WorldWideScience

Sample records for incineration open burning

  1. Consolidated Incineration Facility waste burn test. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, D.B.

    1995-01-01

    The Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) is Providing technical support for start-up and operation of the Consolidated Incineration Facility. This support program includes a series of pilot incineration tests performed at the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) Incineration Research Facility (MF) using surrogate CIF mixed wastes. The objectives for this test program included measuring incinerator offgas particulate loading and size distributions as a function of several operating variables, characterizing kiln bottom ash and offgas particulates, determining heavy metal partition between the kiln bottom ash and incinerator stack gas, and measuring kiln organics emissions (particularly polychlorinated dioxins and furans). These tests were designed to investigate the effect of the following operating parameters: Incineration Temperature; Waste Feed Rate; Waste Density; Kiln Solids Residence Time; and Waste Composition. Tests were conducted at three kiln operating temperatures. Three solid waste simulants were burned, two waste mixtures (paper, plastic, latex, and PVC) with one containing spiked toxic organic and metal compounds, and one waste type containing only paper. Secondary Combustion Chamber (SCC) offgases were sampled for particulate loading and size distribution, organic compounds, polychlorinated dibenzo[p]dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/PCDF), metals, and combustion products. Kiln bottom ash and offgas particulates were characterized to determine the principal elements and compounds comprising these secondary wastes

  2. 40 CFR 60.1445 - What are the emission limits for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? 60.1445 Section 60.1445 Protection of Environment... Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste § 60.1445 What are the emission limits for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? If your air curtain incinerator combusts...

  3. An assessment of mass burn incineration costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, M.R.; Scutter, J.N.; Sutton, A.M.

    1993-01-01

    This study comprises the third and final part of a cost assessment exercise of waste-to-energy options. The specific objectives of this particular study were: to determine the capital and operating costs of three generic types of mass burn waste-to-energy systems, for waste inputs of 200,000 and 400,000 t/y of municipal solid waste (MSW); to verify the mass and energy balances of the systems; to develop a computer cost model to manipulate the data as required; to carry out sensitivity checks on the computer model of changes to key parameters; and to conduct the study in a manner approximating as closely as possible to a real commercial situation. (author)

  4. 40 CFR 62.14825 - What are the recordkeeping and reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn 100...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent wood wastes, clean lumber, and/or... Commenced Construction On or Before November 30, 1999 Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Wood... for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent wood wastes, clean lumber, and/or yard waste? (a...

  5. 40 CFR 62.15375 - What are the emission limits for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? 62.15375 Section 62.15375 Protection of Environment... Combustion Units Constructed on or Before August 30, 1999 Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste § 62.15375 What are the emission limits for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard...

  6. 40 CFR 62.14815 - What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent wood wastes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent wood wastes, clean lumber and/or yard waste? 62.14815... Before November 30, 1999 Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Wood Wastes, Clean Lumber And/or Yard Waste § 62.14815 What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators that burn 100...

  7. 40 CFR 62.15380 - How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? 62.15380 Section 62.15380 Protection of Environment... Combustion Units Constructed on or Before August 30, 1999 Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste § 62.15380 How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard...

  8. 40 CFR 60.1930 - What are the recordkeeping and reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn 100...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? 60.1930 Section 60... Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste § 60.1930 What are the recordkeeping and reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? (a) Provide a notice of construction...

  9. 40 CFR 60.1455 - What are the recordkeeping and reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn 100...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? 60.1455 Section 60... Reconstruction is Commenced After June 6, 2001 Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste § 60.1455 What are the recordkeeping and reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn 100...

  10. 40 CFR 60.2973 - What are the recordkeeping and reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn only...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste... Qualification Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60.2973 What are the recordkeeping and reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood...

  11. 40 CFR 60.1920 - What are the emission limits for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? 60.1920 Section 60.1920 Protection of Environment... or Before August 30, 1999 Model Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste § 60.1920 What are the emission limits for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? If...

  12. 40 CFR 60.3068 - What are the recordkeeping and reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn only...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste... Model Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60.3068 What are the recordkeeping and reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood...

  13. 40 CFR 60.1925 - How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? 60.1925 Section 60.1925 Protection of Environment... or Before August 30, 1999 Model Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste § 60.1925 How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? (a) Use...

  14. 40 CFR 60.1450 - How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? 60.1450 Section 60.1450 Protection of Environment... Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste § 60.1450 How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? (a) Use EPA Reference Method 9 in appendix A of...

  15. 40 CFR 60.2971 - What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? 60.2971 Section 60... Incinerators That Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60.2971 What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? (a) Within...

  16. 40 CFR 62.15385 - What are the recordkeeping and reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn 100...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? 62.15385 Section 62... Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste § 62.15385 What are the recordkeeping and reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? (a) Provide a notice of construction...

  17. 40 CFR 60.3066 - What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Waste Incineration Units That Commenced Construction On or Before December 9, 2004 Model Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60.3066 What are the... air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? 60.3066 Section 60...

  18. CSER 94-013: Classification and access to PFP 232-Z Incinerator Facility and limits on characterization and disassembly activities in 232-Z burning hood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, E.M.

    1995-01-12

    This CSER justifies the Limited Control Facility designation for the closed Burning Hood in the PFP 232-Z Incinerator Facility. If the Burning Hood is opened to characterize the plutonium distribution and geometric integrity of the internals or for disassembly of the internals, then the more rigorous Fissionable Material Facility classification is required. Two sets of requirements apply for personnel access, criticality firefighting category for water use, and fissile material movement for the two states of the Burning Hood. The parameters used in the criticality analysis are listed to establish the limits under which this CSER is valid. Determination that the Burning Hood fissile material, moderation, or internal arrangements are outside these limits requires reevaluation of these parameter values and activities at the 232-Z Incinerator Facility. When the Burning Hood is open, water entry is to be prevented by two physical barriers for each water source.

  19. Open Burning Sources of Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    This slide presentation will focus on Open Burning Sources f Air Pollution, with sections on Sources, Pollutants, Perspective, Quantification. The various sources of domestic and international open burning pollutants will be discussed. The focus pollutants and their effects wil...

  20. 40 CFR 60.3065 - What must I do if I plan to permanently close my air curtain incinerator that burns only wood...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... close my air curtain incinerator that burns only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste and not..., 2004 Model Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60.3065 What must I do if I plan to permanently close my air curtain incinerator that burns only wood...

  1. 40 CFR 62.14820 - How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent wood wastes, clean...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent wood wastes, clean lumber, and/or yard waste? 62.14820 Section... Before November 30, 1999 Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Wood Wastes, Clean Lumber And/or Yard Waste § 62.14820 How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent...

  2. 40 CFR 60.3067 - How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? 60.3067 Section 60.3067... Incinerators That Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60.3067 How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? (a) Use Method 9 of...

  3. 40 CFR 60.2972 - How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? 60.2972 Section 60.2972... PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Operator Training and Qualification Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn... incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? (a) Use Method 9 of appendix A of this...

  4. Incineration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmes, R.G.G.

    1988-01-01

    One of the methods of destroying organics in radwaste is incineration. This presentation will summarise some of the advantages and problems associated with incineration and will illustrate some of these points by discussing progress in an options study into methods of treating plutonium contaminated material waste, being carried out by British Nuclear Fuels plc. The wastes amenable for treatment, fall into two categories, low-level wastes and intermediate-level wastes. (author)

  5. 40 CFR 49.10411 - Permits for general open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. 49.10411 Section 49.10411 Protection of... for general open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. (a) Beginning... obtain approval of a permit under § 49.134 Rule for forestry and silvicultural burning permits. ...

  6. Analysis of rugae in burn victims and cadavers to simulate rugae identification in cases of incineration and decomposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthusubramanian, M; Limson, K S; Julian, R

    2005-06-01

    The most challenging situations in Forensic Odonto-Stomatology are mass disasters, where the forensic dentist is usually confronted with charred human remains or heavily decomposed or fragmented bodies. This article determines the extent of preservation of palatal rugae for use as an alternative identification tool in such situations, using a study group comprising burn victims and cadavers simulating forensic cases of incineration and decomposition. The thermal effects and the decomposition changes on the palatal rugae of burn victims with panfacial third degree burns and human cadavers in storage were respectively assessed and graded on a new scale. Ninety three percent of burn victims and 77% of human cadavers had Grade 0 changes (normal). When changes were noted, they were less pronounced than the generalized body involvement of burns in burn victims and the generalized body decomposition of human cadavers.

  7. 40 CFR 49.11021 - Permits for general open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. 49.11021 Section 49.11021 Protection of... Reservation, Oregon § 49.11021 Permits for general open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and..., 2007, a person must apply for and obtain approval of a permit under § 49.134 Rule for forestry and...

  8. Optimisation of deep burn incineration of reactor waste plutonium in a PBMR DPP-400 core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serfontein, Dawid E.; Mulder, Eben J.; Reitsma, Frederik

    2014-01-01

    In this article an original set of coupled neutronics and thermo-hydraulic simulation results for the VSOP 99/05 diffusion code are presented for advanced fuel cycles for the incineration of weapons-grade plutonium, reactor-grade plutonium and reactor-grade plutonium with its associated Minor Actinides in the 400 MW th Pebble Bed Modular Reactor Demonstration Power Plant. These results are also compared to those of the standard 9.6 wt% enriched 9 g/fuel sphere U/Pu fuel cycle. The weapons-grade and reactor-grade plutonium fuel cycles produced good burn-ups. However, the addition of the Minor Actinides to the reactor-grade plutonium caused a large decrease in the burn-up and thus an unacceptable increase in the heavy metal (HM) content in the spent fuel, which was intended for direct disposal in a deep geological repository, without chemical reprocessing. All the plutonium fuel cycles failed the adopted safety limits used in the PBMR400 in that either the maximum fuel temperature of 1130 °C during normal operation, or the maximum power density of 4.5 kW/sphere was exceeded. All the plutonium fuel cycles also produced positive uniform temperature reactivity coefficients, i.e. the reactivity coefficient where the temperatures of the fuel and the graphite moderator in the fuel spheres were varied together. These unacceptable positive coefficients were experienced at low temperatures, typically below 700 °C. This was due to the influence of the thermal fission cross-section resonances of 239 Pu and 241 Pu. Weapons-grade plutonium produced the worst safety performance. The safety performance of the reactor-grade plutonium also deteriorated when the HM loading was reduced from 3 g/sphere to 2 g or 1 g

  9. Occurrence, profiles, and toxic equivalents of chlorinated and brominated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in E-waste open burning soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Chiya; Horii, Yuichi; Tanaka, Shuhei; Asante, Kwadwo Ansong; Ballesteros, Florencio; Viet, Pham Hung; Itai, Takaaki; Takigami, Hidetaka; Tanabe, Shinsuke; Fujimori, Takashi

    2017-06-01

    We conducted this study to assess the occurrence, profiles, and toxicity of chlorinated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (Cl-PAHs) and brominated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (Br-PAHs) in e-waste open burning soils (EOBS). In this study, concentrations of 15 PAHs, 26 Cl-PAHs and 14 Br-PAHs were analyzed in EOBS samples. We found that e-waste open burning is an important emission source of Cl-PAHs and Br-PAHs as well as PAHs. Concentrations of total Cl-PAHs and Br-PAHs in e-waste open burning soil samples ranged from 21 to 2800 ng/g and from 5.8 to 520 ng/g, respectively. Compared with previous studies, the mean of total Cl-PAH concentrations of the EOBS samples in this study was higher than that of electronic shredder waste, that of bottom ash, and comparable to fly ash from waste incinerators in Korea and Japan. The mean of total Br-PAH concentrations of the EOBS samples was generally three to four orders of magnitude higher than those in incinerator bottom ash and comparable to incinerator fly ash, although the number of Br-PAH congeners measured differed among studies. We also found that the Cl-PAH and Br-PAH profiles were similar among all e-waste open burning soil samples but differed from those in waste incinerator fly ash. The profiles and principal component analysis results suggested a unique mechanism of Cl-PAH and Br-PAH formation in EOBS. In addition, the Cl-PAHs and Br-PAHs showed high toxicities equivalent to PCDD/Fs measured in same EOBS samples when calculated based on their relative potencies to benzo[a]pyrene. Along with chlorinated and brominated dioxins and PAHs, Cl-PAHs and Br-PAHs are important environmental pollutants to investigate in EOBS. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Interpreting the effects of burning on pre-incineration saw marks in bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Samantha C; Fairgrieve, Scott I; Oost, Tracy S

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the effects of fire on the features associated with saw marks in bone. Both class and individual characteristics were examined using stereomicroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Twenty-four semifleshed Sus scrofa L. tibiae were sawed into three sections with the middle section having deep and shallow false starts. Twelve saw blades of varying age and type were each used to cut two tibiae. In each case, the first tibia was burned in an outdoor open fire to the point of partial calcination. The second tibia, our control, was macerated using a heated enzyme solution. Controls and burned specimens were examined for the following characteristics: breakaway spur, tooth hop, false start, exit chipping, tooth imprint, breakaway notch, pull out striae, kerf flare, and blade drift. In general, there was parity in the observed characteristics in the burned samples using the SEM and the stereomicroscope. SEM observation, however, provided enhanced images, with the addition of observing individual tooth imprints, previously not visible. Therefore, this study recommends using an SEM for the examination of saw cuts in burnt bone. © 2014 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  11. Open versus closed sandwich wound dressing method in burn ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: A retrospective study was conducted on 170 children under 12years admitted to the Pediatric surgical/female burn ward between the months of June 2006 to March 2007. A comparison was made between the open and closed sandwich method of burn wound dressing. The sandwich method entailed using 17 by ...

  12. Atmospheric emissions of typical toxic heavy metals from open burning of municipal solid waste in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Cheng, Ke; Wu, Weidong; Tian, Hezhong; Yi, Peng; Zhi, Guorui; Fan, Jing; Liu, Shuhan

    2017-03-01

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) contains considerable hazardous components and the widely-distributed open MSW burning in heavily-populated urban areas can cause direct exposure of hazardous materials to citizens. By determining the best available representation of composition-varying and time-varying emission factors with fuzzy mathematics method and S-shape curves, a comprehensive atmospheric emission inventories of 9 typical toxic heavy metals (THMs, e.g. mercury (Hg), arsenic (As), lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), selenium (Se), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), and nickel (Ni)) from open MSW burning activities in China is established during the period of 2000-2013 for the first time. Further, the emissions in 2013 are allocated at a high spatial resolution of 0.5° × 0.5° grid by surrogate indexes. The results show that 9 typical THMs emissions from open MSW burning are estimated at 21.25 t for Hg, 131.52 t for As, 97.12 t for Pb, 10.12 t for Cd, 50.58 t for Cr, 81.95 t for Se, 382.42 t for Cu, 1790.70 t for Zn, and 43.50 t for Ni, respectively. In terms of spatial variation, the majority of emissions are concentrated in relatively developed and densely-populated regions, especially for the eastern, central and southern regions. Moreover, future emissions are also projected for the period of 2015-2030 based on different scenarios of the independent and collaborative effects of control proposals including minimizing waste, improving MSW incineration ratio, and enhancing waste sorting and recycling, etc. The collaborative effect of the above proposals is expected to bring the most effective reduction to THMs emissions from open MSW burning in China except for Hg. The results will be supplementary to all anthropogenic emissions and useful for relevant policy-making and the improvement of urban air quality as well as human health.

  13. Waste incineration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rumplmayr, A.; Sammer, G.

    2001-01-01

    Waste incineration can be defined as the thermal conversion processing of solid waste by chemical oxidation. The types of wastes range from solid household waste and infectious hospital waste through to toxic solid, liquid and gaseous chemical wastes. End products include hot incineration gases, composed primarily of nitrogen, carbon dioxide, water vapor and to a smaller extend of non-combustible residue (ash) and air pollutants (e. g. NO x ). Energy can be recovered by heat exchange from the hot incineration gases, thus lowering fossil fuel consumption that in turn can reduce emissions of greenhouse gases. Burning of solid waste can fulfil up to four distinctive objectives (Pera, 2000): 1. Volume reduction: volume reduction of about 90 %, weight reduction of about 70 %; 2. Stabilization of waste: oxidation of organic input; 3. Recovery of energy from waste; 4. Sanitization of waste: destruction of pathogens. Waste incineration is not a means to make waste disappear. It does entail emissions into air as well as water and soil. The generated solid residues are the topic of this task force. Unlike other industrial processes discussed in this platform, waste incineration is not a production process, and is therefore not generating by-products, only residues. Residues that are isolated from e. g. flue gas, are concentrated in another place and form (e. g. air pollution control residues). Hence, there are generally two groups of residues that have to be taken into consideration: residues generated in the actual incineration process and others generated in the flue gas cleaning system. Should waste incineration finally gain public acceptance, it will be necessary to find consistent regulations for both sorts of residues. In some countries waste incineration is seen as the best option for the treatment of waste, whereas in other countries it is seen very negative. (author)

  14. Comparison of ANN (MLP), ANFIS, SVM, and RF models for the online classification of heating value of burning municipal solid waste in circulating fluidized bed incinerators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Haihui; Ma, Zengyi; Tang, Yijun; Wang, Yuelan; Yan, Jianhua; Ni, Mingjiang; Cen, Kefa; Huang, Qunxing

    2017-10-01

    The heating values, particularly lower heating values of burning municipal solid waste are critically important parameters in operating circulating fluidized bed incineration systems. However, the heating values change widely and frequently, while there is no reliable real-time instrument to measure heating values in the process of incinerating municipal solid waste. A rapid, cost-effective, and comparative methodology was proposed to evaluate the heating values of burning MSW online based on prior knowledge, expert experience, and data-mining techniques. First, selecting the input variables of the model by analyzing the operational mechanism of circulating fluidized bed incinerators, and the corresponding heating value was classified into one of nine fuzzy expressions according to expert advice. Development of prediction models by employing four different nonlinear models was undertaken, including a multilayer perceptron neural network, a support vector machine, an adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system, and a random forest; a series of optimization schemes were implemented simultaneously in order to improve the performance of each model. Finally, a comprehensive comparison study was carried out to evaluate the performance of the models. Results indicate that the adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system model outperforms the other three models, with the random forest model performing second-best, and the multilayer perceptron model performing at the worst level. A model with sufficient accuracy would contribute adequately to the control of circulating fluidized bed incinerator operation and provide reliable heating value signals for an automatic combustion control system. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Emissions from Open burning of Used Agricultural Pesticide Containers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emissions from simulated open burning of used agricultural pesticide containers were sampled for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDDs/PCDFs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon compounds (PAHs), and particle matter (PM10 and PM2.5). Clean high density polyethyl...

  16. People's awareness on effects of open burning of household waste ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Data coding was done during data collection & quantitative data analysis was done through SPSS Version 12, a computer package programme, whereas qualitative data sociological/anthropological methods in data analysis were used. RESULTS Health and environmental awareness of people on effects of open burning ...

  17. Interim Status Closure Plan Open Burning Treatment Unit Technical Area 16-399 Burn Tray

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vigil-Holterman, Luciana R. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-05-07

    This closure plan describes the activities necessary to close one of the interim status hazardous waste open burning treatment units at Technical Area (TA) 16 at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL or the Facility), hereinafter referred to as the 'TA-16-399 Burn Tray' or 'the unit'. The information provided in this closure plan addresses the closure requirements specified in the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Title 40, Part 265, Subparts G and P for the thermal treatment units operated at the Facility under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and the New Mexico Hazardous Waste Act. Closure of the open burning treatment unit will be completed in accordance with Section 4.1 of this closure plan.

  18. Characterization of Air Emissions from Open Burning and Open Detonation of Gun Propellants and Ammunition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emissions from open burning (OB) and open detonation (OD) of military ordnance and static fires (SF) of rocket motors were sampled in fall, 2013 at the Dundurn Depot (Saskatchewan, Canada). Emission sampling was conducted with an aerostat-lofted instrument package termed the “Fl...

  19. 78 FR 33894 - Proposed Information Collection (Open Burn Pit Registry Airborne Hazard Self-Assessment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-05

    ... Burn Pit Registry Airborne Hazard Self-Assessment Questionnaire) Activity: Comment Request AGENCY... to ``OMB Control No. 2900-NEW, Open Burn Pit Registry Airborne Hazard Self-Assessment Questionnaire.... Title: Open Burn Pit Registry Airborne Hazard Self-Assessment Questionnaire, VA Form 10-10066. OMB...

  20. CRNL active waste incinerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McQuade, D.W.

    1965-02-01

    At CRNL the daily collection of 1200 pounds of active combustible waste is burned in a refractory lined multi-chamber incinerator. Capacity is 500-550 pounds per hour; volume reduction 96%. Combustion gases are cooled by air dilution and decontaminated by filtration through glass bags in a baghouse dust collector. This report includes a description of the incinerator plant, its operation, construction and operating costs, and recommendations for future designs. (author)

  1. Waste Incinerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-05-01

    This book deals with plan and design of waste incinerator, which includes process outline of waste, method of measure, test, analysis, combustion way and classification of incineration facilities, condition of combustion and incineration, combustion calculation and heat calculation, ventilation and flow resistivity, an old body and component materials of supplementary installation, attached device, protection of pollution of incineration ash and waste gas, deodorization, prevention of noise in incineration facility, using heat and electric heat, check order of incineration plan.

  2. 78 FR 44625 - Proposed Information Collection (Open Burn Pit Registry Airborne Hazard Self-Assessment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Open Burn Pit Registry Airborne Hazard Self-Assessment Questionnaire) Activity; Extension of Comment Period AGENCY: Veterans Health... to ``OMB Control No. 2900--NEW, Open Burn Pit Registry Airborne Hazard Self-Assessment Questionnaire...

  3. Characterization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emission from open burning of joss paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rau, Jui-Yeh; Tseng, Hui-Hsin; Lin, Min-Der; Wey, Ming-Yen; Lin, Yu-Hao; Chu, Chien-Wei; Lee, Ching-Hwa

    The concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the ambient air from a massive open burning of joss paper was simultaneously measured at an open-burning site (OS) and a downwind site (DS) from 6 to 8 August 2006. A total of 16 major PAHs (particle-bound and gas-phase) concentrations were extracted by the Soxhlet analytical method and analyzed by gas chromatography. The dominant PAHs of the total mass of the organic compound at both the sampling sites were low-molecular-weight species. Further, the results showed that the start burning/end burning-dominant PAH concentration ratios at the OS and DS were 10 and 6.2, respectively. Diagnostic ratios were also used in this study to characterize and identify the PAH emission sources. The results suggest that the characterization of air pollutants emitted from open-burning joss paper lies between furnace-burning joss paper and wood combustion.

  4. HANDBOOK: HAZARDOUS WASTE INCINERATION MEASUREMENT GUIDANCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    This publication, Volume III of the Hazardous Waste Incineration Guidance Series, contains general guidance to permit writers in reviewing hazardous waste incineration permit applications and trial burn plans. he handbook is a how-to document dealing with how incineration measure...

  5. Assessment of Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Solid Waste Open Burning in Terengganu, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariani Ariffin

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available With more than 40 percent of the world’s rubbish is burned, open burning is a significant source of atmospheric pollution globally and remains one of the main environmental issues and health concerns for many developing nations. Despite having stringent criminal penalties for illegal open burning, Malaysia encounters increasing trend in open burning incidents. A better understanding of the knowledge, attitudinal, and perception towards open burning would inform more effective intervention efforts towards changing this trend. A questionnaire survey to assess knowledge, attitude and practice of public was conducted in Kuala Terengganu. A total of 384 respondents from various demographic backgrounds participated in the survey. Descriptive analysis was used to analyse the respondents’ socio-demographic profiles. Pearson correlation was used to uncover the relationship between knowledge, attitude and practice among the respondents. Results showed that the respondents had good knowledge on open burning and showed positive attitude towards protecting the environment from the problem. However, they displayed lack of practice to tackle the problem in real life. The study also found a weak relationship between knowledge with attitude and practice on open burning. Policy-makers should, therefore, devise intervention programmes that can encourage higher practice rather than merely focusing on raising awareness.

  6. Fluidized bed incinerator development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziegler, D.L.; Johnson, A.J.

    1976-01-01

    A fluidized bed incinerator is being developed for burning rad contaminated solid and liquid waste materials. In situ neutralization of acid gases by the bed material, catalytic afterburning, and gas filtration are used to produce a clean flue gas without the use of aqueous scrubbing

  7. PERMITTING HAZARDOUS WASTE INCINERATORS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This publication is a compilation of information presented at a seminar series designed to address the issues that affect the issuance of hazardous waste incineration permits and to improve the overall understanding of trial burn testing. pecifically, the document provides guidan...

  8. 78 FR 54956 - Agency Information Collection (Open Burn Pit Registry Airborne Hazard Self-Assessment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-06

    ... Pit Registry Airborne Hazard Self-Assessment Questionnaire) Activities Under OMB Review AGENCY... Burn Pit Registry Airborne Hazard Self-Assessment Questionnaire.'' SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Open Burn Pit Registry Airborne Hazard Self-Assessment Questionnaire, VA Form 10-10066. Type of Review...

  9. 40 CFR 49.132 - Rule for general open burning permits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... availability of water. (vi) The requested date when the proposed open burning would be conducted and the... FEDERAL ASSISTANCE TRIBAL CLEAN AIR ACT AUTHORITY General Federal Implementation Plan Provisions General..., PM2.5, Regional Administrator, stack, and uncombined water. ...

  10. Burns

    Science.gov (United States)

    A burn is damage to your body's tissues caused by heat, chemicals, electricity, sunlight, or radiation. Scalds from hot ... and gases are the most common causes of burns. Another kind is an inhalation injury, caused by ...

  11. Incineration technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Buekens, Alfons

    2013-01-01

    Waste incineration is the art of completely combusting waste, while maintaining or reducing emission levels below current emission standards. Where possible, objectives include the recovering of energy as well as the  combustion residues.  Successful waste incineration makes it possible to achieve a deep reduction in waste volume, obtain a compact and sterile residue, and eliminate a wide array of pollutants. This book places waste incineration within the wider context of waste management, and demonstrates that, in contrast to landfills and composting, waste incineration can eliminate objectionable and hazardous properties such as flammability and toxicity, result in a significant reduction in volume, and destroy gaseous and liquid waste streams leaving little or no residues beyond those linked to flue gas neutralization and treatment. Moreover, waste incineration sterilizes and destroys putrescible matter, and produces usable heat.  Incineration Technologies first appeared as a peer-reviewed contribution ...

  12. Waste incineration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCormack, M.D.

    1981-01-01

    As a result of the information gained from retrieval projects, the decision was made to perform an analysis of all the available incinerators to determine which was best suited for processing the INEL waste. A number of processes were evaluated for incinerators currently funded by DOE and for municipal incinerators. Slagging pyrolysis included the processes of three different manufacturers: Andco-Torrax, FLK and Purox

  13. Mound cyclone incinerator. Volume I. Description and performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klingler, L.M.

    1981-01-01

    The Mound cyclone incinerator was developed to fill a need for a simple, relaible incinerator for volume reduction of dry solid waste contaminated with plutonium-238. Although the basic design of the incinerator is for batch burning of solid combustible waste, the incinerator has also been adapted to volume reduction of other waste forms. Specialized waste feeding equipment enables continuous burning of both solid and liquid waste, including full scintillation vials. Modifications to the incinerator offgas system enable burning of waste contaminated with isotopes other than plutonium-238. This document presents the design and performance characteristics of the Mound Cyclone Incinerator for incineration of both solid and liquid waste. Suggestions are included for adaptation of the incinerator to specialized waste materials

  14. The Fire INventory from NCAR (FINN): a high resolution global model to estimate the emissions from open burning

    Science.gov (United States)

    C. Wiedinmyer; S. K. Akagi; R. J. Yokelson; L. K. Emmons; J. A. Al-Saadi; J. J. Orlando; A. J. Soja

    2010-01-01

    The Fire INventory from NCAR version 1.0 (FINNv1) provides daily, 1 km resolution, global estimates of the trace gas and particle emissions from open burning of biomass, which includes wildfire, agricultural fires, and prescribed burning and does not include 5 biofuel use and trash burning. Emission factors used in the calculations have been updated with recent data,...

  15. Characterization of Emissions from Liquid Fuel and Propane Open Burns

    Science.gov (United States)

    The comparative combustion emissions of using jet propellant (JP-5) liquid fuel pools or a propane manifold grid to simulate the effects of accidental fires was investigated. A helium-filled tethered aerostat was used to maneuver an instrument package into the open fire plumes ...

  16. Indoor air pollution by different heating systems: coal burning, open fireplace and central heating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriske, H J; Drews, M; Ebert, G; Menk, G; Scheller, C; Schöndube, M; Konieczny, L

    1996-11-01

    Investigations of indoor air pollution by different heating systems in private homes are described. Sixteen homes, 7 with coal burning, 1 with open fireplace (wood burning) and 8 with central heating have been investigated. We measured the concentrations of carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and sedimented dust in indoor air, of total suspended particulates, heavy metals and of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in indoor and outdoor air. Measurements were taken during winter (heating period) and during summer (non-heating period). Generally, we found higher indoor air pollution in homes with coal burning and open fireplace than in homes with central heating. Especially, the concentrations of carbon monoxide, sedimented dust and of some heavy metals were higher. In one case, we found also high indoor air pollution in a home with central heating. This apartment is on the ground floor of a block of flats, and the central heating system in the basement showed a malfunctioning of the exhaust system.

  17. Emissions of volatile organic compounds from maize residue open burning in the northern region of Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirithian, Duanpen; Thepanondh, Sarawut; Sattler, Melanie L.; Laowagul, Wanna

    2018-03-01

    Emission factors for speciated volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from maize residue burning were determined in this study based on chamber experiments. Thirty-six VOC species were identified by Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometer (GC/MS). They were classified into six groups, including alkanes, alkenes, oxygenated VOCs, halogenated VOCs, aromatics and other. The emission factor for total VOCs was estimated as about 148 mg kg-1 dry mass burned. About 68.4% of the compounds were aromatics. Field samplings of maize residues were conducted to acquire the information of fuel characteristics including fuel loading, fraction of maize residues that were actually burned as well as proximate and elemental analysis of maize residues. The emission factors were then applied to estimate speciated VOC emissions from maize residue open burning at the provincial level in the upper-northern region of Thailand for the year 2014. Total burned area of maize covered an area of about 500,000 ha which was about 4.7% of the total area of upper-northern region of the country. It was found that total VOC emissions released during the burning season (January-April) was about 79.4 tons. Ethylbenzene, m,p-xylene, 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene, acetaldehyde and o-xylene were the major contributors, accounting for more than 65% of total speciated VOC emissions.

  18. Consolidated incineration facility technical support

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, D.; Looper, M.G.

    1993-01-01

    In 1996, the Savannah River Site plans to begin operation of the Consolidated Incineration Facility (CIF) to treat solid and liquid RCRA hazardous and mixed wastes. The Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) leads an extensive technical support program designed to obtain incinerator and air pollution control equipment performance data to support facility start-up and operation. Key components of this technical support program include recently completed waste burn tests at both EPA's Incineration Research Facility and at Energy and Environmental Research Corporation's Solid Waste Incineration Test Facility. The main objectives for these tests were determining the fate of heavy metals, measuring organics destruction and removal efficiencies, and quantifying incinerator offgas particulate loading and size distribution as a function of waste feed characteristics and incineration conditions. In addition to these waste burning tests, the SRTC has recently completed installations of the Offgas Components Test Facility (OCTF), a 1/10 scale CIF offgas system pilot plant. This pilot facility will be used to demonstrate system operability and maintainability, evaluate and optimize equipment and instrument performance, and provide direct CIF start-up support. Technical support programs of this type are needed to resolve technical issues related with treatment and disposal of combustible hazardous, mixed, and low-level radioactive waste. Implementation of this program will minimize facility start-up problems and help insure compliance with all facility performance requirements

  19. Air pollutant emissions from rice straw open field burning in India, Thailand and the Philippines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gadde, Butchaiah; Bonnet, Sebastien; Menke, Christoph; Garivait, Savitri

    2009-01-01

    Rice is a widely grown crop in Asia. China (30%) and India (21%) contribute to about half of the world's total rice production. In this study, three major rice-producing countries in Asia are considered, India, Thailand and the Philippines (the later two contributing 4% and 2% of the world's rice production). Rice straw is one of the main field based residues produced along with this commodity and its applications vary widely in the region. Although rice production practises vary from one country to another, open burning of straw is a common practice in these countries. In this study, an approach was followed aiming at (a) determining the quantity of rice straw being subject to open field burning in those countries, (b) congregating pollutant specific emissions factors for rice straw burning, and (c) quantifying the resulting air pollutant emissions. Uncertainties in the results obtained as compared to a global approach are also discussed. - This research work contributes to enhance scientific knowledge for estimating air pollutant emissions from open burning of crop residues and improve emission results accuracy.

  20. Incineration by accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cribier, M.; FIoni, G.; Legrain, R.; Lelievre, F.; Leray, S.; Pluquet, A.; Safa, H.; Spiro, M.; Terrien, Y.; Veyssiere, Ch.

    1997-01-01

    The use MOX fuel allows to hope a stabilization of plutonium production around 500 tons for the French park. In return, the flow of minor actinides is increased to several tons. INCA (INCineration by Accelerator), dedicated instrument, would allow to transmute several tons of americium, curium and neptunium. It could be able to reduce nuclear waste in the case of stopping nuclear energy use. This project needs: a protons accelerator of 1 GeV at high intensity ( 50 m A), a window separating the accelerator vacuum from the reactor, a spallation target able to produce 30 neutrons by incident proton, an incineration volume where a part of fast neutrons around the target are recovered, and a thermal part in periphery with flows at 2.10 15 n/cm 2 .s; a chemical separation of elements burning in thermal (americium) from the elements needing a flow of fast neutrons. (N.C.)

  1. Monitoring and Inventory of Hazardous Pollutants Emissions from Solid Waste Open Burning

    Science.gov (United States)

    KIM Oanh, N. T.

    2017-12-01

    Open burning remains a way to dispose of solid waste in developing countries, commonly practiced in places where municipal solid waste (MSW) management is not sufficiently efficient. This open burning practice emits huge amounts of toxic air pollutants, including semi-VOC of dioxins (PCDD/F) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), particulate matters (PM), and toxic gases. This study measured toxic substances released from simulated open burning experiments of MSW (5 batches) and plastic waste (3 batches) to determine emission factors (EFs). Carbon content of the waste before and after burning was measured and the EFs were calculated using the carbon balance method. The obtained EFs of CO; CO2; NO2 and SO2 were 102±61; 1,684±96; 0.69±0.54; and 1.44±1.18 g/kg of dry MSW. The corresponding values for plastic waste were 13.0±6.0; 1,824±10; 0.12±0.07; and 0.14±0.09 g/kg, respectively. The EF of coarse PM (PM10-2.5); PM2.5 and BC in PM2.5 were, respectively, 6.1±5.6; 6.4±5.1 and 1.1±0.7 g/kg of MSW, and 2.3±0.1; 2.5±0.3; and 0.2±0.2 g/kg of plastic waste. The EFs of 17 dioxins and 16 PAHs were respectively 1,050±500 ng-TEQ dioxins (70% in gas phase) and 117± 21 mg PAHs (92% in gas phase) per kg of MSW, while those for plastic waste were 8.6 ng TEQ dioxins (36% in gas phase) and 85.2±0.06 mg PAHs (99% in gas phase). Using the activity data from own surveys and literature, we estimated the annual emissions from solid waste open burning in Southeast Asia for 2015. Higher emissions in the domain were seen during the dry months and over large urban areas. The large amounts of toxic pollutants emitted from this open burning activity call for actions to stop this practice which in turn requires integrated environmental management approach simultaneously considering both solid waste and air pollution.

  2. Influence of pesticides contamination on the emission of PCDD/PCDF to the land from open burning of corn straws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Tingting; Huang Jun; Deng Shubo; Yu Gang

    2011-01-01

    Open burning of crop residues has been identified as an important emission source of PCDD/PCDF to the environment. This paper presents the first known data on the emission of PCDD/PCDF to the land considering the influence of pesticides applied in crops planting. Emission factor for PCDD/PCDF to the land from open burning of corn straw with pesticides contamination ranged from 0.07 to 0.57 ng WHO 2005 -TEQ/kg straw burned with a mean value of 0.24 ng WHO 2005 -TEQ/kg straw burned and median value of 0.20 ng WHO 2005 -TEQ/kg straw burned, respectively. The concentration was 35 to 270 times higher than that without additional pesticide contaminated. Initial observation was that emission factor for PCDD/PCDF from open burning of crop residues was overestimated in the former UNEP Dioxin Toolkit. Pesticides contamination should be considered in some hotpots where special and over dosed pesticides has been sprayed especially in developing countries. - Highlights: → Pesticides applied on the corn straws would influence the emission of PCDD/PCDF in the open burning process of the straws. → Contaminated straw released 35 to 270 times higher PCDD/PCDF than that without. → Pesticides contamination should be included in hotpots about PCDD/PCDF emission. - Influence of pesticides contamination on the emission of PCDD/PCDF from open burning of crop residues is of great importance for the Dioxin Toolkit update.

  3. Air pollutant emissions from straw open burning: A case study in Tianjin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Yanan; Chen, Guanyi; Cheng, Zhanjun; Yan, Beibei; Hou, Li'an

    2017-12-01

    Straw open burning is a primary source of air pollution and difficult to forbid in China. To have a better understanding of the pollution status of straw open burning in Tianjin, an accurate pollutant emission inventory was established based on the county-level statistical data from 1996 to 2014 in Tianjin. Results showed that the emission of CO, VOCs, PM10, PM2.5, CH4, NOx, OC, SO2, NH3 and BC have decreased by 41.66%, 58.74%, 54.55%, 55.01%, 58.42%, 47.03%, 48.71%, 44.85%, 64.60%, 51.56% from 1996 to 2000, and then gradually increased by 44.05%, 53.48%, 59.43%, 59.49%, 51.24%, 55.05%, 53.09%, 22.73%, 56.25%, and 64.29% from 2000 to 2014, respectively. Spatially, counties of Wuqing, Baodi and Jixian were the largest contributors to the total emissions with the contribution of 25.98%, 22.69% and 18.87% respectively through the study period. The Monte Carlo simulation was also used to estimate the uncertainty and its confidence intervals of the pollutant emissions. The uncertainty of total pollutant emissions for each year is within ±80.35%. This study provides more accurate estimation for the pollutant emissions from straw open burning and reliable guidance for the policy formulation to improve the air quality in Tianjin.

  4. Molecular hydrogen (H2) combustion emissions and their isotope (D/H) signatures from domestic heaters, diesel vehicle engines, waste incinerator plants, and biomass burning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vollmer, M.K.; Walter, S.; Mohn, J.; Steinbacher, M.; Bond, S.W.; Röckmann, T.; Reimann, S.

    2012-01-01

    Molecular hydrogen (H2), its stable isotope signature ( D), and the key combustion parameters carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), and methane (CH4) were measured from various combustion processes. H2 in the exhaust of gas and oil-fired heaters and of waste incinerator plants was generally

  5. Use plan for demonstration radioactive-waste incinerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooley, L.R.; McCampbell, M.R.; Thompson, J.D.

    1982-04-01

    The University of Maryland at Baltimore was awarded a grant from the Department of Energy to test a specially modified incinerator to burn biomedical radioactive waste. In preparation for the incinerator, the Radiation Safety Office devised a comprehensive plan for its safe and effective use. The incinerator plan includes a discussion of regulations regarding on-site incineration of radioactive waste, plans for optimum use in burning four principal waste forms, controlled air incineration technology, and standard health physics safety practices; a use plan, including waste categorization and segregation, processing, and ash disposition; safety procedures, including personnel and area monitoring; and methods to evaluate the incinerator's effectiveness by estimating its volume reduction factors, mass and activity balances, and by determining the cost effectiveness of incineration versus commercial shallow land burial

  6. Commercial Cyclone Incinerator Demonstration Program: April-September 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexander, B.M.

    1979-01-01

    The commercial cyclone incinerator program was designed to study the effects of burning low-level waste contaminated with beta and gamma emitters in a cyclone system. The ultimate program goal is the demonstration of a cyclone incinerator at a nuclear power plant. During the past six months, the first program objective, NRC review of the Feasibility Plan, was achieved, and work began on the second objective, Complete Incinerator Feasibility Plan. Potential applications for the cyclone incinerator have been investigated. The feasibility plan for the incinerator system was reviewed with the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Following a series of cold checkout burns, implementation of the feasibility plan was begun with the start of laboratory-scale experiments. Inconel 601 is being investigated as a material of construction for the incinerator burn chamber

  7. Spatial estimation of PM2.5 emissions from straw open burning in Tianjin from 2001 to 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guanyi; Guan, Yanan; Tong, Ling; Yan, Beibei; Hou, Li'an

    2015-12-01

    Straw open burning in suburban areas contributes to an important proportion of air pollution threatening air quality of neighbouring highways and airports. This paper presents the characteristics of straw open burning-derived air pollution to understand its impact mechanism and take effective control measurements. In this study, PM2.5 emissions inventory from straw open burning was established at a high spatial resolution of 0.1° × 0.1° in Tianjin using geographic information systems (GIS) for the period of 2001-2012. PM2.5 emissions increased by 209.15% in the past nine years at an annual average rate of 23.24% from 2.95 Gg in 2002 to 6.17 Gg in 2010. WuQing District covering 13.17% of Tianjin land contributed to PM2.5 emission of 28.21% of total PM2.5 emissions from straw open burning.

  8. Controlled air pyrolysis incinerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dufrane, K.H.; Wilke, M.

    1982-01-01

    An advanced controlled air pyrolysis incinerator has been researched, developed and placed into commercial operation for both radioactive and other combustible wastes. Engineering efforts cocentrated on providing an incinerator which emitted a clean, easily treatable off-gas and which produced a minimum amount of secondary waste. Feed material is continuously fed by gravity into the system's pyrolysis chamber without sorting, shredding, or other such pretreatment. Metal objects, liquids such as oil and gasoline, or solid products such as resins, blocks of plastic, tire, animal carcasses, or compacted trash may be included along with normal processed waste. The temperature of the waste is very gradually increased in a reduced oxygen atmosphere. Volatile pyrolysis gases are produced, tar-like substances are cracked and the resulting product, a relatively uniform, easily burnable material, is introduced into the combustion chamber. Steady burning is thus accomplished under easily controlled excess air conditions with the off-gasthen passing through a simple dry clean-up system. Gas temperatures are then reduced by air dilution before passing through final HEPA filters. Both commercial and nuclear installations have been operated with the most recent application being the central incinerator to service West Germany's nuclear reactors

  9. Generation and distribution of PAHs in the process of medical waste incineration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ying; Zhao, Rongzhi; Xue, Jun; Li, Jinhui

    2013-05-01

    After the deadly earthquake on May 12, 2008 in Wenchuan county of China, several different incineration approaches were used for medical waste disposal. This paper investigates the generation properties of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) during the incineration. Samples were collected from the bottom ash in an open burning slash site, surface soil at the open burning site, bottom ash from a simple incinerator, bottom ash generated from the municipal solid waste (MSW) incinerator used for medical waste disposal, and bottom ash and fly ash from an incinerator exclusively used for medical waste. The species of PAHs were analyzed, and the toxicity equivalency quantities (TEQs) of samples calculated. Analysis results indicate that the content of total PAHs in fly ash was 1.8×10(3) times higher than that in bottom ash, and that the strongly carcinogenic PAHs with four or more rings accumulated sensitively in fly ash. The test results of samples gathered from open burning site demonstrate that Acenaphthylene (ACY), Acenaphthene (ACE), Fluorene (FLU), Phenanthrene (PHE), Anthracene (ANT) and other PAHs were inclined to migrate into surrounding environment along air and surface watershed corridors, while 4- to 6-ring PAHs accumulated more likely in soil. Being consistent with other studies, it has also been confirmed that increases in both free oxygen molecules and combustion temperatures could promote the decomposition of polycyclic PAHs. In addition, without the influence of combustion conditions, there is a positive correlation between total PCDD/Fs and total PAHs, although no such relationship has been found for TEQ. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Potential for leaching of heavy metals in open-burning bottom ash and soil from a non-engineered solid waste landfill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwenzi, Willis; Gora, Dorcas; Chaukura, Nhamo; Tauro, Tonny

    2016-03-01

    Bottom ash from open-burning of municipal waste practised in developing countries poses a risk of heavy metal leaching into groundwater. Compared to incineration ash, there is limited information on heavy metal leaching from open-burning ash and soil from non-engineered landfills. Batch and column experiments were conducted to address three specific objectives; (1) to determine aqua regia extractable concentrations of heavy metals in fresh ash, old ash and soil from beneath the landfill, (2) to determine the relationship between heavy metal leaching, initial and final pH of leaching solution, and aqua regia extractable concentrations, and (3) to determine the breakthrough curves of heavy metals in ashes and soil. Aqua regia extractable concentrations of Cd, Zn, Mn, Cu, Ni and Pb were significantly higher (p ashes than soil beneath landfill and uncontaminated soil (control). Increasing initial solution pH from 5 and 7 to 9 significantly reduced the mobility of Pb, Zn and Cu but not Cd whose mobility peaked at pH 7 and 9. Concentrations of desorbed heavy metals were not correlated with aqua regia extractable concentrations. Final pH of leachate rebounded to close to original pH of the material, suggesting a putative high buffering capacity for all materials. Both batch and column leaching showed that concentrations of leached heavy metals were disproportionately lower (ash and soil from the waste dump into groundwater was low. The high pH and the presence of Zn, Fe, Mn and Cu make ash an ideal low-cost liming material and source of micronutrients particularly on acidic soils prevalent in sub-Saharan Africa. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Estimating emissions from crop residue open burning in China based on statistics and MODIS fire products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Bo, Yu; Xie, Shaodong

    2016-06-01

    With the objective of reducing the large uncertainties in the estimations of emissions from crop residue open burning, an improved method for establishing emission inventories of crop residue open burning at a high spatial resolution of 0.25°×0.25° and a temporal resolution of 1month was established based on the moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) Thermal Anomalies/Fire Daily Level3 Global Product (MOD/MYD14A1). Agriculture mechanization ratios and regional crop-specific grain-to-straw ratios were introduced to improve the accuracy of related activity data. Locally observed emission factors were used to calculate the primary pollutant emissions. MODIS satellite data were modified by combining them with county-level agricultural statistical data, which reduced the influence of missing fire counts caused by their small size and cloud cover. The annual emissions of CO2, CO, CH4, nonmethane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs), N2O, NOx, NH3, SO2, fine particles (PM2.5), organic carbon (OC), and black carbon (BC) were 150.40, 6.70, 0.51, 0.88, 0.01, 0.13, 0.07, 0.43, 1.09, 0.34, and 0.06Tg, respectively, in 2012. Crop residue open burning emissions displayed typical seasonal and spatial variation. The highest emission regions were the Yellow-Huai River and Yangtse-Huai River areas, and the monthly emissions were highest in June (37%). Uncertainties in the emission estimates, measured as 95% confidence intervals, range from a low of within ±126% for N2O to a high of within ±169% for NH3. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Solid waste combustion for alpha waste incineration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orloff, D.I.

    1981-02-01

    Radioactive waste incinerator development at the Savannah River Laboratory has been augmented by fundamental combustion studies at the University of South Carolina. The objective was to measure and model pyrolysis and combustion rates of typical Savannah River Plant waste materials as a function of incinerator operating conditions. The analytical models developed in this work have been incorporated into a waste burning transient code. The code predicts maximum air requirement and heat energy release as a function of waste type, package size, combustion chamber size, and temperature. Historically, relationships have been determined by direct experiments that did not allow an engineering basis for predicting combustion rates in untested incinerators. The computed combustion rates and burning times agree with measured values in the Savannah River Laboratory pilot (1 lb/hr) and full-scale (12 lb/hr) alpha incinerators for a wide variety of typical waste materials

  13. Biomedical waste management: Incineration vs. environmental safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gautam V

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Public concerns about incinerator emissions, as well as the creation of federal regulations for medical waste incinerators, are causing many health care facilities to rethink their choices in medical waste treatment. As stated by Health Care Without Harm, non-incineration treatment technologies are a growing and developing field. Most medical waste is incinerated, a practice that is short-lived because of environmental considerations. The burning of solid and regulated medical waste generated by health care creates many problems. Medical waste incinerators emit toxic air pollutants and toxic ash residues that are the major source of dioxins in the environment. International Agency for Research on Cancer, an arm of WHO, acknowledged dioxins cancer causing potential and classified it as human carcinogen. Development of waste management policies, careful waste segregation and training programs, as well as attention to materials purchased, are essential in minimizing the environmental and health impacts of any technology.

  14. Air Toxics Emissions from Open Burning of Crop Residues in Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    KIM Oanh, N. T.; Permadi, D. A.; Hopke, P. K.; Smith, K. R.; Nguyet, D. A.

    2016-12-01

    Agricultural crops production in Southeast Asia (SEA) increases annually to meet domestic consumption of growing population and also for export. Crop residue open burning (CROB) is commonly practiced by farmers to quickly dispose of huge amounts of the agricultural waste, such as rice straw, generated after each crop cycle. This CROB activity emits various toxic air pollutants as well as short-lived climate pollutants such as black carbon particles. Our study focused on quantifying the 2015 annual emissions of semi-volatile organic compounds including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), dioxins/furans (PCDD/PCDF), organochlorine pesticides (OCP), along with other conventional trace gases, particulate matter, and greenhouse gases from CROB in 10 major agricultural crop producing SEA countries. Crop production statistics and current field OB practices were gathered from our primary surveys and relevant secondary data sources. Emission factors for rice straw and maize residue burning were taken mainly from our measurements in Thailand while for other crops relevant published data were used. The best emission estimates of air toxics from CROB in SEA were 112 g-TEQ/yr of PCDD/PCDF, 33 t/yr of OCP, and 25 Gg/yr of total PAH of which the well-known carcinogenic benzo[a]pyrene was 0.3 Gg/yr. The CROB of rice production had the highest shares of emissions (33-95%) among considered 8 crop types. Indonesia was the top contributor to the total SEA emissions (30-45%) followed by Vietnam (16-26%), Thailand (6-22%) and Myanmar (5-18%). The spatial distributions of emissions, 0.1º x 0.1º, for each specie were prepared using MODIS land cover data. Temporally, higher emissions were observed in the harvesting months of the main rice crops. This emissions database can be used in regional air quality modeling studies to assess the impacts of CROB activity and to promote non-open burning alternatives.

  15. Impact of anthropogenic emissions and open biomass burning on regional carbonaceous aerosols in South China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Gan, E-mail: zhanggan@gig.ac.c [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Li Jun [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Li Xiangdong [Department of Civil and Structural Engineering, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Xu Yue; Guo Lingli [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Tang Jianhui [Yantai Institute of Coastal Zone Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Yantai 264003 (China); Lee, Celine S.L. [Department of Civil and Structural Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Liu Xiang [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Chen Yingjun [Yantai Institute of Coastal Zone Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Yantai 264003 (China)

    2010-11-15

    Carbonaceous aerosols were studied at three background sites in south and southwest China. Hok Tsui in Hong Kong had the highest concentrations of carbonaceous aerosols (OC = 8.7 {+-} 4.5 {mu}g/m{sup 3}, EC = 2.5 {+-} 1.9 {mu}g/m{sup 3}) among the three sites, and Jianfeng Mountains in Hainan Island (OC = 5.8 {+-} 2.6 {mu}g/m{sup 3}, EC = 0.8 {+-} 0.4 {mu}g/m{sup 3}) and Tengchong mountain over the east edge of the Tibetan Plateau (OC = 4.8 {+-} 4.0 {mu}g/m{sup 3}, EC = 0.5 {+-} 0.4 {mu}g/m{sup 3}) showed similar concentration levels. Distinct seasonal patterns with higher concentrations during the winter, and lower concentrations during the summertime were observed, which may be caused by the changes of the regional emissions, and monsoon effects. The industrial and vehicular emissions in East, Southeast and South China, and the regional open biomass burning in the Indo-Myanmar region of Asia were probably the two major potential sources for carbonaceous matters in this region. - Anthropogenic emissions in China and open biomass burning in the Indo-Myanmar region were the two major potential sources for carbonaceous matters in South China region.

  16. A high-resolution open biomass burning emission inventory based on statistical data and MODIS observations in mainland China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Y.; Fan, M.; Huang, Z.; Zheng, J.; Chen, L.

    2017-12-01

    Open biomass burning which has adverse effects on air quality and human health is an important source of gas and particulate matter (PM) in China. Current emission estimations of open biomass burning are generally based on single source (alternative to statistical data and satellite-derived data) and thus contain large uncertainty due to the limitation of data. In this study, to quantify the 2015-based amount of open biomass burning, we established a new estimation method for open biomass burning activity levels by combining the bottom-up statistical data and top-down MODIS observations. And three sub-category sources which used different activity data were considered. For open crop residue burning, the "best estimate" of activity data was obtained by averaging the statistical data from China statistical yearbooks and satellite observations from MODIS burned area product MCD64A1 weighted by their uncertainties. For the forest and grassland fires, their activity levels were represented by the combination of statistical data and MODIS active fire product MCD14ML. Using the fire radiative power (FRP) which is considered as a better indicator of active fire level as the spatial allocation surrogate, coarse gridded emissions were reallocated into 3km ×3km grids to get a high-resolution emission inventory. Our results showed that emissions of CO, NOx, SO2, NH3, VOCs, PM2.5, PM10, BC and OC in mainland China were 6607, 427, 84, 79, 1262, 1198, 1222, 159 and 686 Gg/yr, respectively. Among all provinces of China, Henan, Shandong and Heilongjiang were the top three contributors to the total emissions. In this study, the developed open biomass burning emission inventory with a high-resolution could support air quality modeling and policy-making for pollution control.

  17. In situ analysis of soil at an open burning/open detonation disposal facility: J-Field, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martino, L.; Cho, E.; Wrobel, J.

    1994-01-01

    Investigators have used a field-portable X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) Analyzer to screen soils for a suite of metals indicative of the open burning and open detonation (OB/OD) activities that occurred at the J-Field site at Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. The field XRF results were incorporated into a multiphase investigation of contaminants at the Toxic Burning Pits Area of Concern at J-Field. The authors determined that the field-portable XRF unit used for the study and the general concept of field XRF screening are invaluable tools for investigating an OB/OD site where intrusive sampling techniques could present unacceptable hazards to site workers

  18. The incineration of absorbed liquid wastes in the INEL's [Idaho National Engineering Laboratory] WERF [Waste Experimental Reduction Facility] incinerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steverson, E.M.; McFee, J.N.

