WorldWideScience

Sample records for incidents involving radiation

  1. Survey on risk perception of radiation following an incident involving a stuck 60Co source in Henan Province, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lei, C.; Sun, Q.; Cheng, X.; Zhang, Q.; Fu, Y.; Chu, C.; Zhao, Y.; Qin, W.; Su, X.

    2012-01-01

    In July 2009, an incident involving a stuck Co-60 source led hundreds of thousands of people to escape Qi County, Henan Province, China, although no medical or environmental consequences were related to the incident. To investigate knowledge about radiation, public risk-perception of radiation, and evaluation of the official response, a survey was conducted in Qi and Hui County (control). Face-to-face questionnaire interviews were conducted among three groups with different educational backgrounds. In total, 1340 valid questionnaires were collected from people interviewed. Knowledge about radiation was low in all groups in both counties, although knowledge in Qi County was higher than that in Hui County (control). More than 40 % respondents supported construction of nuclear power plants (NPPs) in China, while only a few supported constructing NPPs in their vicinity. The main reasons for the mass escape following the incident were assumed to be lack of knowledge about radiation, misinformation, the government's failure to disclose information in time and imitation of group behaviour. Over 60 % in Group I and II trusted the local government. About 64 % disapproved the response of the Qi County government. After the incident, the population in Qi County still knows little about radiation. Although people trust the government, they are dissatisfied with the response of the local government regarding the incident. (authors)

  2. Radiation incidents in dentistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lovelock, D.J.

    1996-01-01

    Most dental practitioners act as their own radiographer and radiologist, unlike their medical colleagues. Virtually all dental surgeons have a dental X-ray machine for intraoral radiography available to them and 40% of dental practices have equipment for dental panoramic tomography. Because of the low energy of X-ray equipment used in dentistry, radiation incidents tend to be less serious than those associated with other aspects of patient care. Details of 47 known incidents are given. The advent of the 1985 and 1988 Ionising Radiation Regulations has made dental surgeons more aware of the hazards of radiation. These regulations, and general health and safety legislation, have led to a few dental surgeons facing legal action. Because of the publicity associated with these court cases, it is expected that there will be a decrease in radiation incidents arising from the practice of dentistry. (author)

  3. Incidents with hazardous radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoenhacker, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Incidents with hazardous radiation sources can occur in any country, even those without nuclear facilities. Preparedness for such incidents is supposed to fulfill globally agreed minimum standards. Incidents are categorized in incidents with licensed handling of radiation sources as for material testing, transport accidents of hazardous radiation sources, incidents with radionuclide batteries, incidents with satellites containing radioactive inventory, incidents wit not licensed handling of illegally acquired hazardous radiation sources. The emergency planning in Austria includes a differentiation according to the consequences: incidents with release of radioactive materials resulting in restricted contamination, incidents with release of radioactive materials resulting in local contamination, and incidents with the hazard of e@nhanced exposure due to the radiation source.

  4. Cyber Incidents Involving Control Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert J. Turk

    2005-10-01

    The Analysis Function of the US-CERT Control Systems Security Center (CSSC) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has prepared this report to document cyber security incidents for use by the CSSC. The description and analysis of incidents reported herein support three CSSC tasks: establishing a business case; increasing security awareness and private and corporate participation related to enhanced cyber security of control systems; and providing informational material to support model development and prioritize activities for CSSC. The stated mission of CSSC is to reduce vulnerability of critical infrastructure to cyber attack on control systems. As stated in the Incident Management Tool Requirements (August 2005) ''Vulnerability reduction is promoted by risk analysis that tracks actual risk, emphasizes high risk, determines risk reduction as a function of countermeasures, tracks increase of risk due to external influence, and measures success of the vulnerability reduction program''. Process control and Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems, with their reliance on proprietary networks and hardware, have long been considered immune to the network attacks that have wreaked so much havoc on corporate information systems. New research indicates this confidence is misplaced--the move to open standards such as Ethernet, Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol, and Web technologies is allowing hackers to take advantage of the control industry's unawareness. Much of the available information about cyber incidents represents a characterization as opposed to an analysis of events. The lack of good analyses reflects an overall weakness in reporting requirements as well as the fact that to date there have been very few serious cyber attacks on control systems. Most companies prefer not to share cyber attack incident data because of potential financial repercussions. Uniform reporting requirements will do much to make this

  5. Involved Node Radiation Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maraldo, Maja V; Aznar, Marianne C; Vogelius, Ivan R

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE: The involved node radiation therapy (INRT) strategy was introduced for patients with Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) to reduce the risk of late effects. With INRT, only the originally involved lymph nodes are irradiated. We present treatment outcome in a retrospective analysis using this strategy...... to 36 Gy). Patients attended regular follow-up visits until 5 years after therapy. RESULTS: The 4-year freedom from disease progression was 96.4% (95% confidence interval: 92.4%-100.4%), median follow-up of 50 months (range: 4-71 months). Three relapses occurred: 2 within the previous radiation field......, and 1 in a previously uninvolved region. The 4-year overall survival was 94% (95% confidence interval: 88.8%-99.1%), median follow-up of 58 months (range: 4-91 months). Early radiation therapy toxicity was limited to grade 1 (23.4%) and grade 2 (13.8%). During follow-up, 8 patients died, none from HL, 7...

  6. RADIATION CONTAMINATION INCIDENT AT ISOLDE

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    On 27 June 2000 three specialists were investigating a problem with the extraction electrode of the high-resolution separator (HRS) in Isolde. Whilst using an endoscope in order to have a closer look at the interior, they came into contact with radioactive dust and became contaminated. The level of contamination was low and the radiation dose received by the 3 persons was far below the effective dose limit given in the CERN Radiation Safety Manual and in the regulations of the Host States.According to the usual procedure, the Director General has set up a Fact-Finding Group and an Accident Board in order to advise him on the steps and decisions tobe taken following this incident and in particular to avoid a recurrence.

  7. NAIR: handbook on the national arrangements for incidents involving radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    A revised handbook on the national arrangements for incidents involving radioactivity (NAIR) has been published. Following brief introductory sections on the administrative aspects and operational aspects, the main part of the handbook is devoted to operational and call-out lists including an index of police forces served by NAIR, an index of establishments providing assistance under NAIR, sources of stage 1 and stage 2 assistance for each police constabulary, hospitals prepared to accept contaminated casualties and to assist with decontamination of personnel, and hospitals prepared to advise on the treatment and admission of casualties exposed to large doses of radiation. Technical appendices are also given on radiological protection in NAIR incidents, instruments and equipment, radionuclide data and a guide to suitable detectors, package and source identification and disposal of radioactive materials involved in NAIR accidents. (U.K.)

  8. Radiation incident in oil well logging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lozada, J.A.

    1998-01-01

    On June 4th 1997 equipment failure and violation of approved procedures by a crew of workers initiated a series of events that resulted in the unnecessary exposure to neutron and gamma radiation, from a 666 GBq Am 241 Be source, of forty two workers from a well logging company in Venezuela. Due to the presence of dry mud or drilling fluids inside the logging tool, the nosepiece was screwed off the rest of the source holder; this piece was mistaken for the entire source holder thus leaving the source inside the tool. The tool was labelled for maintenance and electronic laboratory personal worked near the source for seven hours before they identify its presence. As soon as the incident was detected a contingency plan was implemented and the source could be retrieved from the tool and placed in its shipping container. The TLD badges indicate doses well below the annual limit of 20 mSv, and none of the workers involved in the incident seem to show serious health consequences from it. After the incident, in order to avoid the occurrence of similar situations, a better source and tool maintenance program was implemented, all the workers were re-trained, and area monitors were installed in all operations bases. (author)

  9. Radioactive contamination incidents involving protective clothing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reichelt, R.; Clay, M.; Eichorst, J.

    1996-10-01

    The study focuses on incidents at Department of Energy (DOE) facilities involving the migration of radioactive contaminants through protective clothing. The authors analyzed 68 occurrence reports for the following factors: (1) type of work; (2) working conditions; (3) type of anti-contamination (anti-C) material; (4) area of body or clothing contaminated; and (5) nature of spread of contamination. A majority of reports identified strenuous work activities such as maintenance, construction, or decontamination and decommissioning (D ampersand D) projects. The reports also indicated adverse working conditions that included hot and humid or cramped work environments. The type of anti-C clothing most often identified was cotton or water-resistant, disposable clothing. Most of the reports also indicated contaminants migrating through perspiration-soaked areas, typically in the knees and forearms. On the basis of their survey, the authors recommend the use of improved engineering controls and resilient, breathable, waterproof protective clothing for work in hot, humid, or damp areas where the possibility of prolonged contact with contamination cannot be easily avoided or controlled

  10. Radioactive contamination incidents involving protective clothing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reichelt, R.; Clay, M.; Eichorst, J.

    1996-10-01

    The study focuses on incidents at Department of Energy (DOE) facilities involving the migration of radioactive contaminants through protective clothing. The authors analyzed 68 occurrence reports for the following factors: (1) type of work; (2) working conditions; (3) type of anti-contamination (anti-C) material; (4) area of body or clothing contaminated; and (5) nature of spread of contamination. A majority of reports identified strenuous work activities such as maintenance, construction, or decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) projects. The reports also indicated adverse working conditions that included hot and humid or cramped work environments. The type of anti-C clothing most often identified was cotton or water-resistant, disposable clothing. Most of the reports also indicated contaminants migrating through perspiration-soaked areas, typically in the knees and forearms. On the basis of their survey, the authors recommend the use of improved engineering controls and resilient, breathable, waterproof protective clothing for work in hot, humid, or damp areas where the possibility of prolonged contact with contamination cannot be easily avoided or controlled.

  11. Radioactive contamination incidents involving protective clothing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reichelt, R.A.; Clay, M.E.; Eichorst, A.J.

    1998-01-01

    The study focuses on incidents at Department of Energy facilities involving the migration of radioactive contaminants through protective clothing. The authors analyzed 68 occurrence reports for the following factors: (1) type of work, (2) working conditions, (3) type of anti-contamination material; (4) area of body or clothing contaminated; and (5) nature of spread of contamination. A majority of reports identified strenuous work activities such as maintenance, construction, or decontamination and decommissioning projects. The reports also indicated adverse working conditions that included hot and humid or cramped work environments. The type of anti-contamination clothing most often identified was cotton or water-resistant disposable clothing. Most of the reports also indicated contaminants migrating through perspiration-soaked areas, typically in the knees and forearms. On the basis of their survey, the authors recommend the use of improved engineering controls and resilient, breathable, waterproof protective clothing for work in hot, humid, or damp areas where the possibility of prolonged contact with contamination cannot be easily avoided or controlled. 1 ref., 6 figs., 1 tab

  12. National arrangements for incidents involving radioactivity (NAIR) 1982/83

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, G.C.

    1984-01-01

    A summary is presented of the data on incidents notified under the National Arrangements for Incidents involving Radioactivity (NAIR), extending the data previously reported to include information for 1982/83. The categories of incidents discussed include transport, damaged sources or containers, undamaged sources, empty containers found and hoaxes or false alarms. It is concluded that the Arrangements continue to demonstrate their value in minimizing the alarm potentially inherent in even minor incidents involving radioactive materials. (U.K.)

  13. Incident involving radioactive material in steel scrap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drabova, D.; Matzner, J.; Prouza, Z.

    1998-01-01

    In early March of 1996, a wagon with steel scrap heading from the Czech Republic to Italy was returned as a strongly contaminated material. Based on the integral dose (dose rate 650 mGy/h in front of the wagon) and spectrometric measurement and evaluation, it was concluded that an unshielded cobalt-60 source (1.6 TBq) was present. The history of the event (notification, assessment, intervention planning, intervention) is highlighted and the lesson learned from the incident is discussed. (P.A.)

  14. IRID: specifications for the Ionising Radiations Incident Database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, G.O.; Croft, J.R.; Williams, M.K.; McHugh, J.O.

    1996-01-01

    Technologies that make use of ionising radiations are widespread. They provide many benefits but, as with other technologies, the use of ionising radiations carries with it the potential for incidents and accidents. Their severity can vary from the trivial to the fatal and may involve substantial economic penalties. In order to minimise the number of incidents and their consequences it is important that there is a mechanism to learn the lessons from those that do occur. To help pursue this objective the National Radiological Protection Board, the Health and Safety Executive and the Environment Agency have established a national Ionising Radiations Incident Database (IRID) to cover radiation incidents in industry, medicine, research and teaching. This publication details the specifications for IRID and its methods of operation. All information in the database will be unattributable and names of persons or organisations will not be included. It is a personal computer based system with 24 fields to categorise an incident, including a text field that will provide a description of the incident giving the causes, consequences, follow-up actions and lessons to be learned. These descriptions will be used in subsequent publications to provide feedback to the users. (UK)

  15. Natural background radiation and oncologic disease incidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burenin, P.I.

    1982-01-01

    Cause and effect relationships between oncologic disease incidence in human population and environmental factors are examined using investigation materials of Soviet and foreign authors. The data concerning US white population are adduced. The role and contribution of natural background radiation oncologic disease prevalence have been determined with the help of system information analysis. The probable damage of oncologic disease is shown to decrease as the background radiation level diminishes. The linear nature of dose-response relationspip has been established. The necessity to include the life history of the studied population along with environmental factors in epidemiological study under conditions of multiplicity of cancerogenesis causes is emphasized

  16. Incidents with hazardous radiation sources; Zwischenfaelle mit gefaehrlichen Strahlenquellen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoenhacker, Stefan [Bundesministerium fuer Inneres, Traiskirchen (Austria). Abt. 1/9 - Zivilschutzschule

    2016-07-01

    Incidents with hazardous radiation sources can occur in any country, even those without nuclear facilities. Preparedness for such incidents is supposed to fulfill globally agreed minimum standards. Incidents are categorized in incidents with licensed handling of radiation sources as for material testing, transport accidents of hazardous radiation sources, incidents with radionuclide batteries, incidents with satellites containing radioactive inventory, incidents wit not licensed handling of illegally acquired hazardous radiation sources. The emergency planning in Austria includes a differentiation according to the consequences: incidents with release of radioactive materials resulting in restricted contamination, incidents with release of radioactive materials resulting in local contamination, and incidents with the hazard of e@nhanced exposure due to the radiation source.

  17. Transportation accidents/incidents involving radioactive materials (1971--1991)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cashwell, C.E.; McClure, J.D.

    1992-01-01

    The Radioactive Materials Incident Report (RMIR) database contains information on transportation-related accidents and incidents involving radioactive materials that have occurred in the United States. The RMIR was developed at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) to support its research and development program efforts for the US Department of Energy (DOE). This paper will address the following topics: background information on the regulations and process for reporting a hazardous materials transportation incident, overview data of radioactive materials transportation accidents and incidents, and additional information and summary data on how packagings have performed in accident conditions

  18. Medical management of three workers following a radiation exposure incident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    House, R.A.; Sax, S.E.; Rumack, E.R.; Holness, D.L.

    1992-01-01

    The medical management of three individuals involved in an exposure incident to whole-body radiation at a nuclear generating plant of a Canadian electrical utility is described. The exposure incident resulted in the two highest whole-body radiation doses ever received in a single event by workers in a Canadian nuclear power plant. The individual whole-body doses (127.4 mSv, 92.0 mSv, 22.4 mSv) were below the threshold for acute radiation sickness but the exposures still presented medical management problems related to assessment and counseling. Serial blood counting and lymphocyte cytogenetic analysis to corroborate the physical dosimetry were performed. All three employees experienced somatic symptoms due to stress and one employee developed post-traumatic stress disorder. This incident indicates that there is a need in such radiation exposure accidents for early and continued counseling of exposed employees to minimize the risk of development of stress-related symptoms

  19. Medical management of three workers following a radiation exposure incident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    House, R.A.; Sax, S.E.; Rumack, E.R.; Holness, D.L. (Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, St. Michael' s Hospital, Toronto, Ontario (Canada))

    1992-01-01

    The medical management of three individuals involved in an exposure incident to whole-body radiation at a nuclear generating plant of a Canadian electrical utility is described. The exposure incident resulted in the two highest whole-body radiation doses ever received in a single event by workers in a Canadian nuclear power plant. The individual whole-body doses (127.4 mSv, 92.0 mSv, 22.4 mSv) were below the threshold for acute radiation sickness but the exposures still presented medical management problems related to assessment and counseling. Serial blood counting and lymphocyte cytogenetic analysis to corroborate the physical dosimetry were performed. All three employees experienced somatic symptoms due to stress and one employee developed post-traumatic stress disorder. This incident indicates that there is a need in such radiation exposure accidents for early and continued counseling of exposed employees to minimize the risk of development of stress-related symptoms.

  20. Modification of radiation-induced murine thymic lymphoma incidence by curcumin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dange, P.S.; Yadav, H.D.; Kumar, Vimalesh; Bhilwade, H.N.; Pandey, B.N.; Sarma, H.D.

    2017-01-01

    Curcumin is a known antioxidant, preventing radiation damage including carcinogenesis. However, concentration and feeding schedule of curcumin in modification of radiation induced thymic lymphoma incidence in vivo model has not been studied. We report here modification of incidence of γ-radiation-induced thymic lymphoma in mice fed with different doses of curcumin (0.05 to 1 %) in diet. Results: Female Swiss mice (6-8 weeks) fed with normal diet and exposed to 3 Gy whole body "6"0Co γ-irradiation (WBI) showed 85 % incidence of thymic lymphoma (TL) at 120 days post-irradiation. A concentration of 1 % curcumin was found the most effective in TL incidence prevention than other fed concentrations. The TL incidence was remarkably reduced when curcumin was fed to the mice before than after the radiation exposure. These results suggest modification of TL incidence by curcumin in irradiated mice involving DNA damage and apoptotic death mechanisms

  1. Discriminating electromagnetic radiation based on angle of incidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamam, Rafif E.; Bermel, Peter; Celanovic, Ivan; Soljacic, Marin; Yeng, Adrian Y. X.; Ghebrebrhan, Michael; Joannopoulos, John D.

    2015-06-16

    The present invention provides systems, articles, and methods for discriminating electromagnetic radiation based upon the angle of incidence of the electromagnetic radiation. In some cases, the materials and systems described herein can be capable of inhibiting reflection of electromagnetic radiation (e.g., the materials and systems can be capable of transmitting and/or absorbing electromagnetic radiation) within a given range of angles of incidence at a first incident surface, while substantially reflecting electromagnetic radiation outside the range of angles of incidence at a second incident surface (which can be the same as or different from the first incident surface). A photonic material comprising a plurality of periodically occurring separate domains can be used, in some cases, to selectively transmit and/or selectively absorb one portion of incoming electromagnetic radiation while reflecting another portion of incoming electromagnetic radiation, based upon the angle of incidence. In some embodiments, one domain of the photonic material can include an isotropic dielectric function, while another domain of the photonic material can include an anisotropic dielectric function. In some instances, one domain of the photonic material can include an isotropic magnetic permeability, while another domain of the photonic material can include an anisotropic magnetic permeability. In some embodiments, non-photonic materials (e.g., materials with relatively large scale features) can be used to selectively absorb incoming electromagnetic radiation based on angle of incidence.

  2. Justification of novel practices involving radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, G.; Boal, T.; Mason, C.; Wrixon, T.

    2006-01-01

    The concept of 'justification' of practices has been one of the three basic principles of radiation protection for many decades. The principle is simple in essence - that any practice involving radiation exposure should do more good than harm. There is no doubt that the many uses of radiation in the medical field and in industry generally satisfy this principle, yielding benefits that could not be achieved using other techniques; examples include CT scanning and industrial radiography. However, even in the early period after the introduction of the justification principle, there were practices for which the decision on justification was not clear and for which different decisions were made by the authorities in different countries. Many of these involved consumer products such as luminous clocks and watches, telephone dials, smoke detectors, lightning preventers and gas mantles. In most cases, these practices were relatively small scale and did not involve large exposures of either individual workers or members of the public. Decisions on justification were therefore often made by the regulator without extensive national debate. Over recent years, several practices have been proposed and undertaken that involve exposure to radiation for purposes that were generally not envisaged when the current system of radiation protection was created. Some of these practices were reviewed during a recent symposium held in Dublin, Ireland and involve, for example, the x-raying of people for theft detection purposes, for detection of weapons or contraband, for the prediction of physical development of young athletes or dancers, for age determination, for insurance purposes and in cases of suspected child abuse. It is particularly in the context of such novel practices that the need has emerged for clearer international guidance on the application of the justification principle. This paper reviews recent activities of the IAEA with respect to these issues, including the

  3. Justification of novel practices involving radiation exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webb, G. [Radiation Protection Consul tant, Brighton (United Kingdom); Boal, T.; Mason, C.; Wrixon, T. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria)

    2006-07-01

    The concept of 'justification' of practices has been one of the three basic principles of radiation protection for many decades. The principle is simple in essence - that any practice involving radiation exposure should do more good than harm. There is no doubt that the many uses of radiation in the medical field and in industry generally satisfy this principle, yielding benefits that could not be achieved using other techniques; examples include CT scanning and industrial radiography. However, even in the early period after the introduction of the justification principle, there were practices for which the decision on justification was not clear and for which different decisions were made by the authorities in different countries. Many of these involved consumer products such as luminous clocks and watches, telephone dials, smoke detectors, lightning preventers and gas mantles. In most cases, these practices were relatively small scale and did not involve large exposures of either individual workers or members of the public. Decisions on justification were therefore often made by the regulator without extensive national debate. Over recent years, several practices have been proposed and undertaken that involve exposure to radiation for purposes that were generally not envisaged when the current system of radiation protection was created. Some of these practices were reviewed during a recent symposium held in Dublin, Ireland and involve, for example, the x-raying of people for theft detection purposes, for detection of weapons or contraband, for the prediction of physical development of young athletes or dancers, for age determination, for insurance purposes and in cases of suspected child abuse. It is particularly in the context of such novel practices that the need has emerged for clearer international guidance on the application of the justification principle. This paper reviews recent activities of the IAEA with respect to these issues, including the

  4. Technical handbook on the National Arrangements for Incidents involving Radioactivity. NAIR technical handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McColl, N.P.; Kruse, P.

    2002-01-01

    This Technical Handbook contains information for radiation specialists participating in the National Arrangements for Incidents involving Radioactivity (NAIR). Together with the NAIR Users Handbook 2000 edition, it updates and replaces the NAIR Handbook published in 1995. The Users Handbook was designed for those who might seek assistance through NAIR, principally the police or other emergency services. Both Handbooks are reproduced on the NRPB website (www.nrpb.org) and are available from NRPB

  5. Prostate cancer incidence in Australia correlates inversely with solar radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loke, Tim W; Seyfi, Doruk; Sevfi, Doruk; Khadra, Mohamed

    2011-11-01

    What's known on the subject? and What does the study add? Increased sun exposure and blood levels of vitamin D have been postulated to be protective against prostate cancer. This is controversial. We investigated the relationship between prostate cancer incidence and solar radiation in non-urban Australia, and found a lower incidence in regions receiving more sunlight. In landmark ecological studies, prostate cancer mortality rates have been shown to be inversely related to ultraviolet radiation exposure. Investigators have hypothesised that ultraviolet radiation acts by increasing production of vitamin D, which inhibits prostate cancer cells in vitro. However, analyses of serum levels of vitamin D in men with prostate cancer have failed to support this hypothesis. This study has found an inverse correlation between solar radiation and prostate cancer incidence in Australia. Our population (previously unstudied) represents the third group to exhibit this correlation. Significantly, the demographics and climate of Australia differ markedly from those of previous studies conducted on men in the United Kingdom and the United States. • To ascertain if prostate cancer incidence rates correlate with solar radiation among non-urban populations of men in Australia. • Local government areas from each state and territory were selected using explicit criteria. Urban areas were excluded from analysis. • For each local government area, prostate cancer incidence rates and averaged long-term solar radiation were obtained. • The strength of the association between prostate cancer incidence and solar radiation was determined. • Among 70 local government areas of Australia, age-standardized prostate cancer incidence rates for the period 1998-2007 correlated inversely with daily solar radiation averaged over the last two decades. •  There exists an association between less solar radiation and higher prostate cancer incidence in Australia. © 2011 THE AUTHORS. BJU

  6. How to Report a Pesticide Incident Involving Exposures to People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesticides incidents must be reported by pesticide registrants. Others, such as members of the public and environmental professionals, would like to report pesticide incidents. This website will facilitate such incident reporting.

  7. Medical treatment of radiation damages and medical emergency planning in case of nuclear power plant incidents and accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohlenschlaeger, L.

    1981-03-01

    Medical measures in case of radiation damages are discussed on the basis of five potential categories of radiation incidents and accidents, respectively, viz. contaminations, incorporations, external local and general radiation over-exposures, contaminated wounds, and combinations of radiation damages and conventional injuries. Considerations are made for diagnostic and therapeutic initial measures especially in case of minor and moderate radiation accidents. The medical emergency planning is reviewed by means of definations used in the practical handling of incidents or accidents. The parameters are: extent of the incident or accident, number of persons involved, severity of radiation damage. Based on guiding symptoms the criteria for the classification into minor, moderate or severe radiation accidents are discussed. Reference is made to the Medical Radiation Protection Centers existing in the Federal Republic of Germany and the possibility of getting advices in case of radiation incidents and accidents. (orig.) [de

  8. Investigation of incidents of terrorism involving commercial aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, M A; Wagner, G N; Wright, D G; Ruehle, C J; McDonnell, E W

    1989-07-01

    Deaths resulting from terrorism involving aircraft have occurred incident to hijackings as well as bombings. Passengers or groups of passengers have been chosen by terrorists as the recipients of violence based on citizenship, religion, and political beliefs. They have usually been segregated from other passengers and subsequently mistreated and/or murdered. Thorough documentation of the injuries of victims is essential to the investigation of such atrocities; a medicolegal autopsy correlated with a scene investigation is of paramount importance. Aircraft bombings can create extremely sensitive political situations and public demands for quick resolution. The autopsy of victims in such circumstances, if properly conducted, can yield invaluable trace evidence leading to the identification of the explosive device. The examination of any surviving victims as well as the aircraft is also critical in reconstructing the event. Deaths occurring as the result of in-flight aircraft bombings can produce injuries by five different mechanisms, viz. blast, shrapnel, decompression, impact with the aircraft, and ground impact.

  9. Radiation produced by electrons incident on molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moehlman, G.R.

    1977-01-01

    The work described in this thesis deals with light intensity measurements of emission spectra (1850-9000 A) produced by a continuous or pulsed beam of monoenergetic electrons (0 - 2000 eV) incident on a variety of molecular gases like H 2 , D 2 , H 2 O, HCl, NH 3 and several hydrocarbons. The emission spectra are dominated by fluorescence from excited fragments produced via dissociative excitation, besides fluorescence from excited parent molecules themselves. The experimental results thus obtained are expressed in terms of emission cross sections and lifetimes

  10. Non controlled effect of ionizing radiations : involvement for radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Little, J. B.

    2005-01-01

    It is widely accepted that damage to DNA is the critical event on irradiated cells, and that double strand breaks are the primary DNA lesions responsible for the biological effects of ionizing radiation. This has lead to the long standing paradigm that these effects, be they cytotoxicity, mutagenesis or malignant transformation, occur in irradiated cells as a consequences of the DNA damage they incur. Evidence has been accumulating over the past decade, however, to indicate that radiation may induce effects that ar not targeted to the irradiated cells itself. Two non-targeted effects will be described in this review. The first, radiation-induced genomic instability, is a phenomenon whereby signals are transmitted to the progeny of the irradiated cell over many generations, leading to the occurrence of genetic effects such as mutations and chromosomal aberrations arising in the distant descendants of the irradiated cell. Second, the bystander effect, is a phenomenon whereby irradiated cells transmit damage signals to non-irradiated cells in a mixed population, leading to genetic effects arising in these bystander cells that received no radiation exposure. the model system described in this review involves dense monolayer cultures exposed to very low fluences of alpha particles. The potential implications of these two phenomena for the analysis of the risk to the human population of exposure to low levels of ionising radiation is discussed. (Author) 111 refs

  11. The management of radiation treatment error through incident learning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, Brenda G.; Brown, Robert J.; Ploquin, Jodi L.; Kind, Anneke L.; Grimard, Laval

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To assess efficacy of an incident learning system in the management of error in radiation treatment. Materials and methods: We report an incident learning system implementation customized for radiation therapy where any 'unwanted or unexpected change from normal system behaviour that causes or has the potential to cause an adverse effect to persons or equipment' is reported, investigated and learned from. This system thus captures near-miss (potential) and actual events. Incidents are categorized according to severity, type and origin. Results: Our analysis spans a period of 3 years with an average accrual of 11.6 incidents per week. We found a significant reduction in actual incidents of 28% and 47% in the second and third year when compared to the first year (p < 0.001), which we attribute to the many interventions prompted by the analysis of incidents reported. We also saw a similar significant reduction in incidents generated at the treatment unit correlating with the introduction of direct treatment parameter transfer and electronic imaging (p < 0.001). Conclusions: Implementation of an incident learning system has helped us to establish a just environment where all staff members report deviations from normal system behaviour and thus generate evidence to initiate safety improvements.

  12. Radiation protection aspects of the incident recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tibor, Bujtas; Arpad, Nenyei

    2006-01-01

    On the 10. April 2003 a serious accident occurred at PAKS nuclear power plant. The cleaning of fuel assemblies unloaded from the reactor of unit 2 was commencing under water in the fuel-cleaning equipment in the maintenance shaft number 1. There was no chain reaction in the cleaning tank but the fission products, accumulated in the previous operational time still produced a significant heat. Due to the inadequate cooling of the cleaning tank the assemblies overheated within a few hours. After opening the lid of the tank the entering cold water caused thermal shock and significant damage to the fuel assemblies. cladding of the fuel elements opened up and the uranium dioxide pellets got also damaged. The removal of the damaged fuel assemblies and the released debris must be managed. There are technical difficulties and radiation protection problems to reduce the radiation exposure of the workers as well as the minimization of the radioactive materials released into the environment. The description of the situation and the different actions are detailed. (N.C.)

  13. Transportation incidents involving Canadian shipments of radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jardine, J.M.

    1979-06-01

    This paper gives a brief statement of the legislation governing the transportation of radioactive materials in Canada, reviews the types of shipments made in Canada in 1977, and surveys the transportation incidents that have been reported to the Atomic Energy Control Board over the period 1947-1978. Some of the more significant incidents are described in detail. A totAl of 135 incidents occurred from 1947 to 1978, during which time there were 644750 shipments of radioactive material in Canada

  14. Ascertaining directionality information from incident nuclear radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Archambault, Brian C. [Purdue University (United States); Lapinskas, Joseph R. [QSA Global, Inc. (United States); Wang Jing; Webster, Jeffrey A. [Purdue University (United States); McDeavitt, Sean [Texas A and M University (United States); Taleyarkhan, Rusi P., E-mail: rusi@purdue.edu [Purdue University (United States)

    2011-10-15

    Highlights: > Use of tensioned metastable fluids for detection of fast neutron radiation. > Monitored neutrons with 100% gamma photon blindness capability. > Monitored direction of incoming neutron radiation from special nuclear material emissions. > Ascertained directionality of neutron source to within 30 deg. and with 80% confidence with 2000 detection events at rate of 30-40 per second. > Conducted successful blind test for determining source of neutrons from a hidden neutron emitting source. > Compared results with MCNP5-COMSOL based multi-physics model. - Abstract: Unprecedented capabilities for the detection of nuclear particles via tailored resonant acoustic systems such as the acoustic tensioned metastable fluid detection (ATMFD) systems were assessed for determining directionality of incoming fast neutrons. This paper presents advancements that expand on these accomplishments, thereby increasing the accuracy and precision of ascertaining directionality information utilizing enhanced signal processing-cum-signal analysis, refined computational algorithms, and on demand enlargement of the detector sensitive volume. Advances in the development of ATMFD systems were accomplished utilizing a combination of experimentation and theoretical modeling. Modeling methodologies include Monte-Carlo based nuclear particle transport using MCNP5 and multi-physics based assessments accounting for acoustic, structural, and electromagnetic coupling of the ATMFD system via COMSOL's multi-physics simulation platform. Benchmarking and qualification studies have been conducted with a 1 Ci Pu-Be neutron-gamma source. These results show that the specific ATMFD system used for this study can enable detection of directionality of incoming fast neutrons from the neutron source to within 30{sup o} with 80% confidence; this required {approx}2000 detection events which could be collected within {approx}50 s at a detection rate of {approx}30-40 per second. Blind testing was

  15. Ascertaining directionality information from incident nuclear radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Archambault, Brian C.; Lapinskas, Joseph R.; Wang Jing; Webster, Jeffrey A.; McDeavitt, Sean; Taleyarkhan, Rusi P.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Use of tensioned metastable fluids for detection of fast neutron radiation. → Monitored neutrons with 100% gamma photon blindness capability. → Monitored direction of incoming neutron radiation from special nuclear material emissions. → Ascertained directionality of neutron source to within 30 deg. and with 80% confidence with 2000 detection events at rate of 30-40 per second. → Conducted successful blind test for determining source of neutrons from a hidden neutron emitting source. → Compared results with MCNP5-COMSOL based multi-physics model. - Abstract: Unprecedented capabilities for the detection of nuclear particles via tailored resonant acoustic systems such as the acoustic tensioned metastable fluid detection (ATMFD) systems were assessed for determining directionality of incoming fast neutrons. This paper presents advancements that expand on these accomplishments, thereby increasing the accuracy and precision of ascertaining directionality information utilizing enhanced signal processing-cum-signal analysis, refined computational algorithms, and on demand enlargement of the detector sensitive volume. Advances in the development of ATMFD systems were accomplished utilizing a combination of experimentation and theoretical modeling. Modeling methodologies include Monte-Carlo based nuclear particle transport using MCNP5 and multi-physics based assessments accounting for acoustic, structural, and electromagnetic coupling of the ATMFD system via COMSOL's multi-physics simulation platform. Benchmarking and qualification studies have been conducted with a 1 Ci Pu-Be neutron-gamma source. These results show that the specific ATMFD system used for this study can enable detection of directionality of incoming fast neutrons from the neutron source to within 30 o with 80% confidence; this required ∼2000 detection events which could be collected within ∼50 s at a detection rate of ∼30-40 per second. Blind testing was successfully

  16. Transportation accidents/incidents involving radioactive materials (1971-1991)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cashwell, C.E.; McClure, J.D.

    1993-01-01

    In 1981, Sandia National Laboratories developed the Radioactive Materials Incident Report (RMIR) database to support its research and development activities for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The RMIR database contains information on transportation accidents/incidents with radioactive materials that have occurred since 1971. The RMIR classifies a transportation accident/incident in one of six ways: as a transportation accident, a handling accident, a reported incident, missing or stolen, cask weeping, or other. This paper will define these terms and provide detailed examples of each. (J.P.N.)

  17. Analysis of a radiation incident with intraoral dental radiological equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malone, J.F.

    1996-01-01

    A case is described involving a serious incident with dental radiological equipment, containing many lessons that may be applied to the preparation of other cases. The description includes an account of the incident, the circumstances surrounding it, the dosimetry, risk estimates and the medical consequences of the incident. In addition, some aspects of the associated legal proceedings are reviewed and assessed. As a result of the incident described, a number of conclusions are drawn with respect to important practices in ensuring the safety of installations and the value of evidence brought forward by expert witnesses. (author)

  18. Experience in the analysis of accidents and incidents involving the transport of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warner-Jones, S.M.; Hughes, J.S.; Shaw, K.B.

    2002-01-01

    Some half a million packages containing radioactive materials are transported to, from and within the UK annually. Accidents and incidents involving these shipments are rare. However, there is always the potential for such an event, which could lead to a release of the contents of a package or an increase in radiation level caused by damaged shielding. These events could result in radiological consequences for transport workers. As transport occurs in the public environment, such events could also lead to radiation exposures of members of the public. The UK Department for Transport (DfT), together with the Health and Safety Executive (HSE) have supported, for almost 20 years, work to compile, analyse and report on accidents and incidents that occur during the transport of radioactive materials. Annual reports on these events have been produced for twelve years. The details of these events are recorded in the Radioactive Materials Transport Event Database (RAMTED) maintained by the National Radiological Protection Board on behalf of the DfT and HSE. Information on accidents and incidents dates back to 1958. RAMTED currently includes information of 708 accidents and incidents, covering the period 1958 to 2000. This paper presents a summary of the data covering this period, identifying trends and lessons learned together with a discussion of some examples. It was found that, historically, the most significant exposures were received as a result of accidents involving the transport of industrial radiography sources. However, the frequency and severity of these events has decreased considerably in the later years of this study due to improvements in training, awareness and equipment. The International Atomic Energy Agency and the Nuclear Energy Agency, have established the international nuclear event scale (INES), which is described in detail in a users' guide. The INES has been revised to fully include transport events, and the information in RAMTED has been reviewed

  19. Manual on the medical management of individuals involved in radiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swindon, T.N.

    1991-09-01

    This manual is concerned with accidents or emergencies which involve sources of ionizing radiation. It does not cover other forms of radiation such as non-ionizing radiation (ultra-violet, light, radiofrequency radiations), heat, etc. Most radiation accidents have involved individuals either at the workplace or with medical misadministrations; they have received external exposure from X-ray or gamma-ray sources or have been contaminated with radioactive material. A few members of the public have also been involved through misadventures with radioactive sources although these may not be thought of as accidents; more commonly, they are referred to as 'incidents'. For the purpose of this manual, there is not differentiation between an accident and an incident, as the medical care required is the same in both situations. Some of the reference papers are reprinted at the back of the manual. 17 refs., 12 tabs., 9 figs

  20. Relationship of cancer incidence to terrestrial radiation and population density in Connecticut, 1935-1974

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walter, S.D.; Meigs, J.W.; Heston, J.F.

    1986-01-01

    The relationship of cancer incidence to terrestrial radiation and population density was investigated. Cancer incidence was obtained using 40 years of age-standardized data from the Connecticut Tumor Registry, and environmental radiation was estimated using data from an airborne gamma radiation survey of the entire state. These variables were examined ecologically, using the 169 towns of the state as the analytic units in a weighted regression analysis. The study design involves a large population base in a state having relatively high terrestrial radiation exposure levels overall and reasonable variation in exposure between towns. For all cancer combined, only one of the eight sex-specific analyses by decade yielded a significant radiation regression coefficient, and this was negative. In the sex- and site-specific analyses, almost all the coefficients for radiation were not significantly different from zero. In contrast, significant positive relationships of cancer incidence with population density were found for all cancer, for cancer of the lung for both sexes, for stomach, colonic, and prostatic cancer for males, and for lymphomas, thyroid, breast, and ovarian cancer for females. Both the radiation and population density relationships were adjusted for socioeconomic status. Socioeconomic status was significantly negatively associated with stomach and lung cancer in males and with cervical cancer in females; it was also positively associated with lymphomas and breast cancer in females. A power calculation revealed that, despite the relatively large size of this study, there was only a small probability of detecting a radiation effect of the strength anticipated from previous estimates

  1. Radiological control in fires involving radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franco, J.O.A.; Coelho, C.P.

    1984-01-01

    The copies used during the chatter by techniques from CDTN in the I Mineiro Symposium of Fire Engineering, are presented. The chatter was based on emergency radiation control course, given by CDTN. Basic concepts, such as nuclear physics fundaments, radiation nature and detection, radiation protection and practical aspects of radiological fire emergency, were enphasized. (M.C.K.) [pt

  2. Environmental exposure to ionizing radiation and childhood leukaemia incidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evrard, Anne-Sophie

    2006-01-01

    This thesis aimed at providing an epidemiological approach of the hypothesis of the existence of an association between environmental exposure to ionizing radiation and childhood leukaemia incidence. From 1990 to 2001, 5,330 cases of acute leukaemia were registered by the French National Registry of Childhood Leukemia and Lymphoma in children under 15 years of age and living in mainland France at the time of diagnosis. Indoor radon concentration was estimated using 13,240 measurements carried out by the Institute for Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN), and covering the whole country. Exposure to terrestrial gamma radiation was based on continuous measurements, using thermoluminescent dosimeters, at about 1,000 sites covering the whole of France, in order to monitor the level of environmental radioactivity in France. Analyses were conducted using Poisson regressions, including ecological co-variates, at the level of the 'Departments' (95 administrative geographical units in France). A significant positive ecological association between indoor radon concentration and the incidence of acute myeloid leukaemia was evidenced (SIR=1.19 per 100 Bq/m 3 - 95% confidence interval=[1.03-1.38]) and remained significant in multivariate regression analyses including exposure to terrestrial gamma radiation and/or some ecological co-variates. Conversely, there was no evidence of an ecological association between exposure to terrestrial gamma radiation and childhood leukaemia incidence. The epidemiological studies of the incidence of childhood leukaemia around nuclear sites analyzed incidence with respect to the distance from the plants, without considering any information on the levels or geographic distribution of the radiation dose due to discharges from the plants. The present study investigated for the first time the incidence of childhood leukaemia around French nuclear installations using a geographic zoning based on estimated doses due to gaseous

  3. Phenomenological modelling of second cancer incidence for radiation treatment planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfaffenberger, Asja; Oelfke, Uwe; Schneider, Uwe; Poppe, Bjoern

    2009-01-01

    It is still an unanswered question whether a relatively low dose of radiation to a large volume or a higher dose to a small volume produces the higher cancer incidence. This is of interest in view of modalities like IMRT or rotation therapy where high conformity to the target volume is achieved at the cost of a large volume of normal tissue exposed to radiation. Knowledge of the shape of the dose response for radiation-induced cancer is essential to answer the question of what risk of second cancer incidence is implied by which treatment modality. This study therefore models the dose response for radiation-induced second cancer after radiation therapy of which the exact mechanisms are still unknown. A second cancer risk estimation tool for treatment planning is presented which has the potential to be used for comparison of different treatment modalities, and risk is estimated on a voxel basis for different organs in two case studies. The presented phenomenological model summarises the impact of microscopic biological processes into effective parameters of mutation and cell sterilisation. In contrast to other models, the effective radiosensitivities of mutated and non-mutated cells are allowed to differ. Based on the number of mutated cells present after irradiation, the model is then linked to macroscopic incidence by summarising model parameters and modifying factors into natural cancer incidence and the dose response in the lower-dose region. It was found that all principal dose-response functions discussed in the literature can be derived from the model. However, from the investigation and due to scarcity of adequate data, rather vague statements about likelihood of dose-response functions can be made than a definite decision for one response. Based on the predicted model parameters, the linear response can probably be rejected using the dynamics described, but both a flattening response and a decrease appear likely, depending strongly on the effective cell

  4. Simulating Space Radiation-Induced Breast Tumor Incidence Using Automata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuskin, A C; Osseiran, A I; Tang, J; Costes, S V

    2016-07-01

    Estimating cancer risk from space radiation has been an ongoing challenge for decades primarily because most of the reported epidemiological data on radiation-induced risks are derived from studies of atomic bomb survivors who were exposed to an acute dose of gamma rays instead of chronic high-LET cosmic radiation. In this study, we introduce a formalism using cellular automata to model the long-term effects of ionizing radiation in human breast for different radiation qualities. We first validated and tuned parameters for an automata-based two-stage clonal expansion model simulating the age dependence of spontaneous breast cancer incidence in an unexposed U.S. We then tested the impact of radiation perturbation in the model by modifying parameters to reflect both targeted and nontargeted radiation effects. Targeted effects (TE) reflect the immediate impact of radiation on a cell's DNA with classic end points being gene mutations and cell death. They are well known and are directly derived from experimental data. In contrast, nontargeted effects (NTE) are persistent and affect both damaged and undamaged cells, are nonlinear with dose and are not well characterized in the literature. In this study, we introduced TE in our model and compared predictions against epidemiologic data of the atomic bomb survivor cohort. TE alone are not sufficient for inducing enough cancer. NTE independent of dose and lasting ∼100 days postirradiation need to be added to accurately predict dose dependence of breast cancer induced by gamma rays. Finally, by integrating experimental relative biological effectiveness (RBE) for TE and keeping NTE (i.e., radiation-induced genomic instability) constant with dose and LET, the model predicts that RBE for breast cancer induced by cosmic radiation would be maximum at 220 keV/μm. This approach lays the groundwork for further investigation into the impact of chronic low-dose exposure, inter-individual variation and more complex space radiation

  5. Learning from radiation incidents: the new OTHEA website

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, P V; Ely, S Y; Croueail, P; Bataille, C

    2010-01-01

    OTHEA is the name of a new website (www.othea.net), created by the Health Protection Agency (UK) and the Centre d'etude sur l'evaluation de la protection dans le domaine nucleaire (CEPN, France), and supported by several other stakeholders including national societies and associations. The website is bi-lingual (French and English) and the purpose is to share the lessons learnt from radiological incidents that have occurred in the industrial, medical, research and teaching, and other non-nuclear sectors. OTHEA contains a collection of incident reports, categorised according to the sector and the type of application, and a search facility. The reports can be freely downloaded and printed, for example for use in radiation protection training activities. To encourage dissemination, the incident reports have been made anonymous, i.e. any information that could identify a particular individual, organisation or site has been removed. Each report contains a brief summary of the incident, the radiological consequences, and the lessons learnt. The aim is not to capture every single incident, but to provide a range of reports selected according to the value of the lessons learnt. For OTHEA to be a long-term success, it needs to be sustained with new reports. Therefore users are encouraged to submit incident reports that can be considered for inclusion in OTHEA. This note summarises the background to OTHEA, and provides a description of the operating features and content at its launch in summer 2010. (note)

  6. Study on exposures in incidents situations involving X-ray generators of industrial use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rios, Paulo B.; Rios, Denise A. da S.

    2014-01-01

    Case studies of accidents involving radiation sources provides valuable information for the improvement of equipment and procedures to be adopted to prevent their recurrence. Therefore, they are recommended as part of the licensing process of radiative facilities. However, when the equipment has no radiological protection requirements or have no record of accidents, an effective method to appropriate this knowledge necessary to improvements of process and project is the investigation of reported incidents and the proposition limit situations where exposures unlikely and even low intensity can occur. This work reviews incidents in X-ray equipment and thickness meters. Emergency situations are also studied in this type of equipment and in an accelerator of electrons self-shielded for curing of paints and varnishes. The exposure estimates are calculated from data collected in workplaces on the distance and time for each proposed case. Although there is no severe consequences to occupational health, the results can be used to improve the quality of training for operators and maintenance technicians, for proposing of new alarm systems and emergency teams procedures and may serve as a warning in inadvertent and avoidable situations of unnecessary exposures

  7. Radiation incidents with a cobalt-60 teletherapy unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lane, R G; Tolbert, D D; Pailwal, B R; Radtke, R R [Wisconsin Univ., Madison (USA). Dept. of Radiology

    1976-08-01

    Three radiation incidents associated with source drive failures on one particular /sup 60/Co teletherapy unit, which took place during a single year's operation, are discussed. In each case the extra treatment time of the patient, the exposure to the technician, the cause of the breakdown and the subsequent action taken are detailed. Recommendations for users of /sup 60/Co teletherapy units to minimise the results of the malfunctioning of such a system are given.

  8. Radiation incidents with a cobalt-60 teletherapy unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lane, R.G.; Tolbert, D.D.; Pailwal, B.R.; Radtke, R.R.

    1976-01-01

    Three radiation incidents associated with source drive failures on one particular 60 Co teletherapy unit, which took place during a single year's operation, are discussed. In each case the extra treatment time of the patient, the exposure to the technician, the cause of the breakdown and the subsequent action taken are detailed. Recommendations for users of 60 Co teletherapy units to minimise the results of the malfunctioning of such a system are given. (U.K.)

  9. Nurses involved in whistleblowing incidents: sequelae for their families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkes, Lesley M; Peters, Kath; Weaver, Roslyn; Jackson, Debra

    2011-01-01

    Nurses involved in whistleblowing often face economic and emotional retaliation, victimization and abuse. Yet for many nurses, one major part of their whistleblowing experience is the negative impact it has on their families. This paper reports findings from a qualitative study pertaining to the effects of whistleblowing on family life from the perspective of the nurses. Using a narrative inquiry approach, fourteen nurses were interviewed who were directly involved in whistleblowing complaints. Data analysis drew out three themes: strained relationships with family members, dislocation of family life, and exposing family to public scrutiny. The harm caused to the nurses involved in a whistleblowing event is not restricted to one party but to all those involved, as the harrowing experience and its consequences are echoed in the family life as well. It is important for organizations to seek strategies that will minimize the harmful effects on nurses' families during whistleblowing events.

  10. Hereditary Factors Involved in Radiation-Induced Leukaemogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duplan, J.F.

    1969-01-01

    The hereditary factors involved in radiation-induced leukaemogenesis were studied in pure AKR and C57BL strains, their first-generation hybrids and their back-crosses. It is known that the heredity of spontaneous lymphoid leukaemias is attributable to hereditary factors, of which only some are chromosomal, and the same situation can be considered to exist as regards the heredity of radiation-induced leukoses. In order to identify the various chromosomal and non-chromosomal factors concerned, three types of experiment were conducted with the pure strains and with each of the crosses, intended to evaluate (a) the incidence of spontaneous lymphoid leukoses, (b) the incidence of radiation-induced leukoses and (c) the inhibition of radioleukaemo- genesis by the injection of isogenic haematopoietic cells. The results show that the main non-chromosomal factor is the leukaemogenic Gross virus (VG) in the case of the AKR strain and the radioleukaemia virus (VRL) in that of the C57BL strain; these two agents are transmitted by the mother to her progeny. The VG may be responsible for radioleukaemias as well as for spontaneous leukoses, but the VRL does not produce spontaneous leukaemias even in back-crosses possessing a substantial fraction of the AKR genome, which is particularly conducive to leukaemogenesis. Restoration using C57BL bone marrow brings about a distinct inhibition of leukaemogenesis in all animals deriving from crossings for which this material is histocompatible; AKR marrow, however, never exhibits any restorative activity. Three hypotheses may be put forward to explain these results. The first is that C57BL bone marrow contains many more precursor elements than AKR marrow, these cells being necessary for inhibition of the leukaemogenic process. The second hypothesis is that the AKR strain lacks a factor which is essential for the utilization of these precursors. Finally the third hypothesis, which seems the least probable, is that AKR cells are much more

  11. The Diffuse Involvement of Bilateral Breasts in the Incidence of Burkitt's Lymphoma: A Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Myung Su; Lee, Sa Rah; Yang, Woo Ick; Kim, Eun Kyung; Jung, Hae Kyoung

    2009-01-01

    The incidence of Burkitt's lymphoma involving both breasts is rare. We report such a case that was diagnosed by a core biopsy of a hypoechoic lesion visualized from the ultrasonographic results of a patient that was clinically suspected of mastitis

  12. Influence of radiation and non-radiation factors on pancreatic cancer incidence among Mayak PA workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhuntova, G.V.; Tokarskaya, Z.B.; Belyaeva, Z.D. [Southern Ural Biophysics Institute (SUBI), Ozyorsk (Russian Federation); Syrchikov, V.A.; Grigoryeva, E.S. [Mayak Production Association (Mayak PA), Ozyorsk (Russian Federation)

    2006-07-01

    The finding of this nested case-control study suggests that high levels of 239 Pu incorporation (239 Pu body burden > 3.7), alcohol abuse and smoking were associated with increasing the risk of pancreatic cancer among Mayak PA workers chronically exposed to ionizing radiation. The contribution of non radiation factors (alcohol abuse and smoking) to pancreatic tumor incidence is greater (AR=51%) than 239 Pu incorporation kBq; AR = 7%). No significant effect of external gamma rays ({<=} 6.8 Gy), prior exposure to chemical agents, or chronic digestive diseases was found on the incidence of pancreatic tumor. Evaluation of the absorbed alpha-radiation pancreatic dose will permit to make more exact the 239 Pu risk estimation in the further extended study.

  13. Influence of radiation and non-radiation factors on pancreatic cancer incidence among Mayak PA workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhuntova, G.V.; Tokarskaya, Z.B.; Belyaeva, Z.D.; Syrchikov, V.A.; Grigoryeva, E.S.

