WorldWideScience

Sample records for incineration emission test

  1. Effluent testing for the Oak Ridge mixed waste incinerator: Emissions test for August 27, 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bostick, W.D.; Bunch, D.H.; Gibson, L.V.; Hoffmann, D.P.; Shoemaker, J.L.

    1990-12-01

    On August 27, 1990, a special emissions test was performed at the K-1435 Toxic Substance Control Act Mixed Waste Incinerator. A sampling and analysis plan was implemented to characterize the incinerator waste streams during a 6 hour burn of actual mixed waste. The results of this characterization are summarized in the present report. Significant among the findings is the observation that less than 3% of the uranium fed to the incinerator kiln was discharged as stack emission. This value is consistent with the estimate of 4% or less derived from long-term mass balance of previous operating experience and with the value assumed in the original Environmental Impact Statement. Approximately 1.4% of the total uranium fed to the incinerator kiln appeared in the aqueous scrubber blowdown; about 85% of the total uranium in the aqueous waste was insoluble (i.e., removable by filtration). The majority of the uranium fed to the incinerator kiln appeared in the ash material, apparently associated with phosphorous as a sparingly-soluble species. Many other metals of potential regulatory concern also appeared to concentrate in the ash as sparingly-soluble species, with minimal partition to the aqueous waste. The aqueous waste was discharged to the Central Neutralization Facility where it was effectively treated by coprecipitation with iron. The treated, filtered aqueous effluent met Environmental Protection Agency interim primary drinking water standards for regulated metals

  2. Experimental testing of spray dryer for control of incineration emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wey, M Y; Wu, H Y; Tseng, H H; Chen, J C

    2003-05-01

    The research investigated the absorption/adsorption efficiency of sulfur dioxide (SO2), heavy metals, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) with different Ca-based sorbents in a spray dryer during incineration process. For further improving the adsorption capacity of Ca-based sorbents, different spraying pressure and additives were carried out in this study. Experimental results showed that CaO could be used as an alternative sorbent in the spray dryer at an optimal initial particle size distribution of spraying droplet. In the spray dryer, Ca-based sorbents provided a lot of sites for heavy metals and PAHs condensing and calcium and alkalinity to react with metals to form merged species. As a result, heavy metals and PAHs could be removed from the flue gas simultaneously by condensation and adsorption. The additions of additives NaHCO3, SiO2, and KMnO4 were also found to be effective in improving the removal efficiency of these air pollutants.

  3. Emissions and dioxins formation from waste incinerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbone, A.I.; Zagaroli, M.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes current knowledge on dioxins formation and emission from waste incinerators. The pertinent Italian law and effects on man health are dealt with, too. The picture of existing municipal incinerators is presented concerning both the actual emission levels and the monitored levels in the environment. Sampling and analysis systems of these organic chlorinated micro-pollutants and current theories on precursors, formation mechanisms, and influence of different parameters are also described. The last section deals with some of the techniques that can be used to reduce dioxins formation and emission from municipal incinerators. (author)

  4. SRL incinerator components test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freed, E.J.

    1982-08-01

    A full-scale (5 kg waste/hour) controlled-air incinerator, the ICTF, is presently being tested with simulated waste as part of a program to develop technology for incineration of Savannah River Plant solid transuranic wastes. This unit is designed specifically to incinerate relatively small quantities of solid combustible waste that are contaminated up to 10 5 times the present nominal 10 nCi/g threshold value for such isotopes as 238 Pu, 239 Pu, 242 Cm, and 252 Cf. Automatic incinerator operation and control has been incorporated into the design, simulating the future plant design which minimizes operator radiation exposure. Over 3000 kg of nonradioactive wastes characteristic of plutonium finishing operations have been incinerated at throughputs exceeding 5 kg/hr. Safety and reliability were the major design objectives. In addition to the incinerator tests, technical data were gathered on two different off-gas systems: a wet system composed of three scrubbers in series, and a dry system employing sintered metal filters

  5. Evaluation of gaseous emissions produced in the tests on the demonstration plant for sludge drying and incineration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lotito, V.; Spinosa, L.; Antonacci, R.; Mininni, G.

    2001-01-01

    Incineration is a valid alternative to other more diffused disposal systems (agricultural use, landfill), when they cannot be applied due to high pollutants concentrations or other unforeseeable constraints. However, it can cause severe air pollution by inorganic (heavy metals) and organic (PAHs, PCDDs, PCDFs) pollutants, particulate, NO x , CO and acidic compounds; this fact has raised public concern about incineration and has hindered a wider application of this practice. Water Research Institute of Italian National Research Council realised a demonstration plant mainly consisting of a fluidized bed furnace, a rotary kiln furnace, a dryer with heat recovery section, particulate and acidic compounds removal apparatuses, and set up a research programme to demonstrate that incineration is a safe operation and can comply the relevant legislation, as far as organic and inorganic micropollutants are concerned. A total of 40 tests were carried out (30 with the fluidized bed furnace and 10 with rotary kiln one) treating dewatered sludges (in many cases with the addition of high chlorinated compounds and Cu salts) or dried ones, under different operating conditions (furnace temperature, after-burner temperature, chlorine concentration). Particulate concentrations, and consequently heavy metals concentrations, at the stack resulted in any case under legal limits. As far as conventional pollutants are concerned, only HCl and CO overcame sometimes standards, mainly due to temporary operating up-sets. PAHs concentration resulted quite constant, thus demonstrating that tests were operated in steady-state and satisfactory conditions. Also dioxins and furans overcame sometimes standards, but no correlation was found with more severe tests conditions; it happened when plant up-set conditions occurred. Operation resulted quite satisfactory, but dryer operation required constant operators attention. In rotary kiln furnace a build up of solidified ashes occurred in counter

  6. Effluent testing for the Oak Ridge Toxic Substances Control Act mixed waste incinerator emissions tests of January 16 and 18, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shor, J.T.; Bostick, W.D.; Coroneos, A.C.; Bunch, D.H.; Gibson, L.V.; Hoffmann, D.P.; Shoemaker, J.L.

    1992-02-01

    On January 16 and 18, 1991, special emissions tests were conducted at the Oak Ridge, K-25 Site Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) Incinerator. Both tests were approximately 6 h long and were performed at TSCA temperatures [1200 degrees C, secondary combustion chamber (SSC)]. Liquid feed and effluent samples were collected every 30 min. A filter was used to collect particles from stack gases to study morphology and composition during the first test. Isokinetic air samples were also taken during the second test. Metals emissions from the second test were evaluated using the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Method 5 sampling train. The aqueous waste was collected and fed in batches to the Central Neutralization Facility (CNF), where it was treated by iron coprecipitation and polymer flocculation and data were collected. In the first test (1-16-91), the aqueous and organic wastes were fed directly to the kiln or primary combustion chamber (PCC). In the second test (1-18-91), the remaining organic waste from the first test was fed into the SSC, and other organic waste was fed into the PCC. One objective of the two tests was to determine if feeding the same organic waste into the two combustion chambers made a difference in a partitioning of uranium and other metals. No evaluation of radionuclides other than uranium was made. The partition coefficient of uranium to the quench water was 0.3 on January 16 and 0.35 on January 18; so directing Tank 306A to the feed to the primary vs the secondary combustion chamber appears to have made little difference. The partition coefficient of uranium to the stack on January 18 was 0.0039. 5 refs., 15 figs., 26 tabs

  7. Development and testing of a mobile incinerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eggett, D.R.

    1986-01-01

    The development and testing of a mobile incinerator for processing of combustible dry active waste (DAW) and contaminated oil generated at Nuclear Power Plants is presented. Topics of discussion include initial thoughts on incineration as applied to nuclear waste; DOE's Aerojet's, and CECo's role in the Project; design engineering concepts; site engineering support; licensability; generation of test data; required reports of the NRC and Illinois and California EPA's; present project schedule for incinerating DAW at Dresden and other CECo Stations; and lessons learned from the project

  8. Consolidated Incineration Facility waste burn test. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, D.B.

    1995-01-01

    The Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) is Providing technical support for start-up and operation of the Consolidated Incineration Facility. This support program includes a series of pilot incineration tests performed at the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) Incineration Research Facility (MF) using surrogate CIF mixed wastes. The objectives for this test program included measuring incinerator offgas particulate loading and size distributions as a function of several operating variables, characterizing kiln bottom ash and offgas particulates, determining heavy metal partition between the kiln bottom ash and incinerator stack gas, and measuring kiln organics emissions (particularly polychlorinated dioxins and furans). These tests were designed to investigate the effect of the following operating parameters: Incineration Temperature; Waste Feed Rate; Waste Density; Kiln Solids Residence Time; and Waste Composition. Tests were conducted at three kiln operating temperatures. Three solid waste simulants were burned, two waste mixtures (paper, plastic, latex, and PVC) with one containing spiked toxic organic and metal compounds, and one waste type containing only paper. Secondary Combustion Chamber (SCC) offgases were sampled for particulate loading and size distribution, organic compounds, polychlorinated dibenzo[p]dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/PCDF), metals, and combustion products. Kiln bottom ash and offgas particulates were characterized to determine the principal elements and compounds comprising these secondary wastes

  9. Danish Emission Inventory for Waste Incineration and Other Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjelgaard, Katja

    2013-01-01

    This report contains detailed methodological issues, activity data, emission factors, uncertainties and references for waste incineration without energy recovery and other waste source categories of the Danish emission inventories 2013. The emissions are calculated for the years 1980-2011 according...

  10. Emission of greenhouse gases from waste incineration in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Kum-Lok; Choi, Sang-Min; Kim, Moon-Kyung; Heo, Jong-Bae; Zoh, Kyung-Duk

    2017-07-01

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) emission factors previously reported from various waste incineration plants have shown significant variations according to country-specific, plant-specific, and operational conditions. The purpose of this study is to estimate GHG emissions and emission factors at nine incineration facilities in Korea by measuring the GHG concentrations in the flue gas samples. The selected incineration plants had different operation systems (i.e., stoker, fluidized bed, moving grate, rotary kiln, and kiln & stoker), and different nitrogen oxide (NO x ) removal systems (i.e., selective catalytic reduction (SCR) and selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR)) to treat municipal solid waste (MSW), commercial solid waste (CSW), and specified waste (SW). The total mean emission factors for A and B facilities for MSW incineration were found to be 134 ± 17 kg CO 2 ton -1 , 88 ± 36 g CH 4 ton -1 , and 69 ± 16 g N 2 O ton -1 , while those for CSW incineration were 22.56 g CH 4 ton -1 and 259.76 g N 2 O ton -1 , and for SW incineration emission factors were 2959 kg CO 2 ton -1 , 43.44 g CH 4 ton -1 and 401.21 g N 2 O ton -1 , respectively. Total emissions calculated using annual incineration for MSW were 3587 ton CO 2 -eq yr -1 for A facility and 11,082 ton CO 2 -eq yr -1 for B facility, while those of IPCC default values were 13,167 ton CO 2- eq yr -1 for A facility and 32,916 ton CO 2- eq yr -1 , indicating that the emissions of IPCC default values were estimated higher than those of the plant-specific emission factors. The emission of CSW for C facility was 1403 ton CO 2 -eq yr -1 , while those of SW for D to I facilities was 28,830 ton CO 2 -eq yr -1 . The sensitivity analysis using a Monte Carlo simulation for GHG emission factors in MSW showed that the GHG concentrations have a greater impact than the incineration amount and flow rate of flue gas. For MSW incineration plants using the same stoker type in operation, the estimated emissions and

  11. The emission of fluorine gas during incineration of fluoroborate residue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Yuheng, E-mail: fengyh@tongji.edu.cn [Thermal & Environmental Engineering Institute, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Jiang, Xuguang [State Key Laboratory of Clean Energy Utilization, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Chen, Dezhen [Thermal & Environmental Engineering Institute, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China)

    2016-05-05

    Highlights: • Gaseous fluorine products were identified when combusting fluoroborate residue. • BF{sub 3} and SiF{sub 4} tend to be hydrolyzed into HF with the increase of temperature. • The emission of BF{sub 3} and SiF{sub 4} from the chamber could be negligible at 1100 °C. - Abstract: The emission behaviors of wastes from fluorine chemical industry during incineration have raised concerns because multiple fluorine products might danger human health. In this study, fluorine emission from a two-stage incineration system during the combustion of fluoroborate residue was examined. In a TG-FTIR analysis BF{sub 3}, SiF{sub 4} and HF were identified as the initial fluorine forms to be released, while fluorine gases of greenhouse effect such as CF{sub 4} and SF{sub 6} were not found. Below 700 °C, NaBF{sub 4} in the sample decomposed to generate BF{sub 3}. Then part of BF{sub 3} reacted with SiO{sub 2} in the system to form SiF{sub 4} or hydrolyzed to HF. At higher temperatures, the NaF left in the sample was gradually hydrolyzed to form HF. A lab-scale two-stage tube furnace is established to simulate the typical two-stage combustion chamber in China. Experimental tests proved that HF was the only fluorine gas in the flue gas, and emissions of BF{sub 3} and SiF{sub 4} can be negligible. Thermodynamic equilibrium model predicted that all SiF{sub 4} would be hydrolyzed at 1100 °C in the secondary-chamber, which agreed well with the experimental results.

  12. Nitrous Oxide Emissions from Waste Incineration

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Svoboda, Karel; Baxter, D.; Martinec, J.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 60, č. 1 (2006), s. 78-90 ISSN 0366-6352 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA4072201 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : nitrous oxide * waste * incineration Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 0.360, year: 2006

  13. Initial emission assessment of hazardous-waste-incineration facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrington, E.S.; Holton, G.A.; O'Donnell, F.R.

    1982-01-01

    Health and Safety Research Division, sponsored by EPA, conducted a study to quantify emission factors from stacks, spills, fugitives, storage, and treatment for a typical hazardous waste incinerator facility. Engineering participated in preparing flowsheets and providing calculations for fugitive emissions. Typical block-flow diagrams were developed two types of hazardous waste incinerators (rotary kiln and liquid-injector) and for three capacities (small: 1 MM Btu/hr, median: 10 MM Btu/hr, and large: 150 MM Btu/hr). Storage reqirements and support services were determined in more detail. Using the properties of a typical waste, fugitive emissions were determined, including emissions from pump leaks, valve leaks, flange leaks, and tank vents. An atmospheric dispersion model was then employed to calculate atmospheric concentration and population exposure estimates. With these estimates, an assessment was performed to determine the percentage of concentrations and exposure associated with selected emissions from each source at the incineration facility. Results indicated the relative importance of each source at the incineration facility. Results indicated the relative importance of each source both in terms of public health and pollution control requirements

  14. Modeling the dioxin emission of a municipal solid waste incinerator using neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunsan, Sond; Chen, Wei-Yea; Chen, Ho-Wen; Chuang, Yen Hsun; Grisdanurak, Nurak

    2013-07-01

    Incineration is considered as an efficient approach in dealing with the increasing demand for municipal and industrial solid waste treatment, especially in areas without sufficient land resources. Facing the concern of health risk, the toxic pollutants emitted from incinerators have attracted much attention from environmentalists, even though this technology is capable of reducing solid waste volume and demand for landfill areas, together with plenty of energy generation. To reduce the negative impacts of toxic chemicals emitted from incinerators, various monitoring and control plans are made not only for use in facilities performance evaluation but also better control of operation for stable effluent quality. How to screen out the key variables from massive observed and control variables for modeling the dioxin emission has become an important issue in incinerator operation and pollution prevention. For these reasons, this study used 4-year monitoring data of an incinerator in Taiwan as a case study, and developed a prediction model based on an artificial neural network (ANN) to forecast the dioxin emission. By doing this, a simplified monitoring strategy for incinerators with regarding to dioxin emission control can be achieved. The result indicated that the prediction model based on a back-propagation neural network is a promising method to deal with complex and non-linear data with the help of statistics in screening out the useful variables for modeling. The suitable architecture of an ANN for using in the dioxin prediction consists of 5 input factors, 3 basic layers with 8 hidden nodes. The R(2) was found to equal 0.99 in both the training and testing steps. In addition, sensitivity analysis can identify the most significant variables for the dioxin emission. From the obtained results, the frequency of activated carbon injection showed as the factor of highest relative importance for the dioxin emission. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Emission of greenhouse gases from controlled incineration of cattle manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshita, Kazuyuki; Sun, Xiucui; Taniguchi, Miki; Takaoka, Masaki; Matsukawa, Kazutsugu; Fujiwara, Taku

    2012-01-01

    Greenhouse gas emission is a potential limiting factor in livestock farming development. While incineration is one approach to minimize livestock manure, there are concerns about significant levels of nitrogen and organic compounds in manure as potential sources of greenhouse gas emissions (N2O and CH4). In this study, the effects of various incineration conditions, such as the furnace temperature and air ratio on N2O and CH4 formation behaviour, of cattle manure (as a representative livestock manure) were investigated in a pilot rotary kiln furnace. The results revealed that N2O emissions decreased with increasing temperature and decreasing air ratio. In addition, CH4 emissions tended to be high above 800 degrees C at a low air ratio. The emission factors for N2O and CH4 under the general conditions (combustion temperature of 800-850 degrees C and air ratio of 1.4) were determined to be 1.9-6.0% g-N2O-N/g-N and 0.0046-0.26% g-CH4/g-burning object, respectively. The emission factor for CH4 differed slightly from the published values between 0.16 and 0.38% g-CH4/g-burning object. However, the emission factor for N2O was much higher than the currently accepted value of 0.7% g-N2O-N/g-N and, therefore, it is necessary to revise the N2O emission factor for the incineration of livestock manure.

  16. Incineration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmes, R.G.G.

    1988-01-01

    One of the methods of destroying organics in radwaste is incineration. This presentation will summarise some of the advantages and problems associated with incineration and will illustrate some of these points by discussing progress in an options study into methods of treating plutonium contaminated material waste, being carried out by British Nuclear Fuels plc. The wastes amenable for treatment, fall into two categories, low-level wastes and intermediate-level wastes. (author)

  17. The persistent pollutants emission from medical waste incineration in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Mi; Li, Xiao-Dong; Lu, Sheng-Yong; Yan, Jian-Hua

    2010-01-01

    The huge amount of medical waste (MW) has caused a tough challenge to environment protection, for its serious infectious feature. At present, the incineration is the priority and main technology option for MW disposal in China. However, the medical waste incineration (MWI) is considered the major source of persistent organic pollutants (POPs), especially PCDD/Fs. In order to get an overall information of pollutants emission from MWI, a series study were conducted, involved in the generation and the components content of MW in China, the fingerprint of PCDD/Fs emission from MWI, POPs (PCDD/Fs, PCBs and HxCBz) concentration in residue ash. It is estimated that the generation of MW was 897,034 tons in 2008, plastic and rubber accounted for 24.5% of the MW weight. PCDD/Fs emission could be divided into two main groups according the fingerprint, and the ratio of PCDFs to PCDDs was mostly over 1.5. The TEQ of PCDD/Fs was over 30 times than WHO-TEQ of PCBs, and the TEQ of PCDD/Fs accounted for about 65% of the total output of PCDD/Fs in line with the UNEP default emission factors for MWI (Class 3, 63.7%). (author)

  18. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission from co-firing of petrochemical sludge with coal in circulating fluidized bed incinerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, G.; Zhao, C.S. [South East University, Nanjing (China). School of Energy & Environment

    2009-07-01

    Experimental tests of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission characteristics from co-firing of petrochemical sludge with coal were conducted in it pilot-scale circulating fluidized bed (CFB) incinerator with the thermal input of 0.2 MW. Results showed that when the mass mixing ratio increases from 10 to 40%, PAH, especially lower molecular weight (LMW) PAH, emission increases substantially. As combustion temperature or excess air coefficient increases, PAH emission decreases at first and then increases. There is an optimum combustion temperature and excess air coefficient for inhibiting PAHs formulation. PAH emission declines significantly when the secondary air fraction is increased from 20 to 50%. The staged combustion technique of circulating fluidized beds may have the advantage of inhibiting the formation of PAHs, Some optimized operation parameters are recommended for incineration of petrochemical sludge with coal in a circulating fluidized bed incinerator.

  19. 40 CFR 60.1445 - What are the emission limits for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? 60.1445 Section 60.1445 Protection of Environment... Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste § 60.1445 What are the emission limits for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? If your air curtain incinerator combusts...

  20. The estimation of N2O emissions from municipal solid waste incineration facilities: The Korea case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Sangwon; Choi, Jun-Ho; Park, Jinwon

    2011-01-01

    The greenhouse gases (GHGs) generated in municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration are carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), methane (CH 4 ), and nitrous oxide (N 2 O). In South Korea case, the total of GHGs from the waste incineration facilities has been increasing at an annual rate 10%. In these view, waste incineration facilities should consider to reduce GHG emissions. This study is designed to estimate the N 2 O emission factors from MSW incineration plants, and calculate the N 2 O emissions based on these factors. The three MSW incinerators examined in this study were either stoker or both stoker and rotary kiln facilities. The N 2 O concentrations from the MSW incinerators were measured using gas chromatography-electron capture detection (GC-ECD) equipment. The average of the N 2 O emission factors for the M01 plant, M02 plant, and M03 plant are 71, 75, and 153 g-N 2 O/ton-waste, respectively. These results showed a significant difference from the default values of the intergovernmental panel on climate change (IPCC), while approaching those values derived in Japan and Germany. Furthermore, comparing the results of this study to the Korea Energy Economics Institute (KEEI) (2007) data on waste incineration, N 2 O emissions from MSW incineration comprised 19% of the total N 2 O emissions.

  1. The estimation of N2O emissions from municipal solid waste incineration facilities: The Korea case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sangwon; Choi, Jun-Ho; Park, Jinwon

    2011-08-01

    The greenhouse gases (GHGs) generated in municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration are carbon dioxide (CO(2)), methane (CH(4)), and nitrous oxide (N(2)O). In South Korea case, the total of GHGs from the waste incineration facilities has been increasing at an annual rate 10%. In these view, waste incineration facilities should consider to reduce GHG emissions. This study is designed to estimate the N(2)O emission factors from MSW incineration plants, and calculate the N(2)O emissions based on these factors. The three MSW incinerators examined in this study were either stoker or both stoker and rotary kiln facilities. The N(2)O concentrations from the MSW incinerators were measured using gas chromatography-electron capture detection (GC-ECD) equipment. The average of the N(2)O emission factors for the M01 plant, M02 plant, and M03 plant are 71, 75, and 153g-N(2)O/ton-waste, respectively. These results showed a significant difference from the default values of the intergovernmental panel on climate change (IPCC), while approaching those values derived in Japan and Germany. Furthermore, comparing the results of this study to the Korea Energy Economics Institute (KEEI) (2007) data on waste incineration, N(2)O emissions from MSW incineration comprised 19% of the total N(2)O emissions. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Waste Incinerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-05-01

    This book deals with plan and design of waste incinerator, which includes process outline of waste, method of measure, test, analysis, combustion way and classification of incineration facilities, condition of combustion and incineration, combustion calculation and heat calculation, ventilation and flow resistivity, an old body and component materials of supplementary installation, attached device, protection of pollution of incineration ash and waste gas, deodorization, prevention of noise in incineration facility, using heat and electric heat, check order of incineration plan.

  3. Emission and speciation of mercury from waste incinerators with mass distribution investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Yong-Chil; Kim, Jeong-Hun; Pudasainee, Deepak; Yoon, Young-Sik; Jung, Seung Jae; Bhatta, Dhruba

    2010-01-01

    In this paper mercury emission and removal characteristics in municipal wastes incinerators (MWIs), hazardous waste incinerators (HWIs) and hospital medical and infectious waste incinerators (HMIWIs) with mercury mass distribution within the system are presented. Mercury speciation in flue gas at inlet and outlet of each air pollution control devices (APCDs) were sampled and analyzed by Ontario Hydro Method. Solid and liquid samples were analyzed by U.S. EPA method 7470A and 7471A, respectively. Cold vapor atomic absorption spectroscopy was used for analysis. On an average, Hg emission concentrations in flue gas from MWIs ranged 173.9 to 15.3 μg Sm -3 at inlet and 10.5 to 3.8 μg Sm -3 at outlet of APCDs respectively. Mercury removal efficiency ranged 50 to 95% in MWIs, 7.2 to 59.9% in HWIs as co-beneficial results of APCDs for removing other air pollutants like particulate matter, dioxin and acidic gases. In general, mercury in incineration facilities was mainly distributed in fly ash followed by flue gas and bottom ash. In MWIs 94.4 to 74% of Hg were distributed in fly ash. In HWIs with dry type APCDs, Hg removal was less and 70.6% of mercury was distributed in flue gas. The variation of Hg concentration, speciation and finally the distribution in the tested facilities was related to the non-uniform distribution of Hg in waste combined with variation in waste composition (especially Cl, S content), operating parameters, flue gas components, fly ash properties, operating conditions, APCDs configuration. Long term data incorporating more number of tests are required to better understand mercury behavior in such sources and to apply effective control measures. (author)

  4. CO2 emission factors for waste incineration: Influence from source separation of recyclable materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Anna Warberg; Astrup, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    CO2-loads from combustible waste are important inputs for national CO2 inventories and life-cycle assessments (LCA). CO2 emissions from waste incinerators are often expressed by emission factors in kg fossil CO2 emitted per GJ energy content of the waste. Various studies have shown considerable...... variations between emission factors for different incinerators, but the background for these variations has not been thoroughly examined. One important reason may be variations in collection of recyclable materials as source separation alters the composition of the residual waste incinerated. The objective...... of this study was to quantify the importance of source separation for determination of emission factors for incineration of residual household waste. This was done by mimicking various source separation scenarios and based on waste composition data calculating resulting emission factors for residual waste...

  5. [Mercury Distribution Characteristics and Atmospheric Mercury Emission Factors of Typical Waste Incineration Plants in Chongqing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Zhen-ya; Su, Hai-tao; Wang, Feng-yang; Zhang, Lei; Wang, Shu-xiao; Yu, Bin

    2016-02-15

    Waste incineration is one of the important atmospheric mercury emission sources. The aim of this article is to explore the atmospheric mercury pollution level of waste incineration industry from Chongqing. This study investigated the mercury emissions from a municipal solid waste incineration plant and a medical waste incineration plant in Chongqing. The exhaust gas samples in these two incineration plants were obtained using USA EPA 30B method. The mercury concentrations in the fly ash and bottom ash samples were analyzed. The results indicated that the mercury concentrations of the municipal solid waste and medical waste incineration plant in Chongqing were (26.4 +/- 22.7) microg x m(-3) and (3.1 +/- 0.8) microg x m(-3) in exhaust gas respectively, (5279.2 +/- 798.0) microg x kg(-1) and (11,709.5 +/- 460.5) microg x kg(-1) in fly ash respectively. Besides, the distribution proportions of the mercury content from municipal solid waste and medical waste in exhaust gas, fly ash, and bottom ash were 34.0%, 65.3%, 0.7% and 32.3%, 67.5%, 0.2% respectively; The mercury removal efficiencies of municipal solid waste and medical waste incineration plants were 66.0% and 67.7% respectively. The atmospheric mercury emission factors of municipal solid waste and medical waste incineration plants were (126.7 +/- 109.0) microg x kg(-1) and (46.5 +/- 12.0) microg x kg(-1) respectively. Compared with domestic municipal solid waste incineration plants in the Pearl River Delta region, the atmospheric mercury emission factor of municipal solid waste incineration plant in Chongqing was lower.

  6. UK: Technical data for waste incineration background for modelling of product-specific emissions in a life cycle assessment context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    with the disposal of a product through waste incineration. Based on knowledge of the material composition of the product and the technology applied in the waste incineration plant, the model estimates input of energy and auxiliary materials required for the incineration of the product and generation of energy...... and output of emissions to the environment caused by the incineration. The work has been performed as part of the EUREKA project EUROENVIRON 1296: LCAGAPS, sponsored by the Danish Agency for Industry and Trade. This report presents a compilation of technical data on waste incineration that serve...... as background for a model of incineration processes to be used in the inventory analysis of LCA....

  7. 40 CFR 62.15375 - What are the emission limits for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? 62.15375 Section 62.15375 Protection of Environment... Combustion Units Constructed on or Before August 30, 1999 Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste § 62.15375 What are the emission limits for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard...

  8. 40 CFR 62.14815 - What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent wood wastes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent wood wastes, clean lumber and/or yard waste? 62.14815... Before November 30, 1999 Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Wood Wastes, Clean Lumber And/or Yard Waste § 62.14815 What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators that burn 100...

  9. 40 CFR 60.1920 - What are the emission limits for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? 60.1920 Section 60.1920 Protection of Environment... or Before August 30, 1999 Model Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste § 60.1920 What are the emission limits for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? If...

  10. 40 CFR 60.2971 - What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? 60.2971 Section 60... Incinerators That Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60.2971 What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? (a) Within...

  11. Technical data for waste incineration - background for modelling of product-specific emissions in a life cycle assessment context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erichsen, Hanne; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    with the disposal of a product through waste incineration. Based on knowledge of the material composition of the product and the technology applied in the waste incineration plant, the model estimates input of energy and auxiliary materials required for the incineration of the product and generation of energy...... and output of emissions to the environment caused by the incineration. The work has been performed as part of the EUREKA project EUROENVIRON 1296: LCAGAPS, sponsored by the Danish Agency for Industry and Trade....

  12. Probabilistic and technology-specific modeling of emissions from municipal solid-waste incineration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehler, Annette; Peyer, Fabio; Salzmann, Christoph; Saner, Dominik

    2011-04-15

    The European legislation increasingly directs waste streams which cannot be recycled toward thermal treatment. Models are therefore needed that help to quantify emissions of waste incineration and thus reveal potential risks and mitigation needs. This study presents a probabilistic model which computes emissions as a function of waste composition and technological layout of grate incineration plants and their pollution-control equipment. In contrast to previous waste-incineration models, this tool is based on a broader empirical database and allows uncertainties in emission loads to be quantified. Comparison to monitoring data of 83 actual European plants showed no significant difference between modeled emissions and measured data. An inventory of all European grate incineration plants including technical characteristics and plant capacities was established, and waste material mixtures were determined for different European countries, including generic elemental waste-material compositions. The model thus allows for calculation of country-specific and material-dependent emission factors and enables identification and tracking of emission sources. It thereby helps to develop strategies to decrease plant emissions by reducing or redirecting problematic waste fractions to other treatment options or adapting the technological equipment of waste incinerators.

  13. Summary of Requirements for Sewage Sludge Incinerators (SSI): New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) and Emission Guidelines (EG)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This November 2011 document summarizes the various requirements of the sewage sludge incinerators (SSI) new source performance standards (NSPS) and emission guidelines (EG), broken down into compliance categories.

  14. Air pollutant emissions and their control with the focus on waste incineration facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loeschau, Margit [Wandschneider + Gutjahr, Hamburg (Germany)

    2017-07-01

    This text and practical handbook thoroughly presents the control of air pollutant emissions from combustion processes focusing on waste incinerators. Special characteristics are emphasised and the differences to emission control from combustion processes with other fuels are explained. The author illustrates the origin and effects of air pollutants from incineration processes, the mechanics of their appearance in the incineration process, primary and secondary measures for their reduction, processes of measuring the emissions as well as the methods of disposing the residues. In particular, the pros and cons of procedural steps and their appropriate combination under various conditions are emphasised. Moreover, the book contains information and analyses of the emissions situation, the consumption of operating materials and of backlog quantities as well as of the cost structure of waste incinerators with regard to their applied control system. Furthermore, the author explicates the contemporary legal, scientific and technological developments and their influence on air pollutant emission control. An evaluation of the status quo of air pollutant control at waste incinerators in Germany, practical examples about possible combinations and typical performance data complete the content. Accordingly, this book is a guideline for planing a reasonable overall concept of an air pollutant control that takes the location and the segregation tasks into consideration.

  15. Comparative Assessment of Particulate Air Pollution Exposure from Municipal Solid Waste Incinerator Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashworth, Danielle C.; Fuller, Gary W.; Toledano, Mireille B.; Font, Anna; Elliott, Paul; Hansell, Anna L.; de Hoogh, Kees

    2013-01-01

    Background. Research to date on health effects associated with incineration has found limited evidence of health risks, but many previous studies have been constrained by poor exposure assessment. This paper provides a comparative assessment of atmospheric dispersion modelling and distance from source (a commonly used proxy for exposure) as exposure assessment methods for pollutants released from incinerators. Methods. Distance from source and the atmospheric dispersion model ADMS-Urban were used to characterise ambient exposures to particulates from two municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWIs) in the UK. Additionally an exploration of the sensitivity of the dispersion model simulations to input parameters was performed. Results. The model output indicated extremely low ground level concentrations of PM10, with maximum concentrations of incinerator characteristics, magnitude of emissions, and surrounding meteorological and topographical conditions are considered. Reducing exposure misclassification is particularly important in environmental epidemiology to aid detection of low-level risks. PMID:23935644

  16. Results of full scale dry injection tests at MSW-incinerators using a new active absorbent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felsvang, K.S.; Helvind, O.

    1991-01-01

    Worldwide incineration of municipal solid waste (MSW) has been utilized to reduce the volume of waste to be disposed of. Increasing environmental concerns over the potential air pollution impacts have led to emission limits for pollutants such as HCl, SO 2 , particulate, and more recently also for mercury and dioxins. For a certain size of incinerators, dry sorbent injection is the preferred technology for air pollution control. This paper describes the development of a new active sorbent, Scansorb, which is particularly suited for use in dry injection processes. The new sorbent is a lime based product with adjustable properties. Scansorb can be produced with a specific surface area of 30 to 100 m 2 /g. Pilot plant development work has shown that a considerable reduction in the absorbent quantity can be achieved when Scansorb is used instead of commercial hydrated lime. Full scale tests performed at four different MSW incinerators have confirmed the viability of the new active absorbent. The full scale tests have demonstrated that more than 50% SO 2 removal can be achieved with Scansorb at quantities much less than with commercial hydrated lime

  17. Ultrafine particle emission of waste incinerators and comparison to the exposure of urban citizens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buonanno, Giorgio; Morawska, Lidia

    2015-03-01

    On the basis of the growing interest on the impact of airborne particles on human exposure as well as the strong debate in Western countries on the emissions of waste incinerators, this work reviewed existing literature to: (i) show the emission factors of ultrafine particles (particles with a diameter less than 100 nm) of waste incinerators; and (ii) assess the contribution of waste incinerators in terms of ultrafine particles to exposure and dose of people living in the surrounding areas of the plants in order to estimate eventual risks. The review identified only a limited number of studies measuring ultrafine particle emissions, and in general they report low particle number concentrations at the stack (the median value was equal to 5.5×10(3) part cm(-3)), in most cases higher than the outdoor background value. The lowest emissions were achieved by utilization of the bag-house filter which has an overall number-based filtration efficiency higher than 99%. Referring to reference case, the corresponding emission factor is equal to 9.1×10(12) part min(-1), that is lower than one single high-duty vehicle. Since the higher particle number concentrations found in the most contributing microenvironments to the exposure (indoor home, transportation, urban outdoor), the contribution of the waste incinerators to the daily dose can be considered as negligible. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Incineration technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Buekens, Alfons

    2013-01-01

    Waste incineration is the art of completely combusting waste, while maintaining or reducing emission levels below current emission standards. Where possible, objectives include the recovering of energy as well as the  combustion residues.  Successful waste incineration makes it possible to achieve a deep reduction in waste volume, obtain a compact and sterile residue, and eliminate a wide array of pollutants. This book places waste incineration within the wider context of waste management, and demonstrates that, in contrast to landfills and composting, waste incineration can eliminate objectionable and hazardous properties such as flammability and toxicity, result in a significant reduction in volume, and destroy gaseous and liquid waste streams leaving little or no residues beyond those linked to flue gas neutralization and treatment. Moreover, waste incineration sterilizes and destroys putrescible matter, and produces usable heat.  Incineration Technologies first appeared as a peer-reviewed contribution ...

  19. Emission characteristics of particulate matter and heavy metals from small incinerators and boilers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Jong-Ik; Kim, Ki-Heon; Jang, Ha-Na; Seo, Yong-Chil; Seok, Kwang-Seol; Hong, Ji-Hyung; Jang, Min

    The characteristics of particulate matter (PM) emission such as the estimation of emission factors, size distributions and of heavy metal emission from small-size incinerators and boilers have been investigated. In PM-10 emission, a fine mode was found in the formation of sub-micron PM by growth of nucleated aerosol of metal vapor, having a bimodal particle size distribution in overall size range. The emission ratios of PM-10 to TPM (total PM) from boilers and incinerators ranged from 29% to 62% and 10% to 84%, respectively, which resulted in more and larger sized PM emission due to poorer combustion from solid waste incinerators than boilers. The targeted metals were copper, cadmium, manganese, chromium, magnesium, lead, zinc and copper, and their contents in bottom ash, fly ash and dust (PM) were compared. More volatile metals such as cadmium, lead and zinc showed higher enrichment in PM emitted through stack than bottom ashes. Cadmium, copper, lead and zinc on the fine PM under 2.5 μm accounted for approximately 90% of the total mass of each metal in PM-10. The effects of chlorine concentration and temperature on such metals emission were also observed due to their volatility changes.

  20. Environmental impact of emissions from incineration plants in comparison to typical heating systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielgosiński, Grzegorz; Namiecińska, Olga; Czerwińska, Justyna

    2018-01-01

    In recent years, five modern municipal waste incineration plants have been built in Poland. Next ones are being constructed and at the same time building of several others is being considered. Despite positive experience with the operation of the existing installations, each project of building a new incinerator raises a lot of emotions and social protests. The main argument against construction of an incineration plant is the emission of pollutants. The work compares emissions from municipal waste incineration plants with those from typical heating plants: in the first part, for comparison large heating plants equipped with pulverized coal-fired boilers (OP-140), stoker-fired boilers (three OR-32 boilers) or gas blocks with heat output of about 100 MW have been selected, while the second part compares WR-10 and WR-25 stoker-fired boilers most popular in our heating industry with thermal treatment systems for municipal waste or refuse-derived-fuel (RDF) with similar heat output. Both absolute emission and impact - immission of pollutants in vicinity of the plant were analyzed.

  1. Environmental impact of emissions from incineration plants in comparison to typical heating systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wielgosiński Grzegorz

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, five modern municipal waste incineration plants have been built in Poland. Next ones are being constructed and at the same time building of several others is being considered. Despite positive experience with the operation of the existing installations, each project of building a new incinerator raises a lot of emotions and social protests. The main argument against construction of an incineration plant is the emission of pollutants. The work compares emissions from municipal waste incineration plants with those from typical heating plants: in the first part, for comparison large heating plants equipped with pulverized coal-fired boilers (OP-140, stoker-fired boilers (three OR-32 boilers or gas blocks with heat output of about 100 MW have been selected, while the second part compares WR-10 and WR-25 stoker-fired boilers most popular in our heating industry with thermal treatment systems for municipal waste or refuse-derived-fuel (RDF with similar heat output. Both absolute emission and impact - immission of pollutants in vicinity of the plant were analyzed.

  2. Curbing dioxin emissions from municipal solid waste incineration in China: re-thinking about management policies and practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hefa; Hu, Yuanan

    2010-09-01

    As one of the countries with large amounts of dioxin releases, the control of dioxins is a major challenge for China. Municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration should be considered a high priority source of dioxin emissions because it is playing an increasingly more important role in waste management. MSW incineration in China has much higher emission rates of dioxins than in the developed countries, partially resulting from the gaps in the technologies of incineration and flue gas cleaning. Moreover, the current management policies and practices also contribute significantly to the problem. We recommend lowering dioxin emission standard, strengthening fly ash management, and improving regulation enforcement to reduce dioxin releases into the environment from MSW incineration. We also propose that alternative strategies should be considered on dioxin control and call for an expansion of economic instruments in waste management to reduce waste generation and thus the need for incineration. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Operational testing of an electrically fired Pu-238 waste incineration process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmes, H.; Charlesworth, D.L.

    1987-01-01

    Combustible 238 Pu waste is generated from normal operation and decommissioning activity at the Savannah River Plant and is being retrievably stored at the Plant. An electrically fired, two-stage incineration process is being developed to use incineration to process and recovery plutonium from the waste. A prototype incinerator is being tested to assess its capability to be remotely operated and maintained. Technical development is focusing on continuous feeding, vacuum control, remote operability and mechanical integrity of the system, ash burnout, and life of the belt in the primary incinerator chamber. 6 figs., 5 tabs

  4. Ultrafine particle emission from incinerators: the role of the fabric filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buonanno, G; Scungio, M; Stabile, L; Tirler, W

    2012-01-01

    Incinerators are claimed to be responsible of particle and gaseous emissions: to this purpose Best Available Techniques (BAT) are used in the flue-gas treatment sections leading to pollutant emission lower than established threshold limit values. As regard particle emission, only a mass-based threshold limit is required by the regulatory authorities. However; in the last years the attention of medical experts moved from coarse and fine particles towards ultrafine particles (UFPs; diameter less than 0.1 microm), mainly emitted by combustion processes. According to toxicological and epidemiological studies, ultrafine particles could represent a risk for health and environment. Therefore, it is necessary to quantify particle emissions from incinerators also to perform an exposure assessment for the human populations living in their surrounding areas. A further topic to be stressed in the UFP emission from incinerators is the particle filtration efficiency as function of different flue-gas treatment sections. In fact, it could be somehow important to know which particle filtration method is able to assure high abatement efficiency also in terms of UFPs. To this purpose, in the present work experimental results in terms of ultrafine particle emissions from several incineration plants are reported. Experimental campaigns were carried out in the period 2007-2010 by measuring UFP number distributions and total concentrations at the stack of five plants through condensation particle counters and mobility particle sizer spectrometers. Average total particle number concentrations ranging from 0.4 x 10(3) to 6.0 x 10(3) particles cm(-3) were measured at the stack of the analyzed plants. Further experimental campaigns were performed to characterize particle levels before the fabric filters in two of the analyzed plants in order to deepen their particle reduction effect; particle concentrations higher than 1 x 10(7) particles cm(-3) were measured, leading to filtration

  5. Test and evaluation of the heat recovery incinerator system at Naval Station, Mayport, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-05-01

    This report describes test and evaluation of the two-ton/hr heat recovery incinerator (HRI) facility located at Mayport Naval Station, Fla., carried out during November and December 1980. The tests included: (1) Solid Waste: characterization, heating value, and ultimate analysis, (2) Ash: moisture, combustibles, and heating values of both bottom and cyclone ashes; Extraction Procedure toxicity tests on leachates from both bottom and cyclone ashes; trace metals in cyclone particulates, (3) Stack Emissions: particulates (quantity and size distribution), chlorides, oxygen, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, and trace elements, and (4) Heat and Mass Balance: all measurements required to carry out complete heat and mass balance calculations over the test period. The overall thermal efficiency of the HRI facility while operating at approximately 1.0 ton/hr was found to be 49% when the primary Btu equivalent of the electrical energy consumed during the test program was included.

  6. Commercial and Industrial Solid Waste Incineration Units (CISWI): New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) and Emission Guidelines (EG) for Existing Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn about the New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) for commercial and industrial solid waste incineration (CISWI) units including emission guidelines and compliance times for the rule. Read the rule history and summary, and find supporting documents

  7. A summary of the National Incinerator Testing and Evaluation Program ash characterization and solidification studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawell, S.E.; Constable, T.W.; Klicius, R.K.

    1991-01-01

    In 1984, Environment Canada established the National Incinerator Testing and Evaluation Program (NITEP) to examine the potential impact of municipal solid waste incineration on the environment. As a part of NITEP, the Wastewater Technology Center (WTC) evaluated the chemical properties and leachability of different types of ashes from various types of MSW incinerators using a battery of laboratory procedures. This paper presents a summary of results generated from the NITEP ash program. Emphasis is placed on the variability of ash characteristics based on ash type, incinerator technology and incinerator operating conditions, as well as major trends in leaching, such as the effect of pH on metal solubility. In addition, the results will be placed in context with the current Canadian federal guidelines and provincial regulations for ash disposal. Finally, the feasibility of solidification as a treatment technique for fly ash will also be discussed

  8. Nitrous oxide and methane emissions and nitrous oxide isotopic composition from waste incineration in Switzerland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, Eliza, E-mail: eliza.harris@empa.ch [Empa, Laboratory for Air Pollution and Environmental Technology, Überlandstrasse 129, CH-8600 Dübendorf (Switzerland); Zeyer, Kerstin [Empa, Laboratory for Air Pollution and Environmental Technology, Überlandstrasse 129, CH-8600 Dübendorf (Switzerland); Kegel, Rainer; Müller, Beat [FOEN, Federal Office for the Environment, Air Pollution Control and Chemicals, CH-3003 Berne (Switzerland); Emmenegger, Lukas; Mohn, Joachim [Empa, Laboratory for Air Pollution and Environmental Technology, Überlandstrasse 129, CH-8600 Dübendorf (Switzerland)

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • N{sub 2}O emissions from waste incineration with SNCR NO{sub x} removal are 51.5 ± 10.6 g t{sup −1}. • This is significantly lower than the reported Swiss emission factor of 120 g t{sup −1} (FOEN, 2013). • N{sub 2}O contributes <0.3% and ≈2.5% of GHG emissions from SCR and SNCR plants. • Measured isotopic SP of 17.7‰ is likely characteristic for N{sub 2}O emissions from SNCR. • CH{sub 4} emitted by waste incineration is negligible, contributing <0.01% to total GHGs. - Abstract: Solid waste incineration accounts for a growing proportion of waste disposal in both developed and developing countries, therefore it is important to constrain emissions of greenhouse gases from these facilities. At five Swiss waste incineration facilities with grate firing, emission factors for N{sub 2}O and CH{sub 4} were determined based on measurements of representative flue gas samples, which were collected in Tedlar bags over a one year period (September 2010–August 2011) and analysed with FTIR spectroscopy. All five plants burn a mixture of household and industrial waste, and two of the plants employ NO{sub x} removal through selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) while three plants use selective catalytic reduction (SCR) for NO{sub x} removal. N{sub 2}O emissions from incineration plants with NO{sub x} removal through selective catalytic reduction were 4.3 ± 4.0 g N{sub 2}O tonne{sup −1} waste (wet) (hereafter abbreviated as t{sup −1}) (0.4 ± 0.4 g N{sub 2}O GJ{sup −1}), ten times lower than from plants with selective non-catalytic reduction (51.5 ± 10.6 g N{sub 2}O t{sup −1}; 4.5 ± 0.9 g N{sub 2}O GJ{sup −1}). These emission factors, which are much lower than the value of 120 g N{sub 2}O t{sup −1} (10.4 g N{sub 2}O GJ{sup −1}) used in the 2013 Swiss national greenhouse gas emission inventory, have been implemented in the most recent Swiss emission inventory. In addition, the isotopic composition of N{sub 2}O emitted from the two

  9. Comparative life cycle GHG emissions from local electricity generation using heavy oil, natural gas, and MSW incineration in Macau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Song, Qingbin; Wang, Zhishi; Li, Jinhui

    2018-01-01

    (MSW) incineration, and coal-dominated mode which is directly imported from China mainland. On the basis of first-hand data from two power plants and one MSW incineration facility, this study performed a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) process for three kinds of local electricity generation (heavy oil......The electricity generation processes represent a large contribution to the potential greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions. Macau, a Special Administrative Region of China, is not of exception. Macau has multiple electricity generation modes, including heavy oil, natural gas, and municipal solid waste......, natural gas, and MSW incineration) to estimate the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions under the operating practices used from 2010 to 2014. Results indicate that the mean GHG emissions of electricity production from heavy oil, natural gas, and MSW incineration were 0.71, 0.42, 0.95kg CO2 eq per k...

  10. Nitrous oxide and methane emissions and nitrous oxide isotopic composition from waste incineration in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Eliza; Zeyer, Kerstin; Kegel, Rainer; Müller, Beat; Emmenegger, Lukas; Mohn, Joachim

    2015-01-01

    Solid waste incineration accounts for a growing proportion of waste disposal in both developed and developing countries, therefore it is important to constrain emissions of greenhouse gases from these facilities. At five Swiss waste incineration facilities with grate firing, emission factors for N2O and CH4 were determined based on measurements of representative flue gas samples, which were collected in Tedlar bags over a one year period (September 2010-August 2011) and analysed with FTIR spectroscopy. All five plants burn a mixture of household and industrial waste, and two of the plants employ NOx removal through selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) while three plants use selective catalytic reduction (SCR) for NOx removal. N2O emissions from incineration plants with NOx removal through selective catalytic reduction were 4.3 ± 4.0g N2O tonne(-1) waste (wet) (hereafter abbreviated as t(-1)) (0.4 ± 0.4 g N2O GJ(-1)), ten times lower than from plants with selective non-catalytic reduction (51.5 ± 10.6g N2O t(-1); 4.5 ± 0.9g N2O GJ(-1)). These emission factors, which are much lower than the value of 120g N2O t(-1) (10.4g N2O GJ(-1)) used in the 2013 Swiss national greenhouse gas emission inventory, have been implemented in the most recent Swiss emission inventory. In addition, the isotopic composition of N2O emitted from the two plants with SNCR, which had considerable N2O emissions, was measured using quantum cascade laser spectroscopy. The isotopic site preference of N2O - the enrichment of (14)N(15)NO relative to (15)N(14)NO - was found to be 17.6 ± 0.8‰, with no significant difference between the two plants. Comparison to previous studies suggests SP of 17-19‰ may be characteristic for N2O produced from SNCR. Methane emissions were found to be insignificant, with a maximum emission factor of 2.5 ± 5.6g CH4 t(-1) (0.2 ± 0.5g CH4 GJ(-1)), which is expected due to high incinerator temperatures and efficient combustion. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd

  11. In Situ Measurement of Alkali Metals in an MSW Incinerator Using a Spontaneous Emission Spectrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weijie Yan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents experimental investigations of the in situ diagnosis of the alkali metals in the municipal solid waste (MSW flame of an industrial grade incinerator using flame emission spectroscopy. The spectral radiation intensities of the MSW flame were obtained using a spectrometer. A linear polynomial fitting method is proposed to uncouple the continuous spectrum and the characteristic line. Based on spectra processing and a non-gray emissivity model, the flame temperature, emissivity, and intensities of the emission of alkali metals were calculated by means of measuring the spectral radiation intensities of the MSW flame. Experimental results indicate that the MSW flame contains alkali metals, including Na, K, and even Rb, and it demonstrates non-gray characteristics in a wavelength range from 500 nm to 900 nm. Peak intensities of the emission of the alkali metals were found to increase when the primary air was high, and the measured temperature varied in the same way as the primary air. The temperature and peak intensities of the lines of emission of the alkali metals may be used to adjust the primary airflow and to manage the feeding of the MSW to control the alkali metals in the MSW flame. It was found that the peak intensity of the K emission line had a linear relationship with the peak intensity of the Na emission line; this correlation may be attributed to their similar physicochemical characteristics in the MSW. The variation trend of the emissivity of the MSW flame and the oxygen content in the flue gas were almost opposite because the increased oxygen content suppressed soot formation and decreased soot emissivity. These results prove that the flame emission spectroscopy technique is feasible for monitoring combustion in the MSW incinerator in situ.

  12. Noncondensable hydrogen sulfide incineration with brine scrubbing air emissions control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goddard, W.B.; Goddard, C.B.; McClain, D.W.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on the technical and institutional feasibility of incinerating hydrogen sulfide (H2S) contained in geothermal noncondensable gases, and the use of geothermal brine for sulfur dioxide scrubbing and absorption as an Air Emissions Control System (AECS), for geothermal power plant, that have been documented through engineering analysis in the Phase I grant study funded through the California Department of Health Services (DOHS), Hazardous Materials Reduction Grant Program and hosted by California Energy Company (CECI). Grant funding for Phase II now has been approved to proceed with the project through the pilot plant design phase. This innovative AECS does not necessitate the use of hazardous materials or produce hazardous wastes. Cost savings were documented compared to injection pump operation or conventional AECS without the use of hazardous materials. The phase II project is to design, improve, research and develop a source reduction demonstration pilot plant geothermal noncondensable H2S incineration AECS

  13. Incinerator carryover tests with dysprosium as a stand-in for plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hooker, R.L.

    1981-11-01

    A full-scale (5 kg/h) incinerator is being tested with nonradioactive feed materials which simulate SRP-generator combustible transuranic wastes. The incinerator is two-stage and is designed to provide relatively quiescent conditions in the primary chamber where the ash is formed. This feature should minimize entrainment of Pu-bearing particles into the off-gas system. A series of runs have been completed in which incinerator feed was spiked with dysprosium to simulate Pu. Carryover of Dy into the off-gas system was found to be low (about 1/4%). 4 figures, 3 tables

  14. Curbing dioxin emissions from municipal solid waste incineration in China: Re-thinking about management policies and practices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng Hefa, E-mail: hefac@umich.ed [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Hu Yuanan [Education Program for Gifted Youth, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94025 (United States)

    2010-09-15

    As one of the countries with large amounts of dioxin releases, the control of dioxins is a major challenge for China. Municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration should be considered a high priority source of dioxin emissions because it is playing an increasingly more important role in waste management. MSW incineration in China has much higher emission rates of dioxins than in the developed countries, partially resulting from the gaps in the technologies of incineration and flue gas cleaning. Moreover, the current management policies and practices also contribute significantly to the problem. We recommend lowering dioxin emission standard, strengthening fly ash management, and improving regulation enforcement to reduce dioxin releases into the environment from MSW incineration. We also propose that alternative strategies should be considered on dioxin control and call for an expansion of economic instruments in waste management to reduce waste generation and thus the need for incineration. - The management policies and practices need to be improved to curb the increasing dioxin releases from municipal solid waste incineration in China.

  15. Design, construction and test operation of a thermal incinerator for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Montfort type intermittent incinerator for combusting medical wastes were the waste types, fuel, chimney size, and flue gas residence time. The design analysis was based on flue gas flow rate of 0.13 m3/s, maximum primary chamber ...

  16. Emissions of polychlorinated diphenyl ethers from a municipal solid waste incinerator during the start-up operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Jing-Sing [Department of Environmental Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China); Lin, Sheng-Lun, E-mail: cbmsgml@gmail.com [Department of Civil Engineering and Geomatics, Cheng Shiu University, Kaohsiung 83347, Taiwan (China); Super Micro Mass Research and Technology Center, Cheng Shiu University, Kaohsiung 83347, Taiwan (China); Lin, Ta-Chang; Wu, Yee-Lin [Department of Environmental Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China); Wang, Lin-Chi [Department of Civil Engineering and Geomatics, Cheng Shiu University, Kaohsiung 83347, Taiwan (China); Chang-Chien, Guo-Ping, E-mail: guoping@csu.edu.tw [Super Micro Mass Research and Technology Center, Cheng Shiu University, Kaohsiung 83347, Taiwan (China); Department of Cosmetic and Fashion Styling, Kaohsiung 83347, Taiwan (China)

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • This is the first study on the PCDE emission during a MSWI start-up procedure. • The highest PCDE level occurred similar to the PCDD/F reformation temperature. • The pollution control were modified and reduce 86% PCDE peak emission. • Multiple start-ups are analyzed for their effects on the annual PCDE emission. - Abstract: This study examines the emissions of polychlorinated diphenyl ethers (PCDEs) during the start-up processes of a municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI). Both normal and modified emission control start-ups were tested. Fifteen samples were taken from the flue gas with increasing furnace temperature. Peak PCDE concentrations of 1.48–10.3 ng/Nm{sup 3} were observed at 8–11 h after the start of combustion, when the furnace temperature was in the range of 267–440 °C, that also needed for PCDD/F formation by de novo synthesis. The PCDE emissions could thus, be reduced by current control techniques. Furthermore, the modified control strategies inhibited PCDE formation at the beginning of combustion, and led to an 86% reduction in the maximum PCDE concentration. The overall start-up emissions were calculated as 1.01–3.08 mg, while the annual PCDE emissions with one start-up operation were found to be 7.48–9.64 mg. However, total PCDE emissions will increase by 12–69% if the number of start-up runs increases to between two and eight times per year. Consequently, the prevention of the unnecessary start-ups and advanced activation of the related emission control system are both efficient ways to reduce PCDE emissions.

  17. Emissions of polychlorinated diphenyl ethers from a municipal solid waste incinerator during the start-up operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Jing-Sing; Lin, Sheng-Lun; Lin, Ta-Chang; Wu, Yee-Lin; Wang, Lin-Chi; Chang-Chien, Guo-Ping

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • This is the first study on the PCDE emission during a MSWI start-up procedure. • The highest PCDE level occurred similar to the PCDD/F reformation temperature. • The pollution control were modified and reduce 86% PCDE peak emission. • Multiple start-ups are analyzed for their effects on the annual PCDE emission. - Abstract: This study examines the emissions of polychlorinated diphenyl ethers (PCDEs) during the start-up processes of a municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI). Both normal and modified emission control start-ups were tested. Fifteen samples were taken from the flue gas with increasing furnace temperature. Peak PCDE concentrations of 1.48–10.3 ng/Nm 3 were observed at 8–11 h after the start of combustion, when the furnace temperature was in the range of 267–440 °C, that also needed for PCDD/F formation by de novo synthesis. The PCDE emissions could thus, be reduced by current control techniques. Furthermore, the modified control strategies inhibited PCDE formation at the beginning of combustion, and led to an 86% reduction in the maximum PCDE concentration. The overall start-up emissions were calculated as 1.01–3.08 mg, while the annual PCDE emissions with one start-up operation were found to be 7.48–9.64 mg. However, total PCDE emissions will increase by 12–69% if the number of start-up runs increases to between two and eight times per year. Consequently, the prevention of the unnecessary start-ups and advanced activation of the related emission control system are both efficient ways to reduce PCDE emissions.

  18. Emissions of PCDD/Fs in flue gas from a medical waste incinerator in Shanghai

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jiao; Liu, Tao; Qiang, Ning; Li, Zhaohai; Cao, Yiqi; Xie, Li; Zhao, Yuanchen

    2017-12-01

    Emission characteristics of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and 17 congeners from a medical waste incineration plants in Shanghai, China were investigated. Results showed that the dioxin concentration ranged from 5.0 to 23.3ng I-TEQ (Toxic Equivalent Quantity) Nm-3 under normal combustion concentration. The high dioxin incidence area was found in the boiler outlet and the bag filter inlet, and over 95% of the dioxins were present in the gaseous state. Polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) accounted for a higher proportion of the total amount of PCDD/Fs than polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs).

  19. Municipal waste incineration and emissions trading; Die Einbeziehung von Siedlungsabfallverbrennungsanlagen in den Emissionsrechtehandel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Treder, Martin [ITAD und VKU (Germany). AG Klimaschutz und Abfallwirtschaft

    2011-11-15

    The task of energetic waste recovery is the disposal of nonrecyclable waste in an environmentally sound way, while recovering as much of the energetic content as possible. The objective therefore is to reach a complete combustion of the biogenic and fossil carbon, thus transforming it into carbon dioxide. Hence the amount of greenhouse gas emitted solely depends on the amount and type of waste incinerated. Taking into account the climate neutrality of the biogenic fraction and the fossil fuels substituted, the German WtE-plants are contributing to climate protection by relieving it of a burden of around 4 billion each year. For these reasons municipal waste incineration plants are not included in the emissions trading scheme. Since the term 'municipal waste' is not defined within the acts, it is vital to settle for an interpretation including all wastes stemming from municipal wastes. Otherwise plants accepting presorted or conditioned municipal waste are prone to an inclusion in the emissions trading scheme. This would not only cause costs for the emission allowances without any sensible steering effects, but also face the operator with numerous reporting-, measuring and sampling obligations. This would lead to shifts in waste mass flows but also cause waste fees to increase. (orig.)

  20. Emissions from waste combustion. An application of statistical experimental design in a laboratory-scale boiler and an investigation from large-scale incineration plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Xiaojing

    1997-05-01

    The aim of this thesis is a study of the emissions from the combustion of household refuse. The experiments were both on a laboratory-scale boiler and on full-scale incineration plants. In the laboratory, an artificial household refuse with known composition was fed into a pilot boiler with a stationary grate. Combustion was under non-optimum conditions. Direct sampling with a Tenax adsorbent was used to measure a range of VOCs. Measurements were also made of incompletely burnt hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, oxygen and flue gas temperature. Combustion and emission parameters were recorded continuously by a multi-point data logger. VOCs were analysed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The full-scale tests were on seven Swedish incineration plants. The data were used to evaluate the emissions from large-scale incineration plants with various type of fuels and incinerators, and were also compared with the laboratory results. The response surface model developed from the laboratory experiments was also validated. This thesis also includes studies on the gasification of household refuse pellets, estimations of particulate and soot emissions, and a thermodynamic analysis of PAHs from combustion flue gas. For pellet gasification, experiments were performed on single, well characterised refuse pellets under carefully controlled conditions. The aim was to see if the effects of pellets were different from those of untreated household refuse. The results from both laboratory and full-scale tests showed that the main contributions to emissions from household refuse are plastics and moisture. 142 refs, 82 figs, 51 tabs

  1. Waste incineration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rumplmayr, A.; Sammer, G.

    2001-01-01

    Waste incineration can be defined as the thermal conversion processing of solid waste by chemical oxidation. The types of wastes range from solid household waste and infectious hospital waste through to toxic solid, liquid and gaseous chemical wastes. End products include hot incineration gases, composed primarily of nitrogen, carbon dioxide, water vapor and to a smaller extend of non-combustible residue (ash) and air pollutants (e. g. NO x ). Energy can be recovered by heat exchange from the hot incineration gases, thus lowering fossil fuel consumption that in turn can reduce emissions of greenhouse gases. Burning of solid waste can fulfil up to four distinctive objectives (Pera, 2000): 1. Volume reduction: volume reduction of about 90 %, weight reduction of about 70 %; 2. Stabilization of waste: oxidation of organic input; 3. Recovery of energy from waste; 4. Sanitization of waste: destruction of pathogens. Waste incineration is not a means to make waste disappear. It does entail emissions into air as well as water and soil. The generated solid residues are the topic of this task force. Unlike other industrial processes discussed in this platform, waste incineration is not a production process, and is therefore not generating by-products, only residues. Residues that are isolated from e. g. flue gas, are concentrated in another place and form (e. g. air pollution control residues). Hence, there are generally two groups of residues that have to be taken into consideration: residues generated in the actual incineration process and others generated in the flue gas cleaning system. Should waste incineration finally gain public acceptance, it will be necessary to find consistent regulations for both sorts of residues. In some countries waste incineration is seen as the best option for the treatment of waste, whereas in other countries it is seen very negative. (author)

  2. Factors influencing pollutant gas emissions of VOC recuperative incinerators-Large-scale parametric study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salvador, S.; Commandre, J.-M.; Kara, Y.

