WorldWideScience

Sample records for incidents involving uavs

  1. Cyber Incidents Involving Control Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert J. Turk

    2005-10-01

    The Analysis Function of the US-CERT Control Systems Security Center (CSSC) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has prepared this report to document cyber security incidents for use by the CSSC. The description and analysis of incidents reported herein support three CSSC tasks: establishing a business case; increasing security awareness and private and corporate participation related to enhanced cyber security of control systems; and providing informational material to support model development and prioritize activities for CSSC. The stated mission of CSSC is to reduce vulnerability of critical infrastructure to cyber attack on control systems. As stated in the Incident Management Tool Requirements (August 2005) ''Vulnerability reduction is promoted by risk analysis that tracks actual risk, emphasizes high risk, determines risk reduction as a function of countermeasures, tracks increase of risk due to external influence, and measures success of the vulnerability reduction program''. Process control and Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems, with their reliance on proprietary networks and hardware, have long been considered immune to the network attacks that have wreaked so much havoc on corporate information systems. New research indicates this confidence is misplaced--the move to open standards such as Ethernet, Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol, and Web technologies is allowing hackers to take advantage of the control industry's unawareness. Much of the available information about cyber incidents represents a characterization as opposed to an analysis of events. The lack of good analyses reflects an overall weakness in reporting requirements as well as the fact that to date there have been very few serious cyber attacks on control systems. Most companies prefer not to share cyber attack incident data because of potential financial repercussions. Uniform reporting requirements will do much to make this

  2. Radioactive contamination incidents involving protective clothing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reichelt, R.A.; Clay, M.E.; Eichorst, A.J.

    1998-01-01

    The study focuses on incidents at Department of Energy facilities involving the migration of radioactive contaminants through protective clothing. The authors analyzed 68 occurrence reports for the following factors: (1) type of work, (2) working conditions, (3) type of anti-contamination material; (4) area of body or clothing contaminated; and (5) nature of spread of contamination. A majority of reports identified strenuous work activities such as maintenance, construction, or decontamination and decommissioning projects. The reports also indicated adverse working conditions that included hot and humid or cramped work environments. The type of anti-contamination clothing most often identified was cotton or water-resistant disposable clothing. Most of the reports also indicated contaminants migrating through perspiration-soaked areas, typically in the knees and forearms. On the basis of their survey, the authors recommend the use of improved engineering controls and resilient, breathable, waterproof protective clothing for work in hot, humid, or damp areas where the possibility of prolonged contact with contamination cannot be easily avoided or controlled. 1 ref., 6 figs., 1 tab

  3. Radioactive contamination incidents involving protective clothing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reichelt, R.; Clay, M.; Eichorst, J.

    1996-10-01

    The study focuses on incidents at Department of Energy (DOE) facilities involving the migration of radioactive contaminants through protective clothing. The authors analyzed 68 occurrence reports for the following factors: (1) type of work; (2) working conditions; (3) type of anti-contamination (anti-C) material; (4) area of body or clothing contaminated; and (5) nature of spread of contamination. A majority of reports identified strenuous work activities such as maintenance, construction, or decontamination and decommissioning (D ampersand D) projects. The reports also indicated adverse working conditions that included hot and humid or cramped work environments. The type of anti-C clothing most often identified was cotton or water-resistant, disposable clothing. Most of the reports also indicated contaminants migrating through perspiration-soaked areas, typically in the knees and forearms. On the basis of their survey, the authors recommend the use of improved engineering controls and resilient, breathable, waterproof protective clothing for work in hot, humid, or damp areas where the possibility of prolonged contact with contamination cannot be easily avoided or controlled

  4. Clinical incidents involving students on placement: an analysis of incident reports to identify potential risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaida, J E; Maloney, S; Lo, K; Morgan, P

    2015-06-01

    Students are sometimes involved in incidents during clinical training. To the authors' knowledge, no quantitative studies of incidents specifically involving physiotherapy students on clinical placement are available in the literature. A retrospective audit (2008 to 2011) of incident reports involving physiotherapy students was conducted to identify the nature and features of incidents. The study aimed to determine if injuries to a student or patient were more or less likely when the supervisor was in close proximity, and whether students with lower academic performance in their preclinical semester were more likely to be involved in an incident. There were 19 care-delivery-related and three equipment-related incidents. There were no incidents of violent, aggressive or demeaning behaviour towards students. The incident rate was 9.0/100,000 student-hours for third-year students and 6.8/100,000 student-hours for fourth-year students. The majority of incidents (55%) occurred from 11 am to 12-noon and from 3 pm to 3.30 pm. Incidents more often resulted in patient or student injury when the supervisor was not in close proximity (approximately 50% vs approximately 20%), although the difference was not significant (P=0.336). The academic results of students involved in incidents were equivalent to the whole cohort in their preclinical semester {mean 75 [standard deviation (SD) 6] vs 76 (SD 7); P=0.488}. The unexpected temporal clustering of incidents warrants further investigation. Student fatigue may warrant attention as a potential contributor; however, contextual factors, such as staff workload, along with organisational systems, structures and procedures may be more relevant. The potential relationship between supervisor proximity and injury also warrants further exploration. The findings of the present study should be integrated into clinical education curricula and communicated to clinical educators. Copyright © 2014 Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. Published by

  5. NAIR: handbook on the national arrangements for incidents involving radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    A revised handbook on the national arrangements for incidents involving radioactivity (NAIR) has been published. Following brief introductory sections on the administrative aspects and operational aspects, the main part of the handbook is devoted to operational and call-out lists including an index of police forces served by NAIR, an index of establishments providing assistance under NAIR, sources of stage 1 and stage 2 assistance for each police constabulary, hospitals prepared to accept contaminated casualties and to assist with decontamination of personnel, and hospitals prepared to advise on the treatment and admission of casualties exposed to large doses of radiation. Technical appendices are also given on radiological protection in NAIR incidents, instruments and equipment, radionuclide data and a guide to suitable detectors, package and source identification and disposal of radioactive materials involved in NAIR accidents. (U.K.)

  6. How to Report a Pesticide Incident Involving Exposures to People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesticides incidents must be reported by pesticide registrants. Others, such as members of the public and environmental professionals, would like to report pesticide incidents. This website will facilitate such incident reporting.

  7. Investigation of incidents of terrorism involving commercial aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, M A; Wagner, G N; Wright, D G; Ruehle, C J; McDonnell, E W

    1989-07-01

    Deaths resulting from terrorism involving aircraft have occurred incident to hijackings as well as bombings. Passengers or groups of passengers have been chosen by terrorists as the recipients of violence based on citizenship, religion, and political beliefs. They have usually been segregated from other passengers and subsequently mistreated and/or murdered. Thorough documentation of the injuries of victims is essential to the investigation of such atrocities; a medicolegal autopsy correlated with a scene investigation is of paramount importance. Aircraft bombings can create extremely sensitive political situations and public demands for quick resolution. The autopsy of victims in such circumstances, if properly conducted, can yield invaluable trace evidence leading to the identification of the explosive device. The examination of any surviving victims as well as the aircraft is also critical in reconstructing the event. Deaths occurring as the result of in-flight aircraft bombings can produce injuries by five different mechanisms, viz. blast, shrapnel, decompression, impact with the aircraft, and ground impact.

  8. Transportation accidents/incidents involving radioactive materials (1971-1991)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cashwell, C.E.; McClure, J.D.

    1993-01-01

    In 1981, Sandia National Laboratories developed the Radioactive Materials Incident Report (RMIR) database to support its research and development activities for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The RMIR database contains information on transportation accidents/incidents with radioactive materials that have occurred since 1971. The RMIR classifies a transportation accident/incident in one of six ways: as a transportation accident, a handling accident, a reported incident, missing or stolen, cask weeping, or other. This paper will define these terms and provide detailed examples of each. (J.P.N.)

  9. Amphibious UAV

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Amphibious UAV, less than 10 meters in length is a perfect scout for Naval Reconnaissance. It can be greatly effective for detecting incoming enemy subs or...

  10. Evaluation and development of unmanned aircraft (UAV) for UDOT needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    This research involved the use of high-resolution aerial photography obtained from Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) to aid UDOT in monitoring and documenting State Roadway structures and associated issues. Using geo-referenced UAV high resolution aeria...

  11. Nurses involved in whistleblowing incidents: sequelae for their families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkes, Lesley M; Peters, Kath; Weaver, Roslyn; Jackson, Debra

    2011-01-01

    Nurses involved in whistleblowing often face economic and emotional retaliation, victimization and abuse. Yet for many nurses, one major part of their whistleblowing experience is the negative impact it has on their families. This paper reports findings from a qualitative study pertaining to the effects of whistleblowing on family life from the perspective of the nurses. Using a narrative inquiry approach, fourteen nurses were interviewed who were directly involved in whistleblowing complaints. Data analysis drew out three themes: strained relationships with family members, dislocation of family life, and exposing family to public scrutiny. The harm caused to the nurses involved in a whistleblowing event is not restricted to one party but to all those involved, as the harrowing experience and its consequences are echoed in the family life as well. It is important for organizations to seek strategies that will minimize the harmful effects on nurses' families during whistleblowing events.

  12. 77 FR 38747 - Reports by Air Carriers on Incidents Involving Animals During Air Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-29

    ...-2010-0211] RIN 2105-AE07 Reports by Air Carriers on Incidents Involving Animals During Air Transport... incidents involving animals during air transport, 14 CFR 234.13, to expand the reporting requirement to U.S... seats, to expand the definition of ``animal'' to include all cats and dogs transported by the carrier...

  13. Summarization of Injury and Fatality Factors Involving Children and Youth in Grain Storage and Handling Incidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issa, S F; Field, W E; Hamm, K E; Cheng, Y H; Roberts, M J; Riedel, S M

    2016-01-01

    This article summarizes data gathered on 246 documented cases of children and youth under the age of 21 involved in grain storage and handling incidents in agricultural workplaces from 1964 to 2013 in the U.S. that have been entered into the Purdue Agricultural Confined Space Incident Database. The database is the result of ongoing efforts to collect and file information on documented injuries, fatalities, and entrapments in all forms of agricultural confined spaces. While the frequency of injuries and fatalities involving children and youth in agriculture has decreased in recent years, incidents related to agricultural confined spaces, especially grain storage and handling facilities, have remained largely unchanged during the same period. Approximately 21% of all documented incidents involved children and youth (age 20 and younger), and more than 77% of all documented incidents were fatal, suggesting an under-reporting of non-fatal incidents. Findings indicate that the majority of youth incidents occurred at OSHA exempt agricultural worksites. The states reporting the most incidents were Indiana, Iowa, Nebraska, Illinois, and Minnesota. Grain transport vehicles represented a significant portion of incidents involving children under the age of 16. The overwhelming majority of victims were male, and most incidents (50%) occurred in June, October, and November. Recommendations include developing intervention strategies that target OSHA exempt farms, feedlots, and seed processing facilities; preparing engineering design and best practice standards that reduce the exposure of children and youth to agricultural confined spaces; and developing gender-specific safety resources that incorporate gender-sensitive strategies to communicate safety information to the population of young males with the greatest risk of exposure to the hazards of agricultural confined spaces.

  14. 77 FR 53779 - Reports by Air Carriers on Incidents Involving Animals During Air Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-04

    ... Involving Animals During Air Transport AGENCY: Office of the Secretary (OST), Department of Transportation... period of an NPRM on the reporting of incidents involving animals during air transport that was published... animal during air transport. The NPRM proposed to: (1) Expand the reporting requirement to U.S. carriers...

  15. Incidence of intraglandular lymph nodes within submandibular gland, and involvement by floor of mouth cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fives, Cassie; Feeley, Linda; Sadadcharam, Mira; O'Leary, Gerard; Sheahan, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    Resection of the submandibular gland is generally undertaken as an integral component of level I neck dissection for oral cancer. However, it is unclear whether lymph nodes are present within the submandibular gland which may form the basis of lymphatic spread. Our purpose was to investigate the frequency of lymph nodes within the submandibular gland, and the incidence and mechanism of submandibular gland involvement in floor of mouth cancer. Retrospective review of 177 patients with oral cancer undergoing neck dissection. Original pathology slides of floor of mouth cases were re-reviewed by two pathologists to determine frequency of intraglandular lymph nodes, and incidence and mechanism of submandibular gland involvement by cancer. The overall incidence of cervical metastases was 36.4 %, of whom 44 % had level I metastases. Level I metastases were significantly more common in floor of mouth than tongue cancers (p = 0.004). Among 50 patients with floor of mouth cancer undergoing re-review of pathology slides, intraglandular lymph nodes were not found in any of 69 submandibular glands. Submandibular gland involvement by cancer was present in two patients, representing 1 % of all oral cancers, and 4 % FOM cases. Mechanisms of involvement were direct extension, and by an apparent novel mechanism of carcinoma growing along bilateral Wharton's ducts. Despite the high incidence of level I metastasis in floor of mouth, lymphatic metastases to submandibular gland are unlikely based on absence of intraglandular lymph nodes. We describe a previously unreported mechanism of submandibular gland involvement.

  16. Lessons learnt from incidents involving the airway and breathing reported from Australasian emergency departments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crock, Carmel; Hansen, Kim; Fogg, Toby; Cahill, Angela; Deakin, Anita; Runciman, William B

    2018-02-01

    To review incident reports relating to problems encountered during the ED management of patients with 'airway or breathing' problems, with the aim of finding and highlighting common themes within these rare events, and making recommendations to further improve patient safety in the areas in which deficiencies have been identified. Thematic analysis of 36 incidents reported from Australasian EDs, which were related to problems with airway and breathing. In all, 51 problems were identified among the 36 incidents related to airway and/or breathing. Fourteen involved clinical decision-making, 11 equipment, nine communication, seven intubation, five surgical access and five pneumothorax. Eight incidents involved children and there were nine deaths within hours or days. Recommendations for improving preparedness of ED staff and facilities have been made for each of the problem areas identified with respect to clinical practice, equipment, communication and clinical process. Analysis of incidents from the Australasian Emergency Medicine Events Register allows clusters of like-events to be identified and characterised, providing the possibility of getting a better idea of how problems present and progress, with some information about contributing factors, characteristics and context. This will pave the way for earlier and better detection of life-threatening problems and the development and reinforcement of preventive and corrective strategies. © 2017 Australasian College for Emergency Medicine and Australasian Society for Emergency Medicine.

  17. Ramp-related incidents involving wheeled mobility device users during transit bus boarding/alighting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, Karen L; Bertocci, Gina; Smalley, Craig

    2015-05-01

    To estimate the prevalence of wheeled mobility device (WhMD) ramp-related incidents while boarding/alighting a public transit bus and to determine whether the frequency of incidents is less when the ramp slope meets the proposed Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) maximum allowable limit of ≤9.5°. Observational study. Community public transportation. WhMD users (N=414) accessing a public transit bus equipped with an instrumented ramp. Not applicable. Prevalence of boarding/alighting incidents involving WhMD users and associated ramp slopes; factors affecting incidents. A total of 4.6% (n=35) of WhMD users experienced an incident while boarding/alighting a transit bus. Significantly more incidents occurred during boarding (6.3%, n=26) than during alighting (2.2%, n=9) (Pboard/alight when the ramp slope exceeded the proposed ADA maximum allowable ramp slope was 5.1 (95% confidence interval, 2.9-9.0; P9.5° and ramps deployed to street level are associated with a higher frequency of incidents and provision of assistance. Transit agencies should increase awareness among bus operators of the effect kneeling and deployment location (street/sidewalk) have on the ramp slope. In addition, ramp components and the built environment may contribute to incidents. When prescribing WhMDs, skills training must include ascending/descending ramps at slopes encountered during boarding/alighting to ensure safe and independent access to public transit buses. Copyright © 2015 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Use of casual tree method for investigation of incidents and accidents involving radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasconcelos, Vanderley de; Senne Junior, Murillo; Marques, Raissa Oliveira

    2013-01-01

    There are many methodologies used for investigation of accidents to facilitate the search of the factors that cause these events in different areas of industry. These can be called proactive methods, if they are used before the occurrence of the events, or reactive methods that are applied after the occurrence of the incident or accident, and are used as a basis of information to prevent further events. One of these methods is the Causal Tree Method (CTM). The basic idea of this technique is that incidents and accidents result from variations in usual processes. These variations can be related to the individual, the task, the material or the environment. The tree starts with the end event (incident or accident) and works backwards. The facts relating to the end event are used in the construction of the causal tree. The end event is the starting point and only the facts that contributed to the incident or accident should be selected. The analyst has to identify and list the variations and then display them in the analytic tree, showing causal relations. The objective of this paper is to test the application of the CTM method in investigation of incidents and accidents involving radioactive materials, in order to evaluate its efficiency on finding the typical factors causing these events. (author)

  19. Technical handbook on the National Arrangements for Incidents involving Radioactivity. NAIR technical handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McColl, N.P.; Kruse, P.

    2002-01-01

    This Technical Handbook contains information for radiation specialists participating in the National Arrangements for Incidents involving Radioactivity (NAIR). Together with the NAIR Users Handbook 2000 edition, it updates and replaces the NAIR Handbook published in 1995. The Users Handbook was designed for those who might seek assistance through NAIR, principally the police or other emergency services. Both Handbooks are reproduced on the NRPB website (www.nrpb.org) and are available from NRPB

  20. Experience in the analysis of accidents and incidents involving the transport of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warner-Jones, S.M.; Hughes, J.S.; Shaw, K.B.

    2002-01-01

    Some half a million packages containing radioactive materials are transported to, from and within the UK annually. Accidents and incidents involving these shipments are rare. However, there is always the potential for such an event, which could lead to a release of the contents of a package or an increase in radiation level caused by damaged shielding. These events could result in radiological consequences for transport workers. As transport occurs in the public environment, such events could also lead to radiation exposures of members of the public. The UK Department for Transport (DfT), together with the Health and Safety Executive (HSE) have supported, for almost 20 years, work to compile, analyse and report on accidents and incidents that occur during the transport of radioactive materials. Annual reports on these events have been produced for twelve years. The details of these events are recorded in the Radioactive Materials Transport Event Database (RAMTED) maintained by the National Radiological Protection Board on behalf of the DfT and HSE. Information on accidents and incidents dates back to 1958. RAMTED currently includes information of 708 accidents and incidents, covering the period 1958 to 2000. This paper presents a summary of the data covering this period, identifying trends and lessons learned together with a discussion of some examples. It was found that, historically, the most significant exposures were received as a result of accidents involving the transport of industrial radiography sources. However, the frequency and severity of these events has decreased considerably in the later years of this study due to improvements in training, awareness and equipment. The International Atomic Energy Agency and the Nuclear Energy Agency, have established the international nuclear event scale (INES), which is described in detail in a users' guide. The INES has been revised to fully include transport events, and the information in RAMTED has been reviewed

  1. Automatic UAV Image Geo-Registration by Matching UAV Images to Georeferenced Image Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangyu Zhuo

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Recent years have witnessed the fast development of UAVs (unmanned aerial vehicles. As an alternative to traditional image acquisition methods, UAVs bridge the gap between terrestrial and airborne photogrammetry and enable flexible acquisition of high resolution images. However, the georeferencing accuracy of UAVs is still limited by the low-performance on-board GNSS and INS. This paper investigates automatic geo-registration of an individual UAV image or UAV image blocks by matching the UAV image(s with a previously taken georeferenced image, such as an individual aerial or satellite image with a height map attached or an aerial orthophoto with a DSM (digital surface model attached. As the biggest challenge for matching UAV and aerial images is in the large differences in scale and rotation, we propose a novel feature matching method for nadir or slightly tilted images. The method is comprised of a dense feature detection scheme, a one-to-many matching strategy and a global geometric verification scheme. The proposed method is able to find thousands of valid matches in cases where SIFT and ASIFT fail. Those matches can be used to geo-register the whole UAV image block towards the reference image data. When the reference images offer high georeferencing accuracy, the UAV images can also be geolocalized in a global coordinate system. A series of experiments involving different scenarios was conducted to validate the proposed method. The results demonstrate that our approach achieves not only decimeter-level registration accuracy, but also comparable global accuracy as the reference images.

  2. Robust UAV mission planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, L.; Dollevoet, T.; Barros, A.I.; Monsuur, H.

    2011-01-01

    Unmanned Areal Vehicles (UAVs) can provide significant contributions to information gathering in military missions. UAVs can be used to capture both full motion video and still imagery of specific target locations within the area of interest. In order to improve the effectiveness of a reconnaissance

  3. UAVs: Current and Future Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, P.

    2004-01-01

    Uninhabited Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) provide ideal sampling platforms for atmospheric missions. In this presentation, I will: 1) review the atmospheric science missions that have used UAVs, 2) review and describe UAVs, 3) discuss the future of UAVs in atmospheric science missions.

  4. Using crowd sourcing to combat potentially illegal or dangerous UAV operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapsall, Brooke T.

    2016-10-01

    The UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicles) industry is growing exponentially at a pace that policy makers, individual countries and law enforcement agencies are finding difficult to keep up. The UAV market is large, as such the amount of UAVs being operated in potentially dangerous situations is prevalent and rapidly increasing. Media is continually reporting `near-miss' incidents between UAVs and commercial aircraft, UAV breaching security in sensitive areas or invading public privacy. One major challenge for law enforcement agencies is gaining tangible evidence against potentially dangerous or illegal UAV operators due to the rapidity with which UAV operators are able to enter, fly and exit a scene before authorities can arrive or before they can be located. DroneALERT, an application available via the Airport-UAV.com website, allows users to capture potentially dangerous or illegal UAV activity using their mobile device as it the incident is occurring. A short online DroneALERT Incident Report (DIR) is produced, emailed to the user and the Airport-UAV.com custodians. The DIR can be used to aid authorities in their investigations. The DIR contains details such as images and videos, location, time, date of the incident, drone model, its distance and height. By analysing information from the DIR, photos or video, there is a high potential for law enforcement authorities to use this evidence to identify the type of UAV used, triangulate the location of the potential dangerous UAV and operator, create a timeline of events, potential areas of operator exit and to determine the legalities breached. All provides crucial evidence for identifying and prosecuting a UAV operator.

  5. Incidence and clinical significance of zygomaticomaxillary complex fracture involving the temporomandibular joint with emphasis on trismus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chia-Ming; Ko, Edward C; Kao, Chu-Chiang; Chang, Pei-Ying; Chen, Michael Y C

    2012-06-01

    Trismus is frequently a sequel of temporomandibular joint (TMJ) involvement in a zygomaticomaxillary complex (ZMC) fracture. Although trismus is commonly observed in patients with ZMC fracture, continuous follow-up examinations of their degree of mouth opening have rarely been documented. The aim of this retrospective study was to determine the incidence and clinical significance of ZMC fracture involving the glenoid fossa or articular eminence of the TMJ with an emphasis on trismus. The medical and computed tomography (CT) imaging data of 28 patients with ZMC fracture treated by oral and maxillofacial surgeons (OMFSs) (OMFS group) and 174 patients with ZMC fracture treated by surgeons other than OMFSs (non-OMFS group) between May 2002 and May 2006 were reviewed. Maximal interincisal opening (MIO) less than 35 mm or three-finger width was considered limited mouth opening and indicative of trismus. Preoperative CT imaging data indicated that about 64% (18/28) and 50% (87/174) of the patients in the OMFS and non-OMFS groups, respectively, had a ZMC fracture involving the TMJ. Among these OMFS patients, 17 (94.40%) patients had limited mouth opening (MIO range, 7-33 mm) preoperatively, which improved markedly postoperatively. Among the non-OMFS patients with such fractures, 42 (48.3%) patients had trismus preoperatively and two retained trismus postoperatively. Lack of proper preoperative CT images, inadequate postoperative follow-up protocol, and/or neglect by patients and medical staff could influence the outcomes of ZMC fracture involving the TMJ. We make recommendations for reducing the risk of complications subsequent to ZMC fracture involving the TMJ. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Incidence and clinical significance of zygomaticomaxillary complex fracture involving the temporomandibular joint with emphasis on trismus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Ming Chang

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Trismus is frequently a sequel of temporomandibular joint (TMJ involvement in a zygomaticomaxillary complex (ZMC fracture. Although trismus is commonly observed in patients with ZMC fracture, continuous follow-up examinations of their degree of mouth opening have rarely been documented. The aim of this retrospective study was to determine the incidence and clinical significance of ZMC fracture involving the glenoid fossa or articular eminence of the TMJ with an emphasis on trismus. The medical and computed tomography (CT imaging data of 28 patients with ZMC fracture treated by oral and maxillofacial surgeons (OMFSs (OMFS group and 174 patients with ZMC fracture treated by surgeons other than OMFSs (non-OMFS group between May 2002 and May 2006 were reviewed. Maximal interincisal opening (MIO less than 35 mm or three-finger width was considered limited mouth opening and indicative of trismus. Preoperative CT imaging data indicated that about 64% (18/28 and 50% (87/174 of the patients in the OMFS and non-OMFS groups, respectively, had a ZMC fracture involving the TMJ. Among these OMFS patients, 17 (94.40% patients had limited mouth opening (MIO range, 7–33 mm preoperatively, which improved markedly postoperatively. Among the non-OMFS patients with such fractures, 42 (48.3% patients had trismus preoperatively and two retained trismus postoperatively. Lack of proper preoperative CT images, inadequate postoperative follow-up protocol, and/or neglect by patients and medical staff could influence the outcomes of ZMC fracture involving the TMJ. We make recommendations for reducing the risk of complications subsequent to ZMC fracture involving the TMJ.

  7. Safety incidents involving confused and forgetful older patients in a specialised care setting--analysis of the safety incidents reported to the HaiPro reporting system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinnunen-Luovi, Kaisa; Saarnio, Reetta; Isola, Arja

    2014-09-01

    To describe the safety incidents involving confused and forgetful older patients in a specialised care setting entered in the HaiPro reporting system. About 10% of patients experience a safety incident during hospitalisation, which causes or could cause them harm. The possibility of a safety incident during hospitalisation increases significantly with age. A mild or moderate memory disorder and acute confusion are often present in the safety incidents originating with an older patient. The design of the study was action research with this study using findings from one of the first-phase studies, which included qualitative and quantitative analysed data. Data were collected from the reporting system for safety incidents (HaiPro) in a university hospital in Finland. There were 672 reported safety incidents from four acute medical wards during the years 2009-2011, which were scrutinised. Seventy-five of them were linked to a confused patient and were analysed. The majority of the safety incidents analysed involved patient-related accidents. In addition to challenging behaviour, contributing factors included ward routines, shortage of nursing staff, environmental factors and staff knowledge and skills. Nurses tried to secure the patient safety in many different ways, but the modes of actions were insufficient. Nursing staff need evidence-based information on how to assess the cognitive status of a confused patient and how to encounter such patients. The number of nursing staff and ward routines should be examined critically and put in proportion to the care intensity demands caused by the patient's confused state. The findings can be used as a starting point in the prevention of safety incidents and in improving the care of older patients. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. UAV Delivery Monitoring System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    San Khin Thida

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available UAV-based delivery systems are increasingly being used in the logistics field, particularly to achieve faster last-mile delivery. This study develops a UAV delivery system that manages delivery order assignments, autonomous flight operation, real time control for UAV flights, and delivery status tracking. To manage the delivery item assignments, we apply the concurrent scheduler approach with a genetic algorithm. The present paper describes real time flight data based on a micro air vehicle communication protocol (MAVLink. It also presents the detailed hardware components used for the field tests. Finally, we provide UAV component analysis to choose the suitable components for delivery in terms of battery capacity, flight time, payload weight and motor thrust ratio.

  9. Incidents of illicit trafficking and other unauthorized activities involving nuclear and other radioactive materials (1993-2005)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The confirmed incidents of illicit trafficking and other unauthorized activities involving nuclear and other radioactive materials between 1993-2005 shows that, 27% involved nuclear materials, 62% radioactive materials,7% involved both nuclear and other radioactive materials while the remainder involved other radioactive and non radioactive materials.Also 80% of nuclear material which was recovered during the same period was not reported as stolen or lost.

  10. UAV Mission Planning under Uncertainty

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sakamoto, Philemon

    2006-01-01

    ... exclusively of unmanned vehicles. To properly manage and fully realize the capabilities of this UAV force, a control system must be in place that directs UAVs to targets and coordinates missions in a manner that provides an efficient...

  11. Surf, sand, scrapes and stings: First aid incidents involving children at New Zealand beaches, 2007–2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Kevin; Webber, Jonathon

    2014-03-01

    Aims: In spite of the popularity of beaches for family recreation, little is known about childhood injuries sustained at beaches. It is the purpose of this study to analyse data from incidents necessitating first aid treatment from reports compiled by surf lifeguards on New Zealand beaches.Method: A retrospective analysis of first aid incidents involving children (safety via greater care giver awareness, the use of protective clothing and footwear, and child safety promotion via health professionals and safety organisations are discussed.

  12. Simulation of UAV Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Kaňovský

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The study described in this paper deals with the issue of a design tool for the autopilot of an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV and the selection of the airdata and inertial system sensors. This project was processed in cooperation with VTUL a PVO o.z. [1]. The feature that distinguishes the autopilot requirements of a UAV (Figs. 1, 7, 8 from the flight systems of conventional manned aircraft is the paradox of controlling a high bandwidth dynamical system using sensors that are in harmony with the low cost low weight objectives that UAV designs are often expected to achieve. The principal function of the autopilot is flight stability, which establishes the UAV as a stable airborne platform that can operate at a precisely defined height. The main sensor for providing this height information is a barometric altimeter. The solution to the UAV autopilot design was realised with simulations using the facilities of Matlab® and in particular Simulink®[2]. 

  13. Redefining the impact of nutrition on breast cancer incidence: is epigenetics involved?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teegarden, Dorothy; Romieu, Isabelle; Lelièvre, Sophie A

    2012-06-01

    Breast cancer incidence is rising worldwide with an increase in aggressive neoplasias in young women. Possible factors involved include lifestyle changes, notably diet that is known to make an impact on gene transcription. However, among dietary factors, there is sufficient support for only greater body weight and alcohol consumption whereas numerous studies revealing an impact of specific diets and nutrients on breast cancer risk show conflicting results. Also, little information is available from middle- and low-income countries. The diversity of gene expression profiles found in breast cancers indicates that transcription control is critical for the outcome of the disease. This suggests the need for studies on nutrients that affect epigenetic mechanisms of transcription, such as DNA methylation and post-translational modifications of histones. In the present review, a new examination of the relationship between diet and breast cancer based on transcription control is proposed in light of epidemiological, animal and clinical studies. The mechanisms underlying the impact of diets on breast cancer development and factors that impede reaching clear conclusions are discussed. Understanding the interaction between nutrition and epigenetics (gene expression control via chromatin structure) is critical in light of the influence of diet during early stages of mammary gland development on breast cancer risk, suggesting a persistent effect on gene expression as shown by the influence of certain nutrients on DNA methylation. Successful development of breast cancer prevention strategies will require appropriate models, identification of biological markers for rapid assessment of preventive interventions, and coordinated worldwide research to discern the effects of diet.

  14. Redefining the impact of nutrition on breast cancer incidence: is epigenetics involved?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teegarden, Dorothy; Romieu, Isabelle; Lelièvre, Sophie A.

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer incidence is rising worldwide with an increase in aggressive neoplasias in young women. Possible factors involved include lifestyle changes, notably diet that is known to make an impact on gene transcription. However, among dietary factors, there is sufficient support for only greater body weight and alcohol consumption whereas numerous studies revealing an impact of specific diets and nutrients on breast cancer risk show conflicting results. Also, little information is available from middle- and low-income countries. The diversity of gene expression profiles found in breast cancers indicates that transcription control is critical for the outcome of the disease. This suggests the need for studies on nutrients that affect epigenetic mechanisms of transcription, such as DNA methylation and post-translational modifications of histones. In the present review, a new examination of the relationship between diet and breast cancer based on transcription control is proposed in light of epidemiological, animal and clinical studies. The mechanisms underlying the impact of diets on breast cancer development and factors that impede reaching clear conclusions are discussed. Understanding the interaction between nutrition and epigenetics (gene expression control via chromatin structure) is critical in light of the influence of diet during early stages of mammary gland development on breast cancer risk, suggesting a persistent effect on gene expression as shown by the influence of certain nutrients on DNA methylation. Successful development of breast cancer prevention strategies will require appropriate models, identification of biological markers for rapid assessment of preventive interventions, and coordinated worldwide research to discern the effects of diet. PMID:22853843

  15. HIL Tuning of UAV for Exploration of Risky Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. D. Melita

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the latest results of an HIL architecture, optimized to develop and test UAV platforms are presented. This architecture has been used to realize the different devices involved in the navigation and stability control of the Volcan UAV, a plane designed to operate in volcanic environments. The proposed architecture is strongly modular and flexible and allows the development of avionic hardware and software, testing and tuning the involved algorithms with non-destructive trials. A flight simulator (X-Plane with a suitable plane model and plug-in, has been adopted to simulate the UAV dynamics. The flight simulator, interfaced with the real electronic boards, allows an easy tuning of all the control parameters and data collecting for test and validation. The effectiveness of adopted methodology was confirmed by several flight tests performed subsequently by using the designed avionic modules on the real UAV.

  16. Flight safety measurements of UAVs in congested airspace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Jinwu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Describing spatial safety status is crucial for high-density air traffic involving multiple unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs in a complex environment. A probabilistic approach is proposed to measure safety situation in congested airspace. The occupancy distribution of the airspace is represented with conflict probability between spatial positions and UAV. The concept of a safety envelope related to flight performance and response time is presented first instead of the conventional fixed-size protected zones around aircraft. Consequently, the conflict probability is performance-dependent, and effects of various UAVs on safety can be distinguished. The uncertainty of a UAV future position is explicitly accounted for as Brownian motion. An analytic approximate algorithm for the conflict probability is developed to decrease the computational consumption. The relationship between safety and flight performance are discussed for different response times and prediction intervals. To illustrate the applications of the approach, an experiment of three UAVs in formation flight is performed. In addition, an example of trajectory planning is simulated for one UAV flying over airspace where five UAVs exist. The validation of the approach shows its potential in guaranteeing flight safety in highly dynamic environment.

  17. Aeromagnetic Compensation for UAVs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naprstek, T.; Lee, M. D.

    2017-12-01

    Aeromagnetic data is one of the most widely collected types of data in exploration geophysics. With the continuing prevalence of unmanned air vehicles (UAVs) in everyday life there is a strong push for aeromagnetic data collection using UAVs. However, apart from the many political and legal barriers to overcome in the development of UAVs as aeromagnetic data collection platforms, there are also significant scientific hurdles, primary of which is magnetic compensation. This is a well-established process in manned aircraft achieved through a combination of platform magnetic de-noising and compensation routines. However, not all of this protocol can be directly applied to UAVs due to fundamental differences in the platforms, most notably the decrease in scale causing magnetometers to be significantly closer to the avionics. As such, the methodology must be suitably adjusted. The National Research Council of Canada has collaborated with Aeromagnetic Solutions Incorporated to develop a standardized approach to de-noising and compensating UAVs, which is accomplished through a series of static and dynamic experiments. On the ground, small static tests are conducted on individual components to determine their magnetization. If they are highly magnetic, they are removed, demagnetized, or characterized such that they can be accounted for in the compensation. Dynamic tests can include measuring specific components as they are powered on and off to assess their potential effect on airborne data. The UAV is then flown, and a modified compensation routine is applied. These modifications include utilizing onboard autopilot current sensors as additional terms in the compensation algorithm. This process has been applied with success to fixed-wing and rotary-wing platforms, with both a standard manned-aircraft magnetometer, as well as a new atomic magnetometer, much smaller in scale.

  18. Introduction to UAV systems

    CERN Document Server

    Fahlstrom, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) have been widely adopted in the military world over the last decade and the success of these military applications is increasingly driving efforts to establish unmanned aircraft in non-military roles. Introduction to UAV Systems, 4th edition provides a comprehensive introduction to all of the elements of a complete Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS). It addresses the air vehicle, mission planning and control, several types of mission payloads, data links and how they interact with mission performance, and launch and recovery concepts. This

  19. Health and productivity of commuter railroad employees involved in critical incidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-15

    ABSTRACTThe effects of accidentstermed Critical Incidentson the health and productivity of rail transit workers have not been fully investigated. Anecdotal evidence suggests lasting effects of these incidents. Surveys were obtained from 363 com...

  20. Safer healthcare at home: Detecting, correcting and learning from incidents involving infusion devices

    OpenAIRE

    Lyons, I.; Blandford, A. E.

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Complex medical devices such as infusion pumps are increasingly being used in patients’ homes with little known about the impact on patient safety. Our aim was to better understand the risks to patient safety in this situation and how these risks might be minimised, by reference to incident reports. DESIGN: We identified 606 records of incidents associated with infusion devices that had occurred in a private home and were reported to the UK National Reporting and Learni...

  1. The Diffuse Involvement of Bilateral Breasts in the Incidence of Burkitt's Lymphoma: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Myung Su; Lee, Sa Rah; Yang, Woo Ick; Kim, Eun Kyung [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Hae Kyoung [CHA University, Bundang CHA Hospital, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-12-15

    The incidence of Burkitt's lymphoma involving both breasts is rare. We report such a case that was diagnosed by a core biopsy of a hypoechoic lesion visualized from the ultrasonographic results of a patient that was clinically suspected of mastitis.

  2. Miniature UAVs : An overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weimar, P.W.L.; Kerkkamp, J.S.F.; Wiel, R.A.N.; Meiller, P.P.; Bos, J.G.H.

    2014-01-01

    With this book TNO provides an overview of topics related to Miniature Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (MUAVs). Both novices and experts may find this publication valuable. The Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research TNO conducts research on UAVs and MUAVs, see for example [1], on the

  3. Online UAV Mission Planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, L.; Barros, A.I.; Monsuur, H.; Wagelmans, A.P.M.

    2014-01-01

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) have become an essential asset for military and law enforcement operations. In particular their use for surveillance and reconnaissance tasks has been growing due to the quick developments in the areal systems themselves, sensor technology, and image processing

  4. Safer healthcare at home: Detecting, correcting and learning from incidents involving infusion devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Imogen; Blandford, Ann

    2018-02-01

    Complex medical devices such as infusion pumps are increasingly being used in patients' homes with little known about the impact on patient safety. Our aim was to better understand the risks to patient safety in this situation and how these risks might be minimised, by reference to incident reports. We identified 606 records of incidents associated with infusion devices that had occurred in a private home and were reported to the UK National Reporting and Learning Service (2005-2015 inclusive). We used thematic analysis to identify key themes. In this paper we focus on two emergent themes: detecting and diagnosing incidents; and locating the patient, lay caregivers and their family in incident reports. The majority of incidents were attributed to device malfunction, and resulted in the patient being under-dosed. Delays in recognising and responding to problems were identified, alongside challenges in identifying the cause. We propose a process model for fault diagnosis and correction. Patients and caregivers did not feature strongly in reports; we highlight how the device is in the home but of the care system, and propose an agent model to describe this; we also identify ways of mitigating this disjoint. Devices need to be appropriately tailored to the setting in which they are employed, and within a system of care that ensures they are used optimally and safely. Suggested features to improve patient safety include devices that can provide better feedback to identify problems and support resolution, alongside greater monitoring and technical support by care providers for both patients and frontline professionals. The proposed process and agent models provide a structure for reviewing safety and learning from incidents in home health care. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. Surveillance mission planning for UAVs in GPS-denied urban environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pengfei, Wang

    In this thesis, the issues involved in the mission planning of UAVs for city surveillance have been studied. In this thesis, the research includes two major parts. Firstly, a mission planning system is developed that generates mission plans for a group of fixed-wing UAVs with on-board gimballed cameras to provide continuous surveillance over an urban area. Secondly, the problem of perching location selection (as part of perch-and-stare surveillance mission) for rotary-wing UAVs in a GPS-denied environment is studied. In this kind of mission, a UAV is dispatched to perch on a roof of a building to keep surveillance on a given target. The proposed algorithms to UAV surveillance mission planning (fixed-wing and rotary-wing) have been implemented and tested. It represents an important step towards achieving autonomous planning in UAV surveillance missions.

  6. UAVS and ISR Sensor Technology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Butler, Jeffrey

    2001-01-01

    ...) and sensors for airborne intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance (ISR) data collection, Additionally, recommendations for optimizing the employment and development of ISR UAVs and sensors are addressed...

  7. Contour Detection for UAV-Based Cadastral Mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Crommelinck

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs provide a flexible and low-cost solution for the acquisition of high-resolution data. The potential of high-resolution UAV imagery to create and update cadastral maps is being increasingly investigated. Existing procedures generally involve substantial fieldwork and many manual processes. Arguably, multiple parts of UAV-based cadastral mapping workflows could be automated. Specifically, as many cadastral boundaries coincide with visible boundaries, they could be extracted automatically using image analysis methods. This study investigates the transferability of gPb contour detection, a state-of-the-art computer vision method, to remotely sensed UAV images and UAV-based cadastral mapping. Results show that the approach is transferable to UAV data and automated cadastral mapping: object contours are comprehensively detected at completeness and correctness rates of up to 80%. The detection quality is optimal when the entire scene is covered with one orthoimage, due to the global optimization of gPb contour detection. However, a balance between high completeness and correctness is hard to achieve, so a combination with area-based segmentation and further object knowledge is proposed. The localization quality exhibits the usual dependency on ground resolution. The approach has the potential to accelerate the process of general boundary delineation during the creation and updating of cadastral maps.

  8. Autonomous Control of a Quadrotor UAV Using Fuzzy Logic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sureshkumar, Vijaykumar

    UAVs are being increasingly used today than ever before in both military and civil applications. They are heavily preferred in "dull, dirty or dangerous" mission scenarios. Increasingly, UAVs of all kinds are being used in policing, fire-fighting, inspection of structures, pipelines etc. Recently, the FAA gave its permission for UAVs to be used on film sets for motion capture and high definition video recording. The rapid development in MEMS and actuator technology has made possible a plethora of UAVs that are suited for commercial applications in an increasingly cost effective manner. An emerging popular rotary wing UAV platform is the Quadrotor A Quadrotor is a helicopter with four rotors, that make it more stable; but more complex to model and control. Characteristics that provide a clear advantage over other fixed wing UAVs are VTOL and hovering capabilities as well as a greater maneuverability. It is also simple in construction and design compared to a scaled single rotorcraft. Flying such UAVs using a traditional radio Transmitter-Receiver setup can be a daunting task especially in high stress situations. In order to make such platforms widely applicable, a certain level of autonomy is imperative to the future of such UAVs. This thesis paper presents a methodology for the autonomous control of a Quadrotor UAV using Fuzzy Logic. Fuzzy logic control has been chosen over conventional control methods as it can deal effectively with highly nonlinear systems, allows for imprecise data and is extremely modular. Modularity and adaptability are the key cornerstones of FLC. The objective of this thesis is to present the steps of designing, building and simulating an intelligent flight control module for a Quadrotor UAV. In the course of this research effort, a Quadrotor UAV is indigenously developed utilizing the resources of an online open source project called Aeroquad. System design is comprehensively dealt with. A math model for the Quadrotor is developed and a

  9. Synthesis and validation of flight control for UAV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paw, Yew Chai

    flight control design and architecture used in the UAV autopilot system. Classical and model-based control synthesis approaches are presented for roll angle tracking controller to demonstrate the controller synthesis approaches and practical controller implementation issues on the embedded flight computer system. The last part of work blends in all the previous works into the integrated framework for testing and validation of the synthesized controllers. This involves software-in-the-loop, processor-in-the-loop and flight testing of the synthesized controllers using the integrated framework developed.

  10. RECONNAISSANCE MICRO UAV SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Gabrlik

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the design and implementation of the Uranus UAV. This quad-rotor flying robot was created to extend the abilities of the hitherto developed with airborne missions. The first part deals with the mathematical model of the robot. Next, the control system is designed, and the proposed hardware as well as the implemented software solution are presented. For integration into the robotic system, a new communication protocol was created and is described here too.

  11. Towards a Biosynthetic UAV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, Eli; Byemerwa, Jovita; Dispenza, Ross; Doughty, Benjamin; Gillyard, KaNesha; Godbole, Poorwa; Gonzales-Wright, Jeanette; Hull, Ian; Kannappan, Jotthe; Levine, Alexander; hide

    2014-01-01

    We are currently working on a series of projects towards the construction of a fully biological unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) for use in scientific and humanitarian missions. The prospect of a biologically-produced UAV presents numerous advantages over the current manufacturing paradigm. First, a foundational architecture built by cells allows for construction or repair in locations where it would be difficult to bring traditional tools of production. Second, a major limitation of current research with UAVs is the size and high power consumption of analytical instruments, which require bulky electrical components and large fuselages to support their weight. By moving these functions into cells with biosensing capabilities - for example, a series of cells engineered to report GFP, green fluorescent protein, when conditions exceed a certain threshold concentration of a compound of interest, enabling their detection post-flight - these problems of scale can be avoided. To this end, we are working to engineer cells to synthesize cellulose acetate as a novel bioplastic, characterize biological methods of waterproofing the material, and program this material's systemic biodegradation. In addition, we aim to use an "amberless" system to prevent horizontal gene transfer from live cells on the material to microorganisms in the flight environment.

  12. A radiation contamination incident involving strontium 90 in a private home

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleischmann, A.W.; Button, J.C.E.

    1977-01-01

    In October 1975 a private electronic service contractor, operating in his home workshop, drilled a hole through a Strontium 90 (15 mCi) capsule while attempting to repair a thickness gauge. Four days passed before he became aware of the resultant contamination and notified the authorities. Contamination was spead over himself, his wife, the family pet (a dog), the wokshop and living area of his home, furniture, garden and paths around the house. It took four officers from the Health Commission of New South Wales and another four from the Australian Atomic Energy Commission four weeks to clean the home and surrounds to the levels where the premises would be again occupied. A large amount of electronic equipment, personal belongings and furniture could not be decontaminated and has had to be stored for ultimate disposal. This, in itself, represents a problem because there is no Australian waste burial site and some of the objects, for disposal, are relatively large (e.g. carpets, pieces of furniture, furniture covers, etc.) It is proposed to discuss the incident, decontamination, health aspects and some of the consequences of the incident

  13. Patient Safety Incidents Involving Sick Children in Primary Care in England and Wales: A Mixed Methods Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippa Rees

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The UK performs poorly relative to other economically developed countries on numerous indicators of care quality for children. The contribution of iatrogenic harm to these outcomes is unclear. As primary care is the first point of healthcare contact for most children, we sought to investigate the safety of care provided to children in this setting.We undertook a mixed methods investigation of reports of primary care patient safety incidents involving sick children from England and Wales' National Reporting and Learning System between 1 January 2005 and 1 December 2013. Two reviewers independently selected relevant incident reports meeting prespecified criteria, and then descriptively analyzed these reports to identify the most frequent and harmful incident types. This was followed by an in-depth thematic analysis of a purposive sample of reports to understand the reasons underpinning incidents. Key candidate areas for strengthening primary care provision and reducing the risks of systems failures were then identified through multidisciplinary discussions. Of 2,191 safety incidents identified from 2,178 reports, 30% (n = 658 were harmful, including 12 deaths and 41 cases of severe harm. The children involved in these incidents had respiratory conditions (n = 387; 18%, injuries (n = 289; 13%, nonspecific signs and symptoms, e.g., fever (n = 281; 13%, and gastrointestinal or genitourinary conditions (n = 268; 12%, among others. Priority areas for improvement included safer systems for medication provision in community pharmacies; triage processes to enable effective and timely assessment, diagnosis, and referral of acutely sick children attending out-of-hours services; and enhanced communication for robust safety netting between professionals and parents. The main limitations of this study result from underreporting of safety incidents and variable data quality. Our findings therefore require further exploration in longitudinal studies utilizing

  14. Patient Safety Incidents Involving Sick Children in Primary Care in England and Wales: A Mixed Methods Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Philippa; Edwards, Adrian; Powell, Colin; Hibbert, Peter; Williams, Huw; Makeham, Meredith; Carter, Ben; Luff, Donna; Parry, Gareth; Avery, Anthony; Sheikh, Aziz; Donaldson, Liam; Carson-Stevens, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    The UK performs poorly relative to other economically developed countries on numerous indicators of care quality for children. The contribution of iatrogenic harm to these outcomes is unclear. As primary care is the first point of healthcare contact for most children, we sought to investigate the safety of care provided to children in this setting. We undertook a mixed methods investigation of reports of primary care patient safety incidents involving sick children from England and Wales' National Reporting and Learning System between 1 January 2005 and 1 December 2013. Two reviewers independently selected relevant incident reports meeting prespecified criteria, and then descriptively analyzed these reports to identify the most frequent and harmful incident types. This was followed by an in-depth thematic analysis of a purposive sample of reports to understand the reasons underpinning incidents. Key candidate areas for strengthening primary care provision and reducing the risks of systems failures were then identified through multidisciplinary discussions. Of 2,191 safety incidents identified from 2,178 reports, 30% (n = 658) were harmful, including 12 deaths and 41 cases of severe harm. The children involved in these incidents had respiratory conditions (n = 387; 18%), injuries (n = 289; 13%), nonspecific signs and symptoms, e.g., fever (n = 281; 13%), and gastrointestinal or genitourinary conditions (n = 268; 12%), among others. Priority areas for improvement included safer systems for medication provision in community pharmacies; triage processes to enable effective and timely assessment, diagnosis, and referral of acutely sick children attending out-of-hours services; and enhanced communication for robust safety netting between professionals and parents. The main limitations of this study result from underreporting of safety incidents and variable data quality. Our findings therefore require further exploration in longitudinal studies utilizing case review

  15. Vision based systems for UAV applications

    CERN Document Server

    Kuś, Zygmunt

    2013-01-01

    This monograph is motivated by a significant number of vision based algorithms for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) that were developed during research and development projects. Vision information is utilized in various applications like visual surveillance, aim systems, recognition systems, collision-avoidance systems and navigation. This book presents practical applications, examples and recent challenges in these mentioned application fields. The aim of the book is to create a valuable source of information for researchers and constructors of solutions utilizing vision from UAV. Scientists, researchers and graduate students involved in computer vision, image processing, data fusion, control algorithms, mechanics, data mining, navigation and IC can find many valuable, useful and practical suggestions and solutions. The latest challenges for vision based systems are also presented.

  16. Cryptosporidium hominis genotypes involved in increased incidence and clusters of cases, Navarra, Spain, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, I; Martín, C; Beristain, X; Mazón, A; Saugar, J M; Blanco, A; García Cenoz, M; Valle-Cristia, M; Ezpeleta, C; Castilla, J

    2015-04-01

    SUMMARY Two clusters of confirmed cryptosporidiosis infections were detected in Navarra, Spain, in the summer of 2012, in the context of an increased incidence in the region. Molecular subtyping of Cryptosporidium hominis determined that one cluster, occurring in an urban area, was due to the predominant circulating subtype IbA10G2R2 and the other cluster, with cases occurring in a rural area, was due to a rare subtype IaA18R3. No single exposure was associated with infection, although exposure to certain children's pools was reported by a majority of patients interviewed in each cluster. Genotyping tools were useful in the investigation and could aid investigation of cryptosporidiosis outbreaks in Spain in the future.

  17. Research for new UAV capabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canavan, G.H.; Leadabrand, R.

    1996-07-01

    This paper discusses research for new Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) capabilities. Findings indicate that UAV performance could be greatly enhanced by modest research. Improved sensors and communications enhance near term cost effectiveness. Improved engines, platforms, and stealth improve long term effectiveness.

  18. Incident involving radioactive material at IAEA Safeguards Laboratory - No radioactivity released to environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Pressure build-up in a small sealed sample bottle in a storage safe resulted in plutonium contamination of a storage room at about 02:30 today at the IAEA's Safeguards Analytical Laboratory in Seibersdorf. All indications are that there was no release of radioactivity to the environment. Further monitoring around the laboratory will be undertaken. No one was working in the laboratory at the time. The Laboratory's safety system detected plutonium contamination in the storage room where the safe was located and in two other rooms - subsequently confirmed by a team of IAEA radiation protection experts. The Laboratory is equipped with multiple safety systems, including an air-filtering system to prevent the release of radioactivity to the environment. There will be restricted access to the affected rooms until they are decontaminated. A full investigation of the incident will be conducted. The IAEA has informed the Austrian regulatory authority. The IAEA's Laboratory in Seibersdorf is located within the complex of the Austrian Research Centers Seibersdorf (ARC), about 35 km southeast of Vienna. The laboratory routinely analyses small samples of nuclear material (uranium or plutonium) as part of the IAEA's safeguards verification work. (IAEA)

  19. Acceptability and perceived utility of drone technology among emergency medical service responders and incident commanders for mass casualty incident management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Alexander; Chai, Peter R; Griswold, Matthew K; Lai, Jeffrey T; Boyer, Edward W; Broach, John

    2017-01-01

    This study seeks to understand the acceptability and perceived utility of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) technology to Mass Casualty Incidents (MCI) scene management. Qualitative questionnaires regarding the ease of operation, perceived usefulness, and training time to operate UAVs were administered to Emergency Medical Technicians (n = 15). A Single Urban New England Academic Tertiary Care Medical Center. Front-line emergency medical service (EMS) providers and senior EMS personnel in Incident Commander roles. Data from this pilot study indicate that EMS responders are accepting to deploying and operating UAV technology in a disaster scenario. Additionally, they perceived UAV technology as easy to adopt yet impactful in improving MCI scene management.

  20. DIRECT GEOREFERENCING OF UAVS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bláha

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available UAV systems have become an attractive data acquisition platform in emerging applications. As measuring instrument they extend the lineup of possible surveying methods in the field of geomatics. However, most of UAVs are equipped with low-cost navigation sensors such as GPS or INS, allowing a positioning accuracy of 3 to 5 m. As a result the acquired position- and orientation data fea- tures a low accuracy which implicates that it cannot be used in applications that require high precision data on cm-level (e.g. direct georeferencing. In this paper we will analyze the potential of differential post-processing of GPS data from UAV in order to im- prove the positioning accuracy for applications basing on direct georeferencing. Subsequently, the obtained results are compared and verified with a track of the octocopter carried out with a total station simultaneously to the GPS data acquisition. The results show that the differential post-processing essentially improved the accuracy of the Falcon position data. Thereby the average offset be- tween the data sets (GPS data, track and the corresponding standard deviation is 0.82 m and 0.45 m, respectively. However, under ideal conditions it is even possible to improve this positioning accuracy to the cm-range. Furthermore, there are still several sources of error such as the offset between the GPS antenna of the Falcon 8 and the prism which is used for the track. Considering this fact there is further room for improvement regarding the here discussed positioning method.

  1. Coastal areas mapping using UAV photogrammetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolakopoulos, Konstantinos G.; Kozarski, Dimitrios; Kogkas, Stefanos

    2017-10-01

    The coastal areas in the Patras Gulf suffer degradation due to the sea action and other natural and human-induced causes. Changes in beaches, ports, and other man made constructions need to be assessed, both after severe events and on a regular basis, to build models that can predict the evolution in the future. Thus, reliable spatial data acquisition is a critical process for the identification of the coastline and the broader coastal zones for geologists and other scientists involved in the study of coastal morphology. High resolution satellite data, airphotos and airborne Lidar provided in the past the necessary data for the coastline monitoring. High-resolution digital surface models (DSMs) and orthophoto maps had become a necessity in order to map with accuracy all the variations in costal environments. Recently, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) photogrammetry offers an alternative solution to the acquisition of high accuracy spatial data along the coastline. This paper presents the use of UAV to map the coastline in Rio area Western Greece. Multiple photogrammetric aerial campaigns were performed. A small commercial UAV (DJI Phantom 3 Advance) was used to acquire thousands of images with spatial resolutions better than 5 cm. Different photogrammetric software's were used to orientate the images, extract point clouds, build a digital surface model and produce orthoimage mosaics. In order to achieve the best positional accuracy signalised ground control points were measured with a differential GNSS receiver. The results of this coastal monitoring programme proved that UAVs can replace many of the conventional surveys, with considerable gains in the cost of the data acquisition and without any loss in the accuracy.

