs was moved to fly ash with increasing of equivalence ratio and temperature. • Chemical forms of Cs in the fly ash

  8. Comparison of ANN (MLP), ANFIS, SVM, and RF models for the online classification of heating value of burning municipal solid waste in circulating fluidized bed incinerators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Haihui; Ma, Zengyi; Tang, Yijun; Wang, Yuelan; Yan, Jianhua; Ni, Mingjiang; Cen, Kefa; Huang, Qunxing

    2017-10-01

    The heating values, particularly lower heating values of burning municipal solid waste are critically important parameters in operating circulating fluidized bed incineration systems. However, the heating values change widely and frequently, while there is no reliable real-time instrument to measure heating values in the process of incinerating municipal solid waste. A rapid, cost-effective, and comparative methodology was proposed to evaluate the heating values of burning MSW online based on prior knowledge, expert experience, and data-mining techniques. First, selecting the input variables of the model by analyzing the operational mechanism of circulating fluidized bed incinerators, and the corresponding heating value was classified into one of nine fuzzy expressions according to expert advice. Development of prediction models by employing four different nonlinear models was undertaken, including a multilayer perceptron neural network, a support vector machine, an adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system, and a random forest; a series of optimization schemes were implemented simultaneously in order to improve the performance of each model. Finally, a comprehensive comparison study was carried out to evaluate the performance of the models. Results indicate that the adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system model outperforms the other three models, with the random forest model performing second-best, and the multilayer perceptron model performing at the worst level. A model with sufficient accuracy would contribute adequately to the control of circulating fluidized bed incinerator operation and provide reliable heating value signals for an automatic combustion control system. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Development of blue rose; Aoi bara wa sakuka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kondo, T. [Nagoya University, Nagoya (Japan); Yoshida, K.

    1998-06-01

    Precise crystalline structures of pigments in petals have been elucidated by structural analysis of the blue pigment in Commelinaceae petals using X-ray analysis. It is found that the Mg ion is coordinated with the oxygen atom on the B-nucleus in the base nucleus of delphinidin (belonging to anthocyanidine, a pigment obtained by separating sugar from anthocyanin by hydrolysis) to develop a blue color, and that the complex is a stable supermolecule in which 6 pigment molecules are associated regularly with 6 flavone molecules. The similar mechanisms are responsible for development of blue color for flowers, and widely occurring in nature. Biosynthesis of anthocyanin, beginning with phenylalanine, undergoes virtually common processes; cyclization of the flavonoide skeleton, reduction to the anthocyanidine nucleus, hydroxylation of the B-nucleus in the base nucleus and glycoside formation at the 3-site. It will be possible to shift rose color to blue, if anthocyanin belonging to anthocyanidine could be bio-synthesized by introducing the gene of enzyme for 3`, 5`-hydroxylation on the base nucleus, which the rose lacks. 4 refs., 4 figs.

  10. François de Rose (1910 - 2014)

    CERN Multimedia

    Corinne Pralavorio

    2014-01-01

    One of CERN’s founding fathers has passed away.   François de Rose in the ATLAS cavern during his visit to CERN in 2013. Visionaries have the freedom of mind to shape the future when other people’s horizons are obstructed by the present. François de Rose was a visionary. In the aftermath of the Second World War, when Europe was in ruin, when absolutely everything had to be rebuilt, the diplomat understood the importance of reviving fundamental research and, above all, of cooperation on a continental scale as the driving force of this ambition. In a Europe that was just starting to get back on its feet, it would be no mean feat. Nonetheless, François, alongside the prominent physicists of the time, put his energy into making this vision a reality. They lobbied governments for the creation of a centre that would work towards this goal, winning support, and CERN was established in 1954, an achievement of which François was extremely...

  11. PARAMETRIC ROSE AS A SUBJECT OF MATHEMATICS, PROGRAMMING, AESTHETICS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yevgeny Gayev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available By using MATLAB we demonstrate a variety of parametric curves of the family "Parametric Rose" (Rhodonea, characterized by four factors. The article is intended to encourage students to study the parametric curves. The values of coefficients affect the shape of the curve and its period. Changes with time one of the curve parameters makes the effect of animation. Different versions of coloring the curve increase the aesthetic impact on results. A beautiful MATLAB-program with Graphical User Interface (GUI is suggested. It allows students to "play" with the curves on the computer screen and demonstrates amazing properties of the "Rose" parametric family depending on the values and the ratio of their coefficients. It may allow and teachers to inspire students by exploring these additional non-school materials. Students can see the beauty of mathematics and gain additional knowledge about parametric functions. From another side, the program provides an exercise example of algorithms and programming accessible for modern students. Animation of curves proposed can also serve as exercises both for mathematics and programming.