    1987-01-01

    The concept of burning absorbed flammable liquids in boxes in the WERF incinerator was evaluated as a waste treatment method. The safety and feasibility of this procedure were evaluated in a series of tests. In the testing, the effect on incinerator operations of burning various quantities of absorbed flammable liquids was measured and compared to normal operations conducted on low-level radioactive waste (LLW). The test results indicated that the proposed procedure is safe and practical for use on a wide variety of solvents with quantities as high as one liter per box. No adverse or unacceptable operating conditions resulted from burning any of the solvents tested. Incineration of the solvents in this fashion was no different than burning LLW during normal incineration. 6 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs

  19. The selection, licensing, and operation of a low-level radioactive waste incinerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arrowsmith, H.W.; Dalton, D.

    1990-01-01

    The Scientific Ecology Group has just completed the selection, procurement, licensing, and start-up of a low-level radioactive waste incinerator. This incinerator is the only commercial radioactive waste incinerator in the US and was licensed by the Environmental Protection Agency, the State of Tennessee, the City of Oak Ridge, and the Tennessee Valley Authority. This incinerator has a thermal capacity of 13,000,000 BTUs and can burn approximately 1,000 pounds per hour of typical radioactive waste. Waste to be incinerated is sorted in a new waste sorting system at the SEG facility. The sorting is essential to assure that the incinerator will not be damaged by any unexpected waste and to maintain the purity of the incinerator off-gas. The volume reduction expected for typical waste is approximately 100:1. After burning, the incinerator ash is compacted or vitrified before shipment to burial sites

  20. Plutonium waste incineration using pyrohydrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, M.L.

    1991-12-31

    Waste generated by Savannah River Site (SRS) plutonium operations includes a contaminated organic waste stream. A conventional method for disposing of the organic waste stream and recovering the nuclear material is by incineration. When the organic material is burned, the plutonium remains in the incinerator ash. Plutonium recovery from incinerator ash is highly dependent on the maximum temperature to which the oxide is exposed. Recovery via acid leaching is reduced for a high fired ash (>800{degree}C), while plutonium oxides fired at lower decomposition temperatures (400--800{degrees}C) are more soluble at any given acid concentration. To determine the feasibility of using a lower temperature process, tests were conducted using an electrically heated, controlled-air incinerator. Nine nonradioactive, solid, waste materials were batch-fed and processed in a top-heated cylindrical furnace. Waste material processing was completed using a 19-liter batch over a nominal 8-hour cycle. A processing cycle consisted of 1 hour for heating, 4 hours for reacting, and 3 hours for chamber cooling. The water gas shift reaction was used to hydrolyze waste materials in an atmosphere of 336% steam and 4.4% oxygen. Throughput ranged from 0.14 to 0.27 kg/hr depending on the variability in the waste material composition and density.

  1. Plutonium waste incineration using pyrohydrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, M.L.

    1991-01-01

    Waste generated by Savannah River Site (SRS) plutonium operations includes a contaminated organic waste stream. A conventional method for disposing of the organic waste stream and recovering the nuclear material is by incineration. When the organic material is burned, the plutonium remains in the incinerator ash. Plutonium recovery from incinerator ash is highly dependent on the maximum temperature to which the oxide is exposed. Recovery via acid leaching is reduced for a high fired ash (>800{degree}C), while plutonium oxides fired at lower decomposition temperatures (400--800{degrees}C) are more soluble at any given acid concentration. To determine the feasibility of using a lower temperature process, tests were conducted using an electrically heated, controlled-air incinerator. Nine nonradioactive, solid, waste materials were batch-fed and processed in a top-heated cylindrical furnace. Waste material processing was completed using a 19-liter batch over a nominal 8-hour cycle. A processing cycle consisted of 1 hour for heating, 4 hours for reacting, and 3 hours for chamber cooling. The water gas shift reaction was used to hydrolyze waste materials in an atmosphere of 336% steam and 4.4% oxygen. Throughput ranged from 0.14 to 0.27 kg/hr depending on the variability in the waste material composition and density.

  2. Plutonium waste incineration using pyrohydrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, M.L.

    1991-01-01

    Waste generated by Savannah River Site (SRS) plutonium operations includes a contaminated organic waste stream. A conventional method for disposing of the organic waste stream and recovering the nuclear material is by incineration. When the organic material is burned, the plutonium remains in the incinerator ash. Plutonium recovery from incinerator ash is highly dependent on the maximum temperature to which the oxide is exposed. Recovery via acid leaching is reduced for a high fired ash (>800 degree C), while plutonium oxides fired at lower decomposition temperatures (400--800 degrees C) are more soluble at any given acid concentration. To determine the feasibility of using a lower temperature process, tests were conducted using an electrically heated, controlled-air incinerator. Nine nonradioactive, solid, waste materials were batch-fed and processed in a top-heated cylindrical furnace. Waste material processing was completed using a 19-liter batch over a nominal 8-hour cycle. A processing cycle consisted of 1 hour for heating, 4 hours for reacting, and 3 hours for chamber cooling. The water gas shift reaction was used to hydrolyze waste materials in an atmosphere of 336% steam and 4.4% oxygen. Throughput ranged from 0.14 to 0.27 kg/hr depending on the variability in the waste material composition and density

  3. Los Alamos controlled-air incineration studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koenig, R.A.; Warner, C.L.

    1983-01-01

    Current regulations of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) require that PCBs in concentrations greater than 500 ppM be disposed of in EPA-permitted incinerators. Four commercial incineration systems in the United States have EPA operating permits for receiving and disposing of concentrated PCBs, but none can accept PCBs contaminated with nuclear materials. The first section of this report presents an overview of an EPA-sponsored program for studying PCB destruction in the large-scale Los Alamos controlled-air incinerator. A second major FY 1983 program, sponsored by the Naval Weapons Support Center, Crane, Indiana, is designed to determine operating conditions that will destroy marker smoke compounds without also forming polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), some of which are known or suspected to be carcinogenic. We discuss the results of preliminary trial burns in which various equipment and feed formulations were tested. We present qualitative analyses for PAHs in the incinerator offgas as a result of these tests

  4. Radioactive-waste incineration at Purdue University

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-11-01

    A study conducted at Purdue University to evaluate the feasibility of using a small (45 kg/h), inexpensive (less than $10K) incinerator for incinerating low-level radioactive waste is described. An oil-fired, dual-chamber pathological waste incinerator was installed on a 12.7-cm-thick concrete floor in a metal quonset building. A standard EPA Method 5 sampling train was used to obtain stack samples. Also, stack gas velocity was measured with a type 5 pitot tube; stack temperature was measured with a thermocouple and pyrometer. The incinerator was tested for emissions from incineration of laboratory animal carcasses, liquid scintillation fluid, and trash. Emissions measured were particulates, SO/sub x/, NO/sub x/, Cl, CO, CO 2 , H 2 O, and unburned hydrocarbons in the particulate fraction. Three analyses were then averaged to arrive at the final determinations. Results of the study demonstrated the feasibility and cost-effectiveness of incinerating radioactive animal carcasses and liquid scintillation fluids, since emissions from those waste types were within EPA and State of Indiana limits. However, emissions from burning of trash exceeded State of Indiana limits. Therefore, incineration of trash alone, particularly if it contains glass or significant amounts of plastic, is not a recommended use of the tested equipment

  5. Assessment of atmospheric impacts of biomass open burning in Kalimantan, Borneo during 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmud, Mastura

    2013-10-01

    Biomass burning from the combustion of agricultural wastes and forest materials is one of the major sources of air pollution. The objective of the study is to investigate the major contribution of the biomass open burning events in the island of Borneo, Indonesia to the degradation of air quality in equatorial Southeast Asia. A total of 10173 active fire counts were detected by the MODIS Aqua satellite during August 2004, and consequently, elevated the PM10 concentration levels at six air quality stations in the state of Sarawak, in east Malaysia, which is located in northwestern Borneo. The PM10 concentrations measured on a daily basis were above the 50 μg m-3 criteria as stipulated by the World Health Organization Air Quality Guidelines for most of the month, and exceeded the 24-h Recommended Malaysian Air Quality Guidelines of 150 μg m-3 on three separate periods from the 13th to the 30th August 2004. The average correlation between the ground level PM10 concentrations and the satellite derived aerosol optical depth (AOD) of 0.3 at several ground level air quality stations, implied the moderate relationship between the aerosols over the depth of the entire column of atmosphere and the ground level suspended particulate matter. Multiple regression for meteorological parameters such as rainfall, windspeed, visibility, mean temperature, relative humidity at two stations in Sarawak and active fire counts that were located near the centre of fire activities were only able to explain for 61% of the total variation in the AOD. The trajectory analysis of the low level mesoscale meteorological conditions simulated by the TAPM model illustrated the influence of the sea and land breezes within the lowest part of the planetary boundary layer, embedded within the prevailing monsoonal southwesterlies, in circulating the aged and new air particles within Sarawak.

  6. Incineration system for solid and liquid radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krutman, J.K.Z.; Grosche Filho, C.E.; Alfonso, S.A.

    1986-01-01

    An incineration system that allows the burning of solid and liquid radioactive wastes transforming them to highly insoluble ashes, and volumetric reduction from 30 to 50 times, depending on the incinerated waste. The global factor of activity retention contained in the waste is the order of 99%. The proposed incineration system allows the total combustion of radioactive waste and the generated gases during the burning. The formation of gaseous secondary wastes is minimum and any liquid waste is formed, reducing the costs of installation and operation. (M.C.K.) [pt

  7. Exposure to atmospheric pms, pahs, pcdd/fs and metals near an open air waste burning site in Beirut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rima Baalbaki

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Baalbaki, R., El Hage, R., Nassar, J., Gerard, J., Saliba, N.B., Zaarour, R., Abboud, M., Wehbeh, F., Khalaf, L.K., Shihadeh, A.L., Saliba, N.A. 2016. Exposure to atmospheric PMS, PAHS, PCDD/FS and metals near an open air waste burning site in Beirut. Lebanese Science Journal, 17(2: 91-103. Since July 2015, Lebanon has experienced the worst solid waste management crisis in its history. Consequently, open-air waste burning in the vicinity of highly populated areas in Beirut has become a common practice. This study evaluates the effects of open-air dumping and burning on local air quality and public health. The levels of particulate matter (PM10, PM2.5, gaseous and particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, polychlorinated dibenzo-dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs, and particle-bound metals at a residence close to waste burning are reported. Concentrations, determined between October 2 and December 2, 2015, were compared either to previous measurements or to measurements taken away from a nearby burning incident, and after it had rained. Subsequently, the cancer risk due to exposure to these chemicals was assessed. Results showed alarming increases in pollutant concentrations which was translated into an increase in short-term cancer risk from about 1 to 20 people per million on the days when waste was being burned. Findings were shared with the public to warn the community against the dangers of waste mismanagement, and underline the obvious need for solid waste management at the governmental and municipal levels.

  8. Defense waste cyclone incinerator demonstration program: October--March 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klinger, L.M.

    1979-01-01

    The cyclone incinerator developed at Mound has proven to be an effective tool for waste volume reduction. During the first half of FY-1979, efforts have been made to increase the versatility of the system. Incinerator development was continued in three areas. Design changes were drafted for the present developmental incinerator to rectify several minor operational deficiencies of the system. Improvements will be limited to redesign unless installation is required to prove design or to permit implementation of other portions of the plan. The applications development portion of the feasibility plan is focused upon expanding the versatility of the incinerator. An improved delivery system was installed for burning various liquids. An improved continuous feed system was installed and will be demonstrated later this year. Late in FY-1979, work will begin on the conceptual design of a production cyclone incinerator which will handle nonrecoverable TRU waste, and which will fully demonstrate the capabilities of the cyclone incinerator system. Data generated in past years and during FY-1979 are being collected to establish cyclone incineration effects on solids, liquids, and gases in the system. Data reflecting equipment life cycles and corrosion have been tabulated. Basic design criteria for a cyclone incinerator system based on developmental work on the incinerator through FY-1979 have been assembled. The portion of the material dealing with batch-type operation of the incinerator will be published later this year

  9. Characterization of particulate matter emission from open burning of rice straw

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim Oanh, Nguyen Thi; Ly, Bich Thuy; Tipayarom, Danutawat; Manandhar, Bhai Raja; Prapat, Pongkiatkul; Simpson, Christopher D.; Sally Liu, L.-J.

    2011-01-01

    Emission from field burning of crop residue, a common practice in many parts of the world today, has potential effects on air quality, atmosphere and climate. This study provides a comprehensive size and compositional characterization of particulate matter (PM) emission from rice straw (RS) burning using both in situ experiments (11 spread field burning) and laboratory hood experiments (3 pile and 6 spread burning) that were conducted during 2003-2006 in Thailand. The carbon balance and emission ratio method was used to determine PM emission factors (EF) in the field experiments. The obtained EF varied from field to hood experiments reflecting multiple factors affecting combustion and emission. In the hood experiments, EF were found to be depending on the burning types (spread or pile), moisture content and the combustion efficiency. In addition, in the field experiments, burning rate and EF were also influenced by weather conditions, i.e. wind. Hood pile burning produced significantly higher EF (20 ± 8 g kg -1 RS) than hood spread burning (4.7 ± 2.2 g kg -1 RS). The majority of PM emitted from the field burning was PM 2.5 with EF of 5.1 ± 0.7 g m -2 or 8.3 ± 2.7 g kg -1 RS burned. The coarse PM fraction (PM 10-2.5) was mainly generated by fire attention activities and was relatively small, hence the resulting EF of PM 10 (9.4 ± 3.5 g kg -1 RS) was not significantly higher than PM 2.5. PM size distribution was measured across 8 size ranges (from 9.0 μm). The largest fractions of PM, EC and OC were associated with PM 1.1. The most significant components in PM 2.5 and PM 10 include OC, water soluble ions and levoglucosan. Relative abundance of some methoxyphenols (e.g., acetylsyringone), PAHs (e.g., fluoranthene and pyrene), organochlorine pesticides and PCBs may also serve as additional signatures for the PM emission. Presence of these toxic compounds in PM of burning smoke increases the potential toxic effects of the emission. For illustration, an estimation

  10. Open burning of rice, corn and wheat straws: primary emissions, photochemical aging, and secondary organic aerosol formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Zheng; Deng, Wei; Zhang, Yanli; Ding, Xiang; Tang, Mingjin; Liu, Tengyu; Hu, Qihou; Zhu, Ming; Wang, Zhaoyi; Yang, Weiqiang; Huang, Zhonghui; Song, Wei; Bi, Xinhui; Chen, Jianmin; Sun, Yele; George, Christian; Wang, Xinming

    2017-12-01

    Agricultural residues are among the most abundant biomass burned globally, especially in China. However, there is little information on primary emissions and photochemical evolution of agricultural residue burning. In this study, indoor chamber experiments were conducted to investigate primary emissions from open burning of rice, corn and wheat straws and their photochemical aging as well. Emission factors of NOx, NH3, SO2, 67 non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs), particulate matter (PM), organic aerosol (OA) and black carbon (BC) under ambient dilution conditions were determined. Olefins accounted for > 50 % of the total speciated NMHCs emission (2.47 to 5.04 g kg-1), indicating high ozone formation potential of straw burning emissions. Emission factors of PM (3.73 to 6.36 g kg-1) and primary organic carbon (POC, 2.05 to 4.11 gC kg-1), measured at dilution ratios of 1300 to 4000, were lower than those reported in previous studies at low dilution ratios, probably due to the evaporation of semi-volatile organic compounds under high dilution conditions. After photochemical aging with an OH exposure range of (1.97-4.97) × 1010 molecule cm-3 s in the chamber, large amounts of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) were produced with OA mass enhancement ratios (the mass ratio of total OA to primary OA) of 2.4-7.6. The 20 known precursors could only explain 5.0-27.3 % of the observed SOA mass, suggesting that the major precursors of SOA formed from open straw burning remain unidentified. Aerosol mass spectrometry (AMS) signaled that the aged OA contained less hydrocarbons but more oxygen- and nitrogen-containing compounds than primary OA, and carbon oxidation state (OSc) calculated with AMS resolved O / C and H / C ratios increased linearly (p < 0.001) with OH exposure with quite similar slopes.

  11. The Fire INventory from NCAR (FINN) - a high resolution global model to estimate the emissions from open burning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiedinmyer, C.; Akagi, S. K.; Yokelson, R. J.; Emmons, L. K.; Al-Saadi, J. A.; Orlando, J. J.; Soja, A. J.

    2010-12-01

    The Fire INventory from NCAR version 1.0 (FINNv1) provides daily, 1 km resolution, global estimates of the trace gas and particle emissions from open burning of biomass, which includes wildfire, agricultural fires, and prescribed burning and does not include biofuel use and trash burning. Emission factors used in the calculations have been updated with recent data, particularly for the non-methane organic compounds (NMOC). The resulting global annual NMOC emission estimates are as much as a factor of 5 greater than some prior estimates. Chemical speciation profiles, necessary to allocate the total NMOC emission estimates to lumped species for use by chemical transport models, are provided for three widely used chemical mechanisms: SAPRC99, GEOS-CHEM, and MOZART-4. Using these profiles, FINNv1 also provides global estimates of key organic compounds, including formaldehyde and methanol. The uncertainty in the FINNv1 emission estimates are about a factor of two; but, the estimates agree closely with other global inventories of biomass burning emissions for CO, CO2, and other species with less variable emission factors. FINNv1 emission estimates have been developed specifically for modeling atmospheric chemistry and air quality in a consistent framework at scales from local to global. The product is unique because of the high temporal and spatial resolution, global coverage, and the number of species estimated. FINNv1 can be used for both hindcast and forecast or near-real time model applications and the results are being critically evaluated with models and observations whenever possible.

  12. Assessment of biomass open burning emissions in Indonesia and potential climate forcing impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Permadi, Didin Agustian; Kim Oanh, Nguyen Thi

    2013-10-01

    This paper presents an emission inventory (EI) for biomass open burning (OB) sources including forest, agro-residue and municipal solid waste (MSW) in Indonesia for year 2007. The EI covered toxic air pollutants and greenhouse gases (GHGs) and was presented as annual and monthly average for every district, and further on a grid of 0.25° × 0.25°. A rigorous analysis of activity data and emission factor ranges was done to produce the low, best and high emission estimates for each species. Development of EI methodology for MSW OB which, to our best knowledge, has not been presented in detail in the literature was a focus of this paper. The best estimates of biomass OB emission of toxic air pollutants for the country, in Gg, were: 9.6 SO2; 98 NOx; 7411 CO; 335 NMVOC; 162 NH3; 439 PM10; 357 PM2.5; 24 BC; and 147 OC. The best emission estimates of GHGs, in Gg, were: 401 CH4, 57,247 CO2; and 3.6 N2O. The low and high values of the emission estimates for different species were found to range from -86% to +260% of the corresponding best estimates. Crop residue OB contributed more than 80% of the total biomass OB emissions, followed by forest fire of 2-12% (not including peat soil fire emission) and MSW (1-8%). An inter-annual active fires count for Indonesia showed relatively low values in 2007 which may be attributed to the high rainfall intensity under the influence of La Niña climate pattern in the year. Total estimated net climate forcing from OB in Indonesia was 110 (20 year horizon) and 73 (100 year horizon) Tg CO2 equivalents which is around 0.9-1.1% of that reported for the global biomass OB for both time horizons. The spatial distribution showed higher emissions in large urban areas in Java and Sumatra Island, while the monthly emissions indicated higher values during the dry months of August-October.

  13. Effect of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) on PCDD/F emissions from open burning of biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Maria; Gullett, Brian K; Touati, Abderrahmane; Font, Rafael

    2012-09-04

    To understand the effect of leaf-surface pesticides on emissions of PCDD/F during biomass burns, nine combustion experiments simulating the open burning of biomass were conducted. Needles and branches of Pinus taeda (Loblolly pine) were sprayed with the pesticide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) at 1 and 10 times the manufacturer's recommended application concentration. The biomass was then dried overnight, burned in an open burn test facility, and emission samples were collected, analyzed, and compared against emission samples from burning untreated biomass. Blank tests and analysis of PCDD/F in the raw biomass were also performed. Emission results from burning a water-sprayed control show a ~20-fold increase in PCDD/F levels above that of the raw biomass alone, implicating combustive formation versus simple volatilization. Results from burns of pine branches sprayed with pesticide showed a statistically significant increase in the PCDD/F TEQ emissions when burning biomass at ten times the recommended pesticide concentration (from 0.22 to 1.14 ng TEQ/kg carbon burned (C(b)), both ND = 0). Similarly, a 150-fold increase in the total PCDD/F congener mass (tetra- to octa-chlorinated D/F) above that of the control was observed (from 52 to 7800 ng/kg C(b)), confirming combustive formation of PCDD/F from 2,4-D. More replicate testing is needed to evaluate effects at lower pesticide concentrations.

  14. The Fire INventory from NCAR (FINN): a high resolution global model to estimate the emissions from open burning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiedinmyer, C.; Akagi, S. K.; Yokelson, R. J.; Emmons, L. K.; Al-Saadi, J. A.; Orlando, J. J.; Soja, A. J.

    2011-07-01

    The Fire INventory from NCAR version 1.0 (FINNv1) provides daily, 1 km resolution, global estimates of the trace gas and particle emissions from open burning of biomass, which includes wildfire, agricultural fires, and prescribed burning and does not include biofuel use and trash burning. Emission factors used in the calculations have been updated with recent data, particularly for the non-methane organic compounds (NMOC). The resulting global annual NMOC emission estimates are as much as a factor of 5 greater than some prior estimates. Chemical speciation profiles, necessary to allocate the total NMOC emission estimates to lumped species for use by chemical transport models, are provided for three widely used chemical mechanisms: SAPRC99, GEOS-CHEM, and MOZART-4. Using these profiles, FINNv1 also provides global estimates of key organic compounds, including formaldehyde and methanol. Uncertainties in the emissions estimates arise from several of the method steps. The use of fire hot spots, assumed area burned, land cover maps, biomass consumption estimates, and emission factors all introduce error into the model estimates. The uncertainty in the FINNv1 emission estimates are about a factor of two; but, the global estimates agree reasonably well with other global inventories of biomass burning emissions for CO, CO2, and other species with less variable emission factors. FINNv1 emission estimates have been developed specifically for modeling atmospheric chemistry and air quality in a consistent framework at scales from local to global. The product is unique because of the high temporal and spatial resolution, global coverage, and the number of species estimated. FINNv1 can be used for both hindcast and forecast or near-real time model applications and the results are being critically evaluated with models and observations whenever possible.

  15. The Fire INventory from NCAR (FINN: a high resolution global model to estimate the emissions from open burning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Wiedinmyer

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The Fire INventory from NCAR version 1.0 (FINNv1 provides daily, 1 km resolution, global estimates of the trace gas and particle emissions from open burning of biomass, which includes wildfire, agricultural fires, and prescribed burning and does not include biofuel use and trash burning. Emission factors used in the calculations have been updated with recent data, particularly for the non-methane organic compounds (NMOC. The resulting global annual NMOC emission estimates are as much as a factor of 5 greater than some prior estimates. Chemical speciation profiles, necessary to allocate the total NMOC emission estimates to lumped species for use by chemical transport models, are provided for three widely used chemical mechanisms: SAPRC99, GEOS-CHEM, and MOZART-4. Using these profiles, FINNv1 also provides global estimates of key organic compounds, including formaldehyde and methanol. Uncertainties in the emissions estimates arise from several of the method steps. The use of fire hot spots, assumed area burned, land cover maps, biomass consumption estimates, and emission factors all introduce error into the model estimates. The uncertainty in the FINNv1 emission estimates are about a factor of two; but, the global estimates agree reasonably well with other global inventories of biomass burning emissions for CO, CO2, and other species with less variable emission factors. FINNv1 emission estimates have been developed specifically for modeling atmospheric chemistry and air quality in a consistent framework at scales from local to global. The product is unique because of the high temporal and spatial resolution, global coverage, and the number of species estimated. FINNv1 can be used for both hindcast and forecast or near-real time model applications and the results are being critically evaluated with models and observations whenever possible.

  16. Corrosion Problems in Incinerators and Biomass-Fuel-Fired Boilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepa Mudgal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Incinerators are widely used to burn the municipal waste, biowaste, wood, straw, and biomedical waste. Combustion of these types of waste results in generation of chlorides of sodium and potassium which may attack the metallic part of the incinerator. In biofuel-fired boilers, similar type of highly corrosive environment is present. Attempt has been made to review the corrosion problems and their solutions as per the available literature.

  17. Corrosion Problems in Incinerators and Biomass-Fuel-Fired Boilers

    OpenAIRE

    Mudgal, Deepa; Singh, Surendra; Prakash, Satya

    2014-01-01

    Incinerators are widely used to burn the municipal waste, biowaste, wood, straw, and biomedical waste. Combustion of these types of waste results in generation of chlorides of sodium and potassium which may attack the metallic part of the incinerator. In biofuel-fired boilers, similar type of highly corrosive environment is present. Attempt has been made to review the corrosion problems and their solutions as per the available literature.

  18. Incineration of Non-radioactive Simulated Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, A.Z.; Abdelrazek, I.D.

    1999-01-01

    An advanced controlled air incinerator has been investigated, developed and put into successful operation for both non radioactive simulated and other combustible solid wastes. Engineering efforts concentrated on providing an incinerator which emitted a clean, easily treatable off-gas and which produced minimum amounts of secondary waste. Feed material is fed by gravity into the gas reactor without shredding or other pretreatment. The temperature of the waste is gradually increased in a reduced oxygen atmosphere as the resulting products are introduced into the combustion chamber. Steady burning is thus accomplished under easily controlled excess air conditions with the off-gas then passing through a simple dry cleaning-up system. Experimental studies showed that, at lower temperature, CO 2 , and CH 4 contents in gas reactor effluent increase by the increase of glowing bed temperature, while H 2 O, H 2 and CO decrease . It was proved that, a burn-out efficiency (for ash residues) and a volume reduction factor appeared to be better than 95.5% and 98% respectively. Moreover, high temperature permits increased volumes of incinerated material and results in increased gasification products. It was also found that 8% by weight of ashes are separated by flue gas cleaning system as it has chemical and size uniformity. This high incineration efficiency has been obtained through automated control and optimization of process variables like temperature of the glowing bed and the oxygen feed rate to the gas reactor

  19. The solid waste contaminated incineration technique used incinerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sukosrono; Prayitno; Isman, M. T.

    1996-01-01

    The research of the incinerator radioactive waste used incinerator has been done. The aim of the experiment is to determine the number of the organic liquid waste which added on the incineration of the solid radioactive waste. The research was done by incinerate waste in the incinerator prototype which was designed for capacity 2500 gram, and the investigated variables are capacity of the incinerator, specific of the waste, and the method of the incineration. Simulated waste was used in the experiment, the waste specific which was used in the experiment was the mixture between liquid organic waste (TBPK-10%) with solid waste was coming from rice paper, tissue, carton. Two way method were investigated in the experiment, were direct incineration and indirect incineration. The direct incineration was done by incineration solid waste and organic liquid waste in the incinerator together. The indirect incineration was done by incineration of solid waste which have been used to absorb organic liquid waste. The result showed that either direct or indirect incineration independent to the incineration result. The best result have taken place on the 2250 gram capacity of the incinerator, ratio liquid organic waste to solid waste 1% - 20%. In the condition will be found reduction of volume = 43.90 - 35.91 and reduction of the waste = 13.85% - 12.15% and the ash which was resulted from incineration colored white silver with contain a little color black. (author)

  20. Characterization of Emissions from Open Burning of Meals Ready-to-Eat and their Paperboard Packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emissions from burning current and candidate Meals Ready-to-Eat (MRE) packaging and shipping containers were characterized in an effort to assuage concerns that combustive disposal of waste at forward operating bases could pose an environmental or inhalation threat. Four types of...

  1. PM2.5 emissions and source profiles from open burning of crop residues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ni, Haiyan; Tian, Jie; Wang, Xiaoliang; Wang, Qiyuan; Han, Yongming; Cao, Junji; Long, Xin; Chen, L-W. Antony; Chow, Judith C.; Watson, John G.; Huang, Ru-Jin; Dusek, Ulrike

    2017-01-01

    Wheat straw, rice straw, and corn stalks, the major agricultural crop residues in China, were collected from six major crop producing regions, and burned in a laboratory combustion chamber to determine PM2.5 source profiles and speciated emission factors (EFs). Organic carbon (OC) and water-soluble

  2. Incineration of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eid, C.

    1985-01-01

    The incineration process currently seems the most appropriate way to solve the problems encountered by the increasing quantities of low and medium active waste from nuclear power generation waste. Although a large number of incinerators operate in the industry, there is still scope for the improvement of safety, throughput capacity and reduction of secondary waste. This seminar intends to give opportunity to scientists working on the different aspects of incineration to present their most salient results and to discuss the possibilities of making headway in the management of LL/ML radioactive waste. These proceedings include 17 contributions ranging over the subjects: incineration of solid β-γ wastes; incineration of other radwastes; measurement and control of wastes; off-gas filtration and release. (orig./G.J.P.)

  3. Long term plant biomonitoring in the vicinity of waste incinerators in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, van C.J.; Doorn, van W.; Alfen, van A.J.

    2015-01-01

    Since the mid-nineties new waste incineration plants have come into operation in the Netherlands. Burning of waste can result in the emission of potentially toxic compounds. Although the incineration plants must comply with strict conditions concerning emission control, public concern on the

  4. CO-incineration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehmer, S.; Rumplmayr, A.

    2001-01-01

    'Co-incineration plant means a stationary or mobile plant whose main purpose is the generation of energy or production of material products and which uses wastes as a regular or additional fuel; or in which waste is thermally treated for the purpose of disposal. This definition covers the site and the entire plant including all incineration lines, waste reception, storage, an site pre-treatment facilities; its waste-, fuel- and air-supply systems; the boiler; facilities for treatment or storage of the residues, exhaust gas and waste water; the stack; devices and systems for controlling incineration operations, recording and monitoring incineration conditions (proposal for a council directive an the incineration of waste - 98/C 372/07). Waste incinerators primarily aim at rendering waste inert, at reduction of its volume and at the generation of energy from waste. The main aim of co-incineration an the other hand is either the recovery of energy from waste, the recovery of its material properties or a combination of the latter in order to save costs for primary energy. Two main groups of interest have lately been pushing waste towards co-incineration: conventional fossil fuels are getting increasingly scarce and hence expensive and generate carbon dioxide (greenhouse gas). The use of high calorific waste fractions is considered as an alternative. In many countries land filling of waste is subject to increasingly strict regulations in order to reduce environmental risk and landfill volume. The Austrian Landfill Ordinance for instance prohibits the disposal of untreated waste from the year 2004. Incineration seems to be the most effective treatment option to destroy organic matter. However the capacities of waste incinerators are limited, giving rise to a search for additional incineration capacity. The obvious advantages of co-incineration, such as the saving of fossil fuels and raw materials, the thermal treatment of waste fractions and possible economic benefits by

  5. Determination of acceptable locations for the open burning of wood waste piles in the Prince George airshed using atmospheric dispersion models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ainslie, B.; Jackson, P.L. [Northern British Columbia Univ., Prince George, BC (Canada). Dept. of Environmental Science and Environmental Engineering

    2009-04-15

    Open wood waste burning has been prescribed for the City of Prince George, British Columbia as a cost-effective way to dispose of the piles of lodge pole pine trees that have been killed by the Mountain Pine Beetle. For that reason, this study focused on a method to determine air emission source regions that would adversely influence the City of Prince George by potential burning of the waste piles. The analysis used 2 atmospheric dispersion models, notably CALPUFF and AERMOD to identify safe burning regions based on atmospheric stability and wind direction. Model results showed that the location and extent of influence regions is sensitive to wind speed, wind direction, atmospheric stability and a threshold used to quantify excessive concentrations. A concentration threshold based on the Canada Wide PM{sub 2.5} standard was used to delineate the influence regions, and Environment Canada's daily ventilation index was used to quantify local atmospheric stability. A series of maps were produced to delineate acceptable burning locations when sources are placed at various distances from the city centre and under different meteorological conditions. The results presented in this report are to be used together with the local air pollution meteorologist's expert knowledge when permitting open burning. The following general guidelines were presented: Burning should not be allowed within 10 km of the city centre. Under poor ventilation conditions, burning should not be allowed within 20 km of the city centre, but under good ventilation conditions, burning can be allowed within 10 to 15 km of the city centre. Under good to fair ventilation conditions, burning can be allowed beyond 15 km of the city centre, and if the wind direction can be reliably forecast, burning can be allowed between 5 and 10 km downwind of the city centre under good ventilation conditions. 9 refs., 3 tabs., 10 figs., 2 appendices.

  6. Nuclear waste incineration technology status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziegler, D.L.; Lehmkuhl, G.D.; Meile, L.J.

    1981-01-01

    The incinerators developed and/or used for radioactive waste combustion are discussed and suggestions are made for uses of incineration in radioactive waste management programs and for incinerators best suited for specific applications. Information on the amounts and types of radioactive wastes are included to indicate the scope of combustible wastes being generated and in existence. An analysis of recently developed radwaste incinerators is given to help those interested in choosing incinerators for specific applications. Operating information on US and foreign incinerators is also included to provide additional background information. Development needs are identified for extending incinerator applications and for establishing commercial acceptance

  7. Commercial incineration demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vavruska, J.S.; Borduin, L.C.

    1982-01-01

    Low-level radioactive wastes (LLW) generated by nuclear utilities presently are shipped to commercial burial grounds for disposal. Increasing transportation and disposal costs have caused industry to consider incineration as a cost-effective means of volume reduction of combustible LLW. Repeated inquiries from the nuclear industry regarding the applicability of the Los Alamos controlled air incineration (CAI) design led the DOE to initiate a commercial demonstration program in FY-1980. Development studies and results in support of this program involving ion exchange resin incineration and fission/activation product distributions within the Los Alamos CAI are described

  8. Radwaste incineration at CRNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beamer, N.V.

    A Waste Treatment Centre (WTC) is being constructed at CRNL to develop and demonstrate processes to convert reactor wastes to a form suitable for disposal. Combustible wastes can be reduced in volume to a stable ash by incineration. A prototype starved-air incinerator in the WTC is currently being commissioned on inactive waste. Overall performance to date is good. Satisfactory control of main process flows and temperatures has been achieved. Checking of system response to process failures has begun. So far, problems with a similar incinerator during initial operation at Ontario Hydro have not been encountered

  9. Sustainable bio-energy production models for eradicating open field burning of paddy straw in Punjab, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trivedi, Abhinav; Verma, Amit Ranjan; Kaur, Supreet; Jha, Bhaskar; Vijay, Vandit; Chandra, Ram; Vijay, Virendra Kumar; Subbarao, P.M.V.; Tiwari, Ratnesh; Hariprasad, P.; Prasad, Rajendra

    2017-01-01

    The mechanized harvesting of paddy crop has led into open field burning of paddy straw. Burning of million tonnes of paddy straw releases huge potent greenhouse gases which creates perturbations to regional atmospheric chemistry. This paper presents a case study on utilization of paddy straw for power generation through biomethane and bioethanol production on commercial scale and improved biomass cookstove on domestic scale. Three scenario (biomethane, bioethanol and pellet for improved biomass cookstove) have been compared for their energy economics and emission. It has been revealed that if paddy straw is not being burned, it can be effectively utilized for biomethanation and bioethanol production which can yield energy equivalent of 8.0 GJ/tonne and 5.6 GJ/tonne, respectively, while pelletized paddy straw can be used in improved biomass cookstoves to meet out thermal cooking energy requirement with reduced indoor air pollution. The analysis further revealed that biomethanation of paddy straw reduces net global warming potential by 2750 CO 2 e kg emissions/tonne. However, bioethanol production showed net global warming potential reduction of 2549 CO 2 e kg emissions/tonne. The pelletization of paddy straw for improved cookstove showed net global warming potential reduction of 2459 CO 2 e kg emissions/tonne. - Highlights: • Biomethane production from paddy straw showed a total energy yield of 8.0 GJ/tonne. • Bioethanol production from paddy straw showed a total energy yield of 5.6 GJ/tonne. • Biomethanation route showed net global warming potential reduction of 2750 CO 2 e kg emissions/tonne. • Pelletization for improved cookstove showed net global warming potential reduction of 2459 CO 2 e kg emissions/tonne. • Bioethanol route showed net global warming potential reduction of 2549 CO 2 e kg emissions/tonne.

  10. Current practice of incineration of low-level institutional radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooley, L.R.; McCampbell, M.R.; Thompson, J.D.

    1981-02-01

    During 1972, 142 medical and academic institutions were surveyed to assess the current practice of incineration of low-level radioactive waste. This was one activity carried out by the University of Maryland as part of a contract with EG and G Idaho, Inc., to site a radioactive waste incineration system. Of those surveyed, 46 (approximately 32%) were presently incinerating some type of radioactive waste. All were using controlled-air, multistage incinerators. Incinerators were most often used to burn animal carcasses and other biological wastes (96%). The average size unit had a capacity of 113 kg/h. Disposal of liquid scintillation vials posed special problems; eight institutions incinerated full scintillation vials and five incinerated scintillation fluids in bulk form. Most institutions (87%) used the incinerator to dispose of other wastes in addition to radioactive wastes. About half (20) of the institutions incinerating radioactive wastes reported shortcomings in their incineration process; those most often mentioned were: problems with liquid scintillation wastes, ash removal, melting glass, and visible smoke. Frequently cited reasons for incinerating wastes were: less expensive than shipping for commercial shallow land burial, volume reduction, convenience, and closure of existing disposal sites

  11. Experimentation with a prototype incinerator for beta-gamma waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farber, M.G.; Lewandowski, K.E.; Becker, G.W.

    1982-01-01

    A test facility for the incineration of suspect and low-level beta-gamma waste has been built and operated at the Savannah River Laboratory. The processing steps include waste feeding, incineration, ash residue packaging, and off-gas cleanup. Demonstration of the full-scale (180 kg/hr) facility with nonradioactive, simulated waste is currently in progress. At the present time, over nine metric tons of material including rubber, polyethylene, and cellulose have been incinerated during three burning campaigns. A comprehensive test program of solid and liquid waste incineration is being implemented. The data from the research program is providing the technical basis for a phase of testing with low-level beta-gamma waste generated at the Savannah River Plant

  12. Retention and subsequent release of radioactivity from the incineration of wastes containing microspheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emery, R.J.; Watson, J.E. Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Incineration is the preferred method for disposing of animal carcasses containing radioactive microspheres at the authors University. Routine surveys of ash from successive nonradioactive burns revealed significant contamination from previously incinerated microspheres. Past studies on microsphere incineration quantified the amount of activity retained in ash, but did not address any subsequent releases. This topic was not considered in earlier studies because, in most cases, the carcasses were placed in some type of container to facilitate recovery of ash, preventing contamination of the incinerator refractory. In this study, five sets of controlled burns were performed to quantify the subsequent releases of the microsphere radioisotopes 141 Ce, 113 Sn, 102 Ru, 95 Nb, and 46 Sc. Each set consisted of three successive burns. The first burn of each set incinerated a non-radioactive carcass, the second burn, a radioactive carcass, and the third, a non-radioactive carcass. In all of the burns, the carcasses were placed directly on the incinerator refractory floor, which is the standard procedure during normal operations

  13. The Studsvik incinerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hetzler, F.

    1988-01-01

    The Studsvik Incinerator is a Faurholdt designed, multi-stage, partial pyrolysis, controlled-air system taken into operation in 1976. The incinerator was initially operated without flue-gas filtration from 1976 until 1979 and thereafter with a bag-house filter. The Studsvik site has been host to radioactive activities for approximately 30 years. The last 10 years have included on site incineration of more than 3,000 tons of LLW. During this time routine sampling for activity has been performed, of releases and in the environment, to carefully monitor the area. The author discusses records examined to determine levels of activity prior to incinerator start-up, without and with filter

  14. CHARACTERIZATION OF EMISSIONS FROM THE SIMULATED OPEN-BURNING OF NON-METALLIC AUTOMOBILE SHREDDER RESIDUE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of a study in which the open combustion of a nonmetallic waste product called "fluff" was simulated and the resulting emissions collected and characterized to gain insight into the types and quantities of these air pollutants. (NOTE: The reclamation proce...

  15. Ohio incinerator given the go-ahead

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kemezis, P.

    1992-01-01

    A federal judge has denied a request for an injunction against the startup of the long-stalled Waste Technologies Industries (WTI) commercial hazardous waste incinerator in East Liverpool, OH. The $140-million plant, owned by a US subsidiary of Swiss engineering group Von Roll Ltd. (Zuerich), will go through a startup stage and a seven-day trial burn during the next two months, according to WTI. In testimony in federal court in Huntington, WV, WTI had said it was losing $115,000/day in fixed costs because of the plant's startup delay. The company also said that long-term contracts with Chemical Waste Management (CWM; Oak Brook, IL), Du Pont (Wilmington, DE), and BASF Corp. (Parsippany, NJ) to use plant services could be jeopardized by the delay. WTI is believed to have 10-year service contracts with the three companies and also will use CWM to dispose of the ash from the incinerator

  16. Technical meeting on development of 'Deep Burn' concepts using coated particle fuel for incineration of nuclear waste, surplus fissile materials and plutonium without recourse to multiple reprocessing. Meeting report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    Summary report of the technical meeting. The purpose of this meeting is to explore various Deep-Burn options and concepts being developed in Member States and to appraise the progress made towards the maturity of Deep-Burn concepts based on HTGR designs. The meeting will also identify technology development challenges towards the realization of Deep-Burn concepts and propose collaborative ways to address them

  17. Chemical and physical transformations of organic aerosol from the photo-oxidation of open biomass burning emissions in an environmental chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    C. J. Hennigan; M. A. Miracolo; G. J. Engelhart; A. A. May; A. A. Presto; T. Lee; A. P. Sullivan; G. R. McMeeking; H. Coe; C. E. Wold; W.-M. Hao; J. B. Gilman; W. C. Kuster; J. de Gouw; B. A. Schichtel; J. L. Collett; S. M. Kreidenweis; A. L. Robinson

    2011-01-01

    Smog chamber experiments were conducted to investigate the chemical and physical transformations of organic aerosol (OA) during photo-oxidation of open biomass burning emissions. The experiments were carried out at the US Forest Service Fire Science Laboratory as part of the third Fire Lab at Missoula Experiment (FLAME III). We investigated emissions from 12 different...

  18. Controlled air incineration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seitz, K.A.

    1991-01-01

    From 1960 to 1970, incineration was recognized as an economical method of solid waste disposal with many incinerators in operation through the country. During this period a number of legislation acts began to influence the solid waste disposal industry, namely, the Solid Waste Disposal Act of 1965; Resource Conservation Recovery Act (RCRA) of 1968; Resource Recovery Act of 1970; and Clean Air Act of 1970. This period of increased environmental awareness and newly created regulations began the closure of many excess air incineration facilities and encouraged the development of new controlled air, also known as Starved-Air incinerator systems which could meet the more stringent air emission standards without additional emission control equipment. The Starved-Air technology initially received little recognition because it was considered unproven and radically different from the established and accepted I.I.A. standards. However, there have been many improvements and developments in the starved-air incineration systems since the technology was first introduced and marketed, and now these systems are considered the proven technology standard

  19. Oxygen enrichment incineration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jeong Guk; Yang, Hee Chul; Park, Geun Il; Kim, Joon Hyung

    2000-10-01

    Oxygen enriched combustion technology has recently been used in waste incineration. To apply the oxygen enrichment on alpha-bearing waste incineration, which is being developed, a state-of-an-art review has been performed. The use of oxygen or oxygen-enriched air instead of air in incineration would result in increase of combustion efficiency and capacity, and reduction of off-gas product. Especially, the off-gas could be reduced below a quarter, which might reduce off-gas treatment facilities, and also increase an efficiency of off-gas treatment. However, the use of oxygen might also lead to local overheating and high nitrogen oxides (NOx) formation. To overcome these problems, an application of low NOx oxy-fuel burner and recycling of a part of off-gas to combustion chamber have been suggested

  20. Oxygen enrichment incineration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jeong Guk; Yang, Hee Chul; Park, Geun Il; Kim, Joon Hyung

    2000-10-01

    Oxygen enriched combustion technology has recently been used in waste incineration. To apply the oxygen enrichment on alpha-bearing waste incineration, which is being developed, a state-of-an-art review has been performed. The use of oxygen or oxygen-enriched air instead of air in incineration would result in increase of combustion efficiency and capacity, and reduction of off-gas product. Especially, the off-gas could be reduced below a quarter, which might reduce off-gas treatment facilities, and also increase an efficiency of off-gas treatment. However, the use of oxygen might also lead to local overheating and high nitrogen oxides (NOx) formation. To overcome these problems, an application of low NOx oxy-fuel burner and recycling of a part of off-gas to combustion chamber have been suggested.

  1. Chemical characterization and oxidative potential of particles emitted from open burning of cereal straws and rice husk under flaming and smoldering conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fushimi, Akihiro; Saitoh, Katsumi; Hayashi, Kentaro; Ono, Keisuke; Fujitani, Yuji; Villalobos, Ana M.; Shelton, Brandon R.; Takami, Akinori; Tanabe, Kiyoshi; Schauer, James J.

    2017-08-01

    Open burning of crop residue is a major source of atmospheric fine particle emissions. We burned crop residues (rice straws, barley straws, wheat straws, and rice husks produced in Japan) in an outdoor chamber and measured particle mass, composition (elemental carbon: EC, organic carbon: OC, ions, elements, and organic species), and oxidative potential in the exhausts. The fine particulate emission factors from the literature were within the range of our values for rice straws but were 1.4-1.9 and 0.34-0.44 times higher than our measured values for barley straw and wheat straw, respectively. For rice husks and wheat straws, which typically lead to combustion conditions that are relatively mild, the EC content of the particles was less than 5%. Levoglucosan seems more suitable as a biomass burning marker than K+, since levoglucosan/OC ratios were more stable than K+/particulate mass ratios among crop species. Stigmasterol and β-sitosterol could also be used as markers of biomass burning with levoglucosan or instead of levoglucosan. Correlation analysis between chemical composition and combustion condition suggests that hot or flaming combustions enhance EC, K+, Cl- and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons emissions, while low-temperature or smoldering combustions enhance levoglucosan and water-soluble organic carbon emissions. Oxidative potential, measured with macrophage-based reactive oxygen species (ROS) assay and dithiothreitol (DTT) assay, of open burning fine particles per particulate mass as well as fine particulate emission factors were the highest for wheat straws and second highest for rice husks and rice straws. Oxidative potential per particulate mass was in the lower range of vehicle exhaust and atmosphere. These results suggest that the contribution of open burning is relatively small to the oxidative potential of atmospheric particles. In addition, oxidative potential (both ROS and DTT activities) correlated well with water-insoluble organic species

  2. ATUE: the end of the incinerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lilbonne, P.

    1997-01-01

    The CEA's ATUE incinerator is used to burn low-level contaminated solvents and oils since 1981, in order to transform them into chemically stable ashes, thus leading to an important volume reduction: it is composed of an horizontal burner and a vertical gas cooling chamber. Combustion temperature is 900 C; ashes are collected and blocked into cement, with a new special process (PICC). 5 m 3 of liquid produces 350 kg of a solid and stable mixture. This equipment is due to be closed in December 1997, and will then be dismantled

  3. Issuance of a final RCRA Part B Subpart X permit for open burning/open detonation (OB/OD) of explosives at Eglin AFB, Florida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, G.E.; Culp, J.C.; Jenness, S.R. [EA Engineering, Science, and Technology, Sparks, MD (United States); Brantley, T.F. [Air Force, Eglin AFB, FL (United States); Kellenberger, W. [Florida Dept. of Environmental Protection, Pensacola, FL (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Treatment and disposal of explosives and munitions items have represented a significant management challenge for Department of Defense (DOD) facilities, particularly in light of increased regulatory scrutiny under the Federal Facilities Compliance Act provisions of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Subpart X of the RCRA regulations for storage, treatment, and disposal of hazardous wastes was drafted specifically to address explosive wastes. Until just recently, any DOD facility that was performing open burning/open detonation (OB/OD) of explosives was doing so under interim status for RCRA Part B Subpart X. In August 1996, Eglin Air Force Base (AFB), Florida became the first Air Force facility to be issued a final Part B Subpart X permit to perform OB/OD operations at two Eglin AFB active test ranges. This presentation will examine how Eglin AFB worked proactively with the State of Florida Department of Environmental Protection (FDEP) and EPA Region IV to develop permit conditions based upon risk assessment considerations for both air and ground-water exposure pathways. It will review the role of air emissions and air dispersion modeling in assessing potential exposure and impacts to both onsite and offsite receptors, and will discuss how air monitoring will be used to assure that the facility remains in compliance during OB/OD activities. The presentation will also discuss the soil and ground-water characterization program and associated risk assessment provisions for quarterly ground-water monitoring to assure permit compliance. The project is an excellent example of how a collaborative working relationship among the permittee, their consultant and state, and EPA can result in an environmentally protective permit that assures operational flexibility and mission sensitivity.

  4. HANDBOOK: QUALITY ASSURANCE/QUALITY CONTROL (QA/QC) PROCEDURES FOR HAZARDOUS WASTE INCINERATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resource Conservation and Recovery Act regulations for hazardous waste incineration require trial burns by permit applicants. uality Assurance Project Plan (QAPjP) must accompany a trial burn plan with appropriate quality assurance/quality control procedures. uidance on the prepa...

  5. Water uptake and chemical composition of fresh aerosols generated in open burning of biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. M. Carrico

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available As part of the Fire Lab at Missoula Experiments (FLAME in 2006–2007, we examined hygroscopic properties of particles emitted from open combustion of 33 select biomass fuels. Measurements of humidification growth factors for subsaturated water relative humidity (RH conditions were made with a hygroscopic tandem differential mobility analyzer (HTDMA for dry particle sizes of 50, 100 and 250 nm. Results were then fit to a single-parameter model to obtain the hygroscopicity parameter, κ. Particles in freshly emitted biomass smoke exhibited a wide range of hygroscopicity (individual modes with 0<κ<1.0, spanning a range from the hygroscopicity of fresh diesel soot emissions to that of pure inorganic salts commonly found in the ambient aerosol. Smoke aerosols dominated by carbonaceous species typically had a unimodal growth factor with corresponding mean κ=0.1 (range of 0<κ<0.4. Those with a substantial inorganic mass fraction typically separated into less- and more-hygroscopic modes at high RH, the latter with mean κ=0.4 (range of 0.1<κ<1. The bimodal κ distributions were indicative of smoke chemical heterogeneity at a single particle size, whereas heterogeneity as a function of size was indicated by typically decreasing κ values with increasing dry particle diameters. Hygroscopicity varied strongly with biomass fuel type and, to a lesser extent, with combustion conditions. Among the most hygroscopic smokes were those from palmetto, rice straw, and sawgrass, while smoke particles from coniferous species such as spruces, firs, pines, and duffs were among the least hygroscopic. Overall, hygroscopicity decreased with increasing ratios of total carbon to inorganic ions as measured in PM2.5 filter samples. Despite aerosol heterogeneity, reconstructions of κ using PM2.5 bulk chemical composition data fell along a 1:1 line with measured ensemble κ values.

  6. Distributed Temperature Measurement in a Self-Burning Coal Waste Pile through a GIS Open Source Desktop Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lia Duarte

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Geographical Information Systems (GIS are often used to assess and monitor the environmental impacts caused by mining activities. The aim of this work was to develop a new application to produce dynamic maps for monitoring the temperature variations in a self-burning coal waste pile, under a GIS open source environment—GIS-ECOAL (freely available. The performance of the application was evaluated with distributed temperature measurements gathered in the S. Pedro da Cova (Portugal coal waste pile. In order to obtain the temperature data, an optical fiber cable was disposed over the affected area of the pile, with 42 location stakes acting as precisely-located control points for the temperature measurement. A monthly data set from July (15 min of interval was fed into the application and a video composed by several layouts with temperature measurements was created allowing for recognizing two main areas with higher temperatures. The field observations also allow the identification of these zones; however, the identification of an area with higher temperatures in the top of the studied area was only possible through the visualization of the images created by this application. The generated videos make possible the dynamic and continuous visualization of the combustion process in the monitored area.

  7. Rocky Flats Plant fluidized-bed incinerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meile, L.J.; Meyer, F.G.; Johnson, A.J.; Ziegler, D.L.

    1982-01-01

    Laboratory and pilot-scale testing of a fluidized-bed incineration process for radioactive wastes led to the installation of an 82-kg/hr demonstration unit at Rocky Flats Plant in 1978. Design philosophy and criteria were formulated to fulfill the needs and objectives of an improved radwaste-incineration system. Unique process concepts include low-temperature (550 0 C), flameless, fluidized-bed combustion and catalytic afterburning; in-situ neutralization of acid gases; and dry off-gas cleanup. Detailed descriptions of the process and equipment are presented along with a summary of the equipment and process performance during a 2-1/2 year operational-testing period. Equipment modifications made during the test period are described. Operating personnel requirements for solid-waste burning are shown to be greater than those required for liquid-waste incineration; differences are discussed. Process-utility and raw-materials consumption rates for full-capacity operation are presented and explained. Improvements in equipment and operating procedures are recommended for any future installations. Process flow diagrams, an area floor plan, a process-control-system schematic, and equipment sketches are included

  8. The Savannah River Plant Consolidated Incineration Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, D.A.

    1987-01-01

    A full scale incinerator is proposed for construction at the Savannah River Plant (SRP) beginning in August 1989 for detoxifiction and volume reduction of liquid and solid low-level radioactive, mixed and RCRA hazardous waste. Wastes to be burned include drummed liquids, sludges and solids, liquid process wastes, and low-level boxed job control waste. The facility will consist of a rotary kiln primary combustion chamber followed by a tangentially fired cylindrical secondary combustion chamber (SCC) and be designed to process up to 12 tons per day of solid and liquid waste. Solid waste packaged in combustible containers will be fed to the rotary kiln incinerator using a ram feed system and liquid wastes will be introduced to the rotary kiln through a burner nozzle. Liquid waste will also be fed through a high intensity vortex burner in the SCC. Combustion gases will exit the SCC and be cooled to saturation in a spray quench. Particulate and acid gas are removed in a free jet scrubber. The off-gas will then pass through a cyclone separator, mist eliminator, reheater high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filtration and induced draft blowers before release to the atmosphere. Incinerator ash and scrubber blowdown will be immobilized in a cement matrix and disposed of in an onsite RCRA permitted facility. The Consolidated Incineration Facility (CIF) will provide detoxification and volume reduction for up to 560,000 CUFT/yr of solid waste and up to 35,700 CUFT/yr of liquid waste. Up to 50,500 CUFT/yr of cement stabilized ash and blowdown will beproduced for an average overall volume reduction fator of 22:1. 3 figs., 2 tabs

  9. Disposal of waste or excess high explosives. Final report. [Incineration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-01-01

    The ''Disposal of Waste or Excess High Explosives'' project began January 1971. Various methods of disposal were investigated with the conclusion that incineration, at major ERDA facilities, would be the most feasible and safest method with the least cost and development time required. Two independent incinerator concepts were investigated: a rotary type for continuous processing and an enclosed pit type for batch processing. Both concepts are feasible; however, it is recommended that further investigations would be required to render them acceptable. It is felt that a larger effort would be required in the case of the rotary incinerator. The project was terminated (December 1976) prior to completion as a result of a grant of authority by the Texas Air Control Board allowing the ERDA Pantex Plant to continue indefinitely outdoor burning of explosives.