  2. The application of micro UAV in construction project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaamin, Masiri; Razali, Siti Nooraiin Mohd; Ahmad, Nor Farah Atiqah; Bukari, Saifullizan Mohd; Ngadiman, Norhayati; Kadir, Aslila Abd; Hamid, Nor Baizura

    2017-10-01

    In every outstanding construction project, there is definitely have an effective construction management. Construction management allows a construction project to be implemented according to plan. Every construction project must have a progress development works that is usually created by the site engineer. Documenting the progress of works is one of the requirements in construction management. In a progress report it is necessarily have a visual image as an evidence. The conventional method used for photographing on the construction site is by using common digital camera which is has few setback comparing to Micro Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV). Besides, site engineer always have a current issues involving limitation of monitoring on high reach point and entire view of the construction site. The purpose of this paper is to provide a concise review of Micro UAV technology in monitoring the progress on construction site through visualization approach. The aims of this study are to replace the conventional method of photographing on construction site using Micro UAV which can portray the whole view of the building, especially on high reach point and allows to produce better images, videos and 3D model and also facilitating site engineer to monitor works in progress. The Micro UAV was flown around the building construction according to the Ground Control Points (GCPs) to capture images and record videos. The images taken from Micro UAV have been processed generate 3D model and were analysed to visualize the building construction as well as monitoring the construction progress work and provides immediate reliable data for project estimation. It has been proven that by using Micro UAV, a better images and videos can give a better overview of the construction site and monitor any defects on high reach point building structures. Not to be forgotten, with Micro UAV the construction site progress is more efficiently tracked and kept on the schedule.

  3. Patient safety incidents involving neuromuscular blockade: analysis of the UK National Reporting and Learning System data from 2006 to 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnot-Smith, J; Smith, A F

    2010-11-01

    Neuromuscular blockade is a powerful anaesthetic tool that has the potential for significant adverse outcomes. We sought to explore the national picture by analysing incidents relating to neuromuscular blockade in anaesthesia from the National Reporting and Learning System from England and Wales between 2006 and 2008. We searched the database of incidents using SNOMED CT search terms and reading the free text of relevant incidents. There were 231 incidents arising from the use or reversal of neuromuscular blocking agents. The main themes identified were: non-availability of drugs (45 incidents, 19%), possible unintentional awareness under general anaesthesia (42 incidents, 18%), potential allergic reaction (31 incidents, 13%), problems with reversal of blockade (13 incidents, 6%), storage (13 incidents, 6%) and prolonged apnoea (11 incidents, 5%). We make recommendations to reduce human error in the use of neuromuscular blocking agents and on future incident reporting in anaesthesia. © 2010 The Authors. Anaesthesia © 2010 The Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland.

  4. An Israeli Military Innovation: UAVs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sanders, Ralph

    2003-01-01

    .... Among the technologies that it has advanced are unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). Even though other nations have conducted experiments with these vehicles, Israel developed and fielded them as battlefield systems...

  5. Evapotranspiration from UAV Images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Helene Hoffmann Munk

    and hence enabling image processing (such as orthorectification and concatenation) within the Agisoft PhotoScan software framework. This thesis contains, to my best knowledge, the first investigation on advanced heat flux modelling based on UAV images (Paper 1) along with the first attempt to directly......Current research on evapotranspiration (ET) is motivated by the growing world population and its demand for food and hence an intensified irrigation of cultivated lands, along with the need to better understand climate changes. ET links the land surface processes to the atmospheric processes...... and is thus of importance in both hydrological, agricultural and atmospheric sciences. Still today, accurate measurements of ET are not achieved easily. The state-of the-art method to measure ET, the eddy covariance method, is associated with uncertainties and its footprint, though at the order of around 1...

  6. Ground Moving Target Engagement by Cooperative UAVs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schumacher, Corey

    2005-01-01

    .... MultiUAV has been used to simulate a Cooperative Moving Target Engagement (CMTE) scenario, with a team of UAVs acting as a sensor and communication network to cooperatively track and attack moving ground targets...

  7. Collaborative UAV Exploration of Hostile Environments

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Luotsinen, Linus J; Gonzalez, Avelino J; Boeloeni, Ladislau

    2004-01-01

    .... UAVs can be lost or significantly damaged during the exploration process. Although employing multiple UAVs can increase the chance of success, their efficiency depends on the collaboration strategies used...

  8. Vision Based Obstacle Detection in Uav Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badrloo, S.; Varshosaz, M.

    2017-08-01

    Detecting and preventing incidence with obstacles is crucial in UAV navigation and control. Most of the common obstacle detection techniques are currently sensor-based. Small UAVs are not able to carry obstacle detection sensors such as radar; therefore, vision-based methods are considered, which can be divided into stereo-based and mono-based techniques. Mono-based methods are classified into two groups: Foreground-background separation, and brain-inspired methods. Brain-inspired methods are highly efficient in obstacle detection; hence, this research aims to detect obstacles using brain-inspired techniques, which try to enlarge the obstacle by approaching it. A recent research in this field, has concentrated on matching the SIFT points along with, SIFT size-ratio factor and area-ratio of convex hulls in two consecutive frames to detect obstacles. This method is not able to distinguish between near and far obstacles or the obstacles in complex environment, and is sensitive to wrong matched points. In order to solve the above mentioned problems, this research calculates the dist-ratio of matched points. Then, each and every point is investigated for Distinguishing between far and close obstacles. The results demonstrated the high efficiency of the proposed method in complex environments.

  9. Developing Operator Models for UAV Search Scheduling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bertuccelli, L.F.; Beckers, N.W.M.; Cummings, M.L.

    2010-01-01

    With the increased use of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs), it is envisioned that UAV operators will become high level mission supervisors, responsible for information management and task planning. In the context of search missions, operators supervising a large number of UAVs can become overwhelmed

  10. Thrust sensing for small UAVs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchman, Christopher Scott

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) have become prevalent in both military and civilian applications. UAVs have many size categories from large-scale aircraft to micro air vehicles. The performance, health, and efficiency for UAVs of smaller sizes can be difficult to assess and few associated instrumentation systems have been developed. Thrust measurements on the ground can characterize systems especially when combined with simultaneous motor power measurements. This thesis demonstrates the use of strain measurements to measure the thrust produced by motor/propeller combinations for such small UAVs. A full-bridge Wheatstone circuit and electrical resistance strain gauges were used in conjunction with constant-stress cantilever beams for static tests and dynamic wind tunnel tests. An associated instrumentation module monitored power from the electric motor. Monitoring the thrust data over time can provide insights into optimal propeller and motor selection and early detection of problems such as component failure. The approach provides a system for laboratory or field measurements that can be scaled for a wide range of small UAVs.

  11. Piattaforme UAV per applicazioni geomatiche

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Remondino

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Un’alternativa efficiente, veloce e low-cost al tradizionale rilievo aereo, ma ancora senza una regolamentazione chiara e con alcuni problemi di stabilità e payload. UAV platforms for geomaticsUAV platforms are nowadays a valuable source of data for inspection, surveillance, mapping and 3D modeling issues. New applications  in  the  short-  and  close-range  domain  are  intro-duced, being the UAVs a low-cost alternatives to the classical manned  aerial  photogrammetry.  Rotary  or  fixed  wing  UAVs, capable  of  performing  the  photogrammetric  data  acquisition  with  amateur  or  SLR  digital  cameras,  can  fly  in  manual, semi-automated and autonomous modes. With a typical photogrammetric  pipeline,  3D  results  like  DSM/DTM,  contour lines, textured 3D models, vector data, etc. can be produced, in a reasonable automated way. The article reports the latest developments of UAV image processing methods for photogrammetric applications with also some insight on regulation and system certifications.

  12. Piattaforme UAV per applicazioni geomatiche

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Remondino

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Un’alternativa efficiente, veloce e low-cost al tradizionale rilievo aereo, ma ancora senza una regolamentazione chiara e con alcuni problemi di stabilità e payload.   UAV platforms for geomatics UAV platforms are nowadays a valuable source of data for inspection, surveillance, mapping and 3D modeling issues. New applications  in  the  short-  and  close-range  domain  are  intro-duced, being the UAVs a low-cost alternatives to the classical manned  aerial  photogrammetry.  Rotary  or  fixed  wing  UAVs, capable  of  performing  the  photogrammetric  data  acquisition  with  amateur  or  SLR  digital  cameras,  can  fly  in  manual, semi-automated and autonomous modes. With a typical photogrammetric  pipeline,  3D  results  like  DSM/DTM,  contour lines, textured 3D models, vector data, etc. can be produced, in a reasonable automated way. The article reports the latest developments of UAV image processing methods for photogrammetric applications with also some insight on regulation and system certifications.

  13. Visual navigation of the UAVs on the basis of 3D natural landmarks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpenko, Simon; Konovalenko, Ivan; Miller, Alexander; Miller, Boris; Nikolaev, Dmitry

    2015-12-01

    This work considers the tracking of the UAV (unmanned aviation vehicle) on the basis of onboard observations of natural landmarks including azimuth and elevation angles. It is assumed that UAV's cameras are able to capture the angular position of reference points and to measure the angles of the sight line. Such measurements involve the real position of UAV in implicit form, and therefore some of nonlinear filters such as Extended Kalman filter (EKF) or others must be used in order to implement these measurements for UAV control. Recently it was shown that modified pseudomeasurement method may be used to control UAV on the basis of the observation of reference points assigned along the UAV path in advance. However, the use of such set of points needs the cumbersome recognition procedure with the huge volume of on-board memory. The natural landmarks serving as such reference points which may be determined on-line can significantly reduce the on-board memory and the computational difficulties. The principal difference of this work is the usage of the 3D reference points coordinates which permits to determine the position of the UAV more precisely and thereby to guide along the path with higher accuracy which is extremely important for successful performance of the autonomous missions. The article suggests the new RANSAC for ISOMETRY algorithm and the use of recently developed estimation and control algorithms for tracking of given reference path under external perturbation and noised angular measurements.

  14. Towards FAA Certification of UAVs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Stacy

    2003-01-01

    As of June 30, 2003, all Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV), no matter how small, must adhere to the same FAA regulations as human-piloted aircraft. These regulations include certification for flying in controlled airspace and certification of flight software based on RTCA DO-178B. This paper provides an overview of the steps necessary to obtain certification, as well as a discussion about the challenges UAV's face when trying to meet these requirements. It is divided into two parts: 1) Certifications for Flying in Controlled Airspace; 2) Certification of Flight Software per RTCA DO-178B.

  15. UAV-kuvaus kiviainesten kartoituksessa

    OpenAIRE

    Jokinen, Ari-Pekka

    2014-01-01

    Tämän insinöörityön tarkoituksena oli selvittää miehittämättömien ilma-alusten soveltuvuutta kiviainesmäärien kartoitukseen sekä luoda yleiskuva UAV-laitteiden toiminnasta. Työ tehtiin projektina Destia Oy:n kiviainesyksikölle. Työn tekemiseksi suoritettiin ilmakuvaus UAV-laitteella Destia Oy:n Murron kiviainestenottoalueella Pornaisissa. Kuvauksessa käytettiin Metropolia Ammattikorkeakoulun senseFly swinglet CAM -lennokkia. Vertailupohjan luomiseksi kohdealueen kiviaineskasat kartoitetti...

  16. Secure Utilization of Beacons and UAVs in Emergency Response Systems for Building Fire Hazard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Seung-Hyun; Choi, Jung-In; Song, Jinseok

    2017-09-25

    An intelligent emergency system for hazard monitoring and building evacuation is a very important application area in Internet of Things (IoT) technology. Through the use of smart sensors, such a system can provide more vital and reliable information to first-responders and also reduce the incidents of false alarms. Several smart monitoring and warning systems do already exist, though they exhibit key weaknesses such as a limited monitoring coverage and security, which have not yet been sufficiently addressed. In this paper, we propose a monitoring and emergency response method for buildings by utilizing beacons and Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) on an IoT security platform. In order to demonstrate the practicability of our method, we also implement a proof of concept prototype, which we call the UAV-EMOR (UAV-assisted Emergency Monitoring and Response) system. Our UAV-EMOR system provides the following novel features: (1) secure communications between UAVs, smart sensors, the control server and a smartphone app for security managers; (2) enhanced coordination between smart sensors and indoor/outdoor UAVs to expand real-time monitoring coverage; and (3) beacon-aided rescue and building evacuation.

  17. Radar sensing via a Micro-UAV-borne system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catapano, Ilaria; Ludeno, Giovanni; Gennarelli, Gianluca; Soldovieri, Francesco; Rodi Vetrella, Amedeo; Fasano, Giancarmine

    2017-04-01

    -equipped drone. The system is made by a commercial radar system, whose mass, size, power and cost budgets is compatible with the installation on micro-UAV. The radar system has been mounted on a DJI 550 UAV, a flexible hexacopter allowing both complex flight operations and static flight, and has been equipped with small size log-periodic antennas, having a 6 dB gain over the frequency range from 2 GHz to 11 GHz. An ad-hoc signal processing chain has been adopted to process the collected raw data and obtain an image of the investigated scenario providing an accurate target detection and localization. This chain involves a SVD-based noise filter procedure and an advanced data processing approach, which assumes a linear model of the underlying scattering phenomenon. REFERENCES [1] K. Whitehead, C. H. Hugenholtz, "Remote sensing of the environment with small unmanned aircraft systems (UASs), part 1: a review of progress and challenges", J. Unmanned Vehicle Systems, vol.2, pp. 69-85, 2014. [2] K. Ouchi, Recent trend and advance of synthetic aperture radar with selected topics, Remote Sens, vol.5, pp.716-807, 2013. [3] D. Altdor et al., UAV-borne electromagnetic induction and ground-penetrating radar measurements: a feasibility test, 74th Annual Meeting of the Deutsche Geophysikalische Gesellschaft in Karlsruhe, Germany, March 9 - 13, 2014.

  18. Haptic Interface for UAV Teleoperation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lam, T.M.

    2009-01-01

    In the teleoperation of an uninhabited aerial vehicle (UAV), the human operator is physically separated from the vehicle and lacks various multiple-sensory information such as sound, motions, and vibrations of the airframe. The operator is usually only provided with visual information, e.g., from

  19. Development of a bio-inspired UAV perching system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Pu

    Although technologies of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) including micro air vehicles (MAVs) have been greatly advanced in the recent years, it is still very difficult for a UAV to perform some very challenging tasks such as perching to any desired spot reliably and agilely like a bird. Unlike the UAVs, the biological control mechanism of birds has been optimized through millions of year evolution and hence, they can perform many extremely maneuverability tasks, such as perching or grasping accurately and robustly. Therefore, we have good reason to learn from the nature in order to significantly improve the capabilities of UAVs. The development of a UAV perching system is becoming feasible, especially after a lot of research contributions in ornithology which involve the analysis of the bird's functionalities. Meanwhile, as technology advances in many engineering fields, such as airframes, propulsion, sensors, batteries, micro-electromechanical-system (MEMS), and UAV technology is also advancing rapidly. All of these research efforts in ornithology and the fast growing development technologies in UAV applications are motivating further interests and development in the area of UAV perching and grasping research. During the last decade, the research contributions about UAV perching and grasping were mainly based on fixed-wing, flapping-wing, and rotorcraft UAVs. However, most of the current researches in UAV systems with perching and grasping capability are focusing on either active (powered) grasping and perching or passive (unpowered) perching. Although birds do have both active and passive perching capabilities depending on their needs, there is no UAV perching system with both capabilities. In this project, we focused on filling this gap. Inspired by the anatomy analysis of bird legs and feet, a novel perching system has been developed to implement the bionics action for both active grasping and passive perching. In addition, for developing a robust and

  20. Characterization of UAV Performance and Development of a Formation Flight Controller for Multiple Small UAVS

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McCarthy, Patrick A

    2006-01-01

    ... (UAV). One area of particular interest is using multiple small UAVs cooperatively to improve mission efficiency, as well as perform missions that couldn't be performed using vehicles independently...

  1. Development of Cloud-Based UAV Monitoring and Management System

    OpenAIRE

    Itkin, Mason; Kim, Mihui; Park, Younghee

    2016-01-01

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) are an emerging technology with the potential to revolutionize commercial industries and the public domain outside of the military. UAVs would be able to speed up rescue and recovery operations from natural disasters and can be used for autonomous delivery systems (e.g., Amazon Prime Air). An increase in the number of active UAV systems in dense urban areas is attributed to an influx of UAV hobbyists and commercial multi-UAV systems. As airspace for UAV flight ...

  2. Observing Crop-Height Dynamics Using a UAV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziliani, M. G.; Parkes, S. D.; McCabe, M.

    2017-12-01

    Retrieval of vegetation height during a growing season is a key indicator for monitoring crop status, offering insight to the forecast yield relative to previous planting cycles. Improvement in Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) technologies, supported by advances in computer vision and photogrammetry software, has enabled retrieval of crop heights with much higher spatial resolution and coverage. These methodologies retrieve a Digital Surface Map (DSM), which combine terrain and crop elements to obtain a Crop Surface Map (CSM). Here we describe an automated method for deriving high resolution CSMs from a DSM, using RGB imagery from a UAV platform. Importantly, the approach does not require the need for a digital terrain map (DTM). The method involves distinguishing between vegetation and bare-ground cover pixels, using vegetation index maps from the RGB orthomosaic derived from the same flight as the DSM. We show that the absolute crop height can be extracted to within several centimeters, exploiting the data captured from a single UAV flight. In addition, the method is applied across five surveys during a maize growing cycle and compared against a terrain map constructed from a baseline UAV survey undertaken prior to crop growth. Results show that the approach is able to reproduce the observed spatial variability of the crop height within the maize field throughout the duration of the growing season. This is particularly valuable since it may be employed to detect intra-field problems (i.e. fertilizer variability, inefficiency in the irrigation system, salinity etc.) at different stages of the season, from which remedial action can be initiated to mitigate against yield loss. The method also demonstrates that UAV imagery combined with commercial photogrammetry software can determine a CSM from a single flight without the requirement of a prior DTM. This, together with the dynamic crop height estimation, provide useful information with which to inform precision

  3. UAV State Estimation Modeling Techniques in AHRS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razali, Shikin; Zhahir, Amzari

    2017-11-01

    Autonomous unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) system is depending on state estimation feedback to control flight operation. Estimation on the correct state improves navigation accuracy and achieves flight mission safely. One of the sensors configuration used in UAV state is Attitude Heading and Reference System (AHRS) with application of Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) or feedback controller. The results of these two different techniques in estimating UAV states in AHRS configuration are displayed through position and attitude graphs.

  4. The AIVA fly-by-wireless UAV platform

    OpenAIRE

    Coelho, Ezequiel T.; Carvalhal, Paulo; Ferreira, Manuel João Oliveira; Silva, Luís F.; Almeida, Heitor; Santos, Cristina; Afonso, José A.

    2006-01-01

    The AIVA project concerns to an UAV aimed to perform aerial surveillance, forest fire detection and also to monitor high voltage cables for stress or failures. The global project involves the design and development of the required aerial platform, as well as the electronics, communications hardware and software, flight control, artificial vision and systems integration, in order to provide an autonomous takeoff, flight mission and landing manoeuvres. Relevant goals, regarding t...

  5. Standing "the Watches" with Armed UAVs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McCulloch, Francis

    2002-01-01

    ...). Specifically, the writer argues that the intelligent use and support of armed UAVs can replace selected missions currently being conducted in Operations Northern Watch and Southern Watch, reducing...

  6. UAV PHOTOGRAMMETRY: BLOCK TRIANGULATION COMPARISONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Gini

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available UAVs systems represent a flexible technology able to collect a big amount of high resolution information, both for metric and interpretation uses. In the frame of experimental tests carried out at Dept. ICA of Politecnico di Milano to validate vector-sensor systems and to assess metric accuracies of images acquired by UAVs, a block of photos taken by a fixed wing system is triangulated with several software. The test field is a rural area included in an Italian Park ("Parco Adda Nord", useful to study flight and imagery performances on buildings, roads, cultivated and uncultivated vegetation. The UAV SenseFly, equipped with a camera Canon Ixus 220HS, flew autonomously over the area at a height of 130 m yielding a block of 49 images divided in 5 strips. Sixteen pre-signalized Ground Control Points, surveyed in the area through GPS (NRTK survey, allowed the referencing of the block and accuracy analyses. Approximate values for exterior orientation parameters (positions and attitudes were recorded by the flight control system. The block was processed with several software: Erdas-LPS, EyeDEA (Univ. of Parma, Agisoft Photoscan, Pix4UAV, in assisted or automatic way. Results comparisons are given in terms of differences among digital surface models, differences in orientation parameters and accuracies, when available. Moreover, image and ground point coordinates obtained by the various software were independently used as initial values in a comparative adjustment made by scientific in-house software, which can apply constraints to evaluate the effectiveness of different methods of point extraction and accuracies on ground check points.

  7. Roving UAV IED Interdiction System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    fully and correctly engaged. Prior to UAV launch, any weapons domes, fiber optics, and electrical connector covers should be removed. Connections...unguided propelled rocket rounds identified during the weapons search were found to be overweight for the Tier II platform and were not considered...weapons were found to be overweight and were screened out of further analysis. Two of the remaining weapons are developmental, while three are in current

  8. An evaluation of rabies vaccination rates among canines and felines involved in biting incidents within the Wellington-Dufferin-Guelph Public Health Department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottoms, K; Trotz-Williams, L; Hutchison, S; MacLeod, J; Dixon, J; Berke, O; Poljak, Z

    2014-11-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the rate of animal bite incidents occurring in the human population of a local health department, and to determine the proportion of these canines and felines that were not up to date on their rabies vaccination at the time the incident occurred. Data were obtained from animal bite incidents reported to Wellington-Dufferin-Guelph Public Health during 2010 and 2011. Descriptive statistics of 718 eligible reports revealed the average rate of animal biting was 1.55 bites per 1000 residents per year. Approximately 54% of these animals were vaccinated against rabies, 32% were not up to date with their rabies vaccination, and the remaining 14.5% were of unknown status. The unit of analysis was the municipality, and the four outcomes of interest were: (i) number of animal bite incidents per 1000 residents, (ii) number of dog bite incidents per 1000 residents, (iii) proportion of animals involved in bite incidents that were not up to date with their rabies vaccination, and (iv) proportion of dogs that were not up to date. Associations between the outcomes and selected demographic variables were investigated using regression analysis. The number of veterinary clinics per 10,000 residents, and whether the municipality was urban or rural were identified as significant predictors for the number of animal bites per 1000 residents, and the number of dog bites. There were no significant predictors for the proportion of unvaccinated animals or dogs. Spatial clustering and the location of spatial clusters were assessed using the empirical Bayes index and spatial scan test. This analysis identified five municipalities within the health department that have a high rate of biting incidents and a high proportion of animals that were not up to date on their rabies vaccination. Such municipalities are ideal for targeted educational campaigns regarding the importance of vaccination in pets. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  9. Mini UAV as an improvised air threat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraker, K.J. de; Wiel, R.A.N. van de

    2013-01-01

    The use of UAVs for military and law enforcement purposes is increasing dramatically. Simultaneously, possible opponents are also developing UAV capabilities that they may deploy for their purposes. For example, a terrorist may deploy a commercially available model airplane or multicopter with an

  10. Landing spot selection for UAV emergency landing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eendebak, P.T.; Eekeren, A.W.M. van; Hollander, R.J.M. den

    2013-01-01

    We present a robust method for landing zone selection using obstacle detection to be used for UAV emergency landings. The method is simple enough to allow real-time implementation on a UAV system. The method is able to detect objects in the presence of camera movement and motion parallax. Using the

  11. Data & Image Fusion for Multisensor UAV Payload

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Echard, Paul; Lamarre, Herve; Gosselin, Patrick

    2005-01-01

    .... *Proposition of Over-the-Hill mini-UAV concepts in the frame of FELIN. This position has notably been acquired thanks to the long term know-how of SAGEM in several domains, particularly critical in the design of a UAV system...

  12. SLIC superpixels for object delineation UAV data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crommelinck, Sophie Charlotte; Bennett, R.M.; Gerke, Markus; Koeva, M.N.; Yang, M.Y.; Vosselman, G.; Stachniss, C.; Förstner, W.; Schneider, J.

    2017-01-01

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) are increasingly investigated with regard to their potential to create and update (cadastral) maps. UAVs provide a flexible and low-cost platform for high-resolution data, from which object outlines can be accurately delineated. This delineation could be automated with

  13. Uav Photgrammetric Workflows: a best Practice Guideline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federman, A.; Santana Quintero, M.; Kretz, S.; Gregg, J.; Lengies, M.; Ouimet, C.; Laliberte, J.

    2017-08-01

    The increasing commercialization of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) has opened the possibility of performing low-cost aerial image acquisition for the documentation of cultural heritage sites through UAV photogrammetry. The flying of UAVs in Canada is regulated through Transport Canada and requires a Special Flight Operations Certificate (SFOC) in order to fly. Various image acquisition techniques have been explored in this review, as well as well software used to register the data. A general workflow procedure has been formulated based off of the literature reviewed. A case study example of using UAV photogrammetry at Prince of Wales Fort is discussed, specifically in relation to the data acquisition and processing. Some gaps in the literature reviewed highlight the need for streamlining the SFOC application process, and incorporating UAVs into cultural heritage documentation courses.

  14. Persistent Aerial Tracking system for UAVs

    KAUST Repository

    Mueller, Matthias

    2016-12-19

    In this paper, we propose a persistent, robust and autonomous object tracking system for unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) called Persistent Aerial Tracking (PAT). A computer vision and control strategy is applied to a diverse set of moving objects (e.g. humans, animals, cars, boats, etc.) integrating multiple UAVs with a stabilized RGB camera. A novel strategy is employed to successfully track objects over a long period, by ‘handing over the camera’ from one UAV to another. We evaluate several state-of-the-art trackers on the VIVID aerial video dataset and additional sequences that are specifically tailored to low altitude UAV target tracking. Based on the evaluation, we select the leading tracker and improve upon it by optimizing for both speed and performance, integrate the complete system into an off-the-shelf UAV, and obtain promising results showing the robustness of our solution in real-world aerial scenarios.

  15. UAV Path Planning using MILP with Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders Albert

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we look at the problem of tracking icebergs using multiple Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs. Our solutions use combinatorial optimization for UAV path planning by formulating a mixed integer linear programing (MILP optimization problem. To demonstrate the approach, we present both a simulation and a practical experiment. The simulation demonstrates the possibilities of the MILP algorithm by constructing a case where three UAVs help a boat make a safe passage through an area with icebergs. Furthermore, we compare the performance of three against a single UAV. In the practical experiment, we take the first step towards full-scale experiments. We run the algorithm on a ground station and use it to set the path for a UAV tracking five simulated icebergs.

  16. Patient involvement in patient safety: Protocol for developing an intervention using patient reports of organisational safety and patient incident reporting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Patients have the potential to provide a rich source of information on both organisational aspects of safety and patient safety incidents. This project aims to develop two patient safety interventions to promote organisational learning about safety - a patient measure of organisational safety (PMOS), and a patient incident reporting tool (PIRT) - to help the NHS prevent patient safety incidents by learning more about when and why they occur. Methods To develop the PMOS 1) literature will be reviewed to identify similar measures and key contributory factors to error; 2) four patient focus groups will ascertain practicality and feasibility; 3) 25 patient interviews will elicit approximately 60 items across 10 domains; 4) 10 patient and clinician interviews will test acceptability and understanding. Qualitative data will be analysed using thematic content analysis. To develop the PIRT 1) individual and then combined patient and clinician focus groups will provide guidance for the development of three potential reporting tools; 2) nine wards across three hospital directorates will pilot each of the tools for three months. The best performing tool will be identified from the frequency, volume and quality of reports. The validity of both measures will be tested. 300 patients will be asked to complete the PMOS and PIRT during their stay in hospital. A sub-sample (N = 50) will complete the PMOS again one week later. Health professionals in participating wards will also be asked to complete the AHRQ safety culture questionnaire. Case notes for all patients will be reviewed. The psychometric properties of the PMOS will be assessed and a final valid and reliable version developed. Concurrent validity for the PIRT will be assessed by comparing reported incidents with those identified from case note review and the existing staff reporting scheme. In a subsequent study these tools will be used to provide information to wards/units about their priorities for patient

  17. Patient involvement in patient safety: Protocol for developing an intervention using patient reports of organisational safety and patient incident reporting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armitage Gerry

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients have the potential to provide a rich source of information on both organisational aspects of safety and patient safety incidents. This project aims to develop two patient safety interventions to promote organisational learning about safety - a patient measure of organisational safety (PMOS, and a patient incident reporting tool (PIRT - to help the NHS prevent patient safety incidents by learning more about when and why they occur. Methods To develop the PMOS 1 literature will be reviewed to identify similar measures and key contributory factors to error; 2 four patient focus groups will ascertain practicality and feasibility; 3 25 patient interviews will elicit approximately 60 items across 10 domains; 4 10 patient and clinician interviews will test acceptability and understanding. Qualitative data will be analysed using thematic content analysis. To develop the PIRT 1 individual and then combined patient and clinician focus groups will provide guidance for the development of three potential reporting tools; 2 nine wards across three hospital directorates will pilot each of the tools for three months. The best performing tool will be identified from the frequency, volume and quality of reports. The validity of both measures will be tested. 300 patients will be asked to complete the PMOS and PIRT during their stay in hospital. A sub-sample (N = 50 will complete the PMOS again one week later. Health professionals in participating wards will also be asked to complete the AHRQ safety culture questionnaire. Case notes for all patients will be reviewed. The psychometric properties of the PMOS will be assessed and a final valid and reliable version developed. Concurrent validity for the PIRT will be assessed by comparing reported incidents with those identified from case note review and the existing staff reporting scheme. In a subsequent study these tools will be used to provide information to wards/units about their

  18. Fault tolerant UAV`s are coming; Fault tolerant mujinki jidai no torai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sumita, J.

    1999-06-05

    This paper explains a concept of UAV (unmanned aviation vehicle). Previous UAV`s have achieved success because of their simple system and simple operation. However, for future UAV`s, higher reliability and safety than those of ordinary aircraft are strongly required with a rise in expectation for mission to be executed. In other words, future UAV`s should aim at a fault tolerant system featured by autonomous operation and less than 10{sup -9} fault/hour reliability. Recently ordinary aircraft also came to adopt auto-sequence control for flight control systems to achieve considerably high programmed automatic control from takeoff to landing. A UAV with an autonomous operation function possible to return to a base was also developed. A system reliability of a 10{sup -9} level against flight critical phenomena is required for ordinary commercial aircraft. It is supposed that a reliability equivalent to or more than the above reliability will be required for UAV`s as system design requirement in the near future. (NEDO)

  19. Effects of UAVs on interstate relationships: a case study of U.S. relations with Pakistan and Yemen

    OpenAIRE

    Pagan, David S.

    2015-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited In the wake of the attacks of September 11, 2001, the United States of America embarked upon a major counter-terrorism campaign against al Qaeda and its affiliates. The conflict has involved ground combat operations in Afghanistan, as well as ancillary actions in Pakistan, Yemen and Somalia. In all of these theaters, the use of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) has increased dramatically; in recent years, armed UAVs have been used to con...

  20. Visual Inspection of Historical Buildings Using Micro UAV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaamin Masiri

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The historical building is one of the country’s heritage that needs to be taken care of failures in design and structure. Damage or dilapidation study that conducted by Conservation of Historical Building Guide Lines that practices for documentation any problems and defects in buildings. The stages to be followed to determine the damage was shooting photos for every element studied. Photo has been taken directly or by using stair for higher parts of structures. Inspection of the historical building should be emphasized to ensure that the building is in a safe condition for long periods. This research aims is to investigate the historical building defects by using Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV to identify the type of defects occur at the exterior structure of museum. The case study is building of Perak Museum that located at Taiping, Perak. The process involved in this study are planning and preparation before the flight, data acquisition using UAV, image processing and analyzing data from video to image. The result of analysis, a total numbers of 91 locations have been identified and documented suffer from defects or faults such as frame decayed, vegetation, perforated pipe and crack. All defects information obtained suing UAV visual inspection can help the museum maintainance team for conservation and maintainace work.

  1. Uav Positioning and Collision Avoidance Based on RSS Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masiero, A.; Fissore, F.; Guarnieri, A.; Pirotti, F.; Vettore, A.

    2015-08-01

    In recent years, Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) are attracting more and more attention in both the research and industrial communities: indeed, the possibility to use them in a wide range of remote sensing applications makes them a very flexible and attractive solution in both civil and commercial cases (e.g. precision agriculture, security and control, monitoring of sites, exploration of areas difficult to reach). Most of the existing UAV positioning systems rely on the use of the GPS signal. Despite this can be a satisfactory solution in open environments where the GPS signal is available, there are several operating conditions of interest where it is unavailable or unreliable (e.g. close to high buildings, or mountains, in indoor environments). Consequently, a different approach has to be adopted in these cases. This paper considers the use ofWiFi measurements in order to obtain position estimations of the device of interest. More specifically, to limit the costs for the devices involved in the positioning operations, an approach based on radio signal strengths (RSS) measurements is considered. Thanks to the use of a Kalman filter, the proposed approach takes advantage of the temporal dynamic of the device of interest in order to improve the positioning results initially provided by means of maximum likelihood estimations. The considered UAVs are assumed to be provided with communication devices, which can allow them to communicate with each other in order to improve their cooperation abilities. In particular, the collision avoidance problem is examined in this work.

  2. Commercial vs professional UAVs for mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolakopoulos, Konstantinos G.; Koukouvelas, Ioannis

    2017-09-01

    The continuous advancements in the technology behind Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs), in accordance with the consecutive decrease to their cost and the availability of photogrammetric software, make the use of UAVs an excellent tool for large scale mapping. In addition with the use of UAVs, the problems of increased costs, time consumption and the possible terrain accessibility problems, are significantly reduced. However, despite the growing number of UAV applications there has been a little quantitative assessment of UAV performance and of the quality of the derived products (orthophotos and Digital Surface Models). Here, we present results from field experiments designed to evaluate the accuracy of photogrammetrically-derived digital surface models (DSM) developed from imagery acquired with onboard digital cameras. We also show the comparison of the high resolution vs moderate resolution imagery for largescale geomorphic mapping. The acquired data analyzed in this study comes from a small commercial and a professional UAV. The test area was mapped using the same photogrammetric grid by the two UAVs. 3D models, DSMs and orthophotos were created using special software. Those products were compared to in situ survey measurements and the results are presented in this paper.

  3. Modelling and control of a hexarotor UAV

    OpenAIRE

    Lindblom, Simon; Lundmark, Adam

    2015-01-01

    This thesis is a study of modelling and control of a multirotor unmanned aerial vehicle(UAV). On behalf of Intuitive Aerial, a model of their hexarotor aircraft has been developedas a tool in further development and testing of their product. The potential of using ModelPredictive Control (MPC) as control method for multirotor UAV:s has also been evaluated.The model was successfully implemented in MATLAB/Simulink, as was the Model Predic-tive Controller. Quaternion angle representation has bee...

  4. EMERGENCY RADIATION SURVEY DEVICE ONBOARD THE UAV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Bogatov

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Radiation survey device (RSD on the base of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV was developed as an equipment of rescue forces for radiation situation reconnaissance in case of emergency. RSD is multi range radiometer with spectrometer functions capable to work within gamma ray fields of dose rate 10–7 – 10–1 Sievert per hour. UAV md4-1000 (Microdrones GmbH, Germany was selected as the RSD carrier as a reliable vehicle with appropriate properties. Short description of RSD, UAV and developed software features as well as sensitivity assessments for different radiation sources are presented.

  5. Integration of Autonomous UAVs into Multi-agent Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Selecký

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs have attracted much attention both in the research field and in the field of commercial deployment. Researchers recently started to study problems and opportunities connected with the usage, deployment and operation of teams of multiple autonomous UAVs. These multi-UAV scenarios are by their nature well suited to be modelled and simulated as multi-agent systems. In this paper we present solutions to the problems that we had to deal with in the process of integrating two hardware UAVs into an existing multi-agent simulation system with additional virtual UAVs, resulting in a mixed reality system where hardware UAVs and virtual UAVs can co-exist, coordinate their flight and cooperate on common tasks. Hardware UAVs are capable of on-board planning and reasoning, and can cooperate and coordinate their movement with one another, and also with virtual UAVs.

  6. Thermodynamical properties and deexcitation of sources involved in collisions between light nuclei around 100 AMeV incident energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borderie, B.; Gulminelli, F.; Rivet, M.F.; Dore, D.; Tassan-Got, L.; Bacri, Ch.O.; Ouatizerga, A.; Plagnol, E.; Squalli, M.; Chbihi, A.; Auger, G.; Benlliure, J.; Ecomard, P.; Le Fevre, A.; Marie, N.; Rosato, E.; Saint-Laurent, F.; Wieleczko, J.P.; Durand, D.; Bougault, R.; Brou, R.; Colin, J.; Cussol, D.; Laforest, R.; Lecolley, J.F.; Lefort, T.; Lopez, O.; Louvel, M.; Metivier, V.; Peter, J.; Steckmeyer, J.C.; Tamain, B.; Vient, E.; Parlog, M.; Bisquer, E.; Demeyer, A.; Guinet, D.; Lautesse, P.; Lebreton, L.; Charvet, J.L.; Dayras, R.; De Filippo, E.; Legrain, R.; Nalpas, L.; Volant, C.; Eudes, Ph.; Gourio, D.; Laville, J.L.; Rahmani, A.; Reposeur, T.

    1997-01-01

    Vaporization events, where all species have atomic numbers lower than 3, and deexcitation properties of quasi-projectiles involved in binary dissipative collisions between 36 Ar and 58 Ni are studied with the multidetector INDRA. Kinematical properties and chemical composition (mean values and variances) of vaporizing sources are derived over the excitation energy per nucleon range 8-28 MeV. These data are found in good agreement with the results of a model describing a gas of fermions and bosons in thermal and chemical equilibrium, which strongly suggests that thermodynamical equilibrium has been reached even for such sources produced in very extreme conditions of collisions. Finally, removing the constraint on atomic numbers lower than 3, the evolution of the chemical composition of quasi-projectiles is presented over the excitation energy range 0-25 AMeV. (authors)

  7. UAV payload and mission control hardware/software architecture

    OpenAIRE

    Pastor Llorens, Enric; López Rubio, Juan; Royo Chic, Pablo

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents an embedded hardware/software architecture specially designed to be applied on mini/micro Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV). An UAV is low-cost non-piloted airplane designed to operate in D-cube (Dangerous-Dirty-Dull) situations [8]. Many types of UAVs exist today; however with the advent of UAV's civil applications, the class of mini/micro UAVs is emerging as a valid option in a commercial scenario. This type of UAV shares limitations with most computer embedded systems: lim...

  8. Distributed Flight Controls for UAVs Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Two novel flight control actuation concepts for UAV applications are proposed for research and development, both of which incorporate shape memory alloy (SMA) wires...

  9. Distributed Flight Controls for UAVs, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Two novel flight control actuation concepts for UAV applications are proposed for prototype development, both of which incorporate shape memory alloy (SMA) wires as...

  10. Standing "the Watches" with Armed UAVs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McCulloch, Francis

    2002-01-01

    This paper addresses the additional Options available to the operational commander in charge of conducting 'presence and monitoring' missions with the introduction of an armed capability on Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs...

  11. Battery Health Management System for Electric UAVs

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In summary, this paper lays out a novel battery health management technique for application onboard an electric UAV. This technique is also applicable to other...

  12. Aerial photogrammetry procedure optimized for micro uav

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Anai

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes the automatic aerial photogrammetry procedure optimized for Micro UAV that has ability of autonomous flight. The most important goal of our proposed method is the reducing the processing cost for fully automatic reconstruction of DSM from a large amount of image obtained from Micro UAV. For this goal, we have developed automatic corresponding point generation procedure using feature point tracking algorithm considering position and attitude information, which obtained from onboard GPS-IMU integrated on Micro UAV. In addition, we have developed the automatic exterior orientation and registration procedure from the automatic generated corresponding points on each image and position and attitude information from Micro UAV. Moreover, in order to reconstruct precise DSM, we have developed the area base matching process which considering edge information. In this paper, we describe processing flow of our automatic aerial photogrammetry. Moreover, the accuracy assessment is also described. Furthermore, some application of automatic reconstruction of DSM will be desired.

  13. UAV-Based Sensor Web Monitoring System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiko Nagai

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available An unmanned aerial vehicle- (UAV- based monitoring system is developed as an intermediate system between aerial survey and ground survey. All the measurement tools are mounted on the UAV to acquire detailed information from low altitudes which is different from a satellite or a plane. The monitoring is carried out from the sky, but the spatial and temporal resolutions are freely selected near the ground. In this study, the data is easily acquired with safety and mobility by the utilization of a sensor web. A sensor web is a type of sensor network which is well suited for environmental monitoring. Sensor nodes are spatially distributed and wirelessly communicate with each other. In this study, the UAV-based system is considered as a mobile sensor node. This study proposes a combination of UAV-based monitoring with a ubiquitous sensor network.

  14. Distributed Flight Controls for UAVs, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Two novel flight control actuation concepts for UAV applications are proposed for research and development, both of which incorporate shape memory alloy (SMA) wires...

  15. Magnetometer for Balloons and UAVs Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Phase I SBIR project will investigate a new, low-cost approach to atomic magnetometry that is suited for operation from UAVs and research balloons. Atomic...

  16. Long Endurance Flight Schemes for UAVs Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A method for providing endurance enhancement for unmanned aerial vehicles based on atmospheric phenomena is presented. The proposed method allows the UAV to sense...

  17. Cycloidal Propulsion for UAV VTOL Applications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Boschma, James

    1998-01-01

    .... This propulsion concept holds significant promise for adaptation to UAV VTOL operations. Thrust levels demonstrated were substantially higher than achievable by the best screw type propellers, and approximately equal to those of high end helicopters...

  18. Nonlinear Landing Control for Quadrotor UAVs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voos, Holger

    Quadrotor UAVs are one of the most preferred type of small unmanned aerial vehicles because of the very simple mechanical construction and propulsion principle. However, the nonlinear dynamic behavior requires a more advanced stabilizing control and guidance of these vehicles. In addition, the small payload reduces the amount of batteries that can be carried and thus also limits the operating range of the UAV. One possible solution for a range extension is the application of a mobile base station for recharging purpose even during operation. However, landing on a moving base station requires autonomous tracking and landing control of the UAV. In this paper, a nonlinear autopilot for quadrotor UAVs is extended with a tracking and landing controller to fulfill the required task.

  19. Uav Application in Coastal Environment, Example of the Oleron Island for Dunes and Dikes Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillot, B.; Pouget, F.

    2015-08-01

    The recent evolutions in civil UAV ease of use led the University of La Rochelle to conduct an UAV program around its own potential costal application. An application program involving La Rochelle University and the District of Oleron Island began in January 2015 and lasted through July of 2015. The aims were to choose 9 study areas and survey them during the winter season. The studies concerned surveying the dikes and coastal sand dunes of Oleron Island. During each flight, an action sport camera fixed on the UAV's brushless gimbal took a series of 150 pictures. After processing the photographs and using a 3D reconstruction plugin via Photoscan, we were able to export high-resolution ortho-imagery, DSM and 3D models. After applying GIS treatment to these images, volumetric evolutions between flights were revealed through a DDVM (Difference of Digital volumetric Model), in order to study sand movements on coastal sand dunes.

  20. A Robust Photogrammetric Processing Method of Low-Altitude UAV Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingyao Ai

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Low-altitude Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV images which include distortion, illumination variance, and large rotation angles are facing multiple challenges of image orientation and image processing. In this paper, a robust and convenient photogrammetric approach is proposed for processing low-altitude UAV images, involving a strip management method to automatically build a standardized regional aerial triangle (AT network, a parallel inner orientation algorithm, a ground control points (GCPs predicting method, and an improved Scale Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT method to produce large number of evenly distributed reliable tie points for bundle adjustment (BA. A multi-view matching approach is improved to produce Digital Surface Models (DSM and Digital Orthophoto Maps (DOM for 3D visualization. Experimental results show that the proposed approach is robust and feasible for photogrammetric processing of low-altitude UAV images and 3D visualization of products.

  1. Change Detection Experiments Using Low Cost UAVs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Michael J.; Vranas, Thomas L.; Motter, Mark; Hines, Glenn D.; Rahman, Zia-ur

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents the progress in the development of a low-cost change-detection system. This system is being developed to provide users with the ability to use a low-cost unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) and image processing system that can detect changes in specific fixed ground locations using video provided by an autonomous UAV. The results of field experiments conducted with the US Army at Ft. A.P.Hill are presented.

  2. Modeling retrospective attribution of responsibility to hazard-managing institutions: an example involving a food contamination incident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Branden B; Hallman, William K; Cuite, Cara L

    2015-03-01

    Perceptions of institutions that manage hazards are important because they can affect how the public responds to hazard events. Antecedents of trust judgments have received far more attention than antecedents of attributions of responsibility for hazard events. We build upon a model of retrospective attribution of responsibility to individuals to examine these relationships regarding five classes of institutions that bear responsibility for food safety: producers (e.g., farmers), processors (e.g., packaging firms), watchdogs (e.g., government agencies), sellers (e.g., supermarkets), and preparers (e.g., restaurants). A nationally representative sample of 1,200 American adults completed an Internet-based survey in which a hypothetical scenario involving contamination of diverse foods with Salmonella served as the stimulus event. Perceived competence and good intentions of the institution moderately decreased attributions of responsibility. A stronger factor was whether an institution was deemed (potentially) aware of the contamination and free to act to prevent or mitigate it. Responsibility was rated higher the more aware and free the institution. This initial model for attributions of responsibility to impersonal institutions (as opposed to individual responsibility) merits further development. © 2014 Society for Risk Analysis.

  3. Organization of public authorities in France for the event of an incident or accident involving nuclear safety: Simulation of a nuclear crisis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cartigny, J.; Majorel, Y.

    1986-01-01

    The French nuclear safety regulations lay down the action to be taken in the event of an incident or accident involving the types of radiological hazard that could arise in a nuclear installation or during the transport of radioactive material. The organization established for this purpose is designed to ensure that the technical measures taken by the authorities responsible for nuclear safety, radiation protection, public order and public safety are fully effective. The Interministerial Nuclear Safety Committee (Comite interministeriel de la securite nucleaire), which reports to the Prime Minister, co-ordinates the measures taken by the public authorities. The public authorities and the operators together organize exercises designed to verify the whole complex of measures foreseen in the event of an incident or accident. These exercises, which have been carried out in a systematic manner in France for some years, are based on scenarios which are as realistic as possible and enable the following objectives to be achieved: (1) analysis of the crisis apparatus (ORSECRAD plans, individual intervention plans, information conventions); (2) uncovering gaps or inadequacies; (3) arrangements for interchange of information between the various participants whose responsibilities involve them in the emergency; and (4) allowance for the information requirements of the media and the population. The information drawn from these exercises enables the various procedures to be improved step by step. (author)

  4. A Benchmark and Simulator for UAV Tracking

    KAUST Repository

    Mueller, Matthias

    2016-09-16

    In this paper, we propose a new aerial video dataset and benchmark for low altitude UAV target tracking, as well as, a photorealistic UAV simulator that can be coupled with tracking methods. Our benchmark provides the first evaluation of many state-of-the-art and popular trackers on 123 new and fully annotated HD video sequences captured from a low-altitude aerial perspective. Among the compared trackers, we determine which ones are the most suitable for UAV tracking both in terms of tracking accuracy and run-time. The simulator can be used to evaluate tracking algorithms in real-time scenarios before they are deployed on a UAV “in the field”, as well as, generate synthetic but photo-realistic tracking datasets with automatic ground truth annotations to easily extend existing real-world datasets. Both the benchmark and simulator are made publicly available to the vision community on our website to further research in the area of object tracking from UAVs. (https://ivul.kaust.edu.sa/Pages/pub-benchmark-simulator-uav.aspx.). © Springer International Publishing AG 2016.

  5. UAV ONBOARD GPS IN POSITIONING DETERMINATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. N. Tahar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The establishment of ground control points is a critical issue in mapping field, especially for large scale mapping. The fast and rapid technique for ground control point’s establishment is very important for small budget projects. UAV onboard GPS has the ability to determine the point positioning. The objective of this research is to assess the accuracy of unmanned aerial vehicle onboard global positioning system in positioning determination. Therefore, this research used UAV onboard GPS as an alternative to determine the point positioning at the selected area. UAV is one of the powerful tools for data acquisition and it is used in many applications all over the world. This research concentrates on the error contributed from the UAV onboard GPS during observation. There are several points that have been used to study the pattern of positioning error. All errors were analyzed in world geodetic system 84- coordinate system, which is the basic coordinate system used by the global positioning system. Based on this research, the result of UAV onboard GPS positioning could be used in ground control point establishment with the specific error. In conclusion, accurate GCP establishment could be achieved using UAV onboard GPS by applying a specific correction based on this research.

  6. Development of Cloud-Based UAV Monitoring and Management System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mason Itkin

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs are an emerging technology with the potential to revolutionize commercial industries and the public domain outside of the military. UAVs would be able to speed up rescue and recovery operations from natural disasters and can be used for autonomous delivery systems (e.g., Amazon Prime Air. An increase in the number of active UAV systems in dense urban areas is attributed to an influx of UAV hobbyists and commercial multi-UAV systems. As airspace for UAV flight becomes more limited, it is important to monitor and manage many UAV systems using modern collision avoidance techniques. In this paper, we propose a cloud-based web application that provides real-time flight monitoring and management for UAVs. For each connected UAV, detailed UAV sensor readings from the accelerometer, GPS sensor, ultrasonic sensor and visual position cameras are provided along with status reports from the smaller internal components of UAVs (i.e., motor and battery. The dynamic map overlay visualizes active flight paths and current UAV locations, allowing the user to monitor all aircrafts easily. Our system detects and prevents potential collisions by automatically adjusting UAV flight paths and then alerting users to the change. We develop our proposed system and demonstrate its feasibility and performances through simulation.

  7. Development of Cloud-Based UAV Monitoring and Management System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itkin, Mason; Kim, Mihui; Park, Younghee

    2016-11-15

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) are an emerging technology with the potential to revolutionize commercial industries and the public domain outside of the military. UAVs would be able to speed up rescue and recovery operations from natural disasters and can be used for autonomous delivery systems (e.g., Amazon Prime Air). An increase in the number of active UAV systems in dense urban areas is attributed to an influx of UAV hobbyists and commercial multi-UAV systems. As airspace for UAV flight becomes more limited, it is important to monitor and manage many UAV systems using modern collision avoidance techniques. In this paper, we propose a cloud-based web application that provides real-time flight monitoring and management for UAVs. For each connected UAV, detailed UAV sensor readings from the accelerometer, GPS sensor, ultrasonic sensor and visual position cameras are provided along with status reports from the smaller internal components of UAVs (i.e., motor and battery). The dynamic map overlay visualizes active flight paths and current UAV locations, allowing the user to monitor all aircrafts easily. Our system detects and prevents potential collisions by automatically adjusting UAV flight paths and then alerting users to the change. We develop our proposed system and demonstrate its feasibility and performances through simulation.

  8. Development of Cloud-Based UAV Monitoring and Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itkin, Mason; Kim, Mihui; Park, Younghee

    2016-01-01

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) are an emerging technology with the potential to revolutionize commercial industries and the public domain outside of the military. UAVs would be able to speed up rescue and recovery operations from natural disasters and can be used for autonomous delivery systems (e.g., Amazon Prime Air). An increase in the number of active UAV systems in dense urban areas is attributed to an influx of UAV hobbyists and commercial multi-UAV systems. As airspace for UAV flight becomes more limited, it is important to monitor and manage many UAV systems using modern collision avoidance techniques. In this paper, we propose a cloud-based web application that provides real-time flight monitoring and management for UAVs. For each connected UAV, detailed UAV sensor readings from the accelerometer, GPS sensor, ultrasonic sensor and visual position cameras are provided along with status reports from the smaller internal components of UAVs (i.e., motor and battery). The dynamic map overlay visualizes active flight paths and current UAV locations, allowing the user to monitor all aircrafts easily. Our system detects and prevents potential collisions by automatically adjusting UAV flight paths and then alerting users to the change. We develop our proposed system and demonstrate its feasibility and performances through simulation. PMID:27854267

  9. Intelligent Control Approaches for UAVs

    Science.gov (United States)

    KrisnaKumar, Kalmanje

    2003-01-01

    This talk will present overviews of various intelligent control technologies currently being developed and studied at the NASA Ames Research Center as applicable to Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs), Mars flyers, and to the next generation of flight controllers for manned aircraft. The approaches being examined include: (a) direct adaptive dynamic inverse controller, (b) adaptive critic-based optimal trajectory generator; (c) optimal allocation technique based on linear programming; (4) immunized maneuvering using autopilot building blocks. These approaches can utilize, but do not require, fault detection and isolation information. Piloted and unmanned simulation studies are performed to examine if the intelligent flight control techniques adequately: 1) match flying qualities of modem fly-by-wire flight controllers under nominal conditions; 2) improve performance under failure conditions when sufficient control authority is available; and 3) achieve intelligent maneuvering capabilities for unmanned vehicles. Results obtained so far will be presented and discussed.

  10. GNSS Software Receiver for UAVs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Daniel Madelung; Jakobsen, Jakob; von Benzon, Hans-Henrik

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the current activities of GPS/GNSS Software receiver development at DTU Space. GNSS Software receivers have received a great deal of attention in the last two decades and numerous implementations have already been presented. DTU Space has just recently started development of ...... of our own GNSS software-receiver targeted for mini UAV applications, and we will in in this paper present our current progress and briefly discuss the benefits of Software Receivers in relation to our research interests.......This paper describes the current activities of GPS/GNSS Software receiver development at DTU Space. GNSS Software receivers have received a great deal of attention in the last two decades and numerous implementations have already been presented. DTU Space has just recently started development...

  11. RAVEN-2: Around-The-World UAV Project

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Burleigh, Chris

    2003-01-01

    The Raven around-the-world UAV project is part of an on-going effort to build up a significant European capability in the design, construction and operation of large UAVs and manned reconnaissance aircraft...

  12. Network Centric Transponders for Airspace Integration of UAVs Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The need for a small, lightweight, remotely-operable transponder for UAVs is identified. This would allow integration of UAVs into the national airspace while...