  12. Cytotoxic, antioxidant, antimicrobial properties and chemical composition of rose petals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Renata; Olech, Marta; Pecio, Lukasz; Oleszek, Wiesław; Los, Renata; Malm, Anna; Rzymowska, Jolanta

    2014-02-01

    Rosa rugosa petals are used for production of teas, jams, wines and juices. Despite the wide availability of rose cultivars, comprehensive information on petal chemical composition and healthful properties is still lacking. Therefore, the aim of this study was analysis of cytotoxic, antioxidant and antimicrobial activity and chemical composition of rugosa rose petals. Petals of R. rugosa were evaluated for their cytotoxic effect against cervical (HeLa) and breast cancer (T47D) cell lines and for antiradical activity (with DPPH•). As a result, significant cytotoxic (up to 100% of dead cells) and antiradical properties (IC₅₀ 1.33-0.08 mg mg⁻¹ DPPH•) were demonstrated. Moreover, notable antimicrobial activity against eight bacterial (i.e. Staphylococcus. epidermidis, S. aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Micrococcus luteus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus mirabilis) and two yeast strains (Candida. albicans, C. parapsilosis) was shown. Total phenolic, flavonoid, phenolic acid, tannin, carotenoid and polysaccharide content in petals was determined using spectrophotometric methods. Liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry was used to thoroughly analyze phenolic acids and flavonoid glycosides in the methanolic extract and fractions obtained after its separation. Five phenolic acids and six flavonoids previously not reported in the plant material were identified. This is the first such detailed report on chemical composition and biological activity of R. rugosa petals. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Environmental evaluation of the electric and cogenerative configurations for the energy recovery of the Turin municipal solid waste incineration plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panepinto, Deborah; Genon, Giuseppe

    2014-07-01

    Given the desirability of reducing fossil fuel consumption, together with the increasing production of combustible solid wastes, there is clearly a need for waste treatment systems that achieve both volume reduction and energy recovery. Direct incineration method is one such system. The aim of this work was to analyze the municipal solid waste incineration plant currently under construction in the province of Turin (Piedmont, North Italy), especially the potential for energy recovery, and the consequent environmental effects. We analyzed two kinds of energy recovery: electric energy (electrical configuration) only, and both electric and thermal energy (cogenerative configuration), in this case with a different connection hypothesis to the district heating network. After we had evaluated the potential of the incinerator and considered local demographic, energy and urban planning effects, we assumed different possible connections to the district heating network. We computed the local and global environmental balances based on the characteristics of the flue gas emitted from the stack, taking into consideration the emissions avoided by the substituted sources. The global-scale results provided relevant information on the carbon dioxide emissions parameter. The results on the local scale were used as reference values for the implementation of a Gaussian model (Aermod) that allows evaluation of the actual concentration of the pollutants released into the atmosphere. The main results obtained highlight the high energy efficiency of the combined production of heat and electricity, and the opportunity to minimize the environmental impact by including cogeneration in a district heating scheme. © The Author(s) 2014.

  14. Identification of two new races of Diplocarpon rosae Wolf, the causal agent of rose black spot disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    The fungal pathogen, Diplocarpon rosae Wolf, infects only roses (Rosa spp.) and leads to rose black spot disease. Rose black spot is the most problematic disease of outdoor grown roses worldwide, due to the potential for rapid leaf yellowing and defoliation. Plants repeatedly defoliated from black ...

  15. Temperature effect on rose downy mildew development under environmental controlled conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan José Filgueira D.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The rose downy mildew disease, caused by Peronospora sparsa Berkeley, is one of the most important that affect rose crops in Colombia. To manage this disease, flower growers must deal with high-costs due to the excessive application of fungicides, but without good results. Studies on P. sparsa behavior have shown its narrow relationship with environmental conditions. In this study, the temperature effect was evaluated during the infection and sporulation of P. sparsa in Charlotte leaflets, a susceptible commercial variety, through an environmental controlled conditions system. Infection and sporulation were observed at different temperatures in a range of from 4 to 40°C. Infection with the absence of or very low sporulation was observed at 4°C. The most favorable pathogen responses were between 15 and 18°C in terms of inoculum concentration and sporulation percentage. There was no infection or leaflet change above 35°C. According to the results, sporulation can occur from 4 to 33°C, confirming the fact that P. sparsa is able to reproduce throughout a wide temperature range.