    2006-01-01

    The finding of this nested case-control study suggests that high levels of 239 Pu incorporation (239 Pu body burden > 3.7), alcohol abuse and smoking were associated with increasing the risk of pancreatic cancer among Mayak PA workers chronically exposed to ionizing radiation. The contribution of non radiation factors (alcohol abuse and smoking) to pancreatic tumor incidence is greater (AR=51%) than 239 Pu incorporation kBq; AR = 7%). No significant effect of external gamma rays (≤ 6.8 Gy), prior exposure to chemical agents, or chronic digestive diseases was found on the incidence of pancreatic tumor. Evaluation of the absorbed alpha-radiation pancreatic dose will permit to make more exact the 239 Pu risk estimation in the further extended study

  14. Lessons Learnt from Past Incidents and Accidents in Radiation Oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knöös, T

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this report is to review and compile what have been and can be learnt from incidents and accidents in radiation oncology, especially in external beam and brachytherapy. Some major accidents from the last 20 years will be discussed. The relationship between major events and minor or so-called near misses is mentioned, leading to the next topic of exploring the knowledge hidden among them. The main lessons learnt from the discussion here and elsewhere are that a well-functioning and safe radiotherapy department should help staff to work with awareness and alertness and that documentation and procedures should be in place and known by everyone. It also requires that trained and educated staff with the required competences are in place and, finally, functions and responsibilities are defined and well known. Copyright © 2017 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Using mortality data to estimate radiation effects on breast cancer incidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoel, D.G.; Dinse, G.E.

    1990-01-01

    In this paper we combine Japanese data on radiation exposure and cancer mortality with U.S. data on cancer incidence and lethality to estimate the effects of ionizing radiation on cancer incidence. The analysis is based on the mathematical relationship between the mortality rate and the incidence and lethality rates, as well as on statistical models that relate Japanese incidence rates to U.S. incidence rates and radiation risk factors. Our approach assumes that the risk of death from causes other than the cancer does not depend on whether or not the cancer is present, and among individuals with the cancer, the risk of death attributable to the cancer is the same in Japan and the U.S. and is not affected by radiation exposure. In particular, we focus on the incidence of breast cancer in Japanese women and how this incidence is affected by radiation risk factors. The analysis uses Japanese exposure and mortality data from the Radiation Effects Research Foundation study of atomic bomb survivors and U.S. incidence and lethality data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Registry. Even without Japanese incidence data, we obtain reasonable estimates of the incidence of breast cancer in unexposed Japanese women and identify the radiation risk factors that affect this incidence. Our analysis demonstrates that the age at exposure is an important risk factor, but that the incidence of breast cancer is not affected by the city of residence (Nagasaki versus Hiroshima) or the time since exposure

  16. 14 CFR 234.13 - Reports by air carriers on incidents involving animals during air transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... involving animals during air transport. 234.13 Section 234.13 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY... REPORTS § 234.13 Reports by air carriers on incidents involving animals during air transport. (a) Any air... during air transport provided by the air carrier. (b) The report shall be made in the form and manner set...

  17. 77 FR 53779 - Reports by Air Carriers on Incidents Involving Animals During Air Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-04

    ... Involving Animals During Air Transport AGENCY: Office of the Secretary (OST), Department of Transportation... period of an NPRM on the reporting of incidents involving animals during air transport that was published... animal during air transport. The NPRM proposed to: (1) Expand the reporting requirement to U.S. carriers...

  18. People involved in radiation research and protection - an historical perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toussaint, L.F.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: The lives of selected people involved in radiation research are covered in two parts: 1. history of radiation and radioactivity; and 2. historical aspects of radiation and radiation protection in Western Australia. History of radiation/radioactivity: The background of some of the key people involved in early radiation research is discussed. These include Rontgen and Becqucrel who undertook early research into X-rays and radioactivity respectively. As well as the radiation hazards which early radiation scientists faced, there were also social pressures, as exemplified by the life of women such as Marie Curie, particularly after the death of her husband Pierre. Despite this being the time of the so-called 'beautiful years' in Europe, where there was a friendly exchange of ideas between scientists from various countries, there were also protracted disagreements. Some of the scientific findings of the Curies' daughter (Irene Joliot-Curie) and husband (Frederic Joliot-Curie) were vigorously disputed by Lisa Meitner (and colleague Otto Hahn) in Vienna. The 'beautiful years' came to an end when politics intruded and scientists such as Lisa Meitner had to flee from persecution. The splitting of the atom and realisation (by Leo Szilard) that a chain reaction was possible, led to political barriers being erected around scientists. With Europe poised for war, the implication of this science for warfare application was cause for concern among many of the normally free thinking and co-operative scientists. Secrecy now prevailed.

  19. Safety instruction for execution tasks involving ionizing radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fonseca, G.

    1985-01-01

    Basic directives are presented allow operations with ionizing radiations in industrial areas with high levels of safety. Contractual, technical, operational and administrative criteria are established for the safe performance of x-rays and gamographies and the use of fixed radiation based equipment (indicators of level, density, flow, etc) as well as precautions to be taken during project, procurement, transportation, assembly and maintenance of such equipment. Finally procedures are suggested for emergencies involving radioactive sources. (author)

  20. Potential radiation exposure in emergencies involving neutron sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marathe, P.K.; Bisht, J.S.; Massand, O.P.; Venkataraman, G.; Nandakumar, A.N.

    1996-01-01

    Incidents involving neutron sources, particularly in the field of oil well logging, may involve potential hazards by way of source lost above ground, lost under water at a depth or source damaged and spread over an area. While every effort should be made for retrieving a lost source or contain the contamination, there could be occasions when abandonment of the source may be preferable to retrieval. However, the decision to abandon the source needs to be guided primarily by considerations of potential exposure and the cost of retrieval. This report briefly discusses these aspects of such emergencies. 5 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs

  1. Ramp-related incidents involving wheeled mobility device users during transit bus boarding/alighting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, Karen L; Bertocci, Gina; Smalley, Craig

    2015-05-01

    To estimate the prevalence of wheeled mobility device (WhMD) ramp-related incidents while boarding/alighting a public transit bus and to determine whether the frequency of incidents is less when the ramp slope meets the proposed Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) maximum allowable limit of ≤9.5°. Observational study. Community public transportation. WhMD users (N=414) accessing a public transit bus equipped with an instrumented ramp. Not applicable. Prevalence of boarding/alighting incidents involving WhMD users and associated ramp slopes; factors affecting incidents. A total of 4.6% (n=35) of WhMD users experienced an incident while boarding/alighting a transit bus. Significantly more incidents occurred during boarding (6.3%, n=26) than during alighting (2.2%, n=9) (Pboard/alight when the ramp slope exceeded the proposed ADA maximum allowable ramp slope was 5.1 (95% confidence interval, 2.9-9.0; P9.5° and ramps deployed to street level are associated with a higher frequency of incidents and provision of assistance. Transit agencies should increase awareness among bus operators of the effect kneeling and deployment location (street/sidewalk) have on the ramp slope. In addition, ramp components and the built environment may contribute to incidents. When prescribing WhMDs, skills training must include ascending/descending ramps at slopes encountered during boarding/alighting to ensure safe and independent access to public transit buses. Copyright © 2015 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Use of casual tree method for investigation of incidents and accidents involving radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasconcelos, Vanderley de; Senne Junior, Murillo; Marques, Raissa Oliveira

    2013-01-01

    There are many methodologies used for investigation of accidents to facilitate the search of the factors that cause these events in different areas of industry. These can be called proactive methods, if they are used before the occurrence of the events, or reactive methods that are applied after the occurrence of the incident or accident, and are used as a basis of information to prevent further events. One of these methods is the Causal Tree Method (CTM). The basic idea of this technique is that incidents and accidents result from variations in usual processes. These variations can be related to the individual, the task, the material or the environment. The tree starts with the end event (incident or accident) and works backwards. The facts relating to the end event are used in the construction of the causal tree. The end event is the starting point and only the facts that contributed to the incident or accident should be selected. The analyst has to identify and list the variations and then display them in the analytic tree, showing causal relations. The objective of this paper is to test the application of the CTM method in investigation of incidents and accidents involving radioactive materials, in order to evaluate its efficiency on finding the typical factors causing these events. (author)

  3. Simulation of Solar Radiation Incident on Horizontal and Inclined Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MA Basunia

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A computer model was developed to simulate the hourly, daily and monthly average of daily solar radiation on horizontal and inclined surfaces. The measured hourly and daily solar radiation was compared with simulated radiation, and favourable agreement was observed for the measured and predicted values on clear days. The measured and simulated monthly averages of total (diffuse and beam daily solar radiation were compared and a reasonable agreement was observed for a number of stations in Japan. The simulation showed that during the rice harvesting season, September to October, there is a daily average of 14.7 MJ/m2 of solar irradiation on a horizontal surface in Matsuyama, Japan. There is a similar amount of solar radiation on a horizontal surface during the major rice harvesting season, November to December, in Bangladesh. This radiation can be effectively utilized for drying rough rice and other farm crops.

  4. The Equivalent Uniform Dose as a severity metric for radiation treatment incidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunscombe, Peter B.; Iftody, Sandra; Ploquin, Nicolas; Ekaette, Edidiong U.; Lee, Robert C.

    2007-01-01

    In allocating resources within a risk management program, ideally we would like to know both the probabilities and consequences of potential incidents. We simulate, on a treatment planning computer, several commonly reported incidents in radiation treatment and explore their consequences for the EUDs of targets and organs at risk

  5. Radiation effects in silicon and gallium arsenide solar cells using isotropic and normally incident radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anspaugh, B. E.; Downing, R. G.

    1984-01-01

    Several types of silicon and gallium arsenide solar cells were irradiated with protons with energies between 50 keV and 10 MeV at both normal and isotropic incidence. Damage coefficients for maximum power relative to 10 MeV were derived for these cells for both cases of omni-directional and normal incidence. The damage coefficients for the silicon cells were found to be somewhat lower than those quoted in the Solar Cell Radiation Handbook. These values were used to compute omni-directional damage coefficients suitable for solar cells protected by coverglasses of practical thickness, which in turn were used to compute solar cell degradation in two proton-dominated orbits. In spite of the difference in the low energy proton damage coefficients, the difference between the handbook prediction and the prediction using the newly derived values was negligible. Damage coefficients for GaAs solar cells for short circuit current, open circuit voltage, and maximum power were also computed relative to 10 MeV protons. They were used to predict cell degradation in the same two orbits and in a 5600 nmi orbit. Results show the performance of the GaAs solar cells in these orbits to be superior to that of the Si cells.

  6. Gamma radiation influences postharvest disease incidence of pineapple fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damayanti, M.; Sharma, G.J.; Kundu, S.C.

    1992-01-01

    The application of gamma radiation for improving the storage of pineapple fruits [Ananas comosus (L.) Merr. cv. Queen] has been studied in an attempt to reduce decay caused by fungal pathogens such as Ceratocystis paradoxa (Dade)-Moreau and Penicillium purpurogenum Stoll. Gamma radiation at 50, 75, 100, 150, and 250 Gy improved shelf life. The maximum tolerable dose was approximately 250 Gy. Fruits irradiated with up to 150 Gy and then stored at 25 to 28C maintained their texture better than did the controls. Radiation, particularly at doses 250 Gy, caused browning of the skin and softening of tissues. Browning increased with increasing radiation dose and storage duration. Excessively high doses promoted spoilage. Doses in the range of 50 to 250 Gy, in combination with storage at 11 to 13C, can be used to reduce postharvest losses in pineapple due to fungal diseases and senescence, thereby extending shelf life

  7. An evaluation of the effect of natural background radiation on cancer incidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, Jerry J.

    1978-01-01

    Previous studies on the relationship between levels of natural background radiation and cancer incidence indicate no significant correlation. This observation is shown to be consistent with certain predicted effect levels of ionizing radiation on malignancy production (BEIR, ICRP). Other theoretical predictions on the effects of ionizing radiation indicate induction rates to be as high as 8 x 10 -3 cancers/person-rem. Assuming this factor were correct, then roughly one-half of the cancer incidence in the USA could be attributed to exposure to natural background radiation. By statistically testing various hypothetically assigned cancer induction rates against observed data, it is possible to develop a probabilistic perspective on the cause-effect relationship. Tests have been performed using normalized (by age, death rate, etc.) cancer incidence by state against levels of background radiation. This evaluation allows for the determination of the probability of observing the actual data given that the hypotheses were correct. Graphic relationships between hypothetically assigned radiation induced cancer rates vs. the probability of observing the actual incidence are developed and presented. It is shown that if the cancer induction rate were in excess of ∼10 -3 cancers/person-rem, it would be highly improbable that there would, in fact, be a lack of correlation between the rates of natural background radiation and cancer incidence. (author)

  8. Developing a highway emergency response plan for incidents involving hazardous materials, second edition, March 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This provides minimum guidelines for developing an emergency response plan for incidents involving hazardous liquid hydrocarbons, such as gasoline and crude oil, transported in MC 306/DOT 406 and MC 307/DOT 407 aluminum cargo tanks and for coordinating and cooperating with local, state, and federal officials. This publication covers response plan priorities, personnel training, special equipment, media relations, environmental relations, and post-response activities. The apprendixes to this recommended practice outline a highway emergency response plan and suggest a procedure for removing liquid hydrocarbons from overturned cargo tanks and righting the tank vehicles

  9. Are passive smoking, air pollution and obesity a greater mortality risk than major radiation incidents?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Jim T

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Following a nuclear incident, the communication and perception of radiation risk becomes a (perhaps the major public health issue. In response to such incidents it is therefore crucial to communicate radiation health risks in the context of other more common environmental and lifestyle risk factors. This study compares the risk of mortality from past radiation exposures (to people who survived the Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bombs and those exposed after the Chernobyl accident with risks arising from air pollution, obesity and passive and active smoking. Methods A comparative assessment of mortality risks from ionising radiation was carried out by estimating radiation risks for realistic exposure scenarios and assessing those risks in comparison with risks from air pollution, obesity and passive and active smoking. Results The mortality risk to populations exposed to radiation from the Chernobyl accident may be no higher than that for other more common risk factors such as air pollution or passive smoking. Radiation exposures experienced by the most exposed group of survivors of Hiroshima and Nagasaki led to an average loss of life expectancy significantly lower than that caused by severe obesity or active smoking. Conclusion Population-averaged risks from exposures following major radiation incidents are clearly significant, but may be no greater than those from other much more common environmental and lifestyle factors. This comparative analysis, whilst highlighting inevitable uncertainties in risk quantification and comparison, helps place the potential consequences of radiation exposures in the context of other public health risks.

  10. Calorie restriction reduces the incidence of radiation-induced myeloid leukemia and spontaneous tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Kazuko

    1999-01-01

    The host-defense mechanisms against cancers are known to be modulated by changing the environmental factor(s). The spontaneous incidence of myeloid leukemia is about 1% in C3H/He mice, and the incidence increases up to 23.3% when a single dose of radiation, 3 Gy X-ray, is exposed to a whole-body. Since calorie restriction was known to reduce the incidence of spontaneous tumors, a question as to whether such radiation induced-increase of myeloid leukemia would be also decreased by calorie restriction, was aimed to answer to elucidate possible mechanism of radiation-induced myeloid leukemia. By the calorie restriction, the incidence of myeloid leukemia was significantly decreased; it was reduced to 7.9% and 10.7% when restriction was started before (6 weeks old) and after (10 weeks old) irradiation, respectively. In addition, the latent period of the myeloid leukemia in the groups for calorie restriction was significantly extended at a greater extent as compared with the control diet groups. Number of hematopoietic stem cells, the possible target cells for radiation-induced leukemias, in the groups for the calorie restriction demonstrated a significant decrease, especially in the spleen, as compared with that in the control, when the evaluation was made at the time of radiation exposure. Then, we examined whether the decreased number of target cells at the time of exposure is caused by the reduction of radiation-induced myeloid leukemia with caloric restriction. The third restricted groups were fed 65 kcal diet (restricted diet) for the first 4 weeks i.e. from 6 weeks to 10 weeks old, then, the mice were fed with control diet after radiation. The incidence of myeloid leukemia in this group was slightly decreased but did not show statistically significance. Therefore, the caloric restriction seems to be more effective in the promotion stage than the initiation stage on radiation-induced leukemogenesis. It is well known that C3H/He mice develop hepatoma spontaneously

  11. An analysis of the incidence and related factors for radiation dermatitis in breast cancer patients who receive radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sun Young; Kwon, Hyoung Cheol; Kim, Jung Soo; Lee, Heui Kwan

    2010-01-01

    We analyzed the incidence and related factors of radiation dermatitis; at first, to recognize whether a decrease in radiation dermatitis is possible or not in breast cancer patients who received radiation therapy. Of 338 patients, 284 with invasive breast cancer who received breast conservation surgery with radiotherapy at Chonbuk National University Hospital from January 2007 to June 2009 were evaluated. Patients who also underwent bolus, previous contralateral breast irradiation and irradiation on both breasts were excluded. For patients who appeared to have greater than moderate radiation dermatitis, the incidence and relating factors for radiation dermatitis were analyzed retrospectively. A total of 207 and 77 patients appeared to have RTOG grade 0/1 or above RTOG grade 2 radiation dermatitis, respectively. The factors found to be statistically significant for the 77 patients who appeared to have greater than moderate radiation dermatitis include the presence of lymphocele due to the stasis of lymph and lymph edema which affect the healing disturbance of radiation dermatitis (p=0.003, p=0.001). Moreover, an allergic reaction to plaster due to the immune cells of skin and the activation of cytokine and concomitant hormonal therapy were also statistically significant factors (p=0.001, p=0.025). Most of the breast cancer patients who received radiation therapy appeared to have a greater than mild case of radiation dermatitis. Lymphocele, lymphedema, an allergy to plaster and concomitant hormonal therapy which affect radiation dermatitis were found to be significant factors. Consequently, we should eliminate lymphocele prior to radiation treatment for patients who appear to have an allergic reaction to plaster. We should also instruct patients of methods to maintain skin moisture if they appear to have a greater than moderate case of radiation dermatitis.

  12. Identifying Predictive Factors for Incident Reports in Patients Receiving Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elnahal, Shereef M., E-mail: selnaha1@jhmi.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Blackford, Amanda [Department of Oncology Biostatistics, Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Smith, Koren; Souranis, Annette N.; Briner, Valerie; McNutt, Todd R.; DeWeese, Theodore L.; Wright, Jean L.; Terezakis, Stephanie A. [Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States)

    2016-04-01

    Purpose: To describe radiation therapy cases during which voluntary incident reporting occurred; and identify patient- or treatment-specific factors that place patients at higher risk for incidents. Methods and Materials: We used our institution's incident learning system to build a database of patients with incident reports filed between January 2011 and December 2013. Patient- and treatment-specific data were reviewed for all patients with reported incidents, which were classified by step in the process and root cause. A control group of patients without events was generated for comparison. Summary statistics, likelihood ratios, and mixed-effect logistic regression models were used for group comparisons. Results: The incident and control groups comprised 794 and 499 patients, respectively. Common root causes included documentation errors (26.5%), communication (22.5%), technical treatment planning (37.5%), and technical treatment delivery (13.5%). Incidents were more frequently reported in minors (age <18 years) than in adult patients (37.7% vs 0.4%, P<.001). Patients with head and neck (16% vs 8%, P<.001) and breast (20% vs 15%, P=.03) primaries more frequently had incidents, whereas brain (18% vs 24%, P=.008) primaries were less frequent. Larger tumors (17% vs 10% had T4 lesions, P=.02), and cases on protocol (9% vs 5%, P=.005) or with intensity modulated radiation therapy/image guided intensity modulated radiation therapy (52% vs 43%, P=.001) were more likely to have incidents. Conclusions: We found several treatment- and patient-specific variables associated with incidents. These factors should be considered by treatment teams at the time of peer review to identify patients at higher risk. Larger datasets are required to recommend changes in care process standards, to minimize safety risks.

  13. Identifying Predictive Factors for Incident Reports in Patients Receiving Radiation Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elnahal, Shereef M.; Blackford, Amanda; Smith, Koren; Souranis, Annette N.; Briner, Valerie; McNutt, Todd R.; DeWeese, Theodore L.; Wright, Jean L.; Terezakis, Stephanie A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To describe radiation therapy cases during which voluntary incident reporting occurred; and identify patient- or treatment-specific factors that place patients at higher risk for incidents. Methods and Materials: We used our institution's incident learning system to build a database of patients with incident reports filed between January 2011 and December 2013. Patient- and treatment-specific data were reviewed for all patients with reported incidents, which were classified by step in the process and root cause. A control group of patients without events was generated for comparison. Summary statistics, likelihood ratios, and mixed-effect logistic regression models were used for group comparisons. Results: The incident and control groups comprised 794 and 499 patients, respectively. Common root causes included documentation errors (26.5%), communication (22.5%), technical treatment planning (37.5%), and technical treatment delivery (13.5%). Incidents were more frequently reported in minors (age <18 years) than in adult patients (37.7% vs 0.4%, P<.001). Patients with head and neck (16% vs 8%, P<.001) and breast (20% vs 15%, P=.03) primaries more frequently had incidents, whereas brain (18% vs 24%, P=.008) primaries were less frequent. Larger tumors (17% vs 10% had T4 lesions, P=.02), and cases on protocol (9% vs 5%, P=.005) or with intensity modulated radiation therapy/image guided intensity modulated radiation therapy (52% vs 43%, P=.001) were more likely to have incidents. Conclusions: We found several treatment- and patient-specific variables associated with incidents. These factors should be considered by treatment teams at the time of peer review to identify patients at higher risk. Larger datasets are required to recommend changes in care process standards, to minimize safety risks.

  14. Incident report and estimates of personnel exposure for a staff present in maze corridor of linac room while radiation beam on

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravichandran, R.; Davis, C.A.; Ghamrawy, Kamal El; Arunkumar, L.S.

    2007-01-01

    The radiation safety features of high energy linear accelerator installations include primary and secondary barriers made of concrete (radiation bunkers), provision of maze wall for eliminating first scatter reaching the entrance door, locating room entrance perpendicular to maze corridor to reduce neutron dose. In addition, special motorized doors with lead lining and paraffin blocks, electrically interlocked to beam on-off system is provided for radiation safety. A radiation incident took place involving presence of a staff inside the Clinac 2300 CD room in September 2006 has been described

  15. Leakage of an irradiator source: The June 1988 Georgia RSI [Radiation Sterilizers, Inc.] incident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-02-01

    On June 6, 1988, operators of a pool irradiator in Decatur, Georgia, were prevented by a safety system from raising sources from the pool. Radiation levels of 60 millirem per hour at the surface of the pool water were found, indicative of a leak of one or more of the 252 Cs-137 source capsules used at the irradiator. A summary of the Incident Evaluation Task Force's First Interim Report has been prepared for person's needing an overview of the incident and lessons learned to date. This report provides a summary of Agreement States' views and recommendations on some of the issues raised by the incident

  16. Incident involving radioactive material at IAEA Safeguards Laboratory - No radioactivity released to environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Pressure build-up in a small sealed sample bottle in a storage safe resulted in plutonium contamination of a storage room at about 02:30 today at the IAEA's Safeguards Analytical Laboratory in Seibersdorf. All indications are that there was no release of radioactivity to the environment. Further monitoring around the laboratory will be undertaken. No one was working in the laboratory at the time. The Laboratory's safety system detected plutonium contamination in the storage room where the safe was located and in two other rooms - subsequently confirmed by a team of IAEA radiation protection experts. The Laboratory is equipped with multiple safety systems, including an air-filtering system to prevent the release of radioactivity to the environment. There will be restricted access to the affected rooms until they are decontaminated. A full investigation of the incident will be conducted. The IAEA has informed the Austrian regulatory authority. The IAEA's Laboratory in Seibersdorf is located within the complex of the Austrian Research Centers Seibersdorf (ARC), about 35 km southeast of Vienna. The laboratory routinely analyses small samples of nuclear material (uranium or plutonium) as part of the IAEA's safeguards verification work. (IAEA)

  17. Incidents of illicit trafficking and other unauthorized activities involving nuclear and other radioactive materials (1993-2005)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The confirmed incidents of illicit trafficking and other unauthorized activities involving nuclear and other radioactive materials between 1993-2005 shows that, 27% involved nuclear materials, 62% radioactive materials,7% involved both nuclear and other radioactive materials while the remainder involved other radioactive and non radioactive materials.Also 80% of nuclear material which was recovered during the same period was not reported as stolen or lost.

  18. The management of individuals involved in radiation accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swindon, T N [Australian Radiation Lab., Melbourne (Australia)

    1991-09-01

    The author defines the objectives and the coverage of two radiation accident courses presented in 1990 by the US Radiation Emergency Assistance Centre and Training Site of the Oak Ridge Associated Universities together with some Australian Medical institutions. It is estimated that the courses, directed towards physicians, radiotherapists and nurses gave plenty practical advices and details on how to go about radiation accident managements. A manual on handling radiation accidents is also to be prepared after the courses.

  19. Radiation-Induced Breast Cancer Incidence and Mortality From Digital Mammography Screening: A Modeling Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miglioretti, Diana L; Lange, Jane; van den Broek, Jeroen J; Lee, Christoph I; van Ravesteyn, Nicolien T; Ritley, Dominique; Kerlikowske, Karla; Fenton, Joshua J; Melnikow, Joy; de Koning, Harry J; Hubbard, Rebecca A

    2016-02-16

    Estimates of risk for radiation-induced breast cancer from mammography screening have not considered variation in dose exposure or diagnostic work-up after abnormal screening results. To estimate distributions of radiation-induced breast cancer incidence and mortality from digital mammography screening while considering exposure from screening and diagnostic mammography and dose variation among women. 2 simulation-modeling approaches. U.S. population. Women aged 40 to 74 years. Annual or biennial digital mammography screening from age 40, 45, or 50 years until age 74 years. Lifetime breast cancer deaths averted (benefits) and radiation-induced breast cancer incidence and mortality (harms) per 100,000 women screened. Annual screening of 100,000 women aged 40 to 74 years was projected to induce 125 breast cancer cases (95% CI, 88 to 178) leading to 16 deaths (CI, 11 to 23), relative to 968 breast cancer deaths averted by early detection from screening. Women exposed at the 95th percentile were projected to develop 246 cases of radiation-induced breast cancer leading to 32 deaths per 100,000 women. Women with large breasts requiring extra views for complete examination (8% of population) were projected to have greater radiation-induced breast cancer risk (266 cancer cases and 35 deaths per 100,000 women) than other women (113 cancer cases and 15 deaths per 100,000 women). Biennial screening starting at age 50 years reduced risk for radiation-induced cancer 5-fold. Life-years lost from radiation-induced breast cancer could not be estimated. Radiation-induced breast cancer incidence and mortality from digital mammography screening are affected by dose variability from screening, resultant diagnostic work-up, initiation age, and screening frequency. Women with large breasts may have a greater risk for radiation-induced breast cancer. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, U.S. Preventive Services Task Force, National Cancer Institute.

  20. Adverse radiation effect after stereotactic radiosurgery for brain metastases : incidence, time course, and risk factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sneed, Penny K.; Mendez, Joe; Vemer-van den Hoek, Johanna; Seymour, Zachary A.; Ma, Lijun; Molinaro, Annette M.; Fogh, Shannon E.; Nakamura, Jean L.; McDermott, Michael W.

    OBJECT The authors sought to determine the incidence, time course, and risk factors for overall adverse radiation effect (ARE) and symptomatic ARE after stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) for brain metastases. METHODS All cases of brain metastases treated from 1998 through 2009 with Gamma Knife SRS at

  1. Emergency reception of accidents and incidents in working with ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abrahamse, J.C.; Gispen, J.G.W.

    1989-01-01

    This manual is intended to be a general manual for the responsible expert regarding radiation hygienics in order to assist him in establishing an organization for combat of accidents and incidents. First attention is paid considerations underlying emergency measures and aid, subsequently the demands and desirabilities in the practical organization are discussed. (author). 3 figs

  2. SU-E-T-524: Web-Based Radiation Oncology Incident Reporting and Learning System (ROIRLS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapoor, R; Palta, J; Hagan, M; Grover, S; Malik, G

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Describe a Web-based Radiation Oncology Incident Reporting and Learning system that has the potential to improve quality of care for radiation therapy patients. This system is an important facet of continuing effort by our community to maintain and improve safety of radiotherapy.Material and Methods: The VA National Radiation Oncology Program office has embarked on a program to electronically collect adverse events and near miss data of radiation treatment of over 25,000 veterans treated with radiotherapy annually. Software used for this program is deployed on the VAs intranet as a Website. All data entry forms (adverse event or near miss reports, work product reports) utilize standard causal, RT process step taxonomies and data dictionaries defined in AAPM and ASTRO reports on error reporting (AAPM Work Group Report on Prevention of Errors and ASTROs safety is no accident report). All reported incidents are investigated by the radiation oncology domain experts. This system encompasses the entire feedback loop of reporting an incident, analyzing it for salient details, and developing interventions to prevent it from happening again. The operational workflow is similar to that of the Aviation Safety Reporting System. This system is also synergistic with ROSIS and SAFRON. Results: The ROIRLS facilitates the collection of data that help in tracking adverse events and near misses and develop new interventions to prevent such incidents. The ROIRLS electronic infrastructure is fully integrated with each registered facility profile data thus minimizing key strokes and multiple entries by the event reporters. Conclusions: OIRLS is expected to improve the quality and safety of a broad spectrum of radiation therapy patients treated in the VA and fulfills our goal of Effecting Quality While Treating Safely The Radiation Oncology Incident Reporting and Learning System software used for this program has been developed, conceptualized and maintained by TSG Innovations

  3. SU-E-T-524: Web-Based Radiation Oncology Incident Reporting and Learning System (ROIRLS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kapoor, R; Palta, J; Hagan, M [Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA (United States); National Radiation Oncology Program (10P4H), Richmond, VA (United States); Grover, S; Malik, G [TSG Innovations Inc., Richmond, VA (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Describe a Web-based Radiation Oncology Incident Reporting and Learning system that has the potential to improve quality of care for radiation therapy patients. This system is an important facet of continuing effort by our community to maintain and improve safety of radiotherapy.Material and Methods: The VA National Radiation Oncology Program office has embarked on a program to electronically collect adverse events and near miss data of radiation treatment of over 25,000 veterans treated with radiotherapy annually. Software used for this program is deployed on the VAs intranet as a Website. All data entry forms (adverse event or near miss reports, work product reports) utilize standard causal, RT process step taxonomies and data dictionaries defined in AAPM and ASTRO reports on error reporting (AAPM Work Group Report on Prevention of Errors and ASTROs safety is no accident report). All reported incidents are investigated by the radiation oncology domain experts. This system encompasses the entire feedback loop of reporting an incident, analyzing it for salient details, and developing interventions to prevent it from happening again. The operational workflow is similar to that of the Aviation Safety Reporting System. This system is also synergistic with ROSIS and SAFRON. Results: The ROIRLS facilitates the collection of data that help in tracking adverse events and near misses and develop new interventions to prevent such incidents. The ROIRLS electronic infrastructure is fully integrated with each registered facility profile data thus minimizing key strokes and multiple entries by the event reporters. Conclusions: OIRLS is expected to improve the quality and safety of a broad spectrum of radiation therapy patients treated in the VA and fulfills our goal of Effecting Quality While Treating Safely The Radiation Oncology Incident Reporting and Learning System software used for this program has been developed, conceptualized and maintained by TSG Innovations

  4. The incidence of breast cancer following mantle field radiation therapy as a function of dose and technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tinger, Alfred; Wasserman, Todd H.; Klein, Eric E.; Miller, Elizabeth A.; Roberts, Tracy; Piephoff, James V.; Kucik, Nancy A.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: There is an increased incidence of breast cancer following mantle field radiation therapy for Hodgkin's disease (HD). We reviewed the experience at the Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology (MIR) for radiation factors related to the development of breast cancer after mantle field radiation therapy for HD. Methods: The radiation therapy records of 152 women treated with mantle field irradiation for HD at MIR between 1966-1985 were reviewed for the development of breast cancer and treatment-related factors. All patients had a minimum of 5 years of follow-up. The treatment era (1966-1974 vs. 1975-1985), stage of HD, mediastinal dose, axillary dose, maximum dose from the anterior field (anterior d max dose), the anterior-posterior:posterior-anterior (AP:PA) ratio, age at the time of treatment, length of follow-up, and history of splenectomy were analyzed as possible contributing factors for the development of breast cancer. The observed number of breast cancers was compared to the expected number based on age-adjusted incidences from the Connecticut Tumor Registry. Results: Ten breast cancers occurred in the population. Eight involved an upper outer quadrant. In a multivariate analysis, the development of breast cancer was significantly associated with axillary dose. Patients in the early treatment era were at an increased risk for the development of breast cancer due to high anterior d max and breast doses from weighting the fields anteriorly on a low energy linear accelerator. The use of current radiation therapy techniques was not related to an increased risk of breast cancer with a median follow-up of 13 years. Conclusions: A high dose to the axilla and the anterior d max point is significantly associated with the development of breast cancer after mantle field irradiation for HD. Efforts to protect the breast from high doses will likely lessen the increased risk of breast cancer in women treated with radiation therapy for HD

  5. Surf, sand, scrapes and stings: First aid incidents involving children at New Zealand beaches, 2007–2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Kevin; Webber, Jonathon

    2014-03-01

    Aims: In spite of the popularity of beaches for family recreation, little is known about childhood injuries sustained at beaches. It is the purpose of this study to analyse data from incidents necessitating first aid treatment from reports compiled by surf lifeguards on New Zealand beaches.Method: A retrospective analysis of first aid incidents involving children (safety via greater care giver awareness, the use of protective clothing and footwear, and child safety promotion via health professionals and safety organisations are discussed.

  6. The Response of the Ocean Thermal Skin Layer to Variations in Incident Infrared Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Elizabeth W.; Minnett, Peter J.

    2018-04-01

    Ocean warming trends are observed and coincide with the increase in concentrations of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere resulting from human activities. At the ocean surface, most of the incoming infrared (IR) radiation is absorbed within the top micrometers of the ocean's surface where the thermal skin layer (TSL) exists. Thus, the incident IR radiation does not directly heat the upper few meters of the ocean. This paper investigates the physical mechanism between the absorption of IR radiation and its effect on heat transfer at the air-sea boundary. The hypothesis is that given the heat lost through the air-sea interface is controlled by the TSL, the TSL adjusts in response to variations in incident IR radiation to maintain the surface heat loss. This modulates the flow of heat from below and hence controls upper ocean heat content. This hypothesis is tested using the increase in incoming longwave radiation from clouds and analyzing vertical temperature profiles in the TSL retrieved from sea-surface emission spectra. The additional energy from the absorption of increasing IR radiation adjusts the curvature of the TSL such that the upward conduction of heat from the bulk of the ocean into the TSL is reduced. The additional energy absorbed within the TSL supports more of the surface heat loss. Thus, more heat beneath the TSL is retained leading to the observed increase in upper ocean heat content.

  7. Female all cancer incidence in medical radiation workers in Latvia 1982-2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matisane, L.; Carpenter, L.; Venables, K.

    2005-01-01

    Medical radiation workers belong to one of the oldest occupational groups exposed to external radiation. Since the various radiological protection recommendations have been introduced, now ths process has resulted in low-dose exposure, regular monitoring of exposure and establishment of national dose registration bodies. In order to provide additional information to studies on cancer incidence among medical radiation workers (specially female workers) and in order to assess all cancer incidence in female medical radiation workers in Latvia, a retrospective cohort study based on the National Dose Register was set up in Latvia. The study cohort consisted of all workers employed in health care, occupationally exposed to ionising radiation for more than one year in any of the public health care establishments in Latvia, except military ones, between 1 January 1972 and 1 January 2002 and who were registered in the National Dose Register of Latvia. The cohort consisted of 1416 female medical radiation workers either in hospitals or outpatient departments, or both. The cohort included diagnostic and therapeutic radiologists with predominantly medical qualification, it also included radiotechnologits, nurses, junior nurses, but it did not include academic, physicists and dentists. In all cases the calculated SIR was over than expected or close to expected. Several major differences in study design makes ir difficult to compare the results of this study with the results of the studies carried out in other countries

  8. Estimating photosynthetic radiation use efficiency using incident light and photosynthesis of individual leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosati, A; Dejong, T M

    2003-06-01

    It has been theorized that photosynthetic radiation use efficiency (PhRUE) over the course of a day is constant for leaves throughout a canopy if leaf nitrogen content and photosynthetic properties are adapted to local light so that canopy photosynthesis over a day is optimized. To test this hypothesis, 'daily' photosynthesis of individual leaves of Solanum melongena plants was calculated from instantaneous rates of photosynthesis integrated over the daylight hours. Instantaneous photosynthesis was estimated from the photosynthetic responses to photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) and from the incident PAR measured on individual leaves during clear and overcast days. Plants were grown with either abundant or scarce N fertilization. Both net and gross daily photosynthesis of leaves were linearly related to daily incident PAR exposure of individual leaves, which implies constant PhRUE over a day throughout the canopy. The slope of these relationships (i.e. PhRUE) increased with N fertilization. When the relationship was calculated for hourly instead of daily periods, the regressions were curvilinear, implying that PhRUE changed with time of the day and incident radiation. Thus, linearity (i.e. constant PhRUE) was achieved only when data were integrated over the entire day. Using average PAR in place of instantaneous incident PAR increased the slope of the relationship between daily photosynthesis and incident PAR of individual leaves, and the regression became curvilinear. The slope of the relationship between daily gross photosynthesis and incident PAR of individual leaves increased for an overcast compared with a clear day, but the slope remained constant for net photosynthesis. This suggests that net PhRUE of all leaves (and thus of the whole canopy) may be constant when integrated over a day, not only when the incident PAR changes with depth in the canopy, but also when it varies on the same leaf owing to changes in daily incident PAR above the canopy. The

  9. Incidence of Second Malignancies Among Patients Treated With Proton Versus Photon Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Christine S., E-mail: chungc1@sutterhealth.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Alta Bates Summit Medical Center, Berkeley, California (United States); Yock, Torunn I. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Nelson, Kerrie [Department of Biostatistics, Boston University School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Xu, Yang [Department of Health Care Policy, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Keating, Nancy L. [Department of Health Care Policy, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Department of General Internal Medicine, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Tarbell, Nancy J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Office of the Executive Dean, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)

    2013-09-01

    Purpose: Proton radiation, when compared with photon radiation, allows delivery of increased radiation dose to the tumor while decreasing dose to adjacent critical structures. Given the recent expansion of proton facilities in the United States, the long-term sequelae of proton therapy should be carefully assessed. The objective of this study was to compare the incidence of second cancers in patients treated with proton radiation with a population-based cohort of matched patients treated with photon radiation. Methods and Materials: We performed a retrospective cohort study of 558 patients treated with proton radiation from 1973 to 2001 at the Harvard Cyclotron in Cambridge, MA and 558 matched patients treated with photon therapy in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program cancer registry. Patients were matched by age at radiation treatment, sex, year of treatment, cancer histology, and site. The main outcome measure was the incidence of second malignancies after radiation. Results: We matched 558 proton patients with 558 photon patients from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results registry. The median duration of follow-up was 6.7 years (interquartile range, 7.4) and 6.0 years (interquartile range, 9.3) in the proton and photon cohorts, respectively. The median age at treatment was 59 years in each cohort. Second malignancies occurred in 29 proton patients (5.2%) and 42 photon patients (7.5%). After we adjusted for sex, age at treatment, primary site, and year of diagnosis, proton therapy was not associated with an increased risk of second malignancy (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.52 [95% confidence interval, 0.32-0.85]; P=.009). Conclusions: The use of proton radiation therapy was not associated with a significantly increased risk of secondary malignancies compared with photon therapy. Longer follow-up of these patients is needed to determine if there is a significant decrease in second malignancies. Given the limitations of the study

  10. Incidence of Second Malignancies Among Patients Treated With Proton Versus Photon Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Christine S.; Yock, Torunn I.; Nelson, Kerrie; Xu, Yang; Keating, Nancy L.; Tarbell, Nancy J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Proton radiation, when compared with photon radiation, allows delivery of increased radiation dose to the tumor while decreasing dose to adjacent critical structures. Given the recent expansion of proton facilities in the United States, the long-term sequelae of proton therapy should be carefully assessed. The objective of this study was to compare the incidence of second cancers in patients treated with proton radiation with a population-based cohort of matched patients treated with photon radiation. Methods and Materials: We performed a retrospective cohort study of 558 patients treated with proton radiation from 1973 to 2001 at the Harvard Cyclotron in Cambridge, MA and 558 matched patients treated with photon therapy in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program cancer registry. Patients were matched by age at radiation treatment, sex, year of treatment, cancer histology, and site. The main outcome measure was the incidence of second malignancies after radiation. Results: We matched 558 proton patients with 558 photon patients from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results registry. The median duration of follow-up was 6.7 years (interquartile range, 7.4) and 6.0 years (interquartile range, 9.3) in the proton and photon cohorts, respectively. The median age at treatment was 59 years in each cohort. Second malignancies occurred in 29 proton patients (5.2%) and 42 photon patients (7.5%). After we adjusted for sex, age at treatment, primary site, and year of diagnosis, proton therapy was not associated with an increased risk of second malignancy (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.52 [95% confidence interval, 0.32-0.85]; P=.009). Conclusions: The use of proton radiation therapy was not associated with a significantly increased risk of secondary malignancies compared with photon therapy. Longer follow-up of these patients is needed to determine if there is a significant decrease in second malignancies. Given the limitations of the study

  11. Intervention in emergency situations involving radiation exposure (1990)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This document covers radiation protection aspects arising in emergency situations. It does not cover the measures necessary to reduce the health consequences of radiation exposure, i.e. the medical care of exposed individuals, nor does it cover psychological problems arising from the exposure of individuals or of a population. These problems may arise from anxiety about possible late effects of radiation exposure and from any actions implemented to reduce exposure. Even though radiation exposure levels may be low and insignificant, these problems must be taken into account in determining any action to be implemented to reduce radiation exposure. The primary concern of this document is with exposure in areas which are close to the source and in the period immediately after a source is out of control. It outlines the principles which can be used for planning and implementing countermeasures for protection of the public. 24 refs., 13 tabs

  12. Validating FMEA output against incident learning data: A study in stereotactic body radiation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, F; Cao, N; Young, L; Howard, J; Logan, W; Arbuckle, T; Sponseller, P; Korssjoen, T; Meyer, J; Ford, E

    2015-06-01

    Though failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA) is becoming more widely adopted for risk assessment in radiation therapy, to our knowledge, its output has never been validated against data on errors that actually occur. The objective of this study was to perform FMEA of a stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) treatment planning process and validate the results against data recorded within an incident learning system. FMEA on the SBRT treatment planning process was carried out by a multidisciplinary group including radiation oncologists, medical physicists, dosimetrists, and IT technologists. Potential failure modes were identified through a systematic review of the process map. Failure modes were rated for severity, occurrence, and detectability on a scale of one to ten and risk priority number (RPN) was computed. Failure modes were then compared with historical reports identified as relevant to SBRT planning within a departmental incident learning system that has been active for two and a half years. Differences between FMEA anticipated failure modes and existing incidents were identified. FMEA identified 63 failure modes. RPN values for the top 25% of failure modes ranged from 60 to 336. Analysis of the incident learning database identified 33 reported near-miss events related to SBRT planning. Combining both methods yielded a total of 76 possible process failures, of which 13 (17%) were missed by FMEA while 43 (57%) identified by FMEA only. When scored for RPN, the 13 events missed by FMEA ranked within the lower half of all failure modes and exhibited significantly lower severity relative to those identified by FMEA (p = 0.02). FMEA, though valuable, is subject to certain limitations. In this study, FMEA failed to identify 17% of actual failure modes, though these were of lower risk. Similarly, an incident learning system alone fails to identify a large number of potentially high-severity process errors. Using FMEA in combination with incident learning may

  13. Immune responsiveness and incidence of reticulum cell sarcoma in long-term syngeneic radiation chimeras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adorini, L.; Gorini, G.; Covelli, V.; Ballardin, E.; di Michele, A.; Bassani, B.; Metalli, P.; Doria, G.

    1976-01-01

    Long-term syngeneic radiation chimeras displayed a very low incidence of reticulum cell sarcoma as compared with control mice. Immune reactivity of these animals was studied in vivo by anti-dinitrophenyl antibody titer and affinity and in vitro by mitotic responsiveness to phytohemagglutinin, concanavalin A and lipopolysaccharide. Antibody titer and affinity as well as the response to T lectins were found to be increased in chimeras. These results were attributed to increased function of mature T2 cells, which could explain the reduced incidence of reticulum cell sarcoma in chimeras

  14. Redefining the impact of nutrition on breast cancer incidence: is epigenetics involved?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teegarden, Dorothy; Romieu, Isabelle; Lelièvre, Sophie A.

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer incidence is rising worldwide with an increase in aggressive neoplasias in young women. Possible factors involved include lifestyle changes, notably diet that is known to make an impact on gene transcription. However, among dietary factors, there is sufficient support for only greater body weight and alcohol consumption whereas numerous studies revealing an impact of specific diets and nutrients on breast cancer risk show conflicting results. Also, little information is available from middle- and low-income countries. The diversity of gene expression profiles found in breast cancers indicates that transcription control is critical for the outcome of the disease. This suggests the need for studies on nutrients that affect epigenetic mechanisms of transcription, such as DNA methylation and post-translational modifications of histones. In the present review, a new examination of the relationship between diet and breast cancer based on transcription control is proposed in light of epidemiological, animal and clinical studies. The mechanisms underlying the impact of diets on breast cancer development and factors that impede reaching clear conclusions are discussed. Understanding the interaction between nutrition and epigenetics (gene expression control via chromatin structure) is critical in light of the influence of diet during early stages of mammary gland development on breast cancer risk, suggesting a persistent effect on gene expression as shown by the influence of certain nutrients on DNA methylation. Successful development of breast cancer prevention strategies will require appropriate models, identification of biological markers for rapid assessment of preventive interventions, and coordinated worldwide research to discern the effects of diet. PMID:22853843

  15. Legal and technical analysis of the activities involving radiation applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borges, J.C.

    1991-01-01

    Activities related to radiation applications have been worldwide target of studies concerning biology, medicine, sociology, psychology and law, since prediction of the possible risks and harms associated with the use of radiation, depends on probabilities not easy to quantify, mainly in the most common low-dose situations. In Brazil, legislation generated in the last forty years did not match evolution of the scientific domains related above. This way, more recent rules not rarely conflict with older regulations, without revoking them. (author)

  16. Radiation protection measures in the case of incidents and radiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herzberg, B.

    1976-01-01

    Measures to be taken in the case of radiation accidents connected with an unusually high radiation exposure to persons, the amounts of which exceed the limiting values, with depend on whether there has been an external or an internal exposure. In order to give further treatment in the case of whole-body or partial-body irradiation, it is necessary to estimate the exposure dose. In nuclear medicine the accident doses are generally low, i.e. acute radiation damage does not occur here, and immediate measures are not necessary. Therapeutic measures in the case of incorporation accidents are only necessary when the maximum amounts for the nuclide in question recommended by the ICRP has been reached or exceeded in the organism. However, decorporation measures ought to be carried out only by qualified radiation protection physicians. The type of radiation accident which occurs most frequently in nuclear medicine is radiation exposure as a result of contamination. If in the case of contamination of a person the measurement exceeds the radioactivity limit, the decontamination measures are necessary. In the present contribution, these measures for cases without injuries are described in detail. (orig./HP) [de

  17. Health and productivity of commuter railroad employees involved in critical incidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-15

    ABSTRACTThe effects of accidentstermed Critical Incidentson the health and productivity of rail transit workers have not been fully investigated. Anecdotal evidence suggests lasting effects of these incidents. Surveys were obtained from 363 com...

  18. Monte Carlo mixture model of lifetime cancer incidence risk from radiation exposure on shuttle and international space station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, L.E.; Cucinotta, F.A.

    1999-01-01

    Estimating uncertainty in lifetime cancer risk for human exposure to space radiation is a unique challenge. Conventional risk assessment with low-linear-energy-transfer (LET)-based risk from Japanese atomic bomb survivor studies may be inappropriate for relativistic protons and nuclei in space due to track structure effects. This paper develops a Monte Carlo mixture model (MCMM) for transferring additive, National Institutes of Health multiplicative, and multiplicative excess cancer incidence risks based on Japanese atomic bomb survivor data to determine excess incidence risk for various US astronaut exposure profiles. The MCMM serves as an anchor point for future risk projection methods involving biophysical models of DNA damage from space radiation. Lifetime incidence risks of radiation-induced cancer for the MCMM based on low-LET Japanese data for nonleukemia (all cancers except leukemia) were 2.77 (90% confidence limit, 0.75-11.34) for males exposed to 1 Sv at age 45 and 2.20 (90% confidence limit, 0.59-10.12) for males exposed at age 55. For females, mixture model risks for nonleukemia exposed separately to 1 Sv at ages of 45 and 55 were 2.98 (90% confidence limit, 0.90-11.70) and 2.44 (90% confidence limit, 0.70-10.30), respectively. Risks for high-LET 200 MeV protons (LET=0.45 keV/μm), 1 MeV α-particles (LET=100 keV/μm), and 600 MeV iron particles (LET=180 keV/μm) were scored on a per particle basis by determining the particle fluence required for an average of one particle per cell nucleus of area 100 μm 2 . Lifetime risk per proton was 2.68x10 -2 % (90% confidence limit, 0.79x10 -3 %-0.514x10 -2 %). For α-particles, lifetime risk was 14.2% (90% confidence limit, 2.5%-31.2%). Conversely, lifetime risk per iron particle was 23.7% (90% confidence limit, 4.5%-53.0%). Uncertainty in the DDREF for high-LET particles may be less than that for low-LET radiation because typically there is very little dose-rate dependence. Probability density functions for

  19. Radiating low back pain in general practice : Incidence, prevalence, diagnosis, and long-term clinical course of illness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spijker-Huiges, Antje; Groenhof, Feikje; Winters, Jan C.; van Wijhe, Marten; Groenier, Klaas H.; van der Meer, Klaas

    Objective. The aim of this study was to calculate the incidence and prevalence of radiating low back pain, to explore the long-term clinical course of radiating low back pain including the influence of radiculopathy (in a subsample of the study population) and non-radiating low back pain thereon,

  20. Radiation risk factors in incidence anortality among exposed individuals of East Kazakhstand m

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazbek Apsalikov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Lengthy clinical and epidemiological studies at the Research Institute of Radiation Medicine and Ecology have discovered basic patterns of long-term effects from ionizing radiation in population groups exposed to radiation risk. Methodology for calculating injury from radiation risk factors has been developed and implemented to minimize the effects of the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site (SNTS. Material and methods: We analyzed materials from the database of the Scientific Medical Register that were exposed to radiation as a result of SNTS. We analyzed both male and female populations of the Abay, Beskaragai and Zhanasemei, Kokpekti (control areas of East-Kazakhstan region (EKR from 2008-2012. These populations were split into three groups allocated by the generation. The first group represented persons born from the period of 01/01/1930 -08/01/1949 and their children born from the period of 10/09/1949-12/31/1962. The second group were persons born after 01/01/1963. The third group served as the control and were persons who immigrated to these areas after 1990. Results: There was an increased incidence of cancer (21.5%, p < 0.000734, cardiovascular diseases (10.2%; respiratory problems (9.6%, gastrointestinal issues (9.1%, p < 0.00371-0.00679 in the first group. The effect of the radiation dose has not been fully stuided among the subjects in the second group.The major causes of excess mortality in the first group were neoplams (30.6%, hypertension (23.8%, and myocardial infarction (22.6%. The effects of radiation influenced mortality in the second group were 2-2.5 times lower than the first group.Conclusion: There is a correlation between the size of the radiation dose, the risk profile, and age at the moment of radiation exposure with trends of morbidity and mortality in the radiation exposed areas.