  10. Waste incineration and immobilization for nuclear facilities, April--September 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, A.J.; Fong, L.Q.

    1978-01-01

    Fluidized bed incineration and waste immobilization processes are being developed to process the types of waste expected from nuclear facilities. An air classification system has been developed to separate tramp metal from shredded combustible solid waste prior to the waste being fed to a fluidized-bed pilot-plant incinerator. Used organic ion exchange resin with up to 55 percent water has been effectively burned in the fluidized bed incinerator. Various methods of feeding waste into the incinerator were investigated as alternatives to the present compression screw; an extrusion ram was found to suffer extensive damage from hard particles in tested waste. A bench-scale continuous waste immobilization process has been operated and has produced glass from incinerator residue and other types of waste materials

  11. Commercial incineration demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borduin, L.C.; Neuls, A.S.

    1981-01-01

    Low-level radioactive wastes (LLW) generated by nuclear utilities presently are shipped to commercial burial grounds for disposal. Substantially increasing shipping and disposal charges have sparked renewed industry interest in incineration and other advanced volume reduction techniques as potential cost-saving measures. Repeated inquiries from industry sources regarding LLW applicability of the Los Alamos controlled-air incineration (CAI) design led DOE to initiate this commercial demonstration program in FY-1980. The selected program approach to achieving CAI demonstration at a utility site is a DOE sponsored joint effort involving Los Alamos, a nuclear utility, and a liaison subcontractor. Required development tasks and responsibilities of the particpants are described. Target date for project completion is the end of FY-1985

  12. System of the incineration for the liquid scintillation garbage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naba, Katsumi

    1981-12-01

    In Japan from 1980 the incineration of the used scintillation liquid has been permitted according to the safety guide regulation of Japan Scientific Technology Agency. This incineration method would disperse the radioactivity in local site and destroy the chemicals at the same time. This system are consist of three parts. (1) Filtration and pH. adjustment of liquid garbage. (2) Bubbling vaporization in closed cycle. The temperature of the solution inside vessel is kept from 65 0 C to 85 0 C and the solution is bubbled with nealy 4 0 C circulated air. After the end of distillation, water layer is separated from the organic chemical layer and put it down the drain according to the regulation. (3) The residue is mixed with only the distilled organic chemicals according to the next classification, thereafter incineration is carried out. (a) For under the radioactive concentration of 1 x 10 -3 μCi/ml, the mixed scintillation liquid are burned up in specially designed incinerator. (b) For over the level of 1 x 10 -3 μCi/ml, only the distilled organic chemicals are burned up and the residue will be sent to the Waste Disposal Site. (c) For under the water content of 5% these liquid garbage can be directly are burned up without distillation The residue seemed to be suitable for the combustion of the dried carcased animals as the auxiliary fuels. This incinerator will be able to use as room heater or water heater for the bath without radioactive contamination inside of install room. (author)

  13. Operation of a pilot incinerator for solid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hootman, H.E.; Trapp, D.J.; Warren, J.H.

    1979-01-01

    A laboratory-scale incinerator (0.5 kg waste/hr) was built and operated for more than 18 months as part of a program to adapt and confirm technology for incineration of Savannah River Plant solid wastes, which are contaminated with about 0.3 Ci/kg of alpha-emitting transuranium (TRU) nuclides (Slide 1). About 4000 packages of simulated nonradioactive wastes were burned, including HEPA (high-efficiency particulate air) filters, resins, and other types of solid combustible waste from plutonium finishing operations. Throughputs of more than 3 kg/hr for periods up to 4 hours were demonstrated. The incinerator was oerated at temperatures above 750 0 C for more than 7700 hours during a period of 12 months, for an overall availability of 88%. The incinerator was shut down three times during the year: once to replace the primary combustion chamber electrical heater, and twice to replace oxidized electrical connectors to the secondary chamber heaters. Practical experience with this pilot facility provided the design basis for the full-size (5 kg waste/hr) nonradioactive test incinerator, which began operation in March 1979

  14. Design and operation of a prototype incinerator for beta-gamma waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farber, M.G.; Hootman, H.E.; Becker, G.W. Jr.; Makohon, P.A.

    1981-01-01

    A full-scale test incinerator has been built at the Savannah River Laboratory to provide a design basis for a radioactive facility that will burn low-level beta-gamma contaminated waste. The processing steps include waste feed loading, incineration, ash residue packaging, and off-gas cleanup. Both solid and liquid waste will be incinerated during the test program. The components of the solid waste are cellulose, latex, polyethylene, and PVC; the solvent is composed of n-paraffin and TBP. A research program will confirm the feasibility of the design and determine the operating parameters

  15. Interplay of metals and bromine with dioxin-related compounds concentrated in e-waste open burning soil from Agbogbloshie in Accra, Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimori, Takashi; Itai, Takaaki; Goto, Akitoshi; Asante, Kwadwo A; Otsuka, Masanari; Takahashi, Shin; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2016-02-01

    Open burning of electronic waste (e-waste) releases various metals and organohalogen compounds in the environment. Here we investigated the interplay of metals (Cu, Pb, Zn, Fe, Co, and Sr) and bromine (Br) in the formation of dioxin-related compounds (DRCs), including polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans (PCDD/Fs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs), as well as non-regulated DRCs such as polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans (PBDD/Fs) and their monobrominated PCDD/Fs in soils sampled from open burning e-waste sites at Agbogbloshie in Accra, Ghana. The predominant DRCs were PBDFs, PCDFs, PCDDs, and DL-PCBs. Statistical analyzes, X-ray absorption spectroscopy, and the PCDF/PCDD ratio suggested possible formation paths of PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs by catalytic behaviors of copper chlorides (CuCl, CuCl2, and Cu2(OH)3Cl) and thermal breakdown of polyvinyl chloride. Predominant formation of brominated furans may be derived from electron transfer from intermediates of PBDE to copper, Cu(II) → Cu(I). Lead chloride also contributed to generate DRCs and may become highly bioaccessible through the open burning of e-waste. The main zinc species (ZnCl2 and ZnS) suggested a possible relationship to generate DRCs and specific zinc source such as tire burning. Cu, Pb, Zn, and Br contained in various e-wastes, wires/cables, plastics, and tires strongly influenced generation of many DRCs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Facility status and progress of the INEL's WERF MLLW and LLW incinerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conley, D.; Corrigan, S.

    1996-01-01

    The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory's (INEL) Waste Experimental Reduction Facility (WERF) incinerator began processing beta/gamma- emitting low-level waste (LLW) in September 1984. A Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) trial burn for the WERF incinerator was conducted in 1986, and in 1989 WERF began processing (hazardous and low-level radioactive) waste known as mixed low-level waste (MLLW). On February 14, 1991 WERF operations were suspended to improve operating procedures and configuration management. On July 12, 1995, WERF initiated incineration of LLW; and on September 20, 1995 WERF resumed its primary mission of incinerating MLLW. MLLW incineration is proceeding under RCRA interim status. State of Idaho issuance of the Part B permit is one of the State's highest permitting priorities. The State of Idaho's Division of Environmental Quality is reviewing the permit application along with a revised trial burn plan that was also submitted with the application. The trial burn has been proposed to be performed in 1996 to demonstrate compliance with the current incinerator guidance. This paper describes the experiences and problems associated with WERF's operations, incineration of MLLW, and the RCRA Part B Permit Application. Some of the challenges that have been overcome include waste characterization, waste repackaging, repackaged waste storage, and implementation of RCRA interim status requirements. A number of challenges remain. They include revision of the RCRA Part B Permit Application and the Trial Burn Plan in response to comments from the state permit application reviewers as well as facility and equipment upgrades required to meet RCRA Permitted Status

  17. Waste incineration. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egede Rasmussen, Anja

    2004-06-15

    This prepatory thesis is a literature study on the incineration of waste. It deals with the concepts of municipal solid waste, the composition and combustion of it. A main focus is on the European emission regulations and the formation of dioxins, as well as a big effort is put into the treatment of solid residues from municipal solid waste incineration. In the latter area, concepts of treatment, such as physical and chemical separations, solidification and stabilization techniques, thermal methods, and extraction methods have been discussed. Evaluation of possible methods of treatment has been done, but no conclusions made of which is the best. Though, indications exist that especially two methods have shown positive qualities and must be further investigated. These methods are the acid extraction and sulfide stabilization (AES) process and the phosphate stabilization method of WES-PHix. Economic potentials of the two methods have been evaluated, and with the information obtained, it seems that the price for treatment and later landfilling of a material with improved leaching characteristics, will be approximately the same as the presently most used solution of export to Norway. However, more tests, investigations and economic evaluations are necessary in order for support of the findings in this work. (au)

  18. Mathematical modelling of MSW incineration on a travelling bed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y B; Goh, Y R; Zakaria, R; Nasserzadeh, V; Swithenbank, J

    2002-01-01

    The rising popularity of incineration of municipal solid waste (MSW) calls for detailed mathematical modelling and understanding of the incineration process. In this paper, governing equations for mass, momentum and heat transfer for both solid and gaseous phases in a moving bed in a solid-waste incineration furnace are described and relevant sub-models are presented. The burning rates of volatile hydrocarbons in the moving bed of solids are limited not only by the reaction kinetics but also the mixing of the volatile fuels with the under-fire air. The mixing rate is averaged across a computation cell and correlated to a number of parameters including local void fraction of the bed, gas velocity and a length scale comparable to the particle size in the bed. A correlation equation is also included to calculate the mixing in the freeboard area immediately next to the bed surface. A small-scale fixed bed waste incinerator was built and test runs were made in which total mass loss from the bed, temperature and gas composition at different locations along the bed height were measured. A 2-D bed-modelling program (FLIC) was developed which incorporates the various sub-process models and solves the governing equations for both gases and solids. Thermal and chemical processes are mainly confined within a layer about 5-9 times in thickness of the averaged particle size in the burning bed. For a large part of the burning process, the total mass loss rate was constant until the solid waste was totally dried out and a period of highly rising CO emission followed. The maximum bed temperature was around 1200 K. The whole burning process ended within 60 min. Big fluctuations in species concentration were observed due to channelling and subsequent 'catastrophic' changes in the local bed conditions. Reasonably good agreement between modelling and measurements has been achieved. Yet the modelling work is complicated by the channelling phenomenon in the bed. Numerical simulations

  19. Incineration of Low Level Radioactive Vegetation for Waste Volume Reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malik, N.P.S.; Rucker, G.G.; Looper, M.G.

    1995-01-01

    The DOE changing mission at Savannah River Site (SRS) are to increase activities for Waste Management and Environmental Restoration. There are a number of Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) locations that are contaminated with radioactivity and support dense vegetation, and are targeted for remediation. Two such locations have been studied for non-time critical removal actions under the National Contingency Plan (NCP). Both of these sites support about 23 plant species. Surveys of the vegetation show that radiation emanates mainly from vines, shrubs, and trees and range from 20,000 to 200,000 d/m beta gamma. Planning for removal and disposal of low-level radioactive vegetation was done with two principal goals: to process contaminated vegetation for optimum volume reduction and waste minimization, and for the protection of human health and environment. Four alternatives were identified as candidates for vegetation removal and disposal: chipping the vegetation and packing in carbon steel boxes (lined with synthetic commercial liners) and disposal at the Solid Waste Disposal Facility at SRS; composting the vegetation; burning the vegetation in the field; and incinerating the vegetation. One alternative 'incineration' was considered viable choice for waste minimization, safe handling, and the protection of the environment and human health. Advantages and disadvantages of all four alternatives considered have been evaluated. For waste minimization and ultimate disposal of radioactive vegetation incineration is the preferred option. Advantages of incineration are that volume reduction is achieved and low-level radioactive waste are stabilized. For incineration and final disposal vegetation will be chipped and packed in card board boxes and discharged to the rotary kiln of the incinerator. The slow rotation and longer resident time in the kiln will ensure complete combustion of the vegetative material

  20. Waste treatment activities incineration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, D.A.

    1985-01-01

    The waste management policy at SRP is to minimize waste generation as much as possible and detoxify and/or volume reduce waste materials prior to disposal. Incineration is a process being proposed for detoxification and volume reduction of combustion nonradioactive hazardous, low-level mixed and low-level beta-gamma waste. Present operation of the Solvent Burner Demonstration reduces the amount of solid combustible low-level beta-gamma boxed waste disposed of by shallow land burial by approximately 99,000 ft 3 per year producing 1000 ft 3 per year of ash and, by 1988, will detoxify and volume reduce 150,000 gallons or organic Purex solvent producing approximately 250 ft 3 of ash per year

  1. Thermal Stability and Material Balance of Nanomaterials in Waste Incineration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paur, H.-R.; Baumann, W.; Hauser, M.; Lang, I.; Teuscher, N.; Seifert, H.; Stapf, D.

    2017-06-01

    Nanostructured materials are widely used to improve the properties of consumer products such as tires, cosmetics, light weight equipment etc. Due to their complex composition these products are hardly recycled and thermal treatment is preferred. In this study we investigated the thermal stability and material balance of nanostructured metal oxides in flames and in an industrial waste incinerator. We studied the size distribution of nanostructured metal oxides (CeO2, TiO2, SiO2) in a flame reactor and in a heated reaction tube. In the premixed ethylene/air flame, nano-structured CeO2 partly evaporates forming a new particle mode. This is probably due to chemical reactions in the flame. In addition sintering of agglomerates takes place in the flame. In the electrically heated reaction tube however only sintering of the agglomerated nanomaterials is observed. Ceria has a low background in waste incinerators and is therefore a suitable tracer for investigating the fate of nanostructured materials. Low concentrations of Ceria were introduced by a two-phase nozzle into the post-combustion zone of a waste incinerator. By the incineration of coal dust in a burning chamber the Ceria nanoparticles are mainly found in the size range of the fly ash (1 - 10 µm) because of agglomeration. With gas as a fuel less agglomeration was observed and the Ceria nanoparticles were in the particle size range below 1 µm.

  2. Thermal Stability and Material Balance of Nanomaterials in Waste Incineration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paur, H.-R.; Baumann, W.; Hauser, M.; Lang, I.; Teuscher, N.; Seifert, H.; Stapf, D.

    2017-01-01

    Nanostructured materials are widely used to improve the properties of consumer products such as tires, cosmetics, light weight equipment etc. Due to their complex composition these products are hardly recycled and thermal treatment is preferred. In this study we investigated the thermal stability and material balance of nanostructured metal oxides in flames and in an industrial waste incinerator. We studied the size distribution of nanostructured metal oxides (CeO 2 , TiO 2 , SiO 2 ) in a flame reactor and in a heated reaction tube. In the premixed ethylene/air flame, nano-structured CeO 2 partly evaporates forming a new particle mode. This is probably due to chemical reactions in the flame. In addition sintering of agglomerates takes place in the flame. In the electrically heated reaction tube however only sintering of the agglomerated nanomaterials is observed. Ceria has a low background in waste incinerators and is therefore a suitable tracer for investigating the fate of nanostructured materials. Low concentrations of Ceria were introduced by a two-phase nozzle into the post-combustion zone of a waste incinerator. By the incineration of coal dust in a burning chamber the Ceria nanoparticles are mainly found in the size range of the fly ash (1 – 10 µm) because of agglomeration. With gas as a fuel less agglomeration was observed and the Ceria nanoparticles were in the particle size range below 1 µm. (paper)

  3. Conditioning processes for incinerator ashes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jouan, A.; Ouvrier, N.; Teulon, F.

    1990-01-01

    Three conditioning processes for alpha-bearing solid waste incineration ashes were investigated and compared according to technical and economic criteria: isostatic pressing, cold-crucible direct-induction melting and cement-resin matrix embedding

  4. Activated carbon for incinerator uses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Che Seman Mahmood; Norhayati Alias; Mohd Puad Abu

    2002-01-01

    This paper reports the development of the activated carbon from palm oil kernel shell for use as absorbent and converter for incinerator gas. The procedure is developed in order to prepare the material in bulk quantity and be used in the incinerator. The effect of the use of activating chemicals, physical activation and the preparation parameter to the quality of the carbon products will be discussed. (Author)

  5. Dangerous waste incineration and its impact on air quality. Case study: the incinerator SC Mondeco SRL Suceava

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumitru MIHĂILĂ

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Dangerous waste, such as oil residues, pesticides, lacquers, stains, glues, organic solvents, hospital and food industry residues represent a major risk for all components of the environment (water, air, earth, soil, flora, fauna, people as well. Consequently, their incineration with high-performance burning installations lessens the impact on the environment, especially on the air quality, and it gives the possibility to recuperate the warmth of the incineration. This research presents a representative technique of incineration of dangerous waste at S.C. Mondeco S.R.L. Suceava, which runs according to the European standards, located in the industrial zone of Suceava, on the Suceava river valley Suceava. Also it is analysed the impact of this unit on the quality of nearby air. Moreover, not only the concentrations of gases and powders during the action of the incineration process (paramaters that are continuously monitored by highly methods are analysed, but also here are described the dispersions of those pollutants in the air, taking into account the characteristics of the source and the meteorological parametres that are in the riverbed. 

  6. SRL incinerator components test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freed, E.J.

    1982-08-01

    A full-scale (5 kg waste/hour) controlled-air incinerator, the ICTF, is presently being tested with simulated waste as part of a program to develop technology for incineration of Savannah River Plant solid transuranic wastes. This unit is designed specifically to incinerate relatively small quantities of solid combustible waste that are contaminated up to 10 5 times the present nominal 10 nCi/g threshold value for such isotopes as 238 Pu, 239 Pu, 242 Cm, and 252 Cf. Automatic incinerator operation and control has been incorporated into the design, simulating the future plant design which minimizes operator radiation exposure. Over 3000 kg of nonradioactive wastes characteristic of plutonium finishing operations have been incinerated at throughputs exceeding 5 kg/hr. Safety and reliability were the major design objectives. In addition to the incinerator tests, technical data were gathered on two different off-gas systems: a wet system composed of three scrubbers in series, and a dry system employing sintered metal filters

  7. Chemical and physical transformations of organic aerosol from the photo-oxidation of open biomass burning emissions in an environmental chamber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. J. Hennigan

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Smog chamber experiments were conducted to investigate the chemical and physical transformations of organic aerosol (OA during photo-oxidation of open biomass burning emissions. The experiments were carried out at the US Forest Service Fire Science Laboratory as part of the third Fire Lab at Missoula Experiment (FLAME III. We investigated emissions from 12 different fuels commonly burned in North American wildfires. The experiments feature atmospheric and plume aerosol and oxidant concentrations; aging times ranged from 3 to 4.5 h. OA production, expressed as a mass enhancement ratio (ratio of OA to primary OA (POA mass, was highly variable. OA mass enhancement ratios ranged from 2.9 in experiments where secondary OA (SOA production nearly tripled the POA concentration to 0.7 in experiments where photo-oxidation resulted in a 30 % loss of the OA mass. The campaign-average OA mass enhancement ratio was 1.7 ± 0.7 (mean ± 1σ; therefore, on average, there was substantial SOA production. In every experiment, the OA was chemically transformed. Even in experiments with net loss of OA mass, the OA became increasingly oxygenated and less volatile with aging, indicating that photo-oxidation transformed the POA emissions. Levoglucosan concentrations were also substantially reduced with photo-oxidation. The transformations of POA were extensive; using levoglucosan as a tracer for POA, unreacted POA only contributed 17 % of the campaign-average OA mass after 3.5 h of exposure to typical atmospheric hydroxyl radical (OH levels. Heterogeneous reactions with OH could account for less than half of this transformation, implying that the coupled gas-particle partitioning and reaction of semi-volatile vapors is an important and potentially dominant mechanism for POA processing. Overall, the results illustrate that biomass burning emissions are subject to extensive chemical processing in the atmosphere, and the timescale for these transformations is rapid.

  8. Alpha waste incineration prototype incinerator and industrial project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caramelle, D.; Meyere, A.

    1988-01-01

    To meet our requirements with respect to the processing of solid alpha wastes, a pilot cold incinerator has been used for R and D. This unit has a capacity of 5 kg/hr. The main objectives assigned to this incineration process are: a good reduction factor, controlled combustion, ash composition compatible with plutonium recovery, limited secondary solid and fluid wastes, releases within the nuclear and chemical standards, and in strict observance of the confinement and criticality safety rules. After describing the process we will discuss the major results of the incineration test campaigns with representative solid wastes (50 % PVC). We will then give a description of an industrial project with a capacity of 7 kg/hr, followed by a cost estimate

  9. Waste-to-energy incineration plants as greenhouse gas reducers: a case study of seven Japanese metropolises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabata, Tomohiro

    2013-11-01

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration is a greenhouse gas (GHG) emitter; however, if GHG reductions, achieved by accounting for waste-to-energy, exceed GHG emissions, incineration can be considered as a net GHG reducer. In Japan, only 24.5% of MSW incineration plants perform energy recovery despite 80% of MSW being incinerated; therefore, there is great potential to extract more energy from MSW. In this study, the factors that should be considered to achieve net GHG reductions from incineration were analysed from a life cycle perspective. These considerations were then applied to the energy supply requirements in seven Japanese metropolises. Firstly, the carbon footprints of approximately 1500 incineration plants in Japan were calculated. Then, the incineration plants with negative carbon footprint values were classified as net GHG reducers. Next, the processes that contribute to the carbon footprint were evaluated, and two processes-plastic burning and electricity savings-were found to have the greatest influence. Based on the results, the energy supply requirements were analysed and discussed for seven metropolises (Sapporo, Tokyo, Nagoya, Osaka, Kobe, Takamatsu and Fukuoka) taking into account the energy demands of households. In Kobe, 16.2% of the electricity demand and 25.0% of the hot water demand could be satisfied by incineration to realise a net GHG reducer, although urban design for energy utilisation would be required.

  10. Release of chlorinated, brominated and mixed halogenated dioxin-related compounds to soils from open burning of e-waste in Agbogbloshie (Accra, Ghana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tue, Nguyen Minh; Goto, Akitoshi; Takahashi, Shin; Itai, Takaaki; Asante, Kwadwo Ansong; Kunisue, Tatsuya; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2016-01-25

    Although complex mixtures of dioxin-related compounds (DRCs) can be released from informal e-waste recycling, DRC contamination in African e-waste recycling sites has not been investigated. This study examined the concentrations of DRCs including chlorinated, brominated, mixed halogenated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs, PBDD/Fs, PXDD/Fs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs) in surface soil samples from the Agbogbloshie e-waste recycling site in Ghana. PCDD/F and PBDD/F concentrations in open burning areas (18-520 and 83-3800 ng/g dry, respectively) were among the highest reported in soils from informal e-waste sites. The concentrations of PCDFs and PBDFs were higher than those of the respective dibenzo-p-dioxins, suggesting combustion and PBDE-containing plastics as principal sources. PXDFs were found as more abundant than PCDFs, and higher brominated analogues occurred at higher concentrations. The median total WHO toxic equivalent (TEQ) concentration in open burning soils was 7 times higher than the U.S. action level (1000 pg/g), with TEQ contributors in the order of PBDFs>PCDD/Fs>PXDFs. DRC emission to soils over the e-waste site as of 2010 was estimated, from surface soil lightness based on the correlations between concentrations and lightness, at 200mg (95% confidence interval 93-540 mg) WHO-TEQ over three years. People living in Agbogbloshie are potentially exposed to high levels of not only chlorinated but also brominated DRCs, and human health implications need to be assessed in future studies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Incineration demonstration at Savannah River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewandowski, K.E.; Becker, G.W.; Mersman, K.E.; Roberson, W.A.

    1983-01-01

    A full-scale incineration process for Savannah River Plant (SRP) low level beta-gamma combustible waste was demonstrated at the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) using nonradioactive wastes. From October 1981 through September 1982, 15,700 kilograms of solid waste and 5.7 m 3 of solvent were incinerated. Emissions of off-gas components (NO/sub x/, SO 2 , CO, and particulates) were well below South Carolina state standards. Volume reductions of 20:1 for solid waste and 7:1 for Purex solvent/lime slurry were achieved. Presently, the process is being upgraded by SRP to accept radioactive wastes. During a two-year SRP demonstration, the facility will be used to incinerate slightly radioactive ( 3 ) solvent and suspect level (<1 mR/hr at 0.0254 meter) solid wastes

  12. Savannah River Plant incinerator demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewandowski, K.E.

    1983-01-01

    A full-scale incineration process was demonstrated at the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) using nonradioactive waste. From October 1981 through September 1982, 15,700 kilograms of solid waste and 5.7 m 3 of solvent were incinerated. Emissions of off-gas components (NO/sub x/, SO 2 , CO, and particulates) were well below South Carolina state standards. Volume reductions of 20:1 for solid waste and 7:1 for Purex solvent/lime slurry were achieved. The process has been relocated and upgraded by the Savannah River Plant to accept low-level beta-gamma combustibles. During a two-year demonstration, the facility will incinerate slightly radioactive ( 3 ) solvent and suspect level (< 1 mR/h at 0.0254 meter) solid wastes. This demonstration will begin in early 1984

  13. Auditing hazardous waste incineration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayanty, R.K.M.; Allen, J.M.; Sokol, C.K.; von Lehmden, D.J.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports that audit standards consisting of volatile and semivoltile organics have been established by the EPA to be provided to federal, state, and local agencies or their contractors for use in performance audits to assess the accuracy of measurement methods used during hazardous waste trial burns. The volatile organic audit standards currently total 29 gaseous organics in 5, 6, 7, 9, and 18-component mixtures at part-per-billion (ppb) levels (1 to 10 000 ppb) in compressed gas cylinders in a balance gas of nitrogen. The semivoltile organic audit standards currently total six organics which are spiked onto XAD-2 cartridges for auditing analysis procedures. Studies of all organic standards have been performed to determine the stability of the compounds and the feasibility of using them as performance audit materials. Results as of July 1987 indicate that all of the selected organic compounds are adequately stabile for use as reliable audit materials. Performance audits have been conducted with the audit materials to assess the accuracy of the measurement methods. To date, 160 performance audits have been initiated with the ppb-level audit gases. The audit results obtained with audit gases during hazardous waste trial burn tests were generally within ±50% of the audit concentrations. A limited number of audit results have been obtained with spiked XAD-2 cartridges, and the results have generally been within ±35% of the audit concentrations

  14. Incineration of European non-nuclear radioactive waste in the USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moloney, B. P.; Ferguson, D.; Stephenson, B.

    2013-01-01

    Incineration of dry low level radioactive waste from nuclear stations is a well established process achieving high volume reduction factors to minimise disposal costs and to stabilise residues for disposal. Incineration has also been applied successfully in many European Union member countries to wastes arising from use of radionuclides in medicine, nonnuclear research and industry. However, some nations have preferred to accumulate wastes over many years in decay stores to reduce the radioactive burden at point of processing. After decay and sorting the waste, they then require a safe, industrial scale and affordable processing solution for the large volumes accumulated. This paper reports the regulatory, logistical and technical issues encountered in a programme delivered for Eckert and Ziegler Nuclitec to incinerate safely 100 te of waste collected originally from German research, hospital and industrial centres, applying for the first time a 'burn and return' process model for European waste in the US. The EnergySolutions incinerators at Bear Creek, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA routinely incinerate waste arising from the non-nuclear user community. To address the requirement from Germany, EnergySolutions had to run a dedicated campaign to reduce cross-contamination with non-German radionuclides to the practical minimum. The waste itself had to be sampled in a carefully controlled programme to ensure the exacting standards of Bear Creek's license and US emissions laws were maintained. Innovation was required in packaging of the waste to minimise transportation costs, including sea freight. The incineration was inspected on behalf of the German regulator (the BfS) to ensure suitability for return to Germany and disposal. This first 'burn and return' programme has safely completed the incineration phase in February and the arising ash will be returned to Germany presently. The paper reports the main findings and lessons learned on this first

  15. High temperature slagging incinerator for alpha contaminated wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van de Voorde, N.

    1985-01-01

    This report describes the experiences collected by the treatment of plutonium-contaminated wastes, in the High Temperature Slagging Incinerator at the C.E.N./S.C.K. at Mol, with the support of the Commission of the European Communities. The major objective of the exercise is to demonstrate the operability of this facility for the treatment of mixed transuranic (TRU) and beta-gamma solid waste material. The process will substantially reduce the TRU waste volume by burning the combustibles and converting the non-combustibles into a chemically inert and physically stable basalt-like slag product, suitable for safe transport and final disposal. (Auth.)

  16. Determination of the optimal area of waste incineration in a rotary kiln using a simulation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bujak, J

    2015-08-01

    The article presents a mathematical model to determine the flux of incinerated waste in terms of its calorific values. The model is applicable in waste incineration systems equipped with rotary kilns. It is based on the known and proven energy flux balances and equations that describe the specific losses of energy flux while considering the specificity of waste incineration systems. The model is universal as it can be used both for the analysis and testing of systems burning different types of waste (municipal, medical, animal, etc.) and for allowing the use of any kind of additional fuel. Types of waste incinerated and additional fuel are identified by a determination of their elemental composition. The computational model has been verified in three existing industrial-scale plants. Each system incinerated a different type of waste. Each waste type was selected in terms of a different calorific value. This allowed the full verification of the model. Therefore the model can be used to optimize the operation of waste incineration system both at the design stage and during its lifetime. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Pilot solid-waste incinerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farber, M.G.; Hootman, H.E.; Trapp, D.J.

    1982-01-01

    An experimental program to develop and confirm technology for incinerating solid radioactive waste is in progress at the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) in support of the short-term and long-term waste management objectives of the Savannah River Plant (SRP). This report reviews the experience of a pilot incinerator with a capacity of 1.0 lb/hr. The facility was tested with nonradioactive materials similar to the radioactive waste generated at the Savannah River site. The experimental program included determining operating parameters, testing wet and dry off-gas treatment systems, and evaluating materials of construction

  18. Automation as a tool for safe and discontinuous operation of the KEMA incinerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beuse, R.H.J.; Doorn, J.J. van; Eenink, A.H.; Gertsen, B.M.G.

    1985-01-01

    An automatic control system has been developed and implemented for the KEMA cyclone-type incinerator. This paper describes the process analysis and the development of a control program required to obtain carbon-free ashes and clean flue gases. The automatic control will allow the KEMA incinerator to burn solid low-level waste of various compositions and to be easily handled by one operator. An overview of the resulting control structure and some details of the implementation of the control structure are given. (orig.)

  19. Incineration of organic solar cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Søndergaard, Roar R.; Zimmermann, Yannick Serge; Espinosa, Nieves; Lenz, Markus; Krebs, Frederik

    2016-01-01

    Recovery of silver from the electrodes of roll-to-roll processed organic solar cells after incineration has been performed quantitatively by extraction with nitric acid. This procedure is more than 10 times faster than previous reports and the amount of acid needed for the extraction is reduced

  20. Landfilling of waste incineration residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Astrup, Thomas; Cai, Zuansi

    2002-01-01

    Residues from waste incineration are bottom ashes and air-pollution-control (APC) residues including fly ashes. The leaching of heavy metals and salts from the ashes is substantial and a wide spectrum of leaching tests and corresponding criteria have been introduced to regulate the landfilling...

  1. Emission of greenhouse gases from controlled incineration of cattle manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshita, Kazuyuki; Sun, Xiucui; Taniguchi, Miki; Takaoka, Masaki; Matsukawa, Kazutsugu; Fujiwara, Taku

    2012-01-01

    Greenhouse gas emission is a potential limiting factor in livestock farming development. While incineration is one approach to minimize livestock manure, there are concerns about significant levels of nitrogen and organic compounds in manure as potential sources of greenhouse gas emissions (N2O and CH4). In this study, the effects of various incineration conditions, such as the furnace temperature and air ratio on N2O and CH4 formation behaviour, of cattle manure (as a representative livestock manure) were investigated in a pilot rotary kiln furnace. The results revealed that N2O emissions decreased with increasing temperature and decreasing air ratio. In addition, CH4 emissions tended to be high above 800 degrees C at a low air ratio. The emission factors for N2O and CH4 under the general conditions (combustion temperature of 800-850 degrees C and air ratio of 1.4) were determined to be 1.9-6.0% g-N2O-N/g-N and 0.0046-0.26% g-CH4/g-burning object, respectively. The emission factor for CH4 differed slightly from the published values between 0.16 and 0.38% g-CH4/g-burning object. However, the emission factor for N2O was much higher than the currently accepted value of 0.7% g-N2O-N/g-N and, therefore, it is necessary to revise the N2O emission factor for the incineration of livestock manure.

  2. Burn Wise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burn Wise is a partnership program of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency that emphasizes the importance of burning the right wood, the right way, in the right appliance to protect your home, health, and the air we breathe.

  3. Ecological, energetic and economical comparison of fermentation, composting and incineration of solid biogenic waste materials; Oekologischer, energetischer und oekonomischer Vergleich von Vergaerung, Kompostierung und Verbrennung fester biogener Abfallstoffe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edelmann, W. [Arbeitsgemeinschaft Bioenergie GmbH, Arbi, Baar (Switzerland); Schleiss, K. [Umwelt- und Kompostberatung Schleiss, Baar (Switzerland)

    2001-07-01

    This study compares different technologies for the treatment of biogenic wastes, including open windrow and enclosed tunnel composting, anaerobic digestion, the combination of both these methods and burning in waste incineration plants. The methods are compared from the points of view of environmental impact, energy use and production, and economics. The environmental impact, calculated for normalised quantities of waste using the 'Ecoindicator 95+' tool, are discussed and the methane and carbon dioxide emissions of the different methods of treatment are compared. Also, the considerable differences to be found in the energy balances of the different systems are discussed in the light of efforts to substitute nuclear and fossil-fuel generated power. Cost and energetic comparisons are also made between compost and artificial fertilisers. The report is concluded with recommendations for adapting bio-technological methods for the treatment of wastes with an emphasis on anaerobic processes.

  4. Particle Reduction Strategies - PAREST. Emissions from open burning. Sub-report; Strategien zur Verminderung der Feinstaubbelastung - PAREST. Emissionen aus offener Verbrennung. Teilbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joerss, Wolfram [Institut fuer Zukunftsstudien und Technologiebewertung gGmbH (IZT), Berlin (Germany)

    2013-06-15

    In this research project PAREST emission scenarios from 2000/2005 to 2020 for particulate matter (PM10 and PM2,5), and aerosol precursors SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, NH{sub 3} and NMVOC are prepared for Germany and Europe, mitigation measures evaluated, in order to model the necessary data for PM pollution load for Germany. In this sub-report PAREST an estimation of emissions from open burning is presented. This rough estimation should serve to assess the relevance of this source category that is not included in the reference emission data base of PAREST. [German] Im Forschungsvorhaben PAREST wurden Emissionsszenarien von 2000 /2005 bis 2020 fuer Feinstaub (PM10 und PM2,5) und die Aerosol-Vorlaeufersubstanzen SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, NH{sub 3} und NMVOC fuer Deutschland und Europa erstellt, Minderungsmassnahmen evaluiert und daraus die PM-Immissionsbelastung fuer Deutschland modelliert. In diesem Teilbericht zu PAREST wird eine Abschaetzung der Emissionen aus offener Verbrennung vorgestellt. Diese grobe Abschaetzung soll dazu dienen die Relevanz dieser Quellgruppe einzuschaetzen, die in der Referenz-Emissionsdatenbasis von PAREST nicht erfasst ist.

  5. USDOE radioactive waste incineration technology: status review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borduin, L.C.; Taboas, A.L.

    1980-01-01

    Early attempts were made to incinerate radioactive wastes met with operation and equipment problems such as feed preparation, corrosion, inadequate off-gas cleanup, incomplete combustion, and isotope containment. The US Department of Energy (DOE) continues to sponsor research, development, and the eventual demonstration of radioactive waste incineration. In addition, several industries are developing proprietary incineration system designs to meet other specific radwaste processing requirements. Although development efforts continue, significant results are available for the nuclear community and the general public to draw on in planning. This paper presents an introduction to incineration concerns, and an overview of the prominent radwaste incineration processes being developed within DOE. Brief process descriptions, status and goals of individual incineration systems, and planned or potential applications are also included

  6. Effluent testing for the Oak Ridge mixed waste incinerator: Emissions test for August 27, 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bostick, W.D.; Bunch, D.H.; Gibson, L.V.; Hoffmann, D.P.; Shoemaker, J.L.

    1990-12-01

    On August 27, 1990, a special emissions test was performed at the K-1435 Toxic Substance Control Act Mixed Waste Incinerator. A sampling and analysis plan was implemented to characterize the incinerator waste streams during a 6 hour burn of actual mixed waste. The results of this characterization are summarized in the present report. Significant among the findings is the observation that less than 3% of the uranium fed to the incinerator kiln was discharged as stack emission. This value is consistent with the estimate of 4% or less derived from long-term mass balance of previous operating experience and with the value assumed in the original Environmental Impact Statement. Approximately 1.4% of the total uranium fed to the incinerator kiln appeared in the aqueous scrubber blowdown; about 85% of the total uranium in the aqueous waste was insoluble (i.e., removable by filtration). The majority of the uranium fed to the incinerator kiln appeared in the ash material, apparently associated with phosphorous as a sparingly-soluble species. Many other metals of potential regulatory concern also appeared to concentrate in the ash as sparingly-soluble species, with minimal partition to the aqueous waste. The aqueous waste was discharged to the Central Neutralization Facility where it was effectively treated by coprecipitation with iron. The treated, filtered aqueous effluent met Environmental Protection Agency interim primary drinking water standards for regulated metals

  7. Controlled air incinerator conceptual design study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    This report presents a conceptual design study for a controlled air incinerator facility for incineration of low level combustible waste at Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2). The facility design is based on the use of a Helix Process Systems controlled air incinerator. Cost estimates and associated engineering, procurement, and construction schedules are also provided. The cost estimates and schedules are presented for two incinerator facility designs, one with provisions for waste ash solidification, the other with provisions for packaging the waste ash for transport to an undefined location

  8. Offgas treatment for radioactive waste incinerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stretz, L.A.; Koenig, R.A.

    1980-01-01

    Incineration of radioactive materials for resource recovery or waste volume reduction is recognized as an effective waste treatment method that will increase in usage and importance throughout the nuclear industry. The offgas cleanup subsystem of an incineration process is essential to ensure radionuclide containment and protection of the environment. Several incineration processes and associated offgas cleanup systems are discussed along with potential application of commercial pollution control components to radioactive service. Problems common to radioactive waste incinerator offgas service are identified and areas of needed research and development effort are noted

  9. Arc plasma incineration of surrogate radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girold, C.; Cartier, R.; Taupiac, J.P.; Vandensteendam, C.; Baronnet, J.M.

    1995-01-01

    The aim of this presentation is to demonstrate the feasibility to substitute a single plasma reactor, where the arc is transferred on a melt glass bath, for several steps in an existing nuclear technological wastes incinerator. The incineration of wastes, the produced gas treatment and the vitrification of ashes issued from waste incineration are the three simultaneous functions of this new kind of reactor. The three steps of the work are described: first, post-combustion in an oxygen plasma of gases generated from the waste pyrolysis, then, vitrification of ashes from the calcination of wastes in the transferred plasma furnace and finally, incineration/vitrification of wastes in the same furnace

  10. Incineration process fire and explosion protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziegler, D.L.

    1975-01-01

    Two incinerators will be installed in the plutonium recovery facility under construction at the Rocky Flats Plant. The fire and explosion protection features designed into the incineration facility are discussed as well as the nuclear safety and radioactive material containment features. Even though the incinerator system will be tied into an emergency power generation system, a potential hazard is associated with a 60-second delay in obtaining emergency power from a gas turbine driven generator. This hazard is eliminated by the use of steam jet ejectors to provide normal gas flow through the incinerator system during the 60 s power interruption. (U.S.)

  11. Method for burning radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hattori, Akinori; Tejima, Takaya.

    1987-01-01

    Purpose: To completely process less combustible radioactive wastes with no excess loads on discharge gas processing systems and without causing corrosions to furnace walls. Method: Among combustible radioactive wastes, chlorine-containing less combustible wastes such as chlorine-containing rubbers and vinyl chlorides, and highly heat generating wastes not containing chloride such as polyethylene are selectively packed into packages. While on the other hand, packages of less combustible wastes are charged into a water-cooled jacket type incinerator intermittently while controlling the amount and the interval of charging so that the temperature in the furnace will be kept to lower than 850 deg C for burning treatment. Directly after the completion of the burning, the packed highly heat calorie producing wastes are charged and subjected to combustion treatment. (Yoshihara, H.)

  12. 40 CFR 279.61 - Restrictions on burning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF USED OIL Standards for Used Oil Burners Who Burn Off... substances are transformed into new products, including the component parts of products, by mechanical or... provisions of § 279.23; or (3) Hazardous waste incinerators subject to regulation under subpart O of parts...

  13. Open-Habitat Birds in Recently Burned Areas: the Role of the Fire Extent and Species’ Habitat Breadth = Aves de medios abiertos en áreas quemadas recientemente: la importancia de la extensión del fuego y la amplitud de hábitat de las especies

    OpenAIRE

    Pons Ferran, Pere; Bas Lay, Josep Maria

    2005-01-01

    To evaluate the occurrence of open-habitat and steppe-land bird species in Western Mediterranean burned areas and to assess the role of the extent and location of the fire on species richness and composition. At the species level, the relationship was explored between habitat breadth, distribution extent and the ability to occupy recently burned areas. Location: Iberia and Southern France Methods: Fieldwork and bibliography were assembled to obtain breeding bird inventories for 21 burned area...

  14. Backyard burning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, S M; Davidson, C; Kennedy, A M; Eadie, P A; Lawlor, C

    2008-01-01

    This study was undertaken to determine whether changes had occurred in the numbers of burns that could be related to backyard burning subsequent to the introduction of the council tax throughout Eire for the collection of household refuse. Numbers of patients admitted to our unit who had sustained burns by burning rubbish were recorded prospectively over a period of 12 months. A random control group was taken as three years prior to this and results found by retrospective chart review. Between January and November 2005, 168 patients were admitted to the National Burns Unit, St James's Hospital Dublin, Ireland. Nineteen of these patients sustained flame burns from backyard burning. One hundred and seventy patients were admitted in the comparative period of 2002; Seven of these from backyard burning. The total number of inpatient days for these patients in 2005 (255) was significantly more than in 2002 (68) (p=0.024). The numbers in our study show a marked increase in the number of patients sustaining burns in this manner, and appear to correlate with the introduction of bin charges by a number of county councils around the country last year. This study demonstrates that the introduction of legislation can have an unforeseen adverse affect on the population if not introduced in correlation with appropriate public education. While the introduction of waste charges represents a very necessary move forward in waste disposal in Ireland, public awareness campaigns should be implemented to prevent further such injuries from occurring.

  15. Materials for Waste Incinerators and Biomass Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rademakers, P.; Grossmann, G.; Karlsson, A.

    1998-01-01

    This paper reviews the projects of the sub-package on waste incineration and biomass firing carried out within COST 501 Round III, Work Package 13.......This paper reviews the projects of the sub-package on waste incineration and biomass firing carried out within COST 501 Round III, Work Package 13....

  16. FUEL-EFFICIENT SEWAGE SLUDGE INCINERATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    A study was performed to evaluate the status of incineration with low fuel use as a sludge disposal technology. The energy requirements, life-cycle costs, operation and maintenance requirements, and process capabilities of four sludge incineration facilities were evaluated. These...

  17. High temperature incineration. Densification of granules from high temperature incineration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voorde, N. van de; Claes, J.; Taeymans, A.; Hennart, D.; Gijbels, J.; Balleux, W.; Geenen, G.; Vangeel, J.

    1982-01-01

    The incineration system of radioactive waste discussed in this report, is an ''integral'' system, which directly transforms a definite mixture of burnable and unburnable radioactive waste in a final product with a sufficient insolubility to be safely disposed of. At the same time, a significant volume reduction occurs by this treatment. The essential part of the system is a high temperature incinerator. The construction of this oven started in 1974, and while different tests with simulated inactive or very low-level active waste were carried out, the whole system was progressively and continuously extended and adapted, ending finally in an installation with completely remote control, enclosed in an alpha-tight room. In this report, a whole description of the plant and of its auxiliary installations will be given; then the already gained experimental results will be summarized. Finally, the planning for industrial operation will be briefly outlined. An extended test with radioactive waste, which was carried out in March 1981, will be discussed in the appendix

  18. Ice & Fire: the Burning Question

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Gelderen, Laurens; Jomaas, Grunde

    2017-01-01

    With the Arctic opening up to new shipping routes and increased oil exploration and production due to climate change, the risk of an Arctic oil spill is increasing. Of the classic oil spill response methods (mechanical recovery, dispersants and in-situ burning), in-situ burning is considered...... to be particularly a suitable response method in the Arctic. In-situ burning aims to remove the oil from the marine environment by burning it from the water surface. A recent Ph.D. thesis from the Technical University of Denmark has provided some new insights with respect to the fire science behind this response...

  19. Organic household waste - incineration or recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The Danish Environmental Protection Agency has carried out a cost benefit analysis of the consequences of increasing recycling of organic household waste. In the cost benefit analysis both the economic consequences for the affected parties and the welfare-economic consequences for the society as a whole have been investigated. In the welfare-economic analysis the value of the environmental effects has been included. The analysis shows that it is more expensive for the society to recycle organic household waste by anaerobic digestion or central composting than by incineration. Incineration is the cheapest solution for the society, while central composting is the most expensive. Furthermore, technical studies have shown that there are only small environmental benefits connected with anaerobic digestion of organic waste compared with incineration of the waste. The primary reason for recycling being more expensive than incineration is the necessary, but cost-intensive, dual collection of the household waste. Treatment itself is cheaper for recycling compared to incinerating. (BA)

  20. The application of FORMOSAT-2 high-temporal- and high-spatial resolution imagery for monitoring open straw burning and carbon emission detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.-C. Liu

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Rice is produced in more than 95 countries worldwide and is a staple food for over half of the world's population. Rice is also a major food crop of Taiwan. There are numerous rice crops planted on the western plains of Taiwan, and, after the harvest season, the left-over straw is often burned on-site. The air pollutants from the burning emissions include CO2, CO, CH4 and other suspended particles, most of these being the greenhouse gases which cause global climate change. In this study FORMOSAT-2 satellite images and ground-truth data from 2008 and 2009 are used to conduct supervised classification and calculate the extent of the straw burning areas. It was found that 10% of the paddies in the study area were burned after harvest during this 2-yr period. On this pro rata basis, we calculated the overall carbon emissions from the burning of the straw. The findings showed that these few farmers produced up to 34 000 tons of carbon emissions in 2008, and 40 000 tons in 2009. The study results indicate that remotely sensed images can be used to efficiently evaluate the important characteristics for carbon emission detection. It also provides quantitative results that are relevant to tracking sources of transport pollution, postharvest burning, and Asian dust in Taiwan.

  1. The application of FORMOSAT-2 high-temporal- and high-spatial resolution imagery for monitoring open straw burning and carbon emission detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, C.-C.; Tseng, P.-Y.; Chen, C.-Y.

    2013-03-01

    Rice is produced in more than 95 countries worldwide and is a staple food for over half of the world's population. Rice is also a major food crop of Taiwan. There are numerous rice crops planted on the western plains of Taiwan, and, after the harvest season, the left-over straw is often burned on-site. The air pollutants from the burning emissions include CO2, CO, CH4 and other suspended particles, most of these being the greenhouse gases which cause global climate change. In this study FORMOSAT-2 satellite images and ground-truth data from 2008 and 2009 are used to conduct supervised classification and calculate the extent of the straw burning areas. It was found that 10% of the paddies in the study area were burned after harvest during this 2-yr period. On this pro rata basis, we calculated the overall carbon emissions from the burning of the straw. The findings showed that these few farmers produced up to 34 000 tons of carbon emissions in 2008, and 40 000 tons in 2009. The study results indicate that remotely sensed images can be used to efficiently evaluate the important characteristics for carbon emission detection. It also provides quantitative results that are relevant to tracking sources of transport pollution, postharvest burning, and Asian dust in Taiwan.

  2. Permitting a hazardous waste incinerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambrose, M.L.

    1987-01-01

    In recent years, changes in the laws and regulations have produced an increased emphasis on proper solid waste disposal. Experience with various types of industrial wastes has shown that a large segment of these materials should not go to a landfill. If these wastes are prohibited from landfills, an effective alternative is incineration. The Department of Energy (DOE) has seen the need to build an incinerator at the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant to treat wastes that are generated at the DOE-Oak Ridge Operations facilities, many of which are contaminated with low levels of radioactivity. An extensive effort has been put forth to bring this project to reality. Several permits from the Environmental Protection Agency and the Tennessee Department of Health and Environment are required before the facility can operate. These permits include: (1) Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Part B Permit, (2) Toxic Substances Control Act Permit, (3) National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System Permit, (4) Tennessee State Air Permit, and (5) National Emission Standard for Hazardous Air Pollutants Approval Letter. The permitting process has been very long and involved and has taken nearly three years to complete. Currently, plans are to have the facility fully operational by January 1988

  3. Apparatus for incinerating hazardous waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, R.C.W.

    1994-12-20

    An apparatus is described for incinerating wastes, including an incinerator having a combustion chamber, a fluid-tight shell enclosing the combustion chamber, an afterburner, an off-gas particulate removal system and an emergency off-gas cooling system. The region between the inner surface of the shell and the outer surface of the combustion chamber forms a cavity. Air is supplied to the cavity and heated as it passes over the outer surface of the combustion chamber. Heated air is drawn from the cavity and mixed with fuel for input into the combustion chamber. The pressure in the cavity is maintained at least approximately 2.5 cm WC higher than the pressure in the combustion chamber. Gases cannot leak from the combustion chamber since the pressure outside the chamber (inside the cavity) is higher than the pressure inside the chamber. The apparatus can be used to treat any combustible wastes, including biological wastes, toxic materials, low level radioactive wastes, and mixed hazardous and low level transuranic wastes. 1 figure.

  4. Suicide by self-incineration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth, Peter Mygind; Hardt-Madsen, Michael

    1997-01-01

    During a 10-year period (1980-1989), at least 43 cases of self-incineration with lethal outcome took place in Denmark. The incidence seems to be increasing: 11 cases took place in the first 5 years and 32 cases in the last 5 years. An even sex ratio as found (male:female = 23:20). The median age...... was 43 years, with a broad age range (20-87). Many incidents of self-incineration as a form of political protest were reported in the press especially during the 1960s and 1970s, and the press reports often inspired others to commit suicide in the same way. None of the cases in our investigation were...... victims were of Danish origin, and a religious motive played no significant role. Most of the victims were suffering from mental illness, and a majority had tried to commit suicide before. None of the victims left a suicide note. The scene was most often at home and indoors--only a minority committed...

  5. Design of an experimental incinerator for alpha waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warren, J.H.

    1979-08-01

    An electrically heated controlled-air two-stage incinerator has been designed for burning small volumes (5 kg/h) of solid wastes. Distinguishing features of the design are compactness, relatively lightweight, and ease of assembly made possible by using prefabricated ceramic components to form two combustion chambers surrounded by packed fiber insulation within a steel case. Electric girdle heaters around the two combustion chambers provide 600 to 1000 0 C. These temperatures combined with controlled air give minimum ash entrainment and long combustion gas residence times to yield approx. 10 9 off-gas decontamination factors with conventional off-gas cleaning equipment. After decommissioning, the design allows for ease of disassembly and convenient disposal of the ceramic components. 24 figures, 1 table

  6. Emissions and dioxins formation from waste incinerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbone, A.I.; Zagaroli, M.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes current knowledge on dioxins formation and emission from waste incinerators. The pertinent Italian law and effects on man health are dealt with, too. The picture of existing municipal incinerators is presented concerning both the actual emission levels and the monitored levels in the environment. Sampling and analysis systems of these organic chlorinated micro-pollutants and current theories on precursors, formation mechanisms, and influence of different parameters are also described. The last section deals with some of the techniques that can be used to reduce dioxins formation and emission from municipal incinerators. (author)

  7. Radwaste incineration, is it ready for use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coplan, B.W.

    1982-01-01

    The incinerator installed at JAERI in 1973 has the record of being operated continually for eight years without noticeable damage even in the refractories. We are convinced that it can be used for along period of time. These incinerators in Japan are now regarded as the useful and reliable waste management facilities, though they are processing the restricted sorts of wastes, such as low level ombustible solids and oils. In the future, incinerators of these types are supposed to increase in number in Japan, and they will continue to contribute as an important volume reduction measure which can also convert the wastes to chemically stable substances

  8. Development and testing of a mobile incinerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eggett, D.R.

    1986-01-01

    The development and testing of a mobile incinerator for processing of combustible dry active waste (DAW) and contaminated oil generated at Nuclear Power Plants is presented. Topics of discussion include initial thoughts on incineration as applied to nuclear waste; DOE's Aerojet's, and CECo's role in the Project; design engineering concepts; site engineering support; licensability; generation of test data; required reports of the NRC and Illinois and California EPA's; present project schedule for incinerating DAW at Dresden and other CECo Stations; and lessons learned from the project

  9. Incineration facilities for treatment of radioactive wastes: a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perkins, B.L.

    1976-02-01

    A description is given of incinerator installations in the US and in foreign countries. Included are descriptions of inactive incinerators, incinerator facilities currently in operation, and incinerator installations under construction. Special features of each installation and operational problems of each facility are emphasized. Problems in the incineration of radioactive waste are discussed in relation to the composition of the waste and the amount and type of radioactive contaminant.

  10. Incineration facilities for treatment of radioactive wastes: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perkins, B.L.