  16. A ROSE-based OpenMP 3.0 Research Compiler Supporting Multiple Runtime Libraries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liao, C; Quinlan, D; Panas, T

    2010-01-25

    OpenMP is a popular and evolving programming model for shared-memory platforms. It relies on compilers for optimal performance and to target modern hardware architectures. A variety of extensible and robust research compilers are key to OpenMP's sustainable success in the future. In this paper, we present our efforts to build an OpenMP 3.0 research compiler for C, C++, and Fortran; using the ROSE source-to-source compiler framework. Our goal is to support OpenMP research for ourselves and others. We have extended ROSE's internal representation to handle all of the OpenMP 3.0 constructs and facilitate their manipulation. Since OpenMP research is often complicated by the tight coupling of the compiler translations and the runtime system, we present a set of rules to define a common OpenMP runtime library (XOMP) on top of multiple runtime libraries. These rules additionally define how to build a set of translations targeting XOMP. Our work demonstrates how to reuse OpenMP translations across different runtime libraries. This work simplifies OpenMP research by decoupling the problematic dependence between the compiler translations and the runtime libraries. We present an evaluation of our work by demonstrating an analysis tool for OpenMP correctness. We also show how XOMP can be defined using both GOMP and Omni and present comparative performance results against other OpenMP compilers.

  17. Hindmarsh–Rose model: Close and far to the singular limit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrio, Roberto, E-mail: rbarrio@unizar.es [Departamento de Matemática Aplicada and IUMA, University of Zaragoza, E-50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Computational Dynamics group, University of Zaragoza, E-50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Ibáñez, Santiago, E-mail: mesa@uniovi.es [Departamento de Matemáticas, University of Oviedo, E-33007 Oviedo (Spain); Pérez, Lucía, E-mail: lpcuadrado@gmail.com [Departamento de Matemáticas, University of Oviedo, E-33007 Oviedo (Spain)

    2017-02-12

    Dynamics arising in the Hindmarsh–Rose model are considered from a novel perspective. We study qualitative changes that occur as the time scale of the slow variable increases taking the system far from the slow-fast scenario. We see how the structure of spike-adding still persists far from the singular case but the geometry of the bifurcations changes notably. Particular attention is paid to changes in the shape of the homoclinic bifurcation curves and the disappearance of Inclination-Flip codimension-two points. These transformations seem to be linked to the way in which the spike-adding takes place, the changing from fold/hom to fold/Hopf bursting behavior and also with the way in which the chaotic regions evolve as the time scale of the slow variable increases. - Highlights: • Dynamics arising in the Hindmarsh–Rose model are considered close and far to the singular limit. • The structure of spike-adding still persists far from the singular case but the geometry of the bifurcations changes notably. • The homoclinic bifurcation curves change their shape and some codimension-two points (Inclination-Flip) disappear. • The changes in the homoclinic curves are correlated with adjustments in the spike-adding process and in the chaotic regions.

  18. Aluminium alloys in municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yanjun; Rem, Peter

    2009-05-01

    With the increasing growth of incineration of household waste, more and more aluminium is retained in municipal solid waste incinerator bottom ash. Therefore recycling of aluminium from bottom ash becomes increasingly important. Previous research suggests that aluminium from different sources is found in different size fractions resulting in different recycling rates. The purpose of this study was to develop analytical and sampling techniques to measure the particle size distribution of individual alloys in bottom ash. In particular, cast aluminium alloys were investigated. Based on the particle size distribution it was computed how well these alloys were recovered in a typical state-of-the-art treatment plant. Assessment of the cast alloy distribution was carried out by wet physical separation processes, as well as chemical methods, X-ray fluorescence analysis and electron microprobe analysis. The results from laboratory analyses showed that cast alloys tend to concentrate in the coarser fractions and therefore are better recovered in bottom ash treatment plants.

  19. Savannah River Plant low-level waste incinerator demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tallman, J.A.

    1984-01-01

    A two-year demonstration facility was constructed at the Savannah River Plant (SRP) to incinerate suspect contaminated solid and low-level solvent wastes. Since startup in January 1984, 4460 kilograms and 5300 liters of simulated (uncontaminated) solid and solvent waste have been incinerated to establish the technical and operating data base for the facility. Combustion safeguards have been enhanced, process controls and interlocks refined, some materials handling problems identified and operating experience gained as a result of the 6 month cold run-in. Volume reductions of 20:1 for solid and 25:1 for solvent waste have been demonstrated. Stack emissions (NO 2 , SO 2 , CO, and particulates) were only 0.5% of the South Carolina ambient air quality standards. Radioactive waste processing is scheduled to begin in July 1984. 2 figures, 2 tables

  20. Fluidized bed incineration of a slurry waste from caprolactam production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cammarota, A.; D' Amore, M.; Donsi, G.; Massimilla, L.