  1. The incidence of parametrial tumor involvement in select patients with early cervix cancer is too low to justify parametrectomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stegeman, M.; Louwen, M.; van der Velden, J.; ten Kate, F. J. W.; den Bakker, M. A.; Burger, C. W.; Ansink, A. C.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the incidence of parametrial involvement in a select group of patients with early cervical cancer. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the records of patients with cervical cancer and a maximum tumor diameter of 2 cm, infiltration depth <10 mm and negative pelvic lymph nodes

  2. Has the incidence of radiation-induced bowel damage following treatment of uterine carcinoma changed in the last 20 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen-Mersh, T.C.; Wilson, E.J.; Hope-Stone, H.F.; Mann, C.V.

    1986-01-01

    Radiation-induced bowel damage occurred in 4.3% of patients treated primarily by irradiation for uterine carcinoma during the period 1962-1982. There has been a progressive rise in the incidence of radiation damage and radiation-induced rectovaginal fistula during this 20-year period. Radiation from intracavitary sources was a contributory factor in 92% of injured cases. The rising incidence of bowel damage in our patients may be due to an increase in the number of patients receiving a high rectal dose from the intracavitary source. There was a significantly (P<0.01) higher incidence of radiation injury in cases of cervical carcinoma compared to endometrical carcinoma. This was because cervical carcinoma tended to present at a more advanced stage than endometrial carcinoma and was more frequently treated with combined external and intracavitary irradiation. There was no significant increase in the incidence of complications among patients undergoing hysterectomy. (author)

  3. A Study of Radiation Incidence Angle in Anteroposterior Cervical Vertebra Examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeung, Seung Woon; Lim, Cheong Hwan; Jung, Hong Ryang; Joo, Yeong Cheol; Park, Mi Ja; Han, Beon Hee

    2012-01-01

    cervical vertebra, OID, axis angle, and FID, all of them were shown to have correlations with the incidence angle (p<.01). Conclusively, it was shown that the incidence angle was measured differently from average length of cervical vertebra, OID, FID, and axis slope, as well as from age and sex. Therefore, it can be suggested that the anteroposterior radiation test for cervical vertebra should be conducted by different incidence angles based on age and sex. The data of this study may be used as reference in determining the incidence angle of cervical vertebra tests for the future.

  4. A Study of Radiation Incidence Angle in Anteroposterior Cervical Vertebra Examination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeung, Seung Woon; Lim, Cheong Hwan; Jung, Hong Ryang; Joo, Yeong Cheol; Park, Mi Ja [Dept. of Radiological Science, Hanseo University, Seosan (Korea, Republic of); Han, Beon Hee [Dept. of Radiological Science, Seonam University, Namwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-06-15

    of cervical vertebra, OID, axis angle, and FID, all of them were shown to have correlations with the incidence angle (p<.01). Conclusively, it was shown that the incidence angle was measured differently from average length of cervical vertebra, OID, FID, and axis slope, as well as from age and sex. Therefore, it can be suggested that the anteroposterior radiation test for cervical vertebra should be conducted by different incidence angles based on age and sex. The data of this study may be used as reference in determining the incidence angle of cervical vertebra tests for the future.

  5. Medical and policy considerations for nuclear and radiation accidents, incidents and terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, Robert Peter

    2017-11-01

    The purpose of this review is to address the increasing medical and public concern regarding the health consequences of radiation exposure, a concern shaped not only by fear of another Chernobyl or Fukushima nuclear power facility accident but also by the intentional use of a nuclear weapon, a radiological dispersion device, a radiological exposure device, or an improved nuclear device by rogue states such as North Korea and terrorist organizations such as Al Qaeda and ISIS. The United States has the medical capacity to respond to a limited nuclear or radiation accident or incident but an effective medical response to a catastrophic nuclear event is impossible. Dealing effectively with nuclear and radiation accidents or incidents requires diverse strategies, including policy decisions, public education, and medical preparedness. I review medical consequences of exposures to ionizing radiations, likely concomitant injuries and potential medical intervention. These data should help haematologists and other healthcare professionals understand the principles of medical consequences of nuclear terrorism. However, the best strategy is prevention.

  6. Organisational measures and medical care after indicents involving radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kemmer, W.

    1980-01-01

    West Germany has emergency plans for all kinds of catastrophes, from conventional causes to nuclear accidents. Emergency provisions refer to organisational measures, technical equipment, and medical equipment for the treatment of radiation injuries. These provisions require constant training of responsible persons. Emergency plans and provisions in the Federal Republic of Germany have not been optimized yet. (DG) [de

  7. An Evaluation of Departmental Radiation Oncology Incident Reports: Anticipating a National Reporting System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terezakis, Stephanie A.; Harris, Kendra M.; Ford, Eric; Michalski, Jeff; DeWeese, Theodore; Santanam, Lakshmi; Mutic, Sasa; Gay, Hiram

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Systems to ensure patient safety are of critical importance. The electronic incident reporting systems (IRS) of 2 large academic radiation oncology departments were evaluated for events that may be suitable for submission to a national reporting system (NRS). Methods and Materials: All events recorded in the combined IRS were evaluated from 2007 through 2010. Incidents were graded for potential severity using the validated French Nuclear Safety Authority (ASN) 5-point scale. These incidents were categorized into 7 groups: (1) human error, (2) software error, (3) hardware error, (4) error in communication between 2 humans, (5) error at the human-software interface, (6) error at the software-hardware interface, and (7) error at the human-hardware interface. Results: Between the 2 systems, 4407 incidents were reported. Of these events, 1507 (34%) were considered to have the potential for clinical consequences. Of these 1507 events, 149 (10%) were rated as having a potential severity of ≥2. Of these 149 events, the committee determined that 79 (53%) of these events would be submittable to a NRS of which the majority was related to human error or to the human-software interface. Conclusions: A significant number of incidents were identified in this analysis. The majority of events in this study were related to human error and to the human-software interface, further supporting the need for a NRS to facilitate field-wide learning and system improvement

  8. An Evaluation of Departmental Radiation Oncology Incident Reports: Anticipating a National Reporting System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terezakis, Stephanie A., E-mail: stereza1@jhmi.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Harris, Kendra M. [Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Ford, Eric [Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington (United States); Michalski, Jeff [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); DeWeese, Theodore [Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Santanam, Lakshmi; Mutic, Sasa; Gay, Hiram [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri (United States)

    2013-03-15

    Purpose: Systems to ensure patient safety are of critical importance. The electronic incident reporting systems (IRS) of 2 large academic radiation oncology departments were evaluated for events that may be suitable for submission to a national reporting system (NRS). Methods and Materials: All events recorded in the combined IRS were evaluated from 2007 through 2010. Incidents were graded for potential severity using the validated French Nuclear Safety Authority (ASN) 5-point scale. These incidents were categorized into 7 groups: (1) human error, (2) software error, (3) hardware error, (4) error in communication between 2 humans, (5) error at the human-software interface, (6) error at the software-hardware interface, and (7) error at the human-hardware interface. Results: Between the 2 systems, 4407 incidents were reported. Of these events, 1507 (34%) were considered to have the potential for clinical consequences. Of these 1507 events, 149 (10%) were rated as having a potential severity of ≥2. Of these 149 events, the committee determined that 79 (53%) of these events would be submittable to a NRS of which the majority was related to human error or to the human-software interface. Conclusions: A significant number of incidents were identified in this analysis. The majority of events in this study were related to human error and to the human-software interface, further supporting the need for a NRS to facilitate field-wide learning and system improvement.

  9. Application of an incident taxonomy for radiation therapy: Analysis of five years of data from three integrated cancer centres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenham, Stuart; Manley, Stephen; Turnbull, Kirsty; Hoffmann, Matthew; Fonseca, Amara; Westhuyzen, Justin; Last, Andrew; Aherne, Noel J; Shakespeare, Thomas P

    2018-01-01

    To develop and apply a clinical incident taxonomy for radiation therapy. Capturing clinical incident information that focuses on near-miss events is critical for achieving higher levels of safety and reliability. A clinical incident taxonomy for radiation therapy was established; coding categories were prescription, consent, simulation, voluming, dosimetry, treatment, bolus, shielding, imaging, quality assurance and coordination of care. The taxonomy was applied to all clinical incidents occurring at three integrated cancer centres for the years 2011-2015. Incidents were managed locally, audited and feedback disseminated to all centres. Across the five years the total incident rate (per 100 courses) was 8.54; the radiotherapy-specific coded rate was 6.71. The rate of true adverse events (unintended treatment and potential patient harm) was 1.06. Adverse events, where no harm was identified, occurred at a rate of 2.76 per 100 courses. Despite workload increases, overall and actual rates both exhibited downward trends over the 5-year period. The taxonomy captured previously unidentified quality assurance failures; centre-specific issues that contributed to variations in incident trends were also identified. The application of a taxonomy developed for radiation therapy enhances incident investigation and facilitates strategic interventions. The practice appears to be effective in our institution and contributes to the safety culture. The ratio of near miss to actual incidents could serve as a possible measure of incident reporting culture and could be incorporated into large scale incident reporting systems.

  10. Bone marrow transplantation for treatment of radiation disease. Problems involved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fliedner, T.M.

    1992-01-01

    Transplantation of bone marrow cells still is one of the major means available for treatment of radiation injuries. The decisive indication is the diagnostic of irreversible damage to the hemopoietic stem cells, which becomes manifest about 5 or 6 days after exposure, by severe granulocytopenia and simultaneous, progressive thrombopenia. The radiation dose provoking such severe injury is estimated to be at least 9-10 Gy of homogeneous whole-body irradiation. Preparatory measures for transplantation include proof of tissue compatibility of donor and patient, sufficient immunosuppression prior to and/or after irradiation and bone marrow transplantation. The donor's marrow should be free of T-cells. In spite of preparatory treatment, complications such as immunological reactions or disturbance of organ functions are to be very probable. These are treated according to therapy protocols. (orig./MG) [de

  11. Thermal radiation heat transfer in participating media by finite volume discretization using collimated beam incidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harijishnu, R.; Jayakumar, J. S.

    2017-09-01

    The main objective of this paper is to study the heat transfer rate of thermal radiation in participating media. For that, a generated collimated beam has been passed through a two dimensional slab model of flint glass with a refractive index 2. Both Polar and azimuthal angle have been varied to generate such a beam. The Temperature of the slab and Snells law has been validated by Radiation Transfer Equation (RTE) in OpenFOAM (Open Field Operation and Manipulation), a CFD software which is the major computational tool used in Industry and research applications where the source code is modified in which radiation heat transfer equation is added to the case and different radiation heat transfer models are utilized. This work concentrates on the numerical strategies involving both transparent and participating media. Since Radiation Transfer Equation (RTE) is difficult to solve, the purpose of this paper is to use existing solver buoyantSimlpeFoam to solve radiation model in the participating media by compiling the source code to obtain the heat transfer rate inside the slab by varying the Intensity of radiation. The Finite Volume Method (FVM) is applied to solve the Radiation Transfer Equation (RTE) governing the above said physical phenomena.

  12. Effect of incident beam and diffuse radiation on par absorption, photosynthesis and transpiration of sitka spruce - a simulation study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Y.P.; Jarvis, P.G.

    1990-01-01

    A simulation model, Maestro, is used to study the influence of beam fraction in the incident radiation and the radiance distribution of the sky diffuse radiation on PAR absorption, photosynthesis and transpiration of a Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis (Bong.) Carr) tree crown. It is concluded that inaccurate separation of beam and diffuse radiation leads to significant errors in estimating the amounts of PAR absorbed, photosynthesis and transpiration by a tree in the stand. Much more attention should be paid to adequate descriptions of the radiance distribution of the sky diffuse radiation under different sky conditions. A useful approach is proposed for simulating the incident global radiaiton in a physiological, process-based model

  13. Review of reconstruction of radiation incident air kerma by measurement of absorbed dose in tooth enamel with EPR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieser, A

    2012-03-01

    Electron paramagnetic resonance dosimetry with tooth enamel has been proved to be a reliable method to determine retrospectively exposures from photon fields with minimal detectable doses of 100 mGy or lower, which is lower than achievable with cytogenetic dose reconstruction methods. For risk assessment or validating dosimetry systems for specific radiation incidents, the relevant dose from the incident has to be calculated from the total absorbed dose in enamel by subtracting additional dose contributions from the radionuclide content in teeth, natural external background radiation and medical exposures. For calculating organ doses or evaluating dosimetry systems the absorbed dose in enamel from a radiation incident has to be converted to air kerma using dose conversion factors depending on the photon energy spectrum and geometry of the exposure scenario. This paper outlines the approach to assess individual dose contributions to absorbed dose in enamel and calculate individual air kerma of a radiation incident from the absorbed dose in tooth enamel.

  14. Review of reconstruction of radiation incident air kerma by measurement of absorbed dose in tooth enamel with EPR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wieser, A.

    2012-01-01

    Electron paramagnetic resonance dosimetry with tooth enamel has been proved to be a reliable method to determine retrospectively exposures from photon fields with minimal detectable doses of 100 mGy or lower, which is lower than achievable with cytogenetic dose reconstruction methods. For risk assessment or validating dosimetry systems for specific radiation incidents, the relevant dose from the incident has to be calculated from the total absorbed dose in enamel by subtracting additional dose contributions from the radionuclide content in teeth, natural external background radiation and medical exposures. For calculating organ doses or evaluating dosimetry systems the absorbed dose in enamel from a radiation incident has to be converted to air kerma using dose conversion factors depending on the photon energy spectrum and geometry of the exposure scenario. This paper outlines the approach to assess individual dose contributions to absorbed dose in enamel and calculate individual air kerma of a radiation incident from the absorbed dose in tooth enamel. (author)

  15. Energy and thermodynamic considerations involving electromagnetic zero-point radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cole, Daniel C.

    1999-01-01

    There has been recent speculation and controversy regarding whether electromagnetic zero-point radiation might be the next candidate in the progression of plentiful energy sources, ranging, for example, from hydrodynamic, chemical, and nuclear energy sources. Certainly, however, extracting energy from the vacuum seems counter intuitive to most people. Here, these ideas are clarified, drawing on simple and common examples. Known properties of electromagnetic zero-point energy are qualitatively discussed. An outlook on the success of utilizing this energy source is then discussed

  16. Incidence and predictors of Lhermitte’s sign among patients receiving mediastinal radiation for lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youssef, Bassem; Shank, JoAnn; Reddy, Jay P.; Pinnix, Chelsea C.; Farha, George; Akhtari, Mani; Allen, Pamela K.; Fanale, Michelle A.; Garcia, John A.; Horace, Patricia H.; Milgrom, Sarah; Smith, Grace Li; Nieto, Yago; Arzu, Isadora; Wang, He; Fowler, Nathan; Rodriguez, Maria Alma; Dabaja, Bouthaina

    2015-01-01

    To prospectively examine the risk of developing Lhermitte’s sign (LS) in patients with lymphoma treated with modern-era chemotherapy followed by consolidation intensity-modulated radiation therapy. We prospectively interviewed all patients with lymphoma who received irradiation to the mediastinum from July 2011 through April 2014. We extracted patient, disease, and treatment-related variables from the medical records of those patients and dosimetric variables from treatment-planning systems and analyzed these factors to identify potential predictors of LS with Pearson chi-square tests. During the study period 106 patients received mediastinal radiation for lymphoma, and 31 (29 %) developed LS. No correlations were found between LS and any of the variables examined, including total radiation dose, maximum point dose to the spinal cord, volume receiving 105 % of the dose, and volumes receiving 5 or 15 Gy. In this group of patients, treatment with chemotherapy followed by intensity-modulated radiation therapy led to 29 % developing LS; this symptom was independent of radiation dose and seemed to be an idiosyncratic reaction. This relatively high incidence could have resulted from prospective use of a structured interview

  17. Incidence of neural tube defects in the natural radiation coastal areas of Kerala

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaikrishan, G.; Sudheer, K.R.; Andrews, V.J.; Koya, P.K.M.; Cheriyan, V.D.; Seshadri, M.

    2010-01-01

    All consecutive births in selected government hospitals in and around the high level natural background radiation areas (HLNRA) of Kerala were monitored for congenital malformations observable at birth since 1995. The HLNR area, a coastal strip of land about 55 km in length and 0.5 km in breadth from Purakkad in the north in Alleppey district to Sakthikulangara in the south of Quilon district, stands out among the most prominent background radiation areas of the world. Natural deposit of monazite sand, containing Thorium (8-10%), Uranium (0.3%) and corresponding decay products, is the source of elevated background radiation, ranging from < 1 to 45 mGy/year. Wide variation in dose, due to the patchy and non-uniform distribution of Monazite sand, enables in built controls. High population density, limited migration, ethnic diversity, good literacy, health awareness, institutionalized births and acceptance of small family norm are some of the key features of the population. Areas with a mean radiation dose of more than 1.5 mGy/year were treated as HLNR areas and areas with a dose level of 1.5 mGy/year or less were treated as normal level radiation (NLNR) areas. The study carried out since 1995 does not seem to implicate HLNR in the incidence of neural tube defects among newborns

  18. Post-Cataract Surgery Optic Neuropathy: Prevalence, Incidence, Temporal Relationship, and Fellow Eye Involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi, Ahmadreza; Kanagalingam, Sivashakthi; Diener-West, Marie; Miller, Neil R

    2017-03-01

    To reassess the prevalence and incidence of post-cataract surgery optic neuropathy (PCSON) in the modern era. Retrospective cohort study. Setting: Single-center tertiary care practice. All patients with a diagnosis of nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (NAION) seen in the Wilmer Eye Network system between January 1, 2010 and December 31, 2014 were included. Inclusion was based on the following: (1) a history of an acute unilateral decrease in vision, (2) a visual field defect consistent with NAION, (3) a relative afferent pupillary defect, (4) observed optic disc swelling, and (5) no other etiology being found. The prevalence and incidence of PCSON and the temporal association between surgery and onset of PCSON. The secondary outcome was the risk of PCSON in the fellow eye of patients with prior unilateral spontaneous NAION. One hundred eighty-eight patients had developed NAION during the study period. Of these, 18 (9.6%) had undergone cataract surgery (CS) during the year prior to developing NAION. There was no significant temporal pattern associated with the distribution of NAION cases (P = .28). The incidence of PCSON in patients who had noncomplex CS was 10.9 cases per 100 000 (95% CI, 1.3, 39.4). Our data indicate that both the prevalence and incidence of NAION after modern CS are comparable to those of the general population and that there is no significant temporal relationship between modern CS and the subsequent development of NAION in the operated eye. Thus, although this study has inherent biases owing to its retrospective nature, concern regarding an increased risk of PCSON in the fellow eye in patients who have experienced it or spontaneous NAION in 1 eye may be unwarranted. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Incident solar radiation and coronary heart disease mortality rates in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, Alfred

    2008-01-01

    The reported low mortality rate from coronary heart disease in Portugal, Spain, Italy, Greece, and France, to a lesser extent, has been attributed in numerous nutritional studies to the consumption of a Mediterranean-type diet. There are still many unresolved issues about the direct causal effect of the Mediterranean dietary regime on low incidence of coronary heart disease. An analysis of coronary heart disease mortality rates in Europe from a latitudinal gradient perspective has shown to have a close correlation to incident solar radiation. It is surmised that the resulting increased in situ biosynthesis of Vitamin D 3 could be the critical missing confounder in the analysis of the beneficial health outcome of the Mediterranean diet

  20. Relation between cancer incidence or mortality and external natural background radiation in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ujeno, Y.

    1983-01-01

    Analysis was performed on the relationships between the organ dose-equivalent rate due to natural background radiation (mSv/a) and three parameters of cancer risk: the age-adjusted cancer incidence (patients x 10 5 persons x a -1 ) in 13 large areas, the standardized mortality ratio of cancers in 46 large areas, and the cancer mortality in the population aged more than 40 years old (cancer deaths x 10 5 persons x a -1 ) in 649 small areas. The age-adjusted liver cancer incidence in males fitted the exponential model significantly (p<0.01) and the relationship of stomach cancer mortality of aged males in small areas fitted the linear model significantly (p<0.05). No relationship was observed with regard to female cancer in either case. The relationships between the three parameters and various other cancers of both sexes were not statistically significant. (author)

  1. Causality of relationship between paternal radiation exposure and leukaemia incidence in the children of Sellafield workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wheldon, T.E.; Mairs, R.J.; Barrett, A.

    1992-01-01

    In this letter the author comments on K.E. Baverstock's case (1991) against the likelihood of a causal relationship between reported leukemia incidence and paternal radiation dose in the children of Sellafield workers, and emphasizes the desirability of devising experimental tests of the germ-cell line damage hypothesis as well as the evaluation of its plausibility. Particular reference is made to the role played by dose-rates and by the two-hit model for childhood acute leukemia. (Letter to the Editor)

  2. Association of UV radiation with Parkinson disease incidence: A nationwide French ecologic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kravietz, Adam; Kab, Sofiane; Wald, Lucien; Dugravot, Aline; Singh-Manoux, Archana; Moisan, Frédéric; Elbaz, Alexis

    2017-01-01

    Background: Vitamin D is thought to contribute to brain health, but it is unclear whether low vitamin D levels are associated with increased incidence of Parkinson's disease (PD). Using ultraviolet B (UV-B) as a surrogate for vitamin D levels, we conducted a nationwide ecologic study in France in order to examine the association of UV-B with PD incidence. Methods: We used French national drug claims databases to identify PD cases using a validated algorithm. UV-B data from the solar radiation database were derived from satellite images. We estimated PD incidence (2010–2012) at the canton level (small administrative French unit) and used multilevel Poisson regression to examine its association with UV-B (2005 annual average), after adjustment for age, sex, deprivation index, density of neurologists, smoking, proportion of agricultural land, and vitamin D supplementation. Results: Analyses are based on 69,010 incident PD patients. The association between UV-B and PD incidence was quadratic (P<0.001) and modified by age (P<0.001). Below 70y, incidence was higher in the bottom quintile (relative risk, RR Q1:45-49y =1.18, 95% CI=1.08–1.29) compared with the middle UV-B quintile, and lower in the top quintile (RR Q5:45-49y =0.85 [0.77–0.94]). An opposite pattern was observed in older subjects (RR Q1:85-89y =0.92 [0.89–0.96]; RR Q5:85-89y =1.06 [1.02–1.11]). Analysis based on continuous UV-B yielded similar conclusions. Conclusions: In this nationwide study, there was an age-dependent quadratic association between UV-B and PD incidence. This study suggests that reasonable UV-B exposure is associated with lower PD risk in younger persons and that future studies should examine dose-response relations and take age into account. - Highlights: • There is an age-dependent quadratic association between UV-B and PD incidence. • Reasonable UV-B exposure is beneficial in younger persons for the risk of PD. • Our findings are consistent with a role of vitamin D

  3. Association of UV radiation with Parkinson disease incidence: A nationwide French ecologic study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kravietz, Adam [University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, Florida (United States); Kab, Sofiane [Santé publique France, Direction santé travail, F-94415 Saint-Maurice (France); CESP, Fac. de médecine - Univ. Paris-Sud, Fac. de médecine - UVSQ, INSERM, Université Paris-Saclay, 94805 Villejuif (France); Wald, Lucien [MINES ParisTech, PSL Research University, Sophia Antipolis (France); Dugravot, Aline [CESP, Fac. de médecine - Univ. Paris-Sud, Fac. de médecine - UVSQ, INSERM, Université Paris-Saclay, 94805 Villejuif (France); Singh-Manoux, Archana [CESP, Fac. de médecine - Univ. Paris-Sud, Fac. de médecine - UVSQ, INSERM, Université Paris-Saclay, 94805 Villejuif (France); Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University College London, London (United Kingdom); Moisan, Frédéric [Santé publique France, Direction santé travail, F-94415 Saint-Maurice (France); Elbaz, Alexis, E-mail: alexis.elbaz@inserm.fr [Santé publique France, Direction santé travail, F-94415 Saint-Maurice (France); CESP, Fac. de médecine - Univ. Paris-Sud, Fac. de médecine - UVSQ, INSERM, Université Paris-Saclay, 94805 Villejuif (France)

    2017-04-15

    Background: Vitamin D is thought to contribute to brain health, but it is unclear whether low vitamin D levels are associated with increased incidence of Parkinson's disease (PD). Using ultraviolet B (UV-B) as a surrogate for vitamin D levels, we conducted a nationwide ecologic study in France in order to examine the association of UV-B with PD incidence. Methods: We used French national drug claims databases to identify PD cases using a validated algorithm. UV-B data from the solar radiation database were derived from satellite images. We estimated PD incidence (2010–2012) at the canton level (small administrative French unit) and used multilevel Poisson regression to examine its association with UV-B (2005 annual average), after adjustment for age, sex, deprivation index, density of neurologists, smoking, proportion of agricultural land, and vitamin D supplementation. Results: Analyses are based on 69,010 incident PD patients. The association between UV-B and PD incidence was quadratic (P<0.001) and modified by age (P<0.001). Below 70y, incidence was higher in the bottom quintile (relative risk, RR{sub Q1:45-49y}=1.18, 95% CI=1.08–1.29) compared with the middle UV-B quintile, and lower in the top quintile (RR{sub Q5:45-49y}=0.85 [0.77–0.94]). An opposite pattern was observed in older subjects (RR{sub Q1:85-89y}=0.92 [0.89–0.96]; RR{sub Q5:85-89y}=1.06 [1.02–1.11]). Analysis based on continuous UV-B yielded similar conclusions. Conclusions: In this nationwide study, there was an age-dependent quadratic association between UV-B and PD incidence. This study suggests that reasonable UV-B exposure is associated with lower PD risk in younger persons and that future studies should examine dose-response relations and take age into account. - Highlights: • There is an age-dependent quadratic association between UV-B and PD incidence. • Reasonable UV-B exposure is beneficial in younger persons for the risk of PD. • Our findings are consistent with a

  4. A historical summary of transportation accidents and incidents involving radioactive materials (1971-1988)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cashwell, C.E.; McClure, J.D.

    1989-01-01

    The Radioactive Materials Incident Report (RMIR) Database is a compilation of transportation events that have occurred during the shipment of radioactive materials. The database was developed in 1971 at the Transportation Technology Center (TTC) at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) to support its research and development efforts for the US Department of Energy (DOE). Currently, RMIR resides on TRANSNET, an interactive computer network that allows an outside user to access transportation risk and systems analysis models and their associated databases. Within the last few months, the RMIR database has been modified so that the menu-driven format expedites database searches, particularly for the infrequent user

  5. An historical summary of transportation accidents and incidents involving radioactive materials (1971--1988)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cashwell, C.E.; McClure, J.D.

    1989-01-01

    The Radioactive Materials Incident Report (RMIR) Database is a compilation of transportation events that have occurred during the shipment of radioactive materials. The database was developed in 1971 at the Transportation Technology Center (TTC) AT Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) to support its research and development efforts for the US Department of Energy (DOE). Currently RMIR resides on TRANSNET, an interactive computer network that allows an outside user to access transportation risk and systems analysis models and their associated databases. Within the last few months, the RMIR database has been modified so that the menu-driven format expedites database searches, particularly for the infrequent user. 2 refs

  6. Nonlinear radiation transport problems involving widely varying mean free paths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapline, G. Jr.; Wood, L.

    1976-01-01

    In this report a method is given for modifying the Monte-Carlo approach so that one can accurately treat problems that involve both large and small mean free paths. This method purports to offer the advantages of the general Monte Carlo technique as far as relatively great accuracy of simulation of microscopic physical phenomena is concerned, and the advantage of a diffusion theory approach as far as decent time steps in thick problems are concerned; it does suffer from something of the statistical fluctuation problems of the Monte Carlo, although in analytically attenuated and modified form

  7. SU-E-T-208: Incidence Cancer Risk From the Radiation Treatment for Acoustic Neuroma Patient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, D [Kyung Hee University International Med. Serv., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chung, W [Kyung Hee University Hospital at Gangdong, Seoul, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Shin, D [Kyung Hee University Hospital, Seoul, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, M [Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: The present study aimed to compare the incidence risk of a secondary cancer from therapeutic doses in patients receiving intensitymodulated radiotherapy (IMRT), volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT), and stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS). Methods: Four acoustic neuroma patients were treated with IMRT, VMAT, or SRS. Their incidnece excess relative risk (ERR), excess absolute risk (EAR), and lifetime attributable risk (LAR) were estimated using the corresponding therapeutic doses measured at various organs by radio-photoluminescence glass dosimeters (RPLGD) placed inside a humanoid phantom. Results: When a prescription dose was delivered in the planning target volume of the 4 patients, the average organ equivalent doses (OED) at the thyroid, lung, normal liver, colon, bladder, prostate (or ovary), and rectum were measured. The OED decreased as the distance from the primary beam increased. The thyroid received the highest OED compared to other organs. A LAR were estimated that more than 0.03% of AN patients would get radiation-induced cancer. Conclusion: The tyroid was highest radiation-induced cancer risk after radiation treatment for AN. We found that LAR can be increased by the transmitted dose from the primary beam. No modality-specific difference in radiation-induced cancer risk was observed in our study.

  8. Human biological monitoring for exposure assessment in response to an incident involving hazardous materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheepers, Paul T J; van Brederode, Nelly E; Bos, Peter M J; Nijhuis, Nicole J; van de Weerdt, Rik H J; van der Woude, Irene; Eggens, Martin L

    2014-12-15

    Biological monitoring in humans (HBM) is widely used in the field of occupational and environmental health. In the situation of an unexpected release of hazardous materials HBM may contribute to the medical support and treatment of exposed individuals from the general population or of emergency responders. Such exposure information may also be used to respond to individual concerns such as questions about a possible relationship between the chemicals released during the incident and health effects. In The Netherlands a guideline was prepared to support early decision-making about the possible use of HBM for exposure assessment during or as soon as possible following a chemical incident. The application of HBM in such an emergency setting is not much different from situations where HBM is normally used but there are some issues that need extra attention such as the choice of the biomarker, the biological media to be sampled, the time point at which biological samples should be collected, the ethics approval and technical implementation of the study protocol and the interpretation and communication of the study results. These issues addressed in the new guideline will support the use of HBM in the management of chemical disasters. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Organization of public authorities in France for the event of an incident or accident involving nuclear safety: Simulation of a nuclear crisis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cartigny, J.; Majorel, Y.

    1986-01-01

    The French nuclear safety regulations lay down the action to be taken in the event of an incident or accident involving the types of radiological hazard that could arise in a nuclear installation or during the transport of radioactive material. The organization established for this purpose is designed to ensure that the technical measures taken by the authorities responsible for nuclear safety, radiation protection, public order and public safety are fully effective. The Interministerial Nuclear Safety Committee (Comite interministeriel de la securite nucleaire), which reports to the Prime Minister, co-ordinates the measures taken by the public authorities. The public authorities and the operators together organize exercises designed to verify the whole complex of measures foreseen in the event of an incident or accident. These exercises, which have been carried out in a systematic manner in France for some years, are based on scenarios which are as realistic as possible and enable the following objectives to be achieved: (1) analysis of the crisis apparatus (ORSECRAD plans, individual intervention plans, information conventions); (2) uncovering gaps or inadequacies; (3) arrangements for interchange of information between the various participants whose responsibilities involve them in the emergency; and (4) allowance for the information requirements of the media and the population. The information drawn from these exercises enables the various procedures to be improved step by step. (author)

  10. Molecular dynamics study of radiation damage and microstructure evolution of zigzag single-walled carbon nanotubes under carbon ion incidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huan; Tang, Xiaobin; Chen, Feida; Huang, Hai; Liu, Jian; Chen, Da

    2016-07-01

    The radiation damage and microstructure evolution of different zigzag single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) were investigated under incident carbon ion by molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The radiation damage of SWCNTs under incident carbon ion with energy ranging from 25 eV to 1 keV at 300 K showed many differences at different incident sites, and the defect production increased to the maximum value with the increase in incident ion energy, and slightly decreased but stayed fairly stable within the majority of the energy range. The maximum damage of SWCNTs appeared when the incident ion energy reached 200 eV and the level of damage was directly proportional to incident ion fluence. The radiation damage was also studied at 100 K and 700 K and the defect production decreased distinctly with rising temperature because radiation-induced defects would anneal and recombine by saturating dangling bonds and reconstructing carbon network at the higher temperature. Furthermore, the stability of a large-diameter tube surpassed that of a thin one under the same radiation environments.

  11. The concept and evolution of involved site radiation therapy for lymphoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Specht, Lena; Yahalom, Joachim

    2015-01-01

    We describe the development of radiation therapy for lymphoma from extended field radiotherapy of the past to modern conformal treatment with involved site radiation therapy based on advanced imaging, three-dimensional treatment planning and advanced treatment delivery techniques. Today, radiation...... therapy is part of the multimodality treatment of lymphoma, and the irradiated tissue volume is much smaller than before, leading to highly significant reductions in the risks of long-term complications....

  12. Involvement of membrane lipids in radiation damage to potassium-ion permeability of Escherichia coli

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, S [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Inst. for Medical Science; Akamatsu, Y

    1978-02-01

    Radiation damage to K/sup +/ permeability of an unsaturated fatty acid auxotroph of E.coli grown with oleate or linolenate was investigated at different temperatures. A remarkable effect of radiation was observed at 0/sup 0/C with cells that had been grown in linolenate at 42/sup 0/C. This indicates that, besides protein, membrane lipids at least are involved in the radiation damage. The damage also seems to be affected by the fluidity of membrane lipids.

  13. Spatial variation of natural radiation and childhood leukaemia incidence in Great Britain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richardson, Sylvia; Monfort, Christine; Green, Martyn; Muirhead, Colin; Draper, Gerald

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes an analysis of the geographical variation of childhood leukaemia incidence in Great Britain over a 15 year period in relation to natural radiation (gamma and radon). Data at the level of the 459 district level local authorities in England, Wales and regional districts in Scotland are analysed in two complementary ways: first, by Poisson regressions with the inclusion of environmental covariates and a smooth spatial structure; secondly, by a hierarchical Bayesian model in which extra-Poisson variability is modelled explicitly in terms of spatial and non-spatial components. From this analysis, we deduce a strong indication that a main part of the variability is accounted for by a local neighbourhood 'clustering' structure. This structure is furthermore relatively stable over the 15 year period for the lymphocytic leukaemias which make up the majority of observed cases. We found no evidence of a positive association of childhood leukaemia incidence with outdoor or indoor gamma radiation levels. There is no consistent evidence of any association with radon levels. Indeed, in the Poisson regressions, a significant positive association was only observed for one 5-year period, a result which is not compatible with a stable environmental effect. Moreover, this positive association became clearly non-significant when over-dispersion relative to the Poisson distribution was taken into account. (author)

  14. Unusual reflection of electromagnetic radiation from a stack of graphene layers at oblique incidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bludov, Yu V; Peres, N M R; Vasilevskiy, M I

    2013-01-01

    We study the interaction of electromagnetic (EM) radiation with single-layer graphene and a stack of parallel graphene sheets at arbitrary angles of incidence. It is found that the behavior is qualitatively different for transverse magnetic (or p-polarized) and transverse electric (or s-polarized) waves. In particular, the absorbance of single-layer graphene attains a minimum (maximum) for the p (s)-polarization at the angle of total internal reflection when the light comes from a medium with a higher dielectric constant. In the case of equal dielectric constants of the media above and beneath graphene, for grazing incidence graphene is almost 100% transparent to p-polarized waves and acts as a tunable mirror for the s-polarization. These effects are enhanced for a stack of graphene sheets, so the system can work as a broad band polarizer. It is shown further that a periodic stack of graphene layers has the properties of a one-dimensional photonic crystal, with gaps (or stop bands) at certain frequencies. When an incident EM wave is reflected from this photonic crystal, the tunability of the graphene conductivity renders the possibility of controlling the gaps, and the structure can operate as a tunable spectral-selective mirror. (paper)

  15. A management plan for hospitals and medical centers facing radiation incidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fereshteh Davari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nowadays, application of nuclear technology in different industries has largely expanded worldwide. Proportionately, the risk of nuclear incidents and the resulting injuries have, therefore, increased in recent years. Preparedness is an important part of the crisis management cycle; therefore efficient preplanning seems crucial to any crisis management plan. Equipped with facilities and experienced personnel, hospitals naturally engage with the response to disasters. The main purpose of our study was to present a practical management pattern for hospitals and medical centers in case they encounter a nuclear emergency. Materials and Methods: In this descriptive qualitative study, data were collected through experimental observations, sources like Safety manuals released by the International Atomic Energy Agency and interviews with experts to gather their ideas along with Delphi method for polling, and brainstorming. In addition, the 45 experts were interviewed on three targeted using brainstorming and Delphi method. Results: We finally proposed a management plan along with a set of practicality standards for hospitals and medical centers to optimally respond to nuclear medical emergencies when a radiation incident happens nearby. Conclusion: With respect to the great importance of preparedness against nuclear incidents adoption and regular practice of nuclear crisis management codes for hospitals and medical centers seems quite necessary.

  16. A management plan for hospitals and medical centers facing radiation incidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davari, Fereshteh; Zahed, Arash

    2015-09-01

    Nowadays, application of nuclear technology in different industries has largely expanded worldwide. Proportionately, the risk of nuclear incidents and the resulting injuries have, therefore, increased in recent years. Preparedness is an important part of the crisis management cycle; therefore efficient preplanning seems crucial to any crisis management plan. Equipped with facilities and experienced personnel, hospitals naturally engage with the response to disasters. The main purpose of our study was to present a practical management pattern for hospitals and medical centers in case they encounter a nuclear emergency. In this descriptive qualitative study, data were collected through experimental observations, sources like Safety manuals released by the International Atomic Energy Agency and interviews with experts to gather their ideas along with Delphi method for polling, and brainstorming. In addition, the 45 experts were interviewed on three targeted using brainstorming and Delphi method. We finally proposed a management plan along with a set of practicality standards for hospitals and medical centers to optimally respond to nuclear medical emergencies when a radiation incident happens nearby. With respect to the great importance of preparedness against nuclear incidents adoption and regular practice of nuclear crisis management codes for hospitals and medical centers seems quite necessary.

  17. Sci-Fri AM: Quality, Safety, and Professional Issues 06: An Evaluation of Incident Reporting and Learning using the Canadian National System for Incident Reporting – Radiation Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montgomery, Logan; Kildea, John [McGill University Health Centre (Canada)

    2016-08-15

    We report on the development and clinical deployment of an in-house incident reporting and learning system that implements the taxonomy of the Canadian National System for Incident Reporting – Radiation Treatment (NSIR-RT). In producing our new system, we aimed to: Analyze actual incidents, as well as potentially dangerous latent conditions. Produce recommendations on the NSIR-RT taxonomy. Incorporate features to divide reporting responsibility among clinical staff and expedite incident categorization within the NSIR-RT framework. Share anonymized incident data with the national database. Our multistep incident reporting workflow is focused around an initial report and a detailed follow-up investigation. An investigator, chosen at the time of reporting, is tasked with performing the investigation. The investigation feature is connected to our electronic medical records database to allow automatic field population and quick reference of patient and treatment information. Additional features include a robust visualization suite, as well as the ability to flag incidents for discussion at monthly Risk Management meetings and task ameliorating actions to staff. Our system was deployed into clinical use in January 2016. Over the first three months of use, 45 valid incidents were reported; 31 of which were reported as actual incidents as opposed to near-misses or reportable circumstances. However, we suspect there is ambiguity within our centre in determining the appropriate event type, which may be arising from the taxonomy itself. Preliminary trending analysis aided in revealing workflow issues pertaining to storage of treatment accessories and treatment planning delays. Extensive analysis will be undertaken as more data are accrued.

  18. Sci-Fri AM: Quality, Safety, and Professional Issues 06: An Evaluation of Incident Reporting and Learning using the Canadian National System for Incident Reporting – Radiation Treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montgomery, Logan; Kildea, John

    2016-01-01

    We report on the development and clinical deployment of an in-house incident reporting and learning system that implements the taxonomy of the Canadian National System for Incident Reporting – Radiation Treatment (NSIR-RT). In producing our new system, we aimed to: Analyze actual incidents, as well as potentially dangerous latent conditions. Produce recommendations on the NSIR-RT taxonomy. Incorporate features to divide reporting responsibility among clinical staff and expedite incident categorization within the NSIR-RT framework. Share anonymized incident data with the national database. Our multistep incident reporting workflow is focused around an initial report and a detailed follow-up investigation. An investigator, chosen at the time of reporting, is tasked with performing the investigation. The investigation feature is connected to our electronic medical records database to allow automatic field population and quick reference of patient and treatment information. Additional features include a robust visualization suite, as well as the ability to flag incidents for discussion at monthly Risk Management meetings and task ameliorating actions to staff. Our system was deployed into clinical use in January 2016. Over the first three months of use, 45 valid incidents were reported; 31 of which were reported as actual incidents as opposed to near-misses or reportable circumstances. However, we suspect there is ambiguity within our centre in determining the appropriate event type, which may be arising from the taxonomy itself. Preliminary trending analysis aided in revealing workflow issues pertaining to storage of treatment accessories and treatment planning delays. Extensive analysis will be undertaken as more data are accrued.

  19. Calibration of photographic dosemeters to evaluate the personal equivalent dose, Hp (10), irradiated by different radiation qualities and angles of incidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santoro, Christiana; Antonio Filho, Joao

    2013-01-01

    To use radiation detectors, should periodically perform tests and calibrations on instruments in order to verify its good functionality. One way to ascertain the quality of the instrument is to conduct a study of the angular dependence of the response of the radiation detectors. The photographic dosimetry has been used widely to quantify the radiation doses and to estimate levels of doses received by workers involved with X-and gamma radiation. Photographic dosimeters are used because provide wide range of exposure and good accuracy. One of the sources of error have been introduced by different irradiation geometries between calibration and measurement in radiation fields used in x-ray and gamma ray sources, therefore, there is a need for an evaluation of the sensitivity of dosimeters with variation of the angle of the incident beam. In this study were tested 190 photographic dosemeters in the Metrology Laboratory of the Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-NE) using the phantom H p (10), where the dosimeters are evaluated on the basis of the new operational magnitude for individual monitoring, the equivalent personal dose, H p (10). Angular dependence of these radiation detectors was studied in X radiation fields (in the range of 45 keV energy to 164 keV) and gamma radiation ( 137 Cs-662 keV e 60 Co - 1250 keV)

  20. Can Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors Reduce the Incidence, Severity, and Duration of Radiation Proctitis?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alashkham, Abduelmenem; Paterson, Catherine; Rauchhaus, Petra; Nabi, Ghulam

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether participants taking angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) and treated with radical radiation therapy with neoadjuvant/adjuvant hormone therapy have less incidence, severity, and duration of radiation proctitis. Methods and Materials: A propensity score analysis of 817 patients who underwent radical radiation therapy with neoadjuvant or adjuvant hormone therapy as primary line management in a cohort study during 2009 to 2013 was conducted. Patients were stratified as follows: group 1, hypertensive patients taking ACEIs (as a study group); group 2, nonhypertensive patients not taking ACEIs; and group 3, hypertensive patients not taking ACEIs (both as control groups). The incidence, severity, and duration of proctitis were the main outcome. χ"2 tests, Mann-Whitney U tests, analysis of variance, risk ratio (RR), confidence interval (CI), Kaplan-Meier plots, and log-rank tests were used. Results: The mean age of the participants was 68.91 years, with a follow-up time of 3.38 years. Based on disease and age-matched comparison, there was a statistically significant difference of proctitis grading between the 3 groups: χ"2 (8, n=308) = 72.52, P<.001. The Mann-Whitney U test indicated that grades of proctitis were significantly lower in hypertensive patients taking ACEIs than in nonhypertensive patients not taking ACEIs and hypertensive patients not taking ACEIs (P<.001). The risk ratio (RR) of proctitis in hypertensive patients taking ACEIs was significantly lower than in hypertensive patients not taking ACEIs (RR 0.40, 95% CI 0.30-0.53, P<.001) and in nonhypertensive patients not taking ACEIs (RR 0.58, 95% CI 0.44-0.77, P<.001). Time to event analysis revealed that hypertensive patients taking ACEIs were significantly different from the control groups (P<.0001). Furthermore, hypertensive patients taking ACEIs had significantly faster resolution of proctitis (P<.0001). Conclusion: Patients who were taking ACEIs were

  1. Can Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors Reduce the Incidence, Severity, and Duration of Radiation Proctitis?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alashkham, Abduelmenem, E-mail: alashkham@yahoo.com [Academic Section of Urology, Division of Cancer Research, School of Medicine, University of Dundee, Scotland (United Kingdom); Paterson, Catherine [Academic Section of Urology, Division of Cancer Research, School of Medicine, University of Dundee, Scotland (United Kingdom); Rauchhaus, Petra [Tayside Clinical Trials Unit, School of Medicine, University of Dundee, Scotland (United Kingdom); Nabi, Ghulam [Academic Section of Urology, Division of Cancer Research, School of Medicine, University of Dundee, Scotland (United Kingdom)

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether participants taking angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) and treated with radical radiation therapy with neoadjuvant/adjuvant hormone therapy have less incidence, severity, and duration of radiation proctitis. Methods and Materials: A propensity score analysis of 817 patients who underwent radical radiation therapy with neoadjuvant or adjuvant hormone therapy as primary line management in a cohort study during 2009 to 2013 was conducted. Patients were stratified as follows: group 1, hypertensive patients taking ACEIs (as a study group); group 2, nonhypertensive patients not taking ACEIs; and group 3, hypertensive patients not taking ACEIs (both as control groups). The incidence, severity, and duration of proctitis were the main outcome. χ{sup 2} tests, Mann-Whitney U tests, analysis of variance, risk ratio (RR), confidence interval (CI), Kaplan-Meier plots, and log-rank tests were used. Results: The mean age of the participants was 68.91 years, with a follow-up time of 3.38 years. Based on disease and age-matched comparison, there was a statistically significant difference of proctitis grading between the 3 groups: χ{sup 2} (8, n=308) = 72.52, P<.001. The Mann-Whitney U test indicated that grades of proctitis were significantly lower in hypertensive patients taking ACEIs than in nonhypertensive patients not taking ACEIs and hypertensive patients not taking ACEIs (P<.001). The risk ratio (RR) of proctitis in hypertensive patients taking ACEIs was significantly lower than in hypertensive patients not taking ACEIs (RR 0.40, 95% CI 0.30-0.53, P<.001) and in nonhypertensive patients not taking ACEIs (RR 0.58, 95% CI 0.44-0.77, P<.001). Time to event analysis revealed that hypertensive patients taking ACEIs were significantly different from the control groups (P<.0001). Furthermore, hypertensive patients taking ACEIs had significantly faster resolution of proctitis (P<.0001). Conclusion: Patients who were taking ACEIs were

  2. Radiation risk statement in the participant information for a research protocol that involves exposure to ionising radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caon, Martin

    2005-01-01

    A Human Research Ethics Committee (HREC) is required to scrutinise the protocols of clinical drug trials that recruit patients as participants. If the study involves exposing the participants to ionizing radiation the information provided to the participant should contain a radiation risk statement that is understandable by the Committee and the participant. The information that should be included in the risk statement is available from a variety of published sources and is discussed. The ARPANSA Code of Practice Exposure of Humans to Ionizing Radiation for Research Purposes (2005) states explicitly what the responsibilities of the researcher and the HREC are. Some research protocols do not provide the information required by good radiation protection practice and explicitly called for by the Code. Nine points (including: state that ionizing radiation is involved; that the radiation is additional to standard care; the effective dose to be received; the dose compared to natural background; the dose to the most exposed organs; a statement of risk; the benefits accruing from the exposure; ask the participant about previous exposures; name a contact person from whom information may be sought) that should be considered for inclusion in the participant information are presented and discussed. An example of a radiation risk statement is provided

  3. Role of radiation therapy in the management of plasma cell tumors. [Incidence of complications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mill, W.B.; Griffith, R.

    1980-02-15

    A retrospective review is reported of 128 patients presenting with multiple myeloma and 16 patients presenting with solitary plasmacytoma. Ninety-one percent of 116 evaluable patients treated for palliation of painful bone disease received some degree of subjective pain relief. The radiation dose most frequently prescribed was between 1500 and 2000 rad. Of the 278 ports treated, only 17 (6.1%) were re-treated to the same area at a later date. There was no increase in incidence of re-treatment with lower radiation doses. Ten of the 13 patients treated for a solitary plasmacytoma with a minimum follow-up period of three years have local tumor control. The median survival in the solitary plasmacytomas is five and one-half years. Data from the literature on 27 additional solitary plasmacytomas combined with our data suggest an improved local control and a decrease in dissemination with doses greater than 5000 rad. It is concluded that low doses of radiation are usually adequate to treat painful bone lesions of multiple myeloma and doses of 5000 to 6500 rad in six to seven weeks are recommended for solitary plasmacytomas.

  4. X-ray radiation damage of organic semiconductor thin films during grazing incidence diffraction experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neuhold, A., E-mail: alfred.neuhold@tugraz.at [Institute of Solid State Physics, Graz University of Technology, Graz (Austria); Novak, J.; Flesch, H.-G.; Moser, A.; Djuric, T. [Institute of Solid State Physics, Graz University of Technology, Graz (Austria); Grodd, L.; Grigorian, S.; Pietsch, U. [Institute of Physics, University Siegen (Germany); Resel, R. [Institute of Solid State Physics, Graz University of Technology, Graz (Austria)

    2012-08-01

    Since modern synchrotrons with highly intense X-ray beams are in use to investigate organic materials, the stability of soft matter materials during beam exposure is a crucial issue. Grazing incidence X-ray diffraction and specular X-ray reflectivity measurements were performed on thin films of organic semiconducting materials, like poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT), sexithiophene and pentacene. These films were irradiated with an average flux density between 10{sup 15} and 10{sup 16} photons/(s mm{sup 2}) and evidenced a different stability in synchrotron X-ray radiation. The semi-crystalline P3HT showed a clear intensity decrease of the 1 0 0 Bragg peak and 0 2 0 Bragg peak compared to the rather stable diffraction features of the molecular crystals sexithiophene and pentacene. The difference in synchrotron X-ray radiation stability is explained by the interaction of the X-ray beam with the individual chemical components in the molecules as well as by the different crystallinities of the materials. Furthermore, the semi-crystalline P3HT film exhibited an increase of film thickness after irradiation and the surface roughness slightly decreased. To summarize, this study shows a strong influence of synchrotron X-ray radiation to specific organic thin films like e.g. P3HT, while others like pentacene and sexithiophene are observed as quite stable.

  5. Assessment of ionizing radiation as a risk factor for breast cancer incidence in Goiania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lage, Leonardo Bastos

    2016-01-01

    This research aims to evaluate whether exposure to ionizing radiation to which women are subjected can be associated with the incidence of breast cancer in Goiania. The defined study area is the central region of Goiania, or the Sanitary Districts of Campinas-Centro and Sul, in which are the seven major accident sources of contamination with Cesium 137, and also, as shown by previous study, the majority of new cases of breast cancer (60,43 %). We used the geographical division of the city in census tracts and health districts. The data collection was divided in two stages: the first, for the survey of radiometric measurements, and the second, for identifying the addresses of women diagnosed with breast cancer. The radiometric survey occurred between 2010 and 2014, in which was used an environmental gamma radiation mobile measuring system. This system was composed by a high-sensitivity detector coupled to a Global Positioning System (GPS) and a microcomputer. The assembly was installed on a motor vehicle so that the height of the detector is found at one meter from the ground, and programmed to obtain a measurement of the doses absorbed in the air rate each second. The data collected were: doses absorbed in the air rate, geographical coordinates, altitude, date and time of acquisition. From Mobisys software, files were generated and from ArcGIS 10.0 platform, geospatial assessment survey through the elaboration of thematic maps and geospatial analysis statistics. The annual averages of effective doses and collective effective doses were estimated from the rate of doses absorbed in air collected by the system and the resident population in the census tracts. The second stage begun from the data collection at the Registry of Goiania's Population Based Cancer (RCBPGO), in which were identified addresses of women diagnosed with breast cancer between 2001 and 2010. Part of the data was geographically referenced and using census data were estimated and compared the

  6. Injury/Fatality-Causing Incidents Involving the Rearward Movement of Agricultural Machinery: Types, Causes, and Preventive Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shawn G. Ehlers

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The research reported here sought to more fully understand the types and causative factors of injury/fatality incidents resulting from the rearward-movement of tractors and other self-propelled agricultural machinery, with the view that such findings might lead to the development, improvement, and/or better utilization of safety procedures, design principles, and technologies that would prevent—or at least markedly reduce—their occurrence. Thus, the scope of this study focused only on rearward-travel (not mechanical malfunction incidents, and principally on agricultural equipment (although cases involving similar equipment in industrial or construction settings were also drawn upon. Applying these two criteria, a search of published and online sources uncovered more than 100 documented cases, 35 of which could clearly be identified as rearward-movement incidents, of which 28 (80% were fatal. Each of these 35 cases were then assessed, based on the type of machine, type of worksite, and type/description of incident (i.e., ‘scenario’, which fell into one of three distinct categories or classifications—(1 co-worker run over/crushed/otherwise injured because operator loses visual contact with co-worker; (2 bystander run over/crushed/otherwise injured because operator is unaware of bystander’s presence; and (3 operator run over/crushed/otherwise injured because operator loses visual contact with, or is unaware of, a stationary object or a hazard. Then, from each scenario, a representative incident (i.e., case study was selected for a more in-depth analysis. The collective findings, from these three case studies and all 35 machinery rearward-movement incidents, were as follows: (1 The ‘victim’ could be the machine operator as well as a co-worker or a bystander; (2 The specific site of the co-worker or bystander injury/fatality was at the base of the machine’s rear tires or tracks, at the hitching point, or behind a towed implement; (3

  7. Assessment of radiation doses due to normal operation, incidents and accidents of the final disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossi, J.; Raiko, H.; Suolanen, V.; Ilvonen, M.