    1976-02-01

    A description is given of incinerator installations in the US and in foreign countries. Included are descriptions of inactive incinerators, incinerator facilities currently in operation, and incinerator installations under construction. Special features of each installation and operational problems of each facility are emphasized. Problems in the incineration of radioactive waste are discussed in relation to the composition of the waste and the amount and type of radioactive contaminant

  11. Suicide by self-incineration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth, Peter Mygind; Hardt-Madsen, Michael

    1997-01-01

    was 43 years, with a broad age range (20-87). Many incidents of self-incineration as a form of political protest were reported in the press especially during the 1960s and 1970s, and the press reports often inspired others to commit suicide in the same way. None of the cases in our investigation were...... victims were of Danish origin, and a religious motive played no significant role. Most of the victims were suffering from mental illness, and a majority had tried to commit suicide before. None of the victims left a suicide note. The scene was most often at home and indoors--only a minority committed...... suicide in remote areas of the countryside. Most were found dead at the scene, and the cause of death was usually heat exposure. Only a minority had a lethal carboxy-hemoglobin (CO-Hb) concentration. It is concluded that close cooperation between police, fire experts, and the forensic pathologist...

  12. Solidification of radioactive incinerator ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuler, T.F.; Charlesworth, D.L.

    1986-01-01

    The Ashcrete process will solidify ash generated by the Beta Gamma Incinerator (BGI) at the Savannah River Plant (SRP). The system remotely handles, adds material to, and tumbles drums of ash to produce ashcrete, a stabilized wasteform. Full-scale testing of the Ashcrete unit began at Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) in January 1984, using nonradioactive ash. Tests determined product homogeneity, temperature distribution, compressive strength, and final product formulation. Product formulations that yielded good mix homogeneity and final product compressive strength were developed. Drum pressurization and temperature rise (resulting from the cement's heat of hydration) were also studied to verify safe storage and handling characteristics. In addition to these tests, an expert system was developed to assist process troubleshooting

  13. Burning Feet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ed. New York, N.Y.: The McGraw-Hill Companies; 2014. http://www.accessmedicine.com. Accessed Sept. 20, ... http://www.mayoclinic.org/symptoms/burning-feet/basics/definition/SYM-20050809 . Mayo Clinic Footer Legal Conditions and ...

  14. [Facial burns].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, F E

    1984-01-01

    Deep partial and full thickness facial burns require early skin grafting. Pressure face masks and local steroids reduce hypertrophic scarring. Split skin and Z-plasties are used for early reconstructive surgery. Only after softening of the scar tissue definite reconstructive work should be undertaken. For this period full thickness skin grafts and local flaps are preferred. Special regional problems require skilled plastic surgery. Reconstructive surgery is the most essential part of the rehabilitation of severe facial burns.

  15. A Strategy for Quantifying Radioactive Material in a Low-Level Waste Incineration Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hochel, R.C.

    1997-03-01

    One of the methods proposed by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) for the volume reduction and stabilization of a variety of low-level radioactive wastes (LLW) is incineration. Many commercial incinerators are in operation treating both non-hazardous and hazardous wastes. These can obtain volume reductions factors of 50 or more for certain wastes, and produce a waste (ash) that can be easily stabilized if necessary by vitrification or cementation. However, there are few incinerators designed to accommodate radioactive wastes. One has been recently built at the Savannah River Site (SRS) near Aiken, SC and is burning non-radioactive hazardous waste and radioactive wastes in successive campaigns. The SRS Consolidated Incineration Facility (CIF) is RCRA permitted as a Low Chemical Hazard, Radiological facility as defined by DOE criteria (Ref. 1). Accordingly, the CIF must operate within specified chemical, radionuclide, and fissile material inventory limits (Ref. 2). The radionuclide and fissile material limits are unique to radiological or nuclear facilities, and require special measurement and removal strategies to assure compliance, and the CIF may be required to shut down periodically in order to clean out the radionuclide inventory which builds up in various parts of the facility

  16. Burn management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endorf, Frederick W; Ahrenholz, David

    2011-12-01

    To update critical care practitioners on the recent advancements in burn care. Particular topics discussed include airway management, acute resuscitation, issues within the intensive care unit, nutrition, and wound management. This is a concise review of the recent burn literature tailored to the critical care practitioner. Criteria for extubation of burn patients are examined, as is the need for cuffed endotracheal tubes in pediatric burn patients. Strategies to avoid over-resuscitation are discussed, including use of colloid, as well as nurse-driven and computer-guided resuscitation protocols. New data regarding common ICU issues such as insulin therapy, delirium, and preferred intravenous access are reviewed. The importance of nutrition in the burn patient is emphasized, particularly early initiation of enteral nutrition, continuation of nutrition during surgical procedures, and use of adjuncts such as immunonutrition and beta blockade. Finally, both short-term and long-term wound issues are addressed via sections on laser Doppler assessment of burns and pressure garment therapy to prevent long-term scarring.

  17. Re-use of stabilised flue gas ashes from solid waste incineration in cement-treated base layers for pavements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cai, Zuansi; Jensen, Dorthe Lærke; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2003-01-01

    Fly ash from coal-burning power plants has been used extensively as a pozzolan and fine filter in concrete for many years. Laboratory experiments were performed investigating the effect of substituting the coal-based fly ash with chemically stabilised flue gas ashes (FGA) from waste incineration...... would teach during a 100-year period from a 0.5 m thick concrete stab exposed to water on one side. Leaching of the common ions Ca, Cl, Na and SO4 was increased 3-20 times from the specimens with chemically stabilised flue gas ashes from waste incineration. However, the quantities leached were still...... modest. These experiments suggest that FGA from waste incineration after Ferrox-treatment could be re-used in CTB without compromising the strength and teaching from the base layer....

  18. Quantifying capital goods for waste incineration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brogaard, Line Kai-Sørensen; Riber, C.; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2013-01-01

    Materials and energy used for the construction of modern waste incineration plants were quantified. The data was collected from five incineration plants (72,000–240,000tonnes per year) built in Scandinavia (Norway, Finland and Denmark) between 2006 and 2012. Concrete for the buildings was the main...... of producing the materials used in the construction, steel for the building and the machinery contributed the most. The material and energy used for the construction corresponded to the emission of 7–14kg CO2 per tonne of waste combusted throughout the lifetime of the incineration plant. The assessment showed...... that, compared to data reported in the literature on direct emissions from the operation of incinerators, the environmental impacts caused by the construction of buildings and machinery (capital goods) could amount to 2–3% with respect to kg CO2 per tonne of waste combusted....

  19. Highly Efficient Fecal Waste Incinerator, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Volume reduction is a critical element of Solid Waste Management for manned spacecraft and planetary habitations. To this end, the proposed fecal waste incinerator...

  20. Biotoxicity evaluation of fly ash and bottom ash from different municipal solid waste incinerators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Jing-Dong; Wey, Ming-Yen; Liang, Hsiu-Hao; Chang, Shih-Hsien

    2009-08-30

    Different types of municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) fly and bottom ash were extracted by TCLP and PBET procedures. The biotoxicity of the leachate of fly ash and bottom ash was evaluated by Vibrio fischeri light inhibition test. The results indicate the following: (1) The optimal solid/liquid ratio was 1:100 for PBET extraction because it had the highest Pb and Cu extractable mass from MSWI fly ash. (2) The extractable metal mass from both fly ash and bottom ash by PBET procedure was significantly higher than that by TCLP procedure. (3) The metal concentrations of fly ash leachate from a fluidized bed incinerator was lower than that from mass-burning and mass-burning combined with rotary kiln incinerator. (4) The TCLP and PBET leachate from all MSWI fly ash samples showed biotoxicity. Even though bottom ash is regarded as a non-hazardous material, its TCLP and PBET leachate also showed biotoxicity. The pH significantly influenced the biotoxicity of leachate.

  1. Incineration of a typical LWR combustible waste and analysis of the resulting ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Treat, R.L.; Lokken, R.O.; Schliebe, M.J.

    1983-05-01

    In this study 4540 kg (10,000 lb) of simulated nuclear power plant combustion wastes were burned in a controlled-air incinerators. The purpose of this work was to generate ashes suitable for solidification, the products of which will be analyzed to determine if they are suitable for disposal. Two different types of waste were burned: resin and simulated crud, and general trash (paper, plastics, wood, rubber, and cloth). Volume-reduction ratios (unburned waste: ash) were 13:1 and 22:1, respectively. Approximately 20% of the ash was lost due to adherence to incinerator walls and entrainment in the off-gas stream. Losses of the volatile species cesium and iodine were 79% and 100%, respectively. The ashes were not hygroscopic, but they exhibited a pH of 4.6 to 5.0 when water was added. Corrosion of mild steel drums would occur within this pH range. The ashes contained a significant quantity of clinkers haveing lengths as great as 20 cm (8 in.). Most of the clinkers were fully incinerated and easy to crush, suggesting that standard comminuting equipment should be effective in reducing the size of clinkers to allow their solidification with the fine ashes

  2. Burning Issue: Handling Household Burns

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to injury. , as your immune system shifts into gear. “The immune system response is intended to limit ... maintain blood pressure. Grafting—placing healthy skin on top of the burn wound—might help promote new ...

  3. ORGDP RCRA/PCB incinerator facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, T.

    1987-01-01

    A dual purpose solid/liquid incinerator is currently being constructed at the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant [ORGDP (K-25)] to destroy uranium contaminated, hazardous organic wastes in compliance with the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). These wastes are generated by the gaseous diffusion plants in Oak Ridge, TN; Paducah, KY; and Portsmouth, OH. In addition, waste will also be received from the Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and the Feed Materials Production Center (FMPC). Destruction of PCBs and hazardous liquid organic wastes will be accomplished in a rotary kiln incinerator with an afterburner. This system was selected faster a study of various alternatives. Incineration was chosen because it is dependable, permanent, detoxifies organics, and reduces volume. The rotary kiln incinerator was selected because it can thermally destroy organic constituents of liquids, solids, and sludges to produce an organically inert ash. In addition to the incineration off-gas treatment system, the facility includes a tank farm, drum storage buildings, a solids preparation area, a control room, and a data management system. The incineration system, off-gas treatment system, and related instrumentation and controls are being provided by International Waste Energy Systems (IWES) which is responsible for design, construction, startup, and performances testing

  4. Recycling ampersand incineration: Evaluating the choices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denison, R.A.; Ruston, J.

    1993-01-01

    Conflicts between proponents of municipal solid waste incineration and advocates of recycling have escalated with efforts to reduce the volume of waste that ends up in landfills. Central to this debate is competition for materials that are both combustible and recyclable. Environmental and economic concerns also play a major role. This book, produced by the Environmental Defense Fund, compares recycling and incineration. It is intended for 'citizens, government officials, and business people who want to help resolve the solid-waste crisis.' The book is divided into three parts: recycling and incineration; health and environmental risk of incineration; and planning, public participation, and environmental review requirements. The book does an excellent job of discussing the benefits of recycling and the pitfalls of incineration. It provides helpful information for identifying questions that should be raised about incineration, but it does not raise similar queries about recycling. There is much worthwhile information here, but the book would be more useful if it identified critical issues for all waste reduction and management options

  5. Dioxine and PAH-emissions from private incineration of wastes; Dioxin- und PAK-Emissionen der privaten Abfallverbrennung: Umwelt-Materialien Nr. 172 Luft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nussbaumer, T.

    2004-07-01

    This report published by the Swiss Agency for the Environment, Forests and Landscape (SAEFL) presents the results of a literature study and situation analysis on the burning of wastes at the domestic level. The private burning of municipal solid waste, urban waste wood and other wastes as a potential source of toxic emissions and residues is discussed. Beside the heavy metals found in ash and flue gas, the paper looks at organic substances such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxines and polychlorinated dibenzofuranes (PCDD/F) that can be emitted in relevant concentrations. The aim of the study - to evaluate emission factors of PCDD/F and PAH from private waste incineration in wood stoves and boilers, in barrels, and in open fires - is discussed. A survey of recent investigations in Europe and the United States and the correlation between the most relevant emission factors is looked at. Critical situations leading to extremely high PCDD/F emissions are described.

  6. Incineration facility for combustible solid and liquid radioactive wastes in IPEN-CNEN - Sao Paulo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krutman, I.; Grosche Filho, C.E.; Chandra, U.; Suarez, A.A.

    1987-01-01

    A system for incinerating the combustible solid and liquid radioactive wastes was developed in order to achieve higher mass and volume reduction of the wastes generated at IPEN-CNEN/SP or received from other institutions. The radioactive wastes for incineration are: animal carcasses, ion-exchange resins, contaminated lubricant oils, cellulosic materials, plastics, etc. The optimization of the process was achieved by considering the following factors: selection of better construction and insulating material; dimensions; modular design of combustion chambers to increase burning capacity in future; applicability for various types of wastes; choise of gas cleaning system. The off-gas system utilizes dry treatment. The operation is designed to function with a negative pressure. (Author) [pt

  7. Report: environmental assessment of Darmstadt (Germany) municipal waste incineration plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimaityte, Ingrida; Denafas, Gintaras; Jager, Johannes

    2007-04-01

    The focus of this study was the emissions from waste incineration plants using Darmstadt (Germany) waste incineration plant as an example. In the study the emissions generated by incineration of the waste were considered using three different approaches. Initially the emissions from the waste incineration plant were assessed as part of the impact of waste management systems on the environment by using a Municipal Solid Waste Management System (MSWMS) assessment tool (also called: LCA-IWM assessment tool). This was followed by a comparison between the optimal waste incineration process and the real situation. Finally a comparison was made between the emissions from the incineration plant and the emissions from a vehicle.

  8. Conventional incinerator redesign for the incineration of low level radioactive solid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lara Z, L.E.C.

    1997-01-01

    From several years ago have been detected some problems with the storage of low level radioactive solids wastes, they are occasioned growth in volume and weight, one of most effective treatment for its reduction, the incineration has been. In the work was designed an incinerator of low level radioactive solid wastes, the characteristics, range of temperatures, that operate and the excess of air in order to get a near incineration at 100 %; thickness of refractory material in the combustion chamber, materials and forms of installation, the balances of mass, energy and radioactive material necessary for the design of the auxiliary peripheral equipment is discussed. In theory the incineration is a viable option for the treatment of low level radioactive solid wastes, upon getting an approximate reduction to 95 % of the wastes introduced to the incinerator in the Department of Radioactive Wastes of the National Institute of Nuclear Research, avoiding the dispersion of combustion gases and radioactive material at the environment. (Author)

  9. Incineration of contaminated oil from Sellafield - 16246

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broadbent, Craig; Cassidy, Helen; Stenmark, Anders

    2009-01-01

    Studsvik have been incinerating Low Level Waste (LLW) at its licensed facility in Sweden since the mid-1970's. This process not only enables the volume of waste to be significantly reduced but also produces an inert residue suitable for final disposal. The facility has historically incinerated only solid dry LLW, however in 2008 an authorisation was obtained to permit the routine incineration of LLW contaminated oil at the facility. Prior to obtaining the authorisation to incinerate oils and other organic liquids - both from clean-up activities on the Studsvik site and on a commercial basis - a development program was established. The primary aims of this were to identify the optimum process set-up for the incinerator and also to demonstrate to the regulatory authorities that the appropriate environmental and radiological parameters would be maintained throughout the new process. The final phase of the development program was to incinerate a larger campaign of contaminated oil from the nuclear industry. A suitable accumulation of oil was identified on the Sellafield site in Cumbria and a commercial contract was established to incinerate approximately 40 tonnes of oil from the site. The inventory of oil chosen for the trial incineration represented a significant challenge to the incineration facility as it had been generated from various facilities on-site and had degraded significantly following years of storage. In order to transport the contaminated oil from the Sellafield site in the UK to the Studsvik facility in Sweden several challenges had to be overcome. These included characterisation, packaging and international transportation (under a Transfrontier Shipment (TFS) authorisation) for one of the first transports of liquid radioactive wastes outside the UK. The incineration commenced in late 2007 and was successfully completed in early 2008. The total volume reduction achieved was greater than 97%, with the resultant ash packaged and returned to the UK (for

  10. Review of organic nitrile incineration at the Toxic Substances Control Act Incinerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-10-01

    Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc. (LMES) operates the East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP), formerly called the Oak Ridge K-25 Site, where uranium was enriched under contract with the US Department of Energy (DOE). Currently, ETTP missions include environmental management, waste management (WM), and the development of new technologies. As part of its WM mission, ETTP operates the TSCA (Toxic Substances Control Act) Incinerator (TSCAI) for treatment of hazardous waste and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) contaminated with low-level radioactivity. Beginning in the autumn of 1995, employees from diverse ETTP buildings and departments reported experiencing headaches, fatigue, depression, muscle aches, sleeplessness, and muscle tremors. These symptoms were judged by a physician in the ETTP Health Services Department to be consistent with chronic exposures to hydrogen cyanide (HCN). The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) was called in to perform a health hazard evaluation to ascertain whether the employees' illnesses were in fact caused by occupational exposure to HCN. The NIOSH evaluation found no patterns for employees' reported symptoms with respect to work location or department. NIOSH also conducted a comprehensive air sampling study, which did not detect airborne cyanides at the ETTP. Employees, however, expressed concerns that the burning of nitrile-bearing wastes at the TSCAI might have produced HCN as a combustion product. Therefore, LMES and DOE established a multidisciplinary team (TSCAI Technical Review Team) to make a more detailed review of the possibility that combustion of nitrile-bearing wastes at the TSCAI might have either released nitriles or created HCN as a product of incomplete combustion (PIC)

  11. Alternatives to incineration. Technical area status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwinkendorf, W.E. [BDM Federal, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); McFee, J.; Devarakonda, M. [International Technology Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Nenninger, L.L.; Fadullon, F.S. [Science Applications International Corp., Gaithersburg, MD (United States); Donaldson, T.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Dickerson, K. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)]|[Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, Golden, CO (United States)

    1995-04-01

    Recently, the DOE`s Mixed Waste Integrated Program (MWIP) (superseded by the Mixed Waste Focus Area) initiated an evaluation of alternatives to incineration to identify technologies capable of treating DOE organically contaminated mixed wastes and which may be more easily permitted. These technologies have the potential of alleviating stakeholder concerns by decreasing off-gas volurties and the associated emissions of particulates, volatilized metals and radionuclides, PICs, NO{sub x}, SO{sub x}, and recombination products (dioxins and furans). Ideally, the alternate technology would be easily permitted, relatively omnivorous and effective in treating a variety of wastes with varying constituents, require minimal pretreatment or characterization, and be easy to implement. In addition, it would produce secondary waste stream volumes significantly smaller than the original waste stream, and would minimize the environmental health and safety effects on workers and the public. The purpose of this report is to provide an up-to-date (as of early 1995) compendium of iternative technologies for designers of mixed waste treatment facilities, and to identify Iternate technologies that may merit funding for further development. Various categories of non-thermal and thermal technologies have been evaluated and are summarized in Table ES-1. Brief descriptions of these technologies are provided in Section 1.7 of the Introduction. This report provides a detailed description of approximately 30 alternative technologies in these categories. Included in the report are descriptions of each technology; applicable input waste streams and the characteristics of the secondary, or output, waste streams; the current status of each technology relative to its availability for implementation; performance data; and costs. This information was gleaned from the open literature, governments reports, and discussions with principal investigators and developers.

  12. Alternatives to incineration. Technical area status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwinkendorf, W.E.; McFee, J.; Devarakonda, M.; Nenninger, L.L.; Fadullon, F.S.; Donaldson, T.L.; Dickerson, K.

    1995-04-01

    Recently, the DOE's Mixed Waste Integrated Program (MWIP) (superseded by the Mixed Waste Focus Area) initiated an evaluation of alternatives to incineration to identify technologies capable of treating DOE organically contaminated mixed wastes and which may be more easily permitted. These technologies have the potential of alleviating stakeholder concerns by decreasing off-gas volurties and the associated emissions of particulates, volatilized metals and radionuclides, PICs, NO x , SO x , and recombination products (dioxins and furans). Ideally, the alternate technology would be easily permitted, relatively omnivorous and effective in treating a variety of wastes with varying constituents, require minimal pretreatment or characterization, and be easy to implement. In addition, it would produce secondary waste stream volumes significantly smaller than the original waste stream, and would minimize the environmental health and safety effects on workers and the public. The purpose of this report is to provide an up-to-date (as of early 1995) compendium of iternative technologies for designers of mixed waste treatment facilities, and to identify Iternate technologies that may merit funding for further development. Various categories of non-thermal and thermal technologies have been evaluated and are summarized in Table ES-1. Brief descriptions of these technologies are provided in Section 1.7 of the Introduction. This report provides a detailed description of approximately 30 alternative technologies in these categories. Included in the report are descriptions of each technology; applicable input waste streams and the characteristics of the secondary, or output, waste streams; the current status of each technology relative to its availability for implementation; performance data; and costs. This information was gleaned from the open literature, governments reports, and discussions with principal investigators and developers

  13. Theoretical aspects of solid waste incineration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarbell, J.M.

    1975-01-01

    Theoretical considerations that may be incorporated into the design basis of a prototype incinerator for solid transuranic wastes are described. It is concluded that primary pyrolysis followed by secondary afterburning is a very unattractive incineration strategy unless waste resource recovery is a process goal. The absence of primary combustion air leads to poor waste dispersion with associated diffusion and conduction limitations rendering the process inefficient. Single step oxidative incineration is most attractive when volume reduction is of primary importance. The volume of this type of incinerator (including afterburner) should be relatively much smaller than the pyrolysis type. Afterburning is limited by soot oxidation when preceded by pyrolysis, but limited by turbulent mixing when preceded by direct solid waste oxidation. In either case, afterburner temperatures above 1300 0 K are not warranted. Results based on a nominal solid waste composition and anticipated throughput indicate that NO/sub x/, HF, and SO 2 will not exceed the ambient air quality standards. Control of radioactive particulates, which can be achieved by multiple HEPA filtration, will reduce the conventional particulate emission to the vanishing point. Chemical equilibrium calculations also indicate that chlorine and to a lesser extent fluorine may be precipitated out in the ash as sodium salts if a sufficient flux of sodium is introduced into the incinerator

  14. Quantifying capital goods for waste incineration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brogaard, L K; Riber, C; Christensen, T H

    2013-06-01

    Materials and energy used for the construction of modern waste incineration plants were quantified. The data was collected from five incineration plants (72,000-240,000 tonnes per year) built in Scandinavia (Norway, Finland and Denmark) between 2006 and 2012. Concrete for the buildings was the main material used amounting to 19,000-26,000 tonnes per plant. The quantification further included six main materials, electronic systems, cables and all transportation. The energy used for the actual on-site construction of the incinerators was in the range 4000-5000 MW h. In terms of the environmental burden of producing the materials used in the construction, steel for the building and the machinery contributed the most. The material and energy used for the construction corresponded to the emission of 7-14 kg CO2 per tonne of waste combusted throughout the lifetime of the incineration plant. The assessment showed that, compared to data reported in the literature on direct emissions from the operation of incinerators, the environmental impacts caused by the construction of buildings and machinery (capital goods) could amount to 2-3% with respect to kg CO2 per tonne of waste combusted. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. In-situ burning of Orimulsion : small scale burns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fingas, M.F.

    2002-01-01

    This study examined the feasibility of burning Orimulsion. In-situ burning has always been a viable method for cleaning oil spills on water because it can effectively reduce the amount of spilled oil and eliminate the need to collect, store, transport and dispose of recovered oil. Orimulsion, however, behaves very differently from conventional oil when it is spilled because of its composition of 70 per cent bitumen in 30 per cent water. In-situ burning of this surfactant-stablized oil-in-water emulsion has never been seriously considered because of the perception that Orimulsion could not be ignited, and if it could, ignition would not be sustained. In this study, burn tests were conducted on 3 scales in a Cleveland Open Cup apparatus of 5 cm, 10 cm and 50 cm diameters. Larger scale burns were conducted in specially built pans. All tests were conducted on salt water which caused the bitumen to separate from the water. The objective was to determine if sufficient vapours could be generated to ignite the Orimulsion. The study also measured if a sustained flame would result in successful combustion. Both objectives were successfully accomplished. Diesel fuel was used to ignite the Orimulsion in the specially designed pan for large scale combustion. Quantitative removal of Orimulsion was achieved in all cases, but in some burns it was necessary to re-ignite the Orimulsion. It was noted that when Orimulsion burns, some trapped water droplets in the bitumen explode with enough force to extinguish a small flame. This did not occur on large-scale burns. It was concluded that the potential for successful in-situ burning increases with size. It was determined that approximately 1 mm in thickness of diesel fuel is needed to ignite a burn. 5 refs., 3 tabs., 4 figs

  16. Educational Materials - Burn Wise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burn Wise outreach material. Burn Wise is a partnership program of that emphasizes the importance of burning the right wood, the right way, in the right wood-burning appliance to protect your home, health, and the air we breathe.

  17. Minor burns - aftercare

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... aid. There are different levels of burns . First-degree burns are only on the top layer of the ... skin can: Turn red Swell Be painful Second-degree burns go one layer deeper than first-degree burns. ...

  18. Clinical waste incinerators in Cameroon--a case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mochungong, Peter Ikome Kuwoh; Gulis, Gabriel; Sodemann, Morten

    2012-01-01

    Incinerators are widely used to treat clinical waste in Cameroon's Northwest Region. These incinerators cause public apprehension owing to purported risks to operators, communities and the environment. This article aims to summarize findings from an April 2008 case study....

  19. Alkali activation processes for incinerator residues management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancellotti, Isabella; Ponzoni, Chiara; Barbieri, Luisa; Leonelli, Cristina

    2013-08-01

    Incinerator bottom ash (BA) is produced in large amount worldwide and in Italy, where 5.1 millionstons of municipal solid residues have been incinerated in 2010, corresponding to 1.2-1.5 millionstons of produced bottom ash. This residue has been used in the present study for producing dense geopolymers containing high percentage (50-70 wt%) of ash. The amount of potentially reactive aluminosilicate fraction in the ash has been determined by means of test in NaOH. The final properties of geopolymers prepared with or without taking into account this reactive fraction have been compared. The results showed that due to the presence of both amorphous and crystalline fractions with a different degree of reactivity, the incinerator BA geopolymers exhibit significant differences in terms of Si/Al ratio and microstructure when reactive fraction is considered. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Secondary incinerator for radioactive gaseous waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, Tadashi; Masuda, Takashi.

    1997-01-01

    A vessel incorporated with packings, in which at least either of the packings and the vessel is put to induction-heating by high frequency induction coils, is disposed in a flow channel of radioactive gaseous wastes exhausted from a radioactive waste incinerator. The packings include metals such as stainless pipes and electroconductive ceramics such as C-SiC ceramics. Since only electricity is used as an energy source, in the secondary incinerator for the radioactive gaseous wastes, it can be installed in a cell safely. In addition, if ceramics are used, there is no worry of deterioration of the incinerator due to organic materials, and essential functions are not lowered. (T.M.)

  1. 40 CFR 63.988 - Incinerators, boilers, and process heaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Incinerators, boilers, and process... Routing to a Fuel Gas System or a Process § 63.988 Incinerators, boilers, and process heaters. (a) Equipment and operating requirements. (1) Owners or operators using incinerators, boilers, or process...

  2. Conceptual process description of M division incinerator project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, T.K.

    1989-04-13

    This interoffice memorandum describes an incineration system to be used for incinerating wood. The system is comprised of a shredder and an incinerator. The entire process is described in detail. A brief study of particulates, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and nitrogen oxides emission is presented.

  3. Addition of liquid waste incineration capability to the INEL's low-level waste incinerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steverson, E.M.; Clark, D.P.; McFee, J.N.

    1986-01-01

    A liquid waste system has recently been installed in the Waste Experimental Reduction Facility (WERF) incinerator at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). In this paper, aspects of the incineration system such as the components, operations, capabilities, capital cost, EPA permit requirements, and future plans are discussed. The principal objective of the liquid incineration system is to provide the capability to process hazardous, radioactively contaminated, non-halogenated liquid wastes. The system consists primarily of a waste feed system, instrumentation and controls, and a liquid burner, which were procured at a capital cost of $115,000

  4. Conceptual design study of high temperature gas-cooled reactor for plutonium incineration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goto, Minoru

    2013-01-01

    JAEA has started a conceptual design study of a Pu burner HTGR, which is called CBHTR (Clean Burn High Temperature gas-cooled Reactor). CBHTR’s fuel is TRISO-coated fuel particle with PuO 2 -YSZ (Yttria- Stabilized Zirconia) kernel, which increase proliferation resistance, safety of geological disposal, and Pu incineration. CBHTR can decrease Puf ratio from 60% to 20% with 520 GWd/t. In the future, 15% of electricity capacity is employed by 7 of CBHTRs and 59 of U-HTRs. JAEA has a R and D plan of manufacturing technology of TRISO-coated fuel with PuO 2 -YSZ kernel

  5. ATUE: the end of the incinerator; Atue: fin de l`incinerateur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lilbonne, P. [Dept. d`Etreposage et de stockage des dechets, CEA Centre d`Etudes de Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    1997-11-01

    The CEA`s ATUE incinerator is used to burn low-level contaminated solvents and oils since 1981, in order to transform them into chemically stable ashes, thus leading to an important volume reduction: it is composed of an horizontal burner and a vertical gas cooling chamber. Combustion temperature is 900 C; ashes are collected and blocked into cement, with a new special process (PICC). 5 m{sup 3} of liquid produces 350 kg of a solid and stable mixture. This equipment is due to be closed in December 1997, and will then be dismantled

  6. Hazardous and radioactive waste incineration studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vavruska, J.S.; Stretz, L.A.; Borduin, L.C.

    1981-01-01

    Development and demonstration of a transuranic (TRU) waste volume-reduction process is described. A production-scale controlled air incinerator using commercially available equipment and technology has been modified for solid radioactive waste service. This unit successfully demonstrated the volume reduction of transuranic (TRU) waste with an average TRU content of about 20 nCi/g. The same incinerator and offgas treatment system is being modified further to evaluate the destruction of hazardous liquid wastes such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and hazardous solid wastes such as pentachlorophenol (PCP)-treated wood

  7. Acid gas control process and apparatus for waste fired incinerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubin, P.Z.; Stepan, J.E.

    1992-01-01

    This patent describes a process for reducing noxious emission produced in a waste material incinerator. It comprises incinerating solid waste material in a furnace section of the waste material incinerator; providing an additive to an additive supply storage unit; conveying the additive to an additive injection means that communicates with the furnace section of the waste material incinerator; injecting the additive into a turbulent reaction zone of the furnace section such that acid gas content, acid dewpoint temperature and the level of corrosion in the incinerator are reduced

  8. Incineration of wastes from nuclear installations with the Juelich incineration process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilke, M.

    1979-01-01

    In the Juelich Research Center a two-stage incineration process has been developed which, due to an integral thermal treatment stage, is most suitable for the incineration of heterogeneous waste material. The major advantages of this technique are to be seen in the fact that mechanical treatment of the waste material is no longer required and that off gas treatment is considerably facilitated. (orig.) [de

  9. Test Operation of Oxygen-Enriched Incinerator for Wastes From Nuclear Fuel Fabrication Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J.-G.; Yang, H.cC.; Park, G.-I.; Kim, I.-T.; Kim, J.-K.

    2002-01-01

    The oxygen-enriched combustion concept, which can minimize off-gas production, has been applied to the incineration of combustible uranium-containing wastes from a nuclear fuel fabrication facility. A simulation for oxygen combustion shows the off-gas production can be reduced by a factor of 6.7 theoretically, compared with conventional air combustion. The laboratory-scale oxygen enriched incineration (OEI) process with a thermal capacity of 350 MJ/h is composed of an oxygen feeding and control system, a combustion chamber, a quencher, a ceramic filter, an induced draft fan, a condenser, a stack, an off-gas recycle path, and a measurement and control system. Test burning with cleaning paper and office paper in this OEI process shows that the thermal capacity is about 320 MJ/h, 90 % of design value and the off-gas reduces by a factor of 3.5, compared with air combustion. The CO concentration for oxygen combustion is lower than that of air combustion, while the O2 concentration in off-gas is kept above 25 vol % for a simple incineration process without any grate. The NOx concentration in an off-gas stream does not reduce significantly due to air incoming by leakage, and the volume and weight reduction factors are not changed significantly, which suggests a need for an improvement in sealing

  10. Electrically fired incineration of combustible radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charlesworth, D.; Hill, M.

    1985-01-01

    Du Pont Company and Shirco, Inc. are developing a process to incinerate plutonium-contaminated combustible waste in an electrically fired incineration system. Preliminary development was completed at Shirco, Inc. prior to installing an incineration system at the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL), which is operated by Du Pont for the US Department of Energy (DOE). The waste consists of disposable protective clothing, cleaning materials, used filter elements, and miscellaneous materials exposed to plutonium contamination. Incinerator performance testing, using physically representative nonradioactive materials, was completed in March 1983 at Shirco's Pilot Test Facility in Dallas, TX. Based on the test results, equipment sizing and mechanical begin of a full-scale process were completed by June 1983. The full-scale unit is being installed at SRL to confirm the initial performance testing and is scheduled to begin in June 1985. Remote operation and maintenance of the system is required, since the system will eventually be installed in an isolated process cell. Initial operation of the process will use nonradioactive simulated waste. 2 figs., 2 tabs

  11. EIA for a waste incinerator in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Sanne Vammen

    2017-01-01

    A planned new waste incinerator will be located in an area which is at risk of flooding – a risk that will increase under climate change. During public hear- ings as part of the project’s EIA, inclusion of climate risks was requested. This led to mitigation measures which will decrease the risk...

  12. Nitrous Oxide Emissions from Waste Incineration

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Svoboda, Karel; Baxter, D.; Martinec, J.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 60, č. 1 (2006), s. 78-90 ISSN 0366-6352 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA4072201 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : nitrous oxide * waste * incineration Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 0.360, year: 2006

  13. OVERVIEW OF HAZARDOUS/TOXIC WASTE INCINERATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effective hazardous/toxic waste disposal and safe dumpsite cleanup are two of EPA's major missions in the 1980s. Incineration has been recognized as a very efficient process to destroy the hazardous wastes generated by industry or by the dumpsite remediations. The paper provides ...

  14. Oxygen incineration process for treatment of alpha-contaminated wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jeong Guk; Yang, Hee Chul; Park, Geun Il; Kim, In Tae; Kim, Joon Hyung

    2001-07-01

    As a part of development of a treatment technology for burnable alpha-bearing (or -contaminated) wastes using an oxygen incineration process, which would be expected to produce in Korea, the off-gas volume and compositions were estimated form mass and heat balance, and then compared to those of a general air incineration process. A laboratory-scale oxygen incineration process, to investigate a burnable wastes from nuclear fuel fabricatin facility, was designed, constructed, and then operated. The use of oxygen instead of air in incineratin would result in reduction on off-gas product below one seventh theoretically. In addition, the trends on incineration and melting processes to treat the radioactive alpha-contaminated wastes, and the regulations and guide lines, related to design, construction, and operation of incineration process, were reviewed. Finallu, the domestic regulations related incineration, and the operation and maintenance manuals for oxy-fuel burner and oxygen incineration process were shown in appendixes

  15. On site clean up with a hazardous waste incinerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cross, F.L. Jr.; Tessitore, J.L.

    1987-01-01

    The Army Corps of Engineers and the EPA have determined that on-site incineration for the detoxification of soils, sediments, and sludges is a viable, safe, and economic alternative. This paper discusses an approach to on-site incineration as a method of detoxification of soils/sediments contaminated with organic hazardous wastes. Specifically, this paper describes the procedures used to evaluate on-site incineration at a large Superfund site with extensive PCB contaminated soils and sediments. The paper includes the following: (1) a discussion of site waste quantities and properties, (2) a selection of an incineration technology with a resulting concept and design, (3) a discussion of incinerator permitting requirements, (4) discussion and rationale for an incinerator sub-scale testing approach, and (5) analysis of on-site incineration cost

  16. Waste incineration on its way to the power plants; Muellverbrennung auf dem Weg zum Kraftwerk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reich, J. [STEAG encotec GmbH, Essen (Germany); Neukirchen, B. [STEAG AG, Essen (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    Looking at the year 2005 and the end of disposal of untreated domestic waste the politic hopes that the prognosticated lack of waste treatment capacity is remedied by coal-fired power plants. The classical municipal waste incinerators by contrast want to get recognition as energetic recycler in comparison with power stations. The decision of the European Court of Justice concerning recycling and disposal of domestic waste by incineration has started the discussion and competition on fuel-rich commercial waste. Are municipal waste incineration plants power stations or must power plants be regarded as incinerators? These questions are still open. (orig.) [German] Mit Blick auf das Jahr 2005 und das Ende der Ablagerung von unbehandeltem Siedlungsabfall hofft die Politik, dass der prognostizierte Mangel an Vorbehandlungskapazitaeten von den Kohlekraftwerken behoben wird. Die klassischen Muellverbrennungsanlagen wollen dagegen mit dem Kraftwerksvergleich die Anerkennung als energetische Verwerter erreichen. Das EuGH-Urteil zur Verwertung oder Beseitigung von Siedlungsabfall durch Verbrennen hat in diesem Jahr die Diskussion und den Kampf um den heizwertreichen Gewerbeabfall angeheizt. Die Frage, wie weit in Zukunft die Muellverbrennungsanlagen als Kraftwerke, aber auch die Kraftwerke als Muellverbrennungsanlagen angesehen werden muessen, ist noch offen. (orig.)

  17. Burning plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furth, H.P.; Goldston, R.J.; Zweben, S.J.

    1990-10-01

    The fraction of fusion-reaction energy that is released in energetic charged ions, such as the alpha particles of the D-T reaction, can be thermalized within the reacting plasma and used to maintain its temperature. This mechanism facilitates the achievement of very high energy-multiplication factors Q, but also raises a number of new issues of confinement physics. To ensure satisfactory reaction operation, three areas of energetic-ion interaction need to be addressed: single-ion transport in imperfectly symmetric magnetic fields or turbulent background plasmas; energetic-ion-driven (or stabilized) collective phenomena; and fusion-heat-driven collective phenomena. The first of these topics is already being explored in a number of tokamak experiments, and the second will begin to be addressed in the D-T-burning phase of TFTR and JET. Exploration of the third topic calls for high-Q operation, which is a goal of proposed next-generation plasma-burning projects. Planning for future experiments must take into consideration the full range of plasma-physics and engineering R ampersand D areas that need to be addressed on the way to a fusion power demonstration

  18. Burning plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furth, H.P.; Goldston, R.J.; Zweben, S.J. (Princeton Univ., NJ (USA). Plasma Physics Lab.); Sigmar, D.J. (Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (USA))

    1990-10-01

    The fraction of fusion-reaction energy that is released in energetic charged ions, such as the alpha particles of the D-T reaction, can be thermalized within the reacting plasma and used to maintain its temperature. This mechanism facilitates the achievement of very high energy-multiplication factors Q, but also raises a number of new issues of confinement physics. To ensure satisfactory reaction operation, three areas of energetic-ion interaction need to be addressed: single-ion transport in imperfectly symmetric magnetic fields or turbulent background plasmas; energetic-ion-driven (or stabilized) collective phenomena; and fusion-heat-driven collective phenomena. The first of these topics is already being explored in a number of tokamak experiments, and the second will begin to be addressed in the D-T-burning phase of TFTR and JET. Exploration of the third topic calls for high-Q operation, which is a goal of proposed next-generation plasma-burning projects. Planning for future experiments must take into consideration the full range of plasma-physics and engineering R D areas that need to be addressed on the way to a fusion power demonstration.

  19. Local CFD kinetic model of cadmium vaporization during fluid bed incineration of municipal solid waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soria, J. [Instituto Multidisciplinario de Investigación y Desarrollo de la Patagonia Norte (IDEPA, CONICET-UNCo) y Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad Nacional del Comahue, Buenos Aires 1400, 8300 Neuquén (Argentina); Laboratoire Procédés, Matériaux et Energie Solaire (CNRS-PROMES), 7 Rue du Four Solaire, Odeillo, 66120 Font-Romeu (France); Gauthier, D., E-mail: Daniel.Gauthier@promes.cnrs.fr [Laboratoire Procédés, Matériaux et Energie Solaire (CNRS-PROMES), 7 Rue du Four Solaire, Odeillo, 66120 Font-Romeu (France); Falcoz, Q.; Flamant, G. [Laboratoire Procédés, Matériaux et Energie Solaire (CNRS-PROMES), 7 Rue du Four Solaire, Odeillo, 66120 Font-Romeu (France); Mazza, G. [Instituto Multidisciplinario de Investigación y Desarrollo de la Patagonia Norte (IDEPA, CONICET-UNCo) y Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad Nacional del Comahue, Buenos Aires 1400, 8300 Neuquén (Argentina)

    2013-03-15

    Highlights: ► A 2-D local CFD model for simulating the Cd vaporization process is presented. ► It includes a kinetic expression of Cd vaporization into the incineration process. ► Pyrolysis, volatiles’ combustion and residual carbon combustion are also taken into account. ► It fits very well the experimental results obtained on a lab-scale fluidized bed reported in literature. ► It also compares favorably with a model developed previously by the group. -- Abstract: The emissions of heavy metals during incineration of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) are a major issue to health and the environment. It is then necessary to well quantify these emissions in order to accomplish an adequate control and prevent the heavy metals from leaving the stacks. In this study the kinetic behavior of Cadmium during Fluidized Bed Incineration (FBI) of artificial MSW pellets, for bed temperatures ranging from 923 to 1073 K, was modeled. FLUENT 12.1.4 was used as the modeling framework for the simulations and implemented together with a complete set of user-defined functions (UDFs). The CFD model combines the combustion of a single solid waste particle with heavy metal (HM) vaporization from the burning particle, and it takes also into account both pyrolysis and volatiles’ combustion. A kinetic rate law for the Cd release, derived from the CFD thermal analysis of the combusting particle, is proposed. The simulation results are compared with experimental data obtained in a lab-scale fluidized bed incinerator reported in literature, and with the predicted values from a particulate non-isothermal model, formerly developed by the authors. The comparison shows that the proposed CFD model represents very well the evolution of the HM release for the considered range of bed temperature.

  20. Effect of municipal solid waste incinerator types on characteristics of ashes from different air pollution control devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Chien-Hsing; Chuang, Kui-Hao

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the characteristics of fly and bottom ashes sampled from both fluidized bed (FB) and mass-burning (MB) municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWIs), respectively. Fly ashes from different locations at FB and MB MSWIs equipped with a cyclone, a semi-dry scrubber, and a bag filter as air pollution control devices were examined to provide the baseline information between physicochemical properties and leaching ability. Experimental results of leachability indicated that the bag filter fly ash (FB-FA(B)) from the FB incinerator meets Taiwan regulatory standards set through the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure. X-ray diffraction results revealed the presence of Cr5O12 and Pb2O3 in the cyclone fly ash (MB-FA(C)) and bag filter fly ash (MB-FA(B)), respectively, from the MB incinerator. To observe lead incorporation mechanism, mixture of simulate lead-laden waste with bed material were fired between 600 °C and 900 °C in a laboratory scale FB reactor. The results clearly demonstrate a substantial decrease in lead leaching ratio for products with an appropriate temperature. The concentration of Pb in the MB-FA(B) was 250 times that in the FB-FA(B), suggesting that incineration of MSW in FB is a good strategy for stabilizing hazardous metals.

  1. A Portable Burn Pan for the Disposal of Excess Propellants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-01

    seconds from the charges becoming engaged to burnout . The surrounding grass was ignited by the radiant heat of the burn, an indication of the high...2) Opened propellant charges burning A.5) Propellant charges fully engaged A.6) Start of burn out Field Manual: CRREL Portable Propellant

  2. Field determination of biomass burning emission ratios and factors via open-path FTIR spectroscopy and fire radiative power assessment: headfire, backfire and residual smouldering combustion in African savannahs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J. Wooster

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Biomass burning emissions factors are vital to quantifying trace gas release from vegetation fires. Here we evaluate emissions factors for a series of savannah fires in Kruger National Park (KNP, South Africa using ground-based open path Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy and an IR source separated by 150–250 m distance. Molecular abundances along the extended open path are retrieved using a spectral forward model coupled to a non-linear least squares fitting approach. We demonstrate derivation of trace gas column amounts for horizontal paths transecting the width of the advected plume, and find for example that CO mixing ratio changes of ~0.01 μmol mol−1 [10 ppbv] can be detected across the relatively long optical paths used here. Though FTIR spectroscopy can detect dozens of different chemical species present in vegetation fire smoke, we focus our analysis on five key combustion products released preferentially during the pyrolysis (CH2O, flaming (CO2 and smoldering (CO, CH4, NH3 processes. We demonstrate that well constrained emissions ratios for these gases to both CO2 and CO can be derived for the backfire, headfire and residual smouldering combustion (RSC stages of these savannah fires, from which stage-specific emission factors can then be calculated. Headfires and backfires often show similar emission ratios and emission factors, but those of the RSC stage can differ substantially. The timing of each fire stage was identified via airborne optical and thermal IR imagery and ground-observer reports, with the airborne IR imagery also used to derive estimates of fire radiative energy (FRE, allowing the relative amount of fuel burned in each stage to be calculated and "fire averaged" emission ratios and emission factors to be determined. These "fire averaged" metrics are dominated by the headfire contribution, since the FRE data indicate that the vast majority

  3. Final closure plan for the high-explosives open burn treatment facility at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Experimental Test Site 300

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathews, S.

    1997-04-01

    This document addresses the interim status closure of the HE Open Bum Treatment Facility, as detailed by Title 22, Division 4.5, Chapter 15, Article 7 of the Califonia Code of Regulations (CCR) and by Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 265, Subpart G, ``Closure and Post Closure.`` The Closure Plan (Chapter 1) and the Post- Closure Plan (Chapter 2) address the concept of long-term hazard elimination. The Closure Plan provides for capping and grading the HE Open Bum Treatment Facility and revegetating the immediate area in accordance with applicable requirements. The Closure Plan also reflects careful consideration of site location and topography, geologic and hydrologic factors, climate, cover characteristics, type and amount of wastes, and the potential for contaminant migration. The Post-Closure Plan is designed to allow LLNL to monitor the movement, if any, of pollutants from the treatment area. In addition, quarterly inspections will ensure that all surfaces of the closed facility, including the cover and diversion ditches, remain in good repair, thus precluding the potential for contaminant migration.

  4. Conceptual design report for alpha waste incinerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-04-01

    The Alpha Waste Incinerator, a new facility in the SRP H-Area, will process transuranic or alpha-contaminated combustible solid wastes. It will seal the radioactive ash and scrubbing salt residues in cans for interim storage in drums on site burial ground pads. This report includes objectives, project estimate, schedule, standards and criteria, excluded costs, safety evaluation, energy consumption, environmental assessment, and key drawings

  5. Arsenic burden survey among refuse incinerator workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Chung-Liang

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Incinerator workers are not considered to have arsenic overexposure although they have the risk of overexposure to other heavy metals. Aim: To examine the relationship between arsenic burden and risk of occupational exposure in employees working at a municipal refuse incinerator by determining the concentrations of arsenic in the blood and urine. Settings and Design: The workers were divided into three groups based on their probability of contact with combustion-generated residues, namely Group 1: indirect contact, Group 2: direct contact and Group 3: no contact. Healthy age- and sex-matched residents living in the vicinity were enrolled as the control group. Materials and Methods: Heavy metal concentrations were measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Downstream rivers and drinking water of the residents were examined for environmental arsenic pollution. A questionnaire survey concerning the contact history of arsenic was simultaneously conducted. Statistical analysis: Non-parametric tests, cross-tabulation and multinomial logistic regression. Results: This study recruited 122 incinerator workers. The urine and blood arsenic concentrations as well as incidences of overexposure were significantly higher in the workers than in control subjects. The workers who had indirect or no contact with combustion-generated residues had significantly higher blood arsenic level. Arsenic contact history could not explain the difference. Airborne and waterborne arsenic pollution were not detected. Conclusion: Incinerator workers run the risk of being exposed to arsenic pollution, especially those who have incomplete protection in the workplace even though they only have indirect or no contact with combustion-generated pollutants.

  6. Possibilities of municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash utilisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Silvie; Koval, Lukáš; Škrobánková, Hana; Matýsek, Dalibor; Winter, Franz; Purgar, Amon

    2015-08-01

    Properties of the waste treatment residual fly ash generated from municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash were investigated in this study. Six different mortar blends with the addition of the municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash were evaluated. The Portland cement replacement levels of the municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash used were 25%, 30% and 50%. Both, raw and washed municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash samples were examined. According to the mineralogical composition measurements, a 22.6% increase in the pozzolanic/hydraulic properties was observed for the washed municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash sample. The maximum replacement level of 25% for the washed municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash in mortar blends was established in order to preserve the compressive strength properties. Moreover, the leaching characteristics of the crushed mortar blend was analysed in order to examine the immobilisation of its hazardous contents. © The Author(s) 2015.

  7. Geotechnical engineering properties of incinerator ash mixes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhunthan, B; Taha, R; Said, J

    2004-08-01

    The incineration of solid waste produces large quantities of bottom and fly ash. Landfilling has been the primary mode of disposal of these waste materials. Shortage in landfill space and the high cost of treatment have, however, prompted the search for alternative uses of these waste materials. This study presents an experimental program that was conducted to determine the engineering properties of incinerator ash mixes for use as construction materials. Incinerator ash mixes were tested as received and around optimum compacted conditions. Compaction curves, shear strength, and permeability values of fly ash, bottom ash, and their various blends were investigated. Bottom ash tends to achieve maximum dry density at much lower water content than does fly ash. The mixes displayed a change in their cohesion and friction angle values when one of the two mix components was altered or as a result of the addition of water. The permeability of bottom ash is quite comparable to that of sand. The permeability of fly ash lies in the range of those values obtained for silts and clays. A 100% bottom ash compacted at the optimum water content has a lower density value and yields a higher friction angle and cohesion values than most construction fills. This would encourage the use of bottom ash as a fill or embankment material because free drainage of water will prevent the buildup of pore water pressures.

  8. Mobility of organic carbon from incineration residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ecke, Holger; Svensson, Malin

    2008-01-01

    Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) may affect the transport of pollutants from incineration residues when landfilled or used in geotechnical construction. The leaching of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) bottom ash and air pollution control residue (APC) from the incineration of waste wood was investigated. Factors affecting the mobility of DOC were studied in a reduced 2 6-1 experimental design. Controlled factors were treatment with ultrasonic radiation, full carbonation (addition of CO 2 until the pH was stable for 2.5 h), liquid-to-solid (L/S) ratio, pH, leaching temperature and time. Full carbonation, pH and the L/S ratio were the main factors controlling the mobility of DOC in the bottom ash. Approximately 60 weight-% of the total organic carbon (TOC) in the bottom ash was available for leaching in aqueous solutions. The L/S ratio and pH mainly controlled the mobilization of DOC from the APC residue. About 93 weight-% of TOC in the APC residue was, however, not mobilized at all, which might be due to a high content of elemental carbon. Using the European standard EN 13 137 for determination of total organic carbon (TOC) in MSWI residues is inappropriate. The results might be biased due to elemental carbon. It is recommended to develop a TOC method distinguishing between organic and elemental carbon

  9. Research and development plan for the Slagging Pyrolysis Incinerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedahl, T.G.; McCormack, M.D.

    1979-01-01

    Objective is to develop an incinerator for processing disposed transuranium waste. This R and D plan describes the R and D efforts required to begin conceptual design of the Slagging Pyrolysis Incinerator (Andco-Torrax). The program includes: incinerator, off-gas treatment, waste handling, instrumentation, immobilization analyses, migration studies, regulations, Belgium R and D test plan, Disney World test plan, and remote operation and maintenance

  10. Re-use of stabilised flue gas ashes from solid waste incineration in cement-treated base layers for pavements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cai, Zuansi; Jensen, Dorthe Lærke; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2003-01-01

    Fly ash from coal-burning power plants has been used extensively as a pozzolan and fine filter in concrete for many years. Laboratory experiments were performed investigating the effect of substituting the coal-based fly ash with chemically stabilised flue gas ashes (FGA) from waste incineration...... weeks. Cylinders (diameter 100 mm, length 150 mm) were drilled from these cubes for tank leaching experiments. Duplicate specimens were subject to compression strength testing and to tank leaching experiments. The compressive strength of the CTB fulfilled the Danish requirements for CTB, i.e. strength...... more than 5 MPa after 7 days. The tank leaching tests revealed that leaching of heavy metals was not significantly affected by the use of chemically stabilised flue gas ashes from waste incineration. Assuming that diffusion controls the leaching process it was calculated that less than 1% of the metals...

  11. Incinerators for radioactive wastes in Japanese nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karita, Yoichi

    1983-01-01

    As the measures of treatment and disposal of radioactive wastes in nuclear power stations, the development of the techniques to decrease wastes, to reduce the volume of wastes, to treat wastes by solidification and to dispose wastes has been advanced energetically. In particular, efforts have been exerted on the volume reduction treatment from the viewpoint of the improvement of storage efficiency and the reduction of transport and disposal costs. Incineration as one of the volume reduction techniques has been regarded as the most effective method with large reduction ratio, but it was not included in waste treatment system. NGK Insulators Ltd. developed NGK type miscellaneous solid incinerators, and seven incinerators were installed in nuclear power stations. These incinerators have been operated smoothly, and the construction is in progress in six more plants. The necessity of incinerators in nuclear power stations and the problems in their adoption, the circumstance of the development of NGK type miscellaneous solid incinerators, the outline of the incinerator of Karlsruhe nuclear power station and the problems, the contents of the technical development in NGK, the outline of NGK type incinerators and the features, the outline of the pretreatment system, incinerator system, exhaust gas treatment system, ash taking out system and accessory equipment, the operational results and the performance are described. (Kako, I.)

  12. Nuclear incineration method for long life radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Takaaki; Uematsu, Kunihiko.

    1987-01-01

    Nuclear incineration method is the method of converting the long life radioactive nuclides in wastes to short life or stable nuclides by utilizing the nuclear reaction caused by radiation, unlike usual chemical incineration. By the nuclear incineration, the radioactivity of wastes increases in a short period, but the problems at the time of the disposal are reduced because of the decrease of long life radioactive nuclides. As the radiation used for the nuclear incineration, the neutron beam from fission and fusion reactors and accelerators, the proton beam and gamma ray from accelerators have been studied. The object of the nuclear incineration is actinide, Sr-90, Cs-137, I-129 and Tc-99. In particular, waste actinide emits alpha ray, and is strongly toxic, accordingly, the motive of attempting the nuclear incineration is strong. In Japan, about 24t of waste actinide will accumulate by 2000. The principle of the nuclear incineration, and the nuclear incineration using nuclear fission and fusion reactors and accelerators are described. The nuclear incineration using fission reactors was examined for the first time in 1972 in USA. It is most promising because it is feasible by the present technology without particular research and development. (Kako, I.)