    1980-08-01

    Caprolactam tails are a slurry waste produced in the SNIA process for the synthesis of caprolactam. They contain about 65% water, 25% ash and 10% combustible matter. The ashes are low melting, due to the presence of sodium compounds. The incineration of this waste is carried out at temperatures below 600/sup 0/C in beds of silica sand, using a laboratory scale apparatus with a 40 mm ID fluidization column. Variables investigated include sand particle size, slurry flow rate, bed temperature, bed height. The concentrations of CO/sub 2/ and CO are determined continuously in the flue gases. Bed solids are sampled periodically to determine the carbon content. Results of experiments show that the low temperature incineration on a bed of inert solids is a useful technique for the disposal of caprolactam tails. 8 refs.

  1. Destruction of nuclear graphite using closed chamber incineration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senor, D.J.; Hollenberg, G.W.; Morgan, W.C.; Marianowski, L.G.

    1994-01-01

    Closed chamber incineration (CCI) is a novel technique by which irradiated nuclear graphite may be destroyed without the risk of radioactive cation release into the environment. The process utilizes an enclosed combustion chamber coupled with molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFCs). The transport of cations is intrinsically suppressed by the MCFCs, such that only the combustion gases are conducted through for release to the environment. An example CCI design was developed which had as its goal the destruction of graphite fuel elements from the Fort St. Vrain reactor (FSVR). By employing CCI, the volume of high level waste from the FSVR will be reduced by approximately 87 percent. Additionally, the incineration process will convert the SiC coating on the FSVR fuel particles to SiO 2 , thus creating a form potentially suitable for direct incorporation in a vitrification process stream. The design is compact, efficient, and makes use of currently available technology

  2. Particulate collection in a low level radioactive waste incinerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudnick, S.N.; Leith, D.; First, M.W.

    1976-01-01

    As designed, sintered stainless steel filters will clean the gas from the secondary cyclone at a low level radioactive waste incinerator. Using bench scale apparatus, asbestos floats and diatomaceous earth were evaluated as filter aids to prevent clogging of the sintered metal interstices and to decrease filter penetration. Both precoats prevented irreversible pressure drop increase, and decreased cold DOP penetration from 80% to less than 1%. To collect the same quantity of fly ash, less diatomaceous earth was needed than asbestos floats. A back-up study evaluated a moving bed of sodium carbonate pellets in lieu of the sintered metal filters. Since identical sodium carbonate pellets are used to neutralize hydrogen chloride in the incinerator, their use in a moving bed has the advantages of trouble free disposal and cost free replacement. Co, counter, and cross-current beds were studied and gave fly ash penetrations less than 0.1% at moderate pressure drop

  3. MINT Incineration and Renewable Energy Centre - experience and challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamad Puad Abu

    2005-01-01

    MIREC is the acronym for MINT Incineration and Renewable Energy Centre which was established in the year 2000 to carry out research and provide services on matters related to incineration technology and renewable energy. Throughout this period, many challenges and experiences has been faced by MIREC. Three research contracts with the value of nearly RM 1 million have been signed. Four laboratory scale burners have been designed and fabricated. Three mathematical models have been developed. Three programs on enhancement image have been published. Three papers have been published in the international journal. In order to achieve all these, many obstacles were faced by MIREC. This paper will discuss on the experiences and challenges that could be shared together with MINT staff. (Author)

  4. Operation of low-level radioactive waste incinerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, E.C.; Drolet, T.S.; Stewart, W.B.; Campbell, A.V.

    1979-01-01

    Ontaro Hydro's radioactive waste incinerator designed to reduce the volume of low-level combustible wastes from nuclear generating station's was declared in-service in September 1977. Hiterto about 1500 m 3 of combustible waste have been processed in over 90 separate batches. The process has resulted in 40:1 reduction in the volume and 12.5:1 reduction in the weight of the Type 1 wastes. The ultimate volume reduction factor after storage is 23:1. Airborne emissions has been maintained at the order of 10 -3 to 10 -5 % of the Derived Emission Limits. Incineration of radioactive combustible wastes has been proven feasible, and will remain as one of the most important processes in Ontario Hydro's Radioactive Waste Management Program

  5. Electrodialytic remediation of municipal solid waste incineration residues using different membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parés Viader, Raimon; Jensen, Pernille Erland; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2017-01-01

    In the present work, three different commercial membrane brands were used in an identical electrodialytic cell setup and operating conditions, in order to reduce the leaching of metals and salt anions of two types of municipal solid waste incineration residues: air pollution control residues...... of a semi-dry flue-gas cleaning system and fly ashes from a plant with wet flue-gas cleaning system. The results showed a general reduction of the leaching in both residues after ED remediation. For the following elements, the leaching was found to be different after ED treatment depending on the membrane...... used, with statistical significance: • Air pollution control residues of the semi-dry flue-gas cleaning system: Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn; • Fly ashes from a plant with wet flue-gas cleaning system: Al, Ba, Cu, Ni, Zn, Cl, SO4. Final leaching values for some elements and membranes, but not the majority, were...