    1999-03-01

    Radiation doses for workers of the encapsulation and disposal facility and for inhabitants in the environment caused by the facility during its operation were considered. The study covers both the normal operation of the plant and some hypothetical incidents and accidents. Occupational radiation doses inside the plant during normal operation are based on the design basis, assuming that highest permitted dose levels are prevailing in control rooms during fuel transfer and encapsulation processes. Release through the ventilation stack is assumed to be filtered both in normal operation and in hypothetical incident and accident cases. Calculation of the offsite doses from normal operation is based on the hypothesis that one fuel pin per 100 fuel bundles for all batches of spent fuel transported to the encapsulation facility is leaking. The release magnitude in incidents and accidents is based on the event chains, which lead to loss of fuel pin tightness followed by a discharge of radionuclides into the handling chamber and to some degree through the ventilation stack into atmosphere. The weather data measured at the Olkiluoto meteorological mast was employed for calculating of offsite doses. Therefore doses could be calculated in a large amount of different dispersion conditions, the statistical frequencies of which have, been measured. Finally doses were combined into cumulative distributions, from which a dose value representing the 99.5 % confidence level, is presented. The dose values represent the exposure of a critical group, which is assumed to live at the distance of 200 meters from the encapsulation and disposal plant and thus it will receive the largest doses in most dispersion conditions. Exposure pathways considered were: cloudsnine, inhalation, groundshine and nutrition (milk of cow, meat of cow, green vegetables, grain and root vegetables). Nordic seasonal variation is included in ingestion dose models. The results obtained indicate that offsite doses

  8. Preparedness of households and catering establishments for incidents involving radioactive contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enqvist, H.

    2005-01-01

    This short paper describes a number of investigations carried out to ensure preparedness for crises involving radioactivity to catering operations and private households in Finland. The specific recommendations for catering kitchens during crises were published in 1994. A study to determine the level of adherence to these recommendations is summarised here, together with its findings and subsequent recommendations. Another study on the pre-planning of crisis menus is described. New challenges for the catering kitchens are touched upon. A crisis food preparation booklet for households is described and based on consumers' attitudes suggestions are made for how this can be improved in the future

  9. Preparedness of households and catering establishments for incidents involving radioactive contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enqvist, H

    2005-01-01

    This short paper describes a number of investigations carried out to ensure preparedness for crises involving radioactivity to catering operations and private households in Finland. The specific recommendations for catering kitchens during crises were published in 1994. A study to determine the level of adherence to these recommendations is summarised here, together with its findings and subsequent recommendations. Another study on the pre-planning of crisis menus is described. New challenges for the catering kitchens are touched upon. A crisis food preparation booklet for households is described and based on consumers' attitudes suggestions are made for how this can be improved in the future.

  10. Radiation Therapy for Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma Involving the Parotid Area Lymph Nodes: Dose and Volume Considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Allen M.; Grekin, Roy C.; Garcia, Joaquin; Bucci, Mary K.; Margolis, Lawrence W.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The intraparotid and periparotid lymph nodes are the most commonly involved when skin cancer of the head and neck metastasizes beyond the primary site. We sought to report the clinical outcome of patients treated with radiation therapy for parotid-area metastases from cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. Methods and Materials: The records of 36 patients treated with radiation therapy for cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma involving the parotid-area lymph nodes were reviewed. All patients had clinically N0 necks and were without evidence of distant disease. Thirty patients (83%) were treated postoperatively after gross total tumor resection. Median dose to the parotid area was 60 Gy (range, 50-72 Gy). Treatment of clinically N0 necks consisted of surgical dissection (7 patients), irradiation (15 patients), and observation (14 patients). Results: The 5-year estimate of local (parotid) control was 86% in patients treated using surgery with postoperative therapy and 47% in patients treated using radiation therapy alone. Three of 4 patients with tumors that relapsed locally after surgery and postoperative radiation received a dose of less than 60 Gy. Elective neck irradiation decreased the incidence of subsequent nodal failures from 50% to 0% and significantly improved neck control (p < 0.001). The 5-year overall survival rate was 63%. Conclusions: Surgery followed by radiation therapy to doses of at least 60 Gy results in effective local control for patients with parotid area metastasis from cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma. Routine irradiation of the clinically N0 neck is recommended

  11. High-flux normal incidence monochromator for circularly polarized synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaefers, F.; Peatman, W.; Eyers, A.; Heckenkamp, C.; Schoenhense, G.; Heinzmann, U.

    1986-01-01

    A 6.5-m normal incidence monochromator installed at the storage ring BESSY, which is optimized for a high throughput of circularly polarized off-plane radiation at moderate resolution is described. The monochromator employs two exit slits and is specially designed and used for low-signal experiments such as spin- and angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy on solids, adsorbates, free atoms, and molecules. The Monk--Gillieson mounting (plane grating in a convergent light beam) allows for large apertures with relatively little astigmatism. With two gratings, a flux of more than 10 11 photons s -1 bandwidth -1 (0.2--0.5 nm) with a circular polarization of more than 90% in the wavelength range from 35 to 675 nm is achieved

  12. Mirror and grating surface figure requirements for grazing incidence synchrotron radiation beamlines: Power loading effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hulbert, S.L.; Sharma, S.

    1987-01-01

    At present, grazing incidence mirrors are used almost exclusively as the first optical element in VUV and soft x-ray synchrotron radiation beamlines. The performance of these mirrors is determined by thermal and mechanical stress-induced figure errors as well as by figure errors remaining from the grinding and polishing process. With the advent of VUV and soft x-ray undulators and wigglers has come a new set of thermal stress problems related to both the magnitude and the spatial distribution of power from these devices. In many cases the power load on the entrance slits and gratings in these beamlines is no longer negligible. The dependence of thermally-induced front-end mirror figure errors on various storage ring and insertion device parameters (especially those at the National Synchrotron Light Source) and the effects of these figure errors on two classes of soft x-ray beamlines are presented.

  13. The incidence of other primary cancers in patients with an oral cancer treated with radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizutani, Kiminari; Koseki, Yonoshin; Ikeda, Hiroshi

    1992-01-01

    From January 1980 through April 1990, a total of 317 patients with an oral cancer were treated with radiation therapy at Department of Radiology, Osaka University Hospital. Twenty-seven (8.5%) of these 317 patients had other primary cancers. For statistical purposes, the expected number of other primary cancers was estimated by multiplying the age-sex specific incidence rates among Osaka residents with the Person-year at risk figures, based on the Osaka Prefectural Cancer Registry. The observed/expected [0/E] ratios were 16.00 (p<0.01) for the esophagus and 28.42 (p<0.01) for the oropharynx. The present study suggested the necessity of following up oral cancer patients, especially those who have had carcinoma of the mouth floor, in order to enable the early diagnosis of upper digestive tract cancer. (author)

  14. Mark IV 'Grasshopper' grazing incidence mono-chromator for the Canadian Synchrotron Radiation Facility (CSRF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, K.H.; Bancroft, G.M.; Coatsworth, L.L.; Yates, B.W.

    1982-01-01

    The vacuum, mechanical, and optical characteristics of a 'Grasshopper' grazing incidence monochromator for use with a synchrotron radiation source in the 30-300 eV range is described. The monochromator is compatible with ultrahigh vacuum ( -10 Torr throughout), and the motor driven scan mechanism is linear and reliable. The monchromator has been calibrated using several known absorption edges between 36 and 102 eV and a nonlinear least squares fit to the scan equation. These same absorption edges, plus a scan over zero order, show that the present resolution of the monochromator (with 10 and 16 μm exit and entrance slits respectively) is 0.16 A (0.06 eV at the AlLsub(2,3) edge). With 10 μm entrance and exit slits the resolution will be very close to the theoretical Δlambda = 0.083 A

  15. Solar ultraviolet radiation in Syria measurements and relationship with skin cancer incidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Othman, I; Baydon, S.A.; Dawood, S.

    1994-11-01

    Seasonal variations of solar UVB (285-320) and UVA (320-400) were measured in three sites in Syria (33-37 N sup O) for two years: 1992-1993. UVB measurements were performed using polysulphone films and Robertson-Berger meter, while UVA measurements were done by NVA intensity meter. Two sets of measurements were carried out : - Maximal daily doses three times a week (every other day) - Diurnal variations from sun-rise to sun-set every two hours twice a month (every fortnight). The biological consequences of ultraviolet radiation withreference to some epidemiological data of skin cancer incidence in Syria since 1980 were discussed .(author). 36 refs., 21 figs., 11 tabs

  16. Determination, through of thermoluminescence dosimetry, of the incident radiation in critical organs, during cephalometric radiographies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hipolito Junior, O. di; Goncalves, N.; Boscolo, F.N.; Montebelo Filho, A.

    1985-01-01

    The object of this paper was to value and to compare the doses of X-ray incident in critical orgas of patient and operator, during cephalometric radiography. Each patient was submited for two radiographics expositions. First of all, they use the followings factors: 85 kVp, 15 mA and 4/10 s of exposition; while of the second radiography the conditions were of 70 kVp, 15 mA and 1.2 s of exposition. The dosimetric method was the thermoluminescent through the LiF-700. Although the cephalometric radiographies showed similars qualities, in bot conditions where the equipment functioned, the situation of high voltage was noted small doses of radiation. (author) [pt

  17. A parameter quantifying radiation damping of bay oscillations excited by incident tsunamis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endoh, Takahiro; Inazu, Daisuke; Waseda, Takuji; Hibiya, Toshiyuki

    2018-04-01

    The transient response of a bay with a narrow mouth to incident tsunamis is interpreted as the convolution of the input signal with the impulse response obtained by an inverse Fourier transform of the response curve of the oscillatory system with one degree of freedom. The rate of radiation damping associated with energy escaping seaward through the bay mouth is expressed in terms of the quality factor Q, which determines the decaying envelope of the impulse response. The value of Q of the resonant peak is approximated by the ratio of the resonant frequency ω0 to the bandwidth between frequencies at which the power spectral density of sea level within the bay drops to half of the peak value. Since the shape of the frequency power spectrum during the tsunami event is almost similar to that in the normal state in the neighborhood of ω0, Q can be estimated from sea level datasets in the normal state. Although the amplitude and phase of the impulse response need to be adjusted using the first crest or trough of the observed leading wave, this approach proves to work well in examining the transient responses of Miyako Bay and Kushimoto Bay on the Japanese Pacific coast to incident tsunamis.

  18. Recovery from Iridium-192 flakes of a radioactive source for industrial use after a radiation incident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruz, W.H.; Zapata, L.A.

    2013-01-01

    The Iridium-192 ( 192 Ir) is the most used and ideal for industrial radiography applications, especially in petrochemical plants and pipelines and provides better contrast sensitivity for thick (25.4 mm). This source has constructive sealed double encapsulation, the internal capsule containing stainless steel to radioactive material in the form of flakes and welded with TIG process. The radiological incident happened at a gas station fuel sales in circumstances in which there was a homogeneity test welds a tank, the flakes or Ir-192 fell off his ponytail and left scattered over an area of 2 m 2 , some fell flat areas and other land so collected in lead shielding and metal container and ground source. Full recovery of the leaflets was performed at the Division of radioactive waste management (GRRA) gaining a total of 22 flakes with no radiation risk to staff performance and installation and the conclusion was reached that the misapplicaion of TIG welding was the main cause the incident. (author)

  19. Incidence of Leukoencephalopathy After Whole-Brain Radiation Therapy for Brain Metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebi, Junko; Sato, Hisashi; Nakajima, Masaru; Shishido, Fumio

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the incidence of leukoencephalopathy after whole-brain radiation therapy (WBRT) in patients with brain metastases. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively reviewed 111 patients who underwent WBRT for brain metastases from April 2001 through March 2008 and had evaluable computed tomography (CT) and/or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at least 1 month after completion of WBRT. We evaluated the leukoencephalopathy according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 3.0. The patients who had brain tumor recurrence after WBRT were censored at the last follow-up CT or MRI without recurrence. To evaluate the risk factors for leukoencephalopathy, bivariate analysis was performed using a logistic regression analysis adjusted for follow-up time. Factors included in the analysis were age, gender, dose fractionation, 5-fluorouracil, methotrexate, cisplatin, and other chemotherapeutic agents. Results: The median age of the 111 patients was 60.0 years (range, 23-89 years). The median follow-up was 3.8 months (range, 1.0-38.1 months). Leukoencephalopathy developed in 23 of the 111 patients. Grades 1, 2, and 3 were observed in 8, 7, and 8 patients, respectively. The incidence was 34.4% (11 of 32), 42.9% (6 of 14), 66.7% (2 of 3), and 100% (2 of 2) of the patients who were followed up for ≥6, ≥12, ≥24, and ≥36 months, respectively. In the bivariate analysis, older age (≥65 years) was significantly correlated with higher risk of leukoencephalopathy (odds ratio 3.31; 95% confidence interval 1.15-9.50; P=.03). Conclusions: The incidence of leukoencephalopathy after WBRT was 34.4% with ≥6 months follow-up, and increased with longer follow-up. Older age was a significant risk factor. The schedule of WBRT for patients with brain metastases should be carefully determined, especially for favorable patients

  20. Airborne Release of Particles in Overheating Incidents Involving Plutonium Metal and Compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwendiman, L. C.; Mishima, J.; Radasch, C. A. [Battelle Memorial Institute, Pacific Northwest Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States)

    1968-12-15

    Ever-increasing utilization of nuclear fuels will result in wide-scale plutonium recovery processing, reconstitution of fuels, transportation, and extensive handling of this material. A variety of circumstances resulting in overheating and fires involving plutonium may occur, releasing airborne particles. This work describes the observations from a study in which the airborne release of plutonium and its compounds was measured during an exposure of the material of interest containing plutonium to temperatures which may result from fires. Aerosol released from small cylinders of metallic plutonium ignited in air at temperatures from 410 to 650 Degree-Sign C ranged from 3 x 10{sup -6} to 5 x 10{sup -5} wt%. Particles smaller than 15{mu}m in diameter represented as much as 0.03% of the total released. Large plutonium pieces weighing from 456 to 1770 g were ignited and allowed to oxidize completely in air with a velocity of around 500 cm/sec. Release rates of from 0.0045 to 0.032 wt% per hour were found. The median mass diameter of airborne material was 4 {mu}m. Quenching the oxidation with magnesium oxide sand reduced the release to 2.9 X 10{sup -4} wt% per hour. Many experiments were carried out in which plutonium compounds as powders were heated at temperatures ranging from 700 to 1000 Degree-Sign C with several air flows. Release rates ranged from 5 x 10{sup -8} to 0.9 wt% per hour, depending upon the compound and the conditions imposed. The airborne release from boiling solutions of plutonium nitrate were roughly related to energy of boiling, and ranged from 4 x 10{sup -4} to 2 x 10{sup -1} % for the evaporation of 90% of the solution. The fraction airborne when combustibles contaminated with plutonium are burned is under study. The data reported can be used in assessing the consequences of off-standard situations involving plutonium and its compounds in fires. (author)

  1. Infant Brain Tumors: Incidence, Survival, and the Role of Radiation Based on Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bishop, Andrew J.; McDonald, Mark W.; Chang, Andrew L.; Esiashvili, Natia

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the incidence of infant brain tumors and survival outcomes by disease and treatment variables. Methods and Materials: The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program November 2008 submission database provided age-adjusted incidence rates and individual case information for primary brain tumors diagnosed between 1973 and 2006 in infants less than 12 months of age. Results: Between 1973 and 1986, the incidence of infant brain tumors increased from 16 to 40 cases per million (CPM), and from 1986 to 2006, the annual incidence rate averaged 35 CPM. Leading histologies by annual incidence in CPM were gliomas (13.8), medulloblastoma and primitive neuroectodermal tumors (6.6), and ependymomas (3.6). The annual incidence was higher in whites than in blacks (35.0 vs. 21.3 CPM). Infants with low-grade gliomas had the highest observed survival, and those with atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumors (ATRTs) or primary rhabdoid tumors of the brain had the lowest. Between 1979 and 1993, the annual rate of cases treated with radiation within the first 4 months from diagnosis declined from 20.5 CPM to <2 CPM. For infants with medulloblastoma, desmoplastic histology and treatment with both surgery and upfront radiation were associated with improved survival, but on multivariate regression, only combined surgery and radiation remained associated with improved survival, with a hazard ratio for death of 0.17 compared with surgery alone (p = 0.005). For ATRTs, those treated with surgery and upfront radiation had a 12-month survival of 100% compared with 24.4% for those treated with surgery alone (p = 0.016). For ependymomas survival was higher in patients treated in more recent decades (p = 0.001). Conclusion: The incidence of infant brain tumors has been stable since 1986. Survival outcomes varied markedly by histology. For infants with medulloblastoma and ATRTs, improved survival was observed in patients treated with both surgery and early radiation

  2. An evaluation of early countermeasures to reduce the risk of internal radiation exposure after the Fukushima nuclear incident in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Shuhei; Tsubokura, Masaharu; Gilmour, Stuart; Hayano, Ryugo S; Watanabe, Yuni N; Kami, Masahiro; Kanazawa, Yukio; Oikawa, Tomoyoshi

    2016-05-01

    After a radiation-release incident, intake of radionuclides in the initial stage immediately following the incident may be the major contributor to total internal radiation exposure for individuals in affected areas. However, evaluation of early internal contamination risk is greatly lacking. This study assessed the relationship between initial stage evacuation/indoor sheltering and internal radiation contamination levels 4 months after the 2011 Fukushima nuclear incident in Japan and estimated potential pathways of the contamination. The study population comprised 525 participants in the internal radiation screening program at Minamisoma Municipal General Hospital, 23 km north of the Fukushima nuclear plant. The analysed dataset included the results of a screening performed in July 2011, 4 months after the incident, and of a questionnaire on early-incident response behaviours, such as sheltering indoors and evacuations, completed by participants. Association between such early countermeasures and internal contamination levels of cesium-134 were assessed using Tobit multiple regression analyses. Our study shows that individuals who evacuated to areas outside Fukushima Prefecture had similar contamination levels of cesium-134 to individuals who stayed in Fukushima (relative risk: 0.86; 95% confidence interval: 0.74-0.99). Time spent outdoors had no significant relationship with contamination levels. The effects of inhalation from radiological plumes released from the nuclear plant on total internal radiation contamination might be so low as to be undetectable by the whole-body counting unit used to examine participants. Given the apparent limited effectiveness of evacuation and indoor sheltering on internal contamination, the decision to implement such early responses to a radiation-release incident should be made by carefully balancing their potential benefits and health risks. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For

  3. TU-D-201-04: Veracity of Data Elements in Radiation Oncology Incident Learning Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapur, A; Evans, S; Brown, D; Ezzell, G; Hoopes, D; Dieterich, S; Kapetanovic, K; Tomlinson, C

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Incident learning systems encompass volumes, varieties, values, and velocities of underlying data elements consistent with the V’s of big data. Veracity, the 5th V however exists only if there is high inter-rater reliability (IRR) within the data elements. The purpose of this work was to assess IRR in the nationally deployed RO-ILS: Radiation Oncology-Incident Learning System (R) sponsored by the American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) and the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM). Methods: Ten incident reports covering a wide range of scenarios were created in standardized narrative and video formats and disseminated to 67 volunteers of multiple disciplines from 26 institutions along with two published narratives from the International Commission of Radiological Protection to assess IRR on a nationally representative level. The volunteers were instructed to independently enter the associated data elements in a test version of RO-ILS over a 3-week period. All responses were aggregated into a spreadsheet to assess IRR using free-marginal kappa metrics. Results: 48 volunteers from 21 institutions completed all reports in the study period. The average kappa score for all raters across all critical data elements was 0.659 [range 0.326–1.000]. Statistically significant differences (p <0.05) were noted between reporters of different disciplines and raters with varying levels of experience. Kappa scores were high for event classification (0.781) and contributory factors (0.777) and low for likelihood-of-harm (0.326). IRR was highest among AAPM-ASTRO members (0.672) and lowest among trainees (0.463). Conclusion: A moderate-to-substantial level of IRR in RO-ILS was noted in this study. Although the number of events reviewed in this study was small, opportunities for improving the taxonomy for the lower scoring data elements as well as specific educational targets for training were identified by assessing data veracity quantitatively

  4. TU-D-201-04: Veracity of Data Elements in Radiation Oncology Incident Learning Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kapur, A [Northwell Health System, New Hyde Park, NY (United States); Evans, S [Yale University New Haven, CT (United States); Brown, D [University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States); Ezzell, G [Mayo Clinic Arizona, Phoenix, AZ (United States); Hoopes, D [The University of California San Diego, San Diego, CA (United States); Dieterich, S [UC Davis Medical Center, Sacramento, CA (United States); Kapetanovic, K; Tomlinson, C [American Society for Radiation Oncology, Fairfax, VA (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Incident learning systems encompass volumes, varieties, values, and velocities of underlying data elements consistent with the V’s of big data. Veracity, the 5th V however exists only if there is high inter-rater reliability (IRR) within the data elements. The purpose of this work was to assess IRR in the nationally deployed RO-ILS: Radiation Oncology-Incident Learning System (R) sponsored by the American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) and the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM). Methods: Ten incident reports covering a wide range of scenarios were created in standardized narrative and video formats and disseminated to 67 volunteers of multiple disciplines from 26 institutions along with two published narratives from the International Commission of Radiological Protection to assess IRR on a nationally representative level. The volunteers were instructed to independently enter the associated data elements in a test version of RO-ILS over a 3-week period. All responses were aggregated into a spreadsheet to assess IRR using free-marginal kappa metrics. Results: 48 volunteers from 21 institutions completed all reports in the study period. The average kappa score for all raters across all critical data elements was 0.659 [range 0.326–1.000]. Statistically significant differences (p <0.05) were noted between reporters of different disciplines and raters with varying levels of experience. Kappa scores were high for event classification (0.781) and contributory factors (0.777) and low for likelihood-of-harm (0.326). IRR was highest among AAPM-ASTRO members (0.672) and lowest among trainees (0.463). Conclusion: A moderate-to-substantial level of IRR in RO-ILS was noted in this study. Although the number of events reviewed in this study was small, opportunities for improving the taxonomy for the lower scoring data elements as well as specific educational targets for training were identified by assessing data veracity quantitatively

  5. Effects of radiation on the incidence of prostate cancer among Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Hisayoshi; Soda, Midori; Mine, Mariko; Yokota, Kenichi

    2013-10-01

    Atomic bomb survivors have been reported to have an increased risk of some cancers, especially leukemia. However, the risk of prostate cancer in atomic bomb survivors is not known to have been examined previously. This study examined the association between atomic bomb radiation and the incidence of prostate cancer among male Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors. The subjects were classified by distance from the hypocenter into a proximal group (bomb survivors who were alive in 1996. The Cox proportional hazard model was used to estimate the risk of prostate cancer development, with adjustment for age at atomic bomb explosion, attained age, smoking status, and alcohol consumption. Compared with the distal group, the proximal group had significant increased risks of total, localized, and high-grade prostate cancer (relative risk and 95% confidence interval: 1.51 [1.21-1.89]; 1.80 [1.26-2.57]; and 1.88 [1.20-2.94], respectively). This report is the first known to reveal a significant relationship between atomic bomb radiation and prostate cancer. © 2013 Japanese Cancer Association.

  6. Infant brain tumors: incidence, survival, and the role of radiation based on Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Andrew J; McDonald, Mark W; Chang, Andrew L; Esiashvili, Natia

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the incidence of infant brain tumors and survival outcomes by disease and treatment variables. The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program November 2008 submission database provided age-adjusted incidence rates and individual case information for primary brain tumors diagnosed between 1973 and 2006 in infants less than 12 months of age. Between 1973 and 1986, the incidence of infant brain tumors increased from 16 to 40 cases per million (CPM), and from 1986 to 2006, the annual incidence rate averaged 35 CPM. Leading histologies by annual incidence in CPM were gliomas (13.8), medulloblastoma and primitive neuroectodermal tumors (6.6), and ependymomas (3.6). The annual incidence was higher in whites than in blacks (35.0 vs. 21.3 CPM). Infants with low-grade gliomas had the highest observed survival, and those with atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumors (ATRTs) or primary rhabdoid tumors of the brain had the lowest. Between 1979 and 1993, the annual rate of cases treated with radiation within the first 4 months from diagnosis declined from 20.5 CPM to incidence of infant brain tumors has been stable since 1986. Survival outcomes varied markedly by histology. For infants with medulloblastoma and ATRTs, improved survival was observed in patients treated with both surgery and early radiation compared with those treated with surgery alone. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Expert Radiation Oncologist Interpretations of Involved-Site Radiation Therapy Guidelines in the Management of Hodgkin Lymphoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoppe, Bradford S. [University of Florida Health Proton Therapy Institute, Jacksonville, Florida (United States); Hoppe, Richard T., E-mail: rhoppe@stanford.edu [Stanford Cancer Institute, Stanford, California (United States)

    2015-05-01

    Purpose: Recently, involved-site radiation therapy (ISRT) guidelines have been developed and published to replace the previous concept of involved-field radiation therapy for patients with lymphoma. However, these ISRT guidelines may be interpreted in different ways, posing difficulties for prospective clinical trials. This study reports survey results regarding interpretation of the ISRT guidelines. Methods and Materials: Forty-four expert lymphoma radiation oncologists were asked to participate in a survey that included 7 different cases associated with 9 questions. The questions pertained to ISRT contouring and asked respondents to choose between 2 different answers (no “correct” answer) and a third write-in option allowed. Results: Fifty-two percent of those surveyed responded to the questionnaire. Among those who responded, 72% have practiced for >10 years, 46% have treated >20 Hodgkin lymphoma cases annually, and 100% were familiar with the ISRT concept. Among the 9 questions associated with the 7 cases, 3 had concordance among the expert radiation oncologists of greater than 70%. Six of the questions had less than 70% concordance (range, 56%-67%). Conclusions: Even among expert radiation oncologists, interpretation of ISRT guidelines is variable. Further guidance for ISRT field design will be needed to reduce variability among practicing physicians.

  8. Involved-nodal radiation therapy leads to lower doses to critical organs-at-risk compared to involved-field radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulvihill, David J.; McMichael, Kevin; Goyal, Sharad; Drachtman, Richard; Weiss, Aaron; Khan, Atif J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Involved field radiotherapy (IFRT) after cytotoxic chemotherapy has become the standard of care in treating pediatric patients with Hodgkin lymphoma. However, recent interest in shrinking the treatment volume to involved node radiotherapy (INRT) may allow lower doses to critical organ structures. We dosimetrically compared IFRT and INRT treatment approaches. Methods: INRT treatment plans were retrospectively constructed from 17 consecutively treated pediatric patients identified with Hodgkin lymphoma who had been previously treated with conventional IFRT. The radiation doses delivered to organs-at-risk (OARs) with virtual INRT treatment plans based on INRT field design were then compared to the original IFRT treatment plans. Metrics for comparison included mean doses to organs and volumes of organ receiving at least 50% of the original prescription dose (V50%). A one-tailed, paired t-test was then performed to verify statistical significance at an alpha level of 0.05. Results: All organs at risk compared in this investigation (kidneys, heart, thyroid, parotids, and lungs) had significantly lower doses of radiation with INRT when compared to IFRT (p < 0.05). Furthermore, the volume of the breast receiving at least 50% of the initial prescription dose was statistically lower in the INRT plans. Conclusions: Utilizing the concept of INRT results in a reduction of radiation dose to critical organ structures in pediatric patients with Hodgkin lymphoma when compared to the more traditional method of IFRT

  9. Hereditary Factors Involved in Radiation-Induced Leukaemogenesis; Facteurs hereditaires impliques dans la radioleucemogenese

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duplan, J. F. [Laboratoire Pasteur, Institut du Radium, Paris (France)

    1969-11-15

    The hereditary factors involved in radiation-induced leukaemogenesis were studied in pure AKR and C57BL strains, their first-generation hybrids and their back-crosses. It is known that the heredity of spontaneous lymphoid leukaemias is attributable to hereditary factors, of which only some are chromosomal, and the same situation can be considered to exist as regards the heredity of radiation-induced leukoses. In order to identify the various chromosomal and non-chromosomal factors concerned, three types of experiment were conducted with the pure strains and with each of the crosses, intended to evaluate (a) the incidence of spontaneous lymphoid leukoses, (b) the incidence of radiation-induced leukoses and (c) the inhibition of radioleukaemo- genesis by the injection of isogenic haematopoietic cells. The results show that the main non-chromosomal factor is the leukaemogenic Gross virus (VG) in the case of the AKR strain and the radioleukaemia virus (VRL) in that of the C57BL strain; these two agents are transmitted by the mother to her progeny. The VG may be responsible for radioleukaemias as well as for spontaneous leukoses, but the VRL does not produce spontaneous leukaemias even in back-crosses possessing a substantial fraction of the AKR genome, which is particularly conducive to leukaemogenesis. Restoration using C57BL bone marrow brings about a distinct inhibition of leukaemogenesis in all animals deriving from crossings for which this material is histocompatible; AKR marrow, however, never exhibits any restorative activity. Three hypotheses may be put forward to explain these results. The first is that C57BL bone marrow contains many more precursor elements than AKR marrow, these cells being necessary for inhibition of the leukaemogenic process. The second hypothesis is that the AKR strain lacks a factor which is essential for the utilization of these precursors. Finally the third hypothesis, which seems the least probable, is that AKR cells are much more

  10. Incidence of meningeal involvement by rhabdomyosarcoma of the head and neck in children. A report of the Intergroup Rhabdomyosarcoma Study (IRS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tefft, M.; Fernandez, C.; Donaldson, M.; Newton, W.; Moon, T.E.

    1978-01-01

    One hundred and forty-one patients with embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) of the head and neck are reviewed. 57/141 had lesions of para-meningeal sites. 20/57 (35%) developed evidence of direct meningeal extension. 18/20 (90%) died of this complication. Radiation portals and doses were limited in 42% and 32%, respectively. All patients had chemotherapy for 6 weeks prior to radiation. The significance of the adequacy of radiation factors and the timing of chemotherapy are reviewed. Recommendations for managing these patients include earlier use of radiation and increased coverage of adjacent meninges by radiation including total craniospinal axis radiation when brain meningeal involvement exists

  11. Ambient ultraviolet radiation exposure and hepatocellular carcinoma incidence in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VoPham, Trang; Bertrand, Kimberly A; Yuan, Jian-Min; Tamimi, Rulla M; Hart, Jaime E; Laden, Francine

    2017-08-18

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), the most commonly occurring type of primary liver cancer, has been increasing in incidence worldwide. Vitamin D, acquired from sunlight exposure, diet, and dietary supplements, has been hypothesized to impact hepatocarcinogenesis. However, previous epidemiologic studies examining the associations between dietary and serum vitamin D reported mixed results. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between ambient ultraviolet (UV) radiation exposure and HCC risk in the U.S. The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database provided information on HCC cases diagnosed between 2000 and 2014 from 16 population-based cancer registries across the U.S. Ambient UV exposure was estimated by linking the SEER county with a spatiotemporal UV exposure model using a geographic information system. Poisson regression with robust variance estimation was used to calculate incidence rate ratios (IRRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association between ambient UV exposure per interquartile range (IQR) increase (32.4 mW/m 2 ) and HCC risk adjusting for age at diagnosis, sex, race, year of diagnosis, SEER registry, and county-level information on prevalence of health conditions, lifestyle, socioeconomic, and environmental factors. Higher levels of ambient UV exposure were associated with statistically significant lower HCC risk (n = 56,245 cases; adjusted IRR per IQR increase: 0.83, 95% CI 0.77, 0.90; p ambient UV and HCC risk was observed among males (p for interaction = 0.01) and whites (p for interaction = 0.01). Higher ambient UV exposure was associated with a decreased risk of HCC in the U.S. UV exposure may be a potential modifiable risk factor for HCC that should be explored in future research.

  12. Incidence, causative mechanisms, and anatomic localization of stroke in pituitary adenoma patients treated with postoperative radiation therapy versus surgery alone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sattler, Margriet; Vroomen, Patrick; Sluiter, Wim J.; Schers, Henk J.; van den Berg, Gerrit; Langendijk, Johannes A.; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H. R.; van den Bergh, Alphons C. M.; van Beek, Andre P.

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: To assess and compare the incidence of stroke and stroke subtype in pituitary adenoma patients treated with postoperative radiation therapy (RT) and surgery alone. METHODS AND MATERIALS: A cohort of 462 pituitary adenoma patients treated between 1959 and 2008 at the University Medical

  13. Variations with time and age in the relative risks of solid cancer incidence after radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Little, M.P.; Muirhead, C.R.; de Vathaire, F.; Charles, M.W.

    1997-01-01

    The Japanese atomic bomb survivor cancer incidence dataset and data on five groups exposed to radiation for medical reasons in childhood are analysed and evidence found for a reduction in the radiation-induced relative risk of cancers other than leukaemia with increasing time since exposure and age at exposure. The rate of the reductions in relative risk with time since exposure are not significantly different for those exposed in childhood and for those exposed in adulthood, if adjustment is made for the effects on the relative risk of age at exposure. For those irradiated in childhood, there is a statistically significant annual reduction of 5.8% (95% Cl 2.8, 8.9) in excess relative risk, and there are no strong indications of inter-cohort heterogeniety in the speed of reduction of relative risk. After adjustment for the effects of age at exposure, there is a significant annual reduction of 3.6% (95% Cl 1.6, 5.6) in excess relative risk in all age-at-exposure groups. There are significant reductions of 5.2% (95% Cl 3.7, 6.8) in excess relative risk per year of age at exposure. There are statistically significant (P = 0.04) interactions between the exponential adjustments to the excess relative risk for age at exposure and time since exposure in the Japanese data, but no indications (P = 0.38) of such interactions when powers of time since exposure and attained age are used to adjust the excess relative risk, so that the fit of the model with power adjustments is to be preferred to that of the model with exponential adjustments. (author)

  14. Development of highly polished, grazing incidence mirrors for synchrotron radiation beam lines at SSRL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tirsell, K.G.; Berglin, E.J.; Fuchs, B.A.; Holdener, F.R.; Humpal, H.H.; Karpenko, V.P.; Kulkarni, S.; Fantone, S.D.

    1987-08-01

    New platinum-coated grazing incidence mirrors with low surface roughnesses have been developed to focus bending magnet radiation from the SSRL/SLAC SPEAR storage ring on the entrance slits of two Beam Line VIII grating monochromators. The first mirror in the toroidal grating monochromator (TGM) branch is a cooled SiC cylinder capable of absorbing synchrotron radiation power levels of up to 260 watts without excessive distortion. This mirror deflects the beam vertically through a 12/degree/ angle and focuses it sagitally on the TGM entrance slit plane. The second TGM optical element is a fused-silica spherical mirror with a large radius of curvature that deflects the beam vertically through an additional 12/degree/ and focuses it tangentially with 3/1 demagnification. The first mirror in our spherical grating branch is a 5/degree/-vertically deflecting, cooled SiC toroid designed to focus tangentially on the monochromator entrance slits and sagitally in the exit slits. A 4/degree/-deflecting fused silica mirror is used after the exit sites in each beam line to refocus on to the sample. For this application a thin cylinder is bent to approximate an ellipsoid. The mirrors are now installed at SSRL and performance measurements are planned. Qualitatively the focus of the TGM optics at the entrance slit plane appears very good. In this paper we discuss considerations leading to the choice of SiC for each of the two first mirrors. We present highlights of the development of these mirrors with some emphasis on SiC polishing techniques. In addition, the specialized metrology developed to produce the more difficult figure of the toroid will be described. Measured surface roughness and figure results will be presented. 19 refs., 11 figs.

  15. Development of highly polished, grazing incidence mirrors for synchrotron radiation beam lines at SSRL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tirsell, K.G.; Berglin, E.J.; Fuchs, B.A.; Holdener, F.R.; Humpal, H.H.; Karpenko, V.P.; Kulkarni, S.; Fantone, S.D.

    1987-08-01

    New platinum-coated grazing incidence mirrors with low surface roughnesses have been developed to focus bending magnet radiation from the SSRL/SLAC SPEAR storage ring on the entrance slits of two Beam Line VIII grating monochromators. The first mirror in the toroidal grating monochromator (TGM) branch is a cooled SiC cylinder capable of absorbing synchrotron radiation power levels of up to 260 watts without excessive distortion. This mirror deflects the beam vertically through a 12/degree/ angle and focuses it sagitally on the TGM entrance slit plane. The second TGM optical element is a fused-silica spherical mirror with a large radius of curvature that deflects the beam vertically through an additional 12/degree/ and focuses it tangentially with 3/1 demagnification. The first mirror in our spherical grating branch is a 5/degree/-vertically deflecting, cooled SiC toroid designed to focus tangentially on the monochromator entrance slits and sagitally in the exit slits. A 4/degree/-deflecting fused silica mirror is used after the exit sites in each beam line to refocus on to the sample. For this application a thin cylinder is bent to approximate an ellipsoid. The mirrors are now installed at SSRL and performance measurements are planned. Qualitatively the focus of the TGM optics at the entrance slit plane appears very good. In this paper we discuss considerations leading to the choice of SiC for each of the two first mirrors. We present highlights of the development of these mirrors with some emphasis on SiC polishing techniques. In addition, the specialized metrology developed to produce the more difficult figure of the toroid will be described. Measured surface roughness and figure results will be presented. 19 refs., 11 figs

  16. Local Adaptive Calibration of the GLASS Surface Incident Shortwave Radiation Product Using Smoothing Spline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X.; Liang, S.; Wang, G.

    2015-12-01

    Incident solar radiation (ISR) over the Earth's surface plays an important role in determining the Earth's climate and environment. Generally, can be obtained from direct measurements, remotely sensed data, or reanalysis and general circulation models (GCMs) data. Each type of product has advantages and limitations: the surface direct measurements provide accurate but sparse spatial coverage, whereas other global products may have large uncertainties. Ground measurements have been normally used for validation and occasionally calibration, but transforming their "true values" spatially to improve the satellite products is still a new and challenging topic. In this study, an improved thin-plate smoothing spline approach is presented to locally "calibrate" the Global LAnd Surface Satellite (GLASS) ISR product using the reconstructed ISR data from surface meteorological measurements. The influences of surface elevation on ISR estimation was also considered in the proposed method. The point-based surface reconstructed ISR was used as the response variable, and the GLASS ISR product and the surface elevation data at the corresponding locations as explanatory variables to train the thin plate spline model. We evaluated the performance of the approach using the cross-validation method at both daily and monthly time scales over China. We also evaluated estimated ISR based on the thin-plate spline method using independent ground measurements at 10 sites from the Coordinated Enhanced Observation Network (CEON). These validation results indicated that the thin plate smoothing spline method can be effectively used for calibrating satellite derived ISR products using ground measurements to achieve better accuracy.

  17. Incidence of radiation pneumonitis after thoracic irradiation: Dose-volume correlates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schallenkamp, John M.; Miller, Robert C.; Brinkmann, Debra H.; Foote, Tyler; Garces, Yolanda I.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To define clinical and dosimetric parameters correlated with the risk of clinically relevant radiation pneumonitis (RP) after thoracic radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: Records of consecutive patients treated with definitive thoracic radiotherapy were retrospectively reviewed for the incidence of RP of Grade 2 or greater by the Common Toxicity Criteria. Dose-volume histograms using total lung volume (TL) and TL minus gross tumor volume (TL-G) were created with and without heterogeneity corrections. Mean lung dose (MLD), effective lung volume (V eff ), and percentage of TL or TL-G receiving greater than or equal to 10, 13, 15, 20, and 30 Gy (V10-V30, respectively) were analyzed by logistic regression. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were generated to estimate RP predictive values. Results: Twelve cases of RP were identified in 92 eligible patients. Mean lung dose, V10, V13, V15, V20, and V eff were significantly correlated to RP. Combinations of MLD, V eff , V20, and V30 lost significance using TL-G and heterogeneity corrections. Receiver operating characteristic analysis determined V10 and V13 as the best predictors of RP risk, with a decrease in predictive value above those volumes. Conclusions: Intrathoracic radiotherapy should be planned with caution when using radiotherapy techniques delivering doses of 10 to 15 Gy to large lung volumes

  18. Incidence, Causative Mechanisms, and Anatomic Localization of Stroke in Pituitary Adenoma Patients Treated With Postoperative Radiation Therapy Versus Surgery Alone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sattler, Margriet G.A., E-mail: g.a.sattler@umcg.nl [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Department of Radiation Oncology, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada); Vroomen, Patrick C. [Department of Neurology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Sluiter, Wim J. [Department of Endocrinology and Metabolic Diseases, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Schers, Henk J. [Department of Primary and Community Care, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre (Netherlands); Berg, Gerrit van den [Department of Endocrinology and Metabolic Diseases, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Langendijk, Johannes A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H.R. [Department of Endocrinology and Metabolic Diseases, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Bergh, Alphons C.M. van den [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Beek, André P. van [Department of Endocrinology and Metabolic Diseases, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands)

    2013-09-01

    Purpose: To assess and compare the incidence of stroke and stroke subtype in pituitary adenoma patients treated with postoperative radiation therapy (RT) and surgery alone. Methods and Materials: A cohort of 462 pituitary adenoma patients treated between 1959 and 2008 at the University Medical Center Groningen in The Netherlands was studied. Radiation therapy was administered in 236 patients. The TOAST (Trial of ORG 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment) and the Oxfordshire Community Stroke Project classification methods were used to determine causative mechanism and anatomic localization of stroke. Stroke incidences in patients treated with RT were compared with that observed after surgery alone. Risk factors for stroke incidence were studied by log–rank test, without and with stratification for other significant risk factors. In addition, the stroke incidence was compared with the incidence rate in the general Dutch population. Results: Thirteen RT patients were diagnosed with stroke, compared with 12 surgery-alone patients. The relative risk (RR) for stroke in patients treated with postoperative RT was not significantly different compared with surgery-alone patients (univariate RR 0.62, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.28-1.35, P=.23). Stroke risk factors were coronary or peripheral artery disease (univariate and multivariate RR 10.4, 95% CI 4.7-22.8, P<.001) and hypertension (univariate RR 3.9, 95% CI 1.6-9.8, P=.002). There was no difference in TOAST and Oxfordshire classification of stroke. In this pituitary adenoma cohort 25 strokes were observed, compared with 16.91 expected (standard incidence ratio 1.48, 95% CI 1.00-1.96, P=.049). Conclusions: In pituitary adenoma patients, an increased incidence of stroke was observed compared with the general population. However, postoperative RT was not associated with an increased incidence of stroke or differences in causative mechanism or anatomic localization of stroke compared with surgery alone. The primary stroke risk

  19. Incidence, Causative Mechanisms, and Anatomic Localization of Stroke in Pituitary Adenoma Patients Treated With Postoperative Radiation Therapy Versus Surgery Alone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sattler, Margriet G.A.; Vroomen, Patrick C.; Sluiter, Wim J.; Schers, Henk J.; Berg, Gerrit van den; Langendijk, Johannes A.; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H.R.; Bergh, Alphons C.M. van den; Beek, André P. van

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To assess and compare the incidence of stroke and stroke subtype in pituitary adenoma patients treated with postoperative radiation therapy (RT) and surgery alone. Methods and Materials: A cohort of 462 pituitary adenoma patients treated between 1959 and 2008 at the University Medical Center Groningen in The Netherlands was studied. Radiation therapy was administered in 236 patients. The TOAST (Trial of ORG 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment) and the Oxfordshire Community Stroke Project classification methods were used to determine causative mechanism and anatomic localization of stroke. Stroke incidences in patients treated with RT were compared with that observed after surgery alone. Risk factors for stroke incidence were studied by log–rank test, without and with stratification for other significant risk factors. In addition, the stroke incidence was compared with the incidence rate in the general Dutch population. Results: Thirteen RT patients were diagnosed with stroke, compared with 12 surgery-alone patients. The relative risk (RR) for stroke in patients treated with postoperative RT was not significantly different compared with surgery-alone patients (univariate RR 0.62, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.28-1.35, P=.23). Stroke risk factors were coronary or peripheral artery disease (univariate and multivariate RR 10.4, 95% CI 4.7-22.8, P<.001) and hypertension (univariate RR 3.9, 95% CI 1.6-9.8, P=.002). There was no difference in TOAST and Oxfordshire classification of stroke. In this pituitary adenoma cohort 25 strokes were observed, compared with 16.91 expected (standard incidence ratio 1.48, 95% CI 1.00-1.96, P=.049). Conclusions: In pituitary adenoma patients, an increased incidence of stroke was observed compared with the general population. However, postoperative RT was not associated with an increased incidence of stroke or differences in causative mechanism or anatomic localization of stroke compared with surgery alone. The primary stroke risk

  20. Adverse radiation effect after stereotactic radiosurgery for brain metastases: incidence, time course, and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sneed, Penny K; Mendez, Joe; Vemer-van den Hoek, Johanna G M; Seymour, Zachary A; Ma, Lijun; Molinaro, Annette M; Fogh, Shannon E; Nakamura, Jean L; McDermott, Michael W

    2015-08-01

    The authors sought to determine the incidence, time course, and risk factors for overall adverse radiation effect (ARE) and symptomatic ARE after stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) for brain metastases. All cases of brain metastases treated from 1998 through 2009 with Gamma Knife SRS at UCSF were considered. Cases with less than 3 months of follow-up imaging, a gap of more than 8 months in imaging during the 1st year, or inadequate imaging availability were excluded. Brain scans and pathology reports were reviewed to ensure consistent scoring of dates of ARE, treatment failure, or both; in case of uncertainty, the cause of lesion worsening was scored as indeterminate. Cumulative incidence of ARE and failure were estimated with the Kaplan-Meier method with censoring at last imaging. Univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazards analyses were performed. Among 435 patients and 2200 brain metastases evaluable, the median patient survival time was 17.4 months and the median lesion imaging follow-up was 9.9 months. Calculated on the basis of 2200 evaluable lesions, the rates of treatment failure, ARE, concurrent failure and ARE, and lesion worsening with indeterminate cause were 9.2%, 5.4%, 1.4%, and 4.1%, respectively. Among 118 cases of ARE, approximately 60% were symptomatic and 85% occurred 3-18 months after SRS (median 7.2 months). For 99 ARE cases managed without surgery or bevacizumab, the probabilities of improvement observed on imaging were 40%, 57%, and 76% at 6, 12, and 18 months after onset of ARE. The most important risk factors for ARE included prior SRS to the same lesion (with 20% 1-year risk of symptomatic ARE vs 3%, 4%, and 8% for no prior treatment, prior whole brain radiotherapy [WBRT], or concurrent WBRT) and any of these volume parameters: target, prescription isodose, 12-Gy, or 10-Gy volume. Excluding lesions treated with repeat SRS, the 1-year probabilities of ARE were 2.1 cm, target volume > 1.2 cm(3), prescription isodose volume > 1.8 cm(3

  1. Stress measurements by multi-reflection grazing-incidence X-ray diffraction method (MGIXD) using different radiation wavelengths and different incident angles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marciszko, Marianna; Baczmański, Andrzej; Braham, Chedly; Wróbel, Mirosław; Wroński, Sebastian; Cios, Grzegorz

    2017-01-01

    The presented study introduces the development of the multi-reflection grazing-incidence X-ray diffraction method (MGIXD) for residual stress determination. The proposed new methodology is aimed at obtaining more reliable experimental data and increasing the depth of non-destructive stress determination below the sample surface. To verify proposed method measurements were performed on a classical X-ray diffractometer (Cu Kα radiation) and using synchrotron radiation (three different wavelengths: λ = 1.2527 Å, λ = 1.5419 Å and λ = 1.7512 Å). The Al2017 alloy subjected to three different surface treatments was investigated in this study. The obtained results showed that the proposed development of MGIXD method, in which not only different incident angles but also different wavelengths of X-ray are used, can be successfully applied for residual stress determination, especially when stress gradients are present in the sample.

  2. MO-G-BRE-09: Validating FMEA Against Incident Learning Data: A Study in Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, F; Cao, N; Young, L; Howard, J; Sponseller, P; Logan, W; Arbuckle, T; Korssjoen, T; Meyer, J; Ford, E

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Though FMEA (Failure Mode and Effects Analysis) is becoming more widely adopted for risk assessment in radiation therapy, to our knowledge it has never been validated against actual incident learning data. The objective of this study was to perform an FMEA analysis of an SBRT (Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy) treatment planning process and validate this against data recorded within an incident learning system. Methods: FMEA on the SBRT treatment planning process was carried out by a multidisciplinary group including radiation oncologists, medical physicists, and dosimetrists. Potential failure modes were identified through a systematic review of the workflow process. Failure modes were rated for severity, occurrence, and detectability on a scale of 1 to 10 and RPN (Risk Priority Number) was computed. Failure modes were then compared with historical reports identified as relevant to SBRT planning within a departmental incident learning system that had been active for two years. Differences were identified. Results: FMEA identified 63 failure modes. RPN values for the top 25% of failure modes ranged from 60 to 336. Analysis of the incident learning database identified 33 reported near-miss events related to SBRT planning. FMEA failed to anticipate 13 of these events, among which 3 were registered with severity ratings of severe or critical in the incident learning system. Combining both methods yielded a total of 76 failure modes, and when scored for RPN the 13 events missed by FMEA ranked within the middle half of all failure modes. Conclusion: FMEA, though valuable, is subject to certain limitations, among them the limited ability to anticipate all potential errors for a given process. This FMEA exercise failed to identify a significant number of possible errors (17%). Integration of FMEA with retrospective incident data may be able to render an improved overview of risks within a process

  3. Radiation-induced increases in sensitivity of cataleptic behavior to haloperidol: possible involvement of prostaglandins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joseph, J.A.; Kandasamy, S.B.; Hunt, W.A.; Dalton, T.K.; Stevens, S.

    1988-01-01

    The effects of radiation exposure on haloperidol-induced catalepsy were examined in order to determine whether elevated prostaglandins, through an action on dopaminergic autoreceptors, could be involved in the radiation-induced increase in the potency of this neuroleptic. Cataleptic behavior was examined in animals irradiated with various doses of gamma photons (1-150 Gy) and pretreated with a subthreshold dose of haloperidol (0.1 mg/kg). This approach was chosen to maximize any synergistic effects of radiation and haloperidol. After irradiation with doses less than or equal to 30 Gy, the combined treatment of haloperidol and radiation produced catalepsy, whereas neither treatment alone had an effect. This observed catalepsy could be blocked with prior administration of indomethacin, a prostaglandin synthesis inhibitor. Animals exposed to doses of radiation less than or equal to 50 Gy and no haloperidol, however, displayed apparent catalepsy. This effect was also antagonized by indomethacin. Prostaglandins can induce catalepsy and when administered in subthreshold doses along with subthreshold doses of haloperidol, catalepsy was observed. In order to assess a possible action of prostaglandins and radiation on dopaminergic activity, the functioning of striatal dopaminergic autoreceptors was examined by determining the effects of varying concentrations of haloperidol on the K+-evoked release of dopamine from striatal slices obtained from parallel groups of animals treated as above. Results indicated that sensitivity to haloperidol increased (higher K+-evoked dopamine release) in slices from irradiated or prostaglandin-treated animals and that this increase in sensitivity was blocked by indomethacin

  4. Pilot Study for the Creation of a European Union Radiation Accident and Incident Data Exchange System (EURAIDE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, J.E.; Lefaure, C; Czarwinski, R.