  13. Review of the current state of UAV regulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stöcker, Elvira Claudia; Bennett, Rohan; Nex, Francesco; Gerke, Markus; Zevenbergen, Jaap

    2017-01-01

    UAVs-unmanned aerial vehicles-facilitate data acquisition at temporal and spatial scales that still remain unachievable for traditional remote sensing platforms. However, current legal frameworks that regulate UAVs present significant barriers to research and development. To highlight the

  14. Rancang Bangun Simulasi dan Pengendali Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV)

    OpenAIRE

    Rizki Wahyu Pratama

    2017-01-01

    —Pada penel itian i ni merancang si mulasi dan pengendal i Unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) untuk menganal i si keopti malan si stem. Software matl ab di gunakan untuk merancang si mul asi dan pengendali UAV.

  15. A Survey of Channel Modeling for UAV Communications

    KAUST Repository

    Khuwaja, Aziz Altaf

    2018-01-23

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) have gained great interest for rapid deployment in both civil and military applications. UAV communication has its own distinctive channel characteristics compared with widely used cellular and satellite systems. Thus, accurate channel characterization is crucial for the performance optimization and design of efficient UAV communication systems. However, several challenges exist in UAV channel modeling. For example, propagation characteristics of UAV channels are still less explored for spatial and temporal variations in non-stationary channels. Also, airframe shadowing has not yet been investigated for small size rotary UAVs. This paper provides an extensive survey on the measurement campaigns launched for UAV channel modeling using low altitude platforms and discusses various channel characterization efforts. We also review the contemporary perspective of UAV channel modeling approaches and outline some future research challenges in this domain.

  16. Aerial Search Optimization Model (ASOM) for UAVs in Special Operations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kress, Moshe; Royset, Johannes O

    2007-01-01

    .... The special operations team is equipped with short-range surveillance UAVs. We combine intelligence regarding the targets with availability and capability of UAVs in an integer linear programming model...

  17. Securing a UAV Using Individual Characteristics From an EEG Signal

    OpenAIRE

    Singandhupe, Ashutosh; La, Hung Manh; Feil-Seifer, David; Huang, Pei; Guo, Linke; Li, Ming

    2017-01-01

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) have gained much attention in recent years for both commercial and military applications. The progress in this field has gained much popularity and the research has encompassed various fields of scientific domain. Cyber securing a UAV communication has been one of the active research field since the attack on Predator UAV video stream hijacking in 2009. Since UAVs rely heavily on on-board autopilot to function, it is important to develop an autopilot system tha...

  18. Incidence and Risk Factors Involved in the Development of Nephropathy in Patients with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus: Follow Up Since Onset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goñi, Maria José; Forga, Luis; Ibañez, Berta; Cambra, Koldo; Mozas, David; Anda, Emma

    2016-06-01

    Estimation of the incidence of nephropathy as well as potential risk factors involved in its onset in a cohort of patients with type 1 diabetes who were followed from diagnosis. We studied 716 patients, who were followed for a mean (standard deviation [SD]) of 10.1 (SD: 5.3) years. We analyzed the influence of demographic characteristics and levels of glycated hemoglobin (A1C), lipids and blood pressure during the course of the disease by univariate and multivariate survival methods. The cumulative incidence of nephropathy was 2.6%, 6.3% and 11.9% at 5, 10 and 15 years of evolution, respectively. The factors associated with increased risk for nephropathy were systolic blood pressure and A1C levels. An increment of 10 mm Hg in systolic blood pressure increases the risk by 36%, and an increment of 1% in A1C levels raises the risk by 13% at 5 years since onset and 68% at 10 years, and it doubles the risk at 15 years. Women have higher risk than men (hazard ratio 1.79; p=0.024). Our study suggests that female gender and high levels of A1C and systolic blood pressure throughout the course of the disease are the main factors associated with an increased risk for development of nephropathy in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus. Copyright © 2015 Canadian Diabetes Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. UAV's als vliegend knooppunt in het militaire C2 netwerk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veen, E.M. van der

    2003-01-01

    Gedurende de laatste jaren zijn UAVs doorgebroken in toepassing, media en wetenschap. Deze doorbraak is vooral tot stand gebracht door de breed uitgemeten inzet van militaire UAVs in recente militaire operaties. Hierbij betrof het zowel de inzet van UAVs voor verkenning, als de incidentele inzet van

  20. Diverse Planning for UAV Control and Remote Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Tožička

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs are suited to various remote sensing missions, such as measuring air quality. The conventional method of UAV control is by human operators. Such an approach is limited by the ability of cooperation among the operators controlling larger fleets of UAVs in a shared area. The remedy for this is to increase autonomy of the UAVs in planning their trajectories by considering other UAVs and their plans. To provide such improvement in autonomy, we need better algorithms for generating alternative trajectory variants that the UAV coordination algorithms can utilize. In this article, we define a novel family of multi-UAV sensing problems, solving task allocation of huge number of tasks (tens of thousands to a group of configurable UAVs with non-zero weight of equipped sensors (comprising the air quality measurement as well together with two base-line solvers. To solve the problem efficiently, we use an algorithm for diverse trajectory generation and integrate it with a solver for the multi-UAV coordination problem. Finally, we experimentally evaluate the multi-UAV sensing problem solver. The evaluation is done on synthetic and real-world-inspired benchmarks in a multi-UAV simulator. Results show that diverse planning is a valuable method for remote sensing applications containing multiple UAVs.

  1. Spurious RF signals emitted by mini-UAVs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schleijpen, R.; Voogt, V.; Zwamborn, P.; Oever, J. van den

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents experimental work on the detection of spurious RF emissions of mini Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (mini-UAV). Many recent events have shown that mini-UAVs can be considered as a potential threat for civil security. For this reason the detection of mini-UAVs has become of interest to

  2. Diverse Planning for UAV Control and Remote Sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tožička, Jan; Komenda, Antonín

    2016-12-21

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) are suited to various remote sensing missions, such as measuring air quality. The conventional method of UAV control is by human operators. Such an approach is limited by the ability of cooperation among the operators controlling larger fleets of UAVs in a shared area. The remedy for this is to increase autonomy of the UAVs in planning their trajectories by considering other UAVs and their plans. To provide such improvement in autonomy, we need better algorithms for generating alternative trajectory variants that the UAV coordination algorithms can utilize. In this article, we define a novel family of multi-UAV sensing problems, solving task allocation of huge number of tasks (tens of thousands) to a group of configurable UAVs with non-zero weight of equipped sensors (comprising the air quality measurement as well) together with two base-line solvers. To solve the problem efficiently, we use an algorithm for diverse trajectory generation and integrate it with a solver for the multi-UAV coordination problem. Finally, we experimentally evaluate the multi-UAV sensing problem solver. The evaluation is done on synthetic and real-world-inspired benchmarks in a multi-UAV simulator. Results show that diverse planning is a valuable method for remote sensing applications containing multiple UAVs.

  3. Modelling of a Hybrid UAV Using Test Flight Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeur, E.J.J.; Chu, Q.P.; De Croon, G.C.H.E.; Remes, B.; De Wagter, C.; Van der Horst, E

    2014-01-01

    The concept of an aircraft capable of both hover as well as fast forward flight (hybrid) has recently been implemented on unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV). Hybrid UAVs combine hover capability with long range and endurance. As UAVs are often required to operate without human intervention, there is a

  4. UAV Trajectory Modeling Using Neural Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Min

    2017-01-01

    Large amount of small Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (sUAVs) are projected to operate in the near future. Potential sUAV applications include, but not limited to, search and rescue, inspection and surveillance, aerial photography and video, precision agriculture, and parcel delivery. sUAVs are expected to operate in the uncontrolled Class G airspace, which is at or below 500 feet above ground level (AGL), where many static and dynamic constraints exist, such as ground properties and terrains, restricted areas, various winds, manned helicopters, and conflict avoidance among sUAVs. How to enable safe, efficient, and massive sUAV operations at the low altitude airspace remains a great challenge. NASA's Unmanned aircraft system Traffic Management (UTM) research initiative works on establishing infrastructure and developing policies, requirement, and rules to enable safe and efficient sUAVs' operations. To achieve this goal, it is important to gain insights of future UTM traffic operations through simulations, where the accurate trajectory model plays an extremely important role. On the other hand, like what happens in current aviation development, trajectory modeling should also serve as the foundation for any advanced concepts and tools in UTM. Accurate models of sUAV dynamics and control systems are very important considering the requirement of the meter level precision in UTM operations. The vehicle dynamics are relatively easy to derive and model, however, vehicle control systems remain unknown as they are usually kept by manufactures as a part of intellectual properties. That brings challenges to trajectory modeling for sUAVs. How to model the vehicle's trajectories with unknown control system? This work proposes to use a neural network to model a vehicle's trajectory. The neural network is first trained to learn the vehicle's responses at numerous conditions. Once being fully trained, given current vehicle states, winds, and desired future trajectory, the neural

  5. Demonstrations of bio-inspired perching landing gear for UAVs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tieu, Mindy; Michael, Duncan M.; Pflueger, Jeffery B.; Sethi, Manik S.; Shimazu, Kelli N.; Anthony, Tatiana M.; Lee, Christopher L.

    2016-04-01

    Results are presented which demonstrate the feasibility and performance of two concepts of biologically-inspired landing-gear systems that enable bird-sized, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV's) to land, perch, and take-off from branchlike structures and/or ledges. The first concept follows the anatomy of birds that can grasp ahold of a branch and perch as tendons in their legs are tensioned. This design involves a gravity-activated, cable-driven, underactuated, graspingfoot mechanism. As the UAV lands, its weight collapses a four-bar linkage pulling a cable which curls two opposing, multi-segmented feet to grasp the landing target. Each foot is a single, compliant mechanism fabricated by simultaneouly 3D-printing a flexible thermo-plastic and a stiffer ABS plastic. The design is optimized to grasp structures over a range of shapes and sizes. Quasi-static and flight tests of this landing gear affixed to RC rotorcraft (24 cm to 550 cm in diameter) demonstrate that the aircraft can land, perch, and take-off from a tree branch, rectangular wood board, PVC pipe, metal hand rail, chair armrest, and in addition, a stone wall ledge. Stability tests show that perching is maintained under base and wind disturbances. The second design concept, inspired by roosting bats, is a two-material, 3D-printed hooking mechanism that enables the UAV to stably suspend itself from a wire or small-diameter branch. The design balances structural stiffness for support and flexibility for the perching process. A flight-test demonstrates the attaching and dis-engaging of a small, RC quadcopter from a suspended line.

  6. Automatic Reverse Engineering of Private Flight Control Protocols of UAVs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ran Ji

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasing use of civil unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs has the potential to threaten public safety and privacy. Therefore, airspace administrators urgently need an effective method to regulate UAVs. Understanding the meaning and format of UAV flight control commands by automatic protocol reverse-engineering techniques is highly beneficial to UAV regulation. To improve our understanding of the meaning and format of UAV flight control commands, this paper proposes a method to automatically analyze the private flight control protocols of UAVs. First, we classify flight control commands collected from a binary network trace into clusters; then, we analyze the meaning of flight control commands by the accumulated error of each cluster; next, we extract the binary format of commands and infer field semantics in these commands; and finally, we infer the location of the check field in command and the generator polynomial matrix. The proposed approach is validated via experiments on a widely used consumer UAV.

  7. A system of UAV application in indoor environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yohanes Khosiawan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been an increased demand in the use of multiple unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs in indoor environments such as material handling task in a manufacturing environment and plant/environment monitoring task in a greenhouse. However, there is a lack of work reported on this topic. This paper presents a detailed study on several UAV systems and UAV scheduling systems. It is followed by a proposed system of UAV application in indoor environment, which comprises components of UAV system addressed in detail; focused on scheduler as the heart of operations. Consequently, system architecture of UAV scheduling system is presented and the framework of scheduler component is included. Scheduler component works in a phased manner to provide a systematic abstraction and achieve an efficient computation time. This study serves as a reference guide for UAV application in indoor environment.

  8. Interim Strategies for Flying UAVs in the U.S. National Airspace System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-09-02

    other airspace users, if any. – Method of communication between UAV operations team and ATC facilities – UAV behavior in case of loss of control link...operations team and ATC facilities • UAV behavior in case of loss of control link with UAV. • UAV control methodology • Method to avoid other

  9. UAV multirotor platform for accurate turbulence measurements in the atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbajo Fuertes, Fernando; Wilhelm, Lionel; Sin, Kevin Edgar; Hofer, Matthias; Porté-Agel, Fernando

    2017-04-01

    One of the most challenging tasks in atmospheric field studies for wind energy is to obtain accurate turbulence measurements at any location inside the region of interest for a wind farm study. This volume would ideally include from several hundred meters to several kilometers around it and from ground height to the top of the boundary layer. An array of meteorological masts equipped with several sonic anemometers to cover all points of interest would be the best in terms of accuracy and data availability, but it is an obviously unfeasible solution. On the other hand, the evolution of wind LiDAR technology allows to measure at any point in space but unfortunately it involves two important limitations: the first one is the relatively low spatial and temporal resolution when compared to a sonic anemometer and the second one is the fact that the measurements are limited to the velocity component parallel to the laser beam (radial velocity). To overcome the aforementioned drawbacks, a UAV multirotor platform has been developed. It is based on a state-of-the-art octocopter with enough payload to carry laboratory-grade instruments for the measurement of time-resolved atmospheric pressure, three-component velocity vector and temperature; and enough autonomy to fly from 10 to 20 minutes, which is a standard averaging time in most atmospheric measurement applications. The UAV uses a gyroscope, an accelerometer, a GPS and an algorithm has been developed and integrated for the correction of any orientation and movement. This UAV platform opens many possibilities for the study of features that have been almost exclusively studied until now in wind tunnel such as wind turbine blade tip vortex characteristics, near-wake to far-wake transition, momentum entrainment from the higher part of the boundary layer in wind farms, etc. The validation of this new measurement technique has been performed against sonic anemometry in terms of wind speed and temperature time series as well as

  10. Calculating e-flow using UAV and ground monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, C. S.; Zhang, C. B.; Yang, S. T.; Liu, C. M.; Xiang, H.; Sun, Y.; Yang, Z. Y.; Zhang, Y.; Yu, X. Y.; Shao, N. F.; Yu, Q.

    2017-09-01

    Intense human activity has led to serious degradation of basin water ecosystems and severe reduction in the river flow available for aquatic biota. As an important water ecosystem index, environmental flows (e-flows) are crucial for maintaining sustainability. However, most e-flow measurement methods involve long cycles, low efficiency, and transdisciplinary expertise. This makes it impossible to rapidly assess river e-flows at basin or larger scales. This study presents a new method to rapidly assessing e-flows coupling UAV and ground monitorings. UAV was firstly used to calculate river-course cross-sections with high-resolution stereoscopic images. A dominance index was then used to identify key fish species. Afterwards a habitat suitability index, along with biodiversity and integrity indices, was used to determine an appropriate flow velocity with full consideration of the fish spawning period. The cross-sections and flow velocity values were then combined into AEHRA, an e-flow assessment method for studying e-flows and supplying-rate. To verify the results from this new method, the widely used Tennant method was employed. The root-mean-square errors of river cross-sections determined by UAV are less than 0.25 m, which constitutes 3-5% water-depth of the river cross-sections. In the study area of Jinan city, the ecological flow velocity (VE) is equal to or greater than 0.11 m/s, and the ecological water depth (HE) is greater than 0.8 m. The river ecosystem is healthy with the minimum e-flow requirements being always met when it is close to large rivers, which is beneficial for the sustainable development of the water ecosystem. In the south river channel of Jinan, the upstream flow mostly meets the minimum e-flow requirements, and the downstream flow always meets the minimum e-flow requirements. The north of Jinan consists predominantly of artificial river channels used for irrigation. Rainfall rarely meets the minimum e-flow and irrigation water requirements

  11. CLASSICAL PHOTOGRAMMETRY AND UAV – SELECTED ASCPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mikrut

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The UAV technology seems to be highly future-oriented due to its low costs as compared to traditional aerial images taken from classical photogrammetry aircrafts. The AGH University of Science and Technology in Cracow - Department of Geoinformation, Photogrammetry and Environmental Remote Sensing focuses mainly on geometry and radiometry of recorded images. Various scientific research centres all over the world have been conducting the relevant research for years. The paper presents selected aspects of processing digital images made with the UAV technology. It provides on a practical example a comparison between a digital image taken from an airborne (classical height, and the one made from an UAV level. In his research the author of the paper is trying to find an answer to the question: to what extent does the UAV technology diverge today from classical photogrammetry, and what are the advantages and disadvantages of both methods? The flight plan was made over the Tokarnia Village Museum (more than 0.5 km2 for two separate flights: the first was made by an UAV - System FT-03A built by FlyTech Solution Ltd. The second was made with the use of a classical photogrammetric Cesna aircraft furnished with an airborne photogrammetric camera (Ultra Cam Eagle. Both sets of photographs were taken with pixel size of about 3 cm, in order to have reliable data allowing for both systems to be compared. The project has made aerotriangulation independently for the two flights. The DTM was generated automatically, and the last step was the generation of an orthophoto. The geometry of images was checked under the process of aerotriangulation. To compare the accuracy of these two flights, control and check points were used. RMSE were calculated. The radiometry was checked by a visual method and using the author's own algorithm for feature extraction (to define edges with subpixel accuracy. After initial pre-processing of data, the images were put together, and

  12. Classical Photogrammetry and Uav - Selected Ascpects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikrut, S.

    2016-06-01

    The UAV technology seems to be highly future-oriented due to its low costs as compared to traditional aerial images taken from classical photogrammetry aircrafts. The AGH University of Science and Technology in Cracow - Department of Geoinformation, Photogrammetry and Environmental Remote Sensing focuses mainly on geometry and radiometry of recorded images. Various scientific research centres all over the world have been conducting the relevant research for years. The paper presents selected aspects of processing digital images made with the UAV technology. It provides on a practical example a comparison between a digital image taken from an airborne (classical) height, and the one made from an UAV level. In his research the author of the paper is trying to find an answer to the question: to what extent does the UAV technology diverge today from classical photogrammetry, and what are the advantages and disadvantages of both methods? The flight plan was made over the Tokarnia Village Museum (more than 0.5 km2) for two separate flights: the first was made by an UAV - System FT-03A built by FlyTech Solution Ltd. The second was made with the use of a classical photogrammetric Cesna aircraft furnished with an airborne photogrammetric camera (Ultra Cam Eagle). Both sets of photographs were taken with pixel size of about 3 cm, in order to have reliable data allowing for both systems to be compared. The project has made aerotriangulation independently for the two flights. The DTM was generated automatically, and the last step was the generation of an orthophoto. The geometry of images was checked under the process of aerotriangulation. To compare the accuracy of these two flights, control and check points were used. RMSE were calculated. The radiometry was checked by a visual method and using the author's own algorithm for feature extraction (to define edges with subpixel accuracy). After initial pre-processing of data, the images were put together, and shown side by side

  13. Common Operating Picture: UAV Security Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    This initial communication security study is a top-level assessment of basic security issues related to the operation of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) in the National Airspace System (NAS). Security considerations will include information relating to the use of International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) Aeronautical Telecommunications Network (ATN) protocols and applications identifying their maturity, as well as the use of IPV4 and a version of mobile IPV6. The purpose of this assessment is to provide an initial analysis of the security implications of introducing UAVs into the NAS.

  14. UAV Swarm Operational Risk Assessment System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    8217]; threat.button = uicontrol(’ Style ’,’pushbutton’,’ Parent ’,fig,... ’Units’,’normalized’,’Position’,[ux,uy,wx,wy],’BackgroundColor...altitude long endurance (MALE) platforms (Jane’s Information Group 2014d). Nations such as Turkey, Pakistan , Iran, and the United Arab Emirates are...terminal dive. In other words, this type of UAV could be used as a one-way or kamikaze style attack where the UAV dives into a target and explodes with no

  15. Transmission Tower Environment Monitoring Using UAV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redzuwan, Redia Mohd; Din, Norashidah Md; Baharuddin, Mohd Zafri; Mustafa, Intan Shafinaz; Omar, Rohayu Che'

    2013-01-01

    Power utility engineers used to conduct ground survey to collect topographic data. Therefore, they can get detailed and accurate information, but these techniques take a lot of labors and expenses, and spending times for the surveying. An attractive solution to the ground survey is using images taken using Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV). Images captured from UAV can be collected quickly and efficiently over the same area covered in the land survey, in a fraction of the time. The purpose of this research is to mosaic the large numbers of spectral images together into a region wide panoramic image which allows experts to analyze the data for transmission tower monitoring purposes.

  16. Swarming Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVS): Extending Marine Aviation Ground Task Force Communications Using UAVS

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-02

    to add- and tmless the tennis a proper notm, use lower case 15. NUMBER OF swatm technology, swann commtmications, swam1 rough cost estimation, swann...that a swarm UAV is comparable in cost to legacy UAVs currently in service in the USMC. vi THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK vii TABLE OF...Figure 37.  Global Hawk Overview (from Northrop Grumman, 2014) .............................80  xi LIST OF TABLES Table 1.  Raven

  17. From large-eddy simulation to multi-UAVs sampling of shallow cumulus clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamraoui, Fayçal; Roberts, Greg; Burnet, Frédéric

    2016-04-01

    In-situ sampling of clouds that can provide simultaneous measurements at satisfying spatio-temporal resolutions to capture 3D small scale physical processes continues to present challenges. This project (SKYSCANNER) aims at bringing together cloud sampling strategies using a swarm of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) based on Large-eddy simulation (LES). The multi-UAV-based field campaigns with a personalized sampling strategy for individual clouds and cloud fields will significantly improve the understanding of the unresolved cloud physical processes. An extensive set of LES experiments for case studies from ARM-SGP site have been performed using MesoNH model at high resolutions down to 10 m. The carried out simulations led to establishing a macroscopic model that quantifies the interrelationship between micro- and macrophysical properties of shallow convective clouds. Both the geometry and evolution of individual clouds are critical to multi-UAV cloud sampling and path planning. The preliminary findings of the current project reveal several linear relationships that associate many cloud geometric parameters to cloud related meteorological variables. In addition, the horizontal wind speed indicates a proportional impact on cloud number concentration as well as triggering and prolonging the occurrence of cumulus clouds. In the framework of the joint collaboration that involves a Multidisciplinary Team (including institutes specializing in aviation, robotics and atmospheric science), this model will be a reference point for multi-UAVs sampling strategies and path planning.

  18. Development of High Altitude UAV Weather Radars for Hurricane Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heymsfield, Gerald; Li, Li-Hua

    2005-01-01

    A proposed effort within NASA called (ASHE) over the past few years was aimed at studying the genesis of tropical disturbances off the east coast of Africa. This effort was focused on using an instrumented Global Hawk UAV with high altitude (%Ok ft) and long duration (30 h) capability. While the Global Hawk availability remains uncertain, development of two relevant instruments, a Doppler radar (URAD - UAV Radar) and a backscatter lidar (CPL-UAV - Cloud Physics Lidar), are in progress. The radar to be discussed here is based on two previous high-altitude, autonomously operating radars on the NASA ER-2 aircraft, the ER-2 Doppler Radar (EDOP) at X-band (9.6 GHz), and the Cloud Radar System (CRS) at W- band (94 GHz). The nadir-pointing EDOP and CRS radars profile vertical reflectivity structure and vertical Doppler winds in precipitation and clouds, respectively. EDOP has flown in all of the CAMEX flight series to study hurricanes over storms such as Hurricanes Bonnie, Humberto, Georges, Erin, and TS Chantal. These radars were developed at Goddard over the last decade and have been used for satellite algorithm development and validation (TRMM and Cloudsat), and for hurricane and convective storm research. We describe here the development of URAD that will measure wind and reflectivity in hurricanes and other weather systems from a top down, high-altitude view. URAD for the Global Hawk consists of two subsystems both of which are at X-band (9.3-9.6 GHz) and Doppler: a nadir fixed-beam Doppler radar for vertical motion and precipitation measurement, and a Conical scanning radar for horizontal winds in cloud and at the surface, and precipitation structure. These radars are being designed with size, weight, and power consumption suitable for the Global Hawk and other UAV's. The nadir radar uses a magnetron transmitter and the scanning radar uses a TWT transmitter. With conical scanning of the radar at a 35" incidence angle over an ocean surface in the absence of

  19. Toward Real Time Uavs' Image Mosaicking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrdad, S.; Satari, M.; Safdary, M.; Moallem, P.

    2016-06-01

    Anyone knows that sudden catastrophes can instantly do great damage. Fast and accurate acquisition of catastrophe information is an essential task for minimize life and property damage. Compared with other ways of catastrophe data acquisition, UAV based platforms can optimize time, cost and accuracy of the data acquisition, as a result UAVs' data has become the first choice in such condition. In this paper, a novel and fast strategy is proposed for registering and mosaicking of UAVs' image data. Firstly, imprecise image positions are used to find adjoining frames. Then matching process is done by a novel matching method. With keeping Sift in mind, this fast matching method is introduced, which uses images exposure time geometry, SIFT point detector and rBRIEF descriptor vector in order to match points efficiency, and by efficiency we mean not only time efficiency but also elimination of mismatch points. This method uses each image sequence imprecise attitude in order to use Epipolar geometry to both restricting search space of matching and eliminating mismatch points. In consideration of reaching to images imprecise attitude and positions we calibrated the UAV's sensors. After matching process, RANSAC is used to eliminate mismatched tie points. In order to obtain final mosaic, image histograms are equalized and a weighted average method is used to image composition in overlapping areas. The total RMSE over all matching points is 1.72 m.

  20. UAV CAMERAS: OVERVIEW AND GEOMETRIC CALIBRATION BENCHMARK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Cramer

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Different UAV platforms and sensors are used in mapping already, many of them equipped with (sometimes modified cameras as known from the consumer market. Even though these systems normally fulfil their requested mapping accuracy, the question arises, which system performs best? This asks for a benchmark, to check selected UAV based camera systems in well-defined, reproducible environments. Such benchmark is tried within this work here. Nine different cameras used on UAV platforms, representing typical camera classes, are considered. The focus is laid on the geometry here, which is tightly linked to the process of geometrical calibration of the system. In most applications the calibration is performed in-situ, i.e. calibration parameters are obtained as part of the project data itself. This is often motivated because consumer cameras do not keep constant geometry, thus, cannot be seen as metric cameras. Still, some of the commercial systems are quite stable over time, as it was proven from repeated (terrestrial calibrations runs. Already (pre-calibrated systems may offer advantages, especially when the block geometry of the project does not allow for a stable and sufficient in-situ calibration. Especially for such scenario close to metric UAV cameras may have advantages. Empirical airborne test flights in a calibration field have shown how block geometry influences the estimated calibration parameters and how consistent the parameters from lab calibration can be reproduced.

  1. Uav Cameras: Overview and Geometric Calibration Benchmark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, M.; Przybilla, H.-J.; Zurhorst, A.

    2017-08-01

    Different UAV platforms and sensors are used in mapping already, many of them equipped with (sometimes) modified cameras as known from the consumer market. Even though these systems normally fulfil their requested mapping accuracy, the question arises, which system performs best? This asks for a benchmark, to check selected UAV based camera systems in well-defined, reproducible environments. Such benchmark is tried within this work here. Nine different cameras used on UAV platforms, representing typical camera classes, are considered. The focus is laid on the geometry here, which is tightly linked to the process of geometrical calibration of the system. In most applications the calibration is performed in-situ, i.e. calibration parameters are obtained as part of the project data itself. This is often motivated because consumer cameras do not keep constant geometry, thus, cannot be seen as metric cameras. Still, some of the commercial systems are quite stable over time, as it was proven from repeated (terrestrial) calibrations runs. Already (pre-)calibrated systems may offer advantages, especially when the block geometry of the project does not allow for a stable and sufficient in-situ calibration. Especially for such scenario close to metric UAV cameras may have advantages. Empirical airborne test flights in a calibration field have shown how block geometry influences the estimated calibration parameters and how consistent the parameters from lab calibration can be reproduced.

  2. Computational analysis of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abudarag, Sakhr; Yagoub, Rashid; Elfatih, Hassan; Filipovic, Zoran

    2017-01-01

    A computational analysis has been performed to verify the aerodynamics properties of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV). The UAV-SUST has been designed and fabricated at the Department of Aeronautical Engineering at Sudan University of Science and Technology in order to meet the specifications required for surveillance and reconnaissance mission. It is classified as a medium range and medium endurance UAV. A commercial CFD solver is used to simulate steady and unsteady aerodynamics characteristics of the entire UAV. In addition to Lift Coefficient (CL), Drag Coefficient (CD), Pitching Moment Coefficient (CM) and Yawing Moment Coefficient (CN), the pressure and velocity contours are illustrated. The aerodynamics parameters are represented a very good agreement with the design consideration at angle of attack ranging from zero to 26 degrees. Moreover, the visualization of the velocity field and static pressure contours is indicated a satisfactory agreement with the proposed design. The turbulence is predicted by enhancing K-ω SST turbulence model within the computational fluid dynamics code.

  3. Low complexity video encoding for UAV inspection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Jacob; Zhang, Ruo; Forchhammer, Søren

    2016-01-01

    In this work we present several methods for fast integer motion estimation of videos recorded aboard an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV). Different from related work, the field depth is not considered to be consistent. The novel methods designed for low complexity MV prediction in H.264/AVC...

  4. Remote sensing from UAVs for hydrological monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandini, Filippo; Garcia, Monica; Bauer-Gottwein, Peter

    compared to other technologies: compared to field based techniques, remote sensing with UAVs is a non-destructive technique, less time consuming, ensures a reduced time between acquisition and interpretation of data and gives the possibility to access remote and unsafe areas. Compared to full...

  5. Uav Photogrammetry for Mapping and Monitoring of Northern Permafrost Landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, R. H.; Olthof, I.; Maloley, M.; Fernandes, R.; Prevost, C.; van der Sluijs, J.

    2015-08-01

    Northern environments are changing in response to recent climate warming, resource development, and natural disturbances. The Arctic climate has warmed by 2-3°C since the 1950's, causing a range of cryospheric changes including declines in sea ice extent, snow cover duration, and glacier mass, and warming permafrost. The terrestrial Arctic has also undergone significant temperature-driven changes in the form of increased thermokarst, larger tundra fires, and enhanced shrub growth. Monitoring these changes to inform land managers and decision makers is challenging due to the vast spatial extents involved and difficult access. Environmental monitoring in Canada's North is often based on local-scale measurements derived from aerial reconnaissance and photography, and ecological, hydrologic, and geologic sampling and surveying. Satellite remote sensing can provide a complementary tool for more spatially comprehensive monitoring but at coarser spatial resolutions. Satellite remote sensing has been used to map Arctic landscape changes related to vegetation productivity, lake expansion and drainage, glacier retreat, thermokarst, and wildfire activity. However, a current limitation with existing satellite-based techniques is the measurement gap between field measurements and high resolution satellite imagery. Bridging this gap is important for scaling up field measurements to landscape levels, and validating and calibrating satellite-based analyses. This gap can be filled to a certain extent using helicopter or fixed-wing aerial surveys, but at a cost that is often prohibitive. Unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) technology has only recently progressed to the point where it can provide an inexpensive and efficient means of capturing imagery at this middle scale of measurement with detail that is adequate to interpret Arctic vegetation (i.e. 1-5 cm) and coverage that can be directly related to satellite imagery (1-10 km2). Unlike satellite measurements, UAVs permit frequent

  6. UAV PHOTOGRAMMETRY FOR MAPPING AND MONITORING OF NORTHERN PERMAFROST LANDSCAPES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. H. Fraser

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Northern environments are changing in response to recent climate warming, resource development, and natural disturbances. The Arctic climate has warmed by 2–3°C since the 1950’s, causing a range of cryospheric changes including declines in sea ice extent, snow cover duration, and glacier mass, and warming permafrost. The terrestrial Arctic has also undergone significant temperature-driven changes in the form of increased thermokarst, larger tundra fires, and enhanced shrub growth. Monitoring these changes to inform land managers and decision makers is challenging due to the vast spatial extents involved and difficult access. Environmental monitoring in Canada’s North is often based on local-scale measurements derived from aerial reconnaissance and photography, and ecological, hydrologic, and geologic sampling and surveying. Satellite remote sensing can provide a complementary tool for more spatially comprehensive monitoring but at coarser spatial resolutions. Satellite remote sensing has been used to map Arctic landscape changes related to vegetation productivity, lake expansion and drainage, glacier retreat, thermokarst, and wildfire activity. However, a current limitation with existing satellite-based techniques is the measurement gap between field measurements and high resolution satellite imagery. Bridging this gap is important for scaling up field measurements to landscape levels, and validating and calibrating satellite-based analyses. This gap can be filled to a certain extent using helicopter or fixed-wing aerial surveys, but at a cost that is often prohibitive. Unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV technology has only recently progressed to the point where it can provide an inexpensive and efficient means of capturing imagery at this middle scale of measurement with detail that is adequate to interpret Arctic vegetation (i.e. 1–5 cm and coverage that can be directly related to satellite imagery (1–10 km2. Unlike satellite measurements

  7. UAV-based landslide deformation monitoring - first results from Corvara landslide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiebes, Benni; Tomelleri, Enrico; Mejia-Aguilar, Abraham; Schlögel, Romy; Darvishi, Mehdi; Remondino, Fabio; Toschi, Isabella; Rutzinger, Martin; Zieher, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    In recent years, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) have been more frequently utilised to study geomorphological and natural hazard processes, including gravitational mass movements such as landslides. UAVs can be equipped with different sensors, e.g. photo cameras and laser scanners, and the data that can be achieved can substantially improve the monitoring and understanding of the involved natural processes. One of the main advantages of UAVs is their flexibility that allows for carrying out assessments of large areas in short periods of time and at much lower costs than other platforms, e.g. airplanes or helicopters. Thereby, UAVs represent an interesting technique to complement more traditional monitoring methods. Here we present some first results of the EUREGIO-funded LEMONADE project that is concerned with the combination and integration of novel and traditional landslide monitoring techniques. We carried out a series of UAV flights over a particularly active part of the Corvara landslide and acquired aerial imagery for quantitative assessments of the retrogressive enlargement of the landslide over recent years. Additional field surveys including terrestrial laser scanning, and UAV-based photogrammetry and laser scanning are scheduled for summer 2016. The Corvara landslide is a large complex earthflow in the Italian Dolomites that has been investigated by a wide range of methodologies over the past years. The landslide is characterised by movement patterns of greatly varying magnitude, ranging from annual rates of a few cm to more than 20 m. The current and past monitoring activities concentrated on GPS measurements as well as multi-temporal differential radar interferometry utilising artificial corner reflectors. Thereby, primarily punctual displacement data were achieved and spatial information on topographic and geomorphic changes were consequently sparse. For our photogrammetry study, we utilised a SoLeon octocopter equipped with a Ricoh GR 16.2 Megapixels

  8. Teaching UAVs to Race Using UE4Sim

    KAUST Repository

    Mueller, Matthias

    2017-08-19

    Automating the navigation of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) in diverse scenarios has gained much attention in the recent years. However, teaching UAVs to fly in challenging environments remains an unsolved problem, mainly due to the lack of data for training. In this paper, we develop a photo-realistic simulator that can afford the generation of large amounts of training data (both images rendered from the UAV camera and its controls) to teach a UAV to autonomously race through challenging tracks. We train a deep neural network to predict UAV controls from raw image data for the task of autonomous UAV racing. Training is done through imitation learning enabled by data augmentation to allow for the correction of navigation mistakes. Extensive experiments demonstrate that our trained network (when sufficient data augmentation is used) outperforms state-of-the-art methods and flies more consistently than many human pilots.

  9. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF 3D MODELING SOFTWARE FOR UAV PHOTOGRAMMETRY

    OpenAIRE

    H. Yanagi; H. Yanagi; H. Chikatsu

    2016-01-01

    UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle) photogrammetry, which combines UAV and freely available internet-based 3D modeling software, is widely used as a low-cost and user-friendly photogrammetry technique in the fields such as remote sensing and geosciences. In UAV photogrammetry, only the platform used in conventional aerial photogrammetry is changed. Consequently, 3D modeling software contributes significantly to its expansion. However, the algorithms of the 3D modelling software are black box algori...

  10. Closing the Gap Between Research and Field Applications for Multi-UAV Cooperative Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    addition, the process of translating ideas into deployed systems usually involves...example a team of UAVs deployed for collaborative sensing will likely require auto separation, task assignment, path generation, obstacle sensing and...from around the world. The application is available for a number of different operating systems, including iOS for iPad and iPhone and android OS. The

  11. Assessing UAVs in Monitoring Crop Evapotranspiration within a Heterogeneous Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouze, G.; Neely, H.; Morgan, C.; Kustas, W. P.; McKee, L.; Prueger, J. H.; Cope, D.; Yang, C.; Thomasson, A.; Jung, J.

    2017-12-01

    Airborne and satellite remote sensing methods have been developed to provide ET estimates across entire management fields. However, airborne-based ET is not particularly cost-effective and satellite-based ET provides insufficient spatial/temporal information. ET estimations through remote sensing are also problematic where soils are highly variable within a given management field. Unlike airborne/satellite-based ET, Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV)-based ET has the potential to increase the spatial and temporal detail of these measurements, particularly within a heterogeneous soil landscape. However, it is unclear to what extent UAVs can model ET. The overall goal of this project was to assess the capability of UAVs in modeling ET across a heterogeneous landscape. Within a 20-ha irrigated cotton field in Central Texas, low-altitude UAV surveys were conducted throughout the growing season over two soil types. UAVs were equipped with thermal and multispectral cameras to obtain canopy temperature and NDVI, respectively. UAV data were supplemented simultaneously with ground-truth measurements such as Leaf Area Index (LAI) and plant height. Both remote sensing and ground-truth parameters were used to model ET using a Two-Source Energy Balance (TSEB) model. UAV-based estimations of ET and other energy balance components were validated against energy balance measurements obtained from nearby eddy covariance towers that were installed within each soil type. UAV-based ET fluxes were also compared with airborne and satellite (Landsat 8)-based ET fluxes collected near the time of the UAV survey.

  12. Next Generation UAV Based Spectral Systems for Environmental Monitoring

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — At present, UAVs used in environmental monitoring mostly collect low spectral resolution imagery, capable of retrieving canopy greenness or properties related water...

  13. Road surveillance using a team of small UAVs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingston, Derek

    2009-05-01

    Monitoring roads is an important task for missions such as base security. This paper describes a road monitoring system composed of a team of small UAVs equipped with gimballed cameras. Given a fine description of the target road, algorithms for waypoint approximation, sensor steering, and UAV spacing are developed to allow N UAVs to survey stretches of road for activity. By automating the route generation and road tracking, human operators are freed to study the sensor returns from the vehicles to detect anomalous behavior. The spacing algorithm is robust to retasking and insertion/deletion of UAVs. Hardware results are presented that demonstrate the applicability of the solution.

  14. Comparisons between high-resolution profiles of squared refractive index gradient M2 measured by the Middle and Upper Atmosphere Radar and unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs during the Shigaraki UAV-Radar Experiment 2015 campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Luce

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available New comparisons between the square of the generalized potential refractive index gradient M2, estimated from the very high-frequency (VHF Middle and Upper Atmosphere (MU Radar, located at Shigaraki, Japan, and unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV measurements are presented. These comparisons were performed at unprecedented temporal and range resolutions (1–4 min and  ∼  20 m, respectively in the altitude range  ∼  1.27–4.5 km from simultaneous and nearly collocated measurements made during the ShUREX (Shigaraki UAV-Radar Experiment 2015 campaign. Seven consecutive UAV flights made during daytime on 7 June 2015 were used for this purpose. The MU Radar was operated in range imaging mode for improving the range resolution at vertical incidence (typically a few tens of meters. The proportionality of the radar echo power to M2 is reported for the first time at such high time and range resolutions for stratified conditions for which Fresnel scatter or a reflection mechanism is expected. In more complex features obtained for a range of turbulent layers generated by shear instabilities or associated with convective cloud cells, M2 estimated from UAV data does not reproduce observed radar echo power profiles. Proposed interpretations of this discrepancy are presented.

  15. Investigating the use of UAVs in combination with low-cost sensors for human-UAV interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Jorissen, Ben

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) have turned from military and industrial products to ordinary consumer products. Hobbyists and even children can use UAVs for various reasons, such as scouting for prey, photography or for entertainment. This evolution led us to believe that in the next decades, UAVs will evolve to a point where they can be present in our daily life. In this thesis, we present a self-contained UAV system for autonomous flight. This system contains a low-cost...

  16. The optimal design of UAV wing structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Długosz, Adam; Klimek, Wiktor

    2018-01-01

    The paper presents an optimal design of UAV wing, made of composite materials. The aim of the optimization is to improve strength and stiffness together with reduction of the weight of the structure. Three different types of functionals, which depend on stress, stiffness and the total mass are defined. The paper presents an application of the in-house implementation of the evolutionary multi-objective algorithm in optimization of the UAV wing structure. Values of the functionals are calculated on the basis of results obtained from numerical simulations. Numerical FEM model, consisting of different composite materials is created. Adequacy of the numerical model is verified by results obtained from the experiment, performed on a tensile testing machine. Examples of multi-objective optimization by means of Pareto-optimal set of solutions are presented.

  17. Structurally Integrated Antenna Concepts for HALE UAVs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cravey, Robin L.; Vedeler, Erik; Goins, Larry; Young, W. Robert; Lawrence, Roland W.

    2006-01-01

    This technical memorandum describes work done in support of the Multifunctional Structures and Materials Team under the Vehicle Systems Program's ITAS (Integrated Tailored Aero Structures) Project during FY 2005. The Electromagnetics and Sensors Branch (ESB) developed three ultra lightweight antenna concepts compatible with HALE UAVs (High Altitude Long Endurance Unmanned Aerial Vehicles). ESB also developed antenna elements that minimize the interaction between elements and the vehicle to minimize the impact of wing flexure on the EM (electromagnetic) performance of the integrated array. In addition, computer models were developed to perform phase correction for antenna arrays whose elements are moving relative to each other due to wing deformations expected in HALE vehicle concepts. Development of lightweight, conformal or structurally integrated antenna elements and compensating for the impact of a lightweight, flexible structure on a large antenna array are important steps in the realization of HALE UAVs for microwave applications such as passive remote sensing and communications.

  18. Technologies Advance UAVs for Science, Military

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    A Space Act Agreement with Goddard Space Flight Center and West Virginia University enabled Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation, of Manassas, Virginia, to develop cost-effective composite manufacturing capabilities and open a facility in West Virginia. The company now employs 160 workers at the plant, tasked with crafting airframe components for the Global Hawk unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) program. While one third of the company's workforce focuses on Global Hawk production, the rest of the company develops advanced UAV technologies that are redefining traditional approaches to unmanned aviation. Since the company's founding, Aurora s cutting-edge work has been supported with funding from NASA's Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) and Small Business Technology Transfer (STTR) programs.

  19. A proposed UAV for indoor patient care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Catherine; Watfa, Mohamed; El Mouden, Yassine; Sahir, Sana; Ali, Afrah; Niavarani, Ali; Lutfi, Aoun; Copiaco, Abigail; Agarwal, Vaibhavi; Afsari, Kiyan; Johnathon, Chris; Okafor, Onyeka; Ayad, Marina

    2015-09-10

    Indoor flight, obstacle avoidance and client-server communication of an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) raises several unique research challenges. This paper examines current methods and associated technologies adapted within the literature toward autonomous UAV flight, for consideration in a proposed system for indoor healthcare administration with a quadcopter. We introduce Healthbuddy, a unique research initiative towards overcoming challenges associated with indoor navigation, collision detection and avoidance, stability, wireless drone-server communications and automated decision support for patient care in a GPS-denied environment. To address the identified research deficits, a drone-based solution is presented. The solution is preliminary as we develop and refine the suggested algorithms and hardware system to achieve the research objectives.

  20. Monitoring the Evolution of Clouds with UAVs

    OpenAIRE

    Renzaglia , Alessandro; Reymann , Christophe; Lacroix , Simon

    2016-01-01

    International audience; We study the problem of monitoring the evolution of atmospheric variables within low-altitude cumulus clouds with a fleet of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). To tackle this challenge, two main problems can be identified: i) creating on-line maps of the relevant variables, based on sparse local measurements; ii) designing a planning algorithm which exploits the obtained map to generate trajectories that optimize the adaptive data sampling process, minimizing the uncerta...

  1. CFD Analysis of UAV Flying Wing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile PRISACARIU

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Numerical methods for solving equations describing the evolution of 3D fluid experienced a significant development closely related to the progress of information systems. Today, especially in the field of fluid mechanics, numerical simulations allow the study of gas-thermodynamic confirmed by experimental techniques in wind tunnel conditions and actual flight tests for modeling complex aircraft. The article shows a case of numerical analysis of the lifting surface on the UAV type flying wing.

  2. CAUSE Multi-UAV Simulation Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-14

    COVERED (From - To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d...04-2011 Technical Paper MAR 2011 - APR 2011 CAUSE Multi-UAV Simulation Demonstration FA8720-05-C-0002 Herbert E. M. Viggh, Christopher Weed, Michael...depicted as the third service, which performs automated service composition using only the Service Interface Components. B. Compostion and Execution

  3. TLS MODELS GENERATION ASSISTED BY UAV SURVEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Chiabrando

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available (TLS, Terrestrial Laser Scanning, and large scale mapping derived by UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle survey. This paper refers an example of 3D survey and reality based modelling applied on landscape and architectural assets. The choice of methods for documentation, in terms of survey techniques, depends primarily on issues and features of the area. The achieved experience, allow to consider that the easy handling of TLS has enabled the use in limited spaces among buildings and collapsed roofs, but the topographic measure of GCPs (Ground Control Points, neither by total station nor by GPS/RTK technique, was easily feasible. Even more than proving the ability of the integration of TLS and UAV photogrammetry to achieve a multi-source and multi-scale whole model of a village, the experience has been a test to experiment the registration of terrestrial clouds with the support of control points derived by UAV survey and finally, a comparison among different strategies of clouds registration is reported. Analysing for each approach a number of parameters (number of clouds registration, number of needed points, processing time, overall accuracy the further comparisons have been achieved. The test revealed that it is possible to decrease the large number of terrestrial control points when their determination by topographical measures is difficult, and it is possible to combine the techniques not only for the integration of the final 3Dmodel, but also to solve and make the initial stage of the drafting process more effective.

  4. Prognostics Applied to Electric Propulsion UAV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goebel, Kai; Saha, Bhaskar

    2013-01-01

    Health management plays an important role in operations of UAV. If there is equipment malfunction on critical components, safe operation of the UAV might possibly be compromised. A technology with particular promise in this arena is equipment prognostics. This technology provides a state assessment of the health of components of interest and, if a degraded state has been found, it estimates how long it will take before the equipment will reach a failure threshold, conditional on assumptions about future operating conditions and future environmental conditions. This chapter explores the technical underpinnings of how to perform prognostics and shows an implementation on the propulsion of an electric UAV. A particle filter is shown as the method of choice in performing state assessment and predicting future degradation. The method is then applied to the batteries that provide power to the propeller motors. An accurate run-time battery life prediction algorithm is of critical importance to ensure the safe operation of the vehicle if one wants to maximize in-air time. Current reliability based techniques turn out to be insufficient to manage the use of such batteries where loads vary frequently in uncertain environments.

  5. UAV magnetometry in mineral exploration and infrastructure detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, A.; Parvar, K.; Burns, M.

    2015-12-01

    Magnetic surveys are critical tools in mineral exploration and UAVs have the potential to carry magnetometers. UAV surveys can offer higher spatial resolution than traditional airborne surveys, and higher coverage than terrestrial surveys. However, the main advantage is their ability to sense the magnetic field in 3-D, while most airborne or terrestrial surveys are restricted to 2-D acquisition. This study compares UAV magnetic data from two different UAVs (JIB drone, DJI Phantom 2) and three different magnetometers (GEM GSPM35, Honeywell HMR2300, GEM GST-19). The first UAV survey was conducted using a JIB UAV with a GSPM35 flying at 10-15 m above ground. The survey's goal was to detect intrusive Rhyolite bodies for primary mineral exploration. The survey resulted in a better understanding of the validity/resolution of UAV data and led to improved knowledge about the geological structures in the area. The results further drove the design of a following terrestrial survey. Comparing the UAV data with an available airborne survey (upward continued to 250 m) reveals that the UAV data has superior spatial resolution, but exhibits a higher noise level. The magnetic anomalies related to the Rhyolite intrusions is about 109 nT and translates into an estimated depth of approximately 110 meters. The second survey was conducted using an in-house developed UAV magnetometer system equipped with a DJI Phantom 2 and a Honeywell HMR2300 fluxgate magnetometer. By flying the sensor in different altitudes, the vertical and horizontal gradients can be derived leading to full 3-D magnetic data volumes which can provide improved constraints for source depth/geometry characterization. We demonstrate that a buried steam pipeline was detectable with the UAV magnetometer system and compare the resulting data with a terrestrial survey using a GEM GST-19 Proton Precession Magnetometer.

  6. UAV Data Processing for Large Scale Topographical Mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Tampubolon

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Large scale topographical mapping in the third world countries is really a prominent challenge in geospatial industries nowadays. On one side the demand is significantly increasing while on the other hand it is constrained by limited budgets available for mapping projects. Since the advent of Act Nr.4/yr.2011 about Geospatial Information in Indonesia, large scale topographical mapping has been on high priority for supporting the nationwide development e.g. detail spatial planning. Usually large scale topographical mapping relies on conventional aerial survey campaigns in order to provide high resolution 3D geospatial data sources. Widely growing on a leisure hobby, aero models in form of the so-called Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV bring up alternative semi photogrammetric aerial data acquisition possibilities suitable for relatively small Area of Interest (AOI i.e. <5,000 hectares. For detail spatial planning purposes in Indonesia this area size can be used as a mapping unit since it usually concentrates on the basis of sub district area (kecamatan level. In this paper different camera and processing software systems will be further analyzed for identifying the best optimum UAV data acquisition campaign components in combination with the data processing scheme. The selected AOI is covering the cultural heritage of Borobudur Temple as one of the Seven Wonders of the World. A detailed accuracy assessment will be concentrated within the object feature of the temple at the first place. Feature compilation involving planimetric objects (2D and digital terrain models (3D will be integrated in order to provide Digital Elevation Models (DEM as the main interest of the topographic mapping activity. By doing this research, incorporating the optimum amount of GCPs in the UAV photo data processing will increase the accuracy along with its high resolution in 5 cm Ground Sampling Distance (GSD. Finally this result will be used as the benchmark for alternative

  7. UAV APPLICATION IN COASTAL ENVIRONMENT, EXAMPLE OF THE OLERON ISLAND FOR DUNES AND DIKES SURVEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Guillot

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The recent evolutions in civil UAV ease of use led the University of La Rochelle to conduct an UAV program around its own potential costal application. An application program involving La Rochelle University and the District of Oleron Island began in January 2015 and lasted through July of 2015. The aims were to choose 9 study areas and survey them during the winter season. The studies concerned surveying the dikes and coastal sand dunes of Oleron Island. During each flight, an action sport camera fixed on the UAV’s brushless gimbal took a series of 150 pictures. After processing the photographs and using a 3D reconstruction plugin via Photoscan, we were able to export high-resolution ortho-imagery, DSM and 3D models. After applying GIS treatment to these images, volumetric evolutions between flights were revealed through a DDVM (Difference of Digital volumetric Model, in order to study sand movements on coastal sand dunes.

  8. UAV-based photogrammetric 3D modelling and surveillance of forest wildfires

    OpenAIRE

    Krukowski, Artur; Vogiatzaki, Emmanouela

    2017-01-01

    This article presents work performed in the frame of ongoing FP7-SEC project “Advanced Forest Fire Fighting” in areas of UAV-based 3D surveillance and 3D area mapping. Photogrammetric 3D scanning and modelling from H2020-SCAN4RECO project have been used for producing high-resolution models of incident areas from multi-spectral imaging. We also present a proprietary embedded sensor system used for detection of fire ignitions in the forest using near-infrared based scanner with weight and form ...

  9. Optimisation of the Sekwa blended-wing-Body research UAV

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Broughton, BA

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available A variable stability, blended-wing-body research mini-UAV was developed at the CSIR in South Africa. The purpose of the UAV was to study some of the aerodynamic design and control issues associated with flying wing geometries and to develop a...

  10. Development of a UAV rangeland remote sensing capability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starting in 2000, experiments have been conducted at the Jornada Experimental Range near Las Cruces, NM to evaluate the utility of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) for applications on arid rangelands. When compared to all types of remote sensing research ongoing at Jornada and other locations, UAVs h...

  11. Pathloss Measurements and Modeling for UAVs Connected to Cellular Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amorim, Rafhael Medeiros de; Mogensen, Preben Elgaard; Sørensen, Troels Bundgaard

    2017-01-01

    . The measurements were conducted in an operating LTE network (850 MHz), using a commercial cell phone, placed inside the frame of the UAV. Trials were conducted for UAV flying at 5 different heights measured above ground level (20, 40, 60, 80 and 100m) and a pathloss regression line was obtained from results. Then...

  12. Formation Flight of Multiple UAVs via Onboard Sensor Information Sharing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chulwoo Park

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available To monitor large areas or simultaneously measure multiple points, multiple unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs must be flown in formation. To perform such flights, sensor information generated by each UAV should be shared via communications. Although a variety of studies have focused on the algorithms for formation flight, these studies have mainly demonstrated the performance of formation flight using numerical simulations or ground robots, which do not reflect the dynamic characteristics of UAVs. In this study, an onboard sensor information sharing system and formation flight algorithms for multiple UAVs are proposed. The communication delays of radiofrequency (RF telemetry are analyzed to enable the implementation of the onboard sensor information sharing system. Using the sensor information sharing, the formation guidance law for multiple UAVs, which includes both a circular and close formation, is designed. The hardware system, which includes avionics and an airframe, is constructed for the proposed multi-UAV platform. A numerical simulation is performed to demonstrate the performance of the formation flight guidance and control system for multiple UAVs. Finally, a flight test is conducted to verify the proposed algorithm for the multi-UAV system.

  13. Three-dimensional velocity obstacle method for UAV deconflicting maneuvers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jenie, Y.I.; Van Kampen, E.J.; De Visser, C.C.; Ellerbroek, J.; Hoekstra, J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Autonomous systems are required in order to enable UAVs to conduct self-separation and collision avoidance, especially for flights within the civil airspace system. A method called the Velocity Obstacle Method can provide the necessary situational awareness for UAVs in a dynamic environment, and can

  14. Guidance and control for an autonomous soaring UAV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Michael J. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    The present invention provides a practical method for UAVs to take advantage of thermals in a manner similar to piloted aircrafts and soaring birds. In general, the invention is a method for a UAV to autonomously locate a thermal and be guided to the thermal to greatly improve range and endurance of the aircraft.

  15. An Ecological Approach to the Supervisory Control of UAV Swarms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fuchs, C.; Borst, C.; De Croon, G.C.H.E.; Van Paassen, M.M.; Mulder, M.

    2014-01-01

    This research employs ecological interface design to improve the human machine interface of an existing ground control station for the supervisory control of UAV swarms. As a case study, a general ground surveillance mission with four UAVs is envisioned. An analysis of the swarming work domain is

  16. Volumetric calculation using low cost unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, A. A. Ab; Maulud, K. N. Abdul; Mohd, F. A.; Jaafar, O.; Tahar, K. N.