  6. Behavior of cesium in municipal solid waste incineration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshita, Kazuyuki; Aoki, Hiroshi; Fukutani, Satoshi; Shiota, Kenji; Fujimori, Takashi; Takaoka, Masaki

    2015-05-01

    As a result of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident on March 11, 2011 in Japan radioactive nuclides, primarily (134)Cs and (137)Cs were released, contaminating municipal solid waste and sewage sludge in the area. Although stabilizing the waste and reducing its volume is an important issue differing from Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident, secondary emission of radioactive nuclides as a result of any intermediate remediation process is of concern. Unfortunately, there is little research on the behavior of radioactive nuclides during waste treatment. This study focuses on waste incineration in an effort to clarify the behavior of radioactive nuclides, specifically, refuse-derived fuel (RDF) with added (133)Cs (stable nuclide) or (134)Cs (radioactive nuclide) was incinerated in laboratory- and pilot-scale experiments. Next, thermogravimetric (TG) and differential thermal analysis (DTA) of stable Cs compounds, as well as an X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) analysis of Cs concentrated in the ashes were performed to validate the behavior and chemical forms of Cs during the combustion. Our results showed that at higher temperatures and at larger equivalence ratios, (133)Cs was distributed to the bottom ash at lower concentration, and the influence of the equivalence ratio was more significant at lower temperatures. (134)Cs behaved in a similar fashion as (133)Cs. We found through TG-DTA and XAFS analysis that a portion of Cs in RDF vaporizes and is transferred to fly ash where it exists as CsCl in the MSW incinerator. We conclude that Cs-contaminated municipal solid wastes could be incinerated at high temperatures resulting in a small amount of fly ash with a high concentration of radioactive Cs, and a bottom ash with low concentrations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Decontamination and decommissioning assessment for the Waste Incineration Facility (Building 232-Z) Hanford Site, [Hanford], WA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dean, L.N.

    1994-02-01

    Building 232-Z is an element of the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) located in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site. From 1961 until 1972, plutonium-bearing combustible materials were incinerated in the building. Between 1972 and 1983, following shutdown of the incinerator, the facility was used for waste segregation activities. The facility was placed in retired inactive status in 1984 and classified as a Limited Control Facility pursuant to DOE Order 5480.5, Safety of Nuclear Facilities, and 6430.1A, General Design Criteria. The current plutonium inventory within the building is estimated to be approximately 848 grams, the majority of which is retained within the process hood ventilation system. As a contaminated retired facility, Building 232-Z is included in the DOE Surplus Facility Management Program. The objective of this Decontamination and Decommissioning (D ampersand D) assessment is to remove Building 232-Z, thereby elmininating the radiological and environmental hazards associated with the plutonium inventory within the structure. The steps to accomplish the plan objectives are: (1) identifying the locations of the most significant amounts of plutonium, (2) removing residual plutonium, (3) removing and decontaminating remaining building equipment, (4) dismantling the remaining structure, and (5) closing out the project

  8. Optimisation of water-cannon cleaning for deposit removal on water walls inside waste incinerators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graube, Franziska; Grahl, Sebastian; Rostkowski, Slawomir; Beckmann, Michael

    2016-02-01

    Deposits in municipal waste incinerators are very inhomogeneous in structure and constitution. They cause corrosion and reduce the efficiency, so they need to be removed frequently. Among other systems, operators use water cannons for the deposit removal. Two different removal mechanisms of water-cannon cleaning are suggested: A direct shattering of the deposit by the impact of the water jet, as well as the cracking caused by thermal stresses where droplets cool the deposits. As the contribution of each of the aforementioned mechanisms to the overall cleaning efficiency is unknown, we performed empirical investigations to determine the dominating effect. In a first experimental setup focusing on thermal stress, cold droplets were applied onto hot deposits taken from a waste incinerator. Results showed that the cleaning effect strongly depends on the deposit thickness and structure, so that the deposits could be categorised in three different groups. A second measurement campaign focused on the influence of deposit material, deposit temperature and water jet momentum. It could be shown that both deposit material and temperature have a significant effect on the cleaning efficiency, whereas an increase in water jet momentum only led to modest improvements. The combination of these two parameter studies implies that the influence of the thermal stress outweighs that of the momentum. This knowledge is applicable to the cleaning setup by increasing the temperature gradient. © The Author(s) 2015.