    2004-01-01

    This study has had the objective of evaluating the feasibility of: (i) facilitating the establishment of national radiation accident and incident databases where there are none and to encourage the compatibility of such databases, (ii) establishing a European network to exchange radiological protection feedback from accidents and incidents, (iii) establishing summary reports of relevant accidents and incidents with the aim of identifying lessons to be learned, so that they can be used in radiation protection training programs, and (iv) upgrading the radiological safety in the countries applying to join the EU, by integrating them into the above efficient feedback exchange system. This report details the first stage of the project, which was to review the status of existing (or proposed) national mechanisms for collating data on radiation incidents. The objectives of this initial review were to: i) obtain detailed information regarding the means of capturing and collating data, the format of established or proposed data systems and accessibility of the final data, ii) to use this information to consider how a European platform to gather relevant data/accident reports might be established., and iii) to consider how the various elements of national data systems might be harmonised in order to facilitate the presentation and distribution of lessons learned. It was considered that the key aspects that would need to be addressed in order to determine the feasibility of a European wide data exchange mechanism were: - the criteria used for the classification and categorisation of incidents, - criteria for the selection of incidents from national data systems for inclusion in a European-wide system, - the implication of possible language problems. In order to illicit the required information a detailed questionnaire was sent to a total of 31 countries, being existing European Member States, applicant or associated countries. A full list of the countries and institutions

  5. Vegetative and reproductive plasticity of broccoli at three levels of incident photosynthetically active radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francescangeli, N.; Martí, H.R.; Sangiacomo, M.A.

    2007-01-01

    To study the effects of shading on the growth, development, dry matter partitioning, and plant architecture of broccoli, ‘Legacy’ hybrid plants were grown in pots in a greenhouse under black shading meshes to generate different levels of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR). The average incident PAR was 23 mol PPF m –2 d –1 under control conditions, 15.2 under a 35% mesh, and 6.7 under a 70% mesh. The air temperature was within the range 15-22°C. As shading increased so did the duration of the growth cycle and the leaf area (LA). Shading did not affect the number of leaves, although the upper ones were more erect. The stem length and the accumulated intercepted PAR (IPAR) were negatively related. Inflorescence diameter and commercial fresh weight decreased only with the 70% mesh. Shading did not affect stem dry weight (DW) but altered dry matter allocation in the root and spear. The DW of the leaves maintained an average 45.7% of the total DW despite the greater LA developed under shade. The net assimilation rate diminished with the reduction of IPAR, and the LA increased; the plant relative growth rate was therefore practically constant. With increased shading, the leaves and the stem became the dominant photosynthate sinks. The commercial fresh weight achieved with 15.2 mol photosynthetic photon flux (PPF) m –2 d –1 was equivalent to that obtained with 23 mol PPF m –2 d –1 , but the cycle was extended for 4.5 days. With 6.7 mol PPF m –2 d –1 , yield diminished because of the lower DW produced in a cycle extended by 15 days, and because more dry matter was allocated to the stem than to the spear. Based on these results, broccoli could be considered a shade-tolerant plant. (author) [es

  6. Radiation exposure of holding personnel involved in veterinary X-ray diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothe, W.

    1977-01-01

    An account is given of radiation protection in the context of X-ray examination of small and big animals on the premises of seven reviewed veterinary centres. Also reported are the dosimetric results obtained from holding personnel involved in X-ray diagnosis of 319 big and 4,047 small animals. Infringement of valid regulations was quite often observed, in that animals are held in position in an inadequate way and by unauthorised persons. The measured results, however, have shown that the radiation exposure of vocationally exposed persons can be kept far below the maximum permissible equivalent doses, provided that all applicable rules of radiation protection are observed by those on duty. (author)

  7. Retrospective review of adverse incidents involving passengers seated in wheeled mobility devices while traveling in large accessible transit vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, Karen L; Bertocci, Gina

    2010-04-01

    Characterize wheeled mobility device (WhMD) adverse incidents on large accessible transit vehicles (LATVs) based on vehicle motion, WhMD activity during incident, incident scenario and injury. Retrospective records review. WhMD passengers traveling on LATVs while remaining seated in their. Adverse incidents characterized based on vehicle motion, WhMD activity during incident, and incident scenario. Injury characterized based on outcome, medical attention sought, vehicle activity, WhMD activity and incident scenario. 115 WhMD-related incident reports for years 2000-2005 were analyzed. Most incidents occurred when the LATV was stopped (73.9%), during ingress/egress (42.6%), and at the securement station (33.9%) when the LATV was moving. The combination of WhMD tipping and passenger falling (43.4%) occurred most frequently, and was 1.8 times more likely to occur during ingress/egress than at the securement station. One-third (33.6%) of all incidents resulted in injury, and injuries were equally distributed between ingress/egress (43.6%) and at the securement station (43.6%). WhMD users have a greater chance of incurring injury during ingress/egress than during transit. Research is needed to objectively assess real world transportation experiences of WhMD passengers, and to assess the adequacy of existing federal legislation/guidelines for accessible ramps used in public transportation. Copyright 2009 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Incidence of primary hypothyroidism in patients exposed to therapeutic external beam radiation, where radiation portals include a part or whole of the thyroid gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B A Laway

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Hypothyroidism is a known consequence of external-beam radiotherapy to the neck encompassing a part or whole of the thyroid gland. In this non-randomized prospective study, we have tried to evaluate the response of the thyroid gland to radiation by assessing thyroid function before irradiation and at regular intervals after irradiation. Aims and Objectives: The aim of this study were to assess in the cancer patients, who were exposed to the therapeutic external beam radiation, where radiation portals include a part or whole of the thyroid gland: the incidence of primary hypothyroidism, the time required to become hypothyroid, any relation between the total dose for the development of hypothyroidism, and whether there are any patient or treatment-related factors that are predictive for the development of hypothyroidism, including the use of concurrent chemotherapy. Materials and Methods: This non-randomized, prospective study was conducted for a period of 2 years in which thyroid function was assessed in 59 patients (cases of head and neck cancer, breast cancer, lymphoma patients and other malignancies, who had received radiotherapy to the neck region. 59 euthyroid healthy patients (controls were also taken, who had not received the neck irradiation. These patients/controls were assessed periodically for 2 years. Results: The incidence of hypothyroidism after external beam radiation therapy (EBRT to neck where radiation portals include part or whole of the thyroid gland was 16.94%, seven cases had subclinical hypothyroidism (11.86% and three cases had clinical hypothyroidism (5.08%. Mean time for development of hypothyroidism was 4.5 months. There was no effect of age, gender, primary tumor site, radiation dose and chemotherapy, whether neoadjuvant or concurrent with the development of hypothyroidism. Conclusion: In summary, we found that thyroid dysfunction is a prevalent, yet easily treatable source of morbidity in patients

  9. A case of pyoderma gangrenosum involving the prostate gland after radiation therapy for prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanno, Toru; Ito, Masaaki; Tsuji, Hiroshi; Kawase, Norio; Taki, Yoji

    2002-01-01

    A 76-year-old man complained of difficulty in urination and miction pain with abacterial pyuria after radiation therapy for prostate cancer. Transurethral resection of the prostate was performed and histopathologically widespread necrosis was observed in the prostate. Thereafter retention of urine and fever occurred and computed tomography scan revealed an abscess of the penile corpus. The abscess was drained, but the fever continued. He developed an abacterial lung abscess and abacterial necrotic ulcerating lesions on his back, his left leg and his lower abdomen. Macroscopic findings demonstrated typical features of pyoderma gangrenosum. Steroid treatment was initiated and the response to steroid therapy was dramatic. Finally urinary diversion using an ileal conduit was performed. We found few cases of pyoderma gangrenosum involving lesions other than those of the skin in the literature. This is the first report of pyoderma gangrenosum involving the prostate gland after radiation therapy for prostate cancer. (author)

  10. A case of pyoderma gangrenosum involving the prostate gland after radiation therapy for prostate cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanno, Toru; Ito, Masaaki; Tsuji, Hiroshi; Kawase, Norio; Taki, Yoji [Toyooka Hospital, Hyogo (Japan)

    2002-09-01

    A 76-year-old man complained of difficulty in urination and miction pain with abacterial pyuria after radiation therapy for prostate cancer. Transurethral resection of the prostate was performed and histopathologically widespread necrosis was observed in the prostate. Thereafter retention of urine and fever occurred and computed tomography scan revealed an abscess of the penile corpus. The abscess was drained, but the fever continued. He developed an abacterial lung abscess and abacterial necrotic ulcerating lesions on his back, his left leg and his lower abdomen. Macroscopic findings demonstrated typical features of pyoderma gangrenosum. Steroid treatment was initiated and the response to steroid therapy was dramatic. Finally urinary diversion using an ileal conduit was performed. We found few cases of pyoderma gangrenosum involving lesions other than those of the skin in the literature. This is the first report of pyoderma gangrenosum involving the prostate gland after radiation therapy for prostate cancer. (author)

  11. Radiation therapy for life-threatening huge laryngeal hemangioma involving pharynx and parapharyngeal space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chun-Ming; Lee, Ka-Wo; Huang, Chih-Jen

    2013-04-01

    Adult hemangiomas are rare, slowly progressing vascular tumors. Potential complications include laryngeal involvement or massive tumor burden. A case of recurrent, bulky laryngeal hemangioma involving the parapharyngeal space is presented herein. The clinical course and treatment are described, and a series of MRI studies are compared to demonstrate the treatment response. A 35-year-old woman presented with progressive hoarseness, neck fullness, and intermittent dyspnea caused by a bulky laryngeal hemangioma. Steroid therapy had a limited response. Radiation therapy with a total dose of 40 Gray (Gy) in 20 fractions successfully relieved her symptoms. Image studies after therapy revealed moderate tumor regression. The patient showed no serious complications during the next 2 years of follow-up. Radiation therapy may be effective in intractable and function-threatening laryngeal hemangiomas. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Health effects assessment of staff involved in medical practices of radiation exposures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popescu, I.A.; Lacob, O. [Institute of Public Health Iasi, Radiation Hygiene Lab. (Romania); Roman, I.; Havarneanu, D. [Institute of Public Health Iasi, Occupational Medicine Dept. (Romania)

    2006-07-01

    This study aimed, starting from new national recommendation appearance, to detect health effects of medical staff from six counties of Moldavia region involved in radiation practices and to create a national register data for radiation-induce cancer. Staff involved in medical ionizing radiation uses in Romania - health care level I are monitored on recent new recommendations for three years. The micro nuclei high levels and morphological lymphocytes changes vs. clinical diagnostic can be considered as early possible malignant signs. The micro nuclei test, although unspecific, as a new exam in our legislation can bring useful information on staff exposure and provides a guidance to occupational physician in making his medical recommendations. This cytogenetic test does not seem to correlate with smoking habit or length of exposure. Micro nuclei test both in oral mucous epithelial cells and peripheral culture lymphocytes can be considered of much specificity and correlates with a recent acute exposure level. The conclusions of individual health status surveillance and assessment of personal dose equivalent are very useful data for recording in the radiation cancer-induced register.

  13. Health effects assessment of staff involved in medical practices of radiation exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popescu, I.A.; Lacob, O.; Roman, I.; Havarneanu, D.

    2006-01-01

    This study aimed, starting from new national recommendation appearance, to detect health effects of medical staff from six counties of Moldavia region involved in radiation practices and to create a national register data for radiation-induce cancer. Staff involved in medical ionizing radiation uses in Romania - health care level I are monitored on recent new recommendations for three years. The micro nuclei high levels and morphological lymphocytes changes vs. clinical diagnostic can be considered as early possible malignant signs. The micro nuclei test, although unspecific, as a new exam in our legislation can bring useful information on staff exposure and provides a guidance to occupational physician in making his medical recommendations. This cytogenetic test does not seem to correlate with smoking habit or length of exposure. Micro nuclei test both in oral mucous epithelial cells and peripheral culture lymphocytes can be considered of much specificity and correlates with a recent acute exposure level. The conclusions of individual health status surveillance and assessment of personal dose equivalent are very useful data for recording in the radiation cancer-induced register

  14. Evaluation of legal aspects of activities involving radiations: proposal for a new legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borges, Jose C.

    1997-01-01

    The present brazilian legislation status concerning activities in which occurs or may occur any exposure to ionizing radiations, involves several incoherencies and privileges, as a consequence of legal rights generated from labor principles which have no social or scientific base. In this study, several legal labor topics are analysed and a new doctrine context is proposed, based mainly on a equal treatment for all insalubrious and dangerous activities done by workers of both private and public sectors (author). 8 refs

  15. Involved-Site Image-Guided Intensity Modulated Versus 3D Conformal Radiation Therapy in Early Stage Supradiaphragmatic Hodgkin Lymphoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filippi, Andrea Riccardo, E-mail: andreariccardo.filippi@unito.it [Department of Oncology, University of Torino, Torino (Italy); Ciammella, Patrizia [Radiation Therapy Unit, Department of Oncology and Advanced Technology, ASMN Hospital IRCCS, Reggio Emilia (Italy); Piva, Cristina; Ragona, Riccardo [Department of Oncology, University of Torino, Torino (Italy); Botto, Barbara [Hematology, Città della Salute e della Scienza, Torino (Italy); Gavarotti, Paolo [Hematology, University of Torino and Città della Salute e della Scienza, Torino (Italy); Merli, Francesco [Hematology Unit, ASMN Hospital IRCCS, Reggio Emilia (Italy); Vitolo, Umberto [Hematology, Città della Salute e della Scienza, Torino (Italy); Iotti, Cinzia [Radiation Therapy Unit, Department of Oncology and Advanced Technology, ASMN Hospital IRCCS, Reggio Emilia (Italy); Ricardi, Umberto [Department of Oncology, University of Torino, Torino (Italy)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Image-guided intensity modulated radiation therapy (IG-IMRT) allows for margin reduction and highly conformal dose distribution, with consistent advantages in sparing of normal tissues. The purpose of this retrospective study was to compare involved-site IG-IMRT with involved-site 3D conformal RT (3D-CRT) in the treatment of early stage Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) involving the mediastinum, with efficacy and toxicity as primary clinical endpoints. Methods and Materials: We analyzed 90 stage IIA HL patients treated with either involved-site 3D-CRT or IG-IMRT between 2005 and 2012 in 2 different institutions. Inclusion criteria were favorable or unfavorable disease (according to European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer criteria), complete response after 3 to 4 cycles of an adriamycin- bleomycin-vinblastine-dacarbazine (ABVD) regimen plus 30 Gy as total radiation dose. Exclusion criteria were chemotherapy other than ABVD, partial response after ABVD, total radiation dose other than 30 Gy. Clinical endpoints were relapse-free survival (RFS) and acute toxicity. Results: Forty-nine patients were treated with 3D-CRT (54.4%) and 41 with IG-IMRT (45.6%). Median follow-up time was 54.2 months for 3D-CRT and 24.1 months for IG-IMRT. No differences in RFS were observed between the 2 groups, with 1 relapse each. Three-year RFS was 98.7% for 3D-CRT and 100% for IG-IMRT. Grade 2 toxicity events, mainly mucositis, were recorded in 32.7% of 3D-CRT patients (16 of 49) and in 9.8% of IG-IMRT patients (4 of 41). IG-IMRT was significantly associated with a lower incidence of grade 2 acute toxicity (P=.043). Conclusions: RFS rates at 3 years were extremely high in both groups, albeit the median follow-up time is different. Acute tolerance profiles were better for IG-IMRT than for 3D-CRT. Our preliminary results support the clinical safety and efficacy of advanced RT planning and delivery techniques in patients affected with early stage HL, achieving complete

  16. Suppressing effect of low-dose ionizing radiation on incidence of type I diabetes of NOD mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nomura, T.; Makino, N.; Oda, T.; Sakai, K.

    2002-01-01

    In the present study we examined the effects of 0.5 Gy of ionizing radiation, given acutely or chronically, on the incidence of type I diabetes in non-obese diabetic mice was examined. NOD mice are characterized by a progressive loss of insulin-producing cells in the pancreas by autoimmune mechanisms. The results suggest that the suppressive effects on the onset of he diabetes by the low dose irradiation are explain by the induction of the antioxidative activity

  17. Observed linkages between the northern annular mode/North Atlantic Oscillation, cloud incidence, and cloud radiative forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ying; Thompson, David W. J.; Huang, Yi; Zhang, Minghong

    2014-03-01

    The signature of the northern annular mode/North Atlantic Oscillation (NAM/NAO) in the vertical and horizontal distribution of tropospheric cloudiness is investigated in CloudSat and CALIPSO data from June 2006 to April 2011. During the Northern Hemisphere winter, the positive polarity of the NAM/NAO is marked by increases in zonally averaged cloud incidence north of ~60°N, decreases between ~25 and 50°N, and increases in the subtropics. The tripolar-like anomalies in cloud incidence associated with the NAM/NAO are largest over the North Atlantic Ocean basin/Middle East and are physically consistent with the NAM/NAO-related anomalies in vertical motion. Importantly, the NAM/NAO-related anomalies in tropospheric cloud incidence lead to significant top of atmosphere cloud radiative forcing anomalies that are comparable in amplitude to those associated with the NAM/NAO-related temperature anomalies. The results provide observational evidence that the most prominent pattern of Northern Hemisphere climate variability is significantly linked to variations in cloud radiative forcing. Implications for two-way feedback between extratropical dynamics and cloud radiative forcing are discussed.

  18. BiodosEPR-2006 Meeting: Acute dosimetry consensus committee recommendations on biodosimetry applications in events involving uses of radiation by terrorists and radiation accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexander, George A. [U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Office of Preparedness and Emergency Operations, 200 Independence Avenue, SW, Room 403B-1, Washington, DC 20201 (United States); Swartz, Harold M. [Dept. of Radiology and Physiology Dept., Dartmouth Medical School, HB 7785, Vail 702, Rubin 601, Hanover, NH 03755 (United States); Amundson, Sally A. [Center for Radiological Research, Columbia University Medical Center, 630 W. 168th Street, VC11-215, New York, NY 10032 (United States); Blakely, William F. [Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Inst., 8901 Wisconsin Avenue, Bethesda, MD 20889-5603 (United States)], E-mail: blakely@afrri.usuhs.mil; Buddemeier, Brooke [Science and Technology, U.S. Department of Homeland Security, Washington, DC 20528 (United States); Gallez, Bernard [Biomedical Magnetic Resonance Unit and Lab. of Medicinal Chemistry and Radiopharmacy, Univ. Catholique de Louvain, Brussels (Belgium); Dainiak, Nicholas [Dept. of Medicine, Bridgeport Hospital, 267 Grant Street, Bridgeport, CT 06610 (United States); Goans, Ronald E. [MJW Corporation, 1422 Eagle Bend Drive, Clinton, TN 37716-4029 (United States); Hayes, Robert B. [Remote Sensing Lab., MS RSL-47, P.O. Box 98421, Las Vegas, NV 89193 (United States); Lowry, Patrick C. [Radiation Emergency Assistance Center/Training Site (REAC/TS), Oak Ridge Associated Universities, P.O. Box 117, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-0117 (United States); Noska, Michael A. [Food and Drug Administration, FDA/CDRH, 1350 Piccard Drive, HFZ-240, Rockville, MD 20850 (United States); Okunieff, Paul [Dept. of Radiation Oncology (Box 647), Univ. of Rochester, 601 Elmwood Avenue, Rochester, NY 14642 (United States); Salner, Andrew L. [Helen and Harry Gray Cancer Center, Hartford Hospital, 80 Seymour Street, Hartford, CT 06102 (United States); Schauer, David A. [National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements, 7910 Woodmont Avenue, Suite 400, Bethesda, MD 20814-3095 (United States)] (and others)

    2007-07-15

    In the aftermath of a radiological terrorism incident or mass-casualty radiation accident, first responders and receivers require prior guidance and pre-positioned resources for assessment, triage and medical management of affected individuals [NCRP, 2005. Key elements of preparing emergency responders for nuclear and radiological terrorism. NCRP Commentary No. 19, Bethesda, Maryland, USA]. Several recent articles [Dainiak, N., Waselenko, J.K., Armitage, J.O., MacVittie, T.J., Farese, A.M., 2003. The hematologist and radiation casualties. Hematology (Am. Soc. Hematol. Educ. Program) 473-496; Waselenko, J.K., MacVittie, T.J., Blakely, W.F., Pesik, N., Wiley, A.L., Dickerson, W.E., Tsu, H., Confer, D.L., Coleman, C.N., Seed, T., Lowry, P., Armitage, J.O., Dainiak, N., Strategic National Stockpile Radiation Working Group, 2004. Medical management of the acute radiation syndrome: recommendations of the Strategic National Stockpile Radiation Working Group. Ann. Intern. Med. 140(12), 1037-1051; Blakely, W.F., Salter, C.A., Prasanna, P.G., 2005. Early-response biological dosimetry-recommended countermeasure enhancements for mass-casualty radiological incidents and terrorism. Health Phys. 89(5), 494-504; Goans, R.E., Waselenko, J.K., 2005. Medical management of radiation casualties. Health Phys. 89(5), 505-512; Swartz, H.M., Iwasaki, A., Walczak, T., Demidenko, E., Salikhov, I., Lesniewski, P., Starewicz, P., Schauer, D., Romanyukha, A., 2005. Measurements of clinically significant doses of ionizing radiation using non-invasive in vivo EPR spectroscopy of teeth in situ. Appl. Radiat. Isot. 62, 293-299; . Acute radiation injury: contingency planning for triage, supportive care, and transplantation. Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant. 12(6), 672-682], national [. Management of persons accidentally contaminated with radionuclides. NCRP Report No. 65, Bethesda, Maryland, USA; . Management of terrorist events involving radioactive material. NCRP Report No. 138, Bethesda, Maryland

  19. BiodosEPR-2006 Meeting: Acute dosimetry consensus committee recommendations on biodosimetry applications in events involving uses of radiation by terrorists and radiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexander, George A.; Swartz, Harold M.; Amundson, Sally A.; Blakely, William F.; Buddemeier, Brooke; Gallez, Bernard; Dainiak, Nicholas; Goans, Ronald E.; Hayes, Robert B.; Lowry, Patrick C.; Noska, Michael A.; Okunieff, Paul; Salner, Andrew L.; Schauer, David A.

    2007-01-01

    In the aftermath of a radiological terrorism incident or mass-casualty radiation accident, first responders and receivers require prior guidance and pre-positioned resources for assessment, triage and medical management of affected individuals [NCRP, 2005. Key elements of preparing emergency responders for nuclear and radiological terrorism. NCRP Commentary No. 19, Bethesda, Maryland, USA]. Several recent articles [Dainiak, N., Waselenko, J.K., Armitage, J.O., MacVittie, T.J., Farese, A.M., 2003. The hematologist and radiation casualties. Hematology (Am. Soc. Hematol. Educ. Program) 473-496; Waselenko, J.K., MacVittie, T.J., Blakely, W.F., Pesik, N., Wiley, A.L., Dickerson, W.E., Tsu, H., Confer, D.L., Coleman, C.N., Seed, T., Lowry, P., Armitage, J.O., Dainiak, N., Strategic National Stockpile Radiation Working Group, 2004. Medical management of the acute radiation syndrome: recommendations of the Strategic National Stockpile Radiation Working Group. Ann. Intern. Med. 140(12), 1037-1051; Blakely, W.F., Salter, C.A., Prasanna, P.G., 2005. Early-response biological dosimetry-recommended countermeasure enhancements for mass-casualty radiological incidents and terrorism. Health Phys. 89(5), 494-504; Goans, R.E., Waselenko, J.K., 2005. Medical management of radiation casualties. Health Phys. 89(5), 505-512; Swartz, H.M., Iwasaki, A., Walczak, T., Demidenko, E., Salikhov, I., Lesniewski, P., Starewicz, P., Schauer, D., Romanyukha, A., 2005. Measurements of clinically significant doses of ionizing radiation using non-invasive in vivo EPR spectroscopy of teeth in situ. Appl. Radiat. Isot. 62, 293-299; . Acute radiation injury: contingency planning for triage, supportive care, and transplantation. Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant. 12(6), 672-682], national [. Management of persons accidentally contaminated with radionuclides. NCRP Report No. 65, Bethesda, Maryland, USA; . Management of terrorist events involving radioactive material. NCRP Report No. 138, Bethesda, Maryland

  20. Screen for genes involved in radiation survival of Escherichia coli and construction of a reference database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sargentini, Neil J., E-mail: nsargentini@atsu.edu; Gularte, Nicholas P.; Hudman, Deborah A.

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • 3907 Keio knockout mutants of E. coli screened for UV and X-radiation sensitivity. • 76 mutants showed significantly increased radiation sensitivity. • A database of 9 screening studies listed 352 genes only once; 103 genes, 2–7 times. • 33 genes from this study are uncommon and potentially novel. • Common and uncommon genes differ in gene function profile. - Abstract: A set of 3907 single-gene knockout (Keio collection) strains of Escherichia coli K-12 was examined for strains with increased susceptibility to killing by X- or UV-radiation. After screening with a high-throughput resazurin-based assay and determining radiation survival with triplicate clonogenic assays, we identified 76 strains (and associated deleted genes) showing statistically-significant increased radiation sensitivity compared to a control strain. To determine gene novelty, we constructed a reference database comprised of genes found in nine similar studies including ours. This database contains 455 genes comprised of 103 common genes (found 2–7 times), and 352 uncommon genes (found once). Our 76 genes includes 43 common genes and 33 uncommon (potentially novel) genes, i.e., appY, atoS, betB, bglJ, clpP, cpxA, cysB, cysE, ddlA, dgkA, dppF, dusB, elfG, eutK, fadD, glnA, groL, guaB, intF, prpR, queA, rplY, seqA, sufC,yadG, yagJ, yahD, yahO, ybaK, ybfA, yfaL, yhjV, and yiaL. Of our 33 uncommon gene mutants, 4 (12%) were sensitive only to UV-radiation, 10 (30%) only to X-radiation, and 19 (58%) to both radiations. Our uncommon mutants vs. our common mutants showed more radiation specificity, i.e., 12% vs. 9% (sensitive only to UV-); 30% vs. 16% (X-) and 58% vs. 74% (both radiations). Considering just our radiation-sensitive mutants, the median UV-radiation survival (75 J m{sup −2}) for 23 uncommon mutants was 6.84E-3 compared to 1.85E-3 for 36 common mutants (P = 0.025). Similarly, the average X-radiation survival for 29 uncommon mutants was 1.08E-2, compared to 6.19E

  1. Involvement of MAPK proteins in bystander effects induced by chemicals and ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asur, Rajalakshmi; Balasubramaniam, Mamtha; Marples, Brian; Thomas, Robert A.; Tucker, James D.

    2010-01-01

    Many studies have examined bystander effects induced by ionizing radiation, however few have evaluated the ability of chemicals to induce similar effects. We previously reported the ability of two chemicals, mitomycin C (MMC) and phleomycin (PHL) to induce bystander effects in normal human lymphoblastoid cell lines. The focus of the current study was to determine the involvement of the MAPK proteins in bystander effects induced by physical and chemical DNA damaging agents and to evaluate the effects of MAPK inhibition on bystander-induced caspase 3/7 activation. The phosphorylation levels of the MAPK proteins ERK1/2, JNK, and p38, were measured from 1 to 24 h following direct or bystander exposure to MMC, PHL or radiation. We observed transient phosphorylation, at early time points, of all 3 proteins in bystander cells. We also evaluated the effect of MAPK inhibition on bystander-induced caspase 3/7 activity to determine the role of MAPK proteins in bystander-induced apoptosis. We observed bystander-induced activation of caspase 3/7 in bystander cells. Inhibition of MAPK proteins resulted in a decrease in caspase 3/7 activity at the early time points, and the caspase activity increased (in the case of ERK inhibition) or returned to basal levels (in the case of JNK or p38 inhibition) between 12 and 24 h. PHL is considered to be a radiomimetic agent, however in the present study PHL behaved more like a chemical and not like radiation in terms of MAPK phosphorylation. These results point to the involvement of MAPK proteins in the bystander effect induced by radiation and chemicals and provide additional evidence that this response is not limited to radiation but is a generalized stress response in cells.

  2. Review of US accident/incident experience involving the transportation of radioactive material (RAM) 1971-1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McClure, J.D.; Emerson, E.L.

    1980-01-01

    This paper analyzes the transportation accidents and incidents which have occurred in the United States in the period 1971-1980 based upon the information in the Radioactive Material Transportation Accident/Incident Data Base developed by the Transportation Technology Center (TTC) at Sandia National Laboratories. The accident/incident data base incorporates the files of the Hazardous Material Incident Report (HMIR) system operated by the Material Transportation Bureau of the US Department of Transportation (DOT) with additional information obtained from the files of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). A principal objective of this paper is to summarize US accident/incident experience for the past ten years, providing a concise statement of radioactive material (RAM) package failure description for the transport modes of truck, rail and air

  3. Incidence of and factors related to late complications in conformal and conventional radiation treatment of cancer of the prostate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schultheiss, Timothy E; Hanks, Gerald E; Hunt, Margie A; Lee, W Robert

    1995-06-15

    Purpose: The fundament hypothesis of conformal radiation therapy is that tumor control can be increased by using conformal treatment techniques that allow a higher tumor dose while maintaining an acceptable level of complications. To test this hypothesis, it is necessary first to estimate the incidence of morbidity for both standard and conformal fields. In this study, we examine factors that influence the incidence of late Grade 3 and 4 morbidity in patients treated with conformal and standard radiation treatment for prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: Six hundred sixteen consecutive patients treated with conformal or standard techniques between 1986 and 1994 to doses greater than 65 Gy and with more than 3 months follow-up were analyzed. No patients treated with prostatectomies were included in the analysis. The conformal technique includes special immobilization by a cast, careful identification of the target volume in three dimensions, localization of the inferior border of the prostate using a retrograde urethrogram, and individually shaped portals that conform to the Planning Target Volume (PTV). Multivariate analysis using a proportional hazards model compares differences in the incidence of Radiation Therapy Oncology Group/European Organization for Research and Center Treatment (RTOG/EORTC) Grade 3 and 4 late gastrointestinal (GI) and genitourinary (GU) morbidity by technique, T-stage, grade, age, hormonal treatment, irradiated volume, dose, and comorbid conditions. Grade 3 rectal bleeding was defined as requiring three or more cautery procedures. Results: The overall actuarial incidence of genitourinary (GU) toxicities at 5 years was 3.4%, with the crude incidence being six cases in 616 patients satisfying the selection criteria; for gastrointestinal (GI) toxicities, the overall actuarial incidence was 2.7%, with the crude incidence being 13 cases out of 616 patients. The average time to complication for our patients was 12.8 months for GI toxicity and

  4. Effects of Radiation and Dietary Iron on Expression of Genes and Proteins Involved in Drug Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faust, K. M.; Wotring, V. E.

    2014-01-01

    Liver function, especially the rate of metabolic enzyme activities, determines the concentration of circulating drugs and the duration of their efficacy. Most pharmaceuticals are metabolized by the liver, and clinically-used medication doses are given with normal liver function in mind. A drug overdose can result in the case of a liver that is damaged and removing pharmaceuticals from the circulation at a rate slower than normal. Alternatively, if liver function is elevated and removing drugs from the system more quickly than usual, it would be as if too little drug had been given for effective treatment. Because of the importance of the liver in drug metabolism, we want to understand any effects of spaceflight on the enzymes of the liver. Dietary factors and exposure to radiation are aspects of spaceflight that are potential oxidative stressors and both can be modeled in ground experiments. In this experiment, we examined the effects of high dietary iron and low dose gamma radiation (individually and combined) on the gene expression of enzymes involved in drug metabolism, redox homeostasis, and DNA repair. METHODS All procedures were approved by the JSC Animal Care and Use Committee. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 4 groups (n=8); control, high Fe diet (650 mg iron/kg), radiation (fractionated 3 Gy exposure from a Cs- 137 source) and combined high Fe diet + radiation exposure. Animals were euthanized 24h after the last treatment of radiation; livers were removed immediately and flash -frozen in liquid nitrogen. Expression of genes thought to be involved in redox homeostasis, drug metabolism and DNA damage repair was measured by RT-qPCR. Where possible, protein expression of the same genes was measured by western blotting. All data are expressed as % change in expression normalized to reference gene expression; comparisons were then made of each treatment group to the sham exposed/ normal diet control group. Data was considered significant at phigh Fe

  5. Ultraviolet Radiation Exposure and the Incidence of Oral, Pharyngeal and Cervical Cancer and Melanoma: An Analysis of the SEER Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Spencer; Lin, Jie; Brown, Derek; Shriver, Craig D; Zhu, Kangmin

    2016-01-01

    Based on the hypothesis that ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposure can cause DNA damage that may activate dormant viruses such as human papilloma virus, a recent ecological study, which estimated state-level UVR exposure, reported positive correlations between annual UVR exposure and the incidence of oral, pharyngeal, and cervical cancer in 16 U.S. states using the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) data. The purpose of the current study was to further investigate whether the annual UVR level, estimated on a county level, is associated with incidence rates of such cancers using the National Cancer Institute's Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) 18 data. If UVR exposure is associated with incidence of these cancer types, we would expect to see a similar or stronger association with melanoma because UVR exposure is a well-demonstrated risk factor for this disease. Thus, we also included melanoma in the study. The study subjects were White and Black individuals with oral, pharyngeal, cervical cancer or melanoma diagnosed between 1973 and 2011 from the SEER 18 data. UVR was estimated at the county level and grouped into high-, medium- and low-exposure levels. Age-adjusted incidence rates of cancer were calculated and compared among the UVR exposure groups. The comparisons were also stratified by sex and race. There was an inverse association between UVR exposure and incidence of oral, pharyngeal, and cervical cancer. The inverse association was also observed for melanoma. When stratified by race and sex, the inverse associations remained except for melanoma among Blacks. In contrast to a previous study, our study found that there were inverse associations between UVR exposure and the incidence of oral, pharyngeal, and cervical cancer, as well as of melanoma. Our findings are in agreement with several other published studies reporting no positive correlation between UVR exposure and the incidence rates of oral, pharyngeal, and cervical

  6. Cataract frequency and subtypes involved in workers assessed for their solar radiation exposure: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modenese, Alberto; Gobba, Fabriziomaria

    2018-04-16

    Cataract is currently the primary cause of blindness worldwide, and one of its main risk factors is solar ultraviolet radiation exposure. According to the localization of lens opacities, three main subtypes of cataract are recognized: nuclear, cortical and posterior subcapsular cataract. One of the main determinants of individual long-term solar radiation exposure is outdoor work. We systematically reviewed scientific literature from the last 20 years to update the recent development of research on the risk of cataract in outdoor workers and on the specific subtypes involved, also investigating the methods applied to evaluate the occupational risk. A total of 15 studies were included in the review, of which 12 showed a positive association. The studies confirm the relationship of long-term occupational solar radiation exposure with cortical cataract and give new support for nuclear cataract, although no substantial new data were available to support a relation with the posterior subcapsular subtype. In most of the studies, the exposure assessment was not adequate to support a representative evaluation of the ocular risk; however, outdoor work is clearly a relevant risk factor for cataract. Further research providing a better evaluation of the relation between solar radiation exposure levels and lens damage in workers is needed and aimed to establish adequate occupational exposure limits and better preventive measures, studying also their effectiveness. © 2018 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Mechanisms and secondary factors involved in the induction of radiation transformation in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Little, J.B.

    1983-01-01

    The long term of this research program was to gain information concerning the mechanisms that determine the carcinogenic effects of ionizing radiation, particularly high LET radiation exposure. The experimental approach involves parallel studies of the induction of malignant transformation in BALB/3T3 cells and of specific gene mutations in human lymphoblastoid cells. Emphasis was on the biologic effects of internally incorporated Auger electron emitting radionuclides and the initiation of studies to determine the effects of low dose-rate neutron exposure. Auger electron irradiation sever as a model for high LET-type radiation effects and as an experimental tool for studying the effects of radiation at specific sites within the cell. Auger-emitting radiosotopes are commonly used in clinical nuclear medicine, rendering them a potential hazard to human populations. We examined the influence of cellular localization of Auger-emitting radionuclides and the spectrum of energy distribution in DNA on their mutagenic, cytogenetic, and transformational effects. The effects of 125 I (an energetic beta emitter) were compared. We studied the induction of cytogenetic changes by 125 I exposure of the cell membrane, as well as its potential to promote (enhance) transformation initiated by low dose external x-ray exposure. We will investigate the Relative Biological Effectiveness for mutagenesis and transformation of low doses of fast neutrons delivered continuously at variable low dose-rates. 34 refs., 1 tab

  8. MiR-21 is involved in radiation-induced bystander effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shuai; Ding, Nan; Pei, Hailong; Hu, Wentao; Wei, Wenjun; Zhang, Xurui; Zhou, Guangming; Wang, Jufang

    2014-01-01

    Radiation-induced bystander effects are well-established phenomena, in which DNA damage responses are induced not only in the directly irradiated cells but also in the non-irradiated bystander cells through intercellular signal transmission. Recent studies hint that bystander effects are possibly mediated via small non-coding RNAs, especially microRNAs. Thus, more details about the roles of microRNA in bystander effects are urgently needed to be elucidated. Here we demonstrated that bystander effects were induced in human fetal lung MRC-5 fibroblasts through medium-mediated way by different types of radiation. We identified a set of differentially expressed microRNAs in the cell culture medium after irradiation, among which the up-regulation of miR-21 was further verified with qRT-PCR. In addition, we found significant upregulation of miR-21 in both directly irradiated cells and bystander cells, which was confirmed by the expression of miR-21 precursor and its target genes. Transfection of miR-21 mimics into non-irradiated MRC-5 cells caused bystander-like effects. Taken together, our data reveals that miR-21 is involved in radiation-induced bystander effects. Elucidation of such a miRNA-mediated bystander effect is of utmost importance in understanding the biological processes related to ionizing radiation and cell-to-cell communication. PMID:25483031

  9. Effects of hydroxylated benzaldehyde derivatives on radiation-induced reactions involving various organic radicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ksendzova, G. A.; Samovich, S. N.; Sorokin, V. L.; Shadyro, O. I.

    2018-05-01

    In the present paper, the effects of hydroxylated benzaldehyde derivatives and gossypol - the known natural occurring compound - on formation of decomposition products resulting from radiolysis of ethanol and hexane in deaerated and oxygenated solutions were studied. The obtained data enabled the authors to make conclusions about the effects produced by the structure of the compounds under study on their reactivity towards oxygen- and carbon-centered radicals. It has been found that 2,3-dihydroxybenzaldehyde, 4,6-di-tert-butyl-2,3-dihydroxybenzaldehyde and 4,6-di-tert-butyl-3-(1,3-dioxane-2-yl)-1,2-dihydroxybenzene are not inferior in efficiency to butylated hydroxytoluene - the industrial antioxidant - as regards suppression of the radiation-induced oxidation processes occurring in hexane. The derivatives of hydroxylated benzaldehydes were shown to have a significant influence on radiation-induced reactions involving α-hydroxyalkyl radicals.

  10. Pathophysiological effects of radiation on atherosclerosis development and progression, and the incidence of cardiovascular complications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basavaraju, Sekhara Rao; Easterly, Clay E.

    2002-01-01

    Radiation therapy while important in the management of several diseases, is implicated in the causation of atherosclerosis and other cardiovascular complications. Cancer and atherosclerosis go through the same stages of initiation, promotion, and complication, beginning with a mutation in a single cell. Clinical observations before the 1960s lead to the belief that the heart is relatively resistant to the doses of radiation used in radiotherapy. Subsequently, it was discovered that the heart is sensitive to radiation and many cardiac structures may be damaged by radiation exposure. A significantly higher risk of death due to ischemic heart disease has been reported for patients treated with radiation for Hodgkin's disease and breast cancer. Certain cytokines and growth factors, such as TGF-β1 and IL-1 β, may stimulate radiation-induced endothelial proliferation, fibroblast proliferation, collagen deposition, and fibrosis leading to advanced lesions of atherosclerosis. The treatment for radiation-induced ischemic heart disease includes conventional pharmacological therapy, balloon angioplasty, and bypass surgery. Endovascular irradiation has been shown to be effective in reducing restenosis-like response to balloon-catheter injury in animal models. Caution must be exercised when radiation therapy is combined with doxorubicin because there appears to be a synergistic toxic effect on the myocardium. Damage to endothelial cells is a central event in the pathogenesis of damage to the coronary arteries. Certain growth factors that interfere with the apoptotic pathway may provide new therapeutic strategies for reducing the risk of radiation-induced damage to the heart. Exposure to low level occupational or environmental radiation appears to pose no undue risk of atherosclerosis development or cardiovascular mortality. But, other radiation-induced processes such as the bystander effects, abscopal effects, hormesis, and individual variations in radiosensitivity may be

  11. Combined effects of radiation and other agents on the stomach cancer incidence among Mayak Atomic Plant workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhuntova, G.V.; Tokarskaya, Z.B.; Belyaeva, Z.D. [Branch No 1 of State Research Center of Public Health Ministry of the Russian Federation, Ozyorsk (Russian Federation). Biophysics Inst.; Rovny, S.I.; Sirchikov, V.A.

    2000-05-01

    The gravity of a problem of the combined action of radiation and other factors again was confirmed sessions UNSCEAR in May, 1998. It especially is important at study of cancer diseases in connection with the polyetiology and multistage of them development. The estimation of radiation, medico-biological factors and condition of life in occurrence of a stomach cancer among Mayak personnel was specified by case-cohort research. For a quota 503 men (157 cases of a stomach cancer, 346 men of the healthy personnel) attributive risk of the radiation factors was 8.8%, medico-biological - 57,2% (from them by greatest was influence chronic gastritis with secreting insufficiency - 35.4%), tobacco consumption - 31,6%. At an estimation of risk of a stomach cancer depending on external {gamma}-irradiation best fitting was received at use of square-law model. The excess relative risk was 0,27 Gr{sup -2} (F=44,5; P=0,007). For {sup 239}Pu incorporation was not revealed of distinct connection with stomach cancer incidences. Interaction of the radiation and non-radiation factors also was appreciated. The interaction of gastritis with external {gamma}-irradiation or {sup 239}Pu was multiplicate. The interaction of smoking with {gamma}-irradiation or {sup 239}Pu incorporation was multiplicate also. The distribution histological types of a stomach cancer among the workers of Mayak plant differed in comparison with not working. Among the workers the increase poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma was observed. (author)

  12. Combined effects of radiation and other agents on the stomach cancer incidence among Mayak Atomic Plant workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhuntova, G.V.; Tokarskaya, Z.B.; Belyaeva, Z.D.; Rovny, S.I.; Sirchikov, V.A.

    2000-01-01

    The gravity of a problem of the combined action of radiation and other factors again was confirmed sessions UNSCEAR in May, 1998. It especially is important at study of cancer diseases in connection with the polyetiology and multistage of them development. The estimation of radiation, medico-biological factors and condition of life in occurrence of a stomach cancer among Mayak personnel was specified by case-cohort research. For a quota 503 men (157 cases of a stomach cancer, 346 men of the healthy personnel) attributive risk of the radiation factors was 8.8%, medico-biological - 57,2% (from them by greatest was influence chronic gastritis with secreting insufficiency - 35.4%), tobacco consumption - 31,6%. At an estimation of risk of a stomach cancer depending on external γ-irradiation best fitting was received at use of square-law model. The excess relative risk was 0,27 Gr -2 (F=44,5; P=0,007). For 239 Pu incorporation was not revealed of distinct connection with stomach cancer incidences. Interaction of the radiation and non-radiation factors also was appreciated. The interaction of gastritis with external γ-irradiation or 239 Pu was multiplicate. The interaction of smoking with γ-irradiation or 239 Pu incorporation was multiplicate also. The distribution histological types of a stomach cancer among the workers of Mayak plant differed in comparison with not working. Among the workers the increase poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma was observed. (author)

  13. Occult Pelvic Lymph Node Involvement in Bladder Cancer: Implications for Definitive Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldsmith, Benjamin; Baumann, Brian C.; He, Jiwei; Tucker, Kai; Bekelman, Justin; Deville, Curtiland; Vapiwala, Neha [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Vaughn, David; Keefe, Stephen M. [Department of Medical Oncology, Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Guzzo, Thomas; Malkowicz, S. Bruce [Department of Urology, Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Christodouleas, John P., E-mail: christojo@uphs.upenn.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States)

    2014-03-01

    Purpose: To inform radiation treatment planning for clinically staged, node-negative bladder cancer patients by identifying clinical factors associated with the presence and location of occult pathologic pelvic lymph nodes. Methods and Materials: The records of patients with clinically staged T1-T4N0 urothelial carcinoma of the bladder undergoing radical cystectomy and pelvic lymphadenectomy at a single institution were reviewed. Logistic regression was used to evaluate associations between preoperative clinical variables and occult pathologic pelvic or common iliac lymph nodes. Percentages of patient with involved lymph node regions entirely encompassed within whole bladder (perivesicular nodal region), small pelvic (perivesicular, obturator, internal iliac, and external iliac nodal regions), and extended pelvic clinical target volume (CTV) (small pelvic CTV plus common iliac regions) were calculated. Results: Among 315 eligible patients, 81 (26%) were found to have involved pelvic lymph nodes at the time of surgery, with 38 (12%) having involved common iliac lymph nodes. Risk of occult pathologically involved lymph nodes did not vary with clinical T stage. On multivariate analysis, the presence of lymphovascular invasion (LVI) on preoperative biopsy was significantly associated with occult pelvic nodal involvement (odds ratio 3.740, 95% confidence interval 1.865-7.499, P<.001) and marginally associated with occult common iliac nodal involvement (odds ratio 2.307, 95% confidence interval 0.978-5.441, P=.056). The percentages of patients with involved lymph node regions entirely encompassed by whole bladder, small pelvic, and extended pelvic CTVs varied with clinical risk factors, ranging from 85.4%, 95.1%, and 100% in non-muscle-invasive patients to 44.7%, 71.1%, and 94.8% in patients with muscle-invasive disease and biopsy LVI. Conclusions: Occult pelvic lymph node rates are substantial for all clinical subgroups, especially patients with LVI on biopsy. Extended

  14. New optical scheme for differential measurements of diffraction reflection intensity on X-radiation sliding incidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golovin, A.L.; Mas', E.T.

    1989-01-01

    An X-ray optical scheme for differential measurements of X-ray diffraction under sliding incidence conditions is proposed and an attachment design realizng this scheme, using standard equipment, is described. The main feature of the scheme is the following: collimation according to the Bragg angle is carried out for the reflected beam rather than the incident one. Goniometers can be used from DRON, TRS, GS-5 and other spectrometers. The goniometer head carrying the sample is standard, it is a part of the DRON, TRS and DTS. The crystal analyzer is fixed on the attachment. The angular position of the crystal monochromator is controlled by an inductive sensor. The experimental differential curves of X-ray diffraction under conditions of sliding incidence, taken for a silicon crystal having the 111 orientation, are given as well

  15. Involvement of cathepsin B in mitochondrial apoptosis by p-phenylenediamine under ambient UV radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goyal, Shruti; Amar, Saroj Kumar [Photobiology Division, CSIR – Indian Institute of Toxicology Research, Post Box No. 80, M.G. Marg, Lucknow 226001, Uttar Pradesh (India); Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research, CSIR-IITR Campus, Lucknow (India); Dubey, Divya; Pal, Manish Kumar [Photobiology Division, CSIR – Indian Institute of Toxicology Research, Post Box No. 80, M.G. Marg, Lucknow 226001, Uttar Pradesh (India); Singh, Jyoti [Photobiology Division, CSIR – Indian Institute of Toxicology Research, Post Box No. 80, M.G. Marg, Lucknow 226001, Uttar Pradesh (India); Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research, CSIR-IITR Campus, Lucknow (India); Verma, Ankit; Kushwaha, Hari Narayan [Photobiology Division, CSIR – Indian Institute of Toxicology Research, Post Box No. 80, M.G. Marg, Lucknow 226001, Uttar Pradesh (India); Ray, Ratan Singh, E-mail: ratanray.2011@rediffmail.com [Photobiology Division, CSIR – Indian Institute of Toxicology Research, Post Box No. 80, M.G. Marg, Lucknow 226001, Uttar Pradesh (India)

    2015-12-30

    Highlights: • Photodegradation and formation of photoproduct. • Involvement of ROS in PPD phototoxicity. • Role of ROS in DNA damage, CPD and micronuclei formation. • PPD induced lysosomal destabilization and release of cathepsin B. • Cleavage of Bid and activation of mitochondrial apoptosis. - Abstract: Paraphenylenediamine (PPD), a derivative of paranitroaniline has been most commonly used as an ingredient of oxidative hair dye and permanent tattoos. We have studied the phototoxic potential of PPD under ambient ultraviolet radiation. PPD is photodegraded and form a novel photoproduct under UV A exposure. PPD shows a concentration dependent decrease in cell viability of human Keratinocyte cells (HaCaT) through MTT and NRU test. Significant intracellular ROS generation was measured by DCFDA assay. It caused an oxidative DNA damage via single stranded DNA breaks, micronuclei and CPD formation. Both lysosome and mitochondria is main target for PPD induced apoptosis which was proved through lysosomal destabilization and release of cathepsin B by immunofluorescence, real time PCR and western blot analysis. Cathepsin B process BID to active tBID which induces the release of cytochrome C from mitochondria. Mitochondrial depolarization was reported through transmission electron microscopy. The cathepsin inhibitor reduced the release of cytochrome C in PPD treated cells. Thus study suggests that PPD leads to apoptosis via the involvement of lysosome and mitochondria both under ambient UV radiation. Therefore, photosensitizing nature of hair dye ingredients should be tested before coming to market as a cosmetic product for the safety of human beings.

  16. Involvement of cathepsin B in mitochondrial apoptosis by p-phenylenediamine under ambient UV radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goyal, Shruti; Amar, Saroj Kumar; Dubey, Divya; Pal, Manish Kumar; Singh, Jyoti; Verma, Ankit; Kushwaha, Hari Narayan; Ray, Ratan Singh

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Photodegradation and formation of photoproduct. • Involvement of ROS in PPD phototoxicity. • Role of ROS in DNA damage, CPD and micronuclei formation. • PPD induced lysosomal destabilization and release of cathepsin B. • Cleavage of Bid and activation of mitochondrial apoptosis. - Abstract: Paraphenylenediamine (PPD), a derivative of paranitroaniline has been most commonly used as an ingredient of oxidative hair dye and permanent tattoos. We have studied the phototoxic potential of PPD under ambient ultraviolet radiation. PPD is photodegraded and form a novel photoproduct under UV A exposure. PPD shows a concentration dependent decrease in cell viability of human Keratinocyte cells (HaCaT) through MTT and NRU test. Significant intracellular ROS generation was measured by DCFDA assay. It caused an oxidative DNA damage via single stranded DNA breaks, micronuclei and CPD formation. Both lysosome and mitochondria is main target for PPD induced apoptosis which was proved through lysosomal destabilization and release of cathepsin B by immunofluorescence, real time PCR and western blot analysis. Cathepsin B process BID to active tBID which induces the release of cytochrome C from mitochondria. Mitochondrial depolarization was reported through transmission electron microscopy. The cathepsin inhibitor reduced the release of cytochrome C in PPD treated cells. Thus study suggests that PPD leads to apoptosis via the involvement of lysosome and mitochondria both under ambient UV radiation. Therefore, photosensitizing nature of hair dye ingredients should be tested before coming to market as a cosmetic product for the safety of human beings.