  13. Waste incineration industry and development policies in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yun; Zhao, Xingang; Li, Yanbin; Li, Xiaoyu

    2015-12-01

    The growing pollution from municipal solid waste due to economic growth and urbanization has brought great challenge to China. The main method of waste disposal has gradually changed from landfill to incineration, because of the enormous land occupation by landfills. The paper presents the results of a study of the development status of the upstream and downstream of the waste incineration industry chain in China, reviews the government policies for the waste incineration power industry, and provides a forecast of the development trend of the waste incineration industry. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The Louisiana State University waste-to-energy incinerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This proposed action is for cost-shared construction of an incinerator/steam-generation facility at Louisiana State University under the State Energy Conservation Program (SECP). The SECP, created by the Energy Policy and Conservation Act, calls upon DOE to encourage energy conservation, renewable energy, and energy efficiency by providing Federal technical and financial assistance in developing and implementing comprehensive state energy conservation plans and projects. Currently, LSU runs a campus-wide recycling program in order to reduce the quantity of solid waste requiring disposal. This program has removed recyclable paper from the waste stream; however, a considerable quantity of other non-recyclable combustible wastes are produced on campus. Until recently, these wastes were disposed of in the Devil's Swamp landfill (also known as the East Baton Rouge Parish landfill). When this facility reached its capacity, a new landfill was opened a short distance away, and this new site is now used for disposal of the University's non-recyclable wastes. While this new landfill has enough capacity to last for at least 20 years (from 1994), the University has identified the need for a more efficient and effective manner of waste disposal than landfilling. The University also has non-renderable biological and potentially infectious waste materials from the School of Veterinary Medicine and the Student Health Center, primarily the former, whose wastes include animal carcasses and bedding materials. Renderable animal wastes from the School of Veterinary Medicine are sent to a rendering plant. Non-renderable, non-infectious animal wastes currently are disposed of in an existing on-campus incinerator near the School of Veterinary Medicine building

  15. The Louisiana State University waste-to-energy incinerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-10-26

    This proposed action is for cost-shared construction of an incinerator/steam-generation facility at Louisiana State University under the State Energy Conservation Program (SECP). The SECP, created by the Energy Policy and Conservation Act, calls upon DOE to encourage energy conservation, renewable energy, and energy efficiency by providing Federal technical and financial assistance in developing and implementing comprehensive state energy conservation plans and projects. Currently, LSU runs a campus-wide recycling program in order to reduce the quantity of solid waste requiring disposal. This program has removed recyclable paper from the waste stream; however, a considerable quantity of other non-recyclable combustible wastes are produced on campus. Until recently, these wastes were disposed of in the Devil`s Swamp landfill (also known as the East Baton Rouge Parish landfill). When this facility reached its capacity, a new landfill was opened a short distance away, and this new site is now used for disposal of the University`s non-recyclable wastes. While this new landfill has enough capacity to last for at least 20 years (from 1994), the University has identified the need for a more efficient and effective manner of waste disposal than landfilling. The University also has non-renderable biological and potentially infectious waste materials from the School of Veterinary Medicine and the Student Health Center, primarily the former, whose wastes include animal carcasses and bedding materials. Renderable animal wastes from the School of Veterinary Medicine are sent to a rendering plant. Non-renderable, non-infectious animal wastes currently are disposed of in an existing on-campus incinerator near the School of Veterinary Medicine building.

  16. An Inclusive Investigation on Conceivable Performance of Rice Straw Incinerated Electricity Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharjee, Subhadeep; Mohanta, Subhajit

    2018-03-01

    Biomass energy is one of the potential renewable energy sources which occupy 77% of the available natural resources of the world. In India, agro residues constitute a major part of the total annual production of the biomass resource. Rice is the major crop in India that leaves substantial quantity of straw in the field. 34% of rice straw residue produced in the country is surplus and is either left in the field as uncollected or to a large extent open-field burnt. Thus, the unutilized rice straw is found promising for heat and power generation either through incineration (direct combustion) or thermo chemical conversion. This present work envisages the comprehensive performative evaluation of a rice straw supported biomass incineration power plant mainly through plant performance characterization, plant economics, and co-firing issues with emission analysis.

  17. Open Rotor Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Zante, Dale E.; Rizzi, Stephen A.

    2016-01-01

    The ERA project executed a comprehensive test program for Open Rotor aerodynamic and acoustic performance. System studies used the data to estimate the fuel burn savings and acoustic margin for an aircraft system with open rotor propulsion. The acoustic measurements were used to produce an auralization that compares the legacy blades to the current generation of open rotor designs.

  18. Simulation of co-incineration of sewage sludge with municipal solid waste in a grate furnace incinerator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hai; Ma, Xiaoqian

    2012-03-01

    Incineration is one of the most important methods in the resource recovery disposal of sewage sludge. The combustion characteristics of sewage sludge and an increasing number of municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration plants provide the possibility of co-incineration of sludge with MSW. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis was used to verify the feasibility of co-incineration of sludge with MSW, and predict the effect of co-incineration. In this study, wet sludge and semi-dried sludge were separately blended with MSW as mixed fuels, which were at a co-incineration ratios of 5 wt.% (wet basis, the same below), 10 wt.%, 15 wt.%, 20 wt.% and 25 wt.%. The result indicates that co-incineration of 10 wt.% wet sludge with MSW can ensure the furnace temperature, the residence time and other vital items in allowable level, while 20 wt.% of semi-dried sludge can reach the same standards. With lower moisture content and higher low heating value (LHV), semi-dried sludge can be more appropriate in co-incineration with MSW in a grate furnace incinerator. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Significance of waste incineration in Germany; Stellenwert der Abfallverbrennung in Deutschland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-10-15

    The report on the relevance of waste incineration in Germany is covering the following issues: change of the issue waste incineration in the last century, the controversy on waste incineration in the 80ies; environmental relevance of waste incineration; utilization of incineration residues; contribution to environmental protection; possible hazards for human health due are waste incinerator plants; the central challenges of waste incineration today; potential restraints to energy utilization in thermal waste processing; optimization of the energetic utilization of municipal wastes; future of the waste management and the relevance of waste incineration.

  20. Expansion control for cementation of incinerated ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakayama, T.; Suzuki, S.; Hanada, K.; Tomioka, O.; Sato, J.; Irisawa, K.; Kato, J.; Kawato, Y.; Meguro, Y.

    2015-01-01

    A method, in which incinerated ash is solidified with a cement material, has been developed to dispose of radioactive incinerated ash waste. A small amount of metallic Al, which was not oxidized in the incineration, existed in the ash. When such ash was mixed with a cement material and water, alkaline components in the ash and the cement were dissolved in the mixing water and then metallic Al reaction with the alkaline compounds resulted in generation of H 2 . Because the H 2 generation began immediately just after the mixing, H 2 bubbles pushed up the mixed grout material and an expanded solidified form was obtained. The expansion leads to lowering the strength of the solidified form and making harmful void. In this study, we tried to control H 2 generation from the reaction of metallic Al in the cementation by means of following two methods, one was a method to let metallic Al react prior to the cementation and the other was a method to add an expansion inhibitor that made an oxide film on the surface of metallic Al. In the pre-treatment, the ash was soaked in water in order to let metallic Al react with it, and then the ash with the immersion solution was dried at 105 Celsius degrees. The pre-treated ash was mixed with an ordinary portland cement and water. The inhibitor of lithium nitrite, sodium nitrite, phosphoric acid, or potassium dihydrogen phosphate was added at the mixing process. The solidified forms prepared using the pre-treated ash and lithium nitrite were not expanded. Phosphoric acid and sodium nitrite were effective for expansion control, but potassium dihydrogen phosphate did not work. (authors)

  1. Radioactivity partitioning in incinerators for miscellaneous low-level wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kyle, S.; Bellinger, E.

    1988-03-01

    Her Majesty's Inspectorate of Pollution (HMIP) authorises the use of hospital, university and Local Authority incinerators for the disposal of solid radioactive wastes. At present these authorisations are calculated on ''worst case'' assumptions, this report aims to review the experimental data on radioactivity partitioning in these incinerators, in order to improve the accuracy of HMIP predictions. The types of radionuclides used in medicine were presented and it is noted there is no literature on the composition of university waste. The different types of incinerators are detailed, with diagrams. Major differences in design are apparent, particularly the offgas cleaning equipment in nuclear incinerators which hinders comparisons with institutional incinerators. A comprehensive literature review revealed 17 references on institutional radioactive waste incineration, 11 of these contained data sets. The partitioning experiments were described and show a wide range of methodology from incinerating guinea pigs to filter papers. In general, only ash composition data were presented, with no details of emissions or plating out in the incinerator. Thus the data sets were incomplete, often with a poor degree of accuracy. The data sets contained information on 40 elements; those were compared and general trends were apparent such as the absence of H-3, C-14 and I-125 in the ash in contrast to the high retention of Sc-46. Large differences between data sets were noted for P-32, Sr-85 and Sn-113 and within one experiment for S-35. (author)

  2. 10 CFR 20.2004 - Treatment or disposal by incineration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Treatment or disposal by incineration. 20.2004 Section 20.2004 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Waste Disposal § 20.2004 Treatment or disposal by incineration. (a) A licensee may treat or dispose of licensed...

  3. Refuse derived fuel incineration: Fuel gas monitoring and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranaldi, E.; Coronidi, M.; De Stefanis, P.; Di Palo, C.; Zagaroli, M.

    1993-11-01

    Experience and results on refuse derived fuel (selected from municipal solid wastes) incineration are reported. The study involved the investigation of inorganic compounds (heavy metals, acids and toxic gases) emissions, and included feeding materials and incineration residues characterization and mass balance

  4. Project No. 4 - Waste incineration facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    There are currently 12000 m 3 of combustible waste stored at the Ignalina NPP site. It is estimated that by 2005 the volume will have increase to 15000 m 3 (filters, personnel protection, clothing and plastics). As a part of the preparation for the closure of the Ignalina NPP an incineration facility will be required to process combustible wastes to reduce the overall volume of short-lived radioactive wastes stored at the Ignalina NPP site, thus reducing the overall risk to the environment. Project activities includes the design, construction and commissioning of the proposed facility, including all licensing documentation

  5. High temperature filter for incinerator gas purification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billard, Francois; Brion, Jacques; Cousin, Michel; Delarue, Roger

    1969-01-01

    This note describes a regenerable filter for the hot filtering of incinerator gases. The filter is made of several wire gauze candles coated with asbestos fibers as filtering medium. Unburnt products, like carbon black, terminate their combustion on the filter, reducing the risk of clogging and enhancing the operation time to several hundreds of hours between two regeneration cycles. The filter was tested on a smaller scale mockup, and then on an industrial pilot plant with a 20 kg/h capacity during a long duration. This note describes the installation and presents the results obtained [fr

  6. Incineration, pyrolysis and gasification of electronic waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurgul Agnieszka

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Three high temperature processes of the electronic waste processing: smelting/incineration, pyrolysis and gasification were shortly discussed. The most distinctive feature of electronic waste is complexity of components and their integration. This type of waste consists of polymeric materials and has high content of valuable metals that could be recovered. The purpose of thermal treatment of electronic waste is elimination of plastic components (especially epoxy resins while leaving non-volatile mineral and metallic phases in more or less original forms. Additionally, the gaseous product of the process after cleaning may be used for energy recovery or as syngas.

  7. Incineration, pyrolysis and gasification of electronic waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurgul, Agnieszka; Szczepaniak, Włodzimierz; Zabłocka-Malicka, Monika

    2017-11-01

    Three high temperature processes of the electronic waste processing: smelting/incineration, pyrolysis and gasification were shortly discussed. The most distinctive feature of electronic waste is complexity of components and their integration. This type of waste consists of polymeric materials and has high content of valuable metals that could be recovered. The purpose of thermal treatment of electronic waste is elimination of plastic components (especially epoxy resins) while leaving non-volatile mineral and metallic phases in more or less original forms. Additionally, the gaseous product of the process after cleaning may be used for energy recovery or as syngas.

  8. Incineration of low level and mixed wastes: 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    The University of California at Irvine, in cooperation with the Department of Energy, American Society of Mechanical Engineers, and chapters of the Health Physics Society, coordinated this conference on the Incineration of Low-Level Radioactive and Mixed Wastes, with the guidance of professionals active in the waste management community. The conference was held in April 22-25, 1986 at Sheraton airport hotel Charlotte, North Carolina. Some of the papers' titles were: Protection and safety of different off-gas treatment systems in radioactive waste incineration; performance assessment of refractory samples in the Los Alamos controlled-Air incinerator; incineration systems for low-level and mixed wastes; incineration of low-level radioactive waste in Switzerland-operational experience and future activities

  9. Thermal analysis of an enriched flame incinerator for aqueous residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacava, Pedro Teixeira; Pimenta, Amilcar Porto [Divisao de Engenharia Aeronautica, Instituto Tecnologico de Aeronautica, Pca. Mal. Eduardo Gomes, 50, Vila das Acacias, 12228-900, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Carvalho, Joao A. [Departamento de Energia, Campus de Guaratingueta, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Av. Dr. Ariberto Pereira da Cunha, 333, 12516-410, Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil); Ferreira, Marco Aurelio [Laboratorio Associado de Combustao e Propulsao, Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais, Rod. Presidente Dutra, km 40, 12630-000, Cachoeira Paulista, SP (Brazil)

    2006-03-01

    The use of oxygen to enrich the combustion air can be an attractive technique to increase capacity of an incinerator originally designed to operate with air. If incinerator parameters such as operation temperature, turbulence level and residence time are fixed for a certain fuel supply rate, it is possible to increase the residue consumption rate using enriched air. This paper presents the thermal analysis for operation with enriched air of an aqueous residue experimental incinerator. The auxiliary fuel was diesel oil. The theoretical results showed that there is a considerable increase in the incineration ratio up to approximately 50% of O{sub 2} in the oxidiser. The tendency was confirmed experimentally. Thermal analysis was demonstrated to be an important tool to predict possible incinerator capacity increase. (author)

  10. Licensing requirements for backfit incinerators at commercial nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodge, R.L.; Edwards, C.W.; Wilson, B.

    1984-01-01

    This paper, and the project it reports on, examines the licensing requirements for backfit incinerators at operating power plants. Analysis was made of incinerating low-level dry radioactive waste in a backfit incinerator at an existing power plant. The operation of the incinerator has been studied from viewpoints of operator safety, consequence of system failures including worst case scenarios, and radiological impact for normal and upset conditions. Analysis showed that releases under all normal operating or upset conditions are an extremely small fraction of the applicable limits. Nuclear Regulatory Commission review concluded that the document produced as a result of this project was useful as a design guide and of value in licensing backfit incinerators. 1 table

  11. LCA Comparison of waste incineration in Denmark and Italy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turconi, Roberto; Butera, Stefania; Boldrin, Alessio

    2011-01-01

    Every year around 50 millions Mg solid waste are incinerated in Europe. Large differences exist in different regions, mainly regarding energy recovery, flue gas treatment and management of solid residues. This paper aims to identify and quantify those differences, providing a Life Cycle Assessment...... of two incinerator systems that are representative of conditions in Northern and Southern Europe. The two case studies are Aarhus (Denmark) and Milan (Italy). The results show that waste incineration appears more environmentally friendly in the Danish case than in the Italian one, due to the higher...... energy recovery and to local conditions, e.g. substitution of electricity and heat in the area. Focusing on the incineration process, Milan incinerator performs better than Aarhus, since its upstream impacts (related to the production of chemicals used in flue gas cleaning) are more than compensated...

  12. Incineration systems for low level and mixed wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vavruska, J.

    1986-01-01

    A variety of technologies has emerged for incineration of combustible radioactive, hazardous, and mixed wastes. Evaluation and selection of an incineration system for a particular application from such a large field of options are often confusing. This paper presents several current incineration technologies applicable to Low Level Waste (LLW), hazardous waste, and mixed waste combustion treatment. The major technologies reviewed include controlled-air, rotary kiln, fluidized bed, and liquid injection. Coupled with any incineration technique is the need to select a compatible offgas effluent cleaning system. This paper also reviews the various methods of treating offgas emissions for acid vapor, particulates, organics, and radioactivity. Such effluent control systems include the two general types - wet and dry scrubbing with a closer look at quenching, inertial systems, fabric filtration, gas absorption, adsorption, and various other filtration techniques. Selection criteria for overall waste incineration systems are discussed as they relate to waste characterization

  13. Characteristics of residual organics in municipal solid waste incinerator bottom ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yen-Ching; Yen, Jui-Hung; Lateef, Shaik Khaja; Hong, Pui-Kwan Andy; Lin, Cheng-Fang

    2010-10-15

    Although heavy metals in bottom ash have been a primary issue in resource recovery of municipal solid waste incinerator residues in past decades, less studied are potentially toxic and odorous organic fractions that exist as they have not been completely oxidized during the mass burn process. Using supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) and soxtec extraction (SE) techniques, this study investigated the characteristics of un-oxidized organic residues contained in bottom ash from three municipal solid waste incinerators in Taiwan during 2008-2009. All together 99 organics were identified in bottom ash samples using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Among the identified organics, aromatic compounds were most frequently detected. No polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were extracted by SFE or SE. Several phthalates (e.g., phthalic acid isobutyl tridec-2-yn-1-yl ester, dibutyl phthalate and 2-butoxyethyl butyl benzene-1,2-dicarboxylate), organic phosphates (e.g., octicizer and phosphoric acid isodecyl diphenyl ester), and aromatics and amines including pyridine, quinoline derivatives, chloro- and cyano-organics were successfully extracted. Aromatic amines (e.g., 1-nitro-9,10-dioxo-9,10-dihydro-anthracene-2-carboxylic acid diethylamide and 3-bromo-N-(4-bromo-2-chlorophenyl)-propanamide) and aromatic compounds (other than amines) (e.g., 7-chloro-4-methoxy-3-methylquinoline and 2,3-dihydro-N-hydroxy-4-methoxy-3,3-dimethyl indole-2-one) are probably the major odorous compounds in bottom ash. This work identifies organic pollutants in incinerated bottom ash that have received far less attention than their heavy metals counterpart. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Waste processing building with incineration technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasilah, Wasilah; Zaldi Suradin, Muh.

    2017-12-01

    In Indonesia, waste problem is one of major problem of the society in the city as part of their life dynamics. Based on Regional Medium Term Development Plan of South Sulawesi Province in 2013-2018, total volume and waste production from Makassar City, Maros, Gowa, and Takalar Regency estimates the garbage dump level 9,076.949 m3/person/day. Additionally, aim of this design is to present a recommendation on waste processing facility design that would accommodate waste processing process activity by incineration technology and supported by supporting activity such as place of education and research on waste, and the administration activity on waste processing facility. Implementation of incineration technology would reduce waste volume up to 90% followed by relative negative impact possibility. The result planning is in form of landscape layout that inspired from the observation analysis of satellite image line pattern of planning site and then created as a building site pattern. Consideration of building orientation conducted by wind analysis process and sun path by auto desk project Vasari software. The footprint designed by separate circulation system between waste management facility interest and the social visiting activity in order to minimize the croos and thus bring convenient to the building user. Building mass designed by inseparable connection series system, from the main building that located in the Northward, then connected to a centre visitor area lengthways, and walked to the waste processing area into the residue area in the Southward area.

  15. Analysis of Discharged Gas from Incinerator using Simulated Organic Solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seungil; Kim, Hyunki; Heo, Jun; Kang, Dukwon; Kim, Yunbok; Kwon, Youngbock

    2014-01-01

    Korea has no experience of treatment of RI organic waste and appropriate measures for treatment of organic waste did not suggested. RI organic wastes which are occurring in KOREA are stored at the RI waste storage building of KORAD. But they can't no more receive the RI organic waste because the storage facility for RI organic waste was saturated with these organic wastes. In case of Japan, they recognized the dangerousness of long-term storage for RI organic wastes. In case of Korea, the released concentration of gaseous pollutant from the incinerator is regulated by attached table No.1 of the Notification No. 2012-60 of Nuclear Safety Commission and attached table No.8 of Clean Air Conservation Act. And the dioxin from the incinerator is regulated by attached table No.3 of Persistent Organic Pollutants Control Act. This experiment was performed to examine whether the incinerator introduced from Japan is manufactured suitably for municipal law regulation and to confirm the compliance about the gaseous pollutant released from incinerator with the above-mentioned laws especially attached table No.1 of NSC using simulated organic waste solution. In this experiment, we examined whether the incinerator was manufactured suitably for municipal law regulation and confirmed the compliance about the gaseous pollutant released from incinerator with the above-mentioned laws using simulated organic waste solution. The design requirement of incinerator for RI organic waste in the municipal law regulation is proposed briefly but the requirements for more detail about the incinerator are proposed in regulation of Japan. The incinerator used in this experiment is satisfied with all clauses of the domestic as well as Japan. Multiple safety functions were installed in the incinerator such as air purge system to remove unburned inflammable gases in the furnace and earthquake detector. Also, perfect combustion of RI organic waste is achieved because the temperature in the furnace

  16. Study of air pollution in the proximity of a waste incinerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrera, V. [Department of Physics and Astronomy – University of Florence, Via G. Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Calzolai, G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy – University of Florence, Via G. Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); National Institute of Nuclear Physics (INFN) – Florence, Via G. Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Chiari, M. [National Institute of Nuclear Physics (INFN) – Florence, Via G. Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Lucarelli, F., E-mail: lucarelli@fi.infn.it [Department of Physics and Astronomy – University of Florence, Via G. Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); National Institute of Nuclear Physics (INFN) – Florence, Via G. Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Nava, S.; Giannoni, M. [National Institute of Nuclear Physics (INFN) – Florence, Via G. Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Becagli, S.; Frosini, D. [Department of Chemistry – University of Florence, Via della Lastruccia 3, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy)

    2015-11-15

    Montale is a small town in Tuscany characterised by high PM10 levels. Close to the town there is a waste incinerator plant. There are many concerns in the population and in the press about the causes of the high levels of pollution in this area. Daily PM10 samples were collected for 1 year by the FAI Hydra Dual sampler and analysed by different techniques in order to obtain a complete chemical speciation (elements by PIXE and ICP-MS, ions by Ion Chromatography, elemental and organic carbon by a thermo-optical instrument); hourly fine (<2.5 μm) and coarse (2.5–10 μm) PM samples were collected for shorter periods by the Streaker sampler and hourly elemental concentrations were obtained by PIXE analysis. Positive Matrix Factorization identified and quantified the major aerosol sources. Biomass burning turned out to be the most important source with an average percentage contribution to PM10 of 27% of and even higher percentages during the winter period when there are the highest PM10 concentrations. The contribution of the incinerator source has been estimated as about 6% of PM10.

  17. Burns (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with flames or hot objects (from the stove, fireplace, curling iron, etc.) chemical burns (from swallowing things, ... formula that can scald a baby's mouth. Screen fireplaces and wood-burning stoves. Radiators and electric baseboard ...

  18. Burns - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Expand Section Burn Care - 简体中文 (Chinese, Simplified (Mandarin dialect)) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Chinese, Traditional (Cantonese dialect) (繁體中文) Expand Section Burn ...

  19. Crude oil burning mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Gelderen, Laurens; Malmquist, L.M.V.; Jomaas, Grunde

    2015-01-01

    In order to improve predictions for the burning efficiency and the residue composition of in-situ burning of crude oil, the burning mechanism of crude oil was studied in relation to the composition of its hydrocarbon mixture, before, during and after the burning. The surface temperature, flame...... to the predictions of four conceptual models that describe the burning mechanism of multicomponent fuels. Based on the comparisons, hydrocarbon liquids were found to be best described by the Equilibrium Flash Vaporization model, showing a constant gas composition and gasification rate. The multicomponent fuels...... followed the diffusion-limited gasification model, showing a change in the hydrocarbon composition of the fuel and its evaporating gases, as well as a decreasing gasification rate, as the burning progressed. This burning mechanism implies that the residue composition and burning efficiency mainly depend...

  20. Burning Mouth Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... prescribe medications to help you manage the pain, dry mouth, or other symptoms. More Burning Mouth Health Info Publications Cover image Burning Mouth Syndrome Publication files Download Language English PDF ( Number of ...

  1. Burn Wise - Partners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Within this site you will find information for consumers to make informed decisions about what it means to burn wise. And partners will learn about how they can work with EPA to bring cleaner-burning appliances to market.

  2. 40 CFR 52.273 - Open burning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Article V, and paragraph (f) of Article VI, submitted on November 10, 1976. (11) Merced County APCD. (i... 410(c)(2), submitted on May 7, 1979. (10) Merced County APCD. (i) Rule 416.1(I)(A)(2), submitted on...

  3. Airborne Hazards and Open Burn Pit Registry

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... problem if you are in a high security environment where this is disabled by a network policy. The Registry will work in JavaScript-enabled browsers such as: Google Chrome 17+ Mozilla Firefox 12+ Internet Explorer 10+ ...

  4. Low-level waste institutional waste incinerator program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, J.D.

    1980-04-01

    Literature surveyed indicated that institutional LLW is composed of organic solids and liquids, laboratory equipment and trash, and some pathological waste. Some toxic and hazardous chemicals are included in the variety of LLW generated in the nation's hospitals, universities, and research laboratories. Thus, the incinerator to be demonstrated in this program should be able to accept each of these types of materials as feedstock. Effluents from the DOE institutional incinerator demonstration should be such that all existing and proposed environmental standards be met. A design requirement was established to meet the most stringent flue gas standards. LLW incineration practice was reviewed in a survey of institutional LLW generators. Incinerator manufacturers were identified by the survey, and operational experience in incineration was noted for institutional users. Manufacturers identified in the survey were contacted and queried with regard to their ability to supply an incinerator with the desired capability. Special requirements for ash removal characteristics and hearth type were imposed on the selection. At the present time, an incinerator type, manufacturer, and model have been chosen for demonstration

  5. Volume Reduction of Decommissioning Burnable Waste with Oxygen Enrich Incinerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Min, B. Y.; Yang, D. S.; Lee, K. W.; Choi, J. W. [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    The incineration technology is an effective treatment method that contains hazardous chemicals as well as radioactive contamination. The volume reduction of the combustible wastes through the incineration technologies has merits from the view point of a decrease in the amount of waste to be disposed of resulting in a reduction of the disposal cost. Incineration is generally accepted as a method of reducing the volume of radioactive waste. The incineration technology is an effective treatment method that contains hazardous chemicals as well as radioactive contamination. This paper covers the general facility operation of an oxygen-enriched incinerator for the treatment of decommissioning wastes generated from a decommissioning project. The combustible wastes have been treated by the utilization of incinerator the capacity of the average 20 kg/hr. The decommissioning combustible waste of about 31 tons has been treated using Oxygen Enriched incinerator by at the end of 2016. The off-gas flow and temperature were maintained constant or within the desired range. The measured gases and particulate materials in the stack were considerably below the regulatory limits.

  6. Volume Reduction of Decommissioning Burnable Waste with Oxygen Enrich Incinerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Min, B. Y.; Yang, D. S.; Lee, K. W.; Choi, J. W.

    2016-01-01

    The incineration technology is an effective treatment method that contains hazardous chemicals as well as radioactive contamination. The volume reduction of the combustible wastes through the incineration technologies has merits from the view point of a decrease in the amount of waste to be disposed of resulting in a reduction of the disposal cost. Incineration is generally accepted as a method of reducing the volume of radioactive waste. The incineration technology is an effective treatment method that contains hazardous chemicals as well as radioactive contamination. This paper covers the general facility operation of an oxygen-enriched incinerator for the treatment of decommissioning wastes generated from a decommissioning project. The combustible wastes have been treated by the utilization of incinerator the capacity of the average 20 kg/hr. The decommissioning combustible waste of about 31 tons has been treated using Oxygen Enriched incinerator by at the end of 2016. The off-gas flow and temperature were maintained constant or within the desired range. The measured gases and particulate materials in the stack were considerably below the regulatory limits.

  7. Optimization of burn referrals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reiband, Hanna K; Lundin, Kira; Alsbjørn, Bjarne

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Correct estimation of the severity of burns is important to obtain the right treatment of the patient and to avoid over- and undertriage. In this study we aimed to assess how often the guidelines for referral of burn injured patients are met at the national burn centre (NBC), Denmar...

  8. Workplace-related burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mian, M A H; Mullins, R F; Alam, B; Brandigi, C; Friedman, B C; Shaver, J R; Hassan, Z

    2011-06-30

    Introduction. The key element of a safe workplace for employees is the maintenance of fire safety. Thermal, chemical, and electrical burns are common types of burns at the workplace. This study assessed the epidemiology of work-related burn injuries on the basis of the workers treated in a regional burn centre. Methods. Two years' retrospective data (2005-2006) from the Trauma Registry of the American College of Surgeons of the Joseph M. Still Burn Center at Doctors Hospital in Augusta, Georgia, were collected and analysed. Results. During the time period studied, 2510 adult patients with acute burns were admitted; 384 cases (15%) were work-related. The average age of the patients was 37 yr (range, 15-72 yr). Males constituted the majority (90%) of workrelated burn injury admissions. The racial distribution was in accordance with the Centre's admission census. Industrial plant explosions accounted for the highest number of work-related burns and, relatively, a significant number of patients had chemical burns. The average length of hospital stay was 5.54 days. Only three patients did not have health insurance and four patients (1%) died. Conclusion. Burn injuries at the workplace predominantly occur among young male workers, and the study has shown that chemical burns are relatively frequent. This study functions as the basis for the evaluation of work-related burns and identification of the causes of these injuries to formulate adequate safety measures, especially for young, male employees working with chemicals.

  9. Chemical burn or reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burn from chemicals ... in contact with the toxic substance Rash , blisters , burns on the skin Unconsciousness or other states of ... Make sure the cause of the burn has been removed. Try not to come ... yourself. If the chemical is dry, brush off any excess. Avoid ...

  10. Optimization of burn referrals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reiband, Hanna K; Lundin, Kira; Alsbjørn, Bjarne

    2014-01-01

    Correct estimation of the severity of burns is important to obtain the right treatment of the patient and to avoid over- and undertriage. In this study we aimed to assess how often the guidelines for referral of burn injured patients are met at the national burn centre (NBC), Denmark....

  11. Economics of pediatric burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bass, Michael J; Phillips, Linda G

    2008-07-01

    Sustaining a burn injury sets in motion a cycle of pain, disfigurement, and a search for survival. In pediatric burns, the injury extends to the parents where fear, ignorance, and helplessness forever change their lives. Pediatric burn injuries are caused by fire, hot liquids, clothing irons, hair curlers, caustic substances like drain cleaner, the grounding of an electrical source, and exposure to radiation. Efficiency in the delivery of pediatric burn care is critical. Maximizing resource utilization means continual self-evaluation and economic analysis of therapeutic modalities. Griffiths et al found that most childhood burns are due to scalds, which can be treated for $1061 per percent burn. Paddock et al reduced the cost of treating superficial pediatric burns and reduced the length of stay in hospital using silver-impregnated gauze over traditional methods. Barrett et al found improved cosmesis of skin grafts using cultured epithelial autografts but at a substantially increased cost. Corpron et al showed that pediatric burn units that treat burns >10% total body surface area and operative treatment of pediatric burns regardless of size generate positive revenue. There is a paucity of evidentiary pediatric burn economic data. More research is needed to address areas of pediatric burn care inefficiency. Improving knowledge of cost in all health care endeavors will create competition and drive down expenditures.

  12. DEMOLITION OF HANFORD'S 232-Z WASTE INCINERATION FACILITY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LLOYD, E.R.

    2006-01-01

    The 232-Z Plutonium Incinerator Facility was a small, highly alpha-contaminated, building situated between three active buildings located in an operating nuclear complex. Approximately 500 personnel worked within 250 meters (800 ft) of the structure and expectations were that the project would neither impact plant operations nor result in any restrictions when demolition was complete. Precision demolition and tight controls best describe the project. The team used standard open-air demolition techniques to take the facility to slab-on-grade. Several techniques were key to controlling contamination and confining it to the demolition area: spraying fixatives before demolition began; using misting systems, frequently applying fixatives, and using a methodical demolition sequence and debris load-out process. Detailed air modeling was done before demolition to determine necessary facility source-term levels, establish radiological boundaries, and confirm the adequacy of the proposed demolition approach. By only removing the major source term in equipment, HEPA filters, gloveboxes, and the like, and leaving fixed contamination on the walls, ceilings and floors, the project showed considerable savings and reduced worker hazards and exposure. The ability to perform this demolition safely and without the spread of contamination provides confidence that similar operations can be performed successfully. By removing the major source terms, fixing the remaining contamination in the building, and using controlled demolition and contamination control techniques, similar structures can be demolished cost effectively and safely

  13. Recovery of plutonium from incinerator ash at Rocky Flats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, T.C.

    1976-01-01

    Incineration of combustible materials highly contaminated with plutonium produces a residue of incinerator ash. Recovery of plutonium from incinerator ash residues at Rocky Flats is accomplished by a continuous leaching operation with nitric acid containing fluoride ion. Special equipment used in the leaching operation consists of a screw feeder, air-lift dissolvers, filters, solids dryer, and vapor collection system. Each equipment item is described in detail. The average dissolution efficiency of plutonium experienced with the process was 68% on the first pass, 74% on the second pass, and 64% on each subsequent pass. Total-solids dissolution efficiencies averaged 47% on the first pass and about 25% on each subsequent pass

  14. CIF---Design basis for an integrated incineration facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, G.F.

    1991-01-01

    This paper discusses the evolution of chosen technologies that occurred during the design process of the US Department of Energy (DOE) incineration system designated the Consolidated Incineration Facility (CIF) as the Savannah River Plant, Aiken, South Carolina. The Plant is operated for DOE by the Westinghouse Savannah River Company. The purpose of the incineration system is to treat low level radioactive and/or hazardous liquid and solid wastes by combustion. The objective for the facility is to thermally destroy toxic constituents and volume reduce waste material. Design criteria requires operation be controlled within the limits of RCRA's permit envelope

  15. Assessing potential health effects from municipal sludge incinerators: screening methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fradkin, L.; Bruins, J.F.; Lutkenhoff, S.D.; Stara, J.F.; Lomnitz, E.; Rubin, A.

    1987-04-01

    This paper describes a risk assessment methodology for preliminary assessment of municipal sludge incineration. The methodology is a valuable tool in that it can be used for determining the hazard indices of chemical contaminants that might be present in sewage sludge used in incineration. The paper examines source characteristics (i.e., facility design), atmospheric dispersion of emission, and resulting human exposure and risk from sludge incinerators. Seven of the ten organics were screened for further investigation. An example of the calculations are presented for cadmium.

  16. Operation of chemical incinerator for disposal of legacy chemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singhal, R.K.; Basu, H.; Saha, S.; Pimple, M.V.; Naik, P.D.

    2017-01-01

    For safe disposal of age-old legacy and unused chemicals in BARC, Trombay, oil-fired chemical incinerator with a capacity of 20 kg h -1 for solid and liquid chemical is installed adjacent to trash incinerator near RSMS, Gamma Field. The Incinerator was supplied by M/s B. L. Engineering Works, Ahmedabad. Commission of the same at Trombay site was carried out, under the supervision of Civil Engineering (CED), Technical Services Division (TSD) and Analytical Chemistry Division (custodian of the facility)

  17. Municipal Solid Waste Incineration For Accra Brewery Limited (Ghana)

    OpenAIRE

    Akoore, Alfred Akelibilna

    2016-01-01

    Waste incineration is a common practice of waste management tool in most developed countries, for the purpose of converting mass and volumes of waste into a very useful energy content. The aim of this study was to compare the costs benefits of waste incineration for Accra Brewery boiler plant and to investigate also the availability of waste and it´s compositions in Accra, as well as to determine the feasibility of using this waste as a source of fuel to the waste incineration plant. T...

  18. Development of an incineration system for radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chrubasik, A.

    1989-01-01

    NUKEM GmbH (W. Germany) has developed and built some plants for treatment of radioactive waste. In cooperation with Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Center and on the basis of non-nuclear incineration plants, NUKEM has designed and built a new incineration plant for low level radioactive solid waste. The main features of the plant are improvement of the waste handling during feeding, very low particulate load downstream the incinerator and simple flue-gas cleaning system. This process is suitable for treatment of waste generated above all in nuclear power plants. (author)

  19. Beta-gamma contaminated solid waste incinerator facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hootman, H.E.

    1979-10-01

    This technical data summary outlines a reference process to provide a 2-stage, 400 lb/hour incinerator to reduce the storage volume of combustible process waste contaminated with low-level beta-gamma emitters in response to DOE Manual 0511. This waste, amounting to more than 200,000 ft/sup 3/ per year, is presently buried in trenches in the burial ground. The anticipated storage volume reduction from incineration will be a factor of 20. The incinerator will also dispose of 150,000 gallons of degraded solvent from the chemical separations areas and 5000 gallons per year of miscellaneous nonradioactive solvents which are presently being drummed for storage.

  20. Incineration in the nuclear field. The SGN experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpentier, S.

    1993-01-01

    The operation of power reactors, like that of fuel fabrication and nuclear fuel reprocessing plants, generated substantial quantities of waste. A large share of this waste is low- and medium-level waste, which is also combustible. Similarly, a number of institutes, laboratories, and hospitals, in the course of their activities, generated waste which a portion is radioactive and combustible. The chief advantage of incineration is to minimize the volume of burnable waste treated, and to produce a residue termed 'ash'. SGN has built up 25 years of experience in this field. The incinerators have been designed and the incineration processes are specially studied by SGN

  1. Process modeling study of the CIF incinerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hang, T.

    1995-01-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) plans to begin operating the Consolidated Incineration Facility (CIF) in 1996. The CIF will treat liquid and solid low-level radioactive, mixed and RCRA hazardous wastes generated at SRS. In addition to experimental test programs, process modeling was applied to provide guidance in areas of safety, environmental regulation compliances, process improvement and optimization. A steady-state flowsheet model was used to calculate material/energy balances and to track key chemical constituents throughout the process units. Dynamic models were developed to predict the CIF transient characteristics in normal and abnormal operation scenarios. Predictions include the rotary kiln heat transfer, dynamic responses of the CIF to fluctuations in the solid waste feed or upsets in the system equipments, performance of the control system, air inleakage in the kiln, etc. This paper reviews the modeling study performed to assist in the deflagration risk assessment

  2. Incineration experience at Oconee Nuclear Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terrell, M.S.

    1986-01-01

    The Radwaste Facility at Oconee Nuclear Station contains a Fluidized Bed Dryer/Incinerator System which will be used to process contaminated trash (DAW), oil, powdex resin, and chemical cleaning waste. This system was designed by Aerojet Energy Conversion Company. The ash and salts resulting from this process will be solidified using the Stock Equipment Company Polymer Solidification System. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the results of start-up and pre-operational testing of these systems, describe the mass balance program the authors will be using to meet the requirements of 10CFR61, and to discuss the sampling of the ash and salts that will be produced as a result of the process. Additionally, tests which are designed to verify the mass balance for the Aeroject System, are discussed

  3. Nitrous oxide and methane emissions and nitrous oxide isotopic composition from waste incineration in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Eliza; Zeyer, Kerstin; Kegel, Rainer; Müller, Beat; Emmenegger, Lukas; Mohn, Joachim

    2015-01-01

    Solid waste incineration accounts for a growing proportion of waste disposal in both developed and developing countries, therefore it is important to constrain emissions of greenhouse gases from these facilities. At five Swiss waste incineration facilities with grate firing, emission factors for N2O and CH4 were determined based on measurements of representative flue gas samples, which were collected in Tedlar bags over a one year period (September 2010-August 2011) and analysed with FTIR spectroscopy. All five plants burn a mixture of household and industrial waste, and two of the plants employ NOx removal through selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) while three plants use selective catalytic reduction (SCR) for NOx removal. N2O emissions from incineration plants with NOx removal through selective catalytic reduction were 4.3 ± 4.0g N2O tonne(-1) waste (wet) (hereafter abbreviated as t(-1)) (0.4 ± 0.4 g N2O GJ(-1)), ten times lower than from plants with selective non-catalytic reduction (51.5 ± 10.6g N2O t(-1); 4.5 ± 0.9g N2O GJ(-1)). These emission factors, which are much lower than the value of 120g N2O t(-1) (10.4g N2O GJ(-1)) used in the 2013 Swiss national greenhouse gas emission inventory, have been implemented in the most recent Swiss emission inventory. In addition, the isotopic composition of N2O emitted from the two plants with SNCR, which had considerable N2O emissions, was measured using quantum cascade laser spectroscopy. The isotopic site preference of N2O - the enrichment of (14)N(15)NO relative to (15)N(14)NO - was found to be 17.6 ± 0.8‰, with no significant difference between the two plants. Comparison to previous studies suggests SP of 17-19‰ may be characteristic for N2O produced from SNCR. Methane emissions were found to be insignificant, with a maximum emission factor of 2.5 ± 5.6g CH4 t(-1) (0.2 ± 0.5g CH4 GJ(-1)), which is expected due to high incinerator temperatures and efficient combustion. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd

  4. Problematic Incinerator Ash: A Case Study of Finding a Successful Treatment Approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gering, K. L.

    1999-01-01

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) produces incinerator flyash and bottom ash as a consequence of burning low-level radioactive waste materials at the Waste Experimental Reduction Facility (WERF). The incineration process greatly reduces original waste volumes but concentrates the metals that are present, such as toxic metals (most notably cadmium, lead, and antimony) and nuisance metals (e.g., zinc). Anion species also become predominant in flyash produced by INEEL incineration, where chloride and sulfate are at concentrations that can approach 15-20 wt% each. In addition, treatment of the WERF flyash is further complicated by a significant fraction of ignitables composed of carbon soot and various hydrocarbon species that have been measured in some cases at 30% net by Loss-on-Ignition tests. Bottom ash produced at the WERF site is generally much less toxic, if not nontoxic, as compared to the flyash. Due to the complex composition of the flyash material, stabilization attempts at the INEEL have been only partly successful, causing the effectiveness and viability of treatment methods to be revisited. Breakthroughs in flyash stabilization came in 1998 when more complete characterization data gave us further insight into the chemical and physical nature of the flyash. These breakthroughs were also facilitated by the use of a computer model for electrolytes that allowed us to simulate stabilization options prior to started laboratory studies. This paper summarizes efforts at the INEEL, spanning the past three years, that have focused on stabilizing flyash. A brief history of INEEL treatability studies is given, showing that the degree of effective flyash stabilization was proportional to the amount of meaningful characterization data that was available. Various binders have been used in these treatability studies, including Portland cement type I/II, Portland cement type V, JGC Super Cement (blast furnace slag cement), a Fluid Tech

  5. Biomass burning in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, V.

    1991-01-01

    This chapter summarizes the direct biomass burning practices in India. The review pertains to fire practices in forest, agricultural fields, grasslands, households, and industry. In forest land, extent of controlled burning for regeneration and fire prevention is estimated based on the forest statistics. The biomass burned annually due to accidental fires and for shifting cultivation is quantified based on a few earlier studies. In the case of household and small-scale industries, the biomass burned is quantified by extrapolating past data on energy consumption. In addition to wood and crop residues, the use of dungcakes and charcoal is also accounted for in calculating the total amount of biofuels burned annually. Wherever possible, regional and seasonal variations in the biomass burning practices are highlighted. This exercise has led to improve the current estimates of biomass burned annually in India. The factors influencing the impact of National Programme on Improved Cookstoves (NPIC) in reducing the greenhouse gas emissions are discussed

  6. An incineration technology for low level radioactive solid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suyari, Mamoru; Nakanishi, Ryota; Noura, Tsuyoshi; Fujitomi, Masashi; Ano, Shintaroh

    2003-01-01

    Low-level radioactive solid waste, mainly consisting of rag paper and cloth, is usually incinerated. However, polymeric waste, including rubber and polyvinyl chloride plastic, is securely stored in view of safe treatment. Kobe Steel has developed a new kind of incinerator which can be used for polymeric waste. It has the following characteristics: (a) A controlled air type furnace with a unique grate design (b) In order to control dioxin emissions, the furnace wall is refractory-lined to maintain furnace temperatures at 900degC or higher (c) Secondary combustion air is injected into the furnace to mix with gas from the primary combustion zone. In this paper, the following non-radioactive test results using an actual incinerator, (feed rate: 130 kg/hr.) are presented: (1) Polymeric waste, including rubber, polyethylene and polyvinyl chloride plastic, was incinerated under stable operation; (2) Design specifications including treatment capacity, emission limits were satisfactorily achieved. (author)

  7. Elemental composition of suspended particles released in refuse incineration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mamuro, Tetsuo; Mizohata, Akira

    1979-01-01

    Suspended particles released in refuse incineration were subjected to multielement analysis by means of instrumental neutron activation method and energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry. The analytical results were compared with the elemental concentrations observed in the urban atmosphere, and the contribution of the refuse incineration to the urban atmosphere was roughly estimated. Greenberg et al. pointed out on the basis of their analyses that the refuse incineration can account for major portions of the Zn, Cd and Sb observed on urban aerosols. According to our results, the contribution of the refuse incineration for Zn, Cd and Sb is not negligible, but not so serious as in U.S.A. big cities. In Japan big cities there must be other more important sources of these elements. (author)

  8. Numerical modeling of batch formation in waste incineration plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obroučka Karel

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is a mathematical description of algorithm for controlled assembly of incinerated batch of waste. The basis for formation of batch is selected parameters of incinerated waste as its calorific value or content of pollutants or the combination of both. The numerical model will allow, based on selected criteria, to compile batch of wastes which continuously follows the previous batch, which is a prerequisite for optimized operation of incinerator. The model was prepared as for waste storage in containers, as well as for waste storage in continuously refilled boxes. The mathematical model was developed into the computer program and its functionality was verified either by practical measurements or by numerical simulations. The proposed model can be used in incinerators for hazardous and municipal waste.

  9. Pretreatment and utilization of waste incineration bottom ashes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    Within recent years, researchers and authorities have had increasing focus on leaching properties from waste incineration bottom ashes. Researchers have investigated processes such as those related to carbonation, weathering, metal complexation, and leaching control. Most of these investigations...

  10. Control system for high-temperature slagging incinerator plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuzaki, Yuji

    1986-01-01

    Low-level radioactive wastes generated in the nuclear generating plants are increasing year by year and to dispose them safely constitutes a big problem for the society. A few years ago, as the means of reducing them to as little volume as possible by incinerating and fusing the wastes, a high-temperature slagging incinerating method was developed, and this method is highly assessed. JGC Corp. has introduced that system technology and in order to prove the capacity of disposal and salubrity of the plant, and have constructed a full-sized pilot plant, then obtained the operational record and performance as they had planned. This report introduces the general processing of the wastes from their incineration and fusion as well as process control technology characteristic to high-temperature slagging incinerator furnaces and sensor technology. (author)

  11. Nitrous oxide and methane emissions and nitrous oxide isotopic composition from waste incineration in Switzerland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, Eliza, E-mail: eliza.harris@empa.ch [Empa, Laboratory for Air Pollution and Environmental Technology, Überlandstrasse 129, CH-8600 Dübendorf (Switzerland); Zeyer, Kerstin [Empa, Laboratory for Air Pollution and Environmental Technology, Überlandstrasse 129, CH-8600 Dübendorf (Switzerland); Kegel, Rainer; Müller, Beat [FOEN, Federal Office for the Environment, Air Pollution Control and Chemicals, CH-3003 Berne (Switzerland); Emmenegger, Lukas; Mohn, Joachim [Empa, Laboratory for Air Pollution and Environmental Technology, Überlandstrasse 129, CH-8600 Dübendorf (Switzerland)

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • N{sub 2}O emissions from waste incineration with SNCR NO{sub x} removal are 51.5 ± 10.6 g t{sup −1}. • This is significantly lower than the reported Swiss emission factor of 120 g t{sup −1} (FOEN, 2013). • N{sub 2}O contributes <0.3% and ≈2.5% of GHG emissions from SCR and SNCR plants. • Measured isotopic SP of 17.7‰ is likely characteristic for N{sub 2}O emissions from SNCR. • CH{sub 4} emitted by waste incineration is negligible, contributing <0.01% to total GHGs. - Abstract: Solid waste incineration accounts for a growing proportion of waste disposal in both developed and developing countries, therefore it is important to constrain emissions of greenhouse gases from these facilities. At five Swiss waste incineration facilities with grate firing, emission factors for N{sub 2}O and CH{sub 4} were determined based on measurements of representative flue gas samples, which were collected in Tedlar bags over a one year period (September 2010–August 2011) and analysed with FTIR spectroscopy. All five plants burn a mixture of household and industrial waste, and two of the plants employ NO{sub x} removal through selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) while three plants use selective catalytic reduction (SCR) for NO{sub x} removal. N{sub 2}O emissions from incineration plants with NO{sub x} removal through selective catalytic reduction were 4.3 ± 4.0 g N{sub 2}O tonne{sup −1} waste (wet) (hereafter abbreviated as t{sup −1}) (0.4 ± 0.4 g N{sub 2}O GJ{sup −1}), ten times lower than from plants with selective non-catalytic reduction (51.5 ± 10.6 g N{sub 2}O t{sup −1}; 4.5 ± 0.9 g N{sub 2}O GJ{sup −1}). These emission factors, which are much lower than the value of 120 g N{sub 2}O t{sup −1} (10.4 g N{sub 2}O GJ{sup −1}) used in the 2013 Swiss national greenhouse gas emission inventory, have been implemented in the most recent Swiss emission inventory. In addition, the isotopic composition of N{sub 2}O emitted from the two

  12. Method for controlling incineration in combustor for radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takaoku, Y.; Uehara, A.

    1991-01-01

    This invention relates to a method for controlling incineration in a combustor for low-level radioactive wastes. In particular, it relates to a method for economizing in the consumption of supplemental fuel while maintaining a stable incineration state by controlling the amount of fuel and of radioactive wastes fed to the combustor. The amount of fuel supplied is determined by the outlet gas temperature of the combustor. (L.L.)

  13. Design considerations for incineration of transuranic-contaminated solid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koenig, R.A.

    1977-01-01

    The Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory has established a development program to evaluate alternate production-level (100-200 lb/hr throughput) volume reduction processes for transuranic-contaminated solid waste. The first process selected for installation and study is based on controlled-air incineration. Design considerations leading to selection of feed preparation, incineration, residue removal, and off-gas cleanup components and their respective radioactive containment provisions will be presented

  14. Experience with radioactive waste incineration at Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le, V.T.; Beamer, N.V.; Buckley, L.P.

    1988-06-01

    Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories is a nuclear research centre operated by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited. A full-scale waste treatment centre has been constructed to process low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes generated on-site. A batch-loaded, two-stage, starved-air incinerator for solid combustible waste is one of the processes installed in this facility. The incinerator has been operating since 1982. It has consistently reduced combustible wastes to an inert ash product, with an average volume reduction factor of about 150:1. The incinerator ash is stored in 200 L drums awaiting solidification in bitumen. The incinerator and a 50-ton hydraulic baler have provided treatment for a combined volume of about 1300 m 3 /a of solid low-level radioactive waste. This paper presents a review of the performance of the incinerator during its six years of operation. In addition to presenting operational experience, an assessment of the starved-air incineration technique will also be discussed

  15. Incineration technology for alpha-bearing radioactive waste in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dirks, Friedlich; Pfeiffer, Reinhard

    1997-01-01

    Since 1971 the Karlsruhe Research Center has developed and operated plants for the incineration of radioactive waste. Three incineration plants for pure β/γ solid, α-bearing solid and radioactive liquid waste have been successfully utilized during last two decades. Recently more than 20 year-old β/γ plant was shut down with the economic point of view, mainly due to the recently reduced volume of burnable β/γ waste. Burnable β/γ solid waste is now being treated with α-bearing waste in a α solid incineration plant. The status of incineration technology for α-bearing waste and other radioactive waste treatment technologies, which are now utilized in Karlsruhe Research Center, such as conditioning of incineration ash, supercompaction, scrapping, and decontamination of solid radioactive waste, etc. are introduced in this presentation. Additionally, operational results of the recently installed new dioxin adsorber and fluidized-bed drier for scrubber liquid in α incineration plant are also described in this presentation. (author) 1 tab., 13 figs

  16. Environmental Studies on Open Burn/Open Detonation Disposal Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-12-01

    Soil to the Earthworm Eisenia foetida ).7 In task 3, soil/water extracts were prepared, to partition water soluble biologically available components from...Contaminated Soil on the Earthworm ( Eisenia Foetida ); Technical Report ERDEC-TR-037, April. 1993. (8) Haley, M.V., R.T. Checkai, C.W. Kurnas, R.O. Nwanguma, M.C

  17. Optimisation of environmental gas cleaning routes for solid wastes cogeneration systems. Part II - Analysis of waste incineration combined gas/steam cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holanda, Marcelo R.; Perrella Balestieri, Jose A.

    2008-01-01

    In the first paper of this paper (Part I), conditions were presented for the gas cleaning technological route for environomic optimisation of a cogeneration system based in a thermal cycle with municipal solid waste incineration. In this second part, an environomic analysis is presented of a cogeneration system comprising a combined cycle composed of a gas cycle burning natural gas with a heat recovery steam generator with no supplementary burning and a steam cycle burning municipal solid wastes (MSW) to which will be added a pure back pressure steam turbine (another one) of pure condensation. This analysis aims to select, concerning some scenarios, the best atmospheric pollutant emission control routes (rc) according to the investment cost minimisation, operation and social damage criteria. In this study, a comparison is also performed with the results obtained in the Case Study presented in Part I

  18. Burns and epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrocal, M

    1997-01-01

    This is a report of the first descriptive analytic study of a group of 183 burn patients, treated in the Burn Unit at the University Hospital of Cartagena, Colombia during the period since January 1985 until December 1990. There is presented experience with the selected group of 24 patients in whom the diagnosis of burn was associated with epilepsy. There is also analysed and described the gravity of the scars sequels, neurological disorders, the complication of the burn and an impact of this problem on the patient, his (her) family and the community. It is very important to report that there was found Neurocisticercosis in 66.6% of the group of burn patients with epilepsy, and it is probably the first risk factor of burn in this group.

  19. Burns of the feet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachary, L S; Heggers, J P; Robson, M C; Smith, D J; Maniker, A A; Sachs, R J

    1987-01-01

    Although they are formally categorized by the ABA as major burns, isolated burns of the feet are often managed on an outpatient basis. This retrospective review evaluates the success of such outpatient management, including the complications encountered. The outcome of the review emphasizes that although isolated burns encompass only a small body surface area, they require careful in-hospital treatment to avoid the complications of cellulitis, subsequent prolonged hospitalization, increased need for skin grafting, and increased incidence of hypertrophic scarring.