    2017-12-01

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) technology has evolved dramatically in the 21st century. It is used by both military and general public for recreational purposes and mapping work. Operating cost for UAV is much cheaper compared to that of normal aircraft and it does not require a large work space. The UAV systems have similar functions with the LIDAR and satellite images technologies. These systems require a huge cost, labour and time consumption to produce elevation and dimension data. Measurement of difficult objects such as water tank can also be done by using UAV. The purpose of this paper is to show the capability of UAV to compute the volume of water tank based on a different number of images and control points. The results were compared with the actual volume of the tank to validate the measurement. In this study, the image acquisition was done using Phantom 3 Professional, which is a low cost UAV. The analysis in this study is based on different volume computations using two and four control points with variety set of UAV images. The results show that more images will provide a better quality measurement. With 95 images and four GCP, the error percentage to the actual volume is about 5%. Four controls are enough to get good results but more images are needed, estimated about 115 until 220 images. All in all, it can be concluded that the low cost UAV has a potential to be used for volume of water and dimension measurement.

  17. Formation Flight of Multiple UAVs via Onboard Sensor Information Sharing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chulwoo; Cho, Namhoon; Lee, Kyunghyun; Kim, Youdan

    2015-07-17

    To monitor large areas or simultaneously measure multiple points, multiple unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) must be flown in formation. To perform such flights, sensor information generated by each UAV should be shared via communications. Although a variety of studies have focused on the algorithms for formation flight, these studies have mainly demonstrated the performance of formation flight using numerical simulations or ground robots, which do not reflect the dynamic characteristics of UAVs. In this study, an onboard sensor information sharing system and formation flight algorithms for multiple UAVs are proposed. The communication delays of radiofrequency (RF) telemetry are analyzed to enable the implementation of the onboard sensor information sharing system. Using the sensor information sharing, the formation guidance law for multiple UAVs, which includes both a circular and close formation, is designed. The hardware system, which includes avionics and an airframe, is constructed for the proposed multi-UAV platform. A numerical simulation is performed to demonstrate the performance of the formation flight guidance and control system for multiple UAVs. Finally, a flight test is conducted to verify the proposed algorithm for the multi-UAV system.

  18. Opportunities for UAV mapping to support unplanned settlement ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    application. The materials and methods section provides an overview of the context of the case study and the UAV flights conducted over the area. In the results section, the spatial data requirements of upgrading projects are analyzed, and the added value of using UAV data is described through the identification of four key ...

  19. Vision-IMU based collaborative control of a blind UAV

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogervorst, R.; Stramigioli, Stefano; Wopereis, Han Willem; Fumagalli, Matteo

    2015-01-01

    Position estimation of UAVs is usually done using onboard sensors such as GPS and camera. However, in certain practical situations, the measurements of both the GPS and the onboard camera of the UAV might not always be available or reliable. This paper investigates the possibility to overcome

  20. Exploitation of Self Organization in UAV Swarms for Optimization in Combat Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-01

    UCAV (10km UAV) Detection Range 1.5Km UCAV (10km UAV) Engagement Range 1 Km UCAV (none for UAV ) Behavior Archetypes 3 Table 5.3 shows the behavior set...10km UAV) Engagement Range 1.5 Km UCAV (none for UAV ) Behavior Archetypes 3 The agents also choose from new sensor inputs. The previous sensor set...target recognition techniques. 139 With the inclusion of other UAV behaviors , testing would be more extensive providing a better platform for UAV

  1. Flocking of quad-rotor UAVs with fuzzy control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Xiang; Zhang, Hongbin; Wang, Yanhui

    2018-03-01

    This paper investigates the flocking problem of quad-rotor UAVs. Considering the actual situations, we derived a new simplified quad-rotor UAV model which is more reasonable. Based on the model, the T-S fuzzy model of attitude dynamic equation and the corresponding T-S fuzzy feedback controller are discussed. By introducing a double-loop control construction, we adjust its attitude to realize the position control. Then a flocking algorithm is proposed to achieve the flocking of the quad-rotor UAVs. Compared with the flocking algorithm of the mass point model, we dealt with the collision problem of the quad-rotor UAVs. In order to improve the airspace utilization, a more compact configuration called quasi e-lattice is constructed to guarantee the compact flight of the quad-rotor UAVs. Finally, numerical simulations are provided to illustrate the effectiveness of the obtained theoretical results. Copyright © 2018 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Energy-Efficient Power Allocation for UAV Cognitive Radio Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Sboui, Lokman

    2018-02-12

    We study the deployment of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) based cognitive system in an area covered by the primary network (PN). An UAV shares the spectrum of the PN and aims to maximize its energy efficiency (EE) by optimizing the transmit power. We focus on the case where the UAV simultaneously communicates with the ground receiver (G), under interference limitation, and with another relaying UAV (A), with a minimal required rate. We analytically develop the power allocation framework that maximizes the EE subject to power budget, interference, and minimal rate constraints. In the numerical results, we show that the minimal rate may cause a transmission outage at low power budget values. We also highlighted the existence of optimal altitudes given the UAV location with respect to the different other terminals.

  3. Synthesis of Control Algorithm for a Leaderheaded UAVs Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. O. Samodov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, a defense sphere uses unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs. UAVs have several advantages over manned aircrafts such as small size, reduced combat losses of personnel, etc. In addition, in threat environment, it is necessary to arrange both bringing together distant from each other UAVs in a group and their undetected in radar fields compact flying in terms of the joint flight security.However, the task to control a UAVs group is much more difficult than to control a single UAV, since it is necessary not only to control the aircraft, but also take into account the relative position of objects in the group.To solve this problem two ways are possible: using a network exchange between members of the group on the "everyone with everyone" principle and organizing the leader-headed flight.The aim of the article is to develop and study a possible option of the UAVs group control with arranging a leader-headed flight to provide the undetected in radar fields compact flying in terms of the joint flight security.The article develops a universal algorithm to control leader-headed group, based on a new modification of the statistical theory of optimal control. It studies effectiveness of the algorithm. While solving this task, a flight of seven UAVs was simulated in the horizontal plane in a rectangular coordinate system. Control time, linear errors of desired alignment of UAV, and control errors with respect to angular coordinates are used as measures of merit.The study results of the algorithm to control a leader-headed group of UAVs confirmed that it is possible to fulfill tasks of flying free-of-collision group of UAVs with essentially reduced computational costs.

  4. State-Of in Uav Remote Sensing Survey - First Insights Into Applications of Uav Sensing Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aasen, H.

    2017-08-01

    UAVs are increasingly adapted as remote sensing platforms. Together with specialized sensors, they become powerful sensing systems for environmental monitoring and surveying. Spectral data has great capabilities to the gather information about biophysical and biochemical properties. Still, capturing meaningful spectral data in a reproducible way is not trivial. Since a couple of years small and lightweight spectral sensors, which can be carried on small flexible platforms, have become available. With their adaption in the community, the responsibility to ensure the quality of the data is increasingly shifted from specialized companies and agencies to individual researchers or research teams. Due to the complexity of the data acquisition of spectral data, this poses a challenge for the community and standardized protocols, metadata and best practice procedures are needed to make data intercomparable. In November 2016, the ESSEM COST action Innovative optical Tools for proximal sensing of ecophysiological processes (OPTIMISE; http://optimise.dcs.aber.ac.uk/) held a workshop on best practices for UAV spectral sampling. The objective of this meeting was to trace the way from particle to pixel and identify influences on the data quality / reliability, to figure out how well we are currently doing with spectral sampling from UAVs and how we can improve. Additionally, a survey was designed to be distributed within the community to get an overview over the current practices and raise awareness for the topic. This talk will introduce the approach of the OPTIMISE community towards best practises in UAV spectral sampling and present first results of the survey (http://optimise.dcs.aber.ac.uk/uav-survey/). This contribution briefly introduces the survey and gives some insights into the first results given by the interviewees.

  5. ADVANCES OF FLASH LIDAR DEVELOPMENT ONBOARD UAV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Zhou

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available A small cost-low civilian UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle - UAV platform usually requests that all carried components should be light in weight, small in volume, and efficient in energy. This paper presents the advance of a pre-mature of flash LiDAR system including laser emitting system, associate with the pulsed voltage technology. A complete laser emitting system, including laser diode, conic lens, alignment, divergence angle, etc., has been designed and implemented. The laser emitting system is first simulated and tested using 3D-Tool software, and then manufactured by an industrial company. In addition, a novel power supply topology based on two coupled coils, pulse generator circuit, and a fast switch, is proposed since several 100 V in voltage, 10-100 A in current, several hundred millisecond in pulse width is needed for flash LiDAR system onboard a small low-cost civilian UAV platform, and the traditional power supply had problems in efficiency and bulk. Finally, laser emitting and the power supply are assembled and tested. The size of laser footprint is 4398.031 mm x 4398.031 mm in x and y axes, respectively, when shitting from a flight height of 300 m, which is close to the theoretic size of 4.5 m x 4.5 m. The difference of 102 mm can meet the requirement of flash LiDAR data collection at a flight height of 300 m. Future work on extensive and on-going investigation and investments for a prototype of flash LiDAR system is drawn up as well.

  6. Comparison of Computational Approaches for Rapid Aerodynamic Assessment of Small UAVs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafer, Theresa C.; Lynch, C. Eric; Viken, Sally A.; Favaregh, Noah; Zeune, Cale; Williams, Nathan; Dansie, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) methods were used to determine the basic aerodynamic, performance, and stability and control characteristics of the unmanned air vehicle (UAV), Kahu. Accurate and timely prediction of the aerodynamic characteristics of small UAVs is an essential part of military system acquisition and air-worthiness evaluations. The forces and moments of the UAV were predicted using a variety of analytical methods for a range of configurations and conditions. The methods included Navier Stokes (N-S) flow solvers (USM3D, Kestrel and Cobalt) that take days to set up and hours to converge on a single solution; potential flow methods (PMARC, LSAERO, and XFLR5) that take hours to set up and minutes to compute; empirical methods (Datcom) that involve table lookups and produce a solution quickly; and handbook calculations. A preliminary aerodynamic database can be developed very efficiently by using a combination of computational tools. The database can be generated with low-order and empirical methods in linear regions, then replacing or adjusting the data as predictions from higher order methods are obtained. A comparison of results from all the data sources as well as experimental data obtained from a wind-tunnel test will be shown and the methods will be evaluated on their utility during each portion of the flight envelope.

  7. UAV Remote Sensing Surveillance of a Mine Tailings Impoundment in Sub-Arctic Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anssi Rauhala

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Mining typically involves extensive areas where environmental monitoring is spatially sporadic. New remote sensing techniques and platforms such as Structure from Motion (SfM and unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs may offer one solution for more comprehensive and spatially continuous measurements. We conducted UAV campaigns in three consecutive summers (2015–2017 at a sub-Arctic mining site where production was temporarily suspended. The aim was to monitor a 0.5 km2 tailings impoundment and measure potential subsidence of tailings. SfM photogrammetry was used to produce yearly topographical models of the tailings surface, which allowed the amount of surface displacement between years to be tracked. Ground checkpoints surveyed in stable areas of the impoundment were utilized in assessing the vertical accuracy of the models. Observed surface displacements were linked to a combination of erosion, tailings settlement, and possible compaction of the peat layer underlying the tailings. The accuracy obtained indicated that UAV-assisted monitoring of tailings impoundments is sufficiently accurate for supporting impoundment management operations and for tracking surface displacements in the decimeter range.

  8. Swarms of UAVs and fighter aircraft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trahan, M.W.; Wagner, J.S.; Stantz, K.M.; Gray, P.C.; Robinett, R.

    1998-11-01

    This paper describes a method of modeling swarms of UAVs and/or fighter aircraft using particle simulation concepts. Recent investigations into the use of genetic algorithms to design neural networks for the control of autonomous vehicles (i.e., robots) led to the examination of methods of simulating large collections of robots. This paper describes the successful implementation of a model of swarm dynamics using particle simulation concepts. Several examples of the complex behaviors achieved in a target/interceptor scenario are presented.

  9. Video change detection for fixed wing UAVs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartelsen, Jan; Müller, Thomas; Ring, Jochen; Mück, Klaus; Brüstle, Stefan; Erdnüß, Bastian; Lutz, Bastian; Herbst, Theresa

    2017-10-01

    In this paper we proceed the work of Bartelsen et al.1 We present the draft of a process chain for an image based change detection which is designed for videos acquired by fixed wing unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). From our point of view, automatic video change detection for aerial images can be useful to recognize functional activities which are typically caused by the deployment of improvised explosive devices (IEDs), e.g. excavations, skid marks, footprints, left-behind tooling equipment, and marker stones. Furthermore, in case of natural disasters, like flooding, imminent danger can be recognized quickly. Due to the necessary flight range, we concentrate on fixed wing UAVs. Automatic change detection can be reduced to a comparatively simple photogrammetric problem when the perspective change between the "before" and "after" image sets is kept as small as possible. Therefore, the aerial image acquisition demands a mission planning with a clear purpose including flight path and sensor configuration. While the latter can be enabled simply by a fixed and meaningful adjustment of the camera, ensuring a small perspective change for "before" and "after" videos acquired by fixed wing UAVs is a challenging problem. Concerning this matter, we have performed tests with an advanced commercial off the shelf (COTS) system which comprises a differential GPS and autopilot system estimating the repetition accuracy of its trajectory. Although several similar approaches have been presented,23 as far as we are able to judge, the limits for this important issue are not estimated so far. Furthermore, we design a process chain to enable the practical utilization of video change detection. It consists of a front-end of a database to handle large amounts of video data, an image processing and change detection implementation, and the visualization of the results. We apply our process chain on the real video data acquired by the advanced COTS fixed wing UAV and synthetic data. For the

  10. The Parrot UAV Controlled by PID Controllers

    OpenAIRE

    Koszewnik Andrzej

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents the process of modeling and designing control laws for four-rotor type of the Parrot UAV. The state space model is obtained by using several phenomena like gyroscopic effects for rigid bodies, propellers and rotors. The obtained model has been used to design PID control laws for roll, pitch, yaw angle and altitude, respectively. The numerical simulations of the closed loop model are shown that system in satisfy way stabilize flight of the quadro-rotor in all considered dire...

  11. The Parrot UAV Controlled by PID Controllers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koszewnik Andrzej

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the process of modeling and designing control laws for four-rotor type of the Parrot UAV. The state space model is obtained by using several phenomena like gyroscopic effects for rigid bodies, propellers and rotors. The obtained model has been used to design PID control laws for roll, pitch, yaw angle and altitude, respectively. The numerical simulations of the closed loop model are shown that system in satisfy way stabilize flight of the quadro-rotor in all considered directions.

  12. Upwind dynamic soaring of albatrosses and UAVs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Philip L.

    2015-01-01

    Albatrosses have been observed to soar in an upwind direction using what is called here an upwind mode of dynamic soaring. The upwind mode was modeled using the dynamics of a two-layer Rayleigh cycle in which the lower layer has zero velocity and the upper layer has a uniform wind speed of W. The upwind mode consists of a climb across the wind-shear layer headed upwind, a 90° turn and descent across the wind-shear layer perpendicular to the wind, followed by a 90° turn into the wind. The increase of airspeed gained from crossing the wind-shear layer headed upwind was balanced by the decrease of airspeed caused by drag. Results show that a wandering albatross can soar over the ocean in an upwind direction at a mean speed of 8.4 m/s in a 3.6 m/s wind, which is the minimum wind speed necessary for sustained dynamic soaring. A main result is that albatrosses can soar upwind much faster than the wind speed. Furthermore, albatrosses were found to be able to increase upwind speeds in winds greater than 3.6 m/s, reaching an upwind speed of 12.1 m/s in a wind speed of 7 m/s (for example). The upwind dynamic soaring mode of a possible robotic albatross UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle) was modeled using a Rayleigh cycle and characteristics of a high-performance glider. Maximum possible airspeeds are equal to approximately 9.5 times the wind speed of the upper layer. In a wind of 10 m/s, the maximum possible upwind (56 m/s) and across-wind (61 m/s) components of UAV velocity over the ocean result in a diagonal upwind velocity of 83 m/s. In sufficient wind, a UAV could, in principle, use fast diagonal speeds to rapidly survey large areas of the ocean surface and the marine boundary layer. In practice, the maximum speeds of a UAV soaring over the ocean could be significantly less than these predictions. Some limitations to achieving fast travel velocities over the ocean are discussed and suggestions are made for further studies to test the concept of a robotic albatross.

  13. Output feedback control of a quadrotor UAV using neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dierks, Travis; Jagannathan, Sarangapani

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, a new nonlinear controller for a quadrotor unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) is proposed using neural networks (NNs) and output feedback. The assumption on the availability of UAV dynamics is not always practical, especially in an outdoor environment. Therefore, in this work, an NN is introduced to learn the complete dynamics of the UAV online, including uncertain nonlinear terms like aerodynamic friction and blade flapping. Although a quadrotor UAV is underactuated, a novel NN virtual control input scheme is proposed which allows all six degrees of freedom (DOF) of the UAV to be controlled using only four control inputs. Furthermore, an NN observer is introduced to estimate the translational and angular velocities of the UAV, and an output feedback control law is developed in which only the position and the attitude of the UAV are considered measurable. It is shown using Lyapunov theory that the position, orientation, and velocity tracking errors, the virtual control and observer estimation errors, and the NN weight estimation errors for each NN are all semiglobally uniformly ultimately bounded (SGUUB) in the presence of bounded disturbances and NN functional reconstruction errors while simultaneously relaxing the separation principle. The effectiveness of proposed output feedback control scheme is then demonstrated in the presence of unknown nonlinear dynamics and disturbances, and simulation results are included to demonstrate the theoretical conjecture.

  14. Slic Superpixels for Object Delineation from Uav Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crommelinck, S.; Bennett, R.; Gerke, M.; Koeva, M. N.; Yang, M. Y.; Vosselman, G.

    2017-08-01

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) are increasingly investigated with regard to their potential to create and update (cadastral) maps. UAVs provide a flexible and low-cost platform for high-resolution data, from which object outlines can be accurately delineated. This delineation could be automated with image analysis methods to improve existing mapping procedures that are cost, time and labor intensive and of little reproducibility. This study investigates a superpixel approach, namely simple linear iterative clustering (SLIC), in terms of its applicability to UAV data. The approach is investigated in terms of its applicability to high-resolution UAV orthoimages and in terms of its ability to delineate object outlines of roads and roofs. Results show that the approach is applicable to UAV orthoimages of 0.05 m GSD and extents of 100 million and 400 million pixels. Further, the approach delineates the objects with the high accuracy provided by the UAV orthoimages at completeness rates of up to 64 %. The approach is not suitable as a standalone approach for object delineation. However, it shows high potential for a combination with further methods that delineate objects at higher correctness rates in exchange of a lower localization quality. This study provides a basis for future work that will focus on the incorporation of multiple methods for an interactive, comprehensive and accurate object delineation from UAV data. This aims to support numerous application fields such as topographic and cadastral mapping.

  15. Review of the Current State of UAV Regulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Stöcker

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available UAVs—unmanned aerial vehicles—facilitate data acquisition at temporal and spatial scales that still remain unachievable for traditional remote sensing platforms. However, current legal frameworks that regulate UAVs present significant barriers to research and development. To highlight the importance, impact, and diversity of UAV regulations, this paper provides an exploratory investigation of UAV regulations on the global scale. For this, the methodological approach consists of a research synthesis of UAV regulations, including a thorough literature review and a comparative analysis of national regulatory frameworks. Similarities and contrasting elements in the various national UAV regulations are explored including their statuses from the perspectives of past, present, and future trends. Since the early 2000s, countries have gradually established national legal frameworks. Although all UAV regulations have one common goal—minimizing the risks to other airspace users and to both people and property on the ground—the results reveal distinct variations in all the compared variables. Furthermore, besides the clear presence of legal frameworks, market forces such as industry design standards and reliable information about UAVs as public goods are expected to shape future developments.

  16. Optimal trajectory planning for a UAV glider using atmospheric thermals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagabo, Wilson B.

    An Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Glider (UAV glider) uses atmospheric energy in its different forms to remain aloft for extended flight durations. This UAV glider's aim is to extract atmospheric thermal energy and use it to supplement its battery energy usage and increase the mission period. Given an infrared camera identified atmospheric thermal of known strength and location; current wind speed and direction; current battery level; altitude and location of the UAV glider; and estimating the expected altitude gain from the thermal, is it possible to make an energy-efficient based motivation to fly to an atmospheric thermal so as to achieve UAV glider extended flight time? For this work, an infrared thermal camera aboard the UAV glider takes continuous forward-looking ground images of "hot spots". Through image processing a candidate atmospheric thermal strength and location is estimated. An Intelligent Decision Model incorporates this information with the current UAV glider status and weather conditions to provide an energy-based recommendation to modify the flight path of the UAV glider. Research, development, and simulation of the Intelligent Decision Model is the primary focus of this work. Three models are developed: (1) Battery Usage Model, (2) Intelligent Decision Model, and (3) Altitude Gain Model. The Battery Usage Model comes from the candidate flight trajectory, wind speed & direction and aircraft dynamic model. Intelligent Decision Model uses a fuzzy logic based approach. The Altitude Gain Model requires the strength and size of the thermal and is found a priori.

  17. A method of fast mosaic for massive UAV images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Ren; Sun, Min; Jiang, Cheng; Liu, Lei; Zheng, Hui; Li, Xiaodong

    2014-11-01

    With the development of UAV technology, UAVs are used widely in multiple fields such as agriculture, forest protection, mineral exploration, natural disaster management and surveillances of public security events. In contrast of traditional manned aerial remote sensing platforms, UAVs are cheaper and more flexible to use. So users can obtain massive image data with UAVs, but this requires a lot of time to process the image data, for example, Pix4UAV need approximately 10 hours to process 1000 images in a high performance PC. But disaster management and many other fields require quick respond which is hard to realize with massive image data. Aiming at improving the disadvantage of high time consumption and manual interaction, in this article a solution of fast UAV image stitching is raised. GPS and POS data are used to pre-process the original images from UAV, belts and relation between belts and images are recognized automatically by the program, in the same time useless images are picked out. This can boost the progress of finding match points between images. Levenberg-Marquard algorithm is improved so that parallel computing can be applied to shorten the time of global optimization notably. Besides traditional mosaic result, it can also generate superoverlay result for Google Earth, which can provide a fast and easy way to show the result data. In order to verify the feasibility of this method, a fast mosaic system of massive UAV images is developed, which is fully automated and no manual interaction is needed after original images and GPS data are provided. A test using 800 images of Kelan River in Xinjiang Province shows that this system can reduce 35%-50% time consumption in contrast of traditional methods, and increases respond speed of UAV image processing rapidly.

  18. Experiences of Uav Surveys Applied to Environmental Risk Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caprioli, M.; Trizzino, R.; Mazzone, F.; Scarano, M.

    2016-06-01

    In this paper the results of some surveys carried out in an area of Apulian territory affected by serious environmental hazard are presented. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) are emerging as a key engineering tool for future environmental survey tasks. UAVs are increasingly seen as an attractive low-cost alternative or supplement to aerial and terrestrial photogrammetry due to their low cost, flexibility, availability and readiness for duty. In addition, UAVs can be operated in hazardous or temporarily inaccessible locations, that makes them very suitable for the assessment and management of environmental risk conditions. In order to verify the reliability of these technologies an UAV survey and A LIDAR survey have been carried outalong about 1 km of coast in the Salento peninsula, near the towns of San Foca, Torre dellOrso and SantAndrea( Lecce, Southern Italy). This area is affected by serious environmental risks due to the presence of dangerous rocky cliffs named falesie. The UAV platform was equipped with a photogrammetric measurement system that allowed us to obtain a mobile mapping of the fractured fronts of dangerous rocky cliffs. UAV-images data have been processed using dedicated software (AgisoftPhotoscan). The point clouds obtained from both the UAV and LIDAR surveys have been processed using Cloud Compare software, with the aim of testing the UAV results with respect to the LIDAR ones. The total error obtained was of centimeter-order that is a very satisfactory result. The environmental information has been arranged in an ArcGIS platform in order to assess the risk levels. The possibility to repeat the survey at time intervals more or less close together depending on the measured levels of risk and to compare the output allows following the trend of the dangerous phenomena. In conclusion, for inaccessible locations of dangerous rocky bodies the UAV survey coupled with GIS methodology proved to be a key engineering tool for the management of environmental

  19. EXPERIENCES OF UAV SURVEYS APPLIED TO ENVIRONMENTAL RISK MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Caprioli

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the results of some surveys carried out in an area of Apulian territory affected by serious environmental hazard are presented. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV are emerging as a key engineering tool for future environmental survey tasks. UAVs are increasingly seen as an attractive low-cost alternative or supplement to aerial and terrestrial photogrammetry due to their low cost, flexibility, availability and readiness for duty. In addition, UAVs can be operated in hazardous or temporarily inaccessible locations, that makes them very suitable for the assessment and management of environmental risk conditions. In order to verify the reliability of these technologies an UAV survey and A LIDAR survey have been carried outalong about 1 km of coast in the Salento peninsula, near the towns of San Foca, Torre dellOrso and SantAndrea( Lecce, Southern Italy. This area is affected by serious environmental risks due to the presence of dangerous rocky cliffs named falesie. The UAV platform was equipped with a photogrammetric measurement system that allowed us to obtain a mobile mapping of the fractured fronts of dangerous rocky cliffs. UAV-images data have been processed using dedicated software (AgisoftPhotoscan. The point clouds obtained from both the UAV and LIDAR surveys have been processed using Cloud Compare software, with the aim of testing the UAV results with respect to the LIDAR ones. The total error obtained was of centimeter-order that is a very satisfactory result. The environmental information has been arranged in an ArcGIS platform in order to assess the risk levels. The possibility to repeat the survey at time intervals more or less close together depending on the measured levels of risk and to compare the output allows following the trend of the dangerous phenomena. In conclusion, for inaccessible locations of dangerous rocky bodies the UAV survey coupled with GIS methodology proved to be a key engineering tool for the management

  20. Concept of Indoor 3D-Route UAV Scheduling System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khosiawan, Yohanes; Nielsen, Izabela Ewa; Do, Ngoc Ang Dung

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the proposed concept is to develop a methodology to support Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) operation with a path planning and scheduling system in 3D environments. The proposed 3D path-planning and scheduling allows the system to schedule UAVs routing to perform tasks in 3D indoor...... environment. On top of that, the multi-source productive best-first-search concept also supports efficient real-time scheduling in response to uncertain events. Without human intervention, the proposed work provides an automatic scheduling system for UAV routing problem in 3D indoor environment....

  1. Vision-Based Tracking, Odometry and Control for UAV Autonomy

    OpenAIRE

    Fu, Changhong

    2015-01-01

    El principal objetivo de este trabajo es proporcionar una solución en tiempo real basada en visión estéreo o monocular precisa y robusta para que un vehículo aéreo no tripulado (UAV) sea autónomo en varios tipos de aplicaciones UAV, especialmente en entornos abarrotados sin señal GPS. Este trabajo principalmente consiste en tres temas de investigación de UAV basados en técnicas de visión por computador: (I) visual tracking, proporciona soluciones efectivas para localizar visualmente objetos d...

  2. Ultra-Tightly Coupled GNSS/INS for small UAVs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Daniel; Jakobsen, Jakob; Knudsen, Per

    2017-01-01

    fitted onto a small UAV. The storage of IF samples together with measurements from an Inertial Measurement Unit ( IMU) has allowed the authors to process an Ultra-Tightly Coupled ( U.T.C.) GNSS/INS solution from real data collected with a small UAV. The focus of this paper has been to investigate......This paper describes an ultra-tight integration of a Global Navigation Satellite System ( GNSS) receiver and an Inertial Navigation System ( INS) for small Unmanned Aerial Vehicles ( UAVs). The system is based on a low-cost and low-weight GNSS Intermediate Frequency ( IF) sampler which has been...

  3. The use of UAVs for monitoring land degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Themistocleous, Kyriacos

    2017-10-01

    Land degradation is one of the causes of desertification of drylands in the Mediterranean. UAVs can be used to monitor and document the various variables that cause desertification in drylands, including overgrazing, aridity, vegetation loss, etc. This paper examines the use of UAVs and accompanying sensors to monitor overgrazing, vegetation stress and aridity in the study area. UAV images can be used to generate digital elevation models (DEMs) to examine the changes in microtopography as well as ortho-photos were used to detect changes in vegetation patterns. The combined data of the digital elevation models and the orthophotos can be used to identify the mechanisms for desertification in the study area.

  4. Automatic Power Line Inspection Using UAV Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Zhang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Power line inspection ensures the safe operation of a power transmission grid. Using unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV images of power line corridors is an effective way to carry out these vital inspections. In this paper, we propose an automatic inspection method for power lines using UAV images. This method, known as the power line automatic measurement method based on epipolar constraints (PLAMEC, acquires the spatial position of the power lines. Then, the semi patch matching based on epipolar constraints (SPMEC dense matching method is applied to automatically extract dense point clouds within the power line corridor. Obstacles can then be automatically detected by calculating the spatial distance between a power line and the point cloud representing the ground. Experimental results show that the PLAMEC automatically measures power lines effectively with a measurement accuracy consistent with that of manual stereo measurements. The height root mean square (RMS error of the point cloud was 0.233 m, and the RMS error of the power line was 0.205 m. In addition, we verified the detected obstacles in the field and measured the distance between the canopy and power line using a laser range finder. The results show that the difference of these two distances was within ±0.5 m.

  5. UAV-MAPPING – A USER REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Mayr

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on first hand experiences in operating an unmanned airborne system (UAS for mapping purposes in the environment of a mapping company. Recently, a multitude of activities in UAVs is visible, and there is growing interest in the commercial, industrial, and academic mapping user communities and not only in those. As an introduction, the major components of an UAS are identified. The paper focuses on a 1.1kg UAV which is integrated and gets applied on a day-to-day basis as part of an UAS in standard aerial imaging tasks for more than two years already. We present the unmanned airborne vehicle in some detail as well as the overall system components such as autopilot, ground station, flight mission planning and control, and first level image processing. The paper continues with reporting on experiences gained in setting up constraints such a system needs to fulfill. Further on, operational aspects with emphasis on unattended flight mission mode are presented. Various examples show the applicability of UAS in geospatial tasks, proofing that UAS are capable delivering reliably e.g. orthomosaics, digital surface models and more. Some remarks on achieved accuracies give an idea on obtainable qualities. A discussion about safety features puts some light on important matters when entering unmanned flying activities and rounds up this paper. Conclusions summarize the state of the art of an operational UAS from the point of the view of the author.

  6. Control system design for UAV trajectory tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haitao; Gao, Jinyuan

    2006-11-01

    In recent years, because of the emerging requirements for increasing autonomy, the controller of uninhabited air vehicles must be augmented with a very sophisticated autopilot design which is capable of tracking complex and agile maneuvering trajectory. This paper provides a simplified control system framework to solve UAV maneuvering trajectory tracking problem. The flight control system is divided into three subsystems including command generation, transformation and allocation. According to the kinematics equations of the aircraft, flight path angle commands can be generated by desired 3D position from path planning. These commands are transformed to body angular rates through direct nonlinear mapping, which is simpler than common multi-loop method based on time scale separation assumption. Then, by using weighted pseudo-inverse method, the control surface deflections are allocated to follow body angular rates from the previous step. In order to improve the robustness, a nonlinear disturbance observer-based approach is used to compensate the uncertainty of system. A 6DOF nonlinear UAV model is controlled to demonstrate the performance of the trajectory tracking control system. Simulation results show that the control strategy is easy to be realized and the precision of tracking is satisfying.

  7. Research on UAV Intelligent Obstacle Avoidance Technology During Inspection of Transmission Line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Chuanhu; Zhang, Fei; Yin, Chaoyuan; Liu, Yue; Liu, Liang; Li, Zongyu; Wang, Wanguo

    Autonomous obstacle avoidance of unmanned aerial vehicle (hereinafter referred to as UAV) in electric power line inspection process has important significance for operation safety and economy for UAV intelligent inspection system of transmission line as main content of UAV intelligent inspection system on transmission line. In the paper, principles of UAV inspection obstacle avoidance technology of transmission line are introduced. UAV inspection obstacle avoidance technology based on particle swarm global optimization algorithm is proposed after common obstacle avoidance technologies are studied. Stimulation comparison is implemented with traditional UAV inspection obstacle avoidance technology which adopts artificial potential field method. Results show that UAV inspection strategy of particle swarm optimization algorithm, adopted in the paper, is prominently better than UAV inspection strategy of artificial potential field method in the aspects of obstacle avoidance effect and the ability of returning to preset inspection track after passing through the obstacle. An effective method is provided for UAV inspection obstacle avoidance of transmission line.

  8. Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) in pest management: Progress in the development of a UAV-deployed mating disruption system for Wisconsin cranberries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) represent a powerful new tool for agriculture. Currently, UAVs are used almost exclusively as crop reconnaissance devices (“eyes in the sky”), not as pest control delivery systems. Research in Wisconsin cranberries is taking UAVs in a new direction. The Steffan and Lu...

  9. Precise Positioning of Uavs - Dealing with Challenging Rtk-Gps Measurement Conditions during Automated Uav Flights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, F.; Eling, C.; Klingbeil, L.; Kuhlmann, H.

    2017-08-01

    For some years now, UAVs (unmanned aerial vehicles) are commonly used for different mobile mapping applications, such as in the fields of surveying, mining or archeology. To improve the efficiency of these applications an automation of the flight as well as the processing of the collected data is currently aimed at. One precondition for an automated mapping with UAVs is that the georeferencing is performed directly with cm-accuracies or better. Usually, a cm-accurate direct positioning of UAVs is based on an onboard multi-sensor system, which consists of an RTK-capable (real-time kinematic) GPS (global positioning system) receiver and additional sensors (e.g. inertial sensors). In this case, the absolute positioning accuracy essentially depends on the local GPS measurement conditions. Especially during mobile mapping applications in urban areas, these conditions can be very challenging, due to a satellite shadowing, non-line-of sight receptions, signal diffraction or multipath effects. In this paper, two straightforward and easy to implement strategies will be described and analyzed, which improve the direct positioning accuracies for UAV-based mapping and surveying applications under challenging GPS measurement conditions. Based on a 3D model of the surrounding buildings and vegetation in the area of interest, a GPS geometry map is determined, which can be integrated in the flight planning process, to avoid GPS challenging environments as far as possible. If these challenging environments cannot be avoided, the GPS positioning solution is improved by using obstruction adaptive elevation masks, to mitigate systematic GPS errors in the RTK-GPS positioning. Simulations and results of field tests demonstrate the profit of both strategies.

  10. Using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV for High-Resolution Reconstruction of Topography: The Structure from Motion Approach on Coastal Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Mancini

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The availability of high-resolution Digital Surface Models of coastal environments is of increasing interest for scientists involved in the study of the coastal system processes. Among the range of terrestrial and aerial methods available to produce such a dataset, this study tests the utility of the Structure from Motion (SfM approach to low-altitude aerial imageries collected by Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV. The SfM image-based approach was selected whilst searching for a rapid, inexpensive, and highly automated method, able to produce 3D information from unstructured aerial images. In particular, it was used to generate a dense point cloud and successively a high-resolution Digital Surface Models (DSM of a beach dune system in Marina di Ravenna (Italy. The quality of the elevation dataset produced by the UAV-SfM was initially evaluated by comparison with point cloud generated by a Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS surveys. Such a comparison served to highlight an average difference in the vertical values of 0.05 m (RMS = 0.19 m. However, although the points cloud comparison is the best approach to investigate the absolute or relative correspondence between UAV and TLS methods, the assessment of geomorphic features is usually based on multi-temporal surfaces analysis, where an interpolation process is required. DSMs were therefore generated from UAV and TLS points clouds and vertical absolute accuracies assessed by comparison with a Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS survey. The vertical comparison of UAV and TLS DSMs with respect to GNSS measurements pointed out an average distance at cm-level (RMS = 0.011 m. The successive point by point direct comparison between UAV and TLS elevations show a very small average distance, 0.015 m, with RMS = 0.220 m. Larger values are encountered in areas where sudden changes in topography are present. The UAV-based approach was demonstrated to be a straightforward one and accuracy of the vertical dataset

  11. A Discussion of Aerodynamic Control Effectors (ACEs) for Unmanned Air Vehicles (UAVs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Richard M.

    2002-01-01

    A Reynolds number based, unmanned air vehicle classification structure has been developed which identifies four classes of unmanned air vehicle concepts. The four unmanned air vehicle (UAV) classes are; Micro UAV, Meso UAV, Macro UAV, and Mega UAV. In a similar fashion a labeling scheme for aerodynamic control effectors (ACE) was developed and eleven types of ACE concepts were identified. These eleven types of ACEs were laid out in a five (5) layer scheme. The final section of the paper correlated the various ACE concepts to the four UAV classes and ACE recommendations are offered for future design activities.

  12. A hardware/software architecture for UAV payload and mission control

    OpenAIRE

    Pastor Llorens, Enric; López Rubio, Juan; Royo Chic, Pablo

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents an embedded hardware/software architecture specially designed to be applied on mini/micro Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV). An UAV is low-cost non-piloted airplane designed to operate in D-cube (Dangerous- Dirty-Dull) situations [8]. Many types of UAVs exist today; however with the advent of UAV's civil applications, the class of mini/micro UAVs is emerging as a valid option in a commercial scenario. This type of UAV shares limitations with most...

  13. Fleet Protection Using a Small UAV Based IR Sensor

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Buss, James R; Ax, Jr, George R

    2005-01-01

    A study was performed to define candidate electro-optical and infrared (EO/IR) sensor configurations and assess their potential utility as small UAV-based sensors surveilling a perimeter around surface fleet assets...

  14. UAV Swarm Attack: Protection System Alternatives for Destroyers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    Paul V. Shebalin Bonnie Young ...Michael Casserly Reviewed By: ____________________ ____________________ Dr. Paul V. Shebalin Bonnie Young Capstone...Range 4 Moderate Accuracy – Probability of Seduction 5 Moderate Technology Readiness The cost of improving the UAV radar decoy capability on a

  15. Optimum Cooperative UAV Sensing Based on Cramer-Rao Bound

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gu, G; Chandler, P. R; Schumacher, C. J; Sparks, A; Pachter, M

    2005-01-01

    .... Based on the Cramer-Rao bound, we are able to derive the minimum achievable error variance in estimation of the position and the velocity of the GMT, and obtain the optimal geometries of the UAV...

  16. Next Generation, UAV-Class Ozone Photometer, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Physical Sciences Inc. proposes to develop a compact, rugged, rapid-response, autonomous sensor for in-situ monitoring of ambient O3 from UAVs. Our innovation is to...

  17. Aerial Search Optimization Model (ASOM) for UAVs in Special Operations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kress, Moshe; Royset, Johannes O

    2007-01-01

    .... The goal is to detect the largest possible number of targets with the given resources. The model prescribes optimal deployment locations for the ground units and optimal time-phased search areas for the UAVs...

  18. Small VTOL UAV Acoustics Measurement and Prediction, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Interest in civilian use of small Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) with Vertical Takeoff and Landing (VTOL) capability has increased greatly in recent years, and is...

  19. Active-Twist Rotor Control Applications for UAVs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wilbur, Matthew L; Wilkie, W. K

    2004-01-01

    The current state-of-the-art in active-twist rotor control is discussed using representative examples from analytical and experimental studies, and the application to rotary-wing UAVs is considered...

  20. Target acquisition with UAVs: vigilance displays and advanced cuing interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunn, Daniel V; Warm, Joel S; Nelson, W Todd; Bolia, Robert S; Schumsky, Donald A; Corcoran, Kevin J

    2005-01-01

    Vigilance and threat detection are critical human factors considerations in the control of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). Utilizing a vigilance task in which threat detections (critical signals) led observers to perform a subsequent manual target acquisition task, this study provides information that might have important implications for both of these considerations in the design of future UAV systems. A sensory display format resulted in more threat detections, fewer false alarms, and faster target acquisition times and imposed a lighter workload than did a cognitive display format. Additionally, advanced visual, spatial-audio, and haptic cuing interfaces enhanced acquisition performance over no cuing in the target acquisition phase of the task, and they did so to a similar degree. Thus, in terms of potential applications, this research suggests that a sensory format may be the best display format for threat detection by future UAV operators, that advanced cuing interfaces may prove useful in future UAV systems, and that these interfaces are functionally interchangeable.

  1. Adaptive Levels of Autonomy (ALOA) for UAV Supervisory Control

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Johnson, Rubin; Leen, Michael; Goldberg, Dan; Chiu, Michael

    2005-01-01

    .... To demonstrate the architecture and LOA implementation, we designed a prototype Multi-UAV Control Station Emulator research test bed, by building on existing ORCA-developed software components...

  2. Performance Evaluation of 3d Modeling Software for Uav Photogrammetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagi, H.; Chikatsu, H.

    2016-06-01

    UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle) photogrammetry, which combines UAV and freely available internet-based 3D modeling software, is widely used as a low-cost and user-friendly photogrammetry technique in the fields such as remote sensing and geosciences. In UAV photogrammetry, only the platform used in conventional aerial photogrammetry is changed. Consequently, 3D modeling software contributes significantly to its expansion. However, the algorithms of the 3D modelling software are black box algorithms. As a result, only a few studies have been able to evaluate their accuracy using 3D coordinate check points. With this motive, Smart3DCapture and Pix4Dmapper were downloaded from the Internet and commercial software PhotoScan was also employed; investigations were performed in this paper using check points and images obtained from UAV.

  3. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF 3D MODELING SOFTWARE FOR UAV PHOTOGRAMMETRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Yanagi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle photogrammetry, which combines UAV and freely available internet-based 3D modeling software, is widely used as a low-cost and user-friendly photogrammetry technique in the fields such as remote sensing and geosciences. In UAV photogrammetry, only the platform used in conventional aerial photogrammetry is changed. Consequently, 3D modeling software contributes significantly to its expansion. However, the algorithms of the 3D modelling software are black box algorithms. As a result, only a few studies have been able to evaluate their accuracy using 3D coordinate check points. With this motive, Smart3DCapture and Pix4Dmapper were downloaded from the Internet and commercial software PhotoScan was also employed; investigations were performed in this paper using check points and images obtained from UAV.

  4. Weed detection by UAV with camera guided landing sequence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyrmann, Mads

    for greater computing capacity, whereby collected images can be processed and appropriate actions can be taken. The present study uses an entry level UAV with a Pixhawk controller and a GPS specified with an accuracy of 2.5m, meaning that the GPS alone is not sufficient to coordinate the UAV landing. Using......UAVs gain more and more currency in agriculture, as they allow for inspection of even remote areas of farmland. Measurements of weed occurrence in fields is one branch of this growing field of research. A problem with UAVs is that they have a limited energy capacity: Consequently, after a short...... that can collect images from the field. In this study, broad-leaf plants on lawns was detected by using textural features by which more than 82% of the broad leaves were detected....

  5. Development Of Linear Quadratic Regulator Design For Small UAV System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cho Zin Myint

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to know the importance role of stability analysis for both unmanned aircraft system and for all control system. The objective of paper is to develop a method for dynamic stability analysis of the design process. These are categorized intoTo design model and stability analysis of UAV based on the forces and moment equations of aircraft dynamic model To choose the suitable controller for desired altitude of a particular UAV model To analyze the stability condition for aircraft using mathematical modeling and MATLAB. In this paper the analytical model of the longitudinal dynamic of flying wing UAV has been developed using aerodynamic data. The stability characteristics of UAV can be achieved from the system transfer function with LQR controller.

  6. Tracking, aiming, and hitting the UAV with ordinary assault rifle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racek, František; Baláž, Teodor; Krejčí, Jaroslav; Procházka, Stanislav; Macko, Martin

    2017-10-01

    The usage small-unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) is significantly increasing nowadays. They are being used as a carrier of military spy and reconnaissance devices (taking photos, live video streaming and so on), or as a carrier of potentially dangerous cargo (intended for destruction and killing). Both ways of utilizing the UAV cause the necessity to disable it. From the military point of view, to disable the UAV means to bring it down by a weapon of an ordinary soldier that is the assault rifle. This task can be challenging for the soldier because he needs visually detect and identify the target, track the target visually and aim on the target. The final success of the soldier's mission depends not only on the said visual tasks, but also on the properties of the weapon and ammunition. The paper deals with possible methods of prediction of probability of hitting the UAV targets.

  7. Smart COordination of UAV Teams (SCOUT), Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Managing teams of unmanned vehicles is currently time-consuming and labor intensive. There needs to be a way to control multiple UAV teams with minimal human...

  8. Network Centric Transponders for Airspace Integration of UAVs Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A method and device for situational awareness for unmanned air vehicles is presented. This enables integration of UAVs into the national airspace in a safe manner,...

  9. A Stepped Frequency CW SAR for Lightweight UAV Operation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Morrison, Keith

    2005-01-01

    A stepped-frequency continuous wave (SF-CW) synthetic aperture radar (SAR), with frequency-agile waveforms and real-time intelligent signal processing algorithms, is proposed for operation from a lightweight UAV platform...

  10. Development of a Dynamic Model for a UAV

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Papageorgiou, Evangelos

    1997-01-01

    Moments of inertia were experimentally determined and the longitudinal and lateral/directional static and dynamic stability and control derivatives were estimated for a fixed wing Unmanned Air Vehicle (UAV...

  11. A Synthetic Teammate for UAV Applications: A Prospective Look

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gluck, Kevin A; Ball, Jerry T; Gunzelmann, Glenn; Krusmark, Michael A; Lyon, Don R; Cooke, Nancy J

    2006-01-01

    This report describes current progress and future plans for research and development in synthetic teammates for applications in training, analysis, and system design for Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle (UAV) operations...

  12. Ultra Compact Cloud Physics Lidar for UAV Platforms, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose a compact two color, polarization sensitive instrument to measure cloud characteristics from high altitude UAV and can also be widely deployed as...

  13. Ultra Compact Cloud Physics Lidar for UAV Platforms, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We have designed a compact two-color, polarization-sensitive instrument to measure cloud characteristics from a high altitude UAV and can also be widely deployed as...

  14. Chemical Microsensor Instrument for UAV Airborne Atmospheric Measurements, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The rapid expansion of available UAV types and increased mission capability (payload, flight duration, and system cost reductions) offers wide range of potential...

  15. DIRECT PHOTOGRAMMETRY USING UAV: TESTS AND FIRST RESULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Chiabrando

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the quality of high resolution acquisition platforms for geomatic applications has decidedly increased, especially in the performance of the sensors devoted to image acquisition. The small size of these new sensors combined with the increase in resolution allows them to be easily mounted onto Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs; in particular, calibrated, very-high-resolution digital cameras for photogrammetric purposes such as digital terrain model (DTM and digital surface model (DSM extraction, orthophotos, and map realization have been used. In this case, the UAV performance allows a high quality product to be obtained, considering the pixel size and the accuracy of the DTM/DSM which could be obtained with automatic procedures. Several navigation sensors (GPS/GNSS and IMU-MEMS are embedded into UAVs in order to realize autonomous flight. The quality of these sensors, in terms of accuracy, depends on the model of UAV and its purpose. The navigation solution (position and attitude is estimated by the internal UAV sensor and can be employed to directly georeference the images, in order to produce an quick and easy description and analysis of the overlooked area. This is a good condition for semi-automatic procedures using a bundle-block photogrammetric approach. But is it possible to realize a direct photogrammetry? And what are the limits? Several tests were carried out over different areas and in different conditions using three different UAVs belonging to the Geomatics group of the Politecnico di Torino. In this paper, an investigation of the limits of some commercial UAVs is reported, defining a dedicated procedure to valuate their performance, especially considering the use of UAVs for direct photogrammetry.

  16. Feasibility of Using Synthetic Aperture Radar to Aid UAV Navigation

    OpenAIRE

    Nitti, Davide O.; Bovenga, Fabio; Chiaradia, Maria T.; Greco, Mario; Pinelli, Gianpaolo

    2015-01-01

    This study explores the potential of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) to aid Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) navigation when Inertial Navigation System (INS) measurements are not accurate enough to eliminate drifts from a planned trajectory. This problem can affect medium-altitude long-endurance (MALE) UAV class, which permits heavy and wide payloads (as required by SAR) and flights for thousands of kilometres accumulating large drifts. The basic idea is to infer position and attitude of an aeria...

  17. Effect of an external vortex on the uav aerodynamic performances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudaoud, Warda; Yahiaoui, Tayeb; Imine, Bachir; Imine, Omar

    2012-06-01

    In this present work, the CFD and wind tunnel are used to investigate the effect of an external vortex around an UAV in order to obtain initial estimates of lift and drag coefficients with flow velocity of 30 meters per second for various angles of attack. The model of Spalart- Allmaras turbulence is used for the investigation of the complex flow around the UAV. The wind tunnel and CFD results are compared and appropriate error bands placed on the data.

  18. Effect of an external vortex on the uav aerodynamic performances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imine Bachir

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In this present work, the CFD and wind tunnel are used to investigate the effect of an external vortex around an UAV in order to obtain initial estimates of lift and drag coefficients with flow velocity of 30 meters per second for various angles of attack. The model of Spalart- Allmaras turbulence is used for the investigation of the complex flow around the UAV. The wind tunnel and CFD results are compared and appropriate error bands placed on the data.

  19. AUTOMATIC MAPPING FROM ULTRA-LIGHT UAV IMAGERY

    OpenAIRE

    Strecha, Christoph; Küng, Olivier; Fua, Pascal

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an affordable, fully automated and accurate mapping solutions based on ultra-light UAV imagery, which is commercialized by Pix4D. We show interesting application in the field of UAV mapping, analyse the accuracy of the automated processing on several datasets. The accuracy highly depends on the ground resolution (flying height) of the input imagery. When chosen appropriately this mapping solution can compete with traditional mapping solutions that capture fewer high-resolu...

  20. OMNIWORKS: Omnidirectional vision for human-UAV co-working

    OpenAIRE

    Campoy Cervera, Pascual; Olivares Méndez, Miguel Ángel; Fu, Changhong; Suárez Fernández, Ramón

    2013-01-01

    The OMNIWORKS project objective is to develop an autonomous and modular aerial inspection system for an off-shore meteorological mast up to 90m in length. The UAV was equipped with an omni-directional camera and vertical take-off/landing capabilities that should be simple enough to operate as to not need the interventions of a professional pilot under challenging situations. Therefore the tests included different aspects used to evaluate both the technical performance of the UAV behavior as w...

  1. Path planning and Ground Control Station simulator for UAV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajami, A.; Balmat, J.; Gauthier, J.-P.; Maillot, T.

    In this paper we present a Universal and Interoperable Ground Control Station (UIGCS) simulator for fixed and rotary wing Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs), and all types of payloads. One of the major constraints is to operate and manage multiple legacy and future UAVs, taking into account the compliance with NATO Combined/Joint Services Operational Environment (STANAG 4586). Another purpose of the station is to assign the UAV a certain degree of autonomy, via autonomous planification/replanification strategies. The paper is organized as follows. In Section 2, we describe the non-linear models of the fixed and rotary wing UAVs that we use in the simulator. In Section 3, we describe the simulator architecture, which is based upon interacting modules programmed independently. This simulator is linked with an open source flight simulator, to simulate the video flow and the moving target in 3D. To conclude this part, we tackle briefly the problem of the Matlab/Simulink software connection (used to model the UAV's dynamic) with the simulation of the virtual environment. Section 5 deals with the control module of a flight path of the UAV. The control system is divided into four distinct hierarchical layers: flight path, navigation controller, autopilot and flight control surfaces controller. In the Section 6, we focus on the trajectory planification/replanification question for fixed wing UAV. Indeed, one of the goals of this work is to increase the autonomy of the UAV. We propose two types of algorithms, based upon 1) the methods of the tangent and 2) an original Lyapunov-type method. These algorithms allow either to join a fixed pattern or to track a moving target. Finally, Section 7 presents simulation results obtained on our simulator, concerning a rather complicated scenario of mission.

  2. Geomorphological mapping of shallow landslides using UAVs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorucci, Federica; Giordan, Daniele; Dutto, Furio; Rossi, Mauro; Guzzetti, Fausto

    2015-04-01

    The mapping of event shallow landslides is a critical activity, due to the large number of phenomena, mostly with small dimension, affecting extensive areas. This is commonly done through aerial photo-interpretation or through field surveys. Nowadays, landslide maps can be realized exploiting other methods/technologies: (i) airborne LiDARs, (ii) stereoscopic satellite images, and (iii) unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). In addition to the landslide maps, these methods/technologies allow the generation of updated Digital Terrain Models (DTM). In December 2013, in the Collazzone area (Umbria, Central Italy), an intense rainfall event triggered a large number of shallow landslides. To map the landslides occurred in the area, we exploited data and images obtained through (A) an airborne LiDAR survey, (B) a remote controlled optocopter (equipped with a Canon EOS M) survey, and (C) a stereoscopic satellite WorldView II MS. To evaluate the mapping accuracy of these methods, we select two landslides and we mapped them using a GPS RTK instrumentation. We consider the GPS survey as the benchmark being the most accurate system. The results of the comparison allow to highlight pros and cons of the methods/technologies used. LiDAR can be considered the most accurate system and in addition it allows the extraction and the classification of the digital surface models from the surveyed point cloud. Conversely, LiDAR requires additional time for the flight planning, and specific data analysis user capabilities. The analysis of the satellite WorldView II MS images facilitates the landslide mapping over large areas, but at the expenses of a minor resolution to detect the smaller landslides and their boundaries. UAVs can be considered the cheapest and fastest solution for the acquisition of high resolution ortho-photographs on limited areas, and the best solution for a multi-temporal analysis of specific landslide phenomena. Limitations are due to (i) the needs of optimal climatic

  3. Common Causes of Pesticide Incidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    There are many types of pesticide incidents. EPA staff analyze pesticide incident reports involving people (including children and farm workers), pets, domestic animals, wildlife including bees and other pollinators, and the environment.

  4. A Natural Interaction Interface for UAVs Using Intuitive Gesture Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandarana, Meghan; Trujillo, Anna; Shimada, Kenji; Allen, Danette

    2016-01-01

    The popularity of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) is increasing as technological advancements boost their favorability for a broad range of applications. One application is science data collection. In fields like Earth and atmospheric science, researchers are seeking to use UAVs to augment their current portfolio of platforms and increase their accessibility to geographic areas of interest. By increasing the number of data collection platforms UAVs will significantly improve system robustness and allow for more sophisticated studies. Scientists would like be able to deploy an available fleet of UAVs to fly a desired flight path and collect sensor data without needing to understand the complex low-level controls required to describe and coordinate such a mission. A natural interaction interface for a Ground Control System (GCS) using gesture recognition is developed to allow non-expert users (e.g., scientists) to define a complex flight path for a UAV using intuitive hand gesture inputs from the constructed gesture library. The GCS calculates the combined trajectory on-line, verifies the trajectory with the user, and sends it to the UAV controller to be flown.

  5. Heterogeneous CPU-GPU moving targets detection for UAV video

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Maowen; Tang, Linbo; Han, Yuqi; Yu, Chunlei; Zhang, Chao; Fu, Huiquan

    2017-07-01

    Moving targets detection is gaining popularity in civilian and military applications. On some monitoring platform of motion detection, some low-resolution stationary cameras are replaced by moving HD camera based on UAVs. The pixels of moving targets in the HD Video taken by UAV are always in a minority, and the background of the frame is usually moving because of the motion of UAVs. The high computational cost of the algorithm prevents running it at higher resolutions the pixels of frame. Hence, to solve the problem of moving targets detection based UAVs video, we propose a heterogeneous CPU-GPU moving target detection algorithm for UAV video. More specifically, we use background registration to eliminate the impact of the moving background and frame difference to detect small moving targets. In order to achieve the effect of real-time processing, we design the solution of heterogeneous CPU-GPU framework for our method. The experimental results show that our method can detect the main moving targets from the HD video taken by UAV, and the average process time is 52.16ms per frame which is fast enough to solve the problem.