  17. Factors influencing incidence of acute grade 2 morbidity in conformal and standard radiation treatment of prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanks, Gerald E.; Schultheiss, Timothy E.; Hunt, Margie A.; Epstein, Barry

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: The fundament hypothesis of conformal radiation therapy is that tumor control can be increased by using conformal treatment techniques that allow a higher tumor dose while maintaining an acceptable level of complications. To test this hypothesis, it is necessary first to estimate the incidence of morbidity for both standard and conformal fields. In this study, we examine factors that influence the incidence of acute grade 2 morbidity in patients treated with conformal and standard radiation treatment for prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: Two hundred and forty-seven consecutive patients treated with conformal technique are combined with and compared to 162 consecutive patients treated with standard techniques. The conformal technique includes special immobilization by a cast, careful identification of the target volume in three dimensions, localization of the inferior border of the prostate using the retrograde urethrogram, and individually shaped portals that conform to the Planning Target Volume (PTV). Univariate analysis compares differences in the incidence of RTOG-EORTC grade two acute morbidity by technique, T stage, age, irradiated volume, and dose. Multivariate logistic regression includes these same variables. Results: In nearly all categories, the conformal treatment group experienced significantly fewer acute grade 2 complications than the standard treatment group. Only volume (prostate ± whole pelvis) and technique (conformal vs. standard) were significantly related to incidence of morbidity on multivariate analysis. When dose is treated as a continuous variable (rather than being dichotomized into two levels), a trend is observed on multivariate analysis, but it does not reach significant levels. The incidence of acute grade 2 morbidity in patients 65 years or older is significantly reduced by use of the conformal technique. Conclusion: The conformal technique is associated with fewer grade 2 acute toxicities for all patients. This

  18. CITON involvement in CETRAD project on 'Education and training in radiation protection and radioactive waste'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comsa, Olivia; Meglea, Claudia; Banutoiu, Marina; Paraschiva, M. V.; Meglea, S.

    2003-01-01

    Within the European Community and world-wide there is extensive experience in the principles and practice of radiation protection and radioactive waste management. Nuclear skills and capabilities have grown and evolved since the inception of nuclear technology in the 1940s. However, with the current stagnation of the nuclear industry it is increasingly acknowledged that the skills and expertise held by the generation who grew up with nuclear technology are being passed on to new generations of experts. This poses a significant risk to the community who will need to manage nuclear liabilities for long times into the future in order to protect future society from radiological hazards. Notwithstanding that the state of the art in nuclear waste management is undoubtedly high in many organizations, it is very clear that there is continuous need for the provision of education and training in this area. The various training and education programmes throughout Europe are at different stages of development. There is undoubtedly a need for harmonization of the numerous programmes and there would be great benefit to countries at early stages of development due to the learning experiences from the more developed organizations. The objective of CETRAD is to develop proposals for structuring and delivering both education and training in the management of the geological disposal of long-lived radioactive waste and radiation protection across Europe. This proposal is seen as a forerunner of a more comprehensive pan-European Network in this area, which it is planned, will emerge from this work. The project activities will be carried out in two phases. Phase 1 will involve national evaluations of both the needs for education and training and the existing infrastructure and resources in the field of radiation protection and radioactive waste management. Phase 2 will involve development of specific proposals for education and training based on the needs identified in Phase 1. (authors)

  19. Survey data for the application to Japan of international ideas on safety of works involving radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    In order to apply ICRP Publication 27 to Japan, various concerned data in the nation were collected and analyzed. The data are the following: (1) for the respective industries, the number of deaths, age distribution of deaths, and frequency of injuries with seriousness and occupational diseases; and (2) for industries involving radiation exposure, the average reduction of life span due to radiation-induced deaths, and bodily, genetic and pregnancy effects of radiation exposure. (Mori, K.)

  20. University Physics Students' Use of Models in Explanations of Phenomena Involving Interaction between Metals and Electromagnetic Radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redfors, Andreas; Ryder, Jim

    2001-01-01

    Examines third year university physics students' use of models when explaining familiar phenomena involving interaction between metals and electromagnetic radiation. Concludes that few students use a single model consistently. (Contains 27 references.) (DDR)

  1. Effect of γ-radiation on the incidence of plant tumors (to the problem of carcinogenesis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuzin, A.M.; Yurov, S.S.; Vagabova, M.Eh.; Shchelkaeva, N.V.

    1986-01-01

    In experiments on two plant species: of Kalanchoe diagremontiana and potato (Solanum tuberosum) it was shown that γ-irradiation of the plant tissues, before infecting with Ti-plasmide Agrobacterium tumefaciens C-58, with doses stimulating the development of the plants markedly increases the incidence of tumors, promotes their growth, and increases the probability of inverse differentiation of tumor cells

  2. Tables extracted from Messel and Crawford for electrons incident on 1 radiation length Pb plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loos, J.

    1977-01-01

    Tables were extracted from the extensive tables of Messel and Crawford. The numbers given should be good for 1 r.1. Ta plates and may be helpful when looking at showers in these plates. The tables should be largely self-explanatory. An example is given of how to use these tables given a 1000-MeV incident electron

  3. Emergency preparedness incident response and radiation monitoring in Finland. Annual report 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ristonmaa, S.

    2000-04-01

    The Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) publishes annually a report about STUK's preparedness measures. The report describes notifications received by STUK's on duty system and further measures carried out after receiving a message. In addition, the emergence exercises STUK participated in during the year are described. The radiation situation in Finland is continuously monitored. STUK is the authority who carries out a wide range of environmental measurements, sampling and sensitive laboratory analyses. The measurement results are presented in the form of tables and graphically. (editor)

  4. Emergency preparedness incident response and radiation monitoring in Finland. Annual report 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ristonmaa, S.

    1999-03-01

    The Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) publishes annually a report about STUK's preparedness measures. The report describes notifications received by STUK's on duty system and further measures carried out after receiving a message. In addition, the emergence exercises STUK participated in during the year are described. The radiation situation in Finland is continuously monitored. STUK is the authority who carries out a wide range of environmental measurements, sampling and sensitive laboratory analyses. The measurement results are presented in the form of tables and graphically. (editor)

  5. Radiation factors and smoking interaction at lung cancer incidence for workers at a nuclear enterprise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokarskaya, Z.B.; Khokhryakov, V.F.; Okladnikova, N.D.; Belyaeva, Z.D.; Zhuntova, G.V.

    1997-01-01

    It was shown on the basis of retrospective investigation of 500 workers at a nuclear enterprise (162 cases of lung cancer, 338 persons as matching control) that the interaction of external gamma-irradiation (> 2.0 Gy) and the body - burden of 239 Pu (> 9.3 kBq) at lung cancer is characterized as the multiplicative effect. Combined influence of smoking and radiation factors dependent on smoking index (SI): it changed from additive up to multiplicative and than to antagonistic with the increase of the smoking effect. The received results could be explained on the basis of a two - mutation model of radiation carcinogenesis

  6. Thyroid cancer incidence in iodine deficient areas exposed to radiation after Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szybinski, Z.; Mazurek-Przybylik, E.

    1996-01-01

    In two districts of Southern Poland; Krakow and Nowy Sacz (2 million people), standardized thyroid cancer incidence rate IR was evaluated from 1976 to 1992. This area was classified as a moderate iodine deficiency endemic goiter region and belonged to the most contaminated areas in Poland after Chernobyl accident. Recalculated - in terms of real iodine intake-thyroid commitment equivalent dose in the youngest age groups reached 100 mSv. The aim of the study was to evaluate, 6 years after Chernobyl accident, thyroid cancer incidence rate and histotype. Age and sex specific incidence rate in Krakow for male was 0.827 and for female 3.093 and 0.93 and 2.164 for Nowy Sacz respectively. There was no increase of IR in the group of age 0-19 yrs, however in the group over 44 yrs in females in the period of time 1989-1992 significant increase of follicular cancer was observed. In the histotype, the follicular cancerpredominated over the papillary one: 42,9% against 33,6%. Predominance of the follicular cancer is typical for iodine deficient area. Significant increase of the follicular cancer may be due to the increase of iodine deficiency. (author). 14 refs, 1 fig., 5 tabs

  7. Thyroid cancer incidence in iodine deficient areas exposed to radiation after Chernobyl accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szybinski, Z; Mazurek-Przybylik, E [Jagiellonian Univ., Cracow (Poland). Dept. of Endocrinology; Pawlega, J [Institute of Oncology, Cracow (Poland)

    1996-08-01

    In two districts of Southern Poland; Krakow and Nowy Sacz (2 million people), standardized thyroid cancer incidence rate IR was evaluated from 1976 to 1992. This area was classified as a moderate iodine deficiency endemic goiter region and belonged to the most contaminated areas in Poland after Chernobyl accident. Recalculated - in terms of real iodine intake-thyroid commitment equivalent dose in the youngest age groups reached 100 mSv. The aim of the study was to evaluate, 6 years after Chernobyl accident, thyroid cancer incidence rate and histotype. Age and sex specific incidence rate in Krakow for male was 0.827 and for female 3.093 and 0.93 and 2.164 for Nowy Sacz respectively. There was no increase of IR in the group of age 0-19 yrs, however in the group over 44 yrs in females in the period of time 1989-1992 significant increase of follicular cancer was observed. In the histotype, the follicular cancerpredominated over the papillary one: 42,9% against 33,6%. Predominance of the follicular cancer is typical for iodine deficient area. Significant increase of the follicular cancer may be due to the increase of iodine deficiency. (author). 14 refs, 1 fig., 5 tabs.

  8. An evaluation of rabies vaccination rates among canines and felines involved in biting incidents within the Wellington-Dufferin-Guelph Public Health Department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottoms, K; Trotz-Williams, L; Hutchison, S; MacLeod, J; Dixon, J; Berke, O; Poljak, Z

    2014-11-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the rate of animal bite incidents occurring in the human population of a local health department, and to determine the proportion of these canines and felines that were not up to date on their rabies vaccination at the time the incident occurred. Data were obtained from animal bite incidents reported to Wellington-Dufferin-Guelph Public Health during 2010 and 2011. Descriptive statistics of 718 eligible reports revealed the average rate of animal biting was 1.55 bites per 1000 residents per year. Approximately 54% of these animals were vaccinated against rabies, 32% were not up to date with their rabies vaccination, and the remaining 14.5% were of unknown status. The unit of analysis was the municipality, and the four outcomes of interest were: (i) number of animal bite incidents per 1000 residents, (ii) number of dog bite incidents per 1000 residents, (iii) proportion of animals involved in bite incidents that were not up to date with their rabies vaccination, and (iv) proportion of dogs that were not up to date. Associations between the outcomes and selected demographic variables were investigated using regression analysis. The number of veterinary clinics per 10,000 residents, and whether the municipality was urban or rural were identified as significant predictors for the number of animal bites per 1000 residents, and the number of dog bites. There were no significant predictors for the proportion of unvaccinated animals or dogs. Spatial clustering and the location of spatial clusters were assessed using the empirical Bayes index and spatial scan test. This analysis identified five municipalities within the health department that have a high rate of biting incidents and a high proportion of animals that were not up to date on their rabies vaccination. Such municipalities are ideal for targeted educational campaigns regarding the importance of vaccination in pets. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  9. Study on exposures in incidents situations involving X-ray generators of industrial use; Estudo de exposicoes em situacoes de incidentes envolvendo geradores de raios-X de uso industrial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rios, Paulo B., E-mail: paulo@inovafi.com.br [Fisica aplicada a Inovacao Ltda. (INOVAFI), Campinas, SP (Brazil); Rios, Denise A. da S., E-mail: denise@inovafi.com.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    Case studies of accidents involving radiation sources provides valuable information for the improvement of equipment and procedures to be adopted to prevent their recurrence. Therefore, they are recommended as part of the licensing process of radiative facilities. However, when the equipment has no radiological protection requirements or have no record of accidents, an effective method to appropriate this knowledge necessary to improvements of process and project is the investigation of reported incidents and the proposition limit situations where exposures unlikely and even low intensity can occur. This work reviews incidents in X-ray equipment and thickness meters. Emergency situations are also studied in this type of equipment and in an accelerator of electrons self-shielded for curing of paints and varnishes. The exposure estimates are calculated from data collected in workplaces on the distance and time for each proposed case. Although there is no severe consequences to occupational health, the results can be used to improve the quality of training for operators and maintenance technicians, for proposing of new alarm systems and emergency teams procedures and may serve as a warning in inadvertent and avoidable situations of unnecessary exposures.

  10. Radiation safety education reduces the incidence of adult fingers on neonatal chest radiographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahota, N; Burbridge, B E; Duncan, M D

    2014-01-01

    A previous audit revealed a high frequency of adult fingers visualised on neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) chest radiographs—representing an example of inappropriate occupational radiation exposure. Radiation safety education was provided to staff and we hypothesised that the education would reduce the frequency of adult fingers visualised on NICU chest radiographs. Two cross-sectional samples taken before and after the administration of the education were compared. We examined fingers visualised directly in the beam, fingers in the direct beam but eliminated by technologists editing the image, and fingers under the cones of the portable x-ray machine. There was a 46.2% reduction in fingers directly in the beam, 50.0% reduction in fingers directly in the beam but cropped out, and 68.4% reduction in fingers in the coned area. There was a 57.1% overall reduction in adult fingers visualised, which was statistically significant (Z value − 7.48, P < 0.0001). This study supports radiation safety education in minimising inappropriate occupational radiation exposure. (paper)

  11. Relationship between incident radiation, leaf area and dry-matter yield in wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saini, A.D.; Nanda, R.

    1986-01-01

    Light-utilization efficiency was evaluated between 20 and 50 days of crop growth period in 'Kalyansona', 'Sonalika' (semi-dwarf), 'Hindi 62' (tall) varieties of bread-wheat (Triticum aestivum Linn. emend., Fiori and Paol.) and semi-dwarf 'HD 4502' variety of macaroni wheat (T. durum Desf.). In the first model, the relationship between absorbed photosynthetic radiation and crop growth rates showed above-ground dry matter of 2.9 g in 'Sonalika', 2.5 g each in 'Kalyansona' and 'HD 4502' and 1.8 g in 'Hindi 62' were produced for each megajoule of absorbed photosynthetic radiation corresponding to the growth efficiency of 5.1, 4.4 and 3.1% respectively. In the second model of partial regression analysis, the rate of change in dry matter due to mean green area index as well as photosynthetic radiation was low in 'Hindi 62'. However, the dry matter changes due to mean green area index were similar in 'Kalyansona', 'HD4502' and 'Sonalika', but was high due to photosynthetic radiation in 'Sonalika' only. Both models gave similar conclusion

  12. Ionizing radiation increases primary cilia incidence and induces multiciliation in C2C12 myoblasts

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Filipová, A.; Diaz-Garcia, D.; Bezrouk, A.; Čížková, D.; Havelek, R.; Vávrová, J.; Dayanithi, Govindan; Řezáčová, M.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 39, č. 8 (2015), s. 943-953 ISSN 1065-6995 Institutional support: RVO:68378041 Keywords : cell line * ionizing radiation * multiple cilia * myoblast * primary cilium * serum starvation stress Subject RIV: FP - Other Medical Disciplines Impact factor: 1.663, year: 2015

  13. Ionizing radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newton, W.

    1984-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to simplify some of the relevant points of legislation, biological effects and protection for the benefit of the occupational health nurse not familiar with the nuclear industries. The subject is dealt with under the following headings; Understanding atoms. What is meant by ionizing radiation. Types of ionizing radiation. Effects of radiation: long and short term somatic effects, genetic effects. Control of radiation: occupational exposure, women of reproductive age, medical aspects, principles of control. The occupational health nurse's role. Emergency arrangements: national arrangements for incidents involving radiation, action to be taken by the nurse. Decontamination procedures: external and internal contamination. (U.K.)

  14. Measuring Solar Radiation Incident on Earth: Solar Constant-3 (SOLCON-3)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crommelynck, Dominique; Joukoff, Alexandre; Dewitte, Steven

    2002-01-01

    Life on Earth is possible because the climate conditions on Earth are relatively mild. One element of the climate on Earth, the temperature, is determined by the heat exchanges between the Earth and its surroundings, outer space. The heat exchanges take place in the form of electromagnetic radiation. The Earth gains energy because it absorbs solar radiation, and it loses energy because it emits thermal infrared radiation to cold space. The heat exchanges are in balance: the heat gained by the Earth through solar radiation equals the heat lost through thermal radiation. When the balance is perturbed, a temperature change and hence a climate change of the Earth will occur. One possible perturbation of the balance is the CO2 greenhouse effect: when the amount of CO2 in the atmosphere increases, this will reduce the loss of thermal infrared radiation to cold space. Earth will gain more heat and hence the temperature will rise. Another perturbation of the balance can occur through variation of the amount of energy emitted by the sun. When the sun emits more energy, this will directly cause a rise of temperature on Earth. For a long time scientists believed that the energy emitted by the sun was constant. The 'solar constant' is defined as the amount of solar energy received per unit surface at a distance of one astronomical unit (the average distance of Earth's orbit) from the sun. Accurate measurements of the variations of the solar constant have been made since 1978. From these we know that the solar constant varies approximately with the 11-year solar cycle observed in other solar phenomena, such as the occurrence of sunspots, dark spots that are sometimes visible on the solar surface. When a sunspot occurs on the sun, since the spot is dark, the radiation (light) emitted by the sun drops instantaneously. Oddly, periods of high solar activity, when a lot of sunspot numbers increase, correspond to periods when the average solar constant is high. This indicates that

  15. Involvement of cathepsin B in mitochondrial apoptosis by p-phenylenediamine under ambient UV radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Shruti; Amar, Saroj Kumar; Dubey, Divya; Pal, Manish Kumar; Singh, Jyoti; Verma, Ankit; Kushwaha, Hari Narayan; Ray, Ratan Singh

    2015-12-30

    Paraphenylenediamine (PPD), a derivative of paranitroaniline has been most commonly used as an ingredient of oxidative hair dye and permanent tattoos. We have studied the phototoxic potential of PPD under ambient ultraviolet radiation. PPD is photodegraded and form a novel photoproduct under UV A exposure. PPD shows a concentration dependent decrease in cell viability of human Keratinocyte cells (HaCaT) through MTT and NRU test. Significant intracellular ROS generation was measured by DCFDA assay. It caused an oxidative DNA damage via single stranded DNA breaks, micronuclei and CPD formation. Both lysosome and mitochondria is main target for PPD induced apoptosis which was proved through lysosomal destabilization and release of cathepsin B by immunofluorescence, real time PCR and western blot analysis. Cathepsin B process BID to active tBID which induces the release of cytochrome C from mitochondria. Mitochondrial depolarization was reported through transmission electron microscopy. The cathepsin inhibitor reduced the release of cytochrome C in PPD treated cells. Thus study suggests that PPD leads to apoptosis via the involvement of lysosome and mitochondria both under ambient UV radiation. Therefore, photosensitizing nature of hair dye ingredients should be tested before coming to market as a cosmetic product for the safety of human beings. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Stakeholder involvement in building and maintaining national and international radiation safety infrastructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimomura, K.

    2004-01-01

    Society's expectations with regard to policy towards risky technologies have changed significantly over the past 50 years, and perhaps most dramatically, over the past decade. Arrangements for the development and implementation of such policy may well fit with traditional theories from the disciplines of law, political science and engineering regarding democratic legitimacy, the delegation of power and the role of the expert. They may, however, no longer fit with a policy environment that is considerably more complex than those theories allow. The stakes are high for the radiation protection community as it seeks to recognize and accommodate these changed and changing expectations.For many years, the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency and its Committee on Radiation Protection and Public Health (CRPPH) has an active work programme on details and implications of stakeholder involvement in radiological protection decision making processes. The series of workshops in Villigen, Switzerland (in 1998 and 2002) and related follow-up work, offer assistance to the international radiological protection community on how to better integrate radiological protection into modern society. The lessons that have been learned in this area carry implications on national policy and on the governmental infrastructures necessary to carry it out

  17. Involvement of histamine H1 and H2 receptors in hypothermia induced by ionizing radiation in guinea pigs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kandasamy, S.B.; Hunt, W.A.

    1988-01-01

    Radiation-induced hypothermia was examined in guinea pigs. Exposure to the head alone or whole-body irradiation induced hypothermia, whereas exposure of the body alone produced a small insignificant response. Systemic injection of disodium cromoglycate (a mast cell stabilizer) and cimetidine (H2-receptor antagonist) had no effect on radiation-induced hypothermia, whereas systemic and central administration of mepyramine (H1-receptor antagonist) or central administration of disodium cromoglycate or cimetidine attenuated it, indicating the involvement of central histamine through both H1 and H2 receptors in this response. Serotonin is not involved, since the serotonin antagonist methysergide had no effect on radiation-induced hypothermia. These results indicate that central histaminergic systems may be involved in radiation-induced hypothermia. 34 references, 5 figures, 2 tables

  18. Contribution of Topography and Incident Solar Radiation to Variation of Soil and Plant Litter at an Area with Heterogeneous Terrain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Cito Nettesheim

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Natural processes that determine soil and plant litter properties are controlled by multiple factors. However, little attention has been given to distinguishing the effects of environmental factors from the effects of spatial structure of the area on the distribution of soil and litter properties in tropical ecosystems covering heterogeneous topographies. The aim of this study was to assess patterns of soil and litter variation in a tropical area that intercepts different levels of solar radiation throughout the year since its topography has slopes predominantly facing opposing geographic directions. Soil data (pH, C, N, P, H+Al, Ca, Mg, K, Al, Na, sand, and silt and plant litter data (N, K, Ca, P, and Mg were gathered together with the geographic coordinates (to model the spatial structure of 40 sampling units established at two sites composed of slopes predominantly facing northwest and southeast (20 units each. Soil and litter chemical properties varied more among slopes within similar geographic orientations than between the slopes facing opposing directions. Both the incident solar radiation and the spatial structure of the area were relevant in explaining the patterns detected in variation of soil and plant litter. Individual contributions of incident solar radiation to explain the variation in the properties evaluated suggested that this and other environmental factors may play a particularly relevant role in determining soil and plant litter distribution in tropical areas with heterogeneous topography. Furthermore, this study corroborates that the spatial structure of the area also plays an important role in the distribution of soil and litter within this type of landscape, which appears to be consistent with the action of water movement mechanisms in such areas.

  19. Reduction of the treated volume to involved node radiation therapy as part of combined modality treatment for early stage aggressive non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verhappen, Marieke H.; Poortmans, Philip M.P.; Raaijmakers, Esther; Raemaekers, John M.M.

    2013-01-01

    Background and purpose: This retrospective study investigated whether focused involved node radiation therapy (INRT) can safely replace involved field RT (IFRT) in patients with early stage aggressive NHL. Patients and methods: We included 258 patients with stage I/II aggressive NHL who received combined modality treatment (87%) or primary RT alone (13%). RT consisted of a total dose of 30–40 Gy in 15–20 fractions IFRT or INRT. We compared survival, relapse pattern, radiation-related toxicity and quality of life for both RT techniques. Results: Type of RT was not related to the outcome in either the uni- or multivariate survival analysis. Relapses developed in 59 of 252 patients (23%) of which 47 (80%) were documented as distant recurrence only. Failure of the INRT technique was noted in one patient. There was no significant difference in acute radiation-related toxicity between RT-groups but IFRT showed a significantly higher incidence of higher grade toxicities. Patients treated with INRT had a significantly better physical functioning and global quality of life compared to the IFRT group. Conclusions: Given the retrospective nature of this study, no solid conclusions can be drawn. However, in view of the equivalent efficacy and more favorable toxicity profile, the replacement of IFRT by INRT in combination with chemo-(immuno)-therapy looks very attractive for patients with early stage aggressive NHL

  20. Radiation exposure to personnel involved in bone scans for horses with technetium 99m-diphosphonat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sommerfeld, Theresa Christine

    2016-01-01

    Key objective of this study has been the evaluation of radiation exposure of veterinarian personnel wearing dosimeters which were involved in equine scintigraphy. A survey, which was developed in parallel to this study, showed that personnel in equine horse clinics have often knowledge gaps about scintigraphy and the related radiation doses. The survey showed skepticism of the involved personnel towards the methods of bone scintigraphy as the impacts of expositions are barely known in common. The scintigraphic investigations and measurements were done at the horse clinic (department of surgery) in Giessen and were part of the routinely bone scanning of horses. A total of 33 bone scans were taken, covering either full- or half-body scintigraphies. Additional 10 bone scans covered measurements with and without the protection of a 0,5 mm lead-shield. The activity of involved personnel was monitored at four different positions: MP1 was associated with the position of the person preparing the radiopharmaceutical for injection, MP2 with the position at holding the horse during the bone scan, MP3 with the position at holding the horse's legs and to make sure that the horse was standing in the right position, MP4 with the position for the camera operator. Some more dose measurements were made from the horse body (MP5 and MP6) as well as in the control area (MP7). In order to analyze the patient's constitution, additional data like weight, size, body extent and length of the torso were additionally captured. The body data were collected to investigate exposure differences of rather big and heavy or small and thin horses. These data and the dosimeter at the horse body (MP5) enabled the correlation analysis between the horse body composition and the received dose rate of the personnel (MP2). MP1 received a mean dose of 11 μSv and a dose rate of 123 μSv/h, MP2 received 31 μSv for a whole-body and 23 μSv for a half-body bone scan. The dose rate of MP2 was 22 μSv/h. MP3 was

  1. Patient involvement in patient safety: Protocol for developing an intervention using patient reports of organisational safety and patient incident reporting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armitage Gerry

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients have the potential to provide a rich source of information on both organisational aspects of safety and patient safety incidents. This project aims to develop two patient safety interventions to promote organisational learning about safety - a patient measure of organisational safety (PMOS, and a patient incident reporting tool (PIRT - to help the NHS prevent patient safety incidents by learning more about when and why they occur. Methods To develop the PMOS 1 literature will be reviewed to identify similar measures and key contributory factors to error; 2 four patient focus groups will ascertain practicality and feasibility; 3 25 patient interviews will elicit approximately 60 items across 10 domains; 4 10 patient and clinician interviews will test acceptability and understanding. Qualitative data will be analysed using thematic content analysis. To develop the PIRT 1 individual and then combined patient and clinician focus groups will provide guidance for the development of three potential reporting tools; 2 nine wards across three hospital directorates will pilot each of the tools for three months. The best performing tool will be identified from the frequency, volume and quality of reports. The validity of both measures will be tested. 300 patients will be asked to complete the PMOS and PIRT during their stay in hospital. A sub-sample (N = 50 will complete the PMOS again one week later. Health professionals in participating wards will also be asked to complete the AHRQ safety culture questionnaire. Case notes for all patients will be reviewed. The psychometric properties of the PMOS will be assessed and a final valid and reliable version developed. Concurrent validity for the PIRT will be assessed by comparing reported incidents with those identified from case note review and the existing staff reporting scheme. In a subsequent study these tools will be used to provide information to wards/units about their

  2. Accidents and incidents with external and/or internal radiation-exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    An individual radiation exposure accident is an unexpected and unintended event which gives rise to an overexposure (external or internal). By overexposure one means all external or internal exposure which could lead to the exceeding of the regulatory norms. Going beyond these limits does not always produce pathological manifestations. The term radiological accident is, in practice, used only when there is an occurrence of some biological or clinical response, or when some therapeutic action is required. A radio-exposure accident can occur: within or from a nuclear power plant or from a center employing ionizing radiation. These are the most frequent; and during the transport of radioactive materials. These are exceptional events. The tanks and containers used in the transport of highly radioactive substances are exhaustively studied for their resistance to accidents, and the conditions of transport determined by very strict national and international regulations. The transport of substances of low radioactivity (labelled molecules, radiopharmaceuticals...) carries only minor risks

  3. Preliminary studies into profiling DNA recovered from a radiation or radioactivity incident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodgson, A.; Baxter, A.

    2013-01-01

    The examination and profiling of human DNA recovered from a scene of crime is an essential aspect of criminal investigations. However, it is currently not known whether DNA recovered from a scene where an ionising radiation source or radioactive contamination is present can be successfully profiled. The direct examination and analysis of radioactively contaminated DNA has not been widely explored using the current procedures employed by forensic service providers. As a result, AWE is putting in place an extensive research and development programme to better understand the effects that radiation has on the ability to profile human DNA, and assess the associated retention of different radioactive contaminants within each step of the profiling procedure. A summary will be provided on the aims of this project and progress that has been made to date; together with a discussion of the lessons that have been learnt during the course of the programme's development. (author)

  4. Acoustic radiation force due to arbitrary incident fields on spherical particles in soft tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Treweek, Benjamin C., E-mail: btreweek@utexas.edu; Ilinskii, Yurii A.; Zabolotskaya, Evgenia A.; Hamilton, Mark F. [Applied Research Laboratories, The University of Texas at Austin, P.O. Box 8029, Austin, TX 78713-8029 (United States)

    2015-10-28

    Acoustic radiation force is of interest in a wide variety of biomedical applications ranging from tissue characterization (e.g. elastography) to tissue treatment (e.g. high intensity focused ultrasound, kidney stone fragment removal). As tissue mechanical properties are reliable indicators of tissue health, the former is the focus of the present contribution. This is accomplished through an investigation of the acoustic radiation force on a spherical scatterer embedded in tissue. Properties of both the scatterer and the surrounding tissue are important in determining the magnitude and the direction of the force. As these properties vary, the force computation shows changes in magnitude and direction, which may enable more accurate noninvasive determination of tissue properties.

  5. Low Incidence of Fatigue after Hypofractionated Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy (SBRT for Localized Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiranjeev eDash

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fatigue is a common side-effect of conventional prostate cancer radiation therapy. The increased delivery precision necessitated by the high dose per fraction of stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT offers the potential of reduce target volumes and hence the exposure of normal tissues to high radiation doses. Herein, we examine the level of fatigue associated with SBRT treatment.Methods: Forty patients with localized prostate cancer treated with hypofractionated SBRT, and a minimum of 12 months follow-up were included in this analysis. Self-reported fatigue and other quality of life measures were assessed at baseline and at 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months post-SBRT.Results: Mean levels of fatigue were elevated at 1 month post-SBRT compared to baseline values (p=0.02. Fatigue at the 3-month follow-up and later were higher but not statistically significantly different compared to baseline. African-American patients reported higher fatigue post-SBRT than Caucasian patients. Fatigue was correlated with hormonal symptoms as measured by the Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite (EPIC quality of life questionnaire, but not with urinary, bowel, or sexual symptoms. Age, co-morbidities, smoking, prostate specific antigen (PSA levels, testosterone levels, and tumor stage were not associated with fatigue. Conclusion: This is the first study to investigate fatigue as a side-effect of SBRT. In contrast to standard radiation therapy, results suggest SBRT-related fatigue is short-term rather than a long-term side effect of SBRT. These results also suggest post-SBRT fatigue to be a more frequent complication in African-Americans than Caucasians.

  6. Estimating Photosynthetic Radiation Use Efficiency Using Incident Light and Photosynthesis of Individual Leaves

    OpenAIRE

    ROSATI, A.; DEJONG, T. M.

    2003-01-01

    It has been theorized that photosynthetic radiation use efficiency (PhRUE) over the course of a day is constant for leaves throughout a canopy if leaf nitrogen content and photosynthetic properties are adapted to local light so that canopy photosynthesis over a day is optimized. To test this hypothesis, ‘daily’ photosynthesis of individual leaves of Solanum melongena plants was calculated from instantaneous rates of photosynthesis integrated over the daylight hours. Instantaneous photosynthes...

  7. Identification and Characterization of Soluble Factors Involved in Delayed Effects of Low Dose Radiation. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baulch, Janet

    2013-01-01

    This is a 'glue grant' that was part of a DOE Low Dose project entitled 'Identification and Characterization of Soluble Factors Involved in Delayed Effects of Low Dose Radiation'. This collaborative program has involved Drs. David L. Springer from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), John H. Miller from Washington State University, Tri-cities (WSU) and William F. Morgan then from the University of Maryland, Baltimore (UMB). In July 2008, Dr. Morgan moved to PNNL and Dr. Janet E. Baulch became PI for this project at University of Maryland. In November of 2008, a one year extension with no new funds was requested to complete the proteomic analyses. The project stemmed from studies in the Morgan laboratory demonstrating that genomically unstable cells secret a soluble factor or factors into the culture medium, that cause cytogenetic aberrations and apoptosis in normal parental GM10115 cells. The purpose of this project was to identify the death inducing effect (DIE) factor or factors, estimate their relative abundance, identify the cell signaling pathways involved and finally recapitulate DIE in normal cells by exogenous manipulation of putative DIE factors in culture medium. As reported in detail in the previous progress report, analysis of culture medium from the parental cell line, and stable and unstable clones demonstrated inconsistent proteomic profiles as relate to candidate DIE factors. While the proposed proteomic analyses did not provide information that would allow DIE factors to be identified, the analyses provided another important set of observations. Proteomic analysis suggested that proteins associated with the cellular response to oxidative stress and mitochondrial function were elevated in the medium from unstable clones in a manner consistent with mitochondrial dysfunction. These findings correlate with previous studies of these clones that demonstrated functional differences between the mitochondria of stable and unstable clones. These

  8. Identification and Characterization of Soluble Factors Involved in Delayed Effects of Low Dose Radiation. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baulch, Janet

    2013-09-11

    This is a 'glue grant' that was part of a DOE Low Dose project entitled 'Identification and Characterization of Soluble Factors Involved in Delayed Effects of Low Dose Radiation'. This collaborative program has involved Drs. David L. Springer from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), John H. Miller from Washington State University, Tri-cities (WSU) and William F. Morgan then from the University of Maryland, Baltimore (UMB). In July 2008, Dr. Morgan moved to PNNL and Dr. Janet E. Baulch became PI for this project at University of Maryland. In November of 2008, a one year extension with no new funds was requested to complete the proteomic analyses. The project stemmed from studies in the Morgan laboratory demonstrating that genomically unstable cells secret a soluble factor or factors into the culture medium, that cause cytogenetic aberrations and apoptosis in normal parental GM10115 cells. The purpose of this project was to identify the death inducing effect (DIE) factor or factors, estimate their relative abundance, identify the cell signaling pathways involved and finally recapitulate DIE in normal cells by exogenous manipulation of putative DIE factors in culture medium. As reported in detail in the previous progress report, analysis of culture medium from the parental cell line, and stable and unstable clones demonstrated inconsistent proteomic profiles as relate to candidate DIE factors. While the proposed proteomic analyses did not provide information that would allow DIE factors to be identified, the analyses provided another important set of observations. Proteomic analysis suggested that proteins associated with the cellular response to oxidative stress and mitochondrial function were elevated in the medium from unstable clones in a manner consistent with mitochondrial dysfunction. These findings correlate with previous studies of these clones that demonstrated functional differences between the mitochondria of stable and

  9. The impact of involved node, involved field and mantle field radiotherapy on estimated radiation doses and risk of late effects for pediatric patients with Hodgkin lymphoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maraldo, M V; Jørgensen, M; Brodin, N P

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The use of radiotherapy (RT) is debated for pediatric patients with Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) due to the late effects of treatment. Radiation doses to the thyroid, heart, lungs, and breasts are compared with the extensive mantle field (MF), Involved Field RT(IFRT), Modified IFRT (m......IFRT), and Involved Node RT (INRT) and the risk of radiation-induced cardiovascular disease, secondary cancers, and the corresponding Life Years Lost (LYL) is estimated with each technique. PROCEDURE: INRT, mIFRT, IFRT, and MF plans (20 and 30 Gy) were simulated for 10 supradiaphragmatic, clinical stage I......–II classical HL patients lung, breast, and thyroid cancer with each technique were estimated. The estimated excess risks attributable to RT were based on HL series with long-term follow...

  10. Calculation of radiation and pair production probabilities at arbitrary incidence angles to crystal planes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tikhonirov, V.V.

    1993-01-01

    The results of calculations of the intensity and polarization of radiation from channeled and unchanneled e +- are presented. The Fourier transformation (FT) is used to calculate numerous matrix elements. The calculations for channeled e + showed fast approach of spectral intensity to its value calculated in the approximation of self-consistent field (ASCF) with growing photon energy. In the case of 150 GeV unchanneled e - in Ge at T=293 K the ASCF gives a significantly higher value as compared to the FT. 4 refs., 3 figs

  11. Radiation factors and smoking interaction at lung cancer incidence for workers at a nuclear enterprise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokarskaya, Z.B.; Khokhryakov, V.T.; Okladnikova, N.D.; Belyaeva, Z.D.; Zhuntova, G.V.; Fleck, C.M.; Schollnberger, H.; Drozhko, E.G.

    1998-01-01

    A study is reported which is a continuation of a previous investigation of lung cancer incidence in workers at a nuclear enterprise and its relation to three basic etiological factors: the body burden due to 239 Pu, chronic external gamma irradiation, and smoking. Whereas previously each of the factors was assessed separately, in the present study the attempt was made to assess the interaction of the factors. A statistical analysis of the data revealed that for the following pairs of factors a superposition effect could be seen: external gamma irradiation and 239 Pu body burden; external gamma irradiation and a medium level of smoking; and 239 Pu body burden and a medium level of smoking. (A.K.)

  12. Correlation between the time-series of air temperature and incident solar radiation at Port Harcourt, Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adjepong, S.K.; Okujagu, C.

    1987-12-01

    We present the preliminary results of an investigation of the correlation between the temporal variations of the time-series of ground air temperature and incident solar radiation recorded at Port Harcourt (lat. 4 deg. 51' N, long. 7 deg. 01' E), Nigeria, during a five-year period (1981 through 1985). Computed cross-correlation functions of the daily time-series reveal correlation at time lags which are approximate harmonics of the 27-day solar rotation cycle. The cross-correlation function of the mean monthly series shows correlation at a time lag of 12 months implying a dominant annual-cycle component in the variation of either series. (author). 12 refs, 2 figs

  13. Use of risk projection models to estimate mortality and incidence from radiation-induced breast cancer in screening programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos, M; Ferrer, S; Villaescusa, J I; Verdu, G; Salas, M D; Cuevas, M D

    2005-01-01

    The authors report on a method to calculate radiological risks, applicable to breast screening programs and other controlled medical exposures to ionizing radiation. In particular, it has been applied to make a risk assessment in the Valencian Breast Cancer Early Detection Program (VBCEDP) in Spain. This method is based on a parametric approach, through Markov processes, of hazard functions for radio-induced breast cancer incidence and mortality, with mean glandular breast dose, attained age and age-at-exposure as covariates. Excess relative risk functions of breast cancer mortality have been obtained from two different case-control studies exposed to ionizing radiation, with different follow-up time: the Canadian Fluoroscopy Cohort Study (1950-1987) and the Life Span Study (1950-1985 and 1950-1990), whereas relative risk functions for incidence have been obtained from the Life Span Study (1958-1993), the Massachusetts tuberculosis cohorts (1926-1985 and 1970-1985), the New York post-partum mastitis patients (1930-1981) and the Swedish benign breast disease cohort (1958-1987). Relative risks from these cohorts have been transported to the target population undergoing screening in the Valencian Community, a region in Spain with about four and a half million inhabitants. The SCREENRISK software has been developed to estimate radiological detriments in breast screening. Some hypotheses corresponding to different screening conditions have been considered in order to estimate the total risk associated with a woman who takes part in all screening rounds. In the case of the VBCEDP, the total radio-induced risk probability for fatal breast cancer is in a range between [5 x 10 -6 , 6 x 10 -4 ] versus the natural rate of dying from breast cancer in the Valencian Community which is 9.2 x 10 -3 . The results show that these indicators could be included in quality control tests and could be adequate for making comparisons between several screening programs

  14. Epidemiological studies on disturbances of human fetal development in areas with various doses of natural background radiation. I. Relationship between incidences of Down's syndrome or visible malformation and gonad dose equivalent rate of natural background radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ujeno, Y.

    1985-01-01

    The relationship between environmental radiation to the gonads and incidences of Down's syndrome and visible malformation was analyzed using Kendall's rank correlation method. The subjects, studied during a 3-yr period (1979-1981), were inhabitants of 46 prefectures in Japan that had various dose rates of natural background ionizing radiation. Results showed that the natural background very low-dose radiation rate was not a predominant factor responsible for inducing Down's syndrome or other visible malformations

  15. An Insightful Problem Involving the Electromagnetic Radiation from a Pair of Dipoles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Glenn S.

    2010-01-01

    The time-average power radiated by a pair of infinitesimal dipoles is examined as their spacing is varied. The results elucidate the effect of the interaction of the dipoles on their radiation. (Contains 4 figures.)

  16. On an integral equation arising in the transport of radiation through a slab involving internal reflection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, M.M.R.

    2005-01-01

    The integral equation derived by Nieuwenhuizen and Luck for transmission of radiation through an optically thick diffusive medium is reconsidered in the light of radiative transfer theory and extended to slabs of arbitrary thickness. (author)

  17. The incidence of radiation necrosis following stereotactic radiotherapy for melanoma brain metastases: the potential impact of immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaidar-Person, Orit; Zagar, Timothy M; Deal, Allison; Moschos, Stergios J; Ewend, Matthew G; Sasaki-Adams, Deanna; Lee, Carrie B; Collichio, Frances A; Fried, David; Marks, Lawrence B; Chera, Bhishamjit S

    2017-07-01

    Stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT) is the standard treatment for patients with limited number of brain metastases. In the past few years, newer immunotherapies (immune checkpoint inhibitors) have been proven to prolong survival in patients with metastatic melanoma. The safety of the combination of SRT and immunotherapy for brain metastases is unknown. We retrospectively identified patients with melanoma brain metastases treated with SRT between 2007 and 2015. Patients who did not have at least 3 months of follow-up with imaging after SRT were excluded from the analysis. Outcomes were compared between patients who were treated with or without immunotherapy. A total of 58 patients were included; of these, 29 were treated with SRT and immunotherapy. MAPK inhibitors (BRAF, MEK inhibitors) were used more often in the immunotherapy group (nine vs. two patients). There was a higher incidence of intracranial complications in patients treated with immunotherapy and SRT. Eight patients had radiation necrosis; all occurred in patients who were treated with immunotherapy. Nine patients had hemorrhage, of which seven occurred in patients who were treated with immunotherapy (P=0.08). However, patients treated with immunotherapy and SRT had a significant overall survival advantage compared with SRT without immunotherapy (15 vs. 6 months, P=0.0013). Patients treated with SRT and immunotherapy have a higher incidence/risk of intracranial complications, but a longer overall survival.

  18. Contents of management plans for incidents and accidents involving the transport of radioactive substances. Guide no. 17, Version of 22/12/2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    This guide presents the essential topics to be developed in a management plan for incidents and accidents involving the transport of radioactive substances for civil use. It does not aim to be exhaustive and could be added to by each party involved in the transport, who can make the necessary adaptations and additions, taking account of the particularities of its shipments and its organisation, as well as those of the company or group to which it belongs. The radioactive substances transport incident and accident management plan is a document comprising a descriptive part and an operational part. It presents the overall response of the party involved in the transport operation to an incident or accident situation concerning one of its shipments and the steps it intends to make in order to support the authorities in charge of this situation, in the best possible conditions. This response is designed to cover the cases of incidents or accidents whether or not they lead to a radiological emergency situation. The guide exclusively concerns: - road transport; - rail transport; - the 'road' and 'rail' parts of multimodal transport operations. The case of an incident or an accident occurring during a particular stop such as a transit site, in a transhipment area (port, airport, railway station, etc.), or in a transport infrastructure, is also covered by the radioactive substances transport incident and accident management plan, which then supports the entities in charge of managing this situation (operator of the transhipment area or the transport infrastructure and - as applicable - their supervisory authorities). The level of risk associated with transport incidents and accidents varies widely, according to the nature and quantities of the materials being carried, the number of shipments made and the package model used. The incident and accident management plan must therefore be tailored to the specific nature of the shipments by the party concerned. The radioactive

  19. Atmospheric turbidity parameters affecting the incident solar solar radiation for two different areas in (Eg))

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tadros, M.T.Y.; Mosalam, M.A.; El-metwally, M.

    1999-01-01

    Atmospheric turbidity parameters such as Linke turbidity (L-0) and true Angstrom parameters (Bita o , Alpha 0 ) have been determined from the measurements of direct solar radiation for entire spectrum and for specified spectral bands during one year starting from june 1992 to may 1993. Comparison between the industrial area in Helwan (south Cairo) with that of the agricultural area in Mansoura, in (Eg), was done. Analysis of data revealed that the atmospheric turbidity parameters (L Beta) in Helwan is higher than that in Mansoura, except for hot wet months. The increase of L in Mansoura, in summer, is due to the increase of water vapor content. The wavelength exponent Alpha shows that the size the size of particles in Helwan is larger than that in Mansoura

  20. Radiobiological research at its best. Does a low radiation dose involve risks?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baatout, S.; Jacquet, P.; Derradji, H.

    2011-01-01

    Radiotherapy, radiation protection, nuclear medicine, etc.: there is a growing interest in radio(bio)logy in the health care sector. The number of medical treatments with ionising radiation per year will increase even more. It is therefore increasingly important to closely monitor the possible harmful effects of low radiation doses.

  1. Numerical simulations of industrial processes involving fluid dynamics, combustion and radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ducrocq, J [Air Liquide, Centre de Recherche Claude-Delorme, Jouy-en-Josas (France)

    1998-12-31

    Moving out of the scientific community research laboratories, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software packages are now allowing industrials to analyse and optimize industrial processes involving the use of gases, liquids and even some two-phase fluids. Their attractiveness and their impact stems out from the opportunity they offer to bring insight into an existing unit, or even at the design stage, by displaying the spatial distribution of process relevant variables such as temperature, concentration. The filling of the spacing in between a two-layer window is a simple example. This new opportunity of visualisation is at times an unique way, when the process environment is an opaque one, such as liquid metal flowing into a tundish or when measurements of flows may be a long and tedious work, such as flows within water treatment basins. This environment we are to investigate in order to optimize can also be a harsh one, due to its high temperature level for example. Such are burners. But then pure fluid flow analysis, such as cold flow water models, has too many shortcomings. The description of combustion processes and of radiation become a necessary feature in order to describe thermal heat transfer or to locate `hot spots`. Such numerical models showing our oxycombustion expertise in glass melting will be presented. (author)

  2. Involved field radiation therapy for Hodgkin's disease autologous bone marrow transplantation regimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pezner, Richard D.; Nademanee, Auayporn; Niland, Joyce C.; Vora, Nayana; Forman, Stephen J.

    1995-01-01

    From 1986 through 1992, involved-field radiation therapy (IF-RT) was administered to 29 of 86 patients with recurrent Hodgkin's disease (HD) who received a high-dose cyclophosphamide/etoposide regimen with autologous bone marrow transplantation (A-BMT). Patients without a significant history of prior RT received total body irradiation (TBI), initially as a single dose 5-7.5 Gy, and subsequently with fractionated TBI (F-TBI) delivering 12 Gy. Previously irradiated patients received a high-dose BCNU regimen instead of TBI. IF-RT was employed selectively, usually for sites of bulky disease (> 5 cm). IF-RT doses were typically 20 Gy at 2 Gy per fraction for TBI patients and 30-40 Gy at 1.8-2.0 Gy per fraction for non-TBI Patients. Fatal complications developed in four patients while second malignancies have developed in two. The region which received IF-RT was the site of first recurrence in only two cases (7%). With a median follow-up of 28 months, the two-year disease-free survival rate was 44%. For the 22 patients treated by either F-TBI or high-dose BCNU, the 2-year disease-free survival rate was 50% with a median follow up of 29 months. Selective use of IF-RT may increase the chances of complete remission and disease free survival in HD patients with a history of bulky disease

  3. Numerical simulations of industrial processes involving fluid dynamics, combustion and radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ducrocq, J. [Air Liquide, Centre de Recherche Claude-Delorme, Jouy-en-Josas (France)

    1997-12-31

    Moving out of the scientific community research laboratories, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software packages are now allowing industrials to analyse and optimize industrial processes involving the use of gases, liquids and even some two-phase fluids. Their attractiveness and their impact stems out from the opportunity they offer to bring insight into an existing unit, or even at the design stage, by displaying the spatial distribution of process relevant variables such as temperature, concentration. The filling of the spacing in between a two-layer window is a simple example. This new opportunity of visualisation is at times an unique way, when the process environment is an opaque one, such as liquid metal flowing into a tundish or when measurements of flows may be a long and tedious work, such as flows within water treatment basins. This environment we are to investigate in order to optimize can also be a harsh one, due to its high temperature level for example. Such are burners. But then pure fluid flow analysis, such as cold flow water models, has too many shortcomings. The description of combustion processes and of radiation become a necessary feature in order to describe thermal heat transfer or to locate `hot spots`. Such numerical models showing our oxycombustion expertise in glass melting will be presented. (author)

  4. The effects of combined treatment with radiation and bleomycin on the oral carcinoma involving the mandible

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamoto, Manabu; Ozeki, Satoru; Higuchi, Yoshinori; Tashiro, Hideo

    1988-01-01

    The effect of concurrent combined treatment with 22.5 Gy of radiation and 110 mg of bleomycin or 55 mg of peplomycin on oral carcinoma involving the mandible was examined histologically. In 14 of 18 patients who had mandibles resected after this combined treatment, bone invasion by carcinoma was observed histologically. According to Shimosato's classification of histological effects, 3 belonged to Grade III/IV, 4 to IIb, 3 to IIa and 4 to I. The formation of new bone that was considered to be reparable was observed in the marked effective patients. In 4 patients the Grade IIb, residual surviving cancer cells were observed in the mandible. Accordingly, excision was needed in the area of radiologic features of mandibular infiltration. But it is considered that although the excision scope for the patient who has received the preoperative treatment is the same as that for the patient who has not, it is advantageous for the former patient that a wider safety region is obtained. (author)

  5. Earth Reflected Solar Radiation Incident upon an Arbitrarily Oriented Spinning Flat Plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Fred G.

    1963-01-01

    A general derivation is given for the earth reflected solar radiation input to a flat plate--a solar cell paddle, for example--which is spinning about an axis coincident with the axis of symmetry of the satellite to which it is affixed. The resulting equations are written for the general case so that arbitrary orientations of the spin axis with respect to the earth-satellite line and arbitrary orientations of the normal to the plate with respect to the spin axis can be treated. No attempt is made to perform the resulting integrations because of the complexity of the equations; nor is there any attempt to delineate the integration limits for the general case. However, the equations governing these limits are given. The appendixes contain: the results, in graphical form, of two representative examples; the general computer program for the calculation is given in Fortran notation; and the results of a calculation of the distribution of albedo energy on the proposed Echo II satellite. The value of the mean solar constant used is 1.395 times 10 (sup 4) ergs per centimeters-squared per second; the mean albedo of the earth is assumed to be 0.34; and the earth is assumed to be a diffuse reflector.