    2006-01-01

    This work establishes quantitative links between the operation parameters-plus one geometrical parameter-and the gas pollutant emissions of a recuperative incinerator (RI) of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Using experimental design methodology, and based on a large number of experiments carried out on a half-industrial-scale pilot unit, mathematical expressions are established to calculate each of the pollutant emissions from the value of all the operation and design parameters. The gas emissions concerned are total hydrocarbons, and CO and NO x emissions, while the control parameters are the flow rate of the treated air flow, the concentration of VOCs in the air flow, the preheating temperature of the flow, and the temperature at the exit of the combustion chamber. One design parameter-the aperture of the diaphragms-is also considered. We show that the constraining emissions are only that of CO and NO x . Polynomials to predict them with a high accuracy are established. The air preheating temperature has an effect on the natural gas consumption, but not on CO and NO x emissions. There is an optimal value for the aperture of the diaphragms, and this value is quantitatively established. If the concentration of VOCs in the air flow is high, CO and NO x emissions both decrease and a high rate of efficiency in VOC destruction is attained. This demonstrates that a pre-concentration of VOCs in the air flow prior to treatment by RI is recommended. (author)

  3. Size-dependent emission characteristics of airborne parent and halogenated PAHs from municipal solid waste incinerators in Shenzhen, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Wen-Bo; Zhao, Yi-Bo; Ni, Hong-Gang; Zeng, Hui

    2018-02-01

    Two waste incinerators were selected for investigation of size-dependent emission characteristics of airborne parent and halogenated PAHs (PAHs and HPAHs) and incidence of these pollutants from trash incineration. The concentrations of total PAHs (gas and particles with aerodynamic diameter 0.43-10 μm) in ambient air of Shenzhen incinerators were at the lower end of the global range while those of HPAHs were higher than those of urban air in other studies. High-ring PAHs dominated in PM 2.5 (66%-86%), while low-ring PAHs dominated in PM 10 (83%-86%). As for PAHs in gaseous phase, low-ring PAHs were collectively account for 86%-97%. ΣHPAH mainly enriched in coarse particles (>83%). The size distributions of ΣPAH and ΣHPAH were both characterized by bimodal peaks dominate in 9.0-10 μm and subordinate in 4.7-5.8 μm. PAHs and HPAHs enrichment in the coarse particles indicates that particle-bound PAHs and HPAHs from incinerators cannot travel great distances. Model simulation results showed the peak of airborne PAHs and HPAHs occurred in approximate 300 m from incinerator, then their concentrations reduced sharply. The extent of affected areas by municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWIs) seem very large, intensity of impacts can be neglected for the very low level of pollutants. Although waste incineration is perceived as most polluting way to manage waste, our study found the damage from incinerator to be far less than originally feared. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. A COMPARISON: ORGANIC EMISSIONS FROM HAZARDOUS WASTE INCINERATORS VERSUS THE 1990 TOXICS RELEASE INVENTORY AIR RELEASES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Incineration is often the preferred technology for disposing of hazardous waste, and remediating Superfund sites. The effective implementation of this technology is frequently impeded by strong public opposition `to hazardous waste' incineration HWI). One of the reasons cited for...

  5. Field Evaluation of MERCEM Mercury Emission Analyzer System at the Oak Ridge TSCA Incinerator East Tennessee Technology Park Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2000-03-01

    The authors reached the following conclusions: (1) The two-month evaluation of the MERCEM total mercury monitor from Perkin Elmer provided a useful venue in determining the feasibility of using a CEM to measure total mercury in a saturated flue gas. (2) The MERCEM exhibited potential at a mixed waste incinerator to meet requirements proposed in PS12 under conditions of operation with liquid feeds only at stack mercury concentrations in the range of proposed MACT standards. (3) Performance of the MERCEM under conditions of incinerating solid and liquid wastes simultaneously was less reliable than while feeding liquid feeds only for the operating conditions and configuration of the host facility. (4) The permeation tube calibration method used in this test relied on the CEM internal volumetric and time constants to relate back to a concentration, whereas a compressed gas cylinder concentration is totally independent of the analyzer mass flowmeter and flowrates. (5) Mercury concentration in the compressed gas cylinders was fairly stable over a 5-month period. (6) The reliability of available reference materials was not fully demonstrated without further evaluation of their incorporation into routine operating procedures performed by facility personnel. (7) The degree of mercury control occurring in the TSCA Incinerator off-gas cleaning system could not be quantified from the data collected in this study. (8) It was possible to conduct the demonstration at a facility incinerating radioactively contaminated wastes and to release the equipment for later unrestricted use elsewhere. (9) Experience gained by this testing answered additional site-specific and general questions regarding the operation and maintenance of CEMs and their use in compliance monitoring of total mercury emissions from hazardous waste incinerators.

  6. Greenhouse gas emissions from MSW incineration in China: impacts of waste characteristics and energy recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Na; Zhang, Hua; Chen, Miao; Shao, Li-Ming; He, Pin-Jing

    2012-12-01

    Determination of the amount of greenhouse gas (GHG) emitted during municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) is complex because both contributions and savings of GHGs exist in the process. To identify the critical factors influencing GHG emissions from MSWI in China, a GHG accounting model was established and applied to six Chinese cities located in different regions. The results showed that MSWI in most of the cities was the source of GHGs, with emissions of 25-207 kg CO(2)-eq t(-1) rw. Within all process stages, the emission of fossil CO(2) from the combustion of MSW was the main contributor (111-254 kg CO(2)-eq t(-1) rw), while the substitution of electricity reduced the GHG emissions by 150-247 kg CO(2)-eq t(-1) rw. By affecting the fossil carbon content and the lower heating value of the waste, the contents of plastic and food waste in the MSW were the critical factors influencing GHG emissions of MSWI. Decreasing food waste content in MSW by half will significantly reduce the GHG emissions from MSWI, and such a reduction will convert MSWI in Urumqi and Tianjin from GHG sources to GHG sinks. Comparison of the GHG emissions in the six Chinese cities with those in European countries revealed that higher energy recovery efficiency in Europe induced much greater reductions in GHG emissions. Recovering the excess heat after generation of electricity would be a good measure to convert MSWI in all the six cities evaluated herein into sinks of GHGs. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Evaluation of leachate emissions from crushed rock and municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash used in road construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lidelöw, S; Lagerkvist, A

    2007-01-01

    Three years of leachate emissions from municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash and crushed rock in a full-scale test road were evaluated. The impact of time, construction design, and climate on the emissions was studied, and the predicted release from standard leaching tests was compared with the measured release from the road. The main pollutants and their respective concentrations in leachate from the roadside slope were Al (12.8-85.3 mg l(-1)), Cr (2-125 microg l(-1)), and Cu (0.15-1.9 mg l(-1)) in ash leachate and Zn (1-780 microg l(-1)) in crushed rock leachate. From the ash, the initial Cl(-) release was high ( approximately 20 g l(-1)). After three years, the amount of Cu and Cl(-) was in the same range in both leachates, while that of Al and Cr still was more than one order of magnitude higher in ash leachate. Generally, the release was faster from material in the uncovered slopes than below the pavement. Whether the road was asphalted or not, however, had minor impacts on the leachate quality. During rain events, diluted leachates with respect to, e.g., salts were observed. The leaching tests failed to simulate field leaching from the crushed rock, whereas better agreement was observed for the ash. Comparisons of constituent release from bottom ash and conventional materials solely based on such tests should be avoided.

  8. Radioactive-waste incineration at Purdue University

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-11-01

    A study conducted at Purdue University to evaluate the feasibility of using a small (45 kg/h), inexpensive (less than $10K) incinerator for incinerating low-level radioactive waste is described. An oil-fired, dual-chamber pathological waste incinerator was installed on a 12.7-cm-thick concrete floor in a metal quonset building. A standard EPA Method 5 sampling train was used to obtain stack samples. Also, stack gas velocity was measured with a type 5 pitot tube; stack temperature was measured with a thermocouple and pyrometer. The incinerator was tested for emissions from incineration of laboratory animal carcasses, liquid scintillation fluid, and trash. Emissions measured were particulates, SO/sub x/, NO/sub x/, Cl, CO, CO 2 , H 2 O, and unburned hydrocarbons in the particulate fraction. Three analyses were then averaged to arrive at the final determinations. Results of the study demonstrated the feasibility and cost-effectiveness of incinerating radioactive animal carcasses and liquid scintillation fluids, since emissions from those waste types were within EPA and State of Indiana limits. However, emissions from burning of trash exceeded State of Indiana limits. Therefore, incineration of trash alone, particularly if it contains glass or significant amounts of plastic, is not a recommended use of the tested equipment

  9. Nanometer-sized emissions from municipal waste incinerators: A qualitative risk assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, David R., E-mail: david.r.johnson@ghd.com

    2016-12-15

    Municipal waste incinerators (MWI) are beneficial alternatives to landfills for waste management. A recent constituent of concern in emissions from these facilities is incidental nanometer-sized particles (INP{sub MWI}), i.e., particles smaller than 1 micrometer in size that may deposit in the deepest parts of the lungs, cross into the bloodstream, and affect different regions of the body. With limited data, the public may fear INP{sub MWI} due to uncertainty, which may affect public acceptance, regulatory permitting, and the increased lowering of air quality standards. Despite limited data, a qualitative risk assessment paradigm can be applied to determine the relative risk due to INP{sub MWI} emissions. This review compiles existing data on nanometer-sized particle generation by MWIs, emissions control technologies used at MWIs, emission releases into the atmosphere, human population exposure, and adverse health effects of nanometer-sized particles to generate a qualitative risk assessment and identify data gaps. The qualitative risk assessment conservatively concludes that INP{sub MWI} pose a low to moderate risk to individuals, primarily due to the lack of relevant toxicological data on INP{sub MWI} mixtures in ambient particulate matter.

  10. Inventory Analysis and Social Life Cycle Assessment of Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Waste-to-Energy Incineration in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Tsang Lu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Waste-to-energy (WtE incineration technology is widely used to solve the energy supply, greenhouse gas emissions, and waste generation problems in urban areas. In Taiwan, there are new laws and regulations that would affect greenhouse gas management of WtE incineration plants. This research aims to identify or raise key issues to be promoted for WtE incineration plants due to existing management systems and complex issues mixed with GHG, energy, and solid waste treatment. This study utilizes inventory analysis and social LCA (SLCA approach on GHG management of WtE incineration plants in Taiwan to systematically identify materiality issues to be promoted. According to the results of materiality analysis for SLCA, this study generalizes four stakeholders, nine subcategories, and their 15 inventory indicators; and concludes that, among assessment results of 15 inventory indicators, three indicators are at a high level, four at a medium level, and eight at a low level. In total, 12 materiality issues are recognized. This study suggests WtE incineration plants should consider the following materiality issues with respect to priority: a systematic database and calculation methods, the goal and criteria of the laws and regulations, technology development toward circular economy and promotion activity or opportunity for local community and organization level.

  11. Effects of combustion temperature on air emissions and support fuel consumption in full scale fluidized bed sludge incineration: with particular focus on nitrogen oxides and total organic carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löschau, Margit

    2018-04-01

    This article describes a pilot test at a sewage sludge incineration plant and shows its results considering the impacts of reducing the minimum combustion temperature from 850°C to 800°C. The lowering leads to an actual reduction of the average combustion temperature by 25 K and a significant reduction in the fuel oil consumption for support firing. The test shall be used for providing evidence that the changed combustion conditions do not result in higher air pollutant emissions. The analysis focusses on the effects of the combustion temperature on nitrogen oxides (NO x ) and total organic carbon emissions. The evaluation of all continuously monitored emissions shows reduced emission levels compared to the previous years, especially for NO x .

  12. Radiated Emissions Test Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-02

    1. Draft Department of Transportation (DOT) Test Plan to Develop : Interference Tolerance Masks for GNSS Receivers in the L1 : Radiofrequency Band (1559 1610 MHz) provides high level : overview of radiated emissions test setup : 2. Presenta...

  13. Field evaluation of a total mercury continuous emissions monitor at a U.S. Department of Energy mixed waste incinerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibson, L.V. Jr.; Dunn, J.E. Jr.; Baker, R.L.; Sigl, W.; Skegg, I.

    1999-01-01

    In conjunction with proposed Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) standards for hazardous waste combustors, extended duration testing sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) of three mercury continuous emissions monitors (CEMs) was conducted in the 1996--97 timeframe at a commercial cement kiln burning hazardous wastes at Holly Hill, South Carolina. The emission characteristics of the kiln, specifically the combination of high particulate matter, moisture, and acid gases, were believed to have contributed to the failure of the tested CEMs. The MERCEM mercury analyzer for stack gases manufactured by Perkin Elmer and represented by Aldora Technologies was selected for further evaluation on a DOE mixed waste incinerator at Oak Ridge, Tennessee, expected to present less adverse conditions. The overall scope of the evaluation was carried out over a two-month period from September through October 1998. Not only was the performance of the MERCEM evaluated according to proposed EPA Performance Specification 12 but also were alternative methods of calibration with reference concentrations of mercury and a qualitative assessment of long-term endurance under wet stack conditions

  14. Sewage Sludge Incinerators: Final Standards of Performance for New Stationary Sources and Emission Guidelines for Existing Sources Final Rule Fact Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page contains a February 2011 fact sheet with information regarding the final NSPS and Emission Guidelines for Existing Sources for Sewage Sludge Incinerators (SSI). This document provides a summary of the information for these regulations.

  15. New concepts in treatment of gaseous emissions at solid wastes incinerators. Nuevos conceptos de depuracion de gases de incineradores de residuos solidos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narvaez, I.; Corella, J.; Aznar, M.P.; Borque, J.A.

    1993-01-01

    New systems for treatment of gaseous emissions from solid wastes incinerators are described, with special emphasis on those developed in Spain. It consists of processes with two and three steps of exhaustive cleaning, catalytic and at high temperatures. (Author)

  16. Practical acoustic emission testing

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    This book is intended for non-destructive testing (NDT) technicians who want to learn practical acoustic emission testing based on level 1 of ISO 9712 (Non-destructive testing – Qualification and certification of personnel) criteria. The essential aspects of ISO/DIS 18436-6 (Condition monitoring and diagnostics of machines – Requirements for training and certification of personnel, Part 6: Acoustic Emission) are explained, and readers can deepen their understanding with the help of practice exercises. This work presents the guiding principles of acoustic emission measurement, signal processing, algorithms for source location, measurement devices, applicability of testing methods, and measurement cases to support not only researchers in this field but also and especially NDT technicians.

  17. Past and future cadmium emissions from municipal solid-waste incinerators in Japan for the assessment of cadmium control policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ono, Kyoko, E-mail: kyoko.ono@aist.go.jp

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: • Cd emissions from municipal solid waste incinerators were estimated for 1970–2030. • Emissions peaked in 1973 (11.1 t) at levels ten times that in 2010 (1.2 t). • In the 1970s, the main source was pigments, but after 2000, it was Ni-Cd batteries. • The effects of two Cd control policies were compared. • Banning Cd use reduced emissions more than intensive collection of batteries. -- Abstract: Cadmium (Cd) is a harmful pollutant emitted from municipal solid-waste incinerators (MSWIs). Cd stack emissions from MSWIs have been estimated between 1970 and 2030 in Japan. The aims of this study are to quantify emitted Cd by category and to analyze Cd control policies to reduce emissions. Emissions were estimated using a dynamic substance flow analysis (SFA) that took into account representative waste treatment flows and historical changes in emission factors. This work revealed that the emissions peaked in 1973 (11.1 t) and were ten times those in 2010 (1.2 t). Emission from MSWIs was two-thirds of that from non-ferrous smelting in 2010. The main Cd emission source was pigment use in the 1970s, but after 2000 it had shifted to nickel-cadmium (Ni-Cd) batteries. Future emissions were estimated for 2030. Compared to the business-as-usual scenario, an intensive collection of used Ni-Cd batteries and a ban on any future use of Ni-Cd batteries will reduce emissions by 0.09 and 0.31 t, respectively, in 2030. This approach enables us to identify the major Cd emission source from MSWIs, and to prioritize the possible Cd control policies.

  18. Emission and distribution of PCDD/Fs, chlorobenzenes, chlorophenols, and PAHs from stack gas of a fluidized bed and a stoker waste incinerator in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tianjiao; Chen, Tong; Lin, Xiaoqing; Zhan, Mingxiu; Li, Xiaodong

    2017-02-01

    The concentrations, homologue, and congener profiles, as well as the gas/particle distribution of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs), chlorobenzenes (CBzs), chlorophenols (CPhs), and polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from stack gas of two different municipal solid waste incinerators in China, were characterized. The incinerators were a stoker furnace incinerator equipped with the advanced air pollution control device (APCD) and a common circulating fluidized bed (CFB) furnace. The concentration of PCDD/Fs in the stack gas of the stoker incinerator ranged 0.011-0.109 ng international toxic equivalent factor (I-TEQ)/Nm 3 and was below the current limit for PCDD/F emissions from the municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWIs) in China (0.1 ng I-TEQ/Nm 3 ) in most of the cases. Moreover, the concentration of PCDD/Fs in the stack gas of the stoker incinerator was significantly lower than that of the CFB incinerator (0.734 to 24.6 ng I-TEQ/Nm 3 ). In both incinerators, the majority of the total PCDD/F emissions (above 90%) ended up in the gas phase. 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF, which occupied 24.3-43.6 and 32.5-75.6% of I-TEQ contribution in MSWIs A and B, respectively, was the most abundant congener. However, different types of incinerators and APCDs induced different congener and homologue distributions. The total concentration of CBzs from the stoker incinerator (0.05-3.2 μg/Nm 3 ) was also much lower than that formed from the CFB incinerator (10.9-75.2 μg/Nm 3 ). The phase distribution of CBzs followed the same pattern as with the PCDD/Fs. Moreover, the emission level of CBz was 100-1000 times higher than that of the PCDD/Fs, which determines the applicability of CBzs as indicators of PCDD/F emissions. High correlations between the emission concentrations of PCDD/Fs, TeCBz, and PCBz in specific ranges were revealed. Furthermore, high concentrations of CPhs (0.6-141.0 μg/Nm 3 ) and PAHs (148.6-4986.5 μg/Nm 3 ) were detected in the stack gases of MSWI

  19. The comparison of fossil carbon fraction and greenhouse gas emissions through an analysis of exhaust gases from urban solid waste incineration facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seungjin; Kang, Seongmin; Lee, Jeongwoo; Lee, Seehyung; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Jeon, Eui-Chan

    2016-10-01

    In this study, in order to understand accurate calculation of greenhouse gas emissions of urban solid waste incineration facilities, which are major waste incineration facilities, and problems likely to occur at this time, emissions were calculated by classifying calculation methods into 3 types. For the comparison of calculation methods, the waste characteristics ratio, dry substance content by waste characteristics, carbon content in dry substance, and (12)C content were analyzed; and in particular, CO2 concentration in incineration gases and (12)C content were analyzed together. In this study, 3 types of calculation methods were made through the assay value, and by using each calculation method, emissions of urban solid waste incineration facilities were calculated then compared. As a result of comparison, with Calculation Method A, which used the default value as presented in the IPCC guidelines, greenhouse gas emissions were calculated for the urban solid waste incineration facilities A and B at 244.43 ton CO2/day and 322.09 ton CO2/day, respectively. Hence, it showed a lot of difference from Calculation Methods B and C, which used the assay value of this study. It is determined that this was because the default value as presented in IPCC, as the world average value, could not reflect the characteristics of urban solid waste incineration facilities. Calculation Method B indicated 163.31 ton CO2/day and 230.34 ton CO2/day respectively for the urban solid waste incineration facilities A and B; also, Calculation Method C indicated 151.79 ton CO2/day and 218.99 ton CO2/day, respectively. This study intends to compare greenhouse gas emissions calculated using (12)C content default value provided by the IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) with greenhouse gas emissions calculated using (12)C content and waste assay value that can reflect the characteristics of the target urban solid waste incineration facilities. Also, the concentration and (12)C content

  20. In situ corrosion testing of various nickel alloys at Måbjerg waste incineration plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montgomery, Melanie; Hansson, A. N.; Jensen, S. A.

    2013-01-01

    The majority of waste in Denmark is disposed via waste to energy (WTE) incineration plants which are fabricated from carbon steel. However, due to the increasing corrosiveness of waste over the years, more corrosion resistant alloys are required. In Denmark, Inconel 625 (UNSN06625) is the weld...... overlay material currently being used to give improved corrosion resistance. In order to assess the use of alternative nickel alloys, test panels have been manufactured and inserted into Måbjerg waste incineration plant. Inconel 625 as a 50% weld overlay, two layered weld overlay and as a spiral weld...... overlay was exposed. Other nickel materials exposed were weld overlay Alloy 686, Alloy 50 and Sumitomo Super 625 coextruded tube. Exposure has been undertaken from 2003 to 2009 in the first pass and 2005–2009 in the second pass, and sections have been removed and investigated during this period...

  1. Comparison of dioxins and related compounds in the emission during the start-up procedures at a municipal waste incinerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gass, H.C.; Suenderhauf, W. [GfA - Gesellschaft fuer Arbeitsplatz und Umweltanalytik mbH, Berlin (Germany); Lueder, K. [MVB Muellverwertung Borsigstrasse GmbH, Hamburg (Germany); Wilken, M. [MWC - Michael Wilken Consulting, Berlin (Germany)

    2004-09-15

    In 2002/2003 we reported about PCDD/F-emissions during the start-up of a municipal waste incinerator. With primary and secondary measures during the optimization of the cold start-up phase we could show a sustainable reduction of the stack gas emissions of PCDD/F down to the range of normal operation even in the start-up phase. The measurement results of chlorophenols (ClP) and chlorobenzenes (ClB) in the flue gas (sampling point ''after boiler'') during cold-start up procedure of selected campaigns will be discussed in this paper.

  2. Adverse pregnancy outcomes in women with changing patterns of exposure to the emissions of a municipal waste incinerator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinceti, Marco; Malagoli, Carlotta; Werler, Martha M; Filippini, Tommaso; De Girolamo, Gianfranco; Ghermandi, Grazia; Fabbi, Sara; Astolfi, Gianni; Teggi, Sergio

    2018-03-22

    Municipal solid waste incinerators emissions contain pollutants that, despite their low concentration, might adversely affect reproductive health. In the present study, we examined rates of miscarriage and birth defects among women who resided or were employed in the vicinity of a municipal solid waste incinerator plant from 2003 to 2013. In 2009, a progressive shutdown of the old incineration lines and operation of a new line caused considerably higher atmospheric release of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, particularly of dioxins, due to these irregular operating conditions, technological renovation, and increased capacity. We used dioxin emission levels, based on a dispersion model, to define exposure status of the residing population to air pollutants emitted by the waste incinerator. In women who resided in areas characterized by higher emission exposures compared with a referent area, the relative risk (RR) of miscarriage was 1.04 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.80-1.32) based on 62 cases overall, with little evidence of a dose-response relation. RRs were similarly null for both 2003-2008 and 2010-2013 periods (RR 1.12 (95% CI 0.80-1.53) and 0.98 (95% CI 0.63-1.48), respectively). Concerning birth defects in the offspring of women residing in the exposed area, no evidence of increased risk emerged, since the prevalence ratio at birth was 0.64 (95% CI 0.29-1.26), with comparable results in the 2003-2008 and 2010-2013 period. Corresponding analyses carried out in municipal residents who worked in the exposed area confirmed these findings. We also did not detect abnormally high rates of miscarriage and birth defects in the exposed cohorts in the single year 2009. Overall, these results do not suggest an effect of exposure to the emissions of the municipal solid waste incinerator we investigated on two indicators of reproductive health. However, the limited statistical stability of the estimates and the absence of individual-based information on some potential

  3. Test Operation of Oxygen-Enriched Incinerator for Wastes From Nuclear Fuel Fabrication Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J.-G.; Yang, H.cC.; Park, G.-I.; Kim, I.-T.; Kim, J.-K.

    2002-01-01

    The oxygen-enriched combustion concept, which can minimize off-gas production, has been applied to the incineration of combustible uranium-containing wastes from a nuclear fuel fabrication facility. A simulation for oxygen combustion shows the off-gas production can be reduced by a factor of 6.7 theoretically, compared with conventional air combustion. The laboratory-scale oxygen enriched incineration (OEI) process with a thermal capacity of 350 MJ/h is composed of an oxygen feeding and control system, a combustion chamber, a quencher, a ceramic filter, an induced draft fan, a condenser, a stack, an off-gas recycle path, and a measurement and control system. Test burning with cleaning paper and office paper in this OEI process shows that the thermal capacity is about 320 MJ/h, 90 % of design value and the off-gas reduces by a factor of 3.5, compared with air combustion. The CO concentration for oxygen combustion is lower than that of air combustion, while the O2 concentration in off-gas is kept above 25 vol % for a simple incineration process without any grate. The NOx concentration in an off-gas stream does not reduce significantly due to air incoming by leakage, and the volume and weight reduction factors are not changed significantly, which suggests a need for an improvement in sealing

  4. Modeling the impact of chlorine emissions from coal combustion and prescribed waste incineration on tropospheric ozone formation in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Liu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Chlorine radicals can enhance atmospheric oxidation, which potentially increases tropospheric ozone concentration. However, few studies have been done to quantify the impact of chlorine emissions on ozone formation in China due to the lack of a chlorine emission inventory used in air quality models with sufficient resolution. In this study, the Anthropogenic Chlorine Emissions Inventory for China (ACEIC was developed for the first time, including emissions of hydrogen chloride (HCl and molecular chlorine (Cl2 from coal combustion and prescribed waste incineration (waste incineration plant. The HCl and Cl2 emissions from coal combustion in China in 2012 were estimated to be 232.9 and 9.4 Gg, respectively, while HCl emission from prescribed waste incineration was estimated to be 2.9 Gg. Spatially the highest emissions of HCl and Cl2 were found in the North China Plain, the Yangtze River Delta, and the Sichuan Basin. Air quality model simulations with the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ modeling system were performed for November 2011, and the modeling results derived with and without chlorine emissions were compared. The magnitude of the simulated HCl, Cl2 and ClNO2 agreed reasonably with the observation when anthropogenic chlorine emissions were included in the model. The inclusion of the ACEIC increased the concentration of fine particulate Cl−, leading to enhanced heterogeneous reactions between Cl− and N2O5, which resulted in the higher production of ClNO2. Photolysis of ClNO2 and Cl2 in the morning and the reaction of HCl with OH in the afternoon produced chlorine radicals which accelerated tropospheric oxidation. When anthropogenic chlorine emissions were included in the model, the monthly mean concentrations of fine particulate Cl−, daily maximum 1 h ClNO2, and Cl radicals were estimated to increase by up to about 2.0 µg m−3, 773 pptv, and 1.5  ×  103 molecule cm−3 in China, respectively. Meanwhile

  5. Modeling the impact of chlorine emissions from coal combustion and prescribed waste incineration on tropospheric ozone formation in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yiming; Fan, Qi; Chen, Xiaoyang; Zhao, Jun; Ling, Zhenhao; Hong, Yingying; Li, Weibiao; Chen, Xunlai; Wang, Mingjie; Wei, Xiaolin

    2018-02-01

    Chlorine radicals can enhance atmospheric oxidation, which potentially increases tropospheric ozone concentration. However, few studies have been done to quantify the impact of chlorine emissions on ozone formation in China due to the lack of a chlorine emission inventory used in air quality models with sufficient resolution. In this study, the Anthropogenic Chlorine Emissions Inventory for China (ACEIC) was developed for the first time, including emissions of hydrogen chloride (HCl) and molecular chlorine (Cl2) from coal combustion and prescribed waste incineration (waste incineration plant). The HCl and Cl2 emissions from coal combustion in China in 2012 were estimated to be 232.9 and 9.4 Gg, respectively, while HCl emission from prescribed waste incineration was estimated to be 2.9 Gg. Spatially the highest emissions of HCl and Cl2 were found in the North China Plain, the Yangtze River Delta, and the Sichuan Basin. Air quality model simulations with the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system were performed for November 2011, and the modeling results derived with and without chlorine emissions were compared. The magnitude of the simulated HCl, Cl2 and ClNO2 agreed reasonably with the observation when anthropogenic chlorine emissions were included in the model. The inclusion of the ACEIC increased the concentration of fine particulate Cl-, leading to enhanced heterogeneous reactions between Cl- and N2O5, which resulted in the higher production of ClNO2. Photolysis of ClNO2 and Cl2 in the morning and the reaction of HCl with OH in the afternoon produced chlorine radicals which accelerated tropospheric oxidation. When anthropogenic chlorine emissions were included in the model, the monthly mean concentrations of fine particulate Cl-, daily maximum 1 h ClNO2, and Cl radicals were estimated to increase by up to about 2.0 µg m-3, 773 pptv, and 1.5 × 103 molecule cm-3 in China, respectively. Meanwhile, the monthly mean daily maximum 8 h O3

  6. Prevention of PCDD/Fs emission from a municipal wastewater sludge incinerator through enhanced control of copper aerosol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pena, E.; Elcoroaristizabal, S.; Larrion, M.; Legarreta, J. A.; Gutierrez-Canas, C.

    2012-11-01

    Municipal wastewater sludge incineration (MWSI) leads to products of incomplete combustion, including chlorinated species such as dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs). Other pollutants, such as heavy metals (HM), are released too as a consequence of feed traces, which depend on the specific activities of each area. The main aim of this work is to determine whether the early separation of the potential catalysts on the PCDD/Fs formation HM as copper or zinc offers a promising way to prevent the emission of these trace pollutants, considering that the current end-of-pipe measures don't ensure their stable emission. Experimental results cover the size distributed target metal contents along the incineration line. These results show a high concentration of copper in the most penetrating aerosol size range of the electrostatic precipitator (0.6 {mu}m - 1.0 {mu}m), and how low emission values of both, total and metallic aerosol (mass basis), are compatible with irregular and unexplained outliers of PCDD/Fs emission. (Author) 39 refs.

  7. Evaluation and prediction of emissions from a road built with bottom ash from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aberg, Annika; Kumpiene, Jurate; Ecke, Holger

    2006-02-15

    In autumn 2001, a full-scale test road was built with municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) bottom ash at the Dåvamyran landfill, Umeå, Northern Sweden. Leachates were collected from asphalted sections with either bottom ash or gravel as filling material. In this research, 12 months of ash leachate sampling were evaluated with respect to emissions of contaminants such as trace metals and chlorides (Cl). The usefulness of regression models describing trace metal mobility from bottom ash was also tested as predictive tools for reusability applications of MSWI bottom ash. Cl, Cu, and Cr had the highest mobility (considering leachate concentrations) in the ash leachate, though concentrations of Cl and Cu decreased during the sampling period (Cl from 10,000 to 600 mg l(-1); Cu from 1600 to 500 microg l(-1)). An increased mobility of Cr during the autumns (about 3-4 times higher compared to the summer) was noted with a maximum value of nearly 70 microg l(-1) during autumn 2001. Pb showed a very low mobility over the entire year with leachate concentrations of around 3-4 microg l(-1). Chemical equilibrium calculations using Minteq indicated that several Cu minerals were oversaturated in the leachate, thus mineral precipitation could be responsible for declining amounts of Cu in the leachate. Adsorption to iron oxides was found to be a probable explanation for the low mobility of Pb. A reasonably good agreement between regression models and field values were achieved for Ni, Pb, Zn, and Cu, while the models for Cd and Cr were less promising. Even though a large part of the variation (R2=61-97%) in the leaching experiment could be explained by only pH and L/S, field data were much more scattered than expected from field pH.

  8. A Study on Applying Biomass Fraction for Greenhouse Gases Emission Estimation of a Sewage Sludge Incinerator in Korea: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seongmin Kang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available According to the IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change guidelines, when calculating CO2 emissions, CO2 emissions from biomass should be excluded from the total amount of CO2 emissions and should be separately reported due to their “carbon neutrality”. Sewage sludge is one of the representative biomass fuels. It is mixed with fossil fuels to achieve greenhouse gas reduction or is used by itself as a fuel to replace fossil fuels. According to the results of this study, biomass fractions of both the sewage sludge and the sewage sludge incineration exhaust gases did not amount to 100%. At present, in many countries (South Korea, Japan, and Germany, when calculating greenhouse gas emissions from sewage sludge incinerators, all CO2 emissions from sewage sludge are judged to be biomass and only the greenhouse gas emissions that correspond to non-CO2 gases are calculated as greenhouse gas emissions. However, since, according our results, the content of sewage sludge is not 100% biomass, if CO2 emissions are excluded according to the existing greenhouse gas emission calculation method, the amount of emissions may be underestimated. Therefore, to accurately calculate greenhouse gas emissions from a sewage sludge incinerator, CO2 emissions should be calculated in consideration of the fossil carbon fractions of sewage sludge.

  9. Incinerator performance: effects of changes in waste input and furnace operation on air emissions and residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, Thomas; Riber, Christian; Pedersen, Anne Juul

    2011-01-01

    and residue composition at a full-scale incinerator were affected by known additions of specific waste materials to the normal municipal solid waste (MSW) input. Six individual experiments were carried out (% ww of total waste input): NaCl (0.5%), shoes (1.6%), automobile shredder waste (14%), batteries (0...

  10. Gaseous Emissions from the Fluidized-bed Incineration of Sewage Sludge

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pohořelý, Michael; Svoboda, Karel; Trnka, Otakar; Baxter, D.; Hartman, Miloslav

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 59, 6b (2005), s. 458-463 ISSN 0366-6352. [International Conference SSCHE /32./. Tatranské Matliare, 23.05.2005-27.05.2005] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA4072201; GA AV ČR KSK4040110 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : sewage sludge * fluidized-bed incineration * solid fuels Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 0.409, year: 2005

  11. Experimental characterization and modeling of the emissions of pollutants during the incineration of the municipal solid wastes; Caracterisation experimentale et modelisation de l'emission de polluants lors de l'incineration des dechets menagers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogaume, Th.

    2001-09-15

    The aim of this study concerns the emissions of the pollutants, principally the NO{sub x}, during the incineration of the municipal solid wastes. A mixture of wood, cardboard and plastics is used to simulate the combustible part of the municipal wastes. The objective of the work is the optimisation of the techniques of reduction of the emissions of NO{sub x} and the development of a kinetic model of their formation. Two experimental set-ups are used: a counter flow fixed bed reactor and a tubular furnace. The fixed bed reactor permits to simulate the combustion process observed in an industrial furnace. The studies is focussed on the influence of the excess air of combustion on the propriety of the combustion and on the formation of the pollutants (CO and NO). The tubular furnace permits to study the thermal degradation of our combustibles (wood, cardboard, PET and polyamide). The gaseous products coming from the pyrolysis of those solids have been identified. The results obtained are used for the development of a kinetic model of the combustion. A program have been developed using the CHEMKIN package to simulate the chemical process of combustion taking place into the fixed bed reactor. It uses a detailed kinetic mechanism with a simple physical model. The agreement obtained between the experimental and the theoretical emissions is very good. The model being validated, a study has been realised to determine the principal chemical intermediates and zones. The model has been also used to determine the mechanism of formation of the NO during the incineration of the municipal solid wastes. (author)

  12. The Design of a Portable Municipal Waste Incinerator With Fuzzy Logic Based Support for Emission Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jude C. Akpe

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A fuzzy logic interface system to estimate oxygen requirement for complete combustion as well as the level of pollution from incinerator gas flue in order to manage solid waste from domestic, institutional, medical and industrial sources was designed. The designed incinerator is double chambered operating with a maximum temperature of 760 °C in the lower chamber and 1000°C in the upper chamber.  The insulating wall is made up of a refractory brick of 55mm in thickness having a 2mm thickness low carbon steel as the outer wall.  Hydrogen Chloride (HCl and Nitrous oxides (NOx are the gases was used to demonstrate the Fuzzy Inference System (FIS model. The FIS was built with five input variables (Food, PVC, Polythene, Paper and Textile and three input variables with two membership functions. The FIS was developed to estimation the degree of possibility distribution of pollution that should be expected when a certain composition of waste is incinerated. The plots of composition of waste high in food against oxygen require for combustion gives a possibility distribution of about 0.9 which is high according to the fuzzy set definition while the plot of waste composition high in PVC against HCL shows linearity.

  13. A Comparison of Organic Emissions from Hazardous Waste Incinerators Versus the 1990 Toxics Release Inventory Air Releases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Incineration is often the preferred technology for disposing of hazardous waste and remediating Superfund sites. The effective implementation of this technology is frequently impeded by strong public opposition to hazardous waste incineration (HWI). One of the reasons cited for t...

  14. Behavior of TiO₂ nanoparticles during incineration of solid paint waste: a lab-scale test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massari, Andrea; Beggio, Marta; Hreglich, Sandro; Marin, Riccardo; Zuin, Stefano

    2014-10-01

    In order to assess the potential impacts posed by products containing engineered nanoparticles, it is essential to generate more data about the release of these particles from products' life cycle. Although first studies were performed to investigate the release of nanoparticles from use phase, very few data are available on the potential release from recycling or disposal of nano-enhanced products. In this work, we investigated the behavior of TiO2 nanoparticles from incineration of solid paint waste containing these particles. Solid paint debris with and without TiO2 nanoparticles were treated in a lab scale incineration plant at 950°C (combustion temperature) and in oxidizing atmosphere. The obtained ashes were also vitrified with additives and the release of Ti was finally evaluated by leaching test. From our incineration lab-scale experiment, we did not observe a release of TiO2 nanoparticles into the atmosphere, and Ti was attached to the surface of obtained solid residues (i.e. ashes). The characterization of ashes showed that TiO2 nanoparticles reacted during the incineration to give calcium titanate. Finally, a very low release of Ti was measured, less 1 mg/kg, during the leaching test of ashes vitrified with glass cullet and feldspathic inert. Our work suggests that TiO2 nanoparticles added in paints may undergo to physicochemical transformation during the incineration, and that Ti found in ashes may be strongly immobilized in glass matrix. Since this conclusion is based on lab-scale experiment, further research is required to identify which nanoparticles will be emitted to the environment from a real-word-incineration system of household hazardous waste. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The effects of agglomeration/defluidization on emission of heavy metals for various fluidized parameters in fluidized-bed incineration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Chiou-Liang; Tsai, Ming-Chih; Chang, Chih-Hung [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, National University of Kaohsiung, Kaohsiung, 811 (China)

    2010-01-15

    The agglomeration/defluidization may be produced to generate the secondary pollutant during incineration. However, the effects of agglomeration/defluidization on heavy metal distribution have rarely been examined. Therefore, the effects of the agglomeration/defluidization process on heavy metal emission in flue gas are studied. The artificial waste is employed to simulate municipal waste and to form agglomerates, which contain alkali metals, earth alkali metals, a mixture of metals (Pb, Cr and Cd) and sawdust. The fluidized parameters (including gas velocity, sand particle size and static bed height) are varied to determine their influences on heavy metal emission. The results indicate that addition of Na increases the risk of agglomeration/defluidization, but the emission concentration of heavy metals decreases during agglomeration/defluidization. The heavy metals may react with Na to form the eutectics or are covered and adhered by the liquid-phase eutectics of Na to stay in sand particle and lead to a decrease in the emission of heavy metals. The system was operated at a low gas velocity that not only easily resulted in agglomeration/defluidization but also increased the emission concentration of heavy metals. Large particles (920 {mu}m), which have a poor fluidized quality, had the highest emission concentration. Small particles (645 {mu}m) were uniformly fluidized to enhance the fluidization quality and to decrease the emission concentration. Additionally, adding Ca did not decrease the heavy metal emission concentration, but maintained the fluidization during eutectic accumulation. The Ca prevented the sand bed from quickly achieving defluidization and prolonged the increased emission of heavy metals after defluidization. (author)

  16. 40 CFR 60.3066 - What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Waste Incineration Units That Commenced Construction On or Before December 9, 2004 Model Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60.3066 What are the... air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? 60.3066 Section 60...

  17. CO-incineration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehmer, S.; Rumplmayr, A.

    2001-01-01

    accepting external waste as well as by saving treatment costs for internal waste, could be opposed by severe disadvantages: quantitative increase of emissions to air and water; qualitative deterioration of solid residues and emissions due to harmful waste components; dissipation of HMs in the environment; negative influence an product quality; negative image and lack of public acceptance of plant and product. In any case, waste use in industrial incineration should only be approved in special cases, under certain conditions and under continuous monitoring and control. (author)

  18. Development of a low-temperature two-stage fluidized bed incinerator for controlling heavy-metal emission in flue gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, Tzu-Huan; Lin, Chiou-Liang; Wey, Ming-Yen

    2014-01-01

    This study develops a low-temperature two-stage fluidized bed system for treating municipal solid waste. This new system can decrease the emission of heavy metals, has low construction costs, and can save energy owing to its lower operating temperature. To confirm the treatment efficiency of this system, the combustion efficiency and heavy-metal emission were determined. An artificial waste containing heavy metals (chromium, lead, and cadmium) was used in this study. The tested parameters included first-stage temperature and system gas velocity. Results obtained using a thermogravimetric analyzer with a differential scanning calorimeter indicated that the first-stage temperature should be controlled to at least 400 °C. Although, a large amount of carbon monoxide was emitted after the first stage, it was efficiently consumed in the second. Loss of the ignition values of ash residues were between 0.005% and 0.166%, and they exhibited a negative correlation with temperature and gas velocity. Furthermore, the emission concentration of heavy metals in the two-stage system was lower than that of the traditional one-stage fluidized bed system. The heavy-metal emissions can be decreased by between 16% and 82% using the low-temperature operating process, silica sand adsorption, and the filtration of the secondary stage. -- Graphical abstract: Heavy-metal emission concentrations in flue gases under different temperatures and gas velocities (dashed line: average of the heavy-metal emission in flue gases in the one-stage fluidized-bed incinerator). Highlights: • Low temperature two-stage system is developed to control heavy metal. • The different first-stage temperatures affect the combustion efficiency. • Surplus CO was destroyed efficiently by the secondary fluidized bed combustor. • Metal emission in two-stage system is lower than in the traditional system. • Temperature, bed adsorption, and filtration are the main control mechanisms

  19. Evaluation of leachate emissions from municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash and crushed rock used in road construction

    OpenAIRE

    Lidelöw, Sofia; Lagerkvist, Anders

    2005-01-01

    The use of municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) bottom ash in road construction may possess a risk to the environment due to the release of e.g. salt and heavy metals. In this study, two years of leachate data from a test road built of MSWI bottom ash and crushed rock in northern Sweden were evaluated. It was found that Cu, Cr, Al, Na, and Cl- were leached in higher amounts from the bottom ash, while the release of Zn, Mg, Ba, and Ca was higher from the crushed rock. The difference betwe...

  20. 1997 Performance Testing of Multi-Metal Continuous Emissions Monitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sky +, Inc.

    1998-09-01

    Five prototype and two commercially available multi-metals continuous emissions monitors (CEMs) were tested in September 1997 at the Rotary Kiln Incinerator Simulator facility at the EPA National Risk Management Research Laboratory, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina. The seven CEMs were tested side by side in a long section of duct following the secondary combustion chamber of the RKIS. Two different concentrations of six toxic metals were introduced into the incinerator-approximately 15 and 75 µg/dscm of arsenic, beryllium, cadmium, chromium, lead, and mercury (We also tested for antimony but we are not reporting on it here because EPA recently dropped antimony from the list of metals addressed by the draft MACT rule). These concentrations were chosen to be close to emission standards in the draft MACT rule and the estimated Method Detection Limit (MDL) required of a CEM for regulatory compliance purposes. Results from this test show that no CEMs currently meet the performance specifications in the EPA draft MACT rule for hazardous waste incinerators. Only one of the CEMs tested was able to measure all six metals at the concentrations tested. Even so, the relative accuracy of this CEM varied between 35% and 100%, not 20% or less as required in the EPA performance specification. As a result, we conclude that no CEM is ready for long-term performance validation for compliance monitoring applications. Because sampling and measuring Hg is a recurring problem for multi-metal CEMs as well as Hg CEMs, we recommended that developers participate in a 1998 DOE-sponsored workshop to solve these and other common CEM measurement issues.

  1. An incineration technology for low level radioactive solid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suyari, Mamoru; Nakanishi, Ryota; Noura, Tsuyoshi; Fujitomi, Masashi; Ano, Shintaroh

    2003-01-01

    Low-level radioactive solid waste, mainly consisting of rag paper and cloth, is usually incinerated. However, polymeric waste, including rubber and polyvinyl chloride plastic, is securely stored in view of safe treatment. Kobe Steel has developed a new kind of incinerator which can be used for polymeric waste. It has the following characteristics: (a) A controlled air type furnace with a unique grate design (b) In order to control dioxin emissions, the furnace wall is refractory-lined to maintain furnace temperatures at 900degC or higher (c) Secondary combustion air is injected into the furnace to mix with gas from the primary combustion zone. In this paper, the following non-radioactive test results using an actual incinerator, (feed rate: 130 kg/hr.) are presented: (1) Polymeric waste, including rubber, polyethylene and polyvinyl chloride plastic, was incinerated under stable operation; (2) Design specifications including treatment capacity, emission limits were satisfactorily achieved. (author)

  2. Prevention of PCDD/Fs emission from a municipal wastewater sludge incinerator through enhanced control of copper aerosol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peña, E.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Municipal wastewater sludge incineration (MWSI leads to products of incomplete combustion, including chlorinated species such as dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs. Other pollutants, such as heavy metals (HM, are released too as a consequence of feed traces, which depend on the specific activities of each area. The main aim of this work is to determine whether the early separation of the potential catalysts on the PCDD/Fs formation –HM as copper or zinc– offers a promising way to prevent the emission of these trace pollutants, considering that the current end-of-pipe measures don’t ensure their stable emission. Experimental results cover the size distributed target metal contents along the incineration line. These results show a high concentration of copper in the most penetrating aerosol size range of the electrostatic precipitator (0.6 μm - 1.0 μm, and how low emission values of both, total and metallic aerosol (mass basis, are compatible with irregular and unexplained outliers of PCDD/Fs emission.

    La incineración de lodos de aguas residuales urbanas acarrea la formación de compuestos derivados de combustiones incompletas, incluyendo especies cloradas como dioxinas y furanos (PCDD/Fs. Otros contaminantes, como metales pesados, se emiten como consecuencia de las trazas del lodo, las cuales dependen de las actividades del entorno. El objetivo principal es determinar si la separación de catalizadores potenciales en reacciones de formación de PCDD/Fs (cobre o zinc puede abrir vías para prevenir la emisión de contaminantes traza, considerando que ninguna de las técnicas de prevención actuales aseguran emisiones estables de metales pesados o PCDD/Fs. Se determinan concentraciones de metales pesados segregados por tamaño de partícula a lo largo de la línea de incineración. Los resultados muestran concentraciones elevadas de cobre en el aerosol de máxima penetración del electrofiltro (0,6 μm - 1,0 μm, y cómo concentraciones

  3. Waste incineration. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egede Rasmussen, Anja

    2004-06-15

    This prepatory thesis is a literature study on the incineration of waste. It deals with the concepts of municipal solid waste, the composition and combustion of it. A main focus is on the European emission regulations and the formation of dioxins, as well as a big effort is put into the treatment of solid residues from municipal solid waste incineration. In the latter area, concepts of treatment, such as physical and chemical separations, solidification and stabilization techniques, thermal methods, and extraction methods have been discussed. Evaluation of possible methods of treatment has been done, but no conclusions made of which is the best. Though, indications exist that especially two methods have shown positive qualities and must be further investigated. These methods are the acid extraction and sulfide stabilization (AES) process and the phosphate stabilization method of WES-PHix. Economic potentials of the two methods have been evaluated, and with the information obtained, it seems that the price for treatment and later landfilling of a material with improved leaching characteristics, will be approximately the same as the presently most used solution of export to Norway. However, more tests, investigations and economic evaluations are necessary in order for support of the findings in this work. (au)

  4. Mechanical behavior of municipal solid waste incinerator bottom ash: Results from triaxial tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Ngoc Hung; Abriak, Nor Edine; Binetruy, Christophe; Benzerzour, Mahfoud; Nguyen, Sy-Tuan

    2017-07-01

    Bottom ash resulting from the incineration of various domestic wastes can be viewed as a typical granular material. It is mainly used in civil engineering as a substitute for traditional natural aggregates. The purpose of this paper is to characterize their mechanical behavior and evaluate their mechanical properties for engineering applications. First, results of triaxial tests confirm that bottom ash behaves like dense sand. Second, the deformation and strength characteristics of bottom ash, such as the secant modulus, Poisson ratio, characteristic angle, dilation angle, effective cohesion and effective friction angle, are determined. It is found that these mechanical parameters are in close agreement with those of road aggregates and are influenced by the effective confining pressure. Third, the evolution of the deformation modulus according to the axial strain and the variation of the deviator stress according to the mean effective pressure are analyzed. Finally, a set of points of the yielding state is determined from triaxial tests to represent the shape of the yielding surface of bottom ash. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Waste incineration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCormack, M.D.

    1981-01-01

    As a result of the information gained from retrieval projects, the decision was made to perform an analysis of all the available incinerators to determine which was best suited for processing the INEL waste. A number of processes were evaluated for incinerators currently funded by DOE and for municipal incinerators. Slagging pyrolysis included the processes of three different manufacturers: Andco-Torrax, FLK and Purox

  6. Report: environmental assessment of Darmstadt (Germany) municipal waste incineration plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimaityte, Ingrida; Denafas, Gintaras; Jager, Johannes

    2007-04-01

    The focus of this study was the emissions from waste incineration plants using Darmstadt (Germany) waste incineration plant as an example. In the study the emissions generated by incineration of the waste were considered using three different approaches. Initially the emissions from the waste incineration plant were assessed as part of the impact of waste management systems on the environment by using a Municipal Solid Waste Management System (MSWMS) assessment tool (also called: LCA-IWM assessment tool). This was followed by a comparison between the optimal waste incineration process and the real situation. Finally a comparison was made between the emissions from the incineration plant and the emissions from a vehicle.

  7. Evolution of sperm quality in men living in the vicinity of a municipal solid waste incinerator possibly correlated with decreasing dioxins emission levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faure, A C; Viel, J-F; Bailly, A; Blagosklonov, O; Amiot, C; Roux, C

    2014-09-01

    The objective was to examine the impact on sperm parameters of environmental exposure to dioxins around a municipal waste incinerator initially with high emission levels and during reduction levels. An ecological study with quasi-experimental conditions was performed in patients of a reproductive laboratory. The first semen analyses of 251 men living in Besançon, France, between 2001 and 2007, were included. To analyse the contribution of direct exposure (inhalation), the calendar time was dichotomised in two periods 2001-2003 versus 2004-2007 and used as a proxy for exposure. Regarding the indirect exposure pathway (food), the statistical analysis was made with a nonparametric test to assess the trends. There was a negative correlation between the year of exposure and the percentage of abnormal mid-piece and the multiple abnormalities index, even after adjusting for age and days abstention from inter-course. A positive correlation was found between the progressive motile sperm count and the period of exposure. These findings are to be put into the context of a drastic reduction in emissions of dioxins. Our results suggest an effect of chronic exposure to dioxins on spermiogenesis with more abnormalities. These results should be confirmed with concentration measurements of dioxins in infertile men. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  8. Evolution and perspectives in waste incineration emissions and flue gas cleaning systems in the last 20 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giugliano, M.; Cernuschi, S.; Grosso, M.

    2006-01-01

    The evolution of the technology of waste combustion, energy recovery and flue gas treatment allows to redefine the role of the incineration plant as a basic component of integrated waste management systems. Starting with an overview of the evaluation of emission limits and of the new Best Available Techniques (BAT) approach, strongly recommended by the European Union, the paper reports an overview of the stack emission concentrations measured in recent plants in Italy compared to older ones, with special attention to the dioxin issue. Concerning this topic, it is demonstrated that BAT-equipped plants can act as actual dioxin destroyer rather than producers, even when all the fluxes released in the environment (gaseous, solid and liquid residues) are taken into account. The second part of the paper deals with the evolution of the flue gas control technologies of the last 20 years, pointing out the major trends and the future perspectives for further increases of the removal monitoring of conventional and trace pollutants are briefly described [it

  9. Flaring versus thermal incineration of waste gases in the oil and gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smolarski, G.M.

    1999-01-01

    The efficient combustion of waste gases at oil processing plants, battery or well sites is discussed. Several problem situations are examined, field test results are reviewed, and custom design systems are explained including modifications to systems to conserve fuel. It is shown that combustion of waste gases in fuel efficient thermal incinerators is a practical means of disposal, particularly for sour or toxic gas of low heating value. These gases contain noxious compounds that may cause odours or adverse health effects. Results of a field tests of a portable in-situ incinerator show that compared to flaring (to oxide waste gas), incineration is a more efficient form of waste management. Emission tests also prove the superior performance of incineration. The feasibility of incinerating oil storage tank vapours was also demonstrated. Tests were also conducted with a fuel-efficient Glycol Still Off-Gas Incinerator which was developed to control toxic waste emissions. Glycol dehydration removes water vapour from natural gas. The key compounds that are removed by glycol are aromatic hydrocarbons or BTEX compounds (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene), and sulphur compounds. The main design considerations for any incinerator are temperature, turbulence and residence time. An incinerator exit temperature of 760 degrees C is generally needed to reduce sulphur compounds. 2 refs., 8 tabs., 7 figs

  10. Controlled air incineration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seitz, K.A.

    1991-01-01

    From 1960 to 1970, incineration was recognized as an economical method of solid waste disposal with many incinerators in operation through the country. During this period a number of legislation acts began to influence the solid waste disposal industry, namely, the Solid Waste Disposal Act of 1965; Resource Conservation Recovery Act (RCRA) of 1968; Resource Recovery Act of 1970; and Clean Air Act of 1970. This period of increased environmental awareness and newly created regulations began the closure of many excess air incineration facilities and encouraged the development of new controlled air, also known as Starved-Air incinerator systems which could meet the more stringent air emission standards without additional emission control equipment. The Starved-Air technology initially received little recognition because it was considered unproven and radically different from the established and accepted I.I.A. standards. However, there have been many improvements and developments in the starved-air incineration systems since the technology was first introduced and marketed, and now these systems are considered the proven technology standard

  11. Emission characteristics of PCDD/Fs in stack gas from municipal solid waste incineration plants in Northern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Feng; Li, Xiaofei; Lu, Jia-Wei; Hai, Jing; Zhang, Jieru; Xie, Bing; Hong, Chengyang

    2018-06-01

    Emission characteristics including congener's profile, gas emissions and toxic equivalent concentration (TEQ) indicators of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in 57 stack gas samples from 6 municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWIs) in Northern China were investigated by gas chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC-HRMS). Additionally, PCDD/Fs formation mechanisms from the MSWIs were briefly discussed. Results revealed that the concentrations and equivalent concentrations of PCDD/Fs emissions in stack gas from 6 MSWIs were in the range of 0.11-2.53 ng Nm -3 and 0.007-0.059 ng TEQ Nm -3 , respectively. The emission factors of PCDD/Fs from 6 MSWIs varied from 0.027 to 0.225 μg I-TEQ tonne -1 , with a mean value of 0.17 μg I-TEQ tonne -1 waste, which was estimated to an annual emission of 234.96 mg I-TEQ of PCDD/Fs from 6 MSWIs to the atmosphere. O8CDD, O8CDF and 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-H7CDD were the indicatory compounds of PCDD/Fs to apportion the sources of PCDD/Fs in environmental medium especially in ambient environment of MSWIs. 1,2,3,7,8,9-H6CDF and 1,2,3,4,7,8-H6CDF can be used as TEQ indicators for monitoring PCDD/Fs emission. Based on the positive matrix factorization (PMF) model, eight factors were extracted by the PMF analysis. Formation of low-chlorinated PCDDs (1,2,3,7,8-P5CDD, 1,2,3,4,7,8-H6CDD, 1,2,3,6,7,8-H6CDD and 1,2,3,7,8,9-H6CDD) possessed strong correlation, and the chlorophenols maybe the important precursors of low-chlorinated PCDDs, which were generated within the low chlorinated content. Penta- and hexa-PCDFs formation in stack gas from MSWI may block catalytic sites for PCDFs formation from carbon. Meanwhile, possible formation mechanisms of high-chlorinated PCDDs (hepta- and octa-PCDDs) and high-chlorinated PCDFs (hepta- and octa-PCDFs) were respectively dependent. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Experimental research on emission and removal of dioxins in flue gas from a co-combustion of MSW and coal incinerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong Zhaoping; Jin Baosheng; Huang Yaji; Zhou Hongcang; Lan Jixiang

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the experimental study of dioxins removal from flue gas from a co-combustion municipal solid waste and coal incinerator by means of a fluidized absorption tower and a fabric filter. A test rig has been set up. The flow rate of flue gas of the test rig is 150-2000 m 3 /h. The system was composed of a humidification and cooling system, an absorption tower, a demister, a slurry make-up tank, a desilter, a fabric filter and a measurement system. The total height of the absorption tower was 6.5 m, and the diameter of the reactor pool was 1.2 m. When the absorbent was 1% limestone slurry, the recirculation ratio was 3, the jet rate was 5-15 m/s and the submerged depth of the bubbling pipe under the slurry was 0.14 m, the removal efficiency for dioxins was 99.35%. The concentration of dioxins in the treated flue gas was 0.1573 x 10 -13 kg/Nm 3 and the concentration of oxygen was 11%. This concentration is comparable to the emission standards of other developed countries

  13. Effect of drying on leaching testing of treated municipal solid waste incineration APC-residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Y.; Hyks, Jiri; Astrup, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Air-pollution-control (APC) residues from waste incinerators are hazardous waste according to European legislation and must be treated prior to landfilling. Batch and column leaching data determine which type of landfill can receive the treated APC-residues. CEN standards are prescribed...

  14. Pennsylvania's proposed continuous emission monitoring system data telemetry requirements for municipal, hospital and infectious waste incinerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazzaro, J.C.

    1988-01-01

    This paper reports on the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Resources which has established minimum plan approval, criteria which require certain affected sources to provide the Department with access to continuous emission monitoring (CEM) data via telephone line computer link or other approved means of transfer. The Department has specified formats for logging of CEM data to computer media, a general data telemetry access protocol, floppy disk reporting formats and hardcopy reporting formats

  15. Transportable Emissions Testing Laboratory for Alternative Vehicles Emissions Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, Nigel

    2012-01-31

    The overall objective of this project was to perform research to quantify and improve the energy efficiency and the exhaust emissions reduction from advanced technology vehicles using clean, renewable and alternative fuels. Advanced vehicle and alternative fuel fleets were to be identified, and selected vehicles characterized for emissions and efficiency. Target vehicles were to include transit buses, school buses, vocational trucks, delivery trucks, and tractor-trailers. Gaseous species measured were to include carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, oxides of nitrogen, hydrocarbons, and particulate matter. An objective was to characterize particulate matter more deeply than by mass. Accurate characterization of efficiency and emissions was to be accomplished using a state-of-the-art portable emissions measurement system and an accompanying chassis dynamometer available at West Virginia University. These two units, combined, are termed the Transportable Laboratory. An objective was to load the vehicles in a real-world fashion, using coast down data to establish rolling resistance and wind drag, and to apply the coast down data to the dynamometer control. Test schedules created from actual vehicle operation were to be employed, and a specific objective of the research was to assess the effect of choosing a test schedule which the subject vehicle either cannot follow or can substantially outperform. In addition the vehicle loading objective was to be met better with an improved flywheel system.