  6. A mini-UAV VTOL Platform for Surveying Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuldeep Rawat

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we discuss implementation of a mini-Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV vertical take-off and landing (VTOL platform for surveying activities related to highway construction. Recent advances in sensor and communication technologies have allowed scaling sizes of unmanned aerial platforms, and explore them for tasks that are economical and safe over populated or inhabited areas. In highway construction the capability of mini-UAVs to survey in hostile and/or hardly accessible areas can greatly reduce human risks. The project focused on developing a cost effective, remotely controlled, fuel powered mini-UAV VTOL (helicopter platform with certain payload capacity and configuration and demonstrated its use in surveying and monitoring activities required for highway planning and construction. With an on-board flight recorder global positioning system (GPS device, memory storage card, telemetry, inertial navigation sensors, and a video camera the mini-UAV can record flying coordinates and relay live video images to a remote ground receiver and surveyor. After all necessary integration and flight tests were done the mini-UAV helicopter was tested to operate and relay video from the areas where construction was underway. The mini-UAV can provide a platform for a range of sensors and instruments that directly support the operational requirements of transportation sector.

  7. The Quality of Quantity: Mini-UAVS As An Alternative UAV Acquisition Strategy at the Army Brigade Level

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Weed, Shawn

    2002-01-01

    This monograph asks should the U.S. Army alter its current UAV acquisition strategy for maneuver brigades from one in which limited numbers of high capability systems are acquired, in favor of another that fields a large quantity...

  8. Urban forest topographical mapping using UAV LIDAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putut Ash Shidiq, Iqbal; Wibowo, Adi; Kusratmoko, Eko; Indratmoko, Satria; Ardhianto, Ronni; Prasetyo Nugroho, Budi

    2017-12-01

    Topographical data is highly needed by many parties, such as government institution, mining companies and agricultural sectors. It is not just about the precision, the acquisition time and data processing are also carefully considered. In relation with forest management, a high accuracy topographic map is necessary for planning, close monitoring and evaluating forest changes. One of the solution to quickly and precisely mapped topography is using remote sensing system. In this study, we test high-resolution data using Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) collected from unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) to map topography and differentiate vegetation classes based on height in urban forest area of University of Indonesia (UI). The semi-automatic and manual classifications were applied to divide point clouds into two main classes, namely ground and vegetation. There were 15,806,380 point clouds obtained during the post-process, in which 2.39% of it were detected as ground.

  9. Triangle and GA Methods for UAVs Jamming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We focus on how to jam UAVs network efficiently. The system model is described and the problem is formulated. Based on two properties and a theorem which helps to decide good location for a jammer, we present the Triangle method to find good locations for jammers. The Triangle method is easy to understand and has overall computational complexity of ON2. We also present a genetic algorithm- (GA- based jamming method, which has computational complex of OLMN2. New chromosome, mutation, and crossover operations are redefined for the GA method. The simulation shows that Triangle and GA methods perform better than Random method. If the ratio of jammers’ number to UAVs’ number is low (lower than 1/5 in this paper, GA method does better than Triangle method. Otherwise, Triangle method performs better.

  10. PHOTOGRAMMETRIC MEASUREMENTS IN FIXED WING UAV IMAGERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Gülch

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Several flights have been undertaken with PAMS (Photogrammetric Aerial Mapping System by Germap, Germany, which is briefly introduced. This system is based on the SmartPlane fixed-wing UAV and a CANON IXUS camera system. The plane is equipped with GPS and has an infrared sensor system to estimate attitude values. A software has been developed to link the PAMS output to a standard photogrammetric processing chain built on Trimble INPHO. The linking of the image files and image IDs and the handling of different cases with partly corrupted output have to be solved to generate an INPHO project file. Based on this project file the software packages MATCH-AT, MATCH-T DSM, OrthoMaster and OrthoVista for digital aerial triangulation, DTM/DSM generation and finally digital orthomosaik generation are applied. The focus has been on investigations on how to adapt the "usual" parameters for the digital aerial triangulation and other software to the UAV flight conditions, which are showing high overlaps, large kappa angles and a certain image blur in case of turbulences. It was found, that the selected parameter setup shows a quite stable behaviour and can be applied to other flights. A comparison is made to results from other open source multi-ray matching software to handle the issue of the described flight conditions. Flights over the same area at different times have been compared to each other. The major objective was here to see, on how far differences occur relative to each other, without having access to ground control data, which would have a potential for applications with low requirements on the absolute accuracy. The results show, that there are influences of weather and illumination visible. The "unusual" flight pattern, which shows big time differences for neighbouring strips has an influence on the AT and DTM/DSM generation. The results obtained so far do indicate problems in the stability of the camera calibration. This clearly requests a

  11. Autonomous Chemical Vapour Detection by Micro UAV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kent Rosser

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The ability to remotely detect and map chemical vapour clouds in open air environments is a topic of significant interest to both defence and civilian communities. In this study, we integrate a prototype miniature colorimetric chemical sensor developed for methyl salicylate (MeS, as a model chemical vapour, into a micro unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV, and perform flights through a raised MeS vapour cloud. Our results show that that the system is capable of detecting MeS vapours at low ppm concentration in real-time flight and rapidly sending this information to users by on-board telemetry. Further, the results also indicate that the sensor is capable of distinguishing “clean” air from “dirty”, multiple times per flight, allowing us to look towards autonomous cloud mapping and source localization applications. Further development will focus on a broader range of integrated sensors, increased autonomy of detection and improved engineering of the system.

  12. Incidence of meningeal involvement by rhabdomyosarcoma of the head and neck in children. A report of the Intergroup Rhabdomyosarcoma Study (IRS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tefft, M.; Fernandez, C.; Donaldson, M.; Newton, W.; Moon, T.E.

    1978-01-01

    One hundred and forty-one patients with embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) of the head and neck are reviewed. 57/141 had lesions of para-meningeal sites. 20/57 (35%) developed evidence of direct meningeal extension. 18/20 (90%) died of this complication. Radiation portals and doses were limited in 42% and 32%, respectively. All patients had chemotherapy for 6 weeks prior to radiation. The significance of the adequacy of radiation factors and the timing of chemotherapy are reviewed. Recommendations for managing these patients include earlier use of radiation and increased coverage of adjacent meninges by radiation including total craniospinal axis radiation when brain meningeal involvement exists

  13. Intelligent Online Path Planning for UAVs in Adversarial Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingguang Peng

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Online path planning (OPP for unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs is a basic issue of intelligent flight and is indeed a dynamic multi-objective optimization problem (DMOP. In this paper, an OPP framework is proposed in the sense of model predictive control (MPC to continuously update the environmental information for the planner. For solving the DMOP involved in the MPC we propose a dynamic multi-objective evolutionary algorithm based on linkage and prediction (LP-DMOEA. Within this algorithm, the historical Pareto sets are collected and analysed to enhance the performance. For intelligently selecting the best path from the output of the OPP, the Bayesian network and fuzzy logic are used to quantify the bias to each optimization objective. The DMOEA is validated on three benchmark problems characterized by different changing types in decision and objective spaces. Moreover, the simulation results show that the LP-DMOEA overcomes the restart method for OPP. The decision-making method for solution selection can assess the situation in an adversarial environment and accordingly adapt the path planner.

  14. D Model Generation from Uav: Historical Mosque (masjid LAMA Nilai)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasir, N. H. Mohd; Tahar, K. N.

    2017-08-01

    Preserving cultural heritage and historic sites is an important issue. These sites are subjected to erosion and vandalism, and, as long-lived artifacts, they have gone through many phases of construction, damage and repair. It is important to keep an accurate record of these sites using the 3-D model building technology as they currently are, so that preservationists can track changes, foresee structural problems, and allow a wider audience to "virtually" see and tour these sites. Due to the complexity of these sites, building 3-D models is time consuming and difficult, usually involving much manual effort. This study discusses new methods that can reduce the time to build a model using the Unmanned Aerial Vehicle method. This study aims to develop a 3D model of a historical mosque using UAV photogrammetry. In order to achieve this, the data acquisition set of Masjid Lama Nilai, Negeri Sembilan was captured by using an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle. In addition, accuracy assessment between the actual and measured values is made. Besides that, a comparison between the rendering 3D model and texturing 3D model is also carried out through this study.

  15. Development of Open source-based automatic shooting and processing UAV imagery for Orthoimage Using Smart Camera UAV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, J. W.; Jeong, H. H.; Kim, J. S.; Choi, C. U.

    2016-06-01

    Recently, aerial photography with unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) system uses UAV and remote controls through connections of ground control system using bandwidth of about 430 MHz radio Frequency (RF) modem. However, as mentioned earlier, existing method of using RF modem has limitations in long distance communication. The Smart Camera equipments's LTE (long-term evolution), Bluetooth, and Wi-Fi to implement UAV that uses developed UAV communication module system carried out the close aerial photogrammetry with the automatic shooting. Automatic shooting system is an image capturing device for the drones in the area's that needs image capturing and software for loading a smart camera and managing it. This system is composed of automatic shooting using the sensor of smart camera and shooting catalog management which manages filmed images and information. Processing UAV imagery module used Open Drone Map. This study examined the feasibility of using the Smart Camera as the payload for a photogrammetric UAV system. The open soure tools used for generating Android, OpenCV (Open Computer Vision), RTKLIB, Open Drone Map.

  16. Development of Open source-based automatic shooting and processing UAV imagery for Orthoimage Using Smart Camera UAV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. W. Park

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Recently, aerial photography with unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV system uses UAV and remote controls through connections of ground control system using bandwidth of about 430 MHz radio Frequency (RF modem. However, as mentioned earlier, existing method of using RF modem has limitations in long distance communication. The Smart Camera equipments’s LTE (long-term evolution, Bluetooth, and Wi-Fi to implement UAV that uses developed UAV communication module system carried out the close aerial photogrammetry with the automatic shooting. Automatic shooting system is an image capturing device for the drones in the area’s that needs image capturing and software for loading a smart camera and managing it. This system is composed of automatic shooting using the sensor of smart camera and shooting catalog management which manages filmed images and information. Processing UAV imagery module used Open Drone Map. This study examined the feasibility of using the Smart Camera as the payload for a photogrammetric UAV system. The open soure tools used for generating Android, OpenCV (Open Computer Vision, RTKLIB, Open Drone Map.

  17. Development of an Effective System Identification and Control Capability for Quad-copter UAVs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Wei

    In recent years, with the promise of extensive commercial applications, the popularity of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) has dramatically increased as witnessed by publications and mushrooming research and educational programs. Over the years, multi-copter aircraft have been chosen as a viable configuration for small-scale VTOL UAVs in the form of quad-copters, hexa-copters and octo-copters. Compared to the single main rotor configuration such as the conventional helicopter, multi-copter airframes require a simpler feedback control system and fewer mechanical parts. These characteristics make these UAV platforms, such as quad-copter which is the main emphasis in this dissertation, a rugged and competitive candidate for many applications in both military and civil areas. Because of its configuration and relative size, the small-scale quad-copter UAV system is inherently very unstable. In order to develop an effective control system through simulation techniques, obtaining an accurate dynamic model of a given quad-copter is imperative. Moreover, given the anticipated stringent safety requirements, fault tolerance will be a crucial component of UAV certification. Accurate dynamic modeling and control of this class of UAV is an enabling technology and is imperative for future commercial applications. In this work, the dynamic model of a quad-copter system in hover flight was identified using frequency-domain system identification techniques. A new and unique experimental system, data acquisition and processing procedure was developed catering specifically to the class of electric powered multi-copter UAV systems. The Comprehensive Identification from FrEquency Responses (CIFER RTM) software package, developed by US Army Aviation Development Directorate -- AFDD, was utilized along with flight tests to develop dynamic models of the quad-copter system. A new set of flight tests were conducted and the predictive capability of the dynamic models were successfully validated

  18. Exploring Naval Tactics with UAVs in an Island Complex Using Agent-Based Simulation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lalis, Vasileios

    2007-01-01

    The benefits of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) at sea are undisputed. The amount and speed of the incoming information from a UAV, combined with its maneuverability and time-on-task capability, are assets to any navy...

  19. A Java Based Human Computer Interface For a UAV Decision Support Tool Using Conformal Mapping

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Flood, Randy

    1999-01-01

    .... We solve the problem in two ways. First, we create a UAV Decision Support Tool (UAV DST) that uses a set of Java software objects to display maps and convert between latitude-longitude coordinates and x-y coordinates...

  20. UAV formation control design with obstacle avoidance in dynamic three-dimensional environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Kai; Xia, Yuanqing; Huang, Kaoli

    2016-01-01

    This paper considers the artificial potential field method combined with rotational vectors for a general problem of multi-unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) systems tracking a moving target in dynamic three-dimensional environment. An attractive potential field is generated between the leader and the target. It drives the leader to track the target based on the relative position of them. The other UAVs in the formation are controlled to follow the leader by the attractive control force. The repulsive force affects among the UAVs to avoid collisions and distribute the UAVs evenly on the spherical surface whose center is the leader-UAV. Specific orders or positions of the UAVs are not required. The trajectories of avoidance obstacle can be obtained through two kinds of potential field with rotation vectors. Every UAV can choose the optimal trajectory to avoid the obstacle and reconfigure the formation after passing the obstacle. Simulations study on UAV are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of proposed method.

  1. Development Situation, Trend and Countermeasure of Consumer-level UAV Market in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang Yu-Lei

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is based on the status of Chinese consumer-level UAV(Unmanned Aerial Vehicle market. According to the main problems in Chinese consumer-level UAV market, the author analyses the trends of Chinese consumer-level UAV market. Then, the author put forward some suggestions to develop Chinese consumer-level UAV market. In 21st century, the research and development expenditure presents the explosive growth in Chinese consumer-level UAV market. From the year of 2012, DJI released their first consumer-level UAV product. Amazon, Facebook, Google and other companies have announced their entry into the UAV market. In 2016, Huawei also announced that it will enter the UAV market.

  2. Perception-based Co-evolutionary Reinforcement Learning for UAV Sensor Allocation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Berenji, Hamid

    2003-01-01

    .... A Perception-based reasoning approach based on co-evolutionary reinforcement learning was developed for jointly addressing sensor allocation on each individual UAV and allocation of a team of UAVs...

  3. Improvement Solutions and Methodology of UAV Micro-class Aerodynamic Characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Urbahs, Aleksandrs; Petrovs, Vladimirs; Urbaha, Margarita; Carjova, Kristine

    2014-01-01

    The paper contains the analysis of basic features characterizing the development and modernization of micro-class unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) performance characteristics. The UAV is mainly used for environmental monitoring and for the monitoring of different industrial facilities. The study offers the ways of modernizing the UAV embodiment. It considers the methodology for improving UAV aerodynamic and structural characteristics by using modern calculation methods. The study also includes a...

  4. LONG CORRIDOR SURVEY FOR HIGH VOLTAGE POWER LINES DESIGN USING UAV

    OpenAIRE

    D. Skarlatos; V. Vamvakousis

    2017-01-01

    The term Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) is often directly associated with the armed forces due to their widely-criticized use of such vehicles on the modern battlefield. However, with the advancement of UAV technology, the acquisition and operational cost of small civilian UAV have reduced while their functionalities have increased. Therefore, a wide variety of new civilian applications have emerged. Mapping industry has been benefited as affordable UAV can partially replace tradition...

  5. X-Band Radar for Studies of Tropical Storms from High Altitude UAV Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriquez, Shannon; Heymsfield, Gerald; Li, Lihua; Bradley, Damon

    2007-01-01

    modified from a marine radar transceiver. It is capable of measuring vertical reflectivity and velocity profile while being a lower-cost, smaller size, and lighter weight version of the NASA ER-2 Doppler Radar (EDOP), which has flown during many NASA field campaigns and has provided valuable scientific information on hurricanes and weather phenomena. Unfortunately, EDOP is too large and heavy for most UAV platforms, but the experience gained with this instrument provided us with the heritage to build a new low-cost, light-weight, smaller system that will be capable of flying on UAVs. The scanning subsystem uses a TWT transmitter and provides measurements of 3D reflectivity/wind fields in-clouds. Conical scanning of the radar beam at a 35 deg. incidence angle will also provide information of surface wind speed and direction derived from the surface return over a single 360 deg. sweep. URAD data system will be Linux based with the capability of autonomous operation. It will utilize cutting edge digital receiver and FPGA technologies to carry out the data acquisition and processing tasks. High speed navigation data from the aircraft will also be captured and saved along with radar data for 3D measurement field reconstruction and aircraft motion correction. There is a tremendous potential for UAVs to carry down-looking weather radars for measurements of reflectivity, horizontal and vertical winds from tropical storms. With operation from HUAV platforms, the dual beam X-band radar under development promises to provide greatly needed information for tropical storm research.

  6. Applications of UAVs for Remote Sensing of Critical Infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegener, Steve; Brass, James; Schoenung, Susan

    2003-01-01

    The surveillance of critical facilities and national infrastructure such as waterways, roadways, pipelines and utilities requires advanced technological tools to provide timely, up to date information on structure status and integrity. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) are uniquely suited for these tasks, having large payload and long duration capabilities. UAVs also have the capability to fly dangerous and dull missions, orbiting for 24 hours over a particular area or facility providing around the clock surveillance with no personnel onboard. New UAV platforms and systems are becoming available for commercial use. High altitude platforms are being tested for use in communications, remote sensing, agriculture, forestry and disaster management. New payloads are being built and demonstrated onboard the UAVs in support of these applications. Smaller, lighter, lower power consumption imaging systems are currently being tested over coffee fields to determine yield and over fires to detect fire fronts and hotspots. Communication systems that relay video, meteorological and chemical data via satellite to users on the ground in real-time have also been demonstrated. Interest in this technology for infrastructure characterization and mapping has increased dramatically in the past year. Many of the UAV technological developments required for resource and disaster monitoring are being used for the infrastructure and facility mapping activity. This paper documents the unique contributions from NASA;s Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) program to these applications. ERAST is a UAV technology development effort by a consortium of private aeronautical companies and NASA. Details of demonstrations of UAV capabilities currently underway are also presented.

  7. Effects of Hearing Protection Device Attenuation on Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) Audio Signatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    UAV) Audio Signatures by Melissa Bezandry, Adrienne Raglin, and John Noble Approved for public release; distribution...Research Laboratory Effects of Hearing Protection Device Attenuation on Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) Audio Signatures by Melissa Bezandry...Aerial Vehicle (UAV) Audio Signatures 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Melissa Bezandry

  8. Application of Unmanned Air Vehicles (UAV) in monitoring of terrestrial habitats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Peter Borgen; Strandberg, Beate; Bak, Jesper Leth

    2015-01-01

    I the last years there have been high focus on UAVs (drones) for many civil purposes and UAVs are also increasingly used for ecological data gathering. This presentation will first make an appetizer to show the new possibilities of using UAVs. The traditional concept of separating “data...

  9. UAV Research, Operations, and Flight Test at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosentino, Gary B.

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews some of the projects that have extended NASA Dryden's capabilities in designing, testing, and using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV's). Some of the UAV's have been for Science and experimental applications, some have been for flight research and demonstration purposes, and some have been small UAV's for other customers.

  10. High-resolution topography of 1974 Mount Etna lava flow based on Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) surveys and Structure from Motion (SfM) photogrammetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornaciai, Alessandro; Favalli, Massimiliano; Nannipieri, Luca; Harris, Andrew; Calvari, Sonia; Lormand, Charline

    2017-04-01

    The production of high resolution Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) of lava is of increasing interest in volcanology because the time scales of change are fast and involve vertical and planimetric changes of millimeters to meters. Among the wide range of terrestrial and aerial methods available to collect topographic data, the use of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) acquiring platform and structure from motion (SfM) photogrammetric technique is especially useful because it allow collecting data of inaccessible, kilometer scale areas, with low cost and minimal hazard to personnel. This study presents the application of UAV-SfM method to generate a high-resolution DEMs and orthomosaic of the 1974 Mount Etna lava field. The UAV was flown over lava field at flight altitude to about 70 m above ground level (AGL) and acquired 2781 photographs. SfM-photogrammetry applied to these images enabled the extraction of very (20 cm) high-resolution DEMs and 3 cm orthomosaic for a total area of 1.35 square kilometers. The data produced by the UAV-SfM was compared with airborne LiDAR data. Such comparison gives a root mean squared error between the two DEMs of 0.24 m. The unprecedented topographic resolution obtained with UAV-SfM methods enabled us to derive morphometry of sub-meter-scale lava features, such as folds, blocks, and cracks, over kilometric scale areas. The 3 cm orthomosaic allowed us to further push the analysis to dm-scale grain distribution of the lava surface. This study shows that SfM and UAV platforms can be effectively used for mapping volcanic features producing topographic data in a manner not possible with the 1-m LiDAR-derived DEM. The spectral analysis of surface folding support this analysis showing a much larger spectrum of frequencies of the SfM-derived DEM than the LiDAR DEM.

  11. AirGuardian – UAV Hardware and Software System for Small Size UAVs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dániel Stojcsics

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available AirGuardian is a complex of an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle and ground station UAV hardware and software systems which has been developed at Obuda University. The hardware and software of the autopilot (AERObot, the antenna tracker station and the ground control station were simultaneously created resulting in the optimal cooperation of the modules. The aim of the research on AERObot – the special autopilot – was to create a generic autopilot which is capable of controlling different designs, weights and structures of airframes without any complex mathematical model recalculation.

  12. APPLICATION OF UAV SYSTEM FOR LOW ALTITUDE PHOTOGRAMMETRY IN SHANXI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Junqing

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Recent years, as the urgent demands of the state and society for high-resolution aerial images and large-scale DLG (Digital Line Graphic, UAV borne low-altitude Photogrammetry system are used more and more widely. Combining the application of UAV system in Shanxi for collecting the 1:1000 scale DLG, in this paper, the main steps and key technologies of UAV system for lower altitude aerial photogrammetry are introduced. In this passage, we took an area of Shanxi as the survey area, acquired 1024 aerial images of the survey area. After the calculation of aerial triangulation, we get the plane accuracy of the encrypted points is 0.21 m and the height accuracy of encrypted points is 0.35 m, could meet the accuracy of 1:1000 scale mapping. It can be seen that the UAV system for low altitude photogrammetry has its own advantages in acquiring high resolution aerial images and large scale DLG, and UAV system has a great development prospects.

  13. UAV field demonstration of social media enabled tactical data link

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Christopher C.; Xu, Da; Martin, Sean R.; Castelli, Jonathan C.; Newman, Andrew J.

    2015-05-01

    This paper addresses the problem of enabling Command and Control (C2) and data exfiltration functions for missions using small, unmanned, airborne surveillance and reconnaissance platforms. The authors demonstrated the feasibility of using existing commercial wireless networks as the data transmission infrastructure to support Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) autonomy functions such as transmission of commands, imagery, metadata, and multi-vehicle coordination messages. The authors developed and integrated a C2 Android application for ground users with a common smart phone, a C2 and data exfiltration Android application deployed on-board the UAVs, and a web server with database to disseminate the collected data to distributed users using standard web browsers. The authors performed a mission-relevant field test and demonstration in which operators commanded a UAV from an Android device to search and loiter; and remote users viewed imagery, video, and metadata via web server to identify and track a vehicle on the ground. Social media served as the tactical data link for all command messages, images, videos, and metadata during the field demonstration. Imagery, video, and metadata were transmitted from the UAV to the web server via multiple Twitter, Flickr, Facebook, YouTube, and similar media accounts. The web server reassembled images and video with corresponding metadata for distributed users. The UAV autopilot communicated with the on-board Android device via on-board Bluetooth network.

  14. Potential of UAV lidar systems for geospatial mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elaksher, Ahmed F.; Bhandari, Subodh; Carreon-Limones, Christian A.; Lauf, Rachel

    2017-08-01

    Recently, developments in airborne sensors and easy to fly, reliable, low-cost commercial Unmanned Aerial Vehicles, UAVs, have opened a new era for high quality and reliable mapping from UAVs using remote sensing techniques. The restricted payload capacity of low-cost UAVs imposes constraints on the quality of their navigation systems and the sensors they can carry. Therefore, LIDAR sensors with limited sample rate are utilized within the UAV system. This article introduces several applications that utilizes UAV-LIDAR systems, processing of a sample dataset downloaded from the internet and a new system that is being developed and flown. Our data was collected with DJI S900 Hexacopter and a VLP-16 LIDAR system from Velodyne. We then process the raw data to generate the 3D point cloud. The test site is a farming site so we classified the points into ground points and vegetation points. The results are very promising as an early research investigation. Currently, we are planning for other flights with more rigorous systems and quantitative evaluation.

  15. 'Fly Like This': Natural Language Interface for UAV Mission Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandarana, Meghan; Meszaros, Erica L.; Trujillo, Anna; Allen, B. Danette

    2017-01-01

    With the increasing presence of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) in everyday environments, the user base of these powerful and potentially intelligent machines is expanding beyond exclusively highly trained vehicle operators to include non-expert system users. Scientists seeking to augment costly and often inflexible methods of data collection historically used are turning towards lower cost and reconfigurable UAVs. These new users require more intuitive and natural methods for UAV mission planning. This paper explores two natural language interfaces - gesture and speech - for UAV flight path generation through individual user studies. Subjects who participated in the user studies also used a mouse-based interface for a baseline comparison. Each interface allowed the user to build flight paths from a library of twelve individual trajectory segments. Individual user studies evaluated performance, efficacy, and ease-of-use of each interface using background surveys, subjective questionnaires, and observations on time and correctness. Analysis indicates that natural language interfaces are promising alternatives to traditional interfaces. The user study data collected on the efficacy and potential of each interface will be used to inform future intuitive UAV interface design for non-expert users.

  16. A Behavior Based Control System for Surveillance UAVs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyekan, John; Lu, Bowen; Li, Bo; Gu, Dongbing; Hu, Huosheng

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) is required to carry out duties such as surveillance, reconnaissance, search and rescue and security patrol missions. Autonomous operation of UAVs is a key to the success of these missions. In this chapter, we propose to use a behavior based control architecture to implement autonomous operation for UAV surveillance missions. This control architecture consists of two layers: a low level control layer and a behavior layer. The low level control layer decomposes 3D motion of UAVs into several atomic actions, such as yaw, roll, pitch, altitude, and 2D position control. These atomic actions together serve as a basis for the behavior layer. The behavior layer consists of a number of necessary behaviors used for surveillance missions, including take-off, object tracking, hovering, landing, trajectory following, obstacle avoidance amongst other behaviors. These behaviors can be instantiated individually or collectively to fulfill the required missions issued by human operators. To evaluate the proposed control architecture, the commercially available DraganFlyer QuadRotor was used as the UAV platform. With the aid of an indoor positioning system, several atomic actions and a group of behaviors were developed for the DraganFlyer. Real testing experiments were conducted to demonstrate the feasibility and performance of the proposed system.

  17. Improving automatic cooperation between UAVs through co-evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, James F., III

    2008-04-01

    A fuzzy logic resource manager (RM) that enables a collection of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) to automatically cooperate to make meteorological measurements will be discussed. The RM renders the UAVs autonomous allowing them to change paths and cooperate without human intervention. Innovations related to the "priority for helping" (PH) fuzzy decision tree (FDT) used by the RM will be discussed. The PH FDT permits three types of automatic cooperation between the UAVs. A subroutine of the communications routing algorithm (CRA) used by the RM is also examined. The CRA allows the UAVs to reestablish communications if needed by changing their behavior. A genetic program (GP) based procedure for automatically creating FDTs is briefly described. A GP is an algorithm based on the theory of evolution that automatically evolves mathematical expressions or computer algorithms. The GP data mines a scenario database to automatically create the FDTs. A recently invented co-evolutionary process that allows improvement of the initially data mined FDT will be discussed. Co-evolution uses a genetic algorithm (GA) to evolve scenarios to augment the GP's scenario database. The GP data mines the augmented database to discover an improved FDT. The process is iterated ultimately evolving a very robust FDT. Improvements to the PH FDT offered through co-evolution are discussed. UAV simulations using the improved PH FDT and CRA are provided.

  18. Multimodal UAV detection: study of various intrusion scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hengy, Sebastien; Laurenzis, Martin; Schertzer, Stéphane; Hommes, Alexander; Kloeppel, Franck; Shoykhetbrod, Alex; Geibig, Thomas; Johannes, Winfried; Rassy, Oussama; Christnacher, Frank

    2017-10-01

    Small unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) are becoming increasingly popular and affordable the last years for professional and private consumer market, with varied capacities and performances. Recent events showed that illicit or hostile uses constitute an emergent, quickly evolutionary threat. Recent developments in UAV technologies tend to bring autonomous, highly agile and capable unmanned aerial vehicles to the market. These UAVs can be used for spying operations as well as for transporting illicit or hazardous material (smuggling, flying improvised explosive devices). The scenario of interest concerns the protection of sensitive zones against the potential threat constituted by small drones. In the recent past, field trials were carried out to investigate the detection and tracking of multiple UAV flying at low altitude. Here, we present results which were achieved using a heterogeneous sensor network consisting of acoustic antennas, small FMCW RADAR systems and optical sensors. While acoustics and RADAR was applied to monitor a wide azimuthal area (360°), optical sensors were used for sequentially identification. The localization results have been compared to the ground truth data to estimate the efficiency of each detection system. Seven-microphone acoustic arrays allow single source localization. The mean azimuth and elevation estimation error has been measured equal to 1.5 and -2.5 degrees respectively. The FMCW radar allows tracking of multiple UAVs by estimating their range, azimuth and motion speed. Both technologies can be linked to the electro-optical system for final identification of the detected object.

  19. An UAV scheduling and planning method for post-disaster survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, G. Q.; Zhou, X. G.; Yin, J.; Xiao, Q. Y.

    2014-11-01

    Annually, the extreme climate and special geological environments lead to frequent natural disasters, e.g., earthquakes, floods, etc. The disasters often bring serious casualties and enormous economic losses. Post-disaster surveying is very important for disaster relief and assessment. As the Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) remote sensing with the advantage of high efficiency, high precision, high flexibility, and low cost, it is widely used in emergency surveying in recent years. As the UAVs used in emergency surveying cannot stop and wait for the happening of the disaster, when the disaster happens the UAVs usually are working at everywhere. In order to improve the emergency surveying efficiency, it is needed to track the UAVs and assign the emergency surveying task for each selected UAV. Therefore, a UAV tracking and scheduling method for post-disaster survey is presented in this paper. In this method, Global Positioning System (GPS), and GSM network are used to track the UAVs; an emergency tracking UAV information database is built in advance by registration, the database at least includes the following information, e.g., the ID of the UAVs, the communication number of the UAVs; when catastrophe happens, the real time location of all UAVs in the database will be gotten using emergency tracking method at first, then the traffic cost time for all UAVs to the disaster region will be calculated based on the UAVs' the real time location and the road network using the nearest services analysis algorithm; the disaster region is subdivided to several emergency surveying regions based on DEM, area, and the population distribution map; the emergency surveying regions are assigned to the appropriated UAV according to shortest cost time rule. The UAVs tracking and scheduling prototype is implemented using SQLServer2008, ArcEnginge 10.1 SDK, Visual Studio 2010 C#, Android, SMS Modem, and Google Maps API.

  20. Analysis of Nondeterministic Search Patterns for Minimization of UAV Counter-Targeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    64 Figure 4.9 Procerus Unicorn UAV [48] used in multi-UAV look-ahead Levy search demonstration conducted at 13-2 JIFX in February, 2013...to the Procerus Unicorn UAV employed during these flight experiments, shown in Figure 4.9. Figure 4.10 shows the straight-line path between the major...Figure 4.9: Procerus Unicorn UAV [48] used in multi-UAV look-ahead Levy search demonstration conducted at 13-2 JIFX in February, 2013. for display in

  1. Research on performance requirements of turbofan engine used on carrier-based UAV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shufan; Li, Benwei; Zhang, Wenlong; Wu, Heng; Feng, Tang

    2017-05-01

    According to the mission requirements of the carrier-based unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), a mode level flight was established to calculate the thrust requirements from altitude 9 km to 13 km. Then, the estimation method of flight profile was used to calculate the weight of UAV in each stage to get the specific fuel consumption requirements of the UAV in standby stage. The turbofan engine of carrier-based UAV should meet the thrust and specific fuel consumption requirements. Finally, the GSP software was used to verify the simulation of a small high-bypass turbofan engine. The conclusion is useful for the turbofan engine selection of carrier-based UAV.

  2. Development Situation, Trend and Countermeasure of Consumer-level UAV Market in China

    OpenAIRE

    Kang Yu-Lei; Xi Yang

    2017-01-01

    This paper is based on the status of Chinese consumer-level UAV(Unmanned Aerial Vehicle) market. According to the main problems in Chinese consumer-level UAV market, the author analyses the trends of Chinese consumer-level UAV market. Then, the author put forward some suggestions to develop Chinese consumer-level UAV market. In 21st century, the research and development expenditure presents the explosive growth in Chinese consumer-level UAV market. From the year of 2012, DJI released their fi...

  3. Applied Integrated Design in Composite UAV Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasić, Zoran; Maksimović, Stevan; Georgijević, Dragutin

    2017-06-01

    This paper presents a modern approach to integrated development of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle made of laminated composite materials from conceptual design, through detail design, strength and stiffness analyses, definition and management of design and production data, detailed tests results and other activities related to development of laminated composite structures with main of its particularities in comparison to metal structures. Special attention in this work is focused to management processes of product data during life cycle of an UAV and experimental tests of its composite wing. Experience shows that the automation management processes of product data during life cycle, as well as processes of manufacturing, are inevitable if a company wants to get cheaper and quality composite aircraft structures. One of the most effective ways of successful management of product data today is Product Life cycle Management (PLM). In terms of the PLM, a spectrum of special measures and provisions has to be implemented when defining fiber-reinforced composite material structures in comparison to designing with metals which is elaborated in the paper.

  4. UAV Drive Units Testing at Pork Tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislav Absolon

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the influence of propulsive units of unmanned vehicles on living tissue. More preciselyit describes physical tests performed on pork tissue. In the first part of the article, there is a brief descriptionof current situation regarding injuries of people caused by UAV. There are similar tests from other researchersdescribed and given reasons why the tests were made. In the next part of the article, the authors describethe selection of components needed for testing and the entire preparation of the tests from the selection ofengines and propellers till the construction of the testing mechanism. Description of the course of the testsand the evaluation of the results follows. The tests were static only. This means that the propulsive units wereapproaching the test samples (pork leg and ribs at a very low forward speed. The evaluation of the results is notcomplete. This is due to the fact that all of the scheduled tests have not been carried out yet neither has themedical injury analysis been finished. It is still a work in progress. The last part summarizes the findings andgives brief plans for further tests.

  5. Detection of Citrus Trees from Uav Dsms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ok, A. O.; Ozdarici-Ok, A.

    2017-05-01

    This paper presents an automated approach to detect citrus trees from digitals surface models (DSMs) as a single source. The DSMs in this study are generated from Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs), and the proposed approach first considers the symmetric nature of the citrus trees, and it computes the orientation-based radial symmetry in an efficient way. The approach also takes into account the local maxima (LM) information to verify the output of the radial symmetry. Our contributions in this study are twofold: (i) Such an integrated approach (symmetry + LM) has not been tested to detect (citrus) trees (in orchards), and (ii) the validity of such an integrated approach has not been experienced for an input, e.g. a single DSM. Experiments are performed on five test patches. The results reveal that our approach is capable of counting most of the citrus trees without manual intervention. Comparison to the state-of-the-art reveals that the proposed approach provides notable detection performance by providing the best balance between precision and recall measures.

  6. Applied Integrated Design in Composite UAV Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasić, Zoran; Maksimović, Stevan; Georgijević, Dragutin

    2018-04-01

    This paper presents a modern approach to integrated development of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle made of laminated composite materials from conceptual design, through detail design, strength and stiffness analyses, definition and management of design and production data, detailed tests results and other activities related to development of laminated composite structures with main of its particularities in comparison to metal structures. Special attention in this work is focused to management processes of product data during life cycle of an UAV and experimental tests of its composite wing. Experience shows that the automation management processes of product data during life cycle, as well as processes of manufacturing, are inevitable if a company wants to get cheaper and quality composite aircraft structures. One of the most effective ways of successful management of product data today is Product Life cycle Management (PLM). In terms of the PLM, a spectrum of special measures and provisions has to be implemented when defining fiber-reinforced composite material structures in comparison to designing with metals which is elaborated in the paper.

  7. UAV FOR GEODATA ACQUISITION IN AGRICULTUREAL AND FORESTAL APPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Reidelstürz

    2012-09-01

    The airframe´s wingspan is about 3,45m weighting 4.2 kg, ready to fly. The hand launchable UAV can start from any place in agricultural regions. The wing is configured with flaps, allowing steep approaches and short landings using a „butterfly“ brake configuration. In spite of the lightweight configuration the UAV yet proves its worth under windy baltic wether situations by collecting regular sharp images of fields under wind speed up to 15m/s (Beaufort 6 –7. In further projects the development of further payload modules and a user friendly flight planning tool is scheduled considering different payload – and airframe requirements for different precision farming purposes and forest applications. Data processing and workflow will be optimized. Cooperation with further partners to establish UAV systems in agricultural, forest and geodata aquisition is desired.

  8. NASA Earth Science Research and Applications Using UAVs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillory, Anthony R.

    2003-01-01

    The NASA Earth Science Enterprise sponsored the UAV Science Demonstration Project, which funded two projects: the Altus Cumulus Electrification Study (ACES) and the UAV Coffee Harvest Optimization experiment. These projects were intended to begin a process of integrating UAVs into the mainstream of NASA s airborne Earth Science Research and Applications programs. The Earth Science Enterprise is moving forward given the positive science results of these demonstration projects to incorporate more platforms with additional scientific utility into the program and to look toward a horizon where the current piloted aircraft may not be able to carry out the science objectives of a mission. Longer duration, extended range, slower aircraft speed, etc. all have scientific advantages in many of the disciplines within Earth Science. The challenge we now face are identifying those capabilities that exist and exploiting them while identifying the gaps. This challenge has two facets: the engineering aspects of redesigning or modifying sensors and a paradigm shift by the scientists.

  9. WORKFLOW FOR BUILDING A HYPERSPECTRAL UAV: CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Proctor

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Owing to the limited payload capacities of most UAV platforms within an academic research budget, many UAV systems utilize commercial RGB cameras or modified sensors with some capacity for sensing in the NIR. However, many applications require higher spectral fidelity that only hyperspectral sensors can offer. For instance, the Photochemical Reflectance Index relies upon the narrow band absorbance of xanthophyll pigments at 531 and 570nm to quantify photosynthetic light use efficiency which are important indicators of productivity and stress in agricultural and forest ecosystems. Thus, our research group has been working on building a research paradigm around a commercial off-the-shelf hyperspectral sensor and UAV. This paper discusses some of the key decisions made regarding selection of equipment and navigating the regulatory and logistical landmines. The imagery collected to date and the options available to process and utilize hyperspectral data are discussed at the end.

  10. Workflow for Building a Hyperspectral Uav: Challenges and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, C.; He, Y.

    2015-08-01

    Owing to the limited payload capacities of most UAV platforms within an academic research budget, many UAV systems utilize commercial RGB cameras or modified sensors with some capacity for sensing in the NIR. However, many applications require higher spectral fidelity that only hyperspectral sensors can offer. For instance, the Photochemical Reflectance Index relies upon the narrow band absorbance of xanthophyll pigments at 531 and 570nm to quantify photosynthetic light use efficiency which are important indicators of productivity and stress in agricultural and forest ecosystems. Thus, our research group has been working on building a research paradigm around a commercial off-the-shelf hyperspectral sensor and UAV. This paper discusses some of the key decisions made regarding selection of equipment and navigating the regulatory and logistical landmines. The imagery collected to date and the options available to process and utilize hyperspectral data are discussed at the end.

  11. Uav for Geodata Acquisition in Agricultureal and Forestal Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reidelstürz, P.; Schrenk, L.; Littmann, W.

    2011-09-01

    In the field of precision-farming research, solutions are worked out to combine ecological and economical requirements in a harmonic way. Integrating hightech in agricultural machinery, natural differences in the fields (biodiversity) can be detected and considered to economize agricultural resources and to give respect to natural ecological variability at the same time. Using precision farming resources, machining - and labour time can be economized, productivness can be improved, environmental burden can be discharged and documentation of production processes can be improved. To realize precision farming it is essential to make contemporary large scale data of the biodiversity in the field available. In the last years effectual traktor based equipment for real time precision farming applications was developed. Using remote sensing, biomass diversity of the field can be considered while applicating operating ressources economicly. Because these large scale data aquisition depends on expensive tractor based inspections, capable Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) could complement or in special situations even replace such tractor based data aquisition needed for the realization of precision farming strategies. The specific advantages and application slots of UAVs seems to be ideal for the usage in the field of precision farming. For example the size of even large agricultural fields in germany can be managed even by smaller UAVs. Data can be captured spontaneously, promptly, in large scale, with less respect of weather conditions. In agricultural regions UAV flights can be arranged in visual range as actually the legislator requires in germany, especially because the use of autopilotsystems in fact is nessecary to assure regular area-wide data without gaps but not to fly in non-visible regions. Also a minimized risk of hazard is given, flying UAVs over deserted agricultural areas. In a first stage CIS GmbH cooperated with "Institute For Flightsystems" of the University

  12. D Modeling with Photogrammetry by Uavs and Model Quality Verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrile, V.; Bilotta, G.; Nunnari, A.

    2017-11-01

    This paper deals with a test lead by Geomatics laboratory (DICEAM, Mediterranea University of Reggio Calabria), concerning the application of UAV photogrammetry for survey, monitoring and checking. The study case relies with the surroundings of the Department of Agriculture Sciences. In the last years, such area was interested by landslides and survey activities carried out to take the phenomenon under control. For this purpose, a set of digital images were acquired through a UAV equipped with a digital camera and GPS. Successively, the processing for the production of a 3D georeferenced model was performed by using the commercial software Agisoft PhotoScan. Similarly, the use of a terrestrial laser scanning technique allowed to product dense cloud and 3D models of the same area. To assess the accuracy of the UAV-derived 3D models, a comparison between image and range-based methods was performed.

  13. UAV Based Imaging for Crop, Weed and Disease Monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia Ruiz, Francisco Jose

    provides evidence, through real applications, of the potential for UAV based remote sensing for improved weed and disease detection in agriculture. It showed that it was possible to discriminate between sugar beet and thistle based on their field spectral signature captured with a field portable...... the physiological status of the vegetation. UAV imagery may be divided into three steps (1) spectral characterization of the targets of interest, (2) flight and image acquisition and (3) image processing and interpretation. The overall aims of this study were to improve knowledge in all three steps associated......Summary Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) equipped with cameras have become a powerful technology to collect high resolution remote sensing data from agricultural crops. When equipped with multispectral cameras, light invisible for the human eye may be captured and used to characterize...

  14. Mini-Uav LIDAR for Power Line Inspection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, G. E.; Zhou, M.; Li, C. R.; Wu, H. H.; Li, W.; Meng, F. R.; Zhou, C. C.; Ma, L.

    2017-09-01

    Light detection and ranging (LIDAR) system based on unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) recently are in rapid advancement, meanwhile portable and flexible mini-UAV-borne laser scanners have been a hot research field, especially for the complex terrain survey in the mountains and other areas. This study proposes a power line inspection system solution based on mini-UAV-borne LIDAR system-AOEagle, developed by Academy of Opto-Electronics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, which mounted on a Multi-rotor unmanned aerial vehicle for complex terrain survey according to real test. Furthermore, the point cloud data was explored to validate its applicability for power line inspection, in terms of corridor and line laser point clouds; deformation detection of power towers, etc. The feasibility and advantages of AOEagle have been demonstrated by the promising results based on the real-measured data in the field of power line inspection.

  15. Subpixel jitter video restoration on board of micro-UAV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szu, Harold H.; Buss, James R.; Garcia, Joseph P.; Breaux, Nancy A.; Kopriva, Ivica; Karangelen, Nicholas E.; Hsu, M.; Lee, Ting; Willey, Jeff; Shield, Gary; Brown, Steve; Robbins, R.; Hobday, John

    2004-04-01

    We review various image processing algorithms for micro-UAV EO/IR sub-pixel jitter restoration. Since the micro-UAV, Silver Fox, cannot afford isolation coupling mounting from the turbulent aerodynamics of the airframe, we explore smart real-time software to mitigate the sub-pixel jitter effect. We define jitter to be sub-pixel or small-amplitude vibrations up to one pixel, as opposed to motion blur over several pixels for which there already exists real time correction algorithms used on other platforms. We divide the set of jitter correction algorithms into several categories: They are real time, pseudo-real time, or non-real-time, but they are all standalone, i.e. without relying on a library storage or flight data basis on-board the UAV. The top of the list is demonstrated and reported here using real-world data and a truly unsupervised, real-time algorithm.

  16. Multi‐angular observations of vegetation indices from UAV cameras

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sobejano-Paz, Veronica; Wang, Sheng; Jakobsen, Jakob

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) are found as an alternative to the classical manned aerial photogrammetry, which can be used to obtain environmental data or as a complementary solution to other methods (Nex and Remondino, 2014). Although UAVs have coverage limitations, they have better resolution...... compared to satellites and aircrafts, they are cheaper and easy to handle, providing data in a short period of time (Matese et al., 2015; Uysal, Toprak and Polat, 2015). Furthermore, they can be equipped with different types of payloads carrying various sensors such as a thermal and multispectral cameras...... (Berni et al., 2009), hyper spectral camera (Burkart et al., 2015) and photometric elevation mapping sensor (Shahbazi et al., 2015) among others. Therefore, UAVs can be used in many fields such as agriculture, forestry, archeology, architecture, environment and traffic monitoring (Nex and Remondino, 2014...

  17. Review of Automatic Feature Extraction from High-Resolution Optical Sensor Data for UAV-Based Cadastral Mapping

    OpenAIRE

    Sophie Crommelinck; Rohan Bennett; Markus Gerke; Francesco Nex; Michael Ying Yang; George Vosselman

    2016-01-01

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) have emerged as a rapid, low-cost and flexible acquisition system that appears feasible for application in cadastral mapping: high-resolution imagery, acquired using UAVs, enables a new approach for defining property boundaries. However, UAV-derived data are arguably not exploited to its full potential: based on UAV data, cadastral boundaries are visually detected and manually digitized. A workflow that automatically extracts boundary features from UAV data cou...

  18. Integration of RTK GPS and IMU for Accurate UAV Positioning - Integrasjon av RTK GPS og IMU for nøyaktig UAV-posisjonering

    OpenAIRE

    Spockeli, Bjørn Amstrup

    2015-01-01

    Real-Time Kinematic GPS (RTK GPS) can provide centimeter accuracy and may be used for high accuracy positioning of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs).In order to compute its position a Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) receiver processes measurements of signals from GNSS satellites. The processing results in a delay before the position measurement is available to the UAV. If the UAV is highly dynamic the delayed measurement will describe a past position, resulting in r...

  19. The effect of periodontal therapy on the survival rate and incidence of complications of multirooted teeth with furcation involvement after an observation period of at least 5 years: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh-Ba, Guy; Kuonen, Patrick; Hofer, Dominik; Schmid, Jürg; Lang, Niklaus P; Salvi, Giovanni E

    2009-02-01

    To systematically review the survival rate and incidence of complications of furcation-involved multirooted teeth following periodontal therapy after at least 5 years. Electronic and manual searches were performed up to and including January 2008. Publication selection, data extraction and validity assessment were performed independently by three reviewers. Twenty-two publications met the inclusion criteria. Because of the heterogeneity of the data, a meta-analysis could not be performed. The survival rate of molars treated non-surgically was >90% after 5-9 years. The corresponding values for the different surgical procedures were: Surgical therapy: 43.1% to 96%, observation period: 5-53 years. Tunnelling procedures: 42.9% to 92.9%, observation period: 5-8 years. Surgical resective procedures including amputation(s) and hemisections: 62% to 100%, observation period: 5-13 years. Guided tissue regeneration (GTR): 83.3% to 100%, observation period: 5-12 years. The most frequent complications included caries in the furcation area after tunnelling procedures and root fractures after root-resective procedures. Good long-term survival rates (up to 100%) of multirooted teeth with furcation involvement were obtained following various therapeutic approaches. Initial furcation involvement (Degree I) could be successfully managed by non-surgical mechanical debridement. Vertical root fractures and endodontic failures were the most frequent complications observed following resective procedures.

  20. Design of a hybrid rocket / inflatable wing UAV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudduth, Cory

    This paper discusses the design challenges and development of a UAV that transitions from a rocket, which allows the aircraft to reach a target altitude rapidly, and then deploys an inflatable wing from an enclosed shell in midflight to allow for loitering and surveillance. The wing deployment and transition is tested in static and dynamic environments, while the performance and stability of both the aircraft mode and rocket mode are examined analytically. An in-depth discussion of key components, including the design, analysis and testing, is also included. Designing an UAV that transitions from a high velocity rocket, to a slow velocity UAV provides many difficult and unique design challenges. For example, the incorporation of deployable wing technology into a full UAV system results in many design constraints. In this particular design inflatable wings are used to generate lift during aircraft mode, and the stabilizing fins for the main wing also acted as the fins for the vehicle during its rocket phase. This required the balancing of the two different vehicle configurations to ensure that the aircraft would be able to fly stably in both modes, and transition between them without catastrophic failure. Significant research, and testing went into the finding the best method of storing the inflatable wing, as well as finding the required inflation rate to minimize unsteady aerodynamic affects. Design work was also invested in the development of an inflation system, as it had to be highly reliable, and yet very light weight for use in this small UAV. This paper discusses how these design challenges were overcome, the development and testing of individual sub-components and how they are incorporated into the overall vehicle. The analysis that went into this UAV, as well as methods used to optimize the design in order to minimize weight and maximize the aircraft performance and loitering time is also discussed.

  1. Characteristic analysis on UAV-MIMO channel based on normalized correlation matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xi jun; Chen, Zi li; Hu, Yong Jiang

    2014-01-01

    Based on the three-dimensional GBSBCM (geometrically based double bounce cylinder model) channel model of MIMO for unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), the simple form of UAV space-time-frequency channel correlation function which includes the LOS, SPE, and DIF components is presented. By the methods of channel matrix decomposition and coefficient normalization, the analytic formula of UAV-MIMO normalized correlation matrix is deduced. This formula can be used directly to analyze the condition number of UAV-MIMO channel matrix, the channel capacity, and other characteristic parameters. The simulation results show that this channel correlation matrix can be applied to describe the changes of UAV-MIMO channel characteristics under different parameter settings comprehensively. This analysis method provides a theoretical basis for improving the transmission performance of UAV-MIMO channel. The development of MIMO technology shows practical application value in the field of UAV communication.

  2. Intification and modelling of flight characteristics for self-build shock flyer type UAV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid., Z. A.; Dardin, A. S. F. Syed.; Azid, A. A.; Ahmad, K. A.

    2018-02-01

    The development of an autonomous Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) requires a fundamentals studies of the UAV's flight characteristic. The aim of this study is to identify and model the flight characteristic of a conventional fixed-wing type UAV. Subsequence to this, the mode of flight of the UAV can be investigated. One technique to identify the characteristic of a UAV is a flight test where it required specific maneuvering to be executed while measuring the attitude sensor. In this study, a simple shock flyer type UAV was used as the aircraft. The result shows that the modeled flight characteristic has a significant relation with actual values but the fitting value is rather small. It is suggested that the future study is conducted with an improvement of the physical UAV, data filtering and better system identification methods.

  3. Characteristic Analysis on UAV-MIMO Channel Based on Normalized Correlation Matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi jun, Gao; Zi li, Chen; Yong Jiang, Hu

    2014-01-01

    Based on the three-dimensional GBSBCM (geometrically based double bounce cylinder model) channel model of MIMO for unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), the simple form of UAV space-time-frequency channel correlation function which includes the LOS, SPE, and DIF components is presented. By the methods of channel matrix decomposition and coefficient normalization, the analytic formula of UAV-MIMO normalized correlation matrix is deduced. This formula can be used directly to analyze the condition number of UAV-MIMO channel matrix, the channel capacity, and other characteristic parameters. The simulation results show that this channel correlation matrix can be applied to describe the changes of UAV-MIMO channel characteristics under different parameter settings comprehensively. This analysis method provides a theoretical basis for improving the transmission performance of UAV-MIMO channel. The development of MIMO technology shows practical application value in the field of UAV communication. PMID:24977185

  4. Wheelchair incidents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drongelen AW van; Roszek B; Hilbers-Modderman ESM; Kallewaard M; Wassenaar C; LGM

    2002-01-01

    This RIVM study was performed to gain insight into wheelchair-related incidents with powered and manual wheelchairs reported to the USA FDA, the British MDA and the Dutch Center for Quality and Usability Research of Technical Aids (KBOH). The data in the databases do not indicate that incidents with

  5. Cloud Water Content Sensor for Sounding Balloons and Small UAVs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bognar, John A.

    2009-01-01

    A lightweight, battery-powered sensor was developed for measuring cloud water content, which is the amount of liquid or solid water present in a cloud, generally expressed as grams of water per cubic meter. This sensor has near-zero power consumption and can be flown on standard sounding balloons and small, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). The amount of solid or liquid water is important to the study of atmospheric processes and behavior. Previous sensing techniques relied on strongly heating the incoming air, which requires a major energy input that cannot be achieved on sounding balloons or small UAVs.

  6. Energy-Efficient Systems Eliminate Icing Danger for UAVs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Ames Research Center engineer Leonard Haslim invented an anti-icing t echnology called an electroexpulsive separation system, which uses m echanical force to shatter potentially dangerous ice buildup on an ai rcraft surface. Temecula, California-based Ice Management Systems (no w known as IMS-ESS) licensed the technology from Ames and has discov ered a niche market for the lightweight, energy-efficient technology: unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). IMS-ESS systems now prevent damagi ng ice accumulation on military UAVs, allowing the vehicles to carry out crucial missions year round.

  7. Modelling and Verification of Multiple UAV Mission Using SMV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopinadh Sirigineedi

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Model checking has been used to verify the correctness of digital circuits, security protocols, communication protocols, as they can be modelled by means of finite state transition model. However, modelling the behaviour of hybrid systems like UAVs in a Kripke model is challenging. This work is aimed at capturing the behaviour of an UAV performing cooperative search mission into a Kripke model, so as to verify it against the temporal properties expressed in Computational Tree Logic (CTL. SMV model checker is used for the purpose of model checking.

  8. UAV telemetry communications using ZigBee protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasution, T. H.; Siregar, I.; Yasir, M.

    2017-10-01

    Wireless communication has been widely used in various fields or disciplines such as agriculture, health, engineering, military, and aerospace so as to support the work in that field. The communication technology is typically used for controlling devices and data monitoring. One development of wireless communication is the widely used telemetry system used to reach areas that cannot be reached by humans using UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle) or unmanned aircraft. In this paper we discuss the design of telemetry system in UAV using ZigBee protocol. From the test obtained the system can work well with visualization displays without pause is 20 data per second with a maximum data length of 120 characters.