  6. Radiation exposure to staff involved in diagnostic and therapeutic nuclear medicine procedures in some hospitals in Sudan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salih, Lamia Hamza Bashir

    2015-05-01

    Study was performed to evaluate radiation dose to staff involved in nuclear medicine procedures in some hospitals in Sudan. 15 radiation workers were studied in three hospitals. Radiation dose was measured using personal dose equivalent Hp (10), using calibrated electronic personal dosimeters (EPDs) worn on the chest and read at the end of the day. Staff doses were monitored in each hospital for a period of four weeks, The measured monthly Hp(10) values to staff ranged between 82.96-83.94μSv (to nurses), 38.81-53.97 μSv (to pharmacists), 16.87-70.21μSv (to technologists), 40.22-76.56μSv (to medical physicists). These mean monthly radiation doses were projected to the annual radiation doses received by the staff. The mean monthly radiation doses were projected to the annual radiation doses were found to be between ranges (185.57-923.34μSv/y). Results found showed that there was no dose that exceeded the limits of annual dose recommended for workers by International Commission on Radiology Protection (ICRP) (20 mSv/year). This study is expected to increase the awareness of staff about the radiation hazards and protection.(Author)

  7. Trend analysis of incidents involving setpoint drift in safety or safety/relief valves at U.S. LWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Norio

    2008-01-01

    Since the beginning of the 1980's, in the United States, there have been many licensee event reports (LERs) involving setpoint drift in safety or safety/relief valves. The United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has issued a lot of generic communications on this issue and the industry has made efforts to resolve the issue. However, the NRC staff recently highlighted that over 70 LERs involved instances where safety or safety/relief valves failed to meet the allowed setpoint tolerance from 2001 through August 2006. In the present study, we analyzed the U.S. experience with setpoint drift in safety/relief valves (SRVs) at BWRs, pressurizer safety valves (PSVs), and main steam safety valves (MSSVs) at PWRs by reviewing approximately 90 LERs from 2000 to 2006 and examined the trend focusing on causes and setpoint deviation ranges. This study indicates that for SRVs and MSSVs, disc-seat bonding is a dominant cause of the setpoint drifting high and has a tendency to result in a relatively large deviation of the setpoint. This means that disc-seat bonding might be a safety concern from the view point of overpressure protection. For PSVs, the deviation of setpoints is generally small, although its causes are not specified in many instances. (author)

  8. Determination of beta radiation doses received by personnel involved in the mitigation of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osanov, D.P.; Krjuchkov, V.P.; Shaks, A.I.

    1993-01-01

    During the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant on April 26, 1986, and in the post-accident period, workers were exposed to beta and low-energy-photon radiation. This paper describes a method of retrospective estimation of skin doses from these radiations by correlating known doses from gamma radiation. Dose distributions of beta and gamma radiation in tissue-equivalent materials were both calculated and measured using multilayer thermoluminescent dosimeters placed at different site locations. It was determined that the doses to the skin from beta radiation exceeded the maximum doses to the whole-body from gamma radiation by 1 or even 2 orders of magnitude. It is concluded that nuclear power plants should be equipped with multilayer skin dosimeters in order to ensure accurate skin dosimetry. 16 refs., 13 figs., 3 tabs

  9. Involvement of prostaglandins and histamine in radiation-induced temperature responses in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kandasamy, S.B.; Hunt, W.A.

    1990-01-01

    Exposure of rats to 1-15 Gy of gamma radiation induced hyperthermia, whereas exposure to 20-150 Gy produced hypothermia. Since radiation exposure induced the release of prostaglandins (PGs) and histamine, the role of PGs and histamine in radiation-induced temperature changes was examined. Radiation-induced hyper- and hypothermia were antagonized by pretreatment with indomethacin, a cyclooxygenase inhibitor. Intracerebroventricular administration of PGE2 and PGD2 induced hyper- and hypothermia, respectively. Administration of SC-19220, a specific PGE2 antagonist, attenuated PGE2- and radiation-induced hyperthermia, but it did not antagonize PGD2- or radiation-induced hypothermia. Consistent with an apparent role of histamine in hypothermia, administration of disodium cromoglycate (a mast cell stabilizer), mepyramine (H1-receptor antagonist), or cimetidine (H2-receptor antagonist) attenuated PGD2- and radiation-induced hypothermia. These results suggest that radiation-induced hyperthermia is mediated via PGE2 and that radiation-induced hypothermia is mediated by another PG, possibly PGD2, via histamine

  10. Decision diagram for neutron and photon dose estimation and for classification of persons involved in radiation accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    The relation is described between monitoring and health care measures taken during a radiation accident. The decision-making chart for the assessment of exposure and the classification of people involved are presented, the risks of the respective decision-making are discussed and the flow charts and explanations for the diagrams are given. (H.S.)

  11. Modeling retrospective attribution of responsibility to hazard-managing institutions: an example involving a food contamination incident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Branden B; Hallman, William K; Cuite, Cara L

    2015-03-01

    Perceptions of institutions that manage hazards are important because they can affect how the public responds to hazard events. Antecedents of trust judgments have received far more attention than antecedents of attributions of responsibility for hazard events. We build upon a model of retrospective attribution of responsibility to individuals to examine these relationships regarding five classes of institutions that bear responsibility for food safety: producers (e.g., farmers), processors (e.g., packaging firms), watchdogs (e.g., government agencies), sellers (e.g., supermarkets), and preparers (e.g., restaurants). A nationally representative sample of 1,200 American adults completed an Internet-based survey in which a hypothetical scenario involving contamination of diverse foods with Salmonella served as the stimulus event. Perceived competence and good intentions of the institution moderately decreased attributions of responsibility. A stronger factor was whether an institution was deemed (potentially) aware of the contamination and free to act to prevent or mitigate it. Responsibility was rated higher the more aware and free the institution. This initial model for attributions of responsibility to impersonal institutions (as opposed to individual responsibility) merits further development. © 2014 Society for Risk Analysis.

  12. An unusual case of adult-onset multi-systemic Langerhans cell histiocytosis with perianal and incident thyroid involvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozen Oz Gul

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH is a rare sporadic disease characterized by histiocytic neoplastic infiltration of various organ systems and a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations, ranging from benign and self-limiting to lethal. Herein, we report a rare case of adult-onset multi-systemic LCH in a 36-year-old male patient with an initial perianal presentation and incidental finding of subsequent thyroid gland involvement in the follow-up period. The patient with a history of perianal LCH treated with surgical excision and local radiotherapy was referred to our Endocrinology Department upon detection of hypermetabolic nodular lesions in the left lateral lobe of thyroid gland on positron emission tomography–computed tomography (PET/CT scan in the nineth month of follow-up. Current evaluation revealed euthyroid status, a hypoechoic solid lesion of 13 × 9 mm in size with irregular borders in the left thyroid lobe on thyroid USG and cytologic assessment of thyroid nodule. The patient was diagnosed with suspected, oncocytic lesion, Hashimoto thyroiditis or LCH. The patient underwent total thyroidectomy and pathological assessment confirmed the diagnosis of Langerhans cell histiocytosis. Assessments in the sixth month of postoperative follow-up revealed euthyroid status with no thyroid tissue remnants or pathological lymph node on thyroid USG. In view of the multifocal lesions indicating multi-system disease, a systemic chemotherapy protocol with combination of prednisone (PRED and vinblastine (VBL has been planned by the hematology department.

  13. Late effects of selected immunosuppressants on immunocompetence, disease incidence, and mean life-span. III. Disease incidence and life expectancy. [Mice, x radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter, C P; Perkins, E H; Peterson, W J; Walburg, H E; Makinodan, T

    1975-01-01

    The effect of various immunosuppressive treatments on mean life-span and disease incidence have been studied. Significant life shortening was seen only in mice which received X-irradiation early in life and can be ascribed primarily to an increased incidence of certain malignancies. Marginal life shortening was seen in cyclophosphamide-treated animals, however, survival patterns between those and control animals did not differ until 30 months of age and the magnitude of life-shortening never approached that seen in X-irradiated animals. Thymectomy, splenectomy or cortisone treatment did not alter survival. All immunosuppressive treatments enhanced mortality due to non-neoplastic diseases, however, only a small percentage of animals die with these disease entities. With the exception of cortisone all immunosuppressive treatments increased the incidence of neoplastic disease. However, their effects on various neoplastic processes were variable and unpredictable. Four primary patterns in terms of relative immune competence, disease incidence and life expectancy were seen. Thus, immunodepression may or may not correlate with increased disease incidence, which in turn may or may not have a life-shortening effect. These findings are discussed in terms of the marked reduction of both humoral and cell-mediated immunity normally seen in aged mice and the significance of postulated immune surveillance mechanisms to survival.

  14. Modeling Photosynthetically Active Radiation in Water of Tampa Bay, Florida, with Emphasis on the Geometry of Incident Irradiance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Ronald L.; McPherson, Benjamin F.

    1995-04-01

    Field studies that compare the spatial and temporal variation in light attenuation often neglect effects of solar elevation angle, yet these effects can be significant. To approximately correct for these angular effects, we developed a model that uses a simplified geometric description of incident direct solar beam and diffuse skylight. The model incorporates effects of solar elevation angle and cloudiness on the amount of in-air photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) that passes through the air-water interface and on K0in waters of relatively low turbidity. The model was calibrated with 3266 5-min averages of scalar PAR measured in air and at two depths in water and permits the value of K0to be adjusted approximately for the effects of time of day, season and cloudiness. The model was then used with 255 days of in-air PAR data (15-min averages) to evaluate irradiance that entered the water and attenuation in the water. On an annual basis, 49% of the incident scalar irradiance, or 380 μmol m -2s -1, was estimated to enter the water of Tampa Bay. The value of K0was estimated to vary as much as 41% on a clear summer day due to changes in solar elevation angle. The model was used to make estimates of the depth to which sea-grasses might receive adequate light for survival for a range of values of K0. This approach should be useful for projecting the effect of changes in water clarity on the depth of sea-grass survival and for comparing values of K0collected at different times of day and in different seasons.

  15. Training of an incidence of radiation on surfaces by vectorial representation; Didactica del analisis de la incidencia de radiacion solar mediante una representacion vectorial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luis, F. J. de; Perez-Garcia, M.; Barbero, F. J.; Batlles, F. J.

    2004-07-01

    This work gathers and it exposes a set of educational contents extracted from the general bibliography and from the own experience in Engineering studies and courses on the application of a vector representation to the description of the apparent movement of the sun, the shading evaluation and the incidence of radiation on surfaces. (Author)

  16. Measurement of the radiation incident on ALS NdFeB permanent magnet insertion device structures and a determination of their lifetime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krebs, G.F.; Holmes, M.

    1997-05-01

    Measurements of the radiation incident on ALS insertion device NdFeB permanent magnet structures were carried out using thermoluminescence dosimeters. A plastic scintillator gamma telescope was utilized to unravel the various contributions to the integrated dose. Magnet lifetimes were calculated for various operational conditions

  17. Ionizing radiation-induced modulation of activities of the enzymes involved in DNA methylation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batra, Vipen; Kesavan, V.; Mishra, K.P.

    2004-01-01

    Studies have indicated that radiation might create a state of folate insufficiency by mobilization of cellular folate in DNA repair pathways. The present result indicates an optimization between methylation reaction versus deoxithymidylate synthesis took place in vivo after whole body irradiation as both the reaction depended upon folate, which possibly was a limiting factor under radiation stress

  18. Error sources in the real-time NLDAS incident surface solar radiation and an evaluation against field observations and the NARR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, G.; Gao, X.; Sorooshian, S.

    2005-12-01

    The atmospheric model is sensitive to the land surface interactions and its coupling with Land surface Models (LSMs) leads to a better ability to forecast weather under extreme climate conditions, such as droughts and floods (Atlas et al. 1993; Beljaars et al. 1996). However, it is still questionable how accurately the surface exchanges can be simulated using LSMs, since terrestrial properties and processes have high variability and heterogeneity. Examinations with long-term and multi-site surface observations including both remotely sensed and ground observations are highly needed to make an objective evaluation on the effectiveness and uncertainty of LSMs at different circumstances. Among several atmospheric forcing required for the offline simulation of LSMs, incident surface solar radiation is one of the most significant components, since it plays a major role in total incoming energy into the land surface. The North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS) and North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR) are two important data sources providing high-resolution surface solar radiation data for the use of research communities. In this study, these data are evaluated against field observations (AmeriFlux) to identify their advantages, deficiencies and sources of errors. The NLDAS incident solar radiation shows a pretty good agreement in monthly mean prior to the summer of 2001, while it overestimates after the summer of 2001 and its bias is pretty close to the EDAS. Two main error sources are identified: 1) GOES solar radiation was not used in the NLDAS for several months in 2001 and 2003, and 2) GOES incident solar radiation when available, was positively biased in year 2002. The known snow detection problem is sometimes identified in the NLDAS, since it is inherited from GOES incident solar radiation. The NARR consistently overestimates incident surface solar radiation, which might produce erroneous outputs if used in the LSMs. Further attention is given to

  19. The impact of involved node, involved field and mantle field radiotherapy on estimated radiation doses and risk of late effects for pediatric patients with Hodgkin lymphoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maraldo, M. V.; Jorgensen, M.; Brodin, N. P.

    2014-01-01

    –II classical HL patients 4 x 2 plans for each patient. The lifetime excess risks of cardiac morbidity, cardiac mortality, lung, breast, and thyroid cancer with each technique were estimated. The estimated excess risks attributable to RT were based on HL series with long-term follow......IFRT), and Involved Node RT (INRT) and the risk of radiation-induced cardiovascular disease, secondary cancers, and the corresponding Life Years Lost (LYL) is estimated with each technique. PROCEDURE: INRT, mIFRT, IFRT, and MF plans (20 and 30 Gy) were simulated for 10 supradiaphragmatic, clinical stage I...... to the heart, lungs, breasts, and thyroid compared to past,extended fields, even for patients with mediastinal disease. This translated into a significantly reduced estimated risk of cardiovascular disease, secondary cancers, and LYL. CONCLUSIONS: Involved Node Radiotherapy should be considered for pediatric...

  20. Evaluation of the Reanalysis Surface Incident Shortwave Radiation Products from NCEP, ECMWF, GSFC, and JMA Using Satellite and Surface Observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaotong Zhang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Solar radiation incident at the Earth’s surface (Rs is an essential component of the total energy exchange between the atmosphere and the surface. Reanalysis data have been widely used, but a comprehensive validation using surface measurements is still highly needed. In this study, we evaluated the Rs estimates from six current representative global reanalyses (NCEP–NCAR, NCEP-DOE; CFSR; ERA-Interim; MERRA; and JRA-55 using surface measurements from different observation networks [GEBA; BSRN; GC-NET; Buoy; and CMA] (674 sites in total and the Earth’s Radiant Energy System (CERES EBAF product from 2001 to 2009. The global mean biases between the reanalysis Rs and surface measurements at all sites ranged from 11.25 W/m2 to 49.80 W/m2. Comparing with the CERES-EBAF Rs product, all the reanalyses overestimate Rs, except for ERA-Interim, with the biases ranging from −2.98 W/m2 to 21.97 W/m2 over the globe. It was also found that the biases of cloud fraction (CF in the reanalyses caused the overestimation of Rs. After removing the averaged bias of CERES-EBAF, weighted by the area of the latitudinal band, a global annual mean Rs values of 184.6 W/m2, 180.0 W/m2, and 182.9 W/m2 were obtained over land, ocean, and the globe, respectively.

  1. DNA repair pathways involved in determining the level of cytotoxicity of environmentally relevant UV radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpenter, L.

    2000-01-01

    The sensitivity of cell lines with defects in various DNA repair processes to different wavelengths of UV has been assessed in order to determine the importance of these repair pathways to the cytotoxicity of UV light. The cell lines used in this work were xrs-6 (a Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cell line) mutant for XRCC5/Ku80, EM9 a CHO cell line mutant for XRCC1, UV61 a CHO cell line mutant for ERCC6/CSB, and E3p53-/-, a mouse embryonic fibroblast cell line null for p53. Xrs-6 (defective in Non Homologous End-Joining) was found to be sensitive to the cytotoxic effects of broadband UVA, but not narrowband UVA or narrowband UVB. EM9 (defective in Base Excision Repair/Single-Strand Break Repair) was not sensitive to the cytotoxic effects of both broadband and narrowband UVA, narrowband UVB or narrowband UVC. UV61 (defective in the Transcription Coupled Repair branch of Nucleotide Excision Repair) was sensitive to the cytotoxic effects of narrowband UVA, UVB and UVC. E3p53-/- was sensitive to the cytotoxic effects of narrowband UVA and UVB. Broadband UVA was found to induce high levels of chromosomal damage in xrs-6, as quantified by the micronucleus assay, most likely as a result of this cell lines inability to repair DNA double strand breaks. EM9 was found to be defective in the repair of broadband UVA-induced single strand breaks, as measured by the alkaline gel electrophoresis ('comet') assay. UV61 was unable to repair broadband UVB-induced DNA damage as measured by the alkaline gel electrophoresis ('comet') assay. These results provide evidence that: 1. DNA double-strand breaks contribute to the cytotoxicity of UVA to a greater extent than single-strand breaks. 2. Repair mechanisms that operate in response to UVA may be coupled to transcription. 3. UVB may directly induce SSBs. 4. P53 is involved in the response of the cell to both UVA and UVB radiation. (author)

  2. Identification of miRNAs involved in cell response to ionising radiation and modeled microgravity

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — BACKGROUND: Ionizing radiation (IR) can be extremely harmful for human cells since an improper DNA-damage response (DDR) to IR can contribute to carcinogenesis...

  3. Comparison of incidences of normal tissue complications with tumor response in a phase III trial comparing heat plus radiation to radiation alone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dewhirst, M.W.; Sim, D.A.; Grochowski, K.J.

    1984-01-01

    The success of hyperthermia (/sup Δ/) as an adjuvant to radiation (XRT) will depend on whether the increase in tumor control is greater than that for normal tissue reactions. One hundred and thirty dogs and cats were stratified by histology and randomized to receive XRT (460 rads per fraction, two fractions per week, for eight fractions) or /sup Δ/ + XRT (30 min. at 44 +-2 0 C; one fraction per week, four fractions; immediately prior to XRT). Heat induced changes in tumor and normal tissue responses were made by comparing ratios of incidence for /sup Δ/ + XRT and XRT alone (TRR; Thermal Relative Risk). Change in tumor response duration was calculated from statistical analysis of response duration curves (RRR; Relative Relapse Rate). Heat increased early normal tissue reactions (moist desquamation and mucositis by a factor of 1.08. Tumor complete response, by comparison, was significantly improved (TRR = 2.12, p < .001). Late skin fibrosis was also increased (TRR = 1.51), but the prolongation in tumor response was greater (RRR 1.85). The degree of thermal enhancement for all tissues was dependent on the minimum temperature achieved on the first treatment, but the values for tumor were consistently greater than those achieved for normal tissues

  4. Tamoxifen with and without radiation after partial mastectomy in patients with involved nodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooke, Andrew L; Perera, Francisco; Fisher, Barbara; Opeitum, Abiola; Yu, Norman

    1995-02-15

    Purpose: To determine the effect of tamoxifen on local control after partial mastectomy with and without adjuvant breast irradiation. Methods and Materials: A retrospective study of 97 node positive patients identified from the records of the London Regional Cancer Center included 44 patients who received tamoxifen and breast irradiation (40 or 50 Gy plus booster dose) after partial mastectomy, and 53 patients who received tamoxifen only after partial mastectomy. Base line characteristics of the two groups were similar. Results: At 39 months actuarial follow-up there was a breast tumor recurrence (BTR) in 5% vs. 21% of patients when radiation was omitted (p = 0.0388), but there was no difference in the cause-specific mortality of the two treatment groups. Cox Regression analysis (on only 10 BTR) showed age and adjuvant radiation as significant predictors of BTR. In patients not receiving radiation, no BTR was seen in 22 patients {>=}70 years of age at diagnosis vs. 8 BTR in 31 patients <70 years (p = 0.0130). All BTR occurred while patients were receiving tamoxifen. Conclusion: Tamoxifen alone with omission of radiation after partial mastectomy provides inferior breast tumor control in node positive patients. This is especially true for patients under 70 years of age. Patients aged 70 years or older at the time of diagnosis of breast cancer who receive tamoxifen have a low rate of breast tumor recurrence when radiation is omitted. These patients represent a group for whom radiation might not be necessary.

  5. Isolated lung events following radiation for early stage breast cancer: incidence and predictors for primary lung vs metastatic breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Buren, Teresa A; Harris, Jay R; Sugarbaker, David J; Schneider, Lindsey; Healey, Elizabeth A

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: 1) To define the incidence of isolated lung events in a cohort of women treated with conservative surgery (CS) and radiation therapy (RT) for early stage breast cancer. 2) Among such patients, to define the relative distribution of primary lung cancer, metastatic breast cancer, and indeterminate lesions; and to identify any predictors for a diagnosis of lung vs metastatic breast cancer. 3) To examine the cohort with respect to whether a higher than expected incidence of lung cancer is seen following breast irradiation. Materials and Methods: Between 1968 and 1986, 1865 patients with clinical stage I-II breast cancer were treated with CS and RT; the median follow-up for surviving patients is 129 months. The study population was limited to patients who developed a subsequent isolated lung event as the first site of distant disease. Isolated lung event was defined as disease limited to the thoracic cavity, without evidence of either uncontrolled local breast disease or metastatic disease elsewhere. Diagnosis of the lung event as a primary lung cancer, a metastatic breast lesion, or an indeterminate lesion was documented from the viewpoint of 1) the pathologic analysis and 2) the clinical impression at the time of the lung event. Results: Sixty six of the 1865 patients (3.5%) developed an isolated lung event. The relative distribution of the pathologic and clinical diagnoses is shown below: The 66 lung events were characterized either as a solitary pulmonary nodule (27), multiple nodules (23), pleural effusion alone (10), unknown (2), or miscellaneous other findings (4). Among the 47 patients for whom pathology was available, the diagnosis remained indeterminate for 24 (51%). For patients with a definitive pathologic diagnosis, 69% ((9(13))) of smokers had a new lung cancer compared to 20% ((2(10))) of non-smokers (p=0.036), and 67% ((10(15))) of patients with a solitary pulmonary nodule had lung cancer compared to 14% ((1(7))) for other lung presentations (p

  6. Non controlled effect of ionizing radiations : involvement for radiation protection; Efectos no dirigidos de la radiacion ionizante: implicaciones para la proteccion radiologica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Little, J. B.

    2005-07-01

    It is widely accepted that damage to DNA is the critical event on irradiated cells, and that double strand breaks are the primary DNA lesions responsible for the biological effects of ionizing radiation. This has lead to the long standing paradigm that these effects, be they cytotoxicity, mutagenesis or malignant transformation, occur in irradiated cells as a consequences of the DNA damage they incur. Evidence has been accumulating over the past decade, however, to indicate that radiation may induce effects that ar not targeted to the irradiated cells itself. Two non-targeted effects will be described in this review. The first, radiation-induced genomic instability, is a phenomenon whereby signals are transmitted to the progeny of the irradiated cell over many generations, leading to the occurrence of genetic effects such as mutations and chromosomal aberrations arising in the distant descendants of the irradiated cell. Second, the bystander effect, is a phenomenon whereby irradiated cells transmit damage signals to non-irradiated cells in a mixed population, leading to genetic effects arising in these bystander cells that received no radiation exposure. the model system described in this review involves dense monolayer cultures exposed to very low fluences of alpha particles. The potential implications of these two phenomena for the analysis of the risk to the human population of exposure to low levels of ionising radiation is discussed. (Author) 111 refs.

  7. Activation of eNOS in endothelial cells exposed to ionizing radiation involves components of the DNA damage response pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagane, Masaki; Yasui, Hironobu; Sakai, Yuri; Yamamori, Tohru [Laboratory of Radiation Biology, Department of Environmental Veterinary Sciences, Graduate School of Veterinary Medicine, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0818 (Japan); Niwa, Koichi [Laboratory of Biochemistry, Department of Food and Cosmetic Science, Faculty of Bioindustry, Tokyo University of Agriculture, Abashiri 099-2493 (Japan); Hattori, Yuichi [Department of Molecular and Medical Pharmacology, Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Toyama, Toyama 930-0194 (Japan); Kondo, Takashi [Department of Radiological Sciences, Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Toyama, Toyama 930-0194 (Japan); Inanami, Osamu, E-mail: inanami@vetmed.hokudai.ac.jp [Laboratory of Radiation Biology, Department of Environmental Veterinary Sciences, Graduate School of Veterinary Medicine, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0818 (Japan)

    2015-01-02

    Highlights: • eNOS activity is increased in BAECs exposed to X-rays. • ATM is involved in this increased eNOS activity. • HSP90 modulates the radiation-induced activation of ATM and eNOS. - Abstract: In this study, the involvement of ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) kinase and heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) in endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activation was investigated in X-irradiated bovine aortic endothelial cells. The activity of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and the phosphorylation of serine 1179 of eNOS (eNOS-Ser1179) were significantly increased in irradiated cells. The radiation-induced increases in NOS activity and eNOS-Ser1179 phosphorylation levels were significantly reduced by treatment with either an ATM inhibitor (Ku-60019) or an HSP90 inhibitor (geldanamycin). Geldanamycin was furthermore found to suppress the radiation-induced phosphorylation of ATM-Ser1181. Our results indicate that the radiation-induced eNOS activation in bovine aortic endothelial cells is regulated by ATM and HSP90.

  8. Properties of light transition radiation of 660 MeV proton inclined incidence (γ=1.7) on a thick nickel plate. II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zrelov, V.P.; Pavlovic, P.; Ruzicka, J.

    1975-01-01

    The basic properties of transition radiation in the visible fraction of the spectrum have been calculated for 660 MeV protons (γ=1.7) obliquely incident on a thick nickel plate in vacuum. The angular distributions of the summary radiation (i.e. the sums of radiations of various polarizations) both 'forward' and 'backward' for different azimuthal planes are presented in tables and diagrams for different particle inclination angles to the separation boundary. The examples of angular distributions of radiation having various polarizations (at the inclination angle of 45 0 ) show that they differ considerably. The spectra of summary radiation are of a monotonous character. The calculations have shown that in a relativistic case the forward radiation is concentrated near the direction of particle motion and backward radiation moves in an opposite direction with respect to that of the particle inclination. The dependence of the total yield of forward and backward transition radiations upon the particle inclination angle is approximately cos 2 psi. (Auth.)

  9. Bottomonium spectroscopy and radiative transitions involving the chi(bJ)(1P, 2P) states at BABAR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lees, J. P.; Poireau, V.; Tisserand, V.; Grauges, E.; Palano, A.; Eigen, G.; Stugu, B.; Brown, D. N.; Kerth, L. T.; Kolomensky, Yu. G.; Lynch, G.; Schroeder, T.; Hearty, C.; Mattison, T. S.; McKenna, J. A.; So, R. Y.; Khan, A.; Blinov, V. E.; Buzykaev, A. R.; Druzhinin, V. P.; Golubev, V. B.; Kravchenko, E. A.; Onuchin, A. P.; Serednyakov, S. I.; Skovpen, Yu. I.; Solodov, E. P.; Todyshev, K. Yu.; Lankford, A. J.; Mandelkern, M.; Dey, B.; Gary, J. W.; Long, O.; Campagnari, C.; Sevilla, M. Franco; Hong, T. M.; Kovalskyi, D.; Richman, J. D.; West, C. A.; Eisner, A. M.; Lockman, W. S.; Vazquez, W. Panduro; Schumm, B. A.; Seiden, A.; Chao, D. S.; Echenard, B.; Flood, K. T.; Hitlin, D. G.; Miyashita, T. S.; Ongmongkolkul, P.; Roehrken, M.; Andreassen, R.; Huard, Z.; Meadows, B. T.; Pushpawela, B. G.; Sokoloff, M. D.; Sun, L.; Bloom, P. C.; Ford, W. T.; Gaz, A.; Smith, J. G.; Wagner, S. R.; Ayad, R.; Toki, W. H.; Spaan, B.; Bernard, D.; Verderi, M.; Playfer, S.; Bettoni, D.; Bozzi, C.; Calabrese, R.; Cibinetto, G.; Fioravanti, E.; Garzia, I.; Luppi, E.; Piemontese, L.; Santoro, V.; Calcaterra, A.; de Sangro, R.; Finocchiaro, G.; Martellotti, S.; Patteri, P.; Peruzzi, I. M.; Piccolo, M.; Rama, M.; Zallo, A.; Contri, R.; Lo Vetere, M.; Monge, M. R.; Passaggio, S.; Patrignani, C.; Robutti, E.; Bhuyan, B.; Prasad, V.; Adametz, A.; Uwer, U.; Lacker, M.; Dauncey, P. D.; Mallik, U.; Cochran, J.; Prell, S.; Ahmed, H.; Gritsan, A. V.; Arnaud, N.; Davier, M.; Derkach, D.; Grosdidier, G.; Le Diberder, F.; Lutz, A. M.; Malaescu, B.; Roudeau, P.; Stocchi, A.; Wormser, G.; Lange, D. J.; Wright, D. M.; Coleman, J. P.; Fry, J. R.; Gabathuler, E.; Hutchcroft, D. E.; Payne, D. J.; Touramanis, C.; Bevan, A. J.; Di Lodovico, F.; Sacco, R.; Cowan, G.; Bougher, J.; Brown, D. N.; Davis, C. L.; Denig, A. G.; Fritsch, M.; Gradl, W.; Griessinger, K.; Hafner, A.; Schubert, K. R.; Barlow, R. J.; Lafferty, G. D.; Cenci, R.; Hamilton, B.; Jawahery, A.; Roberts, D. A.; Cowan, R.; Sciolla, G.; Cheaib, R.; Patel, P. M.; Robertson, S. H.; Neri, N.; Palombo, F.; Cremaldi, L.; Godang, R.; Sonnek, P.; Summers, D. J.; Simard, M.; Taras, P.; De Nardo, G.; Onorato, G.; Sciacca, C.; Martinelli, M.; Raven, G.; Jessop, C. P.; LoSecco, J. M.; Honscheid, K.; Kass, R.; Feltresi, E.; Margoni, M.; Morandin, M.; Posocco, M.; Rotondo, M.; Simi, G.; Simonetto, F.; Stroili, R.; Akar, S.; Ben-Haim, E.; Bomben, M.; Bonneaud, G. R.; Briand, H.; Calderini, G.; Chauveau, J.; Leruste, Ph.; Marchiori, G.; Ocariz, J.; Biasini, M.; Manoni, E.; Pacetti, S.; Rossi, A.; Angelini, C.; Batignani, G.; Bettarini, S.; Carpinelli, M.; Casarosa, G.; Cervelli, A.; Chrzaszcz, M.; Forti, F.; Giorgi, M. A.; Lusiani, A.; Oberhof, B.; Paoloni, E.; Perez, A.; Rizzo, G.; Walsh, J. J.; Pegna, D. Lopes; Olsen, J.; Smith, A. J. S.; Faccini, R.; Ferrarotto, F.; Ferroni, F.; Gaspero, M.; Gioi, L. Li; Pilloni, A.; Piredda, G.; Buenger, C.; Dittrich, S.; Gruenber, O.; Hess, M.; Leddig, T.; Voss, C.; Waldi, R.; Adye, T.; Olaiya, E. O.; Wilson, F. F.; Emery, S.; Vasseur, G.; Anulli, F.; Aston, D.; Bard, D. J.; Cartaro, C.; Convery, M. R.; Dorfan, J.; Dubois-Felsmann, G. P.; Dunwoodie, W.; Ebert, M.; Field, R. C.; Fulsom, B. G.; Graham, M. T.; Hast, C.; Innes, W. R.; Kim, P.; Leith, D. W. G. S.; Lewis, P.; Lindemann, D.; Luitz, S.; Luth, V.; Lynch, H. L.; MacFarlane, D. B.; Muller, D. R.; Neal, H.; Perl, M.; Pulliam, T.; Ratcliff, B. N.; Roodman, A.; Salnikov, A. A.; Schindler, R. H.; Snyder, A.; Su, D.; Sullivan, M. K.; Va'vra, J.; Wisniewski, W. J.; Wulsin, H. W.; Purohit, M. V.; White, R. M.; Wilson, J. R.; Randle-Conde, A.; Sekula, S. J.; Bellis, M.; Burchat, P. R.; Puccio, E. M. T.; Alam, M. S.; Ernst, J. A.; Gorodeisky, R.; Guttman, N.; Peimer, D. R.; Soffer, A.; Spanier, S. M.; Ritchie, J. L.; Ruland, A. M.; Schwitters, R. F.; Wray, B. C.; Izen, J. M.; Lou, X. C.; Bianchi, F.; De Mori, F.; Filippi, A.; Gamba, D.; Lanceri, L.; Vitale, L.; Martinez-Vidal, F.; Oyanguren, A.; Villanueva-Perez, P.; Albert, J.; Banerjee, Sw.; Beaulieu, A.; Bernlochner, F. U.; Choi, H. H. F.; Kowalewski, R.; Lewczuk, M. J.; Lueck, T.; Nugent, I. M.; Roney, J. M.; Sobie, R. J.; Tasneem, N.; Gershon, T. J.; Harrison, P. F.; Latham, T. E.; Band, H. R.; Dasu, S.; Pan, Y.; Prepost, R.

    2014-01-01

    We use (121±1) million Υ(3S) and (98±1) million Υ(2S) mesons recorded by the BABAR detector at the PEP-II e+e− collider at SLAC to perform a study of radiative transitions involving the χbJ(1P,2P) states in exclusive decays with μ+μ−γγ final states. We reconstruct twelve channels in four cascades

  10. Maximum dose angle for oblique incidence on primary beam protective barriers in the design of medical radiation therapy facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fondevila, Damian; Arbiser, Silvio; Sansogne, Rosana; Brunetto, Monica; Dosoretz, Bernardo

    2008-01-01

    Primary barrier determinations for the shielding of medical radiation therapy facilities are generally made assuming normal beam incidence on the barrier, since this is geometrically the most unfavorable condition for that shielding barrier whenever the occupation line is allowed to run along the barrier. However, when the occupation line (for example, the wall of an adjacent building) runs perpendicular to the barrier (especially roof barrier), then two opposing factors come in to play: increasing obliquity angle with respect to the barrier increases the attenuation, while the distance to the calculation point decreases, hence, increasing the dose. As a result, there exists an angle (α max ) for which the equivalent dose results in a maximum, constituting the most unfavorable geometric condition for that shielding barrier. Based on the usual NCRP Report No. 151 model, this article presents a simple formula for obtaining α max , which is a function of the thickness of the barrier (t E ) and the equilibrium tenth-value layer (TVL e ) of the shielding material for the nominal energy of the beam. It can be seen that α max increases for increasing TVL e (hence, beam energy) and decreases for increasing t E , with a range of variation that goes from 13 to 40 deg for concrete barriers thicknesses in the range of 50-300 cm and most commercially available teletherapy machines. This parameter has not been calculated in the existing literature for radiotherapy facilities design and has practical applications, as in calculating the required unoccupied roof shielding for the protection of a nearby building located in the plane of the primary beam rotation

  11. Maximum dose angle for oblique incidence on primary beam protective barriers in the design of medical radiation therapy facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fondevila, Damián; Arbiser, Silvio; Sansogne, Rosana; Brunetto, Mónica; Dosoretz, Bernardo

    2008-05-01

    Primary barrier determinations for the shielding of medical radiation therapy facilities are generally made assuming normal beam incidence on the barrier, since this is geometrically the most unfavorable condition for that shielding barrier whenever the occupation line is allowed to run along the barrier. However, when the occupation line (for example, the wall of an adjacent building) runs perpendicular to the barrier (especially roof barrier), then two opposing factors come in to play: increasing obliquity angle with respect to the barrier increases the attenuation, while the distance to the calculation point decreases, hence, increasing the dose. As a result, there exists an angle (alpha(max)) for which the equivalent dose results in a maximum, constituting the most unfavorable geometric condition for that shielding barrier. Based on the usual NCRP Report No. 151 model, this article presents a simple formula for obtaining alpha(max), which is a function of the thickness of the barrier (t(E)) and the equilibrium tenth-value layer (TVL(e)) of the shielding material for the nominal energy of the beam. It can be seen that alpha(max) increases for increasing TVL(e) (hence, beam energy) and decreases for increasing t(E), with a range of variation that goes from 13 to 40 deg for concrete barriers thicknesses in the range of 50-300 cm and most commercially available teletherapy machines. This parameter has not been calculated in the existing literature for radiotherapy facilities design and has practical applications, as in calculating the required unoccupied roof shielding for the protection of a nearby building located in the plane of the primary beam rotation.

  12. A deployable in vivo EPR tooth dosimeter for triage after a radiation event involving large populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, Benjamin B.; Dong, Ruhong; Flood, Ann Barry; Grinberg, Oleg; Kmiec, Maciej; Lesniewski, Piotr N.; Matthews, Thomas P.; Nicolalde, Roberto J.; Raynolds, Tim; Salikhov, Ildar K.; Swartz, Harold M.

    2011-01-01

    In order to meet the potential need for emergency large-scale retrospective radiation biodosimetry following an accident or attack, we have developed instrumentation and methodology for in vivo electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy to quantify concentrations of radiation-induced radicals within intact teeth. This technique has several very desirable characteristics for triage, including independence from confounding biologic factors, a non-invasive measurement procedure, the capability to make measurements at any time after the event, suitability for use by non-expert operators at the site of an event, and the ability to provide immediate estimates of individual doses. Throughout development there has been a particular focus on the need for a deployable system, including instrumental requirements for transport and field use, the need for high throughput, and use by minimally trained operators. Numerous measurements have been performed using this system in clinical and other non-laboratory settings, including in vivo measurements with unexposed populations as well as patients undergoing radiation therapies. The collection and analyses of sets of three serially-acquired spectra with independent placements of the resonator, in a data collection process lasting approximately 5 min, provides dose estimates with standard errors of prediction of approximately 1 Gy. As an example, measurements were performed on incisor teeth of subjects who had either received no irradiation or 2 Gy total body irradiation for prior bone marrow transplantation; this exercise provided a direct and challenging test of our capability to identify subjects who would be in need of acute medical care. -- Highlights: → Advances in radiation biodosimetry are needed for large-scale emergency response. → Radiation-induced radicals in tooth enamel can be measured using in vivo EPR. → A novel transportable spectrometer was applied in the laboratory and at remote sites. → The current

  13. A deployable in vivo EPR tooth dosimeter for triage after a radiation event involving large populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Benjamin B., E-mail: Benjamin.B.Williams@dartmouth.edu [Dartmouth Physically Based Biodosimetry Center for Medical Countermeasures Against Radiation (Dart-Dose CMCR), Dartmouth Medical School, Hanover, NH 03768 (United States); Section of Radiation Oncology, Department of Medicine, Dartmouth Hitchcock Medical Center, Lebanon, NH (United States); Dong, Ruhong [Dartmouth Physically Based Biodosimetry Center for Medical Countermeasures Against Radiation (Dart-Dose CMCR), Dartmouth Medical School, Hanover, NH 03768 (United States); Flood, Ann Barry [Dartmouth Physically Based Biodosimetry Center for Medical Countermeasures Against Radiation (Dart-Dose CMCR), Dartmouth Medical School, Hanover, NH 03768 (United States); Clin-EPR, LLC, Lyme, NH (United States); Grinberg, Oleg [Clin-EPR, LLC, Lyme, NH (United States); Kmiec, Maciej; Lesniewski, Piotr N.; Matthews, Thomas P.; Nicolalde, Roberto J.; Raynolds, Tim [Dartmouth Physically Based Biodosimetry Center for Medical Countermeasures Against Radiation (Dart-Dose CMCR), Dartmouth Medical School, Hanover, NH 03768 (United States); Salikhov, Ildar K. [Clin-EPR, LLC, Lyme, NH (United States); Swartz, Harold M. [Dartmouth Physically Based Biodosimetry Center for Medical Countermeasures Against Radiation (Dart-Dose CMCR), Dartmouth Medical School, Hanover, NH 03768 (United States); Clin-EPR, LLC, Lyme, NH (United States)

    2011-09-15

    In order to meet the potential need for emergency large-scale retrospective radiation biodosimetry following an accident or attack, we have developed instrumentation and methodology for in vivo electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy to quantify concentrations of radiation-induced radicals within intact teeth. This technique has several very desirable characteristics for triage, including independence from confounding biologic factors, a non-invasive measurement procedure, the capability to make measurements at any time after the event, suitability for use by non-expert operators at the site of an event, and the ability to provide immediate estimates of individual doses. Throughout development there has been a particular focus on the need for a deployable system, including instrumental requirements for transport and field use, the need for high throughput, and use by minimally trained operators. Numerous measurements have been performed using this system in clinical and other non-laboratory settings, including in vivo measurements with unexposed populations as well as patients undergoing radiation therapies. The collection and analyses of sets of three serially-acquired spectra with independent placements of the resonator, in a data collection process lasting approximately 5 min, provides dose estimates with standard errors of prediction of approximately 1 Gy. As an example, measurements were performed on incisor teeth of subjects who had either received no irradiation or 2 Gy total body irradiation for prior bone marrow transplantation; this exercise provided a direct and challenging test of our capability to identify subjects who would be in need of acute medical care. -- Highlights: > Advances in radiation biodosimetry are needed for large-scale emergency response. > Radiation-induced radicals in tooth enamel can be measured using in vivo EPR. > A novel transportable spectrometer was applied in the laboratory and at remote sites. > The current instrument

  14. Involvement of inducible nitric oxide synthase in radiation-induced vascular endothelial damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Chang-Won; Lee, Joon-Ho; Kim, Suwan; Noh, Jae Myoung; Kim, Young-Mee; Pyo, Hongryull; Lee, Sunyoung

    2013-01-01

    The use of radiation therapy has been linked to an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. To understand the mechanisms underlying radiation-induced vascular dysfunction, we employed two models. First, we examined the effect of X-ray irradiation on vasodilation in rabbit carotid arteries. Carotid arterial rings were irradiated with 8 or 16 Gy using in vivo and ex vivo methods. We measured the effect of acetylcholine-induced relaxation after phenylephrine-induced contraction on the rings. In irradiated carotid arteries, vasodilation was significantly attenuated by both irradiation methods. The relaxation response was completely blocked by 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one, a potent inhibitor of soluble guanylate cyclase. Residual relaxation persisted after treatment with L-N ω -nitroarginine (L-NA), a non-specific inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase (NOS), but disappeared following the addition of aminoguanidine (AG), a selective inhibitor of inducible NOS (iNOS). The relaxation response was also affected by tetraethylammonium, an inhibitor of endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor activity. In the second model, we investigated the biochemical events of nitrosative stress in human umbilical-vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). We measured iNOS and nitrotyrosine expression in HUVECs exposed to a dose of 4 Gy. The expression of iNOS and nitrotyrosine was greater in irradiated HUVECs than in untreated controls. Pretreatment with AG, L-N 6 -(1-iminoethyl) lysine hydrochloride (a selective inhibitor of iNOS), and L-NA attenuated nitrosative stress. While a selective target of radiation-induced vascular endothelial damage was not definitely determined, these results suggest that NO generated from iNOS could contribute to vasorelaxation. These studies highlight a potential role of iNOS inhibitors in ameliorating radiation-induced vascular endothelial damage. (author)

  15. A case of chronic effusive-constrictive pericarditis with slight myocardial involvement caused by radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horimoto, Masashi; Funayama, Naoki; Takenaka, Takashi; Igarashi, Takeki; Sekiguchi, Morie.

    1985-01-01

    A 25-year-old female was admitted with shortness of breath and abdominal swelling. Six years before the admission, she had received resection of 7th to 9th left ribs and subsequent radiation of 5,000 rads to the thorax for the treatment of rib osteoblastoma. One year after the radiation, marked pericardial effusion associated with acute pericarditis was observed and was improved by digitalization and diuretic therapy. Since two years after the radiation, she had felt easy fatigability, swelling of face and foot, and transient faintness on more than 10 meters running. On admission, chest X-ray photograph showed increased pulmonary vascularity without cardiac enlargement. Electrocardiogram indicated systolic right ventricular strain, mitral P, and nonspecific S-T segment depression in left precordial leads. Two-dimensional echocardiography presented pericardial effusion with posterior pericardial thickening, while M-mode echocardiography showed diastolic posterior movement of interventricular septum and diastolic flattening of left ventricular posterior wall. Cardiac catheterization revealed marked elevation of mean right atrial pressure, pulmonary arterial diastolic pressure, right and left ventricular end-diastolic pressure, accompanied with their equalization. In addition, pressure waves of right and left ventricle showed diastolic dip and plateau. Phono-cardiogram and apexcardiogram presented pericardial knock sound and systolic retraction, respectively. Cardiac angiography showed diastolic restriction of left ventricle without any stenosis of coronary artery. Computed tomography (CT) of the chest revealed thickening of anterior and left lateral pericardium with expansion of inferior vena cava, and abdominal CT revealed ascites with slight enlargements of liver and spleen. From above obtained data, chronic effusive-constrictive pericarditis, which was attributed to radiation, was strongly suggested. (J.P.N.)

  16. Problems of drawing up standards for persons simultaneously engaged in more than one activity involving radiation hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucci, F.; Pelliccioni, M.

    1979-01-01

    The authors examine, from the points of view of the ICRP recommendations and of national and international standards, radiation protection problems posed by persons simultaneously engaged in professional activities involving radiation hazards in more than one place. The consequences of this type of situation, for the radiological protection classification of workers and for the evaluation and recording of doses received, are described in detail. In order to ensure proper monitoring of doses, agreements must be reached in advance between those in charge of the different areas of activity. Three cases seem to be of particular relevance: (a) that of workers who, while working for a single employer, perform in more than one place activities in which they are exposed to ionizing radiation (scientists working at different research centres, employees of companies specialized in the nuclear field, including the use of isotopes, accelerators, etc.); (b) that of workers who are engaged by more than one employer and are exposed to ionizing radiations as a result of their activities at different establishments (a special case is that of doctors who are radiologists or specialists in some other branch of nuclear medicine and work both as employees and independently in their own practices); and (c) that of employees of outside organizations not directly concerned with nuclear activities who are only exposed to ionizing radiation when called upon to work in establishments possessing sources of radiation. Finally, the authors suggest some ways of solving these problems - though they are rather difficult to define objectively (for example the case of medical practioners). (author)

  17. UV-B radiation-induced oxidative stress and p38 signaling pathway involvement in the benthic copepod Tigriopus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bo-Mi; Rhee, Jae-Sung; Lee, Kyun-Woo; Kim, Min-Jung; Shin, Kyung-Hoon; Lee, Su-Jae; Lee, Young-Mi; Lee, Jae-Seong

    2015-01-01

    Ultraviolet B (UV-B) radiation presents an environmental hazard to aquatic organisms. To understand the molecular responses of the intertidal copepod Tigriopus japonicus to UV-B radiation, we measured the acute toxicity response to 96 h of UV-B radiation, and we also assessed the intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, glutathione (GSH) content, and antioxidant enzyme (GST, GR, GPx, and SOD) activities after 24 h of exposure to UV-B with LD50 and half LD50 values. Also, expression patterns of p53 and hsp gene families with phosphorylation of p38 MAPK were investigated in UV-B-exposed copepods. We found that the ROS level, GSH content, and antioxidant enzyme activity levels were increased with the transcriptional upregulation of antioxidant-related genes, indicating that UV-B induces oxidative stress by generating ROS and stimulating antioxidant enzymatic activity as a defense mechanism. Additionally, we found that p53 expression was significantly increased after UV-B irradiation due to increases in the phosphorylation of the stress-responsive p38 MAPK, indicating that UV-B may be responsible for inducing DNA damage in T. japonicus. Of the hsp family genes, transcriptional levels of hsp20, hsp20.7, hsp70, and hsp90 were elevated in response to a low dose of UV-B radiation (9 kJ m(-2)), suggesting that these hsp genes may be involved in cellular protection against UV-B radiation. In this paper, we performed a pathway-oriented mechanistic analysis in response to UV-B radiation, and this analysis provides a better understanding of the effects of UV-B in the intertidal benthic copepod T. japonicus. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Radiological Cs-137 accidents/incidents in Estonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinisso, Mark

    1997-01-01

    Two radiological accidents/incidents in Estonia are reported. The first -21 October 1994, three brothers entered the Tammiku repository and stole a radioactive Cs-137 source and received dangerous doses of radiation. The other incident (early 1995) involved an abandoned source - a discarded metal cylinder containing Cs-137. Chronologies and factual data are considered for both events. Concise descriptions of the incidents, a medical overview of the fate of injured people and lessons learned are presented

  19. Radiological Cs-137 accidents/incidents in Estonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinisso, Mark [Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Tallin (Estonia)

    1997-12-31

    Two radiological accidents/incidents in Estonia are reported. The first -21 October 1994, three brothers entered the Tammiku repository and stole a radioactive Cs-137 source and received dangerous doses of radiation. The other incident (early 1995) involved an abandoned source - a discarded metal cylinder containing Cs-137. Chronologies and factual data are considered for both events. Concise descriptions of the incidents, a medical overview of the fate of injured people and lessons learned are presented

  20. A wavelet-coupled support vector machine model for forecasting global incident solar radiation using limited meteorological dataset

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deo, Ravinesh C.; Wen, Xiaohu; Qi, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A forecasting model for short- and long-term global incident solar radiation (R_n) has been developed. • The support vector machine and discrete wavelet transformation algorithm has been integrated. • The precision of the wavelet-coupled hybrid model is assessed using several prediction score metrics. • The proposed model is an appealing tool for forecasting R_n in the present study region. - Abstract: A solar radiation forecasting model can be utilized is a scientific contrivance for investigating future viability of solar energy potentials. In this paper, a wavelet-coupled support vector machine (W-SVM) model was adopted to forecast global incident solar radiation based on the sunshine hours (S_t), minimum temperature (T_m_a_x), maximum temperature (T_m_a_x), windspeed (U), evaporation (E) and precipitation (P) as the predictor variables. To ascertain conclusive results, the merit of the W-SVM was benchmarked with the classical SVM model. For daily forecasting, sixteen months of data (01-March-2014 to 30-June-2015) partitioned into the train (65%) and test (35%) set for the three metropolitan stations (Brisbane City, Cairns Aero and Townsville Aero) were utilized. Data were decomposed into their wavelet sub-series by discrete wavelet transformation algorithm and summed up to create new series with one approximation and four levels of detail using Daubechies-2 mother wavelet. For daily forecasting, six model scenarios were formulated where the number of input was increased and the forecast was assessed by statistical metrics (correlation coefficient r; Willmott’s index d; Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient E_N_S; peak deviation P_d_v), distribution statistics and prediction errors (mean absolute error MAE; root mean square error RMSE; mean absolute percentage error MAPE; relative root mean square error RMSE). Results for daily forecasts showed that the W-SVM model outperformed the classical SVM model for optimum input combinations. A sensitivity

  1. Considerations of health benefit-cost analysis for activities involving ionizing radiation exposure and alternatives. Technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    The report deals with development of methodology for the health benefit-cost analysis of activities that result in radiation exposure to humans. It attempts to frame the problems and to communicate the necessary elements of the complex technical process required for this method of analysis. The main thrust of the report is to develop a methodology for analyzing the benefits and costs of these activities. Application of the methodology is demonstrated for nuclear power production and medical uses of radiation, but no definitive analysis is attempted. The report concludes that benefit-cost analysis can be effectively applied to these applications and that it provides a basis for more informed governmental decision-making and for public participation in evaluating the issues of radiation exposure. It notes, however, that for cases where national policy is involved, decisions must inevitably be made on the basis of value judgements to which such analyses can make only limited contributions. An important conclusion is that a significant reduction in radiation exposure to the population is apparently achievable by development of methods for eliminating unproductive medical X-ray exposure

  2. On- and off-resonance radiation-atom-coupling matrix elements involving extended atomic wave functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komninos, Yannis; Mercouris, Theodoros; Nicolaides, Cleanthes A.

    2014-01-01

    In continuation of our earlier works, we present results concerning the computation of matrix elements of the multipolar Hamiltonian (MPH) between extended wave functions that are obtained numerically. The choice of the MPH is discussed in connection with the broader issue of the form of radiation-atom (or -molecule) interaction that is appropriate for the systematic solution of various problems of matter-radiation interaction. We derive analytic formulas, in terms of the sine-integral function and spherical Bessel functions of various orders, for the cumulative radial integrals that were obtained and calculated by Komninos, Mercouris, and Nicolaides [Phys. Rev. A 71, 023410 (2005), 10.1103/PhysRevA.71.023410]. This development allows the much faster and more accurate computation of such matrix elements, a fact that enhances the efficiency with which the time-dependent Schrödinger equation is solved nonperturbatively, in the framework of the state-specific expansion approach. The formulas are applicable to the general case where a pair of orbitals with angular parts |ℓ1,m1> and |ℓ2,m2> are coupled radiatively. As a test case, we calculate the matrix elements of the electric field and of the paramagnetic operators for on- and off-resonance transitions, between hydrogenic circular states of high angular momentum, whose quantum numbers are chosen so as to satisfy electric dipole and electric quadrupole selection rules. Because of the nature of their wave function (they are nodeless and the large centrifugal barrier keeps their overwhelming part at large distances from the nucleus), the validity of the electric dipole approximation in various applications where the off-resonance couplings must be considered becomes precarious. For example, for the transition from the circular state with n = 20 to that with n = 21, for which ≈400 a.u., the dipole approximation starts to fail already at XUV wavelengths (λ <125nm).