  16. Evaluation of the leaching behavior of incineration bottom ash using seawater: A comparison with standard leaching tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wenlin Yvonne; Heng, Kim Soon; Nguyen, Minh Quan; Ho, Jin Rui Ivan; Mohamed Noh, Omar Ahmad Bin; Zhou, Xue Dong; Liu, Alec; Ren, Fei; Wang, Jing-Yuan

    2017-04-01

    Batch and column tests were conducted on untreated incineration bottom ash (IBA) samples from two incineration plants in Singapore, using seawater as the leachant. The main objective of this study was to investigate the change in the leaching behavior of certain elements (i.e. As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se and Zn) when IBA comes into contact with seawater. Such an investigation using seawater as leachant was not commonly carried out when investigating leaching behavior in IBA. The leaching tests were then carried out on the same IBA samples using DI water, as a comparison. Lower level of leaching was observed for Pb and Zn when seawater was used as the leachant. Cr and Sb showed significant cumulative release at Liquid-to-Solids (L/S) ratio 5 in the seawater column leaching. The influence of Dissolved Organic Carbon (DOC) on Cu leaching seems to decrease after L/S 2 when using seawater in the column test. Although the leaching behavior of IBA was affected when seawater was used, for the column test, there was no significant difference during the initial release when compared to DI water. The initial L/S fractions collected were important as the low L/S ratios represent the pore water concentration and the maximum output in an actual application. The results from this study would be useful for the future study on using IBA in marine applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Health-care waste incineration and related dangers to public health: case study of the two teaching and referral hospitals in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njagi, Nkonge A; Oloo, Mayabi A; Kithinji, J; Kithinji, Magambo J

    2012-12-01

    There are practically no low cost, environmentally friendly options in practice whether incineration, autoclaving, chemical treatment or microwaving (World Health Organisation in Health-care waste management training at national level, [2006] for treatment of health-care waste. In Kenya, incineration is the most popular treatment option for hazardous health-care waste from health-care facilities. It is the choice practiced at both Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi and Moi Teaching and Referral Hospital, Eldoret. A study was done on the possible public health risks posed by incineration of the segregated hazardous health-care waste in one of the incinerators in each of the two hospitals. Gaseous emissions were sampled and analyzed for specific gases the equipment was designed and the incinerators Combustion efficiency (CE) established. Combustion temperatures were also recorded. A flue gas analyzer (Model-Testos-350 XL) was used to sample flue gases in an incinerator under study at Kenyatta National Hospital--Nairobi and Moi Teaching and Referral Hospital--Eldoret to assess their incineration efficiency. Flue emissions were sampled when the incinerators were fully operational. However the flue gases sampled in the study, by use of the integrated pump were, oxygen, carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, nitrous oxide, sulphur dioxide and No(x). The incinerator at KNH operated at a mean stack temperature of 746 °C and achieved a CE of 48.1 %. The incinerator at MTRH operated at a mean stack temperature of 811 °C and attained a CE of 60.8 %. The two health-care waste incinerators achieved CE below the specified minimum National limit of 99 %. At the detected stack temperatures, there was a possibility that other than the emissions identified, it was possible that the two incinerators tested released dioxins, furans and antineoplastic (cytotoxic drugs) fumes should the drugs be subjected to incineration in the two units.

  18. Dioxin emissions by the municipal solid waste incinerators: is it a risk for the public health?; Emision de dioxinas por las incineradoras de R. S. U.: Un riesgo para la salud publica?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domingo, J. L. [Universidad Rovira i Virgili. Reus. Tarragona (Spain)

    1999-11-01

    Environmental contamination from particulate and gaseous emissions containing heavy metals, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), as well as other compounds from municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWI) is an issue of great concern. Recently, the controversy surrounding MSWI has intensified in our country. The key question for government agencies, public official, and public opinion is whether MSW incineration is an acceptable waste management option. Since a point-of view of public health, much concern and debate has arisen about human exposure to PCDD/Fs emitted from these facilities. The present paper provides an up-to-date perspective on MSW incineration as a source of human exposure to PCDD/Fs by comparing background PCDD/F concentrations with incinerator-emitted PCDD/F levels. It is concluded that PCDD/F exposure from MSWI would not reach percentage of 1% on total daily intake of PCDD/Fs. (Author) 18 refs.

  19. PERMITTING HAZARDOUS WASTE INCINERATORS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This publication is a compilation of information presented at a seminar series designed to address the issues that affect the issuance of hazardous waste incineration permits and to improve the overall understanding of trial burn testing. pecifically, the document provides guidan...

  20. Conceptual process description of M division incinerator project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, T.K.

    1989-04-13

    This interoffice memorandum describes an incineration system to be used for incinerating wood. The system is comprised of a shredder and an incinerator. The entire process is described in detail. A brief study of particulates, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and nitrogen oxides emission is presented.

  1. Consolidated incineration facility technical support

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, D.; Looper, M.G.

    1993-01-01

    In 1996, the Savannah River Site plans to begin operation of the Consolidated Incineration Facility (CIF) to treat solid and liquid RCRA hazardous and mixed wastes. The Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) leads an extensive technical support program designed to obtain incinerator and air pollution control equipment performance data to support facility start-up and operation. Key components of this technical support program include recently completed waste burn tests at both EPA's Incineration Research Facility and at Energy and Environmental Research Corporation's Solid Waste Incineration Test Facility. The main objectives for these tests were determining the fate of heavy metals, measuring organics destruction and removal efficiencies, and quantifying incinerator offgas particulate loading and size distribution as a function of waste feed characteristics and incineration conditions. In addition to these waste burning tests, the SRTC has recently completed installations of the Offgas Components Test Facility (OCTF), a 1/10 scale CIF offgas system pilot plant. This pilot facility will be used to demonstrate system operability and maintainability, evaluate and optimize equipment and instrument performance, and provide direct CIF start-up support. Technical support programs of this type are needed to resolve technical issues related with treatment and disposal of combustible hazardous, mixed, and low-level radioactive waste. Implementation of this program will minimize facility start-up problems and help insure compliance with all facility performance requirements

  2. Very low emissions of airborne particulate pollutants measured from two municipal solid waste incineration plants in Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setyan, Ari; Patrick, Michael; Wang, Jing

    2017-10-01

    A field campaign has been performed in two municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) plants in Switzerland, at Hinwil (ZH) and Giubiasco (TI). The aim was to measure airborne pollutants at different locations of the abatement systems (including those released from the stacks into the atmosphere) and at a near-field (∼1 km) downwind site, in order to assess the efficiency of the abatement systems and the environmental impact of these plants. During this study, we measured the particle number concentration with a condensation particle counter (CPC), and the size distribution with a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) and an aerodynamic particle sizer (APS). We also sampled particles on filters for subsequent analyses of the morphology, size and elemental composition with a scanning electron microscope coupled to an energy dispersive X-ray spectroscope (SEM/EDX), and of water soluble ions by ion chromatography (IC). Finally, volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were sampled on adsorbing cartridges and analyzed by thermal desorption-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (TD-GC/MS), and a portable gas analyzer was used to monitor NO, SO2, CO, CO2, and O2. The particle concentration decreased significantly at two locations of the plants: at the electrostatic precipitator and the bag-house filter. The particle concentrations measured at the stacks were very low (efficiency of the abatement system of the two plants. At Hinwil, particles sampled at the stack were mainly constituted of NaCl and KCl, two salts known to be involved in the corrosion process in incinerators. At Giubiasco, no significant differences were observed for the morphology and chemical composition of the particles collected in the ambient background and at the downwind site, suggesting that the incineration plant released very limited amounts of particles to the surrounding areas.

  3. Testing fluidized bed incinerators for energy-efficient operation for the Southtowns Sewage Treatment Agency. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-01-01

    Two methods for improving the energy efficiency of fluidized bed sludge incinerators were evaluated. The first method used paper pulp and polymer as conditioning agents for municipal sludge instead of lime and ferric chloride. Automatic control of the incinerator was the second method evaluated for energy savings. To evaluate the use of paper pulp and polymer as conditioning agents, varying quantities of paper pulp were added to the liquid sludge to determine the optimal sludge-to-paper pulp ratio. The effect of the paper pulp and polymer-conditioned sludge on plant operations also was evaluated. When compared to sludge conditioned with lime and ferric chloride, the paper pulp and polymer-conditioned sludge had similar cake release and feed characteristics, higher BTU values for the dry sludge solids, required less auxiliary fuel for incineration, and generated less ash for disposal. The paper pulp and polymer did not have any appreciable negative effects on the operation of the wastewater treatment plant. It was estimated that processing and incinerating the sludge conditioned with paper pulp and polymer resulted in a cost savings of up to $91.73 per dry ton of activated sludge solids. To evaluate the effect of automatic control, all the incinerator operating parameters including air flow rates, fuel oil feed rates, and sludge feed rates, were automatically monitored and controlled to minimize auxiliary fuel oil use and to keep the incinerator running at optimal conditions. Although effective, the estimated cost savings for automatic control of the incinerator were small.

  4. Dioxine and PAH-emissions from private incineration of wastes; Dioxin- und PAK-Emissionen der privaten Abfallverbrennung: Umwelt-Materialien Nr. 172 Luft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nussbaumer, T.

    2004-07-01

    This report published by the Swiss Agency for the Environment, Forests and Landscape (SAEFL) presents the results of a literature study and situation analysis on the burning of wastes at the domestic level. The private burning of municipal solid waste, urban waste wood and other wastes as a potential source of toxic emissions and residues is discussed. Beside the heavy metals found in ash and flue gas, the paper looks at organic substances such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxines and polychlorinated dibenzofuranes (PCDD/F) that can be emitted in relevant concentrations. The aim of the study - to evaluate emission factors of PCDD/F and PAH from private waste incineration in wood stoves and boilers, in barrels, and in open fires - is discussed. A survey of recent investigations in Europe and the United States and the correlation between the most relevant emission factors is looked at. Critical situations leading to extremely high PCDD/F emissions are described.

  5. 40 CFR 61.123 - Emission testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emission testing. 61.123 Section 61.123... Elemental Phosphorus Plants § 61.123 Emission testing. (a) Each owner or operator of an elemental phosphorus... annually thereafter. The Administrator may temporarily or permanently waive the annual testing requirement...

  6. Organic trace substances as emissions from incineration plants and their humane toxicological and eco-toxicological classification. Organic emissions; Organische Spurenstoffe als Emissionen aus Verbrennungsanlagen und deren humantoxikologische und oekotoxikologische Einordnung. T. 1. Organische Emissionen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaiser, G.; Wiedmann, T.; Ballschmiter, K.

    1998-02-01

    This report (`Organic Trace Compounds as Emissions of Incineration Plants and their Toxicological and Ecotoxicological Classification - Part 1: Organic Emissions`) describes the reaction pathways in the flame chemistry of organic materials. Possible organic products of incomplete combustion formed at the trace level in various processes are summarized. The emissions of organic compounds from municipal waste incineration plants are named in detail and compared to those of other combustion processes, like e.g. the combustion of coal, sewage sludge or fuels. Quantitative figures are given if available. (orig.) [Deutsch] Im vorliegenden Arbeitsbericht (`Organische Spurenstoffe als Emissionen aus Verbrennungsanlagen und deren humantoxikologische und oekotoxikologische Einordnung - Teil 1: Organische Emissionen`) werden die grundlegenden chemischen Prozesse bei der unvollstaendigen Verbrennung von organischem Material beschrieben und die dabei als Spurenstoffe entstehenden Substanzklassen benannt. Im Tabellenteil werden die Emissionen von organischen Verbindungen aus Abfallverbrennungsanlagen qualitativ und quantitativ mit den Emissionen bei anderen thermischen Prozessen - z.B. Verbrennung von Kohle, Klaerschlamm oder Treibstoffen - verglichen. Dabei wurde auf groesstmoegliche stoffliche Differenzierung und vollstaendige Erfassung der Emissionen geachtet. (orig.)

  7. Enviromental impact of a hospital waste incineration plant in Krakow (Poland).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gielar, Agnieszka; Helios-Rybicka, Edeltrauda

    2013-07-01

    The environmental impact of a hospital waste incineration plant in Krakow was investigated. The objective of this study was to assess the degree of environmental effect of the secondary solid waste generated during the incineration process of medical waste. The analysis of pollution of the air emissions and leaching test of ashes and slag were carried out. The obtained results allowed us to conclude that (i) the hospital waste incineration plant significantly solves the problems of medical waste treatment in Krakow; (ii) the detected contaminant concentrations were generally lower than the permissible values; (iii) the generated ashes and slag contained considerable concentrations of heavy metals, mainly zinc, and chloride and sulfate anions. Ashes and slag constituted 10-15% of the mass of incinerated wastes; they are more harmful for the environment when compared with untreated waste, and after solidification they can be deposited in the hazardous waste disposal.

  8. Sarcoma risk and dioxin emissions from incinerators and industrial plants: a population-based case-control study (Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiore Anna

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is not clear whether environmental exposure to dioxin affects the general population. The aim of this research is to evaluate sarcoma risk in relation to the environmental pollution caused by dioxin emitted by waste incinerators and industrial sources of airborne dioxin. The study population lives in a part of the Province of Venice (Italy, where a population-based cancer registry (Veneto Tumour Registry – RTV has been active since 1987. Methods Two hundred and five cases of visceral and extravisceral sarcoma, confirmed by microscopic examination, diagnosed from 01.01.1990 to 31.12.1996, were extracted from the RTV database. Diagnoses were revised using the actual pathology reports and clinical records. For each sarcoma case, three controls of the same age and sex were randomly selected from the population files of the Local Health Units (LHUs. The residential history of each subject, whether case or control, was reconstructed, address by address, from 1960 to the date of diagnosis. All waste incinerators and industrial sources of airborne dioxin in the Province of Venice were taken into account, as was one very large municipal waste incinerator outside the area but close to its boundaries. The Industrial Source Complex Model in Long Term mode, version 3 (ISCLT3, was used to assess the level of atmospheric dispersion. A specific value for exposure was calculated for each point (geo-referenced address and for each calendar year; the exposure value for each subject is expressed as the average of specific time-weighted values. The analysis takes into account 172 cases and 405 controls, aged more than 14 years. Results The risk of developing a sarcoma is 3.3 times higher (95% Confidence Interval – 95% CI: 1.24 – 8.76 among subjects, both sexes, with the longest exposure period and the highest exposure level ; a significant excess of risk was also observed in women (Odds Ratio OR = 2.41, 95% CI: 1.04 – 5.59 and for

  9. 40 CFR 61.67 - Emission tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Emission tests. (a) Unless a waiver of emission testing is obtained under § 61.13, the owner or operator of... strippers) and samples and the types and grades of resin to be sampled are to be determined by the... material processed by each stripper (or reactor used as a stripper) is to be determined on a dry solids...

  10. Incineration demonstration at Savannah River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewandowski, K.E.; Becker, G.W.; Mersman, K.E.; Roberson, W.A.

    1983-01-01

    A full-scale incineration process for Savannah River Plant (SRP) low level beta-gamma combustible waste was demonstrated at the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) using nonradioactive wastes. From October 1981 through September 1982, 15,700 kilograms of solid waste and 5.7 m 3 of solvent were incinerated. Emissions of off-gas components (NO/sub x/, SO 2 , CO, and particulates) were well below South Carolina state standards. Volume reductions of 20:1 for solid waste and 7:1 for Purex solvent/lime slurry were achieved. Presently, the process is being upgraded by SRP to accept radioactive wastes. During a two-year SRP demonstration, the facility will be used to incinerate slightly radioactive ( 3 ) solvent and suspect level (<1 mR/hr at 0.0254 meter) solid wastes

  11. Savannah River Plant incinerator demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewandowski, K.E.

    1983-01-01

    A full-scale incineration process was demonstrated at the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) using nonradioactive waste. From October 1981 through September 1982, 15,700 kilograms of solid waste and 5.7 m 3 of solvent were incinerated. Emissions of off-gas components (NO/sub x/, SO 2 , CO, and particulates) were well below South Carolina state standards. Volume reductions of 20:1 for solid waste and 7:1 for Purex solvent/lime slurry were achieved. The process has been relocated and upgraded by the Savannah River Plant to accept low-level beta-gamma combustibles. During a two-year demonstration, the facility will incinerate slightly radioactive ( 3 ) solvent and suspect level (< 1 mR/h at 0.0254 meter) solid wastes. This demonstration will begin in early 1984

  12. Biomedical waste management: Incineration vs. environmental safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gautam V

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Public concerns about incinerator emissions, as well as the creation of federal regulations for medical waste incinerators, are causing many health care facilities to rethink their choices in medical waste treatment. As stated by Health Care Without Harm, non-incineration treatment technologies are a growing and developing field. Most medical waste is incinerated, a practice that is short-lived because of environmental considerations. The burning of solid and regulated medical waste generated by health care creates many problems. Medical waste incinerators emit toxic air pollutants and toxic ash residues that are the major source of dioxins in the environment. International Agency for Research on Cancer, an arm of WHO, acknowledged dioxins cancer causing potential and classified it as human carcinogen. Development of waste management policies, careful waste segregation and training programs, as well as attention to materials purchased, are essential in minimizing the environmental and health impacts of any technology.

  13. Acid gas control process and apparatus for waste fired incinerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubin, P.Z.; Stepan, J.E.

    1992-01-01

    This patent describes a process for reducing noxious emission produced in a waste material incinerator. It comprises incinerating solid waste material in a furnace section of the waste material incinerator; providing an additive to an additive supply storage unit; conveying the additive to an additive injection means that communicates with the furnace section of the waste material incinerator; injecting the additive into a turbulent reaction zone of the furnace section such that acid gas content, acid dewpoint temperature and the level of corrosion in the incinerator are reduced

  14. Leaching behaviour of incineration bottom ash in a reuse scenario: 12years-field data vs. lab test results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Gianfilippo, Martina; Hyks, Jiri; Verginelli, Iason; Costa, Giulia; Hjelmar, Ole; Lombardi, Francesco

    2018-03-01

    Several types of standardized laboratory leaching tests have been developed during the past few decades to evaluate the leaching behaviour of waste materials as a function of different parameters, such as the pH of the eluate and the liquid to solid ratio. However, the link between the results of these tests and leaching data collected from the field (e.g. in disposal or reuse scenarios) is not always straightforward. In this work, we compare data obtained from an on-going large scale field trial, in which municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash is being tested as road sub-base material, with the results obtained from percolation column and pH-dependence laboratory leaching tests carried out on the bottom ash at the beginning of the test. The comparisons reported in this paper show that for soluble substances (e.g. Cl, K and SO 4 ), percolation column tests can provide a good indication of the release expected in the field with deviations usually within a factor of 3. For metals characterized by a solubility-controlled release, i.e. that depends more on eluate pH than the liquid to solid ratio applied, the results of pH-dependence tests describe more accurately the eluate concentration trends observed in the field with deviations that in most cases (around 80%) are within one order of magnitude (see e.g. Al and Cd). The differences between field and lab-scale data might be in part ascribed to the occurrence in the field of weathering reactions (e.g. carbonation) but also to microbial decomposition of organic matter that modifying leachate pH affect the solubility of several constituents (e.g. Ca, Ba and Cr). Besides, weathering reactions can result in enhanced adsorption of fulvic acids to iron/aluminum (hydr)oxides, leading to a decrease in the leaching of fulvic acids and hence of elements such as Cu, Ni and Pb that strongly depend on DOC leaching. Overall, this comparison shows that percolation column tests and pH-dependence tests can represent a reliable

  15. Ten-year chemical evolution of leachate and municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash used in a test road site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabo, David; Badreddine, Rabia; De Windt, Laurent; Drouadaine, Ivan

    2009-12-30

    The use of municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) bottom ash for road and car-park construction is an appropriate solution to reduce their disposal and the consumption of natural materials. In addition to leaching tests, the environmental impact assessment of such a waste recycling scenario critically needs for reliable long-term field data. This paper addresses a 10-year pilot site where MSWI bottom ashes have been used as road aggregates in Northern France (oceanic temperate climate). The paper focuses on the long-term evolution of leachate chemistry and the mineralogical transformations of MSWI bottom ash over 10 years. Data interpretation is supported by geochemical modeling in terms of main pH-buffering processes. The leachate pH and concentrations in major elements (Ca, Na and Cl) as well as in Al and heavy metals (Cu, Pb and Zn) quickly drop during the first 2 years to asymptotically reach a set of minimum values over 10 years; similar to those of a reference road built with natural calcareous aggregates. SO(4) release makes exception with a slightly increasing trend over time. Carbonation induced by CO(2) inputs, which leads to the successive dissolution of portlandite, CSH and ettringite, is one of the main phenomenon responsible for the geochemical evolution of leachate. On the other hand, mineralogical observations and batch tests demonstrate a relative stability of the MSWI bottom ash inside the subbase layer. In particular, carbonation may be far to be completed and still in progress after 10 years. This is consistent with preferential rainwater flow and dilution at the road edges combined to diffusion inside the subbase layer.

  16. Quantifying capital goods for waste incineration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brogaard, Line Kai-Sørensen; Riber, C.; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2013-01-01

    Materials and energy used for the construction of modern waste incineration plants were quantified. The data was collected from five incineration plants (72,000–240,000tonnes per year) built in Scandinavia (Norway, Finland and Denmark) between 2006 and 2012. Concrete for the buildings was the main...... of producing the materials used in the construction, steel for the building and the machinery contributed the most. The material and energy used for the construction corresponded to the emission of 7–14kg CO2 per tonne of waste combusted throughout the lifetime of the incineration plant. The assessment showed...... that, compared to data reported in the literature on direct emissions from the operation of incinerators, the environmental impacts caused by the construction of buildings and machinery (capital goods) could amount to 2–3% with respect to kg CO2 per tonne of waste combusted....

  17. SUPERFUND TREATABILITY CLEARINGHOUSE: BDAT INCINERATION OF CERCLA SARMS AT THE JOHN ZINK COMPANY TEST FACILITY (FINAL PROJECT REPORT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report presents the results of a treatability study of rotary kiln incineration of a synthetic "Superfund soil" bearing a wide range of chemical contaminants typically occurring at Superfund sites. This surrogate soil is referred to as a synthetic analytical reference ...

  18. Pilot solid-waste incinerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farber, M.G.; Hootman, H.E.; Trapp, D.J.

    1982-01-01

    An experimental program to develop and confirm technology for incinerating solid radioactive waste is in progress at the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) in support of the short-term and long-term waste management objectives of the Savannah River Plant (SRP). This report reviews the experience of a pilot incinerator with a capacity of 1.0 lb/hr. The facility was tested with nonradioactive materials similar to the radioactive waste generated at the Savannah River site. The experimental program included determining operating parameters, testing wet and dry off-gas treatment systems, and evaluating materials of construction

  19. Alpha waste incineration prototype incinerator and industrial project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caramelle, D.; Meyere, A.

    1988-01-01

    To meet our requirements with respect to the processing of solid alpha wastes, a pilot cold incinerator has been used for R and D. This unit has a capacity of 5 kg/hr. The main objectives assigned to this incineration process are: a good reduction factor, controlled combustion, ash composition compatible with plutonium recovery, limited secondary solid and fluid wastes, releases within the nuclear and chemical standards, and in strict observance of the confinement and criticality safety rules. After describing the process we will discuss the major results of the incineration test campaigns with representative solid wastes (50 % PVC). We will then give a description of an industrial project with a capacity of 7 kg/hr, followed by a cost estimate

  20. Landfilling of waste incineration residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Astrup, Thomas; Cai, Zuansi

    2002-01-01

    Residues from waste incineration are bottom ashes and air-pollution-control (APC) residues including fly ashes. The leaching of heavy metals and salts from the ashes is substantial and a wide spectrum of leaching tests and corresponding criteria have been introduced to regulate the landfilling...

  1. CO{sub 2}-emissions from future waste incineration - Sub-Project 5; CO{sub 2}-utslaepp fraan framtida avfallsfoerbraanning - Delprojekt 5 inom projektet Perspektiv paa framtida avfallsbehandling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bisaillon, Mattias; Detterfelt, Lia; Edner, Stig; Maartenssson, Paal

    2013-09-01

    The use of fossil fuels in Swedish district heating systems has fallen sharply. With continued pressure from society to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases, it is likely that the use of these fuels will decrease further. The major remaining source of emissions of fossil carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) from district heating systems 2020 is waste incineration with energy recovery in the form of electricity and heat. The aim of this project was, from two perspectives (stack perspective and system perspective), to analyze future emissions of fossil CO{sub 2} from Swedish waste incineration in the Swedish district heating systems. By studying both perspectives at the same time, the results answer whether changes in emissions in one perspective give similar or opposite effects seen from the other perspective. The purpose was also to make cost estimates for emission reduction measures affecting waste, energy and material production system. These costs were related to the price of allowances in the EU ETS and to the Swedish carbon tax. The project was performed in 2012 as a part of the research project 'Perspectives on sustainable waste treatment'.

  2. Effects on ambient air caused by emissions from the Clean Harbors incinerator and underground water treatment facility in Mercier : evaluation by atmospheric dispersion modeling; Effets sur l'air ambiant des emissions de l'incinerateur Clean Harbors et de l'Unite de traitement des eaux souterraines (UTES) a Mercier : evaluation par modelisation de la dispersion atmospherique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boulet, G.; Walsh, P.; Brault, M.P.; Couture, Y.; Briere, J.F. [Quebec Ministere du Developpement durable, de l' Environnement et des Parcs, Quebec, PQ (Canada). Direction du suivi de l' etat de l' environnement; Guay, F.; Longpre, L. [Quebec Ministere du Developpement durable, de l' Environnement et des Parcs, Quebec, PQ (Canada). Direction regionale de l' analyse et de l' expertise de l' Estrie de la Monteregie; Lemire, R.; Busque, D. [Quebec Ministere du Developpement durable, de l' Environnement et des Parcs, Quebec, PQ (Canada). Service de l' information sur le milieu atmospherique

    2010-09-15

    Clean Harbors is a leading provider of high-tech, high-temperature destruction of hazardous and industrial waste. The Quebec Ministry of Sustainable Development, Environment and Parks created an atmospheric dispersion model to determine the impact of the Clean Harbors incinerator and underground water treatment facility on air quality in Mercier, Quebec. This document described the dispersion model and its inputs, including emissions of polychlorinated dibenzodioxin, dibenzofurans, polychlorinated biphenyls, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, fine particulates, mercury, lead and arsenic. The effects of these emissions on air quality were evaluated by considering meteorological data, source characteristics, topography and land use zoning. The modeling study showed that emissions from the incinerator were well below criteria levels and do not cause significant deterioration in air quality. However, higher than allowable limits of polyvinyl chloride and benzene emissions were found 700 m from the underground water treatment facility. Nearby residential areas were not affected. 21 refs., 9 tabs., 10 figs., 1 appendix.

  3. Refuse derived fuel incineration: Fuel gas monitoring and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranaldi, E.; Coronidi, M.; De Stefanis, P.; Di Palo, C.; Zagaroli, M.

    1993-11-01

    Experience and results on refuse derived fuel (selected from municipal solid wastes) incineration are reported. The study involved the investigation of inorganic compounds (heavy metals, acids and toxic gases) emissions, and included feeding materials and incineration residues characterization and mass balance

  4. Use plan for demonstration radioactive-waste incinerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooley, L.R.; McCampbell, M.R.; Thompson, J.D.

    1982-04-01

    The University of Maryland at Baltimore was awarded a grant from the Department of Energy to test a specially modified incinerator to burn biomedical radioactive waste. In preparation for the incinerator, the Radiation Safety Office devised a comprehensive plan for its safe and effective use. The incinerator plan includes a discussion of regulations regarding on-site incineration of radioactive waste, plans for optimum use in burning four principal waste forms, controlled air incineration technology, and standard health physics safety practices; a use plan, including waste categorization and segregation, processing, and ash disposition; safety procedures, including personnel and area monitoring; and methods to evaluate the incinerator's effectiveness by estimating its volume reduction factors, mass and activity balances, and by determining the cost effectiveness of incineration versus commercial shallow land burial

  5. On site clean up with a hazardous waste incinerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cross, F.L. Jr.; Tessitore, J.L.

    1987-01-01

    The Army Corps of Engineers and the EPA have determined that on-site incineration for the detoxification of soils, sediments, and sludges is a viable, safe, and economic alternative. This paper discusses an approach to on-site incineration as a method of detoxification of soils/sediments contaminated with organic hazardous wastes. Specifically, this paper describes the procedures used to evaluate on-site incineration at a large Superfund site with extensive PCB contaminated soils and sediments. The paper includes the following: (1) a discussion of site waste quantities and properties, (2) a selection of an incineration technology with a resulting concept and design, (3) a discussion of incinerator permitting requirements, (4) discussion and rationale for an incinerator sub-scale testing approach, and (5) analysis of on-site incineration cost

  6. The solid waste contaminated incineration technique used incinerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sukosrono; Prayitno; Isman, M. T.

    1996-01-01

    The research of the incinerator radioactive waste used incinerator has been done. The aim of the experiment is to determine the number of the organic liquid waste which added on the incineration of the solid radioactive waste. The research was done by incinerate waste in the incinerator prototype which was designed for capacity 2500 gram, and the investigated variables are capacity of the incinerator, specific of the waste, and the method of the incineration. Simulated waste was used in the experiment, the waste specific which was used in the experiment was the mixture between liquid organic waste (TBPK-10%) with solid waste was coming from rice paper, tissue, carton. Two way method were investigated in the experiment, were direct incineration and indirect incineration. The direct incineration was done by incineration solid waste and organic liquid waste in the incinerator together. The indirect incineration was done by incineration of solid waste which have been used to absorb organic liquid waste. The result showed that either direct or indirect incineration independent to the incineration result. The best result have taken place on the 2250 gram capacity of the incinerator, ratio liquid organic waste to solid waste 1% - 20%. In the condition will be found reduction of volume = 43.90 - 35.91 and reduction of the waste = 13.85% - 12.15% and the ash which was resulted from incineration colored white silver with contain a little color black. (author)

  7. Plutonium waste incineration using pyrohydrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, M.L.

    1991-12-31

    Waste generated by Savannah River Site (SRS) plutonium operations includes a contaminated organic waste stream. A conventional method for disposing of the organic waste stream and recovering the nuclear material is by incineration. When the organic material is burned, the plutonium remains in the incinerator ash. Plutonium recovery from incinerator ash is highly dependent on the maximum temperature to which the oxide is exposed. Recovery via acid leaching is reduced for a high fired ash (>800{degree}C), while plutonium oxides fired at lower decomposition temperatures (400--800{degrees}C) are more soluble at any given acid concentration. To determine the feasibility of using a lower temperature process, tests were conducted using an electrically heated, controlled-air incinerator. Nine nonradioactive, solid, waste materials were batch-fed and processed in a top-heated cylindrical furnace. Waste material processing was completed using a 19-liter batch over a nominal 8-hour cycle. A processing cycle consisted of 1 hour for heating, 4 hours for reacting, and 3 hours for chamber cooling. The water gas shift reaction was used to hydrolyze waste materials in an atmosphere of 336% steam and 4.4% oxygen. Throughput ranged from 0.14 to 0.27 kg/hr depending on the variability in the waste material composition and density.

  8. Plutonium waste incineration using pyrohydrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, M.L.

    1991-01-01

    Waste generated by Savannah River Site (SRS) plutonium operations includes a contaminated organic waste stream. A conventional method for disposing of the organic waste stream and recovering the nuclear material is by incineration. When the organic material is burned, the plutonium remains in the incinerator ash. Plutonium recovery from incinerator ash is highly dependent on the maximum temperature to which the oxide is exposed. Recovery via acid leaching is reduced for a high fired ash (>800{degree}C), while plutonium oxides fired at lower decomposition temperatures (400--800{degrees}C) are more soluble at any given acid concentration. To determine the feasibility of using a lower temperature process, tests were conducted using an electrically heated, controlled-air incinerator. Nine nonradioactive, solid, waste materials were batch-fed and processed in a top-heated cylindrical furnace. Waste material processing was completed using a 19-liter batch over a nominal 8-hour cycle. A processing cycle consisted of 1 hour for heating, 4 hours for reacting, and 3 hours for chamber cooling. The water gas shift reaction was used to hydrolyze waste materials in an atmosphere of 336% steam and 4.4% oxygen. Throughput ranged from 0.14 to 0.27 kg/hr depending on the variability in the waste material composition and density.

  9. Plutonium waste incineration using pyrohydrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, M.L.

    1991-01-01

    Waste generated by Savannah River Site (SRS) plutonium operations includes a contaminated organic waste stream. A conventional method for disposing of the organic waste stream and recovering the nuclear material is by incineration. When the organic material is burned, the plutonium remains in the incinerator ash. Plutonium recovery from incinerator ash is highly dependent on the maximum temperature to which the oxide is exposed. Recovery via acid leaching is reduced for a high fired ash (>800 degree C), while plutonium oxides fired at lower decomposition temperatures (400--800 degrees C) are more soluble at any given acid concentration. To determine the feasibility of using a lower temperature process, tests were conducted using an electrically heated, controlled-air incinerator. Nine nonradioactive, solid, waste materials were batch-fed and processed in a top-heated cylindrical furnace. Waste material processing was completed using a 19-liter batch over a nominal 8-hour cycle. A processing cycle consisted of 1 hour for heating, 4 hours for reacting, and 3 hours for chamber cooling. The water gas shift reaction was used to hydrolyze waste materials in an atmosphere of 336% steam and 4.4% oxygen. Throughput ranged from 0.14 to 0.27 kg/hr depending on the variability in the waste material composition and density

  10. Los Alamos controlled-air incineration studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koenig, R.A.; Warner, C.L.

    1983-01-01

    Current regulations of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) require that PCBs in concentrations greater than 500 ppM be disposed of in EPA-permitted incinerators. Four commercial incineration systems in the United States have EPA operating permits for receiving and disposing of concentrated PCBs, but none can accept PCBs contaminated with nuclear materials. The first section of this report presents an overview of an EPA-sponsored program for studying PCB destruction in the large-scale Los Alamos controlled-air incinerator. A second major FY 1983 program, sponsored by the Naval Weapons Support Center, Crane, Indiana, is designed to determine operating conditions that will destroy marker smoke compounds without also forming polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), some of which are known or suspected to be carcinogenic. We discuss the results of preliminary trial burns in which various equipment and feed formulations were tested. We present qualitative analyses for PAHs in the incinerator offgas as a result of these tests

  11. Research and development plan for the Slagging Pyrolysis Incinerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedahl, T.G.; McCormack, M.D.

    1979-01-01

    Objective is to develop an incinerator for processing disposed transuranium waste. This R and D plan describes the R and D efforts required to begin conceptual design of the Slagging Pyrolysis Incinerator (Andco-Torrax). The program includes: incinerator, off-gas treatment, waste handling, instrumentation, immobilization analyses, migration studies, regulations, Belgium R and D test plan, Disney World test plan, and remote operation and maintenance

  12. Incineration of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eid, C.

    1985-01-01

    The incineration process currently seems the most appropriate way to solve the problems encountered by the increasing quantities of low and medium active waste from nuclear power generation waste. Although a large number of incinerators operate in the industry, there is still scope for the improvement of safety, throughput capacity and reduction of secondary waste. This seminar intends to give opportunity to scientists working on the different aspects of incineration to present their most salient results and to discuss the possibilities of making headway in the management of LL/ML radioactive waste. These proceedings include 17 contributions ranging over the subjects: incineration of solid β-γ wastes; incineration of other radwastes; measurement and control of wastes; off-gas filtration and release. (orig./G.J.P.)

  13. Molecular hydrogen (H2) combustion emissions and their isotope (D/H) signatures from domestic heaters, diesel vehicle engines, waste incinerator plants, and biomass burning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vollmer, M.K.; Walter, S.; Mohn, J.; Steinbacher, M.; Bond, S.W.; Röckmann, T.; Reimann, S.

    2012-01-01

    Molecular hydrogen (H2), its stable isotope signature ( D), and the key combustion parameters carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), and methane (CH4) were measured from various combustion processes. H2 in the exhaust of gas and oil-fired heaters and of waste incinerator plants was generally

  14. Quantifying capital goods for waste incineration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brogaard, L K; Riber, C; Christensen, T H

    2013-06-01

    Materials and energy used for the construction of modern waste incineration plants were quantified. The data was collected from five incineration plants (72,000-240,000 tonnes per year) built in Scandinavia (Norway, Finland and Denmark) between 2006 and 2012. Concrete for the buildings was the main material used amounting to 19,000-26,000 tonnes per plant. The quantification further included six main materials, electronic systems, cables and all transportation. The energy used for the actual on-site construction of the incinerators was in the range 4000-5000 MW h. In terms of the environmental burden of producing the materials used in the construction, steel for the building and the machinery contributed the most. The material and energy used for the construction corresponded to the emission of 7-14 kg CO2 per tonne of waste combusted throughout the lifetime of the incineration plant. The assessment showed that, compared to data reported in the literature on direct emissions from the operation of incinerators, the environmental impacts caused by the construction of buildings and machinery (capital goods) could amount to 2-3% with respect to kg CO2 per tonne of waste combusted. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Acoustic emission measurement during instrumented impact tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crostack, H.A.; Engelhardt, A.H.

    1983-01-01

    Results of instrumented impact tests are discussed. On the one hand the development of the loading process at the hammer tup was recorded by means of a piezoelectric transducer. This instrumentation supplied a better representation of the load versus time than the conventional strain gauges. On the other hand the different types of acoustic emission occurring during a test could be separated. The acoustic emission released at the impact of the hammer onto the specimen is of lower frequency and its spectrum is strongly decreasing with increasing frequency. Plastic deformation also emits signals of lower frequency that are of quasi-continuous character. Both signal types can be discriminated by filtering. As a consequence typical burst signal were received afterwards that can be correlated with crack propagation. Their spectra exhibit considerable portions up to about 1.9 MHz. The development in time of the burst signals points to the kind of crack propagation resp. its sequence of appearance. However, definitive comparison between load and acoustic emission should become possible, only when the disadvantages of the common load measurement can be reduced, e.g. by determining the load directly at the specimen instead of the hammer tup

  16. Process control in municipal solid waste incinerators: survey and assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Asri, R; Baxter, D

    2004-06-01

    As there is only rare and scattered published information about the process control in industrial incineration facilities for municipal solid waste (MSW), a survey of the literature has been supplemented by a number of waste incineration site visits in Belgium and The Netherlands, in order to make a realistic assessment of the current status of technology in the area. Owing to the commercial character, and therefore, the confidentiality restrictions imposed by plant builders and many of the operators, much of the information collected has either to be presented in a generalized manner, and in any case anonymously. The survey was focused on four major issues: process control strategy, process control systems, monitors used for process control and finally the correlation between the 850 degrees C/2 s rule in the European waste incineration directive and integrated process control. The process control strategies range from reaching good and stable emissions at the stack to stabilizing and maximizing the energy output from the process. The main indicator to be monitored, in cases in which the focus is controlling emissions, is the oxygen content in the stack. Keeping the oxygen concentration in a determined range (usually between 8 and 12 vol.%) ensures stable and tolerated concentrations of the gaseous emissions. In the case for which stabilization of energy production is the principal aim, the main controlled parameter is the steam temperature and flow-rate, which is usually related to the fuel energetic input. A lot of other parameters are used as alarm criteria, the most common of which is the carbon monoxide concentration. The process control systems used most commonly feature partially automated classical proportional integral derivative (PID) controllers. New and innovative process control systems, such as fuzzy-logic control systems, are still unknown to most plant managers while their performance is reported to be unsatisfactory in plants in which such systems

  17. Nuclear waste incineration technology status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziegler, D.L.; Lehmkuhl, G.D.; Meile, L.J.

    1981-01-01

    The incinerators developed and/or used for radioactive waste combustion are discussed and suggestions are made for uses of incineration in radioactive waste management programs and for incinerators best suited for specific applications. Information on the amounts and types of radioactive wastes are included to indicate the scope of combustible wastes being generated and in existence. An analysis of recently developed radwaste incinerators is given to help those interested in choosing incinerators for specific applications. Operating information on US and foreign incinerators is also included to provide additional background information. Development needs are identified for extending incinerator applications and for establishing commercial acceptance

  18. Commercial incineration demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vavruska, J.S.; Borduin, L.C.

    1982-01-01

    Low-level radioactive wastes (LLW) generated by nuclear utilities presently are shipped to commercial burial grounds for disposal. Increasing transportation and disposal costs have caused industry to consider incineration as a cost-effective means of volume reduction of combustible LLW. Repeated inquiries from the nuclear industry regarding the applicability of the Los Alamos controlled air incineration (CAI) design led the DOE to initiate a commercial demonstration program in FY-1980. Development studies and results in support of this program involving ion exchange resin incineration and fission/activation product distributions within the Los Alamos CAI are described

  19. Radwaste incineration at CRNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beamer, N.V.

    A Waste Treatment Centre (WTC) is being constructed at CRNL to develop and demonstrate processes to convert reactor wastes to a form suitable for disposal. Combustible wastes can be reduced in volume to a stable ash by incineration. A prototype starved-air incinerator in the WTC is currently being commissioned on inactive waste. Overall performance to date is good. Satisfactory control of main process flows and temperatures has been achieved. Checking of system response to process failures has begun. So far, problems with a similar incinerator during initial operation at Ontario Hydro have not been encountered

  20. ORGDP RCRA/PCB incinerator facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, T.

    1987-01-01

    A dual purpose solid/liquid incinerator is currently being constructed at the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant [ORGDP (K-25)] to destroy uranium contaminated, hazardous organic wastes in compliance with the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). These wastes are generated by the gaseous diffusion plants in Oak Ridge, TN; Paducah, KY; and Portsmouth, OH. In addition, waste will also be received from the Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and the Feed Materials Production Center (FMPC). Destruction of PCBs and hazardous liquid organic wastes will be accomplished in a rotary kiln incinerator with an afterburner. This system was selected faster a study of various alternatives. Incineration was chosen because it is dependable, permanent, detoxifies organics, and reduces volume. The rotary kiln incinerator was selected because it can thermally destroy organic constituents of liquids, solids, and sludges to produce an organically inert ash. In addition to the incineration off-gas treatment system, the facility includes a tank farm, drum storage buildings, a solids preparation area, a control room, and a data management system. The incineration system, off-gas treatment system, and related instrumentation and controls are being provided by International Waste Energy Systems (IWES) which is responsible for design, construction, startup, and performances testing

  1. Theoretical aspects of solid waste incineration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarbell, J.M.

    1975-01-01

    Theoretical considerations that may be incorporated into the design basis of a prototype incinerator for solid transuranic wastes are described. It is concluded that primary pyrolysis followed by secondary afterburning is a very unattractive incineration strategy unless waste resource recovery is a process goal. The absence of primary combustion air leads to poor waste dispersion with associated diffusion and conduction limitations rendering the process inefficient. Single step oxidative incineration is most attractive when volume reduction is of primary importance. The volume of this type of incinerator (including afterburner) should be relatively much smaller than the pyrolysis type. Afterburning is limited by soot oxidation when preceded by pyrolysis, but limited by turbulent mixing when preceded by direct solid waste oxidation. In either case, afterburner temperatures above 1300 0 K are not warranted. Results based on a nominal solid waste composition and anticipated throughput indicate that NO/sub x/, HF, and SO 2 will not exceed the ambient air quality standards. Control of radioactive particulates, which can be achieved by multiple HEPA filtration, will reduce the conventional particulate emission to the vanishing point. Chemical equilibrium calculations also indicate that chlorine and to a lesser extent fluorine may be precipitated out in the ash as sodium salts if a sufficient flux of sodium is introduced into the incinerator

  2. The Studsvik incinerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hetzler, F.

    1988-01-01

    The Studsvik Incinerator is a Faurholdt designed, multi-stage, partial pyrolysis, controlled-air system taken into operation in 1976. The incinerator was initially operated without flue-gas filtration from 1976 until 1979 and thereafter with a bag-house filter. The Studsvik site has been host to radioactive activities for approximately 30 years. The last 10 years have included on site incineration of more than 3,000 tons of LLW. During this time routine sampling for activity has been performed, of releases and in the environment, to carefully monitor the area. The author discusses records examined to determine levels of activity prior to incinerator start-up, without and with filter

  3. Incineration systems for low level and mixed wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vavruska, J.

    1986-01-01

    A variety of technologies has emerged for incineration of combustible radioactive, hazardous, and mixed wastes. Evaluation and selection of an incineration system for a particular application from such a large field of options are often confusing. This paper presents several current incineration technologies applicable to Low Level Waste (LLW), hazardous waste, and mixed waste combustion treatment. The major technologies reviewed include controlled-air, rotary kiln, fluidized bed, and liquid injection. Coupled with any incineration technique is the need to select a compatible offgas effluent cleaning system. This paper also reviews the various methods of treating offgas emissions for acid vapor, particulates, organics, and radioactivity. Such effluent control systems include the two general types - wet and dry scrubbing with a closer look at quenching, inertial systems, fabric filtration, gas absorption, adsorption, and various other filtration techniques. Selection criteria for overall waste incineration systems are discussed as they relate to waste characterization

  4. CRNL active waste incinerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McQuade, D.W.

    1965-02-01

    At CRNL the daily collection of 1200 pounds of active combustible waste is burned in a refractory lined multi-chamber incinerator. Capacity is 500-550 pounds per hour; volume reduction 96%. Combustion gases are cooled by air dilution and decontaminated by filtration through glass bags in a baghouse dust collector. This report includes a description of the incinerator plant, its operation, construction and operating costs, and recommendations for future designs. (author)

  5. Field Measurements of PCB emissions from Building Surfaces Using a New Portable Emission Test Cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyng, Nadja; Haven, Rune; Gunnarsen, Lars Bo

    2016-01-01

    Danish elementary school. The emission test cell was capable of measuring widely varying specific emission rates of PCBtotal (8-3357 ng/(m2·h)). Remediated measures were found to reduce the emission rates by more than 96% compared with similar untreated surfaces. Emission rates may be affected...... by the conditions in the test cell (such as clean air and increased air velocity) and thereby potentially be different without the test cell attached to the surface. Still the measured emission rates obtained by using the test cell are valuable for determination of mitigation strategies. Additionally the test cell...

  6. Radioactivity partitioning in incinerators for miscellaneous low-level wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kyle, S.; Bellinger, E.

    1988-03-01

    Her Majesty's Inspectorate of Pollution (HMIP) authorises the use of hospital, university and Local Authority incinerators for the disposal of solid radioactive wastes. At present these authorisations are calculated on ''worst case'' assumptions, this report aims to review the experimental data on radioactivity partitioning in these incinerators, in order to improve the accuracy of HMIP predictions. The types of radionuclides used in medicine were presented and it is noted there is no literature on the composition of university waste. The different types of incinerators are detailed, with diagrams. Major differences in design are apparent, particularly the offgas cleaning equipment in nuclear incinerators which hinders comparisons with institutional incinerators. A comprehensive literature review revealed 17 references on institutional radioactive waste incineration, 11 of these contained data sets. The partitioning experiments were described and show a wide range of methodology from incinerating guinea pigs to filter papers. In general, only ash composition data were presented, with no details of emissions or plating out in the incinerator. Thus the data sets were incomplete, often with a poor degree of accuracy. The data sets contained information on 40 elements; those were compared and general trends were apparent such as the absence of H-3, C-14 and I-125 in the ash in contrast to the high retention of Sc-46. Large differences between data sets were noted for P-32, Sr-85 and Sn-113 and within one experiment for S-35. (author)

  7. Long term plant biomonitoring in the vicinity of waste incinerators in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, van C.J.; Doorn, van W.; Alfen, van A.J.

    2015-01-01

    Since the mid-nineties new waste incineration plants have come into operation in the Netherlands. Burning of waste can result in the emission of potentially toxic compounds. Although the incineration plants must comply with strict conditions concerning emission control, public concern on the

  8. Assessing potential health effects from municipal sludge incinerators: screening methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fradkin, L.; Bruins, J.F.; Lutkenhoff, S.D.; Stara, J.F.; Lomnitz, E.; Rubin, A.

    1987-04-01

    This paper describes a risk assessment methodology for preliminary assessment of municipal sludge incineration. The methodology is a valuable tool in that it can be used for determining the hazard indices of chemical contaminants that might be present in sewage sludge used in incineration. The paper examines source characteristics (i.e., facility design), atmospheric dispersion of emission, and resulting human exposure and risk from sludge incinerators. Seven of the ten organics were screened for further investigation. An example of the calculations are presented for cadmium.

  9. Permitting a hazardous waste incinerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambrose, M.L.

    1987-01-01

    In recent years, changes in the laws and regulations have produced an increased emphasis on proper solid waste disposal. Experience with various types of industrial wastes has shown that a large segment of these materials should not go to a landfill. If these wastes are prohibited from landfills, an effective alternative is incineration. The Department of Energy (DOE) has seen the need to build an incinerator at the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant to treat wastes that are generated at the DOE-Oak Ridge Operations facilities, many of which are contaminated with low levels of radioactivity. An extensive effort has been put forth to bring this project to reality. Several permits from the Environmental Protection Agency and the Tennessee Department of Health and Environment are required before the facility can operate. These permits include: (1) Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Part B Permit, (2) Toxic Substances Control Act Permit, (3) National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System Permit, (4) Tennessee State Air Permit, and (5) National Emission Standard for Hazardous Air Pollutants Approval Letter. The permitting process has been very long and involved and has taken nearly three years to complete. Currently, plans are to have the facility fully operational by January 1988

  10. Oxygen enrichment incineration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jeong Guk; Yang, Hee Chul; Park, Geun Il; Kim, Joon Hyung

    2000-10-01

    Oxygen enriched combustion technology has recently been used in waste incineration. To apply the oxygen enrichment on alpha-bearing waste incineration, which is being developed, a state-of-an-art review has been performed. The use of oxygen or oxygen-enriched air instead of air in incineration would result in increase of combustion efficiency and capacity, and reduction of off-gas product. Especially, the off-gas could be reduced below a quarter, which might reduce off-gas treatment facilities, and also increase an efficiency of off-gas treatment. However, the use of oxygen might also lead to local overheating and high nitrogen oxides (NOx) formation. To overcome these problems, an application of low NOx oxy-fuel burner and recycling of a part of off-gas to combustion chamber have been suggested

  11. Oxygen enrichment incineration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jeong Guk; Yang, Hee Chul; Park, Geun Il; Kim, Joon Hyung

    2000-10-01

    Oxygen enriched combustion technology has recently been used in waste incineration. To apply the oxygen enrichment on alpha-bearing waste incineration, which is being developed, a state-of-an-art review has been performed. The use of oxygen or oxygen-enriched air instead of air in incineration would result in increase of combustion efficiency and capacity, and reduction of off-gas product. Especially, the off-gas could be reduced below a quarter, which might reduce off-gas treatment facilities, and also increase an efficiency of off-gas treatment. However, the use of oxygen might also lead to local overheating and high nitrogen oxides (NOx) formation. To overcome these problems, an application of low NOx oxy-fuel burner and recycling of a part of off-gas to combustion chamber have been suggested.

  12. Mathematical modelling of MSW incineration on a travelling bed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y B; Goh, Y R; Zakaria, R; Nasserzadeh, V; Swithenbank, J

    2002-01-01

    The rising popularity of incineration of municipal solid waste (MSW) calls for detailed mathematical modelling and understanding of the incineration process. In this paper, governing equations for mass, momentum and heat transfer for both solid and gaseous phases in a moving bed in a solid-waste incineration furnace are described and relevant sub-models are presented. The burning rates of volatile hydrocarbons in the moving bed of solids are limited not only by the reaction kinetics but also the mixing of the volatile fuels with the under-fire air. The mixing rate is averaged across a computation cell and correlated to a number of parameters including local void fraction of the bed, gas velocity and a length scale comparable to the particle size in the bed. A correlation equation is also included to calculate the mixing in the freeboard area immediately next to the bed surface. A small-scale fixed bed waste incinerator was built and test runs were made in which total mass loss from the bed, temperature and gas composition at different locations along the bed height were measured. A 2-D bed-modelling program (FLIC) was developed which incorporates the various sub-process models and solves the governing equations for both gases and solids. Thermal and chemical processes are mainly confined within a layer about 5-9 times in thickness of the averaged particle size in the burning bed. For a large part of the burning process, the total mass loss rate was constant until the solid waste was totally dried out and a period of highly rising CO emission followed. The maximum bed temperature was around 1200 K. The whole burning process ended within 60 min. Big fluctuations in species concentration were observed due to channelling and subsequent 'catastrophic' changes in the local bed conditions. Reasonably good agreement between modelling and measurements has been achieved. Yet the modelling work is complicated by the channelling phenomenon in the bed. Numerical simulations

  13. Mercury emission monitoring on municipal waste combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braun, H.; Gerig, A.

    1991-01-01

    In waste incineration, mercury is the only heavy metal to be released as a gas, mostly as mercury(II) chloride, because of its high volatility. Continuous emission monitoring is possible only when mercury occurs in its elemental form. This paper reports on various possibilities of converting Hg(II) into Hg(0) that has been studied and tested on a laboratory scale and in the TAMARA refuse incineration pilot facility. Continuous mercury emission measurement appears to be possible, provided mercury is converted in the flue gas condensate precipitated. The measuring results obtained on two municipal solid waste and on one sewage treatment sludge incineration plants show that the mercury monitor is a highly sensitive and selective continuously working instrument for mercury emission monitoring

  14. Alkali activation processes for incinerator residues management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancellotti, Isabella; Ponzoni, Chiara; Barbieri, Luisa; Leonelli, Cristina

    2013-08-01

    Incinerator bottom ash (BA) is produced in large amount worldwide and in Italy, where 5.1 millionstons of municipal solid residues have been incinerated in 2010, corresponding to 1.2-1.5 millionstons of produced bottom ash. This residue has been used in the present study for producing dense geopolymers containing high percentage (50-70 wt%) of ash. The amount of potentially reactive aluminosilicate fraction in the ash has been determined by means of test in NaOH. The final properties of geopolymers prepared with or without taking into account this reactive fraction have been compared. The results showed that due to the presence of both amorphous and crystalline fractions with a different degree of reactivity, the incinerator BA geopolymers exhibit significant differences in terms of Si/Al ratio and microstructure when reactive fraction is considered. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. High temperature incineration. Densification of granules from high temperature incineration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voorde, N. van de; Claes, J.; Taeymans, A.; Hennart, D.; Gijbels, J.; Balleux, W.; Geenen, G.; Vangeel, J.

    1982-01-01

    The incineration system of radioactive waste discussed in this report, is an ''integral'' system, which directly transforms a definite mixture of burnable and unburnable radioactive waste in a final product with a sufficient insolubility to be safely disposed of. At the same time, a significant volume reduction occurs by this treatment. The essential part of the system is a high temperature incinerator. The construction of this oven started in 1974, and while different tests with simulated inactive or very low-level active waste were carried out, the whole system was progressively and continuously extended and adapted, ending finally in an installation with completely remote control, enclosed in an alpha-tight room. In this report, a whole description of the plant and of its auxiliary installations will be given; then the already gained experimental results will be summarized. Finally, the planning for industrial operation will be briefly outlined. An extended test with radioactive waste, which was carried out in March 1981, will be discussed in the appendix

  16. Fluidized bed incinerator development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziegler, D.L.; Johnson, A.J.

    1976-01-01

    A fluidized bed incinerator is being developed for burning rad contaminated solid and liquid waste materials. In situ neutralization of acid gases by the bed material, catalytic afterburning, and gas filtration are used to produce a clean flue gas without the use of aqueous scrubbing

  17. Electrically fired incineration of combustible radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charlesworth, D.; Hill, M.

    1985-01-01

    Du Pont Company and Shirco, Inc. are developing a process to incinerate plutonium-contaminated combustible waste in an electrically fired incineration system. Preliminary development was completed at Shirco, Inc. prior to installing an incineration system at the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL), which is operated by Du Pont for the US Department of Energy (DOE). The waste consists of disposable protective clothing, cleaning materials, used filter elements, and miscellaneous materials exposed to plutonium contamination. Incinerator performance testing, using physically representative nonradioactive materials, was completed in March 1983 at Shirco's Pilot Test Facility in Dallas, TX. Based on the test results, equipment sizing and mechanical begin of a full-scale process were completed by June 1983. The full-scale unit is being installed at SRL to confirm the initial performance testing and is scheduled to begin in June 1985. Remote operation and maintenance of the system is required, since the system will eventually be installed in an isolated process cell. Initial operation of the process will use nonradioactive simulated waste. 2 figs., 2 tabs

  18. Incineration or autoclave? A comparative study in isfahan hospitals waste management system (2010).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferdowsi, Ali; Ferdosi, Masoud; Mehrani, Mohammd Javad

    2013-03-01

    Medical wastes are among hazardous wastes and their disposal requires special methods prior to landfilling. Medical wastes are divided into infected and non-infected wastes and the infected wastes require treatment. Incineration is one of the oldest methods for treatment of medical wastes, but their usage have faced wide objections due to emission of hazardous gases such as CO2 and CO as well as Carcinogenic gases such as Dioxins and Furans which are generated as a result of incomplete combustion of compositions like PVCs. Autoclave is one the newest methods of medical wastes treatment which works based on wet disinfection. The statistical population in this descriptive, comparative study includes hospitals located in Isfahan city and the sample hospitals were selected randomly. To environmentally evaluate the Autoclave method, TST (time, steam, temperature) and Spore tests were used. Also, samples were made from incinerator's stack gases and their analyses results were compared with WHO standards. TST and spore tests results were negative in all cases indicating the success of treatment process. The comparison of incinerator's stack gases with WHO standards showed the high concentration of CO in some samples indicating the incomplete combustion. Also, the incineration efficiency in some cases was less than 99.5 percent, which is the efficiency criterion according to the administrative regulations of wastes management law of Iran. No needle stick was observed in Autoclave method during the compaction of bags containing wastes, and the handlers were facing no danger in this respect. The comparison of costs indicated that despite higher capital investment for purchasing autoclave, its current costs (e.g. maintenance, etc) are much less than the incineration method. Totally, due to inappropriate operation of incinerators and lack of air pollution control devices, the use of incinerators doesn't seem rational anymore. Yet, despite the inefficiency of autoclaves in

  19. SUPERFUND TREATABILITY CLEARINGHOUSE: FINAL REPORT: ON-SITE INCINERATION OF SHIRCO INFRARED SYSTEMS PORTABLE PILOT TEST UNIT, TIMES BEACH, MISSOURI

    Science.gov (United States)

    During the period of July 8 - July 12, 1985, the Shirco Infrared Systems Portable Pilot Test Unit was in operation at the Times Beach Dioxin Research Facility to demonstrate the capability of Shirco's infrared technology to decontaminate silty soil laden with 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorod...

  20. Solidification of radioactive incinerator ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuler, T.F.; Charlesworth, D.L.

    1986-01-01

    The Ashcrete process will solidify ash generated by the Beta Gamma Incinerator (BGI) at the Savannah River Plant (SRP). The system remotely handles, adds material to, and tumbles drums of ash to produce ashcrete, a stabilized wasteform. Full-scale testing of the Ashcrete unit began at Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) in January 1984, using nonradioactive ash. Tests determined product homogeneity, temperature distribution, compressive strength, and final product formulation. Product formulations that yielded good mix homogeneity and final product compressive strength were developed. Drum pressurization and temperature rise (resulting from the cement's heat of hydration) were also studied to verify safe storage and handling characteristics. In addition to these tests, an expert system was developed to assist process troubleshooting

  1. Commercial incineration demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borduin, L.C.; Neuls, A.S.

    1981-01-01

    Low-level radioactive wastes (LLW) generated by nuclear utilities presently are shipped to commercial burial grounds for disposal. Substantially increasing shipping and disposal charges have sparked renewed industry interest in incineration and other advanced volume reduction techniques as potential cost-saving measures. Repeated inquiries from industry sources regarding LLW applicability of the Los Alamos controlled-air incineration (CAI) design led DOE to initiate this commercial demonstration program in FY-1980. The selected program approach to achieving CAI demonstration at a utility site is a DOE sponsored joint effort involving Los Alamos, a nuclear utility, and a liaison subcontractor. Required development tasks and responsibilities of the particpants are described. Target date for project completion is the end of FY-1985

  2. Incineration by accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cribier, M.; FIoni, G.; Legrain, R.; Lelievre, F.; Leray, S.; Pluquet, A.; Safa, H.; Spiro, M.; Terrien, Y.; Veyssiere, Ch.

    1997-01-01

    The use MOX fuel allows to hope a stabilization of plutonium production around 500 tons for the French park. In return, the flow of minor actinides is increased to several tons. INCA (INCineration by Accelerator), dedicated instrument, would allow to transmute several tons of americium, curium and neptunium. It could be able to reduce nuclear waste in the case of stopping nuclear energy use. This project needs: a protons accelerator of 1 GeV at high intensity ( 50 m A), a window separating the accelerator vacuum from the reactor, a spallation target able to produce 30 neutrons by incident proton, an incineration volume where a part of fast neutrons around the target are recovered, and a thermal part in periphery with flows at 2.10 15 n/cm 2 .s; a chemical separation of elements burning in thermal (americium) from the elements needing a flow of fast neutrons. (N.C.)

  3. Controlled air pyrolysis incinerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dufrane, K.H.; Wilke, M.

    1982-01-01

    An advanced controlled air pyrolysis incinerator has been researched, developed and placed into commercial operation for both radioactive and other combustible wastes. Engineering efforts cocentrated on providing an incinerator which emitted a clean, easily treatable off-gas and which produced a minimum amount of secondary waste. Feed material is continuously fed by gravity into the system's pyrolysis chamber without sorting, shredding, or other such pretreatment. Metal objects, liquids such as oil and gasoline, or solid products such as resins, blocks of plastic, tire, animal carcasses, or compacted trash may be included along with normal processed waste. The temperature of the waste is very gradually increased in a reduced oxygen atmosphere. Volatile pyrolysis gases are produced, tar-like substances are cracked and the resulting product, a relatively uniform, easily burnable material, is introduced into the combustion chamber. Steady burning is thus accomplished under easily controlled excess air conditions with the off-gasthen passing through a simple dry clean-up system. Gas temperatures are then reduced by air dilution before passing through final HEPA filters. Both commercial and nuclear installations have been operated with the most recent application being the central incinerator to service West Germany's nuclear reactors

  4. 40 CFR 86.133-96 - Diurnal emission test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Section 86.133-96 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... emissions from the running loss and hot soak tests is not required as preparation for the diurnal emission... analysis. If the 4-minute sample period is inadequate to collect a sample of sufficient concentration to...

  5. 40 CFR 86.1233-96 - Diurnal emission test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Section 86.1233-96 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... emissions from the running loss and hot soak tests is not required as preparation for the diurnal emission... analysis. If the 4-minute sample period is inadequate to collect a sample of sufficient concentration to...

  6. AMMONIA EMISSIONS FROM THE EPA'S LIGHT DUTY TEST VEHICLE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper discusses measurements of ammonia (NH3) emissions from EPA's light duty test vehicle while operated on a dynamometer. The vehicle's (1993 Chevrolet equipped with a three-way catalyst) emissions were measured for three transient (urban driving, highway fuel economy, and ...