  9. Using LTE Networks for UAV Command and Control Link

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Huan Cong; Amorim, Rafhael Medeiros de; Wigard, Jeroen

    2017-01-01

    interference coordination schemes. In addition, ideal Interference Cancellation (IC) scheme with ability to remove completely the dominant interferer shows less effective for UAVs than for users on the ground. On the other hand, macro network diversity has very good potential for drones, as not only......In this paper we investigate the ability of Long-Term Evolution (LTE) network to provide coverage for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) in a rural area, in particular for the Command and Control (C2) downlink. The study takes into consideration the dependency of the large-scale path loss...

  10. Short Communication. Using high resolution UAV imagery to estimate tree variables in Pinus pinea plantation in Portugal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerra Hernandez, J.; Gonzalez-Ferreiro, E.; Sarmento, A.; Silva, J.; Nunes, A.; Correia, A.C.; Fontes, L.; Tomé, M.; Diaz-Varela, D.

    2016-07-01

    Aim of the study: The study aims to analyse the potential use of low‑cost unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) imagery for the estimation of Pinus pinea L. variables at the individual tree level (position, tree height and crown diameter). Area of study: This study was conducted under the PINEA project focused on 16 ha of umbrella pine afforestation (Portugal) subjected to different treatments. Material and methods: The workflow involved: a) image acquisition with consumer‑grade cameras on board an UAV; b) orthomosaic and digital surface model (DSM) generation using structure-from-motion (SfM) image reconstruction; and c) automatic individual tree segmentation by using a mixed pixel‑ and region‑based based algorithm. Main results: The results of individual tree segmentation (position, height and crown diameter) were validated using field measurements from 3 inventory plots in the study area. All the trees of the plots were correctly detected. The RMSE values for the predicted heights and crown widths were 0.45 m and 0.63 m, respectively. Research highlights: The results demonstrate that tree variables can be automatically extracted from high resolution imagery. We highlight the use of UAV systems as a fast, reliable and cost‑effective technique for small scale applications. (Author)

  11. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs): a new tool in counterterrorism operations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dörtbudak, Mehmet F.

    2015-05-01

    Terrorism is not a new phenomenon to the world, yet it remains difficult to define and counter. Countering terrorism requires several measures that must be taken simultaneously; however, counterterrorism strategies of many countries mostly depend on military measures. In the aftermath of the 2001 terrorist attack on the Twin Towers of the World Trade Center, the United States (U.S.) has started and led the campaign of Global War on Terrorism. They have invaded Afghanistan and Iraq and have encountered insurgencies run by terrorist organizations, such as al-Qaeda and its affiliates. The U.S. made the utilization of Air and Space Power very intensively during these operations. In order to implement operations; Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance (ISR) assets were used to collect the necessary information. Before the successful insertion of a small number of U.S. Special Operation Force (SOF) teams into Afghanistan, the U.S. Air Force attacked al-Qaeda and Taliban's targets such as infrastructure, airfields, ground forces, command-control facilities etc. As soon as the U.S. troops got on the ground and started to marshal to Kabul, the Air Force supported them by attacking jointly determined targets. The Air Force continued to carry out the missions and played a significant role to achieve the objective of operation during all the time. This is not the only example of utilization of Air and Space Power in counterterrorism and counterinsurgency operations. All around the world, many countries have also made the utilization of Air Power in different missions ranging from ISR to attacking. Thinking that terrorism has a psychological dimension and losing a pilot during operations may result in decreasing the population support to operations, Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) started to be used by practitioners and took priority over other assets. Although UAVs have been on the theatre for a long time used for ISR mission in conventional conflicts, with the advent

  12. Development of autonomous controller system of high speed UAV from simulation to ready to fly condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yudhi Irwanto, Herma

    2018-02-01

    The development of autonomous controller system that is specially used in our high speed UAV, it’s call RKX-200EDF/TJ controlled vehicle needs to be continued as a step to mastery and to developt control system of LAPAN’s satellite launching rocket. The weakness of the existing control system in this high speed UAV needs to be repaired and replaced using the autonomous controller system. Conversion steps for ready-to-fly system involved controlling X tail fin, adjusting auto take off procedure by adding X axis sensor, procedure of way points reading and process of measuring distance and heading to the nearest way point, developing user-friendly ground station, and adding tools for safety landing. The development of this autonomous controller system also covered a real flying test in Pandanwangi, Lumajang in November 2016. Unfortunately, the flying test was not successful because the booster rocket was blown right after burning. However, the system could record the event and demonstrated that the controller system had worked according to plan.

  13. IMPROVED UAV-BORNE 3D MAPPING BY FUSING OPTICAL AND LASERSCANNER DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Jutzi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a new method for fusing optical and laserscanner data is presented for improved UAV-borne 3D mapping. We propose to equip an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV with a small platform which includes two sensors: a standard low-cost digital camera and a lightweight Hokuyo UTM-30LX-EW laserscanning device (210 g without cable. Initially, a calibration is carried out for the utilized devices. This involves a geometric camera calibration and the estimation of the position and orientation offset between the two sensors by lever-arm and bore-sight calibration. Subsequently, a feature tracking is performed through the image sequence by considering extracted interest points as well as the projected 3D laser points. These 2D results are fused with the measured laser distances and fed into a bundle adjustment in order to obtain a Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM. It is demonstrated that an improvement in terms of precision for the pose estimation is derived by fusing optical and laserscanner data.

  14. Monitoring beach evolution using low-altitude aerial photogrammetry and UAV drones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovere, Alessio; Casella, Elisa; Vacchi, Matteo; Mucerino, Luigi; Pedroncini, Andrea; Ferrari, Marco; Firpo, Marco

    2014-05-01

    Beach monitoring is essential in order to understand the mechanisms of evolution of soft coasts, and the rates of erosion. Traditional beach monitoring techniques involve topographic and bathymetric surveys of the beach, and/or aerial photos repeated in time and compared through geographical information systems. A major problem of this kind of approach is the high economic cost. This often leads to increase the time lag between successive monitoring campaigns to reduce survey costs, with the consequence of fragmenting the information available for coastal zone management. MIRAMar is a project funded by Regione Liguria through the PO CRO European Social Fund, and has two main objectives: i) to study and develop an innovative technique, relatively low-cost, to monitor the evolution of the shoreline using low-altitude Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) photogrammetry; ii) to study the impact of different type of storm events on a vulnerable coastal tract subject to coastal erosion using also the data collected by the UAV instrument. To achieve these aims we use a drone with its hardware and software suit, traditional survey techniques (bathymetric surveys, topographic GPS surveys and GIS techniques) and we implement a numerical modeling chain (coupling hydrodynamic, wave and sand transport modules) in order to study the impact of different type of storm events on a vulnerable coastal tract subject to coastal erosion.

  15. Radio Channel Modelling for UAV Communication over Cellular Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amorim, Rafhael Medeiros de; Nguyen, Huan Cong; Mogensen, Preben Elgaard

    2017-01-01

    The main goal of this paper is to obtain models for path loss exponents and shadowing for the radio channel between airborne Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) and cellular networks. In this pursuit, field measurements were conducted in live LTE networks at the 800 MHz frequency band, using a commer...

  16. A system of UAV application in indoor environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khosiawan, Yohanes; Nielsen, Izabela Ewa

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, there has been an increased demand in the use of multiple unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) in indoor environments such as material handling task in a manufacturing environment and plant/environment monitoring task in a greenhouse. However, there is a lack of work reported...

  17. Detecting animals in African Savanna with UAVs and the crowds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rey, Nicolas; Volpi, Michele; Joost, Stéphane; Tuia, Devis

    2017-01-01

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) offer new opportunities for wildlife monitoring, with several advantages over traditional field-based methods. They have readily been used to count birds, marine mammals and large herbivores in different environments, tasks which are routinely performed through manual

  18. Supervising UAVs : improving operator performance by optimizing the human factor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breda, L. van; Jansen, C.; Veltman, J.A.

    2005-01-01

    Tele-operated unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) have no operators on board and therefore enable extension of the present sensing and communication capabilities in civil and military missions, without unnecessarily endangering personnel or deploying expensive material. One should also realize that

  19. Optimizing Multiple Kernel Learning for the classification of UAV data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gevaert, C.M.; Persello, C.; Vosselman, G.

    2016-01-01

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) are capable of providing high-quality orthoimagery and 3D information in the form of point clouds at a relatively low cost. Their increasing popularity stresses the necessity of understanding which algorithms are especially suited for processing the data obtained from

  20. Fuzzy adaptive PID control for six rotor eppo UAV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongwei LI

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Six rotor eppo drones's load change itself in the job process will reduce the aircraft flight control performance and make the resistance to environmental disturbance being poor. In order to improve the six rotor eppo unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV control performance, the UAV in the process of spraying pesticide is analyzed and the model is constructed, then the eppo UAV time-varying dynamics mathematical model is deduced, and a fuzzy adaptive PID control algorithm is proposed. Fuzzy adaptive PID algorithm has good adaptability and the parameter setting is simple, which improves the system dynamic response and steady state performance, realizing the stability of the six rotor eppo UAV flight. With measured parameters of each sensor input in to the fuzzy adaptive PID algorithm, the corresponding control quality is obtained, and the stable operation of aircraft is realized. Through using Matlab to simulate the flight system and combining the practical experiments, it shows that the dynamic performance and stability of the system is improved effetively.

  1. The future of structural fieldwork - UAV assisted aerial photogrammetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollgger, Stefan; Cruden, Alexander

    2015-04-01

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), commonly referred to as drones, are opening new and low cost possibilities to acquire high-resolution aerial images and digital surface models (DSM) for applications in structural geology. UAVs can be programmed to fly autonomously along a user defined grid to systematically capture high-resolution photographs, even in difficult to access areas. The photographs are subsequently processed using software that employ SIFT (scale invariant feature transform) and SFM (structure from motion) algorithms. These photogrammetric routines allow the extraction of spatial information (3D point clouds, digital elevation models, 3D meshes, orthophotos) from 2D images. Depending on flight altitude and camera setup, sub-centimeter spatial resolutions can be achieved. By "digitally mapping" georeferenced 3D models and images, orientation data can be extracted directly and used to analyse the structural framework of the mapped object or area. We present UAV assisted aerial mapping results from a coastal platform near Cape Liptrap (Victoria, Australia), where deformed metasediments of the Palaeozoic Lachlan Fold Belt are exposed. We also show how orientation and spatial information of brittle and ductile structures extracted from the photogrammetric model can be linked to the progressive development of folds and faults in the region. Even though there are both technical and legislative limitations, which might prohibit the use of UAVs without prior commercial licensing and training, the benefits that arise from the resulting high-resolution, photorealistic models can substantially contribute to the collection of new data and insights for applications in structural geology.

  2. Feasibility of Using Synthetic Aperture Radar to Aid UAV Navigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide O. Nitti

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the potential of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR to aid Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV navigation when Inertial Navigation System (INS measurements are not accurate enough to eliminate drifts from a planned trajectory. This problem can affect medium-altitude long-endurance (MALE UAV class, which permits heavy and wide payloads (as required by SAR and flights for thousands of kilometres accumulating large drifts. The basic idea is to infer position and attitude of an aerial platform by inspecting both amplitude and phase of SAR images acquired onboard. For the amplitude-based approach, the system navigation corrections are obtained by matching the actual coordinates of ground landmarks with those automatically extracted from the SAR image. When the use of SAR amplitude is unfeasible, the phase content can be exploited through SAR interferometry by using a reference Digital Terrain Model (DTM. A feasibility analysis was carried out to derive system requirements by exploring both radiometric and geometric parameters of the acquisition setting. We showed that MALE UAV, specific commercial navigation sensors and SAR systems, typical landmark position accuracy and classes, and available DTMs lead to estimated UAV coordinates with errors bounded within ±12 m, thus making feasible the proposed SAR-based backup system.

  3. A LIGHT-WEIGHT LASER SCANNER FOR UAV APPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. G. Tommaselli

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV have been recognized as a tool for geospatial data acquisition due to their flexibility and favourable cost benefit ratio. The practical use of laser scanning devices on-board UAVs is also developing with new experimental and commercial systems. This paper describes a light-weight laser scanning system composed of an IbeoLux scanner, an Inertial Navigation System Span-IGM-S1, from Novatel, a Raspberry PI portable computer, which records data from both systems and an octopter UAV. The performance of this light-weight system was assessed both for accuracy and with respect to point density, using Ground Control Points (GCP as reference. Two flights were performed with the UAV octopter carrying the equipment. In the first trial, the flight height was 100 m with six strips over a parking area. The second trial was carried out over an urban park with some buildings and artificial targets serving as reference Ground Control Points. In this experiment a flight height of 70 m was chosen to improve target response. Accuracy was assessed based on control points the coordinates of which were measured in the field. Results showed that vertical accuracy with this prototype is around 30 cm, which is acceptable for forest applications but this accuracy can be improved using further refinements in direct georeferencing and in the system calibration.

  4. a Light-Weight Laser Scanner for Uav Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tommaselli, A. M. G.; Torres, F. M.

    2016-06-01

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) have been recognized as a tool for geospatial data acquisition due to their flexibility and favourable cost benefit ratio. The practical use of laser scanning devices on-board UAVs is also developing with new experimental and commercial systems. This paper describes a light-weight laser scanning system composed of an IbeoLux scanner, an Inertial Navigation System Span-IGM-S1, from Novatel, a Raspberry PI portable computer, which records data from both systems and an octopter UAV. The performance of this light-weight system was assessed both for accuracy and with respect to point density, using Ground Control Points (GCP) as reference. Two flights were performed with the UAV octopter carrying the equipment. In the first trial, the flight height was 100 m with six strips over a parking area. The second trial was carried out over an urban park with some buildings and artificial targets serving as reference Ground Control Points. In this experiment a flight height of 70 m was chosen to improve target response. Accuracy was assessed based on control points the coordinates of which were measured in the field. Results showed that vertical accuracy with this prototype is around 30 cm, which is acceptable for forest applications but this accuracy can be improved using further refinements in direct georeferencing and in the system calibration.

  5. DENSE MULTIPLE STEREO MATCHING OF HIGHLY OVERLAPPING UAV IMAGERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Haala

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available UAVs are becoming standard platforms for applications aiming at photogrammetric data capture. Since these systems can be completely built-up at very reasonable prices, their use can be very cost effective. This is especially true while aiming at large scale aerial mapping of areas at limited extent. In principle, the photogrammetric evaluation of UAV-based imagery is feasible by of-the-shelf commercial software products. Thus, standard steps like aerial triangulation, the generation of Digital Surface Models and ortho image computation can be performed effectively. However, this processing pipeline can be hindered due to the limited quality of UAV data. This is especially true if low-cost sensor components are applied. To overcome potential problems in AAT, UAV imagery is frequently captured at considerable overlaps. As it will be discussed in the paper, such highly overlapping image blocks are not only beneficial during georeferencing, but are especially advantageous while aiming at a dense and accurate image based 3D surface reconstruction.

  6. Feasibility of Using Synthetic Aperture Radar to Aid UAV Navigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitti, Davide O; Bovenga, Fabio; Chiaradia, Maria T; Greco, Mario; Pinelli, Gianpaolo

    2015-07-28

    This study explores the potential of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) to aid Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) navigation when Inertial Navigation System (INS) measurements are not accurate enough to eliminate drifts from a planned trajectory. This problem can affect medium-altitude long-endurance (MALE) UAV class, which permits heavy and wide payloads (as required by SAR) and flights for thousands of kilometres accumulating large drifts. The basic idea is to infer position and attitude of an aerial platform by inspecting both amplitude and phase of SAR images acquired onboard. For the amplitude-based approach, the system navigation corrections are obtained by matching the actual coordinates of ground landmarks with those automatically extracted from the SAR image. When the use of SAR amplitude is unfeasible, the phase content can be exploited through SAR interferometry by using a reference Digital Terrain Model (DTM). A feasibility analysis was carried out to derive system requirements by exploring both radiometric and geometric parameters of the acquisition setting. We showed that MALE UAV, specific commercial navigation sensors and SAR systems, typical landmark position accuracy and classes, and available DTMs lead to estimated UAV coordinates with errors bounded within ±12 m, thus making feasible the proposed SAR-based backup system.

  7. UAV MONITORING FOR ENVIROMENTAL MANAGEMENT IN GALAPAGOS ISLANDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Ballaria

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the Galapagos Islands, where 97% of the territory is protected and ecosystem dynamics are highly vulnerable, timely and accurate information is key for decision making. An appropriate monitoring system must meet two key features: on one hand, being able to capture information in a systematic and regular basis, and on the other hand, to quickly gather information on demand for specific purposes. The lack of such a system for geographic information limits the ability of Galapagos Islands’ institutions to evaluate and act upon environmental threats such as invasive species spread and vegetation degradation. In this context, the use of UAVs (unmanned aerial vehicles for capturing georeferenced images is a promising technology for environmental monitoring and management. This paper explores the potential of UAV images for monitoring degradation of littoral vegetation in Puerto Villamil (Isabela Island, Galapagos, Ecuador. Imagery was captured using two camera types: Red Green Blue (RGB and Infrarred Red Green (NIR. First, vegetation presence was identified through NDVI. Second, object-based classification was carried out for characterization of vegetation vigor. Results demonstrates the feasibility of UAV technology for base-line studies and monitoring on the amount and vigorousness of littoral vegetation in the Galapagos Islands. It is also showed that UAV images are not only useful for visual interpretation and object delineation, but also to timely produce useful thematic information for environmental management.

  8. UAV Monitoring for Enviromental Management in Galapagos Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballari, D.; Orellana, D.; Acosta, E.; Espinoza, A.; Morocho, V.

    2016-06-01

    In the Galapagos Islands, where 97% of the territory is protected and ecosystem dynamics are highly vulnerable, timely and accurate information is key for decision making. An appropriate monitoring system must meet two key features: on one hand, being able to capture information in a systematic and regular basis, and on the other hand, to quickly gather information on demand for specific purposes. The lack of such a system for geographic information limits the ability of Galapagos Islands' institutions to evaluate and act upon environmental threats such as invasive species spread and vegetation degradation. In this context, the use of UAVs (unmanned aerial vehicles) for capturing georeferenced images is a promising technology for environmental monitoring and management. This paper explores the potential of UAV images for monitoring degradation of littoral vegetation in Puerto Villamil (Isabela Island, Galapagos, Ecuador). Imagery was captured using two camera types: Red Green Blue (RGB) and Infrarred Red Green (NIR). First, vegetation presence was identified through NDVI. Second, object-based classification was carried out for characterization of vegetation vigor. Results demonstrates the feasibility of UAV technology for base-line studies and monitoring on the amount and vigorousness of littoral vegetation in the Galapagos Islands. It is also showed that UAV images are not only useful for visual interpretation and object delineation, but also to timely produce useful thematic information for environmental management.

  9. Fuzzy control of attitude of four - rotor UAV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zexiang; Hu, Shengbin

    2017-08-01

    The four - rotor unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) is the object of study, in this paper. In order to solve the problem of poor robustness and low control precision of the four-rotor unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) control system, and realized the stability control problem of the four-rotor UAV attitude. First, the dynamic model of the four-rotor unmanned aerial vehicle is established. And on this basis, a fuzzy controller is designed, and used to control the channel. Then, the simulation platform is built by Matlab / Simulink simulation software, and the performance of the designed fuzzy controller is analyzed comprehensively. It is also determined whether the algorithm can control the attitude of the four rotor unmanned aerial vehicle. The simulation results fully verify the accuracy of the model, and proved fuzzy controller has better dynamic performance and robustness under appropriate parameters so that UAVs can fly stable. The algorithm can improve the anti-jamming performance and control accuracy of the system, it has a certain significance for the actual four-rotor aircraft attitude control.

  10. ENHANCEMENTS IN UAV FLIGHT CONTROL AND SENSOR ORIENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bäumker

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The acquisition of photogrammetric image data by means of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV has developed in recent years to an interesting new measurement method especially for small to medium sizes of objects. In addition the latest developments in the field of navigation systems (GNSS, of inertial sensors and other sensors in combination with powerful and easy to program microcontrollers have made a major contribution to this. In particular, the development of MEMS sensors has triggered the boom of the UAV and has given decisively influence and it is still going on. The integration of sensors on a single board not only enables a cost-effective manufacturing and mass production, but also the use in accordance with small, lightweight UAV. The latest developments on a 50 mm × 50 mm-sized circuit board combine the sensors and the microcontroller for the flight control and flight navigation. Both the board and the microcontroller are easy to program and maintain several interfaces for connecting additional sensors, such as GNSS, ultrasonic sensors and telemetry. This article presents the UAV system of the Bochum University of Applied Sciences, the used sensors and the obtained results for accurate georeferencing.

  11. Using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) to Modeling Tornado Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, M.; Doe, R. K.

    2017-12-01

    Using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) to assess storm damage is a useful research tool. Benefits include their ability to access remote or impassable areas post-storm, identify unknown damages and assist with more detailed site investigations and rescue efforts. Technological advancement of UAVs mean that they can capture high resolution images often at an affordable price. These images can be used to create 3D environments to better interpret and delineate damages from large areas that would have been difficult in ground surveys. This research presents the results of a rapid response site investigation of the 29 April 2017 Canton, Texas, USA, tornado using low cost UAVs. This was a multiple, high impact tornado event measuring EF4 at maximum. Rural farmland was chosen as a challenging location to test both equipment and methodology. Such locations provide multiple impacts at a variety of scales including structural and vegetation damage and even animal fatalities. The 3D impact models allow for a more comprehensive study prior to clean-up. The results show previously unseen damages and better quantify damage impacts at the local level. 3D digital track swaths were created allowing for a more accurate track width determination. These results demonstrate how effective the use of low cost UAVs can be for rapid response storm damage assessments, the high quality of data they can achieve, and how they can help us better visualize tornado site investigations.

  12. Comparison between A* and RRT Algorithms for UAV Path Planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zammit, C.; van Kampen, E.

    2018-01-01

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) are being integrated into a wide range of indoor
    and outdoor applications. In this light, robust and ecient path planning is paramount. An extensive literature review showed that the A* and Rapidly{Exploring Random Tree (RRT) algorithms and their variants are the

  13. DTM Generation with Uav Based Photogrammetric Point Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polat, N.; Uysal, M.

    2017-11-01

    Nowadays Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) are widely used in many applications for different purposes. Their benefits however are not entirely detected due to the integration capabilities of other equipment such as; digital camera, GPS, or laser scanner. The main scope of this paper is evaluating performance of cameras integrated UAV for geomatic applications by the way of Digital Terrain Model (DTM) generation in a small area. In this purpose, 7 ground control points are surveyed with RTK and 420 photographs are captured. Over 30 million georeferenced points were used in DTM generation process. Accuracy of the DTM was evaluated with 5 check points. The root mean square error is calculated as 17.1 cm for an altitude of 100 m. Besides, a LiDAR derived DTM is used as reference in order to calculate correlation. The UAV based DTM has o 94.5 % correlation with reference DTM. Outcomes of the study show that it is possible to use the UAV Photogrammetry data as map producing, surveying, and some other engineering applications with the advantages of low-cost, time conservation, and minimum field work.

  14. Center Overview and UAV Highlights at NASA Ames Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Deborah; Yan, Jerry Chi Yiu

    2017-01-01

    The PowerPoint presentation gives an overview of NASA Ames Research Center and its core competencies, as well as some of the highlights of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) and Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) accomplishments and innovations by researchers at Ames.

  15. Ecological Interface for Collaboration of Multiple UAVs in Remote Areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Lochem, S.; Borst, C.; de Croon, G.C.H.E.; van Paassen, M.M.; Mulder, M.

    2016-01-01

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) can be used to access remote areas, e.g., for surveillance missions. Collaboration between them can help overcome communication constraints by building airborne relay networks that allow beyond line of sight communication. This research investigates whether a single

  16. Design of a synthetic vsion overlay for UAV autoland monitoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tadema, J.; Theunissen, E.

    2008-01-01

    For Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs), autonomous forms of autoland are being pursued that do not depend on special, deployability restraining, ground-based equipment for the generation of the reference path to the runway. Typically, these forms of autoland use runway location data from an onboard

  17. DTM GENERATION WITH UAV BASED PHOTOGRAMMETRIC POINT CLOUD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Polat

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs are widely used in many applications for different purposes. Their benefits however are not entirely detected due to the integration capabilities of other equipment such as; digital camera, GPS, or laser scanner. The main scope of this paper is evaluating performance of cameras integrated UAV for geomatic applications by the way of Digital Terrain Model (DTM generation in a small area. In this purpose, 7 ground control points are surveyed with RTK and 420 photographs are captured. Over 30 million georeferenced points were used in DTM generation process. Accuracy of the DTM was evaluated with 5 check points. The root mean square error is calculated as 17.1 cm for an altitude of 100 m. Besides, a LiDAR derived DTM is used as reference in order to calculate correlation. The UAV based DTM has o 94.5 % correlation with reference DTM. Outcomes of the study show that it is possible to use the UAV Photogrammetry data as map producing, surveying, and some other engineering applications with the advantages of low-cost, time conservation, and minimum field work.

  18. Using perspective guidance overlay to improve UAV manual control performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tadema, J.; Theunissen, E.; Koeners, J.

    2007-01-01

    The guidance information that is available to the UAV operator typically suffers from limitations of data update rate and system latency. Even when using a flight director command display, the manual control task is considerably more difficult compared to piloting a manned aircraft. Results from

  19. Focus-of-attention for human activity recognition from UAVs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burghouts, G.J.; Eekeren, A.W.M. van; Dijk, J.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a system to extract metadata about human activities from full-motion video recorded from a UAV. The pipeline consists of these components: tracking, motion features, representation of the tracks in terms of their motion features, and classification of each track as one of the

  20. Teaching UAVs to Race With Observational Imitation Learning

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Guohao

    2018-03-03

    Recent work has tackled the problem of autonomous navigation by imitating a teacher and learning an end-to-end policy, which directly predicts controls from raw images. However, these approaches tend to be sensitive to mistakes by the teacher and do not scale well to other environments or vehicles. To this end, we propose a modular network architecture that decouples perception from control, and is trained using Observational Imitation Learning (OIL), a novel imitation learning variant that supports online training and automatic selection of optimal behavior from observing multiple teachers. We apply our proposed methodology to the challenging problem of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) racing. We develop a simulator that enables the generation of large amounts of synthetic training data (both UAV captured images and its controls) and also allows for online learning and evaluation. We train a perception network to predict waypoints from raw image data and a control network to predict UAV controls from these waypoints using OIL. Our modular network is able to autonomously fly a UAV through challenging race tracks at high speeds. Extensive experiments demonstrate that our trained network outperforms its teachers, end-to-end baselines, and even human pilots in simulation. The supplementary video can be viewed at https://youtu.be/PeTXSoriflc

  1. UAV low-altitude remote sensing for precision weed management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Precision weed management, an application of precision agriculture, accounts for within-field variability of weed infestation and herbicide damage. Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) provide a unique platform for remote sensing of field crops. They are more efficient and flexible than manned agricultur...

  2. UAV Flight Control Using Distributed Actuation and Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnwell, William G.; Heinzen, Stearns N.; Hall, Charles E., Jr.; Chokani, Ndaona; Raney, David L. (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    An array of effectors and sensors has been designed, tested and implemented on a Blended Wing Body Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle (UAV). This UAV is modified to serve as a flying, controls research, testbed. This effectorhensor array provides for the dynamic vehicle testing of controller designs and the study of decentralized control techniques. Each wing of the UAV is equipped with 12 distributed effectors that comprise a segmented array of independently actuated, contoured control surfaces. A single pressure sensor is installed near the base of each effector to provide a measure of deflections of the effectors. The UAV wings were tested in the North Carolina State University Subsonic Wind Tunnel and the pressure distribution that result from the deflections of the effectors are characterized. The results of the experiments are used to develop a simple, but accurate, prediction method, such that for any arrangement of the effector array the corresponding pressure distribution can be determined. Numerical analysis using the panel code CMARC verifies this prediction method.

  3. Use of UAV-Borne Spectrometer for Land Cover Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sowmya Natesan

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV are being used for low altitude remote sensing for thematic land classification using visible light and multi-spectral sensors. The objective of this work was to investigate the use of UAV equipped with a compact spectrometer for land cover classification. The UAV platform used was a DJI Flamewheel F550 hexacopter equipped with GPS and Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU navigation sensors, and a Raspberry Pi processor and camera module. The spectrometer used was the FLAME-NIR, a near-infrared spectrometer for hyperspectral measurements. RGB images and spectrometer data were captured simultaneously. As spectrometer data do not provide continuous terrain coverage, the locations of their ground elliptical footprints were determined from the bundle adjustment solution of the captured images. For each of the spectrometer ground ellipses, the land cover signature at the footprint location was determined to enable the characterization, identification, and classification of land cover elements. To attain a continuous land cover classification map, spatial interpolation was carried out from the irregularly distributed labeled spectrometer points. The accuracy of the classification was assessed using spatial intersection with the object-based image classification performed using the RGB images. Results show that in homogeneous land cover, like water, the accuracy of classification is 78% and in mixed classes, like grass, trees and manmade features, the average accuracy is 50%, thus, indicating the contribution of hyperspectral measurements of low altitude UAV-borne spectrometers to improve land cover classification.

  4. Aerodynamic study on wing and tail small UAV without runways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soetanto, Maria F.; R., Randy; Alfan M., R.; Dzaldi

    2016-06-01

    This paper consists of the design and analysis of the aerodynamics of the profiles of wing and tail of a Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV). UAV is a remote-controlled aircraft that can carry cameras, sensors and even weapons on an area that needed aerial photography or aerial video [1]. The aim of this small UAV is for used in situations where manned flight is considered too risky or difficult, such as fire fighting or surveillance, while the term 'small means the design of this UAV has to be relatively small and portable so that peoples are able to carry it during their operations [CASR Part 101.240: it is a UAV which is has a launch mass greater than 100 grams but less than 100 kilograms] [2]. Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) method was used to analyze the fluid flow characteristics around the aerofoil's profiles, such as the lift generation for each angle of attack and longitudinal stability caused by vortex generation on trailing edge. Based on the analysis and calculation process, Clark-Y MOD with aspect ratio, AR = 4.28 and taper ratio, λ = 0.65 was chosen as the wing aerofoil and SD 8020 with AR = 4.8 and λ = 0.5 was chosen as the horizontal tail, while SD 8020 with AR = 1.58 and λ = 0.5 was chosen as the vertical tail. The lift and drag forces generated for wing and tail surfaces can be determined from the Fluent 6.3 simulation. Results showed that until angle of attack of 6 degrees, the formation of flow separation is still going on behind the trailing edge, and the stall condition occurs at 14 degrees angle of attack which is characterized by the occurrence of flow separation at leading edge, with a maximum lift coefficient (Cl) obtained = 1.56. The results of flight tests show that this small UAV has successfully maneuvered to fly, such as take off, some acrobatics when cruising and landing smoothly, which means that the calculation and analysis of aerodynamic aerofoil's profile used on the wing and tail of the Small UAV were able to be validated.

  5. Unmanned air vehicle (UAV) ultra-persitence research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dron, S. B.

    2012-03-01

    Sandia National Laboratories and Northrop Grumman Corporation Integrated Systems, Unmanned Systems (NGIS UMS) collaborated to further ultra-persistence technologies for unmanned air vehicles (UAVs). The greatest shortfalls in UAV capabilities have been repeatedly identified as (1) insufficient flight persistence or 'hang time,' (2) marginal electrical power for running higher power avionics and payload systems, and (3) inadequate communications bandwidth and reach. NGIS UMS requested support from Sandia to develop an ultra-persistent propulsion and power system (UP3S) for potential incorporation into next generation UAV systems. The team members tried to determine which energy storage and power generation concepts could most effectively push UAV propulsion and electrical power capabilities to increase UAV sortie duration from days to months while increasing available electrical power at least two-fold. Primary research and development areas that were pursued included these goals: perform general system engineering and integration analyses; develop initial thermal and electrical power estimates; provide mass, volume, dimensional, and balance estimates; conduct preliminary safety assessments; assess logistics support requirements; perform, preliminary assessments of any security and safeguards; evaluate options for removal, replacement, and disposition of materials; generally advance the potential of the UP3S concept. The effort contrasted and compared eight heat sources technologies, three power conversion, two dual cycle propulsion system configurations, and a single electrical power generation scheme. Overall performance, specific power parameters, technical complexities, security, safety, and other operational features were successfully investigated. Large and medium sized UAV systems were envisioned and operational flight profiles were developed for each concept. Heat source creation and support challenges for domestic and expeditionary operations were

  6. Earth Observations and the Role of UAVs: A Capabilities Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Timothy H.

    2006-01-01

    This three-volume document, based on the draft document located on the website given on page 6, presents the findings of a NASA-led capabilities assessment of Uninhabited Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) for civil (defined as non-DoD) use in Earth observations. Volume 1 is the report that presents the overall assessment and summarizes the data. The second volume contains the appendices and references to address the technologies and capabilities required for viable UAV missions. The third volume is the living portion of this effort and contains the outputs from each of the Technology Working Groups (TWGs) along with the reviews conducted by the Universities Space Research Association (USRA). The focus of this report, intended to complement the Office of the Secretary of Defense UAV Roadmap, is four-fold: 1) To determine and document desired future Earth observation missions for all UAVs based on user-defined needs; 2) To determine and document the technologies necessary to support those missions; 3) To discuss the present state of the art platform capabilities and required technologies, including identifying those in progress, those planned, and those for which no current plans exist; 4) Provide the foundations for development of a comprehensive civil UAV roadmap. It is expected that the content of this report will be updated periodically and used to assess the feasibility of future missions. In addition, this report will provide the foundation to help influence funding decisions to develop those technologies that are considered enabling or necessary but are not contained within approved funding plans. This document is written such that each section will be supported by an Appendix that will give the reader a more detailed discussion of that section's topical materials.

  7. Emergency response to landslide using GNSS measurements and UAV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolakopoulos, Konstantinos G.; Koukouvelas, Ioannis K.

    2017-10-01

    Landslide monitoring can be performed using many different methods: Classical geotechnical measurements like inclinometer, topographical survey measurements with total stations or GNSS sensors and photogrammetric techniques using airphotos or high resolution satellite images. However all these methods are expensive or difficult to be developed immediately after the landslide triggering. In contrast airborne technology and especially the use of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) make response to landslide disaster easier as UAVs can be launched quickly in dangerous terrains and send data about the sliding areas to responders on the ground either as RGB images or as videos. In addition, the emergency response to landslide is critical for the further monitoring. For proper displacement identification all the above mentioned monitoring methods need a high resolution and a very accurate representation of the relief. The ideal solution for the accurate and quick mapping of a landslide is the combined use of UAV's photogrammetry and GNSS measurements. UAVs have started their development as expensive toys but they currently became a very valuable tool in large scale mapping of sliding areas. The purpose of this work is to demonstrate an effective solution for the initial landslide mapping immediately after the occurrence of the phenomenon and the possibility of the periodical assessment of the landslide. Three different landslide cases from Greece are presented in the current study. All three landslides have different characteristics: occurred in different geomorphologic environments, triggered by different causes and had different geologic bedrock. In all three cases we performed detailed GNSS measurements of the landslide area, we generated orthophotos as well as Digital Surface Models (DSMs) at an accuracy of less than +/-10 cm. Slide direction and velocity, mass balances as well as protection and mitigation measurements can be derived from the application of the UAVs

  8. Wetland Assessment Using Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (uav) Photogrammetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boon, M. A.; Greenfield, R.; Tesfamichael, S.

    2016-06-01

    The use of Unmanned Arial Vehicle (UAV) photogrammetry is a valuable tool to enhance our understanding of wetlands. Accurate planning derived from this technological advancement allows for more effective management and conservation of wetland areas. This paper presents results of a study that aimed at investigating the use of UAV photogrammetry as a tool to enhance the assessment of wetland ecosystems. The UAV images were collected during a single flight within 2½ hours over a 100 ha area at the Kameelzynkraal farm, Gauteng Province, South Africa. An AKS Y-6 MKII multi-rotor UAV and a digital camera on a motion compensated gimbal mount were utilised for the survey. Twenty ground control points (GCPs) were surveyed using a Trimble GPS to achieve geometrical precision and georeferencing accuracy. Structure-from-Motion (SfM) computer vision techniques were used to derive ultra-high resolution point clouds, orthophotos and 3D models from the multi-view photos. The geometric accuracy of the data based on the 20 GCP's were 0.018 m for the overall, 0.0025 m for the vertical root mean squared error (RMSE) and an over all root mean square reprojection error of 0.18 pixel. The UAV products were then edited and subsequently analysed, interpreted and key attributes extracted using a selection of tools/ software applications to enhance the wetland assessment. The results exceeded our expectations and provided a valuable and accurate enhancement to the wetland delineation, classification and health assessment which even with detailed field studies would have been difficult to achieve.

  9. WETLAND ASSESSMENT USING UNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLE (UAV PHOTOGRAMMETRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Boon

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of Unmanned Arial Vehicle (UAV photogrammetry is a valuable tool to enhance our understanding of wetlands. Accurate planning derived from this technological advancement allows for more effective management and conservation of wetland areas. This paper presents results of a study that aimed at investigating the use of UAV photogrammetry as a tool to enhance the assessment of wetland ecosystems. The UAV images were collected during a single flight within 2½ hours over a 100 ha area at the Kameelzynkraal farm, Gauteng Province, South Africa. An AKS Y-6 MKII multi-rotor UAV and a digital camera on a motion compensated gimbal mount were utilised for the survey. Twenty ground control points (GCPs were surveyed using a Trimble GPS to achieve geometrical precision and georeferencing accuracy. Structure-from-Motion (SfM computer vision techniques were used to derive ultra-high resolution point clouds, orthophotos and 3D models from the multi-view photos. The geometric accuracy of the data based on the 20 GCP’s were 0.018 m for the overall, 0.0025 m for the vertical root mean squared error (RMSE and an over all root mean square reprojection error of 0.18 pixel. The UAV products were then edited and subsequently analysed, interpreted and key attributes extracted using a selection of tools/ software applications to enhance the wetland assessment. The results exceeded our expectations and provided a valuable and accurate enhancement to the wetland delineation, classification and health assessment which even with detailed field studies would have been difficult to achieve.

  10. Incidents analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francois, P.

    1996-01-01

    We undertook a study programme at the end of 1991. To start with, we performed some exploratory studies aimed at learning some preliminary lessons on this type of analysis: Assessment of the interest of probabilistic incident analysis; possibility of using PSA scenarios; skills and resources required. At the same time, EPN created a working group whose assignment was to define a new approach for analysis of incidents on NPPs. This working group gave thought to both aspects of Operating Feedback that EPN wished to improve: Analysis of significant incidents; analysis of potential consequences. We took part in the work of this group, and for the second aspects, we proposed a method based on an adaptation of the event-tree method in order to establish a link between existing PSA models and actual incidents. Since PSA provides an exhaustive database of accident scenarios applicable to the two most common types of units in France, they are obviously of interest for this sort of analysis. With this method we performed some incident analyses, and at the same time explores some methods employed abroad, particularly ASP (Accident Sequence Precursor, a method used by the NRC). Early in 1994 EDF began a systematic analysis programme. The first, transient phase will set up methods and an organizational structure. 7 figs

  11. Infrared hyperspectral imaging miniaturized for UAV applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinnrichs, Michele; Hinnrichs, Bradford; McCutchen, Earl

    2017-02-01

    Pacific Advanced Technology (PAT) has developed an infrared hyperspectral camera, both MWIR and LWIR, small enough to serve as a payload on a miniature unmanned aerial vehicles. The optical system has been integrated into the cold-shield of the sensor enabling the small size and weight of the sensor. This new and innovative approach to infrared hyperspectral imaging spectrometer uses micro-optics and will be explained in this paper. The micro-optics are made up of an area array of diffractive optical elements where each element is tuned to image a different spectral region on a common focal plane array. The lenslet array is embedded in the cold-shield of the sensor and actuated with a miniature piezo-electric motor. This approach enables rapid infrared spectral imaging with multiple spectral images collected and processed simultaneously each frame of the camera. This paper will present our optical mechanical design approach which results in an infrared hyper-spectral imaging system that is small enough for a payload on a mini-UAV or commercial quadcopter. Also, an example of how this technology can easily be used to quantify a hydrocarbon gas leak's volume and mass flowrates. The diffractive optical elements used in the lenslet array are blazed gratings where each lenslet is tuned for a different spectral bandpass. The lenslets are configured in an area array placed a few millimeters above the focal plane and embedded in the cold-shield to reduce the background signal normally associated with the optics. We have developed various systems using a different number of lenslets in the area array. Depending on the size of the focal plane and the diameter of the lenslet array will determine the spatial resolution. A 2 x 2 lenslet array will image four different spectral images of the scene each frame and when coupled with a 512 x 512 focal plane array will give spatial resolution of 256 x 256 pixel each spectral image. Another system that we developed uses a 4 x 4

  12. Autonomous landing of a helicopter UAV with a ground-based multisensory fusion system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Dianle; Zhong, Zhiwei; Zhang, Daibing; Shen, Lincheng; Yan, Chengping

    2015-02-01

    In this study, this paper focus on the vision-based autonomous helicopter unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) landing problems. This paper proposed a multisensory fusion to autonomous landing of an UAV. The systems include an infrared camera, an Ultra-wideband radar that measure distance between UAV and Ground-Based system, an PAN-Tilt Unit (PTU). In order to identify all weather UAV targets, we use infrared cameras. To reduce the complexity of the stereovision or one-cameral calculating the target of three-dimensional coordinates, using the ultra-wideband radar distance module provides visual depth information, real-time Image-PTU tracking UAV and calculate the UAV threedimensional coordinates. Compared to the DGPS, the test results show that the paper is effectiveness and robustness.

  13. A Programmable Resilient High-Mobility SDN+NFV Architecture for UAV Telemetry Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Kyle J. S.; Pezaros, Dimitrios P.; Denney, Ewen; Knudson, Matt D.

    2017-01-01

    With the explosive growth in UAV numbers forecast worldwide, a core concern is how to manage the ad-hoc network configuration required for mobility management. As UAVs migrate among ground control stations, associated network services, routing and operational control must also rapidly migrate to ensure a seamless transition. In this paper, we present a novel, lightweight and modular architecture which supports high mobility, resilience and flexibility through the application of SDN and NFV principles on top of the UAV infrastructure. By combining SDN programmability and Network Function Virtualization we can achieve resilient infrastructure migration of network services, such as network monitoring and anomaly detection, coupled with migrating UAVs to enable high mobility management. Our container-based monitoring and anomaly detection Network Functions (NFs) can be tuned to specific UAV models providing operators better insight during live, high-mobility deployments. We evaluate our architecture against telemetry from over 80flights from a scientific research UAV infrastructure.

  14. Long Corridor Survey for High Voltage Power Lines Design Using Uav

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skarlatos, D.; Vamvakousis, V.

    2017-11-01

    The term Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) is often directly associated with the armed forces due to their widely-criticized use of such vehicles on the modern battlefield. However, with the advancement of UAV technology, the acquisition and operational cost of small civilian UAV have reduced while their functionalities have increased. Therefore, a wide variety of new civilian applications have emerged. Mapping industry has been benefited as affordable UAV can partially replace traditional platforms, such as helicopters and small aircrafts, for low altitude photography acquisition. Although relatively new to the industry, the use of UAV is rapidly commercialized and they are expected to have a sizeable impact on the mapping industry in the coming years. The aim of this work was to test the use of a low-cost UAV for orthophoto production and Digital Surface Model (DSM) creation, to be used for the design of a new 23km high voltage line of Electricity Authority of Cyprus.

  15. LONG CORRIDOR SURVEY FOR HIGH VOLTAGE POWER LINES DESIGN USING UAV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Skarlatos

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The term Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV is often directly associated with the armed forces due to their widely-criticized use of such vehicles on the modern battlefield. However, with the advancement of UAV technology, the acquisition and operational cost of small civilian UAV have reduced while their functionalities have increased. Therefore, a wide variety of new civilian applications have emerged. Mapping industry has been benefited as affordable UAV can partially replace traditional platforms, such as helicopters and small aircrafts, for low altitude photography acquisition. Although relatively new to the industry, the use of UAV is rapidly commercialized and they are expected to have a sizeable impact on the mapping industry in the coming years. The aim of this work was to test the use of a low-cost UAV for orthophoto production and Digital Surface Model (DSM creation, to be used for the design of a new 23km high voltage line of Electricity Authority of Cyprus.

  16. An improved MTI filter for ground clutter reduction in UAV classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Fangyuan; Liu, Qinglai; Wang, Chen; Guo, Xin; Lin, Zhiping

    2017-06-01

    In recent years, Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) have increasingly been used in many civil applications. However, they also pose a significant threat in restricted zones. Radar can be used to detect and discriminate UAVs. Due to the low flying altitude of the UAVs, it is found that the radar signals also include some unwanted echoes, reflected by building, ground, trees and grasses etc. Consequently, it has not been possible to get the clean UAVs characteristics for further classification. In this paper, the MTI filter is applied to cancel the ground clutter and based this, an improved MTI filter is further proposed. Compared with the traditional MTI filter, the improved one significantly enhances ground clutter rejection capability while maintaining most of the target power. As the result, the cleaner UAVs classification characteristics can be obtained. The effectiveness of the proposed method has been verified by an experimental CW radar dataset, collected from a helicopter UAV.

  17. Recce and UAV: mass memory an enabling technology for merger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Walter J., Jr.

    1996-11-01

    In the era of Declining Defense Dollars, the cost of sophisticated aircraft and highly trained personnel has heightened interest in Unmanned Air Vehicles (UAVs). The obvious lure is the lower vehicle cost (no crew station and crew support systems) and reduced needs for highly skilled air crews. Reconnaissance (commonly called recce) aircraft and their missions are among the commonly sighted applications for UAVs. Today's UAV recce aircraft (such as the Predator) are the genesis of much more sophisticated UAVs of the future. The evolution of the UAV will not be constrained to recce aircraft, but the recce mission will be significant for UAVs. The recce hole has historically been that of a battlefield data collector for post mission review and planning. In the electronic battlefield of the future, that role will be expanded. Envisioned mission for future recce aircraft include real-time scout, target location and fire coordination, battle damage assessment, and large area surveillance. Associated with many of these new roles is the need to store or assess much higher volumes of data. The higher volume data requirements are the result of higher resolution sensors (the Advanced Helicopter Pilotage infrared sensor has a data rate of near 1.2 Gigabits per second) and multi-sensor applications (the Multi-Sensor Aided Targeting program considered infrared, TV, and radar). The evolution of the UAV recce role, and associated increased data storage needs (from higher data rates and increased coverage requirements), requires the development of new data storage equipment. One solution to the increased storage needs is solid-state memory. As solid-state memories become faster, smaller, and cheaper they will enable the UAV recce mission capability to expand. Because of the speed of the memory, it will be possible to buffer and assess (identify the existence of targets or other points of interest) data before committing to consumption of limited storage assets. Faster memory

  18. 3D landslide motion from a UAV-derived time-series of morphological attributes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valasia Peppa, Maria; Mills, Jon Philip; Moore, Philip; Miller, Pauline; Chambers, Jon

    2017-04-01

    Landslides are recognised as dynamic and significantly hazardous phenomena. Time-series observations can improve the understanding of a landslide's complex behaviour and aid assessment of its geometry and kinematics. Conventional quantification of landslide motion involves the installation of survey markers into the ground at discrete locations and periodic observations over time. However, such surveying is labour intensive, provides limited spatial resolution, is occasionally hazardous for steep terrain, or even impossible for inaccessible mountainous areas. The emergence of mini unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) equipped with off-the-shelf compact cameras, alongside the structure-from-motion (SfM) photogrammetric pipeline and modern pixel-based matching approaches, has expedited the automatic generation of high resolution digital elevation models (DEMs). Moreover, cross-correlation functions applied to finely co-registered consecutive orthomosaics and/or DEMs have been widely used to determine the displacement of moving features in an automated way, resulting in high spatial resolution motion vectors. This research focuses on estimating the 3D displacement field of an active slow moving earth-slide earth-flow landslide located in Lias mudrocks of North Yorkshire, UK, with the ultimate aim of assessing landslide deformation patterns. The landslide extends approximately 290 m E-W and 230 m N-S, with an average slope of 12˚ and 50 m elevation difference from N-S. Cross-correlation functions were applied to an eighteen-month duration, UAV-derived, time-series of morphological attributes in order to determine motion vectors for subsequent landslide analysis. A self-calibrating bundle adjustment was firstly incorporated into the SfM pipeline and utilised to process imagery acquired using a Panasonic Lumix DMC-LX5 compact camera from a mini fixed-wing Quest 300 UAV, with 2 m wingspan and maximum 5 kg payload. Data from six field campaigns were used to generate a DEM time

  19. A Survey of Open-Source UAV Flight Controllers and Flight Simulators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebeid, Emad Samuel Malki; Skriver, Martin; Terkildsen, Kristian Husum

    2018-01-01

    The current disruptive innovation in civilian drone (UAV applications has led to an increased need for research and development in UAV technology. The key challenges currently being addressed are related to UAV platform properties such as functionality, reliability, fault tolerance, and endurance......-source drone platform elements that can be used for research and development. The survey covers open-source hardware, software, and simulation drone platforms and compares their main features....

  20. SENSOR CORRECTION AND RADIOMETRIC CALIBRATION OF A 6-BAND MULTISPECTRAL IMAGING SENSOR FOR UAV REMOTE SENSING

    OpenAIRE

    J. Kelcey; A. Lucieer

    2012-01-01

    The increased availability of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) has resulted in their frequent adoption for a growing range of remote sensing tasks which include precision agriculture, vegetation surveying and fine-scale topographic mapping. The development and utilisation of UAV platforms requires broad technical skills covering the three major facets of remote sensing: data acquisition, data post-processing, and image analysis. In this study, UAV image data acquired by a miniature 6-...

  1. PERFORMANCE OF TCP CONGESTION CONTROL IN UAV NETWORKS OF VARIOUS RADIO PROPAGATION MODELS

    OpenAIRE

    Jun Peng

    2016-01-01

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) have recently become popular for both recreational and commercial use and UAV networks have thus started to attract the attention of researchers in area of the computer communication and networking. One important topic in UAV networks is congestion control because congestion causes packet losses and delays which result in the waste of all types of network resources such as bandwidth and power. Although there are studies on the performance of TCP con...

  2. Gimbal Influence on the Stability of Exterior Orientation Parameters of UAV Acquired Images

    OpenAIRE

    Ga?parovi?, Mateo; Jurjevi?, Luka

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, results from the analysis of the gimbal impact on the determination of the camera exterior orientation parameters of an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) are presented and interpreted. Additionally, a new approach and methodology for testing the influence of gimbals on the exterior orientation parameters of UAV acquired images is presented. The main motive of this study is to examine the possibility of obtaining better geometry and favorable spatial bundles of rays of images in UAV...

  3. Attitude and Altitude Control of Trirotor UAV by Using Adaptive Hybrid Controller

    OpenAIRE

    Zain Anwar Ali; Daobo Wang; Suhaib Masroor; M. Shafiq Loya

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents an adaptive hybrid scheme which is based on fuzzy regulation, pole-placement, and tracking (RST) control algorithm for controlling the attitude and altitude of trirotor UAV. The dynamic and kinematic model of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) is unstable and nonlinear in nature with 6 degrees of freedom (DOF); that is why the stabilization of aerial vehicle is a difficult task. To stabilize the nonlinear behavior of our UAV, an adaptive hybrid controller algorithm is used, in w...

  4. Coverage Optimization with Connectivity Preservation for UAV Swarms Applying Chaotic Dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Rosalie, Martin; Brust, Matthias,; Danoy, Grégoire; Chaumette, Serge; Bouvry, Pascal

    2017-01-01

    International audience; Cooperative usage of multiple UAVs as a swarm can deliver high-quality surveillance performance. However, the communication capabilities within the UAV swarm must be maintained for local data propagation to swarm members in favor of achieving an efficient global behavior. In this paper, we address the problem of optimizing two adversary criteria for such a UAV swarm: (a) maximizing the area coverage, while (b) preserving network connectivity. Our approach, called CACOC...

  5. DIRECT GEOREFERENCING OF UAV DATA BASED ON SIMPLE BUILDING STRUCTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Tampubolon

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV data acquisition is more flexible compared with the more complex traditional airborne data acquisition. This advantage puts UAV platforms in a position as an alternative acquisition method in many applications including Large Scale Topographical Mapping (LSTM. LSTM, i.e. larger or equal than 1:10.000 map scale, is one of a number of prominent priority tasks to be solved in an accelerated way especially in third world developing countries such as Indonesia. As one component of fundamental geospatial data sets, large scale topographical maps are mandatory in order to enable detailed spatial planning. However, the accuracy of the products derived from the UAV data are normally not sufficient for LSTM as it needs robust georeferencing, which requires additional costly efforts such as the incorporation of sophisticated GPS Inertial Navigation System (INS or Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU on the platform and/or Ground Control Point (GCP data on the ground. To reduce the costs and the weight on the UAV alternative solutions have to be found. This paper outlines a direct georeferencing method of UAV data by providing image orientation parameters derived from simple building structures and presents results of an investigation on the achievable results in a LSTM application. In this case, the image orientation determination has been performed through sequential images without any input from INS/IMU equipment. The simple building structures play a significant role in such a way that geometrical characteristics have been considered. Some instances are the orthogonality of the building’s wall/rooftop and the local knowledge of the building orientation in the field. In addition, we want to include the Structure from Motion (SfM approach in order to reduce the number of required GCPs especially for the absolute orientation purpose. The SfM technique applied to the UAV data and simple building structures additionally presents an

  6. Comparison of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Technology Versus Standard Practice in Identification of Hazards at a Mass Casualty Incident Scenario by Primary Care Paramedic Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Trevor; Sibley, Aaron; Stryhn, Henrik; Hubloue, Ives

    2018-01-31

    Introduction The proliferation of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) has the potential to change the situational awareness of incident commanders allowing greater scene safety. The aim of this study was to compare UAV technology to standard practice (SP) in hazard identification during a simulated multi-vehicle motor collision (MVC) in terms of time to identification, accuracy and the order of hazard identification. A prospective observational cohort study was conducted with 21 students randomized into UAV or SP group, based on a MVC with 7 hazards. The UAV group remained at the UAV ground station while the SP group approached the scene. After identifying hazards the time and order was recorded. The mean time (SD, range) to identify the hazards were 3 minutes 41 seconds (1 minute 37 seconds, 1 minute 48 seconds-6 minutes 51 seconds) and 2 minutes 43 seconds (55 seconds, 1 minute 43 seconds-4 minutes 38 seconds) in UAV and SP groups corresponding to a mean difference of 58 seconds (P=0.11). A non-parametric permutation test showed a significant (P=0.04) difference in identification order. Both groups had 100% accuracy in hazard identification with no statistical difference in time for hazard identification. A difference was found in the identification order of hazards. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2018;page 1 of 4).

  7. Possibilities of Use of UAVS for Technical Inspection of Buildings and Constructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banaszek, Anna; Banaszek, Sebastian; Cellmer, Anna

    2017-12-01

    In recent years, Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) have been used in various sectors of the economy. This is due to the development of new technologies for acquiring and processing geospatial data. The paper presents the results of experiments using UAV, equipped with a high resolution digital camera, for a visual assessment of the technical condition of the building roof and for the inventory of energy infrastructure and its surroundings. The usefulness of digital images obtained from the UAV deck is presented in concrete examples. The use of UAV offers new opportunities in the area of technical inspection due to the detail and accuracy of the data, low operating costs and fast data acquisition.