  9. Decontamination and decommissioning assessment for the Waste Incineration Facility (Building 232-Z) Hanford Site, [Hanford], WA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dean, L.N. [Advanced Sciences, Inc., (United States)

    1994-02-01

    Building 232-Z is an element of the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) located in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site. From 1961 until 1972, plutonium-bearing combustible materials were incinerated in the building. Between 1972 and 1983, following shutdown of the incinerator, the facility was used for waste segregation activities. The facility was placed in retired inactive status in 1984 and classified as a Limited Control Facility pursuant to DOE Order 5480.5, Safety of Nuclear Facilities, and 6430.1A, General Design Criteria. The current plutonium inventory within the building is estimated to be approximately 848 grams, the majority of which is retained within the process hood ventilation system. As a contaminated retired facility, Building 232-Z is included in the DOE Surplus Facility Management Program. The objective of this Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) assessment is to remove Building 232-Z, thereby elmininating the radiological and environmental hazards associated with the plutonium inventory within the structure. The steps to accomplish the plan objectives are: (1) identifying the locations of the most significant amounts of plutonium, (2) removing residual plutonium, (3) removing and decontaminating remaining building equipment, (4) dismantling the remaining structure, and (5) closing out the project.

  10. Suitability of oil bioremediation in an Artic soil using surplus heating from an incineration facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couto, Nazaré; Fritt-Rasmussen, Janne; Jensen, Pernille E; Højrup, Mads; Rodrigo, Ana P; Ribeiro, Alexandra B

    2014-05-01

    A 168-day period field study, carried out in Sisimiut, Greenland, assessed the potential to enhance soil remediation with the surplus heating from an incineration facility. This approach searches a feasible ex situ remediation process that could be extended throughout the year with low costs. Individual and synergistic effects of biostimulation were also tested, in parallel. An interim evaluation at the end of the first 42 days showed that biostimulation and active heating, as separate treatments, enhanced petroleum hydrocarbon (PHC) removal compared to natural attenuation. The coupling of both technologies was even more effective, corroborating the benefits of both techniques in a remediation strategy. However, between day 42 and day 168, there was an opposite remediation trend with all treatments suggesting a stabilization except for natural attenuation, where PHC values continued to decrease. This enforces the "self-purification" capacity of the system, even at low temperatures. Coupling biostimulation with active heating was the best approach for PHC removal, namely for a short period of time (42 days). The proposed remediation scheme can be considered a reliable option for faster PHC removal with low maintenance and using "waste heating" from an incineration facility.

  11. Characterization of bottom ash from two hospital waste incinerators in Rabat, Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakkali, Meriem E L; Bahri, Meriem; Gmouh, Said; Jaddi, Hassan; Bakkali, Mohammed; Laglaoui, Amin; Mzibri, Mohammed E L

    2013-12-01

    The uncontrolled disposal of bottom ash generated by the incineration units of hazardous and infected wastes in developed countries are the main cause of significant damage, such as contamination of the soil, as well as surface and underground waters, which may put both the environment and public health at risk. In Morocco, little information is available on the chemical properties of the resulting ashes. In this study, 16 hospital waste ash samples were collected from the incinerators of the two main hospitals in Rabat: Ibn Sina and Cheikh Zayd. A series of tests was conducted, including particle size distribution, mineralogical and chemical composition, and heavy metal leaching behaviour. The results showed that the samples were composed mainly of P2O5 (18%), SiO2 (17%), Na2O (16%), CaO (14%) and SO3 (10%). Moreover, chemical analysis clearly demonstrated that medical waste (MW) contains large amounts of waste generated by domestic activities in the hospital, with a lack of sorting system in the monitoring of MW. Furthermore, the ashes contained high concentrations of heavy metals such as zinc, lead, chromium and nickel with a vast range of 0.5-25071 mg/kg. Leaching tests showed that the extracted amounts of all the heavy metals were lower, with concentrations metal concentrations with the limit values set by the Council Decision 2003/33/EC allowed us to conclude that bottom ashes meet the waste acceptance criteria regarding these heavy metals.

  12. Fate of heavy metals during municipal solid waste incineration in Shanghai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hua; He, Pin-Jing; Shao, Li-Ming

    2008-08-15

    The transfer behavior of heavy metals during municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration was investigated based on 2-year field measurements in two large-scale incinerators in Shanghai. Great temporal and spatial diversification was observed. Most of Hg and Cd were evaporated and then removed by air pollution control (APC) system through condensation and adsorption processes, thus being enriched in the fine APC residues particles. Cr, Cu, and Ni were transferred into the APC residues mainly by entrainment, and distributed uniformly in the two residues flows, as well as in the ash particles with different sizes. Pb and Zn in the APC residues were from both entrainment and evaporation, resulting in the higher concentrations (two to four times) compared with the bottom ash. Arsenic was transported into the flue gas mainly by evaporation, however, its transfer coefficient was lower. Though the heavy metals contents in the APC residues were higher than that in bottom ash, more than 80% of As, Cr, Cu, and Ni, 74-94% of Zn, as well as 46-79% of Pb remained in the bottom ash, due to its high mass ratio (85-93%) in the residues. While 47-73% of Cd and 60-100% of Hg were transferred into the APC residues, respectively.