  7. The incineration of absorbed liquid wastes in the INEL's [Idaho National Engineering Laboratory] WERF [Waste Experimental Reduction Facility] incinerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steverson, E.M.; McFee, J.N.

    1987-01-01

    The concept of burning absorbed flammable liquids in boxes in the WERF incinerator was evaluated as a waste treatment method. The safety and feasibility of this procedure were evaluated in a series of tests. In the testing, the effect on incinerator operations of burning various quantities of absorbed flammable liquids was measured and compared to normal operations conducted on low-level radioactive waste (LLW). The test results indicated that the proposed procedure is safe and practical for use on a wide variety of solvents with quantities as high as one liter per box. No adverse or unacceptable operating conditions resulted from burning any of the solvents tested. Incineration of the solvents in this fashion was no different than burning LLW during normal incineration. 6 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs

  8. Hazardous waste incineration in context with carbon dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhardt, Tim; Richers, Ulf; Suchomel, Horst

    2008-02-01

    The Kyoto Protocol of 1997 demands an emission reduction of climate-affecting gases in various industrial sectors. In this context CO2 is one of the relevant gases and waste management is one of the relevant sectors. Referring to the situation in Europe, waste incineration is one of the major sources of CO2 in the waste management sector. The Kyoto Protocol, however, only covers CO2-emissions originating from fossil fuels, whereas the incineration of renewable materials, e.g. wood, is considered to be climate-neutral since it does not make any net contribution to the CO2 inventory of the atmosphere. Unlike the situation with municipal waste, there is little if any information on the CO2-emissions caused by the incineration of hazardous waste in specialized plants, and the renewable fraction in these materials. The present paper focuses on this gap of knowledge. Taking the full-scale hazardous waste incineration plant in Biebesheim, Germany, as an example, a carbon balance was set up for the whole-plant taking into account all other material flows. Afterwards the determination of the proportion of renewable materials in the hazardous waste incinerated by means of the radiocarbon method (14C) is reported. On the basis of the results, optimization potentials are discussed.

  9. Developing a "Research Test Bed" to introduce innovative Emission Testing Technology to improve New Zealand's Vehicle Emission Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Stephen J.

    2012-05-01

    Vehicle exhaust emissions arise from the combustion of the fuel and air mixture in the engine. Exhaust emission gases generally include carbon monoxide (CO), oxides of nitrogen (NOx), hydrocarbons (HC), particulates, and the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide (CO2). In New Zealand improvements have occurred in emissions standards over the past 20 years however significant health related issues are now being discovered in Auckland as a direct effect of high vehicle emission levels. Pollution in New Zealand, especially via vehicle emissions are an increasing concern and threatens New Zealand's "clean and green" image. Unitec Institute of Technology proposes establishing a Vehicle Emissions Testing Facility, and with an understanding with Auckland University, National Institute of Water & Atmosphere Research Ltd (NIWA) this research group can work collaboratively on vehicle emissions testing. New Zealand research providers would support an application in the UK led by the University of Huddersfield to a range of European Union Structural Funds. New Zealand has an ideal "vehicle emissions research environment" supported by significant expertise in vehicle emission control technology and associated protocols at the University of Auckland, and the effects of high vehicle emissions on health at the National Institutes of Water and Atmosphere (NIWA).

  10. Experimentation with a prototype incinerator for beta-gamma waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farber, M.G.; Lewandowski, K.E.; Becker, G.W.

    1982-01-01

    A test facility for the incineration of suspect and low-level beta-gamma waste has been built and operated at the Savannah River Laboratory. The processing steps include waste feeding, incineration, ash residue packaging, and off-gas cleanup. Demonstration of the full-scale (180 kg/hr) facility with nonradioactive, simulated waste is currently in progress. At the present time, over nine metric tons of material including rubber, polyethylene, and cellulose have been incinerated during three burning campaigns. A comprehensive test program of solid and liquid waste incineration is being implemented. The data from the research program is providing the technical basis for a phase of testing with low-level beta-gamma waste generated at the Savannah River Plant

  11. High temperature abatement of acid gases from waste incineration. Part I: experimental tests in full scale plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biganzoli, Laura; Racanella, Gaia; Rigamonti, Lucia; Marras, Roberto; Grosso, Mario

    2015-02-01

    In recent years, several waste-to-energy plants in Italy have experienced an increase of the concentration of acid gases (HCl, SO2 and HF) in the raw gas. This is likely an indirect effect of the progressive decrease of the amount of treated municipal waste, which is partially replaced by commercial waste. The latter is characterised by a higher variability of its chemical composition because of the different origins, with possible increase of the load of halogen elements such as chlorine (Cl) and fluorine (F), as well as of sulphur (S). A new dolomitic sorbent was then tested in four waste-to-energy plants during standard operation as a pre-cleaning stage, to be directly injected at high temperature in the combustion chamber. For a sorbent injection of about 6 kg per tonne of waste, the decrease of acid gases concentration downstream the boiler was in the range of 7-37% (mean 23%) for HCl, 34-95% (mean 71%) for SO2 and 39-80% (mean 63%) for HF. This pre-abatement of acid gases allowed to decrease the feeding rate of the traditional low temperature sorbent (sodium bicarbonate in all four plants) by about 30%. Furthermore, it was observed by the plant operators that the sorbent helps to keep the boiler surfaces cleaner, with a possible reduction of the fouling phenomena and a consequent increase of the specific energy production. A preliminary quantitative estimate was carried out in one of the four plants. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Dioxins from medical waste incineration: Normal operation and transient conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tong; Zhan, Ming-xiu; Yan, Mi; Fu, Jian-ying; Lu, Sheng-yong; Li, Xiao-dong; Yan, Jian-hua; Buekens, Alfons

    2015-07-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) are key pollutants in waste incineration. At present, incinerator managers and official supervisors focus only on emissions evolving during steady-state operation. Yet, these emissions may considerably be raised during periods of poor combustion, plant shutdown, and especially when starting-up from cold. Until now there were no data on transient emissions from medical (or hospital) waste incineration (MWI). However, MWI is reputed to engender higher emissions than those from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI). The emission levels in this study recorded for shutdown and start-up, however, were significantly higher: 483 ± 184 ng Nm(-3) (1.47 ± 0.17 ng I-TEQ Nm(-3)) for shutdown and 735 ng Nm(-3) (7.73 ng I-TEQ Nm(-3)) for start-up conditions, respectively. Thus, the average (I-TEQ) concentration during shutdown is 2.6 (3.8) times higher than the average concentration during normal operation, and the average (I-TEQ) concentration during start-up is 4.0 (almost 20) times higher. So monitoring should cover the entire incineration cycle, including start-up, operation and shutdown, rather than optimised operation only. This suggestion is important for medical waste incinerators, as these facilities frequently start up and shut down, because of their small size, or of lacking waste supply. Forthcoming operation should shift towards much longer operating cycles, i.e., a single weekly start-up and shutdown. © The Author(s) 2015.

  13. Other Solid Waste Incineration (OSWI) Units Standards of Performance for New Stationary Sources and Emission Guidelines for Existing Sources Fact Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page contains a November 2005, and and November 2006 fact sheet with information regarding the final and proposed NSPS and Emission Guidelines for Existing Sources for OSWI. This document provides a summary of the information for this regulation

  14. Time reversal signal processing in acoustic emission testing

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Převorovský, Zdeněk; Krofta, Josef; Kober, Jan; Dvořáková, Zuzana; Chlada, Milan; Dos Santos, S.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 12 (2014) ISSN 1435-4934. [European Conference on Non-Destructive Testing (ECNDT 2014) /11./. Praha, 06.10.2014-10.10.2014] Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : acoustic emission (AE) * ultrasonic testing (UT) * signal processing * source location * time reversal acoustic s * acoustic emission * signal processing and transfer Subject RIV: BI - Acoustic s http://www.ndt.net/events/ECNDT2014/app/content/Slides/637_Prevorovsky.pdf

  15. Environmental impacts of residual municipal solid waste incineration: a comparison of 110 French incinerators using a life cycle approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beylot, Antoine; Villeneuve, Jacques

    2013-12-01

    Incineration is the main option for residual Municipal Solid Waste treatment in France. This study compares the environmental performances of 110 French incinerators (i.e., 85% of the total number of plants currently in activity in France) in a Life Cycle Assessment perspective, considering 5 non-toxic impact categories: climate change, photochemical oxidant formation, particulate matter formation, terrestrial acidification and marine eutrophication. Mean, median and lower/upper impact potentials are determined considering the incineration of 1 tonne of French residual Municipal Solid Waste. The results highlight the relatively large variability of the impact potentials as a function of the plant technical performances. In particular, the climate change impact potential of the incineration of 1 tonne of waste ranges from a benefit of -58 kg CO2-eq to a relatively large burden of 408 kg CO2-eq, with 294 kg CO2-eq as the average impact. Two main plant-specific parameters drive the impact potentials regarding the 5 non-toxic impact categories under study: the energy recovery and delivery rate and the NOx process-specific emissions. The variability of the impact potentials as a function of incinerator characteristics therefore calls for the use of site-specific data when required by the LCA goal and scope definition phase, in particular when the study focuses on a specific incinerator or on a local waste management plan, and when these data are available. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Evaluation of ultrafine particle emissions from laser printers using emission test chambers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schripp, Tobias; Wensing, Michael; Uhde, Erik; Salthammer, Tunga; He, Congrong; Morawska, Lidia

    2008-06-15

    It has now been recognized that some hardcopy devices emit ultrafine particles (d(p) printers is of high interest in order to evaluate the exposure of office workers to such emissions. The emission profiles of different printers can be compared in test chambers using a standardized test protocol and measuring devices with high time resolution. The extraction of meaningful and comparable data from the obtained data set is a complex procedure due to the different emission behavior patterns of the printers. The calculation of the unit specific emission rate (SERu) is of limited use because the emission profiles during the printing process ranged between short-term bursts and constant particle release. Therefore, other parameters such as the particle loss-rate coefficient, beta, which provides information about the testing conditions, and the area belowthe time vs concentration curve, F, which characterizes the particle release, allow for a comparison of the different printer tests. Variations in the emission behavior could not be associated with specific manufacturers or product lines. In addition, when performing several print jobs on the same device, with only short pauses between jobs, the emission rate was reduced in some cases. This further complicates the ability to determine the influence of printer construction and consumables, such as toner and paper, on the concentration of particles emitted.

  17. Biomonitoring of the genotoxic potential of aqueous extracts of soils and bottom ash resulting from municipal solid waste incineration, using the comet and micronucleus tests on amphibian (Xenopus laevis) larvae and bacterial assays (Mutatox and Ames tests).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouchet, F; Gauthier, L; Mailhes, C; Jourdain, M J; Ferrier, V; Triffault, G; Devaux, A

    2006-02-15

    The management of contaminated soils and wastes is a matter of considerable human concern. The present study evaluates the genotoxic potential of aqueous extracts of two soils (leachates) and of bottom ash resulting from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWIBA percolate), using amphibian larvae (Xenopus laevis). Soil A was contaminated by residues of solvents and metals and Soil B by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and metals. MSWIBA was predominantly contaminated by metals. Two genotoxic endpoints were analysed in circulating erythrocytes taken from larvae: clastogenic and/or aneugenic effects (micronucleus induction) after 12 days of exposure and DNA-strand-breaking potency (comet assay) after 1 and 12 days of exposure. In addition, in vitro bacterial assays (Mutatox and Ames tests) were carried out and the results were compared with those of the amphibian test. Physicochemical analyses were also taken into account. Results obtained with the amphibians established the genotoxicity of the aqueous extracts and the comet assay revealed that they were genotoxic from the first day of exposure. The latter test could thus be considered as a genotoxicity-screening tool. Although genotoxicity persisted after 12 days' exposure, DNA damage decreased overall between days 1 and 12 in the MSWIBA percolate, in contrast to the soil leachates. Bacterial tests detected genotoxicity only for the leachate of soil A (Mutatox). The results confirm the ecotoxicological relevance of the amphibian model and underscore the importance of bioassays, as a complement to physico-chemical data, for risk evaluation.

  18. Particle size distribution of fly ash from co-incineration of bituminous coal with municipal solid waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cieślik, Ewelina; Konieczny, Tomasz; Bobik, Bartłomiej

    2018-01-01

    One of the source of air pollutants is emission from local coal-fired boiler-houses and domestic heating boilers. The consequence of incineration of municipal waste is the introduction of additional pollutants into the atmosphere, including fly ash. The aim of this work was to evaluate the particle size distribution of fly ash emitted by coal combustion and co-incineration of coal with municipal waste in a domestic 18 kW central heating boiler equipped with an automatic fuel feeder. Mixtures of bituminous coal with different types of solid waste (5, 10 and 15% of mass fraction) were used. Solid waste types consisted of: printed, colored PE caps, fragmented cable trunking, fragmented car gaskets and shredded tires from trucks. During the incineration of a given mixture of municipal waste with bituminous coal, the velocity of exhaust gas was specified, the concentration and mass flow of fly ash were determined together with the physico-chemical parameters of the exhaust gas, the samples of emitted fly ash were taken as the test material. Particle size analysis of fly ash was performed using laser particle sizer Fritch Analysette 22. The PM10 share from all fly ashes from incineration of mixtures was about 100%. Differences were noted between PM2.5 and PM1.

  19. Particle size distribution of fly ash from co-incineration of bituminous coal with municipal solid waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cieślik Ewelina

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the source of air pollutants is emission from local coal-fired boiler-houses and domestic heating boilers. The consequence of incineration of municipal waste is the introduction of additional pollutants into the atmosphere, including fly ash. The aim of this work was to evaluate the particle size distribution of fly ash emitted by coal combustion and co-incineration of coal with municipal waste in a domestic 18 kW central heating boiler equipped with an automatic fuel feeder. Mixtures of bituminous coal with different types of solid waste (5, 10 and 15% of mass fraction were used. Solid waste types consisted of: printed, colored PE caps, fragmented cable trunking, fragmented car gaskets and shredded tires from trucks. During the incineration of a given mixture of municipal waste with bituminous coal, the velocity of exhaust gas was specified, the concentration and mass flow of fly ash were determined together with the physico-chemical parameters of the exhaust gas, the samples of emitted fly ash were taken as the test material. Particle size analysis of fly ash was performed using laser particle sizer Fritch Analysette 22. The PM10 share from all fly ashes from incineration of mixtures was about 100%. Differences were noted between PM2.5 and PM1.

  20. Environmental impacts of residual Municipal Solid Waste incineration: A comparison of 110 French incinerators using a life cycle approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beylot, Antoine, E-mail: a.beylot@brgm.fr; Villeneuve, Jacques

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • 110 French incinerators are compared with LCA based on plant-specific data. • Environmental impacts vary as a function of plants energy recovery and NO{sub x} emissions. • E.g. climate change impact ranges from −58 to 408 kg CO{sub 2}-eq/tonne of residual MSW. • Implications for LCA of waste management in a decision-making process are detailed. - Abstract: Incineration is the main option for residual Municipal Solid Waste treatment in France. This study compares the environmental performances of 110 French incinerators (i.e. 85% of the total number of plants currently in activity in France) in a Life Cycle Assessment perspective, considering 5 non-toxic impact categories: climate change, photochemical oxidant formation, particulate matter formation, terrestrial acidification and marine eutrophication. Mean, median and lower/upper impact potentials are determined considering the incineration of 1 tonne of French residual Municipal Solid Waste. The results highlight the relatively large variability of the impact potentials as a function of the plant technical performances. In particular, the climate change impact potential of the incineration of 1 tonne of waste ranges from a benefit of −58 kg CO{sub 2}-eq to a relatively large burden of 408 kg CO{sub 2}-eq, with 294 kg CO{sub 2}-eq as the average impact. Two main plant-specific parameters drive the impact potentials regarding the 5 non-toxic impact categories under study: the energy recovery and delivery rate and the NO{sub x} process-specific emissions. The variability of the impact potentials as a function of incinerator characteristics therefore calls for the use of site-specific data when required by the LCA goal and scope definition phase, in particular when the study focuses on a specific incinerator or on a local waste management plan, and when these data are available.

  1. Environmental impact assessment of the incineration of municipal solid waste with auxiliary coal in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yan; Xing, Wei; Lu, Wenjing; Zhang, Xu; Christensen, Thomas H

    2012-10-01

    The environmental impacts of waste incineration with auxiliary coal were investigated using the life-cycle-based software, EASEWASTE, based on the municipal solid waste (MSW) management system in Shuozhou City. In the current system, MSW is collected, transported, and incinerated with 250 kg of coal per ton of waste. Based on observed environmental impacts of incineration, fossil CO(2) and heavy metals were primary contributors to global warming and ecotoxicity in soil, respectively. Compared with incinerators using excess coal, incineration with adequate coal presents significant benefits in mitigating global warming, whereas incineration with a mass of coal can avoid more impacts to acidification, photochemical ozone and nutrient enrichment because of increased electricity substitution and reduced emission from coal power plants. The "Emission standard of air pollutants for thermal power plants (GB13223-2011)" implemented in 2012 introduced stricter policies on controlling SO(2) and NO(x) emissions from coal power plants. Thus, increased use of auxiliary coal during incineration yields fewer avoided impacts on acidification and nutrient enrichment. When two-thirds of ash is source-separated and landfilled, the incineration of rest-waste presents better results on global warming, acidification, nutrient enrichment, and even ecotoxicity in soil. This process is considered a promising solution for MSW management in Shuozhou City. Weighted normalized environmental impacts were assessed based on Chinese political reduction targets. Results indicate that heavy metal and acidic gas emissions should be given more attention in waste incineration. This study provides scientific support for the management of MSW systems dominated by incineration with auxiliary coal in China. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Incineration By-Products of AA2, NC Fines, and NG Slums

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cropek, Donald

    2001-01-01

    ...) and associated energetic wastes (EW). Knowledge of the by-products from incineration is invaluable for the proper design of emission control systems and selection of operating parameters to ensure maximum destruction efficiency...

  3. Environmental impact assessment of the incineration of municipal solid waste with auxiliary coal in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Yan; Xing, Wei; Lu, Wenjing

    2012-01-01

    The environmental impacts of waste incineration with auxiliary coal were investigated using the life-cycle-based software, EASEWASTE, based on the municipal solid waste (MSW) management system in Shuozhou City. In the current system, MSW is collected, transported, and incinerated with 250kg of co...... political reduction targets. Results indicate that heavy metal and acidic gas emissions should be given more attention in waste incineration. This study provides scientific support for the management of MSW systems dominated by incineration with auxiliary coal in China.......The environmental impacts of waste incineration with auxiliary coal were investigated using the life-cycle-based software, EASEWASTE, based on the municipal solid waste (MSW) management system in Shuozhou City. In the current system, MSW is collected, transported, and incinerated with 250kg of coal...... per ton of waste. Based on observed environmental impacts of incineration, fossil CO2 and heavy metals were primary contributors to global warming and ecotoxicity in soil, respectively. Compared with incinerators using excess coal, incineration with adequate coal presents significant benefits...

  4. Measurement of PCB emissions from building surfaces using a novel portable emission test cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyng, Nadja; Gunnarsen, Lars Bo; Andersen, Helle Vibeke

    2016-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were used in building materials like caulks and paints from 1930 e1970s and in some cases that caused elevated PCB concentrations in the indoor air at levels considered harmful to occupant health. PCBs are semivolatile organic compounds and capable of spreading from...... and there is a need to prioritise remediation measures on different materials. An inexpensive and portable emission test cell was developed to resemble indoor conditions in relation to the area specific ventilation rate. Emissions were measured using the test cell in the laboratory on freshly made PCB paint. Further......, the chamber was used for determining emissions from PCB-containing building materials in the field as well as remediated walls. The measurements showed that sorption of PCBs to chamber walls was insignificant after 2-4 days of exposure to the source. Over a period of two weeks emission rates did not change...

  5. Rocky Flats Plant fluidized-bed incinerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meile, L.J.; Meyer, F.G.; Johnson, A.J.; Ziegler, D.L.

    1982-01-01

    Laboratory and pilot-scale testing of a fluidized-bed incineration process for radioactive wastes led to the installation of an 82-kg/hr demonstration unit at Rocky Flats Plant in 1978. Design philosophy and criteria were formulated to fulfill the needs and objectives of an improved radwaste-incineration system. Unique process concepts include low-temperature (550 0 C), flameless, fluidized-bed combustion and catalytic afterburning; in-situ neutralization of acid gases; and dry off-gas cleanup. Detailed descriptions of the process and equipment are presented along with a summary of the equipment and process performance during a 2-1/2 year operational-testing period. Equipment modifications made during the test period are described. Operating personnel requirements for solid-waste burning are shown to be greater than those required for liquid-waste incineration; differences are discussed. Process-utility and raw-materials consumption rates for full-capacity operation are presented and explained. Improvements in equipment and operating procedures are recommended for any future installations. Process flow diagrams, an area floor plan, a process-control-system schematic, and equipment sketches are included

  6. Emissions from laboratory combustor tests of manufactured wood products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilkening, R.; Evans, M.; Ragland, K. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Baker, A. [USDA Forest Products Lab., Madison, WI (United States)

    1993-12-31

    Manufactured wood products contain wood, wood fiber, and materials added during manufacture of the product. Manufacturing residues and the used products are burned in a furnace or boiler instead of landfilling. Emissions from combustion of these products contain additional compounds from the combustion of non-wood material which have not been adequately characterized to specify the best combustion conditions, emissions control equipment, and disposal procedures. Total hydrocarbons, formaldehyde, higher aldehydes and carbon monoxide emissions from aspen flakeboard and aspen cubes were measured in a 76 mm i.d. by 1.5 m long fixed bed combustor as a function of excess oxygen, and temperature. Emissions of hydrocarbons, aldehydes and CO from flakeboard and from clean aspen were very sensitive to average combustor temperature and excess oxygen. Hydrocarbon and aldehyde emissions below 10 ppM were achieved with 5% excess oxygen and 1,200{degrees}C average temperature for aspen flakeboard and 1,100{degrees}C for clean aspen at a 0.9 s residence time. When the average temperature decreased below these levels, the emissions increased rapidly. For example, at 950{degrees}C and 5% excess oxygen the formaldehyde emissions were over 1,000 ppM. These laboratory tests reinforce the need to carefully control the temperature and excess oxygen in full-scale wood combustors.

  7. A comparative assessment of waste incinerators in the UK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nixon, J.D., E-mail: j.nixon@kingston.ac.uk [Sustainable Environment Research Group, School of Engineering and Applied Science, Aston University, Aston Triangle, Birmingham B4 7ET (United Kingdom); Wright, D.G.; Dey, P.K. [Aston Business School, Aston University, Aston Triangle, Birmingham B4 7ET (United Kingdom); Ghosh, S.K. [Mechanical Engineering Department, Centre for Quality Management System, Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700 032 (India); Davies, P.A. [Sustainable Environment Research Group, School of Engineering and Applied Science, Aston University, Aston Triangle, Birmingham B4 7ET (United Kingdom)

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: • We evaluate operational municipal solid waste incinerators in the UK. • The supply chain of four case study plants are examined and compared in detail. • Technical, financial and operational data has been gathered for the four plants. • We suggest the best business practices for waste incinerators. • Appropriate strategy choices are the major difficulties for waste to energy plants. - Abstract: The uptake in Europe of Energy from Waste (EfW) incinerator plants has increased rapidly in recent years. In the UK, 25 municipal waste incinerators with energy recovery are now in operation; however, their waste supply chains and business practices vary significantly. With over a hundred more plant developments being considered it is important to establish best business practices for ensuring efficient environmental and operational performance. By reviewing the 25 plants we identify four suitable case study plants to compare technologies (moving grate, fluidised bed and rotary kiln), plant economics and operations. Using data collected from annual reports and through interviews and site visits we provide recommendations for improving the supply chain for waste incinerators and highlight the current issues and challenges faced by the industry. We find that plants using moving grate have a high availability of 87–92%. However, compared to the fluidised bed and rotary kiln, quantities of bottom ash and emissions of hydrogen chloride and carbon monoxide are high. The uptake of integrated recycling practices, combined heat and power, and post incineration non-ferrous metal collections needs to be increased among EfW incinerators in the UK. We conclude that one of the major difficulties encountered by waste facilities is the appropriate selection of technology, capacity, site, waste suppliers and heat consumers. This study will be of particular value to EfW plant developers, government authorities and researchers working within the sector of waste

  8. A comparative assessment of waste incinerators in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nixon, J.D.; Wright, D.G.; Dey, P.K.; Ghosh, S.K.; Davies, P.A.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • We evaluate operational municipal solid waste incinerators in the UK. • The supply chain of four case study plants are examined and compared in detail. • Technical, financial and operational data has been gathered for the four plants. • We suggest the best business practices for waste incinerators. • Appropriate strategy choices are the major difficulties for waste to energy plants. - Abstract: The uptake in Europe of Energy from Waste (EfW) incinerator plants has increased rapidly in recent years. In the UK, 25 municipal waste incinerators with energy recovery are now in operation; however, their waste supply chains and business practices vary significantly. With over a hundred more plant developments being considered it is important to establish best business practices for ensuring efficient environmental and operational performance. By reviewing the 25 plants we identify four suitable case study plants to compare technologies (moving grate, fluidised bed and rotary kiln), plant economics and operations. Using data collected from annual reports and through interviews and site visits we provide recommendations for improving the supply chain for waste incinerators and highlight the current issues and challenges faced by the industry. We find that plants using moving grate have a high availability of 87–92%. However, compared to the fluidised bed and rotary kiln, quantities of bottom ash and emissions of hydrogen chloride and carbon monoxide are high. The uptake of integrated recycling practices, combined heat and power, and post incineration non-ferrous metal collections needs to be increased among EfW incinerators in the UK. We conclude that one of the major difficulties encountered by waste facilities is the appropriate selection of technology, capacity, site, waste suppliers and heat consumers. This study will be of particular value to EfW plant developers, government authorities and researchers working within the sector of waste

  9. Waste treatment activities incineration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, D.A.

    1985-01-01

    The waste management policy at SRP is to minimize waste generation as much as possible and detoxify and/or volume reduce waste materials prior to disposal. Incineration is a process being proposed for detoxification and volume reduction of combustion nonradioactive hazardous, low-level mixed and low-level beta-gamma waste. Present operation of the Solvent Burner Demonstration reduces the amount of solid combustible low-level beta-gamma boxed waste disposed of by shallow land burial by approximately 99,000 ft 3 per year producing 1000 ft 3 per year of ash and, by 1988, will detoxify and volume reduce 150,000 gallons or organic Purex solvent producing approximately 250 ft 3 of ash per year

  10. [Morbidity in a population living close to urban waste incinerator plants in Lazio Region (Central Italy): a retrospective cohort study using a before-after design].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golini, Martina Nicole; Ancona, Carla; Badaloni, Chiara; Bolignano, Andrea; Bucci, Simone; Sozzi, Roberto; Davoli, Marina; Forastiere, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    the body of evidence on health effects of residential exposure to urban waste incinerators suggests association with reproductive outcomes and some cancers, but the overall evidence is still limited. we evaluated the impact of two incinerators on hospital admissions for respiratory and cardiovascular diseases in a cohort of people living nearby two incineration plants in Lazio Region (Central Italy) using a before-and-after design. the study area was defined as the 7-km radius around the incinerators. People who were resident in the area from 1996 to 2008 were enrolled in a retrospective longitudinal study. All addresses were geocoded. A Lagrangian dispersion model (SPRAY) for PM₁₀ (ng/m³) was used for incinerators exposure assessment. Average annual concentration of background PM₁₀ (μg/m³) was estimated on a regional basis by means of RAMS and FARM models. Both PM₁₀ exposures were estimated at the residential address. All subjects were followed for hospital admissions in the period before (1996-2002) and after (2003-2008) the activation of the plants. The association between exposure to emissions from incinerators and hospitalizations in the two periods was estimated using the multivariate Cox model (for repeated events), adjusting for age, area-level socioeconomic status, distance from industries, traffic roads and highways. An interaction term between the period of follow-up (before or after the activation of the plants) and the exposure levels was used to test the effect of the incinerators. 47,192 subjects resident in the study area were enrolled. No clear association between pollution exposure from incinerators and cause-specific morbidity of residents in highest concentration areas was found when compared to the reference group. However, an effect of PM₁₀ on respiratory diseases and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease was suggested. The effect was due to excesses of hospitalizations for the same causes among men living in highest

  11. Physico-chemical characterisation of particulate heavy metals from municipal solid waste incinerator emissions and their contributions to ambient air quality. Case of Toulon MSWI (South of France)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Floch, M.

    2004-07-01

    The aims of this study are the physico-chemical characterisation, the apportionment and the following of particulate heavy metals from MSWI emissions. Various methods (in situ data treatment, unmixing models and codes, UNMIX or CMB, sequential extractions and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) agree in the following: - identification of the MSWI source in two profiles (Zn - Ca and Ba - Cu - Fe - Zn - Pb - Ca); - estimation of its contribution of up to 25% of the total sources contribution; - showing the seasonal variability in term of profile and contribution of this source; - suggest the potential of emitted elements to enter the food chain; This EXAFS first approach on atmospheric particulate matter shows that zinc and lead are in an atomic environment with calcium, silicon and aluminum. In spite of disputable conclusions, isotopic lead ratios define a 'MSWI' end-member and confirm that the town-center of Toulon is outside the MSWI plume influence. (author)

  12. A sustainability analysis of an incineration project in Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikic, Miljan; Naunovic, Zorana

    2013-11-01

    The only option for municipal solid waste (MSW) treatment adopted so far in Serbia is landfilling. Similarly to other south-eastern European countries, Serbia is not recovering any energy from MSW. Fifty percent of electricity in Serbia is produced in coal-fired power plants with emission control systems dating from the 1980s. In this article, the option of MSW incineration with energy recovery is proposed and examined for the city of Novi Sad. A sustainability analysis consisting of financial, economic and sensitivity analyses was done in the form of a cost-benefit analysis following recommendations from the European Commission. Positive and negative social and environmental effects of electricity generation through incineration were valuated partly using conversion factors and shadow prices, and partly using the results of previous studies. Public aversion to MSW incineration was considered. The results showed that the incineration project would require external financial assistance, and that an increase of the electricity and/or a waste treatment fee is needed to make the project financially positive. It is also more expensive than the landfilling option. However, the economic analysis showed that society would have net benefits from an incineration project. The feed-in tariff addition of only €0.03 (KWh)(-1) to the existing electricity price, which would enable the project to make a positive contribution to economic welfare, is lower than the actual external costs of electricity generation from coal in Serbia.

  13. A comparative assessment of waste incinerators in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, J D; Wright, D G; Dey, P K; Ghosh, S K; Davies, P A

    2013-11-01

    The uptake in Europe of Energy from Waste (EfW) incinerator plants has increased rapidly in recent years. In the UK, 25 municipal waste incinerators with energy recovery are now in operation; however, their waste supply chains and business practices vary significantly. With over a hundred more plant developments being considered it is important to establish best business practices for ensuring efficient environmental and operational performance. By reviewing the 25 plants we identify four suitable case study plants to compare technologies (moving grate, fluidised bed and rotary kiln), plant economics and operations. Using data collected from annual reports and through interviews and site visits we provide recommendations for improving the supply chain for waste incinerators and highlight the current issues and challenges faced by the industry. We find that plants using moving grate have a high availability of 87-92%. However, compared to the fluidised bed and rotary kiln, quantities of bottom ash and emissions of hydrogen chloride and carbon monoxide are high. The uptake of integrated recycling practices, combined heat and power, and post incineration non-ferrous metal collections needs to be increased among EfW incinerators in the UK. We conclude that one of the major difficulties encountered by waste facilities is the appropriate selection of technology, capacity, site, waste suppliers and heat consumers. This study will be of particular value to EfW plant developers, government authorities and researchers working within the sector of waste management. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Conditioning processes for incinerator ashes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jouan, A.; Ouvrier, N.; Teulon, F.

    1990-01-01

    Three conditioning processes for alpha-bearing solid waste incineration ashes were investigated and compared according to technical and economic criteria: isostatic pressing, cold-crucible direct-induction melting and cement-resin matrix embedding

  15. Continuous and recurrent testing of acoustic emission sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sause, Markus G.R.; Schmitt, Stefan; Potstada, Philipp

    2017-01-01

    In many fields of application of acoustic emission, the testing can lead to a lasting change in the sensor characteristics. This can be caused by mechanical damage, thermal stress or use under aggressive environmental conditions. Irrespective of visually testable damages of the sensors, a shift in the spectral sensitivity, a reduction in the absolute sensitivity or a reduction in the signal-to-noise ratio can occur. During the test, this requires a possibility to periodically check the sensors, including the coupling aids used. For recurring testing, recommendations are given in Directive SE 02 ''Verification of acoustic emission sensors and their coupling in the laboratory''. This paper discusses possibilities for continuous monitoring of the sensors during the test and presents an application example for the partly automated recurring testing of acoustic emission sensors using Directive SE 02. For this purpose, a test stand for the supply of the sensors to be tested was constructed and the signal recording and data reduction implemented in freely available software programs. The operating principle is demonstrated using selected case studies. [de

  16. Mixed incineration of RAIW and liquid scintillator waste after storage for decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naba, K.; Nakazato, K.; Kataoka, K.

    1993-01-01

    Most medical radioactive waste is combustible after radioactive decay. Moreover mixed incineration of LLW with biomedical radioactive waste will lessen radiation exposure to the public. This paper describes the total system flowsheet for the processing of liquid scintillator wastes and radioimmunoassay tube wastes containing iodine 125 (after a two-year storage for decay). The process was tested with a 60 kg/hr capacity incinerator from 1987 to 1991; this has been upgraded to a 150 kg/hr incinerator which is used for nonradioactive biomedical waste incineration as well

  17. Greenlandic Waste Incineration Fly And Bottom Ash As Secondary Resource In Mortar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkelund, Gunvor Marie; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Jensen, Pernille Erland

    2016-01-01

    Today, 900 tons incineration fly ash is shipped abroad annually from Greenland for deposits, whereas the 6,000 tons incineration bottom ash is deposited locally. These incineration ashes could be valuable in concrete production, where the cement has to be shipped to Greenland. For this purpose...... and cement with fly ash. Based on the compressive strength tests, it is found that using Greenlandic incineration ashes in mortar as 5% cement replacement could consume all ash instead of disposals, and could thus turn the ashes into a local resource and simultaneously reduce the import of cement....

  18. Measurement of acoustic emission signal energy. Calibration and tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chretien, N.; Bernard, P.; Fayolle, J.

    1975-01-01

    The possibility of using an Audimat W device for analyzing the electric energy of signals delivered by a piezo-electric sensor for acoustic emission was investigated. The characteristics of the prototype device could be improved. The tests performed revealed that the 7075-T651 aluminium alloy can be used as a reference material [fr

  19. Acoustic emission generated during scratch test of various thin films

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Boháč, Petr; Tomáštík, J.; Čtvrtlík, R.; Dráb, M.; Koula, V.; Cvrk, K.; Jastrabík, Lubomír

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 12 (2014), s. 16635 ISSN 1435-4934 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TA03010743 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : acoustic emission * scratch test * thin films * AE data analysis * mechanical toughness Subject RIV: BI - Acoustics

  20. Operating experience and data on revolving type fluidized bed incineration plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakayama, J.

    1990-01-01

    In refuse incinerators operating by revolving fluidization (Revolving Type Fluidized Bed Incinerator) a broad range of wastes, from low caloric refuse of high moisture content to high caloric value material including a wide variety of plastics, can be incinerated at high efficiency because the unit is outstanding in terms of distribution of waste in the incinerator bed and uniformity of heat. In addition, its vigorous revolving fluidization action is very effective in pulverizing refuse, so even relatively strict emission standards can be met without fine pre-shredding. Residues are discharged in a clean, dry form free of putrescible material. Data on practical operation of the revolving fluidized bed incinerator are presented in this paper

  1. Activated carbon for incinerator uses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Che Seman Mahmood; Norhayati Alias; Mohd Puad Abu

    2002-01-01

    This paper reports the development of the activated carbon from palm oil kernel shell for use as absorbent and converter for incinerator gas. The procedure is developed in order to prepare the material in bulk quantity and be used in the incinerator. The effect of the use of activating chemicals, physical activation and the preparation parameter to the quality of the carbon products will be discussed. (Author)

  2. Status and perspectives of municipal solid waste incineration in China: A comparison with developed regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jia-Wei; Zhang, Sukun; Hai, Jing; Lei, Ming

    2017-11-01

    With the rapid expansion of municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration, the applicability, technical status, and future improvement of MSW incineration attract much attention in China. This paper aims to be a sensible response, with the aid of a comparison between China and some representative developed regions including the EU, the U.S., Japan, South Korea, and Taiwan area. A large number of up-to-date data and information are collected to quantitatively and impartially support the comparison, which covers a wider range of key points including spatial distribution, temporal evolution, technologies, emissions, and perspectives. Analysis results show that MSW incineration is not an outdated choice; however, policy making should prevent the potentially insufficient utilization of MSW incinerators. The structure of MSW incineration technologies is changing in China. The ratio of plants using fluidized bed is decreasing due to various realistic reasons. Decision-makers would select suitable combustion technologies by comprehensive assessments, rather than just by costs. Air pollution control systems are improved with the implementation of China's new emission standard. However, MSW incineration in China is currently blamed for substandard emissions. The reasons include the particular elemental compositions of Chinese MSW, the lack of operating experience, deficient fund for compliance with the emission standard, and the lack of reliable supervisory measures. Some perspectives and suggestions from both technical and managerial aspects are given for the compliance with the emission standard. This paper can provide strategic enlightenments for MSW management in China and other developing countries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Arsenic burden survey among refuse incinerator workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Chung-Liang

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Incinerator workers are not considered to have arsenic overexposure although they have the risk of overexposure to other heavy metals. Aim: To examine the relationship between arsenic burden and risk of occupational exposure in employees working at a municipal refuse incinerator by determining the concentrations of arsenic in the blood and urine. Settings and Design: The workers were divided into three groups based on their probability of contact with combustion-generated residues, namely Group 1: indirect contact, Group 2: direct contact and Group 3: no contact. Healthy age- and sex-matched residents living in the vicinity were enrolled as the control group. Materials and Methods: Heavy metal concentrations were measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Downstream rivers and drinking water of the residents were examined for environmental arsenic pollution. A questionnaire survey concerning the contact history of arsenic was simultaneously conducted. Statistical analysis: Non-parametric tests, cross-tabulation and multinomial logistic regression. Results: This study recruited 122 incinerator workers. The urine and blood arsenic concentrations as well as incidences of overexposure were significantly higher in the workers than in control subjects. The workers who had indirect or no contact with combustion-generated residues had significantly higher blood arsenic level. Arsenic contact history could not explain the difference. Airborne and waterborne arsenic pollution were not detected. Conclusion: Incinerator workers run the risk of being exposed to arsenic pollution, especially those who have incomplete protection in the workplace even though they only have indirect or no contact with combustion-generated pollutants.

  4. Geotechnical engineering properties of incinerator ash mixes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhunthan, B; Taha, R; Said, J

    2004-08-01

    The incineration of solid waste produces large quantities of bottom and fly ash. Landfilling has been the primary mode of disposal of these waste materials. Shortage in landfill space and the high cost of treatment have, however, prompted the search for alternative uses of these waste materials. This study presents an experimental program that was conducted to determine the engineering properties of incinerator ash mixes for use as construction materials. Incinerator ash mixes were tested as received and around optimum compacted conditions. Compaction curves, shear strength, and permeability values of fly ash, bottom ash, and their various blends were investigated. Bottom ash tends to achieve maximum dry density at much lower water content than does fly ash. The mixes displayed a change in their cohesion and friction angle values when one of the two mix components was altered or as a result of the addition of water. The permeability of bottom ash is quite comparable to that of sand. The permeability of fly ash lies in the range of those values obtained for silts and clays. A 100% bottom ash compacted at the optimum water content has a lower density value and yields a higher friction angle and cohesion values than most construction fills. This would encourage the use of bottom ash as a fill or embankment material because free drainage of water will prevent the buildup of pore water pressures.

  5. 40 CFR 86.159-00 - Exhaust emission test procedures for US06 emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES... to provide a representative test. (c) The flow capacity of the CVS shall be large enough to virtually... according to the US06 driving schedule, as described in appendix I, paragraph (g), of this part. Manual...

  6. Life cycle assessment of sewage sludge co-incineration in a coal-based power station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jingmin; Xu, Changqing; Hong, Jinglan; Tan, Xianfeng; Chen, Wei

    2013-09-01

    A life cycle assessment was conducted to evaluate the environmental and economic effects of sewage sludge co-incineration in a coal-fired power plant. The general approach employed by a coal-fired power plant was also assessed as control. Sewage sludge co-incineration technology causes greater environmental burden than does coal-based energy production technology because of the additional electricity consumption and wastewater treatment required for the pretreatment of sewage sludge, direct emissions from sludge incineration, and incinerated ash disposal processes. However, sewage sludge co-incineration presents higher economic benefits because of electricity subsidies and the income generating potential of sludge. Environmental assessment results indicate that sewage sludge co-incineration is unsuitable for mitigating the increasing pressure brought on by sewage sludge pollution. Reducing the overall environmental effect of sludge co-incineration power stations necessitates increasing net coal consumption efficiency, incinerated ash reuse rate, dedust system efficiency, and sludge water content rate. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Simulations of NOx Emissions from Low Emissions Discrete Jet Injector Combustor Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajmani, Kumud; Breisacher, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    An experimental and computational study was conducted to evaluate the performance and emissions characteristics of a candidate Lean Direct Injection (LDI) combustor configuration with a mix of simplex and airblast injectors. The National Combustion Code (NCC) was used to predict the experimentally measured EINOx emissions for test conditions representing low power, medium power, and high-power engine cycle conditions. Of the six cases modeled with the NCC using a reduced-kinetics finite-rate mechanism and lagrangian spray modeling, reasonable predictions of combustor exit temperature and EINOx were obtained at two high-power cycle conditions.

  8. Incineration or Autoclave? A Comparative Study in Isfahan Hospitals Waste Management System (2010)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferdowsi, Ali; Ferdosi, Masoud; Mehrani, Mohammd Javad

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Medical wastes are among hazardous wastes and their disposal requires special methods prior to landfilling. Medical wastes are divided into infected and non-infected wastes and the infected wastes require treatment. Incineration is one of the oldest methods for treatment of medical wastes, but their usage have faced wide objections due to emission of hazardous gases such as CO2 and CO as well as Carcinogenic gases such as Dioxins and Furans which are generated as a result of incomplete combustion of compositions like PVCs. Autoclave is one the newest methods of medical wastes treatment which works based on wet disinfection. Methods: The statistical population in this descriptive, comparative study includes hospitals located in Isfahan city and the sample hospitals were selected randomly. To environmentally evaluate the Autoclave method, TST (time, steam, temperature) and Spore tests were used. Also, samples were made from incinerator’s stack gases and their analyses results were compared with WHO standards. Findings: TST and spore tests results were negative in all cases indicating the success of treatment process. The comparison of incinerator’s stack gases with WHO standards showed the high concentration of CO in some samples indicating the incomplete combustion. Also, the incineration efficiency in some cases was less than 99.5 percent, which is the efficiency criterion according to the administrative regulations of wastes management law of Iran. No needle stick was observed in Autoclave method during the compaction of bags containing wastes, and the handlers were facing no danger in this respect. The comparison of costs indicated that despite higher capital investment for purchasing autoclave, its current costs (e.g. maintenance, etc) are much less than the incineration method. Discussion: Totally, due to inappropriate operation of incinerators and lack of air pollution control devices, the use of incinerators doesn’t seem rational anymore

  9. Quality Testing of Gaseous Helium Pressure Vessels by Acoustic Emission

    CERN Document Server

    Barranco-Luque, M; Hervé, C; Margaroli, C; Sergo, V

    1998-01-01

    The resistance of pressure equipment is currently tested, before commissioning or at periodic maintenance, by means of normal pressure tests. Defects occurring inside materials during the execution of these tests or not seen by usual non-destructive techniques can remain as undetected potential sources of failure . The acoustic emission (AE) technique can detect and monitor the evolution of such failures. Industrial-size helium cryogenic systems employ cryogens often stored in gaseous form under pressure at ambient temperature. Standard initial and periodic pressure testing imposes operational constraints which other complementary testing methods, such as AE, could significantly alleviate. Recent reception testing of 250 m3 GHe storage vessels with a design pressure of 2.2 MPa for the LEP and LHC cryogenic systems has implemented AE with the above-mentioned aims.

  10. Screening methodology for assessing potential health effects from municipal sludge incinerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fradkin, L.; Bruins, R.J.F.; Lutkenhoff, S.D.; Stara, J.F.; Lomnitz, E.

    1987-01-01

    This paper describes a risk assessment methodology for preliminary assessment of municipal sludge incineration. The methodology is a valuable tool in that it can be used for determining the hazard indices of chemical contaminants that might be present in sewage sludge used in incineration. The paper examines source characteristics (i.e., facility design), atmospheric dispersion of emission, and resulting human exposure and risk from sludge incinerators. Seven of the ten organics were screened for further investigation. An example of the calculations are presented for cadmium.

  11. Screening methodology for assessing potential health effects from municipal sludge incinerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fradkin, L.; Bruins, R.J.F.; Lutkenhoff, S.D.; Stara, J.F.; Lomnitz, E.; Rubin, A.

    1987-04-01

    This paper describes a risk assessment of methodology for preliminary assessment of municipal sludge incineration. The methodology is a valuable tool in that it can be used for determining the hazard indices of chemical contaminants that might be present in sewage sludge used in incineration. The paper examines source characteristics (i.e. facility design), atmospheric dispersion of emission, and resulting human exposure and risk from sludge incinerators. Seven of the ten organics were screened for further investigation. An example of the calculations are presented for cadmium. (Refs. 5).

  12. A feasibility study of adaptive plasma-assisted incineration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filion, Julie

    Rising awareness in the need for environmental protection has brought into question the adequacy of conventional hazardous waste treatment operations. Regulatory standards are increasingly strict, and there is growing concern over the safety of incineration facilities. This research project examines the technoeconomic potential of thermal plasma technology in this context. Adaptive Plasma-Assisted Incineration (APAI) is a novel concept for secondary gas treatment in hazardous waste incineration. As an energy source for waste destruction, a thermal plasma can provide conditions far higher in temperature and in reactivity than those obtained using a combustion flame. Thus, the plasma is more effective at destroying hazardous materials, albeit at a higher cost. APAI features a thermal plasma afterburner with continual on-line optical monitoring of the gas product and feedback optimization of the plasma conditions. This approach allows complete destruction of persistent organic compounds and cost-effective response to feed load variations. The process supplements conventional incineration techniques with the effectiveness and flexibility of thermal plasma treatment. The main objectives are to reduce the risk of harmful emissions during hazardous waste incineration and to facilitate compliance with new environmental regulations. In this project, the technical feasibility of APAI was demonstrated experimentally using a laboratory-scale plasma afterburner model. The work focused on the development of a spectroscopic monitoring procedure and on the application of optimization techniques for cost-effective operation of the model system. The techno-economic potential and limitations of APAI were addressed in a conceptual study. Preliminary designs and cost estimates were developed for specific applications. The costs of plasma-assisted and conventional methods were compared for contaminated soil remediation (by incineration and desorption) and for organic liquid waste

  13. The methods of formaldehyde emission testing of engine: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chunhui; Geng, Peng; Cao, Erming; Wei, Lijiang

    2015-12-01

    A number of measurements have been provided to detect formaldehyde in the atmosphere, but there are no clear unified standards in engine exhaust. Nowadays, formaldehyde, an unregulated emission from methanol engine, has been attracting increasing attention by researchers. This paper presents the detection techniques for formaldehyde emitted from the engines applied in recent market, introducing the approaches in terms of unregulated emission tests of formaldehyde, which involved gas chromatography, liquid chromatography, chromatography-mass spectrometry, chromatography-spectrum, Fourier infrared spectroscopy and spectrophotometry. The author also introduces the comparison regarding to the advantages of the existing detection techniques based on the principle, to compare with engine exhaust sampling method, the treatment in advance of detection, obtaining approaches accessing to the qualitative and quantitative analysis of chromatograms or spectra. The accuratest result obtained was chromatography though it cannot be used continuously. It also can be utilized to develop high requirements of emissions and other regulations. Fourier infrared spectroscopy has the advantage of continuous detection for a variety of unregulated emissions and can be applied to the bench in variable condition. However, its accuracy is not as good as chromatography. As the conclusion, a detection technique is chosen based on different requirements.

  14. HANDBOOK: HAZARDOUS WASTE INCINERATION MEASUREMENT GUIDANCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    This publication, Volume III of the Hazardous Waste Incineration Guidance Series, contains general guidance to permit writers in reviewing hazardous waste incineration permit applications and trial burn plans. he handbook is a how-to document dealing with how incineration measure...

  15. Tracing source and migration of Pb during waste incineration using stable Pb isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yang; Zhang, Hua; Shao, Li-Ming; He, Pin-Jing

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The migration of Pb during waste incineration was investigated using Pb isotopes. • Source tracing of Pb during incineration by isotopic technology was feasible. • Contributions of MSW components were measured to trace Pb sources quantitatively. • Isotopic technology helps understand the migration of Pb during thermal treatment. - Abstract: Emission of Pb is a significant environmental concern during solid waste incineration. To target Pb emission control strategies effectively, the major sources of Pb in the waste incineration byproducts must be traced and quantified. However, identifying the migration of Pb in each waste component is difficult because of the heterogeneity of the waste. This study used a laboratory-scale incinerator to simulate the incineration of municipal solid waste (MSW). The Pb isotope ratios of the major waste components ( 207 Pb/ 206 Pb = 0.8550–0.8627 and 208 Pb/ 206 Pb = 2.0957–2.1131) and their incineration byproducts were measured to trace sources and quantify the Pb contribution of each component to incineration byproducts. As the proportions of food waste (FW), newspaper (NP), and polyethylene bag (PE) in the artificial MSW changed, the contribution ratios of FW and PE to Pb in fly ash changed accordingly, ranging from 31.2% to 50.6% and from 35.0% to 41.8%, respectively. The replacement of PE by PVC significantly increased the partitioning and migration ratio of Pb. The use of Pb isotope ratios as a quantitative tool for tracing Pb from raw waste to incineration byproducts is a feasible means for improving Pb pollution control.

  16. Tracing source and migration of Pb during waste incineration using stable Pb isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yang [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resources Reuse, Tongji University, 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai 200092 (China); Institute of Waste Treatment and Reclamation, Tongji University, 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai 200092 (China); Zhang, Hua, E-mail: zhanghua_tj@tongji.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resources Reuse, Tongji University, 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai 200092 (China); Institute of Waste Treatment and Reclamation, Tongji University, 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai 200092 (China); Shao, Li-Ming; He, Pin-Jing [Institute of Waste Treatment and Reclamation, Tongji University, 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai 200092 (China); Research and Training Center on Rural Waste Management, Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Development of P.R. China, 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai 200092 (China)

    2017-04-05

    Highlights: • The migration of Pb during waste incineration was investigated using Pb isotopes. • Source tracing of Pb during incineration by isotopic technology was feasible. • Contributions of MSW components were measured to trace Pb sources quantitatively. • Isotopic technology helps understand the migration of Pb during thermal treatment. - Abstract: Emission of Pb is a significant environmental concern during solid waste incineration. To target Pb emission control strategies effectively, the major sources of Pb in the waste incineration byproducts must be traced and quantified. However, identifying the migration of Pb in each waste component is difficult because of the heterogeneity of the waste. This study used a laboratory-scale incinerator to simulate the incineration of municipal solid waste (MSW). The Pb isotope ratios of the major waste components ({sup 207}Pb/{sup 206}Pb = 0.8550–0.8627 and {sup 208}Pb/{sup 206}Pb = 2.0957–2.1131) and their incineration byproducts were measured to trace sources and quantify the Pb contribution of each component to incineration byproducts. As the proportions of food waste (FW), newspaper (NP), and polyethylene bag (PE) in the artificial MSW changed, the contribution ratios of FW and PE to Pb in fly ash changed accordingly, ranging from 31.2% to 50.6% and from 35.0% to 41.8%, respectively. The replacement of PE by PVC significantly increased the partitioning and migration ratio of Pb. The use of Pb isotope ratios as a quantitative tool for tracing Pb from raw waste to incineration byproducts is a feasible means for improving Pb pollution control.

  17. Operation of a pilot incinerator for solid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hootman, H.E.; Trapp, D.J.; Warren, J.H.

    1979-01-01

    A laboratory-scale incinerator (0.5 kg waste/hr) was built and operated for more than 18 months as part of a program to adapt and confirm technology for incineration of Savannah River Plant solid wastes, which are contaminated with about 0.3 Ci/kg of alpha-emitting transuranium (TRU) nuclides (Slide 1). About 4000 packages of simulated nonradioactive wastes were burned, including HEPA (high-efficiency particulate air) filters, resins, and other types of solid combustible waste from plutonium finishing operations. Throughputs of more than 3 kg/hr for periods up to 4 hours were demonstrated. The incinerator was oerated at temperatures above 750 0 C for more than 7700 hours during a period of 12 months, for an overall availability of 88%. The incinerator was shut down three times during the year: once to replace the primary combustion chamber electrical heater, and twice to replace oxidized electrical connectors to the secondary chamber heaters. Practical experience with this pilot facility provided the design basis for the full-size (5 kg waste/hr) nonradioactive test incinerator, which began operation in March 1979

  18. High temperature filter for incinerator gas purification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billard, Francois; Brion, Jacques; Cousin, Michel; Delarue, Roger

    1969-01-01

    This note describes a regenerable filter for the hot filtering of incinerator gases. The filter is made of several wire gauze candles coated with asbestos fibers as filtering medium. Unburnt products, like carbon black, terminate their combustion on the filter, reducing the risk of clogging and enhancing the operation time to several hundreds of hours between two regeneration cycles. The filter was tested on a smaller scale mockup, and then on an industrial pilot plant with a 20 kg/h capacity during a long duration. This note describes the installation and presents the results obtained [fr

  19. Test Report Emission Test Program EPA Information Collection Request for Delayed Coking Units 736 Coker Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    ARI Environmental, Inc. (ARI) was retained by Houston Refining LP (HRO) to conduct an emission test program at their refinery located in Houston, Texas. The testing was conducted on on the 736 Delayed Coking Unit (DCU) in response to EPA's ICR.

  20. The Use of Microwave Incineration to Process Biological Wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Sidney C.; Srinivasan, Venkatesh; Covington, Alan (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    The handling and disposal of solid waste matter that has biological or biohazardous components is a difficult issue for hospitals, research laboratories, and industry. NASA faces the same challenge as it is developing regenerative systems that will process waste materials into materials that can be used to sustain humans living in space for extended durations. Plants provide critical functions in such a regenerative life support scheme in that they photosynthesize carbon dioxide and water into glucose and oxygen. The edible portions of the plant provide a food source for the crew. Inedible portions can be processed into materials that are more recyclable. The Advanced Life Support Division at NASA Ames Research Center has been evaluating a microwave incinerator that will oxidize inedible plant matter into carbon dioxide and water. The commercially available microwave incinerator is produced by Matsushita Electronic Instruments Corporation of Japan. Microwave incineration is a technology that is simple, safe, and compact enough for home use. It also has potential applications for institutions that produce biological or biohazardous waste. The incinerator produces a sterile ash that has only 13% of the mass of the original waste. The authors have run several sets of tests with the incinerator to establish its viability in processing biological material. One goal of the tests is to show that the incinerator does not generate toxic compounds as a byproduct of the combustion process. This paper will describe the results of the tests, including analyses of the resulting ash and exhaust gases. The significance of the results and their implications on commercial applications of the technology will also be discussed.

  1. Operation of low-level radioactive waste incinerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, E.C.; Drolet, T.S.; Stewart, W.B.; Campbell, A.V.

    1979-01-01

    Ontaro Hydro's radioactive waste incinerator designed to reduce the volume of low-level combustible wastes from nuclear generating station's was declared in-service in September 1977. Hiterto about 1500 m 3 of combustible waste have been processed in over 90 separate batches. The process has resulted in 40:1 reduction in the volume and 12.5:1 reduction in the weight of the Type 1 wastes. The ultimate volume reduction factor after storage is 23:1. Airborne emissions has been maintained at the order of 10 -3 to 10 -5 % of the Derived Emission Limits. Incineration of radioactive combustible wastes has been proven feasible, and will remain as one of the most important processes in Ontario Hydro's Radioactive Waste Management Program

  2. Transportable Heavy Duty Emissions Testing Laboratory and Research Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Lyons

    2008-03-31

    The objective of this program was to quantify the emissions from heavy-duty vehicles operating on alternative fuels or advanced fuel blends, often with novel engine technology or aftertreatment. In the first year of the program West Virginia University (WVU) researchers determined that a transportable chassis dynamometer emissions measurement approach was required so that fleets of trucks and buses did not need to be ferried across the nation to a fixed facility. A Transportable Heavy-Duty Vehicle Emissions Testing Laboratory (Translab) was designed, constructed and verified. This laboratory consisted of a chassis dynamometer semi-trailer and an analytic trailer housing a full scale exhaust dilution tunnel and sampling system which mimicked closely the system described in the Code of Federal Regulations for engine certification. The Translab was first used to quantify emissions from natural gas and methanol fueled transit buses, and a second Translab unit was constructed to satisfy research demand. Subsequent emissions measurement was performed on trucks and buses using ethanol, Fischer-Tropsch fuel, and biodiesel. A medium-duty chassis dynamometer was also designed and constructed to facilitate research on delivery vehicles in the 10,000 to 20,000lb range. The Translab participated in major programs to evaluate low-sulfur diesel in conjunction with passively regenerating exhaust particulate filtration technology, and substantial reductions in particulate matter were recorded. The researchers also participated in programs to evaluate emissions from advanced natural gas engines with closed loop feedback control. These natural gas engines showed substantially reduced levels of oxides of nitrogen. For all of the trucks and buses characterized, the levels of carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen, hydrocarbons, carbon dioxide and particulate matter were quantified, and in many cases non-regulated species such as aldehydes were also sampled. Particle size was also

  3. Life-cycle-assessment of the historical development of air pollution control and energy recovery in waste incineration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Anders; Riber, C.; Fruergaard, Thilde

    2010-01-01

    Incineration of municipal solid waste is a debated waste management technology. In some countries it is the main waste management option whereas in other countries it has been disregarded. The main discussion point on waste incineration is the release of air emissions from the combustion...... of the waste, but also the energy recovery efficiency has a large importance. The historical development of air pollution control in waste incineration was studied through life-cycle-assessment modelling of eight different air pollution control technologies. The results showed a drastic reduction...... in the release of air emissions and consequently a significant reduction in the potential environmental impacts of waste incineration. Improvements of a factor 0.85–174 were obtained in the different impact potentials as technology developed from no emission control at all, to the best available emission control...

  4. Vitrification of bottom ash from a municipal solid waste incinerator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Y; Oorsprong, M; Yang, Y; Voncken, J H L

    2008-01-01

    During incineration of municipal solid waste (MSW), various environmentally harmful elements and heavy metals are liberated either into bottom ash, or carried away with the off-gases and subsequently trapped in fly-ash. If these minor but harmful elements are not properly isolated and immobilized, it can lead to secondary environmental pollution to the air, soil and water. The stricter environmental regulations to be implemented in the near future in The Netherlands require a higher immobilization efficiency of the bottom ash treatment. In the present study, MSW incinerator bottom ash was vitrified at higher temperatures and the slag formed and metal recovered were examined. The behaviour of soluble elements that remain in the slag is evaluated by standard leaching test. The results obtained can provide a valuable route to treat the ashes from incinerators, and to make recycling and more efficient utilization of the bottom ash possible.

  5. Radioactive waste incineration studies at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stretz, L.A.; Borduin, L.C.; Draper, W.E.; Koenig, R.A.; Newmyer, J.M.

    1980-01-01

    Development and demonstration of a transuranic (TRU) waste volume-reduction process is described. A controlled-air incinerator, based upon commercially available equipment and technology, was modified for radioactive service and was successfully tested and demonstrated with contaminated waste. Demonstration of the production-scale unit was completed in May 1980 with the incineration of 272 kg of waste with an average TRU content of about 20 nCi/g. Weight and volume reduction factors for the demonstration run were 40:1 and 120:1, respectively

  6. A Comparative Energetic Analysis of Active and Passive Emission Control Systems Adopting Standard Emission Test Cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo Algieri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work aims at analysing and comparing the thermal performances of active and passive aftertreatment systems. A one-dimensional transient model has been developed in order to evaluate the heat exchange between the solid and the exhaust gas and to estimate the energy effectiveness of the apparatus. Furthermore, the effect of the engine operating conditions on the performances of emission control systems has been investigated considering standard emission test cycles. The analysis has demonstrated that the active flow control presents the higher thermal inertia and it appears more suitable to maintain the converter initial temperature level for a longer time after variations in engine load. Conversely, the traditional passive flow control is preferable when rapid “cooling” or “heating” of the solid phase is requested. Moreover, the investigation has highlighted the significant influence of the cycle time and converter length on the energetic performances of the aftertreatment apparatus.

  7. Heavy metals behavior during thermal plasma vitrification of incineration residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerqueira, N.; Vandensteendam, C.; Baronnet, J.M.

