WorldWideScience

Sample records for incinerated ash produced

  1. Porous materials produced from incineration ash using thermal plasma technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Sheng-Fu; Chiu, Wen-Tung; Wang, To-Mai; Chen, Ching-Ting; Tzeng, Chin-Ching

    2014-06-01

    This study presents a novel thermal plasma melting technique for neutralizing and recycling municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) ash residues. MSWI ash residues were converted into water-quenched vitrified slag using plasma vitrification, which is environmentally benign. Slag is adopted as a raw material in producing porous materials for architectural and decorative applications, eliminating the problem of its disposal. Porous materials are produced using water-quenched vitrified slag with Portland cement and foaming agent. The true density, bulk density, porosity and water absorption ratio of the foamed specimens are studied here by varying the size of the slag particles, the water-to-solid ratio, and the ratio of the weights of the core materials, including the water-quenched vitrified slag and cement. The thermal conductivity and flexural strength of porous panels are also determined. The experimental results show the bulk density and the porosity of the porous materials are 0.9-1.2 g cm(-3) and 50-60%, respectively, and the pore structure has a closed form. The thermal conductivity of the porous material is 0.1946 W m(-1) K(-1). Therefore, the slag composite materials are lightweight and thermal insulators having considerable potential for building applications. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of additional materials on the properties of glass-ceramic produced from incinerator fly ashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, T W

    2004-07-01

    There are 21 Metro-waste incinerators in Taiwan under construction and are expected to be finished at year 2003. It is estimated that these incinerators will produce about two million tons of incinerator ash. In order to reduce the volume and eliminate contamination problems, high temperature molten technology studies have been conducted. The purpose of this research was that of trying to control the chemical composition of the glass-ceramic produced from incinerator fly ash, in order to improve the characteristics of the glass-ceramic. The experimental results showed that the additional materials, Mg(OH)2 and waste glass cullet, can change glass-ceramic phases from gehlenite to augite, pigeonite, and diopside. The physical, mechanical and chemical resistance properties of the glass-ceramic also showed much better characteristics than prepared glass-ceramic using incinerator fly ash alone.

  3. Incineration ash conditioning processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jouan, A.; Ouvrier, N.; Teulon, F.

    1990-01-01

    Incinerable wastes consist of the following standard composition corresponding to projected wastes from a future mixed oxide fuel fabrication plant with an annual throughput of 1700 kg (i.e. 5.7 m 3 ) of ashes produced by the incineration facility: . 50% polyvinyl chloride (glove box sleeves), . 5% polyethylene (bags), . 35% rubber (equal amounts of latex and neoprene), . 10% cellulose (equal amounts of cotton and cleansing tissues). The work focused mainly on compaction by high-temperature isostatic pressing, is described in some detail with the results obtained. An engineering study was also carried out to compare this technology with two other ash containment processes: direct-induction (cold crucible) melting and cement-resin matrix embedding. Induction melting is considerably less costly than isostatic pressing; the operating costs are about 1.5 times higher than for cement-resin embedding, but the volume reduction is nearly 3 times greater

  4. Man-made vitreous fiber produced from incinerator ash using the thermal plasma technique and application as reinforcement in concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Sheng-Fu; Wang, To-Mai; Lee, Wen-Cheng; Sun, Kin-Seng; Tzeng, Chin-Ching

    2010-10-15

    This study proposes using thermal plasma technology to treat municipal solid waste incinerator ashes. A feasible fiberization method was developed and applied to produce man-made vitreous fiber (MMVF) from plasma vitrified slag. MMVF were obtained through directly blending the oxide melt stream with high velocity compressed air. The basic technological characteristics of MMVF, including morphology, diameter, shot content, length and chemical resistance, are described in this work. Laboratory experiments were conducted on the fiber-reinforced concrete. The effects of fibrous content on compressive strength and flexural strength are presented. The experimental results showed the proper additive of MMVF in concrete can enhance its mechanical properties. MMVF products produced from incinerator ashes treated with the thermal plasma technique have great potential for reinforcement in concrete. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Solidification of radioactive incinerator ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuler, T.F.; Charlesworth, D.L.

    1986-01-01

    The Ashcrete process will solidify ash generated by the Beta Gamma Incinerator (BGI) at the Savannah River Plant (SRP). The system remotely handles, adds material to, and tumbles drums of ash to produce ashcrete, a stabilized wasteform. Full-scale testing of the Ashcrete unit began at Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) in January 1984, using nonradioactive ash. Tests determined product homogeneity, temperature distribution, compressive strength, and final product formulation. Product formulations that yielded good mix homogeneity and final product compressive strength were developed. Drum pressurization and temperature rise (resulting from the cement's heat of hydration) were also studied to verify safe storage and handling characteristics. In addition to these tests, an expert system was developed to assist process troubleshooting

  6. Conditioning processes for incinerator ashes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jouan, A.; Ouvrier, N.; Teulon, F.

    1990-01-01

    Three conditioning processes for alpha-bearing solid waste incineration ashes were investigated and compared according to technical and economic criteria: isostatic pressing, cold-crucible direct-induction melting and cement-resin matrix embedding

  7. Characterisation and management of ash produced in the hospital waste incinerator of Athens, Greece

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kougemitrou, Irene [Harokopio University of Athens, 70 El. Venizelou Str., 17671 Athens (Greece); Godelitsas, Athanasios, E-mail: agodel@geol.uoa.gr [University of Athens, Panepistimioupoli Zographou, 15784 Athens (Greece); Tsabaris, Christos [Hellenic Center of Marine Research, 19013 Anavyssos (Greece); Stathopoulos, Vassilis [Technological Educational Institute of Chalkida, 34400 Psahna (Greece); Papandreou, Andreas [CERECO S.A. Ceramics and Refractories Technological Development Company, 34100 Chalkida (Greece); Gamaletsos, Platon [University of Athens, Panepistimioupoli Zographou, 15784 Athens (Greece); Economou, George [Institute of Geology and Mineral Exploration, Olympic Village, 13677 Acharnai (Greece); Papadopoulos, Dimitris [APOTEFROTIRAS S.A., Ano Liossia, 19200 Elefsina (Greece)

    2011-03-15

    Bottom and fly ash samples (BASH and FASH) from the APOTEFROTIRAS S.A. medical waste incinerator (Athens, Greece) were investigated. Powder-XRD data and geochemical diagrams showed BASH to be an amorphous material, analogous to basaltic glass, and FASH consisting of crystalline compounds (mainly CaClOH). Bulk analyses by ICP-MS and point analyses by SEM-EDS indicated a high content of heavy metals, such as Fe, Cu and Cr, in both samples. However, BASH was highly enriched in Ni while FASH was additionally enriched in Zn and Pb. Gamma-ray measurements showed that the radioactivity of both ash samples, due to natural and artificial radionuclides ({sup 137}Cs, {sup 57}Co), was within the permissible levels recommended by IAEA. According to EN-type leaching tests, BASH was practically inert with regard to the mobility of the hazardous elements in aqueous media. FASH, however, showed a relatively high EN (and TCLP) leachability with regard to Pb and Zn. Finally, the stabilisation method, suggested for the treatment of FASH, included compression of the powder into briquettes using an appropriate machine and embedding the briquettes into pozzolanic cement blocks. After this treatment, TCLP and EN-type tests showed minimal release of Pb and Zn, thereby demonstrating a reliable management of ash waste.

  8. Characterisation and management of ash produced in the hospital waste incinerator of Athens, Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kougemitrou, Irene; Godelitsas, Athanasios; Tsabaris, Christos; Stathopoulos, Vassilis; Papandreou, Andreas; Gamaletsos, Platon; Economou, George; Papadopoulos, Dimitris

    2011-01-01

    Bottom and fly ash samples (BASH and FASH) from the APOTEFROTIRAS S.A. medical waste incinerator (Athens, Greece) were investigated. Powder-XRD data and geochemical diagrams showed BASH to be an amorphous material, analogous to basaltic glass, and FASH consisting of crystalline compounds (mainly CaClOH). Bulk analyses by ICP-MS and point analyses by SEM-EDS indicated a high content of heavy metals, such as Fe, Cu and Cr, in both samples. However, BASH was highly enriched in Ni while FASH was additionally enriched in Zn and Pb. Gamma-ray measurements showed that the radioactivity of both ash samples, due to natural and artificial radionuclides ( 137 Cs, 57 Co), was within the permissible levels recommended by IAEA. According to EN-type leaching tests, BASH was practically inert with regard to the mobility of the hazardous elements in aqueous media. FASH, however, showed a relatively high EN (and TCLP) leachability with regard to Pb and Zn. Finally, the stabilisation method, suggested for the treatment of FASH, included compression of the powder into briquettes using an appropriate machine and embedding the briquettes into pozzolanic cement blocks. After this treatment, TCLP and EN-type tests showed minimal release of Pb and Zn, thereby demonstrating a reliable management of ash waste.

  9. AL(0) in municipal waste incinerator ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stipp, S. L.; Ronsbo, J. G.; Zunic, T. B.; Christensen, T. H.

    2003-04-01

    Disposal of municipal waste is a challenge to society. Waste volume is substantially decreased by incineration but residual ash usually contains a number of toxic components which must be immobilised to insure environmental protection. One element, chromium, is mobile and toxic in its oxidised state as Cr(VI) but it can be reduced to Cr(III) and immobilised. Reduction can be promoted by ash treatment with Fe(0) or Fe(II), but recent evidence shows that at least some Cr(VI) is reduced spontaneously in the ash. Aspects of ash behaviour suggest metallic aluminium as the reducing agent, but no direct evidence of Al(0) has been found until now. We examined filter ash from an energy-producing, municipal-waste incinerator (Vest-forbrænding) near Copenhagen. X-ray diffraction (XRD) identified expected salts of Na, K and Ca such as halite, sylvite, calcite, anhydrite and gypsum as well as quartz, feldspar and some hematite. Wave-dispersive electron microprobe produced elemen-tal maps of the ash; Al-rich areas were analysed quantitatively by comparison with standards. We identified metallic Al particles, averaging 50 to 100 micrometers in di-ameter, often with a fractured, glassy border of aluminum oxide. The particles were porous, explaining fast Cr(VI) reduction and they contained thin exsolution lamellae of Al-alloys of Pb and Cu or Mn, Fe and Ag, which provide clues of the Al(0) origin in the waste. Sometimes Al(0) occurred inside glassy globes of Al2O3. Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy (TOF-SIMS) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) proved that surface Al concentrations on ash particles were below detection, confirming reactivity of the Al(0) bulk. The persistence of reduced Al through the highly oxidising combustion procedure comes as a surprise and is a benefit in the immobilisation of Cr(VI) from municipal-waste incineration residues.

  10. Removal of chloride from fly ash produced in hazardous waste incineration by leaching and displacement washing in a vertical filter press.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinnarinen, Teemu; Huhtanen, Mikko; Penttilä, Mika; Häkkinen, Antti

    2013-02-01

    Fly ash is generated in large quantities by waste incineration processes. Chloride is commonly present in the fly ash produced by the incineration of hazardous materials, such as polyvinylchloride plastic. Major difficulties related to the disposal and handling of fly ash include the high concentration of easily leachable chlorides, heavy metals and toxic compounds. In order to avoid adverse environmental effects from the disposal of fly ash, the content of soluble chlorides must be reduced. One of the most effective options for chloride removal is leaching and displacement washing in a filter press. The primary aim of this study was to obtain efficient removal of chloride from fly ash by utilizing a leaching and displacement washing process, carried out in a filter press. The secondary objective was to obtain high filtration capacities and low filter cake moisture contents. The slurry was prepared by mixing fly ash with water at an ash:water ratio of 1:2 and filtered to separate the solids from the liquid. After solid-liquid separation, most of the dissolved residual chloride was removed from the filter cake by washing the cake with fresh water in the second stage of separation. It was possible to remove up to 98% of the total chloride and to obtain sufficient filtration capacities. The residual moisture content of the filter cakes varied from 22 to 35 wt%, which meant that the cakes could be disposed of in landfill, or possibly utilized as a construction material.

  11. Recovery of plutonium from incinerator ash at Rocky Flats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, T.C.

    1976-01-01

    Incineration of combustible materials highly contaminated with plutonium produces a residue of incinerator ash. Recovery of plutonium from incinerator ash residues at Rocky Flats is accomplished by a continuous leaching operation with nitric acid containing fluoride ion. Special equipment used in the leaching operation consists of a screw feeder, air-lift dissolvers, filters, solids dryer, and vapor collection system. Each equipment item is described in detail. The average dissolution efficiency of plutonium experienced with the process was 68% on the first pass, 74% on the second pass, and 64% on each subsequent pass. Total-solids dissolution efficiencies averaged 47% on the first pass and about 25% on each subsequent pass

  12. Expansion control for cementation of incinerated ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakayama, T.; Suzuki, S.; Hanada, K.; Tomioka, O.; Sato, J.; Irisawa, K.; Kato, J.; Kawato, Y.; Meguro, Y.

    2015-01-01

    A method, in which incinerated ash is solidified with a cement material, has been developed to dispose of radioactive incinerated ash waste. A small amount of metallic Al, which was not oxidized in the incineration, existed in the ash. When such ash was mixed with a cement material and water, alkaline components in the ash and the cement were dissolved in the mixing water and then metallic Al reaction with the alkaline compounds resulted in generation of H 2 . Because the H 2 generation began immediately just after the mixing, H 2 bubbles pushed up the mixed grout material and an expanded solidified form was obtained. The expansion leads to lowering the strength of the solidified form and making harmful void. In this study, we tried to control H 2 generation from the reaction of metallic Al in the cementation by means of following two methods, one was a method to let metallic Al react prior to the cementation and the other was a method to add an expansion inhibitor that made an oxide film on the surface of metallic Al. In the pre-treatment, the ash was soaked in water in order to let metallic Al react with it, and then the ash with the immersion solution was dried at 105 Celsius degrees. The pre-treated ash was mixed with an ordinary portland cement and water. The inhibitor of lithium nitrite, sodium nitrite, phosphoric acid, or potassium dihydrogen phosphate was added at the mixing process. The solidified forms prepared using the pre-treated ash and lithium nitrite were not expanded. Phosphoric acid and sodium nitrite were effective for expansion control, but potassium dihydrogen phosphate did not work. (authors)

  13. Heavy metals in MSW incineration fly ashes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferreira, Celia; Ribeiro, Alexandra B.; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2003-01-01

    Incineration is a common solution for dealing with the increasing amount of municipal solid waste (MSW). During the process, the heavy metals initially present in the waste go through several transformations, ending up in combustion products, such as fly ash. This article deals with some issues...... related to the combustion of MSW and the formation of fly ash, especially in what concerns heavy metals. Treatment of the flue gas in air pollution control equipment plays an important role and the basic processes to accomplish this are explained. Fly ash from a semi-dry flue gas treatment system...

  14. Use of municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash and crop by-product for producing lightweight aggregate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giro-Paloma, J.; Ribas-Manero, V.; Maldonado-Alameda, A.; Formosa, J.; Chimenos, J. M.

    2017-10-01

    Due to the growing amount of residues in Europe, it is mandatory to provide a viable alternative for managing wastes contributing to the efficient use of resources. Besides, it is also essential to move towards a low carbon economy, priority EU by 2050. Among these, it is important to highlight the development of sustainable alternatives capable of incorporating different kind of wastes in their formulations.Municipal Solid Waste Incineration (MSWI) is estimated to increase in Europe, where the accessibility of landfill is restricted. Bottom ash (BA) is the most significant by-product from MSWI as it accounts for 85 - 95 % of the solid product resulting from combustion. BA is a mixture of calcium-rich compounds and others silicates enriched in iron and sodium. In addition, it is categorized as non-hazardous waste which can be revalorized as secondary material in construction or civil engineering fields, previous weathering stabilization during 2 - 3 months. Taking into account the relative proportion of each size fraction and the corresponding material characterization, the content of glass (primary and secondary) is estimated to be around 60 wt%. Furthermore, as a renewable resource and according to waste management European policies, residual agricultural biomass has attracted attention in preparation of advanced materials for various applications, due to their low cost, abundance, and environment friendliness. Among this residual biomass, rice husk is a by-product of rice milling industry which has high content of silica and has been widely used in buildings as natural thermal insulation material.Weathered BA (WBA) with a particle size less than 30 mm was milled under 100 μm, mixed with 2.0 - 5.0 mm rice husk, formed into ball-shaped pellets and sintered by different thermal treatments, which remove the organic matter content generating a large porosity. Physico-chemical analysis and mechanical behavior of the manufactured lightweight aggregates were tested

  15. Possibilities of municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash utilisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Silvie; Koval, Lukáš; Škrobánková, Hana; Matýsek, Dalibor; Winter, Franz; Purgar, Amon

    2015-08-01

    Properties of the waste treatment residual fly ash generated from municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash were investigated in this study. Six different mortar blends with the addition of the municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash were evaluated. The Portland cement replacement levels of the municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash used were 25%, 30% and 50%. Both, raw and washed municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash samples were examined. According to the mineralogical composition measurements, a 22.6% increase in the pozzolanic/hydraulic properties was observed for the washed municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash sample. The maximum replacement level of 25% for the washed municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash in mortar blends was established in order to preserve the compressive strength properties. Moreover, the leaching characteristics of the crushed mortar blend was analysed in order to examine the immobilisation of its hazardous contents. © The Author(s) 2015.

  16. Current Methods to Detoxify Fly Ash from Waste Incineration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallgren, Christine; Stroemberg, Birgitta [TPS Termiska Processer AB, Nykoeping (Sweden)

    2004-07-01

    Fly ash from waste incineration contains large amounts of heavy metals and dioxins, which will cause a significant disposal problem within the coming years. The amount of fly ash produced in Sweden is currently approximately 60,000 tons/y. New technological options for the decontamination and/or inertization of incinerator fly ash are being developed with the objective of rendering a product that can be reused or, at least, be deposited at standard landfill sites with no risk. Many of these technologies have been tested at industrial scale or in pilot projects. The proposed alternatives include: Thermal treatments; Immobilization/stabilization by cement based techniques; Wet chemical treatments (extractions, immobilizations); Microbiological treatments. Of these, thermal treatments are the most promising solution. Depending on the temperature thermal treatments are classified in two main types: 1) low temperature (below 600 deg C) thermal treatments and 2) high temperature (above 1200 deg C) thermal treatments (vitrification). Most dioxins can be successfully destroyed at temperatures up to 400 deg C under oxygen deficient conditions and at temperatures up to 600 deg C under oxidising conditions. However most heavy metals remain in the fly ash after low temperature treatment. At a temperature of 900 deg C most heavy metals can also be removed in a 10% HCl atmosphere by forming volatile metal chlorides (CT-Fluapur process). During vitrification processes the fly ash melts and forms an inert glassy slag. The product does not leach any significant amount of heavy metals and is free from dioxin. The volume of the fly ash is significantly reduced. The product can be land filled at low costs or used as construction material. The properties of the product depend on the cooling process and on additives such as sand, limestone or waste glass. A series of vitrification methods at industrial size or in pilot scale using different furnaces are studied. Among these, plasma

  17. Production of coloured glass-ceramics from incinerator ash using thermal plasma technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, T W; Huang, M Z; Tzeng, C C; Cheng, K B; Ueng, T H

    2007-08-01

    Incineration is a major treatment process for municipal solid waste in Taiwan. It is estimated that over 1.5 Mt of incinerator ash are produced annually. This study proposes using thermal plasma technology to treat incinerator ash. Sintered glass-ceramics were produced using quenched vitrified slag with colouring agents added. The experimental results showed that the major crystalline phases developed in the sintered glass-ceramics were gehlenite and wollastonite, but many other secondary phases also appeared depending on the colouring agents added. The physical/mechanical properties, chemical resistance and toxicity characteristic leaching procedure of the coloured glass-ceramics were satisfactory. The glass-ceramic products obtained from incinerator ash treated with thermal plasma technology have great potential for building applications.

  18. Leaching of solidified TRU-contaminated incinerator ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuhrmann, M.; Colombo, P.

    1984-01-01

    Leach rate and cumulative fractional releases of plutonium were determined for a series of laboratory-scale waste forms containing transuranic (TRU) contaminated incinerator ash. The solidification agents from which these waste forms were produced are commercially available materials for radioactive waste disposal. The leachants simulate groundwaters with chemical compositions that are indiginous to different geological media proposed for repositories. In this study TRU-contaminated ash was incorporated into waste forms fabricated with portland type I cement, urea-formaldehyde, polyester-styrene or Pioneer 221 bitumen. The ash was generated at the dual-chamber incinerator at the Rocky Flats Plant. These waste forms contained between 1.25 x 10 -2 and 4.4 x 10 -2 Ci (depending on the solidification agent) of mixed TRU isotopes comprised primarily of 239 Pu and 240 Pu. Five leachant solutions were prepared consisting of: (1) demineralized water, (2) simulated brine, (3) simplified sodium-dominated groundwater (30 meq NaCl/liter), (4) simplified calcium-dominated groundwater (30 meq CaCl 2 /liter), and (5) simplified bicarbonate-dominated groundwater (30 meq NaHCO 3 /liter). Cumulative fractional releases were found to vary significantly with different leachants and solidification agents. In all cases waste forms leached in brine gave the lowest leach rates. Urea-formaldehyde had the greatest release of radionuclides while polyester-styrene and portland cement had approximately equivalent fractional releases. Cement cured for 210 days retained radionuclides three times more effectively than cement cured only 30 days

  19. Chloride leaching from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) bottom ash

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alam, Q.; Schollbach, K.; Florea, M.V.A.; Brouwers, H.J.H.; Vlastimil, Bilek; Kersner, Zbynek; Simonova, Hana

    2017-01-01

    The presence of chlorides in the Municipal Solid Waste Incineration bottom ashes (BA) hinders their potential for recycling in building materials. The contaminant content in the incineration residues is strictly regulated by the Dutch legislation Soil Quality Decree (2013). The fine fraction

  20. To fractionate municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash: Key for utilisation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sormunen, Laura Annika; Rantsi, Riina

    2015-11-01

    For the past decade, the Finnish waste sector has increasingly moved from the landfilling of municipal solid waste towards waste incineration. New challenges are faced with the growing amounts of municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash, which are mainly landfilled at the moment. Since this is not a sustainable or a profitable solution, finding different utilisation applications for the municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash is crucial. This study reports a comprehensive analysis of bottom ash properties from one waste incineration plant in Finland, which was first treated with a Dutch bottom ash recovery technique called advanced dry recovery. This novel process separates non-ferrous and ferrous metals from bottom ash, generating mineral fractions of different grain sizes (0-2 mm, 2-5 mm, 5-12 mm and 12-50 mm). The main aim of the study was to assess, whether the advanced bottom ash treatment technique, producing mineral fractions of different grain sizes and therefore properties, facilitates the utilisation of municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash in Finland. The results were encouraging; the bottom ash mineral fractions have favourable behaviour against the frost action, which is especially useful in the Finnish conditions. In addition, the leaching of most hazardous substances did not restrict the utilisation of bottom ash, especially for the larger fractions (>5 mm). Overall, this study has shown that the advanced bottom ash recovering technique can be one solution to increase the utilisation of bottom ash and furthermore decrease its landfilling in Finland. © The Author(s) 2015.

  1. High temperature co-treatment of bottom ash and stabilized fly ashes from waste incineration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mette Abildgaard; Mogensen, E.P.B.; Lundtorp, Kasper

    2001-01-01

    Bottom ashes from two Danish municipal solid waste incineration plants were heated at 900 degreesC with iron oxide stabilized air pollution control residues at actual mass flow ratios (9:1), simulating a treating method for the residues. The two residues were cotreated, producing one combined...... ashes. The process, thus, fixates the metals in the solid residues without altering the leaching properties of the bottom ash too significantly. (C) 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved....... stream that may be utilized as a secondary road construction material. Scanning electron microscope analysis and grain size distribution analysis indicated that sintering of the particles did not occur. Batch leaching tests at liquid/solid 10 I/kg at a range of pH-values (6-10) quantified with respect...

  2. Plutonium dissolution from Rocky Flats Plant incinerator ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delegard, C.H.

    1985-06-01

    Rockwell Hanford Operations (Rockwell) soon will commence recovery of plutonium from Rocky Flats Plant incinerator ash. In preparation for this processing, Rockwell undertook literature and laboratory studies to identify, select and optimize plutonium dissolution methods for treating the ash. Ash reburning, followed by dissolution in nitric acid containing calcium fluoride, was selected as the processing method for the ash. Recommended values of process parameters were identified. Using the selected process, 99.5% plutonium recovery was achieved, leaving about 12.7 wt % heel residue for an equal weight composite of the three ashes tested. 15 refs., 26 figs

  3. Gas generation in incinerator ash; Gasbildning i aska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arm, Maria; Lindeberg, Johanna; Rodin, Aasa; Oehrstroem, Anna; Backman, Rainer; Oehman, Marcus; Bostroem, Dan

    2006-02-15

    In recent years, explosions have occurred in certain phases of ash handling in Sweden. Investigations have revealed that hydrogen may have been present in all cases. The hydrogen is believed to be generated by chemical reactions of aluminium and other metals within the ash in the presence of water. The purpose with this study is to increase the knowledge of gas generation of incinerator ash. Thereby, guides for appropriate ash management can be introduced and the risk for further explosions prevented. The study has comprised analyses of the ash properties, such as chemical and physical composition and the pH, of ash from 14 incineration plants (mostly waste incineration plants). Different fractions of ash materials representing different parts of the process in each plant have been analysed. Furthermore, the fuel and the technical differences between the plants have been analysed. A tool for measuring the gas generation in the laboratory has been developed and the gas generation of the different ash materials at natural and increased pH was measured. Gas analyses and thermodynamic calculations have also been performed. The results showed that: bottom ash from fluidised bed boilers generated small amounts of gas at increased pH, much smaller amounts than the idle pass, cyclone and filter ash did, bottom ash from grate fired boilers generated more gas at increased pH than their cyclone ash and filter ash, with exception of the Linkoeping plant, all bio waste incineration plants generated ash with low gas generation potential, all fly ash materials with a gas generation potential of more than 10 l/kg originated from municipal waste incineration plants, filter ash that had been stored in oxygen rich environment generated significant less gas than fresh filter ash of the same origin, hardly any other gases were generated apart from hydrogen (very small amounts of acetone, furane, benzene and most likely methane were detected in some of the ash materials), there were no

  4. Speciation of Chromium in Bottom Ash Obtained by the Incineration of the Leather Waste Shavings

    OpenAIRE

    k. louhab; H. Assas

    2006-01-01

    The evolution of bottom ash morphology and chromium metals behavior during incineration of a leather waste shavings at different incineration temperature have been studied. The Cr, Ca, Mg, Cl rates in bottom ashes, flay ashes and emitted gases in different incineration temperature of the tannery wastes are also determined. The morphology of the bottom ashes obtained by incineration at different temperature from the leather waste shavings was examined by MEB. The result sho...

  5. Aluminium alloys in municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yanjun; Rem, Peter

    2009-05-01

    With the increasing growth of incineration of household waste, more and more aluminium is retained in municipal solid waste incinerator bottom ash. Therefore recycling of aluminium from bottom ash becomes increasingly important. Previous research suggests that aluminium from different sources is found in different size fractions resulting in different recycling rates. The purpose of this study was to develop analytical and sampling techniques to measure the particle size distribution of individual alloys in bottom ash. In particular, cast aluminium alloys were investigated. Based on the particle size distribution it was computed how well these alloys were recovered in a typical state-of-the-art treatment plant. Assessment of the cast alloy distribution was carried out by wet physical separation processes, as well as chemical methods, X-ray fluorescence analysis and electron microprobe analysis. The results from laboratory analyses showed that cast alloys tend to concentrate in the coarser fractions and therefore are better recovered in bottom ash treatment plants.

  6. Greenlandic Waste Incineration Fly And Bottom Ash As Secondary Resource In Mortar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkelund, Gunvor Marie; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Jensen, Pernille Erland

    2016-01-01

    Today, 900 tons incineration fly ash is shipped abroad annually from Greenland for deposits, whereas the 6,000 tons incineration bottom ash is deposited locally. These incineration ashes could be valuable in concrete production, where the cement has to be shipped to Greenland. For this purpose...... and cement with fly ash. Based on the compressive strength tests, it is found that using Greenlandic incineration ashes in mortar as 5% cement replacement could consume all ash instead of disposals, and could thus turn the ashes into a local resource and simultaneously reduce the import of cement....

  7. Electrodialytic upgrading of municipal waste incineration fly ash for reuse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pernille Erland; Kirkelund, Gunvor Marie; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2012-01-01

    As incineration becomes a more widespread means of waste treatment, volumes of incineration residues increase and new means of handling become a demand. Municipal Solid Waste Incineration (MSWI) fly ash is hazardous material, which is presently disposed off as such; primarily due to its high......]. In order to optimize the process and reach the lowest possible leachability of target constituents (As, Ba, Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn, Cl, Na and SO4) at minimum time and energy consumption, the present work gives results of 10 pilot scale (8 kg MSWI fly ash each) electrodialysis experiments at different...... to investigate the leachability of salts and toxic elements as a function of treatment time and current density. Results show that a delicate balance between pH and treatment-time exist and that continuous monitoring of pH and conductivity may be used for controlling of the process at an industrial scale...

  8. Comparison of phosphorus recovery from incineration and gasification sewage sludge ash

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parés Viader, Raimon; Jensen, Pernille Erland; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    Incineration of sewage sludge is a common practice in many western countries. Gasification is an attractive option because of its high energy efficiency and flexibility in the usage of the produced gas. However, they both unavoidably produce sewage sludge ash (SSA), a material which is rich...... in phosphorus (P), but that it is commonly landfilled or used in construction materials. With current uncertainty in phosphate rock (PR) supply, P recovery from SSA has become interesting. In the present work, ashes from incineration and gasification of the same sewage sludge were compared in terms of P...... extractability using electrodialytic (ED) methods. The results show that comparable recovery rates of P were achieved with a single ED step for incineration SSA and a sequential combination of two ED steps for gasification SSA, which was due to a higher influence of Fe and/or Al in P solubility for the latter...

  9. Comparison of phosphorus recovery from incineration and gasification sewage sludge ash

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parés Viader, Raimon; Jensen, Pernille Erland; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2017-01-01

    Incineration of sewage sludge is a common practice in many western countries. Gasification is an attractive option because of its high energy efficiency and flexibility in the usage of the produced gas. However, they both unavoidably produce sewage sludge ash (SSA), a material which is rich...... in phosphorus (P), but that it is commonly landfilled or used in construction materials. With current uncertainty in phosphate rock (PR) supply, P recovery from SSA has become interesting. In the present work, ashes from incineration and gasification of the same sewage sludge were compared in terms of P...... extractability using electrodialytic (ED) methods. The results show that comparable recovery rates of P were achieved with a single ED step for incineration SSA and a sequential combination of two ED steps for gasification SSA, which was due to a higher influence of Fe and/or Al in P solubility for the latter...

  10. Pretreatment and utilization of waste incineration bottom ashes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    Within recent years, researchers and authorities have had increasing focus on leaching properties from waste incineration bottom ashes. Researchers have investigated processes such as those related to carbonation, weathering, metal complexation, and leaching control. Most of these investigations......, however, have had a strong emphasis on lab experiments with little focus on full scale bottom ash upgrading methods. The introduction of regulatory limit values restricting leaching from utilized bottom ashes, has created a need for a better understanding of how lab scale experiences can be utilized...

  11. Incineration ashes conditioning by isostatic pressing and melting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jouan, A.; Ouvrier, N.; Teulon, F.

    1990-01-01

    Alpha-bearing solid incineration wastes are conditioned for two principal reasons: to enhance the quality of the finished product for long-term storage, and to reduce the total waste volume. Isostatic pressing parameters were defined using containers 36 mm in diameter; the physicochemical properties of the compacted ashes were determined with 140 mm diameter containers and industrial feasibility was demonstrated with a large (300 mm diameter) container. Two types of ashes were used: ashes fabricated at Marcoule (either in devices developed by the CEA for the MELOX project with a standard MELOX composition, or by direct incineration at COGEMA's UP1 plant) and fly ash from a domestic waste incinerator. A major engineering study was also undertaken to compare the three known ash containment processes: isostatic pressing, melting, and cement-resin matrix embedding. The flowsheet, operational chronology and control principles were detailed for each process, and a typical plant layout was defined to allow comparisons of both investment and operating costs

  12. Optimization and characterization of cement products incorporating ashes from radwaste incineration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donato, A.; Pace, A.; Ricci, G.

    1989-01-01

    The incineration is presently condidered a very good way to obtain strong volume reduction of intermediate and low activity solid radwastes obtaining at the same time a product apparently easy to be conditioned. In some cases nevertheless the ash solidification by cementation can give in the practice some problems. In this work the optimization of the cementation of two ash types named Nust 1 and Nust 2 has been studied. The Nust 1 ash come from the incineration of the exhausted ion exchange resins already conditioned in urea-formaldehyde. The Nust 2 ash comes from the incineration of the same materials as the Nust 1 mixed with ordinary nuclear power plant solid radwastes. Both ashes have been produced from wastes stored at the Caorso (Italy) Nuclear Power Plant. The two ash types have been characterized by a series of physico-chemical analysis whose results are reported as well as the results of the preliminary tests performed on the products obtained from their cementation

  13. Characterization of Bottom and Fly Ashes Generated Co-incineration of Biomass with Automotive Shredder Residue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Othaman Muhamad Fazli

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the viable techniques to reduce land filling of automotive shredder residue is by co-incinerating them with biomass. This study focuses on characterization of bottom and fly ashes produced from the coincineration of the automotive shredded residue with oil palm biomass. The co-incineration was carried out in a pilot-scale fluidized bed incinerator. The oil palm biomass used was oil palm shell while the automotive shredded residue was obtained from a local recycling company. The characterization was done based on particle size distribution, morphology (SEM analysis and chemical composition (EDS analysis. In term of chemical composition the ashes contain C (Carbon, O (Oxygen, Si (Silicon, K (Potassium, Ca (Calcium and Fe (Ferum.

  14. Durability of incinerator ash waste encapsulated in modified sulfur cement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalb, P.D.; Heiser, J.H. III; Pietrzak, R.; Colombo, P.

    1991-01-01

    Waste form stability under anticipated disposal conditions is an important consideration for ensuring continued isolation of contaminants from the accessible environment. Modified sulfur cement is a relatively new material and has only recently been applied as a binder for encapsulation of mixed wastes. Little data are available concerning its long-term durability. Therefore, a series of property evaluation tests for both binder and waste-binder combinations have been conducted to examine potential waste form performance under storage and disposal conditions. These tests include compressive strength, biodegradation, radiation stability, water immersion, thermal cycling, and leaching. Waste form compressive strength increased with ash waste loadings to 30.5 MPa at a maximum incinerator ash loading of 43 wt %. Biodegradation testing resulted in no visible microbial growth of either bacteria or fungi. Initial radiation stability testing did not reveal statistically significant deterioration in structural integrity. Results of 90 day water immersion tests were dependent on the type of ash tested. There were no statistically significant changes in compressive strength detected after completion of thermal cycle testing. Radionuclides from ash waste encapsulated in modified sulfur cement leached between 5 and 8 orders of magnitude slower than the leach index criterion established by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for low-level radioactive waste. Modified sulfur cement waste forms containing up to 43 wt % incinerator fly ash passed EPA Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) criteria for lead and cadmium leachability. 11 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs

  15. Cementation and solidification of Rocky Flats Plant incinerator ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, J.A.; Semones, G.B.

    1994-01-01

    Cementation studies on various aqueous waste streams at Rocky Flats have shown this technology to be effective for immobilizing the RCRA constituents in the waste. Cementation is also being evaluated for encapsulation of incinerator ash. Experiments will initially evaluate a surrogate ash waste using a Taguchi experimental design to optimize the cement formulation and waste loading levels for this application. Variables of waste loading, fly ash additions, water/cement ratio, and cement type will be tested at three levels each during the course of this work. Tests will finally be conducted on actual waste using the optimized cement formulation developed from this testing. This progression of tests will evaluate the effectiveness of cement encapsulation for this waste stream without generating any additional wastes

  16. Glass ceramics for incinerator ash immobilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malinina, G.A.; Stefanovsky, O.I. [SIA Radon, 7th Rostovskii lane 2/14, Moscow 119121 (Russian Federation); Stefanovsky, S.V., E-mail: profstef@mtu-net.ru [SIA Radon, 7th Rostovskii lane 2/14, Moscow 119121 (Russian Federation)

    2011-09-01

    Calcined solid radioactive waste (incinerator slag) surrogate and either Na{sub 2}Si{sub 2}O{sub 5} or Na{sub 2}B{sub 4}O{sub 7} (borax) at various mass ratios were melted in silicon carbide crucibles in a resistive furnace at temperatures of up to 1775 K (slag without additives). Portions of the melts were poured onto a metal plate; the residues were slowly cooled in turned-off furnace. Both quenched and slowly cooled materials were composed of the same phases. At high slag contents in silicate-based materials nepheline and britholite were found to be major phases. Britholite formed at higher slag content (85 wt.%) became major phase in the vitrified slag. In the system with borax at low slag contents (25 and 50 wt.%) material are composed of predominant vitreous and minor calcium silicate larnite type phase Ca{sub 2}SiO{sub 4} where Ca{sup 2+} ions are replaced by different cations. The materials containing slag in amount of 75 wt.% and more are chemically durable. The changes in the structure of anionic motif of quenched samples depending on slag loading were studied by IR spectroscopy.

  17. Glass ceramics for incinerator ash immobilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malinina, G.A.; Stefanovsky, O.I.; Stefanovsky, S.V.

    2011-01-01

    Calcined solid radioactive waste (incinerator slag) surrogate and either Na 2 Si 2 O 5 or Na 2 B 4 O 7 (borax) at various mass ratios were melted in silicon carbide crucibles in a resistive furnace at temperatures of up to 1775 K (slag without additives). Portions of the melts were poured onto a metal plate; the residues were slowly cooled in turned-off furnace. Both quenched and slowly cooled materials were composed of the same phases. At high slag contents in silicate-based materials nepheline and britholite were found to be major phases. Britholite formed at higher slag content (85 wt.%) became major phase in the vitrified slag. In the system with borax at low slag contents (25 and 50 wt.%) material are composed of predominant vitreous and minor calcium silicate larnite type phase Ca 2 SiO 4 where Ca 2+ ions are replaced by different cations. The materials containing slag in amount of 75 wt.% and more are chemically durable. The changes in the structure of anionic motif of quenched samples depending on slag loading were studied by IR spectroscopy.

  18. Sieving of municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) bottom ash; Siktning av askor fraan avfallsfoerbraenning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todorovic, Jelena

    2010-07-01

    Waste-to-Energy is steadily increasing in Sweden and more than 46 % of municipal solid waste (MSW) is being incinerated. Solid residues from MSW incineration (MSWI) mainly constitute of bottom ash and air pollution control (APC) residues. Bottom ashes from MSWI amounted to 0.7 millions of tons and APC residues to 0.2 millions of tons in 2008. Bottom ashes from MSWI contain pollutants like metals (e.g. Pb, Zn, Cu), metalloids (e.g. As, Se), elements forming oxyanions (e.g. Sb, Cr, Mo) and easily soluble salts like chlorides and sulphates. These constituents can leach out polluting the environment if ash comes in contact with water. Treatment methods for decreasing the amount of pollutants in ashes or their mobility are therefore needed. Sieving was investigated as a separate or a complementary treatment method for MSWI ashes. Hypothesis was that the large share of pollutant concentrations could be removed from the ashes through separation of the finest fractions. The rest is less harmful to the environment, more acceptable as secondary construction material or less costly to landfill. Investigation included three MSWI ashes, namely bottom ash from Boraas Energy och Miljoe's plant with fluid bad, boiler ash from the same plant and bottom ash from Renova's stocker grate type plant. Ashes were sieved in 2-4 size fractions. Total content of pollutants and their leachability (batch leaching test, L/S=10 l/kg) was assessed for each of the fractions. Leaching results were compared to limit values stipulated by Swedish Environmental Protection Agency for acceptance of waste at landfills as wells as to recommendations for reuse of waste as a construction material. Results from bottom ash from the stocker grate type incinerator and from the boiler ash confirm the hypothesis that pollutants leach out in higher concentrations from the finer fractions. A large amount of pollutant could be removed from the ashes through sieving, but the goal to produce a fraction that

  19. Rudimentary, low tech incinerators as a means to produce reactive pozzolan out of sugar cane straw

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martirena, Fernando; Middendorf, Bernhard; Day, Robert L.; Gehrke, Matthias; Roque, Pablo; Martinez, Lesday; Betancourt, Sergio

    2006-01-01

    The ashes of agricultural wastes from the processing of sugar cane are recognized as having pozzolanic properties. Burning of these wastes under controlled conditions, e.g. temperature and residence time results in significant improvement in reactivity. There are many reports of low-tech incinerators that have been successfully used to produce reactive rice husk ash in Asia. The paper presents the results of the evaluation of a rudimentary incinerator where sugar cane straw is burnt in order to obtain a reactive ash. The incinerator is designed and constructed according to state-of-the-art recommendations for this kind of device. Various burning trials were performed in order to obtain ash for the experiment. X-ray diffraction analysis performed on powdered ash shows significant presence of amorphous (glassy) material. Lime-pozzolana pastes were prepared. The pastes were subjected to X-ray diffraction, thermo-gravimetric analysis, chemical titration, and SEM observation, as a means to examine the pozzolanicity of the ash via the progress with time of calcium hydroxide consumption, and changes in the pore size distribution and strength. Calcium silicate hydrate phases are the main reaction product of the pozzolanic reaction. The long residence time of the ash in the burning chamber seems to be the reason for the fairly low reactivity of the ash; the reactivity of the ash was not significantly improved in comparison with that of the ash burnt in uncontrolled conditions in the open air

  20. UTYLIZATION METHODS OF SLAGS AND ASH FROM WASTE INCINERATION PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz Mikuła

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents modern management methods, solidification and immobilization of ash and slag from waste incineration plants. The innovative technologies for solving this kind of problem were described. Results focused on the most promising technologies of solidification, among others geopolymerization processes. The paper presents examples of the results of solidified ash and slag in the geopolymer matrix. The studies showed that the leachable of heavy metals from the geopolymer matrix containing ashes from the incineration of municipal waste qualifies them for storage in landfills for non-hazardous and inert. Moreover, these studies demonstrated practically 100% effectiveness for immobilization of the elements: bar (Ba, cadmium (Cd, zinc (Zn, mercury (Hg, nickel (Ni, lead (Pb. In the case of chromium III (Cr+3 97% level of effectiveness of the immobilization was achieved. In order to immobilize chromium VI (Cr+6 introduced additions of sulfur compounds. The study confirmed the low efficiency of the immobilization of: arsenic (As, selenium (Se and molybdenum (Mo.

  1. Development of Mitsui/Juelich Incineration System and hydro-thermal ash solidification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, S.; Kamada, S.; Nakamori, Y.; Katakura, M.; Yamazaki, N.

    1988-01-01

    This paper summarizes the developing program for Mitsui/Juelich Incinerated System combined with Hydrothermal ash solidification. The system is an integrated one and capable for volume reduction of various kind of radioactive waste and safe disposal of residual incinerator ash. The system also has an advantage of reducing construction and operation cost. An outline of the incineration plant is also presented in this paper

  2. UASB Treatment of Methanolic Pulp Wastewater with Addition of Waste Starch and Incinerated Ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Shintaro; Kobaysashi, Takuro; Li, Yu-You; Harada, Hideki

    The pulp wastewater consists mainly of methanol. It is expected to treat using upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) process. Paper manufactories also produce waste starch and incinerated ash. The integrated treating for these wastes is desirable. In this study, two UASB reactors were operated to treat pulp wastewater with addition of waste starch and with addition of incinerated ash, receptively. Continuous operations of a UASB reactor treating pulp wastewater with addition of waste starch (PS reactor) and a UASB reactor treating pulp wastewater with addition of incinerated ash (PA reactor) , were investigated at mesophilic conditions. The PS reactor performed well with an average 93.7% total CODCr and 97.3% soluble CODCr removal efficiency in average at a maximum volumetric loading rate (VLR) of 16.0 kgCOD/m3/d. The PA reactor was also successfully operated with an average 95.3% total CODCr and 97.5% soluble CODCr removal efficiency in average at a maximum VLR of 14.6 kgCOD/m3/d. Successfully developed granules were obtained after over 140 days of operation in both reactors, and the granules were 1 to 2 mm in mean diameter. Microbial analysis revealed the genus Methanomethylovorans was predominant in the granules of both reactors.

  3. Design Study of an Incinerator Ash Conveyor Counting System - 13323

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaederstroem, Henrik; Bronson, Frazier

    2013-01-01

    A design study has been performed for a system that should measure the Cs-137 activity in ash from an incinerator. Radioactive ash, expected to consist of both Cs-134 and Cs-137, will be transported on a conveyor belt at 0.1 m/s. The objective of the counting system is to determine the Cs-137 activity and direct the ash to the correct stream after a diverter. The decision levels are ranging from 8000 to 400000 Bq/kg and the decision error should be as low as possible. The decision error depends on the total measurement uncertainty which depends on the counting statistics and the uncertainty in the efficiency of the geometry. For the low activity decision it is necessary to know the efficiency to be able to determine if the signal from the Cs-137 is above the minimum detectable activity and that it generates enough counts to reach the desired precision. For the higher activity decision the uncertainty of the efficiency needs to be understood to minimize decision errors. The total efficiency of the detector is needed to be able to determine if the detector will be able operate at the count rate at the highest expected activity. The design study that is presented in this paper describes how the objectives of the monitoring systems were obtained, the choice of detector was made and how ISOCS (In Situ Object Counting System) mathematical modeling was used to calculate the efficiency. The ISOCS uncertainty estimator (IUE) was used to determine which parameters of the ash was important to know accurately in order to minimize the uncertainty of the efficiency. The examined parameters include the height of the ash on the conveyor belt, the matrix composition and density and relative efficiency of the detector. (authors)

  4. Design Study of an Incinerator Ash Conveyor Counting System - 13323

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaederstroem, Henrik; Bronson, Frazier [Canberra Industries Inc., 800 Research Parkway Meriden CT 06450 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    A design study has been performed for a system that should measure the Cs-137 activity in ash from an incinerator. Radioactive ash, expected to consist of both Cs-134 and Cs-137, will be transported on a conveyor belt at 0.1 m/s. The objective of the counting system is to determine the Cs-137 activity and direct the ash to the correct stream after a diverter. The decision levels are ranging from 8000 to 400000 Bq/kg and the decision error should be as low as possible. The decision error depends on the total measurement uncertainty which depends on the counting statistics and the uncertainty in the efficiency of the geometry. For the low activity decision it is necessary to know the efficiency to be able to determine if the signal from the Cs-137 is above the minimum detectable activity and that it generates enough counts to reach the desired precision. For the higher activity decision the uncertainty of the efficiency needs to be understood to minimize decision errors. The total efficiency of the detector is needed to be able to determine if the detector will be able operate at the count rate at the highest expected activity. The design study that is presented in this paper describes how the objectives of the monitoring systems were obtained, the choice of detector was made and how ISOCS (In Situ Object Counting System) mathematical modeling was used to calculate the efficiency. The ISOCS uncertainty estimator (IUE) was used to determine which parameters of the ash was important to know accurately in order to minimize the uncertainty of the efficiency. The examined parameters include the height of the ash on the conveyor belt, the matrix composition and density and relative efficiency of the detector. (authors)

  5. Classification and categorization of treatment methods for ash generated by municipal solid waste incineration: a case for the 2 greater metropolitan regions of Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karagiannidis, A; Kontogianni, St; Logothetis, D

    2013-02-01

    The primary goal of managing MSW incineration residues is to avoid any impact on human health or the environment. Incineration residues consist of bottom ash, which is generally considered as rather harmless and fly ash which usually contains compounds which are potentially harmful for public health. Small quantities of ash (both bottom and fly) are produced currently in Greece, mainly from the healthcare waste incineration facility in Attica region. Once incineration plants for MSW (currently under planning) are constructed in Greece, the produced ash quantities will increase highly. Thus, it is necessary to organize, already at this stage, a roadmap towards disposal/recovery methods of these ash quantities expected. Certain methods, related to the treatment of the future generated ash which are more appropriate to be implemented in Greece are highlighted in the present paper. The performed analysis offers a waste management approach, having 2016 as a reference year for two different incineration rates; 30% and 100% of the remaining MSW after recycling process. The results focus on the two greater regions of Greece: Attica and Central Macedonia. The quantity of potential future ash generation ranges from 137 to 459 kt for Attica region and from 62 to 207 kt for central Macedonia region depending on the incineration rate applied. Three alternative scenarios for the treatment of each kind of ash are compiled and analysed. Metal recovery and reuse as an aggregate in concrete construction proved to be the most advantageous -in terms of economy-bottom ash management scenario. Concerning management of the fly ash, chemical treatment with phosphoric solution addition results to be the lowest total treatment cost and is considered as the most profitable solution. The proposed methodology constitutes a safe calculation model for operators of MSW incineration plants regardless of the region or country they are located in. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd

  6. Toxicity mitigation and solidification of municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash using alkaline activated coal ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivan Diaz-Loya, E.; Allouche, Erez N.; Eklund, Sven; Joshi, Anupam R.; Kupwade-Patil, Kunal

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Incinerator fly ash (IFA) is added to an alkali activated coal fly ash (CFA) matrix. ► Means of stabilizing the incinerator ash for use in construction applications. ► Concrete made from IFA, CFA and IFA-CFA mixes was chemically characterized. ► Environmentally friendly solution to IFA disposal by reducing its toxicity levels. - Abstract: Municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration is a common and effective practice to reduce the volume of solid waste in urban areas. However, the byproduct of this process is a fly ash (IFA), which contains large quantities of toxic contaminants. The purpose of this research study was to analyze the chemical, physical and mechanical behaviors resulting from the gradual introduction of IFA to an alkaline activated coal fly ash (CFA) matrix, as a mean of stabilizing the incinerator ash for use in industrial construction applications, where human exposure potential is limited. IFA and CFA were analyzed via X-ray fluorescence (XRF), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Inductive coupled plasma (ICP) to obtain a full chemical analysis of the samples, its crystallographic characteristics and a detailed count of the eight heavy metals contemplated in US Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations (40 CFR). The particle size distribution of IFA and CFA was also recorded. EPA’s Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) was followed to monitor the leachability of the contaminants before and after the activation. Also images obtained via Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), before and after the activation, are presented. Concrete made from IFA, CFA and IFA-CFA mixes was subjected to a full mechanical characterization; tests include compressive strength, flexural strength, elastic modulus, Poisson’s ratio and setting time. The leachable heavy metal contents (except for Se) were below the maximum allowable limits and in many cases even below the reporting limit. The leachable Chromium was reduced from 0.153 down to 0.0045 mg

  7. Characterization of municipal solid waste incineration fly ash before and after electrodialytic treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anne Juul; Gardner, Kevin H.

    2003-01-01

    Municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) fly ash, which has been treated electrodialytically for the removal of heavy metals, may have changed characteristics compared to untreated fly ash. In this study, MSWI fly ash was characterized with respect to leaching properties (pH static leaching...

  8. Leaching behavior of heavy metals from municipal solid wastes incineration (MSWI) fly ash used in concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Huisheng; Kan Lili

    2009-01-01

    The characteristics of municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) fly ash, surface leaching toxicity and successive leaching concentration of heavy metals from MSWI fly ash-cement hardened pastes were studied. And, the relationships between leaching concentrations of heavy metals and leaching time were also discussed. Experimental results showed that immobilization effect of cement on MSWI fly ash is good. Even if MSWI fly ash-cement hardened pastes were damaged, the leaching toxicity is still in a safety range. In early leaching stage, the surface leaching rate is relatively a little high, up to 10 -5 -10 -4 cm d -1 order of magnitude, in the later time of leaching, its rate rapidly declined, down to 10 -7 . Most of leached heavy metals are produced at early ages. The leaching concentration of heavy metals and leaching time has strong positive relationships. In factual utilizing circumstances, heavy metals' leaching from MSWI fly ash-cement hardened pastes is a very slow and gradually diluting process. The leaching toxicity of heavy metals is far lower than that of the National Standard of China, and minimum harmful matters can be contained and released in the environment. Reusing of MSWI fly ash as partial replacement for cement in concrete mixes is potentially feasible.

  9. Solidification/stabilization of ash from medical waste incineration into geopolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzanakos, Konstantinos; Mimilidou, Aliki; Anastasiadou, Kalliopi; Stratakis, Antonis; Gidarakos, Evangelos

    2014-10-01

    In the present work, bottom and fly ash, generated from incinerated medical waste, was used as a raw material for the production of geopolymers. The stabilization (S/S) process studied in this paper has been evaluated by means of the leaching and mechanical properties of the S/S solids obtained. Hospital waste ash, sodium hydroxide, sodium silicate solution and metakaolin were mixed. Geopolymers were cured at 50°C for 24h. After a certain aging time of 7 and 28 days, the strength of the geopolymer specimens, the leachability of heavy metals and the mineralogical phase of the produced geopolymers were studied. The effects of the additions of fly ash and calcium compounds were also investigated. The results showed that hospital waste ash can be utilized as source material for the production of geopolymers. The addition of fly ash and calcium compounds considerably improves the strength of the geopolymer specimens (2-8 MPa). Finally, the solidified matrices indicated that geopolymerization process is able to reduce the amount of the heavy metals found in the leachate of the hospital waste ash. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Technology for removing radioactive Cs from incineration fly ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichikawa, Seigo; Nishizaki, Yoshihiko; Takano, Takehiko; Kumagai, Naokazu

    2016-01-01

    Radioactive cesium contained in incineration fly ash is highly soluble in water. We took advantage of this fact to develop a method for first using water cleaning to transfer cesium to water and then using adsorbent to recover this cesium in high concentrations. Since the adsorbent becomes radioactive waste, inorganic minerals such as zeolite are desirable from the point of view of long-term storage stability; however, zeolite is not suitable for cleaning water containing materials that inhibit cesium adsorption such as K+ and Na+. The feature of the new technology is that it provides a method for effective recovery of cesium from contaminated cleaning water using insoluble ferro-cyanide which is synthesized in situ, and for heat treatment of this cesium adsorbed from the ferro-cyanide to zeolite, thereby achieving reduction of radioactive waste and improvement of stability for long-term storage. (author)

  11. Heavy Metal Contamination of Soils around a Hospital Waste Incinerator Bottom Ash Dumps Site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Adama

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Waste incineration is the main waste management strategy used in treating hospital waste in many developing countries. However, the release of dioxins, POPs, and heavy metals in fly and bottom ash poses environmental and public health concerns. To determine heavy metal (Hg, Pb, Cd, Cr, and Ag in levels in incinerator bottom ash and soils 100 m around the incinerator bottom ash dump site, ash samples and surrounding soil samples were collected at 20 m, 40 m, 60 m, 80 m, 100 m, and 1,200 m from incinerator. These were analyzed using the absorption spectrophotometer method. The geoaccumulation (Igeo and pollution load indices (PLI were used to assess the level of heavy metal contamination of surrounding soils. The study revealed high concentrations in mg/kg for, Zn (16417.69, Pb (143.80, Cr (99.30, and Cd (7.54 in bottom ash and these were above allowable limits for disposal in landfill. The study also found soils within 60 m radius of the incinerator to be polluted with the metals. It is recommended that health care waste managers be educated on the implication of improper management of incinerator bottom ash and regulators monitor hospital waste incinerator sites.

  12. Heavy Metal Contamination of Soils around a Hospital Waste Incinerator Bottom Ash Dumps Site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adama, M; Esena, R; Fosu-Mensah, B; Yirenya-Tawiah, D

    2016-01-01

    Waste incineration is the main waste management strategy used in treating hospital waste in many developing countries. However, the release of dioxins, POPs, and heavy metals in fly and bottom ash poses environmental and public health concerns. To determine heavy metal (Hg, Pb, Cd, Cr, and Ag) in levels in incinerator bottom ash and soils 100 m around the incinerator bottom ash dump site, ash samples and surrounding soil samples were collected at 20 m, 40 m, 60 m, 80 m, 100 m, and 1,200 m from incinerator. These were analyzed using the absorption spectrophotometer method. The geoaccumulation (I geo) and pollution load indices (PLI) were used to assess the level of heavy metal contamination of surrounding soils. The study revealed high concentrations in mg/kg for, Zn (16417.69), Pb (143.80), Cr (99.30), and Cd (7.54) in bottom ash and these were above allowable limits for disposal in landfill. The study also found soils within 60 m radius of the incinerator to be polluted with the metals. It is recommended that health care waste managers be educated on the implication of improper management of incinerator bottom ash and regulators monitor hospital waste incinerator sites.

  13. Heavy Metal Contamination of Soils around a Hospital Waste Incinerator Bottom Ash Dumps Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adama, M.; Esena, R.; Fosu-Mensah, B.; Yirenya-Tawiah, D.

    2016-01-01

    Waste incineration is the main waste management strategy used in treating hospital waste in many developing countries. However, the release of dioxins, POPs, and heavy metals in fly and bottom ash poses environmental and public health concerns. To determine heavy metal (Hg, Pb, Cd, Cr, and Ag) in levels in incinerator bottom ash and soils 100 m around the incinerator bottom ash dump site, ash samples and surrounding soil samples were collected at 20 m, 40 m, 60 m, 80 m, 100 m, and 1,200 m from incinerator. These were analyzed using the absorption spectrophotometer method. The geoaccumulation (I geo) and pollution load indices (PLI) were used to assess the level of heavy metal contamination of surrounding soils. The study revealed high concentrations in mg/kg for, Zn (16417.69), Pb (143.80), Cr (99.30), and Cd (7.54) in bottom ash and these were above allowable limits for disposal in landfill. The study also found soils within 60 m radius of the incinerator to be polluted with the metals. It is recommended that health care waste managers be educated on the implication of improper management of incinerator bottom ash and regulators monitor hospital waste incinerator sites. PMID:27034685

  14. Thermal treatment of ashes[Fly Ash from Municipal Waste Incineration]; Termisk rening av askor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wikman, Karin; Berg, Magnus; Bjurstroem, Henrik [AaF-Energi och Miljoe AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Nordin, Anders [Umeaa Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Applied Physics and Electronics

    2003-04-01

    In this project descriptions of different processes for thermal treatment of ashes have been compiled. A technical and economic evaluation of the processes has been done to identify possibilities and problems. The focus in the project lays on treatment of fly ash from municipal waste incineration but the processes can also be used to treat other ashes. When the ash is heated in the thermal treatment reactor, with or without additives, the material is sintered or vitrified and at the same time volatile substances (Zn, Pb, Cd, Hg etc.) are separated. In general the separation is more effective in processes with reducing conditions compared to oxidizing conditions. Oxidizing processes have both worse separation capacity and require more energy. The oxidizing processes are mainly used to stabilize the ash through vitrification and they are in some cases developed for management of municipal sewage sludge and bottom ash. However, these processes are often not as complex as for example an electric arc melting furnace with reducing conditions. The research today aim to develop more effective electrical melting systems with reducing conditions such as plasma melting furnaces, electric resistance melting furnaces and low frequency induction furnaces. A central question in the evaluation of different thermal treatment processes for ash is how the residues from the treatment can be used. It is not certain that the vitrified material is stable enough to get a high economic value, but it can probably be used as construction material. How the remaining metals in the ash are bound is very important in a long-time perspective. Further studies with leaching tests are necessary to clarify this issue. The heavy metal concentrate from the processes contains impurities, such as chlorine, which makes it unprofitable to obtain the metals. Instead the heavy metal concentrate has to be land filled. However, the amount of material for land filling will be much smaller if only the heavy

  15. Use of Incineration Solid Waste Bottom Ash as Cement Mixture in Cement Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, N. H.; Abdullah, M. M. A. B.; Jin, T. S.; Kadir, A. A.; Tugui, C. A.; Sandu, A. V.

    2017-06-01

    Incineration solid waste bottom ash was use to examine the suitability as a substitution in cement production. This study enveloped an innovative technology option for designing new equivalent cement that contains incineration solid waste bottom ash. The compressive strength of the samples was determined at 7, 14, 28 and 90 days. The result was compared to control cement with cement mixture containing incineration waste bottom ash where the result proved that bottom ash cement mixture able achieve its equivalent performance compared to control cement which meeting the requirement of the standards according to EN 196-1. The pozzolanic activity index of bottom ash cement mixture reached 0.92 at 28 days and 0.95 at 90 and this values can be concluded as a pozzolanic material with positive pozzolanic activity. Calcium hydroxide in Portland cement decreasing with the increasing replacement of bottom ash where the reaction occur between Ca(OH)2 and active SiO2.

  16. Conditioning of alpha and beta-gamma ashes of incinerator, obtained by radioactive wastes incinerating and encapsulation in several matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kertesz, C.J.; Chenavas, P.R.; Auffret, L.

    1993-01-01

    In this final report, the work carried out, and the results, obtained on the ash incinerator conditioning study, by means of encapsulation in several matrices, are presented. Three encapsulation matrices were checked: - a ternary cement, containing OPC, blast furnace slag and flying ash, - a two component epoxide system, - an epoxide-cement compound matrix. Three ash categories were employed: - real alpha ash, coming from plutonium bearing wastes, - ash, from inactive combustible waste, obtained by treatment in an incinerator prototype, - ash coming from inactive waste incineration plant. Using three different matrices, the encapsulated form properties were determined: at the laboratory scale, the encapsulating formulation was established, and physico mechanical data were obtained, - on active encapsulated forms, containing a calculated amount of 238 Pu, a radiolysis study was performed in order to measure the composition and volume of the radiolytic gas flow, - at the industrial scale, a pilot plant operating the polyvalent encapsulating process, was designed and put into service. Bench-scale experiments were done, on alpha ash embedded forms using the modified sulphur cement matrix as embedding agent. 4 refs., 30 figs., 27 tabs

  17. Volume reduction and solidification of radioactive waste incineration ash with waste glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koyama, Hidemi; Kobayashi, Masayuki

    2007-01-01

    The low-level radioactive waste generated from research institutions and hospitals etc. is packed into a container and is kept. The volume reduced state or the unprocessed state by incineration or compression processing are used because neither landfill sites nor disposal methods have been fixed. Especially, because the bulk density is low, and it is easy to disperse, the low-level radioactive waste incineration ash incinerated for the volume reduction is a big issue in security, safety, stability in the inventory location. A safe and appropriate disposal processing method is desired. When the low temperature sintering method in the use of the glass bottle cullet was examined, volume reduction and stabilization of low-level radioactive waste incineration ash were verified. The proposed method is useful for the easy treatment of the low-level radioactive waste incineration ash. (author)

  18. Slags and ashes from municipal waste incineration in Poland - mineralogical and chemical composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalski, Piotr; Michalik, Marek

    2013-04-01

    In the next few years there will be a large change in the waste management system in Poland. Its primary aim will be reduction of the amount of landfilled waste by enhancing level of recycling, waste segregation, composting of biomass and incineration. The biggest investment during this transformation is construction of nine incinerators with assumed slags production around 200 thousand tons per year. Slag production is accompanied by fly ash generating. This ash can be a valuable raw material as fly ash from the power industry. Waste management system transformation will cause big increase in slag production in comparison to the present amount and will require taking necessary steps to ensure environmental safety. For this purpose, studies of slags and fly ashes in terms of environmental risk and potential impact on human health are significant. The object of the study are fly ashes and slags produced in the biggest municipal waste incineration power plant in Poland. Two series of samples obtained in municipal waste incineration process were studied in order to characterize mineralogical and chemical composition and to determine the concentrations of heavy metals and their possible negative environmental impact. Characteristics of these materials will be the basis for determining their value in application, for example in building industry. Mineralogical characteristic of slags was based on X-ray diffraction. Characteristic of structures and forms of occurrence of mineral phases was based on the optical microscopy and SEM imaging coupled with EDS analysis. Chemical analysis were performed using ICP-MS/ICP-AES methods. They allowed to follow variability between studied samples and gave basic information about metals. Metals in samples of slag and ashes are present as component of mineral phases and in the form of metallic inclusions in glass or minerals. Potentially hazardous concentrations for environment are observed for copper (330-4900ppm), zinc (1500-8100ppm

  19. Reuse of municipal solid wastes incineration fly ashes in concrete mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collivignarelli, Carlo; Sorlini, Sabrina

    2002-01-01

    This study is aimed at assessing the feasibility of concrete production using stabilized m.s.w. (municipal solid waste) incineration fly ashes in addition to natural aggregates. The tested fly ashes were washed and milled, then stabilized by a cement-lime process and finally were reused as a "recycled aggregate" for cement mixture production, in substitution of a natural aggregate (with dosage of 200-400 kg m(-3)). These mixtures, after curing, were characterized with conventional physical-mechanical tests (compression, traction, flexure, modulus of elasticity, shrinkage). In samples containing 200 kg(waste) m(-3)(concrete), a good compressive strength was achieved after 28 days of curing. Furthermore, concrete leaching behavior was evaluated by means of different leaching tests, both on milled and on monolithic samples. Experimental results showed a remarkable reduction of metal leaching in comparison with raw waste. In some cases, similar behavior was observed in "natural" concrete (produced with natural aggregates) and in "waste containing" concrete.

  20. Corrosion of steel drums containing immobilized ion exchange-resins and incineration ashes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marotta, F.; Schulz Rodriguez, F.M.; Farina, Silvia B.; Duffo, Gustavo S.

    2009-01-01

    The Argentine Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA) is responsible for developing the management nuclear waste disposal programme. This programme contemplates the design and construction of a facility for the final disposal of intermediate-level radioactive wastes. The proposed model is a near-surface monolithic repository similar to those in operation in El Cabril, Spain. The design of this type of repository is based on the use of multiple, independent and redundant barriers. The intermediate radioactive waste consists mostly in spent ionic exchange resins and filters from the nuclear power plants, research reactors and radioisotopes production facilities. The spent resins, as well as the incineration ashes, have to be immobilized before being stored to improve leach resistance of waste matrix and to maintain mechanical stability for safety requirements. Generally, cementation processes have been used as immobilization techniques for economical reasons as well as for being a simple operation. The immobilized resins and incineration ashes are thus contained in steel drums that, in turn, can undergo corrosion depending on the ionic content of the matrix. This work is a part of a systematic study of the corrosion susceptibility of steel drums in contact with immobilized cemented exchange-resins with different types and contents of aggressive species and incineration ashes. To this purpose, a special type of specimen was manufactured to simulate the cemented waste in the drum. The evolution of the corrosion potential and the corrosion current density of the steel, as well as the electrical resistivity of the matrix are being monitored along time. The aggressive species studied were chloride ions (the main ionic species present in nature) and sulphate ions (produced during the radiolysis process of the cationic exchange-resins after cementation). Preliminary results show the strong effect of chloride on the corrosion susceptibility of the steel. Monitoring will continue for

  1. Low temperature setting iron phosphate ceramics as a stabilization and solidification agent for incinerator ash contaminated with transuranic and RCRA metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medvedev, P.G.; Hansen, M.; Wood, E.L.; Frank, S.M.; Sidwell, R.W.; Giglio, J.J.; Johnson, S.G.; Macheret, J.