  13. Cytotoxicity of municipal solid waste incinerator ash wastes toward mammalian kidney cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wu-Jang; Tsai, Jia-Lin; Liao, Ming-Huei

    2008-05-01

    In this study, three municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) ash wastes-bottom ash, scrubber residue, and baghouse ash-were extracted using a toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) extractant. These so-called final TCLP extracts were applied to African green monkey kidney cells (Vero), baby hamster kidney cells (BHK-21), and pig kidney cells (PK-15), multi-well absorption reader analysis was performed to test how the cytotoxicity of the incineration ashes would affect the digestive systems of animals. Ion-coupled plasma analyses indicated that the baghouse ash extract possessed the highest pH and heavy metal concentration, its cytotoxicity was also the highest. In contrast, the bottom ash and the scrubber residue exhibited very low cytotoxicities. The cytotoxicities of mixtures of baghouse ash and scrubber residue toward the three tested cell lines increased as the relative ratio of the baghouse ash increased, especially for the Vero cells. The slight cytotoxicity of the scrubber residue arose mainly from the presence of Cr species, whereas the high cytotoxicity of the baghouse ash resulted from its high content of heavy metals and alkali ions. In addition, it appears that the dissolved total organic carbon content of these ash wastes can reduce the cytotoxicity of ash wastes that collect in animal cells.

  14. Development of fission micro-chambers for nuclear waste incineration studies

    CERN Document Server

    Fadil, M; Christophe, S; Deruelle, O; Fioni, G; Marie, F; Mounier, C; Ridikas, D; Trapp, J P

    2002-01-01

    The Incineration by Accelerator (INCA) project of the Directorate for Science of Matter of the French Atomic Energy Authority (CEA/DSM) aims to outline the ideal physical conditions to transmute minor actinides in a high intensity neutron flux obtained either by hybrid systems or innovative critical reactors. To measure on-line the incineration rates of minor actinides, we are developing an innovative Double Deposit Fission Chamber (DDFC) working in current mode. Our method is based on a comparison between the isotope under study and a reference material whose nuclear parameters are well known, as sup 2 sup 3 sup 5 U and sup 2 sup 3 sup 9 Pu. This new fission chamber will be used in the High Flux Reactor in Grenoble/France in a neutron flux of 1.2x10 sup 1 sup 5 n cm sup - sup 2 s sup - sup 1 for 50 days, the operating cycle of the reactor. These specific experimental conditions require substantial modifications of the existing chambers. The first experiment will be carried out in fall 2000.

  15. [Development of new SSR markers from EST of SSH cDNA libraries on rose fragrance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Hui-Jun; Zhang, Hao; Xie, Ji-Rong; Li, Shu-Fa; Jian, Hong-Ying; Qiu, Xian-Qin; Wang, Qi-Gang; Wang, Ji-Hua; Tang, Kai-Xue

    2009-09-01

    The new SSR markers of rose related fragrance were developed based on the SSH cDNA libraries of rose floral scent mutant. In this study, 10 EST-SSRs (2.6%) from 391 ESTs in the libraries were identified. Six EST-SSRs primers were designed to sequence flanking SSRs. The primer pairs designed were screened on the wild-type Jinyindao, which has flowers full of pleasant scent, and the mutant-type Wangriqinghuai without perceivable floral scent. Five primer pairs were amplified effectively in Jinyindao and Wangriqinghuai, and 3 were polymorphic between Jinyindao and Wangriqinghuai. Eighteen rose cultivars including fragrant roses and nonfragrant roses were identified by the five prime pairs. These results proved that EST-SSR markers are effective markers to identify the polymorphism of the rose.

  16. Separation of nanoparticles: Filtration and scavenging from waste incineration plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Förster, Henning; Thajudeen, Thaseem; Funk, Christine; Peukert, Wolfgang

    2016-06-01

    Increased amounts of nanoparticles are applied in products of everyday life and despite material recycling efforts, at the end of their life cycle they are fed into waste incineration plants. This raises the question on the fate of nanoparticles during incineration. In terms of environmental impact the key question is how well airborne nanoparticles are removed by separation processes on their way to the bag house filters and by the existing filtration process based on pulse-jet cleanable fibrous filter media. Therefore, we investigate the scavenging and the filtration of metal nanoparticles under typical conditions in waste incineration plants. The scavenging process is investigated by a population balance model while the nanoparticle filtration experiments are realized in a filter test rig. The results show that depending on the particle sizes, in some cases nearly 80% of the nanoparticles are scavenged by fly ash particles before they reach the bag house filter. For the filtration step dust cakes with a pressure drop of 500Pa or higher are found to be very effective in preventing nanoparticles from penetrating through the filter. Thus, regeneration of the filter must be undertaken with care in order to guarantee highly efficient collection of particles even in the lower nanometre size regime. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The use of incinerated pig head in dental identification simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berketa, John; James, Helen; Langlois, Neil; Richards, Lindsay