  8. Using Botnets to provide security for safety critical embedded systems - a case study focused on UAVs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia Muzzi, Fernando Augusto; Rogério de Mello Cardoso, Paulo; Pigatto, Daniel Fernando; Jaquie Castelo Branco, Kalinka Regina Lucas

    2015-09-01

    The use of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV s) has been growing not only in military applications, but also in civilian. UAVs have enormous potential for use, which mostly still are unexplored. For the use of UAV s in the airspace, not only Brazilian new studies on methods of analysis and technologies should be incorporated into navigation systems, control among others, promoting security mechanisms for these aircraft. Implement security mechanisms using a platform with operating systems and botnet to simulate such attack Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) in UAVs is an important task when it is aimed at containment and mitigation of attacks on this type of platform.

  9. Thermocouple-based Temperature Sensing System for Chemical Cell Inside Micro UAV Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yanhui; Feng, Yue; Lou, Haozhe; Zhang, Xinzhao

    2018-03-01

    Environmental temperature of UAV system is crucial for chemical cell component inside. Once the temperature of this chemical cell is over 259 °C and keeps more than 20 min, the high thermal accumulation would result in an explosion, which seriously damage the whole UAV system. Therefore, we develop a micro temperature sensing system for monitoring the temperature of chemical cell thermally influenced by UAV device deployed in a 300 °C temperature environment, which is quite useful for insensitive munitions and UAV safety enhancement technologies.

  10. Reconfigurable GPS/MEMS IMU/WAAS/RA Navigation System for UAVs, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Accurate absolute position, velocity, attitude and precise relative navigation are critical capabilities for unmanned air vehicles (UAVs) to improve their autonomy...

  11. Using Distance Sensors to Perform Collision Avoidance Maneuvres on Uav Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raimundo, A.; Peres, D.; Santos, N.; Sebastião, P.; Souto, N.

    2017-08-01

    The Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) and its applications are growing for both civilian and military purposes. The operability of an UAV proved that some tasks and operations can be done easily and at a good cost-efficiency ratio. Nowadays, an UAV can perform autonomous missions. It is very useful to certain UAV applications, such as meteorology, vigilance systems, agriculture, environment mapping and search and rescue operations. One of the biggest problems that an UAV faces is the possibility of collision with other objects in the flight area. To avoid this, an algorithm was developed and implemented in order to prevent UAV collision with other objects. "Sense and Avoid" algorithm was developed as a system for UAVs to avoid objects in collision course. This algorithm uses a Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR), to detect objects facing the UAV in mid-flights. This light sensor is connected to an on-board hardware, Pixhawk's flight controller, which interfaces its communications with another hardware: Raspberry Pi. Communications between Ground Control Station and UAV are made via Wi-Fi or cellular third or fourth generation (3G/4G). Some tests were made in order to evaluate the "Sense and Avoid" algorithm's overall performance. These tests were done in two different environments: A 3D simulated environment and a real outdoor environment. Both modes worked successfully on a simulated 3D environment, and "Brake" mode on a real outdoor, proving its concepts.

  12. Dynamic System Identification and Modeling of a Rotary Wing UAV for Stability and Control Analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McEwen, Matthew

    1998-01-01

    .... Using aerodynamic parameterization and linear state-space modeling techniques, the Bergen Industrial UAV was modeled for computer simulation to analyze its inherent stability and control characteristics...

  13. Evolving Self-Organized Behavior for Homogeneous and Heterogeneous UAV or UCAV Swarms

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Price, Ian C

    2006-01-01

    This investigation uses a self-organization (SO) approach to enable cooperative search and destruction of retaliating targets with swarms of homogeneous and heterogeneous unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs...

  14. Multi-Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) Cooperative Fault Detection Employing Differential Global Positioning (DGPS), Inertial and Vision Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heredia, Guillermo; Caballero, Fernando; Maza, Iván; Merino, Luis; Viguria, Antidio; Ollero, Aníbal

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a method to increase the reliability of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) sensor Fault Detection and Identification (FDI) in a multi-UAV context. Differential Global Positioning System (DGPS) and inertial sensors are used for sensor FDI in each UAV. The method uses additional position estimations that augment individual UAV FDI system. These additional estimations are obtained using images from the same planar scene taken from two different UAVs. Since accuracy and noise level of the estimation depends on several factors, dynamic replanning of the multi-UAV team can be used to obtain a better estimation in case of faults caused by slow growing errors of absolute position estimation that cannot be detected by using local FDI in the UAVs. Experimental results with data from two real UAVs are also presented. PMID:22400008

  15. Multi-Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) Cooperative Fault Detection Employing Differential Global Positioning (DGPS), Inertial and Vision Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heredia, Guillermo; Caballero, Fernando; Maza, Iván; Merino, Luis; Viguria, Antidio; Ollero, Aníbal

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a method to increase the reliability of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) sensor Fault Detection and Identification (FDI) in a multi-UAV context. Differential Global Positioning System (DGPS) and inertial sensors are used for sensor FDI in each UAV. The method uses additional position estimations that augment individual UAV FDI system. These additional estimations are obtained using images from the same planar scene taken from two different UAVs. Since accuracy and noise level of the estimation depends on several factors, dynamic replanning of the multi-UAV team can be used to obtain a better estimation in case of faults caused by slow growing errors of absolute position estimation that cannot be detected by using local FDI in the UAVs. Experimental results with data from two real UAVs are also presented.

  16. Accuracy analysis of photogrammetric UAV image blocks: influence of onboard RTK-GNSS and cross flight patterns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerke, M.; Przybilla, H.J.

    2016-01-01

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) are increasingly used for topographic mapping. Despite the flexibility gained when using those devices, one has to invest more effort for ground control measurements compared to conventional photogrammetric airborne data acquisition, because positioning devices on UAVs

  17. EVALUATING THE ACCURACY OF DEM GENERATION ALGORITHMS FROM UAV IMAGERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. Ruiz

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In this work we evaluated how the use of different positioning systems affects the accuracy of Digital Elevation Models (DEMs generated from aerial imagery obtained with Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs. In this domain, state-of-the-art DEM generation algorithms suffer from typical errors obtained by GPS/INS devices in the position measurements associated with each picture obtained. The deviations from these measurements to real world positions are about meters. The experiments have been carried out using a small quadrotor in the indoor testbed at the Center for Advanced Aerospace Technologies (CATEC. This testbed houses a system that is able to track small markers mounted on the UAV and along the scenario with millimeter precision. This provides very precise position measurements, to which we can add random noise to simulate errors in different GPS receivers. The results showed that final DEM accuracy clearly depends on the positioning information.

  18. Automatic detection of blurred images in UAV image sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieberth, Till; Wackrow, Rene; Chandler, Jim H.

    2016-12-01

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) have become an interesting and active research topic for photogrammetry. Current research is based on images acquired by an UAV, which have a high ground resolution and good spectral and radiometrical resolution, due to the low flight altitudes combined with a high resolution camera. UAV image flights are also cost effective and have become attractive for many applications including, change detection in small scale areas. One of the main problems preventing full automation of data processing of UAV imagery is the degradation effect of blur caused by camera movement during image acquisition. This can be caused by the normal flight movement of the UAV as well as strong winds, turbulence or sudden operator inputs. This blur disturbs the visual analysis and interpretation of the data, causes errors and can degrade the accuracy in automatic photogrammetric processing algorithms. The detection and removal of these images is currently achieved manually, which is both time consuming and prone to error, particularly for large image-sets. To increase the quality of data processing an automated process is necessary, which must be both reliable and quick. This paper describes the development of an automatic filtering process, which is based upon the quantification of blur in an image. Images with known blur are processed digitally to determine a quantifiable measure of image blur. The algorithm is required to process UAV images fast and reliably to relieve the operator from detecting blurred images manually. The newly developed method makes it possible to detect blur caused by linear camera displacement and is based on human detection of blur. Humans detect blurred images best by comparing it to other images in order to establish whether an image is blurred or not. The developed algorithm simulates this procedure by creating an image for comparison using image processing. Creating internally a comparable image makes the method independent of

  19. Evaluating the Accuracy of dem Generation Algorithms from Uav Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, J. J.; Diaz-Mas, L.; Perez, F.; Viguria, A.

    2013-08-01

    In this work we evaluated how the use of different positioning systems affects the accuracy of Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) generated from aerial imagery obtained with Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). In this domain, state-of-the-art DEM generation algorithms suffer from typical errors obtained by GPS/INS devices in the position measurements associated with each picture obtained. The deviations from these measurements to real world positions are about meters. The experiments have been carried out using a small quadrotor in the indoor testbed at the Center for Advanced Aerospace Technologies (CATEC). This testbed houses a system that is able to track small markers mounted on the UAV and along the scenario with millimeter precision. This provides very precise position measurements, to which we can add random noise to simulate errors in different GPS receivers. The results showed that final DEM accuracy clearly depends on the positioning information.

  20. A UAV-BASED ROE DEER FAWN DETECTION SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Israel

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a UAV based remote sensing system for the detection of fawns in the meadows. There is a high demand because during pasture mowing many wild animals, especially roe deer fawns are killed by mowing machines. The system was tested in several real situations especially with differing weather and iluminating conditions. Its primary sensor is a lightweight thermal infrared camera. The images are captured onboard of the flight system and also transmitted as analog video stream to the ground station, where the user can follow the camera live stream on a monitor for manual animal detection. Beside a high detection rate a fast workflow is another very important objective for this application. Therefore a waypoint planning software was developed that accelerates the workflow. At adequate illuminating and weather conditions the presented UAV-based fawn detection via thermal imaging is a comfortable, fast and reliable method.

  1. a Uav-Based ROE Deer Fawn Detection System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israel, M.

    2011-09-01

    This paper presents a UAV based remote sensing system for the detection of fawns in the meadows. There is a high demand because during pasture mowing many wild animals, especially roe deer fawns are killed by mowing machines. The system was tested in several real situations especially with differing weather and iluminating conditions. Its primary sensor is a lightweight thermal infrared camera. The images are captured onboard of the flight system and also transmitted as analog video stream to the ground station, where the user can follow the camera live stream on a monitor for manual animal detection. Beside a high detection rate a fast workflow is another very important objective for this application. Therefore a waypoint planning software was developed that accelerates the workflow. At adequate illuminating and weather conditions the presented UAV-based fawn detection via thermal imaging is a comfortable, fast and reliable method.

  2. Quarry monitoring using GPS measurements and UAV photogrammetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolakopoulos, Konstantinos G.; Koukouvelas, Ioannis; Argyropoulos, NIkolaos; Megalooikonomou, Vasileios

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this work is to indicate a monitoring methodology in order to survey the present state of the quarry sites and their evolution in time, which are the basic data needed to implement an adequate land reclamation project. The land monitoring has been realised by UAV photogrammetry and GPS measurements supported by a Geographic Information System. A six-rotor aircraft with a total weight of 6 kg carrying two small cameras has been used. Very accurate digital airphotos have been used in order to create orthophotos mosaic and DSM from the quarry planes. DGPS measurements and the data captured from the UAV are combined in GIS and the results are presented in the current study.

  3. 3-D model-based tracking for UAV indoor localization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teulière, Céline; Marchand, Eric; Eck, Laurent

    2015-05-01

    This paper proposes a novel model-based tracking approach for 3-D localization. One main difficulty of standard model-based approach lies in the presence of low-level ambiguities between different edges. In this paper, given a 3-D model of the edges of the environment, we derive a multiple hypotheses tracker which retrieves the potential poses of the camera from the observations in the image. We also show how these candidate poses can be integrated into a particle filtering framework to guide the particle set toward the peaks of the distribution. Motivated by the UAV indoor localization problem where GPS signal is not available, we validate the algorithm on real image sequences from UAV flights.

  4. Ultralight Radar for Small and Micro-Uav Navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scannapieco, A. F.; Renga, A.; Fasano, G.; Moccia, A.

    2017-08-01

    This paper presents a radar approach to navigation of small and micro Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) in environments challenging for common sensors. A technique based on radar odometry is briefly explained and schemes for complete integration with other sensors are proposed. The focus of the paper is set on ultralight radars and interpretation of outputs of such sensor when dealing with autonomous navigation in complex scenario. The experimental setup used to analyse the proposed approach comprises one multi-rotor UAV and one ultralight commercial radar. Results from flight tests in which both forward-only motion and mixed motion are presented and analysed, providing a reference for understanding outputs of radar in complex scenarios. The radar odometry solution is compared with ground truth provided by GPS sensor.

  5. ULTRALIGHT RADAR FOR SMALL AND MICRO-UAV NAVIGATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. F. Scannapieco

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a radar approach to navigation of small and micro Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV in environments challenging for common sensors. A technique based on radar odometry is briefly explained and schemes for complete integration with other sensors are proposed. The focus of the paper is set on ultralight radars and interpretation of outputs of such sensor when dealing with autonomous navigation in complex scenario. The experimental setup used to analyse the proposed approach comprises one multi-rotor UAV and one ultralight commercial radar. Results from flight tests in which both forward-only motion and mixed motion are presented and analysed, providing a reference for understanding outputs of radar in complex scenarios. The radar odometry solution is compared with ground truth provided by GPS sensor.

  6. Multimodel Predictive Control Approach for UAV Formation Flight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-jian Ru

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Formation flight problem is the most important and interesting problem of multiple UAVs (unmanned aerial vehicles cooperative control. In this paper, a novel approach for UAV formation flight based on multimodel predictive control is designed. Firstly, the state equation of relative motion is obtained and then discretized. By the geometrical method, the characteristic points of state are determined. Afterwards, based on the linearization technique, the standard linear discrete model is obtained at each characteristic state point. Then, weighted model set is proposed using the idea of T-S (Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy control and the predictive control is carried out based on the multimodel method. Finally, to verify the performance of the proposed method, two different simulation scenarios are performed.

  7. Analysis of a UAV that can Hover and Fly Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Çakıcı Ferit

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV with level flight, vertical take-off and landing (VTOL and mode-changing capability is analysed. The platform design combines both multirotor and fixed-wing (FW conventional airplane structures and control surfaces; therefore, named as VTOL-FW. The aircraft is modelled using aerodynamical principles and linear models are constructed utilizing small perturbation theory for trim conditions. The proposed method of control includes implementation of multirotor and airplane mode controllers and design of an algorithm to transition between modes in achieving smooth switching manoeuvres between VTOL and FW flight. Thus, VTOL-FW UAV’s flight characteristics are expected to be improved by enlarging operational flight envelope through enabling mode-transitioning, agile manoeuvres and increasing survivability. Experiments conducted in simulation and real world environments show that, VTOL-FW UAV has both multirotor and airplane characteristics with extra benefits in an enlarged flight envelope.

  8. Adaptive Controller Design for Faulty UAVs via Quantum Information Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuyang Chen

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an adaptive controller is designed for a UAV flight control system against faults and parametric uncertainties based on quantum information technology and the Popov hyperstability theory. First, considering the bounded control input, the state feedback controller is designed to make the system stable. The model of adaptive control is introduced to eliminate the impact by the uncertainties of system parameters via quantum information technology. Then, according to the model reference adaptive principle, an adaptive control law based on the Popov hyperstability theory is designed. This law enable better robustness of the flight control system and tracking control performances. The closed-loop system's stability is guaranteed by the Popov hyperstability theory. The simulation results demonstrate that a better dynamic performance of the UAV flight control system with faults and parametric uncertainties can be maintained with the proposed method.

  9. BgCut: automatic ship detection from UAV images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chao; Zhang, Dongping; Zhang, Zhengning; Feng, Zhiyong

    2014-01-01

    Ship detection in static UAV aerial images is a fundamental challenge in sea target detection and precise positioning. In this paper, an improved universal background model based on Grabcut algorithm is proposed to segment foreground objects from sea automatically. First, a sea template library including images in different natural conditions is built to provide an initial template to the model. Then the background trimap is obtained by combing some templates matching with region growing algorithm. The output trimap initializes Grabcut background instead of manual intervention and the process of segmentation without iteration. The effectiveness of our proposed model is demonstrated by extensive experiments on a certain area of real UAV aerial images by an airborne Canon 5D Mark. The proposed algorithm is not only adaptive but also with good segmentation. Furthermore, the model in this paper can be well applied in the automated processing of industrial images for related researches.

  10. Natural Language Based Multimodal Interface for UAV Mission Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandarana, Meghan; Meszaros, Erica L.; Trujillo, Anna; Allen, B. Danette

    2017-01-01

    As the number of viable applications for unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) systems increases at an exponential rate, interfaces that reduce the reliance on highly skilled engineers and pilots must be developed. Recent work aims to make use of common human communication modalities such as speech and gesture. This paper explores a multimodal natural language interface that uses a combination of speech and gesture input modalities to build complex UAV flight paths by defining trajectory segment primitives. Gesture inputs are used to define the general shape of a segment while speech inputs provide additional geometric information needed to fully characterize a trajectory segment. A user study is conducted in order to evaluate the efficacy of the multimodal interface.

  11. SIMPLIFIED BUILDING MODELS EXTRACTION FROM ULTRA-LIGHT UAV IMAGERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Küng

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Generating detailed simplified building models such as the ones present on Google Earth is often a difficult and lengthy manual task, requiring advanced CAD software and a combination of ground imagery, LIDAR data and blueprints. Nowadays, UAVs such as the AscTec Falcon 8 have reached the maturity to offer an affordable, fast and easy way to capture large amounts of oblique images covering all parts of a building. In this paper we present a state-of-the-art photogrammetry and visual reconstruction pipeline provided by Pix4D applied to medium resolution imagery acquired by such UAVs. The key element of simplified building models extraction is the seamless integration of the outputs of such a pipeline for a final manual refinement step in order to minimize the amount of manual work.

  12. Uav Onboard Photogrammetry and GPS Positionning for Earthworks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daakir, M.; Pierrot-Deseilligny, M.; Bosser, P.; Pichard, F.; Thom, C.

    2015-08-01

    Over the last decade, Unmanned Airbone Vehicles (UAVs) have been largely used for civil applications. Airborne photogrammetry has found place in these applications not only for 3D modeling but also as a measurement tool. Vinci-Construction-Terrassement is a private company specialized in public works sector and uses airborn photogrammetry as a mapping solution and metrology investigation tool on its sites. This technology is very efficient for the calculation of stock volumes for instance, or for time tracking of specific areas with risk of landslides. The aim of the present work is to perform a direct georeferencing of images acquired by the camera leaning on an embedded GPS receiver. UAV, GPS receiver and camera used are low-cost models and therefore data processing is adapted to this particular constraint.

  13. Experimental Methods for UAV Aerodynamic and Propulsion Performance Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan ANTON

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an experimental method for assessing the performances and the propulsion power of a UAV in several points based on telemetry. The points in which we make the estimations are chosen based on several criteria and the fallowing parameters are measured: airspeed, time-to-climb, altitude and the horizontal distance. With the estimated propulsion power and knowing the shaft motor power, the propeller efficiency is determined at several speed values. The shaft motor power was measured in the lab using the propeller as a break. Many flights, using the same UAV configuration, were performed before extracting flight data, in order to reduce the instrumental or statistic errors. This paper highlights both the methodology of processing the data and the validation of theoretical results.

  14. Traffic incident management resource management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    The necessity of a multi-disciplinary approach involving law enforcement, fire and rescue, transportation, towing and recovery, and others has been well-recognized and integrated into incident management operations. This same multidisciplinar...

  15. Photovoltaic electric power applied to Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geis, Jack; Arnold, Jack H.

    1994-09-01

    Photovoltaic electric-powered flight is receiving a great deal of attention in the context of the United States' Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) program. This paper addresses some of the enabling technical areas and their potential solutions. Of particular interest are the long-duration, high-altitude class of UAV's whose mission it is to achieve altitudes between 60,000 and 100,000 feet, and to remain at those altitudes for prolonged periods performing various mapping and surveillance activities. Addressed herein are studies which reveal the need for extremely light-weight and efficient solar cells, high-efficiency electric motor-driven propeller modules, and power management and distribution control elements. Since the potential payloads vary dramatically in their power consumption and duty cycles, a typical load profile has been selected to provide commonality for the propulsion power comparisons. Since missions vary widely with respect to ground coverage requirements, from repeated orbiting over a localized target to long-distance routes over irregular terrain, we have also averaged the power requirements for on-board guidance and control power, as well as ground control and communication link utilization. In the context of the national technology reinvestment program, wherever possible we modeled components and materials which have been qualified for space and defense applications, yet are compatible with civilian UAV activities. These include, but are not limited to, solar cell developments, electric storage technology for diurnal operation, local and ground communications, power management and distribution, and control servo design. And finally, the results of tests conducted by Wright Laboratory on ultralight, highly efficient MOCVD GaAs solar cells purchased from EPI Materials Ltd. (EML) of the UK are presented. These cells were also used for modeling the flight characteristics of UAV aircraft.

  16. Earthbound Unmanned Autonomous Vehicles (UAVS) As Planetary Science Testbeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieri, D. C.; Bland, G.; Diaz, J. A.; Fladeland, M. M.

    2014-12-01

    Recent advances in the technology of unmanned vehicles have greatly expanded the range of contemplated terrestrial operational environments for their use, including aerial, surface, and submarine. The advances have been most pronounced in the areas of autonomy, miniaturization, durability, standardization, and ease of operation, most notably (especially in the popular press) for airborne vehicles. Of course, for a wide range of planetary venues, autonomy at high cost of both money and risk, has always been a requirement. Most recently, missions to Mars have also featured an unprecedented degree of mobility. Combining the traditional planetary surface deployment operational and science imperatives with emerging, very accessible, and relatively economical small UAV platforms on Earth can provide flexible, rugged, self-directed, test-bed platforms for landed instruments and strategies that will ultimately be directed elsewhere, and, in the process, provide valuable earth science data. While the most direct transfer of technology from terrestrial to planetary venues is perhaps for bodies with atmospheres (and oceans), with appropriate technology and strategy accommodations, single and networked UAVs can be designed to operate on even airless bodies, under a variety of gravities. In this presentation, we present and use results and lessons learned from our recent earth-bound UAV volcano deployments, as well as our future plans for such, to conceptualize a range of planetary and small-body missions. We gratefully acknowledge the assistance of students and colleagues at our home institutions, and the government of Costa Rica, without which our UAV deployments would not have been possible. This work was carried out, in part, at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory of the California Institute of Technology under contract to NASA.

  17. Active-Twist Rotor Control Applications for UAVs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilbur, Matthew L.; Wilkie, W. Keats

    2004-01-01

    The current state-of-the-art in active-twist rotor control is discussed using representative examples from analytical and experimental studies, and the application to rotary-wing UAVs is considered. Topics include vibration and noise reduction, rotor performance improvement, active blade tracking, stability augmentation, and rotor blade de-icing. A review of the current status of piezoelectric fiber composite actuator technology, the class of piezoelectric actuators implemented in active-twist rotor systems, is included.

  18. Beach Volume Change Using Uav Photogrammetry Songjung Beach, Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, C. I.; Oh, T. S.

    2016-06-01

    Natural beach is controlled by many factors related to wave and tidal forces, wind, sediment, and initial topography. For this reason, if numerous topographic data of beach is accurately collected, coastal erosion/acceleration is able to be assessed and clarified. Generally, however, many studies on coastal erosion have limitation to analyse the whole beach, carried out of partial area as like shoreline (horizontal 2D) and beach profile (vertical 2D) on account of limitation of numerical simulation. This is an important application for prevention of coastal erosion, and UAV photogrammetry is also used to 3D topographic data. This paper analyses the use of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) to 3D map and beach volume change. UAV (Quadcopter) equipped with a non-metric camera was used to acquire images in Songjung beach which is located south-east Korea peninsula. The dynamics of beach topography, its geometric properties and estimates of eroded and deposited sand volumes were determined by combining elevation data with quarterly RTK-VRS measurements. To explore the new possibilities for assessment of coastal change we have developed a methodology for 3D analysis of coastal topography evolution based on existing high resolution elevation data combined with low coast, UAV and on-ground RTK-VRS surveys. DSMs were obtained by stereo-matching using Agisoft Photoscan. Using GCPs the vertical accuracy of the DSMs was found to be 10 cm or better. The resulting datasets were integrated in a local coordinates and the method proved to be a very useful fool for the detection of areas where coastal erosion occurs and for the quantification of beach change. The value of such analysis is illustrated by applications to coastal of South Korea sites that face significant management challenges.

  19. BEACH VOLUME CHANGE USING UAV PHOTOGRAMMETRY SONGJUNG BEACH, KOREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. I. Yoo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Natural beach is controlled by many factors related to wave and tidal forces, wind, sediment, and initial topography. For this reason, if numerous topographic data of beach is accurately collected, coastal erosion/acceleration is able to be assessed and clarified. Generally, however, many studies on coastal erosion have limitation to analyse the whole beach, carried out of partial area as like shoreline (horizontal 2D and beach profile (vertical 2D on account of limitation of numerical simulation. This is an important application for prevention of coastal erosion, and UAV photogrammetry is also used to 3D topographic data. This paper analyses the use of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV to 3D map and beach volume change. UAV (Quadcopter equipped with a non-metric camera was used to acquire images in Songjung beach which is located south-east Korea peninsula. The dynamics of beach topography, its geometric properties and estimates of eroded and deposited sand volumes were determined by combining elevation data with quarterly RTK-VRS measurements. To explore the new possibilities for assessment of coastal change we have developed a methodology for 3D analysis of coastal topography evolution based on existing high resolution elevation data combined with low coast, UAV and on-ground RTK-VRS surveys. DSMs were obtained by stereo-matching using Agisoft Photoscan. Using GCPs the vertical accuracy of the DSMs was found to be 10 cm or better. The resulting datasets were integrated in a local coordinates and the method proved to be a very useful fool for the detection of areas where coastal erosion occurs and for the quantification of beach change. The value of such analysis is illustrated by applications to coastal of South Korea sites that face significant management challenges.

  20. Photovoltaic electric power applied to Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geis, Jack; Arnold, Jack H.

    1994-01-01

    Photovoltaic electric-powered flight is receiving a great deal of attention in the context of the United States' Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) program. This paper addresses some of the enabling technical areas and their potential solutions. Of particular interest are the long-duration, high-altitude class of UAV's whose mission it is to achieve altitudes between 60,000 and 100,000 feet, and to remain at those altitudes for prolonged periods performing various mapping and surveillance activities. Addressed herein are studies which reveal the need for extremely light-weight and efficient solar cells, high-efficiency electric motor-driven propeller modules, and power management and distribution control elements. Since the potential payloads vary dramatically in their power consumption and duty cycles, a typical load profile has been selected to provide commonality for the propulsion power comparisons. Since missions vary widely with respect to ground coverage requirements, from repeated orbiting over a localized target to long-distance routes over irregular terrain, we have also averaged the power requirements for on-board guidance and control power, as well as ground control and communication link utilization. In the context of the national technology reinvestment program, wherever possible we modeled components and materials which have been qualified for space and defense applications, yet are compatible with civilian UAV activities. These include, but are not limited to, solar cell developments, electric storage technology for diurnal operation, local and ground communications, power management and distribution, and control servo design. And finally, the results of tests conducted by Wright Laboratory on ultralight, highly efficient MOCVD GaAs solar cells purchased from EPI Materials Ltd. (EML) of the UK are presented. These cells were also used for modeling the flight characteristics of UAV aircraft.

  1. MULTISENSOR EQUIPPED UAV/UGV FOR AUTOMATED EXPLORATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Batzdorfer

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The usage of unmanned systems for exploring disaster scenarios has become more and more important in recent times as a supporting system for action forces. These systems have to offer a well-balanced relationship between the quality of support and additional workload. Therefore within the joint research project ANKommEn – german acronym for Automated Navigation and Communication for Exploration – a system for exploration of disaster scenarios is build-up using multiple UAV und UGV controlled via a central ground station. The ground station serves as user interface for defining missions and tasks conducted by the unmanned systems, equipped with different environmental sensors like cameras – RGB as well as IR – or LiDAR. Depending on the exploration task results, in form of pictures, 2D stitched orthophoto or LiDAR point clouds will be transmitted via datalinks and displayed online at the ground station or will be processed in short-term after a mission, e.g. 3D photogrammetry. For mission planning and its execution, UAV/UGV monitoring and georeferencing of environmental sensor data, reliable positioning and attitude information is required. This is gathered using an integrated GNSS/IMU positioning system. In order to increase availability of positioning information in GNSS challenging scenarios, a GNSS-Multiconstellation based approach is used, amongst others. The present paper focuses on the overall system design including the ground station and sensor setups on the UAVs and UGVs, the underlying positioning techniques as well as 2D and 3D exploration based on a RGB camera mounted on board the UAV and its evaluation based on real world field tests.

  2. Reactive Collision Avoidance of UAVs withStereovision Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-17

    used to compute the 3D reconstruction of obstacle. This method uses the computer vision system toolbox and VRML viewer of MATLAB r, Using this we are...and triangulation algorithm are used to compute the 3D reconstruction of obstacle. This method uses the computer vision system toolbox and VRML viewer...of UAV is considered. Simulations are carried out in Matlab’s VRML environment. For simplicity, obstacle shape with safety radius is taken as

  3. Determining the position of runways from UAV video

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Richard; Fischer, Amber

    2009-05-01

    Most UAVs use a GPS-based auto-landing system. However, GPS systems can fail, either through natural interference or deliberate jamming. To safely operate in the national airspace, UAVs must include a backup auto-landing system. At 21st Century Systems, Inc., we are developing a vision-based landing system capable of replacing GPS when GPS fails. Existing structure-from-motion techniques operate on two frames of video. These techniques find a collection of salient features in each frame. They correctly match the features between the two frames and then use epipolar geometry to calculate distances to each feature. Unfortunately, these techniques are too computationally complex to meet our realtime requirements. Instead, we have developed two closed-formed solutions that provide real-time calculations of the runway's relative position from a single frame of video. Our first approach calculates the distance and orientation based on rectangular features whose size and position are known. Precision runways have many standardized rectangular markings, providing the opportunity to create multiple rectangular templates. In our approach, we use advanced image processing to identify the feature points of these templates, and then calculate the distance to each template, combining the results across multiple templates to reduce the effects of noise. The second approach incorporates additional pose information directly from the UAV's internal compass and IMU. This both reduces the effect of noise from our image processing, and allows us to calculate the UAV's pose relative to the runway from an arbitrary set of features. We are no longer limited to rectangle shaped templates.

  4. Possibilities of surface waters monitoring at mining areas using UAV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisiecka, Ewa; Motyka, Barbara; Motyka, Zbigniew; Pierzchała, Łukasz; Szade, Adam

    2018-04-01

    The selected, remote measurement methods are discussed, useful for determining surface water properties using mobile unmanned aerial platforms (UAV). The possibilities of using this type of solutions in the scope of measuring spatial, physicochemical and biological parameters of both natural and anthropogenic water reservoirs, including flood polders, water-filled pits, settling tanks and mining sinks were analyzed. Methods of remote identification of the process of overgrowing this type of ecosystems with water and coastal plant formations have also been proposed.

  5. A Biologically Based Chemo-Sensing UAV for Humanitarian Demining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul F.M.J. Verschure

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Antipersonnel mines, weapons of cheap manufacture but lethal effect, have a high impact on the population even decades after the conflicts have finished. Here we investigate the use of a chemo-sensing Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (cUAV for demining tasks. We developed a blimp based UAV that is equipped with a broadly tuned metal-thin oxide chemo-sensor. A number of chemical mapping strategies were investigated including two biologically based localization strategies derived from the moth chemical search that can optimize the efficiency of the detection and localization of explosives and therefore be used in the demining process. Additionally, we developed a control layer that allows for both fully autonomous and manual controlled flight, as well as for the scheduling of a fleet of cUAVs. Our results confirm the feasibility of this technology for demining in real-world scenarios and give further support to a biologically based approach where the understanding of biological systems is used to solve difficult engineering problems.

  6. Benchmarking the Optical Resolving Power of Uav Based Camera Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meißner, H.; Cramer, M.; Piltz, B.

    2017-08-01

    UAV based imaging and 3D object point generation is an established technology. Some of the UAV users try to address (very) highaccuracy applications, i.e. inspection or monitoring scenarios. In order to guarantee such level of detail and accuracy high resolving imaging systems are mandatory. Furthermore, image quality considerably impacts photogrammetric processing, as the tie point transfer, mandatory for forming the block geometry, fully relies on the radiometric quality of images. Thus, empirical testing of radiometric camera performance is an important issue, in addition to standard (geometric) calibration, which normally is covered primarily. Within this paper the resolving power of ten different camera/lens installations has been investigated. Selected systems represent different camera classes, like DSLRs, system cameras, larger format cameras and proprietary systems. As the systems have been tested in wellcontrolled laboratory conditions and objective quality measures have been derived, individual performance can be compared directly, thus representing a first benchmark on radiometric performance of UAV cameras. The results have shown, that not only the selection of appropriate lens and camera body has an impact, in addition the image pre-processing, i.e. the use of a specific debayering method, significantly influences the final resolving power.

  7. A Biologically Based Chemo-Sensing UAV for Humanitarian Demining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergi Bermúdez i Badia

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Antipersonnel mines, weapons of cheap manufacture but lethal effect, have a high impact on the population even decades after the conflicts have finished. Here we investigate the use of a chemo-sensing Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (cUAV for demining tasks. We developed a blimp based UAV that is equipped with a broadly tuned metal-thin oxide chemo-sensor. A number of chemical mapping strategies were investigated including two biologically based localization strategies derived from the moth chemical search that can optimize the efficiency of the detection and localization of explosives and therefore be used in the demining process. Additionally, we developed a control layer that allows for both fully autonomous and manual controlled flight, as well as for the scheduling of a fleet of cUAVs. Our results confirm the feasibility of this technology for demining in real-world scenarios and give further support to a biologically based approach where the understanding of biological systems is used to solve difficult engineering problems.

  8. BENCHMARKING THE OPTICAL RESOLVING POWER OF UAV BASED CAMERA SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Meißner

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available UAV based imaging and 3D object point generation is an established technology. Some of the UAV users try to address (very highaccuracy applications, i.e. inspection or monitoring scenarios. In order to guarantee such level of detail and accuracy high resolving imaging systems are mandatory. Furthermore, image quality considerably impacts photogrammetric processing, as the tie point transfer, mandatory for forming the block geometry, fully relies on the radiometric quality of images. Thus, empirical testing of radiometric camera performance is an important issue, in addition to standard (geometric calibration, which normally is covered primarily. Within this paper the resolving power of ten different camera/lens installations has been investigated. Selected systems represent different camera classes, like DSLRs, system cameras, larger format cameras and proprietary systems. As the systems have been tested in wellcontrolled laboratory conditions and objective quality measures have been derived, individual performance can be compared directly, thus representing a first benchmark on radiometric performance of UAV cameras. The results have shown, that not only the selection of appropriate lens and camera body has an impact, in addition the image pre-processing, i.e. the use of a specific debayering method, significantly influences the final resolving power.

  9. A NEW APPROACH TO FAST MOSAIC UAV IMAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q. Liu

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs have been widely used to acquire high quality terrain images of the areas of interest, particularly when such a task could potentially risk human life or even impossible as the areas cannot be accessed easily by surveyors. Once the images have been obtained, traditional photogrammetric processing process can be used to establish a relative orientation model and then, absolute orientation model with the procedures of space resection and intersection. In many such applications, the geo- referenced images which are stitched together to represent the geospatial relationships for the feature objects are sufficient. A fast or near real-time processing approach for UAV images using GPS/INS data has being investigated for years. One beneficial application of such approach is the capability of quick production of geo-referenced images for various engineering or business activities, such as urban and road planning, the site selection of factories and bridges, etc. In this paper, we have proposed a new fast processing approach for the UAV images collected with an integrated GPS/INS/Vision system. The approach features that the corresponding points between images have been determined, and then coordinate transformation is carried out to implement image stitching. The accuracy of corresponding points normally affects the quality of stitched images, but the results of our experiments revealed that the image stitching errors were obvious even the accuracy of corresponding points was high. The stitching errors could be caused by the changes of surface elevation.

  10. Deep Learning Approach for Car Detection in UAV Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nassim Ammour

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an automatic solution to the problem of detecting and counting cars in unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV images. This is a challenging task given the very high spatial resolution of UAV images (on the order of a few centimetres and the extremely high level of detail, which require suitable automatic analysis methods. Our proposed method begins by segmenting the input image into small homogeneous regions, which can be used as candidate locations for car detection. Next, a window is extracted around each region, and deep learning is used to mine highly descriptive features from these windows. We use a deep convolutional neural network (CNN system that is already pre-trained on huge auxiliary data as a feature extraction tool, combined with a linear support vector machine (SVM classifier to classify regions into “car” and “no-car” classes. The final step is devoted to a fine-tuning procedure which performs morphological dilation to smooth the detected regions and fill any holes. In addition, small isolated regions are analysed further using a few sliding rectangular windows to locate cars more accurately and remove false positives. To evaluate our method, experiments were conducted on a challenging set of real UAV images acquired over an urban area. The experimental results have proven that the proposed method outperforms the state-of-the-art methods, both in terms of accuracy and computational time.

  11. Uav-Based Automatic Tree Growth Measurement for Biomass Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpina, M.; Jarząbek-Rychard, M.; Tymków, P.; Borkowski, A.

    2016-06-01

    Manual in-situ measurements of geometric tree parameters for the biomass volume estimation are time-consuming and economically non-effective. Photogrammetric techniques can be deployed in order to automate the measurement procedure. The purpose of the presented work is an automatic tree growth estimation based on Unmanned Aircraft Vehicle (UAV) imagery. The experiment was conducted in an agriculture test field with scots pine canopies. The data was collected using a Leica Aibotix X6V2 platform equipped with a Nikon D800 camera. Reference geometric parameters of selected sample plants were measured manually each week. In situ measurements were correlated with the UAV data acquisition. The correlation aimed at the investigation of optimal conditions for a flight and parameter settings for image acquisition. The collected images are processed in a state of the art tool resulting in a generation of dense 3D point clouds. The algorithm is developed in order to estimate geometric tree parameters from 3D points. Stem positions and tree tops are identified automatically in a cross section, followed by the calculation of tree heights. The automatically derived height values are compared to the reference measurements performed manually. The comparison allows for the evaluation of automatic growth estimation process. The accuracy achieved using UAV photogrammetry for tree heights estimation is about 5cm.

  12. Optimizing Multiple Kernel Learning for the Classification of UAV Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline M. Gevaert

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs are capable of providing high-quality orthoimagery and 3D information in the form of point clouds at a relatively low cost. Their increasing popularity stresses the necessity of understanding which algorithms are especially suited for processing the data obtained from UAVs. The features that are extracted from the point cloud and imagery have different statistical characteristics and can be considered as heterogeneous, which motivates the use of Multiple Kernel Learning (MKL for classification problems. In this paper, we illustrate the utility of applying MKL for the classification of heterogeneous features obtained from UAV data through a case study of an informal settlement in Kigali, Rwanda. Results indicate that MKL can achieve a classification accuracy of 90.6%, a 5.2% increase over a standard single-kernel Support Vector Machine (SVM. A comparison of seven MKL methods indicates that linearly-weighted kernel combinations based on simple heuristics are competitive with respect to computationally-complex, non-linear kernel combination methods. We further underline the importance of utilizing appropriate feature grouping strategies for MKL, which has not been directly addressed in the literature, and we propose a novel, automated feature grouping method that achieves a high classification accuracy for various MKL methods.

  13. PRICISE TARGET GEOLOCATION AND TRACKING BASED ON UAV VIDEO IMAGERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. R. Hosseinpoor

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available There is an increasingly large number of applications for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs from monitoring, mapping and target geolocation. However, most of commercial UAVs are equipped with low-cost navigation sensors such as C/A code GPS and a low-cost IMU on board, allowing a positioning accuracy of 5 to 10 meters. This low accuracy cannot be used in applications that require high precision data on cm-level. This paper presents a precise process for geolocation of ground targets based on thermal video imagery acquired by small UAV equipped with RTK GPS. The geolocation data is filtered using an extended Kalman filter, which provides a smoothed estimate of target location and target velocity. The accurate geo-locating of targets during image acquisition is conducted via traditional photogrammetric bundle adjustment equations using accurate exterior parameters achieved by on board IMU and RTK GPS sensors, Kalman filtering and interior orientation parameters of thermal camera from pre-flight laboratory calibration process. The results of this study compared with code-based ordinary GPS, indicate that RTK observation with proposed method shows more than 10 times improvement of accuracy in target geolocation.

  14. Mapping Wild Leek through the Forest Canopy Using a UAV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Bé Leduc

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Wild leek, an endangered plant species of Eastern North America, grows on forest floors and greens up to approximately three weeks before the trees it is typically found under, temporarily allowing it to be observed through the canopy by remote sensing instruments. This paper explores the accuracy with which wild leek can be mapped with a low-flying UAV. Nadir video imagery was obtained using a commercial UAV during the spring of 2017 in Gatineau Park, Quebec. Point clouds were generated from the video frames with the Structure-from-Motion framework, and a multiscale curvature classification was used to separate points on the ground, where wild leek grows, from above-ground points belonging to the forest canopy. Five-cm resolution orthomosaics were created from the ground points, and a threshold value of 0.350 for the green chromatic coordinate (GCC was applied to delineate wild leek from wood, leaves, and other plants on the forest floor, with an F1-score of 0.69 and 0.76 for two different areas. The GCC index was most effective in delineating bigger patches, and therefore often misclassified patches smaller than 30 cm in diameter. Although short flight times and long data processing times are presently technical challenges to upscaling, the low cost and high accuracy of UAV imagery provides a promising method for monitoring the spatial distribution of this endangered species.

  15. Concrete Crack Identification Using a UAV Incorporating Hybrid Image Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyunjun; Lee, Junhwa; Ahn, Eunjong; Cho, Soojin; Shin, Myoungsu; Sim, Sung-Han

    2017-09-07

    Crack assessment is an essential process in the maintenance of concrete structures. In general, concrete cracks are inspected by manual visual observation of the surface, which is intrinsically subjective as it depends on the experience of inspectors. Further, it is time-consuming, expensive, and often unsafe when inaccessible structural members are to be assessed. Unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) technologies combined with digital image processing have recently been applied to crack assessment to overcome the drawbacks of manual visual inspection. However, identification of crack information in terms of width and length has not been fully explored in the UAV-based applications, because of the absence of distance measurement and tailored image processing. This paper presents a crack identification strategy that combines hybrid image processing with UAV technology. Equipped with a camera, an ultrasonic displacement sensor, and a WiFi module, the system provides the image of cracks and the associated working distance from a target structure on demand. The obtained information is subsequently processed by hybrid image binarization to estimate the crack width accurately while minimizing the loss of the crack length information. The proposed system has shown to successfully measure cracks thicker than 0.1 mm with the maximum length estimation error of 7.3%.

  16. Rapid mapping of landslide disaster using UAV- photogrammetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahyono, A. B.; Zayd, R. A.

    2018-03-01

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) systems offered many advantages in several mapping applications such as slope mapping, geohazard studies, etc. This study utilizes UAV system for landslide disaster occurred in Jombang Regency, East Java. This study concentrates on type of rotor-wing UAV, that is because rotor wing units are stable and able to capture images easily. Aerial photograph were acquired in the form of strips which followed the procedure of acquiring aerial photograph where taken 60 photos. Secondary data of ground control points using GPS Geodetic and check points established using Total Station technique was used. The digital camera was calibrated using close range photogrammetric software and the recovered camera calibration parameters were then used in the processing of digital images. All the aerial photographs were processed using digital photogrammetric software and the output in the form of orthophoto was produced. The final result shows a 1: 1500 scale orthophoto map from the data processing with SfM algorithm with GSD accuracy of 3.45 cm. And the calculated volume of contour line delineation of 10527.03 m3. The result is significantly different from the result of terrestrial methode equal to 964.67 m3 or 8.4% of the difference of both.

  17. Guidance and Control of an Autonomous Soaring UAV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Michael J.; Lin, Victor

    2007-01-01

    Thermals caused by convection in the lower atmosphere are commonly used by birds and glider pilots to extend flight duration, increase cross-country speed, improve range, or simply to conserve energy. Uninhabited Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) can also increase performance and reduce energy consumption by exploiting atmospheric convection. An autonomous soaring research project was conducted at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center to evaluate the concept through flight test of an electric-powered motorglider with a wingspan of 4.27 m (14 ft). The UAV's commercial autopilot software was modified to include outer-loop soaring guidance and control. The aircraft total energy state was used to detect and soar within thermals. Estimated thermal size and position were used to calculate guidance commands for soaring flight. Results from a total of 23 thermal encounters show good performance of the guidance and control algorithms to autonomously detect and exploit thermals. The UAV had an average climb of 172 m (567 ft) during these encounters.

  18. a Micro-Uav with the Capability of Direct Georeferencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehak, M.; Mabillard, R.; Skaloud, J.

    2013-08-01

    This paper presents the development of a low cost UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle) with the capability of direct georeferencing. The advantage of such system lies in its high maneuverability, operation flexibility as well as capability to acquire image data without the need of establishing ground control points (GCPs). Moreover, the precise georeferencing offers an improvement in the final mapping accuracy when employing integrated sensor orientation. Such mode of operation limits the number and distribution of GCPs, which in turns save time in their signalization and surveying. Although the UAV systems feature high flexibility and capability of flying into areas that are inhospitable or inaccessible to humans, the lack of precision in positioning and attitude estimation on-board decrease the gained value of the captured imagery and limits their mode of operation to specific configurations and need of groundreference. Within a scope of this study we show the potential of present technologies in the field of position and orientation determination on a small UAV. The hardware implementation and especially the non-trivial synchronization of all components is clarified. Thanks to the implementation of a multi-frequency, low power GNSS receiver and its coupling with redundant MEMSIMU, we can attain the characteristic of a much larger systems flown on large carries while keeping the sensor size and weight suitable for MAV operations.

  19. A MICRO-UAV WITH THE CAPABILITY OF DIRECT GEOREFERENCING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rehak

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the development of a low cost UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle with the capability of direct georeferencing. The advantage of such system lies in its high maneuverability, operation flexibility as well as capability to acquire image data without the need of establishing ground control points (GCPs. Moreover, the precise georeferencing offers an improvement in the final mapping accuracy when employing integrated sensor orientation. Such mode of operation limits the number and distribution of GCPs, which in turns save time in their signalization and surveying. Although the UAV systems feature high flexibility and capability of flying into areas that are inhospitable or inaccessible to humans, the lack of precision in positioning and attitude estimation on-board decrease the gained value of the captured imagery and limits their mode of operation to specific configurations and need of groundreference. Within a scope of this study we show the potential of present technologies in the field of position and orientation determination on a small UAV. The hardware implementation and especially the non-trivial synchronization of all components is clarified. Thanks to the implementation of a multi-frequency, low power GNSS receiver and its coupling with redundant MEMSIMU, we can attain the characteristic of a much larger systems flown on large carries while keeping the sensor size and weight suitable for MAV operations.

  20. Automatic Hotspot and Sun Glint Detection in UAV Multispectral Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega-Terol, Damian; Hernandez-Lopez, David; Ballesteros, Rocio; Gonzalez-Aguilera, Diego

    2017-10-15

    Last advances in sensors, photogrammetry and computer vision have led to high-automation levels of 3D reconstruction processes for generating dense models and multispectral orthoimages from Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) images. However, these cartographic products are sometimes blurred and degraded due to sun reflection effects which reduce the image contrast and colour fidelity in photogrammetry and the quality of radiometric values in remote sensing applications. This paper proposes an automatic approach for detecting sun reflections problems (hotspot and sun glint) in multispectral images acquired with an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV), based on a photogrammetric strategy included in a flight planning and control software developed by the authors. In particular, two main consequences are derived from the approach developed: (i) different areas of the images can be excluded since they contain sun reflection problems; (ii) the cartographic products obtained (e.g., digital terrain model, orthoimages) and the agronomical parameters computed (e.g., normalized vegetation index-NVDI) are improved since radiometric defects in pixels are not considered. Finally, an accuracy assessment was performed in order to analyse the error in the detection process, getting errors around 10 pixels for a ground sample distance (GSD) of 5 cm which is perfectly valid for agricultural applications. This error confirms that the precision in the detection of sun reflections can be guaranteed using this approach and the current low-cost UAV technology.

  1. Science in the clouds: UAVs and cloud computing methods for spatial diffuse pollution risk assessment (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reaney, S. M.

    2010-12-01

    The processes related to diffuse pollution can be understood within a 'source -> mobilisation -> pathway -> impact' framework. Recently our ability to monitor the impact section of this framework has significantly increased. This has been achieved through the measurement of flow and water quality (e.g. Nitrogen and Phosphorus) on a continuous 10 minute basis. However, our ability to observe and understand the 'source', 'mobilisation' and 'pathway' sections has not progressed at the same rate. This lack of information of the source term is due to the larger spatial areas involved and the difficulty in performing repeat surveys. Within an agricultural catchment, there are two key, temporally dynamic factors that affect the diffuse pollution export [source-mobilisation-pathway]: 1. vegetation cover and 2. agricultural management. These factors influence the amount of bare soil, vulnerable to erosion (source) and the creation of flow pathways, for example, due to tractor wheelings (tram lines). Information on these factors could be acquired through the use of satellite remote sensing or light aircraft based aerial photography. However, to acquire images on a fine temporal scale (monthly) there are significant cost and practical barriers (e.g. cloud cover). A potential solution to the problem could be the use of small semi- autonomous helicopters (UAV) and is the approach that has been investigated in this research. The UAV helicopter that has been used in this research is a Microdrones MD4-200 and is capable of autonomously flying a pre-programmed route and acquiring images at set locations at heights of up to 120 metres. The use of the pre-programmed routes enables the acquisition of repeat images at the same locations. These images contain information on the vegetation cover that can be extracted with the use of standard image processing techniques. However, the images also contain a large amount of implicit information that may help to explain water quality trends

  2. OBTAINING A PERMIT-TO-FLY FOR A HALE-UAV IN BELGIUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Everaerts

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Ever since 2000, VITO has been working on the Pegasus project. This involves a solar High Altitude Long Endurance Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (HALE-UAV as a stratospheric platform for Earth Observation. This aircraft, called Mercator, is designed to fly for prolonged duration at altitudes up to 20 km. The technology has been proven by the aircraft’s manufacturer, QinetiQ (UK by a series of test flights over the past years, culminating in a world record flight in duration of over 14 days duration. All test flights, however, were conducted in test ranges, where other air traffic does not pose a concern. Pegasus aims to demonstrate the viability of stratospheric Earth Observation in Belgium, as a proof of concept for other areas around the world. The Belgian air space is completely different from a test range. More than 1 million aircraft movements take place over Belgium and Luxembourg every year, with routes to Amsterdam, Paris, Frankfurt, and London. Although Pegasus will usually be flying above this dense traffic, it does interfere with it during ascent and landing, and needs to be monitored during the cruise phase for safety reasons. Air traffic management in Belgium is a shared responsibility of Air Navigation Service Providers (ANSPs Belgocontrol (civil, ATCC (military and Eurocontrol MUAC (high altitude. In 2010, VITO applied for a permit-to-fly for a test flight of one day duration. Although the Belgian Civil Aviation Authority (CAA had issued a regulation on UAVs in 2007, it was the first application for a permit to fly in controlled airspace. The Belgian CAA decided to use it as a test for the procedures as well. A prerequisite for flying in controlled airspace was that the aircraft has to carry a mode-S transponder and navigation lights. During first half of 2010, the ANSPs collaborated on a Temporary Operations Instruction and studied the safety impact of this flight on their operations. As an outcome, they decided that the Pegasus

  3. PRECISE POSITIONING OF UAVS – DEALING WITH CHALLENGING RTK-GPS MEASUREMENT CONDITIONS DURING AUTOMATED UAV FLIGHTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Zimmermann

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available For some years now, UAVs (unmanned aerial vehicles are commonly used for different mobile mapping applications, such as in the fields of surveying, mining or archeology. To improve the efficiency of these applications an automation of the flight as well as the processing of the collected data is currently aimed at. One precondition for an automated mapping with UAVs is that the georeferencing is performed directly with cm-accuracies or better. Usually, a cm-accurate direct positioning of UAVs is based on an onboard multi-sensor system, which consists of an RTK-capable (real-time kinematic GPS (global positioning system receiver and additional sensors (e.g. inertial sensors. In this case, the absolute positioning accuracy essentially depends on the local GPS measurement conditions. Especially during mobile mapping applications in urban areas, these conditions can be very challenging, due to a satellite shadowing, non-line-of sight receptions, signal diffraction or multipath effects. In this paper, two straightforward and easy to implement strategies will be described and analyzed, which improve the direct positioning accuracies for UAV-based mapping and surveying applications under challenging GPS measurement conditions. Based on a 3D model of the surrounding buildings and vegetation in the area of interest, a GPS geometry map is determined, which can be integrated in the flight planning process, to avoid GPS challenging environments as far as possible. If these challenging environments cannot be avoided, the GPS positioning solution is improved by using obstruction adaptive elevation masks, to mitigate systematic GPS errors in the RTK-GPS positioning. Simulations and results of field tests demonstrate the profit of both strategies.

  4. Lidar on small UAV for 3D mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulldahl, H. Michael; Larsson, Hâkan

    2014-10-01

    Small UAV:s (Unmanned Aerial Vehicles) are currently in an explosive technical development phase. The performance of UAV-system components such as inertial navigation sensors, propulsion, control processors and algorithms are gradually improving. Simultaneously, lidar technologies are continuously developing in terms of reliability, accuracy, as well as speed of data collection, storage and processing. The lidar development towards miniature systems with high data rates has, together with recent UAV development, a great potential for new three dimensional (3D) mapping capabilities. Compared to lidar mapping from manned full-size aircraft a small unmanned aircraft can be cost efficient over small areas and more flexible for deployment. An advantage with high resolution lidar compared to 3D mapping from passive (multi angle) photogrammetry is the ability to penetrate through vegetation and detect partially obscured targets. Another advantage is the ability to obtain 3D data over the whole survey area, without the limited performance of passive photogrammetry in low contrast areas. The purpose of our work is to demonstrate 3D lidar mapping capability from a small multirotor UAV. We present the first experimental results and the mechanical and electrical integration of the Velodyne HDL-32E lidar on a six-rotor aircraft with a total weight of 7 kg. The rotating lidar is mounted at an angle of 20 degrees from the horizontal plane giving a vertical field-of-view of 10-50 degrees below the horizon in the aircraft forward directions. For absolute positioning of the 3D data, accurate positioning and orientation of the lidar sensor is of high importance. We evaluate the lidar data position accuracy both based on inertial navigation system (INS) data, and on INS data combined with lidar data. The INS sensors consist of accelerometers, gyroscopes, GPS, magnetometers, and a pressure sensor for altimetry. The lidar range resolution and accuracy is documented as well as the

  5. WETLAND VEGETATION INTEGRITY ASSESSMENT WITH LOW ALTITUDE MULTISPECTRAL UAV IMAGERY

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    M. A. Boon

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The use of multispectral sensors on Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs was until recently too heavy and bulky although this changed in recent times and they are now commercially available. The focus on the usage of these sensors is mostly directed towards the agricultural sector where the focus is on precision farming. Applications of these sensors for mapping of wetland ecosystems are rare. Here, we evaluate the performance of low altitude multispectral UAV imagery to determine the state of wetland vegetation in a localised spatial area. Specifically, NDVI derived from multispectral UAV imagery was used to inform the determination of the integrity of the wetland vegetation. Furthermore, we tested different software applications for the processing of the imagery. The advantages and disadvantages we experienced of these applications are also shortly presented in this paper. A JAG-M fixed-wing imaging system equipped with a MicaScene RedEdge multispectral camera were utilised for the survey. A single surveying campaign was undertaken in early autumn of a 17 ha study area at the Kameelzynkraal farm, Gauteng Province, South Africa. Structure-from-motion photogrammetry software was used to reconstruct the camera position’s and terrain features to derive a high resolution orthoretified mosaic. MicaSense Atlas cloud-based data platform, Pix4D and PhotoScan were utilised for the processing. The WET-Health level one methodology was followed for the vegetation assessment, where wetland health is a measure of the deviation of a wetland’s structure and function from its natural reference condition. An on-site evaluation of the vegetation integrity was first completed. Disturbance classes were then mapped using the high resolution multispectral orthoimages and NDVI. The WET-Health vegetation module completed with the aid of the multispectral UAV products indicated that the vegetation of the wetland is largely modified (“D” PES Category and that the

  6. Wetland Vegetation Integrity Assessment with Low Altitude Multispectral Uav Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boon, M. A.; Tesfamichael, S.