    2005-01-01

    In the developed world, incineration of wastes is widely and increasingly practiced. Worldwide, a total of approximately 100 millions of tons of municipal solid waste (MSW) material is incinerated annually. Incineration of one ton of MSW leads to the formation of 30 to 50 kg of fly ash, depending on the type of incinerator. The waste disposal of these dusts already causes great problems today; they are of low bulk density, they contain high concentrations of hazardous water-soluble heavy metal compounds, organohalogen compounds (dioxines, furanes), sulfur, and chlorinated compounds. Thermal processes, based mainly on electrical arc processes, show great promise: the residues are melted at high temperature and converted in a relatively inert glass. A few tens of plants, essentially in Japan and Taiwan, have been in industrial operation for a few years. To be authorized to be dumped in a common landfill, the glassy product has to satisfy the leaching test procedure to ensure long-term durability. But to satisfy the regulation to be reused, for example as a nonhazardous standard material in road building, the glassy product would probably include contents in some heavy metals lower than critical limits. So today, there are two alternatives: the first one is to improve the heavy toxic metals evaporation to get a 'light' glassy product and to recycle separately the said separated metals; the second is on the contrary to improve the incorporation of a maximum of heavy metals into the vitreous silicate matrix. Whatever, it is highly required to control, in situ and in real time, volatility of these metals during ash melting under electrical arc. The objective of this work was to reach basic data about metals volatility under the plasma column of an electrical arc transferred on the melt: an experiment has been designed to examine the effects of processing conditions, such as melt temperature, melt composition, and furnace atmosphere, upon volatilization and glassy slag

  8. Mercury contamination and potential impacts from municipal waste incinerator on Samui Island, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muenhor, Dudsadee; Satayavivad, Jutamaad; Limpaseni, Wongpun; Parkpian, Preeda; Delaune, R D; Gambrell, R P; Jugsujinda, Aroon

    2009-03-01

    In recent years, mercury (Hg) pollution generated by municipal waste incinerators (MWIs) has become the subject of serious public concern. On Samui Island, Thailand, a large-scale municipal waste incinerator has been in operation for over 7 years with a capacity of 140 tons/day for meeting the growing demand for municipal waste disposal. This research assessed Hg contamination in environmental matrices adjacent to the waste incinerating plant. Total Hg concentrations were determined in municipal solid waste, soil and sediment within a distance of 100 m to 5 km from the incinerator operation in both wet and dry seasons. Hg analyses conducted in municipal solid waste showed low levels of Hg ranging between 0.15-0.56 mg/kg. The low level was due to the type of waste incinerator. Waste such as electrical appliances, motors and spare parts, rubber tires and hospital wastes are not allowed to feed into the plant. As a result, low Hg levels were also found in fly and bottom ashes (0.1-0.4 mg/kg and contaminated from Hg emissions produced by this incinerator. However the increase of Hg measured in downwind direction of the incinerator should be monitored for future potential risk.

  9. Incineration of organic solar cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Søndergaard, Roar R.; Zimmermann, Yannick Serge; Espinosa, Nieves; Lenz, Markus; Krebs, Frederik

    2016-01-01

    Recovery of silver from the electrodes of roll-to-roll processed organic solar cells after incineration has been performed quantitatively by extraction with nitric acid. This procedure is more than 10 times faster than previous reports and the amount of acid needed for the extraction is reduced

  10. Waste incineration and immobilization for nuclear facilities, April--September 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, A.J.; Fong, L.Q.

    1978-01-01

    Fluidized bed incineration and waste immobilization processes are being developed to process the types of waste expected from nuclear facilities. An air classification system has been developed to separate tramp metal from shredded combustible solid waste prior to the waste being fed to a fluidized-bed pilot-plant incinerator. Used organic ion exchange resin with up to 55 percent water has been effectively burned in the fluidized bed incinerator. Various methods of feeding waste into the incinerator were investigated as alternatives to the present compression screw; an extrusion ram was found to suffer extensive damage from hard particles in tested waste. A bench-scale continuous waste immobilization process has been operated and has produced glass from incinerator residue and other types of waste materials

  11. Incineration and co-combustion of waste: accounting of greenhouse gases and global warming contributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, Thomas; Møller, Jacob; Fruergaard, Thilde

    2009-01-01

    Important greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions related to waste incineration and co-combustion of waste were identified and considered relative to critical aspects such as: the contents of biogenic and fossil carbon, N2O emissions, fuel and material consumptions at the plants, energy recovery, and soli...

  12. Transformation of Silver Nanoparticles in Sewage Sludge during Incineration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Christoph; Voegelin, Andreas; Pradas del Real, Ana; Sarret, Geraldine; Mueller, Christoph R; Kaegi, Ralf

    2016-04-05

    Silver nanoparticles (Ag-NP) discharged into the municipal sewer system largely accumulate in the sewage sludge. Incineration and agricultural use are currently the most important strategies for sewage sludge management. Thus, the behavior of Ag-NP during sewage sludge incineration is essential for a comprehensive life cycle analysis and a more complete understanding of the fate of Ag-NP in the (urban) environment. To address the transformation of Ag-NP during sewage sludge incineration, we spiked metallic Ag(0)-NP to a pilot wastewater treatment plant and digested the sludge anaerobically. The sludge was then incinerated on a bench-scale fluidized bed reactor in a series of experiments under variable conditions. Complementary results from X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray (EM-EDX) analysis revealed that Ag(0)-NP transformed into Ag2S-NP during the wastewater treatment, in agreement with previous studies. On the basis of a principal component analysis and subsequent target testing of the XAS spectra, Ag(0) was identified as a major Ag component in the ashes, and Ag2S was clearly absent. The reformation of Ag(0)-NP was confirmed by EM-EDX. The fraction of Ag(0) of the total Ag in the ashes was quantified by linear combination fitting (LCF) of XAS spectra, and values as high as 0.8 were found for sewage sludge incinerated at 800 °C in a synthetic flue gas atmosphere. Low LCF totals (72% to 94%) indicated that at least one relevant reference spectrum was missing in the LCF analysis. The presence of spherical Ag-NP with a diameter of sewage sludge incineration, as demonstrated in this study, needs to be considered in the life cycle assessment of engineered Ag-NP.

  13. PCB and PAH release from power stations and waste incineration processes in the UK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dyke, Patrick H. [PD Consulting, Magdalen, Brobury, HR3 6DX (United Kingdom); Foan, Colin [The Environment Agency, National Centre for Risk Analysis and Options Appraisal, Kings Meadow House, Kings Meadow Road, Reading, (United Kingdom); Fiedler, Heidelore [United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) Chemicals, 11-13, chemin des Anemones, CH-1219, Chatelaine (Switzerland)

    2003-01-01

    This study focused on emissions of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) from incineration and power generation processes. Increased concern over human exposure to both classes of compounds has meant that environmental regulators need to assess the contribution made by emissions from regulated processes to human exposure. In the first part of an assessment in the UK we reviewed literature data on emissions of PCB, focusing on the dioxin-like PCB assigned toxic equivalency factors by the World Health Organization, and PAH. The literature study was supplemented by a series of plant tests to gather initial real plant data. Literature data were limited and the lack of standard protocols for measurement and reporting of both PCB and PAH meant that few data sets were comparable. Levels of dioxin-like PCB reported in the literature and measured in UK plant tests showed that well-controlled modern combustion plants with comprehensive pollution controls gave low emissions, typically about 5-10% of the toxic equivalent of the emissions of polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans at the same plants and below the widely used standard of 0.1 ng TEQ/N m{sup 3}. (Author)

  14. Municipal solid waste incineration in China and the issue of acidification: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Longjie; Lu, Shengyong; Yang, Jie; Du, Cuicui; Chen, Zhiliang; Buekens, Alfons; Yan, Jianhua

    2016-04-01

    In China, incineration is essential for reducing the volume of municipal solid waste arising in its numerous megacities. The evolution of incinerator capacity has been huge, yet it creates strong opposition from a small, but vocal part of the population. The characteristics of Chinese municipal solid waste are analysed and data presented on its calorific value and composition. These are not so favourable for incineration, since the sustained use of auxiliary fuel is necessary for ensuring adequate combustion temperatures. Also, the emission standard for acid gases is more lenient in China than in the European Union, so special attention should be paid to the issue of acidification arising from flue gas. Next, the techniques used in flue gas cleaning in China are reviewed and the acidification potential by cleaned flue gas is estimated. Still, acidification induced by municipal solid waste incinerators remains marginal compared with the effects of coal-fired power plants. © The Author(s) 2016.

  15. EMISSION TEST REPORT, OMSS FIELD TEST ON CARBON INJECTION FOR MERCURY CONTROL

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report discusses results of a parametric evaluation of powdered activated carbon for control of mercury (Hg) emission from a municipal waste cornbustor (MWC) equipped with a lime spray dryer absorber/fabric filter (SD/FF). The primary test objectives were to evaluate the effe...

  16. Incineration and flue gas cleaning in China - a Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buekens, Alfons; Yan, Mi; Jiang, Xuguan; Li, Xiaodong; Lu, Shengyong; Chi, Yong; Yan, Jianhua; Cen, Kefa

    2010-01-01

    Waste incineration is rapidly developing in China. Different technologies are proposed for Municipal Solid Waste (MSW), Hazardous Waste (HW), and Medical Waste (MW). The required technologies are either imported, or developed locally. Some data are cited to illustrate these rapid developments. Incinerator flue gas arises at rather limited scale (10,000-100,000 Nm 3 /h), compared to power generation, yet the number of pollutants to be counted with is huge: dust and grit, acid gases, NO x , selected heavy metals, aerosols and nanoparticles, Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons, and dioxins. Major options in flue gas cleaning can be derived from Best Available Technologies (BAT), as were developed in the European Union. Hence, E.U. practice is analyzed in some detail, by considering the present situation in selected E.U. countries (Germany, Sweden, the Netherlands, Denmark, Belgium). A comparison is made with China. Also, the situation in Japan is examined. Based on this wide experience, a number of technical suggestions regarding incineration, flue gas cleaning, and emission control are formulated. Also, the possibility of co incineration is considered. Starting from the particular experience of Zhejiang University (as a designer of Fluid Bed and Rotary Kiln plant, with large experience in Fluid Bed processes, coal firing, gasification and pyrolysis, and actively monitoring thermal units throughout China) some specific Case Studies are examined, e.g., a fluidized bed incinerator and its gas cleaning system (MSWI and HWI from ITPE). Some attention is paid to the potential threats in China from uncontrolled combustion sources. As a conclusion, some recommendations are formulated regarding flue gas cleaning in Developing Nations at large and in China in particular. (author)

  17. Design and operation of a prototype incinerator for beta-gamma waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farber, M.G.; Hootman, H.E.; Becker, G.W. Jr.; Makohon, P.A.

    1981-01-01

    A full-scale test incinerator has been built at the Savannah River Laboratory to provide a design basis for a radioactive facility that will burn low-level beta-gamma contaminated waste. The processing steps include waste feed loading, incineration, ash residue packaging, and off-gas cleanup. Both solid and liquid waste will be incinerated during the test program. The components of the solid waste are cellulose, latex, polyethylene, and PVC; the solvent is composed of n-paraffin and TBP. A research program will confirm the feasibility of the design and determine the operating parameters

  18. Development of an online emission measuring system for quasi-continuous measurement of organic halgen compounds in off-gases of thermal processes. The example of polychlorinated dibeno-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in pure gas of incinerators for domestic waste; Entwicklung einer on-line Emissionsmesstechnik zur quasi-kontinuierlichen Bestimmung von Organohalogen-Verbindungen in Abgasen thermischer Prozesse. Ausgefuehrt am Beispiel polychlorierter Dibenzo-p-dioxine und Dibenzofurane im Reingas von Hausmuellverbrennungsanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohr, K.

    2000-07-01

    Industrial processes are connected with the emission of xenobiotic substances that represent a burden on the environment. Standardised methods currently available for the quantitative determination of these substances are time consuming, require a lot of work and are therefore expensive. Consequently they are not suited to perform extensive screening or monitoring programs. The aim of this work was therefore to develop a reliable quasi-continuous time and cost effective measuring method that can be used as a screening tool for the determination of such substances. The method has been developed according to stack emissions of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD) and dibenzofurans (PCDF) in municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWIs). (orig.)

  19. Standardization in dust emission measurement; Mesure des emissions de poussieres normalisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perret, R. [INERIS, 60 - Verneuil-en-Halatte, (France)

    1996-12-31

    The European Standardization Committee (CEN TC 264WG5) is developing a new reference method for measuring particulate emissions, suitable for concentrations inferior to 20 mg/m{sup 3} and especially for concentrations around 5 mg/m{sup 3}; the measuring method should be applicable to waste incinerator effluents and more generally to industrial effluents. Testing protocols and data analysis have been examined and repeatability and reproducibility issues are discussed

  20. Development of emission factors from municipal solid waste incinerators in 'regione Lombardia' and their use in the Italian dioxin inventory; Sviluppo di fattori di emissione da inceneritori di rifiuti urbani lombardi e loro applicazione all'intervento nazionale delle diossine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pastorelli, G. [Fondazione Lombardia per l' Ambiente, Milan (Italy); De Lauretis, R. [Agenzia Nazionale per la Protezione dell' Ambiente, Rome (Italy); De Stefanis, P. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, S. Maria di Galeria, RM (Italy); Fanelli, R. [Istituto Ricerche Farmacologiche Mario Negri, Milan (Italy); Martines, C. [Azienda Sanitaria Locale Milan, Unita' Ospedaliera Chimica PMIP, Milan (Italy); Morselli, L. [Bologna Univ., Bologna (Italy). Dipt. Chimica Industriale e dei Materiali; Pistone, L. [Siirtec Nigi Spa, Milan (Italy); Viviano, G. [Istituto Superiore di Sanita' , Rome (Italy)

    2001-01-01

    PCDD/F air emission factors (EFs) from municipal solid waste (MSW) incinerators are commonly found in the literature from handful of sources, but widely accepted values of PCDD/F air EFs still lack for Italian MSW incinerators. This is one of the reason why an Italian PCDD/F air emission inventory still lacks too. Seven facilities (located in Regione Lombardia) were chosen in order to produce a first assessment of field-based on literature EFs. This careful assessment allows to obtain a reasonable estimation of total annual PCCD/F air emissions from the 38 Italian MSW incinerators in 1997 (11.5 gI-TEQ y{sup -}1). This value will decrease to 5.6-8.5 gI-TEQ y{sup -}1 even if MSW incinerators will comply with the 0.1 mgI-TEQ Nm{sup -}3 air emission limit value, recently came into force in Italy. Moreover, a sharp reduction of the emission-to-energy ratio from 26.53 to 0.88-1.12 mgI-TEQ GWh{sup -}1 will be expected, due to the mandatory use of energy recovery devices since January 1999. [Italian] Mentre i fattori di emissione (FE) in atmosfera di policlorodibenzo-p-diossine (PCDD) e policlorodibenzofurani (PCDF) da inceneritori di rifiuti urbani (RU) sono abbastanza diffusamente riportati nella letteratura tecnica internazionale, esiste invece ancora una assoluta carenza di dati a livello nazionale. Lo stesso puo' dirsi per gli inventari nazionali di emissioni di PCDD/F in atmosfera. E' questo il motivo per cui sono stati individuati sette inceneritori lombardi, per i quali erano disponibili sufficienti dati su base storica (1991-1997), al fine di effettuare una stima diretta dei FE da applicarsi all'inventario nazionale delle diossine. Sulla base dei FE cosi' calcolati e di altri FE riportati in letteratura si e' potuta determinare una emissione globale annua dai 38 inceneritori di RU (Rifiuti Urbani) operanti in Italia nel 1997 di 11,5 gI-TEQ anno{sup -}1. Tale emissione si potra' ridurre a 5,6-8,5 gI-TEQ anno {sup -}1 nel prossimo

  1. USDOE radioactive waste incineration technology: status review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borduin, L.C.; Taboas, A.L.

    1980-01-01

    Early attempts were made to incinerate radioactive wastes met with operation and equipment problems such as feed preparation, corrosion, inadequate off-gas cleanup, incomplete combustion, and isotope containment. The US Department of Energy (DOE) continues to sponsor research, development, and the eventual demonstration of radioactive waste incineration. In addition, several industries are developing proprietary incineration system designs to meet other specific radwaste processing requirements. Although development efforts continue, significant results are available for the nuclear community and the general public to draw on in planning. This paper presents an introduction to incineration concerns, and an overview of the prominent radwaste incineration processes being developed within DOE. Brief process descriptions, status and goals of individual incineration systems, and planned or potential applications are also included

  2. Savannah River Plant low-level waste incinerator demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tallman, J.A.

    1984-01-01

    A two-year demonstration facility was constructed at the Savannah River Plant (SRP) to incinerate suspect contaminated solid and low-level solvent wastes. Since startup in January 1984, 4460 kilograms and 5300 liters of simulated (uncontaminated) solid and solvent waste have been incinerated to establish the technical and operating data base for the facility. Combustion safeguards have been enhanced, process controls and interlocks refined, some materials handling problems identified and operating experience gained as a result of the 6 month cold run-in. Volume reductions of 20:1 for solid and 25:1 for solvent waste have been demonstrated. Stack emissions (NO 2 , SO 2 , CO, and particulates) were only 0.5% of the South Carolina ambient air quality standards. Radioactive waste processing is scheduled to begin in July 1984. 2 figures, 2 tables

  3. Waste-to-energy incineration plants as greenhouse gas reducers: a case study of seven Japanese metropolises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabata, Tomohiro

    2013-11-01

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration is a greenhouse gas (GHG) emitter; however, if GHG reductions, achieved by accounting for waste-to-energy, exceed GHG emissions, incineration can be considered as a net GHG reducer. In Japan, only 24.5% of MSW incineration plants perform energy recovery despite 80% of MSW being incinerated; therefore, there is great potential to extract more energy from MSW. In this study, the factors that should be considered to achieve net GHG reductions from incineration were analysed from a life cycle perspective. These considerations were then applied to the energy supply requirements in seven Japanese metropolises. Firstly, the carbon footprints of approximately 1500 incineration plants in Japan were calculated. Then, the incineration plants with negative carbon footprint values were classified as net GHG reducers. Next, the processes that contribute to the carbon footprint were evaluated, and two processes-plastic burning and electricity savings-were found to have the greatest influence. Based on the results, the energy supply requirements were analysed and discussed for seven metropolises (Sapporo, Tokyo, Nagoya, Osaka, Kobe, Takamatsu and Fukuoka) taking into account the energy demands of households. In Kobe, 16.2% of the electricity demand and 25.0% of the hot water demand could be satisfied by incineration to realise a net GHG reducer, although urban design for energy utilisation would be required.

  4. Application of a novel reference material in an international round robin test on material emissions testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, W; Richter, M; Nohr, M; Wilke, O; Jann, O

    2018-01-01

    Emission testing of products is currently a rapidly increasing field of measurement activity. Labeling procedures for construction products are based on such emission test chamber measurements, and hence, measurement performance should be verified. One possible route is to conduct testing of one material in different laboratories within a round robin test (RRT), ideally using homogeneous reference materials, which can be used within interlaboratory studies or as part of the quality management system to ensure comparable results. The applicability of a lacquer system with nine added VOCs (hexanal, styrene, n-decane, limonene, 2-ethyl-1-hexanol, N-methyl-α-pyrrolidone, 2-ethylhexyl acrylate, dimethyl phthalate, and n-hexadecane) was evaluated in an international RRT with 55 participating laboratories. An intralaboratory quality check confirmed the homogeneity and reproducibility of the lacquer material for most of the compounds (RSD 5%-6%), which was confirmed in the RRT. However, emissions varied for the polar compound N-methyl-α-pyrrolidone and the higher boiling compounds 1,2-dimethyl phthalate, and n-hexadecane which could be traced back to analytical issues. In the RRT, the interlaboratory relative standard deviations (RSDs) ranged from 30% to 65% for all participants but for reference laboratories the range was between 20% and 45%. © 2017 The Authors. Indoor Air published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Incineration experience at Oconee Nuclear Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terrell, M.S.

    1986-01-01

    The Radwaste Facility at Oconee Nuclear Station contains a Fluidized Bed Dryer/Incinerator System which will be used to process contaminated trash (DAW), oil, powdex resin, and chemical cleaning waste. This system was designed by Aerojet Energy Conversion Company. The ash and salts resulting from this process will be solidified using the Stock Equipment Company Polymer Solidification System. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the results of start-up and pre-operational testing of these systems, describe the mass balance program the authors will be using to meet the requirements of 10CFR61, and to discuss the sampling of the ash and salts that will be produced as a result of the process. Additionally, tests which are designed to verify the mass balance for the Aeroject System, are discussed

  6. Controlled air incinerator conceptual design study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    This report presents a conceptual design study for a controlled air incinerator facility for incineration of low level combustible waste at Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2). The facility design is based on the use of a Helix Process Systems controlled air incinerator. Cost estimates and associated engineering, procurement, and construction schedules are also provided. The cost estimates and schedules are presented for two incinerator facility designs, one with provisions for waste ash solidification, the other with provisions for packaging the waste ash for transport to an undefined location

  7. Offgas treatment for radioactive waste incinerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stretz, L.A.; Koenig, R.A.

    1980-01-01

    Incineration of radioactive materials for resource recovery or waste volume reduction is recognized as an effective waste treatment method that will increase in usage and importance throughout the nuclear industry. The offgas cleanup subsystem of an incineration process is essential to ensure radionuclide containment and protection of the environment. Several incineration processes and associated offgas cleanup systems are discussed along with potential application of commercial pollution control components to radioactive service. Problems common to radioactive waste incinerator offgas service are identified and areas of needed research and development effort are noted

  8. Arc plasma incineration of surrogate radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girold, C.; Cartier, R.; Taupiac, J.P.; Vandensteendam, C.; Baronnet, J.M.

    1995-01-01

    The aim of this presentation is to demonstrate the feasibility to substitute a single plasma reactor, where the arc is transferred on a melt glass bath, for several steps in an existing nuclear technological wastes incinerator. The incineration of wastes, the produced gas treatment and the vitrification of ashes issued from waste incineration are the three simultaneous functions of this new kind of reactor. The three steps of the work are described: first, post-combustion in an oxygen plasma of gases generated from the waste pyrolysis, then, vitrification of ashes from the calcination of wastes in the transferred plasma furnace and finally, incineration/vitrification of wastes in the same furnace

  9. Incineration process fire and explosion protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziegler, D.L.

    1975-01-01

    Two incinerators will be installed in the plutonium recovery facility under construction at the Rocky Flats Plant. The fire and explosion protection features designed into the incineration facility are discussed as well as the nuclear safety and radioactive material containment features. Even though the incinerator system will be tied into an emergency power generation system, a potential hazard is associated with a 60-second delay in obtaining emergency power from a gas turbine driven generator. This hazard is eliminated by the use of steam jet ejectors to provide normal gas flow through the incinerator system during the 60 s power interruption. (U.S.)

  10. Controlled-air incineration of transuranic-contaminated solid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borduin, L.C.; Draper, W.E.; Koenig, R.A.; Neuls, A.S.; Warner, C.L.

    1976-01-01

    A controlled-air incinerator and an associated high-energy aqueous off-gas cleaning system are being installed at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) Transuranic Waste Treatment Development Facility (TDF) for evaluation as a low-level transuranic-contaminated (TRU) solid waste volume reduction process. Program objectives are: (1) assembly and operation of a production scale (45 kg/hr) operation of ''off-the-shelf'' components representative of current incineration and pollution control technology; (2) process development and modification to meet radioactive health and safety standards, and (3) evaluation of the process to define the advantages and limitations of conventional technology. The results of the program will be the design specifications and operating procedures necessary for successful incineration of TRU waste. Testing, with nonradioactive waste, will begin in October 1976. This discussion covers commercially available incinerator and off-gas cleaning components, the modifications required for radioactive service, process components performance expectations, and a description of the LASL experimental program

  11. Mercury Emission Control Technologies for PPL Montana-Colstrip Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John P. Kay; Michael L. Jones; Steven A. Benson

    2007-04-01

    The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) was asked by PPL Montana LLC (PPL) to provide assistance and develop an approach to identify cost-effective options for mercury control at its coal-fired power plants. The work conducted focused on baseline mercury level and speciation measurement, short-term parametric testing, and week long testing of mercury control technology at Colstrip Unit 3. Three techniques and various combinations of these techniques were identified as viable options for mercury control. The options included oxidizing agents or sorbent enhancement additives (SEAs) such as chlorine-based SEA1 and an EERC proprietary SEA2 with and without activated carbon injection. Baseline mercury emissions from Colstrip Unit 3 are comparatively low relative to other Powder River Basin (PRB) coal-fired systems and were found to range from 5 to 6.5 g/Nm3 (2.9 to 3.8 lb/TBtu), with a rough value of approximately 80% being elemental upstream of the scrubber and higher than 95% being elemental at the outlet. Levels in the stack were also greater than 95% elemental. Baseline mercury removal across the scrubber is fairly variable but generally tends to be about 5% to 10%. Parametric results of carbon injection alone yielded minimal reduction in Hg emissions. SEA1 injection resulted in 20% additional reduction over baseline with the maximum rate of 400 ppm (3 gal/min). Week long testing was conducted with the combination of SEA2 and carbon, with injection rates of 75 ppm (10.3 lb/hr) and 1.5 lb/MMacf (40 lb/hr), respectively. Reduction was found to be an additional 30% and, overall during the testing period, was measured to be 38% across the scrubber. The novel additive injection method, known as novel SEA2, is several orders of magnitude safer and less expensive than current SEA2 injection methods. However, used in conjunction with this plant configuration, the technology did not demonstrate a significant level of mercury reduction. Near-future use of this

  12. Diffusion-controlled reference material for VOC emissions testing: proof of concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, S S; Liu, Z; Little, J C; Howard-Reed, C; Nabinger, S J; Persily, A

    2010-10-01

    Because of concerns about indoor air quality, there is growing awareness of the need to reduce the rate at which indoor materials and products emit volatile organic compounds (VOCs). To meet consumer demand for low emitting products, manufacturers are increasingly submitting materials to independent laboratories for emissions testing. However, the same product tested by different laboratories can result in very different emissions profiles because of a general lack of test validation procedures. There is a need for a reference material that can be used as a known emissions source and that will have the same emission rate when tested by different laboratories under the same conditions. A reference material was created by loading toluene into a polymethyl pentene film. A fundamental emissions model was used to predict the toluene emissions profile. Measured VOC emissions profiles using small-chamber emissions tests compared reasonably well to the emissions profile predicted using the emissions model, demonstrating the feasibility of the proposed approach to create a diffusion-controlled reference material. To calibrate emissions test chambers and improve the reproducibility of VOC emission measurements among different laboratories, a reference material has been created using a polymer film loaded with a representative VOC. Initial results show that the film's VOC emission profile measured in a conventional test chamber compares well to predictions based on independently determined material/chemical properties and a fundamental emissions model. The use of such reference materials has the potential to build consensus and confidence in emissions testing as well as 'level the playing field' for product testing laboratories and manufacturers.

  13. Experimental study of the energy efficiency of an incinerator for medical waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bujak, J.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to explore the flux of usable energy and the coefficient of energy efficiency of an incinerator for medical waste combustion. The incineration facility incorporates a heat recovery system. The installation consists of a loading unit, a combustion chamber, a thermoreactor chamber, and a recovery boiler. The analysis was carried out in the Oncological Hospital in Bydgoszcz (Poland). The primary fuel was comprised of medical waste, with natural gas used as a secondary fuel. The study shows that one can obtain about 660-800 kW of usable energy from 100 kg of medical waste. This amount corresponds to 1000-1200 kg of saturated steam, assuming that the incinerator operates at a heat load above φ > 65%. The average heat flux in additional fuel used for incinerating 100 kg of waste was 415 kW. The coefficient of energy efficiency was set within the range of 47% and 62% depending on the incinerator load. The tests revealed that the flux of usable energy and the coefficient of energy efficiency depend on the incinerator load. In the investigated range of the heat load, this dependence is significant. When the heat load of the incinerator increases, the flux of usable energy and the coefficient of energy efficiency also increase.

  14. Thermal treatment of soil co-contaminated with lube oil and heavy metals in a low-temperature two-stage fluidized bed incinerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samaksaman, Ukrit; Peng, Tzu-Huan; Kuo, Jia-Hong; Lu, Chien-Hsing; Wey, Ming-Yen

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Low-temperature two-stage fluidized bed incineration was applied for soil remediation. • Co-firing of polyethylene with co-contaminated soil was studied. • Co-firing of polyethylene in soil remediation can promote residue quality. • The leachability of heavy metals passed the regulatory threshold values. - Abstract: This study presents the application of a low-temperature two-stage fluidized bed incinerator to remediate contaminants in the soil. The system was designed to control emissions of both gaseous pollutants and heavy metals during combustion. Soil co-contaminated with lube oil and heavy metals such as cadmium, chromium, copper, and lead was examined. Experiments were conducted by estimating various parameters such as operating temperature in the first-stage reactor (500–700 °C), ratio of sand bed height/diameter in the second-stage reactor (H/D: 3, 4, 6), and gas velocity (0.21–0.29 m/s). Heavy metal and gaseous pollutant emissions were also investigated during contaminated soil co-firing with polyethylene. The experimental results indicated that the destruction and removal efficiency of lube oil in treated soil products ranged from 98.27 to 99.93%. On the other hand, leaching tests of bottom ashes illustrated that heavy metals such as chromium, copper, and lead in leachates were complied with the regulations. For gaseous emissions, carbon monoxide concentrations decreased apparently with increasing ratio of sand bed height/diameter in the second-stage reactor. The increase of gas velocity had significant potential to generate the lowest carbon monoxide and particulate matter emissions. Nevertheless, during co-firing with polyethylene, emissions of organic pollutants such as benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons decrease by using the low-temperature two-stage fluidized bed incineration system.

  15. Ready, set,...quit exclamation point A review of the controlled-air incinerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reader, G.E.

    1996-01-01

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Controlled-Air Incinerator (CAI) has had a long and productive past as a research and development tool. It now appears that use of the CAI to treat LANL legacy and other wastes under the Federal Facilities Compliance Act is no longer viable due to numerous programmatic problems. This paper will review the history of the CAI. Various aspects associated with the CAI and how those aspects resulted in the loss of this Department of Energy asset as a viable waste treatment option will also be discussed. Included are past missions and tests-CAI capabilities, emissions, and permits; Federal Facility Compliance Act and associated Agreement; National Environmental Policy Act coverage; cost; budget impacts; public perception; the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Combustion Strategy; Independent Technical Review open-quotes Redclose quotes Team review; waste treatment alternative technologies; the New Mexico Environment Department; and future options and issues

  16. Nevada Test Site National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants - Radionuclide Emissions Calendar Year 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warren, Ronald; Grossman, Robert F.

    2009-01-01

    The Nevada Test Site (NTS) is operated by the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office. From 1951 through 1992, the NTS was the continental testing location for U.S. nuclear weapons. The release of radionuclides from NTS activities has been monitored since the initiation of atmospheric testing. Limitation to under-ground detonations after 1962 greatly reduced radiation exposure to the public surrounding the NTS. After nuclear testing ended in 1992, NTS radiation monitoring focused on detecting airborne radionuclides from historically contaminated soils. These radionuclides are derived from re-suspension of soil (primarily by winds) and emission of tritium-contaminated soil moisture through evapotranspiration. Low amounts of tritium were also emitted to air at the North Las Vegas Facility (NLVF), an NTS support complex in the city of North Las Vegas. To protect the public from harmful levels of man-made radiation, the Clean Air Act, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) (Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 61 Subpart H) (CFR, 2008a) limits the release of radioactivity from a U.S. Department of Energy facility (e.g., the NTS) to 10 millirem per year (mrem/yr) effective dose equivalent to any member of the public. This limit does not include radiation not related to NTS activities. Unrelated doses could come from naturally occurring radioactive elements or from other man-made sources such as medical treatments. The NTS demonstrates compliance with the NESHAP limit by using environmental measurements of radionuclide air concentrations at critical receptor locations. This method was approved by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for use on the NTS in 2001 and has been the sole method used since 2005. Six locations on the NTS have been established to act as critical receptor locations to demonstrate compliance with the NESHAP limit. These locations are actually pseudo

  17. Waste incineration and immobilization for nuclear facilities. Status report, April-September 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, A.J.; Williams, P.M.; Burkhardt, S.C.; Ledford, J.A.; Gallagher, K.Y.

    1980-01-01

    The fluidized bed incinerator and waste immobilization processes are being developed to process various liquid and solid wastes that are generated by a nuclear facility. The versatility of the incinerator liquid waste handling system has been enhanced by recent changes made in the pumping and related piping system. Tributyl phosphate-solvent incineration has been evaluated thoroughly using the pilot plant fluidized bed incinerator. Vitrified glass pellets were made to determine operating parameters of a resistance-heated reactor and to produce samples for testing. Procedures were developed for testing the product pellets. A simplified start-up procedure was devised as development continued on a second type of reactor, the Joule-heated melter

  18. Guide of Evaluation of the Operation of Incinerators of Solid Waste in Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrera Sanchez, J.

    2001-01-01

    This project has as general objective to prepare, in accordance with the effective Costa Rica legislation, a guide to evaluate the operation of incinerators of solid waste in Costa Rica. For this, it was necessary to define the parameters and approaches to evaluate the operation of an incineration center, as well as to investigate the regulations related with the topic in our country and to detail the technical specifications of equipment of this nature.The guide embraces such aspects as the specifications of the equipment and chimney, the type of waste to incinerate, the control of gassy emissions and the administration of the scums, distributed in several sections: administration, legislation, waste type, details technician, control and operation. Initially, the state of operation of an incinerator belonging to a hospital center and the project of energy recycling that impels the National Industry of Cements are evaluated. A study of the current state of the incineration of waste in the country must monitor the gassy emissions, the variables of the water heater-chemical process and the operation conditions. For limitations in the availability of the data and for the non existence of similar studies in the country, some of the parameters proposed in the guide are not evaluated. According to spokesmen of the Ministry of Public Health, only five incinerators operate in the country. Of these, none has location permission, construction or sanitary permission of operation, and data on their operation conditions are not carried, neither control of the incinerated waste is taken, of its operation frequency and even less the generated gassy emissions. It is necessary to adapt the standards of emission of Costa Rica (PRONASA Report) to the international standards, incorporating new pollutants (dioxins, furanos) and appropriating the existent ones (solid particles). In the case of our country, the incineration should be constituted in a stage of the process of integral

  19. Behavior of cesium in municipal solid waste incineration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oshita, Kazuyuki; Aoki, Hiroshi; Fukutani, Satoshi; Shiota, Kenji; Fujimori, Takashi; Takaoka, Masaki

    2015-01-01

    As a result of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident on March 11, 2011 in Japan radioactive nuclides, primarily 134 Cs and 137 Cs were released, contaminating municipal solid waste and sewage sludge in the area. Although stabilizing the waste and reducing its volume is an important issue differing from Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident, secondary emission of radioactive nuclides as a result of any intermediate remediation process is of concern. Unfortunately, there is little research on the behavior of radioactive nuclides during waste treatment. This study focuses on waste incineration in an effort to clarify the behavior of radioactive nuclides, specifically, refuse-derived fuel (RDF) with added 133 Cs (stable nuclide) or 134 Cs (radioactive nuclide) was incinerated in laboratory- and pilot-scale experiments. Next, thermogravimetric (TG) and differential thermal analysis (DTA) of stable Cs compounds, as well as an X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) analysis of Cs concentrated in the ashes were performed to validate the behavior and chemical forms of Cs during the combustion. Our results showed that at higher temperatures and at larger equivalence ratios, 133 Cs was distributed to the bottom ash at lower concentration, and the influence of the equivalence ratio was more significant at lower temperatures. 134 Cs behaved in a similar fashion as 133 Cs. We found through TG–DTA and XAFS analysis that a portion of Cs in RDF vaporizes and is transferred to fly ash where it exists as CsCl in the MSW incinerator. We conclude that Cs-contaminated municipal solid wastes could be incinerated at high temperatures resulting in a small amount of fly ash with a high concentration of radioactive Cs, and a bottom ash with low concentrations. - Highlights: • Behaviors of Cs on the incineration of the model waste were investigated. • More Cs was moved to fly ash with increasing of equivalence ratio and temperature. • Chemical forms of Cs in the fly ash

  20. Process modeling study of the CIF incinerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hang, T.

    1995-01-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) plans to begin operating the Consolidated Incineration Facility (CIF) in 1996. The CIF will treat liquid and solid low-level radioactive, mixed and RCRA hazardous wastes generated at SRS. In addition to experimental test programs, process modeling was applied to provide guidance in areas of safety, environmental regulation compliances, process improvement and optimization. A steady-state flowsheet model was used to calculate material/energy balances and to track key chemical constituents throughout the process units. Dynamic models were developed to predict the CIF transient characteristics in normal and abnormal operation scenarios. Predictions include the rotary kiln heat transfer, dynamic responses of the CIF to fluctuations in the solid waste feed or upsets in the system equipments, performance of the control system, air inleakage in the kiln, etc. This paper reviews the modeling study performed to assist in the deflagration risk assessment

  1. Design of a Pu-238 waste incineration process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charlesworth, D.L.; McCampbell, R.B.

    1985-01-01

    Combustible 238 Pu waste is generated as a result of normal operation and decommissioning activity at the Savannah River Plant and is being retrievably stored at the Plant. As part of the long-term plan to process the stored waste and current waste in preparation for future disposition, a 238 Pu incinceration process is being cold-tested at SRL. The incineration process consists of a continuous-feed preparation system, a two-stage, electrically fired incinerator, and a filtration off-gas system. Process equipment has been designed, fabricated, and installed for nonradioactive testing and cold run-in. Design features to maximize the ability to remotely maintain the equipment were incorporated into the process. Interlock, alarm, and control functions are provided by a programmable controller. Cold testing is scheduled to be completed in 1986

  2. Acoustic emission monitoring of the bending under tension test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moghadam, Marcel; Sulaiman, Mohd Hafis Bin; Christiansen, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Preliminary investigations have shown that acoustic emission has promising aspects as an online monitoring technique for assessment of tribological conditions during metal forming as regards to determination of the onset of galling. In the present study the acoustic emission measuring technique has...

  3. Materials for Waste Incinerators and Biomass Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rademakers, P.; Grossmann, G.; Karlsson, A.

    1998-01-01

    This paper reviews the projects of the sub-package on waste incineration and biomass firing carried out within COST 501 Round III, Work Package 13.......This paper reviews the projects of the sub-package on waste incineration and biomass firing carried out within COST 501 Round III, Work Package 13....

  4. FUEL-EFFICIENT SEWAGE SLUDGE INCINERATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    A study was performed to evaluate the status of incineration with low fuel use as a sludge disposal technology. The energy requirements, life-cycle costs, operation and maintenance requirements, and process capabilities of four sludge incineration facilities were evaluated. These...

  5. Possibilities for adjustable power from waste incineration plants; Mulighed for regulerkraft fra affaldsforbraendingsanlaeg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-12-15

    This report presents results, methods and more from a project which has examined the technical possibilities present in the waste incineration sector for offering standby regulating power in the form of regulated reduction of power production when there is surplus production. An important element has been to test different regulation strategies on a waste incineration plant with steam turbine system, thus identify the strategies which would be optimal for operations and most efficient in connection with a fast regulation of power production. (BA)

  6. 40 CFR 1060.521 - How do I test fuel caps for permeation emissions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... tank and fuel cap meet emission standards by certifying them separately or by combining the separate... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How do I test fuel caps for permeation... EQUIPMENT Test Procedures § 1060.521 How do I test fuel caps for permeation emissions? If you measure a fuel...

  7. 40 CFR 1045.501 - How do I run a valid emission test?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How do I run a valid emission test... Procedures § 1045.501 How do I run a valid emission test? (a) Applicability. This subpart is addressed to you... maximum test speed. (g) Special and alternate procedures. If you are unable to run the duty cycle...

  8. 40 CFR 1054.501 - How do I run a valid emission test?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How do I run a valid emission test... Procedures § 1054.501 How do I run a valid emission test? (a) Applicability. This subpart is addressed to you... provisions of 40 CFR 1065.405 describes how to prepare an engine for testing. However, you may consider...

  9. Organic household waste - incineration or recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The Danish Environmental Protection Agency has carried out a cost benefit analysis of the consequences of increasing recycling of organic household waste. In the cost benefit analysis both the economic consequences for the affected parties and the welfare-economic consequences for the society as a whole have been investigated. In the welfare-economic analysis the value of the environmental effects has been included. The analysis shows that it is more expensive for the society to recycle organic household waste by anaerobic digestion or central composting than by incineration. Incineration is the cheapest solution for the society, while central composting is the most expensive. Furthermore, technical studies have shown that there are only small environmental benefits connected with anaerobic digestion of organic waste compared with incineration of the waste. The primary reason for recycling being more expensive than incineration is the necessary, but cost-intensive, dual collection of the household waste. Treatment itself is cheaper for recycling compared to incinerating. (BA)

  10. Auditing hazardous waste incineration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayanty, R.K.M.; Allen, J.M.; Sokol, C.K.; von Lehmden, D.J.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports that audit standards consisting of volatile and semivoltile organics have been established by the EPA to be provided to federal, state, and local agencies or their contractors for use in performance audits to assess the accuracy of measurement methods used during hazardous waste trial burns. The volatile organic audit standards currently total 29 gaseous organics in 5, 6, 7, 9, and 18-component mixtures at part-per-billion (ppb) levels (1 to 10 000 ppb) in compressed gas cylinders in a balance gas of nitrogen. The semivoltile organic audit standards currently total six organics which are spiked onto XAD-2 cartridges for auditing analysis procedures. Studies of all organic standards have been performed to determine the stability of the compounds and the feasibility of using them as performance audit materials. Results as of July 1987 indicate that all of the selected organic compounds are adequately stabile for use as reliable audit materials. Performance audits have been conducted with the audit materials to assess the accuracy of the measurement methods. To date, 160 performance audits have been initiated with the ppb-level audit gases. The audit results obtained with audit gases during hazardous waste trial burn tests were generally within ±50% of the audit concentrations. A limited number of audit results have been obtained with spiked XAD-2 cartridges, and the results have generally been within ±35% of the audit concentrations

  11. Behavior of cesium in municipal solid waste incineration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshita, Kazuyuki; Aoki, Hiroshi; Fukutani, Satoshi; Shiota, Kenji; Fujimori, Takashi; Takaoka, Masaki

    2015-05-01

    As a result of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident on March 11, 2011 in Japan radioactive nuclides, primarily (134)Cs and (137)Cs were released, contaminating municipal solid waste and sewage sludge in the area. Although stabilizing the waste and reducing its volume is an important issue differing from Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident, secondary emission of radioactive nuclides as a result of any intermediate remediation process is of concern. Unfortunately, there is little research on the behavior of radioactive nuclides during waste treatment. This study focuses on waste incineration in an effort to clarify the behavior of radioactive nuclides, specifically, refuse-derived fuel (RDF) with added (133)Cs (stable nuclide) or (134)Cs (radioactive nuclide) was incinerated in laboratory- and pilot-scale experiments. Next, thermogravimetric (TG) and differential thermal analysis (DTA) of stable Cs compounds, as well as an X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) analysis of Cs concentrated in the ashes were performed to validate the behavior and chemical forms of Cs during the combustion. Our results showed that at higher temperatures and at larger equivalence ratios, (133)Cs was distributed to the bottom ash at lower concentration, and the influence of the equivalence ratio was more significant at lower temperatures. (134)Cs behaved in a similar fashion as (133)Cs. We found through TG-DTA and XAFS analysis that a portion of Cs in RDF vaporizes and is transferred to fly ash where it exists as CsCl in the MSW incinerator. We conclude that Cs-contaminated municipal solid wastes could be incinerated at high temperatures resulting in a small amount of fly ash with a high concentration of radioactive Cs, and a bottom ash with low concentrations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Shredder and incinerator technology for volume reduction of commercial transuranic wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oma, K.H.

    1986-06-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is evaluating alternatives and developing technology for treatment of radioactive wastes generated during commercial nuclear activities. Transuranic wastes that require volume reduction include spent HEPA filters, sample and analytical cell waste, and general process trash. A review of current technologies for volume reduction of these wastes led to the selection and testing of several low-speed shredder systems and three candidate incineration processes. The incinerators tested were the electrically heated control-led-air, gas-heated controlled-air, and rotary kiln. Equipment tests were conducted using simulated commercial transuranic wastes to provide a data base for the comparison of the various technologies. The electrically driven, low-speed shredder process was selected as the preferred method for size reduction of the wastes prior to incineration. All three incinerators effectively reduced the waste volume. Based on a technical and economic evaluation on the incineration processes, the recommended system for the commercial waste application is the gas-heated controlled-air incinerator with a single stage of shredding for feed pretreatment

  13. Apparatus for incinerating hazardous waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, R.C.W.

    1994-12-20

    An apparatus is described for incinerating wastes, including an incinerator having a combustion chamber, a fluid-tight shell enclosing the combustion chamber, an afterburner, an off-gas particulate removal system and an emergency off-gas cooling system. The region between the inner surface of the shell and the outer surface of the combustion chamber forms a cavity. Air is supplied to the cavity and heated as it passes over the outer surface of the combustion chamber. Heated air is drawn from the cavity and mixed with fuel for input into the combustion chamber. The pressure in the cavity is maintained at least approximately 2.5 cm WC higher than the pressure in the combustion chamber. Gases cannot leak from the combustion chamber since the pressure outside the chamber (inside the cavity) is higher than the pressure inside the chamber. The apparatus can be used to treat any combustible wastes, including biological wastes, toxic materials, low level radioactive wastes, and mixed hazardous and low level transuranic wastes. 1 figure.

  14. Suicide by self-incineration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth, Peter Mygind; Hardt-Madsen, Michael

    1997-01-01

    During a 10-year period (1980-1989), at least 43 cases of self-incineration with lethal outcome took place in Denmark. The incidence seems to be increasing: 11 cases took place in the first 5 years and 32 cases in the last 5 years. An even sex ratio as found (male:female = 23:20). The median age...... was 43 years, with a broad age range (20-87). Many incidents of self-incineration as a form of political protest were reported in the press especially during the 1960s and 1970s, and the press reports often inspired others to commit suicide in the same way. None of the cases in our investigation were...... victims were of Danish origin, and a religious motive played no significant role. Most of the victims were suffering from mental illness, and a majority had tried to commit suicide before. None of the victims left a suicide note. The scene was most often at home and indoors--only a minority committed...

  15. Air quality around of incineration plan of solid urban wastes; Calidad del aire en el entorno de una incineradora de residuos solidos urbanos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mateu Barcelo, J.; Mas Torres, F.; Cerda Martin, V.; Colom-Altes, M.; Oms Molla, M.T.

    1996-12-01

    The measuring surveillance and control of incineration plant of urban solid wastes in San Reus has the main mission on the control of quality air in this are. The present study analyzes the data of emission of metal wastes. (Author)

  16. The environmental comparison of landfilling vs. incineration of MSW accounting for waste diversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assamoi, Bernadette; Lawryshyn, Yuri

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Residential waste diversion initiatives are more successful with organic waste. ► Using a incineration to manage part of the waste is better environmentally. ► Incineration leads to more power plant emission offsets. ► Landfilling all of the waste would be preferred financially. - Abstract: This study evaluates the environmental performance and discounted costs of the incineration and landfilling of municipal solid waste that is ready for the final disposal while accounting for existing waste diversion initiatives, using the life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology. Parameters such as changing waste generation quantities, diversion rates and waste composition were also considered. Two scenarios were assessed in this study on how to treat the waste that remains after diversion. The first scenario is the status quo, where the entire residual waste was landfilled whereas in the second scenario approximately 50% of the residual waste was incinerated while the remainder is landfilled. Electricity was produced in each scenario. Data from the City of Toronto was used to undertake this study. Results showed that the waste diversion initiatives were more effective in reducing the organic portion of the waste, in turn, reducing the net electricity production of the landfill while increasing the net electricity production of the incinerator. Therefore, the scenario that incorporated incineration performed better environmentally and contributed overall to a significant reduction in greenhouse gas emissions because of the displacement of power plant emissions; however, at a noticeably higher cost. Although landfilling proves to be the better financial option, it is for the shorter term. The landfill option would require the need of a replacement landfill much sooner. The financial and environmental effects of this expenditure have yet to be considered.

  17. Combined ultrasonic and bioleaching treatment of hospital waste incinerator bottom ash with simultaneous extraction of selected metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anjum, Fozia; Shahid, Muhammad; Bukhari, ShaziaAnwer; Potgieter, J Herman

    2014-01-01

    The mineralogy, as well as elemental composition, of the incinerated hospital waste (HW) ashes are not well known and need to be investigated for the safe handling and disposal of such ash. A study was conducted to investigate the chemical composition, mineralogy and bioleaching of selected metals from incinerated HW bottom ash using Aspergillus niger under the combined effect ofultrasonic radiation. Different techniques were utilized to determine the elemental composition (Electron Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy [EDX], atomic absorption spectrophotometry, inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy, ultraviolet-visible light spectrophotometer) and mineralogy (X-ray Diffraction) of the raw sample, as well as the bioleached samples. Chemical leaching tests were performed to determine the effect of different organic acids on metals dissolution. Microbes were tested for acid production and leaching capabilities of selected metals from medical waste (MW) bottom ash. Wet chemical and EDX analyses showed that the ash was enriched with metallic elements like Na, K, Ca, Fe and Al with a concentration range of 22-115 (g/kg). Furthermore, the ash contained heavy metals such as Cu, Cr, Ni, Sn and Ti in the range of 0.51-21.74 (mg/kg). Citric and oxalic acids generated by fungi could be important leaching agents acting to dissolve these metals. Under ultrasonic treatment, metals dissolution by the acidic metabolites was at its maximum after just 9 d of leaching. The results showed that the dissolution of metals was much higher in citric and oxalic acid than with other acids. Extraction of metals from incinerated MW ash indicated that this ash may be a potential source of metals in the future.

  18. 40 CFR 1039.501 - How do I run a valid emission test?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How do I run a valid emission test? 1039.501 Section 1039.501 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Procedures § 1039.501 How do I run a valid emission test? (a) Use the equipment and procedures for...

  19. Development of the Flame Test Concept Inventory: Measuring Student Thinking about Atomic Emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bretz, Stacey Lowery; Murata Mayo, Ana Vasquez

    2018-01-01

    This study reports the development of a 19-item Flame Test Concept Inventory, an assessment tool to measure students' understanding of atomic emission. Fifty-two students enrolled in secondary and postsecondary chemistry courses were interviewed about atomic emission and explicitly asked to explain flame test demonstrations and energy level…

  20. 40 CFR 1042.501 - How do I run a valid emission test?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE MARINE COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES AND VESSELS... testing is limited to ambient temperatures of 20 to 30 °C. Atmospheric pressure must be between 91.000 and... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How do I run a valid emission test...

  1. Automation and results of Adjacent Band Emission testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Problem Statement : Multiple groups conduct tests in various ways - Outcomes vary based on test setup and assumptions - No standard has been established to conduct such tests - Spectrum is scarce and the need for compliance testing will only increase...

  2. Radwaste incineration, is it ready for use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coplan, B.W.

    1982-01-01

    The incinerator installed at JAERI in 1973 has the record of being operated continually for eight years without noticeable damage even in the refractories. We are convinced that it can be used for along period of time. These incinerators in Japan are now regarded as the useful and reliable waste management facilities, though they are processing the restricted sorts of wastes, such as low level ombustible solids and oils. In the future, incinerators of these types are supposed to increase in number in Japan, and they will continue to contribute as an important volume reduction measure which can also convert the wastes to chemically stable substances

  3. Incineration facilities for treatment of radioactive wastes: a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perkins, B.L.

    1976-02-01

    A description is given of incinerator installations in the US and in foreign countries. Included are descriptions of inactive incinerators, incinerator facilities currently in operation, and incinerator installations under construction. Special features of each installation and operational problems of each facility are emphasized. Problems in the incineration of radioactive waste are discussed in relation to the composition of the waste and the amount and type of radioactive contaminant.

  4. Incineration facilities for treatment of radioactive wastes: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perkins, B.L.

    1976-02-01

    A description is given of incinerator installations in the US and in foreign countries. Included are descriptions of inactive incinerators, incinerator facilities currently in operation, and incinerator installations under construction. Special features of each installation and operational problems of each facility are emphasized. Problems in the incineration of radioactive waste are discussed in relation to the composition of the waste and the amount and type of radioactive contaminant

  5. Life-cycle assessment (EASEWASTE) of two municipal solid waste incineration technologies in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dezhen; Christensen, Thomas H

    2010-06-01

    The environmental profile of two municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) technologies with semi-dry flue gas cleaning, namely grated firing incinerators (GFI) and fluidised bed incinerators (FBI) that are commonly used in China were evaluated and compared by life-cycle assessment (LCA) using the EASEWASTE model. All emissions of key pollutants as well as energy, resource and material inputs and outputs associated with the two MSWI technologies were determined and the corresponding environmental impact potentials were modelled. Incineration of MSW with a lower heating value (LHV) around 4.5 MJ kg(-1) demands that auxiliary fuel is used, and both GFI and FBI caused environmental loads by contributing with environmental impact potentials in most categories except for some saving in global warming (GW100) and hazardous waste (HW). Coal combustion in FBI is a main contributor to the environmental impact potentials and thus should always be limited to a minimum. Auxiliary fuels can be avoided when the LHV of MSW is higher than 5-6 MJ kg(- 1). For all scenarios, GFI saves more global warming potentials than FBI due to its higher net power generation from combustion of MSW itself. Leachate from the bunker could be sprayed into the furnace for evaporation under high temperature, as an alternative to waste-water treatment, without major changes in the environmental profile of the incinerator. The presented evaluations may contribute to a more balanced environmental assessment of the two incineration technologies with respect to incineration of MSW with low heating values as often found in Asia and China.

  6. Waste incineration and adverse birth and neonatal outcomes: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashworth, Danielle C; Elliott, Paul; Toledano, Mireille B

    2014-08-01

    Public concern about potential health risks associated with incineration has prompted studies to investigate the relationship between incineration and risk of cancer, and more recently, birth outcomes. We conducted a systematic review of epidemiologic studies evaluating the relationship between waste incineration and the risk of adverse birth and neonatal outcomes. Literature searches were performed within the MEDLINE database, through PubMed and Ovid interfaces, for the search terms; incineration, birth, reproduction, neonatal, congenital anomalies and all related terms. Here we discuss and critically evaluate the findings of these studies. A comprehensive literature search yielded fourteen studies, encompassing a range of outcomes (including congenital anomalies, birth weight, twinning, stillbirths, sex ratio and infant death), exposure assessment methods and study designs. For congenital anomalies most studies reported no association with proximity to or emissions from waste incinerators and "all anomalies", but weak associations for neural tube and heart defects and stronger associations with facial clefts and urinary tract defects. There is limited evidence for an association between incineration and twinning and no evidence of an association with birth weight, stillbirths or sex ratio, but this may reflect the sparsity of studies exploring these outcomes. The current evidence-base is inconclusive and often limited by problems of exposure assessment, possible residual confounding, lack of statistical power with variability in study design and outcomes. However, we identified a number of higher quality studies reporting significant positive relationships with broad groups of congenital anomalies, warranting further investigation. Future studies should address the identified limitations in order to help improve our understanding of any potential adverse birth outcomes associated with incineration, particularly focussing on broad groups of anomalies, to inform

  7. Incineration of European non-nuclear radioactive waste in the USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moloney, B. P.; Ferguson, D.; Stephenson, B.

    2013-01-01

    Incineration of dry low level radioactive waste from nuclear stations is a well established process achieving high volume reduction factors to minimise disposal costs and to stabilise residues for disposal. Incineration has also been applied successfully in many European Union member countries to wastes arising from use of radionuclides in medicine, nonnuclear research and industry. However, some nations have preferred to accumulate wastes over many years in decay stores to reduce the radioactive burden at point of processing. After decay and sorting the waste, they then require a safe, industrial scale and affordable processing solution for the large volumes accumulated. This paper reports the regulatory, logistical and technical issues encountered in a programme delivered for Eckert and Ziegler Nuclitec to incinerate safely 100 te of waste collected originally from German research, hospital and industrial centres, applying for the first time a 'burn and return' process model for European waste in the US. The EnergySolutions incinerators at Bear Creek, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA routinely incinerate waste arising from the non-nuclear user community. To address the requirement from Germany, EnergySolutions had to run a dedicated campaign to reduce cross-contamination with non-German radionuclides to the practical minimum. The waste itself had to be sampled in a carefully controlled programme to ensure the exacting standards of Bear Creek's license and US emissions laws were maintained. Innovation was required in packaging of the waste to minimise transportation costs, including sea freight. The incineration was inspected on behalf of the German regulator (the BfS) to ensure suitability for return to Germany and disposal. This first 'burn and return' programme has safely completed the incineration phase in February and the arising ash will be returned to Germany presently. The paper reports the main findings and lessons learned on this first

  8. Innovative use of recovered municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash as a component in growing media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sormunen, Annika; Teo, Kanniainen; Tapio, Salo; Riina, Rantsi

    2016-07-01

    The utilisation of municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash has been extensively studied, for example, in the unbound layers of roads and the products of cement and concrete industry. On the other hand, less attention has been given to other innovative utilisation possibilities, such as using the municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash as a component in growing media of plants. The municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash contains useful substances, such as calcium, that can influence plant growth in a positive manner. Therefore, the utilisation of this waste-derived material in the growing media may substitute the use of commercial fertilisers. Since the municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash also contains hazardous substances that can be toxic to plants, the main aim of this study was to add different amounts of recovered municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash in the growing media and to evaluate the effect of this material on plant growth. Based on the obtained results, the concentration of, for example copper and zinc, increased in test plants; ryegrass and barley, when recovered municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash was added in their growing media. On the other hand, this did not have a significant effect on plant growth, if compared with the growth of plants in commercially produced growing medium. Furthermore, the replacement of natural sand with municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash had a positive liming effect in the growing media. Overall, these findings suggest that the utilisation of recovered municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash as a component in growing media is possible and, thus, may allow more widespread and innovative use of this waste-derived material. © The Author(s) 2016.

  9. Suicide by self-incineration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth, Peter Mygind; Hardt-Madsen, Michael

    1997-01-01

    was 43 years, with a broad age range (20-87). Many incidents of self-incineration as a form of political protest were reported in the press especially during the 1960s and 1970s, and the press reports often inspired others to commit suicide in the same way. None of the cases in our investigation were...... victims were of Danish origin, and a religious motive played no significant role. Most of the victims were suffering from mental illness, and a majority had tried to commit suicide before. None of the victims left a suicide note. The scene was most often at home and indoors--only a minority committed...... suicide in remote areas of the countryside. Most were found dead at the scene, and the cause of death was usually heat exposure. Only a minority had a lethal carboxy-hemoglobin (CO-Hb) concentration. It is concluded that close cooperation between police, fire experts, and the forensic pathologist...

  10. A chemical basis for the partitioning of radionuclides in incinerator operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burger, L.L.

    1994-09-01

    For waste containing small amounts of radioactivity, rad waste (RW), or mixed waste (MW) containing both radioactive and chemically hazardous components, incineration is a logical management candidate because of inherent safety, waste volume reduction, and low costs. Successful operation requires that the facility is properly designed and operated to protect workers and to limit releases of hazardous materials. The large decrease in waste volume achieved by incineration also results in a higher concentration of most of the radionuclides and non radioactive heavy metals in the ash products. These concentrations impact subsequent treatment and disposal. The various constituents (chemical elements) are not equal in concentration in the various incinerator feed materials, nor are they equal in their contribution to health risks on subsequent handling, or accidental release. Thus, for management of the wastes it is important to be able to predict how the nuclides partition between the primary combustion residue which may be an ash or a fused slag, the fine particulates or fly ash that is trapped in the burner off-gas by several different techniques, and the airborne fraction that escapes to the atmosphere. The objective of this report is to provide an estimate of how different elements of concern may behave in the chemical environment of the incinerator. The study briefly examines published incinerator operation data, then considers the properties of the elements of concern, and employs thermodynamic calculations, to help predict the fate of these RW and MW constituents. Many types and configurations of incinerators have been designed and tested.

  11. Determination of the optimal area of waste incineration in a rotary kiln using a simulation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bujak, J

    2015-08-01

    The article presents a mathematical model to determine the flux of incinerated waste in terms of its calorific values. The model is applicable in waste incineration systems equipped with rotary kilns. It is based on the known and proven energy flux balances and equations that describe the specific losses of energy flux while considering the specificity of waste incineration systems. The model is universal as it can be used both for the analysis and testing of systems burning different types of waste (municipal, medical, animal, etc.) and for allowing the use of any kind of additional fuel. Types of waste incinerated and additional fuel are identified by a determination of their elemental composition. The computational model has been verified in three existing industrial-scale plants. Each system incinerated a different type of waste. Each waste type was selected in terms of a different calorific value. This allowed the full verification of the model. Therefore the model can be used to optimize the operation of waste incineration system both at the design stage and during its lifetime. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. 40 CFR 1042.235 - Emission testing related to certification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE MARINE COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES... certified. For Category 3 engines, you may use a single-cylinder version of the engine. Using good.... The engine you provide must include appropriate manifolds, aftertreatment devices, electronic control...

  13. Optimization of sodium bicarbonate injection for acid scrubbing in hospital waste incineration plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozainee, M.; Salleh, M.; Mutahharah, M.M.; Anwar Johari

    2010-01-01

    Optimization of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO 3 ) injection for acid hydrochloric (HCl) scrubbing was conducted on a hospital waste incineration plant. The plant employs a rotary kiln system having burning capacity of 350 kg/h hospital waste (average calorific value of 17.4 MJ/kg) and is operated on a 24 hr/ day basis. Currently, NaHCO 3 injection rate is 25 kg/h as recommended by manufacturer to meet the Department of Environment (DOE) standard emission limit of 200 mg/Nm 3 HCl. Testing of HCl emission at various injection rates of 25, 20, 15 and 10 kg/ h results in HCl final concentration in the range of 0.58-7.13, 5.63-7.74, 0.07-2.99 and 3-28 mg/Nm 3 respectively. The results showed that NaHCO 3 injection rate as low as 10 kg/ h could still meet the HCl stipulated emission limit. Economic comparison between 25 and 10 kg/ h injection rates showed that total saving on NaHCO 3 and disposal of fly ash was RM 22,000 per month (equivalent to saving RM 260,000 per year) when using 10 kg/ h injection rate. It was concluded from the study that optimum injection rate would not only save cost and reduce wastage but also reduce bag house loading rate and prolong the life span of filter bags. (author)

  14. Environmental impact monitoring methods in the vicinity of waste incineration and co-incineration facilities - State-of-the-art. State-of-the-art of environmental impact monitoring methods in the vicinity of waste incineration and co-incineration facilities. Synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chassagnac, T.; Cornet, C.; Mathieu, L.