    1997-01-01

    Incineration of combustible Mixed Transuranic Waste yields an ash residue that contains oxides of Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and transuranic metals. In order to dispose of this ash safely, it has to be solidified and stabilized to satisfy appropriate requirements for repository disposal. This paper describes a new method for solidification of incinerator ash, using room temperature setting iron phosphate ceramics, and includes fabrication procedures for these waste forms as well as results of the MCC-1 static leach test, XRD analysis, scanning electron microscopy studies and density measurements of the solidified waste form produced

  2. Application of thermally activated municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) bottom ash fines as binder substitute

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tang, P.; Florea, M.V.A.; Spiesz, P.R.; Brouwers, H.J.H.

    Untreated municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) bottom ash fines (0–2 mm) have poor pozzolanic properties, and contain substances which can pose an environmental risk (e.g. heavy metals and salts). This study investigates combined treatments applied on bottom ash fines (BAF) to increase their

  3. Properties of municipal solid waste incineration ashes with respect to their separation temperature

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Keppert, M.; Pavlík, Z.; Tydlitát, V.; Volfová, P.; Švarcová, Silvie; Šyc, Michal; Černý, R.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 30, č. 10 (2012), s. 1041-1048 ISSN 0734-242X Institutional support: RVO:61388980 ; RVO:67985858 Keywords : bottom ash * fly ash * municipal solid waste incinerator * pozzolanic activity * hydration heat * separation temperature * building industry Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.047, year: 2012

  4. Assessment of mobility and bioavailability of contaminants in MSW incineration ash with aquatic and terrestrial bioassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribé, V; Nehrenheim, E; Odlare, M

    2014-10-01

    Incineration of municipal solid waste (MSW) is a waste treatment method which can be sustainable in terms of waste volume reduction as well as a source of renewable energy. In the process fly and bottom ash is generated as a waste material. The ash residue may vary greatly in composition depending on the type of waste incinerated and it can contain elevated levels of harmful contaminants such as heavy metals. In this study, the ecotoxicity of a weathered, untreated incineration bottom ash was characterized as defined by the H14 criterion of the EU Waste Framework Directive by means of an elemental analysis, leaching tests followed by a chemical analysis and a combination of aquatic and solid-phase bioassays. The experiments were conducted to assess the mobility and bioavailability of ash contaminants. A combination of aquatic and terrestrial bioassays was used to determine potentially adverse acute effects of exposure to the solid ash and aqueous ash leachates. The results from the study showed that the bottom ash from a municipal waste incineration plant in mid-Sweden contained levels of metals such as Cu, Pb and Zn, which exceeded the Swedish EPA limit values for inert wastes. The chemical analysis of the ash leachates showed high concentrations of particularly Cr. The leachate concentration of Cr exceeded the limit value for L/S 10 leaching for inert wastes. Filtration of leachates prior to analysis may have underestimated the leachability of complex-forming metals such as Cu and Pb. The germination test of solid ash and ash leachates using T. repens showed a higher inhibition of seedling emergence of seeds exposed to the solid ash than the seeds exposed to ash leachates. This indicated a relatively low mobility of toxicants from the solid ash into the leachates, although some metals exceeded the L/S 10 leaching limit values for inert wastes. The Microtox® toxicity test showed only a very low toxic response to the ash leachate exposure, while the D. magna

  5. Bioaccessibility and health risk of heavy metals in ash from the incineration of different e-waste residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Xiao-Qing; Shen, Dong-Sheng; Shentu, Jia-Li; Long, Yu-Yang; Feng, Yi-Jian; Shen, Chen-Chao

    2015-03-01

    Ash from incinerated e-waste dismantling residues (EDR) may cause significant health risks to people through ingestion, inhalation, and dermal contact exposure pathways. Ashes of four classified e-waste types generated by an incineration plant in Zhejiang, China were collected. Total contents and the bioaccessibilities of Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn in ashes were measured to provide crucial information to evaluate the health risks for incinerator workers and children living in vicinity. Compared to raw e-waste in mixture, ash was metal-enriched by category incinerated. However, the physiologically based extraction test (PBET) indicates the bioaccessibilities of Ni, Pb, and Zn were less than 50 %. Obviously, bioaccessibilities need to be considered in noncancer risk estimate. Total and PBET-extractable contents of metal, except for Pb, were significantly correlated with the pH of the ash. Noncancer risks of ash from different incinerator parts decreased in the order bag filter ash (BFA) > cyclone separator ash (CFA) > bottom ash (BA). The hazard quotient for exposure to ash were decreased as ingestion > dermal contact > inhalation. Pb in ingested ash dominated (>80 %) noncancer risks, and children had high chronic risks from Pb (hazard index >10). Carcinogenic risks from exposure to ash were under the acceptable level (incinerated ash are made.

  6. Characteristics and application potential of municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) bottom ashes from two waste-to-energy plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tang, P.; Florea, M.V.A.; Spiesz, P.R.; Brouwers, H.J.H.

    2015-01-01

    This study focuses on municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) bottom ash characteristics, its heterogeneity, environmental properties, and their stability in time. The physical and chemical characteristics of bottom ashes from two plants were determined over time; results show that their

  7. Problematic Incinerator Ash: A Case Study of Finding a Successful Treatment Approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gering, K. L.

    1999-01-01

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) produces incinerator flyash and bottom ash as a consequence of burning low-level radioactive waste materials at the Waste Experimental Reduction Facility (WERF). The incineration process greatly reduces original waste volumes but concentrates the metals that are present, such as toxic metals (most notably cadmium, lead, and antimony) and nuisance metals (e.g., zinc). Anion species also become predominant in flyash produced by INEEL incineration, where chloride and sulfate are at concentrations that can approach 15-20 wt% each. In addition, treatment of the WERF flyash is further complicated by a significant fraction of ignitables composed of carbon soot and various hydrocarbon species that have been measured in some cases at 30% net by Loss-on-Ignition tests. Bottom ash produced at the WERF site is generally much less toxic, if not nontoxic, as compared to the flyash. Due to the complex composition of the flyash material, stabilization attempts at the INEEL have been only partly successful, causing the effectiveness and viability of treatment methods to be revisited. Breakthroughs in flyash stabilization came in 1998 when more complete characterization data gave us further insight into the chemical and physical nature of the flyash. These breakthroughs were also facilitated by the use of a computer model for electrolytes that allowed us to simulate stabilization options prior to started laboratory studies. This paper summarizes efforts at the INEEL, spanning the past three years, that have focused on stabilizing flyash. A brief history of INEEL treatability studies is given, showing that the degree of effective flyash stabilization was proportional to the amount of meaningful characterization data that was available. Various binders have been used in these treatability studies, including Portland cement type I/II, Portland cement type V, JGC Super Cement (blast furnace slag cement), a Fluid Tech

  8. The rare earth elements in municipal solid waste incinerators ash and promising tools for their prospecting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Funari, Valerio, E-mail: valerio.funari@unibo.it [Dipartimento di Scienze Biologiche, Geologiche e Ambientali (BiGeA)—University of Bologna, Piazza di Porta San Donato 1, Bologna (Italy); Bokhari, Syed Nadeem Hussain [General and Analytical Chemistry—Montanuniversität Leoben, Franz-Josef-Str. 18, Leoben (Austria); Vigliotti, Luigi [Istituto di Scienze Marine (ISMAR-CNR)—National Research Council, Via Piero Gobetti 101, Bologna (Italy); Meisel, Thomas [General and Analytical Chemistry—Montanuniversität Leoben, Franz-Josef-Str. 18, Leoben (Austria); Braga, Roberto [Dipartimento di Scienze Biologiche, Geologiche e Ambientali (BiGeA)—University of Bologna, Piazza di Porta San Donato 1, Bologna (Italy)

    2016-01-15

    Highlights: • The REE concentrations of bottom and fly ashes from municipal incinerators are investigated. • First attempt toward discriminating the magnetic signature (susceptibility) of ashes from incinerators. • New methods and parameters for REE prospecting, which can be determined quickly and with limited costs, are provided. - Abstract: Bottom and fly ashes from Municipal Solid Waste Incinerators (MSWI) are hazardous products that present concern for their safe management. An attractive option to reduce their impact both on the environment and the financial commitment is turning MSWI ashes into secondary raw materials. In this study we present the REE content and distribution of bottom and fly ashes from MSWI after a highly effective digestion method and samples analysis by ICP–MS. The chondrite-normalised REE patterns of MSWI bottom and fly ash are comparable with that of crustal averages, suggesting a main geogenic source. Deviations from typical crustal pattern (e.g., Eu, Tb) disclose a contribution of likely anthropogenic provenance. The correlation with major elements indicates possible sources for REE and facilitates a preliminary resource assessment. Moreover, magnetic susceptibility measurements can be a useful prospecting method in urban ores made of MSWI ashes. The relationship between REE and some influencing parameters (e.g., Pricing Influence Factor) emphasises the importance of MSWI ash as alternative source of REE and the need of further efforts for REE recovery and purification from low concentrations but high flows waste.

  9. A novel hydrothermal method to convert incineration ash into pollucite for the immobilization of a simulant radioactive cesium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jing, Zhenzi, E-mail: zzjing@tongji.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Advanced Civil Engineering Materials, Ministry of Education, Tongji University, 4800 Cao’an Road, Shanghai 201804 (China); Hao, Wenbo; He, Xiaojun; Fan, Junjie; Zhang, Yi; Miao, Jiajun [Key Laboratory of Advanced Civil Engineering Materials, Ministry of Education, Tongji University, 4800 Cao’an Road, Shanghai 201804 (China); Jin, Fangming [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai 200240 (China)

    2016-04-05

    Highlights: • Incineration ash could be converted hydrothermally to pollucite to immobilize Cs. • Pollucite could be synthesized readily with a wide range of Cs/Si ratios. • With Ca(OH){sub 2} added, a tough pollucite could be used to solidify Cs-polluted RHA. • Leaching results showed that the amount of Cs leached from specimen was very low. - Abstract: The Fukushima nuclear accident in Japan on March 11, 2011 produced huge amounts of Cs-polluted incineration ashes; conventional solidification methods seem unsuitable for the treatment of large amounts of Cs-polluted ashes. A novel hydrothermal method was developed to directly convert Cs-polluted incineration ash (rice husk ash) into pollucite to immobilize Cs in its crystal structure in situ. Results revealed that pollucite could be synthesized readily over a wide range of added Cs (Cs/Si = 0.2–0.6); the addition of more Cs (Cs/Si ≥ 0.5) caused the formation of a small amount of cesium aluminosilicate (CsAlSiO{sub 4}), which exhibits poor immobilization behavior for Cs. Pollucite could be formed even for a short curing time (1 h) or at a low curing temperature (150 °C). However, a high curing temperature or a long curing time favored the formation of a pure pollucite. With the added calcium hydroxide, a tough specimen with a flexural strength of approximately 22 MPa could be obtained, which suggested that this technology may be applied directly to the solidification of Cs-polluted incineration ashes. Hydrogarnet and tobermorite formations enhanced the strength of the solidified specimens, and meanwhile the formed pollucite was present in a matrix steadily. Leaching test demonstrated that the amount of Cs that leached from the synthesized specimens was very low (0.49 × 10{sup −5}–2.31 × 10{sup −5}) and even lower than that from the reference hollandite-rich synroc (2.0 × 10{sup −2}), although a higher content of Cs was found in the synthesized pollucite specimens (6.0–31.7%) than in the

  10. The potential impact of municipal solid waste incinerators ashes on the anthropogenic osmium budget

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Funari, Valerio; Meisel, Thomas; Braga, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Osmium release from Municipal Solid Waste Incinerators (MSWI), even if acknowledged to occur at least over the last fifteen years, remains overlooked in the majority of recent studies. We present the osmium concentration and 187 Os/ 188 Os isotopic measurements of different kinds of bottom and fly ash samples from MSWI plants and reference materials of incinerator fly ash (BCR176 and BCR176R). The analysis of the unknown ash samples shows a relatively wide range of 187 Os/ 188 Os ratios (0.24–0.70) and Os concentrations (from 0.026 ng/g to 1.65 ng/g). Osmium concentrations and isotopic signatures differ from those of other known Os sources, either natural or manmade, suggesting a mixture of both contributions in the MSWI feedstock material. Furthermore, the comparison between the BCR176 and the renewed BCR176R indicates a decrease in Os concentration of one order of magnitude over the years (from 1 to 0.1 ng/g) due to improved recycling efficiency of Os-bearing waste. The estimated annual amount of Os from a typical incinerator (using average Os values and MSWI mass balance) is 13.4 g/a. The osmium potentially released from MSWI smokestacks is predicted to be from 16 to 38 ng Os/m 2 /a, considering a medium size country having 50 MSWI facilities; therefore much higher than the naturally transported osmium from continental dust in the atmosphere (about 1 pg Os/m 2 /a). MSWI systems are considered one of the best options for municipal solid waste management in industrialised countries, but their contribution to the Os budget can be significant. - Highlights: • Bottom and fly ashes from municipal solid waste incinerators are investigated. • Their Os levels and Os isotopic signatures are discussed. • An estimate of Os release from incinerators and incinerated ashes is given. • Os contamination from incineration plants impacts the geochemical Os cycle.

  11. Electrolytic recuperation of heavy metals and chlorine from fly-ashes and washwater of a household incinerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maes, H.; Carpels, M.; Elslander, H.; Van Houtven, D.; Vereecken, J.; Kinnaer, L.; Hermans, N.; Gielen, C.; Van Kerckhoven, M.; Raats, L. [Vlaamse Instelling voor Technologisch Onderzoek (VITO), Mol (Belgium)

    1995-12-31

    The treatment and processing of the residues which result from the household incineration process were investigated in a study conducted in Belgium. Incineration produces large amounts of solid residue, particularly fly-ash, which contains a large degree of heavy metals. Also, the large amount of acid washwater flow which comes from the gas washer is highly concentrated with chlorine, and heavy metals. Presently, both the fly-ash and the wastewater are dumped at disposal sites. Two objectives for waste management were presented. The first was to improve the fly-ash for potential use as, for example, filler in road surfaces. The second was to reduce the wastewater flow and to use neutralizing reagents or an electro-chemical treatment on the washwater, in order to recuperate the chlorine. The fly-ash was treated by leaching with the acid washwater. The leached heavy metals were recuperated by electrolysis. It was concluded, however, that electrolytic recuperation of heavy metals from fly ash was not economically feasible. 2 refs., 7 tabs., 8 figs.

  12. Toxicity mitigation and solidification of municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash using alkaline activated coal ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-Loya, E Ivan; Allouche, Erez N; Eklund, Sven; Joshi, Anupam R; Kupwade-Patil, Kunal

    2012-08-01

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration is a common and effective practice to reduce the volume of solid waste in urban areas. However, the byproduct of this process is a fly ash (IFA), which contains large quantities of toxic contaminants. The purpose of this research study was to analyze the chemical, physical and mechanical behaviors resulting from the gradual introduction of IFA to an alkaline activated coal fly ash (CFA) matrix, as a mean of stabilizing the incinerator ash for use in industrial construction applications, where human exposure potential is limited. IFA and CFA were analyzed via X-ray fluorescence (XRF), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Inductive coupled plasma (ICP) to obtain a full chemical analysis of the samples, its crystallographic characteristics and a detailed count of the eight heavy metals contemplated in US Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations (40 CFR). The particle size distribution of IFA and CFA was also recorded. EPA's Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) was followed to monitor the leachability of the contaminants before and after the activation. Also images obtained via Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), before and after the activation, are presented. Concrete made from IFA, CFA and IFA-CFA mixes was subjected to a full mechanical characterization; tests include compressive strength, flexural strength, elastic modulus, Poisson's ratio and setting time. The leachable heavy metal contents (except for Se) were below the maximum allowable limits and in many cases even below the reporting limit. The leachable Chromium was reduced from 0.153 down to 0.0045 mg/L, Arsenic from 0.256 down to 0.132 mg/L, Selenium from 1.05 down to 0.29 mg/L, Silver from 0.011 down to .001 mg/L, Barium from 2.06 down to 0.314 mg/L and Mercury from 0.007 down to 0.001 mg/L. Although the leachable Cd exhibited an increase from 0.49 up to 0.805 mg/L and Pd from 0.002 up to 0.029 mg/L, these were well below the maximum limits of 1.00 and 5

  13. Incinerated sewage sludge ash as alternative binder in cement-based materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krejcirikova, Barbora; Goltermann, Per; Hodicky, Kamil

    2013-01-01

    Sewage sludge ash is characterized by its pozzolanic properties, as cement is. This predetermines its use in a substitution of cement and cementitious materials. Utilization of sewage sludge ash does not only decrease the consumption of cement, one of the largest cause of CO2 emissions, but also...... it can minimize the need of ash landfill disposal. The objective of this study is to show potential use of incinerated sewage sludge ash (ISSA), an industrial byproduct, as possible binder in cement-based materials. Chemical and mechanical characteristics are presented and compared with results obtained...

  14. Leaching for recovery of copper from municipal solid waste incineration fly ash: influence of ash properties and metal speciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassesson, Henric; Fedje, Karin Karlfeldt; Steenari, Britt-Marie

    2014-08-01

    Recovery of metals occurring in significant amounts in municipal solid waste incineration fly ash, such as copper, could offer several advantages: a decreased amount of potentially mobile metal compounds going to landfill, saving of natural resources and a monetary value. A combination of leaching and solvent extraction may constitute a feasible recovery path for metals from municipal solid waste incineration fly ash. However, it has been shown that the initial dissolution and leaching is a limiting step in such a recovery process. The work described in this article was focused on elucidating physical and chemical differences between two ash samples with the aim of explaining the differences in copper release from these samples in two leaching methods. The results showed that the chemical speciation is an important factor affecting the release of copper. The occurrence of copper as phosphate or silicate will hinder leaching, while sulphate and chloride will facilitate leaching. © The Author(s) 2014.

  15. [Correlation of Persistent Free Radicals, PCDD/Fs and Metals in Waste Incineration Fly Ash].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tian-jiao; Chen, Tong; Zhan, Ming-xiu; Guo, Ying; Li, Xiao-dong

    2016-03-15

    Environmentally persistent free radicals (EPFRs) are relatively highly stable and found in the formation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs). Recent studies have concentrated on model dioxin formation reactions and there are few studies on actual waste incineration fly ash. In order to study EPFRs and the correlation with dioxins and heavy metals in waste incineration fly ash, the spins of EPFRs, concentration of PCDD/Fs and metals in samples from 6 different waste incinerators were detected. The medical waste incineration fly ash from Tianjin, municipal solid waste incineration fly ash from Jiangxi Province, black carbon and slag from municipal solid waste incinerator in Lanxi, Zhejiang Province, all contained EPFRs. Above all the signal in Tianjin sample was the strongest. Hydroxyl radicals, carbon-center radicals and semiquinone radicals were detected. Compared with other samples, Jiangxi fly ash had the highest toxic equivalent quantity (TEQ) of dioxins, up to 7.229 4 ng · g⁻¹. However, the dioxin concentration in the Tianjin sample containing the strongest EPFR signals was only 0.092 8 ng · g⁻¹. There was perhaps little direct numeric link between EPFRs and PCDD/Fs. But the spins of EPFRs in samples presented an increasing trend as the metal contents increased, especially with Al, Fe, Zn. The signal strength of radicals was purposed to be related to the metal contents. The concentration of Zn (0.813 7% ) in the Tianjin sample was the highest and this sample contained much more spins of oxygen-center radicals. We could presume the metal Zn had a greater effect on the formation of EPFRs, and was easier to induce the formation of radicals with a longer half-life period.

  16. Leaching from waste incineration bottom ashes treated in a rotary kiln

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyks, Jiri; Nesterov, Igor; Mogensen, Erhardt

    2011-01-01

    Leaching from municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash treated in a rotary kiln was quantified using a combination of lab-scale leaching experiments and geochemical modelling. Thermal treatment in the rotary kiln had no significant effect on the leaching of Al, Ba, Ca, Mg, Si, Sr, Zn, sulfate...... the thermal treatment. Overall, rotary kiln thermal treatment of bottom ashes can be recommended to reduce the leaching of Cu, Pb, Cl and DOC; however, increased leaching of Cr and Mo should be expected....

  17. Cellular Mutagenicity and Heavy Metal Concentrations of Leachates Extracted from the Fly and Bottom Ash Derived from Municipal Solid Waste Incineration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Po-Wen; Liu, Zhen-Shu; Wun, Min-Jie; Kuo, Tai-Chen

    2016-01-01

    Two incinerators in Taiwan have recently attempted to reuse the fly and bottom ash that they produce, but the mutagenicity of these types of ash has not yet been assessed. Therefore, we evaluated the mutagenicity of the ash with the Ames mutagenicity assay using the TA98, TA100, and TA1535 bacterial strains. We obtained three leachates from three leachants of varying pH values using the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure test recommended by the Taiwan Environmental Protection Agency (Taiwan EPA). We then performed the Ames assay on the harvested leachates. To evaluate the possible relationship between the presence of heavy metals and mutagenicity, the concentrations of five heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, and Zn) in the leachates were also determined. The concentrations of Cd and Cr in the most acidic leachate from the precipitator fly ash and the Cd concentration in the most acidic leachate from the boiler fly ash exceeded the recommended limits. Notably, none of the nine leachates extracted from the boiler, precipitator, or bottom ashes displayed mutagenic activity. This data partially affirms the safety of the fly and bottom ash produced by certain incinerators. Therefore, the biotoxicity of leachates from recycled ash should be routinely monitored before reusing the ash. PMID:27827867

  18. Encapsulation of mixed radioactive and hazardous waste contaminated incinerator ash in modified sulfur cement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalb, P.D.; Heiser, J.H. III; Colombo, P.

    1990-01-01

    Some of the process waste streams incinerated at various Department of Energy (DOE) facilities contain traces of both low-level radioactive (LLW) and hazardous constituents, thus yielding ash residues that are classified as mixed waste. Work is currently being performed at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) to develop new and innovative materials for encapsulation of DOE mixed wastes including incinerator ash. One such material under investigation is modified sulfur cement, a thermoplastic developed by the US Bureau of Mines. Monolithic waste forms containing as much as 55 wt % incinerator fly ash from Idaho national Engineering Laboratory (INEL) have been formulated with modified sulfur cement, whereas maximum waste loading for this waste in hydraulic cement is 16 wt %. Compressive strength of these waste forms exceeded 27.6 MPa. Wet chemical and solid phase waste characterization analyses performed on this fly ash revealed high concentrations of soluble metal salts including Pb and Cd, identified by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as toxic metals. Leach testing of the ash according to the EPA Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) resulted in concentrations of Pb and Cd above allowable limits. Encapsulation of INEL fly ash in modified sulfur cement with a small quantity of sodium sulfide added to enhance retention of soluble metal salts reduced TCLP leachate concentrations of Pb and Cd well below EPA concentration criteria for delisting as a toxic hazardous waste. 12 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  19. An overview on characterization, utilization and leachate analysis of biomedical waste incinerator ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajor, Anita; Xaxa, Monika; Mehta, Ratika; Kunal

    2012-10-15

    Solid waste management is one of the major global environmental issues, as there is continuous increase in industrial globalization and generation of waste. Solid wastes encompass the heterogeneous mass of throwaways from the urban community as well as the homogeneous accumulations of agricultural, industrial and mineral wastes. Biomedical waste pose a significant impact on health and environment. A proper waste management system should be required to dispose hazardous biomedical waste and incineration should be the best available technology to reduce the volume of this hazardous waste. The incineration process destroys pathogens and reduces the waste volume and weight but leaves a solid material called biomedical waste ash as residue which increases the levels of heavy metals, inorganic salts and organic compounds in the environment. Disposal of biomedical waste ash in landfill may cause contamination of groundwater as metals are not destroyed during incineration. The limited space and the high cost for land disposal led to the development of recycling technologies and the reuse of ash in different systems. In order to minimize leaching of its hazardous components into the environment several studies confirmed the successful utilization of biomedical waste ash in agriculture and construction sector. This paper presents the overview on the beneficial use of ash in agriculture and construction materials and its leachate characteristics. This review also stressed on the need to further evaluate the leachate studies of the ashes and slag for their proper disposal and utilization. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Incineration of a typical LWR combustible waste and analysis of the resulting ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Treat, R.L.; Lokken, R.O.; Schliebe, M.J.

    1983-05-01

    In this study 4540 kg (10,000 lb) of simulated nuclear power plant combustion wastes were burned in a controlled-air incinerators. The purpose of this work was to generate ashes suitable for solidification, the products of which will be analyzed to determine if they are suitable for disposal. Two different types of waste were burned: resin and simulated crud, and general trash (paper, plastics, wood, rubber, and cloth). Volume-reduction ratios (unburned waste: ash) were 13:1 and 22:1, respectively. Approximately 20% of the ash was lost due to adherence to incinerator walls and entrainment in the off-gas stream. Losses of the volatile species cesium and iodine were 79% and 100%, respectively. The ashes were not hygroscopic, but they exhibited a pH of 4.6 to 5.0 when water was added. Corrosion of mild steel drums would occur within this pH range. The ashes contained a significant quantity of clinkers haveing lengths as great as 20 cm (8 in.). Most of the clinkers were fully incinerated and easy to crush, suggesting that standard comminuting equipment should be effective in reducing the size of clinkers to allow their solidification with the fine ashes

  1. Development process for the stabilization of incinerator bottom ash and sizing baghouse dust material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunt, L.F.; Boehmer, A.M.

    1987-04-01

    EG ampersand G Idaho Inc. has initiated a program to develop safe, efficient, cost-effective treatment methods for the stabilization and subsequent disposal of some of the hazardous and mixed wastes generated at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). Lab-scale testing has shown that Extraction Procedure (EP) toxic wastes can be successfully stabilized by solidification, using various binders to produce nontoxic, stable waste forms for safe, long-term disposal. The purpose of this report is to present the results of drum-scale testing of WERF incinerator bottom ash and WERF sizing baghouse dust. The drum-scale test program was conducted to determine if a production procedure that would produce a waste form which was suitable for disposal as a low-level radioactive waste could be developed. The use of 71-gallon square drums for solidification processing were also evaluated. During the test program, eleven drums of ash material were solidified. All of the samples from all of the drums passed the EPA leach test criteria. Although there is a distinct weight addition associated with the solidification process, there is no relative volume increase. 4 refs., 6 figs., 8 tabs

  2. Integral recycling of municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) bottom ash fines (0–2 mm) and industrial powder wastes by cold-bonding pelletization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tang, P.; Brouwers, H.J.H.

    2017-01-01

    The cold-bonding pelletizing technique is applied in this study as an integrated method to recycle municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) bottom ash fines (BAF, 0–2 mm) and several other industrial powder wastes. Artificial lightweight aggregates are produced successfully based on the combination

  3. Synthesis of calcium phosphate hydrogel from waste incineration fly ash and bone powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukui, Kunihiro; Arimitsu, Naoki; Kidoguchi, Satoshi; Yamamoto, Tetsuya; Yoshida, Hideto

    2009-01-01

    Waste incineration fly ash and bone powder could be successfully recycled into calcium phosphate hydrogel, a type of fast proton conductor. Various properties of the intermediate and calcium phosphate hydrogel from them were characterized and compared with that from calcium carbonate reagent. It was found that the intermediate from the incineration fly ash and calcium phosphate glass was more brittle than that from bone powder and calcium carbonate reagent. The electric conductivity of crystallized hydrogel obtained from all raw materials increases exponentially with temperature. However, the crystallized hydrogel from incineration fly ash has lower electric conductivity and lower crystallinity than that from bone powder and the reagent. Moreover, the difference in electric conductivity between these crystallized hydrogels decreases with temperature. Compared with using the reagent as a raw material, bone powder provides a 25% reduction in the usage of H 3 PO 4 to acquire the crystallized hydrogel which has the highest conductivity. These experimental results suggest that the incineration fly ash and bone powder are useful calcium sources for the synthesis of calcium phosphate hydrogel

  4. Life cycle assessment of resource recovery from municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allegrini, Elisa; Vadenbo, Carl; Boldrin, Alessio

    2015-01-01

    Bottom ash, the main solid output from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI), has significant potential for the recovery of resources such as scrap metals and aggregates. The utilisation of these resources ideally enables natural resources to be saved. However, the quality of the recovered...

  5. Speciation and mobility of potentially toxic elements in municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schollbach, K.; Alam, Q.; Florea, M.V.A.; Brouwers, H.J.H.

    2017-01-01

    Bottom ash (BA) is the main residue from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI), which can have some applications in construction materials, but is mostly landfilled in many countries. The main problem is the high concentration of potentially toxic elements (PTEs), particularly in the fine

  6. Producing zeolites from fly ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rayalu, S.; Labhestwar, N.K.; Biniwale, R.B.; Udhoji, J.S.; Meshram, S.U.; Khanna, P.

    1998-01-01

    Fly ash has virtually become a menace of thermal power generation, leading to its devastating effects on the environment. Development of alternate methods of its disposal - especially those with recourse to recovery of valuable materials-has thus become imperative. This paper deals with the utilisation of fly ash for the production of high value-added products, viz., commercial grade zeolites. The physico-chemical and morphological characteristics of fly ash based Zeolite-A (FAZ-A) compares well with commercial Zeolite-A. High calcium binding capacity, appropriate particle/pore size and other detergency characteristics of FAZ-A brings forth its potential as a substitute for phosphatic detergent builder. The technology is extremely versatile, and other products like Zeolite-X, Zeolite-Y, sodalite and mordenite are also amenable for cost effective production with modifications in certain reaction parameters. Low temperature operations, ready availability of major raw materials, simplicity of process and recycling of unused reactants and process water are special features of the process. (author)

  7. Mechanical properties and leaching modeling of activated incinerator bottom ash in Portland cement blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onori, Roberta; Polettini, Alessandra; Pomi, Raffaella

    2011-02-01

    In the present study the evolution of mechanical strength and the leaching behavior of major and trace elements from activated incinerator bottom ash/Portland cement mixtures were investigated. Chemical and mechanical activation were applied with the purpose of improving the reactivity of bottom ash in cement blends. Chemical activation made use of NaOH, KOH, CaCl(2) or CaSO(4), which were selected for the experimental campaign on the basis of the results from previous studies. The results indicated that CaCl(2) exhibited by far the best effects on the evolution of the hydration process in the mixtures; a positive effect on mechanical strength was also observed when CaSO(4) was used as the activator, while the gain in strength produced by KOH and NaOH was irrelevant. Geochemical modeling of the leaching solutions provided information on the mineral phases responsible for the release of major elements from the hardened materials and also indicated the important role played by surface sorption onto amorphous Fe and Al minerals in dictating the leaching of Pb. The leaching of the other trace metal cations investigated (Cu, Ni and Zn) could not be explained by any pure mineral included in the thermodynamic database used, suggesting they were present in the materials in the form of complex minerals or phase assemblages for which no consistent thermodynamic data are presently available in the literature. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Aluminium recovery from waste incineration bottom ash, and its oxidation level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biganzoli, Laura; Grosso, Mario

    2013-09-01

    The recovery of aluminium (Al) scraps from waste incineration bottom ash is becoming a common practice in waste management. However, during the incineration process, Al in the waste undergoes oxidation processes that reduce its recycling potential. This article investigates the behaviour of Al scraps in the furnace of two selected grate-fired waste-to-energy plants and the amount recoverable from the bottom ash. About 21-23% of the Al fed to the furnace with the residual waste was recovered and potentially recycled from the bottom ash. Out of this amount, 76-87% was found in the bottom ash fraction above 5 mm and thus can be recovered with standard eddy current separation technology. These values depend on the characteristics and the mechanical strength of the Al items in the residual waste. Considering Al packaging materials, about 81% of the Al in cans can be recovered from the bottom ash as an ingot, but this amount decreases to 51% for trays, 27% for a mix of aluminium and poly-laminated foils and 47% for paper-laminated foils. This shows that the recovery of Al from the incineration residues increases proportionally to the thickness of the packaging.

  9. Fluorination of incinerator ash by hydrofluorination or ammonium bifluoride fusion for plutonium recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fink, S.D.; Gray, J.H.; Kent, S.J.; Apgar, S.A.

    1989-01-01

    Incinerator ash containing small quantities of plutonium has been accumulating across the defense complex for many years. Although the total Pu inventory is small, the ash is a nondiscardable residue which presents storage and accountability difficulties. The work discussed here is the result of a joint exploratory effort between members of Savannah River Laboratory and Los Alamos National Laboratory to compare two proposed pyrochemical pretreatments of incinerator ash prior to aqueous processing. These experiments attempted to determine the relative effectiveness of hydrofluorination and ammonium bifluoride fusion as head-end operations for a two step aqueous recovery method. The two pretreatments are being considered as possible second generation enhancements for the New Special Recovery Facility nearing operation at Savannah River Plant. Experimental results and potential engineering concerns are discussed. 3 figs.

  10. Quantification of the resource recovery potential of municipal solid waste incineration bottom ashes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allegrini, Elisa, E-mail: elia@env.dtu.dk [Technical University of Denmark, Department of Environmental Engineering, Building 115, 2800 Lyngby (Denmark); Maresca, Alberto; Olsson, Mikael Emil [Technical University of Denmark, Department of Environmental Engineering, Building 115, 2800 Lyngby (Denmark); Holtze, Maria Sommer [Afatek Ltd., Selinevej 18, 2300 Copenhagen S (Denmark); Boldrin, Alessio; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard [Technical University of Denmark, Department of Environmental Engineering, Building 115, 2800 Lyngby (Denmark)

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • Ferrous and non-ferrous metals were quantified in MSWI bottom ashes. • Metal recovery system efficiencies for bottom ashes were estimated. • Total content of critical elements was determined in bottom ash samples. • Post-incineration recovery is not viable for most critical elements. - Abstract: Municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) plays an important role in many European waste management systems. However, increasing focus on resource criticality has raised concern regarding the possible loss of critical resources through MSWI. The primary form of solid output from waste incinerators is bottom ashes (BAs), which also have important resource potential. Based on a full-scale Danish recovery facility, detailed material and substance flow analyses (MFA and SFA) were carried out, in order to characterise the resource recovery potential of Danish BA: (i) based on historical and experimental data, all individual flows (representing different grain size fractions) within the recovery facility were quantified, (ii) the resource potential of ferrous (Fe) and non-ferrous (NFe) metals as well as rare earth elements (REE) was determined, (iii) recovery efficiencies were quantified for scrap metal and (iv) resource potential variability and recovery efficiencies were quantified based on a range of ashes from different incinerators. Recovery efficiencies for Fe and NFe reached 85% and 61%, respectively, with the resource potential of metals in BA before recovery being 7.2%ww for Fe and 2.2%ww for NFe. Considerable non-recovered resource potential was found in fine fraction (below 2 mm), where approximately 12% of the total NFe potential in the BA were left. REEs were detected in the ashes, but the levels were two or three orders of magnitude lower than typical ore concentrations. The lack of REE enrichment in BAs indicated that the post-incineration recovery of these resources may not be a likely option with current technology. Based on these results

  11. Thermal treatment and vitrification of boiler ash from a municipal solid waste incinerator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y; Xiao, Y; Voncken, J H L; Wilson, N

    2008-06-15

    Boiler ash generated from municipal solid waste (MSW) incinerators is usually classified as hazardous materials and requires special disposal. In the present study, the boiler ash was characterized for the chemical compositions, morphology and microstructure. The thermal chemical behavior during ash heating was investigated with thermal balance. Vitrification of the ash was conducted at a temperature of 1400 degrees C in order to generate a stable silicate slag, and the formed slag was examined with chemical and mineralogical analyses. The effect of vitrification on the leaching characteristics of various elements in the ash was evaluated with acid leaching. The study shows that the boiler ash as a heterogeneous fine powder contains mainly silicate, carbonate, sulfates, chlorides, and residues of organic materials and heavy metal compounds. At elevated temperatures, the boiler ash goes through the initial moisture removal, volatilization, decomposition, sintering, melting, and slag formation. At 1400 degrees C a thin layer of salt melt and a homogeneous glassy slag was formed. The experimental results indicate that leaching values of the vitrified slag are significantly reduced compared to the original boiler ash, and the vitrification could be an interesting alternative for a safer disposal of the boiler ash. Ash compacting, e.g., pelletizing can reduce volatilization and weight loss by about 50%, and would be a good option for the feed preparation before vitrification.

  12. Quantification of the resource recovery potential of municipal solid waste incineration bottom ashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allegrini, Elisa; Maresca, Alberto; Olsson, Mikael Emil; Holtze, Maria Sommer; Boldrin, Alessio; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2014-09-01

    Municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) plays an important role in many European waste management systems. However, increasing focus on resource criticality has raised concern regarding the possible loss of critical resources through MSWI. The primary form of solid output from waste incinerators is bottom ashes (BAs), which also have important resource potential. Based on a full-scale Danish recovery facility, detailed material and substance flow analyses (MFA and SFA) were carried out, in order to characterise the resource recovery potential of Danish BA: (i) based on historical and experimental data, all individual flows (representing different grain size fractions) within the recovery facility were quantified, (ii) the resource potential of ferrous (Fe) and non-ferrous (NFe) metals as well as rare earth elements (REE) was determined, (iii) recovery efficiencies were quantified for scrap metal and (iv) resource potential variability and recovery efficiencies were quantified based on a range of ashes from different incinerators. Recovery efficiencies for Fe and NFe reached 85% and 61%, respectively, with the resource potential of metals in BA before recovery being 7.2%ww for Fe and 2.2%ww for NFe. Considerable non-recovered resource potential was found in fine fraction (below 2mm), where approximately 12% of the total NFe potential in the BA were left. REEs were detected in the ashes, but the levels were two or three orders of magnitude lower than typical ore concentrations. The lack of REE enrichment in BAs indicated that the post-incineration recovery of these resources may not be a likely option with current technology. Based on these results, it is recommended to focus on limiting REE-containing products in waste for incineration and improving pre-incineration sorting initiatives for these elements. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The potential impact of municipal solid waste incinerators ashes on the anthropogenic osmium budget

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Funari, Valerio, E-mail: valerio.funari@unibo.it [Dipartimento di Scienze Biologiche, Geologiche e Ambientali (BiGeA), University of Bologna, Piazza di Porta San Donato 1, Bologna (Italy); Meisel, Thomas [General and Analytical Chemistry, Montanuniversität Leoben, Franz-Josef-Str. 18, Leoben (Austria); Braga, Roberto [Dipartimento di Scienze Biologiche, Geologiche e Ambientali (BiGeA), University of Bologna, Piazza di Porta San Donato 1, Bologna (Italy)

    2016-01-15

    Osmium release from Municipal Solid Waste Incinerators (MSWI), even if acknowledged to occur at least over the last fifteen years, remains overlooked in the majority of recent studies. We present the osmium concentration and {sup 187}Os/{sup 188}Os isotopic measurements of different kinds of bottom and fly ash samples from MSWI plants and reference materials of incinerator fly ash (BCR176 and BCR176R). The analysis of the unknown ash samples shows a relatively wide range of {sup 187}Os/{sup 188}Os ratios (0.24–0.70) and Os concentrations (from 0.026 ng/g to 1.65 ng/g). Osmium concentrations and isotopic signatures differ from those of other known Os sources, either natural or manmade, suggesting a mixture of both contributions in the MSWI feedstock material. Furthermore, the comparison between the BCR176 and the renewed BCR176R indicates a decrease in Os concentration of one order of magnitude over the years (from 1 to 0.1 ng/g) due to improved recycling efficiency of Os-bearing waste. The estimated annual amount of Os from a typical incinerator (using average Os values and MSWI mass balance) is 13.4 g/a. The osmium potentially released from MSWI smokestacks is predicted to be from 16 to 38 ng Os/m{sup 2}/a, considering a medium size country having 50 MSWI facilities; therefore much higher than the naturally transported osmium from continental dust in the atmosphere (about 1 pg Os/m{sup 2}/a). MSWI systems are considered one of the best options for municipal solid waste management in industrialised countries, but their contribution to the Os budget can be significant. - Highlights: • Bottom and fly ashes from municipal solid waste incinerators are investigated. • Their Os levels and Os isotopic signatures are discussed. • An estimate of Os release from incinerators and incinerated ashes is given. • Os contamination from incineration plants impacts the geochemical Os cycle.

  14. Leaching behaviour of municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash: From granular material to monolithic concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorlini, Sabrina; Collivignarelli, Maria Cristina; Abbà, Alessandro

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this work was to assess the leaching behaviour of the bottom ash derived from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) used in concrete production. In particular, the release of pollutants was evaluated by the application of different leaching tests, both on granular materials and monolithic samples (concrete mixtures cast with bottom ash). The results confirmed that, according to Italian regulations, unwashed bottom ashes present critical issues for the use as alternative aggregates in the construction sector due to the excessive release of pollutants; instead, the leachate from washed bottom ashes was similar to natural aggregates. The concentration of pollutants in the leachate from concrete mixtures was lower than regulation limits for reuse. The crushing process significantly influenced the release of pollutants: this behaviour was due both to the increase in surface area and the release of contaminants from cement. Moreover, the increase in contact time (up to 64 days) involved more heavy metals to be released.

  15. Solidification/stabilization of fly and bottom ash from medical waste incineration facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastasiadou, Kalliopi; Christopoulos, Konstantinos; Mousios, Epameinontas; Gidarakos, Evangelos

    2012-03-15

    In the present work, the stabilization/solidification of fly and bottom ash generated from incinerated hospital waste was studied. The objectives of the solidification/stabilization treatment were therefore to reduce the leachability of the heavy metals present in these materials so as to permit their disposal in a sanitary landfill requiring only a lower degree of environmental protection. Another objective of the applied treatment was to increase the mechanical characteristics of the bottom ash using different amounts of Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) as a binder. The solidified matrix showed that the cement is able to immobilize the heavy metals found in fly and bottom ash. The TCLP leachates of the untreated fly ash contain high concentrations of Zn (13.2 mg/l) and Pb (5.21 mg/l), and lesser amounts of Cr, Fe, Ni, Cu, Cd and Ba. Cement-based solidification exhibited a compressive strength of 0.55-16.12 MPa. The strength decreased as the percentage of cement loading was reduced; the compressive strength was 2.52-12.7 MPa for 60% cement mixed with 40% fly ash and 6.62-16.12 MPa for a mixture of 60% cement and 40% bottom ash. The compressive strength reduced to 0.55-1.30 MPa when 30% cement was mixed with 70% fly ash, and to 0.90-7.95 MPa when 30% cement was mixed with 70% bottom ash, respectively. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Conditioning of ashes from incineration plant in special furnaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganser, B.

    1988-01-01

    In this report we describe the development of a melting process for radioactive ashes. After a literature survey about the state of the art and investigated ash compositions the in-can-melting was elected for further work. Based on literature data lab experiments with inactive simulates were performed to investigate different additives (net work formers and transformers) for melting point reduction. Na-Tetraborate was most effective. An addition of 50% by weight (concerning ash weight) was sufficient to melt all simulates at 1000 0 C. The products showed similar low leach rates like vitrified HAW. With two different melting furnaces (Naber, LINN) full scale experiments were performed. The results were not quite sufficient because of uncomplete melting (Naber) resp. unsufficient operation (LINN). Nevertheless the results of the lab experiments could be nearly verified (Compressive strength 60-160 N/mm 2 , Diffusion coefficient for Boron E-17 - E-19 m 2 /s). Based on the technical experiments a plant was designed for hot operation. A cost estimation for conditioning and final disposal amounted to 19 DM/kg ash. (orig.) [de

  17. Influence of ammonia on leaching behaviors of incineration fly ash and its geochemical modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard; Guan, Zhen Zhen; Chen, De Zhen

    2013-01-01

    Incineration fly ash could be contaminated with NH3 that was slipped from the ammonia-based selective non-catalytic reduction(SNCR) process and from evaporation of municipal solid wastes' leachate involved in the wastes. This research was conducted to investigate the impacts of ammonia on leaching....... It was proved that at pH>9, the leaching of DOC increased significantly in the presence of high concentrations of ammonia (≥1357 mg·L-1), but there was little effect when the ammonia level in eluates was not higher than 537 mg·L-1. At pH12, for Cd, Cu, Ni and Zn, their leaching species were predominantly...... by precipitation/dissolution and surface complexation/precipitation processes; Visual MINTEQ modeling could well describe the leaching behaviors of Al, Cu, Pb and Zn from incineration fly ash....

  18. Metallic elements occurrences within metallic fragments in the municipal waste incineration bottom ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalski, Piotr; Kasina, Monika; Michalik, Marek

    2017-04-01

    Bottom ash (BA) from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) is composed of grainy ash material, residual components and metallic fragments (from few µm up to 3-5 cm). Its mineral and chemical composition is related to the composition of the waste stream in the incinerator operational area. Wide use of thermal techniques in management of solid waste makes important the studies on valuable components and their distribution within the material in terms of their further processing. By using various valorization or extraction techniques it is possible to extend the range of its possible further application. To investigate metallic elements distribution within metallic fragments of the MSWI BA material produced in municipal waste incineration plant in Poland were collected in 2015 and 2016. BA and its components were investigated using spectroscopic methods of chemical analysis: ICP-OES, ICP-MS, LECO and EDS (used for microanalysis during SEM observations). BA is a material rich in Si (22.5 wt%), Ca (13.4 wt%), Fe (4 wt%), Al (5.2 wt%) and Na (3.5 wt%), composed of equal part of amorphous (silicate glass dominated) and crystalline phase (rich in silicates, aluminosilicates, oxides of non- and metallic elements and sulphates). The content of metallic elements (Al, Fe, Mg, Ti, Mn, Cr, Ni, Sc, Mo, Cu, Pb, Zn, Sn) is 11.5 wt% with domination of Al (5.2 wt%) and Fe (4 wt%) and elevated values of Mg (1 wt%), Ti (0.54 wt%), Cu (0.26 wt%) and Zn (0.27 wt%) (Kowalski et al., 2016). They were mostly concentrated in the form of metallic fragments, mainly as metallic inclusions in the size of 1-20 µm and separated metallic grains in the size of 50-300 µm. Metallic fragments present in the BA are characterized by their composition heterogeneity and various oxygen content. Fragments are rarely composed of single metallic element and usually in their composition up to few main elements dominated over others. The most common were Fe-, Al- and Zn-rich fragments forming respectively

  19. Re-use of stabilised flue gas ashes from solid waste incineration in cement-treated base layers for pavements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cai, Zuansi; Jensen, Dorthe Lærke; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2003-01-01

    Fly ash from coal-burning power plants has been used extensively as a pozzolan and fine filter in concrete for many years. Laboratory experiments were performed investigating the effect of substituting the coal-based fly ash with chemically stabilised flue gas ashes (FGA) from waste incineration...... more than 5 MPa after 7 days. The tank leaching tests revealed that leaching of heavy metals was not significantly affected by the use of chemically stabilised flue gas ashes from waste incineration. Assuming that diffusion controls the leaching process it was calculated that less than 1% of the metals...... would teach during a 100-year period from a 0.5 m thick concrete stab exposed to water on one side. Leaching of the common ions Ca, Cl, Na and SO4 was increased 3-20 times from the specimens with chemically stabilised flue gas ashes from waste incineration. However, the quantities leached were still...

  20. Plutonium recovery from incinerator ash and centrifuge sludge by peroxide fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Partridge, J.A.; Wheelwright, E.J.

    1975-05-01

    A technique was demonstrated for solubilizing the plutonium contained in incinerator ash and in other waste solids (such as solids accumulated by centrifugation after solvent extraction contacts in the plutonium reclamation facility at Hanford). A sodium hydroxide--sodium peroxide fusion is performed on the Pu-containing solids. The cooled melt is then dissolved in dilute nitric acid. Mild steel cans were used as ''single use'' crucibles for the fusions. Both the can and the cooled melt are dissolved in nitric acid. Fusion tests were conducted on three different cans of incinerator ash and on one can of centrifuge sludge. The series of tests demonstrated that a caustic-peroxide fusion treatment can yield 95 percent or greater recovery of plutonium from these waste solids. In most cases, quantitative recovery of the plutonium can probably be achieved by recycling the residual solids obtained in aqueous dissolution of the cooled fusion mixture. Tests with some of the incinerator ash and with the centrifuge sludge resulted in gelatinous precipitates which were difficult to separate from the nitric acid dissolver solutions. These gelatinous precipitates present what is probably the major problem to be overcome in the use of this Pu recovery method. Techniques need to be examined for making these residual solids less difficult to separate from the dissolver solution. (U.S.)

  1. Metal removal from Municipal Solid Waste Incineration fly ash: A comparison between chemical leaching and bioleaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funari, V; Mäkinen, J; Salminen, J; Braga, R; Dinelli, E; Revitzer, H

    2017-02-01

    Bio- and hydrometallurgical experimental setups at 2-l reactor scale for the processing of fly ash from municipal waste incinerators were explored. We aimed to compare chemical H 2 SO 4 leaching and bioleaching; the latter involved the use of H 2 SO 4 and a mixed culture of acidophilic bacteria. The leaching yields of several elements, including some of those considered as critical (Mg, Co, Ce, Cr, Ga, Nb, Nd, Sb and Sm), are provided. At the end of the experiments, both leaching methods resulted in comparable yields for Mg and Zn (>90%), Al and Mn (>85%), Cr (∼65%), Ga (∼60%), and Ce (∼50%). Chemical leaching showed the best yields for Cu (95%), Fe (91%), and Ni (93%), whereas bioleaching was effective for Nd (76%), Pb (59%), and Co (55%). The two leaching methods generated solids of different quality with respect to the original material as we removed and significantly reduced the metals amounts, and enriched solutions where metals can be recovered for example as mixed salts for further treatment. Compared to chemical leaching the bioleaching halved the use of H 2 SO 4 , i.e., a part of agent costs, as a likely consequence of bio-produced acid and improved metal solubility. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Distribution and leaching characteristics of trace elements in ashes as a function of different waste fuels and incineration technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saqib, Naeem; Bäckström, Mattias

    2015-10-01

    Impact of waste fuels (virgin/waste wood, mixed biofuel (peat, bark, wood chips) industrial, household, mixed waste fuel) and incineration technologies on partitioning and leaching behavior of trace elements has been investigated. Study included 4 grate fired and 9 fluidized boilers. Results showed that mixed waste incineration mostly caused increased transfer of trace elements to fly ash; particularly Pb/Zn. Waste wood incineration showed higher transfer of Cr, As and Zn to fly ash as compared to virgin wood. The possible reasons could be high input of trace element in waste fuel/change in volatilization behavior due to addition of certain waste fractions. The concentration of Cd and Zn increased in fly ash with incineration temperature. Total concentration in ashes decreased in order of Zn>Cu>Pb>Cr>Sb>As>Mo. The concentration levels of trace elements were mostly higher in fluidized boilers fly ashes as compared to grate boilers (especially for biofuel incineration). It might be attributed to high combustion efficiency due to pre-treatment of waste in fluidized boilers. Leaching results indicated that water soluble forms of elements in ashes were low with few exceptions. Concentration levels in ash and ash matrix properties (association of elements on ash particles) are crucial parameters affecting leaching. Leached amounts of Pb, Zn and Cr in >50% of fly ashes exceeded regulatory limit for disposal. 87% of chlorine in fly ashes washed out with water at the liquid to solid ratio 10 indicating excessive presence of alkali metal chlorides/alkaline earths. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Electrodialytic removal of heavy metals from municipal solid waste incineration fly ash using ammonium citrate as assisting agent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anne Juul; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Villumsen, Arne

    2005-01-01

    Electrodialytic remediation, an electrochemically assisted separation method, has previ-ously shown potential for removal of heavy metals from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) fly ashes. In this work electrodialytic remediation of MSWI fly ash using ammonium citrate as assisting agent...

  4. Characterization of cement and bitumen waste forms containing simulated low-level waste incinerator ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westsik, J.H. Jr.

    1984-08-01

    Incinerator ash from the combustion of general trash and ion exchange resins was immobilized in cement and bitumen. Tests were conducted on the resulting waste forms to provide a data base for the acceptability of actual low-level waste forms. The testing was done in accordance with the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission Technical Position on Waste Form. Bitumen had a measured compressive strength of 130 psi and a leachability index of 13 as measured with the ANS 16.1 leach test procedure. Cement demonstrated a compressive strength of 1400 psi and a leachability index of 7. Both waste forms easily exceed the minimum compressive strength of 50 psi and leachability index of 6 specified in the Technical Position. Irradiation to 10 8 Rad and exposure to 31 thermal cycles ranging from +60 0 ) to -30 0 C did not significantly impact these properties. Neither waste form supported bacterial or fungal growth as measured with ASTM G21 and G22 procedures. However, there is some indication of biodegradation due to co-metabolic processes. Concentration of organic complexants in leachates of the ash, cement and bitumen were too low to significantly affect the release of radionuclides from the waste forms. Neither bitumen nor cement containing incinerator ash caused any corrosion or degradation of potential container materials including steel, polyethylene and fiberglass. However, moist ash did cause corrosion of the steel

  5. A Study of the Stability and Characterization Plutonium Dioxide and Chemical Characterization [of] Rocky Flats and Los Alamos Plutonium-Containing Incinerator Ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ray, A.K.; Boettger, J.C.; Behrens, Robert G.

    1999-01-01

    In the presentation ''A Study of the Stability and Characterization of Plutonium Dioxide'', the authors discuss their recent work on actinide stabilities and characterization, in particular, plutonium dioxide PuO 2 . Earlier studies have indicated that PuO 2 has the fluorite structure of CaF 2 and typical oxide semiconductor properties. However, detailed results on the bulk electronic structure of this important actinide oxide have not been available. The authors have used all-electron, full potential linear combinations Gaussian type orbitals fitting function (LCGTO-FF) method to study PuO 2 . The LCGTO-FF technique characterized by its use of three independent GTO basis sets to expand the orbitals, charge density, and exchange-correlation integral kernels. Results will be presented on zero pressure using both the Hedin-Lundquist local density approximation (LDA) model or the Perdew-Wang generalized gradient approximation (GGA) model. Possibilities of different characterizations of PuO 2 will be explored. The paper ''Chemical Characterization Rocky Flats and Los Alamos Plutonium-Containing Incinerator Ash'' describes the results of a comprehensive study of the chemical characteristics of virgin, calcined and fluorinated incinerator ash produced at the Rocky Flats Plant and at the Los Alamos National Laboratory prior to 1988. The Rocky Flats and Los Alamos virgin, calcined, and fluorinated ashes were also dissolved using standard nitrate dissolution chemistry. Corresponding chemical evaluations were preformed on the resultant ash heel and the results compared with those of the virgin ash. Fluorination studies using FT spectroscopy as a diagnostic tool were also performed to evaluate the chemistry of phosphorus, sulfur, carbon, and silicon containing species in the ash. The distribution of plutonium and other chemical elements with the virgin ash, ash heel, fluorinated ash, and fluorinated ash heel particulates were studied in detail using microprobe analysis. Some

  6. Geo-environmental application of municipal solid waste incinerator ash stabilized with cement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davinder Singh

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The behavior of soluble salts contained in the municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI ash significantly affects the strength development and hardening reaction when stabilized with cement. The present study focuses on the compaction and strength behavior of mixed specimens of cement and MSWI ash. A series of indices such as unconfined compressive strength, split tensile strength, California bearing ratio (CBR and pH value was examined. Prior to this, the specimens were cured for 7 d, 14 d, and 28 d. The test results depict that the maximum dry density (MDD decreases and the optimum moisture content (OMC increases with the addition of cement. The test results also reveal that the cement increases the strength of the mixed specimens. Thus, the combination of MSWI ash and cement can be used as a lightweight filling material in different structures like embankment and road construction.

  7. Extracting phosphorous from incinerated sewage sludge ash rich in iron or aluminum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Kirkelund, Gunvor M.; Jensen, Pernille E.

    2013-01-01

    Ashes from mono-incineration of sewage sludge (ISSA) generally contain high concentrations of phosphorous (P) and can be regarded as secondary P resources. ISSA has no direct value as fertilizer as P is not plant available. The present paper experimentally compares P extraction in acid from two...... different ISSAs; one rich in Al (67g/kg) and the other in Fe (58g/kg). The difference related to P precipitation at the waste water treatment facilities. Another major difference between the ashes was that flue gas purification products were mixed into the first ash and it contained about 5% activated.......Formation of a high amount of gypsum crystals in both ashes after extraction in H2SO4 was seen by SEM–EDX. H2SO4 is the cheapest mineral ash, but the gypsum formation must be taken into account when either finding possibility for using the remaining ash in e.g. construction materials or if the choice is deposition...

  8. Destruction of inorganic municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash in a DC arc plasma furnace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Peng; Ni, Guohua; Jiang, Yiman; Chen, Longwei; Chen, Mingzhou; Meng, Yuedong

    2010-09-15

    Due to the toxicity of dioxins, furans and heavy metals, there is a growing environmental concern on municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) fly ash in China. The purpose of this study is directed towards the volume-reduction of fly ash without any additive by thermal plasma and recycling of vitrified slag. This process uses extremely high-temperature in an oxygen-starved environment to completely decompose complex waste into very simple molecules. For developing the proper plasma processes to treat MSWI fly ash, a new crucible-type plasma furnace was built. The melting process metamorphosed fly ash to granulated slag that was less than 1/3 of the volume of the fly ash, and about 64% of the weight of the fly ash. The safety of the vitrified slag was tested. The properties of the slag were affected by the differences in the cooling methods. Water-cooled and composite-cooled slag showed more excellent resistance against the leaching of heavy metals and can be utilized as building material without toxicity problems. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Formation and degradation of PCDD/F in waste incineration ashes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundin, Lisa

    2007-11-01

    The disposal of combustible wastes by incineration is a controversial issue that is strongly debated by both scientists and environmental activists due to the resulting emissions of noxious compounds, including (inter alia) polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs), heavy metals and acid gases like sulfur dioxide. Currently available air pollution control devices are capable of effectively cleaning flue gases, and PCDD/F emissions to air from modern municipal solid waste (MSW) incinerators are low. However, the PCDD and PCDF end up in ash fractions that, in Sweden, are usually deposited in landfills. The European Union has recently set a maximum permitted total concentration of 15 μg TEQ/kg for PCDD/F species in waste. Fly ash from municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration containing PCDD/Fs at concentrations above this limit will have to be remediated to avoid disposing of them in landfills; an expensive and environmentally unfriendly option. Therefore, effective, reliable and cost-effective methods for degrading PCDD/F in fly ash are required, and a better understanding of the behavior of PCDDs and PCDFs during thermal treatment will be needed to develop them. In the studies this thesis is based upon both the formation and degradation of PCDDs and PCDFs in ashes from MSW incineration were studied. The main findings of the investigations regarding PCCD/F formation were: The concentrations of PCDD and PCDF in fly ash increased with reductions in the temperature in the post-combustion zone. The homologue profile in the ash changed when the temperature in the post-combustion zone changed. The final amounts of PCDD and PCDF present were affected by their rates of both formation and degradation, and the mechanisms involved differ between PCDDs and PCDFs. The main findings from the degradation studies were: The chemical composition of ash has a major impact on the degradation potential of PCDD and PCDF. The presence of oxygen during thermal

  10. Waste Incinerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-05-01

    This book deals with plan and design of waste incinerator, which includes process outline of waste, method of measure, test, analysis, combustion way and classification of incineration facilities, condition of combustion and incineration, combustion calculation and heat calculation, ventilation and flow resistivity, an old body and component materials of supplementary installation, attached device, protection of pollution of incineration ash and waste gas, deodorization, prevention of noise in incineration facility, using heat and electric heat, check order of incineration plan.

  11. Producing New Composite Materials by Using Tragacanth and Waste Ash

    OpenAIRE

    Yasar Bicer; Serif Yilmaz

    2013-01-01

    In present study, two kinds of thermal power plant ashes; one the fly ash and the other waste ash are mixed with adhesive tragacanth and cement to produce new composite materials. 48 new samples are produced by varying the percentages of the fly ash, waste ash, cement and tragacanth. The new samples are subjected to some tests to find out their properties such as thermal conductivity, compressive strength, tensile strength and sucking capability of water. It is found that; the thermal conduct...

  12. Geochemical modeling and assessment of leaching from carbonated municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) fly ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Chen, Qi; Jamro, Imtiaz Ali; Li, Rundong; Li, Yanlong; Li, Shaobai; Luan, Jingde

    2016-06-01

    Municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) fly ashes are characterized by high calcium oxide (CaO) content. Carbon dioxide (CO2) adsorption by MSWI fly ash was discussed based on thermogravimetry (TG)/differential thermal analysis (DTA), minerology analysis, and adapting the Stenoir equation. TG/DTA analysis showed that the weight gain of the fly ash below 440 °C was as high as 5.70 %. An adapted Stenoir equation for MSWI fly ash was discussed. The chloride in MSWI fly ash has a major impact on CO2 adsorption by MSWI fly ash or air pollution control (APC) residues. Geochemical modeling of the critical trace elements copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd), zinc (Zn), lead (Pb), and antimony (Sb) before and after carbonation was performed using a thermodynamic equilibrium model for solubility and a surface complexation model for metal sorption. Leaching of critical trace elements was generally found to be strongly dependent on the degree of carbonation attained, and their solubility appeared to be controlled by several minerals. Adsorption on ferrum (Fe) and aluminum (Al) colloids was also responsible for removal of the trace elements Cd, Pb, and Sb. We used Hakanson's potential ecological risk index (HPERI) to evaluate the risk of trace element leaching in general. The results demonstrate that the ecological risk showed a V-shaped dependency on pH; the optimum pH of the carbonated fly ash was found to be 10.3-11, resulting from the optimum carbonation (liquid-to-solid (L/S) ratio = 0.25, carbonation duration = ∼30-48 h). The dataset and modeling results presented here provide a contribution to assessing the leaching behavior of MSWI fly ash under a wide range of conditions.

  13. Elution behavior of heavy metals from cement solidified products of incinerated ash waste - 59102

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meguro, Yoshihiro; Kawato, Yoshimi; Nakayama, Takuya; Tomioka, Osamu; Mitsuda, Motoyuki

    2012-01-01

    A method, in which incinerated ash is solidified with a cement material, has been developed to dispose radioactive incinerated ash waste. In order to bury the solidified product, it is required that elution of hazardous heavy metals included in the ash from the solidified products is inhibited. In this study, the elution behavior of the heavy metals from the synthetic solidified products, which included Pb(II), Cd(II), and Cr(VI) and were prepared using ordinary portland cement (OPC), blast furnace slag cement (BFS), or a cement material that showed low alkalinity (LA-Cement), was investigated. Several chemicals and materials were added as additive agents to prevent the elution of the heavy metals. When OPC was used, Cd elution was inhibited, but Pb and Cr were not enough even using the additive agent examined. FeSO 4 and Na 2 S additive agents worked effective to inhibit elution of Cr. When BFS was used, the elution of Pb, Cd and Cr was inhibited for the all products prepared. In the case of LA-Cement, the elution of Pb and Cd was inhibited for the all products, but only the product that was added FeSO 4 showed good result of the elution of Cr. (authors)

  14. Elemental analysis of bottom ash from municipal incinerator by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S. H.; Jang, S. H.; Moon, J. H.; Jung, Y. S.; Kim, Y. J.

    2003-01-01

    Elemental analysis of bottom ash generated from municipal solid waste incinerator was performed by neutron activation analysis. For this study, ash samples monthly collected from incinerator in D city were sieved with 5 mm mesh size, dried, pulverized by agate mortar and finally re-sieved with 200μ mesh size. Prepared samples were irradiated by neutrons using NAA No.1 irradiation hole in Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute. Activated samples were measured by gamma-ray spectrometer according to the relevant nuclear properties of target nuclides and the concentration of 33 elements were determined from the collected ash samples. Quality control was conducted by comparative analysis with two NIST standard reference materials simultaneously. Mean values and standard deviations of hazardous elements such as As, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Sb and Zn among the determined elements were 3.8±6.9mg/kg, 620±0.12 %, 4.76±0.37 %, 0.26±0.10 %, 115±29 mg/kg and 0.71±0.19 %, respectively

  15. The starting up of a pilot plant for radioactive incinerator ash conditioning - results of two embedding campaigns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kertesz, C.J.; Chenavas, P.R.; Naud, G.M.

    1990-01-01

    A new pilot plant called 'PICC' designed for radioactive incinerator ash conditioning, by embedding in several matrices, was launched at the Nuclear Research Centre in Cadarache - France - in the middle of 1988. This polyvalent facility can work with the three following embedding products = cement, thermosetting epoxide resin and an epoxide-cement compound. The capacity per day of the plant is two 100 or 200 I drums of solidified ash form. Two embedding campaigns have been carried out on inactive ashes: the first is a cementation campaign, done on phosphated ash coming from incineration of spent tributylphosphate. The second is a polymer cement campaign done on simulated alpha ash coming from technological wastes. Description of the PICC and data on these two campaigns are given

  16. Sorption of cadmium and lead by clays from municipal incinerator ash- water suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, W.R.; Krapac, I.G.; Steele, J.D.

    1993-01-01

    The effect of Cl complexation in extracts of a flue gas-scrubber incinerator fly ash sample on the sorption of Cd and Pb by kaolinite and illite was investigated using batch-sorption methods. In the pH range of 5 to 9, Cl complexation may reduce sorption and thus increase the mobility of these metals. When an ash-water suspension was acidified to pH 6.85, the dissolution of Cl and Ca essentially eliminated Cd sorption because of complexation and cationic competition. Cadmium would be considered as either mobile or very mobile under these conditions. Lead was not soluble in the pH- 6.85 suspension. At pH 12, the approximate pH of water in contact with flue gas-scrubber fly ash, Cd was essentially insoluble and Pb occurred as anionic Pb hydroxide. Anionic Pb was sorbed by the two clays, and the extent of sorption was not influenced by Cl or carbonate complexation. Sorption constants, derived from isotherms, suggested that Pb would be relatively immobile in saturated soil-water systems. The recent concern that highly alkaline, flue gas-scrubber fly ash may release environmentally significant concentrations of mobile Pb when placed in an ash-disposal site with a soil liner should be reevaluated in light of this study.

  17. Retention and leaching of nitrite by municipal solid waste incinerator bottom ash under the landfill circumstance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Jun; Kong, Qingna; Zhu, Huayue; Long, Yuyang; Shen, Dongsheng

    2015-01-01

    The retention and leaching of nitrite by municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) bottom ash could affect its migration in the landfill. In this study, the effect of the dosage of MSWI bottom ash as well as the variation of the landfill environmental parameters including pH, anions and organic matter on the nitrite retention and leaching behavior was investigated by batch experiments. The highest removal percentage (73.0%) of nitrite was observed when the dosage of MSWI bottom ash was 10 g L(-1) in 2 mg L(-1) nitrite solution. Further increase of the dosage would retard the retention, as the nitrite leaching from MSWI bottom ash was enhanced. The optimum retention of nitrite was observed when the pH was 5.0, while the leaching of nitrite showed a consistent reduction with the increase of pH. Besides, the presence of Cl(-), SO4(2)(-) and acetic acid could enhance the leaching of nitrite and mitigate the retention process. However, the retention of nitrite was enhanced by PO4(3)(-), which was probably due to the formation of the apatite, an active material for the adsorption of the nitrite. These results suggested that MSWI bottom ash could affect the migration of nitrite in the landfill, which was related to the variation of the landfill circumstance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Particle size distribution of fly ash from co-incineration of bituminous coal with municipal solid waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cieślik Ewelina

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the source of air pollutants is emission from local coal-fired boiler-houses and domestic heating boilers. The consequence of incineration of municipal waste is the introduction of additional pollutants into the atmosphere, including fly ash. The aim of this work was to evaluate the particle size distribution of fly ash emitted by coal combustion and co-incineration of coal with municipal waste in a domestic 18 kW central heating boiler equipped with an automatic fuel feeder. Mixtures of bituminous coal with different types of solid waste (5, 10 and 15% of mass fraction were used. Solid waste types consisted of: printed, colored PE caps, fragmented cable trunking, fragmented car gaskets and shredded tires from trucks. During the incineration of a given mixture of municipal waste with bituminous coal, the velocity of exhaust gas was specified, the concentration and mass flow of fly ash were determined together with the physico-chemical parameters of the exhaust gas, the samples of emitted fly ash were taken as the test material. Particle size analysis of fly ash was performed using laser particle sizer Fritch Analysette 22. The PM10 share from all fly ashes from incineration of mixtures was about 100%. Differences were noted between PM2.5 and PM1.