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this exercise was to simulate a disaster victim identification scenario to allow training in documentation of postmortem incinerated remains and reconciliation of dental data. Varying number of restorations were placed in ten pig heads. The teeth and restorations were charted, with the restorations radiographed and documented, creating an ante-mortem data set. The following day the heads were cremated. Following cooling and recording they were transported for a post-mortem examination by trained specialist odontologists who were not involved in the initial antemortem phase. Recordings included the charting of teeth, restorations, lost teeth, and radiographs to simulate a post-mortem examination. A reconciliation of postmortem to antemortem information was attempted. There was an unacceptable amount of error in the postmortem examination of the heads. The errors related mainly to avulsed teeth and incorrect opinion of which charted surfaces the restorations were placed upon. Also noted were a considerable number of root fractures occurring beneath the crestal bone. This observation does not mimic the evidence observed in human incinerated teeth where the crowns tend to fracture off the roots at the dentin-enamel junction. The use of incinerated pig (Sus Scrofa) heads is not an ideal model for forensic odontology training in disaster victim identification. Differences in both anatomy and behavior following exposure to heat were shown to hamper documentation and subsequent comparison to antemortem data.

  18. Alternaria toxin-induced resistance against rose aphids and olfactory response of aphids to toxin-induced volatiles of rose plants*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fa-zhong; Li, Li; Yang, Bin

    2012-01-01

    The search for active toxins for managing weeds or plant diseases is believed to be a promising avenue of investigation. However, the effects of Alternaria toxins on insects have just begun to be investigated. Bioactivities of toxins from four strains of Alternaria alternata on Rosa chinensis and rose aphid Macrosiphum rosivorum were tested in the present study. At a concentration of 50.0 μg/ml, the crude extract (toxin) of strain 7484 was found not to be harmful to rose plants with excised leaf-puncture method (P≥0.079), and rose plants showed enhanced resistance to rose aphids when this Alternaria toxin was sprayed on the plants (P≤0.001). However, this toxin caused no detrimental effects on aphids in insecticidal bioassay at a concentration of 10.0 to 160.0 μg/ml (P≥0.096). Therefore, the Alternaria toxin had significantly induced the resistance of rose plants against rose aphids, demonstrating that the resistance mechanism triggered by the Alternaria toxin in the rose plant may also be used by the plant to defend itself against insects. Further bioassays aimed to discover the olfactory responses of aphids to the toxin-induced volatiles of host plants. The aphids were significantly more attracted to both volatiles emitted and collected from control rose plants than to both volatiles emitted and collected from the toxin-treated rose plants (P≤0.014). This result showed that the toxin-induced resistance related to the volatile changes of host plants. PMID:22302426

  19. Separation of CO2 in a Solid Waste Management Incineration Facility Using Activated Carbon Derived from Pine Sawdust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inés Durán

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The selective separation of CO2 from gas mixtures representative of flue gas generated in waste incineration systems is studied on two activated carbons obtained from pine sawdust and compared to a commercial activated carbon. Dynamic adsorption experiments were conducted in a fixed-bed adsorption column using a binary mixture (N2/CO2 with a composition representative of incineration streams at temperatures from 30 to 70 °C. The adsorption behavior of humid mixtures (N2/CO2/H2O was also evaluated in order to assess the influence of water vapor in CO2 adsorption at different relative humidity in the feed gas: 22% and 60%. Moreover, CO2 adsorption was studied in less favorable conditions, i.e., departing from a bed initially saturated with H2O. In addition, the effect of CO2 on H2O adsorption was examined. Experimental results showed that the CO2 adsorption capacity can be reduced significantly by the adsorption of H2O (up to 60% at high relative humidity conditions. On the other hand, the breakthrough tests over the adsorbent initially saturated with water vapor indicated that H2O is little affected by CO2 adsorption. The experimental results pointed out the biomass based carbons as best candidates for CO2 separation under incineration flue gas conditions.

  20. Waste incineration and immobilization for nuclear facilities. Status report, October 1977--March 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, A.J.; Burkhardt, S.C.; Ledford, J.A.; Williams, P.M.

    1979-01-01

    Fluidized bed incineration and processes for immobilization of wastes generated at nuclear facilities are undergoing development. After minor piping modifications to eliminate dust collecting points, a pilot plant fluidized bed incinerator run of 225 continuous hours was successfully completed in a demonstration of component reliability. Vitrification of incinerator ash and other wastes is now being accomplished using a pilot scale unit developed as a continuous flow process