    2017-08-01

    The use of multispectral sensors on Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) was until recently too heavy and bulky although this changed in recent times and they are now commercially available. The focus on the usage of these sensors is mostly directed towards the agricultural sector where the focus is on precision farming. Applications of these sensors for mapping of wetland ecosystems are rare. Here, we evaluate the performance of low altitude multispectral UAV imagery to determine the state of wetland vegetation in a localised spatial area. Specifically, NDVI derived from multispectral UAV imagery was used to inform the determination of the integrity of the wetland vegetation. Furthermore, we tested different software applications for the processing of the imagery. The advantages and disadvantages we experienced of these applications are also shortly presented in this paper. A JAG-M fixed-wing imaging system equipped with a MicaScene RedEdge multispectral camera were utilised for the survey. A single surveying campaign was undertaken in early autumn of a 17 ha study area at the Kameelzynkraal farm, Gauteng Province, South Africa. Structure-from-motion photogrammetry software was used to reconstruct the camera position's and terrain features to derive a high resolution orthoretified mosaic. MicaSense Atlas cloud-based data platform, Pix4D and PhotoScan were utilised for the processing. The WET-Health level one methodology was followed for the vegetation assessment, where wetland health is a measure of the deviation of a wetland's structure and function from its natural reference condition. An on-site evaluation of the vegetation integrity was first completed. Disturbance classes were then mapped using the high resolution multispectral orthoimages and NDVI. The WET-Health vegetation module completed with the aid of the multispectral UAV products indicated that the vegetation of the wetland is largely modified ("D" PES Category) and that the condition is expected to

  7. Maritime-Based UAVs: A Key to Success for the Joint Force Commander

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-18

    Africa Command USG United States Government USSOCOM United States Special Operations Command UAV Unmanned Aerial Vehicle UCAV Unmanned Combat Air...operations. Capable of aerial refueling, Northrop Grumman’s X-47b unmanned combat air vehicle ( UCAV ) an advanced mbUAV is demonstrating the

  8. Classification of small UAVs and birds by micro-Doppler signatures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molchanov, P.; Harmanny, R.I.A.; Wit, J.J.M. de; Egiazarian, K.; Astola, J.

    2014-01-01

    The popularity of small unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) is increasing. Therefore, the importance of security systems able to detect and classify them is increasing as well. In this paper, we propose a new approach for UAVs classification using continuous wave radar or high pulse repetition frequency

  9. Orthorectification, mosaicking, and analysis of sub-decimeter resolution UAV imagery for rangeland monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) offer an attractive platform for acquiring imagery for rangeland monitoring. UAVs can be deployed quickly and repeatedly, and they can obtain sub-decimeter resolution imagery at lower image acquisition costs than with piloted aircraft. Low flying heights result in ima...

  10. Development of an operational UAV / remote sensing capability for rangeland management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangeland comprises approximately 70% of the Earth’s land surface area. Much of this vast space is in very remote areas with difficult access. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) have great potential for rangeland management applications. UAVs have several advantages over satellites and piloted aircr...

  11. Unmanned aerial vehicles : The next big thing? The benefits and detriments of military and commercial UAVs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hassan, L.

    2014-01-01

    With law enforcement agencies around the world investing in Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs, also known as drones) and small commercial drone ventures popping up like weeds, the debate on the morality of drone usage has intensified in the recent months. What are the advantages of UAVs? Are they worth

  12. Key technologies of laser power transmission for in-flight UAVs recharging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Z. H.; Hua, W. S.; Liu, X. G.; Guo, T.; Yan, Y.

    2017-04-01

    UAVs have played important roles in many fields. However, due to the insufficient energy of electric UAVs, the future development has a major obstacle. This problem can be solved by laser power transmission. This paper summarizes the research results at abroad and domestic, introduces the work flow of the whole system, discusses the key technologies and puts forward the prospect.

  13. An Application of UAV Attitude Estimation Using a Low-Cost Inertial Navigation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eure, Kenneth W.; Quach, Cuong Chi; Vazquez, Sixto L.; Hogge, Edward F.; Hill, Boyd L.

    2013-01-01

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) are playing an increasing role in aviation. Various methods exist for the computation of UAV attitude based on low cost microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) and Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers. There has been a recent increase in UAV autonomy as sensors are becoming more compact and onboard processing power has increased significantly. Correct UAV attitude estimation will play a critical role in navigation and separation assurance as UAVs share airspace with civil air traffic. This paper describes attitude estimation derived by post-processing data from a small low cost Inertial Navigation System (INS) recorded during the flight of a subscale commercial off the shelf (COTS) UAV. Two discrete time attitude estimation schemes are presented here in detail. The first is an adaptation of the Kalman Filter to accommodate nonlinear systems, the Extended Kalman Filter (EKF). The EKF returns quaternion estimates of the UAV attitude based on MEMS gyro, magnetometer, accelerometer, and pitot tube inputs. The second scheme is the complementary filter which is a simpler algorithm that splits the sensor frequency spectrum based on noise characteristics. The necessity to correct both filters for gravity measurement errors during turning maneuvers is demonstrated. It is shown that the proposed algorithms may be used to estimate UAV attitude. The effects of vibration on sensor measurements are discussed. Heuristic tuning comments pertaining to sensor filtering and gain selection to achieve acceptable performance during flight are given. Comparisons of attitude estimation performance are made between the EKF and the complementary filter.

  14. An Evidence Theoretic Approach to Design of Reliable Low-Cost UAVs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-28

    Rascal UAV at Virginia Tech) . . . . . . . . . . . 21 14 CDF Plot for Pitch Control PoF – Monte Carlo Method . . . . . . . . . . . 22 15 Graphical...30 19 AND Gate System BPA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 20 System BPA for NSL’s Rascal UAV...Uncertainty Sensitivity Analysis for the Rascal UAV’s Pitch Control Subsystem 41 24 Sample DSV Shift

  15. Embedded, real-time UAV control for improved, image-based 3D scene reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jean Liénard; Andre Vogs; Demetrios Gatziolis; Nikolay Strigul

    2016-01-01

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) are already broadly employed for 3D modeling of large objects such as trees and monuments via photogrammetry. The usual workflow includes two distinct steps: image acquisition with UAV and computationally demanding postflight image processing. Insufficient feature overlaps across images is a common shortcoming in post-flight image...

  16. Optimizing the presentation of UAV images in an attack helicopter cockpit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, C.; Vries, S.C. de; Duistermaat, M.

    2006-01-01

    Future Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) will collaborate more directly with military manned aircraft. TNO Defence, Security and Safety investigated how to present UAV sensor images in a fighter aircraft cockpit in order to maximize target identification and flying performance. Ten military pilots

  17. Multi-UAV Routing for Area Coverage and Remote Sensing with Minimum Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avellar, Gustavo S C; Pereira, Guilherme A S; Pimenta, Luciano C A; Iscold, Paulo

    2015-11-02

    This paper presents a solution for the problem of minimum time coverage of ground areas using a group of unmanned air vehicles (UAVs) equipped with image sensors. The solution is divided into two parts: (i) the task modeling as a graph whose vertices are geographic coordinates determined in such a way that a single UAV would cover the area in minimum time; and (ii) the solution of a mixed integer linear programming problem, formulated according to the graph variables defined in the first part, to route the team of UAVs over the area. The main contribution of the proposed methodology, when compared with the traditional vehicle routing problem's (VRP) solutions, is the fact that our method solves some practical problems only encountered during the execution of the task with actual UAVs. In this line, one of the main contributions of the paper is that the number of UAVs used to cover the area is automatically selected by solving the optimization problem. The number of UAVs is influenced by the vehicles' maximum flight time and by the setup time, which is the time needed to prepare and launch a UAV. To illustrate the methodology, the paper presents experimental results obtained with two hand-launched, fixed-wing UAVs.

  18. Online adaptation of path formation in UAV search-and-identify missions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willigen, W.H. van; Schut, M.C.; Eiben, A.E.; Kester, L.J.H.M.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a technique for optimisation and online adaptation of search paths of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) in search-and-identify missions. In these missions, a UAV has the objective to search for targets and to identify those. We extend earlier work that was restricted to

  19. Automated geographic registration and radiometric correction for UAV-based mosaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texas A&M University has been operating a large-scale, UAV-based, agricultural remote-sensing research project since 2015. To use UAV-based images in agricultural production, many high-resolution images must be mosaicked together to create an image of an agricultural field. Two key difficulties to s...

  20. A hybrid Radio-vision fault tolerant localization for mini UAV flying in swarm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Latroch, Maamar; Abdelhafid, Omari; Koivo, Heikki N.

    2013-01-01

    This paper discuss the localization of one Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) when a failure of its GPS occurs and will propose a new solution based on the information collected by the swarm to localize it. we propose here an architecture for localization of a UAV with GPS signal failure in three...

  1. Multi-UAV Routing for Area Coverage and Remote Sensing with Minimum Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo S. C. Avellar

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a solution for the problem of minimum time coverage of ground areas using a group of unmanned air vehicles (UAVs equipped with image sensors. The solution is divided into two parts: (i the task modeling as a graph whose vertices are geographic coordinates determined in such a way that a single UAV would cover the area in minimum time; and (ii the solution of a mixed integer linear programming problem, formulated according to the graph variables defined in the first part, to route the team of UAVs over the area. The main contribution of the proposed methodology, when compared with the traditional vehicle routing problem’s (VRP solutions, is the fact that our method solves some practical problems only encountered during the execution of the task with actual UAVs. In this line, one of the main contributions of the paper is that the number of UAVs used to cover the area is automatically selected by solving the optimization problem. The number of UAVs is influenced by the vehicles’ maximum flight time and by the setup time, which is the time needed to prepare and launch a UAV. To illustrate the methodology, the paper presents experimental results obtained with two hand-launched, fixed-wing UAVs.

  2. Interference analysis for UAV connectivity over LTE using aerial radio measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kovacs, Istvan; Amorim, Rafhael Medeiros de; Nguyen, Huan Cong

    2017-01-01

    The use of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) for civilian and commercial services has experienced a significant increase in the past couple of years. Emerging UAV enabled services, however, require extended beyond-visual-line-of-sight geographical range. One key regulatory requirement...

  3. STRUCTURE FROM MOTION (SfM) PROCESSING FOR UNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLE (UAV)

    KAUST Repository

    Smith, Neil G.

    2016-04-07

    A method of imaging an area using an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) collects a plurality of images from a sensor mounted to the UAV. The plurality of images are processed to detect regions that require additional imaging and an updated flight plan and sensor gimbal position plan is created to capture portions of the area identified as requiring additional imaging.

  4. Open source software and low cost sensors for teaching UAV science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kefauver, S. C.; Sanchez-Bragado, R.; El-Haddad, G.; Araus, J. L.

    2016-12-01

    Drones, also known as UASs (unmanned aerial systems), UAVs (Unmanned Aerial Vehicles) or RPAS (Remotely piloted aircraft systems), are both useful advanced scientific platforms and recreational toys that are appealing to younger generations. As such, they can make for excellent education tools as well as low-cost scientific research project alternatives. However, the process of taking pretty pictures to remote sensing science can be daunting if one is presented with only expensive software and sensor options. There are a number of open-source tools and low cost platform and sensor options available that can provide excellent scientific research results, and, by often requiring more user-involvement than commercial software and sensors, provide even greater educational benefits. Scale-invariant feature transform (SIFT) algorithm implementations, such as the Microsoft Image Composite Editor (ICE), which can create quality 2D image mosaics with some motion and terrain adjustments and VisualSFM (Structure from Motion), which can provide full image mosaicking with movement and orthorectification capacities. RGB image quantification using alternate color space transforms, such as the BreedPix indices, can be calculated via plugins in the open-source software Fiji (http://fiji.sc/Fiji; http://github.com/george-haddad/CIMMYT). Recent analyses of aerial images from UAVs over different vegetation types and environments have shown RGB metrics can outperform more costly commercial sensors. Specifically, Hue-based pixel counts, the Triangle Greenness Index (TGI), and the Normalized Green Red Difference Index (NGRDI) consistently outperformed NDVI in estimating abiotic and biotic stress impacts on crop health. Also, simple kits are available for NDVI camera conversions. Furthermore, suggestions for multivariate analyses of the different RGB indices in the "R program for statistical computing", such as classification and regression trees can allow for a more approachable

  5. Implementation and Testing of Low Cost Uav Platform for Orthophoto Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brucas, D.; Suziedelyte-Visockiene, J.; Ragauskas, U.; Berteska, E.; Rudinskas, D.

    2013-08-01

    Implementation of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles for civilian applications is rapidly increasing. Technologies which were expensive and available only for military use have recently spread on civilian market. There is a vast number of low cost open source components and systems for implementation on UAVs available. Using of low cost hobby and open source components ensures considerable decrease of UAV price, though in some cases compromising its reliability. In Space Science and Technology Institute (SSTI) in collaboration with Vilnius Gediminas Technical University (VGTU) researches have been performed in field of constructing and implementation of small UAVs composed of low cost open source components (and own developments). Most obvious and simple implementation of such UAVs - orthophoto imaging with data download and processing after the flight. The construction, implementation of UAVs, flight experience, data processing and data implementation will be further covered in the paper and presentation.

  6. THE DESIGN AND TESTING OF A LIDAR PLATFORM FOR A UAV FOR HERITAGE MAPPING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Li

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In the discovering, identifying and mapping work of heritage objects in forest or desert areas, LiDAR ensures work efficiency and can provide the most complete and accurate 3D data. In the field of heritage documentation in China, the integration of LiDAR and small UAV is highly desirable. However, due to issues on the vibration of flying platform, load capacity, safety and other factors, not all UAVs can be used as LiDAR carriers. Therefore, the selection and design of suitable UAVs are very important. Little research has been done in this area and related experiments, complete test data and clear conclusions are hard to find. After long-term selection, design, trial-manufacturing and testing, the authors compare the vibration, capacity, reliability, stability of many UAV types, and finally develop two UAV platforms which are most suitable for carrying LiDAR for heritage mapping projects.

  7. IMPLEMENTATION AND TESTING OF LOW COST UAV PLATFORM FOR ORTHOPHOTO IMAGING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Brucas

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Implementation of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles for civilian applications is rapidly increasing. Technologies which were expensive and available only for military use have recently spread on civilian market. There is a vast number of low cost open source components and systems for implementation on UAVs available. Using of low cost hobby and open source components ensures considerable decrease of UAV price, though in some cases compromising its reliability. In Space Science and Technology Institute (SSTI in collaboration with Vilnius Gediminas Technical University (VGTU researches have been performed in field of constructing and implementation of small UAVs composed of low cost open source components (and own developments. Most obvious and simple implementation of such UAVs – orthophoto imaging with data download and processing after the flight. The construction, implementation of UAVs, flight experience, data processing and data implementation will be further covered in the paper and presentation.

  8. Use of UAV for support of intensive agricultural management decisions: from science to commercial applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Rua, Alfonso

    2017-05-01

    Even in the nascent stage of unmanned aerial vehicles, it was projected that UAV technologies would closely integrate into agriculture activities at a fast pace and become a ubiquitous and low-cost tool for farming operations. Nevertheless, several years later, it is widely recognized that available UAV technology has not yet integrated into agriculture as expected despite multiple UAV platform offerings. In this paper, we discuss several concepts related to the commercial integration of UAV technology for agriculture, along with expected or existing solutions that can further its development and acceptance, especially in the US. Examples from the AggieAir UAV Research Group, at Utah State University, are included to provide a better understanding of the presented concepts.

  9. Formation flight and collision avoidance for multiple UAVs based on modified tentacle algorithm in unstructured environments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minghuan Zhang

    Full Text Available This paper presents a method for formation flight and collision avoidance of multiple UAVs. Due to the shortcomings such as collision avoidance caused by UAV's high-speed and unstructured environments, this paper proposes a modified tentacle algorithm to ensure the high performance of collision avoidance. Different from the conventional tentacle algorithm which uses inverse derivation, the modified tentacle algorithm rapidly matches the radius of each tentacle and the steering command, ensuring that the data calculation problem in the conventional tentacle algorithm is solved. Meanwhile, both the speed sets and tentacles in one speed set are reduced and reconstructed so as to be applied to multiple UAVs. Instead of path iterative optimization, the paper selects the best tentacle to obtain the UAV collision avoidance path quickly. The simulation results show that the method presented in the paper effectively enhances the performance of flight formation and collision avoidance for multiple high-speed UAVs in unstructured environments.

  10. Formation flight and collision avoidance for multiple UAVs based on modified tentacle algorithm in unstructured environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Minghuan

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a method for formation flight and collision avoidance of multiple UAVs. Due to the shortcomings such as collision avoidance caused by UAV's high-speed and unstructured environments, this paper proposes a modified tentacle algorithm to ensure the high performance of collision avoidance. Different from the conventional tentacle algorithm which uses inverse derivation, the modified tentacle algorithm rapidly matches the radius of each tentacle and the steering command, ensuring that the data calculation problem in the conventional tentacle algorithm is solved. Meanwhile, both the speed sets and tentacles in one speed set are reduced and reconstructed so as to be applied to multiple UAVs. Instead of path iterative optimization, the paper selects the best tentacle to obtain the UAV collision avoidance path quickly. The simulation results show that the method presented in the paper effectively enhances the performance of flight formation and collision avoidance for multiple high-speed UAVs in unstructured environments.

  11. Remote Sensing of Arctic Environmental Conditions and Critical Infrastructure using Infra-Red (IR) Cameras and Unmanned Air Vehicles (UAVs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatfield, M. C.; Webley, P.; Saiet, E., II

    2014-12-01

    Remote Sensing of Arctic Environmental Conditions and Critical Infrastructure using Infra-Red (IR) Cameras and Unmanned Air Vehicles (UAVs) Numerous scientific and logistical applications exist in Alaska and other arctic regions requiring analysis of expansive, remote areas in the near infrared (NIR) and thermal infrared (TIR) bands. These include characterization of wild land fire plumes and volcanic ejecta, detailed mapping of lava flows, and inspection of lengthy segments of critical infrastructure, such as the Alaska pipeline and railroad system. Obtaining timely, repeatable, calibrated measurements of these extensive features and infrastructure networks requires localized, taskable assets such as UAVs. The Alaska Center for Unmanned Aircraft Systems Integration (ACUASI) provides practical solutions to these problem sets by pairing various IR sensors with a combination of fixed-wing and multi-rotor air vehicles. Fixed-wing assets, such as the Insitu ScanEagle, offer long reach and extended duration capabilities to quickly access remote locations and provide enduring surveillance of the target of interest. Rotary-wing assets, such as the Aeryon Scout or the ACUASI-built Ptarmigan hexcopter, provide a precision capability for detailed horizontal mapping or vertical stratification of atmospheric phenomena. When included with other ground capabilities, we will show how they can assist in decision support and hazard assessment as well as giving those in emergency management a new ability to increase knowledge of the event at hand while reducing the risk to all involved. Here, in this presentation, we illustrate how UAV's can provide the ideal tool to map and analyze the hazardous events and critical infrastructure under extreme environmental conditions.

  12. Establishing a Disruptive New Capability for NASA to Fly UAV's into Hazardous Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ely, Jay; Nguyen, Truong; Wilson, Jennifer; Brown, Robert; Laughter, Sean; Teets, Ed; Parker, Allen; Chan, Patrick Hon Man; Richards, Lance

    2015-01-01

    A 2015 NASA Aeronautics Mission "Seedling" Proposal is described for a Severe-Environment UAV (SE-UAV) that can perform in-situ measurements in hazardous atmospheric conditions like lightning, volcanic ash and radiation. Specifically, this paper describes the design of a proof-of-concept vehicle and measurement system that can survive lightning attachment during flight operations into thunderstorms. Elements from three NASA centers draw together for the SE-UAV concept. 1) The NASA KSC Genesis UAV was developed in collaboration with the DARPA Nimbus program to measure electric field and X-rays present within thunderstorms. 2) A novel NASA LaRC fiber-optic sensor uses Faraday-effect polarization rotation to measure total lightning electric current on an air vehicle fuselage. 3) NASA AFRC's state-of-the-art Fiber Optics and Systems Integration Laboratory is envisioned to transition the Faraday system to a compact, light-weight, all-fiber design. The SE-UAV will provide in-flight lightning electric-current return stroke and recoil leader data, and serve as a platform for development of emerging sensors and new missions into hazardous environments. NASA's Aeronautics and Science Missions are interested in a capability to perform in-situ volcanic plume measurements and long-endurance UAV operations in various weather conditions. (Figure 1 shows an artist concept of a SE-UAV flying near a volcano.) This paper concludes with an overview of the NASA Aeronautics Strategic Vision, Programs, and how a SE-UAV is envisioned to impact them. The SE-UAV concept leverages high-value legacy research products into a new capability for NASA to fly a pathfinder UAV into hazardous conditions, and is presented in the SPIE DSS venue to explore teaming, collaboration and advocacy opportunities outside NASA.

  13. Establishing a disruptive new capability for NASA to fly UAV's into hazardous conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ely, Jay; Nguyen, Truong; Wilson, Jennifer; Brown, Robert; Laughter, Sean; Teets, Ed; Parker, Allen; Chan, Hon M.; Richards, Lance

    2015-05-01

    A 2015 NASA Aeronautics Mission "Seedling" Proposal is described for a Severe-Environment UAV (SE-UAV) that can perform in-situ measurements in hazardous atmospheric conditions like lightning, volcanic ash and radiation. Specifically, this paper describes the design of a proof-of-concept vehicle and measurement system that can survive lightning attachment during flight operations into thunderstorms. Elements from three NASA centers draw together for the SE-UAV concept. 1) The NASA KSC Genesis UAV was developed in collaboration with the DARPA Nimbus program to measure electric field and X-rays present within thunderstorms. 2) A novel NASA LaRC fiber-optic sensor uses Faraday-effect polarization rotation to measure total lightning electric current on an air vehicle fuselage. 3) NASA AFRC's state-of-the-art Fiber Optics and Systems Integration Laboratory is envisioned to transition the Faraday system to a compact, light-weight, all-fiber design. The SE-UAV will provide in-flight lightning electric-current return stroke and recoil leader data, and serve as a platform for development of emerging sensors and new missions into hazardous environments. NASA's Aeronautics and Science Missions are interested in a capability to perform in-situ volcanic plume measurements and long-endurance UAV operations in various weather conditions. (Figure 1 shows an artist concept of a SE-UAV flying near a volcano.) This paper concludes with an overview of the NASA Aeronautics Strategic Vision, Programs, and how a SE-UAV is envisioned to impact them. The SE-UAV concept leverages high-value legacy research products into a new capability for NASA to fly a pathfinder UAV into hazardous conditions, and is presented in the SPIE DSS venue to explore teaming, collaboration and advocacy opportunities outside NASA.

  14. Nonlinear State Estimation and Modeling of a Helicopter UAV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barczyk, Martin

    Experimentally-validated nonlinear flight control of a helicopter UAV has two necessary conditions: an estimate of the vehicle’s states from noisy multirate output measurements, and a nonlinear dynamics model with minimum complexity, physically controllable inputs and experimentally identified parameter values. This thesis addresses both these objectives for the Applied Nonlinear Controls Lab (ANCL)'s helicopter UAV project. A magnetometer-plus-GPS aided Inertial Navigation System (INS) for outdoor flight as well as an Attitude and Heading Reference System (AHRS) for indoor testing are designed, implemented and experimentally validated employing an Extended Kalman Filter (EKF), using a novel calibration technique for the magnetometer aiding sensor added to remove the limitations of an earlier GPS-only aiding design. Next the recently-developed nonlinear observer design methodology of invariant observers is adapted to the aided INS and AHRS examples, employing a rotation matrix representation for the state manifold to obtain designs amenable to global stability analysis, obtaining a direct nonlinear design for gains of the AHRS observer, modifying the previously-proposed Invariant EKF systematic method for computing gains, and culminating in simulation and experimental validation of the observers. Lastly a nonlinear control-oriented model of the helicopter UAV is derived from first principles, using a rigid-body dynamics formulation augmented with models of the on-board subsystems: main rotor forces and blade flapping dynamics, the Bell-Hiller system and flybar flapping dynamics, tail rotor forces, tail gyro unit, engine and rotor speed, servo operation, fuselage drag, and tail stabilizer forces. The parameter values in the resulting models are identified experimentally. Using these the model is further simplified to be tractable for model-based control design.

  15. An accelerated image matching technique for UAV orthoimage registration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Chung-Hsien; Lin, Yu-Ching

    2017-06-01

    Using an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) drone with an attached non-metric camera has become a popular low-cost approach for collecting geospatial data. A well-georeferenced orthoimage is a fundamental product for geomatics professionals. To achieve high positioning accuracy of orthoimages, precise sensor position and orientation data, or a number of ground control points (GCPs), are often required. Alternatively, image registration is a solution for improving the accuracy of a UAV orthoimage, as long as a historical reference image is available. This study proposes a registration scheme, including an Accelerated Binary Robust Invariant Scalable Keypoints (ABRISK) algorithm and spatial analysis of corresponding control points for image registration. To determine a match between two input images, feature descriptors from one image are compared with those from another image. A "Sorting Ring" is used to filter out uncorrected feature pairs as early as possible in the stage of matching feature points, to speed up the matching process. The results demonstrate that the proposed ABRISK approach outperforms the vector-based Scale Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT) approach where radiometric variations exist. ABRISK is 19.2 times and 312 times faster than SIFT for image sizes of 1000 × 1000 pixels and 4000 × 4000 pixels, respectively. ABRISK is 4.7 times faster than Binary Robust Invariant Scalable Keypoints (BRISK). Furthermore, the positional accuracy of the UAV orthoimage after applying the proposed image registration scheme is improved by an average of root mean square error (RMSE) of 2.58 m for six test orthoimages whose spatial resolutions vary from 6.7 cm to 10.7 cm.

  16. Modelling multi-rotor UAVs swarm deployment using virtual pheromones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aznar, Fidel; Pujol, Mar; Rizo, Ramón; Rizo, Carlos

    2018-01-01

    In this work, a swarm behaviour for multi-rotor Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) deployment will be presented. The main contribution of this behaviour is the use of a virtual device for quantitative sematectonic stigmergy providing more adaptable behaviours in complex environments. It is a fault tolerant highly robust behaviour that does not require prior information of the area to be covered, or to assume the existence of any kind of information signals (GPS, mobile communication networks …), taking into account the specific features of UAVs. This behaviour will be oriented towards emergency tasks. Their main goal will be to cover an area of the environment for later creating an ad-hoc communication network, that can be used to establish communications inside this zone. Although there are several papers on robotic deployment it is more difficult to find applications with UAV systems, mainly because of the existence of various problems that must be overcome including limitations in available sensory and on-board processing capabilities and low flight endurance. In addition, those behaviours designed for UAVs often have significant limitations on their ability to be used in real tasks, because they assume specific features, not easily applicable in a general way. Firstly, in this article the characteristics of the simulation environment will be presented. Secondly, a microscopic model for deployment and creation of ad-hoc networks, that implicitly includes stigmergy features, will be shown. Then, the overall swarm behaviour will be modeled, providing a macroscopic model of this behaviour. This model can accurately predict the number of agents needed to cover an area as well as the time required for the deployment process. An experimental analysis through simulation will be carried out in order to verify our models. In this analysis the influence of both the complexity of the environment and the stigmergy system will be discussed, given the data obtained in the

  17. Modelling multi-rotor UAVs swarm deployment using virtual pheromones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujol, Mar; Rizo, Ramón; Rizo, Carlos

    2018-01-01

    In this work, a swarm behaviour for multi-rotor Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) deployment will be presented. The main contribution of this behaviour is the use of a virtual device for quantitative sematectonic stigmergy providing more adaptable behaviours in complex environments. It is a fault tolerant highly robust behaviour that does not require prior information of the area to be covered, or to assume the existence of any kind of information signals (GPS, mobile communication networks …), taking into account the specific features of UAVs. This behaviour will be oriented towards emergency tasks. Their main goal will be to cover an area of the environment for later creating an ad-hoc communication network, that can be used to establish communications inside this zone. Although there are several papers on robotic deployment it is more difficult to find applications with UAV systems, mainly because of the existence of various problems that must be overcome including limitations in available sensory and on-board processing capabilities and low flight endurance. In addition, those behaviours designed for UAVs often have significant limitations on their ability to be used in real tasks, because they assume specific features, not easily applicable in a general way. Firstly, in this article the characteristics of the simulation environment will be presented. Secondly, a microscopic model for deployment and creation of ad-hoc networks, that implicitly includes stigmergy features, will be shown. Then, the overall swarm behaviour will be modeled, providing a macroscopic model of this behaviour. This model can accurately predict the number of agents needed to cover an area as well as the time required for the deployment process. An experimental analysis through simulation will be carried out in order to verify our models. In this analysis the influence of both the complexity of the environment and the stigmergy system will be discussed, given the data obtained in the

  18. Low Cost and Flexible UAV Deployment of Sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lars Yndal; Jacobsen, Lars Toft; Hansen, John Paulin

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a platform for airborne sensor applications using low-cost, open-source components carried by an easy-to-fly unmanned aircraft vehicle (UAV). The system, available in open-source, is designed for researchers, students and makers for a broad range of exploration and data......-collection needs. The main contribution is the extensible architecture for modularized airborne sensor deployment and real-time data visualisation. Our open-source Android application provides data collection, flight path definition and map tools. Total cost of the system is below 800 dollars. The flexibility...

  19. New distributed radar technology based on UAV or UGV application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molchanov, Pavlo A.; Contarino, Vincent M.

    2013-05-01

    Regular micro and nano radars cannot provide reliable tracking of low altitude low profile aerial targets in urban and mountain areas because of reflection and re-reflections from buildings and terrain. They become visible and vulnerable to guided missiles if positioned on a tower or blimp. Doppler radar cannot distinguish moving cars and small low altitude aerial targets in an urban area. A new concept of pocket size distributed radar technology based on the application of UAV (Unmanned Air Vehicles), UGV (Unmanned Ground Vehicles) is proposed for tracking of low altitude low profile aerial targets at short and medium distances for protection of stadium, camp, military facility in urban or mountain areas.

  20. UAV Mission Optimization through Hybrid-Electric Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackwelder, Philip Scott

    Hybrid-electric powertrain leverages the superior range of petrol based systems with the quiet and emission free benefits of electric propulsion. The major caveat to hybrid-electric powertrain in an airplane is that it is inherently heavier than conventional petroleum powertrain due mostly to the low energy density of battery technology. The first goal of this research is to develop mission planning code to match powertrain components for a small-scale unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) to complete a standard surveillance mission within a set of user input parameters. The second goal is to promote low acoustic profile loitering through mid-flight engine starting. The two means by which midmission engine starting will be addressed is through reverse thrust from the propeller and a servo actuated gear to couple and decouple the engine and motor. The mission planning code calculates the power required to complete a mission and assists the user in sourcing powertrain components including the propeller, motor, battery, motor controller, engine and fuel. Reverse thrust engine starting involves characterizing an off the shelf variable pitch propeller and using its torque coefficient to calculate the advance ratio required to provide sufficient torque and speed to start an engine. Geared engine starting works like the starter in a conventional automobile. A servo actuated gear will couple the motor to the engine to start it and decouple once the engine has started. Reverse thrust engine starting was unsuccessful due to limitations of available off the shelf variable pitch propellers. However, reverse thrust engine starting could be realized through a custom larger diameter propeller. Geared engine starting was a success, though the system was unable to run fully as intended. Due to counter-clockwise crank rotation of the engine and the right-hand threads on the crankshaft, cranking the engine resulted in the nut securing the engine starter gear to back off as the engine cranked

  1. Sensor-Oriented Path Planning for Multiregion Surveillance with a Single Lightweight UAV SAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jincheng; Chen, Jie; Wang, Pengbo; Li, Chunsheng

    2018-01-01

    In the surveillance of interested regions by unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), system performance relies greatly on the motion control strategy of the UAV and the operation characteristics of the onboard sensors. This paper investigates the 2D path planning problem for the lightweight UAV synthetic aperture radar (SAR) system in an environment of multiple regions of interest (ROIs), the sizes of which are comparable to the radar swath width. Taking into account the special requirements of the SAR system on the motion of the platform, we model path planning for UAV SAR as a constrained multiobjective optimization problem (MOP). Based on the fact that the UAV route can be designed in the map image, an image-based path planner is proposed in this paper. First, the neighboring ROIs are merged by the morphological operation. Then, the parts of routes for data collection of the ROIs can be located according to the geometric features of the ROIs and the observation geometry of UAV SAR. Lastly, the route segments for ROIs surveillance are connected by a path planning algorithm named the sampling-based sparse A* search (SSAS) algorithm. Simulation experiments in real scenarios demonstrate that the proposed sensor-oriented path planner can improve the reconnaissance performance of lightweight UAV SAR greatly compared with the conventional zigzag path planner. PMID:29439447

  2. Study on the aerodynamic behavior of a UAV with an applied seeder for agricultural practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felismina, Raimundo; Silva, Miguel; Mateus, Artur; Malça, Cândida

    2017-06-01

    It is irrefutable that the use of Unmanned Airborne Vehicle Systems (UAVs) in agricultural tasks and on the analysis of health and vegetative conditions represents a powerful tool in modern agriculture. To contribute to the growth of the agriculture economic sector a seeder to be coupled to any type of UAV was previously developed and designed by the authors. This seeder allows for the deposition of seeds with positional accuracy, i.e., seeds are accurately deposited at pre-established distances between plants [1]. This work aims at analyzing the aerodynamic behavior of UAV/Seeder assembly to determine the suitable inclination - among 0°, 15° and 30° - for its takeoff and for its motion during the seeding operation and, in turn, to define the suitable flight plan that increases the batteries autonomy. For this the ANSYS® FLUENT computational tool was used to simulate a wind tunnel which has as principle the Navier-Stokes differential equations, that designates the fluid flow around the UAV/Seeder assembly. The aerodynamic results demonstrated that for take-off the UAV inclination of 30° is the aerodynamically most favorable position due to the lower aerodynamic drag during the climb. Concerning flying motion during the seeding procedure the UAV inclination of 0° is that which leads to lower UAV/Seeder frontal area and drag coefficient.

  3. Accuracy assessment of topographic mapping using UAV image integrated with satellite images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azmi, S M; Ahmad, Baharin; Ahmad, Anuar

    2014-01-01

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicle or UAV is extensively applied in various fields such as military applications, archaeology, agriculture and scientific research. This study focuses on topographic mapping and map updating. UAV is one of the alternative ways to ease the process of acquiring data with lower operating costs, low manufacturing and operational costs, plus it is easy to operate. Furthermore, UAV images will be integrated with QuickBird images that are used as base maps. The objective of this study is to make accuracy assessment and comparison between topographic mapping using UAV images integrated with aerial photograph and satellite image. The main purpose of using UAV image is as a replacement for cloud covered area which normally exists in aerial photograph and satellite image, and for updating topographic map. Meanwhile, spatial resolution, pixel size, scale, geometric accuracy and correction, image quality and information contents are important requirements needed for the generation of topographic map using these kinds of data. In this study, ground control points (GCPs) and check points (CPs) were established using real time kinematic Global Positioning System (RTK-GPS) technique. There are two types of analysis that are carried out in this study which are quantitative and qualitative assessments. Quantitative assessment is carried out by calculating root mean square error (RMSE). The outputs of this study include topographic map and orthophoto. From this study, the accuracy of UAV image is ± 0.460 m. As conclusion, UAV image has the potential to be used for updating of topographic maps

  4. A Novel Method for Vertical Acceleration Noise Suppression of a Thrust-Vectored VTOL UAV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huanyu Li

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Acceleration is of great importance in motion control for unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs, especially during the takeoff and landing stages. However, the measured acceleration is inevitably polluted by severe noise. Therefore, a proper noise suppression procedure is required. This paper presents a novel method to reduce the noise in the measured vertical acceleration for a thrust-vectored tail-sitter vertical takeoff and landing (VTOL UAV. In the new procedure, a Kalman filter is first applied to estimate the UAV mass by using the information in the vertical thrust and measured acceleration. The UAV mass is then used to compute an estimate of UAV vertical acceleration. The estimated acceleration is finally fused with the measured acceleration to obtain the minimum variance estimate of vertical acceleration. By doing this, the new approach incorporates the thrust information into the acceleration estimate. The method is applied to the data measured in a VTOL UAV takeoff experiment. Two other denoising approaches developed by former researchers are also tested for comparison. The results demonstrate that the new method is able to suppress the acceleration noise substantially. It also maintains the real-time performance in the final estimated acceleration, which is not seen in the former denoising approaches. The acceleration treated with the new method can be readily used in the motion control applications for UAVs to achieve improved accuracy.

  5. UAV-guided navigation for ground robot tele-operation in a military reconnaissance environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jessie Y C

    2010-08-01

    A military reconnaissance environment was simulated to examine the performance of ground robotics operators who were instructed to utilise streaming video from an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) to navigate his/her ground robot to the locations of the targets. The effects of participants' spatial ability on their performance and workload were also investigated. Results showed that participants' overall performance (speed and accuracy) was better when she/he had access to images from larger UAVs with fixed orientations, compared with other UAV conditions (baseline- no UAV, micro air vehicle and UAV with orbiting views). Participants experienced the highest workload when the UAV was orbiting. Those individuals with higher spatial ability performed significantly better and reported less workload than those with lower spatial ability. The results of the current study will further understanding of ground robot operators' target search performance based on streaming video from UAVs. The results will also facilitate the implementation of ground/air robots in military environments and will be useful to the future military system design and training community.

  6. A Novel Method for Vertical Acceleration Noise Suppression of a Thrust-Vectored VTOL UAV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huanyu; Wu, Linfeng; Li, Yingjie; Li, Chunwen; Li, Hangyu

    2016-12-02

    Acceleration is of great importance in motion control for unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), especially during the takeoff and landing stages. However, the measured acceleration is inevitably polluted by severe noise. Therefore, a proper noise suppression procedure is required. This paper presents a novel method to reduce the noise in the measured vertical acceleration for a thrust-vectored tail-sitter vertical takeoff and landing (VTOL) UAV. In the new procedure, a Kalman filter is first applied to estimate the UAV mass by using the information in the vertical thrust and measured acceleration. The UAV mass is then used to compute an estimate of UAV vertical acceleration. The estimated acceleration is finally fused with the measured acceleration to obtain the minimum variance estimate of vertical acceleration. By doing this, the new approach incorporates the thrust information into the acceleration estimate. The method is applied to the data measured in a VTOL UAV takeoff experiment. Two other denoising approaches developed by former researchers are also tested for comparison. The results demonstrate that the new method is able to suppress the acceleration noise substantially. It also maintains the real-time performance in the final estimated acceleration, which is not seen in the former denoising approaches. The acceleration treated with the new method can be readily used in the motion control applications for UAVs to achieve improved accuracy.

  7. Sensor-Oriented Path Planning for Multiregion Surveillance with a Single Lightweight UAV SAR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jincheng; Chen, Jie; Wang, Pengbo; Li, Chunsheng

    2018-02-11

    In the surveillance of interested regions by unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), system performance relies greatly on the motion control strategy of the UAV and the operation characteristics of the onboard sensors. This paper investigates the 2D path planning problem for the lightweight UAV synthetic aperture radar (SAR) system in an environment of multiple regions of interest (ROIs), the sizes of which are comparable to the radar swath width. Taking into account the special requirements of the SAR system on the motion of the platform, we model path planning for UAV SAR as a constrained multiobjective optimization problem (MOP). Based on the fact that the UAV route can be designed in the map image, an image-based path planner is proposed in this paper. First, the neighboring ROIs are merged by the morphological operation. Then, the parts of routes for data collection of the ROIs can be located according to the geometric features of the ROIs and the observation geometry of UAV SAR. Lastly, the route segments for ROIs surveillance are connected by a path planning algorithm named the sampling-based sparse A* search (SSAS) algorithm. Simulation experiments in real scenarios demonstrate that the proposed sensor-oriented path planner can improve the reconnaissance performance of lightweight UAV SAR greatly compared with the conventional zigzag path planner.

  8. Research on fast algorithm of small UAV navigation in non-linear matrix reductionism method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao; Fang, Jiancheng; Sheng, Wei; Cao, Juanjuan

    2008-10-01

    The low Reynolds numbers of small UAV will result in unfavorable aerodynamic conditions to support controlled flight. And as operated near ground, the small UAV will be affected seriously by low-frequency interference caused by atmospheric disturbance. Therefore, the GNC system needs high frequency of attitude estimation and control to realize the steady of the UAV. In company with the dimensional of small UAV dwindling away, its GNC system is more and more taken embedded designing technology to reach the purpose of compactness, light weight and low power consumption. At the same time, the operational capability of GNC system also gets limit in a certain extent. Therefore, a kind of high speed navigation algorithm design becomes the imminence demand of GNC system. Aiming at such requirement, a kind of non-linearity matrix reduction approach is adopted in this paper to create a new high speed navigation algorithm which holds the radius of meridian circle and prime vertical circle as constant and linearizes the position matrix calculation formulae of navigation equation. Compared with normal navigation algorithm, this high speed navigation algorithm decreases 17.3% operand. Within small UAV"s mission radius (20km), the accuracy of position error is less than 0.13m. The results of semi-physical experiments and small UAV's auto pilot testing proved that this algorithm can realize high frequency attitude estimation and control. It will avoid low-frequency interference caused by atmospheric disturbance properly.

  9. Single and Multiple UAV Cyber-Attack Simulation and Performance Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Y. Javaid

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Usage of ground, air and underwater unmanned vehicles (UGV, UAV and UUV has increased exponentially in the recent past with industries producing thousands of these unmanned vehicles every year.With the ongoing discussion of integration of UAVs in the US National Airspace, the need of a cost-effective way to verify the security and resilience of a group of communicating UAVs under attack has become very important. The answer to this need is a simulation testbed which can be used to simulate the UAV Network (UAVNet. One of these attempts is - UAVSim (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Simulation testbed developed at the University of Toledo. It has the capability of simulating large UAV networks as well as small UAV networks with large number of attack nodes. In this paper, we analyse the performance of the simulation testbed for two attacks, targeting single and multiple UAVs. Traditional and generic computing resource available in a regular computer laboratory was used. Various evaluation results have been presented and analysed which suggest the suitability of UAVSim for UAVNet attack and swarm simulation applications.

  10. Accuracy assessment of topographic mapping using UAV image integrated with satellite images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azmi, S. M.; Ahmad, Baharin; Ahmad, Anuar

    2014-02-01

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicle or UAV is extensively applied in various fields such as military applications, archaeology, agriculture and scientific research. This study focuses on topographic mapping and map updating. UAV is one of the alternative ways to ease the process of acquiring data with lower operating costs, low manufacturing and operational costs, plus it is easy to operate. Furthermore, UAV images will be integrated with QuickBird images that are used as base maps. The objective of this study is to make accuracy assessment and comparison between topographic mapping using UAV images integrated with aerial photograph and satellite image. The main purpose of using UAV image is as a replacement for cloud covered area which normally exists in aerial photograph and satellite image, and for updating topographic map. Meanwhile, spatial resolution, pixel size, scale, geometric accuracy and correction, image quality and information contents are important requirements needed for the generation of topographic map using these kinds of data. In this study, ground control points (GCPs) and check points (CPs) were established using real time kinematic Global Positioning System (RTK-GPS) technique. There are two types of analysis that are carried out in this study which are quantitative and qualitative assessments. Quantitative assessment is carried out by calculating root mean square error (RMSE). The outputs of this study include topographic map and orthophoto. From this study, the accuracy of UAV image is ± 0.460 m. As conclusion, UAV image has the potential to be used for updating of topographic maps.

  11. An Ecological Approach to the Design of UAV Ground Control Station (GCS) Status Displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowell, Susan; Morphew, Ephimia; Shively, Jay

    2003-01-01

    Use of UAVs in military and commercial applications will continue to increase. However, there has been limited research devoted to UAV GCS design. The current study employed an ecological approach to interfac e design. Ecological Interface Design (EID) can be characterized as r epresenting the properties of a system, such that an operator is enco uraged to use skill-based behavior when problem solving. When more ef fortful cognitive processes become necessary due to unfamiliar situations, the application of EID philosophy supports the application of kn owledge-based behavior. With advances toward multiple UAV command and control, operators need GCS interfaces designed to support understan ding of complex systems. We hypothesized that use of EID principles f or the display of UAV status information would result in better opera tor performance and situational awareness, while decreasing workload. Pilots flew a series of missions with three UAV GCS displays of statu s information (Alphanumeric, Ecological, and Hybrid display format). Measures of task performance, Situational Awareness, and workload dem onstrated the benefits of using an ecological approach to designing U AV GCS displays. The application of ecological principles to the design of UAV GCSs is a promising area for improving UAV operations.

  12. Study of Lever-Arm Effect Using Embedded Photogrammetry and On-Board GPS Receiver on Uav for Metrological Mapping Purpose and Proposal of a Free Ground Measurements Calibration Procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daakir, M.; Pierrot-Deseilligny, M.; Bosser, P.; Pichard, F.; Thom, C.; Rabot, Y.

    2016-03-01

    Nowadays, Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) on-board photogrammetry knows a significant growth due to the democratization of using drones in the civilian sector. Also, due to changes in regulations laws governing the rules of inclusion of a UAV in the airspace which become suitable for the development of professional activities. Fields of application of photogrammetry are diverse, for instance: architecture, geology, archaeology, mapping, industrial metrology, etc. Our research concerns the latter area. Vinci-Construction- Terrassement is a private company specialized in public earthworks that uses UAVs for metrology applications. This article deals with maximum accuracy one can achieve with a coupled camera and GPS receiver system for direct-georeferencing of Digital Surface Models (DSMs) without relying on Ground Control Points (GCPs) measurements. This article focuses specially on the lever-arm calibration part. This proposed calibration method is based on two steps: a first step involves the proper calibration for each sensor, i.e. to determine the position of the optical center of the camera and the GPS antenna phase center in a local coordinate system relative to the sensor. A second step concerns a 3d modeling of the UAV with embedded sensors through a photogrammetric acquisition. Processing this acquisition allows to determine the value of the lever-arm offset without using GCPs.

  13. Experiment on Uav Photogrammetry and Terrestrial Laser Scanning for Ict-Integrated Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, N.; Wakutsu, R.; Kato, T.; Wakaizumi, T.; Ooishi, T.; Matsuoka, R.

    2017-08-01

    In the 2016 fiscal year the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism of Japan started a program integrating construction and ICT in earthwork and concrete placing. The new program named "i-Construction" focusing on productivity improvement adopts such new technologies as UAV photogrammetry and TLS. We report a field experiment to investigate whether the procedures of UAV photogrammetry and TLS following the standards for "i-Construction" are feasible or not. In the experiment we measured an embankment of about 80 metres by 160 metres immediately after earthwork was done on the embankment. We used two sets of UAV and camera in the experiment. One is a larger UAV enRoute Zion QC730 and its onboard camera Sony α6000. The other is a smaller UAV DJI Phantom 4 and its dedicated onboard camera. Moreover, we used a terrestrial laser scanner FARO Focus3D X330 based on the phase shift principle. The experiment results indicate that the procedures of UAV photogrammetry using a QC730 with an α6000 and TLS using a Focus3D X330 following the standards for "i-Construction" would be feasible. Furthermore, the experiment results show that UAV photogrammetry using a lower price UAV Phantom 4 was unable to satisfy the accuracy requirement for "i-Construction." The cause of the low accuracy by Phantom 4 is under investigation. We also found that the difference of image resolution on the ground would not have a great influence on the measurement accuracy in UAV photogrammetry.

  14. Multi-UAV Flight using Virtual Structure Combined with Behavioral Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kownacki Cezary

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Implementations of multi-UAV systems can be divided mainly into two different approaches, centralised system that synchronises positions of each vehicle by a ground station and an autonomous system based on decentralised control, which offers more flexibility and independence. Decentralisation of multi-UAV control entails the need for information sharing between all vehicles, what in some cases could be problematic due to a significant amount of data to be sent over the wireless network. To improve the reliability and the throughput of information sharing inside the formation of UAVs, this paper proposes an approach that combines virtual structure with a leader and two flocking behaviours. Each UAV has assigned different virtual migration point referenced to the leader's position which is simultaneously the origin of a formation reference frame. All migration points create together a virtual rigid structure. Each vehicle uses local behaviours of cohesion and repulsion respectively, to track its own assigned point in the structure and to avoid a collision with the previous UAV in the structure. To calculate parameters of local behaviours, each UAV should know position and attitude of the leader to define the formation reference frame and also the actual position of the previous UAV in the structure. Hence, information sharing can be based on a chain of local peer-to-peer communication between two consecutive vehicles in the structure. In such solution, the information about the leader could be sequentially transmitted from one UAV to another. Numerical simulations were prepared and carried out to verify the effectiveness of the presented approach. Trajectories recorded during those simulations show collective, coherence and collision-free flights of the formation created with five UAVs.

  15. Positional Quality Assessment of Orthophotos Obtained from Sensors Onboard Multi-Rotor UAV Platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesas-Carrascosa, Francisco Javier; Rumbao, Inmaculada Clavero; Berrocal, Juan Alberto Barrera; Porras, Alfonso García-Ferrer

    2014-01-01

    In this study we explored the positional quality of orthophotos obtained by an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). A multi-rotor UAV was used to obtain images using a vertically mounted digital camera. The flight was processed taking into account the photogrammetry workflow: perform the aerial triangulation, generate a digital surface model, orthorectify individual images and finally obtain a mosaic image or final orthophoto. The UAV orthophotos were assessed with various spatial quality tests used by national mapping agencies (NMAs). Results showed that the orthophotos satisfactorily passed the spatial quality tests and are therefore a useful tool for NMAs in their production flowchart. PMID:25587877

  16. 3D Path Planning of UAV Based on Improved A * Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Zhe-Tong

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A 3D path planning method based on A* algorithm is proposed. This method introduces the constraints of UAV and line-of-sight communication with ground stations, and it combines the UAV’s maneuverability, mission requirements and terrain information and other constraints together to avoid terrain and threat. The method of extending the child nodes to the 3D detailed position calculation is also provided. The simulation is realized by Unity 3D software, and the simulation results show that the proposed method can be used to plan the 3D path of UAV which meets UAV constraints.

  17. Prediction Task Assignment of Multi-UAV Approach Based on Consensus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chen; Qin, Zheng; Xing, Jian-Kuan

    In the battlefield, UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle) needs to assign tasks dynamically by using the radar tracking information, but when the poor weather comes, or UAV enters blind area, the radar cannot gather the accurate information which severely impair the assignment result. A new task assignment prediction method was proposed in this paper. We first predict the UAV information using UKF (Unscented Kalman Filter) algorithm, and then clear up the collision by auction algorithm. Finally, we assign the tasks. The results show that the algorithm performs better than greedy task assignment and consensus based auction algorithm.

  18. Evaluating the accuracy of orthophotos and 3D models from UAV photogrammetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julge, Kalev; Ellmann, Artu

    2015-04-01

    Rapid development of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) in recent years has made their use for various applications more feasible. This contribution evaluates the accuracy and quality of different UAV remote sensing products (i.e. orthorectified image, point cloud and 3D model). Two different autonomous fixed wing UAV systems were used to collect the aerial photographs. One is a mass-produced commercial UAV system, the other is a similar state-of-the-art UAV system. Three different study areas with varying sizes and characteristics (including urban areas, forests, fields, etc.) were surveyed. The UAV point clouds, 3D models and orthophotos were generated with three different commercial and free-ware software. The performance of each of these was evaluated. The effect of flying height on the accuracy of the results was explored, as well as the optimum number and placement of ground control points. Also the achieved results, when the only georeferencing data originates from the UAV system's on-board GNSS and inertial measurement unit, are investigated. Problems regarding the alignment of certain types of aerial photos (e.g. captured over forested areas) are discussed. The quality and accuracy of UAV photogrammetry products are evaluated by comparing them with control measurements made with GNSS-measurements on the ground, as well as high-resolution airborne laser scanning data and other available orthophotos (e.g. those acquired for large scale national mapping). Vertical comparisons are made on surfaces that have remained unchanged in all campaigns, e.g. paved roads. Planar comparisons are performed by control surveys of objects that are clearly identifiable on orthophotos. The statistics of these differences are used to evaluate the accuracy of UAV remote sensing. Some recommendations are given on how to conduct UAV mapping campaigns cost-effectively and with minimal time-consumption while still ensuring the quality and accuracy of the UAV data products. Also the

  19. UAV Control on the Basis of 3D Landmark Bearing-Only Observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpenko, Simon; Konovalenko, Ivan; Miller, Alexander; Miller, Boris; Nikolaev, Dmitry

    2015-11-27

    The article presents an approach to the control of a UAV on the basis of 3D landmark observations. The novelty of the work is the usage of the 3D RANSAC algorithm developed on the basis of the landmarks' position prediction with the aid of a modified Kalman-type filter. Modification of the filter based on the pseudo-measurements approach permits obtaining unbiased UAV position estimation with quadratic error characteristics. Modeling of UAV flight on the basis of the suggested algorithm shows good performance, even under significant external perturbations.

  20. Positional quality assessment of orthophotos obtained from sensors onboard multi-rotor UAV platforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesas-Carrascosa, Francisco Javier; Rumbao, Inmaculada Clavero; Berrocal, Juan Alberto Barrera; Porras, Alfonso García-Ferrer

    2014-11-26

    In this study we explored the positional quality of orthophotos obtained by an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). A multi-rotor UAV was used to obtain images using a vertically mounted digital camera. The flight was processed taking into account the photogrammetry workflow: perform the aerial triangulation, generate a digital surface model, orthorectify individual images and finally obtain a mosaic image or final orthophoto. The UAV orthophotos were assessed with various spatial quality tests used by national mapping agencies (NMAs). Results showed that the orthophotos satisfactorily passed the spatial quality tests and are therefore a useful tool for NMAs in their production flowchart.