  19. Particle size distribution of fly ash from co-incineration of bituminous coal with municipal solid waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cieślik, Ewelina; Konieczny, Tomasz; Bobik, Bartłomiej

    2018-01-01

    One of the source of air pollutants is emission from local coal-fired boiler-houses and domestic heating boilers. The consequence of incineration of municipal waste is the introduction of additional pollutants into the atmosphere, including fly ash. The aim of this work was to evaluate the particle size distribution of fly ash emitted by coal combustion and co-incineration of coal with municipal waste in a domestic 18 kW central heating boiler equipped with an automatic fuel feeder. Mixtures of bituminous coal with different types of solid waste (5, 10 and 15% of mass fraction) were used. Solid waste types consisted of: printed, colored PE caps, fragmented cable trunking, fragmented car gaskets and shredded tires from trucks. During the incineration of a given mixture of municipal waste with bituminous coal, the velocity of exhaust gas was specified, the concentration and mass flow of fly ash were determined together with the physico-chemical parameters of the exhaust gas, the samples of emitted fly ash were taken as the test material. Particle size analysis of fly ash was performed using laser particle sizer Fritch Analysette 22. The PM10 share from all fly ashes from incineration of mixtures was about 100%. Differences were noted between PM2.5 and PM1.

  20. Chemical associations and mobilization of heavy metals in fly ash from municipal solid waste incineration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weibel, Gisela; Eggenberger, Urs; Schlumberger, Stefan; Mäder, Urs K

    2017-04-01

    This study focusses on chemical and mineralogical characterization of fly ash and leached filter cake and on the determination of parameters influencing metal mobilization by leaching. Three different leaching processes of fly ash from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) plants in Switzerland comprise neutral, acidic and optimized acidic (+ oxidizing agent) fly ash leaching have been investigated. Fly ash is characterized by refractory particles (Al-foil, unburnt carbon, quartz, feldspar) and newly formed high-temperature phases (glass, gehlenite, wollastonite) surrounded by characteristic dust rims. Metals are carried along with the flue gas (Fe-oxides, brass) and are enriched in mineral aggregates (quartz, feldspar, wollastonite, glass) or vaporized and condensed as chlorides or sulphates. Parameters controlling the mobilization of neutral and acidic fly ash leaching are pH and redox conditions, liquid to solid ratio, extraction time and temperature. Almost no depletion for Zn, Pb, Cu and Cd is achieved by performing neutral leaching. Acidic fly ash leaching results in depletion factors of 40% for Zn, 53% for Cd, 8% for Pb and 6% for Cu. The extraction of Pb and Cu are mainly limited due to a cementation process and the formation of a PbCu 0 -alloy-phase and to a minor degree due to secondary precipitation (PbCl 2 ). The addition of hydrogen peroxide during acidic fly ash leaching (optimized acidic leaching) prevents this reduction through oxidation of metallic components and thus significantly higher depletion factors for Pb (57%), Cu (30%) and Cd (92%) are achieved. The elevated metal depletion using acidic leaching in combination with hydrogen peroxide justifies the extra effort not only by reduced metal loads to the environment but also by reduced deposition costs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Phosphorus recovery and leaching of trace elements from incinerated sewage sludge ash (ISSA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Le; Li, Jiang-Shan; Guo, Ming Zhi; Cheeseman, C R; Tsang, Daniel C W; Donatello, Shane; Poon, Chi Sun

    2018-02-01

    Chemical extraction of phosphorus (P) from incinerated sewage sludge ash (ISSA) is adversely influenced by co-dissolution of metals and metalloids. This study investigated P recovery and leaching of Zn, Cu, Pb, As and Ni from ISSA using inorganic acids (sulphuric acid and nitric acid), organic acids (oxalic acid and citric acid), and chelating agents (ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and ethylene diamine tetramethylene phosphonate (EDTMP)). The aim of this study was to optimize a leaching process to recover P-leachate with high purity for P fertilizer production. The results show that both organic and inorganic acids extract P-containing phases but organic acids leach more trace elements, particularly Cu, Zn, Pb and As. Sulphuric acid was the most efficient for P recovery and achieved 94% of total extraction under the optimal conditions, which were 2-h reaction with 0.2 mol/L H 2 SO 4 at a liquid-to-solid ratio of 20:1. EDTA extracted only 20% of the available P, but the leachates were contaminated with high levels of trace elements under optimum conditions (3-h reaction with EDTA at 0.02 mol/L, pH 2, and liquid-to-solid ratio of 20:1). Therefore, EDTA was considered an appropriate pre-treatment agent for reducing the total metal/metalloid content in ISSA, which produced negligible changes in the structure of ISSA and reduced contamination during subsequent P extraction using sulphuric acid. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of COSMOS technologies in detoxifying municipal solid waste incineration fly ash, preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccinelli, Elsa; Lasagni, Marina; Collina, Elena; Bonaiti, Stefania; Bontempi, Elza

    2017-05-01

    This study investigates the effect of technologies for heavy metal stabilization on the concentration of PolyChlorinatedDibenzo-p-Dioxins (PCDD) and PolyChlorinatedDibenzoFurans (PCDF), abbreviated PCDD/F, in Municipal Solid Waste Incineration (MSWI) fly ash. We determined the variation of the Total Organic Carbon (TOC) and PCDD/F concentration between raw and stabilized material. The technologies, that already proved to be very promising for heavy metal entrapment, showed encouraging results also for PCDD/F detoxification. This result could be very impacting on the management of MSWI fly ash: at the best of our knowledge, there are no methods, in literature, that can provide good results in stabilization of heavy metals, and abatement of chlorinated organic pollutants contained in the same matrix.

  3. Hydrothermal treatment of municipal solid waste incineration fly ash for dioxin decomposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Yuyan; Zhang, Pengfei; Chen, Dezhen; Zhou, Bin; Li, Jianyi; Li, Xian-wei

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The first study to apply Fe-sulfate in hydrothermal treatment of municipal solid waste incineration fly ash for dioxin decomposition. ► The first study to comprehensively evaluate the effect of hydrothermal treatment on dioxin decomposition and heavy metal stabilization in municipal solid waste incineration fly ash. ► Gaussian software chemical computational simulation was performed to investigate the mechanism of dioxin decomposition based on quantum chemistry calculation, and to support the experimental data by the calculation results. - Abstract: Hydrothermal treatment of MSWI fly ash was performed in this paper with a purpose to reduce its dioxin content. First a hydrothermal reactor was set up with a mixture of ferric sulphate and ferrous sulphate serviced as the reactant, then the effects caused by reaction conditions such as reaction temperature, pre-treatment by water-washing and reactant dosage were checked; the results showed that as a promising technology, hydrothermal treatment exhibited considerable high efficiencies in decomposition of PCDDs/PCDFs and good stabilization of heavy metals as well. Experimental results also showed that for dioxin destruction, higher reaction temperature is the most important influencing factor followed by Fe addition, and pre-treatment of raw fly ash by water-washing increased the destruction efficiencies of dioxins only very slightly. Finally with help of Gaussian software chemical computational simulation was performed to investigate the mechanism of dioxin decomposition based on quantum chemistry calculation. The calculation results were supported by the experimental data. The leaching toxicities of hydrothermal products were higher than upper limits defined in the latest Chinese standard GB 16889-2008 for sanitary landfill disposal, thus an auxiliary process is suggested after the hydrothermal treatment for heavy metal stabilization.

  4. Electrodialytic extraction of Cu, Pb and Cl from municipal solid waste incineration fly ash suspended in water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Lima, Ana Teresa; Pedersen, Anne Juul

    2006-01-01

    that is least soluble. Hence electrodialytic treatment of the ash suspended in water is not a solution to improve the ash quality in terms of Pb. The water-soluble Cl content per unit weight of the original ash was 12.4%. The removal of water-soluble Cl was efficient and >98% of Cl was removed (calculated......The possibility of using fly ash from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) in, for example, concrete is considered. MSWI fly ash, however, has too high a concentration of heavy metals, which may cause leaching problems during use or problems with waste handling at the end of the lifetime...... of the concrete. The Cl content in MSWI fly ash is also too high and will cause corrosion problems in reinforced concrete. The possibility of removing some of the unwanted heavy metals (Cu and Pb) together with Cl from an MSWI fly ash suspended in water using an electrodialytic separation method was investigated...

  5. Sulfidation treatment of molten incineration fly ashes with Na2S for zinc, lead and copper resource recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuchar, D; Fukuta, T; Onyango, M S; Matsuda, H

    2007-04-01

    The present study focuses on the conversion of heavy metals involved in molten incineration fly ashes to metal sulfides which could be thereafter separated by flotation. The sulfidation treatment was carried out for five molten incineration fly ashes (Fly ash-A to Fly ash-E) by contacting each fly ash with Na(2)S solution for a period of 10 min to 6h. The initial molar ratio of S(2-) to Me(2+) was adjusted to 1.20. The conversion of heavy metals to metal sulfides was evaluated by measuring the S(2-) residual concentrations using an ion selective electrode. The formation of metal sulfides was studied by XRD and SEM-EDS analyses. In the case of Fly ash-A to Fly ash-D, more than 79% of heavy metals of zinc, lead and copper was converted to metal sulfides within the contacting period of 0.5h owing to a fast conversion of metal chlorides to metal sulfides. By contrast, the conversion of about 35% was achieved for Fly ash-E within the same contacting period, which was attributed to a high content of metal oxides. Further, the S(2-) to Me(2+) molar ratio was reduced to 1.00 to minimize Na(2)S consumption and the conversions obtained within the contacting period of 0.5h varied from 76% for Fly ash-D to 91% for Fly ash-C. Finally, soluble salts such as NaCl and KCl were removed during the sulfidation treatment, which brought about a significant enrichment in metals content by a factor varying from 1.5 for Fly ash-D to 4.9 for Fly ash-A.

  6. Effect of municipal solid waste incinerator types on characteristics of ashes from different air pollution control devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Chien-Hsing; Chuang, Kui-Hao

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the characteristics of fly and bottom ashes sampled from both fluidized bed (FB) and mass-burning (MB) municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWIs), respectively. Fly ashes from different locations at FB and MB MSWIs equipped with a cyclone, a semi-dry scrubber, and a bag filter as air pollution control devices were examined to provide the baseline information between physicochemical properties and leaching ability. Experimental results of leachability indicated that the bag filter fly ash (FB-FA(B)) from the FB incinerator meets Taiwan regulatory standards set through the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure. X-ray diffraction results revealed the presence of Cr5O12 and Pb2O3 in the cyclone fly ash (MB-FA(C)) and bag filter fly ash (MB-FA(B)), respectively, from the MB incinerator. To observe lead incorporation mechanism, mixture of simulate lead-laden waste with bed material were fired between 600 °C and 900 °C in a laboratory scale FB reactor. The results clearly demonstrate a substantial decrease in lead leaching ratio for products with an appropriate temperature. The concentration of Pb in the MB-FA(B) was 250 times that in the FB-FA(B), suggesting that incineration of MSW in FB is a good strategy for stabilizing hazardous metals.

  7. Innovative solidification/stabilization of lead contaminated soil using incineration sewage sludge ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiangshan; Poon, Chi Sun

    2017-04-01

    The proper treatment of lead (Pb) contaminated soils and incinerated sewage sludge ash (ISSA) has become an environmental concern. In this study, ordinary Portland cement (OPC) and blended OPC containing incinerated sewage sludge ash (ISSA) were used to solidify/stabilize (S/S) soils contaminated with different concentrations of Pb. After curing for 7 and 28 d, the S/S soils were subjected to a series of strength, leaching and microscopic tests. The results showed that replacement of OPC by ISSA significantly reduced the unconfined compressive strength (UCS) of S/S soils and leached Pb. In addition, the leaching of Pb from the monolithic samples was diffusion controlled, and increasing the ISSA addition in the samples led to a lower diffusion coefficient and thus an increase in the feasibility for "controlled utilization" of S/S soils. Furthermore, the proposed S/S method significantly decreased the amount of Pb associated with carbonates and increased the amount of organic and residual Pb in S/S soils, reflecting that the risk of Pb contaminated soils can be effectively mitigated by the incorporating of ISSA. Overall, the leachability of Pb was controlled by the combined effect of adsorption, encapsulation or precipitation in the S/S soils. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Sintering systems for recycling plant fly ash and bottom ash from incineration plant. Production of artificial aggregate and permeable block by sintering method. Toshi gomi shokyakubai hibai no saishigenka gijutsu. Nenshoho ni yoru jinko kotsuzai to tosuisei block no seizo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okamura, T.; Masuno, K.; Kaneko, M. (Ebara Corp., Tokyo (Japan))

    1994-07-20

    With the background that making the incineration residue of municipal waste nonpollutant or recycling the residue have been an urgent problem, Japan's first incineration ash recycle experiment pilot plant was built in the Nanbu Waste Incineration Plant of Funabashi City in 1993. In this paper, the outline of the one-year plant operation has been introduced. This plant consists of an artificial aggregate production line and a permeable block production line. In the former line, the incineration or fly ash is combined with plasticizer (clay) and then added by moisture. After the mixed material is extruded and pelletized, the pellets are sintered in a rotary kiln to be artificial aggregate. The sintering temperature is 1200[degree]C at a maximum and throughput of the raw materials is 130 kg/h. The evaporated and dispersed salt or low boiling point heavy metals are mixed in the flue gas and collected with bug filters. To produce the permeable block, the following processes are executed: the artificial aggregate is crushed and combined with powdered glass, a binder. The resulting material, after press-molded, is sintered at the temperature of up to 1050[degree]C. The test results showed that the products and plant waste represent satisfactorily acceptable level. 9 figs., 5 tabs.

  9. Investigation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon content in fly ash and bottom ash of biomass incineration plants in relation to the operating temperature and unburned carbon content.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Košnář, Z.; Mercl, F.; Perná, Ivana; Tlustoš, P.

    563-564, SEP 1 (2016), s. 53-61 ISSN 0048-9697 Institutional support: RVO:67985891 Keywords : PAHs * biomass combustion * ashes * incineration temperature * combustibles Subject RIV: DK - Soil Contamination ; De-contamination incl. Pesticides Impact factor: 4.900, year: 2016

  10. A feasibility study of municipal solid waste incineration fly ash utilisation in Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berber, Hakan; Frey, Ruedi; Voronova, Viktoria; Koroljova, Arina

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss the alternative environmental management options for the utilisation of municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration fly ash (FA), which is generated at Iru Power Plant where MSW is incinerated in Estonia. To determine sustainable and economically feasible environmental management options for MSW incineration FA in Estonia, CO 2 sequestration with a further carbonation process was examined. A partial Cost & Benefit Analysis has been conducted to compare the carbonation process to the current situation. Two carbonation options were developed. Option 1 is to use carbonated FA in any other processes based on the waste-to-product principle. Option 2 is to send carbonated FA to the non-hazardous landfill in Tallinn, Estonia. Important parameters, such as Net Present Value (NPV), Internal Rate of Return (IRR), Benefit-Cost Ratio (BCR) and Break Even Point (BEP), have been calculated for carbonation options and the current case. In addition, a sensitivity analysis has been conducted to examine its robustness. The results showed that the best option is carbonation Option 1 with NPV of 9,209,662 EUR, IRR of 43%, BCR of 2.63 and BEP between 2018 and 2019. Both Options 1 and 2 constitute more sustainable and environmentally friendly management options compared to the current situation. It can be concluded that this preliminary feasibility study showed that running a carbonation plant may be profitable and sustainable for Estonia. Currently, there is no treatment technology for MSW incineration FA in Estonia and FA is sent to a neighbouring country for further utilisation. This is the first study to demonstrate FA management options with economic and environmental benefits.

  11. Rice Husk Ash to Stabilize Heavy Metals Contained in Municipal Solid Waste Incineration Fly Ash: First Results by Applying New Pre-treatment Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Benassi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A new technology was recently developed for municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI fly ash stabilization, based on the employment of all waste and byproduct materials. In particular, the proposed method is based on the use of amorphous silica contained in rice husk ash (RHA, an agricultural byproduct material (COSMOS-RICE project. The obtained final inert can be applied in several applications to produce “green composites”. In this work, for the first time, a process for pre-treatment of rice husk, before its use in the stabilization of heavy metals, based on the employment of Instant Pressure Drop technology (DIC was tested. The aim of this work is to verify the influence of the pre-treatment on the efficiency on heavy metals stabilization in the COSMOS-RICE technology. DIC technique is based on a thermomechanical effect induced by an abrupt transition from high steam pressure to a vacuum, to produce changes in the material. Two different DIC pre-treatments were selected and thermal annealing at different temperatures were performed on rice husk. The resulting RHAs were employed to obtain COSMOS-RICE samples, and the stabilization procedure was tested on the MSWI fly ash. In the frame of this work, some thermal treatments were also realized in O2-limiting conditions, to test the effect of charcoal obtained from RHA on the stabilization procedure. The results of this work show that the application of DIC technology into existing treatment cycles of some waste materials should be investigated in more details to offer the possibility to stabilize and reuse waste.

  12. Rice Husk Ash to Stabilize Heavy Metals Contained in Municipal Solid Waste Incineration Fly Ash: First Results by Applying New Pre-treatment Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benassi, Laura; Franchi, Federica; Catina, Daniele; Cioffi, Flavio; Rodella, Nicola; Borgese, Laura; Pasquali, Michela; Depero, Laura E.; Bontempi, Elza

    2015-01-01

    A new technology was recently developed for municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) fly ash stabilization, based on the employment of all waste and byproduct materials. In particular, the proposed method is based on the use of amorphous silica contained in rice husk ash (RHA), an agricultural byproduct material (COSMOS-RICE project). The obtained final inert can be applied in several applications to produce “green composites”. In this work, for the first time, a process for pre-treatment of rice husk, before its use in the stabilization of heavy metals, based on the employment of Instant Pressure Drop technology (DIC) was tested. The aim of this work is to verify the influence of the pre-treatment on the efficiency on heavy metals stabilization in the COSMOS-RICE technology. DIC technique is based on a thermomechanical effect induced by an abrupt transition from high steam pressure to a vacuum, to produce changes in the material. Two different DIC pre-treatments were selected and thermal annealing at different temperatures were performed on rice husk. The resulting RHAs were employed to obtain COSMOS-RICE samples, and the stabilization procedure was tested on the MSWI fly ash. In the frame of this work, some thermal treatments were also realized in O2-limiting conditions, to test the effect of charcoal obtained from RHA on the stabilization procedure. The results of this work show that the application of DIC technology into existing treatment cycles of some waste materials should be investigated in more details to offer the possibility to stabilize and reuse waste. PMID:28793605

  13. Relation between leaching characteristics of heavy metals and physical properties of fly ashes from typical municipal solid waste incinerators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Peng; Li, Hailong; Zhao, Yongchun; Zhang, Junying; Zheng, Chuguang

    2017-09-01

    Due to the alkalinity and high concentration of potentially hazardous heavy metals, fly ash from a municipal solid waste (MSW) incinerator is classified as hazardous waste, which should be of particular concern. Physical and chemical characterizations of the contrasted fly ashes were investigated to explore the relation between leaching characteristics of heavy metals and physical properties of fly ashes. The results showed that CaClOH, NaCl, Ca(OH) 2 , KCl and SiO 2 were primary mineral compositions in the MSWI fly ashes, and the particle size distribution of fly ash ranged between 10 μm and 300 μm. The smaller the particle size distribution of fly ash, the larger the BET-specific surface area, which was beneficial to the leaching of heavy metals. As a result of various pores, it easily accumulated heavy metals as well. The leaching tests exhibited a high leachability of heavy metals and the leaching concentration of Pb in almost all of the fly ash samples went far beyond the Standard for Pollution Control on the Landfill Site of Municipal Solid Waste. Thereupon, it is necessary to establish proper disposal systems and management strategies for environmental protection based on the characteristics of MSW incineration (MSWI) fly ash in China.

  14. Characterization and application of municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) bottom ash and waste granite powder in alkali activated slag

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gao, X.; Yuan, B.; Yu, Q. L.; Brouwers, H. J.H.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, the feasibility of using two solid wastes in alkali activated slag composites as construction and building materials is evaluated. One waste is the municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) bottom ash, and the other one is fine granite powder from aggregate manufacturing. These two

  15. The leaching of trace elements from municipal solid waste incinerator bottom ash at different stages of weathering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meima, J.A.; Comans, R.N.J.

    1999-01-01

    For a proper assessment of the environmental impact of the utilisation and disposal of Municipal Solid Waste Incinerator (MSWI) bottom ash it is necessary to understand weathering processes and their effects on (trace) element leaching. The authors have investigated the processes that control the

  16. Immobilization and encapsulation during vitrification of incineration ashes in a coke bed furnace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuo, Y.-M.; Lin, T.-C.; Tsai, P.-J.

    2006-01-01

    A real-scale coke bed furnace system has been successfully applied to vitrify the incineration ashes into glassy slags. The object of this research was to evaluate the effect of the system on the immobilization of metal species in the slag. Ashes and slag specimens were tested to identify their metal phase distribution following a sequential extraction procedure. The mobility of Al, Ca, Cd, Cr, Mg, Mn and Pb was noticeably reduced by vitrification. An important implication is the reduction of Cr 6+ to Cr 3+ along with its immobilization with this coke bed furnace. The Ni and Zn contents were relatively low in slag, indicating that their availability of mobile phases in ashes was reduced during vitrification. The XRD analyses identified the major crystalline phase in slag as akermanite, which is inert and helpful in metal immobilization. The phase distribution analysis also contributed to verify that the incorporation of Ca and Mg enhanced the encapsulation in the slag matrix. The low oxygen content in slag made the structure of silicate resistant to the proton-promoted attack and also enhanced the mobility reduction of matrix elements (Ca, Mg and Al) in the moderately reducible phase and also contributed to the immobilization of other metal species. However, the properties of slag also deserve further studies to ensure its long-term stability and safety

  17. Mechanisms contributing to the thermal analysis of waste incineration bottom ash and quantification of different carbon species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocca, Stefania; van Zomeren, André; Costa, Giulia; Dijkstra, Joris J; Comans, Rob N J; Lombardi, Francesco

    2013-02-01

    The focus of this study was to identify the main compounds affecting the weight changes of bottom ash (BA) in conventional loss on ignition (LOI) tests and to obtain a better understanding of the individual processes in heterogeneous (waste) materials such as BA. Evaluations were performed on BA samples from a refuse derived fuel incineration (RDF-I) plant and a hospital waste incineration (HW-I) plant using thermogravimetric analysis and subsequent mass spectrometry (TG-MS) analysis of the gaseous thermal decomposition products. Results of TG-MS analysis on RDF-I BA indicated that the LOI measured at 550°C was due to moisture evaporation and dehydration of Ca(OH)(2) and hydrocalumite. Results for the HW-I BA showed that LOI at 550°C was predominantly related to the elemental carbon (EC) content of the sample. Decomposition of CaCO(3) around 700°C was identified in both materials. In addition, we have identified reaction mechanisms that underestimate the EC and overestimate the CaCO(3) contents of the HW-I BA during TG-MS analyses. These types of artefacts are expected to occur also when conventional LOI methods are adopted, in particular for materials that contain CaO/Ca(OH)(2) in combination with EC and/or organic carbon, such as e.g. municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) bottom and fly ashes. We suggest that the same mechanisms that we have found (i.e. in situ carbonation) can also occur during combustion of the waste in the incinerator (between 450 and 650°C) demonstrating that the presence of carbonate in bottom ash is not necessarily indicative for weathering. These results may also give direction to further optimization of waste incineration technologies with regard to stimulating in situ carbonation during incineration and subsequent potential improvement of the leaching behavior of bottom ash. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Characterization of fly ashes from a municipal solid waste incinerator to explore its using in construction; Caracterizacion de cenizas procedentes de plantas de incineracion de residuos solidos urbanos para su posible utilizacion en construccion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alaejos Gutierrez, M. P.

    2002-07-01

    The paper describes the physical and chemical characterization of fly ashes from municipal solid waste incinerator. The objective is to explore potential applications of this residue in construction products. The results show the no pozzolanic nature of the fly ashes, so its utilization as mineral admixture is discarded. however, the study reveals the expansive character of the fly ashes when are mixed with water. The results of X-ray diffraction confirm the presence of metallic aluminium in the fly ash as the origin of this expansion. This chemical reaction generates a considerable amount of hydrogen, inflammable gas. Three ways to avoid this reaction are proposed. On the other way, the expansive behaviour of the fly ashes allow to explore its possible application to produce cellular mortars, as the traditional production of these mortars have several similarities with the reaction of fly ash and water. (Author) 9 refs.

  19. Development of an accelerated leaching method for incineration bottom ash correlated to toxicity characteristic leaching protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shengxuan; Zhou, Xuedong; Ge, Liya; Ng, Sum Huan; Zhou, Xiaodong; Chang, Victor Wei-Chung

    2016-10-01

    Heavy metals and some metalloids are the most significant inorganic contaminants specified in toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) in determining the safety of landfills or further utilization. As a consequence, a great deal of efforts had been made on the development of miniaturized analytical devices, such as Microchip Electrophoresis (ME) and μTAS for on-site testing of heavy metals and metalloids to prevent spreading of those pollutants or decrease the reutilization period of waste materials such as incineration bottom ash. However, the bottleneck lied in the long and tedious conventional TCLP that requires 18 h of leaching. Without accelerating the TCLP process, the on-site testing of the waste material leachates was impossible. In this study, therefore, a new accelerated leaching method (ALM) combining ultrasonic assisted leaching with tumbling was developed to reduce the total leaching time from 18 h to 30 min. After leaching, the concentrations of heavy metals and metalloids were determined with ICP-MS or ICP-optical emission spectroscopy. No statistical significance between ALM and TCLP was observed for most heavy metals (i.e., cobalt, manganese, mercury, molybdenum, nickel, silver, strontium, and tin) and metalloids (i.e., arsenic and selenium). For the heavy metals with statistical significance, correlation factors derived between ALM and TCLP were 0.56, 0.20, 0.037, and 0.019 for barium, cadmium, chromium, and lead, respectively. Combined with appropriate analytical techniques (e.g., ME), the ALM can be applied to rapidly prepare the incineration bottom ash samples as well as other environmental samples for on-site determination of heavy metals and metalloids. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Experimental investigation in separating the heavy metal elements of refuse incineration fly ashes by using molten iron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, J. [Chongqing Univ., Chongqing (China)]|[CPI-Yuanda Environmental-protection Engineering Co. Ltd., Chongqing (China); Liu, Q.; Dong, L. [Chongqing Univ., Chongqing (China); Du, Y. [CPI-Yuanda Environmental-protection Engineering Co. Ltd., Chongqing (China)

    2008-07-01

    One of the main waste treatment methods in the world for municipal solid waste (MSW) is incineration. It is effective in toxic substance destruction, waste volume reduction, and energy recovery. Some chemical substances are accumulated during incineration, most notably lead, zinc, chromium and cadmium, as well as other heavy metals. Untreated fly ash disposed in landfills can pollute the soil, surface water and groundwater because of the high levels of hazardous heavy metals and high salt concentration that can be leached out. This paper presented an experiment that melt-separated the heavy metal elements from fly ash generated during refuse incineration. Molted iron, was used as resolvent to dissolve the heavy metal elements in it. The paper described the materials and methods as well as the results of the study. It was concluded that using molted iron to separate the heavy metal elements from MSW incineration fly ash was feasible. The removal ratio of the main heavy metal elements was above 80 per cent, and some of it was above 99 per cent. 5 refs., 7 tabs., 1 fig.

  1. LCA of management strategies for RDF incineration and gasification bottom ash based on experimental leaching data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Gianfilippo, Martina; Costa, Giulia; Pantini, Sara; Allegrini, Elisa; Lombardi, Francesco; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2016-01-01

    The main characteristics and environmental properties of the bottom ash (BA) generated from thermal treatment of waste may vary significantly depending on the type of waste and thermal technology employed. Thus, to ensure that the strategies selected for the management of these residues do not cause adverse environmental impacts, the specific properties of BA, in particular its leaching behavior, should be taken into account. This study focuses on the evaluation of potential environmental impacts associated with two different management options for BA from thermal treatment of Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF): landfilling and recycling as a filler for road sub bases. Two types of thermal treatment were considered: incineration and gasification. Potential environmental impacts were evaluated by life-cycle assessment (LCA) using the EASETECH model. Both non-toxicity related impact categories (i.e. global warming and mineral abiotic resource depletion) and toxic impact categories (i.e. human toxicity and ecotoxicity) were assessed. The system boundaries included BA transport from the incineration/gasification plants to the landfills and road construction sites, leaching of potentially toxic metals from the BA, the avoided extraction, crushing, transport and leaching of virgin raw materials for the road scenarios, and material and energy consumption for the construction of the landfills. To provide a quantitative assessment of the leaching properties of the two types of BA, experimental leaching data were used to estimate the potential release from each of the two types of residues. Specific attention was placed on the sensitivity of leaching properties and the determination of emissions by leaching, including: leaching data selection, material properties and assumptions related to emission modeling. The LCA results showed that for both types of BA, landfilling was associated with the highest environmental impacts in the non-toxicity related categories. For the toxicity

  2. Geochemically structural characteristics of municipal solid waste incineration fly ash particles and mineralogical surface conversions by chelate treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitamura, Hiroki; Sawada, Takaya; Shimaoka, Takayuki; Takahashi, Fumitake

    2016-01-01

    Leaching behaviors of heavy metals contained in municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) fly ash have been studied well. However, micro-characteristics of MSWI fly ash particles are still uncertain and might be non-negligible to describe their leaching behaviors. Therefore, this study investigated micro-characteristics of MSWI fly ash particles, especially their structural properties and impacts of chelate treatment on surface characteristics. According to SEM observations, raw fly ash particles could be categorized into four types based on their shapes. Because chelate treatment changed the surface of fly ash particles dramatically owing to secondary mineral formations like ettringite, two more types could be categorized for chelate-treated fly ash particles. Acid extraction experiments suggest that fly ash particles, tested in this study, consist of Si-base insoluble core structure, Al/Ca/Si-base semi-soluble matrices inside the body, and KCl/NaCl-base soluble aggregates on the surface. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) observations of the same fly ash particles during twice moistening treatments showed that KCl/NaCl moved under wet condition and concentrated at different places on the particle surface. However, element mobility depended on secondary mineral formations. When insoluble mineral like gypsum was generated and covered the particle surface, it inhibited element transfer under wet condition. Surface characteristics including secondary mineral formation of MSWI fly ash particles are likely non-negligible to describe trace element leaching behaviors.

  3. Thermal co-treatment of combustible hazardous waste and waste incineration fly ash in a rotary kiln.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Florian; Blasenbauer, Dominik; Mallow, Ole; Lederer, Jakob; Winter, Franz; Fellner, Johann

    2016-12-01

    As current disposal practices for municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) fly ash are either associated with significant costs or negative environmental impacts, an alternative treatment was investigated in a field scale experiment. Thereto, two rotary kilns were fed with hazardous waste, and moistened MSWI fly ash (water content of 23%) was added to the fuel of one kiln with a ratio of 169kg/Mg hazardous waste for 54h and 300kg/Mg hazardous waste for 48h while the other kiln was used as a reference. It was shown that the vast majority (>90%) of the inserted MSWI fly ash was transferred to the bottom ash of the rotary kiln. This bottom ash complied with the legal limits for non-hazardous waste landfills, thereby demonstrating the potential of the investigated method to transfer hazardous waste (MSWI fly ash) into non-hazardous waste (bottom ash). The results of a simple mixing test (MSWI fly ash and rotary kiln bottom ash have been mixed accordingly without thermal treatment) revealed that the observed transformation of hazardous MSWI fly ash into non-hazardous bottom ash during thermal co-treatment cannot be referred to dilution, as the mixture did not comply with legal limits for non-hazardous waste landfills. For the newly generated fly ash of the kiln, an increase in the concentration of Cd, K and Pb by 54%, 57% and 22%, respectively, was observed. In general, the operation of the rotary kiln was not impaired by the MSWI fly ash addition. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Solidification and Biotoxicity Assessment of Thermally Treated Municipal Solid Waste Incineration (MSWI) Fly Ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Bing; Deng, Yi; Yang, Yuanyi; Tan, Swee Ngin; Liu, Qianni; Yang, Weizhong

    2017-06-10

    In the present work, thermal treatment was used to stabilize municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) fly ash, which was considered hazardous waste. Toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) results indicated that, after the thermal process, the leaching concentrations of Pb, Cu, and Zn decreased from 8.08 to 0.16 mg/L, 0.12 to 0.017 mg/L and 0.39 to 0.1 mg/L, respectively, which well met the limits in GB5085.3-2007 and GB16689-2008. Thermal treatment showed a negative effect on the leachability of Cr with concentrations increasing from 0.1 to 1.28 mg/L; nevertheless, it was still under the limitations. XRD analysis suggested that, after thermal treatments, CaO was newly generated. CaO was a main contribution to higher Cr leaching concentrations owing to the formation of Cr (VI)-compounds such as CaCrO₄. SEM/EDS tests revealed that particle adhesion, agglomeration, and grain growth happened during the thermal process and thus diminished the leachability of Pb, Cu, and Zn, but these processes had no significant influence on the leaching of Cr. A microbial assay demonstrated that all thermally treated samples yet possessed strong bactericidal activity according to optical density (OD) test results. Among all samples, the OD value of raw fly ash (RFA) was lowest followed by FA700-10, FA900-10, and FA1100-10 in an increasing order, which indicated that the sequence of the biotoxicity for these samples was RFA > FA700-10 > FA900-10 > FA1100-10. This preliminary study indicated that, apart from TCLP criteria, the biotoxicity assessment was indispensable for evaluating the effect of thermal treatment for MSWI fly ash.

  5. Sewage sludge ash (SSA) from large and small incineration plants as a potential source of phosphorus - Polish case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smol, Marzena; Kulczycka, Joanna; Kowalski, Zygmunt

    2016-12-15

    The aim of this research is to present the possibility of using the sewage sludge ash (SSA) generated in incineration plants as a secondary source of phosphorus (P). The importance of issues related to P recovery from waste materials results from European Union (UE) legislation, which indicated phosphorus as a critical raw material (CRM). Due to the risks of a shortage of supply and its impact on the economy, which is greater than other raw materials, the proper management of phosphorus resources is required in order to achieve global P security. Based on available databases and literature, an analysis of the potential use of SSA for P-recovery in Poland was conducted. Currently, approx. 43,000 Mg/year of SSA is produced in large and small incineration plants and according to in the Polish National Waste Management Plan 2014 (NWMP) further steady growth is predicted. This indicates a great potential to recycle phosphorus from SSA and to reintroduce it again into the value chain as a component of fertilisers which can be applied directly on fields. The amount of SSA generated in installations, both large and small, varies and this contributes to the fact that new and different P recovery technology solutions must be developed and put into use in the years to come (e.g. mobile/stationary P recovery installations). The creation of a database focused on the collection and sharing of data about the amount of P recovered in EU and Polish installations is identified as a helpful tool in the development of an efficient P management model for Poland. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Bioleaching of incineration fly ash by Aspergillus niger - precipitation of metallic salt crystals and morphological alteration of the fungus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Tong-Jiang; Ramanathan, Thulasya; Ting, Yen-Peng

    2014-09-01

    This study examines the bioleaching of municipal solid waste incineration fly ash by Aspergillus niger , and its effect on the fungal morphology, the fate of the ash particles, and the precipitation of metallic salt crystals during bioleaching. The fungal morphology was significantly affected during one-step and two-step bioleaching; scanning electron microscopy revealed that bioleaching caused distortion of the fungal hyphae (with up to 10 μm hyphae diameter) and a swollen pellet structure. In the absence of the fly ash, the fungi showed a linear structure (with 2-4 μm hyphae diameter). Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction confirmed the precipitation of calcium oxalate hydrate crystals at the surface of hyphae in both one-step and two-step bioleaching. Calcium oxalate precipitation affects bioleaching via the weakening of the fly ash, thus facilitating the release of other tightly bound metals in the matrix.

  7. Modified fly ash from municipal solid waste incineration as catalyst support for Mn-Ce composite oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiongbo; Liu, Ying; Yang, Ying; Ren, Tingyan; Pan, Lang; Fang, Ping; Chen, Dingsheng; Cen, Chaoping

    2017-08-01

    Fly ash from municipal solid waste incineration was modified by hydrothermal treatment and used as catalyst support for Mn-Ce composite oxides. The prepared catalyst showed good activity for the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NO by NH3. A NO conversion of 93% could be achieved at 300 °C under a GHSV of 32857 h-1. With the help of characterizations including XRD, BET, SEM, TEM, XPS and TPR, it was found that hydrothermal treatment brought a large surface area and abundant mesoporous to the modified fly ash, and Mn-Ce composite oxides were highly dispersed on the surface of the support. These physical and chemical properties were the intrinsic reasons for the good SCR activity. This work transformed fly ash into high value-added products, providing a new approach to the resource utilization and pollution control of fly ash.

  8. Leaching optimization of municipal solid waste incineration ash for resource recovery: A case study of Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jinfeng; Steenari, Britt-Marie

    2016-02-01

    Ash from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) may be quite cumbersome to handle. Some ash fractions contain organic pollutants, such as dioxins, as well as toxic metals. Additionally, some of the metals have a high value and are considered as critical to the industry. Recovery of copper, zinc and lead from MSWI ashes, for example, will not only provide valuable metals that would otherwise be landfilled but also give an ash residue with lower concentrations of toxic metals. In this work, fly ash and bottom ash from an MSWI facility was used for the study and optimization of metal leaching using different solutions (nitric acid, hydrochloric acid and sulfuric acid) and parameters (temperature, controlled pH value, leaching time, and liquid/solid ratio). It was found that hydrochloric acid is relatively efficient in solubilizing copper (68.2±6.3%) and zinc (80.8±5.3%) from the fly ash in less than 24h at 20°C. Efficient leaching of cadmium and lead (over 92% and 90% respectively) was also achieved. Bottom ash from the same combustion unit was also characterized and leached using acid. The metal yields were moderate and the leachates had a tendency to form a gelatinous precipitate, which indicates that the solutions were actually over-saturated with respect to some components. This gel formation will cause problems for further metal purification processes, e.g. solvent extraction. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Arc plasma incineration of surrogate radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girold, C.; Cartier, R.; Taupiac, J.P.; Vandensteendam, C.; Baronnet, J.M.

    1995-01-01

    The aim of this presentation is to demonstrate the feasibility to substitute a single plasma reactor, where the arc is transferred on a melt glass bath, for several steps in an existing nuclear technological wastes incinerator. The incineration of wastes, the produced gas treatment and the vitrification of ashes issued from waste incineration are the three simultaneous functions of this new kind of reactor. The three steps of the work are described: first, post-combustion in an oxygen plasma of gases generated from the waste pyrolysis, then, vitrification of ashes from the calcination of wastes in the transferred plasma furnace and finally, incineration/vitrification of wastes in the same furnace

  10. Physical and chemical characterization of fly ashes from Swiss waste incineration plants and determination of the ash fraction in the nanometer range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buha, Jelena; Mueller, Nicole; Nowack, Bernd; Ulrich, Andrea; Losert, Sabrina; Wang, Jing

    2014-05-06

    Waste incineration had been identified as an important source of ultrafine air pollutants resulting in elaborated treatment systems for exhaust air. Nowadays, these systems are able to remove almost all ultrafine particles. However, the fate of ultrafine particles caught in the filters has received little attention so far. Based on the use of engineered nano-objects (ENO) and their transfer into the waste stream, it can be expected that not only combustion generated nanoparticles are found in fly ashes but that many ENO finally end up in this matrix. A more detailed characterization of the nanoparticulate fraction of fly ashes is therefore needed. Physical and chemical characterizations were performed for fly ashes from five selected waste incineration plants (WIPs) with different input materials such as municipal waste, wood and sewage sludge. The intrinsic densities of the fly ashes were in the range of 2.7-3.2 g/cm(3). When the fly ash particle became airborne, the effective density depended on the particle size, increasing from 0.7-0.8 g/cm(3) for 100-150 nm to 2 g/cm(3) for 350-500 nm. The fly ash samples were fractionated at 2 μm, yielding fine fractions (2 μm). The size distributions of the fine fractions in the airborne form were further characterized, which allowed calculation of the percentage of the fly ash particles below 100 nm. We found the highest mass-based percentage was about 0.07%; the number percentage in the fine fraction was in the range of 4.8% to 22%. Comparison with modeling results showed that ENO may constitute a considerable part of the fly ash particles below 100 nm. Chemical analyses showed that for the municipal waste samples Ca and Al were present in higher concentrations in the coarse fraction; for the mixed wood and sludge sample the P concentration was higher in the coarse fraction; for most other samples and elements they were enriched in the fine fraction. Electron microscopic images of fly ashes showed a wide range of

  11. Leaching behaviour, mechanical and durability properties of mortar containing municipal incineration bottom ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales Hernandez, Maria B.

    The review of municipal solid waste (MSW) management scheme has indicated that the amount of MSW sent to incineration plants will increase in the UK in coming years. Therefore, the amount of municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) residues generated will increase significantly. MSWI residues are divided into MSWI fly ash (MSWI-FA) and MSWI bottom ash (MSWI-BA). MSWI-FA is classified as hazardous residue thereby requires special treatment before disposal. MSWI-BA is mostly disposed in landfill sites. MSWI-BA fraction with particle size diameter below approximately 2mm has low engineering properties and may have an adverse effect on the environment due to its high porosity, solubility and leachability of possible toxic compounds. This research programme has investigated new potential uses and leaching behaviour of mortar containing MSWI-BA with particle size diameters below 2.36mm. Fraction of MSWI-BA with particle size diameters (φ) below 2.36 mm (φ <2.36) was divided into different sub-fractions to evaluate their influence on compressive strength of concrete when used as partial replacement of cement or sand. MSWI-BA fraction with φ <212mum (fine fraction) and 212mum < φ2.36mm (coarse fraction) used as partial replacement of cement and sand respectively, showed higher compressive strength compared with the other fractions examined. In addition, replacing sand with the coarse fraction of MSWI-BA exhibited similar or higher strength than the reference mix. Examination of physical and chemical properties of the fine and coarse fractions of MSWI-BA unbound indicated that both fractions had potential to be used as replacement of cement or sand. However, the evaluation of their leaching behaviour suggested that they should be bound in cement-based systems to avoid leaching of potential toxic elements. Evaluation of physical, mechanical and sulfate resistance properties of mortars containing 15% of the fine fraction of MSWI-BA as a partial replacement of cement and

  12. Stabilization of lead in an alkali-activated municipal solid waste incineration fly ash-Pyrophyllite-based system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiota, Kenji; Nakamura, Takafumi; Takaoka, Masaki; Aminuddin, Siti Fatimah; Oshita, Kazuyuki; Fujimori, Takashi

    2017-10-01

    This work focuses on the stabilization and speciation of lead (Pb) in a composite solid produced from an alkali-activated municipal solid waste incineration fly ash (MSWIFA)-pyophyllite-based system. The solid product was synthesized after mixtures of raw materials (dehydrated pyrophyllite, MSWIFA, 14 mol/L aqueous sodium hydroxide, and sodium silicate solution) were cured at 105 °C for 24 h. The product could reduce the leaching of Pb and the Pb concentration in the leachate was 7.0 × 10 -3 using the Japanese leaching test and 9.7 × 10 -4  mg/L using toxicity characteristics leaching procedure method, which satisfied the respective test criteria and successfully stabilized Pb in this system. The solid product had a compressive strength of 2 MPa and consisted mainly of crystalline phases. Scanning electron microscopy with X-ray analysis and X-ray absorption fine structure suggested that Pb was present along with Al, Si, and O, and that the atomic environment around the Pb was similar to that of PbSiO 3 . These results suggest that the alkali-activated MSWIFA-pyrophyllite-based system could be used to stabilize Pb in MSWIFA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Wet physical separation of MSWI bottom ash

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muchova, L.

    2010-01-01

    Bottom ash (BA) from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) has high potential for the recovery of valuable secondary materials. For example, the MSWI bottom ash produced by the incinerator at Amsterdam contains materials such as non-ferrous metals (2.3%), ferrous metals (8-13%), gold (0.4 ppm),

  14. Mineralogy and pore water chemistry of a boiler ash from a MSW fluidized-bed incinerator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodénan, F; Guyonnet, D; Piantone, P; Blanc, P

    2010-07-01

    This paper presents an investigation of the mineralogy and pore water chemistry of a boiler ash sampled from a municipal solid waste fluidized-bed incinerator, subject to 18 months of dynamic leaching in a large percolation column experiment. A particular focus is on the redox behaviour of Cr(VI) in relation to metal aluminium Al(0), as chromium may represent an environmental or health hazard. The leaching behaviour and interaction between Cr(VI) and Al(0) are interpreted on the basis of mineralogical evolutions observed over the 18-month period and of saturation indices calculated with the geochemical code PhreeqC and reviewed thermodynamic data. Results of mineralogical analyses show in particular the alteration of mineral phases during leaching (e.g. quartz and metal aluminium grains), while geochemical calculations suggest equilibria of percolating fluids with respect to specific mineral phases (e.g. monohydrocalcite and aluminium hydroxide). The combination of leaching data on a large scale and mineralogical analyses document the coupled leaching behaviour of aluminium and chromium, with chromium appearing in the pore fluids in its hexavalent and mobile state once metal aluminium is no longer available for chromium reduction. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Solidification of Simulated Radioactive Incineration Ash by Alkali-activated Slag Composite Cement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li changcheng; Cui Qi; Zhao Yanhong; Pan Sheqi

    2010-01-01

    Simulated radioactive incineration ash (SRIA) was solidified by alkali-activated slag composite cement (AASCC) modified by metakaolin, zeolite, and polymer emulsion powder. The results show that the performance of solidified waste form containing 40% SRIA meets the requirements of GB 14569.1-93. The lowest leaching rate of Cs + on 42nd days reaches 1.32 x 10 -4 cm/d (GB 7023-86,25 degree C), cumulative leach percentage is only 0.041 cm. Also, the lowest 28 days compressive strength of solidified waste form is 45.6 MPa, and later strength growth is still high. The fast setting characteristic of AASCC overcomes effectively the disadvantageous influence caused by some components in SRIA on hydration of cement. The compressive strength of solidified waste is enhanced remarkably, and the ability of immobilizing radionuclide ions is also improved. This is mainly due to synergistic effect between metakaolin and zeolite. Polymer modification also improves the performance of solidified waste form significantly. The three-dimensional polymer network structure formed by emulsion powder in solidified waste form enhances its toughness and impact resistance, and the durability is improved by reducing interconnected pores and optimizing pore structure. However,it also results in reduction in compressive strength. Thus, it is concluded that the suitable dosage percentage is 5%. (authors)

  16. Cylindrical Electrolyser Enhanced Electrokinetic Remediation of Municipal Solid Waste Incineration Fly Ashes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Tao; Zhou, Lulu; Tao, Junjun; Liu, Longfei

    2018-01-01

    The paper discusses enhancement and efficiency of removing spiked heavy metal (HM) contaminants from the municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) fly ashes in the cylindrical electrolyser device. The characterization parameters of the electrolyte solution pH, electric current, electrical conductivity, voltage gradient were discussed after the experiment. The chemical speciation of HMs was analysed between the original samples and remediated ones by BCR sequential extraction. The detoxification efficiencies of Zn, Pb, Cu and Cd in the column-uniform device were compared with that in the traditional rectangular apparatus. The pH value changed smoothly with small amplitude of oscillation in general in cathode and anode compartments except the initial break. The electrical current rapidly increased on the first day of the experiment and steadily declined after that and the electrical conductivity presented a clear rising trend. The residual partition of detoxified samples were obviously lifted which was much higher than the analysis data of the raw materials. The pH and the electrical conductivity in sample region were distributed more uniformly and the blind area was effectively eliminated in the electrolytic cells which was indirectly validated by the contrastive detoxification result of the spiked HMs between the rectangular and cylindrical devices.

  17. Use of jet grouting to create a low permeability horizontal barrier below an incinerator ash landfill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furth, A.J.; Burke, G.K.; Deutsch, W.L. Jr.

    1997-01-01

    The City of Philadelphia's Division of Aviation (DOA) has begun construction of a new commuter runway, designated as Runway 8-26, at the Philadelphia International Airport. A portion of this runway will be constructed over a former Superfund site known as the Enterprise Avenue Landfill, which for many years was used to dispose of solid waste incinerator ash and other hazardous materials. The site was clay capped in the 1980's, but in order for the DOA to use the site, additional remediation was needed to meet US EPA final closure requirements. One component of the closure plan included installation of a low permeability horizontal barrier above a very thin (approximately 0.61 to 0.91 meters) natural clay stratum which underlies an approximately 1020 m 2 area of the landfill footprint so as to insure that a minimum 1.52 meter thick low permeability barrier exists beneath the entire 150,000 m 2 landfill. The new barrier was constructed using jet grouting techniques to achieve remote excavation and replacement of the bottom 0.91 meters of the waste mass with a low permeability grout. The grout was formulated to meet the low permeability, low elastic modulus and compressive strength requirements of the project design. This paper will discuss the advantages of using jet grouting for the work and details the development of the grout mixture, modeling of the grout zone under load, field construction techniques, performance monitoring and verification testing

  18. Carbonation of municipal solid waste incineration electrostatic precipitator fly ashes in solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Boom, Aurore; Aubert, Jean-Emmanuel; Degrez, Marc

    2014-05-01

    Carbonation was applied to a Pb- and Zn-contaminated fraction of municipal solid waste incineration electrofilter fly ashes in order to reduce heavy metal leaching. Carbonation tests were performed in solution, by Na2CO3 addition or CO2 bubbling, and were compared with washing (with water only). The injection of CO2 during the washing did not modify the mineralogy, but the addition of Na2CO3 induced the reaction with anhydrite, forming calcite. Microprobe analyses showed that Pb and Zn contamination was rather diffuse and that the various treatments had no effect on Pb and Zn speciation in the residues. The leaching tests indicated that carbonation using Na2CO3 was successful because it gave a residue that could be considered as non-hazardous material. With CO2 bubbling, Pb and Zn leaching was strongly decreased compared with material washed with water alone, but the amount of chromium extracted became higher than the non-hazardous waste limits for landfilling.

  19. Mineralogy and pore water chemistry of a boiler ash from a MSW fluidized-bed incinerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodenan, F.; Guyonnet, D.; Piantone, P.; Blanc, P.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an investigation of the mineralogy and pore water chemistry of a boiler ash sampled from a municipal solid waste fluidized-bed incinerator, subject to 18 months of dynamic leaching in a large percolation column experiment. A particular focus is on the redox behaviour of Cr(VI) in relation to metal aluminium Al 0 , as chromium may represent an environmental or health hazard. The leaching behaviour and interaction between Cr(VI) and Al 0 are interpreted on the basis of mineralogical evolutions observed over the 18-month period and of saturation indices calculated with the geochemical code PhreeqC and reviewed thermodynamic data. Results of mineralogical analyses show in particular the alteration of mineral phases during leaching (e.g. quartz and metal aluminium grains), while geochemical calculations suggest equilibria of percolating fluids with respect to specific mineral phases (e.g. monohydrocalcite and aluminium hydroxide). The combination of leaching data on a large scale and mineralogical analyses document the coupled leaching behaviour of aluminium and chromium, with chromium appearing in the pore fluids in its hexavalent and mobile state once metal aluminium is no longer available for chromium reduction.

  20. Quality Assessment of Soaps Produced from Palm Bunch Ash ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Quality Assessment of Soaps Produced from Palm Bunch Ash-Derived Alkali and ... Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management ... The remedial process involved subjecting the dried palm bunch matter to total combustion, ...

  1. Quantification of the resource recovery potential of municipal solid waste incineration bottom ashes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allegrini, Elisa; Maresca, Alberto; Olsson, Mikael Emil

    2014-01-01

    Municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) plays an important role in many European waste management systems. However, increasing focus on resource criticality has raised concern regarding the possible loss of critical resources through MSWI. The primary form of solid output from waste incinerators....... The lack of REE enrichment in BAs indicated that the post-incineration recovery of these resources may not be a likely option with current technology. Based on these results, it is recommended to focus on limiting REE-containing products in waste for incineration and improving pre-incineration sorting...

  2. Recycling of Pre-Washed Municipal Solid Waste Incinerator Fly Ash in the Manufacturing of Low Temperature Setting Geopolymer Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaele Cioffi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In this work, three samples of municipal solid waste incinerators fly ash (MSWI-FA have been stabilized in systems containing coal fly ash to create geopolymers through a polycondensation reaction. Monolithic products have been obtained with both MSWI fly ash as received and after the partial removal of chloride and sulfate by water washing. The polycondensation products have been characterized qualitatively by means of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy and quantitatively, through the determination of the volume of reacted water and silicate. Furthermore, the heavy metals and chloride releases together with the physico-mechanical properties have been evaluated on the hardened products. In conclusion, considering the technological and environmental performances of the obtained geopolymers, they could be suitable for many non-structural applications, such as backfilling of abandoned quarries, decorative materials or brick fireplaces, hearths, patios, etc.

  3. Recycling of Pre-Washed Municipal Solid Waste Incinerator Fly Ash in the Manufacturing of Low Temperature Setting Geopolymer Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferone, Claudio; Colangelo, Francesco; Messina, Francesco; Santoro, Luciano; Cioffi, Raffaele

    2013-08-12

    In this work, three samples of municipal solid waste incinerators fly ash (MSWI-FA) have been stabilized in systems containing coal fly ash to create geopolymers through a polycondensation reaction. Monolithic products have been obtained with both MSWI fly ash as received and after the partial removal of chloride and sulfate by water washing. The polycondensation products have been characterized qualitatively by means of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy and quantitatively, through the determination of the volume of reacted water and silicate. Furthermore, the heavy metals and chloride releases together with the physico-mechanical properties have been evaluated on the hardened products. In conclusion, considering the technological and environmental performances of the obtained geopolymers, they could be suitable for many non-structural applications, such as backfilling of abandoned quarries, decorative materials or brick fireplaces, hearths, patios, etc.

  4. Accelerated carbonation using municipal solid waste incinerator bottom ash and cold-rolling wastewater: Performance evaluation and reaction kinetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, E-E [Department of Biochemistry, Taipei Medical University, 250 Wu-Hsing Street, Taipei City, Taiwan 110, Taiwan, ROC (China); Pan, Shu-Yuan [Graduate Institute of Environmental Engineering, National Taiwan University, 71 Chou-Shan Rd., Taipei City, Taiwan 10673, Taiwan, ROC (China); Yang, Liuhanzi [School of Environment, Tsinghua University, Haidin District, Beijing 100084 (China); Chen, Yi-Hung [Department of Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, National Taipei University of Technology, 1, Sec. 3, Zhongxiao E. Rd., Taipei City, Taiwan 10608, Taiwan, ROC (China); Kim, Hyunook [Department of Energy and Environmental System Engineering, University of Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chiang, Pen-Chi, E-mail: pcchiang@ntu.edu.tw [Graduate Institute of Environmental Engineering, National Taiwan University, 71 Chou-Shan Rd., Taipei City, Taiwan 10673, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • Carbonation was performed using CO{sub 2}, wastewater and bottom ash in a slurry reactor. • A maximum capture capacity of 102 g CO{sub 2} per kg BA was achieved at mild conditions. • A maximum carbonation conversion of MSWI-BA was predicted to be 95% by RSM. • The CO{sub 2} emission from Bali incinerator could be expected to reduce by 6480 ton/y. • The process energy consumption per ton CO{sub 2} captured was estimated to be 180 kW h. - Abstract: Accelerated carbonation of alkaline wastes including municipal solid waste incinerator bottom ash (MSWI-BA) and the cold-rolling wastewater (CRW) was investigated for carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) fixation under different operating conditions, i.e., reaction time, CO{sub 2} concentration, liquid-to-solid ratio, particle size, and CO{sub 2} flow rate. The MSWI-BA before and after carbonation process were analyzed by the thermogravimetry and differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The MSWI-BA exhibits a high carbonation conversion of 90.7%, corresponding to a CO{sub 2} fixation capacity of 102 g per kg of ash. Meanwhile, the carbonation kinetics was evaluated by the shrinking core model. In addition, the effect of different operating parameters on carbonation conversion of MSWI-BA was statistically evaluated by response surface methodology (RSM) using experimental data to predict the maximum carbonation conversion. Furthermore, the amount of CO{sub 2} reduction and energy consumption for operating the proposed process in refuse incinerator were estimated. Capsule abstract: CO{sub 2} fixation process by alkaline wastes including bottom ash and cold-rolling wastewater was developed, which should be a viable method due to high conversion.

  5. Evaluation of leachate emissions from crushed rock and municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash used in road construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lidelöw, S; Lagerkvist, A

    2007-01-01

    Three years of leachate emissions from municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash and crushed rock in a full-scale test road were evaluated. The impact of time, construction design, and climate on the emissions was studied, and the predicted release from standard leaching tests was compared with the measured release from the road. The main pollutants and their respective concentrations in leachate from the roadside slope were Al (12.8-85.3 mg l(-1)), Cr (2-125 microg l(-1)), and Cu (0.15-1.9 mg l(-1)) in ash leachate and Zn (1-780 microg l(-1)) in crushed rock leachate. From the ash, the initial Cl(-) release was high ( approximately 20 g l(-1)). After three years, the amount of Cu and Cl(-) was in the same range in both leachates, while that of Al and Cr still was more than one order of magnitude higher in ash leachate. Generally, the release was faster from material in the uncovered slopes than below the pavement. Whether the road was asphalted or not, however, had minor impacts on the leachate quality. During rain events, diluted leachates with respect to, e.g., salts were observed. The leaching tests failed to simulate field leaching from the crushed rock, whereas better agreement was observed for the ash. Comparisons of constituent release from bottom ash and conventional materials solely based on such tests should be avoided.

  6. Bioleaching of fly ash from municipal solid waste incineration using kitchen waste saccharified solution as culture medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, S.; Juan, W.; Qunhui, W.

    2013-01-01

    Summary: Reduced sugar in saccharified solution from kitchen waste was used as the carbon source. Domesticated A. niger AS 3.879C , which can withstand 20% of kitchen waste, was used as the inoculum in the bioleaching process of municipal solid waste incineration fly ash. The effect of reduced sugar concentration, fly ash concentration, and medium volume on the heavy metal extraction and yield of fly ash as well as the optimum bioleaching conditions; the inoculation amount of AS 3 .879C 1% (v/v), reduced sugar concentration of 80 g/l, fly ash concentration of 20 g/l, medium volume of 200 ml, and the addition of fly ash (20 g/l) after culturing for 4 days at 30 degree C and 140 r/min were obtained. Under the optimum condition, the extraction yield of the seven tested heavy metals are in the order of Cd > Zn > Cu > Mn > Pb > Cr > Fe; the extraction yield of Cd and Zn reached 88.7% and 73.1% respectively. Fly ash satisfied the Standard for Pollution Control on the Security Landfill Site for Hazardous Wastes (GB 18598-2001) after heavy metal extraction. (author)

  7. The Use of Municipal Solid Waste Incineration Ash in Various Building Materials: A Belgian Point of View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Aneeta Mary; Snellings, Ruben; Van den Heede, Philip; Matthys, Stijn

    2018-01-01

    Huge amounts of waste are being generated, and even though the incineration process reduces the mass and volume of waste to a large extent, massive amounts of residues still remain. On average, out of 1.3 billion tons of municipal solid wastes generated per year, around 130 and 2.1 million tons are incinerated in the world and in Belgium, respectively. Around 400 kT of bottom ash residues are generated in Flanders, out of which only 102 kT are utilized here, and the rest is exported or landfilled due to non-conformity to environmental regulations. Landfilling makes the valuable resources in the residues unavailable and results in more primary raw materials being used, increasing mining and related hazards. Identifying and employing the right pre-treatment technique for the highest value application is the key to attaining a circular economy. We reviewed the present pre-treatment and utilization scenarios in Belgium, and the advancements in research around the world for realization of maximum utilization are reported in this paper. Uses of the material in the cement industry as a binder and cement raw meal replacement are identified as possible effective utilization options for large quantities of bottom ash. Pre-treatment techniques that could facilitate this use are also discussed. With all the research evidence available, there is now a need for combined efforts from incineration and the cement industry for technical and economic optimization of the process flow. PMID:29337887

  8. The Use of Municipal Solid Waste Incineration Ash in Various Building Materials: A Belgian Point of View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aneeta Mary Joseph

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Huge amounts of waste are being generated, and even though the incineration process reduces the mass and volume of waste to a large extent, massive amounts of residues still remain. On average, out of 1.3 billion tons of municipal solid wastes generated per year, around 130 and 2.1 million tons are incinerated in the world and in Belgium, respectively. Around 400 kT of bottom ash residues are generated in Flanders, out of which only 102 kT are utilized here, and the rest is exported or landfilled due to non-conformity to environmental regulations. Landfilling makes the valuable resources in the residues unavailable and results in more primary raw materials being used, increasing mining and related hazards. Identifying and employing the right pre-treatment technique for the highest value application is the key to attaining a circular economy. We reviewed the present pre-treatment and utilization scenarios in Belgium, and the advancements in research around the world for realization of maximum utilization are reported in this paper. Uses of the material in the cement industry as a binder and cement raw meal replacement are identified as possible effective utilization options for large quantities of bottom ash. Pre-treatment techniques that could facilitate this use are also discussed. With all the research evidence available, there is now a need for combined efforts from incineration and the cement industry for technical and economic optimization of the process flow.

  9. Irradiation effect on leaching behavior and form of heavy metals in fly ash of municipal solid waste incinerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nam, Sangchul; Namkoong, Wan

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► No research has been done to examine effect of electron beam irradiation on leaching behavior of heavy metals in fly ash. ► Electron beam irradiation on fly ash had significant effect on heavy metal leaching. ► Leaching potential of heavy metals in fly ash differed among metal species tested (Pb, Zn, Cu). ► Metal forms in the ash were analyzed to explain the difference. ► The difference could be explained by metal form change. - Abstract: Fly ash from a municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) is commonly classified as hazardous waste. High-energy electron beam irradiation systems have gained popularity recently as a clean and promising technology to remove environmental pollutants. Irradiation effects on leaching behavior and form of heavy metals in MSWI fly ash have not been investigated in any significant detail. An electron beam accelerator was used in this research. Electron beam irradiation on fly ash significantly increased the leaching potential of heavy metals from fly ash. The amount of absorbed dose and the metal species affected leaching behavior. When electron beam irradiation intensity increased gradually up to 210 kGy, concentration of Pb and Zn in the leachate increased linearly as absorbed dose increased, while that of Cu underwent no significant change. Concentration of Pb and Zn in the leachate increased up to 15.5% (10.7 mg/kg), and 35.6% (9.6 mg/kg) respectively. However, only 4.8% (0.3 mg/kg) increase was observed in the case of Cu. The results imply that irradiation has significant effect on the leaching behavior of heavy metals in fly ash, and the effect is quite different among the metal species tested in this study. A commonly used sequential extraction analysis which can classify a metal species into five forms was conducted to examine any change in metal form in the irradiated fly ash. Notable change in metal form in fly ash was observed when fly ash was irradiated. Change in Pb form was much greater than that of

  10. Basic characteristics of leachate produced by various washing processes for MSWI ashes in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Renbo; Liao, Wing-Ping; Wu, Pin-Han

    2012-08-15

    Approximately 19.2% of Taiwan's municipal solid waste (MSW) that passes through incineration disposal is converted into ashes (including bottom ash and fly ash). Although bottom ash can pass nearly all of the standards of the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP), its high chloride content makes its reuse limited; it generally cannot be used as a fine aggregate material in concrete applications. This research examined washing four types of bottom ash (BA) and fly ash (FA) with water to reduce their chloride content. The optimal water intensity for washing pretreated bottom ash was found to be 7-8L of water per kg of bottom ash, and the optimal water intensity for washing untreated fly ash was found to be 20-25 L of water per kg of fly ash. Based on regression analyses of the chloride concentrations of the leachates and their electrical conductivity (EC) values, each MSW incineration plant has its own ash characteristics as well as a specific regression line in bottom or fly ash leachate. Clearly, it is possible to monitor the EC values of the leachates online by estimation from regression equations to determine the chloride concentrations in the leachates. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Improved cement mortars by addition of carbonated fly ash from solid waste incinerators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    López-Zaldívar, O.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the results of a research developing high performance cement mortars with the addition of municipal solid waste incineration fly ash (MSWIFA stabilized as insoluble carbonates. The encapsulation of hazardous wastes in mortar matrixes has also been achieved. The ashes present high concentrations of chlorides, Zn and Pb. A stabilization process with NaHCO3 has been developed reducing 99% the content of chlorides. Developed mortars replace 10% per weight of the aggregates by treated MSWIFA. Physical/mechanical properties of these mortars have been studied. Presence of Zn, Pb, Cu and Cd has been also analyzed confirming that leaching of these heavy metal ions is mitigated. Conclusions prove better behavior of CAC and CSA mortars than those of CEM-I and CEM-II cement. Results are remarkable for the CAC mortars, improving reference strengths in more than 25%, which make them a fast-curing product suitable for the repair of structures or industrial pavements.Este artículo presenta los resultados del desarrollo de morteros mejorados con la incorporación de cenizas volantes de residuos sólidos urbanos inertizadas en forma de carbonatos. Además se consigue la encapsulación de un residuo peligroso. Las cenizas presentan una alta concentración de cloruros, Zn y Pb. Se ha desarrollado un proceso de estabilización con NaHCO3 reduciendo en un 99% el contenido de cloruros. Los morteros reemplazan un 10% en peso del árido por cenizas tratadas. Se han analizado sus propiedades físico/mecánicas y la presencia de Zn, Pb, Cu y Cd. Se demuestra un mejor comportamiento de los morteros de CAC y CSA que los de CEM-I y CEM-II y se mitiga el lixiviado de metales pesados. Los resultados son significativos en los morteros CAC al mejorar las resistencias de los de referencia en un 25%. Los morteros desarrollados son de curado rápido adecuados para la reparación de estructuras o soleras industriales.

  12. Preparation of zeolite from incinerator ash and its application for the remediation of selected inorganic pollutants: A greener approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iqra, J.; Faryal, M.; Uzaira, R.; Noshaba, T.