  20. Burns and wound management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrenholz, D H; Clayton, M C; Solem, L D

    1995-10-01

    The evaluation and treatment of head and neck burns remains a challenge to the burn surgeon, because of the long-term emotional and psychologic effects of even the most minor change in facial appearance. Fortunately, the results currently achieved are orders of magnitude better than previously available, but they still remain far below the perfect outcome desired by both the physician and the burn victim.

  1. Environmental impacts of residual municipal solid waste incineration: a comparison of 110 French incinerators using a life cycle approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beylot, Antoine; Villeneuve, Jacques

    2013-12-01

    Incineration is the main option for residual Municipal Solid Waste treatment in France. This study compares the environmental performances of 110 French incinerators (i.e., 85% of the total number of plants currently in activity in France) in a Life Cycle Assessment perspective, considering 5 non-toxic impact categories: climate change, photochemical oxidant formation, particulate matter formation, terrestrial acidification and marine eutrophication. Mean, median and lower/upper impact potentials are determined considering the incineration of 1 tonne of French residual Municipal Solid Waste. The results highlight the relatively large variability of the impact potentials as a function of the plant technical performances. In particular, the climate change impact potential of the incineration of 1 tonne of waste ranges from a benefit of -58 kg CO2-eq to a relatively large burden of 408 kg CO2-eq, with 294 kg CO2-eq as the average impact. Two main plant-specific parameters drive the impact potentials regarding the 5 non-toxic impact categories under study: the energy recovery and delivery rate and the NOx process-specific emissions. The variability of the impact potentials as a function of incinerator characteristics therefore calls for the use of site-specific data when required by the LCA goal and scope definition phase, in particular when the study focuses on a specific incinerator or on a local waste management plan, and when these data are available. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Choosing Wood Burning Appliances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information to assist consumers in choosing a wood burning appliance, including types of appliances, the differences between certified and non-certified appliances, and alternative wood heating options.

  3. Pediatric facial burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kung, Theodore A; Gosain, Arun K

    2008-07-01

    Despite major advances in the area of burn management, burn injury continues to be a leading cause of pediatric mortality and morbidity. Facial burns in particular are devastating to the affected child and result in numerous physical and psychosocial sequelae. Although many of the principles of adult burn management can be applied to a pediatric patient with facial burns, the surgeon must be cognizant of several important differences. Facial burns and subsequent scar formation can drastically affect the growth potential of a child's face. Structures such as the nose and teeth may become deformed due to abnormal external forces caused by contractures. Serious complications such as occlusion amblyopia and microstomia must be anticipated and urgently addressed to avert permanent consequences, whereas other reconstructive procedures can be delayed until scar maturation occurs. Furthermore, because young children are actively developing the concept of self, severe facial burns can alter a child's sense of identity and place the child at high risk for future emotional and psychologic disturbances. Surgical reconstruction of burn wounds should proceed only after thorough planning and may involve a variety of skin graft, flap, and tissue expansion techniques. The most favorable outcome is achieved when facial resurfacing is performed with respect to the aesthetic units of the face. Children with facial burns remain a considerable challenge to their caregivers, and these patients require long-term care by a multidisciplinary team of physicians and therapists to optimize functional, cosmetic, and psychosocial outcomes.

  4. The effect of the controlled oxygen on the incineration of radio contaminated organic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yahata, Taneaki; Abe, Jiro; Hoshino, Akira.

    1982-02-01

    It is very important to resolve the method of safety storage and the reduction of volume of radio contaminated waste for utilization of atomic energies. Presently, the amounts of radio contaminated organic compounds such as ion exchange resin, vinyl chloride resin and so on are increased year by year. These compounds are very difficult to burning because of the occurrence of soot or flying ash, so that the waste are solidified using with cement or asphalt. But the burning of these compounds are most efficient method for reduction of volume of the wastes. The present work is an attempt to evaluate the effect of controlled oxygen on the incineration of these compounds, using by differential thermoelectrobalance. The given off gas from these compounds are mixture of hydrocarbon and free carbon examined by mass spectrography. As the result of this study, these compounds are decomposed perfectly under 5 - 10% of oxygen gas flow at about 650 0 C and the off gas from the compounds is disappeared contact with heated copper oxide without soot or flying ash. (author)

  5. Descriptive epidemiological study of burn admissions to the Burns Intensive Care Unit of the Komfo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pius Agbenorku

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the trends in burn admissions, and aetiology, severity and mortality of patients admitted to the Burns Intensive Care Unit of the Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital from May 2009 to April 2016 (7 years. Methods: Patients’ data used in this longitudinal and retrospective study were accessed from the records of the Reconstructive Plastic Surgery and Burns Unit. Processed data were depicted in tables and figures as appropriate. Univariate and multivariate analysis and Pearson’s rank correlation were used in comparing relevant groups. Data analysis was conducted using Excel version 2013 and SPSS version 17.0. Results: A total of 681 patients, with a male to female ratio of 1.1:1.0, were analysed. The average annual incidence was 97.28 with a progressive decline in incidence. Mortality rate was 24.2%. Majority of the patients were children less than 10 years (43.5% with scalds as the main aetiology in this group. Open flame was the major aetiology of burns (49.9%. Majority of the patients spent less than 10 days on admission (67.1%. Mean total body surface area was 30.54%. There was correlation between TBSA and disposition, total body surface area and aetiology and number of days in the Burns Intensive Care Unit, total body surface area and aetiology, and aetiology and number of days in the Burns Intensive Care Unit. Conclusions: Children below 10 years were the main victims. There was a shift from scald to open flame burns in this current study. Mean total body surface area and mortality rate have increased. There is urgent need for prevention campaign of flame burn and first aid education on intensive burns.

  6. A comparative assessment of waste incinerators in the UK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nixon, J.D., E-mail: j.nixon@kingston.ac.uk [Sustainable Environment Research Group, School of Engineering and Applied Science, Aston University, Aston Triangle, Birmingham B4 7ET (United Kingdom); Wright, D.G.; Dey, P.K. [Aston Business School, Aston University, Aston Triangle, Birmingham B4 7ET (United Kingdom); Ghosh, S.K. [Mechanical Engineering Department, Centre for Quality Management System, Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700 032 (India); Davies, P.A. [Sustainable Environment Research Group, School of Engineering and Applied Science, Aston University, Aston Triangle, Birmingham B4 7ET (United Kingdom)

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: • We evaluate operational municipal solid waste incinerators in the UK. • The supply chain of four case study plants are examined and compared in detail. • Technical, financial and operational data has been gathered for the four plants. • We suggest the best business practices for waste incinerators. • Appropriate strategy choices are the major difficulties for waste to energy plants. - Abstract: The uptake in Europe of Energy from Waste (EfW) incinerator plants has increased rapidly in recent years. In the UK, 25 municipal waste incinerators with energy recovery are now in operation; however, their waste supply chains and business practices vary significantly. With over a hundred more plant developments being considered it is important to establish best business practices for ensuring efficient environmental and operational performance. By reviewing the 25 plants we identify four suitable case study plants to compare technologies (moving grate, fluidised bed and rotary kiln), plant economics and operations. Using data collected from annual reports and through interviews and site visits we provide recommendations for improving the supply chain for waste incinerators and highlight the current issues and challenges faced by the industry. We find that plants using moving grate have a high availability of 87–92%. However, compared to the fluidised bed and rotary kiln, quantities of bottom ash and emissions of hydrogen chloride and carbon monoxide are high. The uptake of integrated recycling practices, combined heat and power, and post incineration non-ferrous metal collections needs to be increased among EfW incinerators in the UK. We conclude that one of the major difficulties encountered by waste facilities is the appropriate selection of technology, capacity, site, waste suppliers and heat consumers. This study will be of particular value to EfW plant developers, government authorities and researchers working within the sector of waste

  7. A comparative assessment of waste incinerators in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nixon, J.D.; Wright, D.G.; Dey, P.K.; Ghosh, S.K.; Davies, P.A.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • We evaluate operational municipal solid waste incinerators in the UK. • The supply chain of four case study plants are examined and compared in detail. • Technical, financial and operational data has been gathered for the four plants. • We suggest the best business practices for waste incinerators. • Appropriate strategy choices are the major difficulties for waste to energy plants. - Abstract: The uptake in Europe of Energy from Waste (EfW) incinerator plants has increased rapidly in recent years. In the UK, 25 municipal waste incinerators with energy recovery are now in operation; however, their waste supply chains and business practices vary significantly. With over a hundred more plant developments being considered it is important to establish best business practices for ensuring efficient environmental and operational performance. By reviewing the 25 plants we identify four suitable case study plants to compare technologies (moving grate, fluidised bed and rotary kiln), plant economics and operations. Using data collected from annual reports and through interviews and site visits we provide recommendations for improving the supply chain for waste incinerators and highlight the current issues and challenges faced by the industry. We find that plants using moving grate have a high availability of 87–92%. However, compared to the fluidised bed and rotary kiln, quantities of bottom ash and emissions of hydrogen chloride and carbon monoxide are high. The uptake of integrated recycling practices, combined heat and power, and post incineration non-ferrous metal collections needs to be increased among EfW incinerators in the UK. We conclude that one of the major difficulties encountered by waste facilities is the appropriate selection of technology, capacity, site, waste suppliers and heat consumers. This study will be of particular value to EfW plant developers, government authorities and researchers working within the sector of waste

  8. Burns and military clothing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, A D

    2001-02-01

    Burn injury is a ubiquitous threat in the military environment. The risks during combat are well recognised, but the handling of fuel, oil, munitions and other hot or flammable materials during peacetime deployment and training also imposes an inherent risk of accidental burn injury. Over the last hundred years, the burn threat in combat has ranged from nuclear weapons to small shoulder-launched missiles. Materials such as napalm and white phosphorus plainly present a risk of burn, but the threat extends to encompass personnel in vehicles attacked by anti-armour weapons, large missiles, fuel-air explosives and detonations/conflagrations on weapons platforms such as ships. Large numbers of burn casualties were caused at Pearl Harbor, in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Vietnam, during the Arab/Israeli Wars and in the Falkland Islands conflict. The threat from burns is unlikely to diminish, indeed new developments in weapons seek to exploit the vulnerability of the serviceman and servicewoman to burns. Clothing can be a barrier to some types of burn--both inherently in the properties of the material, but also by trapping air between clothing layers. Conversely, ignition of the clothing may exacerbate a burn. There is hearsay that burnt clothing products within a wound may complicate the clinical management, or that materials that melt (thermoplastic materials) should not be worn if there is a burn threat. This paper explores the incidence of burn injury, the mechanisms of heat transfer to bare skin and skin covered by materials, and the published evidence for the complication of wound management by materials. Even light-weight combat clothing can offer significant protection to skin from short duration flash burns; the most vulnerable areas are the parts of the body not covered--face and hands. Multilayered combat clothing can offer significant protection for short periods from engulfment by flames; lightweight tropical wear with few layers offers little protection. Under

  9. Metal leachability, heavy metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and polychlorinated biphenyls in fly and bottom ashes of a medical waste incineration facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valavanidis, Athanasios; Iliopoulos, Nikiforos; Fiotakis, Konstantinos; Gotsis, George

    2008-06-01

    Medical waste from hospitals and other healthcare institutions has become an imperative environmental and public safety problem. Medical waste in Greece has become one of the most urgent environmental problems, because there are 14,000 tons produced annually, of which only a small proportion is incinerated. In the prefecture of Attica there is only one modern municipal medical waste incinerator (started 2004) burning selected infectious hospital waste (5-6 tons day(-1)). Fly and bottom residues (ashes) are collected and stored temporarily in barrels. High values of metal leachability prohibit the landfilling of these ashes, as imposed by EU directives. In the present study we determined quantitatively the heavy metals and other elements in the fly and bottom ashes of the medical waste incinerator, by inductively coupled plasma emission spectrometry (ICP) and by energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX). Heavy metals, which are very toxic, such as Pb, Cd, Ni, Cr, Cu and Zn were found in high concentrations in both fly and bottom ashes. Metal leachability of fly and bottom ashes by water and kerosene was measured by ICP and the results showed that toxic metals in both ashes, such as Pb, Cr, Cd, Cu and Zn, have high leaching values. These values indicate that metals can become soluble and mobile if ash is deposited in landfills, thus restricting their burial according to EU regulations. Analysis of polychlorinated biphenyls and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in fly and bottom ashes showed that their concentrations were very low. This is the first known study in Greece and the results showed that incineration of medical waste can be very effective in minimizing the most hazardous and infectious health-care waste. The presence of toxic metals with high leachability values remains an important draw back of incineration of medical waste and various methods of treating these residues to diminish leaching are been considered at present to overcome this serious technical

  10. Tourniquet associated chemical burn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Hyuk Yang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemical burn under pneumatic tourniquet is an iatrogenic preventable injury and is rarely reported in the literature. The two important mechanisms are maceration (friction and wetness underneath the tourniquent. In this report, our experience with two illustrative patients who presented with iatrogenic tourniquet associated burn is described.

  11. Emission of greenhouse gases from waste incineration in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Kum-Lok; Choi, Sang-Min; Kim, Moon-Kyung; Heo, Jong-Bae; Zoh, Kyung-Duk

    2017-07-01

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) emission factors previously reported from various waste incineration plants have shown significant variations according to country-specific, plant-specific, and operational conditions. The purpose of this study is to estimate GHG emissions and emission factors at nine incineration facilities in Korea by measuring the GHG concentrations in the flue gas samples. The selected incineration plants had different operation systems (i.e., stoker, fluidized bed, moving grate, rotary kiln, and kiln & stoker), and different nitrogen oxide (NO x ) removal systems (i.e., selective catalytic reduction (SCR) and selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR)) to treat municipal solid waste (MSW), commercial solid waste (CSW), and specified waste (SW). The total mean emission factors for A and B facilities for MSW incineration were found to be 134 ± 17 kg CO 2 ton -1 , 88 ± 36 g CH 4 ton -1 , and 69 ± 16 g N 2 O ton -1 , while those for CSW incineration were 22.56 g CH 4 ton -1 and 259.76 g N 2 O ton -1 , and for SW incineration emission factors were 2959 kg CO 2 ton -1 , 43.44 g CH 4 ton -1 and 401.21 g N 2 O ton -1 , respectively. Total emissions calculated using annual incineration for MSW were 3587 ton CO 2 -eq yr -1 for A facility and 11,082 ton CO 2 -eq yr -1 for B facility, while those of IPCC default values were 13,167 ton CO 2- eq yr -1 for A facility and 32,916 ton CO 2- eq yr -1 , indicating that the emissions of IPCC default values were estimated higher than those of the plant-specific emission factors. The emission of CSW for C facility was 1403 ton CO 2 -eq yr -1 , while those of SW for D to I facilities was 28,830 ton CO 2 -eq yr -1 . The sensitivity analysis using a Monte Carlo simulation for GHG emission factors in MSW showed that the GHG concentrations have a greater impact than the incineration amount and flow rate of flue gas. For MSW incineration plants using the same stoker type in operation, the estimated emissions and

  12. [Chickenpox, burns and grafts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas Zegers, J; Fidel Avendaño, L

    1979-01-01

    An outbreak of chickenpox that occurred at the Burns Repair Surgery Unit, Department of Children's Surgery, Hospital R. del Río, between June and November, 1975, is reported. 27 cases of burned children were studied, including analysis of correlations of the stages and outcome of the disease (varicela), the trauma (burns) and the graft (repair surgery). As a result, the authors emphasize the following findings: 1. Burns and their repair are not aggravating factors for varicella. In a small number of cases the exanthema looked more confluent in the graft surgical areas and in the first degree burns healing spontaneously. 2. Usually there was an uneventful outcome of graft repair surgery on a varicella patient, either during the incubation period, the acme or the convalescence. 3. The fact that the outmost intensity of secondary viremia of varicella occurs before the onset of exanthemia, that is, during the late incubation period, is confirmed.

  13. Environmental impacts of residual Municipal Solid Waste incineration: A comparison of 110 French incinerators using a life cycle approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beylot, Antoine, E-mail: a.beylot@brgm.fr; Villeneuve, Jacques

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • 110 French incinerators are compared with LCA based on plant-specific data. • Environmental impacts vary as a function of plants energy recovery and NO{sub x} emissions. • E.g. climate change impact ranges from −58 to 408 kg CO{sub 2}-eq/tonne of residual MSW. • Implications for LCA of waste management in a decision-making process are detailed. - Abstract: Incineration is the main option for residual Municipal Solid Waste treatment in France. This study compares the environmental performances of 110 French incinerators (i.e. 85% of the total number of plants currently in activity in France) in a Life Cycle Assessment perspective, considering 5 non-toxic impact categories: climate change, photochemical oxidant formation, particulate matter formation, terrestrial acidification and marine eutrophication. Mean, median and lower/upper impact potentials are determined considering the incineration of 1 tonne of French residual Municipal Solid Waste. The results highlight the relatively large variability of the impact potentials as a function of the plant technical performances. In particular, the climate change impact potential of the incineration of 1 tonne of waste ranges from a benefit of −58 kg CO{sub 2}-eq to a relatively large burden of 408 kg CO{sub 2}-eq, with 294 kg CO{sub 2}-eq as the average impact. Two main plant-specific parameters drive the impact potentials regarding the 5 non-toxic impact categories under study: the energy recovery and delivery rate and the NO{sub x} process-specific emissions. The variability of the impact potentials as a function of incinerator characteristics therefore calls for the use of site-specific data when required by the LCA goal and scope definition phase, in particular when the study focuses on a specific incinerator or on a local waste management plan, and when these data are available.

  14. Hazardous waste incineration in context with carbon dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhardt, Tim; Richers, Ulf; Suchomel, Horst

    2008-02-01

    The Kyoto Protocol of 1997 demands an emission reduction of climate-affecting gases in various industrial sectors. In this context CO2 is one of the relevant gases and waste management is one of the relevant sectors. Referring to the situation in Europe, waste incineration is one of the major sources of CO2 in the waste management sector. The Kyoto Protocol, however, only covers CO2-emissions originating from fossil fuels, whereas the incineration of renewable materials, e.g. wood, is considered to be climate-neutral since it does not make any net contribution to the CO2 inventory of the atmosphere. Unlike the situation with municipal waste, there is little if any information on the CO2-emissions caused by the incineration of hazardous waste in specialized plants, and the renewable fraction in these materials. The present paper focuses on this gap of knowledge. Taking the full-scale hazardous waste incineration plant in Biebesheim, Germany, as an example, a carbon balance was set up for the whole-plant taking into account all other material flows. Afterwards the determination of the proportion of renewable materials in the hazardous waste incinerated by means of the radiocarbon method (14C) is reported. On the basis of the results, optimization potentials are discussed.

  15. A sustainability analysis of an incineration project in Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikic, Miljan; Naunovic, Zorana

    2013-11-01

    The only option for municipal solid waste (MSW) treatment adopted so far in Serbia is landfilling. Similarly to other south-eastern European countries, Serbia is not recovering any energy from MSW. Fifty percent of electricity in Serbia is produced in coal-fired power plants with emission control systems dating from the 1980s. In this article, the option of MSW incineration with energy recovery is proposed and examined for the city of Novi Sad. A sustainability analysis consisting of financial, economic and sensitivity analyses was done in the form of a cost-benefit analysis following recommendations from the European Commission. Positive and negative social and environmental effects of electricity generation through incineration were valuated partly using conversion factors and shadow prices, and partly using the results of previous studies. Public aversion to MSW incineration was considered. The results showed that the incineration project would require external financial assistance, and that an increase of the electricity and/or a waste treatment fee is needed to make the project financially positive. It is also more expensive than the landfilling option. However, the economic analysis showed that society would have net benefits from an incineration project. The feed-in tariff addition of only €0.03 (KWh)(-1) to the existing electricity price, which would enable the project to make a positive contribution to economic welfare, is lower than the actual external costs of electricity generation from coal in Serbia.

  16. A comparative assessment of waste incinerators in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, J D; Wright, D G; Dey, P K; Ghosh, S K; Davies, P A

    2013-11-01

    The uptake in Europe of Energy from Waste (EfW) incinerator plants has increased rapidly in recent years. In the UK, 25 municipal waste incinerators with energy recovery are now in operation; however, their waste supply chains and business practices vary significantly. With over a hundred more plant developments being considered it is important to establish best business practices for ensuring efficient environmental and operational performance. By reviewing the 25 plants we identify four suitable case study plants to compare technologies (moving grate, fluidised bed and rotary kiln), plant economics and operations. Using data collected from annual reports and through interviews and site visits we provide recommendations for improving the supply chain for waste incinerators and highlight the current issues and challenges faced by the industry. We find that plants using moving grate have a high availability of 87-92%. However, compared to the fluidised bed and rotary kiln, quantities of bottom ash and emissions of hydrogen chloride and carbon monoxide are high. The uptake of integrated recycling practices, combined heat and power, and post incineration non-ferrous metal collections needs to be increased among EfW incinerators in the UK. We conclude that one of the major difficulties encountered by waste facilities is the appropriate selection of technology, capacity, site, waste suppliers and heat consumers. This study will be of particular value to EfW plant developers, government authorities and researchers working within the sector of waste management. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Processing of combustible radioactive waste using incineration techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maestas, E.

    1981-01-01

    Among the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency Member countries numerous incineration concepts are being studied as potential methods for conditioning alpha-bearing and other types of combustible radioactive waste. The common objective of these different processes is volume reduction and the transformation of the waste to a more acceptable waste form. Because the combustion processes reduce the mass and volume of waste to a form which is generally more inert than the feed material, the resulting waste can be more uniformly compatible with safe handling, packaging, storage and/or disposal techniques. The number of different types of combustion process designed and operating specifically for alpha-bearing wastes is somewhat small compared with those for non-alpha radioactive wastes; however, research and development is under way in a number of countries to develop and improve alpha incinerators. This paper provides an overview of most alpha-incineration concepts in operation or under development in OECD/NEA Member countries. The special features of each concept are briefly discussed. A table containing characteristic data of incinerators is presented so that a comparison of the major programmes can be made. The table includes the incinerator name and location, process type, capacity throughput, operational status and application. (author)

  18. A COMPARISON: ORGANIC EMISSIONS FROM HAZARDOUS WASTE INCINERATORS VERSUS THE 1990 TOXICS RELEASE INVENTORY AIR RELEASES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Incineration is often the preferred technology for disposing of hazardous waste, and remediating Superfund sites. The effective implementation of this technology is frequently impeded by strong public opposition `to hazardous waste' incineration HWI). One of the reasons cited for...

  19. Speciation of Chromium in Bottom Ash Obtained by the Incineration of the Leather Waste Shavings

    OpenAIRE

    k. louhab; H. Assas

    2006-01-01

    The evolution of bottom ash morphology and chromium metals behavior during incineration of a leather waste shavings at different incineration temperature have been studied. The Cr, Ca, Mg, Cl rates in bottom ashes, flay ashes and emitted gases in different incineration temperature of the tannery wastes are also determined. The morphology of the bottom ashes obtained by incineration at different temperature from the leather waste shavings was examined by MEB. The result sho...

  20. Vitrification of bottom ash from a municipal solid waste incinerator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Y; Oorsprong, M; Yang, Y; Voncken, J H L

    2008-01-01

    During incineration of municipal solid waste (MSW), various environmentally harmful elements and heavy metals are liberated either into bottom ash, or carried away with the off-gases and subsequently trapped in fly-ash. If these minor but harmful elements are not properly isolated and immobilized, it can lead to secondary environmental pollution to the air, soil and water. The stricter environmental regulations to be implemented in the near future in The Netherlands require a higher immobilization efficiency of the bottom ash treatment. In the present study, MSW incinerator bottom ash was vitrified at higher temperatures and the slag formed and metal recovered were examined. The behaviour of soluble elements that remain in the slag is evaluated by standard leaching test. The results obtained can provide a valuable route to treat the ashes from incinerators, and to make recycling and more efficient utilization of the bottom ash possible.

  1. Radiation safety for incineration of radioactive waste contaminated by cesium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veryuzhs'kij, Yu.V.; Gryin'ko, O.M.; Tokarevs'kij, V.V.

    2016-01-01

    Problems in the treatment of radioactive waste contaminated by cesium nuclides are considered in the paper. Chornobyl experience in the management of contaminated soil and contaminated forests is analyzed in relation to the accident at Fukushima-1. The minimization of release of cesium aerosols into atmosphere is very important. Radiation influence of inhaling atmosphere aerosols polluted by cesium has damage effect for humans. The research focuses on the treatment of forests contaminated by big volumes of cesium. One of the most important technologies is a pyro-gasification incineration with chemical reactions of cesium paying attention to gas purification problems. Requirements for process, physical and chemical properties of treatment of radioactive waste based on the dry pyro-gasification incineration facilities are considered in the paper together with the discussion of details related to incineration facilities. General similarities and discrepancies in the environmental pollution caused by the accidents at Chornobyl NPP and Fukushima-1 NPP in Japan are analyzed

  2. Economic sensitivity of DAW incineration to PVC content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossmassler, R.L.

    1986-01-01

    Economic analyses of the volume reduction of low level radwaste, including the incinerator of Dry Active Waste (DAW), spent resins and filter sludges, are performed using the microcomputer code VOLREDUCER. Based on BWR and PWR data taken from previous EPRI work, the sensitivity of incinerator economics to polyvinyl chloride (PVC) content in DAW is examined. An annual cost penalty associated with the presence of PVC in the waste is formulated, and the sensitivity of this penalty to a variety of parameters is determined. The alternative of sorting out PVC from the rest of the waste is compared to incineration with regard to this annual cost penalty. These penalties may range as high as $100,000 annually depending on the waste characteristics and percent of PVC

  3. Progress on radioactive waste slurry incineration with oxygen and steam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoshino, M.; Hayashi, M.; Oda, I.; Nonaka, N.; Kuwayama, K.; Shigeta, T.

    1988-01-01

    The radioactive waste (radwaste) slurry generated from the nuclear power plant operation, such as spent ion-exchange resins (powdered, bead), fire-retardant oils including phosphate ester and concentrated laundry (by the wet method) liquid waste, has been stored in an untreated condition on the plant site. Recently, since the Condensate Filter Demineralizer (CFD) has been applied in advanced BWR plants, the discharged volume of untreated spent powered resin slurry has been increasing steadily. TEE and NCE have been developing an effective new volume reduction system to treat this radwaste slurry based on an innovative incineration concept. The new system is called the IOS process, the feature of which is incineration with oxygen and steam admixture instead of conventional air. The IOS process, which consists mainly of high heat load incineration with slurry atomization, and combustion gas cooling and condensation by the wet method, has several advantages which are summarized in this paper

  4. A feasibility study of adaptive plasma-assisted incineration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filion, Julie

    Rising awareness in the need for environmental protection has brought into question the adequacy of conventional hazardous waste treatment operations. Regulatory standards are increasingly strict, and there is growing concern over the safety of incineration facilities. This research project examines the technoeconomic potential of thermal plasma technology in this context. Adaptive Plasma-Assisted Incineration (APAI) is a novel concept for secondary gas treatment in hazardous waste incineration. As an energy source for waste destruction, a thermal plasma can provide conditions far higher in temperature and in reactivity than those obtained using a combustion flame. Thus, the plasma is more effective at destroying hazardous materials, albeit at a higher cost. APAI features a thermal plasma afterburner with continual on-line optical monitoring of the gas product and feedback optimization of the plasma conditions. This approach allows complete destruction of persistent organic compounds and cost-effective response to feed load variations. The process supplements conventional incineration techniques with the effectiveness and flexibility of thermal plasma treatment. The main objectives are to reduce the risk of harmful emissions during hazardous waste incineration and to facilitate compliance with new environmental regulations. In this project, the technical feasibility of APAI was demonstrated experimentally using a laboratory-scale plasma afterburner model. The work focused on the development of a spectroscopic monitoring procedure and on the application of optimization techniques for cost-effective operation of the model system. The techno-economic potential and limitations of APAI were addressed in a conceptual study. Preliminary designs and cost estimates were developed for specific applications. The costs of plasma-assisted and conventional methods were compared for contaminated soil remediation (by incineration and desorption) and for organic liquid waste

  5. Transformation of Silver Nanoparticles in Sewage Sludge during Incineration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Christoph; Voegelin, Andreas; Pradas del Real, Ana; Sarret, Geraldine; Mueller, Christoph R; Kaegi, Ralf

    2016-04-05

    Silver nanoparticles (Ag-NP) discharged into the municipal sewer system largely accumulate in the sewage sludge. Incineration and agricultural use are currently the most important strategies for sewage sludge management. Thus, the behavior of Ag-NP during sewage sludge incineration is essential for a comprehensive life cycle analysis and a more complete understanding of the fate of Ag-NP in the (urban) environment. To address the transformation of Ag-NP during sewage sludge incineration, we spiked metallic Ag(0)-NP to a pilot wastewater treatment plant and digested the sludge anaerobically. The sludge was then incinerated on a bench-scale fluidized bed reactor in a series of experiments under variable conditions. Complementary results from X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray (EM-EDX) analysis revealed that Ag(0)-NP transformed into Ag2S-NP during the wastewater treatment, in agreement with previous studies. On the basis of a principal component analysis and subsequent target testing of the XAS spectra, Ag(0) was identified as a major Ag component in the ashes, and Ag2S was clearly absent. The reformation of Ag(0)-NP was confirmed by EM-EDX. The fraction of Ag(0) of the total Ag in the ashes was quantified by linear combination fitting (LCF) of XAS spectra, and values as high as 0.8 were found for sewage sludge incinerated at 800 °C in a synthetic flue gas atmosphere. Low LCF totals (72% to 94%) indicated that at least one relevant reference spectrum was missing in the LCF analysis. The presence of spherical Ag-NP with a diameter of sewage sludge incineration, as demonstrated in this study, needs to be considered in the life cycle assessment of engineered Ag-NP.

  6. Dioxins from medical waste incineration: Normal operation and transient conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tong; Zhan, Ming-xiu; Yan, Mi; Fu, Jian-ying; Lu, Sheng-yong; Li, Xiao-dong; Yan, Jian-hua; Buekens, Alfons

    2015-07-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) are key pollutants in waste incineration. At present, incinerator managers and official supervisors focus only on emissions evolving during steady-state operation. Yet, these emissions may considerably be raised during periods of poor combustion, plant shutdown, and especially when starting-up from cold. Until now there were no data on transient emissions from medical (or hospital) waste incineration (MWI). However, MWI is reputed to engender higher emissions than those from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI). The emission levels in this study recorded for shutdown and start-up, however, were significantly higher: 483 ± 184 ng Nm(-3) (1.47 ± 0.17 ng I-TEQ Nm(-3)) for shutdown and 735 ng Nm(-3) (7.73 ng I-TEQ Nm(-3)) for start-up conditions, respectively. Thus, the average (I-TEQ) concentration during shutdown is 2.6 (3.8) times higher than the average concentration during normal operation, and the average (I-TEQ) concentration during start-up is 4.0 (almost 20) times higher. So monitoring should cover the entire incineration cycle, including start-up, operation and shutdown, rather than optimised operation only. This suggestion is important for medical waste incinerators, as these facilities frequently start up and shut down, because of their small size, or of lacking waste supply. Forthcoming operation should shift towards much longer operating cycles, i.e., a single weekly start-up and shutdown. © The Author(s) 2015.

  7. The Use of Microwave Incineration to Process Biological Wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Sidney C.; Srinivasan, Venkatesh; Covington, Alan (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    The handling and disposal of solid waste matter that has biological or biohazardous components is a difficult issue for hospitals, research laboratories, and industry. NASA faces the same challenge as it is developing regenerative systems that will process waste materials into materials that can be used to sustain humans living in space for extended durations. Plants provide critical functions in such a regenerative life support scheme in that they photosynthesize carbon dioxide and water into glucose and oxygen. The edible portions of the plant provide a food source for the crew. Inedible portions can be processed into materials that are more recyclable. The Advanced Life Support Division at NASA Ames Research Center has been evaluating a microwave incinerator that will oxidize inedible plant matter into carbon dioxide and water. The commercially available microwave incinerator is produced by Matsushita Electronic Instruments Corporation of Japan. Microwave incineration is a technology that is simple, safe, and compact enough for home use. It also has potential applications for institutions that produce biological or biohazardous waste. The incinerator produces a sterile ash that has only 13% of the mass of the original waste. The authors have run several sets of tests with the incinerator to establish its viability in processing biological material. One goal of the tests is to show that the incinerator does not generate toxic compounds as a byproduct of the combustion process. This paper will describe the results of the tests, including analyses of the resulting ash and exhaust gases. The significance of the results and their implications on commercial applications of the technology will also be discussed.

  8. Improving burn care and preventing burns by establishing a burn database in Ukraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuzaylov, Gennadiy; Murthy, Sushila; Dunaev, Alexander; Savchyn, Vasyl; Knittel, Justin; Zabolotina, Olga; Dylewski, Maggie L; Driscoll, Daniel N

    2014-08-01

    Burns are a challenge for trauma care and a contribution to the surgical burden. The former Soviet republic of Ukraine has a foundation for burn care; however data concerning burns in Ukraine has historically been scant. The objective of this paper was to compare a new burn database to identify problems and implement improvements in burn care and prevention in this country. Retrospective analyses of demographic and clinical data of burn patients including Tukey's post hoc test, analysis of variance, and chi square analyses, and Fisher's exact test were used. Data were compared to the American Burn Association (ABA) burn repository. This study included 1752 thermally injured patients treated in 20 hospitals including Specialized Burn Unit in Municipal Hospital #8 Lviv, Lviv province in Ukraine. Scald burns were the primary etiology of burns injuries (70%) and burns were more common among children less than five years of age (34%). Length of stay, mechanical ventilation use, infection rates, and morbidity increased with greater burn size. Mortality was significantly related to burn size, inhalation injury, age, and length of stay. Wound infections were associated with burn size and older age. Compared to ABA data, Ukrainian patients had double the length of stay and a higher rate of wound infections (16% vs. 2.4%). We created one of the first burn databases from a region of the former Soviet Union in an effort to bring attention to burn injury and improve burn care. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  9. Radioactive waste incineration studies at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stretz, L.A.; Borduin, L.C.; Draper, W.E.; Koenig, R.A.; Newmyer, J.M.

    1980-01-01

    Development and demonstration of a transuranic (TRU) waste volume-reduction process is described. A controlled-air incinerator, based upon commercially available equipment and technology, was modified for radioactive service and was successfully tested and demonstrated with contaminated waste. Demonstration of the production-scale unit was completed in May 1980 with the incineration of 272 kg of waste with an average TRU content of about 20 nCi/g. Weight and volume reduction factors for the demonstration run were 40:1 and 120:1, respectively

  10. Incineration of tyres, radioactive and photographic industry waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpentier, S.

    1977-01-01

    In the list every day longer of 'industrial' wastes, there is a special place for combustible waste usually presenting a solution for their elimination, i. e. incineration with or without calory recovery. Three categories are well-known as they concern the general public. The overall data of the problem are first considered, then three incineration plants in three different fields are described: motor-car tyres, nuclear industry, photographic industry. In the last field, well-conducted recovery processes may result in surprising results as to the damping of the plant cost, which finally is both pleasant and useful [fr

  11. Experiences with waste incineration for energy production in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkeby, Janus; Grohnheit, Poul Erik; Møller Andersen, Frits

    The Bioenergy Department in SENER have requested assistance with planning for the deployment of bioenergy (Biomass, biogas and waste incineration) in Mexico and information on Danish experiences with developing policy initiatives promoting bioenergy. This introduction to the Danish experiences...... with waste incineration for energy production use is compiled as preparation for SENER’s potential visit to Denmark in 2014. This report was prepared 19 June, 2014 by COWI DTU System Analysis to Danish Energy Agency (DEA) as part of a frame contract agreement....

  12. Radioactivity partitioning of oil sludge undergoing incineration process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhamat Omar; Suhaimi Hamzah; Muhd Noor Muhd Yunus

    1997-01-01

    Oil sludge waste is a controlled item under the Atomic Energy Act (Act 304) 1984 of which the radioactivity content shall be subjected to analysis. Apart from that the treatment method also shall be approved by Atomic Energy Licensing Board (AELB). Thus, an analysis of the oil sludge for MSE fluidized incinerator was conducted to comply with above requirements using various techniques. Further screening analysis of fly ash as well as bed material were done to study the effect of incinerating the sludge. This paper highlights the analysis techniques and discusses the results with respect to the radioactivity level and the fate of radionuclides subjected to the processing of the waste

  13. Making of a burn unit: SOA burn center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayant Kumar Dash

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Each year in India, burn injuries account for more than 6 million hospital emergency department visits; of which many require hospitalization and are referred to specialized burn centers. There are few burn surgeons and very few burn centers in India. In our state, Odisha, there are only two burn centers to cater to more than 5000 burn victims per year. This article is an attempt to share the knowledge that I acquired while setting up a new burn unit in a private medical college of Odisha.

  14. Crude oil burning mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Gelderen, Laurens; Malmquist, Linus Mattias Valdemar; Jomaas, Grunde

    2015-01-01

    In order to improve predictions for the burning efficiency and the residue composition of in-situ burning of crude oil, the burning mechanism of crude oil was studied in relation to the composition of its hydrocarbon mixture, before, during and after the burning. The surface temperature, flame...... height, mass loss rate and residues of three hydrocarbon liquids (n-octane, dodecane and hexadecane), two crude oils (DUC and REBCO) and one hydrocarbon liquid mixture of the aforementioned hydrocarbon liquids were studied using the Crude Oil Flammability Apparatus. The experimental results were compared...... on the highest achievable oil slick temperature. Based on this mechanism, predictions can then be made depending on the hydrocarbon composition of the fuel and the measured surface temperature....

  15. Burns and Fire Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Control Website. Unintentional fire/burn fatalities and nonfatal injuries, children ages 19 and under. Available from: http: / / www. ... Prevention and Control. Protect the ones you love: child injuries are preventable. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention ...

  16. Electrical Burns: First Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... using a dry, nonconducting object made of cardboard, plastic or wood. Begin CPR if the person shows ... org/first-aid/first-aid-electrical-burns/basics/ART-20056687 . Mayo Clinic Footer Legal Conditions and Terms ...

  17. American Burn Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... burn-related care, prevention, education, and research. Our multidisciplinary membership enhances our ability to work toward common goals with other organizations and educational programs. Membership Being a member of ...

  18. New Fashioned Book Burning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Robert

    1997-01-01

    Reports on results of a teacher's experiment in book burning as a lesson accompanying the teaching of Ray Bradbury's "Fahrenheit 451." Discusses student reactions and the purpose of or justification for the experimental lesson. (TB)

  19. Leaching from municipal solid waste incineration residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyks, J.

    2008-02-15

    Leaching of pollutants from Municipal Solid Waste Incineration (MSWI) residues has been investigated combining a range of laboratory leaching experiments with geochemical modeling. Special attention was paid to assessing the applicability of laboratory data for subsequent modeling with respect to presumed full-scale conditions; both sample pretreatment and actual influence of leaching conditions on the results of laboratory experiments were considered. It was shown that sample pretreatment may have large impact on leaching test data. In particular, a significant fraction of Pb was shown mobile during the washing of residues with water. In addition, drying of residues (i.e. slow oxidation) prior to leaching experiments increased the leaching of Cr significantly. Significant differences regarding the leaching behavior of individual elements with respect to (non)equilibrium conditions in column percolation experiments were observed in the study. As a result, three groups of elements were identified based on the predominant leaching control and the influence of (non)equilibrium on the results of the laboratory column experiments: I. Predominantly availability-controlled elements (e.g. Na, K, Cl) II. Solubility-controlled elements (e.g. Ca, S, Si, Al, Ba, and Zn) III. Complexation-controlled elements (e.g. Cu and Ni) With respect to the above groups it was suggested that results of laboratory column experiments can, with consideration, be used to estimate full-scale leaching of elements from Group I and II. However, in order to avoid large underestimations in the assessment of leaching from Group III, it is imperative to describe the time-dependent transport of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in the tested system or to minimize the physical non-equilibrium during laboratory experiments (e.g. bigger column, slower flow velocity). Forward geochemical modeling was applied to simulate long-term release of elements from a MSWI air-pollution-control residue. Leaching of a

  20. Smartphone applications in burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurzer, Paul; Parvizi, Daryousch; Lumenta, David B; Giretzlehner, Michael; Branski, Ludwik K; Finnerty, Celeste C; Herndon, David N; Tuca, Alexandru; Rappl, Thomas; Smolle, Christian; Kamolz, Lars P

    2015-08-01

    Since the introduction of applications (apps) for smartphones, the popularity of medical apps has been rising. The aim of this review was to demonstrate the current availability of apps related to burns on Google's Android and Apple's iOS store as well as to include a review of their developers, features, and costs. A systematic online review of Google Play Store and Apple's App Store was performed by using the following search terms: "burn," "burns," "thermal," and the German word "Verbrennung." All apps that were programmed for use as medical apps for burns were included. The review was performed from 25 February until 1 March 2014. A closer look at the free and paid calculation apps including a standardized patient was performed. Four types of apps were identified: calculators, information apps, book/journal apps, and games. In Google Play Store, 31 apps were related to burns, of which 20 were calculation apps (eight for estimating the total body surface area (TBSA) and nine for total fluid requirement (TFR)). In Apple's App Store, under the category of medicine, 39 apps were related to burns, of which 21 were calculation apps (19 for estimating the TBSA and 17 for calculating the TFR). In 19 out of 32 available calculation apps, our study showed a correlation of the calculated TFR compared to our standardized patient. The review demonstrated that many apps for medical burns are available in both common app stores. Even free available calculation apps may provide a more objective and reproducible procedure compared to manual/subjective estimations, although there is still a lack of data security especially in personal data entered in calculation apps. Further clinical studies including smartphone apps for burns should be performed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  1. Spectroscopy of Burn Wounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-04-01

    first task was to select and purchase a Visible/Near- infrared spectrophotometer suitable for non-contacting spectroscopy of biological tissues...FiLE COPY AD 0 NContract No: DAMD17-88-C-8125 N Title: Spectroscopy of Burn Wounds I Principal Investigator: Martin A. Afromowitz, Ph.D. PI Address...Include Security Classification) SPECTROSCOPY OF BURN WOUNDS 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Martin A. Afromowitz, Ph.D., and James B. Callis, Ph.D. 13a. TYPE OF

  2. Ball lightning burn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvaggi, Gennaro; Monstrey, Stan; von Heimburg, Dennis; Hamdi, Mustapha; Van Landuyt, Koen; Blondeel, Phillip

    2003-05-01

    Ball lightning is a rare physical phenomenon, which is not yet completely explained. It is similar to lightning but with different, peculiar characteristics. It can be considered a mix of fire and electricity, concentrated in a fireball with a diameter of 20-cm that most commonly appears suddenly, even in indoor conditions, during a thunderstorm. It moves quickly for several meters, can change direction, and ultimately disappears. During a great storm, a 28-year-old man and his 5-year-old daughter sustained burn wounds after ball lightning came from the outdoors through a chimney. These two patients demonstrated signs of fire and electrical injuries. The father, who lost consciousness, sustained superficial second-degree burn wounds bilaterally on the zygomatic area and deep second-degree burn wounds on his right hand (total body surface area, 4%). His daughter demonstrated superficial second-degree burn wounds on the left part of the face and deep second-degree and third-degree burn wounds (total body surface area, 30%) on the left neck, both upper arms, and the back. In this article, the authors report the first two cases of burn injuries resulting from ball lightning contact indoors. The literature on this rare phenomenon is reviewed to elucidate the nature of ball lightning. Emphasis is placed on the nature of injuries after ball lightning contact, the therapy used, and the long-term complications.

  3. Burn mouse models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calum, Henrik; Høiby, Niels; Moser, Claus

    2014-01-01

    Severe thermal injury induces immunosuppression, involving all parts of the immune system, especially when large fractions of the total body surface area are affected. An animal model was established to characterize the burn-induced immunosuppression. In our novel mouse model a 6 % third-degree b......Severe thermal injury induces immunosuppression, involving all parts of the immune system, especially when large fractions of the total body surface area are affected. An animal model was established to characterize the burn-induced immunosuppression. In our novel mouse model a 6 % third......-degree burn injury was induced with a hot-air blower. The third-degree burn was confirmed histologically. At 48 h, a decline in the concentration of peripheral blood leucocytes was observed in the group of mice with burn wound. The reduction was ascribed to the decline in concentration of polymorphonuclear...... neutrophil leucocytes and monocytes. When infecting the skin with Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a dissemination of bacteria was observed only in the burn wound group. Histological characterization of the skin showed an increased polymorphonuclear neutrophil granulocytes dominated inflammation in the group of mice...

  4. Waste wood incineration: long-lasting, environment-friendly and CO2-neutral

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouma, J.W.J.

    1993-01-01

    The economic aspects of energy production from waste wood are evaluated. Heating systems based on the incineration of wood have been considerably improved recently. Several aspects of the incineration of waste wood are reviewed: the implications with regard to the greenhouse effect, the calorific value of wood, the incineration process, and the cost price calculation of energy production by waste wood incineration. In conclusion is stated that energy production by waste wood incineration is a valuable economic alternative for heat production by oil products, especially in view of the current anti-pollution taxes in Belgium. (A.S.)

  5. Exposure dose evaluation of worker at radioactive waste incineration facility on KAERI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Sang Kyu; Jeon, Jong Seon; Kim, Youn Hwa; Lee, Jae Min; Lee, Gi Won

    2011-01-01

    An incineration treatment of inflammable radioactive wastes leads to have a reduction effect of disposal cost and also to contribute an enhancement of safety at a disposal site by taking the advantage of stabilization of the wastes which is accomplished by converting organic materials into inorganic materials. As it was required for an incineration technology, KAERI (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute) has developed a pilot incineration process and then constructed a demonstration incineration facility having based on the operating experiences of the pilot process. In this study, worker exposure doses were evaluated to confirm safety of workers before the demonstration incineration facility will commence a commercial. (author)

  6. The domestic wastes incinerators; Les incinerateurs d'ordures menegares: quels risques? quelles politiques?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-10-01

    This document presents the opinion of the Committee of Prevention and Precaution (CPP), on the domestic wastes incinerators, in the framework of the global wastes policy. The seven chapters detail and bring advices on the following topics: the elements which are going in and out of the incinerators, the technical processes, the occupational activities and the risks bound to the incinerators use, the transfer modes towards the different environmental areas, the exposure estimation, the risks of people living near the domestic wastes incinerators compared to the other concerning a cancer development, the legislation concerning the domestic wastes and the social acceptability of the incinerators. (A.L.B.)

  7. Management of pediatric hand burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liodaki, Eirini; Kisch, Tobias; Mauss, Karl L; Senyaman, Oezge; Kraemer, Robert; Mailänder, Peter; Wünsch, Lutz; Stang, Felix

    2015-04-01

    Hand burns are common in the pediatric population. Optimal hand function is a crucial component of a high-quality survival after burn injury. This can only be achieved with a coordinated approach to the injuries. The aim of this study was to review the management algorithm and outcomes of pediatric hand burns at our institution. In total, 70 children fulfilling our study criteria were treated for a burn hand injury in our Burn Care Center between January 2008 and May 2013. 14 of the 70 pediatric patients underwent surgery because of the depth of the hand burns. The management algorithm depending on the depth of the burn is described. Two patients underwent correction surgery due to burn contractures later. For a successful outcome of the burned hand, the interdisciplinary involvement and cooperation of the plastic and pediatric surgeon, hand therapist, burn team, patient and their parents are crucial.

  8. Heavy Metal Concentrations around a Hospital Incinerator and a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies to determine the concentrations of heavy metals in the surrounding soils and bottom ash of a hospital incinerator and a municipal dumpsite were carried out in Ibadan City, South-West Nigeria from November 2010 to January 2011. Samples were analyzed for Pb, Fe, Cu, Zn, Cr and Ni using Flame Atomic Absorption ...

  9. Controlled-air incineration of transuranic-contaminated solid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borduin, L.C.; Draper, W.E.; Koenig, R.A.; Neuls, A.S.; Warner, C.L.

    1976-01-01

    A controlled-air incinerator and an associated high-energy aqueous off-gas cleaning system are being installed at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) Transuranic Waste Treatment Development Facility (TDF) for evaluation as a low-level transuranic-contaminated (TRU) solid waste volume reduction process. Program objectives are: (1) assembly and operation of a production scale (45 kg/hr) operation of ''off-the-shelf'' components representative of current incineration and pollution control technology; (2) process development and modification to meet radioactive health and safety standards, and (3) evaluation of the process to define the advantages and limitations of conventional technology. The results of the program will be the design specifications and operating procedures necessary for successful incineration of TRU waste. Testing, with nonradioactive waste, will begin in October 1976. This discussion covers commercially available incinerator and off-gas cleaning components, the modifications required for radioactive service, process components performance expectations, and a description of the LASL experimental program

  10. Sustainable waste management via incineration system: an Islamic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper would firstly examine solid waste management currently experienced in Malaysia with special concentration given to waste incineration. Its function and benefits entailed from this system shall then be identified. This paper attempts to emphasize this notion within the Islamic perspective, stressing on the needs to ...

  11. Design, construction and test operation of a thermal incinerator for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Montfort type intermittent incinerator for combusting medical wastes were the waste types, fuel, chimney size, and flue gas residence time. The design analysis was based on flue gas flow rate of 0.13 m3/s, maximum primary chamber ...

  12. Initial emission assessment of hazardous-waste-incineration facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrington, E.S.; Holton, G.A.; O'Donnell, F.R.

    1982-01-01

    Health and Safety Research Division, sponsored by EPA, conducted a study to quantify emission factors from stacks, spills, fugitives, storage, and treatment for a typical hazardous waste incinerator facility. Engineering participated in preparing flowsheets and providing calculations for fugitive emissions. Typical block-flow diagrams were developed two types of hazardous waste incinerators (rotary kiln and liquid-injector) and for three capacities (small: 1 MM Btu/hr, median: 10 MM Btu/hr, and large: 150 MM Btu/hr). Storage reqirements and support services were determined in more detail. Using the properties of a typical waste, fugitive emissions were determined, including emissions from pump leaks, valve leaks, flange leaks, and tank vents. An atmospheric dispersion model was then employed to calculate atmospheric concentration and population exposure estimates. With these estimates, an assessment was performed to determine the percentage of concentrations and exposure associated with selected emissions from each source at the incineration facility. Results indicated the relative importance of each source at the incineration facility. Results indicated the relative importance of each source both in terms of public health and pollution control requirements

  13. Development of gas boy medical incinerator as a substitute for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The stench that emanates from the burial of placentas, limbs etc especially after rainfall, are unbearable and awful within most hospital environments. A solution has been found in the engineering of all-in-one medical gas boy incinerator with quick rise in temperature and even distribution of heat, with drying and firing cycles ...

  14. The impact of incinerators on human health and environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Raman; Sharma, Meenakshi; Sharma, Ratika; Sharma, Vivek

    2013-01-01

    Of the total wastes generated by health-care organizations, 10%-25% are biomedical wastes, which are hazardous to humans and the environment and requires specific treatment and management. For decades, incineration was the method of choice for the treatment of such infectious wastes. Incinerator releases a wide variety of pollutants depending on the composition of the waste, which leads to health deterioration and environmental degradation. The significant pollutants emitted are particulate matter, metals, acid gases, oxides of nitrogen, and sulfur, aside from the release of innumerable substances of unknown toxicity. This process of waste incineration poses a significant threat to public health and the environment. The major impact on health is the higher incidence of cancer and respiratory symptoms; other potential effects are congenital abnormalities, hormonal defects, and increase in sex ratio. The effect on the environmental is in the form of global warming, acidification, photochemical ozone or smog formation, eutrophication, and human and animal toxicity. Thus, there is a need to skip to newer, widely accepted, economical, and environment-friendly technologies. The use of hydroclaves and plasma pyrolysis for the incineration of biomedical wastes leads to lesser environmental degradation, negligible health impacts, safe handling of treated wastes, lesser running and maintenance costs, more effective reduction of microorganisms, and safer disposal.

  15. Strategy for nuclear wastes incineration in hybrid reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lelievre, F.

    1998-01-01

    The transmutation of nuclear wastes in accelerator-driven nuclear reactors offers undeniable advantages. But before going into the detailed study of a particular project, we should (i) examine the possible applications of such systems and (ii) compare the different configurations, in order to guide technological decisions. We propose an approach, answering both concerns, based on the complete description of hybrid reactors. It is possible, with only the transmutation objective and a few technological constraints chosen a posteriori, to determine precisely the essential parameters of such reactors: number of reactors, beam current, size of the core, sub-criticality... The approach also clearly pinpoints the strategic decisions, for which the scientist or engineer is not competent. This global scheme is applied to three distinct nuclear cycles: incineration of solid fuel without recycling, incineration of liquid fuel without recycling and incineration of liquid fuel with on-line recycling; and for two spectra, either thermal or fast. We show that the radiotoxicity reduction with a solid fuel is significant only with a fast spectrum, but the incineration times range from 20 to 30 years. The liquid fuel is appropriate only with on-line recycling, at equilibrium. The gain on the radiotoxicity can be considerable and we describe a number of such systems. The potential of ADS for the transmutation of nuclear wastes is confirmed, but we should continue the description of specific systems obtained through this approach. (author)

  16. Effectiveness of incinerators in the management of medical wastes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction and Objectives Medical waste incinerators release into the air a host of pollutants that have serious adverse consequences on public health and the environment. This study aimed at determining ... Questionnaires, researcher observation and laboratory investigations of ash samples were used in data collection.

  17. Transformation of Silver Nanoparticles in Fresh, Aged, and Incinerated Biosolids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abstract The purpose of this research was to assess the chemical transformation of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in aged, fresh, and incinerated biosolids in order to provide information for AgNP life cycle analyses. Silver nanoparticles were introduced to the influent of a pilot...

  18. the development of new generation of solid waste refuse incinerators

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MATERIALS AND METHODS. These new generation of solid waste refuse incinerators are designed in the round with various locally manufactured special bricks for maximum stability and with minimal use of angle irons except for the doors since they are susceptible to rusting. The four fire boxes apart from allowing the ...

  19. EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF CRITICAL FUNDAMENTAL ISSUES IN HAZARDOUS WASTE INCINERATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of a laboratory-scale program investigating several fundamental issues involved in hazardous waste incineration. The key experiment for each study was the measurement of waste destruction behavior in a sub-scale turbulent spray flame. (1) Atomization Qual...