    2005-10-01

    Since the beginning of the 70's, the growing concern from the public opinion and the scientific community for the waste incineration issue made people aware of a number of difficulties of the process and the potential risks linked to it. For example checking the good functioning conditions of the facilities has been made compulsory through the continuous emission monitoring of a number of parameters. The ministerial decree from the 20 September 2002 brings something new: the monitoring of the impact of the facilities on its nearby environment. This monitoring comes in addition to the existing continuous monitoring of some gaseous compounds of the incineration process, and widens the scale of the monitoring to the environment of the incineration facilities. But there is no further information in the ministerial decree about the methods available to match this requirement. Incineration facilities' managers have to face a close deadline (28 December 2005) and have to make the optimal choice of a technique matching these requirements but also the needs of their facilities. The aim of this study is to help incineration facilities' managers thanks to an overview as large as possible of the different techniques available. Managers will have to take into account the characteristics of the methods and their adequacy with the local contexts of their sites. This document is meant to be a support for dealing with this issue. (authors)

  15. Environmental assessment of waste incineration and alternatives; Miljoevurdering af affaldsforbraending og alternativer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moeller, J.; Fruergaard, T.; Riber, C.; Astrup, T.; Hoejlund Christensen, T.

    2008-06-15

    Life cycle environmental assessment of waste combustion and alternatives were made using the LCA model EASEWASTE. Possible environmental effects for nine effect categories and the resource consumption of fossil fuels through treating 1 ton combustible waste were defined for several waste systems, including waste-only incineration, co-combustion in a fossil-fueled cogeneration plant, and combined biogas and compost production from household waste. The main conclusions of the analyses are: 1) with an optimum location, i.e. in the vicinity to a coal-fueled cogeneration plant, waste-only incineration, co-combustion , and combined biogas and compost production are all equal environmentally viable alternatives . 2) Regarding potential toxic impacts in the area of a coal-fueled cogeneration plant, waste-only incineration and combined biogas and compost production will result in slightly less net emissions compared to co-combustion because of better flue gas cleaning of heavy metals in incinerators than in power plants. 3) Siting the incinerator in a decentralized natural gas cogeneration area, co-combustion in a cogeneration plant is a better solution. 4) Combined biogas and compost production and waste-only combustion are environmentally equal treatments in all power plant areas. (ln)

  16. Thermal treatment of historical radioactive solid and liquid waste into the CILVA incinerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deckers, Jan; Mols, Ludo

    2007-01-01

    Since the very beginning of the nuclear activities in Belgium, the incineration of radioactive waste was chosen as a suitable technique for achieving an optimal volume reduction of the produced waste quantities. Based on the 35 years experience gained by the operation of the old incinerator, a new industrial incineration plant started nuclear operation in May 1995, as a part of the Belgian Centralized Treatment/Conditioning Facility named CILVA. Up to the end of 2006, the CILVA incinerator has burnt 1660 tonne of solid waste and 419 tonne of liquid waste. This paper describes the type and allowable radioactivity of the waste, the incineration process, heat recovery and the air pollution control devices. Special attention is given to the treatment of several hundreds of tonne historical waste from former reprocessing activities such as alpha suspected solid waste, aqueous and organic liquid waste and spent ion exchange resins. The capacity, volume reduction, chemical and radiological emissions are also evaluated. BELGOPROCESS, a company set up in 1984 at Dessel (Belgium) where a number of nuclear facilities were already installed is specialized in the processing of radioactive waste. It is a subsidiary of ONDRAF/NIRAS, the Belgian Nuclear Waste Management Agency. According to its mission statement, the activities of BELGOPROCESS focus on three areas: treatment, conditioning and interim storage of radioactive waste; decommissioning of shut-down nuclear facilities and cleaning of contaminated buildings and land; operating of storage sites for conditioned radioactive waste. (authors)

  17. Solid waste combustion for alpha waste incineration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orloff, D.I.

    1981-02-01

    Radioactive waste incinerator development at the Savannah River Laboratory has been augmented by fundamental combustion studies at the University of South Carolina. The objective was to measure and model pyrolysis and combustion rates of typical Savannah River Plant waste materials as a function of incinerator operating conditions. The analytical models developed in this work have been incorporated into a waste burning transient code. The code predicts maximum air requirement and heat energy release as a function of waste type, package size, combustion chamber size, and temperature. Historically, relationships have been determined by direct experiments that did not allow an engineering basis for predicting combustion rates in untested incinerators. The computed combustion rates and burning times agree with measured values in the Savannah River Laboratory pilot (1 lb/hr) and full-scale (12 lb/hr) alpha incinerators for a wide variety of typical waste materials

  18. Highly Efficient Fecal Waste Incinerator, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Volume reduction is a critical element of Solid Waste Management for manned spacecraft and planetary habitations. To this end, the proposed fecal waste incinerator...

  19. Development of an accelerated leaching method for incineration bottom ash correlated to toxicity characteristic leaching protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shengxuan; Zhou, Xuedong; Ge, Liya; Ng, Sum Huan; Zhou, Xiaodong; Chang, Victor Wei-Chung

    2016-10-01

    Heavy metals and some metalloids are the most significant inorganic contaminants specified in toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) in determining the safety of landfills or further utilization. As a consequence, a great deal of efforts had been made on the development of miniaturized analytical devices, such as Microchip Electrophoresis (ME) and μTAS for on-site testing of heavy metals and metalloids to prevent spreading of those pollutants or decrease the reutilization period of waste materials such as incineration bottom ash. However, the bottleneck lied in the long and tedious conventional TCLP that requires 18 h of leaching. Without accelerating the TCLP process, the on-site testing of the waste material leachates was impossible. In this study, therefore, a new accelerated leaching method (ALM) combining ultrasonic assisted leaching with tumbling was developed to reduce the total leaching time from 18 h to 30 min. After leaching, the concentrations of heavy metals and metalloids were determined with ICP-MS or ICP-optical emission spectroscopy. No statistical significance between ALM and TCLP was observed for most heavy metals (i.e., cobalt, manganese, mercury, molybdenum, nickel, silver, strontium, and tin) and metalloids (i.e., arsenic and selenium). For the heavy metals with statistical significance, correlation factors derived between ALM and TCLP were 0.56, 0.20, 0.037, and 0.019 for barium, cadmium, chromium, and lead, respectively. Combined with appropriate analytical techniques (e.g., ME), the ALM can be applied to rapidly prepare the incineration bottom ash samples as well as other environmental samples for on-site determination of heavy metals and metalloids. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. An assessment of dioxin contamination from the intermittent operation of a municipal waste incinerator in Japan and associated remediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Nobuo; Takaoka, Masaki

    2013-04-01

    Significant dioxin (polychlorinated dibenzo-para-dioxins (PCDDs)/polychlorinated dibenzo-furans (PCDFs)) pollution from a municipal solid waste incinerator was discovered in 1997 in Osaka prefecture/Japan. The cause and mechanism of pollution was identified by a detailed assessment of the environment and incinerator plant. The primary sources of PCDD/PCDF pollution were high dioxin releases from an intermittently operated waste incinerator with PCDD/PCDF emissions of 150 ng-TEQ/Nm(3). PCDD/PCDF also accumulated in the wet scrubber system (3,000 μg TEQ/L) by adsorption and water recirculation in the incinerator. Scrubber water was air-cooled with a cooling tower located on the roof of the incinerator. High concentrations of dioxins in the cooling water were released as aerosols into the surrounding and caused heavy soil pollution in the area near the plant. These emissions were considered as the major contamination pathway from the plant. Decontamination and soil remediation in and around the incinerator plant were conducted using a variety of destruction technologies (including incineration, photochemical degradation and GeoMelt technology). Although the soil remediation process was successfully finished in December 2006 about 3% of the waste still remains. The case demonstrates that releases from incinerators which do not use best available technology or which are not operated according to best environmental practices can contaminate their operators and surrounding land. This significant pollution had a large impact on the Japanese government's approach toward controlling dioxin pollution. Since this incident, a ministerial conference on dioxins has successfully strengthened control measures.

  1. Pilot-scale incineration of wastes with high content of chlorinated and non-halogenated organophosphorus flame retardants used as alternatives for PBDEs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsukami, Hidenori, E-mail: matsukami.hidenori@nies.go.jp [Center for Material Cycles and Waste Management Research, National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES), 16-2 Onogawa, Tsukuba 305-8506 (Japan); Graduate School of Frontier Sciences, The University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa 277-8563 (Japan); Kose, Tomohiro [Faculty of Applied Life Sciences, Niigata University of Pharmacy and Applied Life Sciences, 265-1, Higashijima, Akiha-ku, Niigata 956-8603 (Japan); Watanabe, Mafumi [Center for Material Cycles and Waste Management Research, National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES), 16-2 Onogawa, Tsukuba 305-8506 (Japan); Takigami, Hidetaka [Center for Material Cycles and Waste Management Research, National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES), 16-2 Onogawa, Tsukuba 305-8506 (Japan); Graduate School of Frontier Sciences, The University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa 277-8563 (Japan)

    2014-09-15

    Chlorinated and non-halogenated organophosphorus flame retardants (OPFRs) including tris(2-chloroisopropyl) phosphate (TCIPP), diethylene glycol bis(di(2-chloroisopropyl) phosphate) (DEG-BDCIPP), triphenyl phosphate (TPHP), and bisphenol A bis(diphenyl phosphate) (BPA-BDPP) have been used increasingly as alternatives to polybrominated diphenyl ethers and other brominated flame retardants. For this study, five batches of incineration experiments of wastes containing approximately 1% of TCIPP, DEG-BDCIPP, TPHP, and BPA-BDPP were conducted using a pilot-scale incinerator. Destruction and emission behaviors of OPFRs were investigated along with the effects on behaviors of unintentional persistent organic pollutants (POPs) such as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), pentachlorobenzene (PeCB), and pentachlorophenol (PCP). Incineration conditions were chosen according to current regulations for waste incinerators in Japan and UNEP. The OPFRs in the input materials were mainly destroyed in the primary combustion with destruction efficiencies greater than 99.999%. Concentrations of the OPFRs in the exhaust gases and ash were, respectively, < 0.01–0.048 μg m{sup −3} and < 0.5–68 μg kg{sup −1}. Almost all of the total phosphorus in the input materials was partitioned into the ash, but less into final exit gases, indicating negligible emissions of volatile phosphorus compounds during incineration. Inputs of chlorinated OPFRs did not affect the formation markedly. Destruction and emission behaviors of unintentional POPs were investigated. Emissions of such POPs in exhaust gases and the ash were lower than the Japanese and international standards. Results show that even in wastes with high contents of chlorinated and non-halogenated OPFRs, waste incineration by the current regulations for the waste incinerators can control environmental emissions of

  2. Preclinical Testing of Novel Radiotracers for Positron Emission Tomography (PET)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Waarde, Aren; Sijbesma, Jurgen; Doorduin, Janine; Elsinga, Philippus; de Vries, Erik; Glaudemans, Andor; Medema, Jitze; van Zanten, Annie K; Dierckx, Rudi; Ahaus, Cees T B

    2017-01-01

    Preclinical tests of novel radiotracers in experimental animals are required to move tracer candidates from the stage of in vitro testing to the stage of toxicity testing and finally studies in human volunteers. Such preclinical tests are aimed at demonstrating: (1) specific in vivo interaction of

  3. Recycling ampersand incineration: Evaluating the choices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denison, R.A.; Ruston, J.

    1993-01-01

    Conflicts between proponents of municipal solid waste incineration and advocates of recycling have escalated with efforts to reduce the volume of waste that ends up in landfills. Central to this debate is competition for materials that are both combustible and recyclable. Environmental and economic concerns also play a major role. This book, produced by the Environmental Defense Fund, compares recycling and incineration. It is intended for 'citizens, government officials, and business people who want to help resolve the solid-waste crisis.' The book is divided into three parts: recycling and incineration; health and environmental risk of incineration; and planning, public participation, and environmental review requirements. The book does an excellent job of discussing the benefits of recycling and the pitfalls of incineration. It provides helpful information for identifying questions that should be raised about incineration, but it does not raise similar queries about recycling. There is much worthwhile information here, but the book would be more useful if it identified critical issues for all waste reduction and management options

  4. Separation of nanoparticles: Filtration and scavenging from waste incineration plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Förster, Henning; Thajudeen, Thaseem; Funk, Christine; Peukert, Wolfgang

    2016-06-01

    Increased amounts of nanoparticles are applied in products of everyday life and despite material recycling efforts, at the end of their life cycle they are fed into waste incineration plants. This raises the question on the fate of nanoparticles during incineration. In terms of environmental impact the key question is how well airborne nanoparticles are removed by separation processes on their way to the bag house filters and by the existing filtration process based on pulse-jet cleanable fibrous filter media. Therefore, we investigate the scavenging and the filtration of metal nanoparticles under typical conditions in waste incineration plants. The scavenging process is investigated by a population balance model while the nanoparticle filtration experiments are realized in a filter test rig. The results show that depending on the particle sizes, in some cases nearly 80% of the nanoparticles are scavenged by fly ash particles before they reach the bag house filter. For the filtration step dust cakes with a pressure drop of 500Pa or higher are found to be very effective in preventing nanoparticles from penetrating through the filter. Thus, regeneration of the filter must be undertaken with care in order to guarantee highly efficient collection of particles even in the lower nanometre size regime. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Life-cycle-assessment of the historical development of air pollution control and energy recovery in waste incineration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damgaard, Anders; Riber, Christian; Fruergaard, Thilde; Hulgaard, Tore; Christensen, Thomas H

    2010-07-01

    Incineration of municipal solid waste is a debated waste management technology. In some countries it is the main waste management option whereas in other countries it has been disregarded. The main discussion point on waste incineration is the release of air emissions from the combustion of the waste, but also the energy recovery efficiency has a large importance. The historical development of air pollution control in waste incineration was studied through life-cycle-assessment modelling of eight different air pollution control technologies. The results showed a drastic reduction in the release of air emissions and consequently a significant reduction in the potential environmental impacts of waste incineration. Improvements of a factor 0.85-174 were obtained in the different impact potentials as technology developed from no emission control at all, to the best available emission control technologies of today (2010). The importance of efficient energy recovery was studied through seven different combinations of heat and electricity recovery, which were modelled to substitute energy produced from either coal or natural gas. The best air pollution control technology was used at the incinerator. It was found that when substituting coal based energy production total net savings were obtained in both the standard and toxic impact categories. However, if the substituted energy production was based on natural gas, only the most efficient recovery options yielded net savings with respect to the standard impacts. With regards to the toxic impact categories, emissions from the waste incineration process were always larger than those from the avoided energy production based on natural gas. The results shows that the potential environmental impacts from air emissions have decreased drastically during the last 35 years and that these impacts can be partly or fully offset by recovering energy which otherwise should have been produced from fossil fuels like coal or natural gas

  6. Incinerator development program for processing transuranic waste at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedahl, T.G.

    1982-01-01

    In the fall of 1981, two short-term tests were conducted on a controlled air and a rotary kiln incinerator to assess their potential for processing transuranic (TRU) contaminated waste at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The primary purpose of the test program was a proof-of-principle verification that the incinerators could achieve near-complete combustion of the combustible portion of the waste, while mixed with high percentages of noncombustible and metal waste materials. Other important test objectives were to obtain system design information including off-gas and end-product characteristics and incinerator operating parameters. Approximately 7200 kg of simulated (non-TRU) waste from the INEL were processed during the two tests

  7. Pilot-scale incineration of comtaminated soils from the drake chemical superfund site. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, C.; Lee, J.W.; Waterland, L.R.

    1993-03-01

    A series of pilot-scale incineration tests were performed at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) Incineration Research Facility to evaluate the potential of incineration as an option to treat contaminated soils from the Drake Chemical Superfund site in Lock Haven, Pennsylvania. The soils at the Drake site are reported to be contaminated to varying degrees with various organic constituents and several hazardous constituent trace metals. The purpose of the test program was to evaluate the incinerability of selected site soils in terms of the destruction of contaminant organic constituents and the fate of contaminant trace metals. All tests were conducted in the rotary kiln incineration system at the IRF. Test results show that greater than 99.995 percent principal organic hazardous constituent (POHC) destruction and removal efficiencies (DRE) can be achieved at kiln exit gas temperatures of nominally 816 C (1,500 F) and 538 C (1,000 F). Complete soil decontamination of semivolatile organics was achieved; however, kiln ash levels of three volatile organic constituents remained comparable to soil levels

  8. Metallic elements fractionation in municipal solid waste incineration residues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalski, Piotr R.; Kasina, Monika; Michalik, Marek

    2016-04-01

    Municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) residues are represented by three main materials: bottom ash, fly ash and air pollution control (APC) residues. Among them ˜80 wt% is bottom ash. All of that materials are products of high temperature (>1000° C) treatment of waste. Incineration process allows to obtain significant reduction of waste mass (up to 70%) and volume (up to 90%) what is commonly used in waste management to reduce the amount need to be landfilled or managed in other way. Incineration promote accumulation non-combustible fraction of waste, which part are metallic elements. That type of concentration is object of concerns about the incineration residues impact on the environment and also gives the possibility of attempts to recover them. Metallic elements are not equally distributed among the materials. Several factors influence the process: melting points, volatility and place and forms of metallic occurrence in the incinerated waste. To investigate metallic elements distribution in MSWI residues samples from one of the biggest MSW incineration plant in Poland were collected in 2015. Chemical analysis with emphasis on the metallic elements content were performed using inductively coupled plasma optical emission (ICP-OES) and mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The bottom ash was a SiO2-CaO-Al2O3-Fe2O3-Na2O rich material, whereas fly ash and APC residues were mostly composed of CaO and SiO2. All of the materials were rich in amorphous phase occurring together with various, mostly silicate crystalline phases. In a mass of bottom ash 11 wt% were metallic elements but also in ashes 8.5 wt% (fly ash) and ˜4.5 wt% (APC residues) of them were present. Among the metallic elements equal distribution between bottom and fly ash was observed for Al (˜3.85 wt%), Mn (770 ppm) and Ni (˜65 ppm). In bottom ash Fe (5.5 wt%), Cr (590 ppm) and Cu (1250 ppm) were concentrated. These values in comparison to fly ash were 5-fold higher for Fe, 3-fold for Cu and 1.5-fold for

  9. Carbon dioxide sequestration in municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) bottom ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rendek, Eva; Ducom, Gaëlle; Germain, Patrick

    2006-01-16

    During bottom ash weathering, carbonation under atmospheric conditions induces physico-chemical evolutions leading to the pacification of the material. Fresh bottom ash samples were subjected to an accelerated carbonation using pure CO2. The aim of this work was to quantify the volume of CO2 that could be sequestrated with a view to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and investigate the possibility of upgrading some specific properties of the material with accelerated carbonation. Carbonation was performed by putting 4mm-sieved samples in a CO2 chamber. The CO2 pressure and the humidity of the samples were varied to optimize the reaction parameters. Unsieved material was also tested. Calcite formation resulting from accelerated carbonation was investigated by thermogravimetry and differential scanning calorimetry (TG/DSC) and metal leaching tests were performed. The volume of sequestrated CO2 was on average 12.5L/kg dry matter (DM) for unsieved material and 24 L/kg DM for 4mm-sieved samples. An ash humidity of 15% appeared to give the best results. The reaction was drastically accelerated at high pressure but it did not increase the volume of sequestrated CO2. Accelerated carbonation, like the natural phenomenon, reduces the dangerous nature of the material. It decreases the pH from 11.8 to 8.2 and causes Pb, Cr and Cd leaching to decrease. This process could reduce incinerator CO2 emissions by 0.5-1%.

  10. 40 CFR 80.48 - Augmentation of the complex emission model by vehicle testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., or reject a particular augmentation for inclusion in an updated complex model (performed through... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Augmentation of the complex emission... Augmentation of the complex emission model by vehicle testing. (a) The provisions of this section apply only if...

  11. 40 CFR Appendix I to Subparts D and E - Motorcycle Noise Emission Test Procedures [Note

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Motorcycle Noise Emission Test... (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT NOISE EMISSION CONTROLS Motorcycles Recall of noncomplying motorcycles; relabeling of mislabeled motorcycles. Appendix I to Subparts D and E—Motorcycle Noise...

  12. 40 CFR 61.43 - Emission testing-rocket firing or propellant disposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emission testing-rocket firing or... Standard for Beryllium Rocket Motor Firing § 61.43 Emission testing—rocket firing or propellant disposal. (a) Ambient air concentrations shall be measured during and after firing of a rocket motor or...

  13. 40 CFR 205.54-1 - Low speed sound emission test procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Low speed sound emission test procedures. 205.54-1 Section 205.54-1 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT NOISE EMISSION CONTROLS Medium and Heavy Trucks § 205...

  14. Diffusion-controlled toluene reference material for VOC emissions testing: international interlaboratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard-Reed, Cynthia; Liu, Zhe; Cox, Steven; Leber, Dennis; Samarov, Dan; Little, John C

    2014-04-01

    The measurement of volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from building products and materials by manufacturers and testing laboratories, and the use of the test results for labeling programs, continue to expand. One issue that hinders wide acceptance for chamber product testing is the lack of a reference material to validate test chamber performance. To meet this need, the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and Virginia Tech (VT) have developed a prototype reference material that emits a single VOC similar to the emissions of a diffusion-controlled building product source with a dynamic emissions profile. The prototype material has undergone extensive testing at NIST and a pilot interlaboratory study (ILS) with four laboratories. The next development step is an evaluation of the prototype source in multiple-sized chambers of 14 laboratories in seven countries. Each laboratory was provided duplicate specimens and a test protocol. Study results identified significant issues related to the need to store the source at a subzero Celsius temperature until tested and possible inconsistencies in large chambers. For laboratories using a small chamber and meeting all the test method criteria, the results were very encouraging with relative standard deviations ranging from 5% to 10% across the laboratories. Currently, the chamber performance of laboratories conducting product VOC emissions testing is assessed through interlaboratory studies (ILS) using a source with an unknown emission rate. As a result, laboratory proficiency can only be based on the mean and standard deviation of emission rates measured by the participating ILS laboratories. A reference material with a known emission rate has the potential to provide an independent assessment of laboratory performance as well as improve the quality of interlaboratory studies. Several international laboratories with different chamber testing systems demonstrated the ability to measure the emission rate

  15. Conventional incinerator redesign for the incineration of low level radioactive solid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lara Z, L.E.C.

    1997-01-01

    From several years ago have been detected some problems with the storage of low level radioactive solids wastes, they are occasioned growth in volume and weight, one of most effective treatment for its reduction, the incineration has been. In the work was designed an incinerator of low level radioactive solid wastes, the characteristics, range of temperatures, that operate and the excess of air in order to get a near incineration at 100 %; thickness of refractory material in the combustion chamber, materials and forms of installation, the balances of mass, energy and radioactive material necessary for the design of the auxiliary peripheral equipment is discussed. In theory the incineration is a viable option for the treatment of low level radioactive solid wastes, upon getting an approximate reduction to 95 % of the wastes introduced to the incinerator in the Department of Radioactive Wastes of the National Institute of Nuclear Research, avoiding the dispersion of combustion gases and radioactive material at the environment. (Author)

  16. Incineration of contaminated oil from Sellafield - 16246

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broadbent, Craig; Cassidy, Helen; Stenmark, Anders

    2009-01-01

    Studsvik have been incinerating Low Level Waste (LLW) at its licensed facility in Sweden since the mid-1970's. This process not only enables the volume of waste to be significantly reduced but also produces an inert residue suitable for final disposal. The facility has historically incinerated only solid dry LLW, however in 2008 an authorisation was obtained to permit the routine incineration of LLW contaminated oil at the facility. Prior to obtaining the authorisation to incinerate oils and other organic liquids - both from clean-up activities on the Studsvik site and on a commercial basis - a development program was established. The primary aims of this were to identify the optimum process set-up for the incinerator and also to demonstrate to the regulatory authorities that the appropriate environmental and radiological parameters would be maintained throughout the new process. The final phase of the development program was to incinerate a larger campaign of contaminated oil from the nuclear industry. A suitable accumulation of oil was identified on the Sellafield site in Cumbria and a commercial contract was established to incinerate approximately 40 tonnes of oil from the site. The inventory of oil chosen for the trial incineration represented a significant challenge to the incineration facility as it had been generated from various facilities on-site and had degraded significantly following years of storage. In order to transport the contaminated oil from the Sellafield site in the UK to the Studsvik facility in Sweden several challenges had to be overcome. These included characterisation, packaging and international transportation (under a Transfrontier Shipment (TFS) authorisation) for one of the first transports of liquid radioactive wastes outside the UK. The incineration commenced in late 2007 and was successfully completed in early 2008. The total volume reduction achieved was greater than 97%, with the resultant ash packaged and returned to the UK (for

  17. Alternatives to incineration. Technical area status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwinkendorf, W.E. [BDM Federal, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); McFee, J.; Devarakonda, M. [International Technology Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Nenninger, L.L.; Fadullon, F.S. [Science Applications International Corp., Gaithersburg, MD (United States); Donaldson, T.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Dickerson, K. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)]|[Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, Golden, CO (United States)

    1995-04-01

    Recently, the DOE`s Mixed Waste Integrated Program (MWIP) (superseded by the Mixed Waste Focus Area) initiated an evaluation of alternatives to incineration to identify technologies capable of treating DOE organically contaminated mixed wastes and which may be more easily permitted. These technologies have the potential of alleviating stakeholder concerns by decreasing off-gas volurties and the associated emissions of particulates, volatilized metals and radionuclides, PICs, NO{sub x}, SO{sub x}, and recombination products (dioxins and furans). Ideally, the alternate technology would be easily permitted, relatively omnivorous and effective in treating a variety of wastes with varying constituents, require minimal pretreatment or characterization, and be easy to implement. In addition, it would produce secondary waste stream volumes significantly smaller than the original waste stream, and would minimize the environmental health and safety effects on workers and the public. The purpose of this report is to provide an up-to-date (as of early 1995) compendium of iternative technologies for designers of mixed waste treatment facilities, and to identify Iternate technologies that may merit funding for further development. Various categories of non-thermal and thermal technologies have been evaluated and are summarized in Table ES-1. Brief descriptions of these technologies are provided in Section 1.7 of the Introduction. This report provides a detailed description of approximately 30 alternative technologies in these categories. Included in the report are descriptions of each technology; applicable input waste streams and the characteristics of the secondary, or output, waste streams; the current status of each technology relative to its availability for implementation; performance data; and costs. This information was gleaned from the open literature, governments reports, and discussions with principal investigators and developers.

  18. Alternatives to incineration. Technical area status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwinkendorf, W.E.; McFee, J.; Devarakonda, M.; Nenninger, L.L.; Fadullon, F.S.; Donaldson, T.L.; Dickerson, K.

    1995-04-01

    Recently, the DOE's Mixed Waste Integrated Program (MWIP) (superseded by the Mixed Waste Focus Area) initiated an evaluation of alternatives to incineration to identify technologies capable of treating DOE organically contaminated mixed wastes and which may be more easily permitted. These technologies have the potential of alleviating stakeholder concerns by decreasing off-gas volurties and the associated emissions of particulates, volatilized metals and radionuclides, PICs, NO x , SO x , and recombination products (dioxins and furans). Ideally, the alternate technology would be easily permitted, relatively omnivorous and effective in treating a variety of wastes with varying constituents, require minimal pretreatment or characterization, and be easy to implement. In addition, it would produce secondary waste stream volumes significantly smaller than the original waste stream, and would minimize the environmental health and safety effects on workers and the public. The purpose of this report is to provide an up-to-date (as of early 1995) compendium of iternative technologies for designers of mixed waste treatment facilities, and to identify Iternate technologies that may merit funding for further development. Various categories of non-thermal and thermal technologies have been evaluated and are summarized in Table ES-1. Brief descriptions of these technologies are provided in Section 1.7 of the Introduction. This report provides a detailed description of approximately 30 alternative technologies in these categories. Included in the report are descriptions of each technology; applicable input waste streams and the characteristics of the secondary, or output, waste streams; the current status of each technology relative to its availability for implementation; performance data; and costs. This information was gleaned from the open literature, governments reports, and discussions with principal investigators and developers

  19. New alloys for high temperature applications in incineration plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinz, H.P.; Koeck, W.

    1993-01-01

    The hot components of incineration plants exposed to temperatures between 800 and 1,200 C like boilers, grates, thermocouple sheaths and nozzles suffer from severe joint slag and hot gas attack. Considering corrosion resistance only, ceramic materials show excellent performance under these conditions. But because of the ceramics' brittleness metallic materials exhibit an overall advantage although being corroded faster. Within the class of suitable metals PM-ODS (oxide dispersion strengthened)-superalloys based on iron or nickel and PM-Cr-base-alloys are among the most promising ones. This can be derived from various laboratory and field tests which were performed up to now. Laboratory oxidation tests indicate that these new alloys can be used at temperatures up to 1,300 C in hot air. High temperature erosion tests with quartz particles show that PM 2,000 (Fe 19,5Cr5,5Al0,5Ti0,5Y 2 O 3 ) and Ducropur (99.7% Cr) have almost the same resistance against particle impact as alumina or zirconia at 900 C. The corresponding laboratory and field tests under typical joint slag and hot gas conditions at temperatures up to 1,200 C show good results for PM 2,000 and already lead to the actual application of boiler components. Extensive testing has been performed in the field of municipal waste incineration. Depending on temperature, slag and hot gas composition selected grades of the PM-ODS and Cr-base-alloy-group give satisfactory results in the field tests. In the pulp industry black liquor, an alkaline solution with high concentrations of organic waste, is incinerated for the recovery of caustic soda. Flame sprayed coatings of Ducrolloy Cr50Ni give a sixfold increase of the lifetime of the burner nozzles compared to unprotected stainless steel

  20. Detection of ductile crack initiation by acoustic emission testing; Detektion von duktiler Rissinitiierung durch Schallemissionen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richter, H.; Boehmert, J.; Viehrig, H.W. [Forschungszentrum Rossendorf e.V. (FZR) (Germany). Inst. fuer Sicherheitsforschung; Valo, M. [VTT Manufacturing Technology, Materials and Structural Integrity, Espoo (Finland)

    1998-08-01

    A Charpy impact test equipment is described permitting simultaneous measurement of impact force, crack tip opening, acoustic emissions and magnetic emissions. The core of the equipment is an inverted pendulum ram impact testing machine and the tests have been performed with laterally notched, pre-fatigue ISO-V specimens made of steels of various strength and tougness properties. The tests are intended to ascertain whether the acoustic emission method is suitable for detecting steady crack initiation in highly ductile steels. (orig./CB) [Deutsch] Es wird eine Kerbschlagbiegeanordnung vorgestellt, mit der simultan Schlagkraft, Rissoeffnung, Schallemission und magnetische Emission gemessen werden koennen. Grundbaustein der Anordnung ist ein invertiertes Pendelschlagwerk. Mit dieser Anordnung wurden seitgekerbte, vorermuedete ISO-V Proben aus Staehlen mit unterschiedlichen Festigkeits-Zaehigkeitseigenschaften geprueft. Die Untersuchung soll aufzeigen, ob Schallemission zur Detektion der stabilen Rissinitierung an hochzaehen Staehlen geeignet ist. (orig./CB)

  1. An assessment of consistence of exhaust gas emission test results obtained under controlled NEDC conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balawender, K.; Jaworski, A.; Kuszewski, H.; Lejda, K.; Ustrzycki, A.

    2016-09-01

    Measurements concerning emissions of pollutants contained in automobile combustion engine exhaust gases is of primary importance in view of their harmful impact on the natural environment. This paper presents results of tests aimed at determining exhaust gas pollutant emissions from a passenger car engine obtained under repeatable conditions on a chassis dynamometer. The test set-up was installed in a controlled climate chamber allowing to maintain the temperature conditions within the range from -20°C to +30°C. The analysis covered emissions of such components as CO, CO2, NOx, CH4, THC, and NMHC. The purpose of the study was to assess repeatability of results obtained in a number of tests performed as per NEDC test plan. The study is an introductory stage of a wider research project concerning the effect of climate conditions and fuel type on emission of pollutants contained in exhaust gases generated by automotive vehicles.

  2. The environmental comparison of landfilling vs. incineration of MSW accounting for waste diversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assamoi, Bernadette; Lawryshyn, Yuri

    2012-05-01

    This study evaluates the environmental performance and discounted costs of the incineration and landfilling of municipal solid waste that is ready for the final disposal while accounting for existing waste diversion initiatives, using the life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology. Parameters such as changing waste generation quantities, diversion rates and waste composition were also considered. Two scenarios were assessed in this study on how to treat the waste that remains after diversion. The first scenario is the status quo, where the entire residual waste was landfilled whereas in the second scenario approximately 50% of the residual waste was incinerated while the remainder is landfilled. Electricity was produced in each scenario. Data from the City of Toronto was used to undertake this study. Results showed that the waste diversion initiatives were more effective in reducing the organic portion of the waste, in turn, reducing the net electricity production of the landfill while increasing the net electricity production of the incinerator. Therefore, the scenario that incorporated incineration performed better environmentally and contributed overall to a significant reduction in greenhouse gas emissions because of the displacement of power plant emissions; however, at a noticeably higher cost. Although landfilling proves to be the better financial option, it is for the shorter term. The landfill option would require the need of a replacement landfill much sooner. The financial and environmental effects of this expenditure have yet to be considered. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Design of crude oil storage tank for acoustic emission testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shukri Mohd; Masrul Nizam Salleh; Abd Razak Hamzah; Norasiah Abd Kasim

    2005-01-01

    The integrity of crude oil storage tank needs to be well managed because they can contain a large inventory of hazardous material and because of the high cost such as cleaning and waste disposal prior to disposal and maintenance. Costs involved in cleaning and inspection can be up to several hundreds thousand Malaysian Ranting. If the floor then proves to be in good condition, these costs have been wasted. Acoustic Emission (AE) is proposed to be use for monitoring the floor of the storage tank on line without doing cleaning and waste disposal. A storage tank will be fabricated for storing the crude oil and then the corrosion process will be monitor using AE method. This paper will discuss the background, material and is technical specification, design and also the difficulties faced during design and fabrication process. (Author)

  4. 40 CFR 1048.501 - How do I run a valid emission test?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How do I run a valid emission test... § 1048.501 How do I run a valid emission test? (a) Use the equipment and procedures for spark-ignition... 86.132-96(h) and then operate the engine for 60 minutes over repeat runs of the duty cycle specified...

  5. Fine particle and organic vapor emissions from staged tests of an in-use aircraft engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presto, Albert A.; Nguyen, Ngoc T.; Ranjan, Manish; Reeder, Aaron J.; Lipsky, Eric M.; Hennigan, Christopher J.; Miracolo, Marissa A.; Riemer, Daniel D.; Robinson, Allen L.

    2011-07-01

    Staged tests were conducted to measure the particle and vapor emissions from a CFM56-2B1 gas-turbine engine mounted on a KC-135T Stratotanker airframe at different engine loads. Exhaust was sampled using a rake inlet installed 1-m downstream of the engine exit plane of a parked and chocked aircraft and a dilution sampler and portable smog chamber were used to investigate the particulate matter (PM) emissions. Total fine PM mass emissions were highest at low (4%) and high (85%) load and lower at intermediate loads (7% and 30%). PM mass emissions at 4% load are dominated by organics, while at 85% load elemental carbon is dominant. Quantifying the primary organic aerosol (POA) emissions is complicated by substantial filter sampling artifacts. Partitioning experiments reveal that the majority of the POA is semivolatile; for example, the POA emission factor changed by a factor of two when the background organic aerosol concentration was increased from 0.7 to 4 μg m -3. Therefore, one cannot define a single non-volatile PM emission factor for aircraft exhaust. The gas- and particle-phase organic emissions were comprehensively characterized by analyzing canister, sorbent and filter samples with gas-chromatography/mass-spectrometry. Vapor-phase organic emissions are highest at 4% load and decrease with increasing load. Low-volatility organics (less volatile than a C 12n-alkane) contributed 10-20% of the total organic emissions. The low-volatility organic emissions contain signatures of unburned fuel and aircraft lubricating oil but are dominated by an unresolved complex mixture (UCM) of presumably branched and cyclic alkanes. Emissions at all loads contain more low-volatility organic vapors than POA; thus secondary organic aerosol formation in the aging plume will likely exceed POA emissions.

  6. Acoustic emission test on a 25mm thick mild steel pressure vessel with inserted defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bentley, P.G.; Dawson, D.G.; Hanley, D.J.; Kirby, N.

    1976-12-01

    Acoustic emission measurements have been taken on an experimental mild steel vessel with 4 inserted defects ranging in severity up to 90% of through thickness. The vessel was subjected to a series of pressure excursions of increasing magnitude until failure occurred by extension of the largest inserted defect through the vessel wall. No acoustic emission was detected throughout any part of the tests which would indicate the presence of such serious defects or of impending failure. Measurements of acoustic emission from metallurgical specimens are included and the results of post test inspection using conventional NDT and metallographic techniques are reported. (author)

  7. Acoustic emission study on 50 years old reinforced concrete beams under bending and shear tests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, Y.; Hordijk, D.A.; de Boer, A.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the Acoustic Emission (AE) measurement of several tests carried out on reinforced concrete beams sawn from a 50 years old concrete bridge – Ruytenschildt bridge. The purpose of these tests is to provide additional information to the already executed in-situ load testing on the

  8. 40 CFR 1065.530 - Emission test sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... only if switching is performed by changing the span over which the digital resolution of the instrument is applied. During a test you may not switch the gains of an analyzer's analog operational amplifier...

  9. Electrodialytic removal of heavy metals and chloride from municipal solid waste incineration fly ash and air pollution control residue in suspension - test of a new two compartment experimental cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkelund, Gunvor Marie; Magro, Cátia; Guedes, Paula

    2015-01-01

    Municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) residues such as fly ash and air pollution control (APC) residues are classified as hazardous waste and disposed of, although they contain potential resources. The most problematic elements in MSWI residues are leachable heavy metals and salts. For reuse...... of MSWI residues in for instance concrete, the aim of remediation should be reduction of the heavy metal leaching, while at the same time keeping the alkaline pH, so the residue can replace cement. In this study a MSWI residues were subjected to electrodialytic remediation under various experimental...

  10. Clinical waste incinerators in Cameroon--a case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mochungong, Peter Ikome Kuwoh; Gulis, Gabriel; Sodemann, Morten

    2012-01-01

    Incinerators are widely used to treat clinical waste in Cameroon's Northwest Region. These incinerators cause public apprehension owing to purported risks to operators, communities and the environment. This article aims to summarize findings from an April 2008 case study....

  11. Mound cyclone incinerator. Volume I. Description and performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klingler, L.M.

    1981-01-01

    The Mound cyclone incinerator was developed to fill a need for a simple, relaible incinerator for volume reduction of dry solid waste contaminated with plutonium-238. Although the basic design of the incinerator is for batch burning of solid combustible waste, the incinerator has also been adapted to volume reduction of other waste forms. Specialized waste feeding equipment enables continuous burning of both solid and liquid waste, including full scintillation vials. Modifications to the incinerator offgas system enable burning of waste contaminated with isotopes other than plutonium-238. This document presents the design and performance characteristics of the Mound Cyclone Incinerator for incineration of both solid and liquid waste. Suggestions are included for adaptation of the incinerator to specialized waste materials

  12. Field Investigation of Various Weld Overlays in a Waste Incineration Plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montgomery, Melanie; Larsen, O. H.

    2005-01-01

    A test waterwall was fabricated so that alternatives to alloy 625 could be exposed in the first pass of the waste incineration plant Haderslev. The difference between application method was also a parameter, such that manual welding, machine welding and arc spraycoating of alloy 625 were compared....... In addition to the test waterwall exposure, the chemical environment from the waste incineration was also monitored by analyzing deposits and corrosion products from various locations in the boiler. These were analyzed with respect to morphology and composition using electron microscopy with EDS analysis...

  13. Diffusion-controlled reference material for VOC emissions testing: effect of temperature and humidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Z; Howard-Reed, C; Cox, S S; Ye, W; Little, J C

    2014-06-01

    A polymethylpentene film loaded with toluene is being developed as a reference material to support the reliable measurement of volatile organic compound emissions from building materials using environmental chambers. Earlier studies included the measurement of the material-phase diffusion coefficient (D) and material/air partition coefficient (K) at 23°C. A fundamental mass-transfer model can then be used to predict toluene emissions from the reference material at 23°C, serving as a reference for validating chamber-measured emission profiles. In this study, the effect of temperature and humidity on performance of the reference material was investigated. Reference material emissions were measured at 10, 23, and 30°C and at different relative humidity (RH) levels. D and K at different temperatures and RH were determined using an independent method. Results showed that RH does not significantly affect D and K and had no effect on emissions. However, emissions increased substantially at elevated temperatures due to the relationship between D and temperature. A statistical analysis shows good agreement between model-predicted and measured gas-phase concentrations, indicating that the model can accurately predict emission profiles as a function of temperature. The reference material can therefore be applied to a wide range of emission chamber testing conditions. A reference material with a dynamic emissions profile was previously developed as a validation tool for emission testing in chambers. This follow-up study investigated the effect of temperature and humidity on the performance of the reference material. The results show that the reference material can be used to calibrate and validate chamber testing procedures over a broad range of environmental conditions. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Emissions of chlorinated dioxins and furans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broeker, G.; Bruckmann, P.; Gliwa, H.

    1994-01-01

    Already now the estimated daily average input of about 2 pg I-TEQ/kg body weight for an adult exceeds the preventive value of 1 pg I-TEQ/(kg x d) proposed by the Federal Environmental Agency (UBA) and the Federal Health Office (BGA), although the intervention value of 10 pg/(kg x d) also proposed by UBA and BGA has not been reached yet. To be able to take well-aimed measures to reduce dioxin emissions into the environment, it is necessary to collect sufficient information about the sources, the history of origins and the efficiency of control measures. The high number of investigations conducted into waste incineration plants, which can be explained by increasing public awareness of the disposal problem, gave the impression that waste incineration is one of the major causes of dioxin emissions into the environment. Analyses of the ambient air situation revealed that there is a considerable lack of information about the sources of dioxin emissions. For example, systematic investigations in North Rhine-Westphalia, which have not been finished yet, identified sintering plants as the main dioxin emittors. It can be concluded already now that control measures are indispensable for these plants to improve the ambient air situation; a few waste gas cleaning methods were tested. The realisation of the 17th Order Implementing the Federal Immission Control Act (17th BImSchV) (emission control of dioxins from waste incineration plants), the 19th BImSchV (prohibition of Cl and Br additions to fuels) and the further spread of the controlled catalytic coverter for passenger cars will make industrial dioxin sources even more relevant. This underlines the necessity for control measures in this field. (orig.) [de

  15. Laboratory testing of a continuous emissions monitor for hydrochloric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dene, Chuck; Pisano, John T; Durbin, Thomas D; Bumiller, Kurt; Crabbe, Keith; Muzio, Lawrence J

    2014-06-01

    Continuous monitoring of exhaust flue gas has become a common practice in power plants in response to Federal Mercury and Air Toxics Standards (MATS) standards. Under the current rules, hydrochloric acid (HCl) is not continuously measured at most plants; however, MATS standards have been proposed for HCl, and tunable diode laser (TDL) absorption spectroscopy is one method that can be used to measure HCl continuously. The focus of this work is on the evaluation and verification of the operation performance of an HCL TDL over a range of real-world operating environments. The testing was conducted at the University of California at Riverside (UCR) spectroscopy evaluation laboratory. Laboratory tests were conducted at three separate temperatures, 25 degrees C, 100 degrees C, and 200 degrees C, and two distinct moisture levels for the enhanced temperatures, 0%, (2 tests) and 4%, over a concentration range from 0 ppmv to 25 ppmv-m at each of the elevated temperatures. The results showed good instrument accuracy as afunction of changing temperature and moisture. Data analysis showed that the average percentage difference between the ammonia concentration and the calibration source was 3.33% for varying moisture from 0% to 4% and 2.69%for varying temperature from 25 to 100/200 degrees C. An HCl absorption line of 1.742 microm was selected for by the manufacturer for this instrument. The Hi Tran database indicated that CO2 is probably the only major interferent, although the CO2 absorption is very weak at that wavelength. Interference tests for NO, CO, SO2, NH3, and CO2 for a range of concentrations typical of flue gasses in coal-fired power plants did not show any interference with TDL HCl measurements at 1.742 microm. For these interference tests, CO2 was tested at a concentration of 11.9% concentration in N2 for these tests. Average precision over the entire range for all 10 tests is 3.12%. The focus of this study was.an evaluation of the operation performance of a

  16. The safety of non-incineration waste disposal devices in four hospitals of Tehran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farshad, Aliasghar; Gholami, Hamid; Farzadkia, Mahdi; Mirkazemi, Roksana; Kermani, Majid

    2014-01-01

    Background: The safe management of hospital waste is a challenge in many developing countries. Objectives: The aim of this study was to compare volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emissions and the microbial disinfectant safety in non-incineration waste disposal devices. Methods: VOC emissions and microbial infections were measured in four non-incineration waste disposal devices including: autoclave with and without a shredder, dry heat system, and hydroclave. Using NIOSH and US EPA-TO14 guidelines, the concentration and potential risk of VOCs in emitted gases from four devices were assessed. ProSpore2 biological indicators were used to assess the microbial analysis of waste residue. Results: There was a significant difference in the type and concentration of VOCs and microbial infection of residues in the four devices. Emissions from the autoclave with a shredder had the highest concentration of benzene, ethyl benzene, xylene, and BTEX, and emissions from the hydroclave had the highest concentration of toluene. The highest level of microbial infection was observed in the residues of the autoclave without a shredder. Conclusions: There is an increased need for proper regulation and control of non-incinerator devices and for monitoring and proper handling of these devices in developing countries. PMID:25000113

  17. Secondary incinerator for radioactive gaseous waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, Tadashi; Masuda, Takashi.

    1997-01-01

    A vessel incorporated with packings, in which at least either of the packings and the vessel is put to induction-heating by high frequency induction coils, is disposed in a flow channel of radioactive gaseous wastes exhausted from a radioactive waste incinerator. The packings include metals such as stainless pipes and electroconductive ceramics such as C-SiC ceramics. Since only electricity is used as an energy source, in the secondary incinerator for the radioactive gaseous wastes, it can be installed in a cell safely. In addition, if ceramics are used, there is no worry of deterioration of the incinerator due to organic materials, and essential functions are not lowered. (T.M.)

  18. Recovery and distribution of incinerated aluminum packaging waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Y; Bakker, M C M; de Heij, P G

    2011-12-01

    A study was performed into relations between physical properties of aluminum packaging waste and the corresponding aluminum scraps in bottom ash from three typical incineration processes. First, Dutch municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) bottom ash was analyzed for the identifiable beverage can alloy scraps in the +2mm size ranges using chemical detection and X-ray fluorescence. Second, laboratory-scale pot furnace tests were conducted to investigate the relations between aluminum packaging in base household waste and the corresponding metal recovery rates. The representative packaging wastes include beverage cans, foil containers and thin foils. Third, small samples of aluminum packaging waste were incinerated in a high-temperature oven to determine leading factors influencing metal recovery rates. Packaging properties, combustion conditions, presence of magnesium and some specific contaminants commonly found in household waste were investigated independently in the high-temperature oven. In 2007, the bottom ash (+2mm fraction) from the AEB MSWI plant was estimated to be enriched by 0.1 wt.% of aluminum beverage cans scrap. Extrapolating from this number, the recovery potential of all eleven MSWI plants in the Netherlands is estimated at 720 ton of aluminum cans scrap. More than 85 wt.% of this estimate would end up in +6mm size fractions and were amenable for efficient recycling. The pot furnace tests showed that the average recovery rate of metallic aluminum typically decreases from beverage cans (93 wt.%) to foil containers (85 wt.%) to thin foils (77 wt.%). The oven tests showed that in order of decreasing impact the main factors promoting metallic aluminum losses are the packaging type, combustion temperature, residence time and salt contamination. To a lesser degree magnesium as alloying element, smaller packaging size and basic contaminations may also promote losses. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. 40 CFR 63.988 - Incinerators, boilers, and process heaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Incinerators, boilers, and process... Routing to a Fuel Gas System or a Process § 63.988 Incinerators, boilers, and process heaters. (a) Equipment and operating requirements. (1) Owners or operators using incinerators, boilers, or process...

  20. Addition of liquid waste incineration capability to the INEL's low-level waste incinerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steverson, E.M.; Clark, D.P.; McFee, J.N.

    1986-01-01

    A liquid waste system has recently been installed in the Waste Experimental Reduction Facility (WERF) incinerator at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). In this paper, aspects of the incineration system such as the components, operations, capabilities, capital cost, EPA permit requirements, and future plans are discussed. The principal objective of the liquid incineration system is to provide the capability to process hazardous, radioactively contaminated, non-halogenated liquid wastes. The system consists primarily of a waste feed system, instrumentation and controls, and a liquid burner, which were procured at a capital cost of $115,000

  1. A standard reference for chamber testing of material VOC emissions: Design principle and performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Wenjuan; Zhang, Yinping; Xiong, Jianyin; Li, Mu

    2012-02-01

    Environmental chambers are widely used to test formaldehyde and other volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from indoor materials and furniture. However, there is a lack of a proven method to assess the precision of the test results of the chamber system. In this paper, we describe a new standard reference, LIFE (liquid-inner tube diffusion-film-emission), to address this problem. This reference has the following salient features: (1) Constant emission rate, with less than 3.0% change with an ambient airflow speed (>0.014 m/s) at furniture emission range (0.1-1.0 mg/m 3 in a 30 m 3 chamber with air change rate of 1/h) under standard chamber test conditions as specified by ISO 16000-9 (23 °C, 50% RH); (2) Long duration of emissions, on the order of 1000 h; (3) Easy to store, apply and maintain. The design principle and criteria of the LIFE reference are presented. An analytical model and dimensionless analysis were applied to optimize the factors influencing the emission rate, and experiments were conducted to validate the analytical results. In addition, the equivalent emission parameters of the reference, i.e., the initial emittable concentration, the diffusion coefficient and the partition coefficient, were determined through a three-parameter optimizing regression. This can then be used to check the reliability of a chamber method for testing these three parameters. The developed standard reference should prove useful for calibrating chamber systems for indoor material/furniture VOC emissions tests.

  2. Effect of incinerator bottom-ash composition on the mechanical behavior of backfill material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chiou-Liang; Weng, Meng-Chia; Chang, Chih-Hung

    2012-12-30

    This study explores the influence of the chemical composition (SiO(2), CaO, Fe(2)O(3), and Al(2)O(3)) of incinerator bottom ash on its friction angle. Direct shear tests were performed to measure the strength of bottom ash with two distinctly different compositions. Then, an empirical equation was regressed to determine the correlation between each composition and the friction angle. The experimental results showed that the main constituent material of the incinerator bottom ash from general municipal wastes is SiO(2), and the friction angle is 48.04°-52.66°. The bottom ash from incineration plants treating both municipal wastes and general industrial wastes has a high content of iron-aluminum oxides, and its friction angle is 44.60°-52.52°. According to the multivariate regression analysis result, the friction angle of bottom ash of any composition is influenced mainly by the Fe(2)O(3) and Al(2)O(3) contents. This study used the friction angle of the bottom ash from four different incineration plants to validate the empirical equation, and found that the error between actual friction angles and the predicted values was -1.36% to 5.34%. Therefore, the regressed empirical equation in this study can be employed in engineering applications to preliminarily identify the backfill quality of incinerator bottom ash. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The influences on leachate from landfill of incineration residuals by acid precipitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chow, J.-D.; Chai, W.-L.

    2007-01-01

    Incineration of municipal solid wastes (MSW) is the main method of waste management in Taiwan. Although the incineration of MSW processes the solid wastes at 850-950 deg. C and destroys most of the organics, the content of incineration ashes is still a problem for landfill. Moreover, acid precipitation is much worse than before in Taiwan, especially in the northern areas. For instance, the occurrence probabilities of acid precipitation measured from 1991 to 1998 in Taipei increase from 73% to 85%. Therefore, it is more important to get a series of data that will help explore the influence of acid precipitation during disposal on characterization of pollutants than to analyze the ash properties after the incinerators have been constructed and regularly used. In this investigation, the disposal site of incineration ashes is simulated in laboratory by test columns. An irrigation experiment is taken to simulate the acid precipitation at room temperature. In order to explore the exact influence on leachate quality of the main chemical composition of acid precipitation, columns are migrated with different concentrations of sulfate in acid precipitation. This investigation showed that the sulfate concentration of acid precipitation has an increasing effect on the accumulative release of heavy metals, such as Zn, Pb and Cu, from leachate. The sulfate concentration of acid precipitation, however, will not influence the trend of chemical oxygen demand (COD), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD 5 ) and total organic carbon (TOC) in the leachate release

  4. Masonry fireplace emissions test method: Repeatability and sensitivity to fueling protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, C H; Jaasma, D R; Champion, M R

    1993-03-01

    A test method for masonry fireplaces has been evaluated during testing on six masonry fireplace configurations. The method determines carbon monoxide and particulate matter emission rates (g/h) and factors (g/kg) and does not require weighing of the appliance to determine the timing of fuel loading.The intralaboratory repeatability of the test method has been determined from multiple tests on the six fireplaces. For the tested fireplaces, the ratio of the highest to lowest measured PM rate averaged 1.17 and in no case was greater than 1.32. The data suggest that some of the variation is due to differences in fuel properties.The influence of fueling protocol on emissions has also been studied. A modified fueling protocol, tested in large and small fireplaces, reduced CO and PM emission factors by roughly 40% and reduced CO and PM rates from 0 to 30%. For both of these fireplaces, emission rates were less sensitive to fueling protocol than emission factors.

  5. Hazardous and radioactive waste incineration studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vavruska, J.S.; Stretz, L.A.; Borduin, L.C.

    1981-01-01

    Development and demonstration of a transuranic (TRU) waste volume-reduction process is described. A production-scale controlled air incinerator using commercially available equipment and technology has been modified for solid radioactive waste service. This unit successfully demonstrated the volume reduction of transuranic (TRU) waste with an average TRU content of about 20 nCi/g. The same incinerator and offgas treatment system is being modified further to evaluate the destruction of hazardous liquid wastes such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and hazardous solid wastes such as pentachlorophenol (PCP)-treated wood

  6. Plutonium dissolution from Rocky Flats Plant incinerator ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delegard, C.H.

    1985-06-01

    Rockwell Hanford Operations (Rockwell) soon will commence recovery of plutonium from Rocky Flats Plant incinerator ash. In preparation for this processing, Rockwell undertook literature and laboratory studies to identify, select and optimize plutonium dissolution methods for treating the ash. Ash reburning, followed by dissolution in nitric acid containing calcium fluoride, was selected as the processing method for the ash. Recommended values of process parameters were identified. Using the selected process, 99.5% plutonium recovery was achieved, leaving about 12.7 wt % heel residue for an equal weight composite of the three ashes tested. 15 refs., 26 figs

  7. Metallic materials corrosion in the CRNL radwaste incinerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tapping, R.L.; McVey, E.G.; Disney, D.J.

    1987-01-01

    Corrosion coupon evaluation and in-service materials performance for the CRNL waste incinerator has been carried out since 1980. Data are presented to show that types 309, 310 and 446 stainless steel, Alloy 625 and Alloy 333 all perform well in short-term tests in the afterburner environment (850-1000 0 C) but are subject to sigma-phase embrittlement and grain boundary carbide precipitation following long-term exposures. Several alloys performed satisfactorily in the primary chamber (500 0 C), and the material of construction, type 310 stainless steel, continues to provide good service

  8. Volume reduction through incineration of low-activity radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eymeri, J.; Gauthey, J.C.; Chaise, D.; Lafite, G.

    1993-01-01

    The aim of the waste treatment plant, designed by Technicatome (CEA) for an Indonesian Nuclear Research Center, is to reduce through incineration the volume of low-activity radioactive wastes such as technological solids (cotton, PVC, paper board), biological solids (animal bones) and liquids (cutting fluids...). The complete combustion is realized with a total air multi-fuel burner (liquid wastes) and flash pyrolysis-complete combustion (solid wastes). A two stage flue gas filtration system, a flue gas washing system, and an ash recovery system are used. A test platform has been built. 3 figs

  9. 40 CFR 86.160-00 - Exhaust emission test procedure for SC03 emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ....161-00. (ii) Turn on the solar heating system. (iii) All vehicle test phases of preconditioning, soak... percent relative humidity), a solar heat load intensity of 850 W/m2, and vehicle cooling air flow... the air conditioning system controls as follows: (i) A/C mode setting at Maximum. (ii) Airflow setting...

  10. A multivariate causality test of carbon dioxide emissions, energy consumption and economic growth in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Ching-Chih

    2010-01-01

    This paper uses multivariate co-integration Granger causality tests to investigate the correlations between carbon dioxide emissions, energy consumption and economic growth in China. Some researchers have argued that the adoption of a reduction in carbon dioxide emissions and energy consumption as a long term policy goal will result in a closed-form relationship, to the detriment of the economy. Therefore, a perspective that can make allowances for the fact that the exclusive pursuit of economic growth will increase energy consumption and CO 2 emissions is required; to the extent that such growth will have adverse effects with regard to global climate change. (author)

  11. Life cycle assessment modelling of waste-to-energy incineration in Spain and Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margallo, M; Aldaco, R; Irabien, A; Carrillo, V; Fischer, M; Bala, A; Fullana, P

    2014-06-01

    In recent years, waste management systems have been evaluated using a life cycle assessment (LCA) approach. A main shortcoming of prior studies was the focus on a mixture of waste with different characteristics. The estimation of emissions and consumptions associated with each waste fraction in these studies presented allocation problems. Waste-to-energy (WTE) incineration is a clear example in which municipal solid waste (MSW), comprising many types of materials, is processed to produce several outputs. This paper investigates an approach to better understand incineration processes in Spain and Portugal by applying a multi-input/output allocation model. The application of this model enabled predictions of WTE inputs and outputs, including the consumption of ancillary materials and combustibles, air emissions, solid wastes, and the energy produced during the combustion of each waste fraction. © The Author(s) 2014.

  12. 40 CFR 1045.235 - What emission testing must I perform for my application for a certificate of conformity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM SPARK-IGNITION PROPULSION MARINE ENGINES AND VESSELS Certifying Engine Families § 1045.235 What emission testing... useful life of the engine when operated in a vessel. (b) Test your emission-data engines using the...

  13. Field-testing a portable wind tunnel for fine dust emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    A protable wind tunnel has been developed to allow erodibility and dust emissions testing of soil surfaces with the premise that dust concentration and properties are highly correlated with surface soil properties, as modified by crop management system. In this study we report on the field-testing ...

  14. 40 CFR 86.1830-01 - Acceptance of vehicles for emission testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... representativeness of the durability demonstration. (2) For DDV's aged using the standard or a customized/alternative...-mile test point providing that the representativeness of the emission results will not be affected... the representativeness of the vehicle's test results. Manufacturers shall use good engineering...

  15. Test-Retest Reliability of Low-Level Evoked Distortion Product Otoacoustic Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Andrew; Passmore, Amy L.; Culbertson, Deborah S.; Jones, Sherri M.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine test-retest reliability of low-level evoked distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) as a function of L[subscript 1], L[subscript 2] level; f[subscript 2] frequency; and test condition. A predictive relationship between these variables and the presence/absence of DPOAE responses was also…

  16. Use of the TEM Cell for Compliance Testing of Emissions and Immunity, an IEC Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentz, Sigurd

    1996-01-01

    The current work of the IEC on preparing a standard for the use of TEM cells for compliance testing of emissions and immunity is reviewed. The requirements of TEM cells are related to the established procedures: “open area test site” and “shielded enclosure with area of uniform field”, respectively...

  17. Differences between emissions measured in urban driving and certification testing of heavy-duty diesel engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixit, Poornima; Miller, J. Wayne; Cocker, David R.; Oshinuga, Adewale; Jiang, Yu; Durbin, Thomas D.; Johnson, Kent C.

    2017-10-01

    between real world emissions and certification cycles should be narrowed. For example, one might use a different mix of cold and hot start testing to greater emphasize low temperature/load operation, a separate cycle to specifically characterize low-load operation, or broaden the in-use compliance testing requirements and associated conformity factors to incorporate a wider envelope of vehicle operation, especially at low load conditions. .

  18. Treatment and use of air pollution control residues from MSW incineration: An overview

    OpenAIRE

    Quina, Margarida J.; Bordado, João C.; Quinta-Ferreira, Rosa M.

    2008-01-01

    This work reviews strategies for the management of municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) residues, particularly solid particles collected from flue gases. These tiny particles may be retained by different equipment, with or without additives (lime, activated carbon, etc.), and depending on the different possible combinations, their properties may vary. In industrial plants, the most commonly used equipment for heat recovery and the cleaning of gas emissions are: heat recovery devices (boi...

  19. Incineration of wastes from nuclear installations with the Juelich incineration process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilke, M.