    2013-01-01

    Zeolites are potential materials and can conveniently be processed as adsorbents for the removal of environmental pollutants. A wide range of commercial zeolites have been marketed but due to high cost are of limited use. The present research offers a green approach for the synthesis of zeolite using Incinerator waste (ash) as precursor. The significance rests on the conversion of hazardous waste into a useful resource (adsorbent). Incinerator ash (IA) was converted hydrothermally under strongly alkaline conditions into zeolite (ZIA). The synthesized ZIA was applied as virgin adsorbent in batch mode for the removal of primary metal pollutants of Cadmium, Chromium and Lead. The residual concentration of each metal was analyzed on Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. Each series of batch was conducted at four varying induced concentration of metal salts as a function of time. The synthesized adsorbent was characterized on FTIR spectrophotometer to assess the involvement of functional group in metal binding to adsorbent surface. The results depicted the performance of ZIA (1mg/Kg) in removing 99.5 percentage, 84 percentage and 78 percentage of Cadmium, Chromium and Lead, respectively, upon adsorbate-adsorbent contact for 30 minutes, at lower dose of ZIA. It was also found that higher is the induced concentration, less is the removal efficiency. It may be due to limiting factor of adsorbent dose. Correlation matrix suggests positive relationship of Pb and Cr, Pb and Cd, Cr and Cd. No negative correlation was found. The study recommends the reutilization of Incinerator ash as a potential adsorbent, which can greatly enhance the sustainability of useful resources. (author)

  13. Preparation of zeolite from incinerator ash and its application for the remediation of selected inorganic pollutants: A greener approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqra, J.; Faryal, M.; Uzaira, R.; Noshaba, T.

    2014-06-01

    Zeolites are potential materials and can conveniently be processed as adsorbents for the removal of environmental pollutants. A wide range of commercial zeolites have been marketed but due to high cost are of limited use. The present research offers a green approach for the synthesis of zeolite using Incinerator waste (ash) as precursor. The significance rests on the conversion of hazardous waste into a useful resource (adsorbent).Incinerator ash (IA) was converted hydrothermally under strongly alkaline conditions into zeolite (ZIA). The synthesized ZIA was applied as virgin adsorbent in batch mode for the removal of primary metal pollutants of Cadmium, Chromium and Lead. The residual concentration of each metal was analyzed on Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. Each series of batch was conducted at four varying induced concentration of metal salts as a function of time. The synthesized adsorbent was characterized on FTIR spectrophotometer to assess the involvement of functional group in metal binding to adsorbent surface. The results depicted the performance of ZIA (1mg/Kg) in removing 99.5 %, 84% and 78% of Cadmium, Chromium and Lead, respectively, upon adsorbate-adsorbent contact for 30 minutes, at lower dose of ZIA. It was also found that higher is the induced concentration, less is the removal efficiency. It may be due to limiting factor of adsorbent dose. Correlation matrix suggests positive relationship of Pb and Cr, Pb and Cd, Cr and Cd. No negative correlation was found. The study recommends the reutilization of Incinerator ash as a potential adsorbent, which can greatly enhance the sustainability of useful resources.

  14. Preparation of zeolite from incinerator ash and its application for the remediation of selected inorganic pollutants: A greener approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iqra, J; Faryal, M; Uzaira, R; Noshaba, T

    2014-01-01

    Zeolites are potential materials and can conveniently be processed as adsorbents for the removal of environmental pollutants. A wide range of commercial zeolites have been marketed but due to high cost are of limited use. The present research offers a green approach for the synthesis of zeolite using Incinerator waste (ash) as precursor. The significance rests on the conversion of hazardous waste into a useful resource (adsorbent).Incinerator ash (IA) was converted hydrothermally under strongly alkaline conditions into zeolite (ZIA). The synthesized ZIA was applied as virgin adsorbent in batch mode for the removal of primary metal pollutants of Cadmium, Chromium and Lead. The residual concentration of each metal was analyzed on Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. Each series of batch was conducted at four varying induced concentration of metal salts as a function of time. The synthesized adsorbent was characterized on FTIR spectrophotometer to assess the involvement of functional group in metal binding to adsorbent surface. The results depicted the performance of ZIA (1mg/Kg) in removing 99.5 %, 84% and 78% of Cadmium, Chromium and Lead, respectively, upon adsorbate-adsorbent contact for 30 minutes, at lower dose of ZIA. It was also found that higher is the induced concentration, less is the removal efficiency. It may be due to limiting factor of adsorbent dose. Correlation matrix suggests positive relationship of Pb and Cr, Pb and Cd, Cr and Cd. No negative correlation was found. The study recommends the reutilization of Incinerator ash as a potential adsorbent, which can greatly enhance the sustainability of useful resources

  15. Determination of hexachlorobutadiene, pentachlorobenzene, and hexachlorobenzene in waste incineration fly ash using ultrasonic extraction followed by column cleanup and GC-MS analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haiyan; Jiang, Lei; Zhou, Xin; Zeng, Tao; He, Zhiqiao; Huang, Xinwen; Chen, Jianmeng; Song, Shuang

    2018-03-01

    Hexachlorobutadiene (HCBD) was listed as a new controlling persistent organic pollutant in the Stockholm Convention because of its wide industrial applications and potential genotoxicity and carcinogenicity. However, only limited information exists on the release of HCBD from unintentional sources, such as waste incineration. Identification and quantification of HCBD in fly ash, one of the major outputs of waste incineration, is imperative. This work presents a simple method for determining HCBD in waste incineration fly ash based on ultrasonic extraction coupled with a silica gel-Florisil column cleanup followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry detection. Two typical persistent organic pollutants, pentachlorobenzene (PeCB) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB), were measured simultaneously. The parameters that influence the extraction efficiency and the quality of instrument detection were studied. Under the optimum experimental conditions, high sensitivity (detection limit 0.25-0.53 ng g -1 ), acceptable recoveries (64.0-71.4%) at spiking levels of 5-500 ng g -1 , and good repeatability [relative standard deviation (n = 3) of 14% or less] were achieved for all target analytes. The validation of this method was performed by analysis of six real fly ash samples from different waste incinerators in eastern China. The concentrations of HCBD detected in these samples (1.39-97.6 ng g -1 ) were comparable to those of PeCB (1.22-150 ng g -1 ) and HCB (0.82-120 ng g -1 ), indicating that the residual HCBD as well as PeCB and HCB in waste incineration fly ash should not be ignored. The results confirm for the first time that waste incineration is an unintentional source of HCBD in China. Graphical abstract An analytical method for hexachlorobutadiene, pentachlorobenzene, and hexachlorobenzene in fly ash from waste incineration. GC-MS gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, Ph-d10 phenanthrene-d 10 .

  16. Predicting the co-melting temperatures of municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash and sewage sludge ash using grey model and neural network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, Tzu-Yi; Lin, Kae-Long; Shie, Je-Lung; Chang, Tien-Chin; Chen, Bor-Yann

    2011-03-01

    A grey model (GM) and an artificial neural network (ANN) were employed to predict co-melting temperature of municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) fly ash and sewage sludge ash (SSA) during formation of modified slag. The results indicated that in the aspect of model prediction, the mean absolute percentage error (MAPEs) were between 1.69 and 13.20% when adopting seven different GM (1, N) models. The MAPE were 1.59 and 1.31% when GM (1, 1) and rolling grey model (RGM (1, 1)) were adopted. The MAPEs fell within the range of 0.04 and 0.50% using different types of ANN. In GMs, the MAPE of 1.31% was found to be the lowest when using RGM (1, 1) to predict co-melting temperature. This value was higher than those of ANN2-1 to ANN8-1 by 1.27, 1.25, 1.24, 1.18, 1.16, 1.14 and 0.81%, respectively. GM only required a small amount of data (at least four data). Therefore, GM could be applied successfully in predicting the co-melting temperature of MSWI fly ash and SSA when no sufficient information is available. It also indicates that both the composition of MSWI fly ash and SSA could be applied on the prediction of co-melting temperature.

  17. Characterising boiler ash from a circulating fluidised bed municipal solid waste incinerator and distribution of PCDD/F and PCB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mengmei; Buekens, Alfons; Li, Xiaodong

    2018-05-31

    In this study, ash samples were collected from five locations situated in the boiler of a circulating fluidised bed municipal solid waste incinerator (high- and low-temperature superheater, evaporator tubes and upper and lower economiser). These samples represent a huge range of flue gas temperatures and were characterised for their particle size distribution, surface characteristics, elemental composition, chemical forms of carbon and chlorine and distribution of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD), dibenzofurans (PCDF) and biphenyls (PCB). Enrichment of chlorine, one of the main elements of organochlorinated pollutants, and copper, zinc and lead, major catalytic metals for dioxin-like compounds, was observed in lower-temperature ash deposits. The speciation of carbon and chlorine on ash surfaces was established, showing a positive correlation between organic chlorine and oxygen-containing carbon functional groups. The load of PCDD/F and PCB (especially dioxin-like PCB) tends to rise rapidly with falling temperature of flue gas, reaching their highest value in economiser ashes. The formation of PCDD/F congeners through the chlorophenol precursor route apparently was enhanced downstream the boiler. Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to study the links between the ash characteristics and distribution of chloro-aromatics. The primary purpose of this study is improving the understanding of any links between the characteristics of ash from waste heat systems and its potential to form PCDD/F and PCB. The question is raised whether further characterisation of fly ash may assist to establish a diagnosis of poor plant operation, inclusive the generation, destruction and eventual emission of persistent organic pollutants (POPs).

  18. Development of a sintering process for recycling oil shale fly ash and municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash into glass ceramic composite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhikun; Zhang, Lei; Li, Aimin

    2015-04-01

    Oil shale fly ash and municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash are industrial and municipal by-products that require further treatment before disposal to avoid polluting the environment. In the study, they were mixed and vitrified into the slag by the melt-quench process. The obtained vitrified slag was then mixed with various percentages of oil shale fly ash and converted into glass ceramic composites by the subsequent sintering process. Differential thermal analysis was used to study the thermal characteristics and determine the sintering temperatures. X-ray diffraction analysis was used to analyze the crystalline phase compositions. Sintering shrinkage, weight loss on ignition, density and compressive strength were tested to determine the optimum preparation condition and study the co-sintering mechanism of vitrified amorphous slag and oil shale fly ash. The results showed the product performances increased with the increase of sintering temperatures and the proportion of vitrified slag to oil shale fly ash. Glass ceramic composite (vitrified slag content of 80%, oil shale fly ash content of 20%, sintering temperature of 1000 °C and sintering time of 2h) showed the properties of density of 1.92 ± 0.05 g/cm(3), weight loss on ignition of 6.14 ± 0.18%, sintering shrinkage of 22.06 ± 0.6% and compressive strength of 67 ± 14 MPa. The results indicated that it was a comparable waste-based material compared to previous researches. In particular, the energy consumption in the production process was reduced compared to conventional vitrification and sintering method. Chemical resistance and heavy metals leaching results of glass ceramic composites further confirmed the possibility of its engineering applications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Use of municipal solid waste incineration bottom ashes in alkali-activated materials, ceramics and granular applications: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, R V; de Brito, J; Lynn, C J; Dhir, R K

    2017-10-01

    This paper presents a literature review on the incorporation of municipal solid waste incinerated bottom ash as raw material in several markets, other than those where it is conventionally used, such as geotechnical applications and road pavement construction. The main findings of an ample selection of experimental investigations on the use of the bottom ash as precursor of alkali-activated materials, as an adsorbent material for the removal of hazardous elements from wastewater and landfill gases, as soil replacement in agricultural activities, as partial or complete substitute of raw materials for the manufacture of ceramic-based products, as landfill cover and as biogas production enhancer, were gathered, collated and analysed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Development of a sintering process for recycling oil shale fly ash and municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash into glass ceramic composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Zhikun; Zhang, Lei; Li, Aimin

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Glass ceramic composite is prepared from oil shale fly ash and MSWI bottom ash. • A novel method for the production of glass ceramic composite is presented. • It provides simple route and lower energy consumption in terms of recycling waste. • The vitrified slag can promote the sintering densification process of glass ceramic. • The performances of products decrease with the increase of oil shale fly ash content. - Abstract: Oil shale fly ash and municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash are industrial and municipal by-products that require further treatment before disposal to avoid polluting the environment. In the study, they were mixed and vitrified into the slag by the melt-quench process. The obtained vitrified slag was then mixed with various percentages of oil shale fly ash and converted into glass ceramic composites by the subsequent sintering process. Differential thermal analysis was used to study the thermal characteristics and determine the sintering temperatures. X-ray diffraction analysis was used to analyze the crystalline phase compositions. Sintering shrinkage, weight loss on ignition, density and compressive strength were tested to determine the optimum preparation condition and study the co-sintering mechanism of vitrified amorphous slag and oil shale fly ash. The results showed the product performances increased with the increase of sintering temperatures and the proportion of vitrified slag to oil shale fly ash. Glass ceramic composite (vitrified slag content of 80%, oil shale fly ash content of 20%, sintering temperature of 1000 °C and sintering time of 2 h) showed the properties of density of 1.92 ± 0.05 g/cm 3 , weight loss on ignition of 6.14 ± 0.18%, sintering shrinkage of 22.06 ± 0.6% and compressive strength of 67 ± 14 MPa. The results indicated that it was a comparable waste-based material compared to previous researches. In particular, the energy consumption in the production process was reduced

  1. Development of a sintering process for recycling oil shale fly ash and municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash into glass ceramic composite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Zhikun; Zhang, Lei; Li, Aimin, E-mail: leeam@dlut.edu.cn

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • Glass ceramic composite is prepared from oil shale fly ash and MSWI bottom ash. • A novel method for the production of glass ceramic composite is presented. • It provides simple route and lower energy consumption in terms of recycling waste. • The vitrified slag can promote the sintering densification process of glass ceramic. • The performances of products decrease with the increase of oil shale fly ash content. - Abstract: Oil shale fly ash and municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash are industrial and municipal by-products that require further treatment before disposal to avoid polluting the environment. In the study, they were mixed and vitrified into the slag by the melt-quench process. The obtained vitrified slag was then mixed with various percentages of oil shale fly ash and converted into glass ceramic composites by the subsequent sintering process. Differential thermal analysis was used to study the thermal characteristics and determine the sintering temperatures. X-ray diffraction analysis was used to analyze the crystalline phase compositions. Sintering shrinkage, weight loss on ignition, density and compressive strength were tested to determine the optimum preparation condition and study the co-sintering mechanism of vitrified amorphous slag and oil shale fly ash. The results showed the product performances increased with the increase of sintering temperatures and the proportion of vitrified slag to oil shale fly ash. Glass ceramic composite (vitrified slag content of 80%, oil shale fly ash content of 20%, sintering temperature of 1000 °C and sintering time of 2 h) showed the properties of density of 1.92 ± 0.05 g/cm{sup 3}, weight loss on ignition of 6.14 ± 0.18%, sintering shrinkage of 22.06 ± 0.6% and compressive strength of 67 ± 14 MPa. The results indicated that it was a comparable waste-based material compared to previous researches. In particular, the energy consumption in the production process was reduced

  2. Experimental investigation of the Rowe's dilatancy law on an atypical granular medium from a municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becquart, Frédéric; Abriak, Nor Edine

    2013-06-01

    Municipal Solid Waste Incineration (MSWI) bottom ashes are irregular granular media because of their origin and are very heterogeneous with a large quantity of angular particles of different chemical species. MSWI bottom ash is a renewable granular resource alternative to the use of non-renewable standard granular materials. Beneficial use of these alternative granular materials mainly lies in road engineering. However, the studies about mechanical properties of such granular media still remain little developed, those being mainly based on empirical considerations. In this paper, a study of mechanical behaviour of a MSWI bottom ash under axisymmetric triaxial loadings conditions is presented. Samples are initially dense after Proctor compaction, are saturated and tested in drained conditions, under different effective confining pressures ranging from 100 to 600 kPa. The evolutions of volumetric strains show an initial contracting phase followed by a dilatancy phase, more pronounced when the confining pressure is low. The stresses ratios at the characteristic state and at the critical state appear in good agreement and with a null rate of volume variation. The angles of internal friction and dilatancy of the studied MSWI bottom ash are estimated and are similar to conventional granular materials used especially in road engineering. The dilatancy law of Rowe is well experimentally verified on this irregular recycled granular material.

  3. Bioleaching of incineration fly ash by Aspergillus niger – precipitation of metallic salt crystals and morphological alteration of the fungus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tong-Jiang Xu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the bioleaching of municipal solid waste incineration fly ash by Aspergillus niger, and its effect on the fungal morphology, the fate of the ash particles, and the precipitation of metallic salt crystals during bioleaching. The fungal morphology was significantly affected during one-step and two-step bioleaching; scanning electron microscopy revealed that bioleaching caused distortion of the fungal hyphae (with up to 10 μm hyphae diameter and a swollen pellet structure. In the absence of the fly ash, the fungi showed a linear structure (with 2–4 μm hyphae diameter. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction confirmed the precipitation of calcium oxalate hydrate crystals at the surface of hyphae in both one-step and two-step bioleaching. Calcium oxalate precipitation affects bioleaching via the weakening of the fly ash, thus facilitating the release of other tightly bound metals in the matrix.

  4. Leachability of Heavy Metals from Lightweight Aggregates Made with Sewage Sludge and Municipal Solid Waste Incineration Fly Ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Na

    2015-01-01

    Lightweight aggregate (LWA) production with sewage sludge and municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) fly ash is an effective approach for waste disposal. This study investigated the stability of heavy metals in LWA made from sewage sludge and MSWI fly ash. Leaching tests were conducted to find out the effects of MSWI fly ash/sewage sludge (MSWI FA/SS) ratio, sintering temperature and sintering time. It was found that with the increase of MSWI FA/SS ratio, leaching rates of all heavy metals firstly decreased and then increased, indicating the optimal ratio of MSWI fly ash/sewage sludge was 2:8. With the increase of sintering temperature and sintering time, the heavy metal solidifying efficiencies were strongly enhanced by crystallization and chemical incorporations within the aluminosilicate or silicate frameworks during the sintering process. However, taking cost-savings and lower energy consumption into account, 1100 °C and 8 min were selected as the optimal parameters for LWA sample- containing sludge production. Furthermore, heavy metal leaching concentrations under these optimal LWA production parameters were found to be in the range of China’s regulatory requirements. It is concluded that heavy metals can be properly stabilized in LWA samples containing sludge and cannot be easily released into the environment again to cause secondary pollution. PMID:25961800

  5. Alkali activation processes for incinerator residues management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancellotti, Isabella; Ponzoni, Chiara; Barbieri, Luisa; Leonelli, Cristina

    2013-08-01

    Incinerator bottom ash (BA) is produced in large amount worldwide and in Italy, where 5.1 millionstons of municipal solid residues have been incinerated in 2010, corresponding to 1.2-1.5 millionstons of produced bottom ash. This residue has been used in the present study for producing dense geopolymers containing high percentage (50-70 wt%) of ash. The amount of potentially reactive aluminosilicate fraction in the ash has been determined by means of test in NaOH. The final properties of geopolymers prepared with or without taking into account this reactive fraction have been compared. The results showed that due to the presence of both amorphous and crystalline fractions with a different degree of reactivity, the incinerator BA geopolymers exhibit significant differences in terms of Si/Al ratio and microstructure when reactive fraction is considered. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Supercritical water oxidation of dioxins and furans in waste incinerator fly ash, sewage sludge and industrial soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zainal, Safari; Onwudili, Jude A; Williams, Paul T

    2014-08-01

    Three environmental samples containing dioxins and furans have been oxidized in the presence of hydrogen peroxide under supercritical water oxidation conditions. The samples consisted of a waste incinerator fly ash, sewage sludge and contaminated industrial soil. The reactor system was a batch, autoclave reactor operated at temperatures between 350 degrees C and 450degrees C, corresponding to pressures of approximately 20-33.5 MPa and with hydrogen peroxide concentrations from 0.0 to 11.25 vol%. Hydrogen peroxide concentration and temperature/pressure had a strong positive effect on the oxidation of dioxins and furans. At the highest temperatures and pressure of supercritical water oxidation of 4500C and 33.5 MPa and with 11.25 vol% of hydrogen peroxide, the destruction efficiencies of the individual polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/PCDF) isomers were between 90% and 99%. There did not appear to be any significant differences in the PCDD/PCDF destruction efficiencies in relation to the different sample matrices of the waste incinerator fly ash, sewage sludge and contaminated industrial soil.

  7. Sex ratio of offspring and occupational exposure to fly ash : a historical cohort study of municipal solid waste incinerator workers in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mori, I.; Ogawa, Y. [National Inst. of Industrial Health, Tokyo (Japan); Kumagai, S. [Osaka Prefectural Inst. of Public Health, Osaka (Japan); Koda, S. [Kochi Medical School, Nangoku (Japan); Ueno, M. [All-Japan Prefectural and Municipal Workers Union, Tokyo (Japan)

    2005-07-01

    This paper described a cohort study which focused on risk assessment for cancer mortality and changes in the sex ratio of offspring among municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) workers in Japan. A baseline survey was conducted by survey with both MSWI workers as well as a reference population of waste collection workers. Questions were related to offspring, job history, and frequency of exposure to fly ash during incinerator work. A total of 5211 records were then analyzed as well as 10,571 children. Duration of exposure to fly ash was used as a surrogate exposure index. Results showed that longer exposure to fly ash influenced the sex ratio. Results of a multivariate analysis conducted to compute the odds ratio of female birth by different exposure indices were similar to results obtained in a univariate analysis. It was concluded that an association between duration of exposure to fly ash and changes in sex ratio was determined. 5 refs., 3 tabs.

  8. Analysis of trace elements in power plant and industrial incinerator fly ashes by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Areqi, Wadeeah M.; Amran Abdul Majid; Sukiman Sarmani

    2008-01-01

    An elemental analysis of fly ash samples from Selangor and Perak coal-fired power plants and an industrial incinerator from Negeri Sembilan were carried out using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). All samples were irradiated at the Malaysian Nuclear Agency laboratory PUSPATI Reactor for 6 hours and later counted at the Nuclear Science Program, UKM using an HPGe detector with a relative efficiency of 10% and resolution of 1.8 KeV (FWHM) at 1.33 MeV. International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) coal fly ash 1633a reference material (SRM) was used as a standard for quantitative analysis. A total of 11 elements (i.e. As, Ba, Ca, Ce, Cr, Co, Fe, Hf, Sc, Th and U) were determined in all three types of fly ashes. The concentration range of environmentally concern elements, As and Cr in the Selangor coal-fired power plant samples are 11.17 - 23.24 and 160.28 - 867.97 μg.g -1 respectively. The concentration range of radioactive elements U and Th are 4.79 - 10.29 and 14.6 - 61.29 μg.g -1 respectively, and the concentration range of Co, Hf, Fe, Sc, Ba, Ce, Ca are 11.88-83.61, 3.24 - 10.48, 30338 - 53885, 16.62 - 28.48, 178.97 - 8491, 127.41 - 217.2 and 10447 -20647 μg.g -1 respectively. The concentration range of As, Cr, U, Th in the Perak samples were found to be 22.16 - 48.38, 44.37 - 74.78, 4.18 - 6.85, 8.71 - 11.43 μg.g -1 respectively, whereas the concentration range of Co, Fe, Sc, Ba, Ce and Ca are 23.21 -29.66, 54621 - 71099, 30.9 - 31.77, 100.34 - 116.61 and 11533 -16423 μg.g -1 respectively. Differences exist in the elemental concentrations of both power plant fly ash samples due to the different feed coal and combustion temperature used. The concentration of Cr, Th and Ce in the Selangor fly ash samples was generally higher compared to the samples obtained from the Perak power plant. This study also shows that only As and Ca were detected in the Negeri Sembilan samples with the concentration ranging from 36.66 - 98.67 and 31709.10 - 45606 μg.g -1

  9. Solidification of ash from incineration of low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberson, W.A.; Albenesius, E.L.; Becker, G.W.

    1983-01-01

    The safe disposal of both high-level and low-level radioactive waste is a problem of increasing national attention. A full-scale incineration and solidification process to dispose of suspect-level and low-level beta-gamma contaminated combustible waste is being demonstrated at the Savannah River Plant (SRP) and Savannah River Laboratory (SRL). The stabilized wasteform generated by the process will meet or exceed all future anticipated requirements for improved disposal of low-level waste. The incineration process has been evaluated at SRL using nonradioactive wastes, and is presently being started up in SRP to process suspect-level radioactive wastes. A cement solidification process for incineration products is currently being evaluated by SRL, and will be included with the incineration process in SRP during the winter of 1984. The GEM alumnus author conducted research in a related disposal solidification program during the GEM-sponsored summer internship, and upon completion of the Masters program, received full-time responsibility for developing the incineration products solidification process

  10. [Effect of sodium carbonate assisted hydrothermal process on heavy metals stabilization in medical waste incinerator fly ash].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jian; Li, Xiao-dong; Chi, Yong; Yan, Jian-hua

    2010-04-01

    A sodium carbonate assisted hydrothermal process was induced to stabilize the fly ash from medical waste incinerator. The results showed that sodium carbonate assisted hydrothermal process reduced the heavy metals leachability of fly ash, and the heavy metal waste water from the process would not be a secondary pollution. The leachability of heavy metals studied in this paper were Cd 1.97 mg/L, Cr 1.56 mg/L, Cu 2.56 mg/L, Mn 17.30 mg/L, Ni 1.65 mg/L, Pb 1.56 mg/L and Zn 189.00 mg/L, and after hydrothermal process with the optimal experimental condition (Na2CO3/fly ash dosage = 5/20, reaction time = 8 h, L/S ratio = 10/1) the leachability reduced to < 0.02 mg/L for Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, and 0.05 mg/L for Zn, according to GB 5085.3-2007. Meanwhile, the concentrations of heavy metals in effluent after hydrothermal process were less than 0.8 mg/L. The heavy metals leachability and concentration in effluent reduced with prolonged reaction time. Prolonged aging can affect the leachability of metals as solids become more crystalline, and heavy metals transferred inside of crystalline. The mechanism of heavy metal stabilization can be concluded to the co precipitation and adsorption effect of aluminosilicates formation, crystallization and aging process.

  11. Selective mobilization of critical elements in incineration ashes; Selektiv mobilisering av kritiska element hos energiaskor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svensson, Malin; Herrmann, Inga; Ecke, Holger [Luleaa Univ. of Technology (Sweden); Sjoeblom, Rolf [TEKEDO AB, Nykoeping (Sweden)

    2005-05-01

    In the project SMAK, the selective mobilization of critical elements in ashes was studied. Non-hazardous bottom ash from Daava kraftvaermeverk, Umeaa, and hazardous fly ash from Hoegdalenverket, Stockholm, line P6 were investigated. Sb, Mo, Cu, Cr and Cl{sup -} were identified as critical elements in the bottom ash since these elements exceeded the limit values for acceptance on landfills as inert waste according to the Council decision on acceptance criteria at landfills. Critical elements in the fly ash were Cr, Se, Pb and Cl{sup -}, these elements exceeded the limit values for acceptance on landfills as non-hazardous waste. The mobilization of the critical elements was studied in experiments performed according to a reduced 2{sup 6-1} factorial design with three centerpoints. Factors in the experiments were ultrasonic pre-treatment, pre-treatment with carbonation, L/S-ratio, pH, time and temperature. Empirical models of the mobilization were used to identify the optimal factor setting ensuring sufficient mobilization of critical elements, i.e. to achieve a solid residue meeting non-hazardous and inert landfill criteria for fly ash and bottom ash, respectively. No ultrasonic treatment, pre-treatment with carbonation, L/Sratio 5, pH 12, time 2h and temperature at 20 deg C were identified as optimal factor setting for the bottom ash. For the fly ash, no ultrasonic treatment, no pre-treatment with carbonation, L/S-ratio 5, pH 7, time 2h and temperature at 20 deg C were identified as optimal factor setting. The treatment with optimal factor settings did not change the classification according to the Council decision on acceptance criteria at landfills of neither ash. For the bottom ash, Sb, Mo and Cr exceeded the limit values for landfilling as inert waste according to the Council decision on acceptance criteria at landfills. Only Cr exceeded the limit value for landfilling the fly ash as non-hazardous waste. According to the Waste Decree (Avfallsfoerordningen) both

  12. Thermal treatment of stabilized air pollution control residues in a waste incinerator pilot plant. Part 2: Leaching characteristics of bottom ashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baun, Dorthe L; Christensen, Thomas H; Bergfeldt, Brita; Vehlow, Jürgen; Mogensen, Erhardt P B

    2004-02-01

    With the perspective of generating only one solid residue from waste incineration, co-feeding of municipal solid waste and air pollution control residues stabilized by the Ferrox process was investigated in the TAMARA pilot plant incinerator as described in Bergfeldt et al. (Waste Management Research, 22, 49-57, 2004). This paper reports on leaching from the combined bottom ashes. Batch leaching test, pH-static leaching tests, availability tests and column leaching tests were used to characterize the leaching properties. The leaching properties are key information in the context of reuse in construction or in landfilling of the combined residue. In general, the combined bottom ashes had leaching characteristics similar to the reference bottom ash, which contained no APC residue. However, As and Pb showed slightly elevated leaching from the combined bottom ashes, while Cr showed less leaching. The investigated combined bottom ashes had contents of metals comparable to what is expected at steady state after continuous co-feeding of APC residues. Only Cd and Pb were partly volatilized (30-40%) during the incineration process and thus the combined bottom ashes had lower contents of Cd and Pb than expected at steady state. Furthermore, a major loss of Hg was, not surprisingly, seen and co-feeding of Ferrox-products together with municipal solid waste will require dedicated removal of Hg in the flue gas to prevent a build up of Hg in the system. In spite of this, a combined single solid residue from waste incineration seems to be a significant environmental improvement to current technology.

  13. Valorization of sugarcane bagasse ash: producing glass-ceramic materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, S R; Magalhães, R S; Arenales, A; Souza, A E; Romero, M; Rincón, J M

    2014-02-15

    Some aluminosilicates, for example mullite and wollastonite, are very important in the ceramic and construction industries. The most significant glass-ceramic for building applications has wollastonite as the main crystal phase. In this work we report on the use of sugarcane bagasse ash (SCBA) to produce glass-ceramics with silicates as the major crystalline phases. The glasses (frits) were prepared by mixing ash, limestone (calcium and magnesium carbonates) and potassium carbonate as the fluxing agent. X-ray fluorescence was used to determine the chemical composition of the glasses and their crystallization was assessed by using thermal analysis (DTA/DSC/TGA) and X-ray diffraction. The results showed that glass-ceramic material can be produced with wollastonite as the major phase, at a temperature lower than 900 °C. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Evaluation of the leaching behavior of incineration bottom ash using seawater: A comparison with standard leaching tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wenlin Yvonne; Heng, Kim Soon; Nguyen, Minh Quan; Ho, Jin Rui Ivan; Mohamed Noh, Omar Ahmad Bin; Zhou, Xue Dong; Liu, Alec; Ren, Fei; Wang, Jing-Yuan

    2017-04-01

    Batch and column tests were conducted on untreated incineration bottom ash (IBA) samples from two incineration plants in Singapore, using seawater as the leachant. The main objective of this study was to investigate the change in the leaching behavior of certain elements (i.e. As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se and Zn) when IBA comes into contact with seawater. Such an investigation using seawater as leachant was not commonly carried out when investigating leaching behavior in IBA. The leaching tests were then carried out on the same IBA samples using DI water, as a comparison. Lower level of leaching was observed for Pb and Zn when seawater was used as the leachant. Cr and Sb showed significant cumulative release at Liquid-to-Solids (L/S) ratio 5 in the seawater column leaching. The influence of Dissolved Organic Carbon (DOC) on Cu leaching seems to decrease after L/S 2 when using seawater in the column test. Although the leaching behavior of IBA was affected when seawater was used, for the column test, there was no significant difference during the initial release when compared to DI water. The initial L/S fractions collected were important as the low L/S ratios represent the pore water concentration and the maximum output in an actual application. The results from this study would be useful for the future study on using IBA in marine applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. ASSESSMENT OF THE USE FOR FERTILISATION PURPOSES INCINERATION ASH PELLETS USING GASIFICATION BURNER LESTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzena Gibczyńska

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of biomass in system energetics for the purpose of increasing the share of renewable energy sources in the overall energy mix by biomass and coal co-combustion is not an optimal solution in the light of previous experience in Poland. It is appropriate to develop local biomass market for energy purposes as a basis for future distributed energy generation based on biomass. This solution facilitates the use of ash from biomass combustion for plant fertilisation. The present paper concerns the assessment of the use of ash from combustion of pellets in an innovative gasifying pellet burner – LESTER type, for soil fertilisation. The paper presents the analysis of the content of macro- and microelements in ash against the chemical composition of pellets in relation to permissible contents in fertilisers. The content of phosphorus, potassium, calcium and magnesium in bottom and fly ash from combustion of wood pellet and rye straw in LESTER gasifying burner validates the use of this material for soil fertilisation purposes. However, due to low nitrogen content – comparable to that found in soil, the material is not to be considered as fertiliser supplying this macroelement to soil. The analysed bottom ash used for fertilisation meets the conditions set out in the Regulation of the Minister of Environment of 9 September 2002. However, fly ash should be used with considerable caution due to high content of iron, zinc and nickel. The yield of bottom ash is several times higher than that of fly ash, therefore the possibility of its use in the form of mixtures in adequate proportions should be considered.

  16. Mercury and toxic metals in ash from combustion and incineration processes; Mercurio y metales toxicos en cenizas provenientes de procesos de combustion e incineracion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mugica, V.; Amador, M.A.; Torres, M.; Figueroa, J. de J. [Universidad Autonomo-Metropolitana-Azcapotzalco, Reynosa (Mexico)

    2003-07-01

    In Mexico, most of the ashes from combustion and incineration process were not appropriately disposed, they are either left on industrial yards and cliffs or thrown away in open spaces and then carried by the wind to places where they can harm population, affect aquatic environment or soils. For prevention and control, the knowledge on the concentration of trace elements in waste ashes is necessary. In this study, several oxidation methods for digestion of ashes followed by inductively coupled plasma emission spectrometry were evaluated. Hg, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and V were determined in ashes from coal and fuel oil combustion, as well as in ashes from the incineration of municipal, water treatment sludge, and medical wastes. Results showed important concentrations of different trace elements in the ashes. This suggests that adequate disposal of these wastes should be mandatory. On the other hand, concentration of trace elements in the leachates indicated that these wastes are not toxic and they could be disposed in sanitary landfill. 23 refs.

  17. Recovery of soluble chloride salts from the wastewater generated during the washing process of municipal solid wastes incineration fly ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Hailong; Erzat, Aris; Liu, Yangsheng

    2014-01-01

    Water washing is widely used as the pretreatment method to treat municipal solid waste incineration fly ash, which facilitates the further solidification/stabilization treatment or resource recovery of the fly ash. The wastewater generated during the washing process is a kind of hydrosaline solution, usually containing high concentrations of alkali chlorides and sulphates, which cause serious pollution to environment. However, these salts can be recycled as resources instead of discharge. This paper explored an effective and practical recovery method to separate sodium chloride, potassium chloride, and calcium chloride salts individually from the hydrosaline water. In laboratory experiments, a simulating hydrosaline solution was prepared according to composition of the waste washing water. First, in the three-step evaporation-crystallization process, pure sodium chloride and solid mixture of sodium and potassium chlorides were obtained separately, and the remaining solution contained potassium and calcium chlorides (solution A). And then, the solid mixture was fully dissolved into water (solution B obtained). Finally, ethanol was added into solutions A and B to change the solubility of sodium, potassium, and calcium chlorides within the mixed solvent of water and ethanol. During the ethanol-adding precipitation process, each salt was separated individually, and the purity of the raw production in laboratory experiments reached about 90%. The ethanol can be recycled by distillation and reused as the solvent. Therefore, this technology may bring both environmental and economic benefits.

  18. A quantitative assessment of the BSE risk associated with fly ash and slag from the incineration of meat-and-bone meal in a gas-fired power plant in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paisley, Larry; Hostrup-Pedersen, J.

    2005-01-01

    and slag are incorporated into the cement or concrete. Our goal was to assess with a Monte Carlo simulation model the bovine spongiform, encephalopathy (BSE) risk to cattle and humans posed by the ash and slag. The results will be used by decision makers to evaluate the need for disposal of the fly ash......It has been recommended that meat-and-bone meal (MBM) be incinerated at 850 degrees C for at least 2 s and the ashes and slag disposed of in controlled landfills, to dispose of animal-derived proteins. Most commonly, the MBM is incinerated in cement works or coal-fired power plants and the ashes...

  19. Heavy metals and PCDD/Fs in solid waste incinerator fly ash in Zhejiang province, China: chemical and bio-analytical characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Jun; Li, Wenbing; Xia, Fangfang; Zheng, Yuange; Fang, Chengran; Shen, Dongsheng

    2012-06-01

    Fly ash samples were taken from solid waste incinerators with different feeding waste, furnace type, and air pollution control device in six cities of Zhejiang province. The solid waste incinerators there constitute one fifth of incinerators in China. Heavy metals and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) were analyzed in the fly ash. Moreover, the fly ash samples were extracted by toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP). The biotoxicity of the leachate was evaluated by Chlorella pyrenoidosa. High variation and contents were found for both the heavy metals and PCDD/Fs. The contents of Zn, Cu, As, Pb, Cd, Cr, Ni, and Hg in the fly ash samples varied from 300 to 32,100, 62.1-1175, 1.1-57, 61.6-620, 0.4-223, 16.6-4380, 1.2-94.7, and 0.03-1.4 μg g(-1) dw, respectively. The total contents of 17 PCDD/Fs varied from 0.1128 to 127.7939 μg g(-1) dw, and the 2,3,7,8-TeCDD toxic equivalents (TEQ) of PCDD/Fs ranged from 0.009 to 6.177 μg g(-1) dw. PCDF congeners were the main contributor to the TEQ. The leachate of the fly ash showed biotoxicity to C. pyrenoidosa. A significant correlation was found between the Cd and EC(50) values. Further research is required to investigate the environmental impact of the various pollutants in the fly ash.

  20. Evaluation of physicochemical properties of radioactive cesium in municipal solid waste incineration fly ash by particle size classification and leaching tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Kengo; Ochi, Kotaro; Ohbuchi, Atsushi; Koike, Yuya

    2018-07-01

    After the Fukushima Daiichi-Nuclear Power Plant accident, environmental recovery was a major issue because a considerable amount of municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) fly ash was highly contaminated with radioactive cesium. To the best of our knowledge, only a few studies have evaluated the detailed physicochemical properties of radioactive cesium in MSWI fly ash to propose an effective method for the solidification and reuse of MSWI fly ash. In this study, MSWI fly ash was sampled in Fukushima Prefecture. The physicochemical properties of radioactive cesium in MSWI fly ash were evaluated by particle size classification (less than 25, 25-45, 45-100, 100-300, 300-500, and greater than 500 μm) and the Japanese leaching test No. 13 called "JLT-13". These results obtained from the classification of fly ash indicated that the activity concentration of radioactive cesium and the content of the coexisting matter (i.e., chloride and potassium) temporarily change in response to the particle size of fly ash. X-ray diffraction results indicated that water-soluble radioactive cesium exists as CsCl because of the cooling process and that insoluble cesium is bound to the inner sphere of amorphous matter. These results indicated that the distribution of radioactive cesium depends on the characteristics of MSWI fly ash. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Dehalogenation Potential of Municipal Waste Incineration Fly Ash. I. General Principles

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pekárek, Vladimír; Karban, Jindřich; Fišerová, Eva; Bureš, M.; Pacáková, V.; Večerníková, Eva

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 1 (2003), s. 39-43 ISSN 0944-1344 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA4072206 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4032918; CEZ:AV0Z4072921 Keywords : dechlorination * fly ash * hexachlorobenzene Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.216, year: 2003

  2. Use of ash from the incineration of firewood and sawdust into clayey ceramic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossi, D.P.; Monteiro, S.N.; Vieira, C.M.F.

    2011-01-01

    This work has as its objective to evaluate the effect of the incorporation of a type of waste, ash obtained from burning eucalyptus firewood and sawdust, in the physical and mechanical properties of red ceramic. The waste was characterized by DTA/TG and XRF. Formulations were prepared with incorporation of the waste in amounts up to 10 wt.%, into a kaolinitic clayey body. Rectangular specimens were prepared by uniaxial mold-press at 20 MPa and then fired at 650 and 950 deg C. The evaluated physical and mechanical properties were: linear shrinkage, water absorption and flexural rupture strength. The microstructure of the fired ceramics was evaluated by optical microscopy. The results showed that the ash has an high amount of weight loss during the firing, being predominantly composed of quartz and calcium compounds. The incorporation of the ash increased the water absorption and abruptly decreased the mechanical strength of the ceramic at the investigated temperatures for all amount of incorporated ash. (author)

  3. Dechlorination Ability of Municipal Waste Incineration Fly Ash for Polychlorinated Phenols

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vlková, Leona; Pekárek, Vladimír; Pacáková, V.; Karban, Jindřich; Bureš, M.; Štulík, K.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 56, č. 10 (2004), s. 935-942 ISSN 0045-6535 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA4072206; GA MŠk 1P04OE156 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4072921 Keywords : chlorophenols * de novo synthesis * fly ash Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.359, year: 2004

  4. Green synthesis of water-glass from municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendrix, Y.; Alam, Q.; Thijs, L.; Lazaro Garcia, A.; Brouwers, H.J.H.

    2017-01-01

    Water-glass is extensively used as a silica precursor in different chemical applications such as alkali activated binders and nano-silica. The current production of water-glass involves the fusion of sand with soda ash at temperatures above 1000 ºC, which makes the production expensive and

  5. Statistical comparison of leaching behavior of incineration bottom ash using seawater and deionized water: Significant findings based on several leaching methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Ke; Dou, Xiaomin; Ren, Fei; Chan, Wei-Ping; Chang, Victor Wei-Chung

    2018-02-15

    Bottom ashes generated from municipal solid waste incineration have gained increasing popularity as alternative construction materials, however, they contains elevated heavy metals posing a challenge for its free usage. Different leaching methods are developed to quantify leaching potential of incineration bottom ashes meanwhile guide its environmentally friendly application. Yet, there are diverse IBA applications while the in situ environment is always complicated, challenging its legislation. In this study, leaching tests were conveyed using batch and column leaching methods with seawater as opposed to deionized water, to unveil the metal leaching potential of IBA subjected to salty environment, which is commonly encountered when using IBA in land reclamation yet not well understood. Statistical analysis for different leaching methods suggested disparate performance between seawater and deionized water primarily ascribed to ionic strength. Impacts of leachant are metal-specific dependent on leaching methods and have a function of intrinsic characteristics of incineration bottom ashes. Leaching performances were further compared on additional perspectives, e.g. leaching approach and liquid to solid ratio, indicating sophisticated leaching potentials dominated by combined geochemistry. It is necessary to develop application-oriented leaching methods with corresponding leaching criteria to preclude discriminations between different applications, e.g., terrestrial applications vs. land reclamation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Adsorption of Ammonia on Municipal Solid Waste Incinerator Bottom Ash Under the Landfill Circumstance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao, Jun; Kong, Qingna; Zhu, Huayue; Zhang, Zhen [Taizhou University, Linhai (China); Long, Yuyang; Shen, Dongsheng [Zhejiang Gongshang University, Hangzhou (China)

    2015-08-15

    The adsorption characteristics of ammonia on MSWI bottom ash were investigated. The effect of the variation of the landfill environmental parameters including pH, anions and organic matter on the adsorption process was discussed. Results showed that the adsorption could be well described by pseudo-second-order kinetics and Langmuir model, with a maximum adsorption capacity of 156.2 mg/g. The optimum adsorption of ammonia was observed when the pH was 6.0. High level of ion and organic matter could restrict the adsorption to a low level. The above results suggested that MSWI bottom ash could affect the migration of ammonia in the landfill, which is related to the variation of the landfill circumstance.

  7. Can washing-pretreatment eliminate the health risk of municipal solid waste incineration fly ash reuse?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yao; Pan, Yun; Zhang, Lingen; Yue, Yang; Zhou, Jizhi; Xu, Yunfeng; Qian, Guangren

    2015-01-01

    Although the reuse of washing-pretreated MSWI fly ash bas been a hot topic, the associated risk is still an issue of great concern. The present study investigated the influence of washing-pretreatment on the total contents and bioaccessibility of heavy metals in MSWI fly ash. Furthermore, the study incorporated bioaccessibility adjustment into probabilistic risk assessment, to quantify the health risk from multi-pathway exposure to the concerned chemicals as a result of reusing washed MSWI fly ash. The results revealed that both water-washing and acid-washing process have resulted in the concentrated heavy metal content, and have reduced the bioaccessibility of heavy metals. Besides, the acid-washing process increased the cancer risk in most cases, while the effect of water-washing process was uncertain. However, both water-washing and acid-washing pretreatment could decrease the hazard index based on bioaccesilbility. Despite the uncertainties accompanying these procedures, the results indicated that, in this application scenario, only water-washing or acid-washing process cannot reduce the actual risk from all samples to acceptable level, especially for cancer risk. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Chemical and physical properties of cyclone fly ash from the grate-fired boiler incinerating forest residues at a small municipal district heating plant (6MW).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pöykiö, R; Rönkkömäki, H; Nurmesniemi, H; Perämäki, P; Popov, K; Välimäki, I; Tuomi, T

    2009-03-15

    In Finland, the new limit values for maximal allowable heavy metal concentrations for materials used as an earth construction agent came into force in July 2006. These limit values are applied if ash is utilized, e.g. in roads, cycling paths, pavements, car parks, sport fields, etc. In this study we have determined the most important chemical and physical properties of the cyclone fly ash originating from the grate-fired boiler incinerating forest residues (i.e. wood chips, sawdust and bark) at a small municipal district heating plant (6 MW), Northern Finland. This study clearly shows that elements are enriched in cyclone fly ash, since the total element concentrations in the cyclone fly ash were within 0.2-10 times higher than those in the bottom ash. The total concentrations of Cd (25 mg kg(-1); d.w.), Zn (3630 mg kg(-1); d.w.), Ba (4260 mg kg(-1); d.w.) and Hg (1.7 mg kg(-1); d.w.) exceeded the limit values, and therefore the cyclone fly ash cannot be used as an earth construction agent. According to the leached amounts of Cr (38 mg kg(-1); d.w.), Zn (51 mg kg(-1); d.w.) and sulphate (50,000 mg kg(-1); d.w.), the cyclone fly ash is classified as a hazardous waste, and it has to be deposited in a hazardous waste landfill.

  9. Effect of Mass Proportion of Municipal Solid Waste Incinerator Bottom Ash Layer to Municipal Solid Waste Layer on the Cu and Zn Discharge from Landfill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Qingna; Qiu, Zhanhong; Shen, Dongsheng

    2016-01-01

    Municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) bottom ash is often used as the protection layer for the geomembrane and intermediate layer in the landfill. In this study, three sets of simulated landfills with different mass proportion of MSWI bottom ash layer to municipal solid waste (MSW) layer were operated. Cu and Zn concentrations in the leachates and MSW were monitored to investigate the effect of MSWI bottom ash layer on the Cu and Zn discharge from the landfill. The results showed that the Zn discharge was dependent on the mass proportion of MSWI bottom ash layer. The pH of landfill was not notably increased when the mass proportion of MSWI bottom ash layer to MSW layer was 1 : 9, resulting in the enhancement of the Zn discharge. However, Zn discharge was mitigated when the mass proportion was 2 : 8, as the pH of landfill was notably promoted. The discharge of Cu was not dependent on the mass proportion, due to the great affinity of Cu to organic matter. Moreover, Cu and Zn contents of the sub-MSW layer increased due to the MSWI bottom ash layer. Therefore, the MSWI bottom ash layer can increase the potential environmental threat of the landfill. PMID:28044139

  10. Effect of Mass Proportion of Municipal Solid Waste Incinerator Bottom Ash Layer to Municipal Solid Waste Layer on the Cu and Zn Discharge from Landfill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Qingna; Yao, Jun; Qiu, Zhanhong; Shen, Dongsheng

    2016-01-01

    Municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) bottom ash is often used as the protection layer for the geomembrane and intermediate layer in the landfill. In this study, three sets of simulated landfills with different mass proportion of MSWI bottom ash layer to municipal solid waste (MSW) layer were operated. Cu and Zn concentrations in the leachates and MSW were monitored to investigate the effect of MSWI bottom ash layer on the Cu and Zn discharge from the landfill. The results showed that the Zn discharge was dependent on the mass proportion of MSWI bottom ash layer. The pH of landfill was not notably increased when the mass proportion of MSWI bottom ash layer to MSW layer was 1 : 9, resulting in the enhancement of the Zn discharge. However, Zn discharge was mitigated when the mass proportion was 2 : 8, as the pH of landfill was notably promoted. The discharge of Cu was not dependent on the mass proportion, due to the great affinity of Cu to organic matter. Moreover, Cu and Zn contents of the sub-MSW layer increased due to the MSWI bottom ash layer. Therefore, the MSWI bottom ash layer can increase the potential environmental threat of the landfill.

  11. Utilization of municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) fly ash in blended cement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aubert, J.E.; Husson, B.; Sarramone, N.

    2006-01-01

    This paper is the first of a series of two articles dealing with the processes applied to MSWI fly ash with a view to reusing it safely in cement-based materials. Part 1 presents two stabilization processes and Part 2 deals with the use of the two treated fly ashes (TFA) in mortars. Two types of binder were used: an Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) containing more than 95% clinker (CEM I 52.5R) and a binary blend cement composed of 70% ground granulated blast furnace slag and 30% clinker (CEM III-B 42.5N). In this first part, two stabilization processes are presented: the conventional process, called 'A', based on the washing, phosphation and calcination of the ash, and a modified process, called 'B', intended to eliminate metallic aluminum and sulfate contained in the ash. The physical, chemical and mineralogical characteristics of the two TFA were comparable. The main differences observed were those expected, i.e. TFA-B was free of metallic aluminum and sulfate. The mineralogical characterization of the two TFAs highlighted the presence of large amounts of a calcium aluminosilicate phase taking two forms, a crystalline form (gehlenite) and an amorphous form. Hydration studies on pastes containing mixed TFA and calcium hydroxide showed that this phase reacted with calcium hydroxide to form calcium aluminate hydrates. This formation of hydrates was accompanied by a hardening of the pastes. These results are very encouraging for the reuse of such TFA in cement-based materials because they can be considered as pozzolanic additions and could advantageously replace a part of the cement in cement-based materials. Finally, leaching tests were carried out to evaluate the environmental impact of the two TFAs. The elements which were less efficiently stabilized by process A were zinc, cadmium and antimony but, when the results of the leaching tests were compared with the thresholds of the European landfill directive, TFA-A could nevertheless be accepted at landfills for non

  12. Utilization of municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) fly ash in blended cement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aubert, J.E. [Laboratoire Materiaux et Durabilite des Constructions (L.M.D.C.), INSA-UPS, 135 avenue de Rangueil, 31077 Toulouse cedex 4 (France)]. E-mail: aubert@insa-toulouse.fr; Husson, B. [Laboratoire Materiaux et Durabilite des Constructions (L.M.D.C.), INSA-UPS, 135 avenue de Rangueil, 31077 Toulouse cedex 4 (France); Sarramone, N. [Laboratoire Materiaux et Durabilite des Constructions (L.M.D.C.), INSA-UPS, 135 avenue de Rangueil, 31077 Toulouse cedex 4 (France)

    2006-08-25

    This paper is the first of a series of two articles dealing with the processes applied to MSWI fly ash with a view to reusing it safely in cement-based materials. Part 1 presents two stabilization processes and Part 2 deals with the use of the two treated fly ashes (TFA) in mortars. Two types of binder were used: an Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) containing more than 95% clinker (CEM I 52.5R) and a binary blend cement composed of 70% ground granulated blast furnace slag and 30% clinker (CEM III-B 42.5N). In this first part, two stabilization processes are presented: the conventional process, called 'A', based on the washing, phosphation and calcination of the ash, and a modified process, called 'B', intended to eliminate metallic aluminum and sulfate contained in the ash. The physical, chemical and mineralogical characteristics of the two TFA were comparable. The main differences observed were those expected, i.e. TFA-B was free of metallic aluminum and sulfate. The mineralogical characterization of the two TFAs highlighted the presence of large amounts of a calcium aluminosilicate phase taking two forms, a crystalline form (gehlenite) and an amorphous form. Hydration studies on pastes containing mixed TFA and calcium hydroxide showed that this phase reacted with calcium hydroxide to form calcium aluminate hydrates. This formation of hydrates was accompanied by a hardening of the pastes. These results are very encouraging for the reuse of such TFA in cement-based materials because they can be considered as pozzolanic additions and could advantageously replace a part of the cement in cement-based materials. Finally, leaching tests were carried out to evaluate the environmental impact of the two TFAs. The elements which were less efficiently stabilized by process A were zinc, cadmium and antimony but, when the results of the leaching tests were compared with the thresholds of the European landfill directive, TFA-A could nevertheless be accepted at

  13. Monotonic aspects of the mechanical behaviour of bottom ash from municipal solid waste incineration and its potential use for road construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becquart, Frederic; Bernard, Fabrice; Abriak, Nor Edine; Zentar, Rachid

    2009-04-01

    Municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) bottom ash is an atypical granular material because it may include industrial by-products that result from the incineration of domestic waste. The prospects for the beneficial use of this particular material mainly lie in the field of road construction, as a substitute for the traditional natural aggregates. However, its mechanical properties are still little known, particularly in term of stiffness and deformability, characteristics that are essential to the construction of a durable roadway. The purpose of this paper is to describe better the mechanical behaviour of this recycled material. In order to reach this objective, a large experimental campaign is presented. The first part of this paper presents and comments in detail on the results obtained from static monotonic tests. Oedometric and triaxial shear tests were performed on MSWI bottom ash both before and after treatment with a specific hydraulic binder. These tests allow specification of the mechanical characteristics of the MSWI bottom ash, such as the initial Young's modulus, Poisson's ratio, the compressibility index, the friction angle, and the contracting or dilating behaviour of the material. The results reveal a mechanical behaviour similar to that of initially dense standard materials (sands, unbound granular materials) and a dependence on the applied average pressure, characteristic of the mechanical behaviour of granular media. More laboratory data on other samples of MSWI bottom ash are required to ensure that this comparison is statistically valid.

  14. Incineration technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Buekens, Alfons

    2013-01-01

    Waste incineration is the art of completely combusting waste, while maintaining or reducing emission levels below current emission standards. Where possible, objectives include the recovering of energy as well as the  combustion residues.  Successful waste incineration makes it possible to achieve a deep reduction in waste volume, obtain a compact and sterile residue, and eliminate a wide array of pollutants. This book places waste incineration within the wider context of waste management, and demonstrates that, in contrast to landfills and composting, waste incineration can eliminate objectionable and hazardous properties such as flammability and toxicity, result in a significant reduction in volume, and destroy gaseous and liquid waste streams leaving little or no residues beyond those linked to flue gas neutralization and treatment. Moreover, waste incineration sterilizes and destroys putrescible matter, and produces usable heat.  Incineration Technologies first appeared as a peer-reviewed contribution ...

  15. LCA of management strategies for RDF incineration and gasification bottom ash based on experimental leaching data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gianfilippo, Martina Di; Costa, Giulia; Pantini, Sara

    2016-01-01

    data were used to estimate the potential release from each of the two types of residues. Specific attention was placed on the sensitivity of leaching properties and the determination of emissions by leaching, including: leaching data selection, material properties and assumptions related to emission......The main characteristics and environmental properties of the bottom ash (BA) generated from thermal treatment of waste may vary significantly depending on the type of waste and thermal technology employed. Thus, to ensure that the strategies selected for the management of these residues do...... not cause adverse environmental impacts, the specific properties of BA, in particular its leaching behavior, should be taken into account. This study focuses on the evaluation of potential environmental impacts associated with two different management options for BA from thermal treatment of Refuse Derived...

  16. The dissolution kinetics of major elements in municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendz, David; Tüchsen, Peter L.; Christensen, Thomas H.

    2007-12-01

    Leaching and tracer experiments in batches at L/S 20 were performed with 3-month-old MSWI bottom ash separated into eight different particle sizes. The time-dependent leaching of major elements (Ca 2+, K +, Na +, Cl - and SO 4- 2 ) was monitored for up to 747 h. Physical properties of the particles, the specific surface (BET), pore volume and pore volume distribution over pore sizes (BJH) were determined for all particle classes by N 2 adsorption/desorption experiments. Some common features of physical pore structure for all particles were revealed. The specific surface and the particle pore volume were found to be negatively correlated with particle size, ranging from 3.2 m 2/g to 25.7 m 2/g for the surface area and from 0.0086 cm 3/g to 0.091 cm 3/g for the pore volume. Not surprisingly, the specific surface area was found to be the major material parameter that governed the leaching behavior for all elements (Ca 2+, K +, Na +, Cl - and SO 4- 2 ) and particle sizes. The diffusion resistance was determined independently by separate tracer (tritium) experiments. Diffusion gave a significant contribution to the apparent leaching kinetics for all elements during the first 10-40 h (depending on the particle size) of leaching and surface reaction was the overall rate controlling mechanism at late times for all particle sizes. For Ca 2+ and SO 4- 2 , the coupled effect of diffusion resistance and the degree of undersaturation in the intra particle pore volume was found to be a major rate limiting dissolution mechanism for both early and late times. The solubility control in the intra particulate porosity may undermine any attempt to treat bottom ash by washing out the sulfate. Even for high liquid/solid ratios, the solubility in the intra-particular porosity will limit the release rate.

  17. Comparative study of ageing, heat treatment and accelerated carbonation for stabilization of municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash in view of reducing regulated heavy metal/metalloid leaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Rafael M; Mertens, Gilles; Salman, Muhammad; Cizer, Özlem; Van Gerven, Tom

    2013-10-15

    This study compared the performance of four different approaches for stabilization of regulated heavy metal and metalloid leaching from municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash (MSWI-BA): (i) short term (three months) heap ageing, (ii) heat treatment, (iii) accelerated moist carbonation, and (iv) accelerated pressurized slurry carbonation. Two distinct types of MSWI-BA were tested in this study: one originating from a moving-grate furnace incineration operation treating exclusively household refuse (sample B), and another originating from a fluid-bed furnace incineration operation that treats a mixture of household and light industrial wastes (sample F). The most abundant elements in the ashes were Si (20-27 wt.%) and Ca (16-19 wt.%), followed by significant quantities of Fe, Al, Na, S, K, Mg, Ti, and Cl. The main crystalline substances present in the fresh ashes were Quartz, Calcite, Apatite, Anhydrite and Gehlenite, while the amorphous fraction ranged from 56 to 73 wt.%. The leaching values of all samples were compared to the Flemish (NEN 7343) and the Walloon (DIN 38414) regulations from Belgium. Batch leaching of the fresh ashes at natural pH showed that seven elements exceeded at least one regulatory limit (Ba, Cr, Cu, Mo, Pb, Se and Zn), and that both ashes had excess basicity (pH > 12). Accelerated carbonation achieved significant reduction in ash basicity (9.3-9.9); lower than ageing (10.5-12.2) and heat treatment (11.1-12.1). For sample B, there was little distinction between the leaching results of ageing and accelerated carbonation with respect to regulatory limits; however carbonation achieved comparatively lower leaching levels. Heat treatment was especially detrimental to the leaching of Cr. For sample F, ageing was ineffective and heat treatment had marginally better results, while accelerated carbonation delivered the most effective performance, with slurry carbonation meeting all DIN limits. Slurry carbonation was deemed the most

  18. Influence of moisture content and temperature on degree of carbonation and the effect on Cu and Cr leaching from incineration bottom ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wenlin Yvonne; Heng, Kim Soon; Sun, Xiaolong; Wang, Jing-Yuan

    2015-09-01

    This study investigated the influence of moisture content and temperature on the degree of carbonation of municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration bottom ash (IBA) from two different incineration plants in Singapore. The initial rate of carbonation was affected by the nominal moisture content used. Carbonation temperature seemed to play a part in changing the actual moisture content of IBA during carbonation, which in turn affected the degree of carbonation. Results showed that 2h of carbonation was sufficient for the samples to reach a relatively high degree of carbonation that was close to the degree of carbonation observed after 1week of carbonation. Both Cu and Cr leaching also showed significant reduction after only 2h of carbonation. Therefore, the optimum moisture content and temperature were selected based on 2h of carbonation. The optimum moisture content was 15% for both incineration plants while the optimum temperature was different for the two incineration plants, at 35°C and 50°C. The effect on Cu and Cr leaching from IBA after accelerated carbonation was evaluated as a function of carbonation time. Correlation coefficient, Pearson's R, was used to determine the dominant leaching mechanism. The reduction in Cu leaching was found to be contributed by both formation of carbonate mineral and reduction of DOC leaching. On the other hand, Cr leaching seemed to be dominantly controlled by pH. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Leaching behaviour of incineration bottom ash in a reuse scenario: 12years-field data vs. lab test results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Gianfilippo, Martina; Hyks, Jiri; Verginelli, Iason; Costa, Giulia; Hjelmar, Ole; Lombardi, Francesco

    2018-03-01

    Several types of standardized laboratory leaching tests have been developed during the past few decades to evaluate the leaching behaviour of waste materials as a function of different parameters, such as the pH of the eluate and the liquid to solid ratio. However, the link between the results of these tests and leaching data collected from the field (e.g. in disposal or reuse scenarios) is not always straightforward. In this work, we compare data obtained from an on-going large scale field trial, in which municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash is being tested as road sub-base material, with the results obtained from percolation column and pH-dependence laboratory leaching tests carried out on the bottom ash at the beginning of the test. The comparisons reported in this paper show that for soluble substances (e.g. Cl, K and SO 4 ), percolation column tests can provide a good indication of the release expected in the field with deviations usually within a factor of 3. For metals characterized by a solubility-controlled release, i.e. that depends more on eluate pH than the liquid to solid ratio applied, the results of pH-dependence tests describe more accurately the eluate concentration trends observed in the field with deviations that in most cases (around 80%) are within one order of magnitude (see e.g. Al and Cd). The differences between field and lab-scale data might be in part ascribed to the occurrence in the field of weathering reactions (e.g. carbonation) but also to microbial decomposition of organic matter that modifying leachate pH affect the solubility of several constituents (e.g. Ca, Ba and Cr). Besides, weathering reactions can result in enhanced adsorption of fulvic acids to iron/aluminum (hydr)oxides, leading to a decrease in the leaching of fulvic acids and hence of elements such as Cu, Ni and Pb that strongly depend on DOC leaching. Overall, this comparison shows that percolation column tests and pH-dependence tests can represent a reliable

  20. Waste incineration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rumplmayr, A.; Sammer, G.

    2001-01-01

    Waste incineration can be defined as the thermal conversion processing of solid waste by chemical oxidation. The types of wastes range from solid household waste and infectious hospital waste through to toxic solid, liquid and gaseous chemical wastes. End products include hot incineration gases, composed primarily of nitrogen, carbon dioxide, water vapor and to a smaller extend of non-combustible residue (ash) and air pollutants (e. g. NO x ). Energy can be recovered by heat exchange from the hot incineration gases, thus lowering fossil fuel consumption that in turn can reduce emissions of greenhouse gases. Burning of solid waste can fulfil up to four distinctive objectives (Pera, 2000): 1. Volume reduction: volume reduction of about 90 %, weight reduction of about 70 %; 2. Stabilization of waste: oxidation of organic input; 3. Recovery of energy from waste; 4. Sanitization of waste: destruction of pathogens. Waste incineration is not a means to make waste disappear. It does entail emissions into air as well as water and soil. The generated solid residues are the topic of this task force. Unlike other industrial processes discussed in this platform, waste incineration is not a production process, and is therefore not generating by-products, only residues. Residues that are isolated from e. g. flue gas, are concentrated in another place and form (e. g. air pollution control residues). Hence, there are generally two groups of residues that have to be taken into consideration: residues generated in the actual incineration process and others generated in the flue gas cleaning system. Should waste incineration finally gain public acceptance, it will be necessary to find consistent regulations for both sorts of residues. In some countries waste incineration is seen as the best option for the treatment of waste, whereas in other countries it is seen very negative. (author)

  1. Waste treatment activities incineration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, D.A.

    1985-01-01

    The waste management policy at SRP is to minimize waste generation as much as possible and detoxify and/or volume reduce waste materials prior to disposal. Incineration is a process being proposed for detoxification and volume reduction of combustion nonradioactive hazardous, low-level mixed and low-level beta-gamma waste. Present operation of the Solvent Burner Demonstration reduces the amount of solid combustible low-level beta-gamma boxed waste disposed of by shallow land burial by approximately 99,000 ft 3 per year producing 1000 ft 3 per year of ash and, by 1988, will detoxify and volume reduce 150,000 gallons or organic Purex solvent producing approximately 250 ft 3 of ash per year

  2. Numerical model for a watering plan to wash out organic matter from the municipal solid waste incinerator bottom ash layer in closed system disposal facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Kazuei; Furuichi, Toru; Tanikawa, Noboru

    2009-02-01

    Bottom ash from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) is a main type of waste that is landfilled in Japan. The long-term elution of organic matter from the MSWI bottom ash layers is a concern because maintenance and operational costs of leachate treatment facilities are high. In closed system disposal facilities (CSDFs), which have a roof to prevent rainfall from infiltrating into the waste layers, water must be supplied artificially and its quantity can be controlled. However, the quantity of water needed and how to apply it (the intensity, period and frequency) have not been clearly defined. In order to discuss an effective watering plan, this study proposes a new washout model to clarify a fundamental mechanism of total organic carbon (TOC) elution behavior from MSWI bottom ash layers. The washout model considers three phases: solid, immobile water and mobile water. The parameters, including two mass transfer coefficients of the solid-immobile water phases and immobile-mobile water phases, were determined by one-dimensional column experiments for about 2 years. The intensity, period and frequency of watering and other factors were discussed based on a numerical analysis using the above parameters. As a result, our washout model explained adequately the elution behavior of TOC from the MSWI bottom ash layer before carbonation occurred (pH approximately 8.3). The determined parameters and numerical analysis suggested that there is a possibility that the minimum amount of water needed for washing out TOC per unit weight of MSWI bottom ash layer could be determined, which depends on the two mass transfer coefficients and the depth of the MSWI bottom ash layer. Knowledge about the fundamental mechanism of the elution behavior of TOC from the MSWI bottom ash layer before carbonation occurs, clarified by this study, will help an effective watering plan in CSDFs.

  3. Incineration conference 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    This book contains the proceedings of the 1990 incineration conference. The proceedings are organized under the following headings: Regulations- international comparison, Current trends in facility design, Oxygen enhancement, Metals, Off-gas treatment, Operating experience: transportable, Materials, Operating experience: R/A and mixed, Incineration of specific wastes, Medical waste management, Ash qualification, Ash solidification/ immobilization, Innovative technologies, Operating experience : medical waste, Instrumentation and monitoring, process control and modeling, Risk assessment/management, Operating considerations

  4. Evaluation of gaseous emissions produced in the tests on the demonstration plant for sludge drying and incineration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lotito, V.; Spinosa, L.; Antonacci, R.; Mininni, G.