  20. Danish Emission Inventory for Waste Incineration and Other Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjelgaard, Katja

    2013-01-01

    This report contains detailed methodological issues, activity data, emission factors, uncertainties and references for waste incineration without energy recovery and other waste source categories of the Danish emission inventories 2013. The emissions are calculated for the years 1980-2011 according...

  1. Design and Fabrication of a Domestic Incinerator *1OMOREGIE, MJ ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    JASEM https://dx.doi.org/10.4314/jasem.v21i5.27. Keywords: Incinerator, wastes, combustion, scrubber, lagging, conductivity ... Combustion Process: Waste material is burnt in the combustion chamber using a proportionate air/ ... pipe, r1= internal radius of the pipe, r2 = external radius of the pipe; Rf = thermal resistance of ...

  2. Mathematical modelling of MSW incineration in a packed bed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Guanyi; Gu, Tianbao; He, Xiao

    2017-01-01

    Grate-firing is the most commonly used technology for municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration for heat and power generation, in which MSW undergoes thermochemical conversion (e.g., drying, devolatilization, char gasification and oxidation) in the fuel bed on the grate while the combustible gases...

  3. Forensic considerations when dealing with incinerated human dental remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reesu, Gowri Vijay; Augustine, Jeyaseelan; Urs, Aadithya B

    2015-01-01

    Establishing the human dental identification process relies upon sufficient post-mortem data being recovered to allow for a meaningful comparison with ante-mortem records of the deceased person. Teeth are the most indestructible components of the human body and are structurally unique in their composition. They possess the highest resistance to most environmental effects like fire, desiccation, decomposition and prolonged immersion. In most natural as well as man-made disasters, teeth may provide the only means of positive identification of an otherwise unrecognizable body. It is imperative that dental evidence should not be destroyed through erroneous handling until appropriate radiographs, photographs, or impressions can be fabricated. Proper methods of physical stabilization of incinerated human dental remains should be followed. The maintenance of integrity of extremely fragile structures is crucial to the successful confirmation of identity. In such situations, the forensic dentist must stabilise these teeth before the fragile remains are transported to the mortuary to ensure preservation of possibly vital identification evidence. Thus, while dealing with any incinerated dental remains, a systematic approach must be followed through each stage of evaluation of incinerated dental remains to prevent the loss of potential dental evidence. This paper presents a composite review of various studies on incinerated human dental remains and discusses their impact on the process of human identification and suggests a step by step approach. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  4. Possibilities for gas turbine and waste incinerator integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korobitsyn, M.A.; Jellema, P.; Hirs, Gerard

    1999-01-01

    The aggressive nature of the flue gases in municipal waste incinerators does not allow the temperature of steam in the boiler to rise above 400°C. An increase in steam temperature can be achieved by external superheating in a heat recovery steam generator positioned behind a gas turbine, so that

  5. Behavior of radioactive cesium during incineration of radioactively contaminated wastes from decontamination activities in Fukushima.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Hiroshi; Kuramochi, Hidetoshi; Nomura, Kazutaka; Maeseto, Tomoharu; Osako, Masahiro

    2017-11-01

    Large volumes of decontamination wastes (DW) generated by off-site decontamination activities in Fukushima Prefecture have been incinerated since 2015. The behavior of radioactive cesium during incineration of DW was investigated at a working incineration plant. The incineration discharged bottom ash (BA) and fly ash (FA) with similar levels of radiocesium, and the leachability of the radiocesium from both types of ash was very low (incineration of contaminated municipal solid waste (CMSW) reported in earlier studies. The source of radiocesium in DW-FA is chiefly small particles derived from DW and DW-BA blown into the flue gas, not the deposition of gaseous synthesized radiocesium compounds on the surfaces of ash particles in the flue gas as observed in CMSW incineration. This source difference causes the behavior of radiocesium during waste incineration to differ between DW and CMSW. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Treatment of off-gas from radioactive waste incinerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    An effective process reducing volume of radioactive wastes is incineration of combustible wastes. Appropriate design of the off-gas treatment system is necessary to ensure that any releases of airborne radionuclides into the environment are kept below acceptable limits. In many cases, the off-gas system must be designed to accommodate chemical constituents in the gas stream. The purpose of this publication is to provide the most up-to-date information regarding off-gas treatment as well as an account of some of the developments so as to aid users in the selection of an integrated system for a particular application. The choice of incinerator/off-gas system combination depends on the wastes to be treated, as well as other factors, such as regulatory requirements. Current problems and development needs are discussed. Following comprehensive discussions of the various factors affecting a choice, various incinerator and off-gas treatment systems are recommended for the various types of wastes that may be treated: low PVC content solid, high PVC content solid, organic liquid and resins. The economics or costs of the off-gas system and an evaluation of the overall cost effectiveness of incineration or direct burial is not discussed in detail. This publication is specifically directed toward technical aspects and addresses: incineration types and origin, sources and characteristics of off-gas streams; descriptions of available technologies for off-gas treatment; basic component design requirements and component description; operational experience of plants in active operation and their current practices; legal aspects and safety requirements; remaining problems to be solved and development trends in plant design and component structure. This report seeks to broaden and enhance the understanding of the developed technology and to indicate areas where improvements can be made by further research and development. 110 refs

  7. Incineration and flue gas cleaning in China - a Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buekens, Alfons; Yan, Mi; Jiang, Xuguan; Li, Xiaodong; Lu, Shengyong; Chi, Yong; Yan, Jianhua; Cen, Kefa

    2010-01-01

    Waste incineration is rapidly developing in China. Different technologies are proposed for Municipal Solid Waste (MSW), Hazardous Waste (HW), and Medical Waste (MW). The required technologies are either imported, or developed locally. Some data are cited to illustrate these rapid developments. Incinerator flue gas arises at rather limited scale (10,000-100,000 Nm 3 /h), compared to power generation, yet the number of pollutants to be counted with is huge: dust and grit, acid gases, NO x , selected heavy metals, aerosols and nanoparticles, Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons, and dioxins. Major options in flue gas cleaning can be derived from Best Available Technologies (BAT), as were developed in the European Union. Hence, E.U. practice is analyzed in some detail, by considering the present situation in selected E.U. countries (Germany, Sweden, the Netherlands, Denmark, Belgium). A comparison is made with China. Also, the situation in Japan is examined. Based on this wide experience, a number of technical suggestions regarding incineration, flue gas cleaning, and emission control are formulated. Also, the possibility of co incineration is considered. Starting from the particular experience of Zhejiang University (as a designer of Fluid Bed and Rotary Kiln plant, with large experience in Fluid Bed processes, coal firing, gasification and pyrolysis, and actively monitoring thermal units throughout China) some specific Case Studies are examined, e.g., a fluidized bed incinerator and its gas cleaning system (MSWI and HWI from ITPE). Some attention is paid to the potential threats in China from uncontrolled combustion sources. As a conclusion, some recommendations are formulated regarding flue gas cleaning in Developing Nations at large and in China in particular. (author)

  8. Ready, set,...quit exclamation point A review of the controlled-air incinerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reader, G.E.

    1996-01-01

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Controlled-Air Incinerator (CAI) has had a long and productive past as a research and development tool. It now appears that use of the CAI to treat LANL legacy and other wastes under the Federal Facilities Compliance Act is no longer viable due to numerous programmatic problems. This paper will review the history of the CAI. Various aspects associated with the CAI and how those aspects resulted in the loss of this Department of Energy asset as a viable waste treatment option will also be discussed. Included are past missions and tests-CAI capabilities, emissions, and permits; Federal Facility Compliance Act and associated Agreement; National Environmental Policy Act coverage; cost; budget impacts; public perception; the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Combustion Strategy; Independent Technical Review open-quotes Redclose quotes Team review; waste treatment alternative technologies; the New Mexico Environment Department; and future options and issues

  9. Psychiatric aspects of burn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalal P

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Burn injuries and their subsequent treatment cause one of the most excruciating forms of pain imaginable. The psychological aspects of burn injury have been researched in different parts of the world, producing different outcomes. Studies have shown that greater levels of acute pain are associated with negative long-term psychological effects such as acute stress disorder, depression, suicidal ideation, and post-traumatic stress disorder for as long as 2 years after the initial burn injury. The concept of allostatic load is presented as a potential explanation for the relationship between acute pain and subsequent psychological outcomes. A biopsychosocial model is also presented as a means of obtaining better inpatient pain management and helping to mediate this relationship.

  10. Effect of leaching behaviour by quenching of bottom ash from MSW incineration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchese, Franco; Genon, Giuseppe

    2011-10-01

    Bottom ashes (BA) obtained from a municipal solid waste incineration plant, have shown different pH and lead concentrations in leachate for different lines. In order to explain this behaviour, combustion tests were performed concerning the lines and the effect of the type of wastes. The BA obtained from the same waste has shown the same raw chemical composition, but different leachate characteristics for the different lines. The bottom ash from different wastes burned on the same line instead showed very similar leachate behaviour. The results suggest that the quality of leach ate depends on the plant and process conditions (in particular the ash quenching phase) and not on the composition of the waste. During ash quenching, the formation and dissolution of soluble alkalis depends on the washing ratio and on the residence time. A different washing degree leads to a different residual alkalinity in the bottom ash, and consequently to a different value of leachate pH with different metal releases. Therefore, with the practical aim of establishing the best conditions for the final disposal of bottom ash, a careful planning of this phase could be proposed as an alternative to a weathering process.

  11. Investigation of heavy metal partitioning influenced by flue gas moisture and chlorine content during waste incineration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qinghai; Meng, Aihong; Jia, Jinyan; Zhang, Yanguo

    2010-01-01

    The impact of moisture on the partitioning of the heavy metals including Pb, Zn, Cu and Cd in municipal solid waste (MSW) was studied in a laboratory tubular furnace. A thermodynamic investigation using CHEMKIN software was performed to compare the experimental results. Simulated waste, representative of typical MSW with and without chlorine compounds, was burned at the background temperature of 700 and 950 degrees C, respectively. In the absence of chlorine, the moisture content has no evident effect on the volatility of Pb, Zn and Cu at either 700 or 950 degrees C, however, as flue gas moisture increasing the Cd distribution in the bottom ash increased at 700 degrees C and reduced at 950 degrees C, respectively. In the presence of chlorine, the flue gas moisture reduced the volatility of Pb, Zn and Cu due to the transformation of the more volatile metal chlorides into less volatile metal oxides, and the reduction became significant as chlorine content increase. For Cd, the chlorine promotes its volatility through the formation of more volatile CdCl2. As a result, the increased moisture content increases the Pb, Zn, Cu and Cd concentrations in the bottom ash, which limits the utilization of the bottom ash as a construction material. Therefore, in order to accumulate heavy metals into the fly ash, MSW should be dried before incineration.

  12. Optimization of sodium bicarbonate injection for acid scrubbing in hospital waste incineration plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozainee, M.; Salleh, M.; Mutahharah, M.M.; Anwar Johari

    2010-01-01

    Optimization of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO 3 ) injection for acid hydrochloric (HCl) scrubbing was conducted on a hospital waste incineration plant. The plant employs a rotary kiln system having burning capacity of 350 kg/h hospital waste (average calorific value of 17.4 MJ/kg) and is operated on a 24 hr/ day basis. Currently, NaHCO 3 injection rate is 25 kg/h as recommended by manufacturer to meet the Department of Environment (DOE) standard emission limit of 200 mg/Nm 3 HCl. Testing of HCl emission at various injection rates of 25, 20, 15 and 10 kg/ h results in HCl final concentration in the range of 0.58-7.13, 5.63-7.74, 0.07-2.99 and 3-28 mg/Nm 3 respectively. The results showed that NaHCO 3 injection rate as low as 10 kg/ h could still meet the HCl stipulated emission limit. Economic comparison between 25 and 10 kg/ h injection rates showed that total saving on NaHCO 3 and disposal of fly ash was RM 22,000 per month (equivalent to saving RM 260,000 per year) when using 10 kg/ h injection rate. It was concluded from the study that optimum injection rate would not only save cost and reduce wastage but also reduce bag house loading rate and prolong the life span of filter bags. (author)

  13. Staphylococcal septicaemia in burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gang, R K; Sanyal, S C; Bang, R L; Mokaddas, E; Lari, A R

    2000-06-01

    This study analyses staphylococcal septicaemia in a series of 1516 burn patients who were admitted to the burn unit of the Al-Babtain Centre for Burns and Plastic Surgery, Ibn Sina Hospital, Kuwait over a period of 6.5 years (1 June 1992-31 December 1998). One hundred and nine patients (7.2%) developed clinically and microbiologically proven septicaemia, of which 80 (73.4%) showed one or the other type of Staphylococcus in their blood. Fifty (62.5%) of them were males and 30 (37.5%) females, with a mean age of 26 years and the mean total body surface area of burns (TBSA) of 45% (range 1-93%). Preschool age children comprised 27.5% of the patients. Flame was the dominant (80%) cause of burn. Of the 80 patients who had 91 episodes of septicaemia, 52 (65%) had MRSA, 8 (10%) MSSA, 11 (13.8%) MRSE and 5 (6.2%) MSSE and 4 (5%) others had mixed organisms. Only the patients with MRSA had multiple episodes. Eight patients (10%) showed septicaemic episodes within only 48 h of admission; however, the majority of the patients (77.5%) had a septicaemic attack within 2 weeks postburn. Of the 52 MRSA septicaemic cases, 39 (75%) survived and 13 (25%) died. Four patients with septicaemia due to mixed infections died. A total of 19 patients were intubated, 14 due to inhalation injury and 5 because of septicaemia; all in the former group died. Glycopeptide therapy (vancomycin/teicoplanin) was instituted immediately following the detection of staphylococci in the blood. No significant difference was noted in relation to mortality amongst the septicaemic patients, whether or not on prophylactic antibiotic. Fifty-six (70%) of the 80 patients had 139 sessions of skin grafting and survived. Of the 52 MRSA patients, 40 had 101 sessions of skin grafting and 33 of them survived. The apparent low mortality was probably due to early detection of the organism, appropriate antibiotic therapy, care for nutrition and early wound cover. This study indicates a high incidence of staphylococcal

  14. Burns in Nepal: A population based national assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, S; Mahmood, U; Gurung, S; Shrestha, S; Kushner, A L; Nwomeh, B C; Charles, A G

    2015-08-01

    Burns are ranked in the top 15 leading causes of the burden of disease globally, with an estimated 265,000 deaths annually and a significant morbidity from non-fatal burns, the majority located in low and middle-income countries. Given that previous estimates are based on hospital data, the purpose of this study was to explore the prevalence of burns at a population level in Nepal, a low income South Asian country. A cluster randomized, cross sectional countrywide survey was administered in Nepal using the Surgeons OverSeas Assessment of Surgical Need (SOSAS) from May 25th to June 12th, 2014. Fifteen of the 75 districts of Nepal were randomly chosen proportional to population. In each district, three clusters, two rural and one urban, were randomly selected. The SOSAS survey has two portions: the first collects demographic data about the household's access to healthcare and recent deaths in the household; the second is structured anatomically and designed around a representative spectrum of surgical conditions, including burns. In total, 1350 households were surveyed with 2695 individuals with a response rate of 97%. Fifty-five burns were present in 54 individuals (2.0%, 95% CI 1.5-2.6%), mean age 30.6. The largest proportion of burns was in the age group 25-54 (2.22%), with those aged 0-14 having the second largest proportion (2.08%). The upper extremity was the most common anatomic location affected with 36.4% of burns. Causes of burns included 60.4% due to hot liquid and/or hot objects, and 39.6% due to an open fire or explosion. Eleven individuals with a burn had an unmet surgical need (20%, 95% CI 10.43-32.97%). Barriers to care included facility/personnel not available (8), fear/no trust (1) and no money for healthcare (2). Burns in Nepal appear to be primarily a disease of adults due to scalds, rather than the previously held belief that burns occur mainly in children (0-14) and women and are due to open flames. This data suggest that the demographics and

  15. Behavior of cesium in municipal solid waste incineration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oshita, Kazuyuki; Aoki, Hiroshi; Fukutani, Satoshi; Shiota, Kenji; Fujimori, Takashi; Takaoka, Masaki

    2015-01-01

    As a result of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident on March 11, 2011 in Japan radioactive nuclides, primarily 134 Cs and 137 Cs were released, contaminating municipal solid waste and sewage sludge in the area. Although stabilizing the waste and reducing its volume is an important issue differing from Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident, secondary emission of radioactive nuclides as a result of any intermediate remediation process is of concern. Unfortunately, there is little research on the behavior of radioactive nuclides during waste treatment. This study focuses on waste incineration in an effort to clarify the behavior of radioactive nuclides, specifically, refuse-derived fuel (RDF) with added 133 Cs (stable nuclide) or 134 Cs (radioactive nuclide) was incinerated in laboratory- and pilot-scale experiments. Next, thermogravimetric (TG) and differential thermal analysis (DTA) of stable Cs compounds, as well as an X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) analysis of Cs concentrated in the ashes were performed to validate the behavior and chemical forms of Cs during the combustion. Our results showed that at higher temperatures and at larger equivalence ratios, 133 Cs was distributed to the bottom ash at lower concentration, and the influence of the equivalence ratio was more significant at lower temperatures. 134 Cs behaved in a similar fashion as 133 Cs. We found through TG–DTA and XAFS analysis that a portion of Cs in RDF vaporizes and is transferred to fly ash where it exists as CsCl in the MSW incinerator. We conclude that Cs-contaminated municipal solid wastes could be incinerated at high temperatures resulting in a small amount of fly ash with a high concentration of radioactive Cs, and a bottom ash with low concentrations. - Highlights: • Behaviors of Cs on the incineration of the model waste were investigated. • More Cs was moved to fly ash with increasing of equivalence ratio and temperature. • Chemical forms of Cs in the fly ash

  16. Paediatric Burns: Mortality in a Burns Unit | Olatain | African Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Burn injury, especially from flames, is associated with a high mortality rate in children. Safe practices with flammable liquids (petrol in particular) should be emphasized in paediatric burn prevention programmes. Keywords: Paediatric, burn,mortality, prevention. African Journal of Paediatric Surgery Vol. 4 (2) 2007: pp. 82-85 ...

  17. An assessment of burn care professionals' attitudes to major burn.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Murphy, A D

    2008-06-01

    The resuscitation of severe burn remains a controversial area within the burn care profession. There is ongoing debate as to what percentage burn is associated with a sufficient quality of life to support initial resuscitation efforts. We conducted a survey of delegates at the 39th Annual Meeting of the British Burns Association (2005), regarding attitudes towards resuscitation following major burns. Respondents were asked the maximum percentage total body surface area (TBSA) burn beyond which they would not wish to be resuscitated. They were also asked what maximum TBSA they perceived to be commensurate with an acceptable quality of life (QOL). One hundred and forty three of 300 delegates responded to the questionnaire. Thirty three percent of respondents would not wish to be resuscitated with 50-75% TBSA burns or greater. A further 35% would not wish to have life-sustaining intervention with 75-95% TBSA burns or greater. The remaining 32% indicated that they would not want resuscitation with TBSA burns>95%. Regardless of TBSA affected, 16% would not wish resuscitation if they had full thickness facial burns, a further 10% did not want resuscitation if both their hands and faces were affected. Our survey demonstrates the diversity of personal preference amongst burn care professionals. This would suggest that a unifying philosophy regarding the resuscitation of extensive burns will remain elusive.

  18. Solid waste treatment volume reduction by compaction or incineration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vigreux, B.; Carpentier, S.

    1986-01-01

    A short presentation is made of various techniques available for volume reduction by compaction of solid waste produced during nuclear plant operation. A long industrial experience has been accumulated in France on such compactors. Incineration is the most performing method of volume reduction for combustible waste. The CEA Group and SGN have developed a very reliable, simple and safe incinerator which operates with excess air and at high temperature. Sorting and feeding of the waste, ash discharge and transportation to the conditioning unit, gas treatment, are included in the system. The adding of a programmable controller makes it fully automated. The system is described with some detail and recent performance measurements are given [fr

  19. Solid waste treatment volume reduction by compaction or incineration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vigreux, B.; Carpentier, S.

    1985-01-01

    A short presentation is made of various techniques available for volume reduction by compaction of solid waste produced during nuclear plant operation. A long industrial experience has been accumulated in France on such compactors. Incineration is the most performing method of volume reduction for combustible waste. The CEA Group and SGN have developed a very reliable, simple and safe incinerator which operates with excess air and at high temperature. Sorting and feeding of the waste, ash discharge and transportation to the conditioning unit, gas treatment, are included in the system. The adding of a programmable controller makes it fully automated. The system is described with some detail and recent performance measurements are given [fr

  20. Aluminium alloys in municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yanjun; Rem, Peter

    2009-05-01

    With the increasing growth of incineration of household waste, more and more aluminium is retained in municipal solid waste incinerator bottom ash. Therefore recycling of aluminium from bottom ash becomes increasingly important. Previous research suggests that aluminium from different sources is found in different size fractions resulting in different recycling rates. The purpose of this study was to develop analytical and sampling techniques to measure the particle size distribution of individual alloys in bottom ash. In particular, cast aluminium alloys were investigated. Based on the particle size distribution it was computed how well these alloys were recovered in a typical state-of-the-art treatment plant. Assessment of the cast alloy distribution was carried out by wet physical separation processes, as well as chemical methods, X-ray fluorescence analysis and electron microprobe analysis. The results from laboratory analyses showed that cast alloys tend to concentrate in the coarser fractions and therefore are better recovered in bottom ash treatment plants.

  1. Description of the Seibersdorf incineration plant for low level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chalupa, G.; Petschnik, G.

    1986-09-01

    After a description of the design and the construction principles of the incinerator building, the furnace and its attached auxilary devices are explained. The incinerator is layed out for low level wastes. It has a vertical furnace, operates with discontinuous feeding for trashes with heat-values between 600 and 10000 kcal/kg waste. The maximum throughput amounts 40 kg/h. The purification of the off-gas is guaranteed by a multistage filter system: 2 stages with ceramic candles, cooling column and a HEPA-filter system. The control of the off-gas cleaning is carried out by a stack instrumentation, consisting of an aerosol-, gas-, Iodine- and Tritium-monitor; the building is surveilled by doserate- and aerosolmonitors. (Author)

  2. Savannah River Plant low-level waste incinerator demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tallman, J.A.

    1984-01-01

    A two-year demonstration facility was constructed at the Savannah River Plant (SRP) to incinerate suspect contaminated solid and low-level solvent wastes. Since startup in January 1984, 4460 kilograms and 5300 liters of simulated (uncontaminated) solid and solvent waste have been incinerated to establish the technical and operating data base for the facility. Combustion safeguards have been enhanced, process controls and interlocks refined, some materials handling problems identified and operating experience gained as a result of the 6 month cold run-in. Volume reductions of 20:1 for solid and 25:1 for solvent waste have been demonstrated. Stack emissions (NO 2 , SO 2 , CO, and particulates) were only 0.5% of the South Carolina ambient air quality standards. Radioactive waste processing is scheduled to begin in July 1984. 2 figures, 2 tables

  3. Fluidized bed incineration of a slurry waste from caprolactam production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cammarota, A.; D' Amore, M.; Donsi, G.; Massimilla, L.

    1980-08-01

    Caprolactam tails are a slurry waste produced in the SNIA process for the synthesis of caprolactam. They contain about 65% water, 25% ash and 10% combustible matter. The ashes are low melting, due to the presence of sodium compounds. The incineration of this waste is carried out at temperatures below 600/sup 0/C in beds of silica sand, using a laboratory scale apparatus with a 40 mm ID fluidization column. Variables investigated include sand particle size, slurry flow rate, bed temperature, bed height. The concentrations of CO/sub 2/ and CO are determined continuously in the flue gases. Bed solids are sampled periodically to determine the carbon content. Results of experiments show that the low temperature incineration on a bed of inert solids is a useful technique for the disposal of caprolactam tails. 8 refs.

  4. Destruction of nuclear graphite using closed chamber incineration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senor, D.J.; Hollenberg, G.W.; Morgan, W.C.; Marianowski, L.G.

    1994-01-01

    Closed chamber incineration (CCI) is a novel technique by which irradiated nuclear graphite may be destroyed without the risk of radioactive cation release into the environment. The process utilizes an enclosed combustion chamber coupled with molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFCs). The transport of cations is intrinsically suppressed by the MCFCs, such that only the combustion gases are conducted through for release to the environment. An example CCI design was developed which had as its goal the destruction of graphite fuel elements from the Fort St. Vrain reactor (FSVR). By employing CCI, the volume of high level waste from the FSVR will be reduced by approximately 87 percent. Additionally, the incineration process will convert the SiC coating on the FSVR fuel particles to SiO 2 , thus creating a form potentially suitable for direct incorporation in a vitrification process stream. The design is compact, efficient, and makes use of currently available technology

  5. Particulate collection in a low level radioactive waste incinerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudnick, S.N.; Leith, D.; First, M.W.

    1976-01-01

    As designed, sintered stainless steel filters will clean the gas from the secondary cyclone at a low level radioactive waste incinerator. Using bench scale apparatus, asbestos floats and diatomaceous earth were evaluated as filter aids to prevent clogging of the sintered metal interstices and to decrease filter penetration. Both precoats prevented irreversible pressure drop increase, and decreased cold DOP penetration from 80% to less than 1%. To collect the same quantity of fly ash, less diatomaceous earth was needed than asbestos floats. A back-up study evaluated a moving bed of sodium carbonate pellets in lieu of the sintered metal filters. Since identical sodium carbonate pellets are used to neutralize hydrogen chloride in the incinerator, their use in a moving bed has the advantages of trouble free disposal and cost free replacement. Co, counter, and cross-current beds were studied and gave fly ash penetrations less than 0.1% at moderate pressure drop

  6. MINT Incineration and Renewable Energy Centre - experience and challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamad Puad Abu

    2005-01-01

    MIREC is the acronym for MINT Incineration and Renewable Energy Centre which was established in the year 2000 to carry out research and provide services on matters related to incineration technology and renewable energy. Throughout this period, many challenges and experiences has been faced by MIREC. Three research contracts with the value of nearly RM 1 million have been signed. Four laboratory scale burners have been designed and fabricated. Three mathematical models have been developed. Three programs on enhancement image have been published. Three papers have been published in the international journal. In order to achieve all these, many obstacles were faced by MIREC. This paper will discuss on the experiences and challenges that could be shared together with MINT staff. (Author)

  7. Operation of low-level radioactive waste incinerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, E.C.; Drolet, T.S.; Stewart, W.B.; Campbell, A.V.

    1979-01-01

    Ontaro Hydro's radioactive waste incinerator designed to reduce the volume of low-level combustible wastes from nuclear generating station's was declared in-service in September 1977. Hiterto about 1500 m 3 of combustible waste have been processed in over 90 separate batches. The process has resulted in 40:1 reduction in the volume and 12.5:1 reduction in the weight of the Type 1 wastes. The ultimate volume reduction factor after storage is 23:1. Airborne emissions has been maintained at the order of 10 -3 to 10 -5 % of the Derived Emission Limits. Incineration of radioactive combustible wastes has been proven feasible, and will remain as one of the most important processes in Ontario Hydro's Radioactive Waste Management Program

  8. Design of a Pu-238 waste incineration process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charlesworth, D.L.; McCampbell, R.B.

    1985-01-01

    Combustible 238 Pu waste is generated as a result of normal operation and decommissioning activity at the Savannah River Plant and is being retrievably stored at the Plant. As part of the long-term plan to process the stored waste and current waste in preparation for future disposition, a 238 Pu incinceration process is being cold-tested at SRL. The incineration process consists of a continuous-feed preparation system, a two-stage, electrically fired incinerator, and a filtration off-gas system. Process equipment has been designed, fabricated, and installed for nonradioactive testing and cold run-in. Design features to maximize the ability to remotely maintain the equipment were incorporated into the process. Interlock, alarm, and control functions are provided by a programmable controller. Cold testing is scheduled to be completed in 1986

  9. Bacillus cereus infection in burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attwood, A I; Evans, D M

    1983-05-01

    Two patients are reported in whom severe toxicity developed about 4 days after relatively minor burn injuries and in whom the burn areas then appeared to enlarge. In both patients, B. cereus and Staph. aureus were isolated and the affected burn areas had subcutaneous thrombosis and necrosis. The management is outlined and the dramatic rapidity of onset of toxicity emphasized, with special reference to increasing pain, lividity and extension of the burns.

  10. Behavior of cesium in municipal solid waste incineration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshita, Kazuyuki; Aoki, Hiroshi; Fukutani, Satoshi; Shiota, Kenji; Fujimori, Takashi; Takaoka, Masaki

    2015-05-01

    As a result of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident on March 11, 2011 in Japan radioactive nuclides, primarily (134)Cs and (137)Cs were released, contaminating municipal solid waste and sewage sludge in the area. Although stabilizing the waste and reducing its volume is an important issue differing from Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident, secondary emission of radioactive nuclides as a result of any intermediate remediation process is of concern. Unfortunately, there is little research on the behavior of radioactive nuclides during waste treatment. This study focuses on waste incineration in an effort to clarify the behavior of radioactive nuclides, specifically, refuse-derived fuel (RDF) with added (133)Cs (stable nuclide) or (134)Cs (radioactive nuclide) was incinerated in laboratory- and pilot-scale experiments. Next, thermogravimetric (TG) and differential thermal analysis (DTA) of stable Cs compounds, as well as an X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) analysis of Cs concentrated in the ashes were performed to validate the behavior and chemical forms of Cs during the combustion. Our results showed that at higher temperatures and at larger equivalence ratios, (133)Cs was distributed to the bottom ash at lower concentration, and the influence of the equivalence ratio was more significant at lower temperatures. (134)Cs behaved in a similar fashion as (133)Cs. We found through TG-DTA and XAFS analysis that a portion of Cs in RDF vaporizes and is transferred to fly ash where it exists as CsCl in the MSW incinerator. We conclude that Cs-contaminated municipal solid wastes could be incinerated at high temperatures resulting in a small amount of fly ash with a high concentration of radioactive Cs, and a bottom ash with low concentrations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Burn Wise Educational Materials for Businesses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burn Wise outreach material. Burn Wise is a partnership program of that emphasizes the importance of burning the right wood, the right way, in the right wood-burning appliance to protect your home, health, and the air we breathe.

  12. Air-Freshener Burns: A New Paradigm in Burns Etiology?

    OpenAIRE

    Sarwar, Umran; Nicolaou, M.; Khan, M. S.; Tiernan, E.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: We report a rare case of burns following the use of automated air-fresheners. Methods: We present a case report with a brief overview of the literature relating to burns associated with air-fresheners. The mechanism and treatment of these types of injuries are also described. Results: A 44 year-old female was admitted under the care of the burns team following burns secondary to an exploding air-freshener canister. The patient sustained burns to the face, thorax and arms re...

  13. Separation of nanoparticles: Filtration and scavenging from waste incineration plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Förster, Henning; Thajudeen, Thaseem; Funk, Christine; Peukert, Wolfgang

    2016-06-01

    Increased amounts of nanoparticles are applied in products of everyday life and despite material recycling efforts, at the end of their life cycle they are fed into waste incineration plants. This raises the question on the fate of nanoparticles during incineration. In terms of environmental impact the key question is how well airborne nanoparticles are removed by separation processes on their way to the bag house filters and by the existing filtration process based on pulse-jet cleanable fibrous filter media. Therefore, we investigate the scavenging and the filtration of metal nanoparticles under typical conditions in waste incineration plants. The scavenging process is investigated by a population balance model while the nanoparticle filtration experiments are realized in a filter test rig. The results show that depending on the particle sizes, in some cases nearly 80% of the nanoparticles are scavenged by fly ash particles before they reach the bag house filter. For the filtration step dust cakes with a pressure drop of 500Pa or higher are found to be very effective in preventing nanoparticles from penetrating through the filter. Thus, regeneration of the filter must be undertaken with care in order to guarantee highly efficient collection of particles even in the lower nanometre size regime. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Design and operation of radioactive waste incineration facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this guide is to provide safety guidance for the design and operation of radioactive waste incineration facilities. The guide emphasizes the design objectives and system requirements to be met and provides recommendations for the procedure of process selection and equipment design and operation. It is recognized that some incinerators may handle only very low or 'insignificant' levels of radioactivity, and in such cases some requirements or recommendations of this guide may not fully apply. Nevertheless, it is expected that any non-compliance with the guide will be addressed and justified in the licensing process. It is also recognized that the regulatory body may place a limit on the level of the radioactivity of the waste to be incinerated at a specific installation. For the purpose of this guide an insignificant level of release of radioactivity may typically be defined as either the continuous or single event release of the design basis radionuclide inventory that represents a negligible risk to the population, the operating personnel, and/or the environment. The guidance on what constitutes a negligible risk and how to translate negligible risk or dose into level of activity can be found in Safety Series No. 89, IAEA, Vienna. 20 refs, 1 fig

  15. The use of incinerated pig head in dental identification simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berketa, John; James, Helen; Langlois, Neil; Richards, Lindsay

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this exercise was to simulate a disaster victim identification scenario to allow training in documentation of postmortem incinerated remains and reconciliation of dental data. Varying number of restorations were placed in ten pig heads. The teeth and restorations were charted, with the restorations radiographed and documented, creating an ante-mortem data set. The following day the heads were cremated. Following cooling and recording they were transported for a post-mortem examination by trained specialist odontologists who were not involved in the initial antemortem phase. Recordings included the charting of teeth, restorations, lost teeth, and radiographs to simulate a post-mortem examination. A reconciliation of postmortem to antemortem information was attempted. There was an unacceptable amount of error in the postmortem examination of the heads. The errors related mainly to avulsed teeth and incorrect opinion of which charted surfaces the restorations were placed upon. Also noted were a considerable number of root fractures occurring beneath the crestal bone. This observation does not mimic the evidence observed in human incinerated teeth where the crowns tend to fracture off the roots at the dentin-enamel junction. The use of incinerated pig (Sus Scrofa) heads is not an ideal model for forensic odontology training in disaster victim identification. Differences in both anatomy and behavior following exposure to heat were shown to hamper documentation and subsequent comparison to antemortem data.

  16. Is proportion burned severely related to daily area burned?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birch, Donovan S; Morgan, Penelope; Smith, Alistair M S; Kolden, Crystal A; Hudak, Andrew T

    2014-01-01

    The ecological effects of forest fires burning with high severity are long-lived and have the greatest impact on vegetation successional trajectories, as compared to low-to-moderate severity fires. The primary drivers of high severity fire are unclear, but it has been hypothesized that wind-driven, large fire-growth days play a significant role, particularly on large fires in forested ecosystems. Here, we examined the relative proportion of classified burn severity for individual daily areas burned that occurred during 42 large forest fires in central Idaho and western Montana from 2005 to 2007 and 2011. Using infrared perimeter data for wildfires with five or more consecutive days of mapped perimeters, we delineated 2697 individual daily areas burned from which we calculated the proportions of each of three burn severity classes (high, moderate, and low) using the differenced normalized burn ratio as mapped for large fires by the Monitoring Trends in Burn Severity project. We found that the proportion of high burn severity was weakly correlated (Kendall τ = 0.299) with size of daily area burned (DAB). Burn severity was highly variable, even for the largest (95th percentile) in DAB, suggesting that other variables than fire extent influence the ecological effects of fires. We suggest that these results do not support the prioritization of large runs during fire rehabilitation efforts, since the underlying assumption in this prioritization is a positive relationship between severity and area burned in a day. (letters)

  17. Air-freshener burns: a new paradigm in burns etiology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarwar, Umran; Nicolaou, M; Khan, M S; Tiernan, E

    2011-10-01

    We report a rare case of burns following the use of automated air-fresheners. We present a case report with a brief overview of the literature relating to burns associated with air-fresheners. The mechanism and treatment of these types of injuries are also described. A 44 year-old female was admitted under the care of the burns team following burns secondary to an exploding air-freshener canister. The patient sustained burns to the face, thorax and arms resulting in a seven-day hospital admission. The burns were treated conservatively. To our knowledge this is one of the few documented cases of burns as a result of air-fresheners. As they become more ubiquitous, we anticipate the incidence of such cases to increase. As such, they pose a potential public health concern on a massive scale.

  18. Waste incineration and immobilization for nuclear facilities. Status report, October 1977--March 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, A.J.; Burkhardt, S.C.; Ledford, J.A.; Williams, P.M.

    1979-01-01

    Fluidized bed incineration and processes for immobilization of wastes generated at nuclear facilities are undergoing development. After minor piping modifications to eliminate dust collecting points, a pilot plant fluidized bed incinerator run of 225 continuous hours was successfully completed in a demonstration of component reliability. Vitrification of incinerator ash and other wastes is now being accomplished using a pilot scale unit developed as a continuous flow process

  19. Incineration of hazardous and low-level radioactive waste by a small generator. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dwight, C.C.

    1984-10-01

    The results from Arizona State University's study of the feasibility of a small generator incinerating low-level radioactive waste in a pathological incinerator are reported. The research included various aspects of environmental impact, public relations, cost versus benefit, and licensing procedures. Three years of work resulted in a license amendment authorizing the University to incinerate certain hazardous and low-level radioactive wastes. 13 references, 6 figures, 16 tables

  20. Development of Mitsui/Juelich Incineration System and hydro-thermal ash solidification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, S.; Kamada, S.; Nakamori, Y.; Katakura, M.; Yamazaki, N.

    1988-01-01

    This paper summarizes the developing program for Mitsui/Juelich Incinerated System combined with Hydrothermal ash solidification. The system is an integrated one and capable for volume reduction of various kind of radioactive waste and safe disposal of residual incinerator ash. The system also has an advantage of reducing construction and operation cost. An outline of the incineration plant is also presented in this paper

  1. Dampak Pengolahan Limbah Padat Medis pada Petugas Incinerator di RSUP H. Adam Malik Tahun 2014

    OpenAIRE

    Darwin

    2016-01-01

    Adam Malik Central General Hospital causes some complaints from the incinerator operators such as wounded by spuit needles, wounded by broken glasses, and difficult to breathe because they inhale incinerator smoke or gas in the medical solid waste. Therefore, job safety and health in the hospital, especially in managing medical solid waste should be done. The research was qualitative which was aimed to analyze the effect of K3 (Job safety and health) n incinerator operators at H. Adam ...

  2. UK: Technical data for waste incineration background for modelling of product-specific emissions in a life cycle assessment context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    with the disposal of a product through waste incineration. Based on knowledge of the material composition of the product and the technology applied in the waste incineration plant, the model estimates input of energy and auxiliary materials required for the incineration of the product and generation of energy...... and output of emissions to the environment caused by the incineration. The work has been performed as part of the EUREKA project EUROENVIRON 1296: LCAGAPS, sponsored by the Danish Agency for Industry and Trade. This report presents a compilation of technical data on waste incineration that serve...... as background for a model of incineration processes to be used in the inventory analysis of LCA....

  3. Environmental impact assessment of the incineration of municipal solid waste with auxiliary coal in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Yan; Xing, Wei; Lu, Wenjing

    2012-01-01

    The environmental impacts of waste incineration with auxiliary coal were investigated using the life-cycle-based software, EASEWASTE, based on the municipal solid waste (MSW) management system in Shuozhou City. In the current system, MSW is collected, transported, and incinerated with 250kg of co...... political reduction targets. Results indicate that heavy metal and acidic gas emissions should be given more attention in waste incineration. This study provides scientific support for the management of MSW systems dominated by incineration with auxiliary coal in China.......The environmental impacts of waste incineration with auxiliary coal were investigated using the life-cycle-based software, EASEWASTE, based on the municipal solid waste (MSW) management system in Shuozhou City. In the current system, MSW is collected, transported, and incinerated with 250kg of coal...... per ton of waste. Based on observed environmental impacts of incineration, fossil CO2 and heavy metals were primary contributors to global warming and ecotoxicity in soil, respectively. Compared with incinerators using excess coal, incineration with adequate coal presents significant benefits...

  4. Operational testing of an electrically fired Pu-238 waste incineration process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmes, H.; Charlesworth, D.L.

    1987-01-01

    Combustible 238 Pu waste is generated from normal operation and decommissioning activity at the Savannah River Plant and is being retrievably stored at the Plant. An electrically fired, two-stage incineration process is being developed to use incineration to process and recovery plutonium from the waste. A prototype incinerator is being tested to assess its capability to be remotely operated and maintained. Technical development is focusing on continuous feeding, vacuum control, remote operability and mechanical integrity of the system, ash burnout, and life of the belt in the primary incinerator chamber. 6 figs., 5 tabs

  5. Opportunities for artificial intelligence application in computer- aided management of mixed waste incinerator facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivera, A.L.; Ferrada, J.J.; Singh, S.P.N.

    1992-01-01

    The Department of Energy/Oak Ridge Field Office (DOE/OR) operates a mixed waste incinerator facility at the Oak Ridge K-25 Site. It is designed for the thermal treatment of incinerable liquid, sludge, and solid waste regulated under the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). This facility, known as the TSCA Incinerator, services seven DOE/OR installations. This incinerator was recently authorized for production operation in the United States for the processing of mixed (radioactively contaminated-chemically hazardous) wastes as regulated under TSCA and RCRA. Operation of the TSCA Incinerator is highly constrained as a result of the regulatory, institutional, technical, and resource availability requirements. These requirements impact the characteristics and disposition of incinerator residues, limits the quality of liquid and gaseous effluents, limit the characteristics and rates of waste feeds and operating conditions, and restrict the handling of the waste feed inventories. This incinerator facility presents an opportunity for applying computer technology as a technical resource for mixed waste incinerator operation to facilitate promoting and sustaining a continuous performance improvement process while demonstrating compliance. Demonstrated computer-aided management systems could be transferred to future mixed waste incinerator facilities

  6. Design of municipal solid waste incinerator for use in semi-arid regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. B. Oumarou

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper treats the design of a municipal solid waste incinerator suited to the semiarid regions with northern Nigeria and Niger Republic in West Africa as the study area. Proximate and ultimate analyses results from the solid waste were used as basis for calculations, using standard formulas and correlations. The calorific value of the solid waste samples in the study area is not high enough to sustain an incineration process and it ranges from 5.024 MJ/kg to 5.867 MJ/kg. For these types of low calorific value fuels, the parallel flow concept was found to be the appropriate type of incinerator. The solid waste to be fed in the incinerator needs to be mixed with 50% of supplementary fuel in the form of readily available bagasse to make it up to the required lower calorific value. Major characteristics of the designed municipal solid waste incinerator were: total volume of incinerator chamber: 82.5 m3, length of the incinerator bed: 11m; width of the incinerator bed: 3m and height of the incinerator chamber: 2.5 m, while the suitable adiabatic flame temperature was found to be 1,587 K.

  7. Evaluation of Heavy Metals Contamination at CFAD Dundurn Resulting from Small-Arms Ammunition Incineration

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thiboutot, S

    2001-01-01

    .... The safety concerns associated with these pollutants are so serious that the United Kingdom requires stringent environmental licensing of ammunition incineration facilities, and several US states...

  8. State of art in incineration technology of radioactive combustible solid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karita, Yoichi

    1984-01-01

    The features of incineration treatment as the method of treating radioactive wastes are the effect of volume reduction and inorganic stabilization (change to ash). The process of incineration treatment is roughly divided into dry process and wet process. But that in practical use is dry incineration by excess air combustion or suppressed combustion. The important things in incineration techniques are the techniques of exhaust gas treatment as well as combustion techniques. In Europe and USA, incineration has been practiced in laboratories and reprocessing plants for low level combustible solids, but the example of application in nuclear power stations is few. In Japan, though the fundamental techniques are based on the introduction from Europe, the incineration treatment of combustible solids has been carried out in laboratories, reprocessing plants, nuclear fuel production facilities and also nuclear power stations. The techniques of solidifying ash by incineration and the techniques of incinerating spent ion exchange resin are actively developed, and the development of the treatment of radioactive wastes in the lump including incineration also is in progress. (Kako, I.)

  9. Mixed incineration of RAIW and liquid scintillator waste after storage for decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naba, K.; Nakazato, K.; Kataoka, K.

    1993-01-01

    Most medical radioactive waste is combustible after radioactive decay. Moreover mixed incineration of LLW with biomedical radioactive waste will lessen radiation exposure to the public. This paper describes the total system flowsheet for the processing of liquid scintillator wastes and radioimmunoassay tube wastes containing iodine 125 (after a two-year storage for decay). The process was tested with a 60 kg/hr capacity incinerator from 1987 to 1991; this has been upgraded to a 150 kg/hr incinerator which is used for nonradioactive biomedical waste incineration as well

  10. Greenlandic Waste Incineration Fly And Bottom Ash As Secondary Resource In Mortar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkelund, Gunvor Marie; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Jensen, Pernille Erland

    2016-01-01

    Today, 900 tons incineration fly ash is shipped abroad annually from Greenland for deposits, whereas the 6,000 tons incineration bottom ash is deposited locally. These incineration ashes could be valuable in concrete production, where the cement has to be shipped to Greenland. For this purpose...... and cement with fly ash. Based on the compressive strength tests, it is found that using Greenlandic incineration ashes in mortar as 5% cement replacement could consume all ash instead of disposals, and could thus turn the ashes into a local resource and simultaneously reduce the import of cement....

  11. Volume reduction of low- and medium-level waste by incineration/calcination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buzonniere, A. de; Gauthey, J.C.

    1993-01-01

    Nuclear installations generate large quantities of low- and medium-level radwaste. This waste comes from various installations in the fuel cycle, reactor operation, research institute, hospitals, nuclear plate dismantling, etc.. TECHNICATOME did the project development work for the incineration plant of PIERRELATE (France) on behalf of COGEMA (Compagnie Generale des d'Etudes Technique). This plant has been in active service since November 1987. In addition, TECHNICATOME was in charge of the incinerator by a turnkey contract. This incinerator was commissioned in 1992. For a number of years, TECHNICATOME has been examining, developing and producing incineration and drying/calcination installations. They are used for precessing low- and medium-level radwaste

  12. Epidemiology and outcomes of pediatric burns over 35 years at Parkland Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeman, Melody R; Hodgman, Erica I; Burris, Agnes; Wolf, Steven E; Arnoldo, Brett D; Kowalske, Karen J; Phelan, Herb A

    2016-02-01

    Since opening its doors in 1962, the Parkland Burn Center has played an important role in improving the care of burned children through basic and clinical research while also sponsoring community prevention programs. The aim of our study was to retrospectively analyze the characteristics and outcomes of pediatric burns at a single institution over 35 years. The institutional burn database, which contains data from January 1974 until August 2010, was retrospectively reviewed. Patients older than 18 years of age were excluded. Patient age, cause of burn, total body surface area (TBSA), depth of burn, and patient outcomes were collected. Demographics were compared with regional census data. Over 35 years, 5748 pediatric patients were admitted with a thermal injury. Males comprised roughly two-thirds (66.2%) of admissions. Although the annual admission rate has risen, the incidence of pediatric burn admissions, particularly among Hispanic and African American children has declined. The most common causes of admission were scald (42%), flame (29%), and contact burns (10%). Both the median length of hospitalization and burn size have decreased over time (r(2)=0.75 and 0.62, respectively). Mortality was significantly correlated with inhalation injury, size of burn, and history of abuse. It was negatively correlated with year of admission. Over 35 years in North Texas, the median burn size and incidence of pediatric burn admissions has decreased. Concomitantly, length of stay and mortality have also decreased. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  13. Process control in municipal solid waste incinerators: survey and assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Asri, R; Baxter, D

    2004-06-01

    As there is only rare and scattered published information about the process control in industrial incineration facilities for municipal solid waste (MSW), a survey of the literature has been supplemented by a number of waste incineration site visits in Belgium and The Netherlands, in order to make a realistic assessment of the current status of technology in the area. Owing to the commercial character, and therefore, the confidentiality restrictions imposed by plant builders and many of the operators, much of the information collected has either to be presented in a generalized manner, and in any case anonymously. The survey was focused on four major issues: process control strategy, process control systems, monitors used for process control and finally the correlation between the 850 degrees C/2 s rule in the European waste incineration directive and integrated process control. The process control strategies range from reaching good and stable emissions at the stack to stabilizing and maximizing the energy output from the process. The main indicator to be monitored, in cases in which the focus is controlling emissions, is the oxygen content in the stack. Keeping the oxygen concentration in a determined range (usually between 8 and 12 vol.%) ensures stable and tolerated concentrations of the gaseous emissions. In the case for which stabilization of energy production is the principal aim, the main controlled parameter is the steam temperature and flow-rate, which is usually related to the fuel energetic input. A lot of other parameters are used as alarm criteria, the most common of which is the carbon monoxide concentration. The process control systems used most commonly feature partially automated classical proportional integral derivative (PID) controllers. New and innovative process control systems, such as fuzzy-logic control systems, are still unknown to most plant managers while their performance is reported to be unsatisfactory in plants in which such systems

  14. Plasma-thermal processing and incineration of wastes in a shaft incinerator with a combustible filtering material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalitko, V. A.; Mossé, A. L.

    2000-09-01

    The authors report the basic technological principles and the special features of a method of combined plasma-thermal processing and incineration of harmful wastes in a shaft incinerator under a layer of the charge of such a well-filtering and well-combustible material as wood sawdust, which absorbs up to 99% of the aerosols of waste gases by fixing and concentrating them in the ash. A calculated-analytical estimate of the filtration properties of wood sawdust is obtained as a function of its dispersity, the thickness of the charge layer, and the filtration rate of the waste gases. Determination is made of the optimum design relations and the parameters of charging of a filtering material under different conditions of processing of wastes, including moistening and impregnation of wood sawdust by an aqueous solution of sorbents to absorb harmful metals. The calculated results are compared and demonstrate consistency with the data on the filtration properties of wood sawdust in other technologies, including thermal processing of radioactive wastes in a similar shaft incinerator.

  15. Conditioning of alpha and beta-gamma ashes of incinerator, obtained by radioactive wastes incinerating and encapsulation in several matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kertesz, C.J.; Chenavas, P.R.; Auffret, L.

    1993-01-01

    In this final report, the work carried out, and the results, obtained on the ash incinerator conditioning study, by means of encapsulation in several matrices, are presented. Three encapsulation matrices were checked: - a ternary cement, containing OPC, blast furnace slag and flying ash, - a two component epoxide system, - an epoxide-cement compound matrix. Three ash categories were employed: - real alpha ash, coming from plutonium bearing wastes, - ash, from inactive combustible waste, obtained by treatment in an incinerator prototype, - ash coming from inactive waste incineration plant. Using three different matrices, the encapsulated form properties were determined: at the laboratory scale, the encapsulating formulation was established, and physico mechanical data were obtained, - on active encapsulated forms, containing a calculated amount of 238 Pu, a radiolysis study was performed in order to measure the composition and volume of the radiolytic gas flow, - at the industrial scale, a pilot plant operating the polyvalent encapsulating process, was designed and put into service. Bench-scale experiments were done, on alpha ash embedded forms using the modified sulphur cement matrix as embedding agent. 4 refs., 30 figs., 27 tabs

  16. APPLICATION OF PULSE COMBUSTION TO INCINERATION OF LIQUID HAZARDOUS WASTE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of a study to determine the effect of acoustic pulsations on the steady-state operation of a pulse combustor burning liquid hazardous waste. A horizontal tunnel furnace was retrofitted with a liquid injection pulse combustor that burned No. 2 fuel oil. Th...

  17. Metallic elements fractionation in municipal solid waste incineration residues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalski, Piotr R.; Kasina, Monika; Michalik, Marek

    2016-04-01

    Municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) residues are represented by three main materials: bottom ash, fly ash and air pollution control (APC) residues. Among them ˜80 wt% is bottom ash. All of that materials are products of high temperature (>1000° C) treatment of waste. Incineration process allows to obtain significant reduction of waste mass (up to 70%) and volume (up to 90%) what is commonly used in waste management to reduce the amount need to be landfilled or managed in other way. Incineration promote accumulation non-combustible fraction of waste, which part are metallic elements. That type of concentration is object of concerns about the incineration residues impact on the environment and also gives the possibility of attempts to recover them. Metallic elements are not equally distributed among the materials. Several factors influence the process: melting points, volatility and place and forms of metallic occurrence in the incinerated waste. To investigate metallic elements distribution in MSWI residues samples from one of the biggest MSW incineration plant in Poland were collected in 2015. Chemical analysis with emphasis on the metallic elements content were performed using inductively coupled plasma optical emission (ICP-OES) and mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The bottom ash was a SiO2-CaO-Al2O3-Fe2O3-Na2O rich material, whereas fly ash and APC residues were mostly composed of CaO and SiO2. All of the materials were rich in amorphous phase occurring together with various, mostly silicate crystalline phases. In a mass of bottom ash 11 wt% were metallic elements but also in ashes 8.5 wt% (fly ash) and ˜4.5 wt% (APC residues) of them were present. Among the metallic elements equal distribution between bottom and fly ash was observed for Al (˜3.85 wt%), Mn (770 ppm) and Ni (˜65 ppm). In bottom ash Fe (5.5 wt%), Cr (590 ppm) and Cu (1250 ppm) were concentrated. These values in comparison to fly ash were 5-fold higher for Fe, 3-fold for Cu and 1.5-fold for

  18. Prescribed burning symposium

    Science.gov (United States)

    USDA Forest Service Southeastern Forest Experiment Station

    1971-01-01

    The custom of annual burning of the woods from Colonial times onward is a subject of more interest, perhaps, to ecologists and social scientists than it is to foresters. The important point to us is that it had become a well-settled folkway by the time large-scale lumbering began in the southern pineries about 1890. Before this lumbering began, the light annual fires...