    1979-01-01

    In the Juelich Research Center a two-stage incineration process has been developed which, due to an integral thermal treatment stage, is most suitable for the incineration of heterogeneous waste material. The major advantages of this technique are to be seen in the fact that mechanical treatment of the waste material is no longer required and that off gas treatment is considerably facilitated. (orig.) [de

  20. A research on dioxin generation from the industrial waste incineration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoneda, Kenichi; Ikeguchi, Takasi; Yagi, Yoshio; Tamade, Yoshinori; Omori, Kosaku

    2002-03-01

    By using fluidized-bed furnace and rotary-kiln+stoker furnace and four different kinds of industrial wastes such as waste wood, coffee mill, waste oils and waste plastics, we have drawn the following conclusions: (1) A relationship between H6CBz and DXN is acquired, which is DXN = 0.34 x H6CBz(1.1) (2) The following means of emission reduction can be considered. (a) Reduction of DXN and Cl accumulation within the furnace, (b) control by the incinerated object, (c) control through the precursors of H6CBz, (d) improvement through operational control, (e) ammonia injection into the high-temperature zone of the furnace seems to be effective in reducing DXN and (f) DXN concentration is high with CO above 1,800 ppm, though it decreases with CO below approximately 10 ppm.

  1. Destruction and formation of organic micropollutants in incineration process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mascolo, G.; Bagnuolo, G.; Lotito, V.; Spinosa, L.; Mininni, G.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper are presented the results obtained from a lab-scale investigation carried out with a system for Thermal Diagnostic Studies (STDS) aimed to study the effect of some process variables during incineration. The study has been focused on (I) gas phase dioxins formation during precursors thermal degradation, (II) thermal degradation of toxic organic compounds, (III) products of incomplete combustion (PICs) formation during thermal degradation of urban sludge spiked with toxic organics, (IV) PICs formation during process failure modes, (V) polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) formation during urban sludge thermal degradation and (VI) influence of conditioning polymer on PICs emission during sludge incineration. The study about gas phase dioxins formation during precursors thermal degradation has been carried out with 2, 4, 6-trichloro- and 2, 4, 6 -tribromo-phenol that were thermal degraded at temperatures between 300 and 800 0 C in an air atmosphere. Both phenols showed the formation of the same tetra-halo-dioxin isomers that were further degraded at higher temperature. Furthermore, chlorine-containing dioxins showed higher thermal stability than bromine-containing dioxins. The study about thermal degradation of toxic organic compounds has been carried out with chlorobenzene, tetrachloroethylene and toluene that were thermal degraded at temperatures between 300 and 1000 0 C in an inert as well as air atmosphere. Results show that in all experimental conditions tetrachloroethylene and toluene are the most and less thermal stable compounds respectively. Also, all compounds are more thermal resistant during pyrolytic experiments and less thermal resistant when they are treated as a whole mixture. The study about PICs formation during thermal degradation of urban sludge spiked with toxic organics has been carried out by thermally degrading urban sludge alone or spiked with the above reported three organics at different conditions of temperature and oxygen

  2. EIA for a waste incinerator in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Sanne Vammen

    2017-01-01

    A planned new waste incinerator will be located in an area which is at risk of flooding – a risk that will increase under climate change. During public hear- ings as part of the project’s EIA, inclusion of climate risks was requested. This led to mitigation measures which will decrease the risk...

  3. OVERVIEW OF HAZARDOUS/TOXIC WASTE INCINERATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effective hazardous/toxic waste disposal and safe dumpsite cleanup are two of EPA's major missions in the 1980s. Incineration has been recognized as a very efficient process to destroy the hazardous wastes generated by industry or by the dumpsite remediations. The paper provides ...

  4. Incineration of Non-radioactive Simulated Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, A.Z.; Abdelrazek, I.D.

    1999-01-01

    An advanced controlled air incinerator has been investigated, developed and put into successful operation for both non radioactive simulated and other combustible solid wastes. Engineering efforts concentrated on providing an incinerator which emitted a clean, easily treatable off-gas and which produced minimum amounts of secondary waste. Feed material is fed by gravity into the gas reactor without shredding or other pretreatment. The temperature of the waste is gradually increased in a reduced oxygen atmosphere as the resulting products are introduced into the combustion chamber. Steady burning is thus accomplished under easily controlled excess air conditions with the off-gas then passing through a simple dry cleaning-up system. Experimental studies showed that, at lower temperature, CO 2 , and CH 4 contents in gas reactor effluent increase by the increase of glowing bed temperature, while H 2 O, H 2 and CO decrease . It was proved that, a burn-out efficiency (for ash residues) and a volume reduction factor appeared to be better than 95.5% and 98% respectively. Moreover, high temperature permits increased volumes of incinerated material and results in increased gasification products. It was also found that 8% by weight of ashes are separated by flue gas cleaning system as it has chemical and size uniformity. This high incineration efficiency has been obtained through automated control and optimization of process variables like temperature of the glowing bed and the oxygen feed rate to the gas reactor

  5. Oxygen incineration process for treatment of alpha-contaminated wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jeong Guk; Yang, Hee Chul; Park, Geun Il; Kim, In Tae; Kim, Joon Hyung

    2001-07-01

    As a part of development of a treatment technology for burnable alpha-bearing (or -contaminated) wastes using an oxygen incineration process, which would be expected to produce in Korea, the off-gas volume and compositions were estimated form mass and heat balance, and then compared to those of a general air incineration process. A laboratory-scale oxygen incineration process, to investigate a burnable wastes from nuclear fuel fabricatin facility, was designed, constructed, and then operated. The use of oxygen instead of air in incineratin would result in reduction on off-gas product below one seventh theoretically. In addition, the trends on incineration and melting processes to treat the radioactive alpha-contaminated wastes, and the regulations and guide lines, related to design, construction, and operation of incineration process, were reviewed. Finallu, the domestic regulations related incineration, and the operation and maintenance manuals for oxy-fuel burner and oxygen incineration process were shown in appendixes

  6. Particle size distribution of fly ash from co-incineration of bituminous coal with municipal solid waste

    OpenAIRE

    Cieślik Ewelina; Konieczny Tomasz; Bobik Bartłomiej

    2018-01-01

    One of the source of air pollutants is emission from local coal-fired boiler-houses and domestic heating boilers. The consequence of incineration of municipal waste is the introduction of additional pollutants into the atmosphere, including fly ash. The aim of this work was to evaluate the particle size distribution of fly ash emitted by coal combustion and co-incineration of coal with municipal waste in a domestic 18 kW central heating boiler equipped with an automatic fuel feeder. Mixtures ...

  7. Research and development and its importance for eco-efficient waste incineration - a review and an outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vehlow, Jurgen

    2010-01-01

    Research and development played a paramount role for waste incineration from the early beginning. The development of suited combustion systems, of measures to control dioxin formation in and emission from waste incineration plants, the simplification of gas cleaning processes while maintaining their environmental quality and the inertnesses of hazardous residues like filter ashes are few examples to illustrate this importance. There are still areas which need further research and development support, e.g. the optimisation of energy recovery or the final disposal of soluble APC residues. (author)

  8. Measurement and analysis to DIW of chassis dynamometers for automobile emissions testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Weimin; Wang, Dayong; Qi, Fang; Yang, Dengcai

    2010-12-01

    DIW (Dynamometer Inertia Weight) of 'chassis dynamometers for automobile emissions testing' is a total inertia weight of all rotating components in the chassis dynamometer. Total Inertia weight is a inertia device simulates translational and rotational kinetic energy of a traveling vehicle which is equivalent to the mass of the car. DIW is an important technical indicator, whether it is accurate or not will affect the calibration of all technical characteristics of 'chassis dynamometers for automobile emissions testing'. In this paper,first of all, we introduce a new method to measure the Dynamometer Inertia Weight, that is, coast-down testing with twice constant-force loading method, and we derivate a formula to calculate the Dynamometer Inertia Weight from kinetic energy conservation law. Secondly, we have done a lot of coast-down testings with twice constant-force load method. After analyzing the data, we found out the factors that affect the testing processes and the accuracy of testing results. Finally, after comparing twice constant-force loading method with the take-down flywheel method and twice constant-power loading method, we know that this coast-down testing with twice constant-force loading method is better than other methods in stability and repeatability and testing data will be more accurate. It's a accurate and convenient way to measure the DIW of 'chassis dynamometers for automobile emissions testing'.

  9. DEVELOPMENT OF A HAZARDOUS WASTE INCINERATOR TARGET ANALYTE LIST OF PRODUCTS OF INCOMPLETE COMBUSTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of pilot-scale incineration testing to develop a comprehensive list of products of incomplete combustion (PICs) from hazardous waste combustion (HWC) systems. Project goals were to: (1) identify the total mass of organic compounds sufficiently to estimate...

  10. Design, operation and management of waste incinerators; Design, Betrieb und Management von Muellverbrennungsanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, U.; Swithenbank, J.; Nasserzadeh, V.; Ewan, B.; Lee, P.H. [Sheffield Univ. (United Kingdom). Waste Incineration Centre; Lawrence, D.; Garrod, N.P. [Sheffield Heat and Power Ltd. (United Kingdom); Jones, B.; Sykes, G. [Sheffield Incinerator Plant (United Kingdom); Bernet, U. [Electrowatt Engineering Ltd. (Switzerland)

    1998-09-01

    Design of combustion chambers for solid residues combution is hampered by the non-existence of accurate mathematical models of the combustion process, so that semi-empirical correlations must be used. Modern flow simulation programs (computational fluid dynamics), on the other hand, offer the pssibility of predicting flow in the gaseous phase although further tests are still required for validation. Since experiments on a laboratory scale hardly ever provide reliable data material, research in the field of waste incineration must make tests on industrial-scale systems. For this reason, the Sheffield University Waste Incineration Centre (SUWIC) cooperated with Sheffield Heat and Power Ltd and was therefore able to carry out extensive research at the Bernard Road waste incinerator in Sheffield. (orig./SR) [Deutsch] Die Konstruktion von Feueraeumen zur Feststoffverbrennung wird dadurch behindert, dass kein genaues mathematisches Modell fuer den Verbrennungsprozess existiert. Statt dessen muss noch immer auf halb-empirische Korrelationen zurueckgegriffen werden. Aufgrund moderner Stroemungssimulationsprogramme (Computational Fluid Dynamics) ist hingegen die Vorhersage des Stroemungsverhaltens der Gasphase in Verbrennungsanlagen weiter entwickelt, obwohl zusaetzliche Tests zur Validierung noch erforderlich sind. Da Versuche im Testmassstab selten verlaessliches Datenmaterial liefern, ist die Forschung im Bereich der Muellverbrennung auf Tests an Grossanlagen angewiesen. Dank der guten Beziehungen zu Sheffield Heat and Power Ltd hat Sheffield University Waste Incineration Centre (SUWIC) an der Bernard Road Muellverbrennungsanlage in Sheffield ein umfangreiches Forchungsprogramm durchfuehren koennen. (orig./SR)

  11. An Investigation on Formaldehyde Emission Characteristics of Wood Building Materials in Chinese Standard Tests: Product Emission Levels, Measurement Uncertainties, and Data Correlations between Various Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Wei; Cao, Yang; Wang, Dandan; Hou, Guojun; Shen, Zaihua; Zhang, Shuangbao

    2015-01-01

    As a large producer and consumer of wood building materials, China suffers product formaldehyde emissions (PFE) but lacks systematic investigations and basic data on Chinese standard emission tests (CST), so this paper presented a first effort on this issue. The PFE of fiberboards, particleboards, blockboards, floorings, and parquets manufactured in Beijing region were characterized by the perforator extraction method (PE), 9–11 L and 40 L desiccator methods (D9, D40), and environmental chamber method (EC) of the Chinese national standard GB 18580; based on statistics of PFE data, measurement uncertainties in CST were evaluated by the Monte Carlo method; moreover, PFE data correlations between tests were established. Results showed: (1) Different tests may give slightly different evaluations on product quality. In PE and D9 tests, blockboards and parquets reached E1 grade for PFE, which can be directly used in indoor environment; but in D40 and EC tests, floorings and parquets achieved E1. (2) In multiple tests, PFE data characterized by PE, D9, and D40 complied with Gaussian distributions, while those characterized by EC followed log-normal distributions. Uncertainties in CST were overall low, with uncertainties for 20 material-method combinations all below 7.5%, and the average uncertainty for each method under 3.5%, thus being acceptable in engineering application. A more complicated material structure and a larger test scale caused higher uncertainties. (3) Conventional linear models applied to correlating PFE values between PE, D9, and EC, with R2 all over 0.840, while novel logarithmic (exponential) models can work better for correlations involving D40, with R2 all beyond 0.901. This research preliminarily demonstrated the effectiveness of CST, where results for D40 presented greater similarities to EC—the currently most reliable test for PFE, thus highlighting the potential of Chinese D40 as a more practical approach in production control and risk

  12. Green, Eco, Innovative Design, and Manufacturing Technology of a 1-Ton per Batch Municipal Solid Waste Incinerator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerdsuwan Somrat

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The thermal treatment of waste by incineration is considered an ultimate solution in order to get rid of waste properly by using the combustible properties of waste and transforming them into inert form and gaseous emission, with the main advantage of a huge reduction in mass and volume of treated waste, destruction of the dangerous components in waste, and obtaining green and clean energy from the exothermal reaction from the completed combustion process. In order to achieve the main goal of incineration, a good design, construction, supervision, and intensive operation and maintenance must be taken into account, especially for the small-scale incinerator. This research will deal with the green, innovative, and eco design and manufacturing technology of a 1-ton per batch municipal solid waste (MSW incinerator. The concept design of the incinerator will focus on the design of the feeding process where only one batch of waste will be discharged into the combustion chamber at one time instead of the semi-feed process, as found in the conventional incinerator. This will ease the operation of the operator and reduce the operating cost. Moreover, the innovative design includes the redesign of combustion air injection into either the primary or secondary combustion chamber in order to achieve the 3Ts of combustion (time, temperature. and turbulence. This design can eliminate the use of an auxiliary burner in the primary combustion chamber. Rethinking the innovative design of using recirculation hot flue gas for preheating of wet garbage in order to pre-dry the waste before combustion is also taken into account. The manufacturing process of the wall composition as well as other parts of the incinerator are also examined.

  13. Development of a multi-VOC reference material for quality assurance in materials emission testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nohr, Michael; Horn, Wolfgang; Jann, Oliver; Richter, Matthias; Lorenz, Wilhelm

    2015-04-01

    Emission test chamber measurement is necessary to proof building materials as sources of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The results of such measurements are used to evaluate materials and label them according to their potential to emit harmful substances, polluting indoor air. If only labelled materials were installed indoors, this would improve indoor air quality and prevent negative impacts on human health. Because of the complex testing procedure, reference materials for the quality assurance are mandatory. Currently, there is a lack of such materials because most building products show a broad variation of emissions even within one batch. A previous study indicates lacquers, mixed with volatile organic pollutants, as reproducible emission source for a wide range of substances. In the present study, the curing of the lacquer-VOC mixture inside micro-chambers was optimised. Therefore, the humidity and the chamber flow were varied. Typical indoor air pollutants with a wide range of volatilities, for example, styrene, n-hexadecane, dimethyl and dibutyl phthalate were selected. It turned out that, under optimised curing parameters inside the micro-chamber, their emission can be reproduced with variations of less than 10 %. With this, a next important step towards a reference material for emission testing was achieved.

  14. Acoustic emission non-destructive testing of structures using source location techniques.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beattie, Alan G.

    2013-09-01

    The technology of acoustic emission (AE) testing has been advanced and used at Sandia for the past 40 years. AE has been used on structures including pressure vessels, fire bottles, wind turbines, gas wells, nuclear weapons, and solar collectors. This monograph begins with background topics in acoustics and instrumentation and then focuses on current acoustic emission technology. It covers the overall design and system setups for a test, with a wind turbine blade as the object. Test analysis is discussed with an emphasis on source location. Three test examples are presented, two on experimental wind turbine blades and one on aircraft fire extinguisher bottles. Finally, the code for a FORTRAN source location program is given as an example of a working analysis program. Throughout the document, the stress is on actual testing of real structures, not on laboratory experiments.

  15. Simulation of diesel engine emissions on the example of Fiat Panda in the NEDC test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botwinska, Katarzyna; Mruk, Remigiusz; Słoma, Jacek; Tucki, Karol; Zaleski, Mateusz

    2017-10-01

    Road transport may be deemed a strategic branch of modern economy. Unfortunately, a rapid increase in the number of on-road motor vehicles entails some negative consequences as well, for instance, excessive concentration of exhausts produced by engines which results in deterioration of air quality. EURO emission standards which define acceptable limits for exhaust emissions of power units is an example of an activity performed in attempt to improve air quality. The EURO standard defines permissible amount of exhausts produced by a vehicle. Presently new units are examined through NEDC test. For the purpose of this thesis, a virtual test stand in a form of a computer simulation of a chassis dynamometer was used to simulate emission of a diesel engine (compression-ignition engine) in the NEDC test. Actual parameters of the 1.3 MultiJet engine of the Fiat Panda passenger car of 2014 were applied in the model. The simulation was carried out in the Matlab Simulink environment. The simulation model of the Fiat Panda passenger car enables the designation of the emission waveform for all test stages which corresponds to the values received during an approval test in real-life conditions.

  16. Simulation of diesel engine emissions on the example of Fiat Panda in the NEDC test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Botwinska Katarzyna

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Road transport may be deemed a strategic branch of modern economy. Unfortunately, a rapid increase in the number of on-road motor vehicles entails some negative consequences as well, for instance, excessive concentration of exhausts produced by engines which results in deterioration of air quality. EURO emission standards which define acceptable limits for exhaust emissions of power units is an example of an activity performed in attempt to improve air quality. The EURO standard defines permissible amount of exhausts produced by a vehicle. Presently new units are examined through NEDC test. For the purpose of this thesis, a virtual test stand in a form of a computer simulation of a chassis dynamometer was used to simulate emission of a diesel engine (compression-ignition engine in the NEDC test. Actual parameters of the 1.3 MultiJet engine of the Fiat Panda passenger car of 2014 were applied in the model. The simulation was carried out in the Matlab Simulink environment. The simulation model of the Fiat Panda passenger car enables the designation of the emission waveform for all test stages which corresponds to the values received during an approval test in real-life conditions.

  17. Cementation and solidification of Rocky Flats Plant incinerator ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, J.A.; Semones, G.B.

    1994-01-01

    Cementation studies on various aqueous waste streams at Rocky Flats have shown this technology to be effective for immobilizing the RCRA constituents in the waste. Cementation is also being evaluated for encapsulation of incinerator ash. Experiments will initially evaluate a surrogate ash waste using a Taguchi experimental design to optimize the cement formulation and waste loading levels for this application. Variables of waste loading, fly ash additions, water/cement ratio, and cement type will be tested at three levels each during the course of this work. Tests will finally be conducted on actual waste using the optimized cement formulation developed from this testing. This progression of tests will evaluate the effectiveness of cement encapsulation for this waste stream without generating any additional wastes

  18. Bioaccessibility and health risk of heavy metals in ash from the incineration of different e-waste residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Xiao-Qing; Shen, Dong-Sheng; Shentu, Jia-Li; Long, Yu-Yang; Feng, Yi-Jian; Shen, Chen-Chao

    2015-03-01

    Ash from incinerated e-waste dismantling residues (EDR) may cause significant health risks to people through ingestion, inhalation, and dermal contact exposure pathways. Ashes of four classified e-waste types generated by an incineration plant in Zhejiang, China were collected. Total contents and the bioaccessibilities of Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn in ashes were measured to provide crucial information to evaluate the health risks for incinerator workers and children living in vicinity. Compared to raw e-waste in mixture, ash was metal-enriched by category incinerated. However, the physiologically based extraction test (PBET) indicates the bioaccessibilities of Ni, Pb, and Zn were less than 50 %. Obviously, bioaccessibilities need to be considered in noncancer risk estimate. Total and PBET-extractable contents of metal, except for Pb, were significantly correlated with the pH of the ash. Noncancer risks of ash from different incinerator parts decreased in the order bag filter ash (BFA) > cyclone separator ash (CFA) > bottom ash (BA). The hazard quotient for exposure to ash were decreased as ingestion > dermal contact > inhalation. Pb in ingested ash dominated (>80 %) noncancer risks, and children had high chronic risks from Pb (hazard index >10). Carcinogenic risks from exposure to ash were under the acceptable level (incinerated ash are made.

  19. Modelling a district heating system: Introduction of waste incineration, policy instruments and co-operation with an industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The capacity for waste incineration in Swedish municipalities is increasing due to regulations aimed at decreasing landfill with waste. This has a large impact on the municipal energy systems, since waste is an important fuel for district heating production. The object of this study is a municipality, Skoevde, which is planning to build a waste incineration plant to produce electricity and heat. The municipality is also planning to extend the district heating grid to include a large industrial heat consumer. The economic effect on the energy system of these measures is analysed as well as environmental effects in terms of carbon dioxide emissions. The consequences of two different policy instruments, green electricity certificates and a tax on waste incineration, are also studied. Economic optimisations show that the advantage of co-operation with industry is twofold: lower heat production costs and a considerable reduction of carbon dioxide emissions. It is economically feasible to invest in a waste incineration plant for heat production. An important measure to lower carbon dioxide emissions is to introduce combined heat and power production on the assumption that locally produced electricity replaces electricity produced by coal condensing power

  20. Dioxin and fly ash free incineration by ash pelletization and reburning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobylecki, R P; Ohira, K; Ito, I; Fujiwara, N; Horio, M

    2001-11-01

    Dioxins (DXNs) in municipal waste incinerator fly ash were effectively reduced by pelletizing the mixture of ash, cement, and sodium phosphate and reburning the pellets in a laboratory scale bubbling fluidized bed (BFB) furnace. Three types of pellets--A, B and C, of various sizes and compositions were used in the experiments. The efficiency of DXN reduction in the pellet matrix was proportional to the incineration time, temperature, and degree of pellet incineration. At 700 degrees C and incineration time sufficient for a complete burnout, the efficiency of DXN reduction in the pellets of type A and C was found to be 99.9% and 99.7%, respectively. Correspondingly, the DXN concentration in the pellets decreased from 862 ng TEQ/kg to 0.9 ng TEQ/kg for pellets A and 2.2 ng TEQ/kg for pellets C. The residual concentration of coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (coplanar PCBs) was below 0.2 ng TEQ/kg and 0.4 ng TEQ/kg, respectively. Assuming a tortuosity factor of tau = 3 and the reaction rate constants of 0.013 m/s (at 700 degrees C) and 0.025 m/s (at 800 degrees C), the experimental pellet incineration times were reasonably predicted by using the shrinking core model. Possible DXN evaporation from the pellets was also studied. The amount of DXNs in the flue gas captured by an impinger trap was less than 3% when the reactor was operated at 700 and 800 degrees C. The described method of fly ash pelletization and reburning seems to be a relatively easy and inexpensive way to reduce both the emission of DXNs and the amount of fly ash.

  1. Physico-chemical characterisation of particulate heavy metals from municipal solid waste incinerator emissions and their contributions to ambient air quality. Case of Toulon MSWI (South of France); Caracterisation physico-chimique et tracage des emissions particulaires metalliques d'une usine d'incineration d'ordures menageres dans l'air ambiant. Exemple de l'UIOM de Toulon (Var, France)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Floch, M

    2004-07-15

    The aims of this study are the physico-chemical characterisation, the apportionment and the following of particulate heavy metals from MSWI emissions. Various methods (in situ data treatment, unmixing models and codes, UNMIX or CMB, sequential extractions and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) agree in the following: - identification of the MSWI source in two profiles (Zn - Ca and Ba - Cu - Fe - Zn - Pb - Ca); - estimation of its contribution of up to 25% of the total sources contribution; - showing the seasonal variability in term of profile and contribution of this source; - suggest the potential of emitted elements to enter the food chain; This EXAFS first approach on atmospheric particulate matter shows that zinc and lead are in an atomic environment with calcium, silicon and aluminum. In spite of disputable conclusions, isotopic lead ratios define a 'MSWI' end-member and confirm that the town-center of Toulon is outside the MSWI plume influence. (author)

  2. Defense waste cyclone incinerator demonstration program: October--March 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klinger, L.M.

    1979-01-01

    The cyclone incinerator developed at Mound has proven to be an effective tool for waste volume reduction. During the first half of FY-1979, efforts have been made to increase the versatility of the system. Incinerator development was continued in three areas. Design changes were drafted for the present developmental incinerator to rectify several minor operational deficiencies of the system. Improvements will be limited to redesign unless installation is required to prove design or to permit implementation of other portions of the plan. The applications development portion of the feasibility plan is focused upon expanding the versatility of the incinerator. An improved delivery system was installed for burning various liquids. An improved continuous feed system was installed and will be demonstrated later this year. Late in FY-1979, work will begin on the conceptual design of a production cyclone incinerator which will handle nonrecoverable TRU waste, and which will fully demonstrate the capabilities of the cyclone incinerator system. Data generated in past years and during FY-1979 are being collected to establish cyclone incineration effects on solids, liquids, and gases in the system. Data reflecting equipment life cycles and corrosion have been tabulated. Basic design criteria for a cyclone incinerator system based on developmental work on the incinerator through FY-1979 have been assembled. The portion of the material dealing with batch-type operation of the incinerator will be published later this year

  3. 76 FR 50164 - Protocol Gas Verification Program and Minimum Competency Requirements for Air Emission Testing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-12

    ... in commenting must do so at this time. For further information, please see the information provided...-AQ06 Protocol Gas Verification Program and Minimum Competency Requirements for Air Emission Testing... correct certain portions of the Protocol Gas Verification Program and Minimum Competency Requirements for...

  4. 40 CFR 1060.520 - How do I test fuel tanks for permeation emissions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... emission control technology involves surface treatment or other post-processing treatments such as an epoxy... this test is to represent environmental wall stresses caused by pressure changes and other factors... exposed to direct natural sunlight for an equivalent period of time as long as you ensure that the tank is...

  5. Transfer of Emission Test Data from Small Scale to Full Scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Gunnar P.; Nielsen, Peter V.

    Test conditions such as temperature, relative humidity, and air velocities are chosen within the range that are found in ventilated rooms. H:owever, the difference in scale can lead to some problems and misconception of the size of the actual emission rate for a building material. This paper high...

  6. Testing the theory of emissions trading : Experimental evidence on alternative mechanisms for global carbon trading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaassen, Ger; Nentjes, Andries; Smith, Mark

    2005-01-01

    Simulation models and theory prove that emission trading converges to market equilibrium. This paper sets out to test these results using experimental economics. Three experiments are conducted for the six largest carbon emitting industrialized regions. Two experiments use auctions, the first a

  7. Emission testing of jatropha and pongamia mixed bio diesel fuel in a diesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, M.; Shaikh, A.A.

    2012-01-01

    The present investigation is based on the emission characteristics of mixed bio diesel fuel in a four stroke single cylinder compression ignition engine at constant speed. Refined oils of jatropha and pongamia are converted into bio diesel by acid catalyzed esterification and base catalyzed transesterification reactions. The jatropha and pongamia bio diesel were mixed in equal proportions with conventional mineral diesel fuel. Four samples of fuel were tested namely, diesel fuel, B10, B20 and B40. The emission analysis showed B20 mixed bio diesel fuel blend having better results as compared to other samples. There is 60% and 35% lower emission of carbon monoxide and in sulphur dioxide observed while consuming B20 blended fuel respectively. The test result showed NOx emissions were 10% higher from bio diesel fuel, as compared to conventional diesel fuel. However, these emissions may be reduced by EGR (Exhaust Gas Recirculation) technology. Present research also revealed that that B20 mixed bio diesel fuel can be used, without any modification in a CI engine. (author)

  8. Determination of radon exhalation from construction materials using VOC emission test chambers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, M; Jann, O; Kemski, J; Schneider, U; Krocker, C; Hoffmann, B

    2013-10-01

    The inhalation of (222) Rn (radon) decay products is one of the most important reasons for lung cancer after smoking. Stony building materials are an important source of indoor radon. This article describes the determination of the exhalation rate of stony construction materials by the use of commercially available measuring devices in combination with VOC emission test chambers. Five materials - two types of clay brick, clinker brick, light-weight concrete brick, and honeycomb brick - generally used for wall constructions were used for the experiments. Their contribution to real room concentrations was estimated by applying room model parameters given in ISO 16000-9, RP 112, and AgBB. This knowledge can be relevant, if for instance indoor radon concentration is limited by law. The test set-up used here is well suited for application in test laboratories dealing with VOC emission testing. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Evaluation of the risk for heavy metals and dioxin from the incineration plant of urban solid wastes; Evaluacion del riesgo por exposicion a metales pesados y dioxinas emitidos por una planta incineradora de RSU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domingo, J.L.; Schuhmacher, M.

    1997-12-31

    Public fear of dioxin and cancer has heightened the controversy surrounding municipal solid waste (MSW) incinerators. Concern about MSW incineration has focused especial attention on the emissions of dioxins together with metals, as potential sources of human exposure to these toxics. This paper provides data on the assessment of the human health risks for the population living in the neighbourhood of a modern MSW incinerator. Results show that food is the major source of human exposure to metals and dioxin, while MSW incineration is not a principal source of human exposure. The authors conclude suggesting that studies on the background levels of metals and dioxin in the vicinity of new MSW incinerators are essentials. (Author) 7 refs.

  10. Leaching from municipal solid waste incineration residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyks, J.

    2008-02-15

    Leaching of pollutants from Municipal Solid Waste Incineration (MSWI) residues has been investigated combining a range of laboratory leaching experiments with geochemical modeling. Special attention was paid to assessing the applicability of laboratory data for subsequent modeling with respect to presumed full-scale conditions; both sample pretreatment and actual influence of leaching conditions on the results of laboratory experiments were considered. It was shown that sample pretreatment may have large impact on leaching test data. In particular, a significant fraction of Pb was shown mobile during the washing of residues with water. In addition, drying of residues (i.e. slow oxidation) prior to leaching experiments increased the leaching of Cr significantly. Significant differences regarding the leaching behavior of individual elements with respect to (non)equilibrium conditions in column percolation experiments were observed in the study. As a result, three groups of elements were identified based on the predominant leaching control and the influence of (non)equilibrium on the results of the laboratory column experiments: I. Predominantly availability-controlled elements (e.g. Na, K, Cl) II. Solubility-controlled elements (e.g. Ca, S, Si, Al, Ba, and Zn) III. Complexation-controlled elements (e.g. Cu and Ni) With respect to the above groups it was suggested that results of laboratory column experiments can, with consideration, be used to estimate full-scale leaching of elements from Group I and II. However, in order to avoid large underestimations in the assessment of leaching from Group III, it is imperative to describe the time-dependent transport of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in the tested system or to minimize the physical non-equilibrium during laboratory experiments (e.g. bigger column, slower flow velocity). Forward geochemical modeling was applied to simulate long-term release of elements from a MSWI air-pollution-control residue. Leaching of a

  11. Test methods and reduction of organic pollutant compound emissions from wood-based building and furniture materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sumin; Choi, Yoon-Ki; Park, Kyung-Won; Kim, Jeong Tai

    2010-08-01

    This paper reviews different methods for the analysis of formaldehyde and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from wood-based panel materials for furniture and building interiors and highlights research on reduction of emission from wood-based panels that can adversely affect indoor air quality. In Korea, standard test methods have been developed to determine formaldehyde and VOC emissions from building products, and the Ministry of Environment regulates the use of building materials with pollutant emissions. Desiccator and perforator methods are being used for formaldehyde and the chamber and field and laboratory emission cell (FLEC) methods for VOC and formaldehyde emissions. The VOC analyzer is a suitable pre-test method for application as a total VOC (TVOC) emission test and bake-out is a useful method to reduce TVOC and formaldehyde emissions from furniture materials in indoor environments. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Research paper 2000-B-8: the implementation of the municipal waste incineration directives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lulofs, K. [Twente Univ., Center for Clean Technology and Environmental Policy, Enschede (Netherlands)

    2000-07-01

    End-of-pipe options are needed whenever recycling and source reduction can not cope with waste streams at acceptable costs. One of the disposal options is waste incineration. The incineration of waste was considered 'clean' for a long time. In the 1970's and 1980's it proved that the incineration of municipal waste was a significant source of air pollution. Notorious pollutants were hydrogen chloride, hydrogen florid, sulphur dioxide, oxides of nitrogen, fine particulate matter, 'heavy metals' and dioxines and furans. Most notorious and issue of public anxiety in some countries were emissions of dioxines and that might cause cancer and birth defects. Municipal waste is domestic waste from households and comparable waste from markets and companies. Consent is present that in the long history of waste incinerators, incineration in plants started in Europe around 1900, important steps to secure health and the environment have been taken and will be taken in the future. Debates are still going on the level of emissions that is negligible and acceptable. Also in the European arena waste management is about knowledge, perceptions, uncertainties and negotiations. Arguments are on the right level of ambition and the right level of fine-tuning where precautionary measures are discussed. The European Union decided to issue two European Directives on the atmospheric emissions from municipal waste incineration in 1989. This chapter focuses on the implementation and effects of the 1989 Directives. In section 2 of this chapter we summarize the bargaining on the 1989 European Directives. Section 2 indicates that characteristics of municipal waste incineration and the level of pre-existing national regulation sectors in individual member states played decisive roles. When the 1989 Directives came into force, the requirements had to be integrated in the national legislation in European Member States. In section 3 Germany and the Netherlands will prove

  13. Risk of congenital anomalies in the vicinity of municipal solid waste incinerators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordier, S; Chevrier, C; Robert-Gnansia, E; Lorente, C; Brula, P; Hours, M

    2004-01-01

    Although municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) has contributed to increase the overall environmental load of particulate matter containing dioxins and metals, evidence of health consequences to populations is sparse. To assess at a regional level (in southeast France) the impact of these emissions on birth defect rates. Communities with fewer than 50 000 inhabitants surrounding the 70 incinerators that operated at least one year from 1988 to 1997 were studied. Each exposed community (n = 194) was assigned an exposure index estimated from a Gaussian plume model. Poisson models and a reference population of the 2678 unexposed communities in the region were used to calculate relative risks for congenital malformations, adjusted for year of birth, maternal age, department of birth, population density, average family income, and when available, local road traffic. The rate of congenital anomalies was not significantly higher in exposed compared with unexposed communities. Some subgroups of major anomalies, specifically facial clefts and renal dysplasia, were more frequent in the exposed communities. Among exposed communities, a dose-response trend of risk with increasing exposure was observed for obstructive uropathies. Risks of cardiac anomalies, obstructive uropathies, and skin anomalies increased linearly with road traffic density. Although both incinerator emissions and road traffic may plausibly explain some of the excess risks observed, several alternative explanations, including exposure misclassification, ascertainment bias, and residual confounding cannot be excluded. Some of the effects observed, if real, might be attributable to old-technology MSWIs and the persistent pollution they have generated.

  14. The utilization of a commercial gloss spray in stabilization of incinerated dental structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berketa, John; Fauzi, Ahmad; James, Helen; Lake, Anthony; Langlois, Neil

    2015-07-01

    Incinerated human remains may require dental comparison to establish identity. The remains are often fragile and minor forces can damage teeth and facial bones, disrupting anatomical relationships, and impairing the ability to compare with antemortem records. This study evaluated the ability of a commercially available gloss spray to stabilize teeth in incinerated remains. Lower anterior teeth of scavenged sheep mandibles were incinerated in a furnace at a temperature of 500 °C for 35 min. Before a series of vibration tests, the left side of each sample was treated with the spray, with the right side acting as a control. Significant retention of dental data was achieved utilizing the spray in comparison to the non-stabilized sides. This study showed that a commercial clear gloss spray did not affect the ability to document or perform radiographic assessment of restorations, and statistically improved the stability and anatomical relationships of incinerated dental remains in scavenged sheep mandibles. Commercial products, such as the one tested in this study, are readily available and could be deployed at a mass disaster situation. However, the spray should not be used if there is any suspicion that accelerants might be involved at the scene. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  15. Ohio incinerator given the go-ahead

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kemezis, P.

    1992-01-01

    A federal judge has denied a request for an injunction against the startup of the long-stalled Waste Technologies Industries (WTI) commercial hazardous waste incinerator in East Liverpool, OH. The $140-million plant, owned by a US subsidiary of Swiss engineering group Von Roll Ltd. (Zuerich), will go through a startup stage and a seven-day trial burn during the next two months, according to WTI. In testimony in federal court in Huntington, WV, WTI had said it was losing $115,000/day in fixed costs because of the plant's startup delay. The company also said that long-term contracts with Chemical Waste Management (CWM; Oak Brook, IL), Du Pont (Wilmington, DE), and BASF Corp. (Parsippany, NJ) to use plant services could be jeopardized by the delay. WTI is believed to have 10-year service contracts with the three companies and also will use CWM to dispose of the ash from the incinerator

  16. Conceptual design report for alpha waste incinerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-04-01

    The Alpha Waste Incinerator, a new facility in the SRP H-Area, will process transuranic or alpha-contaminated combustible solid wastes. It will seal the radioactive ash and scrubbing salt residues in cans for interim storage in drums on site burial ground pads. This report includes objectives, project estimate, schedule, standards and criteria, excluded costs, safety evaluation, energy consumption, environmental assessment, and key drawings

  17. The Savannah River Plant Consolidated Incineration Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, D.A.

    1987-01-01

    A full scale incinerator is proposed for construction at the Savannah River Plant (SRP) beginning in August 1989 for detoxifiction and volume reduction of liquid and solid low-level radioactive, mixed and RCRA hazardous waste. Wastes to be burned include drummed liquids, sludges and solids, liquid process wastes, and low-level boxed job control waste. The facility will consist of a rotary kiln primary combustion chamber followed by a tangentially fired cylindrical secondary combustion chamber (SCC) and be designed to process up to 12 tons per day of solid and liquid waste. Solid waste packaged in combustible containers will be fed to the rotary kiln incinerator using a ram feed system and liquid wastes will be introduced to the rotary kiln through a burner nozzle. Liquid waste will also be fed through a high intensity vortex burner in the SCC. Combustion gases will exit the SCC and be cooled to saturation in a spray quench. Particulate and acid gas are removed in a free jet scrubber. The off-gas will then pass through a cyclone separator, mist eliminator, reheater high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filtration and induced draft blowers before release to the atmosphere. Incinerator ash and scrubber blowdown will be immobilized in a cement matrix and disposed of in an onsite RCRA permitted facility. The Consolidated Incineration Facility (CIF) will provide detoxification and volume reduction for up to 560,000 CUFT/yr of solid waste and up to 35,700 CUFT/yr of liquid waste. Up to 50,500 CUFT/yr of cement stabilized ash and blowdown will beproduced for an average overall volume reduction fator of 22:1. 3 figs., 2 tabs

  18. Possibilities of municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash utilisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Silvie; Koval, Lukáš; Škrobánková, Hana; Matýsek, Dalibor; Winter, Franz; Purgar, Amon

    2015-08-01

    Properties of the waste treatment residual fly ash generated from municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash were investigated in this study. Six different mortar blends with the addition of the municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash were evaluated. The Portland cement replacement levels of the municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash used were 25%, 30% and 50%. Both, raw and washed municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash samples were examined. According to the mineralogical composition measurements, a 22.6% increase in the pozzolanic/hydraulic properties was observed for the washed municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash sample. The maximum replacement level of 25% for the washed municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash in mortar blends was established in order to preserve the compressive strength properties. Moreover, the leaching characteristics of the crushed mortar blend was analysed in order to examine the immobilisation of its hazardous contents. © The Author(s) 2015.

  19. Commercial Cyclone Incinerator Demonstration Program: April-September 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexander, B.M.

    1979-01-01

    The commercial cyclone incinerator program was designed to study the effects of burning low-level waste contaminated with beta and gamma emitters in a cyclone system. The ultimate program goal is the demonstration of a cyclone incinerator at a nuclear power plant. During the past six months, the first program objective, NRC review of the Feasibility Plan, was achieved, and work began on the second objective, Complete Incinerator Feasibility Plan. Potential applications for the cyclone incinerator have been investigated. The feasibility plan for the incinerator system was reviewed with the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Following a series of cold checkout burns, implementation of the feasibility plan was begun with the start of laboratory-scale experiments. Inconel 601 is being investigated as a material of construction for the incinerator burn chamber

  20. Radiological assessment of a mixed-waste incinerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hertel, N.E.; Evans, T.M.; Mulholland, J.A.; Coward, H.M. [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Burge, D.A. [Westinghouse Savannah River Site, Aikens, SC (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The Consolidated Incineration Facility (CIF) scheduled for operation in the near future will incinerate hazardous, radio- active, and mixed wastes generated on the Savannah River site (SRS). Doses that might result from estimated CIF radionuclide air emissions have been computed for four hypothetical individuals: (1) An on-site worker (350 m north of the CIF) who is exposed by inhalation and immersion in the contaminant plume as well as irradiation by radionuclides deposited on the ground. (2) A subsistence farmer who lives at the nearest site boundary from the CIF (11 770 m NNW of the CIF) and is exposed by the inhalation, immersion, ground surface irradiation, and soil and food ingestion. The farmer consumes food at maximum consumption rates for the SRS region and grows most of his own food. The remainder of this food is obtained from within the assessment area. (3) A subsistence fisher residing at the same location as the subsistence farmer is exposed via the consumption of fish from a pond at his residence, homegrown food consumption, ingestion of soil, and air immersion and inhalation. The fish pond is contaminated by the deposition of radionuclides from the plume. He consumes food at maximum consumption rates. (4) The average individual has average food consumption rates for the SRS region. A fraction of his food is grown in the assessment area, and the remainder is imported. The average individual dose was computed out to distances of 80 500 m from the CIF. The individual is also exposed by air immersion, ground-surface irradiation, soil ingestion, and inhalation.

  1. Radiological assessment of a mixed-waste incinerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hertel, N.E.; Evans, T.M.; Mulholland, J.A.; Coward, H.M.; Burge, D.A.

    1996-01-01

    The Consolidated Incineration Facility (CIF) scheduled for operation in the near future will incinerate hazardous, radio- active, and mixed wastes generated on the Savannah River site (SRS). Doses that might result from estimated CIF radionuclide air emissions have been computed for four hypothetical individuals: (1) An on-site worker (350 m north of the CIF) who is exposed by inhalation and immersion in the contaminant plume as well as irradiation by radionuclides deposited on the ground. (2) A subsistence farmer who lives at the nearest site boundary from the CIF (11 770 m NNW of the CIF) and is exposed by the inhalation, immersion, ground surface irradiation, and soil and food ingestion. The farmer consumes food at maximum consumption rates for the SRS region and grows most of his own food. The remainder of this food is obtained from within the assessment area. (3) A subsistence fisher residing at the same location as the subsistence farmer is exposed via the consumption of fish from a pond at his residence, homegrown food consumption, ingestion of soil, and air immersion and inhalation. The fish pond is contaminated by the deposition of radionuclides from the plume. He consumes food at maximum consumption rates. (4) The average individual has average food consumption rates for the SRS region. A fraction of his food is grown in the assessment area, and the remainder is imported. The average individual dose was computed out to distances of 80 500 m from the CIF. The individual is also exposed by air immersion, ground-surface irradiation, soil ingestion, and inhalation

  2. Balance carried out on an alpha waste incinerator in order to qualify its filtration system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cartier, R.; Burghofer, P.; Tregoures, A.; Maurel, J.M.; Vendel, J.

    1991-01-01

    A balance was carried out on a pilot incinerator of inactive solid waste running at 4 kg/h. Various measurements were taken in order to qualify the prefiltration system of the incineration process operating by pyrolysis, afterburning and calcination: determining the ventilation characteristics of the plant (gas flow rates and residence time) and the physico-chemical characteristics of the effluent (mass flow and granulometric range of particles, chemical composition of gases). Various methods of sampling and of analyzing the gases were adopted and a thermochemical model was produced. Its results are reasonably close to the experimental measurements. The emission consists of submicronic particles and porous layers are the best adapted cleaning system

  3. An Inclusive Investigation on Conceivable Performance of Rice Straw Incinerated Electricity Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharjee, Subhadeep; Mohanta, Subhajit

    2018-03-01

    Biomass energy is one of the potential renewable energy sources which occupy 77% of the available natural resources of the world. In India, agro residues constitute a major part of the total annual production of the biomass resource. Rice is the major crop in India that leaves substantial quantity of straw in the field. 34% of rice straw residue produced in the country is surplus and is either left in the field as uncollected or to a large extent open-field burnt. Thus, the unutilized rice straw is found promising for heat and power generation either through incineration (direct combustion) or thermo chemical conversion. This present work envisages the comprehensive performative evaluation of a rice straw supported biomass incineration power plant mainly through plant performance characterization, plant economics, and co-firing issues with emission analysis.

  4. Thermal Behavior of Cd During Sludge Incineration: Experiments and Thermodynamic Equilibrium Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jingyong; Zhuo, Zhongxu; Sun, Shuiyu; Xie, Wuming; Lu, Shaoyou; Sun, Jian; Kuo, Jiahong; Yujie, Wang

    2016-12-01

      Experiments and thermodynamic equilibrium calculations were performed to investigate the behavior of Cd during sewage sludge incineration. The chemical equilibrium calculations indicated that chlorine significantly increased the volatilization of Cd in the form of CdCl2. In addition, SiO2-containing materials can function as sorbents for stabilizing Cd. The effect of PVC added to the sludge on the migration of Cd in the sludge was greater than that of NaCl. As the temperature increased, both organic and inorganic chlorides reduced the Cd distribution in the bottom ash. The chloride concentration, and the incineration time exhibited insignificant changes in Cd emission. With the addition of either NaCl or PVC into the sludge, the phases of Cd present in the bottom slag were primarily present in the form of silica-alumina oxides or multi-metal oxide, which could inhabit the Cd volatilization.

  5. Mobility of organic carbon from incineration residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ecke, Holger; Svensson, Malin

    2008-01-01

    Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) may affect the transport of pollutants from incineration residues when landfilled or used in geotechnical construction. The leaching of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) bottom ash and air pollution control residue (APC) from the incineration of waste wood was investigated. Factors affecting the mobility of DOC were studied in a reduced 2 6-1 experimental design. Controlled factors were treatment with ultrasonic radiation, full carbonation (addition of CO 2 until the pH was stable for 2.5 h), liquid-to-solid (L/S) ratio, pH, leaching temperature and time. Full carbonation, pH and the L/S ratio were the main factors controlling the mobility of DOC in the bottom ash. Approximately 60 weight-% of the total organic carbon (TOC) in the bottom ash was available for leaching in aqueous solutions. The L/S ratio and pH mainly controlled the mobilization of DOC from the APC residue. About 93 weight-% of TOC in the APC residue was, however, not mobilized at all, which might be due to a high content of elemental carbon. Using the European standard EN 13 137 for determination of total organic carbon (TOC) in MSWI residues is inappropriate. The results might be biased due to elemental carbon. It is recommended to develop a TOC method distinguishing between organic and elemental carbon

  6. Testing the association between anomalous microwave emission and PAHs in the diffuse ISM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkeley, Matthew R.; Chuss, David; Kogut, Al

    2018-01-01

    Testing cosmic inflation is currently a primary focus of the Cosmology community. In order to verify the theory and to determine the energy scale of inflation, it is necessary to identify the characteristic B-mode polarization signal in the CMB. This signal, predicted by inflation theory, is expected to be very faint. It is therefore important to accurately characterize and remove foreground polarization components such as thermal dust and synchrotron emission.Some of these components have already been accurately characterized, but there are others that are not so well understood. In 1996, a new galactic foreground emission component was discovered. Dubbed 'anomalous microwave emission' (AME), this new foreground has yet to be identified. Though its physical origin remains uncertain, the leading hypothesis for the origin of this foreground proposes that the emission comes from rapidly rotating small dust grains called Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs), or 'spinning dust'. PAHs are a family of hydrocarbon molecules with characteristic bending and stretching modes that have identifiable emission spectra in the mid-infrared region. The Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) is a satellite that was launched in 2010 into a polar orbit, enabling it to take images of the entire sky at four different mid-infrared wavelengths. These wavelengths cover the spectral region with the aforementioned PAH emission features in the mid-infrared. WISE archival data therefore makes it possible to construct a full-sky map of PAH emission.We present full sky maps using WISE data as a preliminary result towards creating a full sky PAH map.

  7. Local CFD kinetic model of cadmium vaporization during fluid bed incineration of municipal solid waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soria, J. [Instituto Multidisciplinario de Investigación y Desarrollo de la Patagonia Norte (IDEPA, CONICET-UNCo) y Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad Nacional del Comahue, Buenos Aires 1400, 8300 Neuquén (Argentina); Laboratoire Procédés, Matériaux et Energie Solaire (CNRS-PROMES), 7 Rue du Four Solaire, Odeillo, 66120 Font-Romeu (France); Gauthier, D., E-mail: Daniel.Gauthier@promes.cnrs.fr [Laboratoire Procédés, Matériaux et Energie Solaire (CNRS-PROMES), 7 Rue du Four Solaire, Odeillo, 66120 Font-Romeu (France); Falcoz, Q.; Flamant, G. [Laboratoire Procédés, Matériaux et Energie Solaire (CNRS-PROMES), 7 Rue du Four Solaire, Odeillo, 66120 Font-Romeu (France); Mazza, G. [Instituto Multidisciplinario de Investigación y Desarrollo de la Patagonia Norte (IDEPA, CONICET-UNCo) y Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad Nacional del Comahue, Buenos Aires 1400, 8300 Neuquén (Argentina)

    2013-03-15

    Highlights: ► A 2-D local CFD model for simulating the Cd vaporization process is presented. ► It includes a kinetic expression of Cd vaporization into the incineration process. ► Pyrolysis, volatiles’ combustion and residual carbon combustion are also taken into account. ► It fits very well the experimental results obtained on a lab-scale fluidized bed reported in literature. ► It also compares favorably with a model developed previously by the group. -- Abstract: The emissions of heavy metals during incineration of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) are a major issue to health and the environment. It is then necessary to well quantify these emissions in order to accomplish an adequate control and prevent the heavy metals from leaving the stacks. In this study the kinetic behavior of Cadmium during Fluidized Bed Incineration (FBI) of artificial MSW pellets, for bed temperatures ranging from 923 to 1073 K, was modeled. FLUENT 12.1.4 was used as the modeling framework for the simulations and implemented together with a complete set of user-defined functions (UDFs). The CFD model combines the combustion of a single solid waste particle with heavy metal (HM) vaporization from the burning particle, and it takes also into account both pyrolysis and volatiles’ combustion. A kinetic rate law for the Cd release, derived from the CFD thermal analysis of the combusting particle, is proposed. The simulation results are compared with experimental data obtained in a lab-scale fluidized bed incinerator reported in literature, and with the predicted values from a particulate non-isothermal model, formerly developed by the authors. The comparison shows that the proposed CFD model represents very well the evolution of the HM release for the considered range of bed temperature.

  8. EMISSION TEST REPORT- FIELD TEST OF CARBON INJECTION FOR MERCURY CONTROL, CAMDEN COUNTY MUNICIPAL WASTE COMBUSTOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of parametric test to evaluate the injection powdered activated carbon to control volatile pollutants in municipal waste combustor (MWC) flue gas. he tests were conducted at a spray dryer absorber/electrostatic precipitator (SD/ESP)-equipped MWC in Camden...

  9. Incinerators for radioactive wastes in Japanese nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karita, Yoichi

    1983-01-01

    As the measures of treatment and disposal of radioactive wastes in nuclear power stations, the development of the techniques to decrease wastes, to reduce the volume of wastes, to treat wastes by solidification and to dispose wastes has been advanced energetically. In particular, efforts have been exerted on the volume reduction treatment from the viewpoint of the improvement of storage efficiency and the reduction of transport and disposal costs. Incineration as one of the volume reduction techniques has been regarded as the most effective method with large reduction ratio, but it was not included in waste treatment system. NGK Insulators Ltd. developed NGK type miscellaneous solid incinerators, and seven incinerators were installed in nuclear power stations. These incinerators have been operated smoothly, and the construction is in progress in six more plants. The necessity of incinerators in nuclear power stations and the problems in their adoption, the circumstance of the development of NGK type miscellaneous solid incinerators, the outline of the incinerator of Karlsruhe nuclear power station and the problems, the contents of the technical development in NGK, the outline of NGK type incinerators and the features, the outline of the pretreatment system, incinerator system, exhaust gas treatment system, ash taking out system and accessory equipment, the operational results and the performance are described. (Kako, I.)

  10. Nuclear incineration method for long life radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Takaaki; Uematsu, Kunihiko.

    1987-01-01

    Nuclear incineration method is the method of converting the long life radioactive nuclides in wastes to short life or stable nuclides by utilizing the nuclear reaction caused by radiation, unlike usual chemical incineration. By the nuclear incineration, the radioactivity of wastes increases in a short period, but the problems at the time of the disposal are reduced because of the decrease of long life radioactive nuclides. As the radiation used for the nuclear incineration, the neutron beam from fission and fusion reactors and accelerators, the proton beam and gamma ray from accelerators have been studied. The object of the nuclear incineration is actinide, Sr-90, Cs-137, I-129 and Tc-99. In particular, waste actinide emits alpha ray, and is strongly toxic, accordingly, the motive of attempting the nuclear incineration is strong. In Japan, about 24t of waste actinide will accumulate by 2000. The principle of the nuclear incineration, and the nuclear incineration using nuclear fission and fusion reactors and accelerators are described. The nuclear incineration using fission reactors was examined for the first time in 1972 in USA. It is most promising because it is feasible by the present technology without particular research and development. (Kako, I.)

  11. Waste incineration industry and development policies in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yun; Zhao, Xingang; Li, Yanbin; Li, Xiaoyu

    2015-12-01

    The growing pollution from municipal solid waste due to economic growth and urbanization has brought great challenge to China. The main method of waste disposal has gradually changed from landfill to incineration, because of the enormous land occupation by landfills. The paper presents the results of a study of the development status of the upstream and downstream of the waste incineration industry chain in China, reviews the government policies for the waste incineration power industry, and provides a forecast of the development trend of the waste incineration industry. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Development and testing of technical measures for the abatement of PM10 emissions from poultry housings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogink, N.W.M.; Aarnink, A.J.A.; Mosquera, J.; Winkel, A. [Wageningen UR Livestock Research, Wageningen (Netherlands)

    2010-07-01

    In order to comply with the European Union's ambient air quality standards, the Netherlands must reduce emissions of PM10. As a contributor to PM10, the poultry industry must implement mitigation measures before 2012. An extensive research and development program was launched in 2008 to provide abatement technology for broiler and layer houses. This paper presented results from studies carried out in 2008 and 2009 by Wageningen UR Livestock Research. The supply industry and poultry farmers participated in the study in which different methods and approaches were examined, including bedding material, light schedules, oil spraying systems, ionization systems, water scrubbers, combined scrubbers, electrostatic filters, and dry filters. Most methods were first tested and optimized in small units at an experimental poultry facility Lelystad. Several methods were validated in a next step on poultry farms, where PM10 emissions were measured to establish official emission factors. The oil spraying system and ionization system were tested in broiler houses and are nearing implementation. Reductions in PM10 emissions by different methods ranged from no effect to levels of 60 per cent. An outlook on adequate dust abatement measures for poultry housings was also provided.

  13. Conditioning of incinerator ash at the CEN, Cadarache

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kertesz, C.; Courtois, C.

    1989-01-01

    The Cadarache Nuclear Research Centre (CEN) has several stocks of incinerator ash resulting from the treatment of low and medium level wastes. The ash is at present in temporary storage awaiting conditioning which would allow it to be stored as a surface site. Laboratory studies have been carried out to test various embedding matrices, such as hydraulic binders, bitumen, thermosetting plastic (epoxy) and, finally, a composite matrix of cement and epoxy resin. The cement-resin composite matrix has several advantages, including compatibility with the various types of ash tested, unlike cement alone, whose composition must be adapted to the nature of the ash (problems with phosphated ash resulting from incineration of tributyl phosphate), or epoxy resin, which may require pretreatment of the wastes. A characterization programme has been produced for the embedded ash in the cement-resin composite in order to obtain Andra approval for surface storage of the packages produced. The guiding principles of the programme are the characterization criteria defined in the Basic Safety Regulations and the Andra minimum characterization programme; it includes laboratory scale tests and a series of tests to be carried out on real packages (100 L drums). A pilot plant for embedding on a scale appropriate to the quantities of stored ash requiring conditioning is being set up. It is being commissioned for two purposes: (1) as an industrial tool, it will facilitate the resorption of existing and future stocks of ash; (2) as an R and D tool, it is designed to facilitate a change in embedding matrix by substitution of the cement-resin compound for epoxy resin or cement alone. This makes it possible to manufacture industrial embedded materials in three different matrices at a single installation. (author). 4 refs, 4 figs, 7 tabs

  14. Risk of congenital anomalies around a municipal solid waste incinerator: a GIS-based case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garavelli Livia

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Waste incineration releases into the environment toxic substances having a teratogenic potential, but little epidemiologic evidence is available on this topic. We aimed at examining the relation between exposure to the emissions from a municipal solid waste incinerator and risk of birth defects in a northern Italy community, using Geographical Information System (GIS data to estimate exposure and a population-based case-control study design. By modelling the incinerator emissions, we defined in the GIS three areas of increasing exposure according to predicted dioxins concentrations. We mapped the 228 births and induced abortions with diagnosis of congenital anomalies observed during the 1998–2006 period, together with a corresponding series of control births matched for year and hospital of birth/abortion as well as maternal age, using maternal address in the first three months of pregnancy to geocode cases and controls. Results Among women residing in the areas with medium and high exposure, prevalence of anomalies in the offspring was substantially comparable to that observed in the control population, nor dose-response relations for any of the major categories of birth defects emerged. Furthermore, odds ratio for congenital anomalies did not decrease during a prolonged shut-down period of the plant. Conclusion Overall, these findings do not lend support to the hypothesis that the environmental contamination occurring around an incineration plant such as that examined in this study may induce major teratogenic effects.

  15. 40 CFR 1033.515 - Discrete-mode steady-state emission tests of locomotives and locomotive engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Discrete-mode steady-state emission... Procedures § 1033.515 Discrete-mode steady-state emission tests of locomotives and locomotive engines. This... a warm-up followed by a sequence of nominally steady-state discrete test modes, as described in...

  16. 40 CFR 59.626 - What emission testing must I perform for my application for a certificate of conformity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What emission testing must I perform for my application for a certificate of conformity? 59.626 Section 59.626 Protection of Environment... application for a certificate of conformity? This section describes the emission testing you must perform to...

  17. Sensitivity of wetland methane emissions to model assumptions: application and model testing against site observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Meng

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Methane emissions from natural wetlands and rice paddies constitute a large proportion of atmospheric methane, but the magnitude and year-to-year variation of these methane sources are still unpredictable. Here we describe and evaluate the integration of a methane biogeochemical model (CLM4Me; Riley et al., 2011 into the Community Land Model 4.0 (CLM4CN in order to better explain spatial and temporal variations in methane emissions. We test new functions for soil pH and redox potential that impact microbial methane production in soils. We also constrain aerenchyma in plants in always-inundated areas in order to better represent wetland vegetation. Satellite inundated fraction is explicitly prescribed in the model, because there are large differences between simulated fractional inundation and satellite observations, and thus we do not use CLM4-simulated hydrology to predict inundated areas. A rice paddy module is also incorporated into the model, where the fraction of land used for rice production is explicitly prescribed. The model is evaluated at the site level with vegetation cover and water table prescribed from measurements. Explicit site level evaluations of simulated methane emissions are quite different than evaluating the grid-cell averaged emissions against available measurements. Using a baseline set of parameter values, our model-estimated average global wetland emissions for the period 1993–2004 were 256 Tg CH4 yr−1 (including the soil sink and rice paddy emissions in the year 2000 were 42 Tg CH4 yr−1. Tropical wetlands contributed 201 Tg CH4 yr−1, or 78% of the global wetland flux. Northern latitude (>50 N systems contributed 12 Tg CH4 yr−1. However, sensitivity studies show a large range (150–346 Tg CH4 yr−1 in predicted global methane emissions (excluding emissions from rice paddies. The large range is

  18. Simulation of co-incineration of sewage sludge with municipal solid waste in a grate furnace incinerator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hai; Ma, Xiaoqian

    2012-03-01

    Incineration is one of the most important methods in the resource recovery disposal of sewage sludge. The combustion characteristics of sewage sludge and an increasing number of municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration plants provide the possibility of co-incineration of sludge with MSW. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis was used to verify the feasibility of co-incineration of sludge with MSW, and predict the effect of co-incineration. In this study, wet sludge and semi-dried sludge were separately blended with MSW as mixed fuels, which were at a co-incineration ratios of 5 wt.% (wet basis, the same below), 10 wt.%, 15 wt.%, 20 wt.% and 25 wt.%. The result indicates that co-incineration of 10 wt.% wet sludge with MSW can ensure the furnace temperature, the residence time and other vital items in allowable level, while 20 wt.% of semi-dried sludge can reach the same standards. With lower moisture content and higher low heating value (LHV), semi-dried sludge can be more appropriate in co-incineration with MSW in a grate furnace incinerator. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Otoacoustic emission testing in Ghanaian children with sickle-cell disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kegele, Josua; Hurth, Helene; Lackner, Peter; Enimil, Anthony; Sylverkin, Justice; Ansong, Daniel; Nkyi, Clara; Bonsu, Benedicta; Agbenyega, Tsiri; Schartinger, Volker H; Schmutzhard, Erich; Zorowka, Patrick; Kremsner, Peter; Schmutzhard, Joachim

    2015-09-01

    To evaluate hearing loss in children as a complication of sickle-cell disease. In Kumasi, Ghana, 35 children with SCD aged 6 months to 10 years underwent transient-evoked otoacoustic emissions testing (TEOAE) to investigate the function of the inner ear. Healthy Ghanaian children recruited in school and kindergarten served as controls. One of 35 children with SCD and 13 of 115 control children failed the otoacoustic emissions testing. This difference between the control group and the children with SCD was not statistically significant. Early hearing impairment does not regularly occur in sickle-cell disease, and in children, it is not a likely cause of delayed or impaired language development. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Significance of waste incineration in Germany; Stellenwert der Abfallverbrennung in Deutschland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-10-15

    The report on the relevance of waste incineration in Germany is covering the following issues: change of the issue waste incineration in the last century, the controversy on waste incineration in the 80ies; environmental relevance of waste incineration; utilization of incineration residues; contribution to environmental protection; possible hazards for human health due are waste incinerator plants; the central challenges of waste incineration today; potential restraints to energy utilization in thermal waste processing; optimization of the energetic utilization of municipal wastes; future of the waste management and the relevance of waste incineration.