    2001-01-01

    Incineration is a valid alternative to other more diffused disposal systems (agricultural use, landfill), when they cannot be applied due to high pollutants concentrations or other unforeseeable constraints. However, it can cause severe air pollution by inorganic (heavy metals) and organic (PAHs, PCDDs, PCDFs) pollutants, particulate, NO x , CO and acidic compounds; this fact has raised public concern about incineration and has hindered a wider application of this practice. Water Research Institute of Italian National Research Council realised a demonstration plant mainly consisting of a fluidized bed furnace, a rotary kiln furnace, a dryer with heat recovery section, particulate and acidic compounds removal apparatuses, and set up a research programme to demonstrate that incineration is a safe operation and can comply the relevant legislation, as far as organic and inorganic micropollutants are concerned. A total of 40 tests were carried out (30 with the fluidized bed furnace and 10 with rotary kiln one) treating dewatered sludges (in many cases with the addition of high chlorinated compounds and Cu salts) or dried ones, under different operating conditions (furnace temperature, after-burner temperature, chlorine concentration). Particulate concentrations, and consequently heavy metals concentrations, at the stack resulted in any case under legal limits. As far as conventional pollutants are concerned, only HCl and CO overcame sometimes standards, mainly due to temporary operating up-sets. PAHs concentration resulted quite constant, thus demonstrating that tests were operated in steady-state and satisfactory conditions. Also dioxins and furans overcame sometimes standards, but no correlation was found with more severe tests conditions; it happened when plant up-set conditions occurred. Operation resulted quite satisfactory, but dryer operation required constant operators attention. In rotary kiln furnace a build up of solidified ashes occurred in counter

  5. Vitrification of lead-rich solid ashes from incineration of hazardous industrial wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kavouras, P.; Kaimakamis, G.; Ioannidis, Th. A.; Kehagias, Th.; Komninou, Ph.; Kokkou, S.; Pavlidou, E.; Antonopoulos, I.; Sofoniou, M.; Zouboulis, A.; Hadjiantoniou, C.P.; Nouet, G.; Prakouras, A.; Karakostas, Th.

    2003-01-01

    Lead-rich solid industrial wastes were vitrified by the addition of glass formers in various concentrations, to produce non-toxic vitreous stabilized products that can be freely disposed or used as construction materials. Toxicity of both the as-received industrial solid waste and the stabilized products was determined using standard leaching test procedures. The chemically stable vitreous products were subjected to thermal annealing in order to investigate the extent of crystal separation that could occur during cooling of large pieces of glass. Leaching tests were repeated to investigate the relation between annealing process and chemical stability. X-ray, scanning and transmission electron microscopy techniques were employed to identify the microstructure of stabilized products before and after thermal treatment. Relation between synthesis and processing, chemical stability and microstructure was investigated

  6. Construction of an interim storage field using recovered municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash: Field performance study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sormunen, Laura Annika; Kolisoja, Pauli

    2017-06-01

    The leaching of hazardous substances from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) bottom ash (BA) has been studied in many different scales for several years. Less attention has been given to the mechanical performance of MSWI BA in actual civil engineering structures. The durability of structures built with this waste derived material can have major influence on the functional properties of such structures and also the potential leaching of hazardous substances in the long term. Hence, it is necessary to properly evaluate in which type of structures MSWI BA can be safely used in a similar way as natural and crushed rock aggregates. In the current study, MSWI BA treated with ADR (Advance Dry Recovery) technology was used in the structural layers of an interim storage field built within a waste treatment centre. During and half a year after the construction, the development of technical and mechanical properties of BA materials and the built structures were investigated. The aim was to compare these results with the findings of laboratory studies in which the same material was previously investigated. The field results showed that the mechanical performance of recovered BA corresponds to the performance of natural aggregates in the lower structural layers of field structures. Conversely, the recovered MSWI BA cannot be recommended to be used in the base layers as such, even though its stiffness properties increased over time due to material aging and changes in moisture content. The main reason for this is that BA particles are prone for crushing and therefore inadequate to resist the higher stresses occurring in the upper parts of road and field structures. These results were in accordance with the previous laboratory findings. It can thus be concluded that the recovered MSWI BA is durable to be used as a replacement of natural aggregates especially in the lower structural layers of road and field structures, whereas if used in the base layers, an additional base

  7. Studying the melting behaviour of fly ash from the incineration of MSW using viscosity and heated stage XRD data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arvelakis, Stelios; Folkedahl, B.; Frandsen, F. J.

    2008-01-01

    , by use of a high-temperature rotational viscometer in order to determine the rheology of the ash material, and by a hot-stage XRD in order to identify phase changes and transformations during the heating and cooling of the ash samples. Knowledge of the ash melting properties as well as phase changes...

  8. Incineration in the nuclear field. The SGN experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpentier, S.

    1993-01-01

    The operation of power reactors, like that of fuel fabrication and nuclear fuel reprocessing plants, generated substantial quantities of waste. A large share of this waste is low- and medium-level waste, which is also combustible. Similarly, a number of institutes, laboratories, and hospitals, in the course of their activities, generated waste which a portion is radioactive and combustible. The chief advantage of incineration is to minimize the volume of burnable waste treated, and to produce a residue termed 'ash'. SGN has built up 25 years of experience in this field. The incinerators have been designed and the incineration processes are specially studied by SGN

  9. Synthetic aggregates from combustion ashes using an innovative rotary kiln.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wainwright, P J; Cresswell, D J

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes the use of a number of different combustion ashes to manufacture synthetic aggregates using an innovative rotary 'Trefoil' kiln. Three types of combustion ash were used, namely: incinerated sewage sludge ash (ISSA); municipal solid waste incinerator bottom ash (MSWIBA-- referred to here as BA); and pulverised fuel ash (Pfa). The fine waste ash fractions listed above were combined with a binder to create a plastic mix that was capable of being formed into 'green pellets'. These pellets were then fired in a Trefoil kiln to sinter the ashes into hard fused aggregates that were then tested for use as a replacement for the natural coarse aggregate in concrete. Results up to 28 days showed that these synthetic aggregates were capable of producing concretes with compressive strengths ranging from 33 to 51 MPa, equivalent to between 73 and 112% of that of the control concrete made with natural aggregates.

  10. Incineration of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caramelle, D.; Florestan, J.; Waldura, C.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports that one of the methods used to reduce the volume of radioactive wastes is incineration. Incineration also allows combustible organic wastes to be transformed into inert matter that is stable from the physico-chemical viewpoint and ready to be conditioned for long-term stockage. The quality of the ashes obtained (low carbon content) depends on the efficiency of combustion. A good level of efficiency requires a combustion yield higher than 99% at the furnace door. Removal efficiency is defined as the relation between the CO 2 /CO + CO 2 concentrations multiplied by 100. This implies a CO concentration of the order of a few vpm. However, the gases produced by an incineration facility can represent a danger for the environment especially if toxic or corrosive gases (HCL,NO x ,SO 2 , hydrocarbons...) are given off. The gaseous effluents must therefore be checked after purification before they are released into the atmosphere. The CO and CO 2 measurement gives us the removal efficiency value. This value can also be measured in situ at the door of the combustion chamber. Infrared spectrometry is used for the various measurements: Fourier transform infrared spectrometry for the off-gases, and diode laser spectrometry for combustion

  11. Facing slag glass and slag glass ceramic produced from thermal power plant ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buruchenko, A.E.; Kolesnikov, A.A.; Lukoyanov, A.G.

    1990-10-01

    Evaluates properties of fly ash and slags from the Krasnoyarsk coal-fired power plants and their utilization for glass and ceramic glass production. Composition of a mixture of fly ash and slag was: silica 40-55%, aluminium oxides 10-40%, ferric trioxide 6-14%, calcium oxides 20-35%, magnesium oxides 3-6%, potassium oxides 0.3-1.5%, sodium oxides 0.2-05%, sulfur trioxide 0.9-5.0%. The analyzed fly ash and slags from the Krasnoyarsk plant were an economic waste material for glass production. Properties of sand, clay and other materials used in glass production and properties of glass and ceramic glass produced on the basis of fly ash and slags are analyzed. Economic aspects of fly ash and slag utilization are also evaluated. 3 refs.

  12. Characterisation of ashes produced by co-combustion of recovered fuels and peat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frankenhaeuser, M. [Borealis Polymers Oy, Porvoo (Finland)

    1997-10-01

    The current project focuses on eventual changes in ash characteristics during co-combustion of refuse derived fuel with coal, peat, wood or bark, which could lead to slagging, fouling and corrosion in the boiler. Ashes were produced at fluidised bed (FB) combustion conditions in the 15 kW reactor at VTT Energy, Jyvaeskylae, the fly ash captured by the cyclone was further analysed by XRF at Outokumpu Geotechnical Laboratory, Outokumpu. The sintering behaviour of these ashes was investigated using a test procedure developed at the Combustion Chemistry Research Group at Aabo Akademi University. The current extended programme includes a Danish refuse-derived fuel (RDF), co-combusted with bark/coal (5 tests) and wood/coal (2 tests), a RF from Jyvaskyla (2 tests with peat/coal) and de-inking sludges co- combusted at full-scale with wood waste or paper mill sludge (4 ashes provided by IVO Power). Ash pellets were thermally treated in nitrogen in order to avoid residual carbon combustion. The results obtained show no sintering tendencies below 600 deg C, significant changes in sintering are seen with pellets treated at 1000 deg C. Ash from 100 % RDF combustion does not sinter, 25 % RDF co-combustion with wood and peat, respectively, gives an insignificant effect. The most severe sintering occurs during co-combustion of RDF with bark. Contrary to the earlier hypothesis a 25 % coal addition seems to have a negative effect on all fuel blends. Analysis of the sintering results versus ash chemical composition shows, that (again), in general, an increased level of alkali chlorides and sulphates gives increased sintering. Finally, some results on sintering tendency measurements on ashes from full-scale CFB co-combustion of deinking sludge with wood waste and paper mill sludge are given. This shows that these ashes show very little, if any, sintering tendency, which can be explained from ash chemistry

  13. Metal recovery from municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash (MSWIBA): state of the art, potential and environmental benefits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allegrini, Elisa; Holtze, Maria S.; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    Incineration has a central role in the waste management system in Denmark (e.g. 52% of the household waste) resulting in approximately 726000t of solid residues each year. However, the targets imposed by the Danish Waste Strategy and the increasing discussions about resource in waste raise an issue...... on resource losses through waste incineration. In this framework, this study provides actual data on the state of the art of the recovery of resource in MSWIBA in Denmark (i.e. metals), on the potential for further recovery and on the environmental benefits or burdens assessed through the Life Cycle...

  14. Recovery of plutonium from pyrolysis and incineration residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isaacs, J.W.; McDonald, L.A.; Roberts, W.G.; Sutcliffe, P.W.; Wilkins, J.D.

    1981-01-01

    The effect of ashes prepared from typical plutonium-handling, glove box, combustible wastes on the dissolution of PuO 2 is described. Synthetic ashes have been prepared by doping inactively-prepared ashes with various plutonium-containing compounds, followed by heating at temperatures in the range 550-1200 0 C. The resulting ashes have been leach-tested in order to provide information on the relationship between leachability, the nature of the ashes, the type of plutonium contamination and temperature of thermal treatment. Optimum temperatures for the recovery of plutonium and for the production of inert ''slag'' -type residues have been identified. A furnace for producing model incinerator ashes and pyrolysis chars under carefully controlled conditions is described. Preliminary results on the leaching of these plutonium-active ashes and chars are discussed. (author)

  15. Characteristics and metal leachability of incinerated sewage sludge ash and air pollution control residues from Hong Kong evaluated by different methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiang-Shan; Xue, Qiang; Fang, Le; Poon, Chi Sun

    2017-06-01

    The improper disposal of incinerated sewage sludge ash (ISSA) and air pollution control residues (APCR) from sewage sludge incinerators has become an environmental concern. The physicochemical, morphological and mineralogical characteristics of ISSA and APCR from Hong Kong, and the leachability and risk of heavy metals, are presented in this paper. The results showed that a low hydraulic and pozzolanic potential was associated with the ISSA and APCR due to the presence of low contents of SiO 2 , Al 2 O 3 and CaO and high contents of P, S and Cl (especially for APCR). Although high concentrations of Zn and Cu (especially for ISSA) followed by Ni, Pb and As, Se were detected, a low leaching rate of these metals (especially at neutral and alkaline pH) rendered them classifiable as non-hazardous according to the U.S. EPA and Chinese national regulatory limits. The leached metals concentrations from ISSA and APCR were mainly pH dependent, and metals solubilization occurred mainly at low pH. Different leaching tests should be adopted based on the simulated different environmental conditions and exposure scenarios for assessing the leachability as contrasting results could be obtained due to the differences in complexing abilities and final pH of the leaching solutions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Study of the leaching of heavy metals from waste water sludge and incinerator's ash, using coupled thermostated columns and DTPA as complex agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vite T, J.; Vite T, M.; Guerrero D, J.; Carreno de Leon, M.C.

    2000-01-01

    We studied the metallic composition from waste water sludge and incinerators ashes of an incinerator located in Toluca, Mexico, the qualitative studies were made using the Activation Analysis technique, and fluorescence X-ray techniques. The quantitative analysis of heavy metals in the wastes were made using Inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (Icp-Aes). For leaching the samples, we used four coupled thermostated columns, each one had a p H of 2,5, 7 and 10. The flux of the air was of 1600 cc/min. The temperature was maintain constant in 60 Centigrade using a thermostated system. For this study we used 100 g of wastes mixed with mineral acid or sodium hydroxide to reach p H 2,5,7 and 10. We added a reducing and tensoactive agents and finally DTPA as complex agent. With this method, we obtain a better leaching efficiency using a complex agent. However the high DTPA cost, make this process expansive that is why we recommend to work with another classes of complex agents, that be cheaper to leach metals of different chemistry matrix. (Author)

  17. Landfilling of waste incineration residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Astrup, Thomas; Cai, Zuansi

    2002-01-01

    Residues from waste incineration are bottom ashes and air-pollution-control (APC) residues including fly ashes. The leaching of heavy metals and salts from the ashes is substantial and a wide spectrum of leaching tests and corresponding criteria have been introduced to regulate the landfilling...

  18. Effect of composition variations on the long-term wasteform behavior of vitrified domestic waste incineration fly-ash purification residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frugier, Pierre

    1999-01-01

    The effect of variations in the composition of fly-ash purification residue from incinerated domestic waste on the quality of the containment achieved by vitrification was investigated. Three main factors determine the long-term containment quality: the production of a vitrified wasteform, the occurrence of possible crystallization, and the key parameters of long-term alteration in aqueous media. Each of these aspects is described within a composition range defined by variations in the three major elements. (silicon, calcium and aluminum) and two groups of constituents (alkali metals and toxic elements). The silicon fraction in the fly-ash residue was found to be decisive: it is impossible to obtain a satisfactory vitrified wasteform below a given silicon concentration. Compounds with the lowest silica content also exhibited the greatest tendency to crystallize under the cooling conditions prevailing in industrial processes (the dominant crystallized phase is a melilite that occupies a significant fraction of the material and considerably modifies the alteration mechanisms). The initial alteration rate in pure water and the altered glass thickness measured in a closed system at an advanced stage of the dissolution reaction are both inversely related to the silicon concentration in the glass. Several types of long-term behavior were identified according to the composition range, the process conditions and the vitrified waste disposal scenario. Four distinct 'classes' of vitrified wasteform were defined for direct application in industrial processes. (author) [fr

  19. The mineral phase evolution behaviour in the production of glass-ceramics from municipal solid waste incineration fly ash by melting technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luan, Jingde; Chai, Meiyun; Li, Rundong; Yao, Pengfei; Khan, Agha Saood

    2016-01-01

    High energy consumption was the major obstacle to the widespread application of melting technology in the treatment of municipal solid waste incineration fly ash. Aiming to lower the ash-melting temperature (AMT) for energy-saving, differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffraction and the scanning electron microscope were used to investigate the relations between AMT and the mineral evolution. The results indicated that the change of AMT was determined by the types and the contents of mineral crystals. The transition from refractory minerals to fluxing minerals was the key. The transition of the main crystalline phase from pseudowollastonite (Ca3(Si3O9)) to wollastonite (CaSiO3) played a significant role in AMT reduction. A quantum chemistry calculation was carried out to investigate the effect of crystal reaction activity on AMT. In the chemical reaction, the highest occupied molecular orbital and the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital played a more important role than any other orbits. Cations (Ca(2+), Mg(2+), Na(+), K(+)) were apt to enter into the crystal lattice of wollastonite and gehlenite mainly through Si (3), O (1), Si (6), O (10) and Al (2), O (10), and broke the covalent bonds of Si (3)-O (7), Al (1)-O (9) and Al (1)-O (15), respectively. This deconstruction behaviour provided convenient conditions for restructuring and promoted the formation of fluxing minerals. In melts, the excess SiO2 monomers which existed in the form of cristobalite and quartz caused AMT increase.

  20. A two-stage treatment for Municipal Solid Waste Incineration (MSWI) bottom ash to remove agglomerated fine particles and leachable contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Qadeer; Florea, M V A; Schollbach, K; Brouwers, H J H

    2017-09-01

    In this lab study, a two-stage treatment was investigated to achieve the valorization of a municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) bottom ash fraction below 4mm. This fraction of MSWI bottom ash (BA) is the most contaminated one, containing potentially toxic elements (Cu, Cr, Mo and Sb), chlorides and sulfates. The BA was treated for recycling by separating agglomerated fine particles (≤125µm) and soluble contaminants by using a sequence of sieving and washing. Initially, dry sieving was performed to obtain BA-S (≤125µm), BA-M (0.125-1mm) and BA-L (1-4mm) fractions from the original sample. The complete separation of fine particles cannot be achieved by conventional sieving, because they are bound in a cementitious matrix around larger BA grains. Subsequently, a washing treatment was performed to enhance the liberation of the agglomerated fine particles from the BA-M and BA-L fractions. These fine particles were found to be similar to the particles of BA-S fraction in term of chemical composition. Furthermore, the leaching behavior of Cr, Mo Sb, chlorides and sulfates was investigated using various washing parameters. The proposed treatment for the separation of agglomerated fine particles with dry sieving and washing (L/S 3, 60min) was successful in bringing the leaching of contaminants under the legal limit established by the Dutch environmental norms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. ORGDP RCRA/PCB incinerator facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, T.

    1987-01-01

    A dual purpose solid/liquid incinerator is currently being constructed at the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant [ORGDP (K-25)] to destroy uranium contaminated, hazardous organic wastes in compliance with the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). These wastes are generated by the gaseous diffusion plants in Oak Ridge, TN; Paducah, KY; and Portsmouth, OH. In addition, waste will also be received from the Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and the Feed Materials Production Center (FMPC). Destruction of PCBs and hazardous liquid organic wastes will be accomplished in a rotary kiln incinerator with an afterburner. This system was selected faster a study of various alternatives. Incineration was chosen because it is dependable, permanent, detoxifies organics, and reduces volume. The rotary kiln incinerator was selected because it can thermally destroy organic constituents of liquids, solids, and sludges to produce an organically inert ash. In addition to the incineration off-gas treatment system, the facility includes a tank farm, drum storage buildings, a solids preparation area, a control room, and a data management system. The incineration system, off-gas treatment system, and related instrumentation and controls are being provided by International Waste Energy Systems (IWES) which is responsible for design, construction, startup, and performances testing

  2. Status report: waste incineration and fixation for Waste Management, Production, and Reprocessing Division of the Department of Energy (July--December 1976)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziegler, D.L.; White, J.W.; Johnson, A.J.; Fong, L.Q.; Teter, A.R.; Chung, S.F.

    1977-01-01

    Fluidized bed incineration and waste fixation processes are being used to process the types of wastes expected from nuclear fuel reprocessing and production plants. Test incineration runs have been made on two types of wastes: high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters and tributyl phosphate-solvent solutions. Laboratory-scale vitrification equipment was used to produce glass pellets from incinerator ash and blends of other expected waste streams. Computer modeling gave an expected product integrity life of over 2,000 years

  3. Main characteristics of the radioactive enrichment in ashes produced in coal-fired power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baeza, Antonio; Corbacho, Jose A.; Cancio, David; Robles, Beatriz; Mora, Juan C.

    2008-01-01

    Under contract with the Spain's 'Nuclear Safety Council', a study is being conducted of the nation's largest nominal output coal-fired power stations. Its purpose is to assess the radiological impact on workers and local populations due to this source of NORM activity. One of the aspects of particular interest is the study of the radioactive enrichment in the combustion wastes relative to the different coals used as fuel (usually local bituminous coal or lignite, or imported coal). These wastes consist of fly ash (mostly fine particles collected in electrostatic precipitators), and bottom ash (larger in size, and collected wet or dry in hoppers below the boilers). In general terms, the enrichment factors measured were between 2 and 18 for the radionuclides 40 K, 226 Ra, 232 Th, and 210 Po. The magnitude of this enrichment factor depended mainly on the ash content of each coal, and hence on the type of coal used as fuel and the specific operation cycle in the different power stations. For the radionuclides 40 K, 226 Ra, and 232 Th, the enrichment was relatively similar in value in the fly and bottom ashes produced by the different types of coal used in the power stations studied. For 210 Po, however, as was expected, the enrichment was much greater in the fly ash than in the bottom ash for each coal analyzed. (author)

  4. Chemical composition of overland flow produced on soils covered with vegetative ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.B. Bodí

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to ascertain the differences between the soluble elements of ash obtained under laboratory conditions and the dissolved in overland flow from soils covered with a layer of ash. The overland flow was obtained during series of rainfall simulations over soils covered with two different types of ash. This study indicates that the soluble elements released from ash can modify water quality increasing its pH, electrical conductivity and especially cation content. The nutrients solubilised are not necessarily the same as the elemental composition of ash itself. Runoff composition depends on the volume of water produced, on the solubility of the ash components and on the chemical interactions with water from rainfall and soil. After the first intense rain event, most of the elements are solubilised and lixiviated or washed out, however, some of them may increase in the runoff or soil water some weeks later due to chemical interactions with water from rainfall and soil nutrients.

  5. Recycling by the brick making industry of ashes from sewage sludge incineration; Verwertung von Aschen der Klaerschlammverbrennung in der Ziegelindustrie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiebusch, B.; Seyfried, C.F. [Hannover Univ. (Germany). ISAH Inst. fuer Siedlungswasserwirtschaft und Abfalltechnik

    1998-09-01

    The present project focuses on the recycling of sewage sludge ashes by the brick making industry. The following aspects are dealt with in detail: Overview of the state of the art of sewage sludge combustion in Germany; influence of wastewater and sludge treatment on ash quality (determination of the seasonal course of chemical sewage sludge composition); use of sewage sludge ashes in as loading material in fluidised-bed furnaces or as clay substitute in brick manufacture; semi-technical trials in ceramic laboratories; assessment of the environmental impact of bricks containing sewage sludge ash; performance of leaching experiments; and examination of the mineralogical binding of heavy metals into the ceramic matrix. [Deutsch] Das Projekt konzentriert sich dabei auf eine Verwertung von Klaerschlammaschen in der Ziegelindustrie, wobei die im folgenden genannten Aspekte im Einzelnen bearbeitet werden: - Ueberblick ueber den Stand der Technik bei der Klaerschlammverbrennung in Deutschland - Einfluss der Abwasser- und Schlammbehandlung auf die Aschequalitaet (Ermittlung von Jahresganglinien der chemischen Zusammensetzung von Klaerschlammaschen) - Einsatz von Klaerschlammaschen aus Wirbelschichtoefen als Zuschlagstoff bzw. Tonersatz bei der Ziegelproduktion - halbtechnische Versuche im keramischen Labor - Abschaetzung der Umweltvertraeglichkeit von Ziegeln mit Klaerschlammaschezusatz: Durchfuehrung von Auslangversuchen, Untersuchung einer mineralogischen Einbindung von Schwermetallen in die keramische Matrix. (orig./SR)

  6. Viscosity of ashes from energy production and municipal solid waste handling: A comparative study between two different experimental setups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arvelakis, Stelios; Frandsen, Flemming; Folkedahl, B.

    2008-01-01

    This paper discusses the viscosity characteristics of ash fractions produced from the co-combustion of coal and biomass in a pilot-scale pulverized fuel (PF) boiler and from the incineration of municipal solid waste (MSW) in a Danish incinerator that were determined using the high...

  7. HIGH-TEMPERATURE GASIFICATION OF RDF WASTE AND MELTING OF FLY ASH OBTAINED FROM THE INCINERATION OF MUNICIPAL WASTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marián Lázár

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective of this paper is to describe innovative solutions of thermal processing of selected components of municipal waste (so-called RDF waste using low-ionized depended plasma arc generated by a progressive and promising technology, which is plasma reactor. Its application can transform hazardous waste into inert waste while significantly reducing the volume of waste. Results given in this paper indicate experimentally achieved outputs with thermal disposal of RDF waste and ash from municipal waste. 

  8. Incineration of Non-radioactive Simulated Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, A.Z.; Abdelrazek, I.D.

    1999-01-01

    An advanced controlled air incinerator has been investigated, developed and put into successful operation for both non radioactive simulated and other combustible solid wastes. Engineering efforts concentrated on providing an incinerator which emitted a clean, easily treatable off-gas and which produced minimum amounts of secondary waste. Feed material is fed by gravity into the gas reactor without shredding or other pretreatment. The temperature of the waste is gradually increased in a reduced oxygen atmosphere as the resulting products are introduced into the combustion chamber. Steady burning is thus accomplished under easily controlled excess air conditions with the off-gas then passing through a simple dry cleaning-up system. Experimental studies showed that, at lower temperature, CO 2 , and CH 4 contents in gas reactor effluent increase by the increase of glowing bed temperature, while H 2 O, H 2 and CO decrease . It was proved that, a burn-out efficiency (for ash residues) and a volume reduction factor appeared to be better than 95.5% and 98% respectively. Moreover, high temperature permits increased volumes of incinerated material and results in increased gasification products. It was also found that 8% by weight of ashes are separated by flue gas cleaning system as it has chemical and size uniformity. This high incineration efficiency has been obtained through automated control and optimization of process variables like temperature of the glowing bed and the oxygen feed rate to the gas reactor

  9. Dynamic evaluation of municipal solid waste ash leachate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theis, T.L.; Gardner, K.H.

    1992-01-01

    The incineration of municipal solid waste (MSW) produces ashes which are concentrated in many inorganic species. The release of toxic elements from the ash to the aqueous environment is of concern as present methods of ash disposal consist primarily of landfilling. It was the goal of this paper to achieve an understanding of the mechanisms by which elements are transported from the solid ash phase to the aqueous phase. Twelve ash samples were collected from six different incinerators with varying designs and capacities. The leaching experiments were conducted using small (mini) dynamic columns to investigate the variation of leachate chemical characteristics with time. In analyzing the data, a multicomponent chemical equilibrium model was used to determine chemical speciation and component activities. Auxiliary experiments included an array of physical measurements, and aqueous batch leach tests

  10. Mineralogical, Microstructural and Thermal Characterization of Coal Fly Ash Produced from Kazakhstani Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauanov, Z.; Abylgazina, L.; Spitas, C.; Itskos, G.; Inglezakis, V.

    2017-09-01

    Coal fly ash (CFA) is a waste by-product of coal combustion. Kazakhstan has vast coal deposits and is major consumer of coal and hence produces huge amounts of CFA annually. The government aims to recycle and effectively utilize this waste by-product. Thus, a detailed study of the physical and chemical properties of material is required as the data available in literature is either outdated or not applicable for recently produced CFA samples. The full mineralogical, microstructural and thermal characterization of three types of coal fly ash (CFA) produced in two large Kazakhstani power plants is reported in this work. The properties of CFAs were compared between samples as well as with published values.

  11. A full-scale study on thermal degradation of polychlorinated dibenzo- p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash and its secondary air pollution control in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xingbao; Ji, Bingjing; Yan, Dahai; Huang, Qifei; Zhu, Xuemei

    2017-04-01

    Degradation of polychlorinated dibenzo- p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash is beneficial to its risk control. Fly ash was treated in a full-scale thermal degradation system (capacity 1 t d -1 ) to remove polychlorinated dibenzo- p-dioxins and dibenzofurans. Apart from the confirmation of the polychlorinated dibenzo- p-dioxin and dibenzofuran decomposition efficiency, we focused on two major issues that are the major obstacles for commercialising this decomposition technology in China, desorption and regeneration of dioxins and control of secondary air pollution. The toxic equivalent quantity values of polychlorinated dibenzo- p-dioxins and dibenzofurans decreased to air pollution control system. The degradation furnace released relatively large amounts of cadmium, lead and polychlorinated dibenzo- p-dioxins and dibenzofurans compared with the municipal solid waste incinerator, but the amounts emitted to the atmosphere did not exceed the Chinese national emission limits. Thermal degradation can therefore be used as a polychlorinated dibenzo- p-dioxin and dibenzofuran abatement method for municipal solid waste incinerator source in China.

  12. Use of Rice Husk-Bark Ash in Producing Self-Compacting Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumrerng Rukzon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the use of blend of Portland cement with rice husk-bark ash in producing self-compacting concrete (SCC. CT was partially replaced with ground rice husk-bark ash (GRHBA at the dosage levels of 0%–40% by weight of binder. Compressive strength, porosity, chloride penetration, and corrosion of SCC were determined. Test results reveal that the resistance to chloride penetration of concrete improves substantially with partial replacement of CT with a blend of GRHBA and the improvement increases with an increase in the replacement level. The corrosion resistances of SCC were better than the CT concrete. In addition, test results indicated that the reduction in porosity was associated with the increase in compressive strength. The porosity is a significant factor as it affects directly the durability of the SCC. This work is suggested that the GHRBA is effective for producing SCC with 30% of GHRBA replacement level.

  13. Metallic elements fractionation in municipal solid waste incineration residues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalski, Piotr R.; Kasina, Monika; Michalik, Marek

    2016-04-01

    Cr. In comparison to bottom ash, in fly ash 10-fold more Zn was present (8070 ppm), 4-fold more Sn (540 ppm) and also 2-fold more Ti (1.1 wt%), Pb (460 ppm) and Sn (540 ppm). Although APC residue is the material produced in the smallest quantities, in its composition some high concentrations of metallic elements were also present. Contents of Zn (>1 wt%), Pb (2560 ppm) and Sn (875 ppm) were much higher than in bottom and fly ash. Obtained results confirmed that fractionation of elements occurs during the municipal waste incineration and further detailed study of the residues may allow better understanding of the process. Acknowledgment: Research was funded by Polish National Science Centre (NCN). Scientific grant No. UMO-2014/15/B/ST10/04171.

  14. Technologies for the management of MSW incineration ashes from gas cleaning: New perspectives on recovery of secondary raw materials and circular economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quina, Margarida J; Bontempi, Elza; Bogush, Anna; Schlumberger, Stefan; Weibel, Gisela; Braga, Roberto; Funari, Valerio; Hyks, Jiri; Rasmussen, Erik; Lederer, Jakob

    2018-09-01

    Environmental policies in the European Union focus on the prevention of hazardous waste and aim to mitigate its impact on human health and ecosystems. However, progress is promoting a shift in perspective from environmental impacts to resource recovery. Municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) has been increasing in developed countries, thus the amount of air pollution control residues (APCr) and fly ashes (FA) have followed the same upward trend. APCr from MSWI is classified as hazardous waste in the List of Waste (LoW) and as an absolute entry (19 01 07*), but FA may be classified as a mirror entry (19 0 13*/19 01 14). These properties arise mainly from their content in soluble salts, potentially toxic metals, trace organic pollutants and high pH in contact with water. Since these residues have been mostly disposed of in underground and landfills, other possibilities must be investigated to recover secondary raw materials and products. According to the literature, four additional routes of recovery have been found: detoxification (e.g. washing), product manufacturing (e.g. ceramic products and cement), practical applications (e.g. CO 2 sequestration) and recovery of materials (e.g. Zn and salts). This work aims to identify the best available technologies for material recovery in order to avoid landfill solutions. Within this scope, six case studies are presented and discussed: recycling in lightweight aggregates, glass-ceramics, cement, recovery of zinc, rare metals and salts. Finally, future perspectives are provided to advance understanding of this anthropogenic waste as a source of resources, yet tied to safeguards for the environment. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Controlled air incinerator conceptual design study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    This report presents a conceptual design study for a controlled air incinerator facility for incineration of low level combustible waste at Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2). The facility design is based on the use of a Helix Process Systems controlled air incinerator. Cost estimates and associated engineering, procurement, and construction schedules are also provided. The cost estimates and schedules are presented for two incinerator facility designs, one with provisions for waste ash solidification, the other with provisions for packaging the waste ash for transport to an undefined location

  16. The recycling of incinerated sewage sludge ash as a raw material for CaO-Al2O3-SiO2-P2O5 glass-ceramic production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhikun; Zhang, Lei; Yin, Yulei; Liang, Xuanye; Li, Aimin

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the recycling of incinerated sewage sludge ash (ISSA) into glass-ceramic materials by a two-stage sintering cycle of nucleation stage and crystallization stage without any pressure and binder is presented. The parent glasses were subjected to the following nucleation/crystallization temperature and time level: (A) 790°C, 1.0 h/870°C, 1.0-3.0 h; (B) 790°C, 1.0 h/945°C, 1.0-3.0 h and (C) 790°C, 1.0 h/1065°C, 1.0-3.0 h. X-ray power diffraction analysis results revealed that multiple crystalline phases coexisted in the glass-ceramic materials and the crystalline phase compositions were more affected by crystallization temperature than crystallization time. Scanning electron microscopy analysis showed an interlocking microstructure of glass phases and crystals with different sizes and spatial distribution. The glass-ceramics crystallized at 945°C for 2.0 h exhibited optimal properties of density of 2.88±0.08 g/cm3, compression strength of 247±12 MPa, bending strength of 118±14 MPa and water absorption of 0.42±0.04. The leaching concentrations of heavy metals were far lower than the limits required by the regulatory standard of EPA. This paper provides a feasible, low-cost and promising method to produce ISSA-based glass-ceramics and highlights the principal characteristics that must be taken into account to use ISSA correctly in glass-ceramics.

  17. Electrodialytic removal of heavy metals and chloride from municipal solid waste incineration fly ash and air pollution control residue in suspension - test of a new two compartment experimental cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkelund, Gunvor Marie; Magro, Cátia; Guedes, Paula

    2015-01-01

    Municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) residues such as fly ash and air pollution control (APC) residues are classified as hazardous waste and disposed of, although they contain potential resources. The most problematic elements in MSWI residues are leachable heavy metals and salts. For reuse...... of MSWI residues in for instance concrete, the aim of remediation should be reduction of the heavy metal leaching, while at the same time keeping the alkaline pH, so the residue can replace cement. In this study a MSWI residues were subjected to electrodialytic remediation under various experimental...... heavy metal leaching except when the pH was reduced to a level below 8 for the fly ash. On the other hand, Cr leaching increased by the electrodialytic treatment. Cl leaching from the MSWI residues was less dependent on experimental conditions and was reduced in all experiments compared to the initial...

  18. Effects of Silica in Rice Husk Ash (RHA) in producing High Strength Concrete

    OpenAIRE

    Kartini, K; Nurul Nazierah, M.Y; Zaidahtulakmal, M.Z; Siti Aisyah, G

    2012-01-01

    High strength concrete (HSC) are known to have a higher amount of cement binder in the mix design properties with low w/b ratio. The high mass of cement content produced substantial heat liberation in the concrete due to the reaction between cement and water, which can lead to cracking. Additive likes silica fume is too expensive to use in the HSC in order to overcome the problems, however, the initiative of utilizing the rice husk ash (RHA) which have high silica content are apply for the de...

  19. Incineration of contaminated oil from Sellafield - 16246

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broadbent, Craig; Cassidy, Helen; Stenmark, Anders

    2009-01-01

    Studsvik have been incinerating Low Level Waste (LLW) at its licensed facility in Sweden since the mid-1970's. This process not only enables the volume of waste to be significantly reduced but also produces an inert residue suitable for final disposal. The facility has historically incinerated only solid dry LLW, however in 2008 an authorisation was obtained to permit the routine incineration of LLW contaminated oil at the facility. Prior to obtaining the authorisation to incinerate oils and other organic liquids - both from clean-up activities on the Studsvik site and on a commercial basis - a development program was established. The primary aims of this were to identify the optimum process set-up for the incinerator and also to demonstrate to the regulatory authorities that the appropriate environmental and radiological parameters would be maintained throughout the new process. The final phase of the development program was to incinerate a larger campaign of contaminated oil from the nuclear industry. A suitable accumulation of oil was identified on the Sellafield site in Cumbria and a commercial contract was established to incinerate approximately 40 tonnes of oil from the site. The inventory of oil chosen for the trial incineration represented a significant challenge to the incineration facility as it had been generated from various facilities on-site and had degraded significantly following years of storage. In order to transport the contaminated oil from the Sellafield site in the UK to the Studsvik facility in Sweden several challenges had to be overcome. These included characterisation, packaging and international transportation (under a Transfrontier Shipment (TFS) authorisation) for one of the first transports of liquid radioactive wastes outside the UK. The incineration commenced in late 2007 and was successfully completed in early 2008. The total volume reduction achieved was greater than 97%, with the resultant ash packaged and returned to the UK (for

  20. Investigations on chemical-physical conditioning of ashes from the incineration of sewage sludge to deposit on surface landfill site; Untersuchungen zur Chemisch-Physikalischen Behandlung von Klaerschlammverbrennungsasche zur Ablagerung auf oberirdischen Deponien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, O.; Becker, A. [Technische Univ. Kaiserslautern (Germany). Fachgebiet Bodenmechanik und Grundbau; Scherer, G. [TERRAG Service und Vertrieb GmbH, Homburg (Germany)

    2007-06-15

    Depositing of ashes from the incineration of sewage sludge on landfill is possible after conditioning or within appropriate boxes. The partial high content of chromate- and dichromate- (chrome VI) concentration in the eluate of these slags can cause some difficulties. Presently, disposal of such slags is accomplished in underground spaces. Taking into account the provisions of national laws, possibility is limited. Therefore investigations on deposing of conditioned slags on surface landfills are of growing importance. The binders added to condition the incineration slags were chosen to assess the chemical change of hexavalent chrome (chrome VI) to indissoluble chrome (chrome III). Cement, SAV-residues as well as fly ash were taken as binders. The investigations presented refer to results on mechanical behaviour of conditioned slags. Emphasis is placed on the time-dependent behaviour of strength as well as on water permeability. Several cylindrical samples made by different compounds were tested within a period of about 112 days. Requirements with respect to strength were met within a few days. Demands on the eluate-criteria need additional investigations. (orig.)

  1. Low-level radiation in coals utilized and ashes produced at New York State electric utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hornibrook, C.

    1981-01-01

    Eight coal-fired power plants in New York State were sampled for coal, fly ash and bottom ash. Samples were analyzed for uranium 238, uranium 235, uranium 234, thorium 232, thorium 230, radium 226, lead 210, polonium 210, radon 222. The leachate of six fly ash samples was analyzed for all of the above except radon 222. Some data on fly ash analysis are included

  2. The maximum percentage of fly ash to replace part of original Portland cement (OPC) in producing high strength concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallisa, Harun; Turuallo, Gidion

    2017-11-01

    This research investigates the maximum percent of fly ash to replace part of Orginal Portland Cement (OPC) in producing high strength concrete. Many researchers have found that the incorporation of industrial by-products such as fly ash as in producing concrete can improve properties in both fresh and hardened state of concrete. The water-binder ratio was used 0.30. The used sand was medium sand with the maximum size of coarse aggregate was 20 mm. The cement was Type I, which was Bosowa Cement produced by PT Bosowa. The percentages of fly ash to the total of a binder, which were used in this research, were 0, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30%; while the super platicizer used was typed Naptha 511P. The results showed that the replacement cement up to 25 % of the total weight of binder resulted compressive strength higher than the minimum strength at one day of high-strength concrete.

  3. Incineration of alpha-active solid waste by microwaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mallik, G K; Bhargava, V K; Kamath, H S; Purushotham, D S.C. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Tarapur (India). Advanced Fuel Fabrication Facility

    1996-12-31

    The conventional techniques for treatment of alpha-active compressible solid waste involve incineration using electrically heated incinerators and subsequent recovery of special nuclear materials (SNM) from the ash by acid leaching. A microwave incineration followed by microwave digestion and SNM recovery from ash has specific advantages from maintenance and productivity consideration. The paper describes a preliminary work carried out with simulated uranium containing compressible solid waste using microwave heating technique. (author). 3 refs., 1 tab.

  4. Chemical, microbial and physical properties of manufactured soils produced by co-composting municipal green waste with coal fly ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belyaeva, O.N.; Haynes, R.J. [University of Queensland, St Lucia, Qld. (Australia)

    2009-11-15

    Increasing proportions of coal fly ash were co-composted with municipal green waste to produce manufactured soil for landscaping use. Only the 100% green waste treatment reached a thermophilic composting phase ({ge} 50{sup o}C) which lasted for 6 days. The 25% and 50% ash treatments reached 36-38{sup o}C over the same period while little or no self-heating occurred in the 75% and 100% ash treatments. Composted green waste had a low bulk density and high total and macro-porosity. Addition of 25% ash to green waste resulted in a 75% increase in available water holding capacity. As the proportions of added ash in the composts increased, the organic C, soluble C, microbial biomass C, basal respiration and activities of beta-glucosidase, L-asparaginase, alkali phosphatase and arylsulphatase enzymes in the composted products all decreased. It could be concluded that addition of fly ash to green waste at a proportion higher than 25% did not improve the quality parameters of manufactured soil.

  5. Report on achievement in researching aids for practical application of recycling technologies in fiscal 1998. Development of a technology to treat hard-to-decompose chemical substances in incineration ash; 1998 nendo recycle gijutsu nado jitsuyoka shien kenkyu seika hokokusho. Shokyakubaichu no nanbunkaisei kagaku busshitsu nado no shori gijutsu no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-05-01

    This paper describes development of a technology to decompose dioxins in incineration fly ash. Experiments were carried out during fiscal 1998 by using a bench-scale plant and a laboratory-scale plant of the installed supercritical water treatment equipment designed and fabricated in fiscal 1997. With the bench-scale plant, operation methods were discussed, whereas high temperature and pressure operation of 25 MPa and a temperature internal to the reactor of 350 degrees C were achieved. An alcohol combustion test and a preliminary slurry delivery test were also performed. With the laboratory-scale plant, operating methods were discussed, and combustion tests were carried out by using different organic matters as fuels for the supercritical water oxidation reactor. Investigations were executed on the effects of reactive operation parameters on organic matter decomposition rates, produced gas compositions, and reactor wall temperatures. The intensity of hydrogen bond between solvent and water has decreased to almost half of the normal temperature and pressure water in the vicinity of the critical point. However, strong interaction still remained in terms of per unit density. A portable equipment (650 degrees C and 25 MPa at the maximum, and standard treatment quantity of dry fly ash of 1 kg/h) was operated for demonstration. Operation methods and organic matter decomposition characteristics were identified in alcohol operation and slurry operation. (NEDO)

  6. Waste incineration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCormack, M.D.

    1981-01-01

    As a result of the information gained from retrieval projects, the decision was made to perform an analysis of all the available incinerators to determine which was best suited for processing the INEL waste. A number of processes were evaluated for incinerators currently funded by DOE and for municipal incinerators. Slagging pyrolysis included the processes of three different manufacturers: Andco-Torrax, FLK and Purox

  7. Performance of rice husk ash produced using a new technology as a mineral admixture in concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nehdi, M.; Duquette, J.; El Damatty, A.

    2003-01-01

    This article investigates the use of a new technique for the controlled combustion of Egyptian rice husk to mitigate the environmental concerns associated with its uncontrolled burning and provide a supplementary cementing material for the local construction industry. The reactor used provides efficient combustion of rice husk in a short residency time via the suspension of processed particles by jets of a process air stream that is forced though stationary angled blades at high velocity. Investigations on the rice husk ash (RHA) thus produced included oxide analysis, X-ray diffraction, carbon content, grindability, water demand, pozzolanic activity index, surface area, and particle size distribution measurements. In addition, concrete mixtures incorporating various proportions of silica fume (SF) and Egyptian RHA (EG-RHA) produced at different combustion temperatures were made and compared. The workability, superplasticizer and air-entraining admixture requirements, and compressive strength at various ages of these concrete mixtures were evaluated, and their resistance to rapid chloride penetrability and deicing salt surface scaling were examined. Test results indicate that contrary to RHA produced using existing technology, the superplasticizer and air-entraining agent requirements did not increase drastically when the RHA developed in this study was used. Compressive strengths achieved by concrete mixtures incorporating the new RHA exceeded those of concretes containing similar proportions of SF. The resistance to surface scaling of RHA concrete was better than that of concrete containing similar proportions of SF. While the chloride penetrability was substantially decreased by RHA, it remained slightly higher than that achieved by SF concrete

  8. Study of the composition and gas-phase release characteristics of salt material extracted from MSW ash particles using STA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arvelakis, Stelios; Frandsen, Flemming; Koukios, E.G.

    2007-01-01

    material extracted from MSW ash particles using a six-stage leaching process is studied using simultaneous thermal analysis (STA). The produced results provide useful information regarding the composition of the salt material and its melting behavior that is considered to play an important role...... to deposition and corrosion problems at MSW incinerators. The results may be used to model the deposition process and to the better understanding of the corrosion process during MSW incineration....

  9. Characterisation of major component leaching and buffering capacity of RDF incineration and gasification bottom ash in relation to reuse or disposal scenarios

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rocca, S.; Zomeren, van A.; Costa, G.; Dijkstra, J.J.; Comans, R.N.J.; Lombardi, F.

    2012-01-01

    Thermal treatment of refuse derived fuel (RDF) in waste-to-energy (WtE) plants is considered a promising solution to reduce waste volumes for disposal, while improving material and energy recovery from waste. Incineration is commonly applied for the energetic valorisation of RDF, although RDF

  10. Patterns of serum PCDD/Fs affected by vegetarian regime, consumption of locally produced food, and resident places of residents living near incinerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Hsiu-Ling; Lee Chang-Ching; Su Hue-Jen; Liao Pao-Chi [Inst. of Basic Medical Science, Medical Coll., National Cheng Kung Univ., Tainan (Taiwan)

    2004-09-15

    Previous reports have been estimated that more than 90% of serum PCDD/Fs can be accounted for by the consumption of various food groups. Nouwen et al. suggested residents living near incinerators with the elevated dioxin exposure while they ate locally produced food compared to the general population from other areas. PCDD/Fs usually abound in fatty meats and marine foods, and consumption of which is the major pathway of human expose to PCDD/Fs. However, no distinct association was shown between vegetarian regime of human and their corresponding serum PCDD/Fs concentration. In addition, the resident region is associated to their corresponding dietary consumption and ambient exposure of PCDD/Fs, especially for subjects consumed the local foods with special dioxin-like contamination. The current study, therefore, was set to examine how dietary habits, including vegetarian regime and consumption of local food original for residents living near the incinerators are associated to serum PCDD/F concentrations. In addition, the further aim is to assess the influence on the serum PCDD/Fs levels resulting from subjects living in the alternative resident regions, even all of them exposed to PCDD/Fs emission from incinerators.

  11. Micro Fine Sized Palm Oil Fuel Ash Produced Using a Wind Tunnel Production System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Ahmadi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Micro fine sized palm oil fuel ash (POFA is a new supplementary cementitious material that can increase the strength, durability, and workability of concrete. However, production of this material incurs high cost and is not practical for the construction industry. This paper investigates a simple methodology of producing micro fine sized POFA by means of a laboratory scale wind tunnel system. The raw POFA obtained from an oil palm factory is first calcined to remove carbon residue and then grinded in Los Angeles abrasion machine. The grinded POFA is then blown in the fabricated wind tunnel system for separation into different ranges of particle sizes. The physical, morphological, and chemical properties of the micro fine sized POFA were then investigated using Laser Particle Size Analyser (PSA, nitrogen sorption, and Scanning Electron Microscopy with Energy Dispersive X-Ray (SEM-EDX. A total of 32.1% micro fine sized POFA were collected from each sample blown, with the size range of 1–10 micrometers. The devised laboratory scale of wind tunnel production system is successful in producing micro fine sized POFA and, with modifications, this system is envisaged applicable to be used to commercialize micro fine sized POFA production for the construction industry.

  12. Dioxin formation from waste incineration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibamoto, Takayuki; Yasuhara, Akio; Katami, Takeo

    2007-01-01

    There has been great concern about dioxins-polychlorinated dibenzo dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzo furans (PCDFs), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)-causing contamination in the environment because the adverse effects of these chemicals on human health have been known for many years. Possible dioxin-contamination has received much attention recently not only by environmental scientists but also by the public, because dioxins are known to be formed during the combustion of industrial and domestic wastes and to escape into the environment via exhaust gases from incinerators. Consequently, there is a pressing need to investigate the formation mechanisms or reaction pathways of these chlorinated chemicals to be able to devise ways to reduce their environmental contamination. A well-controlled small-scale incinerator was used for the experiments in the core references of this review. These articles report the investigation of dioxin formation from the combustion of various waste-simulated samples, including different kinds of paper, various kinds of wood, fallen leaves, food samples, polyethylene (PE), polystyrene (PS), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), polyvinylidene chloride, polyethylene tetraphthalate (PET), and various kinds of plastic products. These samples were also incinerated with inorganic chlorides (NaCl, KCl, CuCI2, MgCl2, MnCl2, FeCl2, CoCl2, fly ash, and seawater) or organic chlorides (PVC, chlordane, and pentachlorophenol) to investigate the role of chlorine content and/or the presence of different metals in dioxin formation. Some samples, such as newspapers, were burned after they were impregnated with NaCl or PVC, as well as being cocombusted with chlorides. The roles of incineration conditions, including chamber temperatures, O2 concentrations, and CO concentrations, in dioxin formation were also investigated. Dioxins (PCDDs, PCDFs, and coplanar-PCBs) formed in the exhaust gases from a controlled small-scale incinerator, where experimental waste

  13. 40 years of experience in incineration of radioactive waste in Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanbrabant, R.; Deckers, J.; Luycx, P.; Detilleux, M.; Beguin, Ph.

    2001-01-01

    Since the very beginning of the nuclear activities in Belgium, the incineration of radioactive waste was chosen as a suitable technique for achieving an optimal volume reduction of the produced waste quantities; several R and D projects were realised in this specific field and different facilities were erected and operated. An experimental furnace ''Evence Coppee'' was built in 1960 for treatment of LLW produced by the Belgian Research Centre (SCK/CEN). Regularly this furnace has been modified, improved and equipped with additional installations to obtain better combustion conditions and a more efficient gas cleaning system. Based on the 35 years experience gained by the operation of the ''Evence Coppee'', a completely new industrial incineration installation has been designed in the nineties and commissioned in May 1995, in the frame of the erection of the Belgian Centralised Treatment/Conditioning Facility CILVA. At the end of 1998, the new furnace has burnt 455 tons of solid waste and 246 tons of liquid waste. Besides the conventional incineration process, a High Temperature Slagging Incinerator (HTSI) has been developed, constructed and operated for 10 years in the past. This installation was the combination of an incinerator and a melter producing melted granulated material instead of ashes, and provided experience in the incineration of hazardous waste, such as chlorinated organic compounds and waste with PCB content. The paper presents ''the Belgian Experience'' accumulated year after year with the design and the operation of the above mentioned facilities and demonstrates how the needs required today for a modern installation are met. The paper covers the following aspects; design particularities and description of the systems, operational results for different solid waste categories (bulk waste, precompacted waste, ion exchange resins) and for different liquid waste categories (organic, aqueous, oil), required pretreatment of the waste, ashes conditioning

  14. Composition and reactivity of ash from sewage sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willems, M; Pedersen, B; Jorgensen, S S

    1976-01-01

    Sewage sludge and sludge ash produced at 450 to 1050/sup 0/C in the laboratory or in a multiple hearth incinerator were analyzed by chemical and X-ray diffraction methods. Among the ash components were 23 to 32 percent calcium and magnesium phosphates and the following percentages of heavy metals: Zn 0.9, Cu 0.2, Pb 0.1, Cr 0.07, Ni 0.02, and Cd 0.006. As shown by EDTA-extraction, the reactivity of heavy metals was higher in ash produced at 450/sup 0/C than in dry sludge, but lower in ash produced above 800/sup 0/C. Phosphate in the 800 to 900/sup 0/C samples was dissolved in citric acid but not in citrate.

  15. Optimization of heat-liberating batches for ash residue stabilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karlina, O.K.; Varlackova, G.A.; Ojovan, M.I.; Tivansky, V.M.; Dmitriev, S.A.

    1999-01-01

    The ash residue obtained after incineration of solid radioactive waste is a dusting poly-dispersed powder like material that contains radioactive nuclides ( 137 Cs, 90 Sr, 239 Pu, hor ( ellipsis)). Specific radioactivity of the ash can be about 10 5 --10 7 Bq/kg. In order to dispose of the ash, residue shall be stabilized by producing a monolith material. The ash residue can be either vitrified or stabilized into a ceramic matrix. For this purpose the ash residue is mixed with fluxing agents followed by melting of obtained composition in the different type melters. As a rule this requires both significant energy consumption and complex melting equipment. A stabilization technology of ash residue was proposed recently by using heat liberating batches-compositions with redox properties. The ash residue is melted due to exothermic chemical reactions in the mixture with heat-liberating batch that occur with considerable release of heat. Stabilization method has three stages: (1) preparation of a mixture of heating batch and ash residue with or without glass forming batch (frit); (2) ignition and combustion of mixed composition; (3) cooling (quenching) of obtained vitreous material. Combustion of mixed composition occurs in the form of propagation of reacting wave. The heat released during exothermic chemical reactions provides melting of ash residue components and production of glass-like phase. The final product consists of a glass like matrix with embedded crystalline inclusions of infusible ash residue components

  16. Plutonium waste incineration using pyrohydrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, M.L.

    1991-01-01

    Waste generated by Savannah River Site (SRS) plutonium operations includes a contaminated organic waste stream. A conventional method for disposing of the organic waste stream and recovering the nuclear material is by incineration. When the organic material is burned, the plutonium remains in the incinerator ash. Plutonium recovery from incinerator ash is highly dependent on the maximum temperature to which the oxide is exposed. Recovery via acid leaching is reduced for a high fired ash (>800 degree C), while plutonium oxides fired at lower decomposition temperatures (400--800 degrees C) are more soluble at any given acid concentration. To determine the feasibility of using a lower temperature process, tests were conducted using an electrically heated, controlled-air incinerator. Nine nonradioactive, solid, waste materials were batch-fed and processed in a top-heated cylindrical furnace. Waste material processing was completed using a 19-liter batch over a nominal 8-hour cycle. A processing cycle consisted of 1 hour for heating, 4 hours for reacting, and 3 hours for chamber cooling. The water gas shift reaction was used to hydrolyze waste materials in an atmosphere of 336% steam and 4.4% oxygen. Throughput ranged from 0.14 to 0.27 kg/hr depending on the variability in the waste material composition and density

  17. Electrodialytic removal of heavy metals from fly ashes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anne Juul

    2002-01-01

    The aim of the Ph.D. work was to develop the electrodialytic remediation method for removal of heavy metals from fly ashes. The work was focused on two types of fly ashes: fly ashes from wood combustion and fly ashes from municipal solid waste incineration.......The aim of the Ph.D. work was to develop the electrodialytic remediation method for removal of heavy metals from fly ashes. The work was focused on two types of fly ashes: fly ashes from wood combustion and fly ashes from municipal solid waste incineration....

  18. Effect of composition variations on the long-term wasteform behavior of vitrified domestic waste incineration fly-ash purification residues; Influence des variations de composition des vitrifiats de refiom - residus d'epuration des fumees d'incineration d'ordures menageres - sur leur comportement a long terme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frugier, P.

    2000-07-01

    The effect of variations in the composition of fly-ash purification residue from incinerated domestic waste on the quality of the containment achieved by vitrification was investigated. Three main factors determine the long-term containment quality: the production of a vitrified wasteform, the occurrence of possible crystallization, and the key parameters of long-term alteration in aqueous media. Each of these aspects is described within a composition range defined by variations in the three major elements. (silicon, calcium and aluminum) and two groups of constituents (alkali metals and toxic elements). The silicon fraction in the fly-ash residue was found to be decisive: it is impossible to obtain a satisfactory vitrified wasteform below a given silicon concentration. Compounds with the lowest silica content also exhibited the greatest tendency to crystallize under the cooling conditions prevailing in industrial processes (the dominant crystallized phase is a melilite that occupies a significant fraction of the material and considerably modifies the alteration mechanisms). The initial alteration rate in pure water and the altered glass thickness measured in a closed system at an advanced stage of the dissolution reaction are both inversely related to the silicon concentration in the glass. Several types of long-term behavior were identified according to the composition range, the process conditions and the vitrified waste disposal scenario. Four distinct 'classes' of vitrified wasteform were defined for direct application in industrial processes. (author)

  19. Behavior of radioactive cesium during incineration of radioactively contaminated wastes from decontamination activities in Fukushima.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Hiroshi; Kuramochi, Hidetoshi; Nomura, Kazutaka; Maeseto, Tomoharu; Osako, Masahiro

    2017-11-01

    Large volumes of decontamination wastes (DW) generated by off-site decontamination activities in Fukushima Prefecture have been incinerated since 2015. The behavior of radioactive cesium during incineration of DW was investigated at a working incineration plant. The incineration discharged bottom ash (BA) and fly ash (FA) with similar levels of radiocesium, and the leachability of the radiocesium from both types of ash was very low (incineration of contaminated municipal solid waste (CMSW) reported in earlier studies. The source of radiocesium in DW-FA is chiefly small particles derived from DW and DW-BA blown into the flue gas, not the deposition of gaseous synthesized radiocesium compounds on the surfaces of ash particles in the flue gas as observed in CMSW incineration. This source difference causes the behavior of radiocesium during waste incineration to differ between DW and CMSW. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Naturally Occurring Radionuclides of Ash Produced by Coal Combustion. The Case of the Kardia Mine in Northern Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fotakis, M.; Tsikritzis, L.; Tzimkas, N.; Kolovos, N.; Tsikritzi, R.

    2008-08-01

    West Macedonia Lignite Center (WMLC), located in Northwest Greece, releases into the atmosphere about 21,400 tons/year of fly ash through the stacks of four coal fired plants. The lignite ash contains naturally occurring radionuclides, which are deposited on the WMLC basin. This work investigates the natural radioactivity of twenty six ash samples, laboratory produced from combustion of lignite, which was sampled perpendicularly to the benches of the Kardia mine. The concentrations of radionuclides 40K, 235U, 238U, 226Ra, 228Ra and 232Th, were measured spectroscopically and found round one order of magnitude as high as those of lignite. Subsequently the Radionuclide Partitioning Coefficients of radionuclides were calculated and it was found that they are higher for 232Th, 228Ra and 40K, because the latter have closer affinity with the inorganic matrix of lignite. During combustion up to one third of the naturally occurring radioisotopes escape from the solid phase into the flue gases. With comparison to relative global data, the investigated ash has been found to have relatively high radioactivity, but the emissions of the WMLC radionuclides contribute only 0.03% to the mean annual absorbed dose.

  1. Naturally Occurring Radionuclides of Ash Produced by Coal Combustion. The Case of the Kardia Mine in Northern Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fotakis, M.; Tsikritzis, L.; Tzimkas, N.; Kolovos, N.; Tsikritzi, R.

    2008-01-01

    West Macedonia Lignite Center (WMLC), located in Northwest Greece, releases into the atmosphere about 21,400 tons/year of fly ash through the stacks of four coal fired plants. The lignite ash contains naturally occurring radionuclides, which are deposited on the WMLC basin. This work investigates the natural radioactivity of twenty six ash samples, laboratory produced from combustion of lignite, which was sampled perpendicularly to the benches of the Kardia mine. The concentrations of radionuclides 40 K, 235 U, 238 U, 226 Ra, 228 Ra and 232 Th, were measured spectroscopically and found round one order of magnitude as high as those of lignite. Subsequently the Radionuclide Partitioning Coefficients of radionuclides were calculated and it was found that they are higher for 232 Th, 228 Ra and 40 K, because the latter have closer affinity with the inorganic matrix of lignite. During combustion up to one third of the naturally occurring radioisotopes escape from the solid phase into the flue gases. With comparison to relative global data, the investigated ash has been found to have relatively high radioactivity, but the emissions of the WMLC radionuclides contribute only 0.03% to the mean annual absorbed dose

  2. Avaliação do uso de poli(tereftalato de etileno (PET como matriz de imobilização de cinzas de incineradores Assessment of the use of polyethylene terephthalate (PET as matrix for immobilization of incinerator ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Gonçalves Pacheco

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Industrial hazardous wastes must receive appropriate treatment to ensure a safe disposal to humans and environment. One of the techniques adopted for this purpose is the stabilization/solidification in polymer matrices. This paper evaluated the use of recycled polyethylene terephthalate as an incorporation matrix of incinerator ash. The polymer and the ash were submitted to an extrusion process in different percentages. The final product was evaluated through thermal and leaching tests and the leachate extracts constituents were determinated by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The results showed a reduction in the release of substances up to 99% by mass for the conditions used.

  3. Guide to Radiation Safety regulations and guidelines (SSMFS 2012:3) on the management of contaminated ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moere, Hans

    2012-06-01

    Energy producers burning peat or wood fuel can obtain ash that is contaminated with cesium-137 from Tjernobyl accident or naturally occurring uranium, thorium and potassium, from some peat bogs. Regulations (SSMFS 2012:3) have been developed which regulates how the contaminated ash should be handled. The regulations affect all who handle contaminated ash in incinerators, landfills, public works, ash recycling, transportation or recycling of ash in other ways. Radiation Safety regulations and guidelines (SSMFS 2012:3) on the management of contaminated ash will apply from 1 September 2012. At that time Regulations (SSMFS 2008:16) on the management of ash that is contaminated with cesium-137, ceases to apply. The contents have been incorporated into the new regulations. This report provides explanations and guidance to the Regulations in order to facilitate the practical application. This guidance is not legally binding

  4. Development of incineration and incineration-melting system for radioactive incombustible wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karita, Y.; Kanagawa, Y.; Teshima, T.

    2000-01-01

    Radioactive combustible solid wastes produced by nuclear power plants are generally incinerated for the purpose of volume reduction and stabilization. However incombustible wastes, such as PVC and rubber wastes are not incinerated and are still being stored since the off-gas treatment problems of a large amount of soot and harmful HCl and SO x gas need to be resolved. The authors have developed a new types of incineration system which consists of a water-cooling jacket type incinerator, ceramic filter, HEPA and wet scrubber. And as an application of its incinerator, the hybrid incineration-melting furnace, which is a unification of the incinerator and induction melting furnace, is being tested. Furthermore, the new type of dry absorber for removing HCl and SO x is also being tested. This report mainly describes an outline and the test results of the above incineration system, and secondly, the possibility of the incineration-melting system and dry absorber. (author)

  5. Using Cementitious Materials Such as Fly Ash to Replace a Part of Cement in Producing High Strength Concrete in Hot Weather

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turuallo, Gidion; Mallisa, Harun

    2018-03-01

    The use of waste materials in concrete gave many advantages to prove the properties of concrete such as its workability, strength and durability; as well to support sustaianable development programs. Fly ash was a waste material produced from coal combustion. This research was conducted to find out the effect of fly ash as a part replacement of cement to produce high strength concrete. The fly ash, which was used in this research, was taken from PLTU Mpanau Palu, Central Sulawesi. The water-binder ratio used in this research was 0.3 selected from trial mixes done before. The results of this research showed that the strength of fly ash concretes were higher than concrete with PCC only. The replacement of cement with fly ash concrete could be up to 20% to produce high strength concrete.

  6. Solid waste treatment volume reduction by compaction or incineration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vigreux, B.; Carpentier, S.

    1985-01-01

    A short presentation is made of various techniques available for volume reduction by compaction of solid waste produced during nuclear plant operation. A long industrial experience has been accumulated in France on such compactors. Incineration is the most performing method of volume reduction for combustible waste. The CEA Group and SGN have developed a very reliable, simple and safe incinerator which operates with excess air and at high temperature. Sorting and feeding of the waste, ash discharge and transportation to the conditioning unit, gas treatment, are included in the system. The adding of a programmable controller makes it fully automated. The system is described with some detail and recent performance measurements are given [fr

  7. Solid waste treatment volume reduction by compaction or incineration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vigreux, B.; Carpentier, S.

    1986-01-01

    A short presentation is made of various techniques available for volume reduction by compaction of solid waste produced during nuclear plant operation. A long industrial experience has been accumulated in France on such compactors. Incineration is the most performing method of volume reduction for combustible waste. The CEA Group and SGN have developed a very reliable, simple and safe incinerator which operates with excess air and at high temperature. Sorting and feeding of the waste, ash discharge and transportation to the conditioning unit, gas treatment, are included in the system. The adding of a programmable controller makes it fully automated. The system is described with some detail and recent performance measurements are given [fr

  8. Alpha waste incineration prototype incinerator and industrial project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caramelle, D.; Meyere, A.

    1988-01-01

    To meet our requirements with respect to the processing of solid alpha wastes, a pilot cold incinerator has been used for R and D. This unit has a capacity of 5 kg/hr. The main objectives assigned to this incineration process are: a good reduction factor, controlled combustion, ash composition compatible with plutonium recovery, limited secondary solid and fluid wastes, releases within the nuclear and chemical standards, and in strict observance of the confinement and criticality safety rules. After describing the process we will discuss the major results of the incineration test campaigns with representative solid wastes (50 % PVC). We will then give a description of an industrial project with a capacity of 7 kg/hr, followed by a cost estimate

  9. Environmental assessment of incinerator residue utilisation

    OpenAIRE

    Toller, Susanna; Kärrman, Erik; Gustafsson, Jon Petter; Magnusson, Y.

    2009-01-01

    Incineration ashes may be treated either as a waste to be dumped in landfill, or as a resource that is suit able for re-use. In order to choose the best management scenario, knowledge is needed on the potential environmental impact that may be expected, including not only local, but also regional and global impact. In this study. A life cycle assessment (LCA) based approach Was Outlined for environmental assessment of incinerator residue utilisation, in which leaching of trace elements as wel...

  10. Zeolite Synthesized from Coal Fly Ash Produced by a Gasification Process for Ni2+ Removal from Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yixin Zhang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available There are increasing demands and great potential of coal gasification in China, but there is a lack of studies focused on the disposal and utilization of coal fly ash produced by the gasification process. In this study, a coal fly ash sample derived from a gasifier in Jincheng, China, was utilized as raw material for the synthesis of zeolite by alkali fusion followed by hydrothermal treatments. The effects of operation conditions on the cation exchange capacity (CEC of synthesized zeolite were investigated. The synthesized zeolite with the highest CEC (270.4 meq/100 g, with abundant zeolite X and small amount of zeolite A, was produced by 1.5 h alkali fusion under 550 °C with NaOH/coal fly ash ratio 1.2 g/g followed by 15 h hydrothermal treatment under 90 °C with liquid/solid ratio 5 mL/g and applied in Ni2+ removal from water. The removal rate and the adsorption capacity of Ni2+ from water by the synthesized zeolite were determined at the different pH, contact time, adsorbent dose and initial Ni2+ concentration. The experimental data of adsorption were interpreted in terms of Freundlich and Langmuir equations. The adsorption of Ni2+ by the synthesized zeolite was found to fit sufficient using the Langmuir isotherm. More than 90% of Ni2+ in water could be removed by synthesized zeolite under the proper conditions. We show that the coal fly ash produced by the gasification process has great potential to be used as an alternative and cheap source in the production of adsorbents.

  11. Fluidized bed incinerator development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziegler, D.L.; Johnson, A.J.