  19. Burn Wound Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-09-01

    generalized. Clinically, the like- controlled Pseudomonas burn wound infection in most lihood of septicemia appears to increase as the area of patients (2,4...31 patients, dida, Coccidiodes, Phycomyces, and Rhizopus . In 69 of pneumonia was the primary septic process in 27 (20 of these 75 patients (92%), the...carried out as described above and appropriate systemic anti- to which the invading organisms were sensitive and fungal agents are employed to control

  20. Fungal Burn Wound Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    Aspergillus), Blasto- T he use of effective topical chemotherapeutic agents to myces (Candida), and Zygomycetes (Mucor, Rhizopus ).6 reduce...below the infected burn wound . If the infection was controlled by these measures and the patient’s condition permit- ted, the involved area was...species, 18%; Mucor species and Rhizopus species, acetate in the morning and silver sulfadiazine in the evening. Prophy- 9.1%; and Microspora species and

  1. Assessing burn depth in tattooed burn lesions with LASCA Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krezdorn, N.; Limbourg, A.; Paprottka, F.J.; Könneker; Ipaktchi, R.; Vogt, P.M

    2016-01-01

    Summary Tattoos are on the rise, and so are patients with tattooed burn lesions. A proper assessment with regard to burn depth is often impeded by the tattoo dye. Laser speckle contrast analysis (LASCA) is a technique that evaluates burn lesions via relative perfusion analysis. We assessed the effect of tattoo skin pigmentation on LASCA perfusion imaging in a multicolour tattooed patient. Depth of burn lesions in multi-coloured tattooed and untattooed skin was assessed using LASCA. Relative perfusion was measured in perfusion units (PU) and compared to various pigment colours, then correlated with the clinical evaluation of the lesion. Superficial partial thickness burn (SPTB) lesions showed significantly elevated perfusion units (PU) compared to normal skin; deep partial thickness burns showed decreased PU levels. PU of various tattoo pigments to normal skin showed either significantly lower values (blue, red, pink) or significantly increased values (black) whereas orange and yellow pigment showed values comparable to normal skin. In SPTB, black and blue pigment showed reduced perfusion; yellow pigment was similar to normal SPTB burn. Deep partial thickness burn (DPTB) lesions in tattoos did not show significant differences to normal DPTB lesions for black, green and red. Tattoo pigments alter the results of perfusion patterns assessed with LASCA both in normal and burned skin. Yellow pigments do not seem to interfere with LASCA assessment. However proper determination of burn depth both in SPTB and DPTB by LASCA is limited by the heterogenic alterations of the various pigment colours. PMID:28149254

  2. Burning mouth syndrome: etiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerchiari, Dafne Patrícia; de Moricz, Renata Dutra; Sanjar, Fernanda Alves; Rapoport, Priscila Bogar; Moretti, Giovana; Guerra, Marja Michelin

    2006-01-01

    The Burning Mouth Syndrome (BMS) is an oral mucosa pain--with or without inflammatory signs--without any specific lesion. It is mostly observed in women aged 40-60 years. This pain feels like a moderate/severe burning, and it occurs more frequently on the tongue, but it may also be felt at the gingiva, lips and jugal mucosa. It may worsen during the day, during stress and fatigue, when the patient speaks too much, or through eating of spicy/hot foods. The burning can be diminished with cold food, work and leisure. The goal of this review article is to consider possible BMS etiologies and join them in 4 groups to be better studied: local, systemic, emotional and idiopathic causes of pain. Knowing the different diagnoses of this syndrome, we can establish a protocol to manage these patients. Within the local pain group, we must investigate dental, allergic and infectious causes. Concerning systemic causes we need to look for connective tissue diseases, endocrine disorders, neurological diseases, nutritional deficits and salivary glands alterations that result in xerostomia. BMS etiology may be of difficult diagnosis, many times showing more than one cause for oral pain. A detailed interview, general physical examination, oral cavity and oropharynx inspection, and lab exams are essential to avoid a try and error treatment for these patients.

  3. Determination of biomass burning emission factors. Methods and results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delmas, R.; Lacaux, J.P.; Brocard, D.

    1995-01-01

    Biomass burning, in a broad sense, encompasses different burning practices, including open and confined burnings, and different types of vegetation. Emission factors of gaseous or particulate trace compounds are directly dependent both on the fuel type and the combustion process. Emission factors are generally calculated by stoichiometric considerations using the carbon mass balance method, applied either to combustion chamber experiments or to field experiments based on ground-level measurements or aircraft sampling in smoke plumes. There have been a number of experimental studies in the last 10 years to investigate wildfires in tropical, temperate, or boreal regions. This article presents an overview of measurement methods and experimental data on emission factors of reactive or radiatively active trace compounds, including trace gases and particles. It focuses on fires in tropical regions, that is, forest and savanna fires, agricultural burns, charcoal production, use of fuel wood and charcoal combustion. 6 figs., 8 tabs., 65 refs

  4. Secondary combustion system for wood burning stove

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    von Conta, P.E.W.

    1986-12-16

    This patent describes an improved secondary combustion system for combusting the exhaust gases exiting from a fire box in a wood burning stove comprising: an insulated conduit defining an exhaust passageway leading from an intake opening to an exit opening; screen means interposed across the exhaust passageway in the vicinity of the intake opening to impart a rapid acceleration to a gas stream entering the exhaust passageway; rotation means to impart a rotation to the gas stream in a first portion of the exhaust passageway; counter-rotation means to impart a counter-rotation to the gas stream in a second portion of the exhaust passageway; deceleration means to decelerate the gas stream in the second portion of the exhaust passageway; and secondary air means to inject a source of secondary air into the exhaust passageway.

  5. The characterisation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons emissions from burning of different firewood species in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zou, Linda Y.; Zhang Weidong; Atkiston, Steven

    2003-01-01

    Emission levels for PAHs varied with the type of wood burned. - Four kinds of woods used for residential heating in Australia were selected and burned under two burning conditions in a domestic wood heater installed in a laboratory. The selected wood species included pine (Pinus radiata), red gum (Eucalyptus camaldulensis), sugar gum (Eucalyptus cladocalyx) and yellow box (Eucalyptus melliodora). The two different burning conditions represented fast burning and slow burning, with the air inlet of the combustion chamber respectively 'full open' and 'half open'. By sampling and analysing particulate and gaseous emissions from the burning of each load of wood under defined experimental conditions, PAHs emissions and their profiles in the particulate and gaseous phases were obtained. 16 species out of the 18 selected PAHs were detected. Of these, seven species were detected in the gaseous phase and most were lower molecular weight compounds. Similarly, more than 10 species of PAHs were detected in the particulate phase and these were mostly heavier molecular weight compounds. Under both burning conditions, emission levels for total PAHs and total genotoxic PAHs were the highest for pine and lowest for sugar gum, with red gum being the second highest, followed by yellow box. Using the specific sampling method, gaseous PAHs accounted for above 90% mass fraction of total PAHs in comparison to particulate PAHs (10%). The majority of the genotoxic PAHs were present in the particulate phase. PAHs emission levels in slow burning conditions were generally higher than those in fast burning conditions

  6. A Comparison of Organic Emissions from Hazardous Waste Incinerators Versus the 1990 Toxics Release Inventory Air Releases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Incineration is often the preferred technology for disposing of hazardous waste and remediating Superfund sites. The effective implementation of this technology is frequently impeded by strong public opposition to hazardous waste incineration (HWI). One of the reasons cited for t...

  7. Recovering metals from sewage sludge, waste incineration residues and similar substances with hyperaccumulative plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisser, Johannes; Gattringer, Heinz; Iordanopoulos-Kisser, Monika

    2015-04-01

    observed in so-called hyperaccumulating metalophytes, which are studied for its suitability to be incorporated in metal recovery processes of elements that diffusely occur in different waste streams. In a systematic series of tests under laboratory conditions the accumulation behaviour for many different elements including rare earth metals of a selection of candidate plants growing on sewage sludge, incineration residues and industrial leftovers was assessed (quantitavely and qualitatively). Growth performance of these plants as well as the most suitable substrate properties were evaluated. The results of this project provided the groundwork for further research and development steps that might bring to practical implementation a technological option with potentially huge benefits: The recovery of valuable metal resources from sewage sludge, incineration ashes and metal rich wastewaters by environmentally friendly and low energy means. Simultaneous decontamination of the input substrates from heavy metals, opening the possibility for these nutrient streams to be redirected to biological regeneration processes (for example use as fertilizers in agriculture) without fear of polluting soils with heavy metal loads. Generation of biomass on contaminated substrates can yield usable energy surplus through incineration during or after processing.

  8. Environmental impacts of a large-scale incinerator with mixed MSW of high water content from a LCA perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Ziyang; Bilitewski, Bernd; Zhu, Nanwen; Chai, Xiaoli; Li, Bing; Zhao, Youcai

    2015-04-01

    Large-scale incinerators are applied widely as a result of the heavy burden of municipal solid waste (MSW) generated, while strong opposition is arising from the public living nearby. A large-scale working incineration plant of 1500 ton/day was chosen for evaluation using life cycle assessment. It was found that the corresponding human toxicity impacts via soil (HTs), human toxicity impacts via water (HTw) and human toxicity impacts via air (HTa) categories are 0.213, 2.171, and 0.012 personal equivalents (PE), and global warming (GW100) and nutrient enrichment (NE) impacts are 0.002 and 0.001 PE per ton of waste burned for this plant. Heavy metals in flue gas, such as Hg and Pb, are the two dominant contributors to the toxicity impact categories, and energy recovery could reduce the GW100 and NE greatly. The corresponding HTs, HTw and HTa decrease to 0.087, 0.911 and 0.008 PE, and GW100 turns into savings of -0.007 PE due to the increase of the heating value from 3935 to 5811 kJ/kg, if a trommel screener of 40 mm mesh size is used to pre-separate MSW. MSW sorting and the reduction of water content by physical pressure might be two promising pre-treatment methods to improve the combustion performance, and the application of stricter standards for leachate discharge and the flue gas purification process are two critical factors for improvement of the environmental profile identified in this work. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Technical data for waste incineration - background for modelling of product-specific emissions in a life cycle assessment context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erichsen, Hanne; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    with the disposal of a product through waste incineration. Based on knowledge of the material composition of the product and the technology applied in the waste incineration plant, the model estimates input of energy and auxiliary materials required for the incineration of the product and generation of energy...... and output of emissions to the environment caused by the incineration. The work has been performed as part of the EUREKA project EUROENVIRON 1296: LCAGAPS, sponsored by the Danish Agency for Industry and Trade....

  10. [Emission factors and PM chemical composition study of biomass burning in the Yangtze River Delta region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xi-Bin; Huang, Cheng; Lou, Sheng-Rong; Qiao, Li-Ping; Wang, Hong-Li; Zhou, Min; Chen, Ming-hua; Chen, Chang-Hong; Wang, Qian; Li, Gui-Ling; Li, Li; Huang, Hai-Ying; Zhang, Gang-Feng

    2014-05-01

    The emission characteristics of five typical crops, including wheat straw, rice straw, oil rape straw, soybean straw and fuel wood, were investigated to explore the gas and particulates emission of typical biomass burning in Yangzi-River-Delta area. The straws were tested both by burning in stove and by burning in the farm with a self-developed measurement system as open burning sources. Both gas and fine particle pollutants were measured in this study as well as the chemical composition of fine particles. The results showed that the average emission factors of CO, NO, and PM2,5 in open farm burning were 28.7 g.kg -1, 1.2 g.kg-1 and 2.65 g kg-1 , respectively. Due to insufficient burning in the low oxygen level environment, the emission factors of stove burning were higher than those of open farm burning, which were 81.9 g kg-1, 2. 1 g.kg -1 and 8.5 gkg -1 , respectively. Oil rape straw had the highest emission factors in all tested straws samples. Carbonaceous matter, including organic carbon(OC) and element carbon(EC) , was the foremost component of PM2, 5from biomass burning. The average mass fractions of OC and EC were (38.92 +/- 13.93)% and (5.66 +/-1.54)% by open farm burning and (26.37 +/- 10. 14)% and (18.97 +/- 10.76)% by stove burning. Water soluble ions such as Cl-and K+ had a large contribution. The average mass fractions of CI- and K+ were (13.27 +/-6. 82)% and (12.41 +/- 3.02)% by open farm burning, and were (16.25 +/- 9.34)% and (13.62 +/- 7.91)% by stove burning. The K +/OC values of particles from wheat straw, rice straw, oil rape straw and soybean straw by open farm burning were 0. 30, 0. 52, 0. 49 and 0. 15, respectively, which can be used to evaluate the influence on the regional air quality in YRD area from biomass burning and provide direct evidence for source apportionment.

  11. New alloys for high temperature applications in incineration plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinz, H.P.; Koeck, W.

    1993-01-01

    The hot components of incineration plants exposed to temperatures between 800 and 1,200 C like boilers, grates, thermocouple sheaths and nozzles suffer from severe joint slag and hot gas attack. Considering corrosion resistance only, ceramic materials show excellent performance under these conditions. But because of the ceramics' brittleness metallic materials exhibit an overall advantage although being corroded faster. Within the class of suitable metals PM-ODS (oxide dispersion strengthened)-superalloys based on iron or nickel and PM-Cr-base-alloys are among the most promising ones. This can be derived from various laboratory and field tests which were performed up to now. Laboratory oxidation tests indicate that these new alloys can be used at temperatures up to 1,300 C in hot air. High temperature erosion tests with quartz particles show that PM 2,000 (Fe 19,5Cr5,5Al0,5Ti0,5Y 2 O 3 ) and Ducropur (99.7% Cr) have almost the same resistance against particle impact as alumina or zirconia at 900 C. The corresponding laboratory and field tests under typical joint slag and hot gas conditions at temperatures up to 1,200 C show good results for PM 2,000 and already lead to the actual application of boiler components. Extensive testing has been performed in the field of municipal waste incineration. Depending on temperature, slag and hot gas composition selected grades of the PM-ODS and Cr-base-alloy-group give satisfactory results in the field tests. In the pulp industry black liquor, an alkaline solution with high concentrations of organic waste, is incinerated for the recovery of caustic soda. Flame sprayed coatings of Ducrolloy Cr50Ni give a sixfold increase of the lifetime of the burner nozzles compared to unprotected stainless steel

  12. Recovery and distribution of incinerated aluminum packaging waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Y; Bakker, M C M; de Heij, P G

    2011-12-01

    A study was performed into relations between physical properties of aluminum packaging waste and the corresponding aluminum scraps in bottom ash from three typical incineration processes. First, Dutch municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) bottom ash was analyzed for the identifiable beverage can alloy scraps in the +2mm size ranges using chemical detection and X-ray fluorescence. Second, laboratory-scale pot furnace tests were conducted to investigate the relations between aluminum packaging in base household waste and the corresponding metal recovery rates. The representative packaging wastes include beverage cans, foil containers and thin foils. Third, small samples of aluminum packaging waste were incinerated in a high-temperature oven to determine leading factors influencing metal recovery rates. Packaging properties, combustion conditions, presence of magnesium and some specific contaminants commonly found in household waste were investigated independently in the high-temperature oven. In 2007, the bottom ash (+2mm fraction) from the AEB MSWI plant was estimated to be enriched by 0.1 wt.% of aluminum beverage cans scrap. Extrapolating from this number, the recovery potential of all eleven MSWI plants in the Netherlands is estimated at 720 ton of aluminum cans scrap. More than 85 wt.% of this estimate would end up in +6mm size fractions and were amenable for efficient recycling. The pot furnace tests showed that the average recovery rate of metallic aluminum typically decreases from beverage cans (93 wt.%) to foil containers (85 wt.%) to thin foils (77 wt.%). The oven tests showed that in order of decreasing impact the main factors promoting metallic aluminum losses are the packaging type, combustion temperature, residence time and salt contamination. To a lesser degree magnesium as alloying element, smaller packaging size and basic contaminations may also promote losses. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Suitability of oil bioremediation in an Artic soil using surplus heating from an incineration facility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Couto, Nazare; Fritt-Rasmussen, Janne; Jensen, Pernille Erland

    2014-01-01

    A 168-day period field study, carried out in Sisimiut, Greenland, assessed the potential to enhance soil remediation with the surplus heating from an incineration facility. This approach searches a feasible ex situ remediation process that could be extended throughout the year with low costs. Ind...... with low maintenance and using "waste heating" from an incineration facility....

  14. Life cycle assessment of sewage sludge co-incineration in a coal-based power station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jingmin; Xu, Changqing; Hong, Jinglan; Tan, Xianfeng; Chen, Wei

    2013-09-01

    A life cycle assessment was conducted to evaluate the environmental and economic effects of sewage sludge co-incineration in a coal-fired power plant. The general approach employed by a coal-fired power plant was also assessed as control. Sewage sludge co-incineration technology causes greater environmental burden than does coal-based energy production technology because of the additional electricity consumption and wastewater treatment required for the pretreatment of sewage sludge, direct emissions from sludge incineration, and incinerated ash disposal processes. However, sewage sludge co-incineration presents higher economic benefits because of electricity subsidies and the income generating potential of sludge. Environmental assessment results indicate that sewage sludge co-incineration is unsuitable for mitigating the increasing pressure brought on by sewage sludge pollution. Reducing the overall environmental effect of sludge co-incineration power stations necessitates increasing net coal consumption efficiency, incinerated ash reuse rate, dedust system efficiency, and sludge water content rate. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. 78 FR 34918 - Direct Final Approval of Sewage Sludge Incinerators State Plan for Designated Facilities and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-11

    ... Approval of Sewage Sludge Incinerators State Plan for Designated Facilities and Pollutants; Indiana AGENCY... to control air pollutants from ``Sewage Sludge Incinerators'' (SSI). The Indiana Department of... unit,'' in part, as any device that combusts sewage sludge for the purpose of reducing the volume of...

  16. Characterization of deposits and their influence on corrosion in waste incineration plants in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montgomery, Melanie; Larsen, OH

    2001-01-01

    A program has been initiated in Denmark to investigate the aggressive environment in various waste incineration plants. The results described are the preliminary results from one waste incineration plant. Deposits and corrosion products have been removed from various locations in the boiler...

  17. Flaring versus thermal incineration of waste gases in the oil and gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smolarski, G.M.

    1999-01-01

    The efficient combustion of waste gases at oil processing plants, battery or well sites is discussed. Several problem situations are examined, field test results are reviewed, and custom design systems are explained including modifications to systems to conserve fuel. It is shown that combustion of waste gases in fuel efficient thermal incinerators is a practical means of disposal, particularly for sour or toxic gas of low heating value. These gases contain noxious compounds that may cause odours or adverse health effects. Results of a field tests of a portable in-situ incinerator show that compared to flaring (to oxide waste gas), incineration is a more efficient form of waste management. Emission tests also prove the superior performance of incineration. The feasibility of incinerating oil storage tank vapours was also demonstrated. Tests were also conducted with a fuel-efficient Glycol Still Off-Gas Incinerator which was developed to control toxic waste emissions. Glycol dehydration removes water vapour from natural gas. The key compounds that are removed by glycol are aromatic hydrocarbons or BTEX compounds (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene), and sulphur compounds. The main design considerations for any incinerator are temperature, turbulence and residence time. An incinerator exit temperature of 760 degrees C is generally needed to reduce sulphur compounds. 2 refs., 8 tabs., 7 figs

  18. The estimation of N2O emissions from municipal solid waste incineration facilities: The Korea case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Sangwon; Choi, Jun-Ho; Park, Jinwon

    2011-01-01

    The greenhouse gases (GHGs) generated in municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration are carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), methane (CH 4 ), and nitrous oxide (N 2 O). In South Korea case, the total of GHGs from the waste incineration facilities has been increasing at an annual rate 10%. In these view, waste incineration facilities should consider to reduce GHG emissions. This study is designed to estimate the N 2 O emission factors from MSW incineration plants, and calculate the N 2 O emissions based on these factors. The three MSW incinerators examined in this study were either stoker or both stoker and rotary kiln facilities. The N 2 O concentrations from the MSW incinerators were measured using gas chromatography-electron capture detection (GC-ECD) equipment. The average of the N 2 O emission factors for the M01 plant, M02 plant, and M03 plant are 71, 75, and 153 g-N 2 O/ton-waste, respectively. These results showed a significant difference from the default values of the intergovernmental panel on climate change (IPCC), while approaching those values derived in Japan and Germany. Furthermore, comparing the results of this study to the Korea Energy Economics Institute (KEEI) (2007) data on waste incineration, N 2 O emissions from MSW incineration comprised 19% of the total N 2 O emissions.

  19. The estimation of N2O emissions from municipal solid waste incineration facilities: The Korea case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sangwon; Choi, Jun-Ho; Park, Jinwon

    2011-08-01

    The greenhouse gases (GHGs) generated in municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration are carbon dioxide (CO(2)), methane (CH(4)), and nitrous oxide (N(2)O). In South Korea case, the total of GHGs from the waste incineration facilities has been increasing at an annual rate 10%. In these view, waste incineration facilities should consider to reduce GHG emissions. This study is designed to estimate the N(2)O emission factors from MSW incineration plants, and calculate the N(2)O emissions based on these factors. The three MSW incinerators examined in this study were either stoker or both stoker and rotary kiln facilities. The N(2)O concentrations from the MSW incinerators were measured using gas chromatography-electron capture detection (GC-ECD) equipment. The average of the N(2)O emission factors for the M01 plant, M02 plant, and M03 plant are 71, 75, and 153g-N(2)O/ton-waste, respectively. These results showed a significant difference from the default values of the intergovernmental panel on climate change (IPCC), while approaching those values derived in Japan and Germany. Furthermore, comparing the results of this study to the Korea Energy Economics Institute (KEEI) (2007) data on waste incineration, N(2)O emissions from MSW incineration comprised 19% of the total N(2)O emissions. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. GIS analysis in the siting of incinerators as a panacea for solid waste ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Solid waste represents a key issue that threatens environmental quality in Kaduna metropolis. One of the most viable options to treat such an issue is to incinerate the collected solid waste, which can reduce the cost of solid waste disposal as well as pollution and generate electricity. Despite the significance of incineration, ...

  1. Skin Burn Associated With Photochemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazyakan, Emre; Hirche, Christoph; Engel, Holger; Kneser, Ulrich; Bigdeli, Amir K

    2018-04-01

    psoralen and ultraviolet A (PUVA) phototherapy (PT) has become a standard treatment for several severe skin diseases. Photosensitization is done by oral psoralen intake. In minor cases, PUVA can lead to skin changes like erythema and hyperpigmentation. However, it can also lead to severe burn injuries when exposed to extensive UV light. This makes the treatment in a burn center inevitable. We report the clinical observation of a 38-year-old man presenting with an extensive burn injury caused by sun tanning after PUVA PT. There are just few cases of extensive burns induced by PUVA PT. Prevention becomes manifest in patient information, correct calculation of dosage, evaluation of photosensitivity, and close observation. In cases of severe burn injuries, patients should be referred to a burn center for optimal conservative treatment. Surgical intervention is usually not necessary.

  2. Emergency Care of Pediatric Burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strobel, Ashley M; Fey, Ryan

    2018-05-01

    Although the overall incidence of and mortality rate associated with burn injury have decreased in recent decades, burns remain a significant source of morbidity and mortality in children. Children with major burns require emergent resuscitation. Resuscitation is similar to that for adults, including pain control, airway management, and administration of intravenous fluid. However, in pediatrics, fluid resuscitation is needed for burns greater than or equal to 15% of total body surface area (TBSA) compared with burns greater than or equal to 20% TBSA for adults. Unique to pediatrics is the additional assessment for non-accidental injury and accurate calculation of the percentage of total burned surface area (TBSA) in children with changing body proportions are crucial to determine resuscitation parameters, prognosis, and disposition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Burning Mouth Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Images For Reporters About Us - + Mission Strategic Plan Leadership & Staff Advisory Committees Budget & Congressional Job Openings Diversity Getting to NIDCR Contact Us Advancing the nation's ...

  4. Plutonium dissolution from Rocky Flats Plant incinerator ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delegard, C.H.

    1985-06-01

    Rockwell Hanford Operations (Rockwell) soon will commence recovery of plutonium from Rocky Flats Plant incinerator ash. In preparation for this processing, Rockwell undertook literature and laboratory studies to identify, select and optimize plutonium dissolution methods for treating the ash. Ash reburning, followed by dissolution in nitric acid containing calcium fluoride, was selected as the processing method for the ash. Recommended values of process parameters were identified. Using the selected process, 99.5% plutonium recovery was achieved, leaving about 12.7 wt % heel residue for an equal weight composite of the three ashes tested. 15 refs., 26 figs

  5. Incineration of technological waste contaminated with alpha emitters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otter, C.; Moncouyoux, J.P.; Cartier, R.; Durec, J.P.; Afettouche, R.

    1990-01-01

    A large R and D programme is in progress at the CEA on alpha-bearing waste incineration. The program is developed in the laboratory and a pilot plant including the following aspects: physico-chemical characterization of wastes, study of thermal decomposition of wastes, laboratory study of generated gases (first with inactive then with active wastes), development of an industrial pilot plant with inactive wastes, study of corrosion resistance of material (laboratory and pilot plant), study and qualification of nuclear measurements on wastes, ashes and equipment [fr

  6. Safety and human factors engineering analysis. Heat recovery incinerator installation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-09-01

    This report contains a safety and human factors analysis of the Navy's heat recovery incinerator (HRI) systems. These requirements were based on current military standards and an evaluation of the HRI's at NAS, Jacksonville and NS, Mayport, Fl. The data collected were used to develop preliminary design criteria for future HRIs. The safety analysis lists specific areas where problems can occur and what should be done to prevent injury to plant personnel. The human factors design criteria section lists steps that can be taken to improve personnel and plant operating efficiency. Finally, specific problems that are occurring at NAS, Jacksonville and NS, Mayport are given.

  7. Metallic materials corrosion in the CRNL radwaste incinerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tapping, R.L.; McVey, E.G.; Disney, D.J.

    1987-01-01

    Corrosion coupon evaluation and in-service materials performance for the CRNL waste incinerator has been carried out since 1980. Data are presented to show that types 309, 310 and 446 stainless steel, Alloy 625 and Alloy 333 all perform well in short-term tests in the afterburner environment (850-1000 0 C) but are subject to sigma-phase embrittlement and grain boundary carbide precipitation following long-term exposures. Several alloys performed satisfactorily in the primary chamber (500 0 C), and the material of construction, type 310 stainless steel, continues to provide good service

  8. Volume reduction through incineration of low-activity radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eymeri, J.; Gauthey, J.C.; Chaise, D.; Lafite, G.

    1993-01-01

    The aim of the waste treatment plant, designed by Technicatome (CEA) for an Indonesian Nuclear Research Center, is to reduce through incineration the volume of low-activity radioactive wastes such as technological solids (cotton, PVC, paper board), biological solids (animal bones) and liquids (cutting fluids...). The complete combustion is realized with a total air multi-fuel burner (liquid wastes) and flash pyrolysis-complete combustion (solid wastes). A two stage flue gas filtration system, a flue gas washing system, and an ash recovery system are used. A test platform has been built. 3 figs

  9. Antiseptics for burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Gill; Christie, Janice; Liu, Zhenmi; Westby, Maggie J; Jefferies, Jayne M; Hudson, Thomas; Edwards, Jacky; Mohapatra, Devi Prasad; Hassan, Ibrahim A; Dumville, Jo C

    2017-07-12

    Burn wounds cause high levels of morbidity and mortality worldwide. People with burns are particularly vulnerable to infections; over 75% of all burn deaths (after initial resuscitation) result from infection. Antiseptics are topical agents that act to prevent growth of micro-organisms. A wide range are used with the intention of preventing infection and promoting healing of burn wounds. To assess the effects and safety of antiseptics for the treatment of burns in any care setting. In September 2016 we searched the Cochrane Wounds Specialised Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid MEDLINE (In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations), Ovid Embase, and EBSCO CINAHL. We also searched three clinical trials registries and references of included studies and relevant systematic reviews. There were no restrictions based on language, date of publication or study setting. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that enrolled people with any burn wound and assessed the use of a topical treatment with antiseptic properties. Two review authors independently performed study selection, risk of bias assessment and data extraction. We included 56 RCTs with 5807 randomised participants. Almost all trials had poorly reported methodology, meaning that it is unclear whether they were at high risk of bias. In many cases the primary review outcomes, wound healing and infection, were not reported, or were reported incompletely.Most trials enrolled people with recent burns, described as second-degree and less than 40% of total body surface area; most participants were adults. Antiseptic agents assessed were: silver-based, honey, Aloe Vera, iodine-based, chlorhexidine or polyhexanide (biguanides), sodium hypochlorite, merbromin, ethacridine lactate, cerium nitrate and Arnebia euchroma. Most studies compared antiseptic with a topical antibiotic, primarily silver sulfadiazine (SSD); others compared antiseptic with a non

  10. Marginally Stable Nuclear Burning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strohmayer, Tod E.; Altamirano, D.

    2012-01-01

    Thermonuclear X-ray bursts result from unstable nuclear burning of the material accreted on neutron stars in some low mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs). Theory predicts that close to the boundary of stability oscillatory burning can occur. This marginally stable regime has so far been identified in only a small number of sources. We present Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) observations of the bursting, high- inclination LMXB 4U 1323-619 that reveal for the first time in this source the signature of marginally stable burning. The source was observed during two successive RXTE orbits for approximately 5 ksec beginning at 10:14:01 UTC on March 28, 2011. Significant mHz quasi- periodic oscillations (QPO) at a frequency of 8.1 mHz are detected for approximately 1600 s from the beginning of the observation until the occurrence of a thermonuclear X-ray burst at 10:42:22 UTC. The mHz oscillations are not detected following the X-ray burst. The average fractional rms amplitude of the mHz QPOs is 6.4% (3 - 20 keV), and the amplitude increases to about 8% below 10 keV.This phenomenology is strikingly similar to that seen in the LMXB 4U 1636-53. Indeed, the frequency of the mHz QPOs in 4U 1323-619 prior to the X-ray burst is very similar to the transition frequency between mHz QPO and bursts found in 4U 1636-53 by Altamirano et al. (2008). These results strongly suggest that the observed QPOs in 4U 1323-619 are, like those in 4U 1636-53, due to marginally stable nuclear burning. We also explore the dependence of the energy spectrum on the oscillation phase, and we place the present observations within the context of the spectral evolution of the accretion-powered flux from the source.

  11. Tokamak burn control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sager, G.T.

    1988-06-01

    Research of the fusion plasma thermal instability and its control is reviewed. General models of the thermonuclear plasma are developed. Techniques of stability analysis commonly employed in burn control research are discussed. Methods for controlling the plasma against the thermal instability are reviewed. Emphasis is placed on applications to tokamak confinement concepts. Additional research which extends the results of previous research is suggested. Issues specific to the development of control strategies for mid-term engineering test reactors are identified and addressed. 100 refs., 24 figs., 10 tabs

  12. Perceived fatigue following pediatric burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkerman, Moniek; Mouton, Leonora J; Dijkstra, Froukje; Niemeijer, Anuschka S; van Brussel, Marco; van der Woude, Lucas H V; Disseldorp, Laurien M; Nieuwenhuis, Marianne K

    2017-12-01

    Fatigue is a common consequence of numerous pediatric health conditions. In adult burn survivors, fatigue was found to be a major problem. The current cross-sectional study is aimed at determining the levels of perceived fatigue in pediatric burn survivors. Perceived fatigue was assessed in 23 children and adolescents (15 boys and 8 girls, aged 6-18 years, with burns covering 10-46% of the total body surface area, 1-5 years post burn) using both child self- and parent proxy reports of the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory Multidimensional Fatigue Scale. Outcomes were compared with reference values of non-burned peers. At group level, pediatric burn survivors did not report significantly more symptoms of fatigue than their non-burned peers. Individual assessments showed, however, that four children experienced substantial symptoms of fatigue according to the child self-reports, compared to ten children according to the parent proxy reports. Furthermore, parents reported significantly more symptoms of fatigue than the children themselves. Age, gender, extent of burn, length of hospital stay, and number of surgeries could not predict the level of perceived fatigue post-burn. Our results suggest that fatigue is prevalent in at least part of the pediatric burn population after 1-5 years. However, the fact that parents reported significantly more symptoms of fatigue then the children themselves, hampers evident conclusions. It is essential for clinicians and therapists to consider both perspectives when evaluating pediatric fatigue after burn and to determine who needs special attention, the pediatric burn patient or its parent. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  13. A summary of the National Incinerator Testing and Evaluation Program ash characterization and solidification studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawell, S.E.; Constable, T.W.; Klicius, R.K.

    1991-01-01

    In 1984, Environment Canada established the National Incinerator Testing and Evaluation Program (NITEP) to examine the potential impact of municipal solid waste incineration on the environment. As a part of NITEP, the Wastewater Technology Center (WTC) evaluated the chemical properties and leachability of different types of ashes from various types of MSW incinerators using a battery of laboratory procedures. This paper presents a summary of results generated from the NITEP ash program. Emphasis is placed on the variability of ash characteristics based on ash type, incinerator technology and incinerator operating conditions, as well as major trends in leaching, such as the effect of pH on metal solubility. In addition, the results will be placed in context with the current Canadian federal guidelines and provincial regulations for ash disposal. Finally, the feasibility of solidification as a treatment technique for fly ash will also be discussed

  14. Effect of incineration temperature on phosphorus availability in bio-ash from manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thygesen, A M; Wernberg, O; Skou, E; Sommer, S G

    2011-04-01

    In the near future phosphorus (P) will be a limited resource in high demand. This will increase the incentives for recycling P in animal manure. In this study the dry-matter-rich fraction from slurry separation was incinerated and the P availability of the ash fraction examined. The aim was to adjust incineration temperature to support a high plant-availability of P in ash. The plant-availability of P was approximately halved when the incineration temperature was increased from 400 to 700 degrees C. This decrease in plant-availability was probably due to the formation of hydroxyapatite. Incineration temperatures should therefore be kept below 700 degrees C to ensure a high fertilizer efficiency of P in ash. This may conflict with the energy production, which is optimal at temperatures above 800 degrees C. An alternative to incineration may therefore be thermal gasification of the dry-matter-rich fraction, which can be carried out efficiently at lower temperatures.

  15. Volume reduction and solidification of radioactive waste incineration ash with waste glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koyama, Hidemi; Kobayashi, Masayuki

    2007-01-01

    The low-level radioactive waste generated from research institutions and hospitals etc. is packed into a container and is kept. The volume reduced state or the unprocessed state by incineration or compression processing are used because neither landfill sites nor disposal methods have been fixed. Especially, because the bulk density is low, and it is easy to disperse, the low-level radioactive waste incineration ash incinerated for the volume reduction is a big issue in security, safety, stability in the inventory location. A safe and appropriate disposal processing method is desired. When the low temperature sintering method in the use of the glass bottle cullet was examined, volume reduction and stabilization of low-level radioactive waste incineration ash were verified. The proposed method is useful for the easy treatment of the low-level radioactive waste incineration ash. (author)

  16. Low-level waste incineration: experience at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohrer, H.A.; Dalton, J.D.

    1987-01-01

    The Waste Experimental Reduction Facility (WERF) is a low level radioactive waste treatment facility being operated at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). A key component of the facility is a dual chambered controlled air incinerator with a dry off-gas treatment system. The incinerator began processing radioactive waste in September, 1984. Limited operations continued from that data until October, 1985, at which time all INEL generators began shipping combustible waste for incineration. The incinerator is presently processing all available INEL combustible Dry Active Waste (DAW) (approximately 1700 m 3 per year) operating about five days per month. Performance to date has demonstrated the effectiveness, viability and safety of incineration as a volume reduction method of DAW. 3 figures

  17. Operating experience and data on revolving type fluidized bed incineration plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakayama, J.

    1990-01-01

    In refuse incinerators operating by revolving fluidization (Revolving Type Fluidized Bed Incinerator) a broad range of wastes, from low caloric refuse of high moisture content to high caloric value material including a wide variety of plastics, can be incinerated at high efficiency because the unit is outstanding in terms of distribution of waste in the incinerator bed and uniformity of heat. In addition, its vigorous revolving fluidization action is very effective in pulverizing refuse, so even relatively strict emission standards can be met without fine pre-shredding. Residues are discharged in a clean, dry form free of putrescible material. Data on practical operation of the revolving fluidized bed incinerator are presented in this paper

  18. Future Area Burned in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flannigan, M.D.; Logan, K.A.; Stocks, B.J.; Amiro, B.D.; Skinner, W.R.

    2005-01-01

    Historical relationships between weather, the Canadian fire weather index (FWI) system components and area burned in Canadian ecozones were analysed on a monthly basis in tandem with output from the Canadian and the Hadley Centre GCMs to project future area burned. Temperature and fuel moisture were the variables best related to historical monthly area burned with 36-64% of the variance explained depending on ecozone. Our results suggest significant increases in future area burned although there are large regional variations in fire activity. This was especially true for the Canadian GCM where some ecozones show little change in area burned, however area burned was not projected to decrease in any of the ecozones modelled. On average, area burned in Canada is projected to increase by 74-118% by the end of this century in a 3 x CO2 scenario. These estimates do not explicitly take into account any changes in vegetation, ignitions, fire season length, and human activity (fire management and land use activities) that may influence area burned. However, the estimated increases in area burned would have significant ecological, economic and social impacts for Canada

  19. Live Skin Allograft in the Management of Severe Burns

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    skin substitutes to promote wound healing, reduce pain, and prevent ... into the healing wound as happens with allografts and xenografts (2). ... burns included open flames in two and hot water, hot tea and petrol in one patient each. Both children and one adult had the mothers as skin donors (Figure 1), while two adults had ...

  20. Environmental impact assessment of the incineration of municipal solid waste with auxiliary coal in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yan; Xing, Wei; Lu, Wenjing; Zhang, Xu; Christensen, Thomas H

    2012-10-01

    The environmental impacts of waste incineration with auxiliary coal were investigated using the life-cycle-based software, EASEWASTE, based on the municipal solid waste (MSW) management system in Shuozhou City. In the current system, MSW is collected, transported, and incinerated with 250 kg of coal per ton of waste. Based on observed environmental impacts of incineration, fossil CO(2) and heavy metals were primary contributors to global warming and ecotoxicity in soil, respectively. Compared with incinerators using excess coal, incineration with adequate coal presents significant benefits in mitigating global warming, whereas incineration with a mass of coal can avoid more impacts to acidification, photochemical ozone and nutrient enrichment because of increased electricity substitution and reduced emission from coal power plants. The "Emission standard of air pollutants for thermal power plants (GB13223-2011)" implemented in 2012 introduced stricter policies on controlling SO(2) and NO(x) emissions from coal power plants. Thus, increased use of auxiliary coal during incineration yields fewer avoided impacts on acidification and nutrient enrichment. When two-thirds of ash is source-separated and landfilled, the incineration of rest-waste presents better results on global warming, acidification, nutrient enrichment, and even ecotoxicity in soil. This process is considered a promising solution for MSW management in Shuozhou City. Weighted normalized environmental impacts were assessed based on Chinese political reduction targets. Results indicate that heavy metal and acidic gas emissions should be given more attention in waste incineration. This study provides scientific support for the management of MSW systems dominated by incineration with auxiliary coal in China. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. [Mercury Distribution Characteristics and Atmospheric Mercury Emission Factors of Typical Waste Incineration Plants in Chongqing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Zhen-ya; Su, Hai-tao; Wang, Feng-yang; Zhang, Lei; Wang, Shu-xiao; Yu, Bin

    2016-02-15

    Waste incineration is one of the important atmospheric mercury emission sources. The aim of this article is to explore the atmospheric mercury pollution level of waste incineration industry from Chongqing. This study investigated the mercury emissions from a municipal solid waste incineration plant and a medical waste incineration plant in Chongqing. The exhaust gas samples in these two incineration plants were obtained using USA EPA 30B method. The mercury concentrations in the fly ash and bottom ash samples were analyzed. The results indicated that the mercury concentrations of the municipal solid waste and medical waste incineration plant in Chongqing were (26.4 +/- 22.7) microg x m(-3) and (3.1 +/- 0.8) microg x m(-3) in exhaust gas respectively, (5279.2 +/- 798.0) microg x kg(-1) and (11,709.5 +/- 460.5) microg x kg(-1) in fly ash respectively. Besides, the distribution proportions of the mercury content from municipal solid waste and medical waste in exhaust gas, fly ash, and bottom ash were 34.0%, 65.3%, 0.7% and 32.3%, 67.5%, 0.2% respectively; The mercury removal efficiencies of municipal solid waste and medical waste incineration plants were 66.0% and 67.7% respectively. The atmospheric mercury emission factors of municipal solid waste and medical waste incineration plants were (126.7 +/- 109.0) microg x kg(-1) and (46.5 +/- 12.0) microg x kg(-1) respectively. Compared with domestic municipal solid waste incineration plants in the Pearl River Delta region, the atmospheric mercury emission factor of municipal solid waste incineration plant in Chongqing was lower.

  2. NACP Peatland Landcover Type and Wildfire Burn Severity Maps, Alberta, Canada

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides landcover maps of (1) peatland type (bog, fen, marsh, swamp) with levels of biomass (open, forested) and (2) Burn Severity Index (BSI)...

  3. Regional biomass burning trends in India: Analysis of satellite fire data

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Track Scanning Radiometer (ATSR) sensors over different regions of India during 1998–2009 have been presented. Generally, the activities of open biomass burning show large spatial and temporal variations in India. The highest and lowest ...

  4. Oral Rehydration Therapy in Burn Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-24

    Burn Any Degree Involving 20-29 Percent of Body Surface; Burn Any Degree Involving 30-39 Percent of Body Surface; Burn Any Degree Involving 40-49 Percent of Body Surface; Burn Any Degree Involving 50-59 Percent of Body Surface; Burn Any Degree Involving 60-65 Percent of Body Surface

  5. Prevention and management of outpatient pediatric burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Shannon P; Billmire, David A

    2008-07-01

    Burns are common injuries in the pediatric population, with an estimated 250,000 pediatric burn patients seeking medical care annually. A relative few require inpatient management. This article discusses suggestions for burn prevention, as well as acute burn care and long-term management of small burns.

  6. Bacteriological profile of burn patients at Yekatit 12 Hospital Burn ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Burn is one of the most common devastating and a very painful form of trauma. Significant thermal injuries induce a state of immune-suppression that predisposes burn patients to infection complications. Materials and methods: A prospective hospital based study was carried out from December 2010 to ...

  7. Global Burned Area and Biomass Burning Emissions from Small Fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randerson, J. T.; Chen, Y.; vanderWerf, G. R.; Rogers, B. M.; Morton, D. C.

    2012-01-01

    In several biomes, including croplands, wooded savannas, and tropical forests, many small fires occur each year that are well below the detection limit of the current generation of global burned area products derived from moderate resolution surface reflectance imagery. Although these fires often generate thermal anomalies that can be detected by satellites, their contributions to burned area and carbon fluxes have not been systematically quantified across different regions and continents. Here we developed a preliminary method for combining 1-km thermal anomalies (active fires) and 500 m burned area observations from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) to estimate the influence of these fires. In our approach, we calculated the number of active fires inside and outside of 500 m burn scars derived from reflectance data. We estimated small fire burned area by computing the difference normalized burn ratio (dNBR) for these two sets of active fires and then combining these observations with other information. In a final step, we used the Global Fire Emissions Database version 3 (GFED3) biogeochemical model to estimate the impact of these fires on biomass burning emissions. We found that the spatial distribution of active fires and 500 m burned areas were in close agreement in ecosystems that experience large fires, including savannas across southern Africa and Australia and boreal forests in North America and Eurasia. In other areas, however, we observed many active fires outside of burned area perimeters. Fire radiative power was lower for this class of active fires. Small fires substantially increased burned area in several continental-scale regions, including Equatorial Asia (157%), Central America (143%), and Southeast Asia (90%) during 2001-2010. Globally, accounting for small fires increased total burned area by approximately by 35%, from 345 Mha/yr to 464 Mha/yr. A formal quantification of uncertainties was not possible, but sensitivity

  8. Particulate collection in a low level radioactive waste incinerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudnick, S.N.; Leith, D.; First, M.W.

    1976-01-01

    As designed, sintered stainless steel filters will clean the gas from the secondary cyclone at a low level radioactive waste incinerator. Bench-scale apparatus was used to evaluate asbestos floats and diatomaceous earth as filter aids to prevent clogging of the sintered metal interstices and to decrease filter penetration. Both precoats prevented irreversible pressure drop increase, and decreased cold DOP penetration from 80 percent to less than 1 percent. Less diatomaceous earth was needed than asbestos floats, to collect the same quantity of fly ash. A back-up study evaluated a moving bed of sodium carbonate pellets in lieu of the sintered metal filters. Since identical sodium carbonate pellets are used to neutralize hydrogen chloride in the incinerator, their use in a moving bed has the advantages of trouble free disposal and cost free replacement. Co - , counter, and cross-current beds were studied and gave fly ash penetrations less than 0.1 percent at moderate pressure drop. The filter cake which forms on the pellet surfaces decreases penetration greatly

  9. The persistent pollutants emission from medical waste incineration in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Mi; Li, Xiao-Dong; Lu, Sheng-Yong; Yan, Jian-Hua

    2010-01-01

    The huge amount of medical waste (MW) has caused a tough challenge to environment protection, for its serious infectious feature. At present, the incineration is the priority and main technology option for MW disposal in China. However, the medical waste incineration (MWI) is considered the major source of persistent organic pollutants (POPs), especially PCDD/Fs. In order to get an overall information of pollutants emission from MWI, a series study were conducted, involved in the generation and the components content of MW in China, the fingerprint of PCDD/Fs emission from MWI, POPs (PCDD/Fs, PCBs and HxCBz) concentration in residue ash. It is estimated that the generation of MW was 897,034 tons in 2008, plastic and rubber accounted for 24.5% of the MW weight. PCDD/Fs emission could be divided into two main groups according the fingerprint, and the ratio of PCDFs to PCDDs was mostly over 1.5. The TEQ of PCDD/Fs was over 30 times than WHO-TEQ of PCBs, and the TEQ of PCDD/Fs accounted for about 65% of the total output of PCDD/Fs in line with the UNEP default emission factors for MWI (Class 3, 63.7%). (author)

  10. High temperature slagging incinerator for TRU-waste treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van De Voorde, N.; Hennart, D.; Gijbels, J.; Mergan, L.

    1984-01-01

    Since 1974 the Belgian Nuclear Study Center (SCK/CEN) at Mol, with the support of the European Communities, has developed an ''integral'' system for the treatment and the conditioning of radioactive contaminated wastes. The system converts directly, at high temperature (1500 0 C), mixtures of combustibles (paper, plastics, rubber etc.) and non-combustibles (metals, soil, sludge, concrete.) contaminated with transuranium elements as well as beta-gamma emitting isotopes, into a chemically inert and physically stable slag. More than 4000 hours of successful operation, with wide variety of simulated waste composition as well as real waste, have confirmed the safe operability of the high temperature sl'Gging incinerator and the connected installations, such as sorting cells, waste shredder, off-gas purification train, slag extraction system, remoted control, and the alpha-containment building. During the fall of 1983, a final confirmation of the performance of the installation was given by the successful accomplishment of an incineration campaign of 16 to 17 tons of simulated solid plutonium contaminated wastes

  11. Leaching of solidified TRU-contaminated incinerator ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuhrmann, M.; Colombo, P.

    1984-01-01

    Leach rate and cumulative fractional releases of plutonium were determined for a series of laboratory-scale waste forms containing transuranic (TRU) contaminated incinerator ash. The solidification agents from which these waste forms were produced are commercially available materials for radioactive waste disposal. The leachants simulate groundwaters with chemical compositions that are indiginous to different geological media proposed for repositories. In this study TRU-contaminated ash was incorporated into waste forms fabricated with portland type I cement, urea-formaldehyde, polyester-styrene or Pioneer 221 bitumen. The ash was generated at the dual-chamber incinerator at the Rocky Flats Plant. These waste forms contained between 1.25 x 10 -2 and 4.4 x 10 -2 Ci (depending on the solidification agent) of mixed TRU isotopes comprised primarily of 239 Pu and 240 Pu. Five leachant solutions were prepared consisting of: (1) demineralized water, (2) simulated brine, (3) simplified sodium-dominated groundwater (30 meq NaCl/liter), (4) simplified calcium-dominated groundwater (30 meq CaCl 2 /liter), and (5) simplified bicarbonate-dominated groundwater (30 meq NaHCO 3 /liter). Cumulative fractional releases were found to vary significantly with different leachants and solidification agents. In all cases waste forms leached in brine gave the lowest leach rates. Urea-formaldehyde had the greatest release of radionuclides while polyester-styrene and portland cement had approximately equivalent fractional releases. Cement cured for 210 days retained radionuclides three times more effectively than cement cured only 30 days

  12. Modeling the impacts of biomass burning on air quality in and around Mexico City

    OpenAIRE

    W. Lei; G. Li; L. T. Molina

    2013-01-01

    The local and regional impacts of open fires and trash burning on ground-level ozone (O[subscript 3]) and fine carbonaceous aerosols in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) and surrounding region during two high fire periods in March 2006 have been evaluated using WRF-CHEM model. The model captured reasonably well the measurement-derived magnitude and temporal variation of the biomass burning organic aerosol (BBOA), and the simulated impacts of open fires on organic aerosol (OA) were cons...

  13. Modeling the impacts of biomass burning on air quality in and around Mexico City

    OpenAIRE

    W. Lei; G. Li; L. Molina

    2012-01-01

    The local and regional impacts of open fires and trash burning on ground-level ozone (O3) and fine carbonaceous aerosols in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) and surrounding region during two high fire periods in March 2006 have been evaluated using WRF-CHEM model. The model captured reasonably well the measurement-derived magnitude and temporal variation of the biomass burning organic aerosol (BBOA), and the simulated impacts of open fires on organic aerosol (OA...

  14. Observations on the CANDLE burn-up in various geometries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seifritz, W.

    2007-01-01

    We have looked at all geometrical conditions under which an auto catalytically propagating burnup wave (CANDLE burn-up) is possible. Thereby, the Sine Gordon equation finds a new place in the burn-up theory of nuclear fission reactors. For a practical reactor design the axially burning 'spaghetti' reactor and the azimuthally burning 'pancake' reactor, respectively, seem to be the most promising geometries for a practical reactor design. Radial and spherical burn-waves in cylindrical and spherical geometry, respectively, are principally impossible. Also, the possible applicability of such fission burn-waves on the OKLO-phenomenon and the GEOREACTOR in the center of Earth, postulated by Herndon, is discussed. A fast CANDLE-reactor can work with only depleted uranium. Therefore, uranium mining and uranium-enrichment are not necessary anymore. Furthermore, it is also possible to dispense with reprocessing because the uranium utilization factor is as high as about 40%. Thus, this completely new reactor type can open a new era of reactor technology

  15. The characterisation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons emissions from burning of different firewood species in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Linda Y; Zhang, Weidong; Atkiston, Steven

    2003-01-01

    Four kinds of woods used for residential heating in Australia were selected and burned under two burning conditions in a domestic wood heater installed in a laboratory. The selected wood species included pine (Pinus radiata), red gum (Eucalvptus camaldulensis), sugar gum (Eucalyptus cladocalyx) and yellow box (Eucalyptus melliodora). The two different burning conditions represented fast burning and slow burning, with the air inlet of the combustion chamber respectively 'full open' and 'half open'. By sampling and analysing particulate and gaseous emissions from the burning of each load of wood under defined experimental conditions, PAHs emissions and their profiles in the particulate and gaseous phases were obtained. 16 species out of the 18 selected PAHs were detected. Of these, seven species were detected in the gaseous phase and most were lower molecular weight compounds.Similarly, more than 10 species of PAHs were detected in the particulate phase and these were mostly heavier molecular weight compounds. Under both burning conditions, emission levels for total PAHs and total genotoxic PAHs were the highest for pine and lowest for sugar gum, with red gum being the second highest, followed by yellow box. Using the specific sampling method, gaseous PAHs accounted for above 90% mass fraction of total PAHs in comparison to particulate PAHs (10%). The majority of the genotoxic PAHs were present in the particulate phase. PAHs emission levels in slow burning conditions were generally higher than those in fast burning conditions.

  16. Stem Cells in Burn Eschar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Veen, V. C.; Vlig, M.; van Milligen-Kummer, F.J.; de Vries, S.I.; Middelkoop, E.; Ulrich, M.

    2012-01-01

    This study compares mesenchymal cells isolated from excised burn wound eschar with adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) and dermal fibroblasts in their ability to conform to the requirements for multipotent mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). A population of multipotent stem cells in burn eschar could be an

  17. Perceived fatigue following pediatric burns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akkerman, Moniek; Mouton, Leonora J.; Dijkstra, Froukje; Niemeijer, Anuschka S.; van Brussel, Marco; van der Woude, Lucas H. V.; Disseldorp, Laurien M.; Nieuwenhuis, Marianne K.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Fatigue is a common consequence of numerous pediatric health conditions. In adult burn survivors, fatigue was found to be a major problem. The current cross-sectional study is aimed at determining the levels of perceived fatigue in pediatric burn survivors. Methods: Perceived fatigue was

  18. Perceived fatigue following pediatric burns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akkerman, Moniek; Mouton, Leonora J.; Dijkstra, Froukje; Niemeijer, Anuschka S.; van Brussel, Marco|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/30481962X; Van der Woude, Lucas H. V.; Disseldorp, Laurien M.; Nieuwenhuis, Marianne K.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Fatigue is a common consequence of numerous pediatric health conditions. In adult burn survivors, fatigue was found to be a major problem. The current cross-sectional study is aimed at determining the levels of perceived fatigue in pediatric burn survivors. Methods Perceived fatigue was

  19. The incineration of low-level radioactive waste: A report for the Advisory Committee on Nuclear Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, S.W.

    1990-06-01

    This report is a summary of the contemporary use of incineration technology as a method for volume reduction of LLW. It is intended primarily to serve as an overview of the technology for waste management professionals involved in the use or regulation of LLW incineration. It is also expected that organizations presently considering the use of incineration as part of their radioactive waste management programs will benefit by gaining a general knowledge of incinerator operating experience. Specific types of incineration technologies are addressed in this report, including designation of the kinds of wastes that can be processed, the magnitudes of volume reduction that are achievable in typical operation, and requirements for ash handling and off-gas filtering and scrubbing. A status listing of both US and foreign incinerators provides highlights of activities at government, industry, institutional, and commercial nuclear power plant sites. The Federal and State legislative structures for the regulation of LLW incineration are also described. 84 refs., 33 tabs

  20. Incineration of DOE offsite mixed waste at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, J.D.; Harvego, L.A.; Jacobs, A.M.; Willcox, M.V.

    1998-01-01

    The Waste Experimental Reduction Facility (WERF) incinerator at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) is one of three incinerators in the US Department of Energy (DOE) Complex capable of incinerating mixed low-level waste (MLLW). WERF has received MLLW from offsite generators and is scheduled to receive more. The State of Idaho supports receipt of offsite MLLW waste at the WERF incinerator within the requirements established in the (INEEL) Site Treatment Plan (STP). The incinerator is operating as a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Interim Status Facility, with a RCRA Part B permit application currently being reviewed by the State of Idaho. Offsite MLLW received from other DOE facilities are currently being incinerated at WERF at no charge to the generator. Residues associated with the incineration of offsite MLLW waste that meet the Envirocare of Utah waste acceptance criteria are sent to that facility for treatment and/or disposal. WERF is contributing to the treatment and reduction of MLLW in the DOE Complex