  1. Comparative Emissions Testing of Vehicles Aged on E0, E15 and E20 Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vertin, K.; Glinsky, G.; Reek, A.

    2012-08-01

    The Energy Independence and Security Act passed into law in December 2007 has mandated the use of 36 billion ethanol equivalent gallons per year of renewable fuel by 2022. A primary pathway to achieve this national goal is to increase the amount of ethanol blended into gasoline. This study is part of a multi-laboratory test program coordinated by DOE to evaluate the effect of higher ethanol blends on vehicle exhaust emissions over the lifetime of the vehicle.

  2. Laboratory study on the behaviour of spent AA household alkaline batteries in incineration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Manuel F; Xará, Susana M; Delgado, Julanda; Costa, Carlos A

    2009-01-01

    The quantitative evaluation of emissions from incineration is essential when Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) studies consider this process as an end-of-life solution for some wastes. Thus, the objective of this work is to quantify the main gaseous emissions produced when spent AA alkaline batteries are incinerated. With this aim, batteries were kept for 1h at 1273K in a refractory steel tube hold in a horizontal electric furnace with temperature control. At one end of the refractory steel tube, a constant air flow input assures the presence of oxygen in the atmosphere and guides the gaseous emissions to a filter system followed by a set of two bubbler flasks having an aqueous solution of 10% (v/v) nitric acid. After each set of experiments, sulphur, chlorides and metals (As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sb, Tl and Zn) were analyzed in both the solutions obtained from the steel tube washing and from the bubblers. Sulphur, chlorides and metals were quantified, respectively, using barium sulfate gravimetry, the Volhard method and atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS). The emissions of zinc, the most emitted metal, represent about 6.5% of the zinc content in the batteries. Emissions of manganese (whose oxide is the main component of the cathode) and iron (from the cathode collector) are negligible when compared with their amount in AA alkaline batteries. Mercury is the metal with higher volatility in the composition of the batteries and was collected even in the second bubbler flask. The amount of chlorides collected corresponds to about 36% of the chlorine in the battery sleeve that is made from PVC. A considerable part of the HCl formed in PVC plastic sleeve incineration is neutralized with KOH, zinc and manganese oxides and, thus, it is not totally released in the gas. Some of the emissions are predictable through a thermodynamic data analysis at temperatures in the range of 1200-1300K taking into account the composition of the batteries. This analysis was done

  3. Investigating impact of waste reuse on the sustainability of municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration industry using emergy approach: A case study from Sichuan province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanqing; Zhang, Xiaohong; Liao, Wenjie; Wu, Jun; Yang, Xiangdong; Shui, Wei; Deng, Shihuai; Zhang, Yanzong; Lin, Lili; Xiao, Yinlong; Yu, Xiaoyu; Peng, Hong

    2018-04-25

    China has become the largest generator of municipal solid waste (MSW) in the world with its rapid urbanization, population growth and raising living standard. Among diverse solid waste disposal technologies, MSW incineration has been becoming an attractive choice. In terms of systematic point, an integrated MSW incineration system should include an incineration subsystem and a bottom ash (BA) disposal subsystem. This paper employed an extend emergy assessment method with several improved indicators, which considers the emissions' impact, to evaluate the comprehensive performances of an integrated MSW incineration system. One existing incineration plant in Yibin City, Sichuan Province, China, as a case study, is evaluated using the proposed method. Three alternative scenarios (scenario A: the incineration subsystem + the BA landfill subsystem; scenario B: the incineration subsystem + the concrete paving brick production subsystem using BA as raw material; scenario C: the incineration subsystem + the non-burnt wall brick production subsystem using BA as raw material) were compared. The study results reveal that the ratio of positive output is 1.225, 2.861 and 1.230, the improved environmental loading ratio is 2.715, 2.742 and 1.533, and the improved environmental sustainability index is 0.451, 1.043 and 0.803 for scenario A, B and C respectively. Therefore, reuse of BA can enhance the sustainability level of this integrated system greatly. Comparatively, scenario B has the best comprehensive performance among the three scenarios. Finally, some targeted recommendations are put forward for decision-making. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. 40 CFR 1065.935 - Emission test sequence for field testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... value for the previous 2 min or until an engine thermostat controls engine temperature with coolant or... media, such as evacuated bags or tare-weighed PM sample media. (2) Operate the PEMS according to the... ambient data, and integrate measured values using a PEMS. (3) If engine starting is part of field testing...

  5. Environmental Assessment of a Waste Incineration Tax. Case Study and Evaluation of a Framework for Strategic Environmental Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjoerklund, Anna; Johansson, Jessica; Nilsson, Maans; Eldh, Peter; Finnveden, Goeran

    2003-12-01

    A framework for Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) is tested in a case study on a proposed waste incineration tax. Also included is testing of developed methods for valuation and site-dependent life cycle impact assessment. The results indicate that although a suggested waste incineration tax of 400 SEK/ton is likely to lead to environmental improvements, these are small compared to the potential improvements as shown in more visionary scenarios. In order to go in this direction a waste incineration tax based on the content of fossil carbon in the waste would be useful. The framework for SEA includes several different pathways. These have different advantages and disadvantages and provide different types of information. It is therefore suggested that they largely complement each other and that the choice of methods should be done in relation to the function of the SEA and the questions asked.

  6. Generation and distribution of PAHs in the process of medical waste incineration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ying; Zhao, Rongzhi; Xue, Jun; Li, Jinhui

    2013-05-01

    After the deadly earthquake on May 12, 2008 in Wenchuan county of China, several different incineration approaches were used for medical waste disposal. This paper investigates the generation properties of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) during the incineration. Samples were collected from the bottom ash in an open burning slash site, surface soil at the open burning site, bottom ash from a simple incinerator, bottom ash generated from the municipal solid waste (MSW) incinerator used for medical waste disposal, and bottom ash and fly ash from an incinerator exclusively used for medical waste. The species of PAHs were analyzed, and the toxicity equivalency quantities (TEQs) of samples calculated. Analysis results indicate that the content of total PAHs in fly ash was 1.8×10(3) times higher than that in bottom ash, and that the strongly carcinogenic PAHs with four or more rings accumulated sensitively in fly ash. The test results of samples gathered from open burning site demonstrate that Acenaphthylene (ACY), Acenaphthene (ACE), Fluorene (FLU), Phenanthrene (PHE), Anthracene (ANT) and other PAHs were inclined to migrate into surrounding environment along air and surface watershed corridors, while 4- to 6-ring PAHs accumulated more likely in soil. Being consistent with other studies, it has also been confirmed that increases in both free oxygen molecules and combustion temperatures could promote the decomposition of polycyclic PAHs. In addition, without the influence of combustion conditions, there is a positive correlation between total PCDD/Fs and total PAHs, although no such relationship has been found for TEQ. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Expansion control for cementation of incinerated ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakayama, T.; Suzuki, S.; Hanada, K.; Tomioka, O.; Sato, J.; Irisawa, K.; Kato, J.; Kawato, Y.; Meguro, Y.

    2015-01-01

    A method, in which incinerated ash is solidified with a cement material, has been developed to dispose of radioactive incinerated ash waste. A small amount of metallic Al, which was not oxidized in the incineration, existed in the ash. When such ash was mixed with a cement material and water, alkaline components in the ash and the cement were dissolved in the mixing water and then metallic Al reaction with the alkaline compounds resulted in generation of H 2 . Because the H 2 generation began immediately just after the mixing, H 2 bubbles pushed up the mixed grout material and an expanded solidified form was obtained. The expansion leads to lowering the strength of the solidified form and making harmful void. In this study, we tried to control H 2 generation from the reaction of metallic Al in the cementation by means of following two methods, one was a method to let metallic Al react prior to the cementation and the other was a method to add an expansion inhibitor that made an oxide film on the surface of metallic Al. In the pre-treatment, the ash was soaked in water in order to let metallic Al react with it, and then the ash with the immersion solution was dried at 105 Celsius degrees. The pre-treated ash was mixed with an ordinary portland cement and water. The inhibitor of lithium nitrite, sodium nitrite, phosphoric acid, or potassium dihydrogen phosphate was added at the mixing process. The solidified forms prepared using the pre-treated ash and lithium nitrite were not expanded. Phosphoric acid and sodium nitrite were effective for expansion control, but potassium dihydrogen phosphate did not work. (authors)

  8. 10 CFR 20.2004 - Treatment or disposal by incineration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Treatment or disposal by incineration. 20.2004 Section 20.2004 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Waste Disposal § 20.2004 Treatment or disposal by incineration. (a) A licensee may treat or dispose of licensed...

  9. A chemical basis for the partitioning of radionuclides in incinerator operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burger, L.L.

    1995-01-01

    Incineration as a method of treating radioactive or mixed waste is attractive because of volume reduction, but may result in high concentrations of some hazardous components. For safety reasons during operation, and because of the environmental impact of the plant, it is important to know how these materials partition between the furnace slay, the fly ash, and the stack emission. The chemistry of about 50 elements is discussed and through consideration of high temperature thermodynamic equilibria, an attempt is made to provide a basis for predicting how various radionuclides and heavy metals behave in a typical incinerator. The chemistry of the individual elements is first considered and a prediction of the most stable chemical species in the typical incinerator atmosphere is made. The treatment emphasizes volatility and the parameters considered are temperature, acidity, oxygen, sulfur, and halogen content, and the presence of several other key non-radioactive elements. A computer model is used to calculate equilibrium concentrations of many species in several systems at temperatures ranging from 500 to 1600 degrees K. It is suggested that deliberate addition of various feed chemicals can have a major impact on the fate of many radionuclides and heavy metals. Several problems concerning limitations and application of the data are considered

  10. Environmental impact of incineration of calorific industrial waste: rotary kiln vs. cement kiln.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeulen, Isabel; Van Caneghem, Jo; Block, Chantal; Dewulf, Wim; Vandecasteele, Carlo

    2012-10-01

    Rotary kiln incinerators and cement kilns are two energy intensive processes, requiring high temperatures that can be obtained by the combustion of fossil fuel. In both processes, fossil fuel is often substituted by high or medium calorific waste to avoid resource depletion and to save costs. Two types of industrial calorific waste streams are considered: automotive shredder residue (ASR) and meat and bone meal (MBM). These waste streams are of current high interest: ASR must be diverted from landfill, while MBM can no longer be used for cattle feeding. The environmental impact of the incineration of these waste streams is assessed and compared for both a rotary kiln and a cement kiln. For this purpose, data from an extensive emission inventory is applied for assessing the environmental impact using two different modeling approaches: one focusing on the impact of the relevant flows to and from the process and its subsystems, the other describing the change of environmental impact in response to these physical flows. Both ways of assessing emphasize different aspects of the considered processes. Attention is paid to assumptions in the methodology that can influence the outcome and conclusions of the assessment. It is concluded that for the incineration of calorific wastes, rotary kilns are generally preferred. Nevertheless, cement kilns show opportunities in improving their environmental impact when substituting their currently used fuels by more clean calorific waste streams, if this improvement is not at the expense of the actual environmental impact. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Project No. 4 - Waste incineration facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    There are currently 12000 m 3 of combustible waste stored at the Ignalina NPP site. It is estimated that by 2005 the volume will have increase to 15000 m 3 (filters, personnel protection, clothing and plastics). As a part of the preparation for the closure of the Ignalina NPP an incineration facility will be required to process combustible wastes to reduce the overall volume of short-lived radioactive wastes stored at the Ignalina NPP site, thus reducing the overall risk to the environment. Project activities includes the design, construction and commissioning of the proposed facility, including all licensing documentation

  12. Incineration, pyrolysis and gasification of electronic waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurgul Agnieszka

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Three high temperature processes of the electronic waste processing: smelting/incineration, pyrolysis and gasification were shortly discussed. The most distinctive feature of electronic waste is complexity of components and their integration. This type of waste consists of polymeric materials and has high content of valuable metals that could be recovered. The purpose of thermal treatment of electronic waste is elimination of plastic components (especially epoxy resins while leaving non-volatile mineral and metallic phases in more or less original forms. Additionally, the gaseous product of the process after cleaning may be used for energy recovery or as syngas.

  13. Incineration, pyrolysis and gasification of electronic waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurgul, Agnieszka; Szczepaniak, Włodzimierz; Zabłocka-Malicka, Monika

    2017-11-01

    Three high temperature processes of the electronic waste processing: smelting/incineration, pyrolysis and gasification were shortly discussed. The most distinctive feature of electronic waste is complexity of components and their integration. This type of waste consists of polymeric materials and has high content of valuable metals that could be recovered. The purpose of thermal treatment of electronic waste is elimination of plastic components (especially epoxy resins) while leaving non-volatile mineral and metallic phases in more or less original forms. Additionally, the gaseous product of the process after cleaning may be used for energy recovery or as syngas.

  14. ATUE: the end of the incinerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lilbonne, P.

    1997-01-01

    The CEA's ATUE incinerator is used to burn low-level contaminated solvents and oils since 1981, in order to transform them into chemically stable ashes, thus leading to an important volume reduction: it is composed of an horizontal burner and a vertical gas cooling chamber. Combustion temperature is 900 C; ashes are collected and blocked into cement, with a new special process (PICC). 5 m 3 of liquid produces 350 kg of a solid and stable mixture. This equipment is due to be closed in December 1997, and will then be dismantled

  15. Short time bacterial endotoxins test for positron emission tomography by means of positively charged filters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakazawa, Nobuhiro; Wakita, Kazuo [Nishijin Hospital, Kyoto (Japan); Mineura, Katsuyoshi [Kyoto Prefectural Univ. of Medicine (Japan)] (and others)

    2002-11-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) radiotracers have very short physical half-lives. It is hard to complete a bacterial endotoxins test prior to release from medical institutes. For endotoxin quantitative determination, limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL) reagent and kinetic-turbidimetry system were previously developed. We investigated the possibility of a short time test by means of positively charged filters. As a result of this study, the effects of positively charged filters on endotoxin removal were over 99.5% for [{sup 18}F]FDG and [{sup 18}F]NaF, which were contaminated with the indicated concentration of endotoxin. Combining this filter and the kinetic-turbidimetric method, it was possible to complete a bacterial endotoxins test in 5 min prior to the patient's administration. This test should be required prior to release for PET radiopharmaceutical quality control. It has been suggested that this combination is a good method for this purpose. (author)

  16. Incineration of low level and mixed wastes: 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    The University of California at Irvine, in cooperation with the Department of Energy, American Society of Mechanical Engineers, and chapters of the Health Physics Society, coordinated this conference on the Incineration of Low-Level Radioactive and Mixed Wastes, with the guidance of professionals active in the waste management community. The conference was held in April 22-25, 1986 at Sheraton airport hotel Charlotte, North Carolina. Some of the papers' titles were: Protection and safety of different off-gas treatment systems in radioactive waste incineration; performance assessment of refractory samples in the Los Alamos controlled-Air incinerator; incineration systems for low-level and mixed wastes; incineration of low-level radioactive waste in Switzerland-operational experience and future activities

  17. Thermal analysis of an enriched flame incinerator for aqueous residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacava, Pedro Teixeira; Pimenta, Amilcar Porto [Divisao de Engenharia Aeronautica, Instituto Tecnologico de Aeronautica, Pca. Mal. Eduardo Gomes, 50, Vila das Acacias, 12228-900, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Carvalho, Joao A. [Departamento de Energia, Campus de Guaratingueta, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Av. Dr. Ariberto Pereira da Cunha, 333, 12516-410, Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil); Ferreira, Marco Aurelio [Laboratorio Associado de Combustao e Propulsao, Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais, Rod. Presidente Dutra, km 40, 12630-000, Cachoeira Paulista, SP (Brazil)

    2006-03-01

    The use of oxygen to enrich the combustion air can be an attractive technique to increase capacity of an incinerator originally designed to operate with air. If incinerator parameters such as operation temperature, turbulence level and residence time are fixed for a certain fuel supply rate, it is possible to increase the residue consumption rate using enriched air. This paper presents the thermal analysis for operation with enriched air of an aqueous residue experimental incinerator. The auxiliary fuel was diesel oil. The theoretical results showed that there is a considerable increase in the incineration ratio up to approximately 50% of O{sub 2} in the oxidiser. The tendency was confirmed experimentally. Thermal analysis was demonstrated to be an important tool to predict possible incinerator capacity increase. (author)

  18. Licensing requirements for backfit incinerators at commercial nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodge, R.L.; Edwards, C.W.; Wilson, B.

    1984-01-01

    This paper, and the project it reports on, examines the licensing requirements for backfit incinerators at operating power plants. Analysis was made of incinerating low-level dry radioactive waste in a backfit incinerator at an existing power plant. The operation of the incinerator has been studied from viewpoints of operator safety, consequence of system failures including worst case scenarios, and radiological impact for normal and upset conditions. Analysis showed that releases under all normal operating or upset conditions are an extremely small fraction of the applicable limits. Nuclear Regulatory Commission review concluded that the document produced as a result of this project was useful as a design guide and of value in licensing backfit incinerators. 1 table

  19. LCA Comparison of waste incineration in Denmark and Italy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turconi, Roberto; Butera, Stefania; Boldrin, Alessio

    2011-01-01

    Every year around 50 millions Mg solid waste are incinerated in Europe. Large differences exist in different regions, mainly regarding energy recovery, flue gas treatment and management of solid residues. This paper aims to identify and quantify those differences, providing a Life Cycle Assessment...... of two incinerator systems that are representative of conditions in Northern and Southern Europe. The two case studies are Aarhus (Denmark) and Milan (Italy). The results show that waste incineration appears more environmentally friendly in the Danish case than in the Italian one, due to the higher...... energy recovery and to local conditions, e.g. substitution of electricity and heat in the area. Focusing on the incineration process, Milan incinerator performs better than Aarhus, since its upstream impacts (related to the production of chemicals used in flue gas cleaning) are more than compensated...

  20. A method to quickly test the emissivity with an infrared thermal imaging system within a small distance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuan-yu; Hu, Rui; Wang, Rui-xin

    2015-10-01

    A simple method has been set up to quickly test the emissivity with an infrared thermal imaging system within a small distance according to the theory of measuring temperature by infrared system, which is based on the Planck radiation law and Lambert-beer law. The object's temperature is promoted and held on by a heater while a temperature difference has been formed between the target and environment. The emissivity of human skin, galvanized iron plate, black rubber and liquid water has been tested under the condition that the emissivity is set in 1.0 and the testing distance is 1m. According to the invariance of human's body temperature, a testing curve is established to describe that the thermal imaging temperatures various with the emissivity which is set in from 0.9 to 1.0. As a result, the method has been verified. The testing results show that the emissivity of human skin is 0.95. The emissivity of galvanized iron plate, black rubber and liquid water decreases with the increase of object's temperature. The emissivity of galvanized iron plate is far smaller than the one of human skin, black rubber or water. The emissivity of water slowly linearly decreases with the increase of its temperature. By the study, within a small distance and clean atmosphere, the infrared emissivity of objects may be expediently tested with an infrared thermal imaging system according to the method, which is promoting the object's temperature to make it different from the environment temperature, then simultaneously measures the environmental temperature, the real temperature and thermal imaging temperature of the object when the emissivity is set in 1.0 and the testing distance is 1.0m.

  1. Fuel optimization in a multi chamber incinerator by the moisture control of oily sludge and medical wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haider, I.; Hussain, S.; Khan, S.; Mehran, T.

    2011-01-01

    Experiments have been performed to study the effects of %age moisture content on fuel optimization during the waste feed combustion of oily sludge, medical waste and mix blend waste in a 50 kg/hr multi chamber incinerator installed at NCPC- ARL RWP. Intention is to find out the optimum and in compliance with NEQs incinerator performance at various moisture contents in the different waste feeds. Optimum performances of the incinerator, so that optimum operating moisture conditions, which has been used for multi purpose waste, feeds, may be defined. Three waste feeds of 10 kg batch size were used for the experimentation namely; Oily Sludge, Medical waste and Mix blend waste (oily sludge and medical), with the primary chamber preheating temperature 655 deg. C for 15 mins. interval monitoring. The secondary chamber temperature was set to 850 deg. C. By the data obtained it is apparent that rising the waste moisture content tend to increase fuel consumption specifically in case of medical waste and hence lowering the overall combustion efficiency. In the emissions the CO/sub 2/ concentration is showing the incineration efficiency. Higher efficiency of the system could have been achieved by increasing the CO/sub 2/ in the gases leaving the incinerator, lower fuel usage per kg waste feed and maintain proper operating conditions. Fuel consumption for the oily sludge with 10% moisture content, was found to be least as compared with the same %age of medical waste and mix blend waste. However environmental compliance of the operation is shown by the flue gas analysis. The results shows that using mix blend(oily sludge and medical) waste having 12-13% moisture content would be suitable for incineration in multi-chamber incinerator .Other makes it possible to determine the optimum incinerator temperature control settings and operating conditions, as well as to assure continuous, efficient, environmentally satisfactory operation. The optimum fuel consumption for 10 kg each waste

  2. Thermal treatment of high-caloric waste in fluidized bed incineration plants in Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ragossnig, A.M.

    2001-05-01

    The importance of thermal treatment of waste and residues in Austria is expected to rise due to the current changes of the legal situation in waste management. Assessing the rank order of different thermal treatment processes for waste management it has been shown that - especially caused by the rising importance of the mechanical treatment step in the mechanical-biological residual waste treatment and the subsequent necessity of the thermal treatment of a high-caloric preprocessed waste stream - the importance of the fluidized bed technology will increase. The main advantages are the high existing capacities as well as the flexibility of this technology in regard of fuel properties and further on the fact of the lacking influence of the ash towards the quality of a product. This is true although the thermal treatment in fluidized bed incinerators requires some processing of the waste. This doctoral thesis also contains a thorough physical and chemical characterization of various waste fuels - especially those which have been used during full scale incineration experiments. This characterization includes a comparison with fossil fuel. The practical part contains the documentation and balancing of full scale incineration experiments. A comparison of a reference experiment with experiments when waste fuel has been thermally utilized showed that a significant increase of emissions to the atmosphere has not been observed. Based on the incineration experiments conclusions in regard of waste fuels as well as different categories of thermal treatment plants are being stated. Finally, a recommendation of the assignation of various waste streams to different categories of thermal treatment plants is being made. (author)

  3. Improved inventory for heavy metal emissions from stationary combustion plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Malene; Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Hoffmann, Leif

    -2009. The report also include methodology, references and an uncertainty estimate. In Denmark, stationary combustion plants are among the most important emission sources for heavy metals. Emissions of all heavy metals have decreased considerably (73 % - 92 %) since 1990. The main HM emission sources are coal...... combustion, waste incineration, residual oil combustion and in 2009 also combustion of biomass. The emission from waste incineration plants has decreased profoundly also in recent years due to installation and improved performance of flue gas cleaning devices. The emission from power plants have also...

  4. Current Methods to Detoxify Fly Ash from Waste Incineration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallgren, Christine; Stroemberg, Birgitta [TPS Termiska Processer AB, Nykoeping (Sweden)

    2004-07-01

    Fly ash from waste incineration contains large amounts of heavy metals and dioxins, which will cause a significant disposal problem within the coming years. The amount of fly ash produced in Sweden is currently approximately 60,000 tons/y. New technological options for the decontamination and/or inertization of incinerator fly ash are being developed with the objective of rendering a product that can be reused or, at least, be deposited at standard landfill sites with no risk. Many of these technologies have been tested at industrial scale or in pilot projects. The proposed alternatives include: Thermal treatments; Immobilization/stabilization by cement based techniques; Wet chemical treatments (extractions, immobilizations); Microbiological treatments. Of these, thermal treatments are the most promising solution. Depending on the temperature thermal treatments are classified in two main types: 1) low temperature (below 600 deg C) thermal treatments and 2) high temperature (above 1200 deg C) thermal treatments (vitrification). Most dioxins can be successfully destroyed at temperatures up to 400 deg C under oxygen deficient conditions and at temperatures up to 600 deg C under oxidising conditions. However most heavy metals remain in the fly ash after low temperature treatment. At a temperature of 900 deg C most heavy metals can also be removed in a 10% HCl atmosphere by forming volatile metal chlorides (CT-Fluapur process). During vitrification processes the fly ash melts and forms an inert glassy slag. The product does not leach any significant amount of heavy metals and is free from dioxin. The volume of the fly ash is significantly reduced. The product can be land filled at low costs or used as construction material. The properties of the product depend on the cooling process and on additives such as sand, limestone or waste glass. A series of vitrification methods at industrial size or in pilot scale using different furnaces are studied. Among these, plasma

  5. Development of a modal emissions model using data from the Cooperative Industry/Government Exhaust Emission test program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-06-22

    The Environmental Protection Agencys (EPAs) recommended model, MOBILE5a, has been : used extensively to predict emission factors based on average speeds for each fleet type. : Because average speeds are not appropriate in modeling intersections...

  6. Destruction behavior of hexabromocyclododecanes during incineration of solid waste containing expanded and extruded polystyrene insulation foams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takigami, Hidetaka; Watanabe, Mafumi; Kajiwara, Natsuko

    2014-12-01

    Hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs) have been used for flame retardation mainly in expanded polystyrene (EPS) and extruded polystyrene (XPS) insulation foams. Controlled incineration experiments with solid wastes containing each of EPS and XPS were conducted using a pilot-scale incinerator to investigate the destruction behavior of HBCDs and their influence on the formation of polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PBDD/DFs). EPS and XPS materials were respectively blended with refuse derived fuel (RDF) as input wastes for incineration. Concentrations of HBCDs contained in the EPS- and XPS-added RDFs, were 140 and 1100 mg kg(-1), respectively. In which γ-HBCD was dominant (68% of the total HBCD content) in EPS-added RDF and α-HBCD accounted for 73% of the total HBCDs in XPS-added RDF. During the incineration experiments with EPS and XPS, primary and secondary combustion zones were maintained at temperatures of 840 °C and 900 °C. The residence times of waste in the primary combustion zone and flue gas in the secondary combustion zone was 30 min and three seconds, respectively. HBCDs were steadily degraded in the combustion chambers and α-, β-, and γ-HBCD behaved similarly. Concentration levels of the total HBCDs in the bag filter exit gas for the two experiments with EPS and XPS were 0.7 and 0.6ngmN(-3), respectively. HBCDs were also not detected (incineration process with destruction efficiencies of more than 99.9999 for both of EPS and XPS cases. For PBDD/DFs, the levels detected in the bottom and fly ash samples were very low (0.028 ng g(-1) at maximum). In the case of XPS-added experiment, 2,3,7,8-TeBDD and 2,3,7,8-TeBDF were determined in the flue gas at levels (0.05-0.07 ng mN(-3)) slightly over the detection limits in the environmental emission gas samples, suggesting HBCDs in XPS are possibly a precursor of detected PBDD/DFs. Operational care should be taken when the ratio of HBCD-containing polystyrene is increased in the input wastes just

  7. Standard formaldehyde source for chamber testing of material emissions: model development, experimental evaluation, and impacts of environmental factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Wenjuan; Howard-Reed, Cynthia; Persily, Andrew; Zhang, Yinping

    2013-07-16

    Formaldehyde, which is recognized as a harmful indoor air pollutant for human health, is emitted mainly from urea-formaldehyde resin in wood products. Chamber tests are used to evaluate formaldehyde emission rates from these products. However, there is no available formaldehyde standard reference emission source to assess the performance of chamber testing systems. In this work, a LIFE (liquid-inner tube diffusion-film-emission) formaldehyde reference is described. The formaldehyde source consists of a polytetrafluoroethene (PTFE) tube that holds a formaldehyde-water solution with a concentration of 16 g formaldehyde per 100 mL water, with a thin polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) film cover. Formaldehyde emission parameters for the PDMS film (diffusion coefficient and partition coefficient) were determined experimentally, thereby enabling the prediction of the formaldehyde emissions from the source for use as a reference value in a chamber. Chamber tests were conducted in a 51 L stainless steel ventilated chamber. The impacts of temperature and relative humidity on the emissions were investigated. Results show the LIFE's chamber test results match those predicted by a mass transfer model. As a result, this formaldehyde source may be used to generate a reference concentration in product emission testing chambers, thereby providing a powerful tool to evaluate the performance of the chamber testing systems.

  8. Waste processing building with incineration technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasilah, Wasilah; Zaldi Suradin, Muh.

    2017-12-01

    In Indonesia, waste problem is one of major problem of the society in the city as part of their life dynamics. Based on Regional Medium Term Development Plan of South Sulawesi Province in 2013-2018, total volume and waste production from Makassar City, Maros, Gowa, and Takalar Regency estimates the garbage dump level 9,076.949 m3/person/day. Additionally, aim of this design is to present a recommendation on waste processing facility design that would accommodate waste processing process activity by incineration technology and supported by supporting activity such as place of education and research on waste, and the administration activity on waste processing facility. Implementation of incineration technology would reduce waste volume up to 90% followed by relative negative impact possibility. The result planning is in form of landscape layout that inspired from the observation analysis of satellite image line pattern of planning site and then created as a building site pattern. Consideration of building orientation conducted by wind analysis process and sun path by auto desk project Vasari software. The footprint designed by separate circulation system between waste management facility interest and the social visiting activity in order to minimize the croos and thus bring convenient to the building user. Building mass designed by inseparable connection series system, from the main building that located in the Northward, then connected to a centre visitor area lengthways, and walked to the waste processing area into the residue area in the Southward area.

  9. CAPSTONE REPORT ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF A STANDARD TEST METHOD FOR VOC EMISSIONS FROM INTERIOR LATEX PAINT AND ALKYD PAINTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives details of a small-chamber test method developed by the EPA for characterizing volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from interior latex and alkyd paints. Current knowledge about VOC, including hazardous air pollutant, emissions from interior paints generated...

  10. VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND EMISSIONS FROM LATEX PAINT-PART 2. TEST HOUSE STUDIES AND INDOOR AIR QUALITY (IAQ) MODELING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emission models developed using small chamber data were combined with an Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) model to analyze the impact of volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from latex paint on indoor environments. Test house experiments were conducted to verify the IAQ model's pred...

  11. 75 FR 68448 - Revisions to In-Use Testing for Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines and Vehicles; Emissions Measurement and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-08

    ... Rule: Control of Emissions of Air Pollution from Locomotives and Marine Compression-Ignition Engines... Emissions of Air Pollution from Locomotives and Marine Compression-Ignition Engines Less Than 30 Liters per...-OAR-2010-0142; FRL-9220-6] RIN 2060-AO69 Revisions to In-Use Testing for Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines and...

  12. Operation of a 1/10 scale mixed water incinerator air pollution control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, D.B.; Wong, A.; Walker, W.

    1996-01-01

    The Consolidated Incineration Facility (CIF) at the Savannah River Site is designed to treat solid and liquid RCRA hazardous and mixed wastes generated by site operations and clean-up activities. The technologies selected for use in the CIF air pollution control system (APCS) were based on reviews of existing commercial and DOE incinerators, on-site air pollution control experience, and recommendations from contracted consultants. In order to study the CIF APCS prior to operation, a 1/10 scale pilot facility, known as the Offgas Components Test Facility (OCTF) was constructed and has been in operation since late 1994. Its current mission is to demonstrate the design integrity of the CIF APCS and optimize equipment/instrument performance of the full scale production facility. Due to the nature of the wastes to be incinerated at the CIF, High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filters are used to remove hazardous and radioactive particulates from the exhaust gas stream before being released into the atmosphere. The HEPA filter change-out frequency has been a potential issue and was the first technical issue to be studied at the OCTF. Tests were conducted to evaluate the performance of HEPA filters under different operating conditions. These tests included evaluating the impact on HEPA life of scrubber operating parameters and the type of HEPA prefilter used. This pilot-scale testing demonstrated satisfactory HEPA filter life when using cleanable metal prefilters and high flows of steam and water in the offgas scrubber

  13. Analysis of Discharged Gas from Incinerator using Simulated Organic Solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seungil; Kim, Hyunki; Heo, Jun; Kang, Dukwon; Kim, Yunbok; Kwon, Youngbock

    2014-01-01

    Korea has no experience of treatment of RI organic waste and appropriate measures for treatment of organic waste did not suggested. RI organic wastes which are occurring in KOREA are stored at the RI waste storage building of KORAD. But they can't no more receive the RI organic waste because the storage facility for RI organic waste was saturated with these organic wastes. In case of Japan, they recognized the dangerousness of long-term storage for RI organic wastes. In case of Korea, the released concentration of gaseous pollutant from the incinerator is regulated by attached table No.1 of the Notification No. 2012-60 of Nuclear Safety Commission and attached table No.8 of Clean Air Conservation Act. And the dioxin from the incinerator is regulated by attached table No.3 of Persistent Organic Pollutants Control Act. This experiment was performed to examine whether the incinerator introduced from Japan is manufactured suitably for municipal law regulation and to confirm the compliance about the gaseous pollutant released from incinerator with the above-mentioned laws especially attached table No.1 of NSC using simulated organic waste solution. In this experiment, we examined whether the incinerator was manufactured suitably for municipal law regulation and confirmed the compliance about the gaseous pollutant released from incinerator with the above-mentioned laws using simulated organic waste solution. The design requirement of incinerator for RI organic waste in the municipal law regulation is proposed briefly but the requirements for more detail about the incinerator are proposed in regulation of Japan. The incinerator used in this experiment is satisfied with all clauses of the domestic as well as Japan. Multiple safety functions were installed in the incinerator such as air purge system to remove unburned inflammable gases in the furnace and earthquake detector. Also, perfect combustion of RI organic waste is achieved because the temperature in the furnace

  14. Refuse incineration contra protection of basic human rights. Muellverbrennung contra Grundrechtsschutz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofmann-Hoeppel, J.

    1991-12-16

    The anthor presents and discusses the judgement of the OVG Muenster (Muenster Higher Administrative Court) of June 7, 1990 which is non-appealable after an action for non-admission against the construction and operation of a refuse incineration plant has been dismissed by the BVerwG (Federal Administrative Court). He points to the difficulties encountered by the law in coping with the progress in technology, concentrating in this context on the probleme created by the emission of dioxins and furans and their transfer to the food chain with following ingrestion by man, and the conflict arising therefrom with regard to the basic human right, to prevent damage to life. (HP).

  15. Incinerated sewage sludge ash as alternative binder in cement-based materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krejcirikova, Barbora; Goltermann, Per; Hodicky, Kamil

    2013-01-01

    Sewage sludge ash is characterized by its pozzolanic properties, as cement is. This predetermines its use in a substitution of cement and cementitious materials. Utilization of sewage sludge ash does not only decrease the consumption of cement, one of the largest cause of CO2 emissions, but also...... it can minimize the need of ash landfill disposal. The objective of this study is to show potential use of incinerated sewage sludge ash (ISSA), an industrial byproduct, as possible binder in cement-based materials. Chemical and mechanical characteristics are presented and compared with results obtained...

  16. Continuous and recurrent testing of acoustic emission sensors; Kontinuierliche und wiederkehrende Pruefung von Schallemissionssensoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sause, Markus G.R.; Schmitt, Stefan; Potstada, Philipp [Augsburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Materials Resource Management, Mechanical Engineering

    2017-08-01

    In many fields of application of acoustic emission, the testing can lead to a lasting change in the sensor characteristics. This can be caused by mechanical damage, thermal stress or use under aggressive environmental conditions. Irrespective of visually testable damages of the sensors, a shift in the spectral sensitivity, a reduction in the absolute sensitivity or a reduction in the signal-to-noise ratio can occur. During the test, this requires a possibility to periodically check the sensors, including the coupling aids used. For recurring testing, recommendations are given in Directive SE 02 ''Verification of acoustic emission sensors and their coupling in the laboratory''. This paper discusses possibilities for continuous monitoring of the sensors during the test and presents an application example for the partly automated recurring testing of acoustic emission sensors using Directive SE 02. For this purpose, a test stand for the supply of the sensors to be tested was constructed and the signal recording and data reduction implemented in freely available software programs. The operating principle is demonstrated using selected case studies. [German] In vielen Anwendungsbereichen der Schallemission kann es bei der Pruefung zu einer nachhaltigen Veraenderung der Sensorcharakteristik kommen. Dies kann durch mechanische Beschaedigung, thermische Belastung oder Verwendung unter aggressiven Umweltbedingungen geschehen. Unabhaengig von visuell pruefbaren Beschaedigungen der Sensoren kann es dabei zu einer Verschiebung der spektralen Empfindlichkeit, einer Verringerung der absoluten Empfindlichkeit oder einer Erniedrigung des Signal-Rausch Verhaeltnis kommen. Bei der Pruefung erfordert dies eine Moeglichkeit zur periodischen Ueberpruefung der Sensoren inklusive der verwendeten Koppelhilfsmittel. Fuer die wiederkehrende Pruefung finden sich entsprechende Handlungsempfehlungen in der Richtlinie SE 02 ''Verifizierung von

  17. Detection of the onset of galling in strip reduction testing using acoustic emission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moghadam, Marcel; Christiansen, Peter; Bay, Niels Oluf

    2017-01-01

    to detect, since it is either based on the operator's personal judgement or indirect measuring techniques. The application of acoustic emission measuring technique for characterization of onset of galling in sheet metal forming is discussed in the presented paper. The strip reduction test, which emulates......Galling is an important issue in metal forming of tribologically severe materials such as high strength steel, stainless steel, Al- or Ti-alloys, since it leads to poor surface quality of the formed components, production stops and possibly deterioration of tools. The onset of galling is difficult...... of galling in metal forming processes....

  18. Correlation of black smoke and nitrogen oxides emissions through field testing of in-use diesel vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Cherng-Yuan; Chen, Lih-Wei; Wang, Li-Ting

    2006-05-01

    Diesel vehicles are one of the major forms of transportation, especially in metropolitan regions. However, air pollution released from diesel vehicles causes serious damage to both human health and the environment, and as a result is of great public concern. Nitrogen oxides and black smoke are two significant emissions from diesel engines. Understanding the correlation between these two emissions is an important step toward developing the technology for an appropriate strategy to control or eliminate them. This study field-tested 185 diesel vehicles at an engine dynamometer station for their black smoke reflectivity and nitrogen oxides concentration to explore the correlation between these two pollutants. The test results revealed that most of the tested diesel vehicles emitted black smoke with low reflectivity and produced low nitrogen oxides concentration. The age of the tested vehicles has a significant influence on the NOx emission. The older the tested vehicles, the higher the NOx concentrations emitted, however, there was no obvious correlation between the age of the tested diesel vehicles and the black smoke reflectivity. In addition, if the make and engine displacement volume of the tested diesel vehicles are not taken into consideration, then the correlation between the black smoke reflectivity and nitrogen oxides emission weakens. However, when the tested vehicles were classified into various groups based on their makes and engine displacement volumes, then the make of a tested vehicle became a dominant factor for both the quantity and the trend of the black smoke reflectivity, as well as the NOx emission. Higher emission indices of black smoke reflectivity and nitrogen oxides were observed if the diesel vehicles were operated at low engine speed and full engine load conditions. Moreover, the larger the displacement volume of the engine of the tested vehicle, the lower the emission indices of both black smoke reflectivity and nitrogen oxides emitted. The

  19. Incineration of a Commercial Coating with Nano CeO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Bihan, Olivier; Ounoughene, Ghania; Meunier, Laurent; Debray, Bruno; Aguerre-Chariol, Olivier

    2017-06-01

    The potential environmental risk arising from the incineration of waste containing nanomaterials is a new field which deserves further attention. Some recent studies have begun to focus on this topic but the data are incomplete. In addition, there is a need to consider real life waste. The present study gives some insight into the fate and behavior of a commercial coating containing a commercial additive (7% w/w) based on nano-CeO2 (aggregates of 10 to 40 nm, with elemental particles of 2-3 nm). The tests have been conducted with a system developed in the frame of the NanoFlueGas project. The test protocol was designed to respect the regulatory criteria of a good combustion in incineration plants (temperature around 850°C, highly ventilated combustion, at least 2 s residence time for the combustion gas in a post-combustion chamber at 850°C, and high oxygen/fuel contact). Time tracking by electric low pressure impaction (ELPI) shows that the incineration produces aerosol with number concentration dominated by sub-100 nm particles. Cerium is observed by TEM and EDS analysis but as a minor compound of a sub-group of particles. No nanoCeO2 particles have been observed in the aerosol. ICP-MS analysis indicates that the residual material consists mainly of CeO2 (60% of the mass). Observation by TEM establishes that this material is in the form of aggregates with individual particle of 40-200 nm and suggests that sintering occurred during incineration. As a conclusion, the lab scale incineration study led mainly to the release of nano-CeO2 in the residual material, as the major component. Its size distribution is different than the one of the nano-CeO2 observed in the initial sample before incineration. Additional research is needed to improve the understanding of nanoCeO2 behavior, and to integrate experiments at lab and real scale.

  20. Análise espacial dos riscos à saúde associados à incineração de resíduos sólidos: avaliação preliminar Spatial analysis of the health risks associated with solid waste incineration: a preliminary analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Gouveia

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: examinar se as emissões do incinerador de resíduos sólidos Vergueiro estavam associadas a um risco aumentado de câncer entre a população residente em seu entorno. MÉTODO: a área de influência deste incinerador foi delimitada por um raio de 7 km a partir de seu centróide georeferenciado. Os óbitos de indivíduos residentes em distritos administrativos contidos nessa área, no período de 1998 a 2002, por câncer de pulmão, fígado, laringe e linfoma não-Hodgkin em adultos, e por leucemia e todos cânceres combinados em crianças, foram selecionados e geocodificados. A área estudada foi dividida em 7 (sete anéis concêntricos delimitados por raios de 1 a 7 km a partir do incinerador. A análise da associação entre proximidade residencial ao incinerador e mortalidade por câncer foi baseada na comparação entre número de casos observados e esperados, utilizando-se o teste de Stone para examinar o declínio do risco (razão O/E com a distância do incinerador. RESULTADOS: a área estudada incluiu 1.599.532 habitantes, sendo 92.894 crianças 40 anos. Não se observou um gradiente espacial nas razões de mortalidade conforme aumenta a distância do incinerador para nenhuma das causas e morte examinadas. CONCLUSÃO: embora não tenha sido detectado aumento no risco dos cânceres previamente selecionados, é importante monitorar as emissões de incineradores ainda em funcionamento e seus possíveis efeitos na saúde. O estudo da distribuição da morbimortalidade em áreas circunvizinhas a essas instalações pode vir a ser uma opção metodológica para atividades de vigilância.OBJECTIVES: to examine if emissions from the Vergueiro solid waste incinerator are associated with an increased risk of cancer in the population in its vicinity. METHODS: the area under influence of this incinerator was delimited by a 7 km radius from its geocoded centroid. Deaths of city residents in administrative districts inside this area due to

  1. Low-level waste institutional waste incinerator program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, J.D.

    1980-04-01

    Literature surveyed indicated that institutional LLW is composed of organic solids and liquids, laboratory equipment and trash, and some pathological waste. Some toxic and hazardous chemicals are included in the variety of LLW generated in the nation's hospitals, universities, and research laboratories. Thus, the incinerator to be demonstrated in this program should be able to accept each of these types of materials as feedstock. Effluents from the DOE institutional incinerator demonstration should be such that all existing and proposed environmental standards be met. A design requirement was established to meet the most stringent flue gas standards. LLW incineration practice was reviewed in a survey of institutional LLW generators. Incinerator manufacturers were identified by the survey, and operational experience in incineration was noted for institutional users. Manufacturers identified in the survey were contacted and queried with regard to their ability to supply an incinerator with the desired capability. Special requirements for ash removal characteristics and hearth type were imposed on the selection. At the present time, an incinerator type, manufacturer, and model have been chosen for demonstration

  2. Volume Reduction of Decommissioning Burnable Waste with Oxygen Enrich Incinerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Min, B. Y.; Yang, D. S.; Lee, K. W.; Choi, J. W. [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    The incineration technology is an effective treatment method that contains hazardous chemicals as well as radioactive contamination. The volume reduction of the combustible wastes through the incineration technologies has merits from the view point of a decrease in the amount of waste to be disposed of resulting in a reduction of the disposal cost. Incineration is generally accepted as a method of reducing the volume of radioactive waste. The incineration technology is an effective treatment method that contains hazardous chemicals as well as radioactive contamination. This paper covers the general facility operation of an oxygen-enriched incinerator for the treatment of decommissioning wastes generated from a decommissioning project. The combustible wastes have been treated by the utilization of incinerator the capacity of the average 20 kg/hr. The decommissioning combustible waste of about 31 tons has been treated using Oxygen Enriched incinerator by at the end of 2016. The off-gas flow and temperature were maintained constant or within the desired range. The measured gases and particulate materials in the stack were considerably below the regulatory limits.

  3. Volume Reduction of Decommissioning Burnable Waste with Oxygen Enrich Incinerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Min, B. Y.; Yang, D. S.; Lee, K. W.; Choi, J. W.

    2016-01-01

    The incineration technology is an effective treatment method that contains hazardous chemicals as well as radioactive contamination. The volume reduction of the combustible wastes through the incineration technologies has merits from the view point of a decrease in the amount of waste to be disposed of resulting in a reduction of the disposal cost. Incineration is generally accepted as a method of reducing the volume of radioactive waste. The incineration technology is an effective treatment method that contains hazardous chemicals as well as radioactive contamination. This paper covers the general facility operation of an oxygen-enriched incinerator for the treatment of decommissioning wastes generated from a decommissioning project. The combustible wastes have been treated by the utilization of incinerator the capacity of the average 20 kg/hr. The decommissioning combustible waste of about 31 tons has been treated using Oxygen Enriched incinerator by at the end of 2016. The off-gas flow and temperature were maintained constant or within the desired range. The measured gases and particulate materials in the stack were considerably below the regulatory limits.

  4. Waste or substrate for metal hyperaccumulating plants - The potential of phytomining on waste incineration bottom ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenkranz, Theresa; Kisser, Johannes; Wenzel, Walter W; Puschenreiter, Markus

    2017-01-01

    Phytomining could represent an innovative low-cost technology for the selective recovery of valuable trace elements from secondary resources. In this context the potential of phytomining from waste incineration bottom ash was tested in a pot experiment. Fresh bottom ash was acidified, leached to reduce salinity and amended with organic material to obtain a suitable substrate for plant growth. Two hyperaccumulator species, Alyssum serpyllifolium subsp. lusitanicum and Sedum plumbizincicola as well as three metal tolerant species, Brassica napus, B. juncea and Nicotiana tabacum were tested for their phytomining potential on the pre-treated and amended bottom ashes from municipal solid waste and hazardous waste incineration. The hyperaccumulators had severe difficulties to establish on the bottom ash and to produce sufficient biomass, likely due to salinity and Cu toxicity. Nevertheless, concentrations of Ni in A. serpyllifolium and Zn in S. plumbizincicola were high, but total metal removal was limited by the low biomass production and was clearly less than on metalliferous soils. The Brassica species proved to be more tolerant to salinity and high Cu concentrations and produced considerably higher biomass, but total metal removal was limited by rather low shoot concentrations. The observed limitations of the phytomining process along with currently low market prices of Ni and Zn suggest that further optimisation of the process is required in order to make phytomining economically feasible on the tested waste incineration bottom ashes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Emission factor of ammonia (NH3) from on-road vehicles in China: tunnel tests in urban Guangzhou

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tengyu; Wang, Xinming; Wang, Boguang; Ding, Xiang; Deng, Wei; Lü, Sujun; Zhang, Yanli

    2014-05-01

    Ammonia (NH3) is the primary alkaline gas in the atmosphere that contributes to formation of secondary particles. Emission of NH3 from vehicles, particularly gasoline powered light duty vehicles equipped with three-way catalysts, is regarded as an important source apart from emissions from animal wastes and soils, yet measured emission factors for motor vehicles are still not available in China, where traffic-related emission has become an increasingly important source of air pollutants in urban areas. Here we present our tunnel tests for NH3 from motor vehicles under ‘real world conditions’ in an urban roadway tunnel in Guangzhou, a central city in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region in south China. By attributing all NH3 emissions in the tunnel to light-duty gasoline vehicles, we obtained a fuel-based emission rate of 2.92 ± 0.18 g L-1 and a mileage-based emission factor of 229.5 ± 14.1 mg km-1. These emission factors were much higher than those measured in the United States while measured NO x emission factors (7.17 ± 0.60 g L-1 or 0.56 ± 0.05 g km-1) were contrastingly near or lower than those previously estimated by MOBILE/PART5 or COPERT IV models. Based on the NH3 emission factors from this study, on-road vehicles accounted for 8.1% of NH3 emissions in the PRD region in 2006 instead of 2.5% as estimated in a previous study using emission factors taken from the Emission Inventory Improvement Program (EIIP) in the United States.

  6. Practicability of passenger vehicle driving emission tests according to new European Union procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pielecha Jacek

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article compares driving test data using the latest legislative proposals applicable to passenger cars. Several measurements were performed on the same test route in accordance with the RDE test guidelines, which requires a number of criteria to be met. These criteria include: the length of the measuring segments, their overall test time share, and the dynamic characteristics of the drive. A mobile device for reading the EOBD System information was used to record the engine and vehicle operating parameters during tests. This allowed for the monitoring of parameters such as: load value, engine speed and vehicle velocity. The obtained results were then analyzed for their compatibility with the RDE procedure requirements. Despite the same research route, the obtained results were not the same. The analysis also uses the two-dimensional operating time share characteristics expressed in vehicle velocity and acceleration co-ordinates. As a result it was possible to compare the dynamic properties, share of operating time and, consequently, to check the validity of conducted drive tests in terms of their practicability and emission values.

  7. Recovery of plutonium from incinerator ash at Rocky Flats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, T.C.

    1976-01-01

    Incineration of combustible materials highly contaminated with plutonium produces a residue of incinerator ash. Recovery of plutonium from incinerator ash residues at Rocky Flats is accomplished by a continuous leaching operation with nitric acid containing fluoride ion. Special equipment used in the leaching operation consists of a screw feeder, air-lift dissolvers, filters, solids dryer, and vapor collection system. Each equipment item is described in detail. The average dissolution efficiency of plutonium experienced with the process was 68% on the first pass, 74% on the second pass, and 64% on each subsequent pass. Total-solids dissolution efficiencies averaged 47% on the first pass and about 25% on each subsequent pass

  8. CIF---Design basis for an integrated incineration facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, G.F.

    1991-01-01

    This paper discusses the evolution of chosen technologies that occurred during the design process of the US Department of Energy (DOE) incineration system designated the Consolidated Incineration Facility (CIF) as the Savannah River Plant, Aiken, South Carolina. The Plant is operated for DOE by the Westinghouse Savannah River Company. The purpose of the incineration system is to treat low level radioactive and/or hazardous liquid and solid wastes by combustion. The objective for the facility is to thermally destroy toxic constituents and volume reduce waste material. Design criteria requires operation be controlled within the limits of RCRA's permit envelope

  9. Operation of chemical incinerator for disposal of legacy chemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singhal, R.K.; Basu, H.; Saha, S.; Pimple, M.V.; Naik, P.D.

    2017-01-01

    For safe disposal of age-old legacy and unused chemicals in BARC, Trombay, oil-fired chemical incinerator with a capacity of 20 kg h -1 for solid and liquid chemical is installed adjacent to trash incinerator near RSMS, Gamma Field. The Incinerator was supplied by M/s B. L. Engineering Works, Ahmedabad. Commission of the same at Trombay site was carried out, under the supervision of Civil Engineering (CED), Technical Services Division (TSD) and Analytical Chemistry Division (custodian of the facility)

  10. Municipal Solid Waste Incineration For Accra Brewery Limited (Ghana)

    OpenAIRE

    Akoore, Alfred Akelibilna

    2016-01-01

    Waste incineration is a common practice of waste management tool in most developed countries, for the purpose of converting mass and volumes of waste into a very useful energy content. The aim of this study was to compare the costs benefits of waste incineration for Accra Brewery boiler plant and to investigate also the availability of waste and it´s compositions in Accra, as well as to determine the feasibility of using this waste as a source of fuel to the waste incineration plant. T...

  11. Development of an incineration system for radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chrubasik, A.

    1989-01-01

    NUKEM GmbH (W. Germany) has developed and built some plants for treatment of radioactive waste. In cooperation with Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Center and on the basis of non-nuclear incineration plants, NUKEM has designed and built a new incineration plant for low level radioactive solid waste. The main features of the plant are improvement of the waste handling during feeding, very low particulate load downstream the incinerator and simple flue-gas cleaning system. This process is suitable for treatment of waste generated above all in nuclear power plants. (author)

  12. Beta-gamma contaminated solid waste incinerator facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hootman, H.E.

    1979-10-01

    This technical data summary outlines a reference process to provide a 2-stage, 400 lb/hour incinerator to reduce the storage volume of combustible process waste contaminated with low-level beta-gamma emitters in response to DOE Manual 0511. This waste, amounting to more than 200,000 ft/sup 3/ per year, is presently buried in trenches in the burial ground. The anticipated storage volume reduction from incineration will be a factor of 20. The incinerator will also dispose of 150,000 gallons of degraded solvent from the chemical separations areas and 5000 gallons per year of miscellaneous nonradioactive solvents which are presently being drummed for storage.

  13. Incineration in the nuclear field. The SGN experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpentier, S.

    1993-01-01

    The operation of power reactors, like that of fuel fabrication and nuclear fuel reprocessing plants, generated substantial quantities of waste. A large share of this waste is low- and medium-level waste, which is also combustible. Similarly, a number of institutes, laboratories, and hospitals, in the course of their activities, generated waste which a portion is radioactive and combustible. The chief advantage of incineration is to minimize the volume of burnable waste treated, and to produce a residue termed 'ash'. SGN has built up 25 years of experience in this field. The incinerators have been designed and the incineration processes are specially studied by SGN

  14. Incineration system for solid and liquid radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krutman, J.K.Z.; Grosche Filho, C.E.; Alfonso, S.A.

    1986-01-01

    An incineration system that allows the burning of solid and liquid radioactive wastes transforming them to highly insoluble ashes, and volumetric reduction from 30 to 50 times, depending on the incinerated waste. The global factor of activity retention contained in the waste is the order of 99%. The proposed incineration system allows the total combustion of radioactive waste and the generated gases during the burning. The formation of gaseous secondary wastes is minimum and any liquid waste is formed, reducing the costs of installation and operation. (M.C.K.) [pt

  15. Modeling nitrous oxide emissions from irrigated agriculture: testing DayCent with high-frequency measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheer, Clemens; Del Grosso, Stephen J; Parton, William J; Rowlings, David W; Grace, Peter R

    2014-04-01

    A unique high temporal frequency data set from an irrigated cotton-wheat rotation was used to test the agroecosystem model DayCent to simulate daily N20 emissions from subtropical vertisols under different irrigation intensities. DayCent was able to simulate the effect of different irrigation intensities on N20 fluxes and yield, although it tended to overestimate seasonal fluxes during the cotton season. DayCent accurately predicted soil moisture dynamics and the timing and magnitude of high fluxes associated with fertilizer additions and irrigation events. At the daily scale we found a good correlation of predicted vs. measured N20 fluxes (r2 = 0.52), confirming that DayCent can be used to test agricultural practices for mitigating N20 emission from irrigated cropping systems. A 25-year scenario analysis indicated that N20 losses from irrigated cotton-wheat rotations on black vertisols in Australia can be substantially reduced by an optimized fertilizer and irrigation management system (i.e., frequent irrigation, avoidance of excessive fertilizer application), while sustaining maximum yield potentials.

  16. A study on the performance and emission characteristics of esterified pinnai oil tested in VCR engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashok Kumar, T; Chandramouli, R; Mohanraj, T

    2015-11-01

    Biodiesel is a clean renewable fuel derived from vegetable oils and animal fats. It is biodegradable, oxygenated, non toxic and free from sulfur and aromatics. The biodiesel prepared from pinnai oil undergoes acid esterification followed by alkaline transesterification process. The fatty acid methyl esters components were identified using gas chromatography and compared with the standard properties. The properties of biodiesel are comparable with diesel. The yield of the biodiesel production depends upon the process parameters such as reaction temperature, pH, time duration and amount of catalyst. The yield of biodiesel by transesterification process was 73% at 55°C. This fuel was tested in a variable compression ratio engine with blend ratios of B10 and B20. During the test runs the compression ratio of the engine was varied from 15:1 to 18:1 and the torque is adjusted from zero to maximum value of 22Nm. The performance characteristics such as the brake thermal efficiency, brake specific energy consumption and exhaust gas temperature of the engine are analyzed. The combustion characteristics of biodiesel like ignition delay, combustion duration and maximum gas temperature and the emission characteristics are also analyzed. The performance characteristics, combustion characteristics and engine emission are effective in the variable compression ratio engine with biodiesel and it is compared with diesel. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Low-level waste incineration at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillins, R.L.; Davis, J.N.; Maughan, R.Y.; Logan, J.A.

    1985-01-01

    A facility for the incineration of low-level beta/gamma contaminated combustible waste has been constructed at the Waste Experimental Reduction Facility (WERF) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The incineration facility was established to: (1) reduce the volume of currently generated contaminated combustible waste being disposed at the INEL's radioactive waste disposal site and thereby prolong the site's useful life; and (2) develop waste processing technology by providing a facility where full-size processes and equipment can be demonstrated and proven during production-scale operations. Cold systems testing has been completed, and contaminated operations began in September of 1984. Currently the facility is processing waste packaged in 2 x 2 x 2 ft cardboard boxes and measuring <10mR/h at contact. 3 figs

  18. Study of slag content and properties after plasma melting of incineration ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyun-Seo

    2011-06-01

    The paper presents the investigation of plasma melting of the mixed bottom and fly incineration ash at various mixing ratios of the components. Chemical compound of the bottom and fly ash as well as the slag after its melting was analyzed by different methods, and the content of toxic components in them was determined. It is demonstrated that the direct disposal of the fly and bottom incineration ash may cause dioxin and heavy metal contamination of the environment. The influence of melted ash basicity on the resulting slag compound was studied. The mass balance of the melting process was defined. The tests were performed to determine the heavy-metals leaching from the ash and slag. It is also shown that the slag after plasma melting is dioxin-free and environmentally friendly.

  19. Mechanisms contributing to the thermal analysis of waste incineration bottom ash and quantification of different carbon species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocca, Stefania; van Zomeren, André; Costa, Giulia; Dijkstra, Joris J; Comans, Rob N J; Lombardi, Francesco

    2013-02-01

    The focus of this study was to identify the main compounds affecting the weight changes of bottom ash (BA) in conventional loss on ignition (LOI) tests and to obtain a better understanding of the individual processes in heterogeneous (waste) materials such as BA. Evaluations were performed on BA samples from a refuse derived fuel incineration (RDF-I) plant and a hospital waste incineration (HW-I) plant using thermogravimetric analysis and subsequent mass spectrometry (TG-MS) analysis of the gaseous thermal decomposition products. Results of TG-MS analysis on RDF-I BA indicated that the LOI measured at 550°C was due to moisture evaporation and dehydration of Ca(OH)(2) and hydrocalumite. Results for the HW-I BA showed that LOI at 550°C was predominantly related to the elemental carbon (EC) content of the sample. Decomposition of CaCO(3) around 700°C was identified in both materials. In addition, we have identified reaction mechanisms that underestimate the EC and overestimate the CaCO(3) contents of the HW-I BA during TG-MS analyses. These types of artefacts are expected to occur also when conventional LOI methods are adopted, in particular for materials that contain CaO/Ca(OH)(2) in combination with EC and/or organic carbon, such as e.g. municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) bottom and fly ashes. We suggest that the same mechanisms that we have found (i.e. in situ carbonation) can also occur during combustion of the waste in the incinerator (between 450 and 650°C) demonstrating that the presence of carbonate in bottom ash is not necessarily indicative for weathering. These results may also give direction to further optimization of waste incineration technologies with regard to stimulating in situ carbonation during incineration and subsequent potential improvement of the leaching behavior of bottom ash. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Two stage, low temperature, catalyzed fluidized bed incineration with in situ neutralization for radioactive mixed wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wade, J.F.; Williams, P.M.

    1995-01-01

    A two stage, low temperature, catalyzed fluidized bed incineration process is proving successful at incinerating hazardous wastes containing nuclear material. The process operates at 550 degrees C and 650 degrees C in its two stages. Acid gas neutralization takes place in situ using sodium carbonate as a sorbent in the first stage bed. The feed material to the incinerator is hazardous waste-as defined by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act-mixed with radioactive materials. The radioactive materials are plutonium, uranium, and americium that are byproducts of nuclear weapons production. Despite its low temperature operation, this system successfully destroyed poly-chlorinated biphenyls at a 99.99992% destruction and removal efficiency. Radionuclides and volatile heavy metals leave the fluidized beds and enter the air pollution control system in minimal amounts. Recently collected modeling and experimental data show the process minimizes dioxin and furan production. The report also discusses air pollution, ash solidification, and other data collected from pilot- and demonstration-scale testing. The testing took place at Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, a US Department of Energy facility, in the 1970s, 1980s, and 1990s