    1976-01-01

    A fluidized bed incinerator is being developed for burning rad contaminated solid and liquid waste materials. In situ neutralization of acid gases by the bed material, catalytic afterburning, and gas filtration are used to produce a clean flue gas without the use of aqueous scrubbing

  12. Environmental assessment of the reuse of municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash in quarry backfilling; Evaluation environnementale de la valorisation de machefers d'incineration d'ordures menageres en remplissage de carriere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brons-Laot, G.

    2002-10-15

    The leaching behaviour of three different MSWI bottom ashes-based materials containing hydraulic binders is assessed in the conditions specified by the quarry backfilling application. An adapted approach methodology is applied: - physical, mineralogical and chemical characterizations of materials, - use of parametric tests to determine the effect of main scenarios factors on the release, - chemical modelling based on mineralogical and experimental leaching data with geochemical calculation codes, - chemical reaction / transport coupled modelling. The main results demonstrate that: - the batch and dynamic tests allow to obtain enough data to model and to predict the long term behaviour, - the chemical modelling of the solid / liquid equilibrium permits the determination of the chemical reactions involved and the prediction of pollutants solubilization in different chemical contexts, - the new materials (source term) present a low environmental impact in the conditions specified by the considered scenarios. (author)

  13. Biomedical waste management: Incineration vs. environmental safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gautam V

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Public concerns about incinerator emissions, as well as the creation of federal regulations for medical waste incinerators, are causing many health care facilities to rethink their choices in medical waste treatment. As stated by Health Care Without Harm, non-incineration treatment technologies are a growing and developing field. Most medical waste is incinerated, a practice that is short-lived because of environmental considerations. The burning of solid and regulated medical waste generated by health care creates many problems. Medical waste incinerators emit toxic air pollutants and toxic ash residues that are the major source of dioxins in the environment. International Agency for Research on Cancer, an arm of WHO, acknowledged dioxins cancer causing potential and classified it as human carcinogen. Development of waste management policies, careful waste segregation and training programs, as well as attention to materials purchased, are essential in minimizing the environmental and health impacts of any technology.

  14. Incineration of ion-exchange resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valkiainen, M.; Nykyri, M.

    1985-01-01

    Incineration of ion-exchange resins in a fluidized bed was studied on a pilot plant scale at the Technical Research Centre of Finland. Both granular and powdered resins were incinerated in dry and slurry form. Different bed materials were used in order to trap as much cesium and cobalt (inactive tracers) as possible in the bed. Also the sintering of the bed materials was studied in the presence of sodium. When immobilized with cement the volume of ash-concrete is 4 to 22% of the concrete of equal compressive strength acquired by direct solidification. Two examples of multi-purpose equipment capable of incinerating ion-exchange resins are presented. (orig.)

  15. 33 CFR 159.131 - Safety: Incinerating device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES Design, Construction, and Testing § 159.131 Safety.... Unitized incineration devices must completely burn to a dry, inert ash, a simultaneous defecation and...

  16. Chemical kinetics of Cs species in an alkali-activated municipal solid waste incineration fly ash and pyrophyllite-based system using Cs K-edge in situ X-ray absorption fine structure analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiota, Kenji; Nakamura, Takafumi; Takaoka, Masaki; Nitta, Kiyofumi; Oshita, Kazuyuki; Fujimori, Takashi; Ina, Toshiaki

    2017-05-01

    We conducted in situ X-ray absorption fine structure (in situ XAFS) analysis at the Cs K-edge to investigate the chemical kinetics of Cs species during reaction in an alkali-activated municipal solid waste incineration fly ash (MSWIFA) and pyrophyllite-based system. Understanding the kinetics of Cs is essential to the design of appropriate conditions for Cs stabilization. In situ XAFS analysis of four pastes, prepared from NaOHaq, sodium silicate solution, pyrophyllite, and MSWIFA with the addition of CsCl, was conducted in custom-built reaction cells at four curing temperatures (room temperature, 60 °C, 80 °C, 105 °C) for approximately 34 h. The results indicated that the change in Cs species during reaction at room temperature was small, while changes at higher temperatures were faster and more extreme, with the fastest conversion to pollucite occurring at 105 °C. Further analysis using a leaching test and a simple reaction model for Cs species during reaction showed that the pollucite formation rate was dependent on the curing temperature and had a significant negative correlation with Cs leaching. The activation energy of pollucite formation was estimated to be 31.5 kJ/mol. These results revealed that an important change in the chemical state of Cs occurs during reaction in the system.

  17. Processing of ash and slag waste of heating plants by arc plasma to produce construction materials and nanomodifiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buyantuev, S. L.; Urkhanova, L. A.; Kondratenko, A. S.; Shishulkin, S. Yu; Lkhasaranov, S. A.; Khmelev, A. B.

    2017-01-01

    The resultsare presented of plasma processing slag and ash waste from coal combustion in heating plants. Melting mechanism of ashand slagraw material is considered by an electromagnetic technological reactor. The analysis was conducted of temperature and phase transformations of raw material when it is heated up to the melting point, and also determination of specific energy consumption by using a generalized model of the thermodynamic analysis of TERRA. The study of materials melting temperature conditions and plum of melt was carried with high-temperature thermal imaging method, followed by mapping and 3D-modeling of the temperature fields. The investigations to establish the principal possibilities of using slag waste of local coal as raw material for the production of mineral (ash and slag) fibers found that by chemical composition there are oxides in the following ranges: 45-65% SiO2; 10-25% Al2O3; 10-45% CaO; 5-10% MgO; other minerals (less than 5%). Thus, these technological wastes are principally suitable for melts to produce mineral wool by the plasma method. An analysis of the results shows the melting point of ash and slag waste - 1800-2000 °C. In this case the specific energy consumption of these processes keeps within the limits of 1.1-1.3 kW*h/kg. For comparison it should be noted that the unit cost of electricity in the known high-melting industrial installations 5-6 kW*h/kg. Upon melting ash and slag waste, which contains up to 2-5% of unburned carbon, carbon nanomaterials were discovered.in the form of ultrafine soot accumulating as a plaque on the water-cooled surfaces in the gas cleaning chamber. The process of formation of soot consists in sublimation-desublimation of part of carbon which is in ash and slag, and graphite electrode. Thus, upon melting of ash and slag in the electromagnetic reactor it is possible to obtain melt, and in the subsequent mineral high quality fiber, which satisfies the requirements of normative documents, and

  18. Risks of toxic ash from artisanal mining of discarded cellphones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hibbert, Kathleen [School of Social Ecology, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Ogunseitan, Oladele A., E-mail: Oladele.Ogunseitan@uci.edu [School of Social Ecology, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Department of Population Health and Disease Prevention, Program in Public Health, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States)

    2014-08-15

    Highlights: • We simulated artisanal incineration of four component categories of cellphones. • We identified metals and organic chemicals in the resulting electronic waste ash. • We used USETox model to demonstrate potential ecotoxicity and human health impacts. • We identify targets for risk reduction for hazardous chemicals in cellphones. - Abstract: The potential environmental and human health impacts of artisanal mining of electronic waste through open incineration were investigated. A market-representative set of cellphones was dismantled into four component categories—batteries, circuit boards, plastics and screens. The components were shredded, sieved and incinerated at 743–818 °C. The concentrations of 17 metals were determined using U.S. EPA methods 6010C (inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry; 6020A (inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry, or 7471B and 7470A (cold-vapor atomic absorption). EPA Method 8270 (gas chromatography/mass spectrometry) was used to identify polyaromatic hydrocarbon compounds and polybrominated diphenyl ethers. EPA Method 8082A was used to measure polychlorinated biphenyls and EPA Method 8290 was used for dioxin/furans in the residue ash. The life cycle assessment model USEtox{sup ®} was used to estimate impacts of the ash residue chemicals on human health and the ecosystem. Among metals, copper in printed circuit boards had the highest ecotoxicity impact (1610–1930 PAF m{sup 3}/kg); Beryllium in plastics had the highest impact on producing non-cancer diseases (0.14–0.44 cases/kg of ash); and Nickel had the largest impact on producing cancers (0.093–0.35 cases/kg of ash). Among organic chemicals, dioxins from incinerated batteries produced the largest ecotoxicological impact (1.07E − 04 to 3.64E − 04 PAF m{sup 3}/kg). Furans in incinerated batteries can generate the largest number of cancers and non-cancer diseases, representing 8.12E − 09 to 2.28E − 08 and 8.96E − 10 and 2.52E

  19. Risks of toxic ash from artisanal mining of discarded cellphones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hibbert, Kathleen; Ogunseitan, Oladele A.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We simulated artisanal incineration of four component categories of cellphones. • We identified metals and organic chemicals in the resulting electronic waste ash. • We used USETox model to demonstrate potential ecotoxicity and human health impacts. • We identify targets for risk reduction for hazardous chemicals in cellphones. - Abstract: The potential environmental and human health impacts of artisanal mining of electronic waste through open incineration were investigated. A market-representative set of cellphones was dismantled into four component categories—batteries, circuit boards, plastics and screens. The components were shredded, sieved and incinerated at 743–818 °C. The concentrations of 17 metals were determined using U.S. EPA methods 6010C (inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry; 6020A (inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry, or 7471B and 7470A (cold-vapor atomic absorption). EPA Method 8270 (gas chromatography/mass spectrometry) was used to identify polyaromatic hydrocarbon compounds and polybrominated diphenyl ethers. EPA Method 8082A was used to measure polychlorinated biphenyls and EPA Method 8290 was used for dioxin/furans in the residue ash. The life cycle assessment model USEtox ® was used to estimate impacts of the ash residue chemicals on human health and the ecosystem. Among metals, copper in printed circuit boards had the highest ecotoxicity impact (1610–1930 PAF m 3 /kg); Beryllium in plastics had the highest impact on producing non-cancer diseases (0.14–0.44 cases/kg of ash); and Nickel had the largest impact on producing cancers (0.093–0.35 cases/kg of ash). Among organic chemicals, dioxins from incinerated batteries produced the largest ecotoxicological impact (1.07E − 04 to 3.64E − 04 PAF m 3 /kg). Furans in incinerated batteries can generate the largest number of cancers and non-cancer diseases, representing 8.12E − 09 to 2.28E − 08 and 8.96E − 10 and 2.52E − 09 cases

  20. Use plan for demonstration radioactive-waste incinerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooley, L.R.; McCampbell, M.R.; Thompson, J.D.

    1982-04-01

    The University of Maryland at Baltimore was awarded a grant from the Department of Energy to test a specially modified incinerator to burn biomedical radioactive waste. In preparation for the incinerator, the Radiation Safety Office devised a comprehensive plan for its safe and effective use. The incinerator plan includes a discussion of regulations regarding on-site incineration of radioactive waste, plans for optimum use in burning four principal waste forms, controlled air incineration technology, and standard health physics safety practices; a use plan, including waste categorization and segregation, processing, and ash disposition; safety procedures, including personnel and area monitoring; and methods to evaluate the incinerator's effectiveness by estimating its volume reduction factors, mass and activity balances, and by determining the cost effectiveness of incineration versus commercial shallow land burial

  1. Risks of municipal solid waste incineration: an environmental perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denison, R A; Silbergeld, E K

    1988-09-01

    The central focus of the debate over incineration of municipal solid waste (MSW) has shifted from its apparent management advantages to unresolved risk issues. This shift is a result of the lack of comprehensive consideration of risks associated with incineration. We discuss the need to expand incinerator risk assessment beyond the limited view of incinerators as stationary air pollution sources to encompass the following: other products of incineration, ash in particular, and pollutants other than dioxins, metals in particular; routes of exposure in addition to direct inhalation; health effects in addition to cancer; and the cumulative nature of exposure and health effects induced by many incinerator-associated pollutants. Rational MSW management planning requires that the limitations as well as advantages of incineration be recognized. Incineration is a waste-processing--not a waste disposal--technology, and its products pose substantial management and disposal problems of their own. Consideration of the nature of these products suggests that incineration is ill-suited to manage the municipal wastestream in its entirety. In particular, incineration greatly enhances the mobility and bioavailability of toxic metals present in MSW. These factors suggest that incineration must be viewed as only one component in an integrated MSW management system. The potential for source reduction, separation, and recycling to increase the safety and efficiency of incineration should be counted among their many benefits. Risk considerations dictate that alternatives to the use of toxic metals at the production stage also be examined in designing an effective, long-term MSW management strategy.

  2. Removal of unburned carbon in fly ash produced in coal combustion process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velasquez V, Leonardo F; De La Cruz M, Javier F; Sanchez M, Jhon F

    2007-01-01

    The coal unburned in flying ashes obtained in the processes of coal combustion is the main disadvantage for its use in the industry of the construction. This material normally has a size of particle greater than the mineral material, therefore it is possible to be separated in a considerable percentage, obtaining double benefit: the reusability of unburned like fuel or precursor for the activated charcoal production and the use of the mineral material in the industry of the construction since the organic matter has retired him that disables its use. In this work it is experienced with a sifted technique of separation by for three obtained flying ash samples with different technology (travelling Grill, pneumatic injection and overturning grill), were made grain sized analyses with meshes of a diameter of particle greater to 0,589 mm, the short analyses were made to them next to the retained material in each mesh and the unburned percentage of removal was determined of. The technique was compared with other developing.

  3. Environmental assessment of incinerator residue utilisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toller, Susanna

    2008-10-15

    In Sweden, utilisation of incinerator residues outside disposal areas is restricted by environmental concerns, as such residues commonly contain greater amounts of potentially toxic trace elements than the natural materials they replace. On the other hand, utilisation can also provide environmental benefits by decreasing the need for landfill and reducing raw material extraction. This thesis provides increased knowledge and proposes better approaches for environmental assessment of incinerator residue utilisation, particularly bottom ash from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI). A life cycle assessment (LCA) based approach was outlined for environmental assessment of incinerator residue utilisation, in which leaching of trace elements as well as other emissions to air and water and the use of resources were regarded as constituting the potential environmental impact from the system studied. Case studies were performed for i) road construction with or without MSWI bottom ash, ii) three management scenarios for MSWI bottom ash and iii) three management scenarios for wood ash. Different types of potential environmental impact predominated in the activities of the system and the scenarios differed in use of resources and energy. Utilising MSWI bottom ash in road construction and recycling of wood ash on forest land saved more natural resources and energy than when these materials were managed according to the other scenarios investigated, including dumping in landfill. There is a potential for trace element leaching regardless of how the ash is managed. Trace element leaching, particularly of copper (Cu), was identified as being relatively important for environmental assessment of MSWI bottom ash utilisation. CuO is suggested as the most important type of Cu-containing mineral in weathered MSWI bottom ash, whereas in the leachate Cu is mainly present in complexes with dissolved organic matter (DOM). The hydrophilic components of the DOM were more important for Cu

  4. Incinerator for radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warren, J.H.; Hootman, H.E.

    1981-01-01

    A two-stage incinerator is provided which includes a primary combustion chamber and an afterburn chamber for off-gases. The latter is formed by vertical tubes in combination with associated manifolds which connect the tubes together to form a continuous tortuous path. Electrically-controlled heaters surround the tubes while electrically-controlled plate heaters heat the manifolds. A gravity-type ash removal system is located at the bottom of the first afterburner tube while an air mixer is disposed in that same tube just above the outlet from the primary chamber. A ram injector in combination with rotary a magazine feeds waste to a horizontal tube forming the primary combustion chamber. (author)

  5. THE EFFECT OF SINGLE AND HYBRID FIBRES ON FIBRE REINFORCED SELF COMPACTING CONCRETE PRODUCED WITH HIGH LEVEL OF FLY ASH USAGE

    OpenAIRE

    BOZKURT, Nusret; YAZICIOĞLU, Salih; GÖNEN, Tahir

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present results of investigation carried out on fresh and mechanical properties of Fibre Reinforced Self Compacting Concrete (FRSCC) produced with fly ash which is an industrial waste material. Concrete industry is an important one between the industry branches for sustainability. In this study, high level of fly ash was used to reduce Portland Cement (PC) consumption as well as CO2 emission through the use of that waste material. For this purpose, a control Self C...

  6. A new incinerator for burning radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallek, H.; Laser, M.

    1978-01-01

    A new two stage incinerator for burning radioactive waste consisting of a pyrolysis chamber and an oxidation chamber is described. The fly ash is retained in the oxidation chamber by high temperature filter mats. The capacity of the installed equipment is about 100 kg/h. Waste with different composition and different calorific value were successfully burnt. The operation of the incinerator can easily be controlled by addition of a primary air stream to the pyrolysis chamber and a secondary air stream to the oxidation chamber. During continuous operation the CO and C (organic) content is below 100 ppm and 50 ppm, respectively. The burn-out of the ash is very good. After minor changes the incinerator may be suitable for burning of α-bearing waste

  7. Application of microwave-assisted extraction to the analysis of PCBs and CBzs in fly ash from municipal solid waste incinerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Yifei; Takaoka, Masaki; Takeda, Nobuo; Matsumoto, Tadao; Oshita, Kazuyuki [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Urban and Environmental Engineering

    2004-09-15

    The extraction step has been, in generally, the least developed aspect of most analytical procedures, including procedures for the analysis of PCBs and CBzs. Although the Soxhlet extraction (SE) method for solid samples, developed in 1879, is still employed today in many laboratories, during the past decade, several novel extraction techniques, such as supercritical fluid extraction (SFE), microwave-assisted extraction (MAE), and accelerated-solvent extraction (ASE), have been used to analyze PCBs, PAHs, and other persistent organic pollutants (POPs) from various matrixes. These newer methods are less time-consuming and use much smaller amounts of organic solvents. The efficiency of MAE has been reported to be higher than that of SFE. In the present study, MAE was used to analyze PCBs and CBzs in MSWI fly ash. Under different experimental conditions, the optimum solvent mixture, the optimum solvent volume, and the optimum irradiation time were established. Furthermore, the relative standard deviation (RSD) values were evaluated. Finally, MAE efficiencies were compared with those of SE. The main objective of the study, however, was to use water as a polar solvent in MAE. Because solvents with a high dielectric constant, such as water, have to be used in MAE to absorb the microwave energy and heat the solvent, the residual water after acid pretreatment could be used in MAE. Therefore, the air drying time, normally three days could be shortened with MAE following the required acid pretreatment.

  8. Cr, Cu, Hg and Ni release from incineration bottom ash during utilization in land reclamation - based on lab-scale batch and column leaching experiments and a modeling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Ke; Chan, Wei Ping; Dou, Xiaomin; Ren, Fei; Wei-Chung Chang, Victor

    2018-04-01

    Incineration bottom ash (IBA) as potential material for land reclamation was investigated, based on leaching tests, sorption studies and simulation models. Based on batch and column leaching tests, Cr, Cu, Hg and Ni in the IBA leachates were measured as high as 510 μg/L, 20330 μg/L, 5.1 μg/L and 627 μg/L, respectively, presenting potential environmental risks. Sorption study was then performed with various concentrations of IBA leachates on sands and excavated materials. Partitioning coefficients of targeting metals were determined to be 6.5 (Cr), 18.4 (Cu), 16.6 (Hg), and 1.8 (Ni) for sands, while 17.4 (Cr), 13.6 (Cu), 67.1 (Hg), and 0.9 (Ni) for excavated materials, much lower than literature in favor of their transportation. Deterministic and Monte Carlo simulation was further performed under designated boundaries, combined with measured geotechnical parameters: density, porosity, permeability, partitioning coefficient, observed diffusivity, hydraulic gradient, etc., to quantitatively predict metals' fate during IBA land reclamation. Environmental risks were quantitatively unveiled in terms of predicted time of breakthrough for the targeting metals (comparing to US EPA criterion for maximum or continuous concentration). Sands were of little effects for all metals' breakthrough (1 month or less) under advection, while excavated materials sufficiently retained metals from thousands up to millions of years, under diffusion or advection. Permeability next to the IBA layer as the major risk-limiting factor, dominated transport of IBA leachates into the field. The current study provides discrimination of environmental risks associated with metals and a quantitative guidance of project design for IBA utilization in land reclamation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Incineration of municipal and assimilated wastes in France: assessment of latest energy and material recovery performances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Autret, Erwan; Berthier, Francine; Luszezanec, Audrey; Nicolas, Florence

    2007-01-31

    Incineration has an important place in waste management in France. In 2003, around 130 incineration plants have treated 12.6 Mt of non-dangerous waste, mainly composed of household waste (10.8 Mt), non-dangerous waste from industry, business, services (1.0 Mt), sewage sludge (0.2 Mt) or clinical waste (0.1 Mt). The incineration of these wastes generated 3.0 Mt of bottom ash of which 2.3 Mt were used for roads construction and 0.2 Mt of ferrous and non-ferrous metal were recycled. It also produced 2,900,000 MWh of electricity, of which 2,200,000 MWh were sold to Electricité de France (EDF) and 9,100,000 MWh of heat, of which 7,200,000 MWh were sold to private or public users. These French incinerators of non-hazardous waste are currently being thoroughly modernized, thus making possible the consolidation and the enhancement of their environmental and energy performance. This process is related to the implementation of the European Directive 2000/76/CE whose expiration date is 28 December 2005. Upon request of ADEME, the engineering company GIRUS has realised the first technical and economical evaluation of works necessary to bring incinerators into compliance. The financial estimations, carried out in 30 June 2003, show that the investments to be devoted could reach 750 million euros. This assessment shed new light on the situation of non-hazardous waste incinerators, including an identification and a rank ordering for each incinerator of the most frequent and the most complex non-conformities to be solved in term of cost and delay. At last, this assessment gives the solutions for each non-compliance.

  10. Incineration of municipal and assimilated wastes in France: Assessment of latest energy and material recovery performances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Autret, Erwan; Berthier, Francine; Luszezanec, Audrey; Nicolas, Florence

    2007-01-01

    Incineration has an important place in waste management in France. In 2003, around 130 incineration plants have treated 12.6 Mt of non-dangerous waste, mainly composed of household waste (10.8 Mt), non-dangerous waste from industry, business, services (1.0 Mt), sewage sludge (0.2 Mt) or clinical waste (0.1 Mt). The incineration of these wastes generated 3.0 Mt of bottom ash of which 2.3 Mt were used for roads construction and 0.2 Mt of ferrous and non-ferrous metal were recycled. It also produced 2 900 000 MWh of electricity, of which 2 200 000 MWh were sold to Electricite de France (EDF) and 9 100 000 MWh of heat, of which 7 200 000 MWh were sold to private or public users. These French incinerators of non-hazardous waste are currently being thoroughly modernized, thus making possible the consolidation and the enhancement of their environmental and energy performance. This process is related to the implementation of the European Directive 2000/76/CE whose expiration date is 28 December 2005. Upon request of ADEME, the engineering company GIRUS has realised the first technical and economical evaluation of works necessary to bring incinerators into compliance. The financial estimations, carried out in 30 June 2003, show that the investments to be devoted could reach 750 million euros. This assessment shed new light on the situation of non-hazardous waste incinerators, including an identification and a rank ordering for each incinerator of the most frequent and the most complex non-conformities to be solved in term of cost and delay. At last, this assessment gives the solutions for each non-compliance

  11. Solid residues from Italian municipal solid waste incinerators: A source for "critical" raw materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funari, Valerio; Braga, Roberto; Bokhari, Syed Nadeem Hussain; Dinelli, Enrico; Meisel, Thomas

    2015-11-01

    The incineration of municipal solid wastes is an important part of the waste management system along with recycling and waste disposal, and the solid residues produced after the thermal process have received attention for environmental concerns and the recovery of valuable metals. This study focuses on the Critical Raw Materials (CRM) content in solid residues from two Italian municipal waste incinerator (MSWI) plants. We sampled untreated bottom ash and fly ash residues, i.e. the two main outputs of common grate-furnace incinerators, and determined their total elemental composition with sensitive analytical techniques such as XRF and ICP-MS. After the removal of a few coarse metallic objects from bottom ashes, the corresponding ICP solutions were obtained using strong digestion methods, to ensure the dissolution of the most refractory components that could host significant amounts of precious metals and CRM. The integration of accurate chemical data with a substance flow analysis, which takes into account the mass balance and uncertainties assessment, indicates that bottom and fly ashes can be considered as a low concentration stream of precious and high-tech metals. The magnesium, copper, antimony and zinc contents are close to the corresponding values of a low-grade ore. The distribution of the elements flow between bottom and fly ash, and within different grain size fractions of bottom ash, is appraised. Most elements are enriched in the bottom ash flow, especially in the fine grained fractions. However, the calculated transfer coefficients indicate that Sb and Zn strongly partition into the fly ashes. The comparison with available studies indicates that the CRM concentrations in the untreated solid residues are comparable with those residues that undergo post-treatment beneficiations, e.g. separation between ferrous and non-ferrous fractions. The suggested separate collection of "fresh" bottom ash, which could be processed for further mineral upgrading, can

  12. Controlled air pyrolysis incinerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dufrane, K.H.; Wilke, M.

    1982-01-01

    An advanced controlled air pyrolysis incinerator has been researched, developed and placed into commercial operation for both radioactive and other combustible wastes. Engineering efforts cocentrated on providing an incinerator which emitted a clean, easily treatable off-gas and which produced a minimum amount of secondary waste. Feed material is continuously fed by gravity into the system's pyrolysis chamber without sorting, shredding, or other such pretreatment. Metal objects, liquids such as oil and gasoline, or solid products such as resins, blocks of plastic, tire, animal carcasses, or compacted trash may be included along with normal processed waste. The temperature of the waste is very gradually increased in a reduced oxygen atmosphere. Volatile pyrolysis gases are produced, tar-like substances are cracked and the resulting product, a relatively uniform, easily burnable material, is introduced into the combustion chamber. Steady burning is thus accomplished under easily controlled excess air conditions with the off-gasthen passing through a simple dry clean-up system. Gas temperatures are then reduced by air dilution before passing through final HEPA filters. Both commercial and nuclear installations have been operated with the most recent application being the central incinerator to service West Germany's nuclear reactors

  13. Incineration by accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cribier, M.; FIoni, G.; Legrain, R.; Lelievre, F.; Leray, S.; Pluquet, A.; Safa, H.; Spiro, M.; Terrien, Y.; Veyssiere, Ch.

    1997-01-01

    The use MOX fuel allows to hope a stabilization of plutonium production around 500 tons for the French park. In return, the flow of minor actinides is increased to several tons. INCA (INCineration by Accelerator), dedicated instrument, would allow to transmute several tons of americium, curium and neptunium. It could be able to reduce nuclear waste in the case of stopping nuclear energy use. This project needs: a protons accelerator of 1 GeV at high intensity ( 50 m A), a window separating the accelerator vacuum from the reactor, a spallation target able to produce 30 neutrons by incident proton, an incineration volume where a part of fast neutrons around the target are recovered, and a thermal part in periphery with flows at 2.10 15 n/cm 2 .s; a chemical separation of elements burning in thermal (americium) from the elements needing a flow of fast neutrons. (N.C.)

  14. Waste incinerating plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1972-12-01

    This plant is provided with a NKK-Ferunst type reciprocating stage fire lattice which has a good ventilating effect and a proper stirring and loosening effect, achieving a high combustion rate, and has also a gas flow system by which gas can flow in the reverse direction to adjust its flow for seasonal variations in the quality of waste. Also, a room in which the exhaust gas is mixed is provided in this plant as a help for the complete neutralization and combustion of acid gas such as hydrogen chloride and imperfect combustion gas from plastic waste contained in wastes. In this system, waste can accept a sufficient radiant heat from the combustion gas, the furnace wall, and the ceiling; even on the post combustion fire lattice the ashes are given heat enough to complete the post combustion, so that it can be completely reduced to ashes. For these reasons, this type of incinerator is suitable for the combustion of low-calorie wastes such as city wastes. The harmful gases resulting from the combustion of wastes are treated completely by desulfurization equipment which can remove the oxides of sulfur. This type of plant also can dispose of a wide variety of wastes, and is available in several capacities from 30 tons per 8 hr to 1,200 tons per 24 hr.

  15. Environmental assessment of incinerator residue utilisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toller, S; Kärrman, E; Gustafsson, J P; Magnusson, Y

    2009-07-01

    Incineration ashes may be treated either as a waste to be dumped in landfill, or as a resource that is suitable for re-use. In order to choose the best management scenario, knowledge is needed on the potential environmental impact that may be expected, including not only local, but also regional and global impact. In this study, A life cycle assessment (LCA) based approach was outlined for environmental assessment of incinerator residue utilisation, in which leaching of trace elements as well as other emissions to air and water and the use of resources were regarded as constituting the potential environmental impact from the system studied. Case studies were performed for two selected ash types, bottom ash from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) and wood fly ash. The MSWI bottom ash was assumed to be suitable for road construction or as drainage material in landfill, whereas the wood fly ash was assumed to be suitable for road construction or as a nutrient resource to be recycled on forest land after biofuel harvesting. Different types of potential environmental impact predominated in the activities of the system and the use of natural resources and the trace element leaching were identified as being relatively important for the scenarios compared. The scenarios differed in use of resources and energy, whereas there is a potential for trace element leaching regardless of how the material is managed. Utilising MSWI bottom ash in road construction and recycling of wood ash on forest land saved more natural resources and energy than when these materials were managed according to the other scenarios investigated, including dumping in landfill.

  16. Incineration process for chlorinated alpha-contaminated wastes: industrial application to the Valduc project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longuet, T.; Vincent, J.J.; Cartier, R.; Durec, J.P.

    1993-01-01

    The Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (CEA) has pursued a broad research and development program for a number of years concerning the incineration of chlorinated α-contaminated wastes produced by work in confined atmosphere. This program has now reached the stage where an alternative solution is available to the conventional direct cement embedding method currently used for such wastes. The proposed solution is based on a two-step incineration process offering a significant volume reduction that constitutes a serious economic advantage for geological disposal. Moreover, the process produces ashes of a quality suitable for direct online vitrification, or for Pu recovery by dissolution with silver II. The process was developed under nonradioactive conditions in the IRIS incineration pilot facility operated by the CEA's Fuel Cycle Division (CEA/DCC), opening the way for the first industrial facility, planned for the VALDUC Research Center. USSI is the prime contractor in this 36-month project. The basic design work has now been completed, and the French safety authorities have authorized construction of the incinerator, based in large part on the experience and expertise acquired by the process licenser CEA/DCC. (author). 6 figs., 3 tabs

  17. Evaluating the use of waste-to-energy bottom ash as road construction materials : [summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-01

    Municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) generates millions of tons of ash each year. In European and Asian countries, this ash has been recycled into road beds, asphalt paving, and concrete products encouraged and enforced by standards, managem...

  18. COSMOS-rice technology abrogates the biotoxic effects of municipal solid waste incinerator residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarienti, Michela; Cardozo, Sdenka Moscoso; Borgese, Laura; Lira, Gloria Rodrigo; Depero, Laura E; Bontempi, Elza; Presta, Marco

    2016-07-01

    Fly ashes generated by municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) are classified as hazardous waste and usually landfilled. For the sustainable reuse of these materials is necessary to reduce the resulting impact on human health and environment. The COSMOS-rice technology has been recently proposed for the treatment of fly ashes mixed with rice husk ash, to obtain a low-cost composite material with significant performances. Here, aquatic biotoxicity assays, including daphnidae and zebrafish embryo-based tests, were used to assess the biosafety efficacy of this technology. Exposure to lixiviated MSWI fly ash caused dose-dependent biotoxic effects on daphnidae and zebrafish embryos with alterations of embryonic development, teratogenous defects and apoptotic events. On the contrary, no biotoxic effects were observed in daphnidae and zebrafish embryos exposed to lixiviated COSMOS-rice material. Accordingly, whole-mount in situ hybridization analysis of the expression of various tissue-specific genes in zebrafish embryos provided genetic evidence about the ability of COSMOS-rice stabilization process to minimize the biotoxic effects of MSWI fly ash. These results demonstrate at the biological level that the newly developed COSMOS-rice technology is an efficient and cost-effective method to process MSWI fly ash, producing a biologically safe and reusable material. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Radioactivity partitioning in incinerators for miscellaneous low-level wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kyle, S.; Bellinger, E.

    1988-03-01

    Her Majesty's Inspectorate of Pollution (HMIP) authorises the use of hospital, university and Local Authority incinerators for the disposal of solid radioactive wastes. At present these authorisations are calculated on ''worst case'' assumptions, this report aims to review the experimental data on radioactivity partitioning in these incinerators, in order to improve the accuracy of HMIP predictions. The types of radionuclides used in medicine were presented and it is noted there is no literature on the composition of university waste. The different types of incinerators are detailed, with diagrams. Major differences in design are apparent, particularly the offgas cleaning equipment in nuclear incinerators which hinders comparisons with institutional incinerators. A comprehensive literature review revealed 17 references on institutional radioactive waste incineration, 11 of these contained data sets. The partitioning experiments were described and show a wide range of methodology from incinerating guinea pigs to filter papers. In general, only ash composition data were presented, with no details of emissions or plating out in the incinerator. Thus the data sets were incomplete, often with a poor degree of accuracy. The data sets contained information on 40 elements; those were compared and general trends were apparent such as the absence of H-3, C-14 and I-125 in the ash in contrast to the high retention of Sc-46. Large differences between data sets were noted for P-32, Sr-85 and Sn-113 and within one experiment for S-35. (author)

  20. Strength Performance of Blended Ash Based Geopolymer Mortar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahib, Zaidahtulakmal M.; Kamaruddin, Kartini; Saman, Hamidah M.

    2018-03-01

    Geopolymer is a based on inorganic alumino-silicate binder system. Geopolymeric materials are formed using materials that containing silica and aluminium such as fly ash and rice husk ash, which activated by alkaline solution. This paper presents the study on the effect of replacement of SSA in RHA based geopolymer, types of curing and different molarity of NaOH used on the strength of Sewage Sludge Ash (SSA) and Rice Husk Ash (RHA) based geopolymer mortar incorporating with three (3) different mix proportions. Based geopolymer mortar was synthesized from treated sewage sludge and rice husk undergoing incineration process in producing ashes, activated with sodium silicate and sodium hydroxide solution by ratio of 2.5:1 and solution to ash ratio of 1:1. Molarity of 8M and 10M NaOH were used. The percentages of SSA replacement were 0%, 10% and 20% by weight. Compressive strength was conducted at age 7, 14 and 28 days to see the development of strength with two curing regimes, which are air curing and oven curing (60°C for 24 hours). From the research conducted, the ultimate compressive strength (6.28MPa) was obtained at zero replacement of SSA taken at 28 days of oven curing with 10M of NaOH. This shows that RHA, which is rich in silica content is enough to enhance the strength of geopolymer mortar especially with high molarity of NaOH.

  1. Testing the possibility for reusing mswi bottom ash in Greenlandic road construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkelund, Gunvor Marie; Jørgensen, Anders Stuhr; Villumsen, Arne

    2012-01-01

    requirements (a grain size distribution, wear resistance, visual fraction analysis and bearing capacity) for reuse as fill material in road construction [2]. Environmental classification based on heavy metal content and leachability was also investigated. The tests showed that it will not be possible to use......, which can influence the quality of MWSI residues. About 15,000 tons MSWI bottom ash is produced annually in Greenland and is disposed of at the open disposal sites without leachate collection or encapsulation. The MSWI bottom ash could have value as a secondary resource in construction work in Greenland...... the bottom ash directly after the incineration as the bottom ash did not comply with all the requirements specified by the Danish Road Directorate. These technical requirements could be improved by removing large fractions (> 45mm) and metal parts as well as changing the grain size distribution...

  2. Life cycle perspective on recycling of ashes; Livscykelperspektiv paa aatervinning av askor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsson, Susanna

    2007-07-01

    The purpose of this project was to, from a life cycle perspective, discuss the consequences of recycling or disposing combustion ashes. The aim was to regard regional as well as global environmental impacts and point at potential conflicts between different environmental objectives, in order to produce basic information for decision-making on criteria and regulations for ash handling.Three different ashes were studied: bottom ash from waste incineration, fly ash from combustion of peat and from forest fuels. For all ashes three different scenarios were studied, two where the ash is recycled, and one where it is disposed. Focus was put on the difference between the three scenarios during 100 years. The use of bottom ash from waste incineration for roads saved crushed rock and energy, but produced more leaching of metals than the disposal alternative. Using this ash in drainage strata saves sand but causes higher metal leaching too. The same conclusions can be drawn for fly ash from peat, here leaching of Arsenic is the main factor. Using the peat ash as road contraction material saves more resources than the use for drainage blankets. For forest fuel ash, both the use as road construction material and recycling to the forest saves resources and energy. Recycling to the forest saves most energy but also the resources of Zinc, Phosphorous and Dolomite. Leaching of metals is most important for the forest recycling, and the nature of this resource recycling can be argued. The results are most sensitive concerning transports and leaching, but also for maintenance of the constructions where the ash is used. For the forest fuel ash, the suppositions about the necessity of compensation for nutrients removed with the fuel, have important effects for the result. Generally it can be said, for all three cases, that the estimates of leaching of metals are very uncertain, and that there is a need to develop the existing models for long term leaching. The three cases demonstrated

  3. The selection, licensing, and operation of a low-level radioactive waste incinerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arrowsmith, H.W.; Dalton, D.

    1990-01-01

    The Scientific Ecology Group has just completed the selection, procurement, licensing, and start-up of a low-level radioactive waste incinerator. This incinerator is the only commercial radioactive waste incinerator in the US and was licensed by the Environmental Protection Agency, the State of Tennessee, the City of Oak Ridge, and the Tennessee Valley Authority. This incinerator has a thermal capacity of 13,000,000 BTUs and can burn approximately 1,000 pounds per hour of typical radioactive waste. Waste to be incinerated is sorted in a new waste sorting system at the SEG facility. The sorting is essential to assure that the incinerator will not be damaged by any unexpected waste and to maintain the purity of the incinerator off-gas. The volume reduction expected for typical waste is approximately 100:1. After burning, the incinerator ash is compacted or vitrified before shipment to burial sites

  4. Mercury contamination and potential impacts from municipal waste incinerator on Samui Island, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muenhor, Dudsadee; Satayavivad, Jutamaad; Limpaseni, Wongpun; Parkpian, Preeda; Delaune, R D; Gambrell, R P; Jugsujinda, Aroon

    2009-03-01

    In recent years, mercury (Hg) pollution generated by municipal waste incinerators (MWIs) has become the subject of serious public concern. On Samui Island, Thailand, a large-scale municipal waste incinerator has been in operation for over 7 years with a capacity of 140 tons/day for meeting the growing demand for municipal waste disposal. This research assessed Hg contamination in environmental matrices adjacent to the waste incinerating plant. Total Hg concentrations were determined in municipal solid waste, soil and sediment within a distance of 100 m to 5 km from the incinerator operation in both wet and dry seasons. Hg analyses conducted in municipal solid waste showed low levels of Hg ranging between 0.15-0.56 mg/kg. The low level was due to the type of waste incinerator. Waste such as electrical appliances, motors and spare parts, rubber tires and hospital wastes are not allowed to feed into the plant. As a result, low Hg levels were also found in fly and bottom ashes (0.1-0.4 mg/kg and Stack concentration of Hg were less than 0.4 microg/Nm(3). Since Hg emissions were at low concentrations, Hg in soil from atmospheric fallout near this incinerator including uptake by local weeds were very low ranging from non detectable to 399 micro g/kg. However, low but elevated levels of Hg (76-275 micro g/kg) were observed in surface soil and deeper layers (0-40 cm) in the predominant downwind direction of incinerator over a distance of between 0.5-5 km. Soil Hg concentrations measured from a reference/background track opposite of the prevailing wind direction were lower ranging between 7-46 micro g/kg. Nevertheless, the trend of Hg build up in soil was clearly seen in the wet season only, suggesting that wet deposition process is a major Hg pollution source. Hg concentrations in the sea bottom sediment collected next to the last station track was small with values between 35-67 micro g/kg. Based upon the overall findings, in terms of current potential environmental risk

  5. Trace elements in coal ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deonarine, Amrika; Kolker, Allan; Doughten, Michael W.

    2015-01-01

    Coal ash is a residual waste product primarily produced by coal combustion for electric power generation. Coal ash includes fly ash, bottom ash, and flue-gas desulfurization products (at powerplants equipped with flue-gas desulfurization systems). Fly ash, the most common form of coal ash, is used in a range of products, especially construction materials. A new Environmental Protection Agency ruling upholds designation of coal ash as a non-hazardous waste under Subtitle D of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, allowing for the continued beneficial use of coal ash and also designating procedures and requirements for its storage.

  6. A Strategy for Quantifying Radioactive Material in a Low-Level Waste Incineration Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hochel, R.C.

    1997-03-01

    One of the methods proposed by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) for the volume reduction and stabilization of a variety of low-level radioactive wastes (LLW) is incineration. Many commercial incinerators are in operation treating both non-hazardous and hazardous wastes. These can obtain volume reductions factors of 50 or more for certain wastes, and produce a waste (ash) that can be easily stabilized if necessary by vitrification or cementation. However, there are few incinerators designed to accommodate radioactive wastes. One has been recently built at the Savannah River Site (SRS) near Aiken, SC and is burning non-radioactive hazardous waste and radioactive wastes in successive campaigns. The SRS Consolidated Incineration Facility (CIF) is RCRA permitted as a Low Chemical Hazard, Radiological facility as defined by DOE criteria (Ref. 1). Accordingly, the CIF must operate within specified chemical, radionuclide, and fissile material inventory limits (Ref. 2). The radionuclide and fissile material limits are unique to radiological or nuclear facilities, and require special measurement and removal strategies to assure compliance, and the CIF may be required to shut down periodically in order to clean out the radionuclide inventory which builds up in various parts of the facility

  7. Recovery of vanadium, and nickel from fly ash produced from heavy oil-fired electrical power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stas, J.; Dahdouh, A.; Al-Chayah, O.

    2006-05-01

    After some preliminary tests, two leaching stages of fly ash to recover vanadium, molybdenum and nickel were selected. A first stage alkaline leaching of fly ash to recover vanadium and molybdenum followed by a second stage sulfuric acid leaching of the residual ash to recover nickel. The impact of some operational parameters (L/S, leaching temperature, mixing time, and agent leaching concentrations) on the recovery of V, Ni was investigated. Conditions of precipitation of V and Mo from alkaline medium and Ni from sulfuric acid solution were established. (author)

  8. Alpha waste incinerator at the Cea Valduc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2000-01-01

    The Cea/Valduc has brought into operation an incinerator for alpha waste. The incineration is in two steps. The first one is a pyrolysis under reduction atmosphere in a furnace at 550 celsius degrees and the second one is a calcination under oxidizing atmosphere of the pyrolysis residue in a furnace at 900 celsius degrees. The ashes have less than 1% of carbon. The gas coming from incineration become oxidized at 1100 Celsius degrees, then are cooled, filtered to eliminate any track of radioactivity. Then, they are cleaned with a neutralisation process. The facility reduces the volume of waste in a factor 20. The capacity of treatment is 7 kg/h. The annual capacity is 30 m 3 . The investment represents 70 millions of francs and the cost of functioning is 2 M F by year. (N.C.)

  9. Incinerators for radioactive wastes in Japanese nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karita, Yoichi

    1983-01-01

    As the measures of treatment and disposal of radioactive wastes in nuclear power stations, the development of the techniques to decrease wastes, to reduce the volume of wastes, to treat wastes by solidification and to dispose wastes has been advanced energetically. In particular, efforts have been exerted on the volume reduction treatment from the viewpoint of the improvement of storage efficiency and the reduction of transport and disposal costs. Incineration as one of the volume reduction techniques has been regarded as the most effective method with large reduction ratio, but it was not included in waste treatment system. NGK Insulators Ltd. developed NGK type miscellaneous solid incinerators, and seven incinerators were installed in nuclear power stations. These incinerators have been operated smoothly, and the construction is in progress in six more plants. The necessity of incinerators in nuclear power stations and the problems in their adoption, the circumstance of the development of NGK type miscellaneous solid incinerators, the outline of the incinerator of Karlsruhe nuclear power station and the problems, the contents of the technical development in NGK, the outline of NGK type incinerators and the features, the outline of the pretreatment system, incinerator system, exhaust gas treatment system, ash taking out system and accessory equipment, the operational results and the performance are described. (Kako, I.)

  10. Environmental impact assessment of wood ash utilization in forest road construction and maintenance--A field study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oburger, Eva; Jäger, Anna; Pasch, Alexander; Dellantonio, Alex; Stampfer, Karl; Wenzel, Walter W

    2016-02-15

    The ever increasing use of wood material as fuel for green energy production requires innovative, environmentally safe strategies for recycling of the remaining wood ash. Utilizing wood ash in forest road construction and maintenance to improve mechanical stability has been suggested as a feasible recycling option. To investigate the environmental impact of wood ash application in forest road maintenance, a two-year field experiment was conducted at two Austrian forest sites (Kobernausserwald (KO) (soil pH 5.5) and Weyregg (WE) (pH 7.7)) differing in their soil chemical properties. Two different ashes, one produced by grate incineration (GA) and the other by fluidized bed incineration in a mixture with 15 vol% burnt lime (FBA), were incorporated in repeated road sections at a 15:85% (V/V) ash-to-soil rate. Leaching waters from the road body were collected and analyzed for 32 environmentally relevant parameters over two years. Upon termination of the experiment, sub-road soil samples were collected and analyzed for ash-related changes in soil chemistry. Even though a larger number of parameters was affected by the ash application at the alkaline site (WE), we observed the most pronounced initial increases of pH as well as Al, As, Fe, Mn, Ni, Co, Cu, Mo, and NO2(−) concentrations in leachates beneath GA-treated road bodies at Kobernausserwald due to the lower soil buffer capacity at this site. Despite the observed effects our results indicate that, when specific requirements are met (i.e. appropriate ash quality, sufficient soil buffer capacity below the road body, and single time-point ash incorporation within several decades), wood ash application in forest road construction is generally environmentally acceptable.

  11. Biomass ash utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bristol, D.R.; Noel, D.J.; O`Brien, B. [HYDRA-CO Operations, Inc., Syracuse, NY (United States); Parker, B. [US Energy Corp., Fort Fairfield, ME (United States)

    1993-12-31

    This paper demonstrates that with careful analysis of ash from multiple biomass and waste wood fired power plants that most of the ash can serve a useful purpose. Some applications require higher levels of consistency than others. Examples of ash spreading for agricultural purposes as a lime supplement for soil enhancement in Maine and North Carolina, as well as a roadbase material in Maine are discussed. Use of ash as a horticultural additive is explored, as well as in composting as a filtering media and as cover material for landfills. The ash utilization is evaluated in a framework of environmental responsibility, regulations, handling and cost. Depending on the chemical and physical properties of the biomass derived fly ash and bottom ash, it can be used in one or more applications. Developing a program that utilizes ash produced in biomass facilities is environmentally and socially sound and can be financially attractive.

  12. Volatilisation and oxidation of aluminium scraps fed into incineration furnaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biganzoli, Laura; Gorla, Leopoldo; Nessi, Simone; Grosso, Mario

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Aluminium packaging partitioning in MSW incineration residues is evaluated. ► The amount of aluminium packaging recoverable from the bottom ashes is evaluated. ► Aluminium packaging oxidation rate in the residues of MSW incineration is evaluated. ► 80% of aluminium cans, 51% of trays and 27% of foils can be recovered from bottom ashes. - Abstract: Ferrous and non-ferrous metal scraps are increasingly recovered from municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash and used in the production of secondary steel and aluminium. However, during the incineration process, metal scraps contained in the waste undergo volatilisation and oxidation processes, which determine a loss of their recoverable mass. The present paper evaluates the behaviour of different types of aluminium packaging materials in a full-scale waste to energy plant during standard operation. Their partitioning and oxidation level in the residues of the incineration process are evaluated, together with the amount of potentially recoverable aluminium. About 80% of post-consumer cans, 51% of trays and 27% of foils can be recovered through an advanced treatment of bottom ash combined with a melting process in the saline furnace for the production of secondary aluminium. The residual amount of aluminium concentrates in the fly ash or in the fine fraction of the bottom ash and its recovery is virtually impossible using the current eddy current separation technology. The average oxidation levels of the aluminium in the residues of the incineration process is equal to 9.2% for cans, 17.4% for trays and 58.8% for foils. The differences between the tested packaging materials are related to their thickness, mechanical strength and to the alloy.

  13. Volatilisation and oxidation of aluminium scraps fed into incineration furnaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biganzoli, Laura, E-mail: laura.biganzoli@mail.polimi.it [Politecnico di Milano, Piazza L. Da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy); Gorla, Leopoldo; Nessi, Simone; Grosso, Mario [Politecnico di Milano, Piazza L. Da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy)

    2012-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Aluminium packaging partitioning in MSW incineration residues is evaluated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The amount of aluminium packaging recoverable from the bottom ashes is evaluated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Aluminium packaging oxidation rate in the residues of MSW incineration is evaluated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 80% of aluminium cans, 51% of trays and 27% of foils can be recovered from bottom ashes. - Abstract: Ferrous and non-ferrous metal scraps are increasingly recovered from municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash and used in the production of secondary steel and aluminium. However, during the incineration process, metal scraps contained in the waste undergo volatilisation and oxidation processes, which determine a loss of their recoverable mass. The present paper evaluates the behaviour of different types of aluminium packaging materials in a full-scale waste to energy plant during standard operation. Their partitioning and oxidation level in the residues of the incineration process are evaluated, together with the amount of potentially recoverable aluminium. About 80% of post-consumer cans, 51% of trays and 27% of foils can be recovered through an advanced treatment of bottom ash combined with a melting process in the saline furnace for the production of secondary aluminium. The residual amount of aluminium concentrates in the fly ash or in the fine fraction of the bottom ash and its recovery is virtually impossible using the current eddy current separation technology. The average oxidation levels of the aluminium in the residues of the incineration process is equal to 9.2% for cans, 17.4% for trays and 58.8% for foils. The differences between the tested packaging materials are related to their thickness, mechanical strength and to the alloy.

  14. Conceptual design report for alpha waste incinerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-04-01

    The Alpha Waste Incinerator, a new facility in the SRP H-Area, will process transuranic or alpha-contaminated combustible solid wastes. It will seal the radioactive ash and scrubbing salt residues in cans for interim storage in drums on site burial ground pads. This report includes objectives, project estimate, schedule, standards and criteria, excluded costs, safety evaluation, energy consumption, environmental assessment, and key drawings

  15. Acid gas control process and apparatus for waste fired incinerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubin, P.Z.; Stepan, J.E.

    1992-01-01

    This patent describes a process for reducing noxious emission produced in a waste material incinerator. It comprises incinerating solid waste material in a furnace section of the waste material incinerator; providing an additive to an additive supply storage unit; conveying the additive to an additive injection means that communicates with the furnace section of the waste material incinerator; injecting the additive into a turbulent reaction zone of the furnace section such that acid gas content, acid dewpoint temperature and the level of corrosion in the incinerator are reduced

  16. Performance at high temperature of alkali-activated slag pastes produced with silica fume and rice husk ash based activators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernal, S. A.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed the mechanical properties, and structural changes induced by high temperature exposure, of alkali-silicate activated slag cements produced with sodium silicates derived from silica fume (SF and rice husk ash (RHA. Similar reaction products were identified, independent of the type of silicate used, but with subtle differences in the composition of the C-S-H gels, leading to different strength losses after elevated temperature exposure. Cements produced with the alternative activators developed higher compressive strengths than those produced with commercial silicate. All samples retained strengths of more than 50 MPa after exposure to 600 °C, however, after exposure to 800 °C only the specimens produced with the RHA-based activator retained measurable strength. This study elucidated that silicate-activated slag binders, either activated with commercial silicate solutions or with sodium silicates based on SF or RHA, are stable up to 600 °C.Este estudio evaluó las propiedades mecánicas, y cambios estructurales inducidos por exposición a temperaturas elevadas, de cementos de escoria activada alcalinamente producidos con silicatos sódicos derivados de humo de sílice (SF y ceniza de cascarilla de arroz (RHA. Se identificaron productos de reacción similares, independiente del tipo de silicato utilizado, pero con diferencias menores en la composición de las geles C-S-H, lo cual indujo diferentes pérdidas de resistencia posterior a exposición a temperaturas elevadas. Los cementantes producidos con los activadores alternativos desarrollaron resistencias a la compresión más altas que aquellos producidos con silicato comercial. Todas las muestras retuvieron resistencias de más de 50 MPa posterior a la exposición a 600 °C, sin embargo, posterior a la exposición a 800 °C únicamente muestras producidas con activadores de RHA retuvieron resistencias medibles. Este estudio elucidó que cementantes de escoria activada con

  17. Waste incineration and immobilization for nuclear facilities. Status report, October 1977--March 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, A.J.; Burkhardt, S.C.; Ledford, J.A.; Williams, P.M.

    1979-01-01

    Fluidized bed incineration and processes for immobilization of wastes generated at nuclear facilities are undergoing development. After minor piping modifications to eliminate dust collecting points, a pilot plant fluidized bed incinerator run of 225 continuous hours was successfully completed in a demonstration of component reliability. Vitrification of incinerator ash and other wastes is now being accomplished using a pilot scale unit developed as a continuous flow process

  18. Non-radioactive verification test of ZRF25 radioactive combustible solid waste incinerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Peiyi; Li Xiaohai; Yang Liguo

    2013-01-01

    This paper mainly introduces the construction and test run of ZRF25 radioactive combustible solid waste incinerator, by a series of simulating waste tests, such as 24 h test, 72 h test, 168 h test, making a conclusion that the incinerator runs reliably. In addition, all of the indexes (such as treatment capacity, volume reduction coefficient, clinker ignition loss of incineration ash) meet the requirements of contract and pollution discharging standards. (authors)

  19. Mobility of organic carbon from incineration residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ecke, Holger; Svensson, Malin

    2008-01-01

    Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) may affect the transport of pollutants from incineration residues when landfilled or used in geotechnical construction. The leaching of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) bottom ash and air pollution control residue (APC) from the incineration of waste wood was investigated. Factors affecting the mobility of DOC were studied in a reduced 2 6-1 experimental design. Controlled factors were treatment with ultrasonic radiation, full carbonation (addition of CO 2 until the pH was stable for 2.5 h), liquid-to-solid (L/S) ratio, pH, leaching temperature and time. Full carbonation, pH and the L/S ratio were the main factors controlling the mobility of DOC in the bottom ash. Approximately 60 weight-% of the total organic carbon (TOC) in the bottom ash was available for leaching in aqueous solutions. The L/S ratio and pH mainly controlled the mobilization of DOC from the APC residue. About 93 weight-% of TOC in the APC residue was, however, not mobilized at all, which might be due to a high content of elemental carbon. Using the European standard EN 13 137 for determination of total organic carbon (TOC) in MSWI residues is inappropriate. The results might be biased due to elemental carbon. It is recommended to develop a TOC method distinguishing between organic and elemental carbon

  20. Characterization on incineration residue of radioactive solid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katoh, Kiyoshi; Hirayama, Katsuyoshi; Kato, Akira.

    1989-01-01

    Characterization was carried out on incineration residue discharged from the radioactive solid waste incineration unit (capacity, 100 kg/h) in use at the Tokai Research Establishment of Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) to obtain basic data for investigating solidification methods of the residue. The characterized residue was taken from furnace and a primary ceramic filter of the incineration unit which incinerates combustible solid wastes generated at JAERI and the outside organizations. Items of characterization involve a particle size distribution, misplaced materials content, ignition loss, chemical composition and radioactivity of nuclides in the ash. As the results, the size of ash sampled from the furnace distributed a wide range, with about 35∼60 % of ash smaller than 5 mm and about 10∼25 % of massive one larger than 30 mm (max. size: ∼130 mm). The ignition loss was 2∼3 %. The chemical compositions of the ash were mainly SiO 2 , Fe 2 O 3 , CaO and Al 2 O 3 . The specific activities of the ash were about 0.4∼4 x 10 3 Bq/g, and principal contaminants were 60 Co and 137 Cs. (author)

  1. Theoretical aspects of solid waste incineration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarbell, J.M.

    1975-01-01

    Theoretical considerations that may be incorporated into the design basis of a prototype incinerator for solid transuranic wastes are described. It is concluded that primary pyrolysis followed by secondary afterburning is a very unattractive incineration strategy unless waste resource recovery is a process goal. The absence of primary combustion air leads to poor waste dispersion with associated diffusion and conduction limitations rendering the process inefficient. Single step oxidative incineration is most attractive when volume reduction is of primary importance. The volume of this type of incinerator (including afterburner) should be relatively much smaller than the pyrolysis type. Afterburning is limited by soot oxidation when preceded by pyrolysis, but limited by turbulent mixing when preceded by direct solid waste oxidation. In either case, afterburner temperatures above 1300 0 K are not warranted. Results based on a nominal solid waste composition and anticipated throughput indicate that NO/sub x/, HF, and SO 2 will not exceed the ambient air quality standards. Control of radioactive particulates, which can be achieved by multiple HEPA filtration, will reduce the conventional particulate emission to the vanishing point. Chemical equilibrium calculations also indicate that chlorine and to a lesser extent fluorine may be precipitated out in the ash as sodium salts if a sufficient flux of sodium is introduced into the incinerator

  2. Improved electrical efficiency and bottom ash quality on waste combustion plants. Appendix A7 to A10

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyks, J.; Astrup, T.; Jensen, Peter A.; Nesterov, I.; Boejer, M.; Frandsen, F.; Dam-Johansen, K.; Hedegaard Madsen, O.; Lundtorp, K. (Technical Univ. of Denmark, Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)); Mogensen, Erhardt (Babcock and Wilcox Voelund A/S, Glostrup (Denmark))

    2010-07-01

    Investigations making it possible to evaluate and further develop concepts to improve electrical efficiency in a waste combustion plant were performed. Furthermore, one objective of the study was to investigate the possibilities of improving waste bottom ash leaching properties by use of a rotary kiln treatment. The project work included construction of a bench-scale rotary kiln, performing ash rotary kiln treatment experiments, conducting gas suction probe measurements on a waste incineration plant and making some concept evaluations. The influence of the rotary kiln thermal treatment on the leaching of Ca, Al, Si, Mg, Ba, Sr, Cl, Cu, Pb, Zn, Cr, Mo, sulfate, DOC and carbonate was determined. As a result of these tests, the rotary kiln thermal treatment of bottom ashes can be recommended for reducing the leaching of Cu, Pb, Cl, Zn and DOC; however, an increased leaching of Cr and Mo should be expected. The combustion conditions above the grate of a waste incineration plant were investigated and the release and concentration of volatile ash species in the flue gas such as Cl, Na, K, Ca, Pb, Zn and S were measured. The conducted measurements show that flue gas from grate sections 3 and 4 can produce a sufficiently hot flue gas that contains only low concentrations of corrosive species, and therefore can be used to increase superheater temperatures. Implementation of the so-called flue gas split concept together with other steam circle modifications on a waste combustion plant, and using a reasonable increase in final steam temperature from 400 to 500 deg. C, have the potential to increase electrical efficiency from 24 to 30% (with respect to lower fuel heating value) in a waste combustion plant. The appendices deal with the influence of kiln treatment on incineration bottom ash leaching; the influence of kiln treatment on corrosive species in deposits; operational strategy for rotary kiln; alkali/chloride release during refuse incineration on a grate. (Author)

  3. Soil application of ash produced by low-temperature fluidized bed gasification: effects on soil nutrient dynamics and crop response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller-Stöver, Dorette Sophie; Ahrenfeldt, Jesper; Holm, Jens Kai

    2012-01-01

    not significantly altered after ash application. SA was generally able to increase the levels of Olsen-P and of the ammonium acetate/acetic acid-extractable K in soil as well as to improve the yield of barley and maize, whereas faba bean did not react positively to ash amendment. CP did not show beneficial effects......Recycling of residual products of bioenergy conversion processes is important for adding value to the technologies and as a potential beneficial soil fertility amendment. In this study, two different ash materials originating from low temperature circulating fluidized bed (LT-CFB) gasification...... of either wheat straw (SA) or residue fibers mainly from citrus peels (CP) were tested regarding their potential to be used as fertilizer on agricultural soils. A soil incubation study, a greenhouse experiment with barley and faba bean, and an accompanying outdoor experiment with maize were carried out...

  4. Oxygen incineration process for treatment of alpha-contaminated wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jeong Guk; Yang, Hee Chul; Park, Geun Il; Kim, In Tae; Kim, Joon Hyung

    2001-07-01

    As a part of development of a treatment technology for burnable alpha-bearing (or -contaminated) wastes using an oxygen incineration process, which would be expected to produce in Korea, the off-gas volume and compositions were estimated form mass and heat balance, and then compared to those of a general air incineration process. A laboratory-scale oxygen incineration process, to investigate a burnable wastes from nuclear fuel fabricatin facility, was designed, constructed, and then operated. The use of oxygen instead of air in incineratin would result in reduction on off-gas product below one seventh theoretically. In addition, the trends on incineration and melting processes to treat the radioactive alpha-contaminated wastes, and the regulations and guide lines, related to design, construction, and operation of incineration process, were reviewed. Finallu, the domestic regulations related incineration, and the operation and maintenance manuals for oxy-fuel burner and oxygen incineration process were shown in appendixes

  5. Oxygen incineration process for treatment of alpha-contaminated wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jeong Guk; Yang, Hee Chul; Park, Geun Il; Kim, In Tae; Kim, Joon Hyung

    2001-07-01

    As a part of development of a treatment technology for burnable alpha-bearing (or -contaminated) wastes using an oxygen incineration process, which would be expected to produce in Korea, the off-gas volume and compositions were estimated form mass and heat balance, and then compared to those of a general air incineration process. A laboratory-scale oxygen incineration process, to investigate a burnable wastes from nuclear fuel fabricatin facility, was designed, constructed, and then operated. The use of oxygen instead of air in incineratin would result in reduction on off-gas product below one seventh theoretically. In addition, the trends on incineration and melting processes to treat the radioactive alpha-contaminated wastes, and the regulations and guide lines, related to design, construction, and operation of incineration process, were reviewed. Finallu, the domestic regulations related incineration, and the operation and maintenance manuals for oxy-fuel burner and oxygen incineration process were shown in appendixes.

  6. The Valduc waste incineration facility starts operations (iris process)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chateauvieux, H.; Guiberteuau, P.; Longuet, T.; Lannaud, J.; Lorich, M.

    1998-01-01

    In the operation of its facilities the Valduc Research Center produces alpha-contaminated solid waste and thus decided to build an incineration facility to treat the most contaminated combustible waste. The process selected for waste incineration is the IRIS process developed by the CEA at the Marcoule Nuclear Research Center. The Valduc Center asked SGN to build the incineration facility. The facility was commissioned in late 1996, and inactive waste incineration campaigns were run in 1997. The operator conducted tests with calibrated radioactive sources to qualify the systems for measuring holdup of active material from outside the equipment. Chlorinated waste incineration test runs were performed using the phosphatizing process developed by the Marcoule Research Center. Inspections performed after these incineration runs revealed the complete absence of corrosion in the equipment. Active commissioning of the facility is scheduled for mid-1998. The Valduc incinerator is the first industrial application of the IRIS process. (author)

  7. Study of the leaching of heavy metals from waste water sludge and incinerator's ash, using coupled thermostated columns and DTPA as complex agent; Estudio de la extraccion de metales pesados de lodos y cenizas de aguas residuales usando columnas termostatizadas acopladas y DTPA como agente complejante

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vite T, J.; Vite T, M.; Guerrero D, J.; Carreno de Leon, M.C. [Departamento de Estudios del Ambiente, Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    We studied the metallic composition from waste water sludge and incinerators ashes of an incinerator located in Toluca, Mexico, the qualitative studies were made using the Activation Analysis technique, and fluorescence X-ray techniques. The quantitative analysis of heavy metals in the wastes were made using Inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (Icp-Aes). For leaching the samples, we used four coupled thermostated columns, each one had a p H of 2,5, 7 and 10. The flux of the air was of 1600 cc/min. The temperature was maintain constant in 60 Centigrade using a thermostated system. For this study we used 100 g of wastes mixed with mineral acid or sodium hydroxide to reach p H 2,5,7 and 10. We added a reducing and tensoactive agents and finally DTPA as complex agent. With this method, we obtain a better leaching efficiency using a complex agent. However the high DTPA cost, make this process expansive that is why we recommend to work with another classes of complex agents, that be cheaper to leach metals of different chemistry matrix. (Author)

  8. Effects of chemical composition of fly ash on efficiency of metal separation in ash-melting of municipal solid waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okada, Takashi, E-mail: t-okada@u-fukui.ac.jp [Laboratory of Solid Waste Disposal Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Hokkaido University, Kita 13 Nishi 8, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-8628 (Japan); Tomikawa, Hiroki [Laboratory of Solid Waste Disposal Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Hokkaido University, Kita 13 Nishi 8, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-8628 (Japan)

    2013-03-15

    Highlights: ► Separation of Pb and Zn from Fe and Cu in ash-melting of municipal solid waste. ► Molar ratio of Cl to Na and K in fly ash affected the metal-separation efficiency. ► The low molar ratio and a non-oxidative atmosphere were better for the separation. - Abstract: In the process of metal separation by ash-melting, Fe and Cu in the incineration residue remain in the melting furnace as molten metal, whereas Pb and Zn in the residue are volatilized. This study investigated the effects of the chemical composition of incineration fly ash on the metal-separation efficiency of the ash-melting process. Incineration fly ash with different chemical compositions was melted with bottom ash in a lab-scale reactor, and the efficiency with which Pb and Zn were volatilized preventing the volatilization of Fe and Cu was evaluated. In addition, the behavior of these metals was simulated by thermodynamic equilibrium calculations. Depending on the exhaust gas treatment system used in the incinerator, the relationships among Na, K, and Cl concentrations in the incineration fly ash differed, which affected the efficiency of the metal separation. The amounts of Fe and Cu volatilized decreased by the decrease in the molar ratio of Cl to Na and K in the ash, promoting metal separation. The thermodynamic simulation predicted that the chlorination volatilization of Fe and Cu was prevented by the decrease in the molar ratio, as mentioned before. By melting incineration fly ash with the low molar ratio in a non-oxidative atmosphere, most of the Pb and Zn in the ash were volatilized leaving behind Fe and Cu.

  9. [Mercury Distribution Characteristics and Atmospheric Mercury Emission Factors of Typical Waste Incineration Plants in Chongqing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Zhen-ya; Su, Hai-tao; Wang, Feng-yang; Zhang, Lei; Wang, Shu-xiao; Yu, Bin

    2016-02-15

    Waste incineration is one of the important atmospheric mercury emission sources. The aim of this article is to explore the atmospheric mercury pollution level of waste incineration industry from Chongqing. This study investigated the mercury emissions from a municipal solid waste incineration plant and a medical waste incineration plant in Chongqing. The exhaust gas samples in these two incineration plants were obtained using USA EPA 30B method. The mercury concentrations in the fly ash and bottom ash samples were analyzed. The results indicated that the mercury concentrations of the municipal solid waste and medical waste incineration plant in Chongqing were (26.4 +/- 22.7) microg x m(-3) and (3.1 +/- 0.8) microg x m(-3) in exhaust gas respectively, (5279.2 +/- 798.0) microg x kg(-1) and (11,709.5 +/- 460.5) microg x kg(-1) in fly ash respectively. Besides, the distribution proportions of the mercury content from municipal solid waste and medical waste in exhaust gas, fly ash, and bottom ash were 34.0%, 65.3%, 0.7% and 32.3%, 67.5%, 0.2% respectively; The mercury removal efficiencies of municipal solid waste and medical waste incineration plants were 66.0% and 67.7% respectively. The atmospheric mercury emission factors of municipal solid waste and medical waste incineration plants were (126.7 +/- 109.0) microg x kg(-1) and (46.5 +/- 12.0) microg x kg(-1) respectively. Compared with domestic municipal solid waste incineration plants in the Pearl River Delta region, the atmospheric mercury emission factor of municipal solid waste incineration plant in Chongqing was lower.

  10. Generation and distribution of PAHs in the process of medical waste incineration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Ying, E-mail: echochen327@163.com [School of Environment, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); National Center of Solid Waste Management, Ministry of Environmental Protection, Beijing 100029 (China); Zhao, Rongzhi [Civil and Environmental Engineering School, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Xue, Jun [National Center of Solid Waste Management, Ministry of Environmental Protection, Beijing 100029 (China); Li, Jinhui, E-mail: jinhui@tsinghua.edu.cn [State Key Joint Laboratory of Environment Simulation and Pollution Control, School of Environment, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2013-05-15

    Highlights: ► PAHs generation and distribution features of medical waste incineration are studied. ► More PAHs were found in fly ash than that in bottom ash. ► The highest proportion of PAHs consisted of the seven most carcinogenic ones. ► Increase of free oxygen molecule and burning temperature promote PAHs degradation. ► There is a moderate positive correlation between total PCDD/Fs and total PAHs. - Abstract: After the deadly earthquake on May 12, 2008 in Wenchuan county of China, several different incineration approaches were used for medical waste disposal. This paper investigates the generation properties of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) during the incineration. Samples were collected from the bottom ash in an open burning slash site, surface soil at the open burning site, bottom ash from a simple incinerator, bottom ash generated from the municipal solid waste (MSW) incinerator used for medical waste disposal, and bottom ash and fly ash from an incinerator exclusively used for medical waste. The species of PAHs were analyzed, and the toxicity equivalency quantities (TEQs) of samples calculated. Analysis results indicate that the content of total PAHs in fly ash was 1.8 × 10{sup 3} times higher than that in bottom ash, and that the strongly carcinogenic PAHs with four or more rings accumulated sensitively in fly ash. The test results of samples gathered from open burning site demonstrate that Acenaphthylene (ACY), Acenaphthene (ACE), Fluorene (FLU), Phenanthrene (PHE), Anthracene (ANT) and other PAHs were inclined to migrate into surrounding environment along air and surface watershed corridors, while 4- to 6-ring PAHs accumulated more likely in soil. Being consistent with other studies, it has also been confirmed that increases in both free oxygen molecules and combustion temperatures could promote the decomposition of polycyclic PAHs. In addition, without the influence of combustion conditions, there is a positive correlation between

  11. Generation and distribution of PAHs in the process of medical waste incineration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Ying; Zhao, Rongzhi; Xue, Jun; Li, Jinhui

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► PAHs generation and distribution features of medical waste incineration are studied. ► More PAHs were found in fly ash than that in bottom ash. ► The highest proportion of PAHs consisted of the seven most carcinogenic ones. ► Increase of free oxygen molecule and burning temperature promote PAHs degradation. ► There is a moderate positive correlation between total PCDD/Fs and total PAHs. - Abstract: After the deadly earthquake on May 12, 2008 in Wenchuan county of China, several different incineration approaches were used for medical waste disposal. This paper investigates the generation properties of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) during the incineration. Samples were collected from the bottom ash in an open burning slash site, surface soil at the open burning site, bottom ash from a simple incinerator, bottom ash generated from the municipal solid waste (MSW) incinerator used for medical waste disposal, and bottom ash and fly ash from an incinerator exclusively used for medical waste. The species of PAHs were analyzed, and the toxicity equivalency quantities (TEQs) of samples calculated. Analysis results indicate that the content of total PAHs in fly ash was 1.8 × 10 3 times higher than that in bottom ash, and that the strongly carcinogenic PAHs with four or more rings accumulated sensitively in fly ash. The test results of samples gathered from open burning site demonstrate that Acenaphthylene (ACY), Acenaphthene (ACE), Fluorene (FLU), Phenanthrene (PHE), Anthracene (ANT) and other PAHs were inclined to migrate into surrounding environment along air and surface watershed corridors, while 4- to 6-ring PAHs accumulated more likely in soil. Being consistent with other studies, it has also been confirmed that increases in both free oxygen molecules and combustion temperatures could promote the decomposition of polycyclic PAHs. In addition, without the influence of combustion conditions, there is a positive correlation between total

  12. Life cycle assessment of disposal of residues from municipal solid waste incineration: recycling of bottom ash in road construction or landfilling in Denmark evaluated in the ROAD-RES model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birgisdóttir, H; Bhander, G; Hauschild, M Z; Christensen, T H

    2007-01-01

    Two disposal methods for MSWI bottom ash were assessed in a new life cycle assessment (LCA) model for road construction and disposal of residues. The two scenarios evaluated in the model were: (i) landfilling of bottom ash in a coastal landfill in Denmark and (ii) recycling of bottom ash as subbase layer in an asphalted secondary road. The LCA included resource and energy consumption, and emissions associated with upgrading of bottom ash, transport, landfilling processes, incorporation of bottom ash in road, substitution of natural gravel as road construction material and leaching of heavy metals and salts from bottom ash in road as well as in landfill. Environmental impacts associated with emissions to air, fresh surface water, marine surface water, groundwater and soil were aggregated into 12 environmental impact categories: Global Warming, Photochemical Ozone Formation, Nutrient Enrichment, Acidification, Stratospheric Ozone Depletion, Human Toxicity via air/water/soil, Ecotoxicity in water/soil, and a new impact category, Stored Ecotoxicity to water/soil that accounts for the presence of heavy metals and very persistent organic compounds that in the long-term might leach. Leaching of heavy metals and salts from bottom ash was estimated from a series of laboratory leaching tests. For both scenarios, Ecotoxicity(water) was, when evaluated for the first 100 yr, the most important among the twelve impact categories involved in the assessment. Human Toxicity(soil) was also important, especially for the Road scenario. When the long-term leaching of heavy metals from bottom ash was evaluated, based on the total content of heavy metals in bottom ash, all impact categories became negligible compared to the potential Stored Ecotoxicity, which was two orders of magnitudes greater than Ecotoxicity(water). Copper was the constituent that gave the strongest contributions to the ecotoxicities. The most important resources consumed were clay as liner in landfill and the

  13. Experience with radioactive waste incineration at Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le, V.T.; Beamer, N.V.; Buckley, L.P.

    1988-06-01

    Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories is a nuclear research centre operated by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited. A full-scale waste treatment centre has been constructed to process low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes generated on-site. A batch-loaded, two-stage, starved-air incinerator for solid combustible waste is one of the processes installed in this facility. The incinerator has been operating since 1982. It has consistently reduced combustible wastes to an inert ash product, with an average volume reduction factor of about 150:1. The incinerator ash is stored in 200 L drums awaiting solidification in bitumen. The incinerator and a 50-ton hydraulic baler have provided treatment for a combined volume of about 1300 m 3 /a of solid low-level radioactive waste. This paper presents a review of the performance of the incinerator during its six years of operation. In addition to presenting operational experience, an assessment of the starved-air incineration technique will also be discussed

  14. Incineration with energy recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahoney, T.G.

    1986-02-01

    Motherwell Bridge Tacol Ltd. operate a 'Licence Agreement' with Deutsche Babcock Anlagen of Krefeld, West Germany, for the construction of Municipal Refuse Incineration plant and Industrial Waste plant with or without the incorporation of waste heat recovery equipment. The construction in the UK of a number of large incineration plants incorporating the roller grate incinerator unit is discussed. The historical background, combustion process, capacity, grate details, refuse analysis and use as fuel, heat recovery and costs are outlined.

  15. Effectiveness of incinerators in the management of medical wastes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction and Objectives Medical waste incinerators release into the air a host of pollutants that have serious adverse consequences on public health and the environment. This study aimed at determining ... Questionnaires, researcher observation and laboratory investigations of ash samples were used in data collection.

  16. [Effects of chlorides on Cd transformation in a simulated grate incinerator during sludge incineration process ].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing-yong; Zhuo, Zhong-xu; Sun, Shui-yu; Luo, Guang-qian; Li, Xiao-ming; Xie, Wu-ming; Wang, Yu- jie; Yang, Zuo-yi; Zhao, Su-ying

    2014-09-01

    The effects of organic chloride-PVC and inorganic chloride-NaCl on Cd partitioning during sludge incineration with adding Cd(CH3COO)2 . 2H2O to the real sludge were investigated using a simulated tubular incineration furnace. And transformation and distribution of Cd were studied in different sludge incineration operation conditions. The results indicated that the partitioning of Cd tended to be enhanced in the fly ash and fule gas as the chloride content increasing. The migration and transformation of Cd-added sludge affected by different chloride were not obvious with the increasing of chloride content. With increasing temperature, organic chloride (PVC) and inorganic chloride (NaC1) can reduce the Cd distribution in the bottom ash. However, the effect of chlorides, the initial concentration and incineration time on Cd emissions had no significant differences. Using SEM-EDS and XRD technique, different Cd compounds including CdCl2, Na2CdCl4, K2CdCl6, K2CdSiO4 and NaCdO2 were formed in the bottom ash and fly ash after adding NaCl to the sludge. In contrast, after adding PVC to the sludge, the Na2CdCl4 and CdCl2 were the main forms of Cd compounds, at the same time, K4CdCI6 and K6CdO4 were also formed. The two different mechanisms of chlorides effects on Cd partitioning were affected by the products of Cd compound types and forms.

  17. TRU waste cyclone drum incinerator and treatment system: January--March 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klingler, L.M.; Batchelder, D.M.; Lewis, E.L.

    1978-01-01

    The cyclone incinerator was operated throughout the past quarter, generating additional data on system characteristics, equipment life expectancies, and by-product generation. Several changes in the incinerator system are in various stages of completion. The lid assembly, secondary chamber, and expansion unit for the new exhaust equipment are nearly ready for installation. A new heat exchanger has been installed in the scrubber system. An ash handling system has been designed for possible future addition to the system. Continuing studies will determine the best delivery mechanism for continuously feeding the cyclone incinerator. Preliminary investigations are being conducted to select an independent system to treat incinerator scrubber solution for recycling and to remove salts and sludge for disposal. Metal samples of two possible materials for incinerator construction were examined for corrosion degradation suffered at the incinerator exhaust outlet. Controlled experiments were conducted on the pressed ash-cement pellet matrix to define compressive strength, mechanical stability, density, and effect of curing environment (wet cure and dry cure). Leachability studies were initiated on pressed sludge/cement matrix in distilled water at ambient temperature. Compressive strengths of sludge/cement pressed matrix samples were investigated. Physical and chemical attributes of incinerated ash were evaluated in relationship to the ash/cement matrix

  18. The early days of incineration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valenti, M.

    1995-05-01

    Landfills reaching capacity, beaches fouled with trash, neighborhood residents protesting waste disposal sites in their backyards, and municipalities forced to recycle. Sound familiar? These issues might have been taken from today`s headlines, but they were also problems facing mechanical engineers a century ago. Conditions such as these were what led engineers to design the first incinerators for reducing the volume of municipal garbage, as well as for producing heat and electricity. The paper discusses these early days.

  19. An overview of environment Canada's National Incinerator Testing and Evaluation Program (NITEP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finkelstein, A.

    1991-01-01

    In response to the many concerns associated with incineration, Environment Canada established the National Incineration Testing and evaluation Program (NITEP) in 1984. It's mission was to assess the incineration process as a means for disposal of MSW in Canada. The program primarily focused on the environment and health impacts of MSW incinerators by determining how design and operating conditions can be modified to reduce emissions of concern. In addition to developing better measuring and monitoring methods, supporting ash residue management research programs, NITEP established four major field projects to develop the data base necessary for national guidelines. This paper presents a brief overview of the most significant field program findings over the past six years and the rationale for the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment (CCME) Operating and Emissions Guidelines for MSW Incinerators published in June of 1989. In addition an overview of the ash work completed to date, and work still underway, will be presented

  20. Bio fuel ash in a road construction: impact on soil solution chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurdin, R T; van Hees, P A W; Bylund, D; Lundström, U S

    2006-01-01

    Limited natural resources and landfill space, as well as increasing amounts of ash produced from incineration of bio fuel and municipal solid waste, have created a demand for useful applications of ash, of which road construction is one application. Along national road 90, situated about 20 km west of Sollefteå in the middle of Sweden, an experiment road was constructed with a 40 cm bio fuel ash layer. The environmental impact of the ash layer was evaluated from soil solutions obtained by centrifugation of soil samples taken on four occasions during 2001-2003. Soil samples were taken in the ash layer, below the ash layer at two depths in the road and in the ditch. In the soil solutions, pH, conductivity, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and the total concentration of cations (metals) and anions were determined. Two years after the application of the ash layers in the test road, the concentrations in the ash layer of K, SO4, Zn, and Hg had increased significantly while the concentration of Se, Mo and Cd had decreased significantly. Below the ash layer in the road an initial increase of pH was observed and the concentrations of K, SO4, Se, Mo and Cd increased significantly, while the concentrations of Cu and Hg decreased significantly in the road and also in the ditch. Cd was the element showing a potential risk of contamination of the groundwater. The concentrations of Ca in the ash layer indicated an ongoing hardening, which is important for the leaching rate and the strength of the road construction.

  1. Enviromental impact of a hospital waste incineration plant in Krakow (Poland).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gielar, Agnieszka; Helios-Rybicka, Edeltrauda

    2013-07-01

    The environmental impact of a hospital waste incineration plant in Krakow was investigated. The objective of this study was to assess the degree of environmental effect of the secondary solid waste generated during the incineration process of medical waste. The analysis of pollution of the air emissions and leaching test of ashes and slag were carried out. The obtained results allowed us to conclude that (i) the hospital waste incineration plant significantly solves the problems of medical waste treatment in Krakow; (ii) the detected contaminant concentrations were generally lower than the permissible values; (iii) the generated ashes and slag contained considerable concentrations of heavy metals, mainly zinc, and chloride and sulfate anions. Ashes and slag constituted 10-15% of the mass of incinerated wastes; they are more harmful for the environment when compared with untreated waste, and after solidification they can be deposited in the hazardous waste disposal.

  2. Characterization of humidity-controlling porous ceramics produced from coal fly ash and waste catalyst by co-sintering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Kae-Long; Ma, Chih-Ming; Lo, Kang-Wei; Cheng, Ta-Wui

    2018-04-01

    In this study, the following operating conditions were applied to develop humidity-controlling porous ceramic (HCPC) products: sintering temperatures of 800-1000 °C and percentages of coal fly ash in waste catalyst of 0%-40%. The HCPC samples then underwent a flexural strength test, to determine their quality according to the Chinese National Standards (CNS 3298). Their microstructures, crystal structures, and pore volume were determined in terms of equilibrium moisture content, water vapor adsorption/desorption, and hygroscopic sorption properties over 48 h. Nitrogen adsorption/desorption isotherms showed a hydrophobic behavior (type H3 isotherm). The water vapor adsorption/desorption and hygroscopic sorption properties satisfied the JIS A1470 intensity specification for building materials (>29 g/m2). At sintering temperatures of 950-1000 °C, HCPC samples for coal fly ash containing 20%-30% waste catalyst met the JIS A1470 intensity specifications for building materials (<29 g/m2).

  3. Electrodialytic removal of heavy metals from different fly ashes. Influence of heavy metal speciation in the ashes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anne Juul; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Villumsen, Arne

    2003-01-01

    Electrodialytic Remediation has recently been suggested as a potential method for removal of heavy metals from fly ashes. In this work electrodialytic remediation of three different fly ashes, i.e. two municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) fly ashes and one wood combustion fly ash was studied...... in lab scale, and the results were discussed in relation to the expected heavy metal speciation in the ashes. In initial leaching experiments the pH-dependent desorption characteristics of the heavy metals Cd, Pb, Zn and Cu were analogous in the two MSWI ashes, and thus it was expected......-moval efficiencies were observed, especially for Pb and Zn. Cd, the sole heavy metal of environmental concern in the wood ash, was found more tightly bonded in this ash than in the two MSWI ashes. It was suggested that complex Cd-silicates are likely phases in the wood ash whereas more soluble, condensed phases...

  4. Estimating rates of decompression from textures of erupted ash particles produced by 1999-2006 eruptions of Tungurahua volcano, Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Heather M.N.; Cashman, Katharine V.; Mothes, Patricia A.; Hall, Minard L.; Ruiz, Andrés Gorki; Le Pennec, Jean-Luc

    2012-01-01

    Persistent low- to moderate-level eruptive activity of andesitic volcanoes is difficult to monitor because small changes in magma supply rates may cause abrupt transitions in eruptive style. As direct measurement of magma supply is not possible, robust techniques for indirect measurements must be developed. Here we demonstrate that crystal textures of ash particles from 1999 to 2006 Vulcanian and Strombolian eruptions of Tungurahua volcano, Ecuador, provide quantitative information about the dynamics of magma ascent and eruption that is difficult to obtain from other monitoring approaches. We show that the crystallinity of erupted ash particles is controlled by the magma supply rate (MSR); ash erupted during periods of high magma supply is substantially less crystalline than during periods of low magma supply. This correlation is most easily explained by efficient degassing at very low pressures (<<50 MPa) and degassing-driven crystallization controlled by the time available prior to eruption. Our data also suggest that the observed transition from intermittent Vulcanian explosions at low MSR to more continuous periods of Strombolian eruptions and lava fountains at high MSR can be explained by the rise of bubbles through (Strombolian) or trapping of bubbles beneath (Vulcanian) vent-capping, variably viscous (and crystalline) magma.

  5. Ash Stabilization Campaign Blend Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winstead, M.L.

    1995-01-01

    This Stabilization Blend Plan documents the material to be processed and the processing order for the FY95 Ash Stabilization Campaign. The primary mission of this process is to reduce the inventory of unstable plutonium bearing ash. The source of the ash is from Rocky Flats and the 232-Z incinerator at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). The ash is currently being stored in Room 235B and Vault 174 in building 234-5Z. The sludge is to be thermally stabilized in a glovebox in room 230A of the 234-5Z building and material handling for the process will be done in room 230B of the same building. The campaign is scheduled for approximately 12--16 weeks. A total of roughly 4 kg of Pu will be processed

  6. Experimentation with a prototype incinerator for beta-gamma waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farber, M.G.; Lewandowski, K.E.; Becker, G.W.

    1982-01-01

    A test facility for the incineration of suspect and low-level beta-gamma waste has been built and operated at the Savannah River Laboratory. The processing steps include waste feeding, incineration, ash residue packaging, and off-gas cleanup. Demonstration of the full-scale (180 kg/hr) facility with nonradioactive, simulated waste is currently in progress. At the present time, over nine metric tons of material including rubber, polyethylene, and cellulose have been incinerated during three burning campaigns. A comprehensive test program of solid and liquid waste incineration is being implemented. The data from the research program is providing the technical basis for a phase of testing with low-level beta-gamma waste generated at the Savannah River Plant

  7. A study on the safety of radioactive waste incineration facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Y C [Yonsei Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, W J; Lee, B S; Lee, S H [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-12-15

    The main scope of the project is the selection of some considerable items in design criteria of radioactive waste incineration facilities not only for the protection of workers and residents during operation but also for the safe disposal of ashes after incineration. The technological and regulational status on incineration technologies in domestic and foreign is surveyed and analyzed for providing such basic items which must be contained in the guideline for safe and appropriate design, construction and operation of the facilities. The contents of the project are summarized as follows; surveying the status on incineration technologies for both radioactive and non-radioactive wastes in domestic and foreign, surveying and analysing same related technical standards and regulations in domestic and foreign, picking out main considerable items and proposing a direction of further research.

  8. APC fly ashes stabilized with Portland cement for further development of road sub-base aggregates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formosa, J.; Giro-Paloma, J.; Maldonado-Alameda, A.; Huete-Hernández, S.; Chimenos, J. M.

    2017-10-01

    Although waste-to-energy plants allow reducing the mass and volume of municipal solid waste (MSW) incinerated, an average around 30 % of the total content remains as bottom ash (BA) and air pollution control (APC) ashes at the end of combustion process. While weathered bottom ash (WBA) is considered a non-hazardous residue that can be revalorized as a secondary aggregate, APC fly ashes generated during the flue gas treatment are classified as hazardous waste and are handled in landfill disposal after stabilization, usually with Portland cement (OPC). However, taking into account the amount of APC residues produced and the disposing cost in landfill, their revalorization is an important issue that could be effectively addressed. As MSW can be incinerated producing bottom ashes (BA) or air pollutant control (APC) residues, the development of a mortar formulated with APC fly ash as secondary building material is a significant risk to the environment for their content of heavy metals. In this way, Design of Experiment (DoE) was used for the improvement of granular material (GM) formulation composed by APC and OPC for further uses as road sub-base aggregate. DoE analysis was successful in the modelling and optimization the formulation as function of the mechanical properties and APC amount. Consequently, an optimal mortar formulation (OMF) of around 50 wt.% APC and 50 wt.% OPC was considered. The OMF leachates and abrasion resistance have been analyzed. These results have demonstrated the viability of OMF as non-hazardous material feasible to be used as secondary aggregate. Moreover, it would be possible to consider the environmental assessment of a GM composed by ≈20 wt.% of OMF and ≈80 wt.% of WBA in order to improve mechanical properties and heavy metals stabilization.

  9. Current practice of incineration of low-level institutional radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooley, L.R.; McCampbell, M.R.; Thompson, J.D.

    1981-02-01

    During 1972, 142 medical and academic institutions were surveyed to assess the current practice of incineration of low-level radioactive waste. This was one activity carried out by the University of Maryland as part of a contract with EG and G Idaho, Inc., to site a radioactive waste incineration system. Of those surveyed, 46 (approximately 32%) were presently incinerating some type of radioactive waste. All were using controlled-air, multistage incinerators. Incinerators were most often used to burn animal carcasses and other biological wastes (96%). The average size unit had a capacity of 113 kg/h. Disposal of liquid scintillation vials posed special problems; eight institutions incinerated full scintillation vials and five incinerated scintillation fluids in bulk form. Most institutions (87%) used the incinerator to dispose of other wastes in addition to radioactive wastes. About half (20) of the institutions incinerating radioactive wastes reported shortcomings in their incineration process; those most often mentioned were: problems with liquid scintillation wastes, ash removal, melting glass, and visible smoke. Frequently cited reasons for incinerating wastes were: less expensive than shipping for commercial shallow land burial, volume reduction, convenience, and closure of existing disposal sites

  10. Evaluation of gaseous emissions produced in the tests on the demonstration plant for sludge drying and incineration; Valutazione delle emissioni gassose prodotte nelle prove sull'impianto dimostrativo di essiccamento e di incenerimento di fanghi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lotito, V.; Spinosa, L.; Antonacci, R. [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Istituto di Ricerca sulle Acque, Bari (Italy); Mininni, G. [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Istituto di Ricerca sulle Acque, Rome (Italy)

    2001-03-01

    Incineration is a valid alternative to other more diffused disposal systems (agricultural use, landfill), when they cannot be applied due to high pollutants concentrations or other unforeseeable constraints. However, it can cause severe air pollution by inorganic (heavy metals) and organic (PAHs, PCDDs, PCDFs) pollutants, particulate, NO{sub x}, CO and acidic compounds; this fact has raised public concern about incineration and has hindered a wider application of this practice. Water Research Institute of Italian National Research Council realised a demonstration plant mainly consisting of a fluidized bed furnace, a rotary kiln furnace, a dryer with heat recovery section, particulate and acidic compounds removal apparatuses, and set up a research programme to demonstrate that incineration is a safe operation and can comply the relevant legislation, as far as organic and inorganic micropollutants are concerned. A total of 40 tests were carried out (30 with the fluidized bed furnace and 10 with rotary kiln one) treating dewatered sludges (in many cases with the addition of high chlorinated compounds and Cu salts) or dried ones, under different operating conditions (furnace temperature, after-burner temperature, chlorine concentration). Particulate concentrations, and consequently heavy metals concentrations, at the stack resulted in any case under legal limits. As far as conventional pollutants are concerned, only HCl and CO overcame sometimes standards, mainly due to temporary operating up-sets. PAHs concentration resulted quite constant, thus demonstrating that tests were operated in steady-state and satisfactory conditions. Also dioxins and furans overcame sometimes standards, but no correlation was found with more severe tests conditions; it happened when plant up-set conditions occurred. Operation resulted quite satisfactory, but dryer operation required constant operators attention. In rotary kiln furnace a build up of solidified ashes occurred in counter

  11. State of art in incineration technology of radioactive combustible solid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karita, Yoichi

    1984-01-01

    The features of incineration treatment as the method of treating radioactive wastes are the effect of volume reduction and inorganic stabilization (change to ash). The process of incineration treatment is roughly divided into dry process and wet process. But that in practical use is dry incineration by excess air combustion or suppressed combustion. The important things in incineration techniques are the techniques of exhaust gas treatment as well as combustion techniques. In Europe and USA, incineration has been practiced in laboratories and reprocessing plants for low level combustible solids, but the example of application in nuclear power stations is few. In Japan, though the fundamental techniques are based on the introduction from Europe, the incineration treatment of combustible solids has been carried out in laboratories, reprocessing plants, nuclear fuel production facilities and also nuclear power stations. The techniques of solidifying ash by incineration and the techniques of incinerating spent ion exchange resin are actively developed, and the development of the treatment of radioactive wastes in the lump including incineration also is in progress. (Kako, I.)

  12. Material distribution in treated MSWI bottom ash fractions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Wouw, P.M.F.; Florea, M.V.A.; Brouwers, H.J.H.

    2016-01-01

    Municipal Solid Waste Incineration (MSWI) reduces the mass and volume of the waste by about 70% and 90%, respectively. Next to boiler and fly ash, solid MSWI Bottom Ash (BA) makes up for 80% of the remaining material and contains unburned matter, glass, ceramics, metals, and minerals. At present BA

  13. Low-level waste institutional waste incinerator program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, J.D.

    1980-04-01

    Literature surveyed indicated that institutional LLW is composed of organic solids and liquids, laboratory equipment and trash, and some pathological waste. Some toxic and hazardous chemicals are included in the variety of LLW generated in the nation's hospitals, universities, and research laboratories. Thus, the incinerator to be demonstrated in this program should be able to accept each of these types of materials as feedstock. Effluents from the DOE institutional incinerator demonstration should be such that all existing and proposed environmental standards be met. A design requirement was established to meet the most stringent flue gas standards. LLW incineration practice was reviewed in a survey of institutional LLW generators. Incinerator manufacturers were identified by the survey, and operational experience in incineration was noted for institutional users. Manufacturers identified in the survey were contacted and queried with regard to their ability to supply an incinerator with the desired capability. Special requirements for ash removal characteristics and hearth type were imposed on the selection. At the present time, an incinerator type, manufacturer, and model have been chosen for demonstration

  14. Incineration and monitoring of low-level 3H and 14C wastes at a biological research institution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamrick, P.E.; Knapp, S.J.; Parker, M.G.; Watson, J.E. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    Low-level radioactive waste containing liquid scintillation fluid and known amounts of 14 C and 3 H has been incinerated in a modified pathological incinerator with the incinerator effluent, refractory surface and ash being monitored. The study relates the activity monitored to that incinerated and discusses how this relation was affected by a modification of the incinerator and monitoring conditions. No significant activity was found to be associated with the ash, particulates or the refractory surface. These data suggest that most of the activity is released as tritiated water vapor and 14 C-labeled carbon dioxide. However, incomplete oxidation may occur for short periods of time depending on the amount of liquid scintillation fluid incinerated, with the possible release of 14 C-labeled carbon monoxide

  15. Loading device for incinerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hempelmann, W.

    1983-01-01

    An incinerator for radioactive waste is described. Heat radiation from the incinerator into the loading device is reduced by the design of the slider with a ceramic plate and the conical widening of the pot, and also by fixing a metal plate between the pot and the floor. (PW) [de

  16. Joule-heated glass-furnace system for the incineration of low-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armstrong, K.M.; Klingler, L.M.; Doty, J.W.; Kramer, D.P.

    1982-01-01

    For the past 1-1/2 years, Mound has been preparing and evaluating a commercially available joule-heated glass furnace unit, coupled with a wet scrubbing system. The purpose of the glass furnace evaluation is to advance and document incinerator technology for such combustibles as solids, resins, and sludges, and to develop a stable waste form for subsequent disposal. Four (4) waste nonradioactive types were selected to determine the combustion efficiency of the furnace unit: (1) dry solid waste composed of paper, plastics, rubber, and cloth, (2) ion exchange resin of both the anionic and cationic type, (3) filter sludge composed of diatomaceous earth, organic cellulosic filter aid, and powdered ion exchange resin, and (4) cartridge filters having glass and plastic filter surfaces and nonmetallic cores. When completed, the combustion efficiency experiments for the proposed nonradioactive waste-types revealed the ability of the furnace to easily incinerate waste at feedrates of up to 150 lb/hr. During the course of the experiments, combustibles in the offgas remained consistently low, suggesting excellent combustion efficiency. Furthermore, ash produced by the combustion process was effectively incorporated into the melt by convective currents in the glass. Future work on the glass furnace incinerator will include spiking the waste to determine radioisotope behavior in the furnace

  17. Incineration of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eid, C.

    1985-01-01

    The incineration process currently seems the most appropriate way to solve the problems encountered by the increasing quantities of low and medium active waste from nuclear power generation waste. Although a large number of incinerators operate in the industry, there is still scope for the improvement of safety, throughput capacity and reduction of secondary waste. This seminar intends to give opportunity to scientists working on the different aspects of incineration to present their most salient results and to discuss the possibilities of making headway in the management of LL/ML radioactive waste. These proceedings include 17 contributions ranging over the subjects: incineration of solid β-γ wastes; incineration of other radwastes; measurement and control of wastes; off-gas filtration and release. (orig./G.J.P.)

  18. Chemical and sewage sludge co-incineration in a full-scale MSW incinerator: toxic trace element mass balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biganzoli, Laura; Grosso, Mario; Giugliano, Michele; Campolunghi, Manuel

    2012-10-01

    Co-incineration of sludges with MSW is a quite common practice in Europe. This paper illustrates a case of co-incineration of both sewage sludges and chemical sludges, the latter obtained from drinking water production, in a waste-to-energy (WTE) plant located in northern Italy and equipped with a grate furnace, and compares the toxic trace elements mass balance with and without the co-incineration of sludges. The results show that co-incineration of sewage and chemical sludges does not result in an increase of toxic trace elements the total release in environment, with the exception of arsenic, whose total release increases from 1 mg t(fuel) (-1) during standard operation to 3 mg t(fuel) (-1) when sludges are co-incinerated. The increase of arsenic release is, however, attributable to the sole bottom ashes, where its concentration is five times higher during sludge co-incineration. No variation is observed for arsenic release at the stack. This fact is a further guarantee that the co-incineration of sludges, when performed in a state-of-the-art WTE plant, does not have negative effects on the atmospheric environment.

  19. Ohio incinerator given the go-ahead

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kemezis, P.

    1992-01-01

    A federal judge has denied a request for an injunction against the startup of the long-stalled Waste Technologies Industries (WTI) commercial hazardous waste incinerator in East Liverpool, OH. The $140-million plant, owned by a US subsidiary of Swiss engineering group Von Roll Ltd. (Zuerich), will go through a startup stage and a seven-day trial burn during the next two months, according to WTI. In testimony in federal court in Huntington, WV, WTI had said it was losing $115,000/day in fixed costs because of the plant's startup delay. The company also said that long-term contracts with Chemical Waste Management (CWM; Oak Brook, IL), Du Pont (Wilmington, DE), and BASF Corp. (Parsippany, NJ) to use plant services could be jeopardized by the delay. WTI is believed to have 10-year service contracts with the three companies and also will use CWM to dispose of the ash from the incinerator

  20. Recycling ampersand incineration: Evaluating the choices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denison, R.A.; Ruston, J.

    1993-01-01

    Conflicts between proponents of municipal solid waste incineration and advocates of recycling have escalated with efforts to reduce the volume of waste that ends up in landfills. Central to this debate is competition for materials that are both combustible and recyclable. Environmental and economic concerns also play a major role. This book, produced by the Environmental Defense Fund, compares recycling and incineration. It is intended for 'citizens, government officials, and business people who want to help resolve the solid-waste crisis.' The book is divided into three parts: recycling and incineration; health and environmental risk of incineration; and planning, public participation, and environmental review requirements. The book does an excellent job of discussing the benefits of recycling and the pitfalls of incineration. It provides helpful information for identifying questions that should be raised about incineration, but it does not raise similar queries about recycling. There is much worthwhile information here, but the book would be more useful if it identified critical issues for all waste reduction and management options

  1. CO-incineration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehmer, S.; Rumplmayr, A.

    2001-01-01

    'Co-incineration plant means a stationary or mobile plant whose main purpose is the generation of energy or production of material products and which uses wastes as a regular or additional fuel; or in which waste is thermally treated for the purpose of disposal. This definition covers the site and the entire plant including all incineration lines, waste reception, storage, an site pre-treatment facilities; its waste-, fuel- and air-supply systems; the boiler; facilities for treatment or storage of the residues, exhaust gas and waste water; the stack; devices and systems for controlling incineration operations, recording and monitoring incineration conditions (proposal for a council directive an the incineration of waste - 98/C 372/07). Waste incinerators primarily aim at rendering waste inert, at reduction of its volume and at the generation of energy from waste. The main aim of co-incineration an the other hand is either the recovery of energy from waste, the recovery of its material properties or a combination of the latter in order to save costs for primary energy. Two main groups of interest have lately been pushing waste towards co-incineration: conventional fossil fuels are getting increasingly scarce and hence expensive and generate carbon dioxide (greenhouse gas). The use of high calorific waste fractions is considered as an alternative. In many countries land filling of waste is subject to increasingly strict regulations in order to reduce environmental risk and landfill volume. The Austrian Landfill Ordinance for instance prohibits the disposal of untreated waste from the year 2004. Incineration seems to be the most effective treatment option to destroy organic matter. However the capacities of waste incinerators are limited, giving rise to a search for additional incineration capacity. The obvious advantages of co-incineration, such as the saving of fossil fuels and raw materials, the thermal treatment of waste fractions and possible economic benefits by

  2. The Savannah River Plant Consolidated Incineration Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, D.A.

    1987-01-01

    A full scale incinerator is proposed for construction at the Savannah River Plant (SRP) beginning in August 1989 for detoxifiction and volume reduction of liquid and solid low-level radioactive, mixed and RCRA hazardous waste. Wastes to be burned include drummed liquids, sludges and solids, liquid process wastes, and low-level boxed job control waste. The facility will consist of a rotary kiln primary combustion chamber followed by a tangentially fired cylindrical secondary combustion chamber (SCC) and be designed to process up to 12 tons per day of solid and liquid waste. Solid waste packaged in combustible containers will be fed to the rotary kiln incinerator using a ram feed system and liquid wastes will be introduced to the rotary kiln through a burner nozzle. Liquid waste will also be fed through a high intensity vortex burner in the SCC. Combustion gases will exit the SCC and be cooled to saturation in a spray quench. Particulate and acid gas are removed in a free jet scrubber. The off-gas will then pass through a cyclone separator, mist eliminator, reheater high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filtration and induced draft blowers before release to the atmosphere. Incinerator ash and scrubber blowdown will be immobilized in a cement matrix and disposed of in an onsite RCRA permitted facility. The Consolidated Incineration Facility (CIF) will provide detoxification and volume reduction for up to 560,000 CUFT/yr of solid waste and up to 35,700 CUFT/yr of liquid waste. Up to 50,500 CUFT/yr of cement stabilized ash and blowdown will beproduced for an average overall volume reduction fator of 22:1. 3 figs., 2 tabs

  3. Wood ash used as partly sand and/or cement replacement in mortar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Hansen, Esben Østergaard; Jensen, Pernille Erland

    2016-01-01

    , and the present work reports a characterization of three different WAs. Properties of mortar samples with the WAs used as partly cement and/or sand replacement are reported. Compressive strength development and porosity are the mortar properties in focus. The overall aim of the work is to evaluate the influence...... of the ashes were dry and sampled just after the incineration, whereas one ash had a water content of 15%, because the ash was sprayed with water to avoid dust during ash handling at the incineration plant. Regardless of replacing cement or sand with WAs, the compressive strength decreased compared...... to a reference without ash, however, the decrease was small for two of the ashes. Using the ash with the high LoI resulted in significantly lower compressive strength compared to the other two ashes. The mortar samples with two of the ashes (with low LoI) had qualities, which were very encouraging in order...

  4. Flow analysis of heavy metals in a pilot-scale incinerator for residues from waste electrical and electronic equipment dismantling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, Yu-Yang; Feng, Yi-Jian; Cai, Si-Shi; Ding, Wei-Xu; Shen, Dong-Sheng, E-mail: shends@zju.edu.cn

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: • Cu, Zn, Pb, and Ni are enriched in bottom ash from WEEE dismantling residues. • The heavy metal residual fraction restricts transfer in the incinerator. • Pre-treatment to remove heavy metals from WEEE residues would reduce emissions. -- Abstract: The large amount of residues generated from dismantling waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) results in a considerable environmental burden. We used material flow analysis to investigate heavy metal behavior in an incineration plant in China used exclusively to incinerate residues from WEEE dismantling. The heavy metals tested were enriched in the bottom and fly ashes after incineration. However, the contents of heavy metals in the bottom ash, fly ash and exhaust gas do not have a significant correlation with that of the input waste. The evaporation and recondensation behavior of heavy metals caused their contents to differ with air pollution control equipment because of the temperature difference during gas venting. Among the heavy metals tested, Cd had the strongest tendency to transfer during incineration (T{sub Cd} = 69.5%) because it had the lowest melting point, followed by Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn. The exchangeable and residual fractions of heavy metals increased substantially in the incineration products compared with that of the input residues. Although the mass of residues from WEEE dismantling can be reduced by 70% by incineration, the safe disposal of the metal-enriched bottom and fly ashes is still required.

  5. Flow analysis of heavy metals in a pilot-scale incinerator for residues from waste electrical and electronic equipment dismantling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, Yu-Yang; Feng, Yi-Jian; Cai, Si-Shi; Ding, Wei-Xu; Shen, Dong-Sheng

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Cu, Zn, Pb, and Ni are enriched in bottom ash from WEEE dismantling residues. • The heavy metal residual fraction restricts transfer in the incinerator. • Pre-treatment to remove heavy metals from WEEE residues would reduce emissions. -- Abstract: The large amount of residues generated from dismantling waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) results in a considerable environmental burden. We used material flow analysis to investigate heavy metal behavior in an incineration plant in China used exclusively to incinerate residues from WEEE dismantling. The heavy metals tested were enriched in the bottom and fly ashes after incineration. However, the contents of heavy metals in the bottom ash, fly ash and exhaust gas do not have a significant correlation with that of the input waste. The evaporation and recondensation behavior of heavy metals caused their contents to differ with air pollution control equipment because of the temperature difference during gas venting. Among the heavy metals tested, Cd had the strongest tendency to transfer during incineration (T Cd = 69.5%) because it had the lowest melting point, followed by Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn. The exchangeable and residual fractions of heavy metals increased substantially in the incineration products compared with that of the input residues. Although the mass of residues from WEEE dismantling can be reduced by 70% by incineration, the safe disposal of the metal-enriched bottom and fly ashes is still required

  6. Nuclear waste incineration technology status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziegler, D.L.; Lehmkuhl, G.D.; Meile, L.J.

    1981-07-15

    The incinerators developed and/or used for radioactive waste combustion are discussed and suggestions are made for uses of incineration in radioactive waste management programs and for incinerators best suited for specific applications. Information on the amounts and types of radioactive wastes are included to indicate the scope of combustible wastes being generated and in existence. An analysis of recently developed radwaste incinerators is given to help those interested in choosing incinerators for specific applications. Operating information on US and foreign incinerators is also included to provide additional background information. Development needs are identified for extending incinerator applications and for establishing commercial acceptance.

  7. Nuclear waste incineration technology status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziegler, D.L.; Lehmkuhl, G.D.; Meile, L.J.

    1981-01-01

    The incinerators developed and/or used for radioactive waste combustion are discussed and suggestions are made for uses of incineration in radioactive waste management programs and for incinerators best suited for specific applications. Information on the amounts and types of radioactive wastes are included to indicate the scope of combustible wastes being generated and in existence. An analysis of recently developed radwaste incinerators is given to help those interested in choosing incinerators for specific applications. Operating information on US and foreign incinerators is also included to provide additional background information. Development needs are identified for extending incinerator applications and for establishing commercial acceptance

  8. Recent research in incinerator radioactive smoke filtration and improvements in a TRU waste incinerator plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpernier, S.; de Tassigny, C.; Hashimoto, Y.; Inove, A.

    1989-01-01

    In the area concerned, when incineration is carried out, it is always accompanied by the production of combustion gases which entrain fly ash, which is generally hazardous and/or a carrier of radioactivity, and which must be collected before the gasses are releases to the atmosphere. The fly ash concerned consists of secondary solid effluents which, with the consumable filters designed to stop them, tend to lower and quality of the waste volume and weight reduction factors, sometimes significantly. Hence it is an excellent idea to burn the organic part of the fly ash and also to stop thoroughly the inorganic parts by prefilters and final filters, carefully designed and selected for their performance and their longest possible service life, in order to minimize the process waste built up with time. This paper discusses the testing of ceramic and fiber candles for their refractive qualities, thermal shock behavior, commercial cost and efficiency for a given grain size distribution

  9. Incinerator for power reactor low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drolet, T.S.; Sovka, J.A.

    1976-01-01

    The technique chosen for volume reduction of combustible waste is incineration by a propane-fired unit. Noncombustible material will be compacted into 200 liter drums. A program of segregation of wastes at the producing nuclear stations was instituted. The design and operation of the incinerator, dose limits to the public, and derived release limits for airborne effluents are discussed

  10. Commercial incineration demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vavruska, J.S.; Borduin, L.C.

    1982-01-01

    Low-level radioactive wastes (LLW) generated by nuclear utilities presently are shipped to commercial burial grounds for disposal. Increasing transportation and disposal costs have caused industry to consider incineration as a cost-effective means of volume reduction of combustible LLW. Repeated inquiries from the nuclear industry regarding the applicability of the Los Alamos controlled air incineration (CAI) design led the DOE to initiate a commercial demonstration program in FY-1980. Development studies and results in support of this program involving ion exchange resin incineration and fission/activation product distributions within the Los Alamos CAI are described

  11. Improved electrical efficiency and bottom ash quality on waste combustion plants. Appendix A1 to A3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nesterov, I.; Jensen, Peter A.; Dam-Johansen, K.; Kloeft, H.; Boejer, M. (Technical Univ. of Denmark, Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)); Mogensen, Erhardt (Babcock and Wilcox Voelund A/S, Esbjerg (Denmark))

    2010-07-01

    Investigations making it possible to evaluate and further develop concepts to improve electrical efficiency in a waste combustion plant were performed. Furthermore, one objective of the study was to investigate the possibilities of improving waste bottom ash leaching properties by use of a rotary kiln treatment. The project work included construction of a bench-scale rotary kiln, performing ash rotary kiln treatment experiments, conducting gas suction probe measurements on a waste incineration plant and making some concept evaluations. The influence of the rotary kiln thermal treatment on the leaching of Ca, Al, Si, Mg, Ba, Sr, Cl, Cu, Pb, Zn, Cr, Mo, sulfate, DOC and carbonate was determined. As a result of these tests, the rotary kiln thermal treatment of bottom ashes can be recommended for reducing the leaching of Cu, Pb, Cl, Zn and DOC; however, an increased leaching of Cr and Mo should be expected. The combustion conditions above the grate of a waste incineration plant were investigated and the release and concentration of volatile ash species in the flue gas such as Cl, Na, K, Ca, Pb, Zn and S were measured. The conducted measurements show that flue gas from grate sections 3 and 4 can produce a sufficiently hot flue gas that contains only low concentrations of corrosive species, and therefore can be used to increase superheater temperatures. Implementation of the so-called flue gas split concept together with other steam circle modifications on a waste combustion plant, and using a reasonable increase in final steam temperature from 400 to 500 deg. C, have the potential to increase electrical efficiency from 24 to 30% (with respect to lower fuel heating value) in a waste combustion plant. The appendices deal with incineration bottom ash leaching properties; design and construction of rotary kiln facility; manual to rotary kiln experiments. (Author)

  12. Improved electrical efficiency and bottom ash quality on waste combustion plants. Appendix A4 to A6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kloeft, H.; Jensen, Peter A.; Nesterov, I.; Hyks, J.; Astrup, T. (Technical Univ. of Denmark, Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)); Mogensen, Erhardt (Babcock and Wilcox Voelund A/S, Glostrup (Denmark))

    2010-07-01

    Investigations making it possible to evaluate and further develop concepts to improve electrical efficiency in a waste combustion plant were performed. Furthermore, one objective of the study was to investigate the possibilities of improving waste bottom ash leaching properties by use of a rotary kiln treatment. The project work included construction of a bench-scale rotary kiln, performing ash rotary kiln treatment experiments, conducting gas suction probe measurements on a waste incineration plant and making some concept evaluations. The influence of the rotary kiln thermal treatment on the leaching of Ca, Al, Si, Mg, Ba, Sr, Cl, Cu, Pb, Zn, Cr, Mo, sulfate, DOC and carbonate was determined. As a result of these tests, the rotary kiln thermal treatment of bottom ashes can be recommended for reducing the leaching of Cu, Pb, Cl, Zn and DOC; however, an increased leaching of Cr and Mo should be expected. The combustion conditions above the grate of a waste incineration plant were investigated and the release and concentration of volatile ash species in the flue gas such as Cl, Na, K, Ca, Pb, Zn and S were measured. The conducted measurements show that flue gas from grate sections 3 and 4 can produce a sufficiently hot flue gas that contains only low concentrations of corrosive species, and therefore can be used to increase superheater temperatures. Implementation of the so-called flue gas split concept together with other steam circle modifications on a waste combustion plant, and using a reasonable increase in final steam temperature from 400 to 500 deg. C, have the potential to increase electrical efficiency from 24 to 30% (with respect to lower fuel heating value) in a waste combustion plant. The appendices deal with collection of slags for the rotary kiln experiments; overview of the thermal treatment experiments - phase 1; a journal paper with the title ''Quantification of leaching from waste incineration bottom ash treated in a rotary kiln

  13. The incineration of low-level radioactive waste: A report for the Advisory Committee on Nuclear Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, S.W.

    1990-06-01

    This report is a summary of the contemporary use of incineration technology as a method for volume reduction of LLW. It is intended primarily to serve as an overview of the technology for waste management professionals involved in the use or regulation of LLW incineration. It is also expected that organizations presently considering the use of incineration as part of their radioactive waste management programs will benefit by gaining a general knowledge of incinerator operating experience. Specific types of incineration technologies are addressed in this report, including designation of the kinds of wastes that can be processed, the magnitudes of volume reduction that are achievable in typical operation, and requirements for ash handling and off-gas filtering and scrubbing. A status listing of both US and foreign incinerators provides highlights of activities at government, industry, institutional, and commercial nuclear power plant sites. The Federal and State legislative structures for the regulation of LLW incineration are also described. 84 refs., 33 tabs

  14. One-step purification and characterization of cellulase-free xylanase produced by alkalophilic Bacillus subtilis ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashwani Sanghi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study describes the one-step purification and characterization of an extracellular cellulase-free xylanase from a newly isolated alkalophilic and moderately thermophilic strain of Bacillus subtilis ASH. Xylanase was purified to homogeneity by 10.5-fold with ~43% recovery using ion-exchange chromatography through CM-Sephadex C-50. The purified enzyme revealed a single band on SDS-PAGE gel with a molecular mass of 23 kDa. It showed an optimum pH at 7.0 and was stable over the pH range 6.0-9.0. The optimum temperature for enzyme activity was 55 ºC. The purified xylanase did not lose any activity up to 45 ºC, however, it retained 80% and 51% of its activity after pre-incubation at 55 ºC and 60 ºC, respectively. The enzyme obeyed Michaelis-Menton kinetics towards birch wood xylan with apparent Km 3.33 mg/ml and Vmax 100 IU/ml. The enzyme was strongly inhibited by Hg2+ and Cu2+ while enhanced by Co2+ and Mn2+. The purified enzyme could be stored at 4 ºC for six weeks without any loss of catalytic activity. The faster and economical purification of the cellulase-free xylanase from B. subtilis ASH by one-step procedure together with its appreciable stability at high temperature and alkaline pH makes it potentially effective for industrial applications.

  15. Evaluation of refractory materials for a nuclear waste incinerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grotzky, V.K.; Kneale, P.A.; Teter, A.R.

    1980-01-01

    An experiment to find a suitable refractory lining for a nuclear waste incinerator has been completed. Eleven brick and six castable products were analyzed by optical and scanning microscopy. All the materials were fashioned into cup shapes and subjected to temperatures ranging from 800 to 1200 0 C for as long as six weeks. Some of the cups were charged weekly with pellets made from ash materials that would contact an incinerator liner. Refractory products containing a high percentage of aluminum oxide had the greatest resistance to cracking and slag buildup. 35 figures

  16. Radioactivity partitioning of oil sludge undergoing incineration process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhamat Omar; Suhaimi Hamzah; Muhd Noor Muhd Yunus

    1997-01-01

    Oil sludge waste is a controlled item under the Atomic Energy Act (Act 304) 1984 of which the radioactivity content shall be subjected to analysis. Apart from that the treatment method also shall be approved by Atomic Energy Licensing Board (AELB). Thus, an analysis of the oil sludge for MSE fluidized incinerator was conducted to comply with above requirements using various techniques. Further screening analysis of fly ash as well as bed material were done to study the effect of incinerating the sludge. This paper highlights the analysis techniques and discusses the results with respect to the radioactivity level and the fate of radionuclides subjected to the processing of the waste

  17. Life cycle assessment of sewage sludge co-incineration in a coal-based power station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jingmin; Xu, Changqing; Hong, Jinglan; Tan, Xianfeng; Chen, Wei

    2013-09-01

    A life cycle assessment was conducted to evaluate the environmental and economic effects of sewage sludge co-incineration in a coal-fired power plant. The general approach employed by a coal-fired power plant was also assessed as control. Sewage sludge co-incineration technology causes greater environmental burden than does coal-based energy production technology because of the additional electricity consumption and wastewater treatment required for the pretreatment of sewage sludge, direct emissions from sludge incineration, and incinerated ash disposal processes. However, sewage sludge co-incineration presents higher economic benefits because of electricity subsidies and the income generating potential of sludge. Environmental assessment results indicate that sewage sludge co-incineration is unsuitable for mitigating the increasing pressure brought on by sewage sludge pollution. Reducing the overall environmental effect of sludge co-incineration power stations necessitates increasing net coal consumption efficiency, incinerated ash reuse rate, dedust system efficiency, and sludge water content rate. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The Studsvik incinerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hetzler, F.

    1988-01-01

    The Studsvik Incinerator is a Faurholdt designed, multi-stage, partial pyrolysis, controlled-air system taken into operation in 1976. The incinerator was initially operated without flue-gas filtration from 1976 until 1979 and thereafter with a bag-house filter. The Studsvik site has been host to radioactive activities for approximately 30 years. The last 10 years have included on site incineration of more than 3,000 tons of LLW. During this time routine sampling for activity has been performed, of releases and in the environment, to carefully monitor the area. The author discusses records examined to determine levels of activity prior to incinerator start-up, without and with filter

  19. CRNL active waste incinerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McQuade, D.W.

    1965-02-01

    At CRNL the daily collection of 1200 pounds of active combustible waste is burned in a refractory lined multi-chamber incinerator. Capacity is 500-550 pounds per hour; volume reduction 96%. Combustion gases are cooled by air dilution and decontaminated by filtration through glass bags in a baghouse dust collector. This report includes a description of the incinerator plant, its operation, construction and operating costs, and recommendations for future designs. (author)

  20. Behavior of cesium in municipal solid waste incineration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshita, Kazuyuki; Aoki, Hiroshi; Fukutani, Satoshi; Shiota, Kenji; Fujimori, Takashi; Takaoka, Masaki

    2015-05-01

    As a result of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident on March 11, 2011 in Japan radioactive nuclides, primarily (134)Cs and (137)Cs were released, contaminating municipal solid waste and sewage sludge in the area. Although stabilizing the waste and reducing its volume is an important issue differing from Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident, secondary emission of radioactive nuclides as a result of any intermediate remediation process is of concern. Unfortunately, there is little research on the behavior of radioactive nuclides during waste treatment. This study focuses on waste incineration in an effort to clarify the behavior of radioactive nuclides, specifically, refuse-derived fuel (RDF) with added (133)Cs (stable nuclide) or (134)Cs (radioactive nuclide) was incinerated in laboratory- and pilot-scale experiments. Next, thermogravimetric (TG) and differential thermal analysis (DTA) of stable Cs compounds, as well as an X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) analysis of Cs concentrated in the ashes were performed to validate the behavior and chemical forms of Cs during the combustion. Our results showed that at higher temperatures and at larger equivalence ratios, (133)Cs was distributed to the bottom ash at lower concentration, and the influence of the equivalence ratio was more significant at lower temperatures. (134)Cs behaved in a similar fashion as (133)Cs. We found through TG-DTA and XAFS analysis that a portion of Cs in RDF vaporizes and is transferred to fly ash where it exists as CsCl in the MSW incinerator. We conclude that Cs-contaminated municipal solid wastes could be incinerated at high temperatures resulting in a small amount of fly ash with a high concentration of radioactive Cs, and a bottom ash with low concentrations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Incineration technology for alpha-bearing radioactive waste in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dirks, Friedlich; Pfeiffer, Reinhard

    1997-01-01

    Since 1971 the Karlsruhe Research Center has developed and operated plants for the incineration of radioactive waste. Three incineration plants for pure β/γ solid, α-bearing solid and radioactive liquid waste have been successfully utilized during last two decades. Recently more than 20 year-old β/γ plant was shut down with the economic point of view, mainly due to the recently reduced volume of burnable β/γ waste. Burnable β/γ solid waste is now being treated with α-bearing waste in a α solid incineration plant. The status of incineration technology for α-bearing waste and other radioactive waste treatment technologies, which are now utilized in Karlsruhe Research Center, such as conditioning of incineration ash, supercompaction, scrapping, and decontamination of solid radioactive waste, etc. are introduced in this presentation. Additionally, operational results of the recently installed new dioxin adsorber and fluidized-bed drier for scrubber liquid in α incineration plant are also described in this presentation. (author) 1 tab., 13 figs

  2. Statistical model to predict dry sliding wear behaviour of Aluminium-Jute bast ash particulate composite produced by stir-casting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gambo Anthony VICTOR

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A model to predict the dry sliding wear behaviour of Aluminium-Jute bast ash particulate composites produced by double stir-casting method was developed in terms of weight fraction of jute bast ash (JBA. Experiments were designed on the basis of the Design of Experiments (DOE technique. A 2k factorial, where k is the number of variables, with central composite second-order rotatable design was used to improve the reliability of results and to reduce the size of experimentation without loss of accuracy. The factors considered in this study were sliding velocity, sliding distance, normal load and mass fraction of JBA reinforcement in the matrix. The developed regression model was validated by statistical software MINITAB-R14 and statistical tool such as analysis of variance (ANOVA. It was found that the developed regression model could be effectively used to predict the wear rate at 95% confidence level. The wear rate of cast Al-JBAp composite decreased with an increase in the mass fraction of JBA and increased with an increase of the sliding velocity, sliding distance and normal load acting on the composite specimen.

  3. Quantifying capital goods for waste incineration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brogaard, L.K.; Riber, C.; Christensen, T.H.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Materials and energy used for the construction of waste incinerators were quantified. • The data was collected from five incineration plants in Scandinavia. • Included were six main materials, electronic systems, cables and all transportation. • The capital goods contributed 2–3% compared to the direct emissions impact on GW. - Abstract: Materials and energy used for the construction of modern waste incineration plants were quantified. The data was collected from five incineration plants (72,000–240,000 tonnes per year) built in Scandinavia (Norway, Finland and Denmark) between 2006 and 2012. Concrete for the buildings was the main material used amounting to 19,000–26,000 tonnes per plant. The quantification further included six main materials, electronic systems, cables and all transportation. The energy used for the actual on-site construction of the incinerators was in the range 4000–5000 MW h. In terms of the environmental burden of producing the materials used in the construction, steel for the building and the machinery contributed the most. The material and energy used for the construction corresponded to the emission of 7–14 kg CO 2 per tonne of waste combusted throughout the lifetime of the incineration plant. The assessment showed that, compared to data reported in the literature on direct emissions from the operation of incinerators, the environmental impacts caused by the construction of buildings and machinery (capital goods) could amount to 2–3% with respect to kg CO 2 per tonne of waste combusted

  4. GER values of recovered phosphorus. Chain analysis of struvite production from municipal wastewater and recovery of phosphorus from sludge incineration ash; GER-waarden van teruggewonnen fosfor. Ketenanalyse van struvietproductie uit communaal afvalwater en terugwinning van fosfor uit assen van slibverbranding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croezen, H.; Bijleveld, M. [CE Delft, Delft (Netherlands); Mulder, M. [Mrabella Mulder Waste Water Management, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2012-09-15

    Phosphorus recovery from wastewater is a topical issue and a process being applied increasingly in the Netherlands. As part of NL Agency's energy efficiency programme CE Delft has calculated the energy benefits of two alternative recovery options compared with conventional production routes. The Gross Energy Requirement (GER) was calculated for the following routes: struvite recovery from rejection water versus conventional fertilizer production and phosphorus recovery from sludge incineration ash at Thermphos versus phosphorus production from phosphate ore at Thermphos. Compared with the conventional routes, the two recovery routes yield energy gains. The project was carried out in cooperation with Mirabella Mulder Wastewater Management, with support from Thermphos [Dutch] Fosforterugwinning uit afvalwater is een onderwerp dat in de belangstelling staat en meer en meer in Nederland wordt toegepast. In het kader van het energie-efficiëntieprogramma van Agentschap NL heeft CE Delft berekend wat de energetische winst is van twee terugwinroutes ten opzichte van de huidige gangbare productieroutes. De Gross Energy Requirement is berekend voor de volgende routes: struvietwinning uit rejectiewater versus reguliere kunstmestproductie en winning van fosfor uit zuiveringsslibas bij Thermphos versus productie van fosfor uit fosfaaterts bij Thermphos. Vergeleken met de reguliere routes leveren beide terugwinroutes energiewinst op. Het project werd uitgevoerd in samenwerking met Mirabella Mulder Wastewater Management en met inbreng van Thermphos.

  5. Evaluating the use of waste-to-energy bottom ash as road construction materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-01

    Current management practice, existing regulations, and environmental consequences of municipal solid : waste incineration (MSWI) ash utilization were comprehensively reviewed worldwide and nationwide : in the U.S. Efforts were made to physically and ...

  6. Generation and distribution of PAHs in the process of medical waste incineration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ying; Zhao, Rongzhi; Xue, Jun; Li, Jinhui

    2013-05-01

    After the deadly earthquake on May 12, 2008 in Wenchuan county of China, several different incineration approaches were used for medical waste disposal. This paper investigates the generation properties of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) during the incineration. Samples were collected from the bottom ash in an open burning slash site, surface soil at the open burning site, bottom ash from a simple incinerator, bottom ash generated from the municipal solid waste (MSW) incinerator used for medical waste disposal, and bottom ash and fly ash from an incinerator exclusively used for medical waste. The species of PAHs were analyzed, and the toxicity equivalency quantities (TEQs) of samples calculated. Analysis results indicate that the content of total PAHs in fly ash was 1.8×10(3) times higher than that in bottom ash, and that the strongly carcinogenic PAHs with four or more rings accumulated sensitively in fly ash. The test results of samples gathered from open burning site demonstrate that Acenaphthylene (ACY), Acenaphthene (ACE), Fluorene (FLU), Phenanthrene (PHE), Anthracene (ANT) and other PAHs were inclined to migrate into surrounding environment along air and surface watershed corridors, while 4- to 6-ring PAHs accumulated more likely in soil. Being consistent with other studies, it has also been confirmed that increases in both free oxygen molecules and combustion temperatures could promote the decomposition of polycyclic PAHs. In addition, without the influence of combustion conditions, there is a positive correlation between total PCDD/Fs and total PAHs, although no such relationship has been found for TEQ. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Consolidated Incineration Facility metals partitioning test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, D.B.

    1993-01-01

    Test burns were conducted at Energy and Environmental Research Corporation's rotary kiln simulator, the Solid Waste Incineration Test Facility, using surrogate CIF wastes spiked with hazardous metals and organics. The primary objective for this test program was measuring heavy metals partition between the kiln bottom ash, scrubber blowdown solution, and incinerator stack gas. Also, these secondary waste streams were characterized to determine waste treatment requirements prior to final disposal. These tests were designed to investigate the effect of several parameters on metals partitioning: incineration temperature; waste chloride concentration; waste form (solid or liquid); and chloride concentration in the scrubber water. Tests were conducted at three kiln operating temperatures. Three waste simulants were burned, two solid waste mixtures (paper, plastic, latex, and one with and one without PVC), and a liquid waste mixture (containing benzene and chlorobenzene). Toxic organic and metal compounds were spiked into the simulated wastes to evaluate their fate under various combustion conditions. Kiln offgases were sampled for volatile organic compounds (VOC), semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOC), polychlorinated dibenz[p]dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/PCDF), metals, particulate loading and size distribution, HCl, and combustion products. Stack gas sampling was performed to determine additional treatment requirements prior to final waste disposal. Significant test results are summarized below

  8. Categorisation of waste streams arising from the operation of a low active waste incinerator and justification of discharge practices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richards, J.M.

    1989-01-01

    Waste streams arising from the low active waste incinerator at Harwell are described, and the radiological impact of each exposure pathway discussed. The waste streams to be considered are: (i) discharge of scrubber liquors after effluent treatment to the river Thames; (ii) disposal of incinerator ash; and (iii) discharge of airborne gaseous effluents to the atmosphere. Doses to the collective population and critical groups as a result of the operation of the incinerator are assessed and an attempt made to justify the incineration practice by consideration of the radiological impact and monetary costs associated with alternative disposal methods. (author)

  9. An emerging pollutant contributing to the cytotoxicity of MSWI ash wastes: Strontium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Wu-Jang; Tang, Hsing-Chuan; Lin, Kae-Long; Liao, Ming-Huei

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we used the multiple toxicity characteristic leaching procedure to test the long-term leaching behavior of bottom ash, scrubber residue, and baghouse ash from a municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI). We used the short-term viability percentage of African green monkey kidney cells (Vero cells) as a bioindicator to investigate the cytotoxicity of the leachates from the MSWI ash wastes. We found that strontium was a significant contributor to the cytotoxicity of the bottom ash.

  10. An emerging pollutant contributing to the cytotoxicity of MSWI ash wastes: strontium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wu-Jang; Tang, Hsing-Chuan; Lin, Kae-Long; Liao, Ming-Huei

    2010-01-15

    In this study, we used the multiple toxicity characteristic leaching procedure to test the long-term leaching behavior of bottom ash, scrubber residue, and baghouse ash from a municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI). We used the short-term viability percentage of African green monkey kidney cells (Vero cells) as a bioindicator to investigate the cytotoxicity of the leachates from the MSWI ash wastes. We found that strontium was a significant contributor to the cytotoxicity of the bottom ash.

  11. An emerging pollutant contributing to the cytotoxicity of MSWI ash wastes: Strontium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Wu-Jang, E-mail: wjhuang@mail.npust.edu.tw [Department of Environmental Engineering and Science, National Ping-Tung University of Science and Technology, 912 Ping-Tung, Taiwan (China); Tang, Hsing-Chuan [Department of Environmental Engineering and Science, National Ping-Tung University of Science and Technology, 912 Ping-Tung, Taiwan (China); Lin, Kae-Long [Department of Environmental Engineering, National I-Lan University, 260 I-Lan, Taiwan (China); Liao, Ming-Huei [Department of Veterinary Medicine, National Ping-Tung University of Science and Technology, 912 Ping-Tung, Taiwan (China)

    2010-01-15

    In this study, we used the multiple toxicity characteristic leaching procedure to test the long-term leaching behavior of bottom ash, scrubber residue, and baghouse ash from a municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI). We used the short-term viability percentage of African green monkey kidney cells (Vero cells) as a bioindicator to investigate the cytotoxicity of the leachates from the MSWI ash wastes. We found that strontium was a significant contributor to the cytotoxicity of the bottom ash.

  12. Quantifying capital goods for waste incineration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brogaard, L K; Riber, C; Christensen, T H

    2013-06-01

    Materials and energy used for the construction of modern waste incineration plants were quantified. The data was collected from five incineration plants (72,000-240,000 tonnes per year) built in Scandinavia (Norway, Finland and Denmark) between 2006 and 2012. Concrete for the buildings was the main material used amounting to 19,000-26,000 tonnes per plant. The quantification further included six main materials, electronic systems, cables and all transportation. The energy used for the actual on-site construction of the incinerators was in the range 4000-5000 MW h. In terms of the environmental burden of producing the materials used in the construction, steel for the building and the machinery contributed the most. The material and energy used for the construction corresponded to the emission of 7-14 kg CO2 per tonne of waste combusted throughout the lifetime of the incineration plant. The assessment showed that, compared to data reported in the literature on direct emissions from the operation of incinerators, the environmental impacts caused by the construction of buildings and machinery (capital goods) could amount to 2-3% with respect to kg CO2 per tonne of waste combusted. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Recycle of Inorganic Nutrients for Hydroponic Crop Production Following Incineration of Inedible Biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bubenheim, David L.; Wignarajah, Kanapathipillai; Kliss, Mark H. (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    Recovery of resources from waste streams is essential for future implementation and reliance on a regenerative life support system. The major waste streams of concern are from human activities and plant wastes. Carbon, water and inorganics are the primary desired raw materials of interest. The goal of resource recovery is maintenance of product quality to insure support of reliable and predictable levels of life support function performance by the crop plant component. Further, these systems must be maintained over extended periods of time, requiring maintenance of nutrient solutions to avoid toxicity and deficiencies. Today, reagent grade nutrients are used to make nutrient solutions for hydroponic culture and these solutions are frequently changed during the life cycle or sometimes managed for only one crop life cycle. The focus of this study was to determine the suitability of the ash product following incineration of inedible biomass as a source of inorganic nutrients for hydroponic crop production. Inedible wheat biomass was incinerated and ash quality characterized. The incinerator ash was dissolved in adequate nitric acid to establish a consistent nitrogen concentration in all nutrient solution treatments. Four experimental nutrient treatments were included: control, ash only, ash supplemented to match control, and ash only quality formulated with reagent grade chemicals. When nutrient solutions are formulated using only ash following-incineration of inedible biomass, a balance in solution is established representing elemental retention following incineration and nutrient proportions present in the original biomass. The resulting solution is not identical to the control. This imbalance resulted in suppression of crop growth. When the ash is supplemented with nutrients to establish the same balance as in the control, growth is identical to the control. The ash appears to carry no phytotoxic materials. Growth in solution formulated with reagent grade chemicals

  14. Energy utilization: municipal waste incineration. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaBeck, M.F.

    1981-03-27

    An assessment is made of the technical and economical feasibility of converting municipal waste into useful and useable energy. The concept presented involves retrofitting an existing municipal incinerator with the systems and equipment necessary to produce process steam and electric power. The concept is economically attractive since the cost of necessary waste heat recovery equipment is usually a comparatively small percentage of the cost of the original incinerator installation. Technical data obtained from presently operating incinerators designed specifically for generating energy, documents the technical feasibility and stipulates certain design constraints. The investigation includes a cost summary; description of process and facilities; conceptual design; economic analysis; derivation of costs; itemized estimated costs; design and construction schedule; and some drawings.

  15. Investigation of bottom ash mechanical performances based on the amount of reactive compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caprai, V.; Schollbach, K.; Florea, M.V.A.; Brouwers, H.J.H.

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, the incineration of municipal solid waste (MSW) is widely applied as it reduces the waste by 90 % by volume and 70 % by mass. The main by-product of MSW incineration is bottom ash (BA). Despite numerous studies concerning the applications of this by-product in construction field, BA is not

  16. Controlled air incineration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seitz, K.A.

    1991-01-01

    From 1960 to 1970, incineration was recognized as an economical method of solid waste disposal with many incinerators in operation through the country. During this period a number of legislation acts began to influence the solid waste disposal industry, namely, the Solid Waste Disposal Act of 1965; Resource Conservation Recovery Act (RCRA) of 1968; Resource Recovery Act of 1970; and Clean Air Act of 1970. This period of increased environmental awareness and newly created regulations began the closure of many excess air incineration facilities and encouraged the development of new controlled air, also known as Starved-Air incinerator systems which could meet the more stringent air emission standards without additional emission control equipment. The Starved-Air technology initially received little recognition because it was considered unproven and radically different from the established and accepted I.I.A. standards. However, there have been many improvements and developments in the starved-air incineration systems since the technology was first introduced and marketed, and now these systems are considered the proven technology standard

  17. Wet treatment of ashes, a survey of methods; Vaat rening av askor, metodoeversikt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjurstroem, Henrik [AaF-Energi och Miljoe AB, Stockhom (Sweden); Steenari, Britt-Marie [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2003-10-01

    incinerators. Several activities presently under way have not yet resulted in a full-scale plant. At present, it does not seem interesting to treat bioashes that are to be spread on forest soils using a wet method. Today, there is not any proven method to keep potassium in the ash or to return it to the ash. Electrodialysis could be such a technique, but at present it is still in the research stage. Extraction of metals or other components from ash does not seem to be economically profitable on its own merits today. The overall impression is that wet methods are a feasible way to treat ashes, but that they need to be studied in each case for the fly ashes or air pollution control residues that are produced in Swedish plants.

  18. Retention and subsequent release of radioactivity from the incineration of wastes containing microspheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emery, R.J.; Watson, J.E. Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Incineration is the preferred method for disposing of animal carcasses containing radioactive microspheres at the authors University. Routine surveys of ash from successive nonradioactive burns revealed significant contamination from previously incinerated microspheres. Past studies on microsphere incineration quantified the amount of activity retained in ash, but did not address any subsequent releases. This topic was not considered in earlier studies because, in most cases, the carcasses were placed in some type of container to facilitate recovery of ash, preventing contamination of the incinerator refractory. In this study, five sets of controlled burns were performed to quantify the subsequent releases of the microsphere radioisotopes 141 Ce, 113 Sn, 102 Ru, 95 Nb, and 46 Sc. Each set consisted of three successive burns. The first burn of each set incinerated a non-radioactive carcass, the second burn, a radioactive carcass, and the third, a non-radioactive carcass. In all of the burns, the carcasses were placed directly on the incinerator refractory floor, which is the standard procedure during normal operations

  19. The incineration of solid radioactive waste: a centralized solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernborg, G.; Broden, K.; Oehrn, G.

    1985-01-01

    Almost all the combustible low-level β- and γ-radioactive waste from Sweden, and even some waste from German nuclear power plants, is treated in an incineration plant at Studsvik. To date most of the ash has been put into 100-litre drums, which in turn have been put in 200-litre drums with concrete in between. Recently, methods have been developed and equipment installed for homogeneous solidification of the ash into concrete. Over the years since the start-up of the plant in 1976 the incinerator has worked with a high availability factor. Personnel doses and activity releases to the environment are well below limits set by regulatory authorities. (orig.)

  20. Particulate collection in a low level radioactive waste incinerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudnick, S.N.; Leith, D.; First, M.W.

    1976-01-01

    As designed, sintered stainless steel filters will clean the gas from the secondary cyclone at a low level radioactive waste incinerator. Using bench scale apparatus, asbestos floats and diatomaceous earth were evaluated as filter aids to prevent clogging of the sintered metal interstices and to decrease filter penetration. Both precoats prevented irreversible pressure drop increase, and decreased cold DOP penetration from 80% to less than 1%. To collect the same quantity of fly ash, less diatomaceous earth was needed than asbestos floats. A back-up study evaluated a moving bed of sodium carbonate pellets in lieu of the sintered metal filters. Since identical sodium carbonate pellets are used to neutralize hydrogen chloride in the incinerator, their use in a moving bed has the advantages of trouble free disposal and cost free replacement. Co, counter, and cross-current beds were studied and gave fly ash penetrations less than 0.1% at moderate pressure drop

  1. Cesium distribution and phases in proxy experiments on the incineration of radioactively contaminated waste from the Fukushima area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saffarzadeh, Amirhomayoun; Shimaoka, Takayuki; Kakuta, Yoshitada; Kawano, Takashi

    2014-10-01

    After the March 11, 2011 Tohoku earthquake and Fukushima I Nuclear Power Plant accident, incineration was initially adopted as an effective technique for the treatment of post-disaster wastes. Accordingly, considerable amounts of radioactively contaminated residues were immediately generated through incineration. The level of radioactivity associated with radiocesium in the incineration ash residues (bottom ash and fly ash) became significantly high (several thousand to 100,000 Bq/kg) as a result of this treatment. In order to understand the modes of occurrence of radiocesium, bottom ash products were synthesized through combusting of refuse-derived fuel (RDF) with stable Cs salts in a pilot incinerator. Microscopic and microanalytical (SEM-EDX) techniques were applied and the following Cs categories were identified: low and high concentrations in the matrix glass, low-level partitioning into some newly-formed silicate minerals, partitioning into metal-sulfide compounds, and occurring in newly-formed Cs-rich minerals. These categories that are essentially silicate-bound are the most dominant forms in large and medium size bottom ash particles. It is expected that these achievements provide solutions to the immobilization of radiocesium in the incineration ash products contaminated by Fukushima nuclear accident. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Transformation of Silver Nanoparticles in Sewage Sludge during Incineration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Christoph; Voegelin, Andreas; Pradas del Real, Ana; Sarret, Geraldine; Mueller, Christoph R; Kaegi, Ralf

    2016-04-05

    Silver nanoparticles (Ag-NP) discharged into the municipal sewer system largely accumulate in the sewage sludge. Incineration and agricultural use are currently the most important strategies for sewage sludge management. Thus, the behavior of Ag-NP during sewage sludge incineration is essential for a comprehensive life cycle analysis and a more complete understanding of the fate of Ag-NP in the (urban) environment. To address the transformation of Ag-NP during sewage sludge incineration, we spiked metallic Ag(0)-NP to a pilot wastewater treatment plant and digested the sludge anaerobically. The sludge was then incinerated on a bench-scale fluidized bed reactor in a series of experiments under variable conditions. Complementary results from X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray (EM-EDX) analysis revealed that Ag(0)-NP transformed into Ag2S-NP during the wastewater treatment, in agreement with previous studies. On the basis of a principal component analysis and subsequent target testing of the XAS spectra, Ag(0) was identified as a major Ag component in the ashes, and Ag2S was clearly absent. The reformation of Ag(0)-NP was confirmed by EM-EDX. The fraction of Ag(0) of the total Ag in the ashes was quantified by linear combination fitting (LCF) of XAS spectra, and values as high as 0.8 were found for sewage sludge incinerated at 800 °C in a synthetic flue gas atmosphere. Low LCF totals (72% to 94%) indicated that at least one relevant reference spectrum was missing in the LCF analysis. The presence of spherical Ag-NP with a diameter of incineration, as demonstrated in this study, needs to be considered in the life cycle assessment of engineered Ag-NP.

  3. Development and prospects of municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yongfeng NIE

    2008-01-01

    With the lack of space for new landfills, municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration is playing an increasingly important role in municipal solid waste management in China. The literatures on certain aspects of incineration plants in China are reviewed in this paper, including the development and status of the application of MSW incineration technologies, the treatment of leachate from stored MSW, air pollution control technologies, and the status of the fly-ash control method. Energy policy and its promotion of MSW-to-energy conversion are also elucidated.

  4. Incinerator carryover tests with dysprosium as a stand-in for plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hooker, R.L.

    1981-11-01

    A full-scale (5 kg/h) incinerator is being tested with nonradioactive feed materials which simulate SRP-generator combustible transuranic wastes. The incinerator is two-stage and is designed to provide relatively quiescent conditions in the primary chamber where the ash is formed. This feature should minimize entrainment of Pu-bearing particles into the off-gas system. A series of runs have been completed in which incinerator feed was spiked with dysprosium to simulate Pu. Carryover of Dy into the off-gas system was found to be low (about 1/4%). 4 figures, 3 tables

  5. Verification test of an engineering-scale multi-purpose radwaste incinerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Peiyi; Zhou Lianquan; Ma Mingxie; Qiu Mingcai; Yang Liguo; Li Xiaohai; Zhang Xiaobin; Lu Xiaowu; Dong Jingling; Wang Xujin; Li Chuanlian; Yang Baomin

    2002-01-01

    The verification test of an engineering-scale multi-purpose radwaste incinerator was implemented. The test items include performance determination for the system when solid wastes (include resins) or spent oil were incinerating and off gas was cleaning, tracer test for determining decontamination factor and 72 h continuos running test. 500 h tests verify the reliability and feasibility of designs of technological process, main structure, instrument control and system safety. The incineration system ran smoothly, devices and instruments worked stably. The specifications such as capacity, volume reduction factor, carbon remainder in ash and decontamination factor all meet the design requirements

  6. Design and operation of a prototype incinerator for beta-gamma waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farber, M.G.; Hootman, H.E.; Becker, G.W. Jr.; Makohon, P.A.

    1981-01-01

    A full-scale test incinerator has been built at the Savannah River Laboratory to provide a design basis for a radioactive facility that will burn low-level beta-gamma contaminated waste. The processing steps include waste feed loading, incineration, ash residue packaging, and off-gas cleanup. Both solid and liquid waste will be incinerated during the test program. The components of the solid waste are cellulose, latex, polyethylene, and PVC; the solvent is composed of n-paraffin and TBP. A research program will confirm the feasibility of the design and determine the operating parameters

  7. Oxygen enrichment incineration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jeong Guk; Yang, Hee Chul; Park, Geun Il; Kim, Joon Hyung

    2000-10-01

    Oxygen enriched combustion technology has recently been used in waste incineration. To apply the oxygen enrichment on alpha-bearing waste incineration, which is being developed, a state-of-an-art review has been performed. The use of oxygen or oxygen-enriched air instead of air in incineration would result in increase of combustion efficiency and capacity, and reduction of off-gas product. Especially, the off-gas could be reduced below a quarter, which might reduce off-gas treatment facilities, and also increase an efficiency of off-gas treatment. However, the use of oxygen might also lead to local overheating and high nitrogen oxides (NOx) formation. To overcome these problems, an application of low NOx oxy-fuel burner and recycling of a part of off-gas to combustion chamber have been suggested

  8. Oxygen enrichment incineration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jeong Guk; Yang, Hee Chul; Park, Geun Il; Kim, Joon Hyung

    2000-10-01

    Oxygen enriched combustion technology has recently been used in waste incineration. To apply the oxygen enrichment on alpha-bearing waste incineration, which is being developed, a state-of-an-art review has been performed. The use of oxygen or oxygen-enriched air instead of air in incineration would result in increase of combustion efficiency and capacity, and reduction of off-gas product. Especially, the off-gas could be reduced below a quarter, which might reduce off-gas treatment facilities, and also increase an efficiency of off-gas treatment. However, the use of oxygen might also lead to local overheating and high nitrogen oxides (NOx) formation. To overcome these problems, an application of low NOx oxy-fuel burner and recycling of a part of off-gas to combustion chamber have been suggested.

  9. Seventy years of incineration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dumbleton, Brian

    1995-06-08

    A third waste incineration plant, which will conform to new United Kingdom emission standards is currently under construction at Tyseley in Birmingham. The plant will generate 25MW of electricity for 25,000 households by burning 350,000 t of municipal wastes per year. The site has been used for such energy from waste schemes since 1926. The new plant includes the latest air pollution abatement equipment designed to absorb mercury vapour and dioxins together with fabric filters. Other improvements at the Tyseley site include a new purpose built public waste disposal facility, clinical waste and animal carcass incineration and the recovery of 16,000t of ferrous metals per year for recycling. Because these waste products are incinerated it also therefore reduce`s Birmingham`s need for landfill sites. (UK)

  10. An incinerator for combustable radwastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jingquan; Jiang Yun; Zhang Yinsheng; Chen Boling; Zhang Shihang

    1989-01-01

    An incinerator has been built up in Shanghai. In this paper, the devices of the incinerator, main parameters of the process, and the results of non-radioactive waste and simulated radwaste combustion tests were contributed. That provides reference information for radwaste treatment with incineration process

  11. Incineration of radioactive wastes at the Nuclear Research Center Karlsruhe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baehr, W; Hempelmann, W; Krause, H

    1976-06-01

    In 1971 a large incineration plant started operation in the Nuclear Research Center Karlsruhe. This plant is serving for routine incineration of up to 100 kg of combustible radioactive solids or 40 l of contaminated organic liquids and oils per hour. A dry off-gas cleaning system has been developed for this installation in which the fumes are cleaned by ceramic filter candles. After passing the filtering system and cooling, the off-gas is discharged directly through a stack. The activity concentration in the off-gas is measured by a continuous monitoring system. The ashes arising from the incineration are mixed with cement grout and filled into 200 l-drums. By this way approximately one drum of fixed ashes results from 100 drums of combustible wastes. During the first four years of operation, more than 4,000 m/sup 3/ of combustible solids and about 60 m/sup 3/ organic solvents have been incinerated in the plant. The operating experiences are presented.

  12. The IRIS Incinerator at Cea-Valduc assessment after more than one ton and a half of active waste incineration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chateauvieux, H.; Guiberteau, P.; Longuet, T.; Lemort, F.; Lannaud, J.; Lorich, M.; Medzadourian, M.

    2000-01-01

    During the operation of its facilities, the Valduc Research Center produces alpha-contaminated solid waste. An incineration facility has been built to treat the most contaminated combustible waste. The process selected for waste incineration is the IRIS process, which was developed by the CEA at the Marcoule Nuclear Research Center. The Valduc Center asked SGN to build the incineration facility. The facility was commissioned in late 1996, and inactive waste incineration campaigns were run during more than 2,500 hours in 1997-1998. Active commissioning of the facility was performed in March 1999. Since then five campaigns with active waste and a complete plutonium cleaning session have been carried out, the results of which are given in the paper. The Valduc incinerator is the first industrial active application of the IRIS process. (authors)

  13. Energy analysis and environmental impacts of a MSW oxy-fuel incineration power plant in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, YuTing; Ma, XiaoQian; Lai, ZhiYi; Chen, Yong

    2013-01-01

    The entire life cycle of a municipal solid waste (MSW) oxy-fuel incineration power plant was evaluated using the method of life cycle assessment (LCA) to identify and quantify the fossil energy requirements and environmental impacts. The functional unit was 1000 kg (1 t) MSW. During the life cycle, the saving standard coal by electricity generation was more than diesel consumption, and the effect of soot and ashes was the greatest among all calculated categorization impacts. The total weighted resource consumption and total weighted environment potential of MSW oxy-fuel incineration were −0.37 mPR 90 (milli person equivalent) and −0.27 PET 2010 (person equivalent), better than MSW incineration with CO 2 capture via monoethanolamine (MEA) absorption. The sensitivity analysis showed that the electric power consumption of air separation unit (ASU) was the primary influencing parameter, and the influence of electric power consumption of CO 2 compressor was secondary, while transport distance had small influence. Overall, MSW oxy-fuel incineration technology has certain development potential with the increment of MSW power supply efficiency and development of ASU in the future. - Highlights: • Life cycle assessment of a MSW oxy-fuel incineration power plant is novel. • The MSW oxy-fuel incineration was better than the MSW incineration with MEA. • Among calculated impacts, the effect of soot and ashes was the greatest. • The electric power consumption of ASU was the primary influencing parameter

  14. Wet-Treated MSWI Fly Ash Used as Supplementary Cementitious Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Keppert

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI is a common technique in treatment of domestic waste. This technique annually produces approximately 25 Mt solid residues (i.e., bottom and fly ash worldwide which is also a major issue in current research. In this research we are concerned with reusing the fly ash (FA as supplementary cementitious material (SCM in concrete. Such application solves the problem with heavy metal immobilization as well. To remove the high content of undesired soluble salts, number of washing treatments has been applied. Chemical composition of FA has been examined before and after treatments. The impact of cement substitution by FA in concrete was evaluated by measurement of its compressive strength and durability.

  15. Ash cloud aviation advisories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, T.J.; Ellis, J.S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Schalk, W.W.; Nasstrom, J.S. [EG and G, Inc., Pleasanton, CA (United States)

    1992-06-25

    During the recent (12--22 June 1991) Mount Pinatubo volcano eruptions, the US Air Force Global Weather Central (AFGWC) requested assistance of the US Department of Energy`s Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) in creating volcanic ash cloud aviation advisories for the region of the Philippine Islands. Through application of its three-dimensional material transport and diffusion models using AFGWC meteorological analysis and forecast wind fields ARAC developed extensive analysis and 12-hourly forecast ash cloud position advisories extending to 48 hours for a period of five days. The advisories consisted of ``relative`` ash cloud concentrations in ten layers (surface-5,000 feet, 5,000--10,000 feet and every 10,000 feet to 90,000 feet). The ash was represented as a log-normal size distribution of 10--200 {mu}m diameter solid particles. Size-dependent ``ashfall`` was simulated over time as the eruption clouds dispersed. Except for an internal experimental attempt to model one of the Mount Redoubt, Alaska, eruptions (12/89), ARAC had no prior experience in modeling volcanic eruption ash hazards. For the cataclysmic eruption of 15--16 June, the complex three-dimensional atmospheric structure of the region produced dramatically divergent ash cloud patterns. The large eruptions (> 7--10 km) produced ash plume clouds with strong westward transport over the South China Sea, Southeast Asia, India and beyond. The low-level eruptions (< 7 km) and quasi-steady-state venting produced a plume which generally dispersed to the north and east throughout the support period. Modeling the sequence of eruptions presented a unique challenge. Although the initial approach proved viable, further refinement is necessary and possible. A distinct need exists to quantify eruptions consistently such that ``relative`` ash concentrations relate to specific aviation hazard categories.

  16. Upgrading and recovery of fertilizer value of ash from PYRONEER gasification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pares Viader, Raimon; Haugaard-Nielsen, Henrik

     leaching in the two ashes from gasification of sewage sludge with chemically precipitated P. In contrast, a considerable lower proportion of Al/Fe(III)-phosphates were found for the incineration sewage sludge ashes, whereas Ca was found to control P solubility at low pH for the ash with biologically precipitated P....... Using a 2-compartment electrodialytic cell, in which the ash suspension was acidified, over 80% of P could be recovered from both the Pyroneer ashes with biologically precipitated P and the incineration sewage sludge ashes. However, P recovery was limited to a 40% for the other two ashes using the same...

  17. Treatment of MSW fly ashes using the electrodialytic remediation technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferreira, Celia; Ribeiro, Alexandra B.; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2004-01-01

    In the present work the electrodialytic remediation technique is applied for the treatment of fly ash, a hazardous by-product resulting from the incineration of municipal solid waste. Results are presented for an experiment conducted for 40 days at 38 mA, with a continuously stirred cell. Experim......In the present work the electrodialytic remediation technique is applied for the treatment of fly ash, a hazardous by-product resulting from the incineration of municipal solid waste. Results are presented for an experiment conducted for 40 days at 38 mA, with a continuously stirred cell...

  18. A comparative assessment of waste incinerators in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, J D; Wright, D G; Dey, P K; Ghosh, S K; Davies, P A

    2013-11-01

    The uptake in Europe of Energy from Waste (EfW) incinerator plants has increased rapidly in recent years. In the UK, 25 municipal waste incinerators with energy recovery are now in operation; however, their waste supply chains and business practices vary significantly. With over a hundred more plant developments being considered it is important to establish best business practices for ensuring efficient environmental and operational performance. By reviewing the 25 plants we identify four suitable case study plants to compare technologies (moving grate, fluidised bed and rotary kiln), plant economics and operations. Using data collected from annual reports and through interviews and site visits we provide recommendations for improving the supply chain for waste incinerators and highlight the current issues and challenges faced by the industry. We find that plants using moving grate have a high availability of 87-92%. However, compared to the fluidised bed and rotary kiln, quantities of bottom ash and emissions of hydrogen chloride and carbon monoxide are high. The uptake of integrated recycling practices, combined heat and power, and post incineration non-ferrous metal collections needs to be increased among EfW incinerators in the UK. We conclude that one of the major difficulties encountered by waste facilities is the appropriate selection of technology, capacity, site, waste suppliers and heat consumers. This study will be of particular value to EfW plant developers, government authorities and researchers working within the sector of waste management. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Environmental impacts of incineration of livestock manure with the purpose of energy utilization. Scenario analysis for a specific catchment area; Miljoekonsekvenser ved afbraending af husdyrgoedning med sigte pae energiudnyttelse. Scenarieanalyse for et udvalgt opland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schou, J.S.; Gyldenkaerne, S.; Levin, G. [DMU, Afd. for Systemanalyse (Denmark); Grant, R. [DMU, Afdeling for Ferskvandsoekologi (Denmark); Elmegaard, N. [DMU, Afdeling for Terrestrisk Oekologi (Denmark); Palmgren, F. [DMU, Afd. for Atmosfaerisk Miljoe (Denmark)

    2006-04-15

    } concentration in the smoke is equal to the limit value set in the waste incineration directive (200 mg/m{sup 3}) the deposition in the vicinity of the incineration plants will be relatively small (0.1 kg N with a chimney height of 25 m) compared with the general deposition of 10-20 kg N/ha. To the extent of which N is lost from storage as ammonia or N is accumulated in ash it will reduce the emissions of gaseous N compounds proportionally. It has not been possible to analyse these aspects further. The allocation of the gaseous N compounds of NO{sub X} and pure N will depend very much of the incineration technology and management. In connection with the estimations of the changed nutrient loads the sensitivity of the effected recipients must be included. This implies that the affect will vary between localities, a fact that has not been elucidated in the present analysis. The changed manure practise, as a consequence of the incineration, will also have consequences for the emissions of greenhouse gases, in the form of a reduction of the emission of methane and nitrous oxide and a reduced storage of CO{sub 2} in the soil. At present the effect on Denmark's reduction commitment of greenhouse gases cannot be assessed as it depends on the time frame and whether Denmark chooses to use storage of C in farmland as a mean to fulfil its reduction commitment. Please note that the effects on the greenhouse gas emissions as a result of the manure not being spread in the fields as well as possible transport to incineration plants are not included in this analysis. Under these circumstances a reduction in the greenhouse gas emissions at 2,434 tonnes CO{sub 2} eqv. is achieved. The possibility of using the ash, produced from incineration, for fertiliser purposes depends on a number of conditions. Provided the entire ash fraction is spread on farmland it is likely that the limit values for heavy metals defined in the Danish Sludge directive is exceeded. However, if it is possible to split

  20. Nanomaterial disposal by incineration

    Science.gov (United States)

    As nanotechnology-based products enter into widespread use, nanomaterials will end up in disposal waste streams that are ultimately discharged to the environment. One possible end-of-life scenario is incineration. This review attempts to ascertain the potential pathways by which ...

  1. PERMITTING HAZARDOUS WASTE INCINERATORS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This publication is a compilation of information presented at a seminar series designed to address the issues that affect the issuance of hazardous waste incineration permits and to improve the overall understanding of trial burn testing. pecifically, the document provides guidan...

  2. A comparative assessment of waste incinerators in the UK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nixon, J.D., E-mail: j.nixon@kingston.ac.uk [Sustainable Environment Research Group, School of Engineering and Applied Science, Aston University, Aston Triangle, Birmingham B4 7ET (United Kingdom); Wright, D.G.; Dey, P.K. [Aston Business School, Aston University, Aston Triangle, Birmingham B4 7ET (United Kingdom); Ghosh, S.K. [Mechanical Engineering Department, Centre for Quality Management System, Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700 032 (India); Davies, P.A. [Sustainable Environment Research Group, School of Engineering and Applied Science, Aston University, Aston Triangle, Birmingham B4 7ET (United Kingdom)

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: • We evaluate operational municipal solid waste incinerators in the UK. • The supply chain of four case study plants are examined and compared in detail. • Technical, financial and operational data has been gathered for the four plants. • We suggest the best business practices for waste incinerators. • Appropriate strategy choices are the major difficulties for waste to energy plants. - Abstract: The uptake in Europe of Energy from Waste (EfW) incinerator plants has increased rapidly in recent years. In the UK, 25 municipal waste incinerators with energy recovery are now in operation; however, their waste supply chains and business practices vary significantly. With over a hundred more plant developments being considered it is important to establish best business practices for ensuring efficient environmental and operational performance. By reviewing the 25 plants we identify four suitable case study plants to compare technologies (moving grate, fluidised bed and rotary kiln), plant economics and operations. Using data collected from annual reports and through interviews and site visits we provide recommendations for improving the supply chain for waste incinerators and highlight the current issues and challenges faced by the industry. We find that plants using moving grate have a high availability of 87–92%. However, compared to the fluidised bed and rotary kiln, quantities of bottom ash and emissions of hydrogen chloride and carbon monoxide are high. The uptake of integrated recycling practices, combined heat and power, and post incineration non-ferrous metal collections needs to be increased among EfW incinerators in the UK. We conclude that one of the major difficulties encountered by waste facilities is the appropriate selection of technology, capacity, site, waste suppliers and heat consumers. This study will be of particular value to EfW plant developers, government authorities and researchers working within the sector of waste

  3. A comparative assessment of waste incinerators in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nixon, J.D.; Wright, D.G.; Dey, P.K.; Ghosh, S.K.; Davies, P.A.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • We evaluate operational municipal solid waste incinerators in the UK. • The supply chain of four case study plants are examined and compared in detail. • Technical, financial and operational data has been gathered for the four plants. • We suggest the best business practices for waste incinerators. • Appropriate strategy choices are the major difficulties for waste to energy plants. - Abstract: The uptake in Europe of Energy from Waste (EfW) incinerator plants has increased rapidly in recent years. In the UK, 25 municipal waste incinerators with energy recovery are now in operation; however, their waste supply chains and business practices vary significantly. With over a hundred more plant developments being considered it is important to establish best business practices for ensuring efficient environmental and operational performance. By reviewing the 25 plants we identify four suitable case study plants to compare technologies (moving grate, fluidised bed and rotary kiln), plant economics and operations. Using data collected from annual reports and through interviews and site visits we provide recommendations for improving the supply chain for waste incinerators and highlight the current issues and challenges faced by the industry. We find that plants using moving grate have a high availability of 87–92%. However, compared to the fluidised bed and rotary kiln, quantities of bottom ash and emissions of hydrogen chloride and carbon monoxide are high. The uptake of integrated recycling practices, combined heat and power, and post incineration non-ferrous metal collections needs to be increased among EfW incinerators in the UK. We conclude that one of the major difficulties encountered by waste facilities is the appropriate selection of technology, capacity, site, waste suppliers and heat consumers. This study will be of particular value to EfW plant developers, government authorities and researchers working within the sector of waste

  4. Heat Recovery From Tail Gas Incineration To Generate Power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tawfik, Tarek

    2010-09-15

    Many industrial processes result in tail gas wastes that must be flared or incinerated to abide with environmental guidelines. Tail gas incineration occurs in several chemical processes resulting in high-temperature exhaust gas that simply go to the stack, thus wasting all that valuable heat! This paper discusses useful heat recovery and electric power generation utilizing available heat in exhaust gas from tail gas incinerators. This heat will be recovered in a waste-heat recovery boiler that will produce superheated steam to expand in a steam turbine to generate power. A detailed cost estimate is presented.

  5. Seasonal changes in chemical and mineralogical composition of sewage sludge incineration residues and their potential for metallic elements and valuable components recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasina, Monika; Kowalski, Piotr R.; Michalik, Marek

    2017-04-01

    Increasing energy needs, the implementation of the circular economy principles and rising environmental awareness caused that waste management is becoming a major social and economic issue. The EU Member States have committed to a significant reduction in the amount of waste produced and landfilled and to use their inherent energy and raw materials potential. One of the most reasonable option to fulfil these commitments is waste incineration. The aim of the waste incineration is to reduce their volume and toxicity by disinfection and detoxification at high temperatures. Thermal process and reduction of volume allows the recovery of minerals and metallic elements from residues as well as the energy production (waste-to-energy strategy) during incineration. As a result of waste incineration a variety of solid residues (bottom ash, fly ash, air pollution control residues) and technological waste (gas waste, wastewater) are produced. The goal of this study is to characterize fly ash and air pollution control (APC) residues formed as a result of municipal sewage sludge incineration in terms of their chemical and mineral composition and their extractive potential. Residues were sampled quarterly to study their seasonal changes in composition. The fly ash was a Si-P-C-Fe-Al dominated material, whereas the APC residues composition was dominated by Na-rich soluble phases. The removal of soluble phase ( 98% of the material) from the APC residues by dissolution in deionised water caused significant mass reduction and concentration of non-soluble elements. The main mineral phases in fly ash were quartz, hematite, Fe-PO4, whitlockite and feldspar, while in APC thenardite, and in lower amount calcite, apatite and quartz were present. The chemical composition of fly ash was practically invariable in different seasons, but significant differences were observed in APC residues. The lowest concentrations of all elements and the highest TOC content were measured in the samples

  6. Investigation of Dioxin formation- and destruction mechanisms in waste incineration plants in order to improve the quality of the residues. Phase 2 and 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joergensen, Jan; Dahl, J.; Akoh Hove, E. (FORCE Technology, Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)); Baun, D.L.; Hulgaard, T. (Ramboell, Copenhagen (Denmark)); Marklund, S. (Umeaa Univ., Umeaa (Sweden)); Astrup, T. (Technical Univ. of Denmark. Dept. of Environmental Engineering, Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)); Lundtorp, K. (Babcock and Wilcox Voelund, Esbjerg (Denmark))

    2009-11-15

    The aim of this project was to produce a theory and a model for the formation of dioxin suitable for prediction of dioxin formation in flue gas, based on experiments conducted at Umeaa University. Furthermore the model should be tested using data from another project, where measurements on the FASAN waste incineration plant has been carried out. A theory has been proposed and a model has been programmed and implemented into the FLUENT CFD software package. The predictions show qualitative and quantitative correlation between the model and the Umeaa test reactor. When the developed model was implemented on the full scale plant, it was however not possible to obtain a quantitative correlation between the model results and the measurements of dioxins in ash samples. There was however a reasonable qualitative correlation. The model needs further work to produce better quantitative results for full scale plants. This work must focus more on full scale measurements, in order to obtain good data for tuning and comparison. It is also recommended to do some work on a more basic level at the Umeaa test reactor to tune the more basic echanisms in the model. The model shows a very small region in the full scale boiler where the vast majority of the dioxin formation takes place. This knowledge is useful as it can point to uncontaminated ash fractions in waste incineration plants. The discovery of a small region where dioxin formation takes place is also an inspiration for potential future evelopments in boiler design for minimizing dioxin formation. Dioxin measurements in ash samples from the full scale test runs show dioxin levels in the same order of magnitude for all experiments with minor differences between the various experiments. This indicates that changes in waste input within the range of products tested is likely to have limited effect on dioxin formation in the boiler, and hence the dioxin content of fly ash and flue gas upstream the flue gas treatment system. (LN)

  7. Chemical aspects of incinerating highly chlorinated and actinide α contaminated organic waste: application to the Iris process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemort, F.; Cames, B.

    2000-01-01

    A fraction of the waste produced by nuclear activities is combustible, and thus suitable for incineration to produce gases, ash and fines. A typical composition representative of actual organic waste mixtures was defined for the purpose of investigating possible heat treatment processes; the composition is identified according to components Table 1 and elements Table II. The high polyvinyl chloride (PVC) content is responsible for the high chlorine potential in the process equipment. The quantity and quality of the resulting solid residue depends entirely on the inorganic load of the organic waste, whose behavior is entirely conditioned by the process conditions. For example, pure polyethylene is totally converted to gases (water and carbon dioxide), while the composition shown in Table II produces a range of oxides and chlorides. The high chlorine content results in partial chlorination of the inorganic compounds, but can also lead to interactions with the process equipment. The temperature dependent variation of the chlorination equilibrium constants of various metals clearly shows that all the elements of technological alloys may be subject to active corrosion by hydrochloric acid. However, the corresponding oxides-notably alumina-are much less sensitive to corrosion; aluminum-based alloys are therefore preferred for incinerator construction and to limit corrosion by hydrochloric acid. Thermodynamic and kinetic studies led to the development of the IRIS three-step process. Gas emissions occurring during processing of solid materials are completely oxidized in the after-burning step at 1100 deg C, and are then ducted to a HERA filtration system capable of retaining all the actinide α radionuclides. Although corrosion-related problems are attenuated in the two-step process chlorine can combine with the inorganic waste material to form chlorides with potentially damaging effects on the system; this is the case for zinc chloride and for volatile chlorides in

  8. Improved electrical efficiency and bottom ash quality on waste combustion plants. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, Peter A.; Nesterov, I.; Boejer, M.; Hyks, J.; Astrup, T.; Kloeft, H.; Dam-Johansen, K.; Lundtorp, K.; Hedegaard Madsen, O.; Frandsen, F. (Technical Univ. of Denmark, Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)); Mogensen, Erhardt (Babcock and Wilcox Voelund A/S, Glostrup (Denmark))

    2010-07-01

    Investigations making it possible to evaluate and further develop concepts to improve electrical efficiency in a waste combustion plant were performed. Furthermore, one objective of the study was to investigate the possibilities of improving waste bottom ash leaching properties by use of a rotary kiln treatment. The project work included construction of a bench-scale rotary kiln, performing ash rotary kiln treatment experiments, conducting gas suction probe measurements on a waste incineration plant and making some concept evaluations. The influence of the rotary kiln thermal treatment on the leaching of Ca, Al, Si, Mg, Ba, Sr, Cl, Cu, Pb, Zn, Cr, Mo, sulfate, DOC and carbonate was determined. As a result of these tests, the rotary kiln thermal treatment of bottom ashes can be recommended for reducing the leaching of Cu, Pb, Cl, Zn and DOC; however, an increased leaching of Cr and Mo should be expected. The combustion conditions above the grate of a waste incineration plant were investigated and the release and concentration of volatile ash species in the flue gas such as Cl, Na, K, Ca, Pb, Zn and S were measured. The conducted measurements show that flue gas from grate sections 3 and 4 can produce a sufficiently hot flue gas that contains only low concentrations of corrosive species, and therefore can be used to increase superheater temperatures. Implementation of the so-called flue gas split concept together with other steam circle modifications on a waste combustion plant, and using a reasonable increase in final steam temperature from 400 to 500 deg. C, have the potential to increase electrical efficiency from 24 to 30% (with respect to lower fuel heating value) in a waste combustion plant. (Author)

  9. Advanced characterisation of municipal solid waste ashes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skytte Pedersen, Randi

    2002-12-15

    This report deals with characterisation of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) ashes from the Danish power plant Maebjergvaerket, Holstebro. MSW has been used as a fuel since the mid 1960's and since then, the MSW incineration plants have experienced operational problems due to deposit formation and corrosion. Inorganic elements tightly or loosely bound in the waste are the main cause of these problems. The tightly bound elements will mainly stay on the grate during combustion, whereas the loosely bound elements are volatilised and recondensed elsewhere in the furnace. Many of the heavy metals form volatile chlorides during the incineration, and the fly ash fraction thus show enrichment in these elements. Presence of chlorides and heavy metals in deposits may cause severe corrosion due to formation of low-melting eutectics. Chlorine gas in the flue gas is also of major concern with respect to corrosion, due to formation of volatile chlorides when chlorine comes in contact with the tube material. Four different ash fractions (bottom ash, super heater ash, economiser ash and fly ash) taken from Maebjergvaerket have been analysed with respect to particle sizes, structures, shapes and composition. The applied methods were scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray analyses (EDX) and mapping, which were used in order to determine sizes, chemical composition and structure of the particles. X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) was used to provide information about crystallography and mineral phases. Chemical analysis was also performed along with a particle size distribution for the fine-grained fractions (economiser and fly ash). The amount of silicates consisting of Ca, Al and Si, were found to decrease through the furnace, whereas the amount of alkali (Na, K) chlorides and heavy metals (Pb, Zn) increased. The bonding in the waste before incineration is the direct cause of this, since silicates are tightly bound and chlorides are loosely bound. There was a

  10. Incinerator technology overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoleri, Joseph J.

    1993-03-01

    Many of the major chemical companies in the U.S. who regarded a safe environment as their responsibility installed waste treatment and disposal facilities on their plant sites in the last two decades. Many of these plants elected to use incinerators as the treatment process. This was not always the most economical method, but in many cases it was the only method of disposal that provided a safe and sure method of maximum destruction. Environmental concern over contamination from uncontrolled land disposal sites, and the emergence of tougher regulations for land disposal provide incentives for industry to employ a wide variety of traditional and advanced technologies for managing hazardous wastes. Incineration systems utilizing proper design, operation, and maintenance provides the safest, and in the long run, the most economical avenue to the maximum level of destruction of organic hazardous wastes.

  11. Commercial incineration demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borduin, L.C.; Neuls, A.S.

    1981-01-01

    Low-level radioactive wastes (LLW) generated by nuclear utilities presently are shipped to commercial burial grounds for disposal. Substantially increasing shipping and disposal charges have sparked renewed industry interest in incineration and other advanced volume reduction techniques as potential cost-saving measures. Repeated inquiries from industry sources regarding LLW applicability of the Los Alamos controlled-air incineration (CAI) design led DOE to initiate this commercial demonstration program in FY-1980. The selected program approach to achieving CAI demonstration at a utility site is a DOE sponsored joint effort involving Los Alamos, a nuclear utility, and a liaison subcontractor. Required development tasks and responsibilities of the particpants are described. Target date for project completion is the end of FY-1985

  12. Wide-scale utilization of MSWI fly ashes in cement production and its impact on average heavy metal contents in cements: The case of Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lederer, Jakob; Trinkel, Verena; Fellner, Johann

    2017-02-01

    A number of studies present the utilization of fly ashes from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) in cement production as a recycling alternative to landfilling. While there is a lot of research on the impact of MSWI fly ashes utilization in cement production on the quality of concrete or the leaching of heavy metals, only a few studies have determined the resulting heavy metal content in cements caused by this MSWI fly ashes utilization. Making use of the case of Austria, this study (1) determines the total content of selected heavy metals in cements currently produced in the country, (2) designs a scenario and calculates the resulting heavy metal contents in cements assuming that all MSWI fly ashes from Austrian grate incinerators were used as secondary raw materials for Portland cement clinker production and (3) evaluates the legal recyclability of demolished concretes produced from MSWI fly ash amended cements based on their total heavy metal contents. To do so, data from literature and statistics are combined in a material flow analysis model to calculate the average total contents of heavy metals in cements and in the resulting concretes according to the above scenario. The resulting heavy metal contents are then compared (i) to their respective limit values for cements as defined in a new technical guideline in Austria (BMLFUW, 2016), and (ii) to their respective limit values for recycling materials from demolished concrete. Results show that MSWI fly ashes utilization increases the raw material input in cement production by only +0.9%, but the total contents of Cd by +310%, and Hg, Pb, and Zn by +70% to +170%. However these and other heavy metal contents are still below their respective limit values for Austrian cements. The same legal conformity counts for recycling material derived from concretes produced from the MSWI fly ash cements. However, if the MSWI fly ash ratio in all raw materials used for cement production were increased from 0.9% to 22

  13. High Solids Consolidated Incinerator Facility (CIF) Wastes Stabilization with Ceramicrete and Super Cement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, B.W.

    1999-01-01

    High Solids ash and scrubber solution waste streams were generated at the incinerator facility at SRS by burning radioactive diatomaceous filter rolls which contained small amounts of uranium, and listed solvents (F and U). This report details solidification activities using selected Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA) technologies with the High Solids waste streams

  14. Thermal inertializing of solid incinerator residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proelss, J.

    2003-01-01

    Inertialization of residues is a key task of incinerators. Residues of conventional incineration processes may contain high levels of inorganic or organic pollutants and must be treated prior to recycling. the most effective process is thermal treatment above the melting point. This will destroy organic pollutants like dioxins/furans and pathogenic compounds, while the heavy metals will be partly volatilized. The glassy slag obtained as end product is low in heavy metals and more or less resistant to leaching. The The author describes a method for calculating activity coefficients of volatile components of diluted, liquid multicomponent systems. With these data, the data base for thermodynamic description of fluid mixtures was updated, and a set of characteristic data was established for describing transport in an inflatable module. Once the activity coefficients of interesting constituents of the slag are known along with the transport conditions in the volatilization process, it is possible to optimize the thermal treatment of critical ashes and dusts with a view to energy consumption and process control. In two different exemplary process concepts, the energy consumption for residue treatment is estimated. The processes proposed are compared with published process proposals, and their energy consumption is assessed in a comoparative study [de

  15. Incineration of a Single Component Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, A.Z.

    1999-01-01

    An Advanced controlled air incinerator has been investigated, developed and put into successful operation for a single component and other combustible solid wastes. Experimental studies showed that, at lower temperature, CO 2 , and CH 4 contents in gas reactor effluent increases by the increase of glowing bed temperature, while H 2 O, H 2 and CO decreases. It was proved that, a burn- out efficiency (for ash residues) and a volume reduction factor appeared to be better than 95.5% and 98%, respectively. Moreover, high temperature permits increased volumes of incinerated material and results in increased gasification products . Process chemistry and kinetics of the gasification were studied. The rate of reaction of the gasification process was obtained at different operating conditions by solving a set of algebraic equations provided by applying the extent of reaction concept. The comparison showed a satisfactory agreement between the calculated and experimental values. Unsteady state mass balance equations are developed for the gas reactor. The derived equations are Laplace transformed and solved to generate the dynamic behavior of the system . Open loop calculations are conducted to study the effect of some disturbances on the performance of the gas reactor. Model output was compared with actual experimental data as only slight corrections have to be made

  16. Investigation of Catalytic effect sewage sludge combustion ash in the formation of HAPs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fullana, A.; Sidhu, S.; Font, R.; Conesa, A.

    2002-07-01

    Incineration is a very important technique in the treatment of sewage sludge. In 1998 approximately 1,5 million and 2,5 million dry tons of sewage sludge were incinerated in the United States and European Union (EU), respectively. In 1985, only 10% of EU sludge was incinerated, but by 2005 approximately 40% of EU sludge is expected to be incinerated. Use of sewage sludge as agricultural fertilizer was considered the best application for sludge until it was discovered that the presence of heavy metals in sludge could contaminate farmland. The limitations facing landfills and recycling plants and the planned ban on sea disposal has led to the expectation that the role of incineration will increase in the future. The expected increase in sludge incineration has also led to increased scrutiny of the main drawback to the incineration of sewage sludge: the formation of hazard air pollutants (HAP). Sewage sludge incineration has been identified as a very important source of HAPs such as chloro benzenes, chloro phenols, and PCDD/Fs. One of the more important characteristics of sewage sludge incineration is the formation of large amounts of ash, which is rich in known HAP formation catalysts such as Cu and Fe. Thus, the sludge incineration ash is expected to play an important role in the formation of HAPs in the post-combustion zone of a sludge incinerator. in this paper, we present results of our investigation of the catalytic effect of sewage sludge ash on the formation of chloro benzenes and chloro phenols. In this study, pyrolytic gas from sewage sludge was used as reaction gas instead of the synthetic organic mix that has been used in most previous HAPs formation studies. (Author) 4 refs.

  17. Pilot incineration plant for solid, combustible, and low-level wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francioni, W.M.

    Radioactively contaminated wastes are formed in the handling of radioactive materials at the Federal Institute for Reactor Research (FIRR) and in other facilities, hospitals, sanitoria, industry, and nuclear power plants. A large part of the wastes are combustible and only very slightly radioactive. Incineration of these wastes is obvious. A pilot incineration plant, henceforth called the PIP, for radioactive combustible wastes of the FIRR is surveyed. The plant and its individual components are described. The production costs of the plant and experience gained in operation available at present are reviewed. Solid combustible radioactive waste can be incinerated in the PIP. The maximum possible reduction in volume of these wastes is achieved by incineration. Subsequently the chemically sterile ashes can be consolidated in a stable block suitable for long-term storage mixing with cement

  18. A survey of Trace Metals Determination in Hospital Waste Incinerator in Lucknow City, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranjan Kumar

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Information on the elemental content of incinerator burning of human organ, animal and medical waste is scanty in India Nineteen trace elements were analyzed in the incinerator ash from four major hospitals, one municipal waste incinerator and two R & D laboratories engaged in animal experiment in Lucknow city. Concentrations of Zinc and Lead were found to be very high in comparison to other metals due to burning of plastic products. The source of Ca, P and K are mainly bone, teeth and other animal organs. A wide variation in trace concentration of several toxic elements have been seen due to variation in initial waste composition, design of the incinerator and operating conditions.

  19. Technical investigation in solid waste to energy facilities and selection of suitable incineration technology for Tehran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mokarizdeh, V.; Lari, H.R.

    2001-01-01

    Incineration is another way for producing electrical energy. There are various methods for incineration as Stoker Fired, Suspension Fired, Rotary Kiln, Cyclone and Fluidized Bed; that each one has it's own advantages and disadvantages. Selecting suitable one for establishment in Tehran depends on many parameters like technical, economical and environmental factors. Comparing the various technologies due to the mentioned parameters by Multi Criteria Decision Making method shows that stoker-fired incinerator is the best one for the Capital City

  20. Environmental impact assessment of the incineration of municipal solid waste with auxiliary coal in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yan; Xing, Wei; Lu, Wenjing; Zhang, Xu; Christensen, Thomas H

    2012-10-01

    The environmental impacts of waste incineration with auxiliary coal were investigated using the life-cycle-based software, EASEWASTE, based on the municipal solid waste (MSW) management system in Shuozhou City. In the current system, MSW is collected, transported, and incinerated with 250 kg of coal per ton of waste. Based on observed environmental impacts of incineration, fossil CO(2) and heavy metals were primary contributors to global warming and ecotoxicity in soil, respectively. Compared with incinerators using excess coal, incineration with adequate coal presents significant benefits in mitigating global warming, whereas incineration with a mass of coal can avoid more impacts to acidification, photochemical ozone and nutrient enrichment because of increased electricity substitution and reduced emission from coal power plants. The "Emission standard of air pollutants for thermal power plants (GB13223-2011)" implemented in 2012 introduced stricter policies on controlling SO(2) and NO(x) emissions from coal power plants. Thus, increased use of auxiliary coal during incineration yields fewer avoided impacts on acidification and nutrient enrichment. When two-thirds of ash is source-separated and landfilled, the incineration of rest-waste presents better results on global warming, acidification, nutrient enrichment, and even ecotoxicity in soil. This process is considered a promising solution for MSW management in Shuozhou City. Weighted normalized environmental impacts were assessed based on Chinese political reduction targets. Results indicate that heavy metal and acidic gas emissions should be given more attention in waste incineration. This study provides scientific support for the management of MSW systems dominated by incineration with auxiliary coal in China. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Incineration of toluene and chlorobenzene in a laboratory incinerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao, Z.; Mcintosh, M.J.; Demirgian, J.C.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports experimental results on the incineration of toluene and chlorobenzene in a small laboratory incinerator. Temperature of the incinerator, excess air ratio and mean residence time were varied to simulate both complete and incomplete combustion conditions. The flue gas was monitored on line using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy coupling with a heated long path cell (LPC). Methane, toluene, benzene, chlorobenzene, hydrogen chloride and carbon monoxide in the flue gas were simultaneously analyzed. Experimental results indicate that benzene is a major product of incomplete combustion (PIC) besides carbon monoxide in the incineration of toluene and chlorobenzene, and is very sensitive to combustion conditions. This suggests that benzene is a target analyle to be monitored in full-scale incinerators

  2. Thermal Stability and Material Balance of Nanomaterials in Waste Incineration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paur, H.-R.; Baumann, W.; Hauser, M.; Lang, I.; Teuscher, N.; Seifert, H.; Stapf, D.

    2017-06-01

    Nanostructured materials are widely used to improve the properties of consumer products such as tires, cosmetics, light weight equipment etc. Due to their complex composition these products are hardly recycled and thermal treatment is preferred. In this study we investigated the thermal stability and material balance of nanostructured metal oxides in flames and in an industrial waste incinerator. We studied the size distribution of nanostructured metal oxides (CeO2, TiO2, SiO2) in a flame reactor and in a heated reaction tube. In the premixed ethylene/air flame, nano-structured CeO2 partly evaporates forming a new particle mode. This is probably due to chemical reactions in the flame. In addition sintering of agglomerates takes place in the flame. In the electrically heated reaction tube however only sintering of the agglomerated nanomaterials is observed. Ceria has a low background in waste incinerators and is therefore a suitable tracer for investigating the fate of nanostructured materials. Low concentrations of Ceria were introduced by a two-phase nozzle into the post-combustion zone of a waste incinerator. By the incineration of coal dust in a burning chamber the Ceria nanoparticles are mainly found in the size range of the fly ash (1 - 10 µm) because of agglomeration. With gas as a fuel less agglomeration was observed and the Ceria nanoparticles were in the particle size range below 1 µm.

  3. Thermal Stability and Material Balance of Nanomaterials in Waste Incineration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paur, H.-R.; Baumann, W.; Hauser, M.; Lang, I.; Teuscher, N.; Seifert, H.; Stapf, D.

    2017-01-01

    Nanostructured materials are widely used to improve the properties of consumer products such as tires, cosmetics, light weight equipment etc. Due to their complex composition these products are hardly recycled and thermal treatment is preferred. In this study we investigated the thermal stability and material balance of nanostructured metal oxides in flames and in an industrial waste incinerator. We studied the size distribution of nanostructured metal oxides (CeO 2 , TiO 2 , SiO 2 ) in a flame reactor and in a heated reaction tube. In the premixed ethylene/air flame, nano-structured CeO 2 partly evaporates forming a new particle mode. This is probably due to chemical reactions in the flame. In addition sintering of agglomerates takes place in the flame. In the electrically heated reaction tube however only sintering of the agglomerated nanomaterials is observed. Ceria has a low background in waste incinerators and is therefore a suitable tracer for investigating the fate of nanostructured materials. Low concentrations of Ceria were introduced by a two-phase nozzle into the post-combustion zone of a waste incinerator. By the incineration of coal dust in a burning chamber the Ceria nanoparticles are mainly found in the size range of the fly ash (1 – 10 µm) because of agglomeration. With gas as a fuel less agglomeration was observed and the Ceria nanoparticles were in the particle size range below 1 µm. (paper)

  4. Curbing dioxin emissions from municipal solid waste incineration in China: re-thinking about management policies and practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hefa; Hu, Yuanan

    2010-09-01

    As one of the countries with large amounts of dioxin releases, the control of dioxins is a major challenge for China. Municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration should be considered a high priority source of dioxin emissions because it is playing an increasingly more important role in waste management. MSW incineration in China has much higher emission rates of dioxins than in the developed countries, partially resulting from the gaps in the technologies of incineration and flue gas cleaning. Moreover, the current management policies and practices also contribute significantly to the problem. We recommend lowering dioxin emission standard, strengthening fly ash management, and improving regulation enforcement to reduce dioxin releases into the environment from MSW incineration. We also propose that alternative strategies should be considered on dioxin control and call for an expansion of economic instruments in waste management to reduce waste generation and thus the need for incineration. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. 1993 RCRA Part B permit renewal application, Savannah River Site: Volume 10, Consolidated Incineration Facility, Section C, Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molen, G.

    1993-08-01

    This section describes the chemical and physical nature of the RCRA regulated hazardous wastes to be handled, stored, and incinerated at the Consolidated Incineration Facility (CIF) at the Savannah River Site. It is in accordance with requirements of South Carolina Hazardous Waste Management Regulations R.61-79.264.13(a) and(b), and 270.14(b)(2). This application is for permit to store and teat these hazardous wastes as required for the operation of CIF. The permit is to cover the storage of hazardous waste in containers and of waste in six hazardous waste storage tanks. Treatment processes include incineration, solidification of ash, and neutralization of scrubber blowdown

  6. Use of sugar-cane bagasse ash to produce glass-ceramic material in the system Ca O-SiO2-Na2O

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teixeira, S.R.; Santos, G.T.A.; Magalhaes, R.S.; Rincon, J.Ma.; Romero, M.; Carvalho, C.L.

    2009-01-01

    A bottom ash was used as raw material to obtain glass which was crystallized to form glass-ceramic material. The characterization of the ash shows that it consists mainly of crystalline materials, predominantly quartz, with oxides of iron, potassium and aluminum as minor elements. The glass was obtained from the mixing of ash with calcium and sodium carbonates. The glass and the glass-ceramic were examined using differential thermal analysis (DTA), X-ray fluorescence (XRF), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). XRD and DTA data show that Wollastonita is the only crystalline phase present in the material crystallized at 1050 deg C. Part of the glass was synthesized at this temperature for one hour, resulting in a green/brown hard material glass-ceramic. The images of SEM show morphology of spherilithic growth indicating volumetric crystallization mechanism. (author)

  7. Fly ash. Quality recycling material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blomster, D.; Leisio, C.

    1996-11-01

    Imatran Voima`s coal-fired power plants not only generate power and heat but also produce fly ash which is suitable raw material for recycling. This material for recycling is produced in the flue gas cleaning process. It is economical and, thanks to close quality control, is suitable for use as a raw material in the building materials industry, in asphalt production, and in earthworks. Structures made from fly ash are also safe from an environmental point of view. (orig.)

  8. Volume reduction of low- and medium-level waste by incineration/calcination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buzonniere, A. de; Gauthey, J.C.

    1993-01-01

    Nuclear installations generate large quantities of low- and medium-level radwaste. This waste comes from various installations in the fuel cycle, reactor operation, research institute, hospitals, nuclear plate dismantling, etc.. TECHNICATOME did the project development work for the incineration plant of PIERRELATE (France) on behalf of COGEMA (Compagnie Generale des d'Etudes Technique). This plant has been in active service since November 1987. In addition, TECHNICATOME was in charge of the incinerator by a turnkey contract. This incinerator was commissioned in 1992. For a number of years, TECHNICATOME has been examining, developing and producing incineration and drying/calcination installations. They are used for precessing low- and medium-level radwaste

  9. Waste incineration. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egede Rasmussen, Anja

    2004-06-15

    This prepatory thesis is a literature study on the incineration of waste. It deals with the concepts of municipal solid waste, the composition and combustion of it. A main focus is on the European emission regulations and the formation of dioxins, as well as a big effort is put into the treatment of solid residues from municipal solid waste incineration. In the latter area, concepts of treatment, such as physical and chemical separations, solidification and stabilization techniques, thermal methods, and extraction methods have been discussed. Evaluation of possible methods of treatment has been done, but no conclusions made of which is the best. Though, indications exist that especially two methods have shown positive qualities and must be further investigated. These methods are the acid extraction and sulfide stabilization (AES) process and the phosphate stabilization method of WES-PHix. Economic potentials of the two methods have been evaluated, and with the information obtained, it seems that the price for treatment and later landfilling of a material with improved leaching characteristics, will be approximately the same as the presently most used solution of export to Norway. However, more tests, investigations and economic evaluations are necessary in order for support of the findings in this work. (au)

  10. Immobilization of Radioactive Waste in Different Fly Ash Zeolite Cement Blends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sami, N.M.

    2013-01-01

    The problem of radioactive waste management has been raised from the beginning use of nuclear energy for different purposes. The rad waste streams produced were sufficient to cause dangerous effects to man and its environment. The ordinary portland cement is the material more extensively used in the technologies of solidification and immobilization of the toxic wastes, low and medium level radioactive wastes. The production of portland cement is one of the most energy-intensive and polluting. The use of high energy in the production causes high emission due to the nature and processes of raw materials. The cement industry is responsible for 7% of the total CO 2 emission. Thus, the cement industry has a crucial role in the global warming. The formation of alite (Ca 3 SiO 5 ), which is the main component of the Portland cement clinker, produces a greater amount of CO 2 emission than the formation of belite (Ca 2 SiO 4 ). The proportion of alite to belite is about 3 in ordinary Portland clinker. Therefore, by decreasing this proportion less CO 2 would be emitted. Furthermore, if industrial byproducts such as fly ash from thermal power station or from incineration of municipal solid wastes have the potential to reduce CO 2 used as raw materials and alternative hydrothermal calcination routes are employed for belite clinker production, CO 2 emission can be strongly reduced or even totally avoided. The availability of fly ash will help in reducing the CO 2 emissions and will also help in resolving, to a great extent, the fly ash disposal problem. This thesis is based on focusing on the possibility of using fly ash as raw materials to prepare low cost innovation matrices for immobilization of radioactive wastes by synthesizing new kind of cement of low consuming energy. The synthesis process is based on the hydrothermal-calcination route of the fly ash without extra additions.

  11. 40 CFR 761.70 - Incineration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Incineration. 761.70 Section 761.70... and Disposal § 761.70 Incineration. This section applies to facilities used to incinerate PCBs... regular intervals of no longer than 15 minutes. (4) The temperatures of the incineration process shall be...

  12. Research on Toxicity Evaluation of Waste Incineration Residues of Printed Circuit Boards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasa Volungevičienė

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Recycling waste printed circuit boards (PCB is an extremely complicated process, because PCBs consist of a number of complex components – hazardous and non-hazardous materials sets. Pyrolysis and combustion are currently the most effective treatment technologies for waste printed circuit boards. Pyrolysis can be used for thermally decomposing PCBs allowing for the simultaneous recovery of valuable materials. Following the extraction of valuable materials, the problem of residual ash utilization is encountered. Determining the qualitative and quantitative characteristics of incineration residue helps with choosing effective ash management technologies. This paper analyzes PCB ash generated at three different temperatures of 400 °C, 500 °C and 600 °C. Ash residues have been analysed to determine the quantity and type of metals present. Furthermore, the experiment of leaching heavy metals from ash has been described.

  13. ALKALINE TREATMENT AND IMMOBILIZATION OF SECONDARY WASTE FROM WASTE INCINERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dariusz Mierzwiński

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper regards the possibility of using geopolymer matrix to immobilize heavy metals present in ash and slag from combustion of waste. In the related research one used the fly ash from coal combustion in one Polish CHP plant and the waste from Polish incineration plants. It was studied if the above-named waste materials are useful in the process of alkali-activation. Therefore, three sets of geopolymer mixtures were prepared containing 60, 50 and 30% of ash and slag from the combustion of waste and fly ash combustion of sewage skudge. The remaining content was fly ash from coal combustion. The alkali-activation was conducted by means of 14M solution of NaOH and sodium water glass. The samples, whose dimensions were in accordance with the PN-EN 206-1 norm, were subjected to 75°C for 24h. According to the results, the geopolymer matrix is able to immobilize heavy metals and retain compressive strength resembling that of concrete.

  14. Engineering Behavior and Characteristics of Wood Ash and Sugarcane Bagasse Ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Grau

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Biomasses are organic materials that are derived from any living or recently-living structure. Plenty of biomasses are produced nationwide. Biomasses are mostly combusted and usually discarded or disposed of without treatment as biomass ashes, which include wood and sugarcane bagasse ashes. Thus, recycling or treatment of biomass ashes leads to utilizing the natural materials as an economical and environmental alternative. This study is intended to provide an environmental solution for uncontrolled disposal of biomass ashes by way of recycling the biomass ash and replacing the soils in geotechnical engineering projects. Therefore, in this study, characteristic tests of wood and sugarcane bagasse ashes that are considered the most common biomass ashes are conducted. The test of chemical compositions of biomass ashes is conducted using energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS, and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM, and heavy metal analysis is also conducted. Engineering behaviors including hydraulic conductivity, constrained modulus and shear modulus are examined. Also, coal fly ash Class C is used in this study for comparison with biomass ashes, and Ottawa 20/30 sands containing biomass ashes are examined to identify the soil replacement effect of biomass ashes. The results show that the particle sizes of biomass ashes are halfway between coal fly ash Class C and Ottawa 20/30 sand, and biomass ashes consist of a heterogeneous mixture of different particle sizes and shapes. Also, all heavy metal concentrations were found to be below the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA maximum limit. Hydraulic conductivity values of Ottawa 20/30 sand decrease significantly when replacing them with only 1%–2% of biomass ashes. While both the constrained modulus and shear modulus of biomass ashes are lower than Ottawa 20/30 sand, those of mixtures containing up to 10% biomass ashes are little affected by replacing the soils with biomass ashes.

  15. Reactive oxygen species produced by NADPH oxidase and mitochondrial dysfunction in lung after an acute exposure to Residual Oil Fly Ashes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magnani, Natalia D.; Marchini, Timoteo; Vanasco, Virginia [Instituto de Bioquímica Medicina Molecular (IBIMOL-UBA-CONICET), Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Tasat, Deborah R. [CESyMA, Escuela de Ciencia y Tecnología, Universidad Nacional de San Martín, San Martín, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Alvarez, Silvia [Instituto de Bioquímica Medicina Molecular (IBIMOL-UBA-CONICET), Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Evelson, Pablo, E-mail: pevelson@ffyb.uba.ar [Instituto de Bioquímica Medicina Molecular (IBIMOL-UBA-CONICET), Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2013-07-01

    Reactive O{sub 2} species production triggered by particulate matter (PM) exposure is able to initiate oxidative damage mechanisms, which are postulated as responsible for increased morbidity along with the aggravation of respiratory diseases. The aim of this work was to quantitatively analyse the major sources of reactive O{sub 2} species involved in lung O{sub 2} metabolism after an acute exposure to Residual Oil Fly Ashes (ROFAs). Mice were intranasally instilled with a ROFA suspension (1.0 mg/kg body weight), and lung samples were analysed 1 h after instillation. Tissue O{sub 2} consumption and NADPH oxidase (Nox) activity were evaluated in tissue homogenates. Mitochondrial respiration, respiratory chain complexes activity, H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and ATP production rates, mitochondrial membrane potential and oxidative damage markers were assessed in isolated mitochondria. ROFA exposure was found to be associated with 61% increased tissue O{sub 2} consumption, a 30% increase in Nox activity, a 33% increased state 3 mitochondrial O{sub 2} consumption and a mitochondrial complex II activity increased by 25%. During mitochondrial active respiration, mitochondrial depolarization and a 53% decreased ATP production rate were observed. Neither changes in H{sub 2}O{sub 2} production rate, nor oxidative damage in isolated mitochondria were observed after the instillation. After an acute ROFA exposure, increased tissue O{sub 2} consumption may account for an augmented Nox activity, causing an increased O{sub 2}{sup ·−} production. The mitochondrial function modifications found may prevent oxidative damage within the organelle. These findings provide new insights to the understanding of the mechanisms involving reactive O{sub 2} species production in the lung triggered by ROFA exposure. - Highlights: • Exposure to ROFA alters the oxidative metabolism in mice lung. • The augmented Nox activity contributes to the high tissue O{sub 2} consumption. • Exposure to ROFA

  16. The incineration of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thegerstroem, C.

    1980-03-01

    In this study, made on contract for the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate, different methods for incineration of radioactive wastes are reviewed. Operation experiences and methods under development are also discussed. The aim of incineration of radioactive wastes is to reduce the volume and weight of the wastes. Waste categories most commonly treated by incineration are burnable solid low level wastes like trash wastes consisting of plastic, paper, protective clothing, isolating material etc. Primarily, techniques for the incineration of this type of waste are described but incineration of other types of low level wastes like oil or solvents and medium level wastes like ion-exchange resins is also briefly discussed. The report contains tables with condensed data on incineration plants in different countries. Problems encountered, experiences and new developments are reviewed. The most important problems in incineration of radioactive wastes have been plugging and corrosion of offgas systems, due to incomplete combustion of combustion of materials like rubber and PVC giving rise to corrosive gases, combined with inadequate materials of construction in heat-exchangers, channels and filter housings. (author)

  17. Effluent testing for the Oak Ridge Mixed Waste Incinerator: Emissions test for August 27, 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bostick, W.D.; Bunch, D.H.; Gibson, L.V.; Hoffmann, D.P.; Shoemaker, J.L.

    1991-01-01

    On August 27, 1990, a special emissions test was performed at the K-1435 Toxic Substance Control Act Mixed Waste Incinerator. A sampling and analysis plan was implemented to characterize the incinerator waste streams during a 6 hour burn of actual mixed waste. The results of this characterization are summarized in the present report. Significant among the findings is the observation that less than 3% of the uranium fed to the incinerator kiln was discharged as stack emission. This value is consistent with the estimate of 4% or less derived from long-term mass balance of previous operating experience and with the value assumed in the original Environmental Impact Statement. Approximately 1.4% of the total uranium fed to the incinerator kiln appeared in the aqueous scrubber blowdown; about 85% of the total uranium in the aqueous waste was insoluble (i.e., removable by filtration). The majority of the uranium fed to the incinerator kiln appeared in the ash material, apparently associated with phosphorous as a sparingly-soluble species. Many other metals of potential regulatory concern also appeared to concentrate in the ash as sparingly-soluble species, with minimal partition to the aqueous waste. The aqueous waste was discharged to the Central Neutralization Facility where it was effectively treated by coprecipitation with iron. The treated, filtered aqueous effluent met Environmental Protection Agency interim primary drinking water standards for regulated metals. 4 refs., 2 figs., 10 tabs

  18. Effluent testing for the Oak Ridge mixed waste incinerator: Emissions test for August 27, 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bostick, W.D.; Bunch, D.H.; Gibson, L.V.; Hoffmann, D.P.; Shoemaker, J.L.

    1990-12-01

    On August 27, 1990, a special emissions test was performed at the K-1435 Toxic Substance Control Act Mixed Waste Incinerator. A sampling and analysis plan was implemented to characterize the incinerator waste streams during a 6 hour burn of actual mixed waste. The results of this characterization are summarized in the present report. Significant among the findings is the observation that less than 3% of the uranium fed to the incinerator kiln was discharged as stack emission. This value is consistent with the estimate of 4% or less derived from long-term mass balance of previous operating experience and with the value assumed in the original Environmental Impact Statement. Approximately 1.4% of the total uranium fed to the incinerator kiln appeared in the aqueous scrubber blowdown; about 85% of the total uranium in the aqueous waste was insoluble (i.e., removable by filtration). The majority of the uranium fed to the incinerator kiln appeared in the ash material, apparently associated with phosphorous as a sparingly-soluble species. Many other metals of potential regulatory concern also appeared to concentrate in the ash as sparingly-soluble species, with minimal partition to the aqueous waste. The aqueous waste was discharged to the Central Neutralization Facility where it was effectively treated by coprecipitation with iron. The treated, filtered aqueous effluent met Environmental Protection Agency interim primary drinking water standards for regulated metals

  19. Tracing source and migration of Pb during waste inci