  3. Exposures involving perturbations of the EM field have non-linear effects on radiation response and can alter the expression of radiation induced bystander effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mothersill, Carmel; Seymour, Colin

    2012-07-01

    Our recent data suggest there is a physical component to the bystander signal induced by radiation exposure and that alternative medicine techniques such as Reiki and acupuncture or exposures to weak EM fields alter the response of cells to direct irradiation and either altered bystander signal production or altered the response of cells receiving bystander signals. Our proposed mechanism to explain these findings is that perturbation of electromagnetic (EM) fields is central to the induction of low radiation dose responses especially non-targeted bystander effects. In this presentation we review the alternative medicine data and other data sets from our laboratory which test our hypothesis that perturbation of bio-fields will modulate radiation response in the low dose region. The other data sets include exposure to MRI, shielding using lead and or Faraday cages, the use of physical barriers to bystander signal transmission and the use of membrane channel blockers. The data taken together strongly suggest that EM field perturbation can modulate low dose response and that in fact the EM field rather than the targeted deposition of ionizing energy in the DNA may be the key determinant of dose response in a cell or organism The results also lead us to suspect that at least when chemical transmission is blocked, bystander signals can be transmitted by other means. Our recent experiments suggest light signals and volatiles are not likely. We conclude that alternative medicine and other techniques involving electromagnetic perturbations can modify the response of cells to low doses of ionizing radiation and can induce bystander effects similar to those seen in medium transfer experiments. In addition to the obvious implications for mechanistic studies of low dose effects, this could perhaps provide a novel target to exploit in space radiation protection and in optimizing therapeutic gain during radiotherapy.

  4. The measurement and analysis of normal incidence solar UVB radiation and its application to the photoclimatherapy protocol for psoriasis at the Dead Sea, Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudish, Avraham I; Harari, Marco; Evseev, Efim G

    2011-01-01

    The broad-band normal incidence UVB beam radiation has been measured at Neve Zohar, Dead Sea basin, using a prototype tracking instrument composed of a Model 501A UV-Biometer mounted on an Eppley Solar Tracker Model St-1. The diffuse and beam fraction of the solar global UVB radiation have been determined using the concurrently measured solar global UVB radiation. The diffuse fraction was observed to exceed 80% throughout the year. The application of the results of these measurements to the possible revision of the photoclimatherapy protocol for psoriasis patients at the Dead Sea medical spas is now under investigation. The suggested revision would enable the sun-exposure treatment protocol to take advantage of the very high diffuse fraction by allowing the patient to receive the daily dose of UVB radiation without direct exposure to the sun, viz. receive the diffuse UVB radiation under a sunshade. This would require an increase in sun-exposure time intervals, as the UVB radiation intensity beneath a sunshade is less than that on an exposed surface. © 2010 The Authors. Photochemistry and Photobiology © 2010 The American Society of Photobiology.

  5. Increased incidence of myelodysplastic syndrome and acute myeloid leukemia following breast cancer treatment with radiation alone or combined with chemotherapy: a registry cohort analysis 1990-2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaplan, Henry G; Malmgren, Judith A; Atwood, Mary K

    2011-01-01

    Our objective was to measure myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) and acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) risk associated with radiation and/or chemotherapy breast cancer (BC) treatment. Our study cohort was composed of BC patients diagnosed from 1990 to 2005 and followed up for blood disorders, mean length of follow up = 7.17 years, range 2-18 years. 5790 TNM stage 0-III patients treated with surgery alone, radiation and/or chemotherapy were included. Patients without surgery (n = 111), with stem cell transplantation (n = 98), unknown or non-standard chemotherapy regimens (n = 94), lost to follow up (n = 66) or 'cancer status unknown' (n = 67) were excluded. Rates observed at our community based cancer care institution were compared to SEER incidence data for rate ratio (RR) calculations. 17 cases of MDS/AML (10 MDS/7 AML) occurred during the follow up period, crude rate .29% (95% CI = .17, .47), SEER comparison RR = 3.94 (95% CI = 2.34, 6.15). The RR of MDS in patients age < 65 comparing our cohort incidence to SEER incidence data was 10.88 (95% CI = 3.84, 24.03) and the RR of AML in patients age < 65 was 5.32 (95% CI = 1.31, 14.04). No significant increased risk of MDS or AML was observed in women ≥ 65 or the surgery/chemotherapy-only group. A RR of 3.32 (95% CI = 1.42, 6.45) was observed in the surgery/radiation-only group and a RR of 6.32 (95% CI = 3.03, 11.45) in the surgery/radiation/chemotherapy group. 3 out of 10 MDS cases died of disease at an average 3.8 months post diagnosis and five of seven AML cases died at an average 9 months post diagnosis. An elevated rate of MDS and AML was observed among breast cancer patients < 65, those treated with radiation and those treated with radiation and chemotherapy compared to available population incidence data. Although a small number of patients are affected, leukemia risk associated with treatment and younger age is significant

  6. Adverse Events Involving Radiation Oncology Medical Devices: Comprehensive Analysis of US Food and Drug Administration Data, 1991 to 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connor, Michael J.; Marshall, Deborah C.; Moiseenko, Vitali; Moore, Kevin; Cervino, Laura; Atwood, Todd; Sanghvi, Parag; Mundt, Arno J.; Pawlicki, Todd; Recht, Abram; Hattangadi-Gluth, Jona A.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Radiation oncology relies on rapidly evolving technology and highly complex processes. The US Food and Drug Administration collects reports of adverse events related to medical devices. We sought to characterize all events involving radiation oncology devices (RODs) from the US Food and Drug Administration's postmarket surveillance Manufacturer and User Facility Device Experience (MAUDE) database, comparing these with non–radiation oncology devices. Methods and Materials: MAUDE data on RODs from 1991 to 2015 were sorted into 4 product categories (external beam, brachytherapy, planning systems, and simulation systems) and 5 device problem categories (software, mechanical, electrical, user error, and dose delivery impact). Outcomes included whether the device was evaluated by the manufacturer, adverse event type, remedial action, problem code, device age, and time since 510(k) approval. Descriptive statistics were performed with linear regression of time-series data. Results for RODs were compared with those for other devices by the Pearson χ"2 test for categorical data and 2-sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov test for distributions. Results: There were 4234 ROD and 4,985,698 other device adverse event reports. Adverse event reports increased over time, and events involving RODs peaked in 2011. Most ROD reports involved external beam therapy (50.8%), followed by brachytherapy (24.9%) and treatment planning systems (21.6%). The top problem types were software (30.4%), mechanical (20.9%), and user error (20.4%). RODs differed significantly from other devices in each outcome (P<.001). RODs were more likely to be evaluated by the manufacturer after an event (46.9% vs 33.0%) but less likely to be recalled (10.5% vs 37.9%) (P<.001). Device age and time since 510(k) approval were shorter among RODs (P<.001). Conclusions: Compared with other devices, RODs may experience adverse events sooner after manufacture and market approval. Close postmarket surveillance, improved

  7. Ototoxicity evaluation in medulloblastoma patients treated with involved field boost using intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT): a retrospective review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vieira, Wilson Albieri; Nadalin, Wladimir; Odone Filho, Vicente; Petrilli, Antonio Sergio; Weltman, Eduardo; Chen, Michael Jenwei; Silva, Nasjla Saba da; Cappellano, Andrea Maria; Pereira, Liliane Desgualdo; Gonçalves, Maria Ines Rabelo; Ferrigno, Robson; Hanriot, Rodrigo Morais

    2014-01-01

    Ototoxicity is a known side effect of combined radiation therapy and cisplatin chemotherapy for the treatment of medulloblastoma. The delivery of an involved field boost by intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) may reduce the dose to the inner ear when compared with conventional radiotherapy. The dose of cisplatin may also affect the risk of ototoxicity. A retrospective study was performed to evaluate the impact of involved field boost using IMRT and cisplatin dose on the rate of ototoxicity. Data from 41 medulloblastoma patients treated with IMRT were collected. Overall and disease-free survival rates were calculated by Kaplan-Meier method Hearing function was graded according to toxicity criteria of Pediatric Oncology Group (POG). Doses to inner ear and total cisplatin dose were correlated with hearing function by univariate and multivariate data analysis. After a mean follow-up of 44 months (range: 14 to 72 months), 37 patients remained alive, with two recurrences, both in spine with CSF involvement, resulting in a disease free-survival and overall survival of 85.2% and 90.2%, respectively. Seven patients (17%) experienced POG Grade 3 or 4 toxicity. Cisplatin dose was a significant factor for hearing loss in univariate analysis (p < 0.03). In multivariate analysis, median dose to inner ear was significantly associated with hearing loss (p < 0.01). POG grade 3 and 4 toxicity were uncommon with median doses to the inner ear bellow 42 Gy (p < 0.05) and total cisplatin dose of less than 375 mg/m 2 (p < 0.01). IMRT leads to a low rate of severe ototoxicity. Median radiation dose to auditory apparatus should be kept below 42 Gy. Cisplatin doses should not exceed 375 mg/m 2

  8. Adverse Events Involving Radiation Oncology Medical Devices: Comprehensive Analysis of US Food and Drug Administration Data, 1991 to 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Connor, Michael J. [Department of Radiation Medicine and Applied Sciences, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California Irvine School of Medicine, Irvine, California (United States); Marshall, Deborah C.; Moiseenko, Vitali; Moore, Kevin; Cervino, Laura; Atwood, Todd; Sanghvi, Parag; Mundt, Arno J.; Pawlicki, Todd [Department of Radiation Medicine and Applied Sciences, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California (United States); Recht, Abram [Department of Radiation Oncology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Hattangadi-Gluth, Jona A., E-mail: jhattangadi@ucsd.edu [Department of Radiation Medicine and Applied Sciences, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Radiation oncology relies on rapidly evolving technology and highly complex processes. The US Food and Drug Administration collects reports of adverse events related to medical devices. We sought to characterize all events involving radiation oncology devices (RODs) from the US Food and Drug Administration's postmarket surveillance Manufacturer and User Facility Device Experience (MAUDE) database, comparing these with non–radiation oncology devices. Methods and Materials: MAUDE data on RODs from 1991 to 2015 were sorted into 4 product categories (external beam, brachytherapy, planning systems, and simulation systems) and 5 device problem categories (software, mechanical, electrical, user error, and dose delivery impact). Outcomes included whether the device was evaluated by the manufacturer, adverse event type, remedial action, problem code, device age, and time since 510(k) approval. Descriptive statistics were performed with linear regression of time-series data. Results for RODs were compared with those for other devices by the Pearson χ{sup 2} test for categorical data and 2-sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov test for distributions. Results: There were 4234 ROD and 4,985,698 other device adverse event reports. Adverse event reports increased over time, and events involving RODs peaked in 2011. Most ROD reports involved external beam therapy (50.8%), followed by brachytherapy (24.9%) and treatment planning systems (21.6%). The top problem types were software (30.4%), mechanical (20.9%), and user error (20.4%). RODs differed significantly from other devices in each outcome (P<.001). RODs were more likely to be evaluated by the manufacturer after an event (46.9% vs 33.0%) but less likely to be recalled (10.5% vs 37.9%) (P<.001). Device age and time since 510(k) approval were shorter among RODs (P<.001). Conclusions: Compared with other devices, RODs may experience adverse events sooner after manufacture and market approval. Close postmarket surveillance

  9. The influence of incident beam's angle offset of Fourier transform infrared spectrometer on the spectrum measurement explored with synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Wenhao; Chen Min; Xiao Tiqiao

    2011-01-01

    Effects of the incident angle offset on FT-IR spectra are investigated in this paper. The simulated FT-IR spectra are obtained by Fourier inverse transform. The results show that this frequency shift varies with the angle offset of the incident beam in FT-IR. As an example,the factors that affect the angle of incident IR light at SSRF are analyzed. According to performance specifications of the IR beamline, requirements of the optical component installation precision and position drift of the light source are given. (authors)

  10. Stakeholder involvement in building and maintaining radiation safety infrastructure in Latvia: The case studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eglajs, A.; Salmins, A.

    2003-01-01

    This paper comprises the assessment of interests for central and local governments, different authorities, public and commercial companies, political parties and non-governmental organizations, organised and ad-hock groups of public, which could contribute to development and maintenance of infrastructure for radiation safety, general environmental protection, as well as for public health among other similar fields. Understanding of these interests allows to be prepared for eventual demonstrations or publications against decisions about significant modifications of infrastructure and provides ideas how to explain needs of financial and human resources for maintaining of supervisory system and management of major facilities, which are vital for safety infrastructure. Two case studies are presented in this report related to modification of the framework law and the preparation of radioactive waste management strategy. (author)

  11. Pump-probe experiments in atoms involving laser and synchrotron radiation: an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wuilleumier, F J; Meyer, M

    2006-01-01

    The combined use of laser and synchrotron radiations for atomic photoionization studies started in the early 1980s. The strong potential of these pump-probe experiments to gain information on excited atomic states is illustrated through some exemplary studies. The first series of experiments carried out with the early synchrotron sources, from 1960 to about 1995, are reviewed, including photoionization of unpolarized and polarized excited atoms, and time-resolved laser-synchrotron studies. With the most advanced generation of synchrotron sources, a whole new class of pump-probe experiments benefiting from the high brightness of the new synchrotron beams has been developed since 1996. A detailed review of these studies as well as possible future applications of pump-probe experiments using third generation synchrotron sources and free electron lasers is presented. (topical review)

  12. Formation of radiation induced chromosome aberrations: involvement of telomeric sequences and telomerase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pirzio, L.

    2004-07-01

    As telomeres are crucial for chromosome integrity; we investigated the role played by telomeric sequences in the formation and in the transmission of radio-induced chromosome rearrangements in human cells. Starting from interstitial telomeric sequences (ITS) as putative region of breakage, we showed that the radiation sensitivity is not equally distributed along chromosomes and. is not affected by ITS. On the contrary, plasmid integration sites are prone to radio-induced breaks, suggesting a possible integration at sites already characterized by fragility. However plasmids do not preferentially insert at radio-induced breaks in human cells immortalized by telomerase. These cells showed remarkable karyotype stability even after irradiation, suggesting a role of telomerase in the genome maintenance despite functional telomeres. Finally, we showed that the presence of more breaks in a cell favors the repair, leading to an increase of transmissible rearrangements. (author)

  13. Molecular mechanisms involved in adaptive responses to radiation, UV light, and heat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Akihisa; Ohnishi, Takeo

    2009-01-01

    Viable organisms recognize and respond to environmental changes or stresses. When these environmental changes and their responses by organisms are extreme, they can limit viability. However, organisms can adapt to these different stresses by utilizing different possible responses via signal transduction pathways when the stress is not lethal. In particular, prior mild stresses can provide some aid to prepare organisms for subsequent more severe stresses. These adjustments or adaptations for future stresses have been called adaptive responses. These responses are present in bacteria, plants and animals. The following review covers recent research which can help describe or postulate possible mechanisms which may be active in producing adaptive responses to radiation, ultraviolet light, and heat. (author)

  14. Review of incidents to be reported under the Radiation Protection Ordinance for the years 1987 and 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The total of 80 incidents were caused by human failure, intentional disruption, theft, fire, violation of rules, transport losses, accidents, equipment deficiencies. 15 ionization smoke detectors were reported lost or stolen. (HP) [de

  15. The Semipalatinsk nuclear test site: a first analysis of solid cancer incidence (selected sites) due to test-related radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusev, B I; Rosenson, R I; Abylkassimova, Z N

    1998-10-01

    Since 1956, cancer incidences have been analysed in several rayons of the Semipalatinsk oblast, with cross-sectional analyses being conducted every 5 years. Data on different tumor localizations were recorded within a heavily contaminated so-called main area of nine villages (estimated average effective equivalent dose about 2000 mSv) and a so-called control area (estimated average effective equivalent dose about 70 mSv), each including approximately 10000 persons. Up to 1970, the excess cancer incidence in the exposed villages was observed to have increased; after 1970, a decrease was noted, followed by a second increase in the late 1980s. The main sites of excess cancer included the esophagus, stomach, and liver. Up to 1970, the esophagus cancer incidence was predominant, but it decreased thereafter, while the incidence of stomach and liver cancers increased. The second peak of excess cancer rates was mainly due to lung, breast, and thyroid carcinomas.

  16. A genome-wide search for genes involved in the radiation-induced gastroschisis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hillebrandt, S.; Streffer, C.

    1997-01-01

    Whole genome linkage analysis of gastroschisis (abdominal wall defect) using geno-typing with micro-satellites of affected BC1 mice [(HLGxC57BL/6J)xHLG] was performed. The HLG inbred strain shows an increased risk in gastroschisis after irradiation of embryos in the 1-cell stage. Previous studies demonstrated, that gastroschisis is a poly-genic trait with a recessive mode of inheritance. Since a recessive inheritance of gastroschisis is assumed, the involved genes must be linked to markers showing a high level of homozygosity in the affected animals. For marker loci on the chromosome 13 and 19 a significantly increased number of homozygotes has been found in mice with gastroschisis comparing to mice without this malformation. The linkage analysis performed by us allowed determining intervals likely to contain genes related to gastroschisis on these two chromosomes. The highest lod score value has been found for the marker locus D19MIT27 very close to Pax2 (lod score=1.23; p=0.017). For the marker D13MIT99 a lod score of 0.85 (p=0.047) was calculated. However, markers more close to the homeo-box gene Msx-2 on the chromosome 13 show lower lod score values than D13MIT99, suggesting that this homeo-box gene is probably not involved in gastroschisis. According to the classification of results of the linkage analysis of complex traits described by Lander and Kruglyak (1995), our data provide a suggestive evidence for the involvement of the analyzed intervals on the chromosomes 19 and 13 to gastroschisis. Further studies are necessary to prove this linkage. (authors)

  17. The electronics in fluorescent bulbs and light emitting diodes (LED), rather than ultraviolet radiation, cause increased malignant melanoma incidence in indoor office workers and tanning bed users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milham, Samuel; Stetzer, Dave

    2018-07-01

    The epidemiology of cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM) has a number of facets that do not fit with sunlight and ultraviolet light as the primary etiologic agents. Indoor workers have higher incidence and mortality rates of CMM than outdoor workers; CMM occurs in body locations never exposed to sunlight; CMM incidence is increasing in spite of use of UV blocking agents and small changes in solar radiation. Installation of two new fluorescent lights in the milking parlor holding area of a Minnesota dairy farm in 2015 caused an immediate drop in milk production. This lead to measurement of body amperage in humans exposed to modern non-incandescent lighting. People exposed to old and new fluorescent lights, light emitting diodes (LED) and compact fluorescent lights (CFL) had body amperage levels above those considered carcinogenic. We hypothesize that modern electric lighting is a significant health hazard, a carcinogen, and is causing increasing CMM incidence in indoor office workers and tanning bed users. These lights generate dirty electricity (high frequency voltage transients), radio frequency (RF) radiation, and increase body amperage, all of which have been shown to be carcinogenic. This could explain the failure of ultraviolet blockers to stem the malignant melanoma pandemic. Tanning beds and non-incandescent lighting could be made safe by incorporating a grounded Faraday cage which allows passage of ultraviolet and visible light frequencies and blocks other frequencies. Modern electric lighting should be fabricated to be electrically clean. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Photoinduced dynamics of a cyanine dye: parallel pathways of non-radiative deactivation involving multiple excited-state twisted transients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyayula, Srigokul; Nuñez, Vicente; Espinoza, Eli M; Larsen, Jillian M; Bao, Duoduo; Shi, Dewen; Mac, Jenny T; Anvari, Bahman; Vullev, Valentine I

    2015-04-01

    properties of THIA. Concurrently, the polarity affects the energy of the transients involved in the decay pathways and further modulates the kinetics of non-radiative deactivation.

  19. Involvement of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the induction of genetic instability by radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tominaga, Hideyuki; Kodama, Seiji; Suzuki, Keiji; Watanabe, Masami; Matsuda, Naoki

    2004-01-01

    Radiation generates reactive oxygen species (ROS) that interact with cellular molecules, including DNA, lipids, and proteins. To know how ROS contribute to the induction of genetic instability, we examined the effect of the anti-ROS condition, using both ascorbic acid phosphate (APM) treatment or a low oxygen condition, on the induction of delayed reproductive cell death and delayed chromosome aberrations. The primary surviving colonies of mouse m5S-derived cl. 2011-14 cells irradiated with 6 Gy of X-rays were replated and allowed to form secondary colonies. The anti-ROS treatments were applied to either preirradiation culture or postirradiation cultures for primary or secondary colony formation. Both anti-ROS conditions relieved X-ray-induced acute cell killing to a similar extent. These anti-ROS conditions also relieved genetic instability when those conditions were applied during primary colony formation. However, no effect was observed when the conditions were applied during preirradiation culture and secondary colony formation. We also demonstrated that the amounts of ROS in X-ray-irradiated cells rapidly increase and then decrease at 6 hr postirradiation, and the levels of ROS then gradually decrease to a baseline within 2 weeks. The APM treatment kept the ROS production at a lower level than an untreated control. These results suggest that the cause of genetic instability might be fixed by ROS during a 2-week postirradiation period. (author)

  20. Incidence and mortality of solid cancer among emergency workers of the Chernobyl accident: assessment of radiation risks for the follow-up period of 1992-2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kashcheev, V.V.; Chekin, S.Yu.; Maksioutov, M.A.; Tumanov, K.A.; Kochergina, E.V.; Kashcheeva, P.V.; Shchukina, N.V.; Ivanov, V.K. [Russian Ministry of Health, Federal State Institution, Medical Radiological Research Center, Obninsk, Kaluga Region (Russian Federation)

    2015-03-15

    This paper presents the results of a retrospective cohort study of cancer incidence and mortality among emergency workers of the Chernobyl accident, for the follow-up period 1992-2009. The cohort selected for analysis consists of 67,568 emergency workers who worked in the Chernobyl exclusion zone in 1986-1987. External radiation whole-body absorbed dose varied from 0.0001 gray (Gy) to 1.24 Gy, with a median of 0.102 Gy. Over the follow-up period 1992-2009, a total of 4,002 solid cancers of different sites were identified as the result of annual compulsory health examination, and a total of 2,442 deaths from all solid cancers in the study cohort were reported. Poisson regression was applied for the analysis of cancer incidence and mortality. The analysis of the standardized incidence ratio (SIR) has shown a statistically significant increase in cancer incidence in the cohort as compared with baseline cancer incidence among males of Russia. The average excess over the entire follow-up period is 18 % [SIR = 1.18, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.15; 1.22]. In contrast, however, no increase in the mortality from all cancers among the emergency workers as compared to the baseline mortality in Russian men was found. Values of excess relative risk of cancer incidence and mortality per 1 Gy (ERR Gy{sup -1}) are 0.47 (95 % CI 0.03; 0.96, p value = 0.034) and 0.58 (95 % CI 0.002; 1.25, p value = 0.049), respectively. These values are statistically significant. (orig.)

  1. Radiation tolerance of the cervical spinal cord: incidence and dose-volume relationship of symptomatic and asymptomatic late effects following high dose irradiation of paraspinal tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Mitchell C.C.; Munzenrider, John E.; Finkelstein, Dianne; Liebsch, Norbert; Adams, Judy; Hug, Eugen B.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: Low grade chordomas and chondrosarcomas require high radiation doses for effective, lasting tumor control. Fractionated, 3-D planned, conformal proton radiation therapy has been used for lesions along the base of skull and spine to deliver high target doses, while respecting constraints of critical, normal tissues. In this study, we sought to determine the incidence of myelopathy after high dose radiotherapy to the cervical spine and investigated the influence of various treatment parameters, including dose-volume relationship. Methods and Materials: Between December 1980 and March 1996, 78 patients were treated at the Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Cyclotron Laboratory for primary or recurrent chordomas and chondrosarcomas of the cervical spine using combined proton and photon radiation therapy. In general, the tumor dose given was between 64.5 to 79.2 CGE (Cobalt Gray Equivalent). The guidelines for maximum permissible doses to spinal cord were: ≤ 64 CGE to the spinal cord surface and ≤ 53 CGE to the spinal cord center. Dose volume histograms of the spinal cord were analyzed to investigate a possible dose and volume relationship. Results: With a mean follow-up period of 46.6 months (range: 3 - 157 months), 4 of 78 patients (5.1%) developed high-grade (RTOG Grade 3 and 4) late toxicity: 3 patients (3.8%) experienced sensory deficits without motor deficits, none had any limitations of daily activities. One patient (1.2%) developed motor deficit with loss of motor function of one upper extremity. The only patient, who developed permanent motor damage had received additional prior radiation treatment and therefore received a cumulative spinal cord dose higher than the treatment guidelines. No patient treated within the guidelines experienced any motor impairment. Six patients (7.7%) experienced transient Lhermitt's syndrome and 1 patient (1.2%) developed asymptomatic radiographic MR findings only. Time to onset of symptoms of radiographic

  2. Updated estimates of the proportion of childhood leukaemia incidence in Great Britain that may be caused by natural background ionising radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Little, Mark P; Wakeford, Richard; Kendall, Gerald M

    2009-01-01

    The aetiology of childhood leukaemia remains generally unknown, although exposure to moderate and high levels of ionising radiation, such as was experienced during the atomic bombings of Japan or from radiotherapy, is an established cause. Risk models based primarily upon studies of the Japanese A-bomb survivors imply that low-level exposure to ionising radiation, including to ubiquitous natural background radiation, also raises the risk of childhood leukaemia. In a recent paper (Wakeford et al 2009 Leukaemia 23 770-6) we estimated the proportion of childhood leukaemia incidence in Great Britain attributable to natural background radiation to be about 20%. In this paper we employ the two sets of published leukaemia risk models used previously, but use recently published revised estimates of natural background radiation doses received by the red bone marrow of British children to update the previous results. Using the newer dosimetry we calculate that the best estimate of the proportion of cases of childhood leukaemia in Great Britain predicted to be attributable to this source of exposure is 15-20%, although the uncertainty associated with certain stages in the calculation (e.g. the nature of the transfer of risk between populations and the pertinent dose received from naturally occurring alpha-particle-emitting radionuclides) is significant. The slightly lower attributable proportions compared with those previously derived by Wakeford et al (Leukaemia 2009 23 770-6) are largely due to the lower doses (and in particular lower high LET doses) for the first year of life.

  3. Radiation protection following nuclear power accidents: a survey of putative mechanisms involved in the radioprotective actions of taurine during and after radiation exposure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olav Christophersen

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available There are several animal experiments showing that high doses of ionizing radiation lead to strongly enhanced leakage of taurine from damaged cells into the extracellular fluid, followed by enhanced urinary excretion. This radiation-induced taurine depletion can itself have various harmful effects (as will also be the case when taurine depletion is due to other causes, such as alcohol abuse or cancer therapy with cytotoxic drugs, but taurine supplementation has been shown to have radioprotective effects apparently going beyond what might be expected just as a consequence of correcting the harmful consequences of taurine deficiency per se. The mechanisms accounting for the radioprotective effects of taurine are, however, very incompletely understood. In this article an attempt is made to survey various mechanisms that potentially might be involved as parts of the explanation for the overall beneficial effect of high levels of taurine that has been found in experiments with animals or isolated cells exposed to high doses of ionizing radiation. It is proposed that taurine may have radioprotective effects by a combination of several mechanisms: 1 during the exposure to ionizing radiation by functioning as an antioxidant, but perhaps more because it counteracts the prooxidant catalytic effect of iron rather than functioning as an important scavenger of harmful molecules itself, 2 after the ionizing radiation exposure by helping to reduce the intensity of the post-traumatic inflammatory response, and thus reducing the extent of tissue damage that develops because of severe inflammation rather than as a direct effect of the ionizing radiation per se, 3 by functioning as a growth factor helping to enhance the growth rate of leukocytes and leukocyte progenitor cells and perhaps also of other rapidly proliferating cell types, such as enterocyte progenitor cells, which may be important for immunological recovery and perhaps also for rapid repair of various

  4. Role of FDG-PET in the Implementation of Involved-Node Radiation Therapy for Hodgkin Lymphoma Patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girinsky, Théodore; Aupérin, Anne; Ribrag, Vincent; Elleuch, Manel; Fermé, Christophe; Bonniaud, Guillaume; Ruelle, Claude; Alberini, Jean-Louis; Celebic, Aljosa; Edeline, Véronique

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This study examines the role of 18 F-labeled fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) in the implementation of involved-node radiation therapy (INRT) in patients treated for clinical stages (CS) I/II supradiaphragmatic Hodgkin lymphoma (HL). Methods and Material: Patients with untreated CS I/II HL enrolled in the randomized EORTC/LYSA/FIL Intergroup H10 trial and participating in a real-time prospective quality assurance program were prospectively included in this study. Data were electronically obtained from 18 French cancer centers. All patients underwent APET-computed tomography (PET-CT) and a post-chemotherapy planning CT scanning. The pre-chemotherapy gross tumor volume (GTV) and the postchemotherapy clinical target volume (CTV) were first delineated on CT only by the radiation oncologist. The planning PET was then co-registered, and the delineated volumes were jointly analyzed by the radiation oncologist and the nuclear medicine physician. Lymph nodes undetected on CT but FDG-avid were recorded, and the previously determined GTV and CTV were modified according to FDG-PET results. Results: From March 2007 to February 2010, 135 patients were included in the study. PET-CT identified at least 1 additional FDG-avid lymph node in 95 of 135 patients (70.4%; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 61.9%-77.9%) and 1 additional lymph node area in 55 of 135 patients (40.7%; 95% CI: 32.4%-49.5%). The mean increases in the GTV and CTV were 8.8% and 7.1%, respectively. The systematic addition of PET to CT led to a CTV increase in 60% of the patients. Conclusions: Pre-chemotherapy FDG-PET leads to significantly better INRT delineation without necessarily increasing radiation volumes

  5. Perceived Incidence and Importance of Lay-Ideas on Ionizing Radiation: Results of a Delphi-Study among Radiation-Experts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eijkelhof, H. M. C.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Described are lay-ideas which may exist about ionizing radiation, the importance of these ideas for risk management, and the relationships between various lay-ideas. Lay-ideas were used to gain a better insight into the problems of learning about ionizing radiation and to construct appropriate teaching materials and strategies. (KR)

  6. Wave-Particle Interactions Involving Correlated Electron Bursts and Whistler Chorus in Earth's Radiation Belts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echterling, N.; Schriver, D.; Roeder, J. L.; Fennell, J. F.

    2017-12-01

    During the recovery phase of substorm plasma injections, the Van Allen Probes commonly observe events of quasi-periodic energetic electron bursts correlating with simultaneously detected upper-band, whistler-mode chorus emissions. These electron bursts exhibit narrow ranges of pitch angles (75-80° and 100-105°) and energies (20-40 keV). Electron cyclotron harmonic (ECH) emissions are also commonly detected, but typically do not display correlation with the electron bursts. To examine sources of free energy and the generation of these wave emissions, an observed electron velocity distribution on January 13, 2013 is used as the starting condition for a particle in cell (PIC) simulation. Effects of temperature anisotropy (perpendicular temperature greater than parallel temperature), the presence of a loss cone and a cold electron population on the generation of whistler and ECH waves are examined to understand wave generation and nonlinear interactions with the particle population. These nonlinear interactions produce energy diffusion along with strong pitch angle scattering into the loss cone on the order of milliseconds, which is faster than a typical bounce period of seconds. To examine the quasi-periodic nature of the electron bursts, a loss-cone recycling technique is implemented to model the effects of the periodic emptying of the loss cone and electron injection on the growth of whistler and ECH waves. The results of the simulations are compared to the Van Allen Probe observations to determine electron acceleration, heating and transport in Earth's radiation belts due to wave-particle interactions.

  7. Evaluation of external radiation exposure of personnel involved in veterinary nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komatsubara, N.; Ito, N.; Natsuhori, M.; Sano, T.; Ishikawa, T.; Hatakeyama, S.; Futatsugawa, S.; Terasaki, K.; Hirayama, H.

    2005-01-01

    Veterinary nuclear medicine has been widely applied in the US and Europe, especially for dogs, cats, and horses. The needs of the nuclear medicine in veterinary practice are also growing in Japan. This study was performed in order to make a safety guideline for veterinary nuclear medicine in Japan. Two sorts of well often medically used radionuclide, 18 F and 99m Tc were chosen for evaluating the exposed doses of the veterinarian, the animal owner, and the general public. Air absorption doses around a physical phantom containing radioactive materials ( 18 F or 99m Tc) were measured by glass dosimeters. (Asahi Techno Glass Ltd.) It was verified that the measurement values were corresponding to the calculation values using EGS4. Then, canine pectoral and abdominal mathematical phantom was designed, external radiation exposure of the veterinarian, the animal owner and the public from the phantom containing radioactive materials were calculated by using EGS4. Calculated exposure doses were compared with the dose limit or the dose constraint. (20mSv/yr for the veterinarian: ICRP, 5mSv/yr for the animal owner: IAEA, and 1mSv/yr for the general public: ICRP 2 ). The future integration exposed doses of the animal owner and the public didn't exceed the dose constraint or the dose limit at the release after 24 hours of the radiopharmaceutical administering. In this study, all the calculation conditions were set up on the safety side. Therefore, it is thought that actual exposed doses lower considerably. The safety guideline for the veterinary nuclear medicine in Japan will be established by further application of this type of research. (author)

  8. The Involvement of Mitochondrial Membrane Potential in Cross-Resistance Between Radiation and Docetaxel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuwahara, Yoshikazu [Department of Radiation Biology and Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Tohoku Medical and Pharmaceutical University, Sendai (Japan); Department of Pathology, Institute of Development, Aging and Cancer, Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan); Roudkenar, Mehryar Habibi; Suzuki, Masatoshi; Urushihara, Yusuke; Fukumoto, Motoi [Department of Pathology, Institute of Development, Aging and Cancer, Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan); Saito, Yohei [Department of Radiopharmacy, Tohoku Medical and Pharmaceutical University, Sendai (Japan); Fukumoto, Manabu, E-mail: manabu.fukumoto.a8@tohoku.ac.jp [Department of Pathology, Institute of Development, Aging and Cancer, Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan); Department of Molecular Pathology, Tokyo Medical University, Tokyo (Japan)

    2016-11-01

    Purpose: To understand the molecular mechanisms underlying cancer cell radioresistance, clinically relevant radioresistant (CRR) cells that continue to proliferate during exposure to 2 Gy/day X-rays for more than 30 days were established. A modified high-density survival assay for anticancer drug screening revealed that CRR cells were resistant to an antimicrotubule agent, docetaxel (DTX). The involvement of reactive oxygen species (ROS) from mitochondria (mtROS) in the cross-resistance to X-rays and DTX was studied. Methods and Materials: Sensitivity to anticancer agents was determined by a modified high-density cell survival or water-soluble tetrazolium salt assay. DTX-induced mtROS generation was determined by MitoSOX red staining. JC-1 staining was used to visualize mitochondrial membrane potential. DTX-induced DNA double-strand breaks were determined by γ-H2AX staining. To obtain mitochondrial DNA-lacking (ρ{sup 0}) cells, the cells were cultured for 3 to 4 weeks in medium containing ethidium bromide. Results: Treatment with DTX increased mtROS in parental cells but not in CRR cells. DTX induced DNA double-strand breaks in parental cells. The mitochondrial membrane potential of CRR cells was lower in CRR cells than in parental cells. Depletion of mtDNA induced DTX resistance in parental cells. Treatment with dimethyl sulfoxide also induced DTX resistance in parental cells. Conclusions: The mitochondrial dysfunction observed in CRR cells contributes to X-ray and DTX cross-resistance. The activation of oxidative phosphorylation in CRR cells may represent an effective approach to overcome radioresistant cancers. In general, the overexpression of β-tubulin or multidrug efflux pumps is thought to be involved in DTX resistance. In the present study, we discovered another DTX resistant mechanism by investigating CRR cells.

  9. Photo- and radiation chemical studies of intermediates involved in excited-state electron-transfer reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, M.Z.

    1985-01-01

    Excited-state inter- and intramolecular electron-transfer reactions lie at the heart of the most photochemical solar energy conversion schemes. The authors research, which has utilized the techniques of continuous and pulsed photolysis and radiolysis, has focused on three general aspects of these reactions involving transition metal coordination complexes and electron donor-acceptor complexes: i) the effect of solution medium on the properties and quenching of the excited states; ii) the control of the quantum yields of formation of redox products; iii) the mechanism by which reduced species interact with water to yield H 2 homogeneously and heterogeneously. EDTA is among the most popular sacrificial electron donors used in model systems. Its role is to scavenge the oxidized form of the photosensitizer in order to prevent its rapid reaction with the reduced form of the electron relay species that results from the electron-transfer quenching of the excited photosensitizer. In systems involving MV 2+ , the radicals resulting from the oxidation of EDTA can eventually lead to the generation of a second equivalent of MV + ; the reducing agent is believed to be a radical localized on the carbon atom alpha to the carboxylate group. The reaction of radiolytically-generated OH/H with EDTA produces this radical directly via H-abstraction or indirectly via deprotonation of the carbon atom adjacent to the nitrogen radical site in the oxidized amine moiety; it reduces MV 2+ with rate constants of 2.8 x 10 9 , 7.6 x 10 9 , and 8.5 x 10 6 M -1 s -1 at pH 12.5, 8.3, and 4.7, respectively. Degradative decarboxylation of EDTA-radicals and their back electron-transfer reactions are enhanced in acidic solution causing the yield of MV + to be severely diminished

  10. Caspase-independent cell death mediated by apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) nuclear translocation is involved in ionizing radiation induced HepG2 cell death

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Hengwen; Yang, Shana; Li, Jianhua; Zhang, Yajie; Gao, Dongsheng; Zhao, Shenting

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the fifth most common cancer in the world. The aim of radiotherapy is to eradicate cancer cells with ionizing radiation. Except for the caspase-dependent mechanism, several lines of evidence demonstrated that caspase-independent mechanism is directly involved in the cell death responding to irradiation. For this reason, defining the contribution of caspase-independent molecular mechanisms represents the main goal in radiotherapy. In this study, we focused on the role of apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF), the caspase-independent molecular, in ionizing radiation induced hepatocellular carcinoma cell line (HepG2) cell death. We found that ionizing radiation has no function on AIF expression in HepG2 cells, but could induce AIF release from the mitochondria and translocate into nuclei. Inhibition of AIF could reduce ionizing radiation induced HepG2 cell death. These studies strongly support a direct relationship between AIF nuclear translocation and radiation induced cell death. What's more, AIF nuclear translocation is caspase-independent manner, but not caspase-dependent manner, in this process. These new findings add a further attractive point of investigation to better define the complex interplay between caspase-independent cell death and radiation therapy. - Highlights: • AIF nuclear translocation is involved in ionizing radiation induced hepatocellular carcinoma cell line HepG2 cell death. • AIF mediated cell death induced by ionizing radiation is caspase-independent. • Caspase-independent pathway is involved in ionzing radiation induced HepG2 cell death.

  11. Biodosimetry: Medicine, Science, and Systems to Support the Medical Decision-Maker Following a Large Scale Nuclear or Radiation Incident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coleman, C. Norman; Koerner, John F.

    2016-01-01

    The public health and medical response to a radiological or nuclear incident requires the capability to sort, assess, treat, triage and to ultimately discharge, refer or transport people to their next step in medical care. The size of the incident and scarcity of resources at the location of each medical decision point will determine how patients are triaged and treated. This will be a rapidly evolving situation impacting medical responders at regional, national and international levels. As capabilities, diagnostics and medical countermeasures improve, a dynamic system-based approach is needed to plan for and manage the incident, and to adapt effectively in real time. In that the concepts and terms can be unfamiliar and possibly confusing, resources and a concept of operations must be considered well in advance. An essential underlying tenet is that medical evaluation and care will be managed by health-care professionals with biodosimetry assays providing critical supporting data. (authors)

  12. Early and late toxicity of involved-field radiation therapy in conjunction with high-dose chemotherapy and stem cell rescue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lubich, L.; Mundt, A.; Sibley, G.; Hallahan, D.; Nautiyal, J.; Weichselbaum, R.

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: Recent reports have demonstrated a benefit to involved-field radiation therapy (IFRT) in patients with relapsed/metastatic disease undergoing high-dose chemotherapy (HDCT) and stem cell rescue (SCR). We evaluate here the early and late toxicity of this approach. Methods: Eighty-five patients with either metastatic breast cancer (MBC) (31) or relapsed/refractory Hodgkin's disease (HD) (54) underwent HDCT/SCR. HDCT in the MBC patients consisted of cytoxan, thiotepa +/- carmustine and VP-16, cytoxan, BCNU +/- thiotepa in the HD patients. Thirty-four patients (40%) received IFRT either prior to (14) or following (20) HDCT to sites of disease involvement. A total of 18 patients received chest wall/mediastinal (CWMED) RT. Median followup for the MBC and HD patients were 21.3 months and 41 months, respectively. Results: Acute sequelae were similar in the 2 groups. Only one patient (5%) treated with IFRT (HD with 5 nodal sites) required a break from therapy due to low blood counts. Seven patients (0 MBC, 7 HD) (8.2%) suffered a toxic death (TD). No difference in was seen in the rate of TD in the patients as a whole ((1(14)) vs. (6(71))) (p =0.87) nor in the HD patients alone ((1(7)) vs. (6(47))) (p =0.91) with the use of IFRT prior to HDCT. Eleven patients (12.9%) developed late toxicity: 3 myelodysplasia/acute leukemia (MAL), 2 persistent low blood counts (requiring transfusions), 4 pulmonary toxicity (PT) and 2 hypothyroidism. All 4 cases of PT occurred in the HD group of which 3 received CWMED RT. The Table below shows the 5-yr actuarial risk of PT with and without CWMED RT as well as the 5-yr actuarial risk of MAL and any hematologic sequelae with and without RT. Multivariate analysis in the HD patients demonstrated that CWMED RT was the most significant factor for PT (p =0.09). All 3 cases of MAL and the 2 cases of persistent low blood counts occurred in the HD group. The use of IFRT did not increase the incidence of MAL or of any hematologic sequelae

  13. Estimation of incident solar radiation on the roof of the cultural and sports university centre of the Foundation University Los Libertadores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiménez, S A; Carrillo, V M; Rátiva, L C

    2016-01-01

    This document shows the estimate of the total solar irradiance incident for the set of solar collectors to be located on the roof of cultural and sports university centre (CSUC) of the Foundation University Los Libertadores (FULL) in Bogotá, Colombia, and they will be part of the climate control system of the pool built inside. The calculation was based on experimental data of global solar radiation on the horizontal surface on March, July, October, November and December, through the three most commonly models used to determine the total solar radiation on tilted surfaces: isotropic sky, HDKR and Perez. The results show differences of less than 5% between the values calculated by the three models for December, the month with lower irradiance. For this month, reductions up to 15% and 19% were observed in the estimated irradiance, relative to those obtained on a horizontal surface on a surface under ideal orientation and inclination, respectively. (paper)

  14. Estimation of incident solar radiation on the roof of the cultural and sports university centre of the Foundation University Los Libertadores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, S. A.; Carrillo, V. M.; Rátiva, L. C.

    2016-02-01

    This document shows the estimate of the total solar irradiance incident for the set of solar collectors to be located on the roof of cultural and sports university centre (CSUC) of the Foundation University Los Libertadores (FULL) in Bogotá, Colombia, and they will be part of the climate control system of the pool built inside. The calculation was based on experimental data of global solar radiation on the horizontal surface on March, July, October, November and December, through the three most commonly models used to determine the total solar radiation on tilted surfaces: isotropic sky, HDKR and Perez. The results show differences of less than 5% between the values calculated by the three models for December, the month with lower irradiance. For this month, reductions up to 15% and 19% were observed in the estimated irradiance, relative to those obtained on a horizontal surface on a surface under ideal orientation and inclination, respectively.

  15. Radiation background and the incidence of cataracta among the population groups of the Far North. [Radioisotopes: sup(210)Pb; sup(210)Po; sup(137)Cs; sup(90)Sr

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nizhnikov, A I; Miretskij, G I; Ramzaev, P V; Troitskaya, M N [Nauchno-Issledovatel' skij Inst. Radiatsionnoj Gigieny, Leningrad (USSR)

    1984-07-01

    The incidence of senile cataracta in the residents of the Far North regions and the newcomers differing in the effective equivalent dose due to all types of radiation (except radon decay products for lungs) approximately by 2 times, is studied. The data on the age and sex composition of population with initially established diagnosis of senile cataracta are presented. Lens injury is found to occur earlier in men than in women (the difference is about 5 years). Cataracta frequency increases with age. In the native population of the Far North at 65 and older, cataracta takes place by 2-3 times oftener. Investigations are continued to specify the role of the radiation factor in the integrated effect of the environment on the formation of cataracta in population.

  16. The involvement of calcium and MAP kinase signaling pathways in the production of radiation-induced bystander effects.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lyng, F M

    2006-04-01

    Much evidence now exists regarding radiation-induced bystander effects, but the mechanisms involved in the transduction of the signal are still unclear. The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways have been linked to growth factor-mediated regulation of cellular events such as proliferation, senescence, differentiation and apoptosis. Activation of multiple MAPK pathways such as the ERK, JNK and p38 pathways have been shown to occur after exposure of cells to radiation and a variety of other toxic stresses. Previous studies have shown oxidative stress and calcium signaling to be important in radiation-induced bystander effects. The aim of the present study was to investigate MAPK signaling pathways in bystander cells exposed to irradiated cell conditioned medium (ICCM) and the role of oxidative metabolism and calcium signaling in the induction of bystander responses. Human keratinocytes (HPV-G cell line) were irradiated (0.005-5 Gy) using a cobalt-60 teletherapy unit. The medium was harvested 1 h postirradiation and transferred to recipient HPV-G cells. Phosphorylated forms of p38, JNK and ERK were studied by immunofluorescence 30 min-24 h after exposure to ICCM. Inhibitors of the ERK pathway (PD98059 and U0126), the JNK pathway (SP600125), and the p38 pathway (SB203580) were used to investigate whether bystander-induced cell death could be blocked. Cells were also incubated with ICCM in the presence of superoxide dismutase, catalase, EGTA, verapamil, nifedipine and thapsigargin to investigate whether bystander effects could be inhibited because of the known effects on calcium homeostasis. Activated forms of JNK and ERK proteins were observed after exposure to ICCM. Inhibition of the ERK pathway appeared to increase bystander-induced apoptosis, while inhibition of the JNK pathway appeared to decrease apoptosis. In addition, reactive oxygen species, such as superoxide and hydrogen peroxide, and calcium signaling were found to be important modulators of

  17. Radioadaptive response and radiation-induced teratogenesis in the late period of organogenesis in mice. Involvement of p53-dependent apoptosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Bing; Ohyama, Harumi; Nose, Masako; Yukawa, Osami; Yamada, Takeshi; Hayata, Isamu

    2003-01-01

    In the past 5 years, a series of study was done at our institute to investigate radiation effects on the embryogenesis in mice with an emphasis on mechanisms involved in the radiation-induced adaptive response and the role of radiation-induced apoptosis played in teratogenesis in the late period of organogenesis. Using the limb bud system, we first found that radiation-induced apoptosis is involved in malformations, namely, radiation-induced apoptosis in the predigital regions of embryonic limb buds is responsible for digital defects in ICR mice. Examination of embryonic C57BL/6J mice with different p53 status led to further finding that susceptibility to the radiation-induced apoptosis and digital defects depends on both the p53 status and the radiation dose. p53 wild-type mice appeared to be the most sensitive, while p53 knockout mice were the most resistant. These results indicate that p53-dependent apoptosis mediates radiation-induced digital defects. The existence of a radioadaptive response in fetuses, i.e., the priming dose significantly decreases the apoptosis induction, prenatal death, and digital defects in the living fetuses induced by the challenging dose, was found first in ICR strain mice and later confirmed again in C57BL/6J mice. p53 heterozygous embryos did not show the radioadaptive response, indicating the involvement of p53 in the radioadaptive response. (author)

  18. A screening tool to enhance clinical trial participation at a community center involved in a radiation oncology disparities program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, Julian W; Martz, Elaine; Schenken, Larry L; Rainville, Rebecca; Marlowe, Ursula

    2011-05-01

    To investigate the effectiveness of a screening tool to enhance clinical trial participation at a community radiation oncology center involved in a National Cancer Institute-funded disparities program but lacking on-site clinical trials personnel. The screening form was pasted to the front of the charts and filled out for all new patients over the 9-month period of the study, during which time five external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) trials and a patient perception study were open for accrual. Patient consent was obtained by assorted personnel at several different sites. Patients potentially eligible for a trial were identified and approached by one of the clinic staff. Patients who were under- or uninsured, age > 80 years, members of an racial/ethnic minority, or recipients of medical assistance were identified as at risk for health care disparities and were offered patient navigator services. Of 196 patients consulted during the study, 144 were treated with EBRT. Of the 24 patients eligible for EBRT trials, 23 were approached (one had an incomplete screening form), and 15 accepted. Of 77 patients eligible for a patient perception trial, 72 were approached (five had incomplete forms), and 45 accepted. The eligibility and acceptance rates for EBRT trials were similar for disparities and nondisparities patients. Screening was completed for 96 patients (67%). When completed, the screening tool ensured clinical trial accrual. The major factor limiting overall accrual was a shortage of available trials.

  19. Modulation of radiation injury response in retinal endothelial cells by quinic acid derivative KZ-41 involves p38 MAPK.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordan J Toutounchian

    Full Text Available Radiation-induced damage to the retina triggers leukostasis, retinal endothelial cell (REC death, and subsequent hypoxia. Resultant ischemia leads to visual loss and compensatory retinal neovascularization (RNV. Using human RECs, we demonstrated that radiation induced leukocyte adhesion through mechanisms involving p38MAPK, p53, and ICAM-1 activation. Additional phenotypic changes included p38MAPK-dependent tyrosine phosphorylation of the focal adhesion scaffolding protein, paxillin (Tyr118. The quinic acid derivative KZ-41 lessened leukocyte adhesion and paxillin-dependent proliferation via inhibition of p38MAPK-p53-ICAM-1 signaling. Using the murine oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR model, we examined the effect of KZ-41 on pathologic RNV. Daily ocular application of a KZ-41-loaded nanoemulsion significantly reduced both the avascular and neovascular areas in harvested retinal flat mounts when compared to the contralateral eye receiving vehicle alone. Our data highlight the potential benefit of KZ-41 in reducing both the retinal ischemia and neovascularization provoked by genotoxic insults. Further research into how quinic acid derivatives target and mitigate inflammation is needed to fully appreciate their therapeutic potential for the treatment of inflammatory retinal vasculopathies.

  20. Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The chapter one presents the composition of matter and atomic theory; matter structure; transitions; origin of radiation; radioactivity; nuclear radiation; interactions in decay processes; radiation produced by the interaction of radiation with matter

  1. 2011 Japanese Nuclear Incident

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA’s RadNet system monitored the environmental radiation levels in the United States and parts of the Pacific following the Japanese Nuclear Incident. Learn about EPA’s response and view historical laboratory data and news releases.

  2. Emergency preparedness incident response and radiation monitoring in Finland. Annual report 1998; Valmiustapahtumat ja valtakunnallinen saeteilyvalvonta. Vuosiraportti 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ristonmaa, S. [ed.

    1999-03-01

    The Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) publishes annually a report about STUK's preparedness measures. The report describes notifications received by STUK's on duty system and further measures carried out after receiving a message. In addition, the emergence exercises STUK participated in during the year are described. The radiation situation in Finland is continuously monitored. STUK is the authority who carries out a wide range of environmental measurements, sampling and sensitive laboratory analyses. The measurement results are presented in the form of tables and graphically. (editor)

  3. Emergency preparedness incident response and radiation monitoring in Finland. Annual report 1999; Valmiustapahtumat ja saeteilyvalvonta. Vuosiraportti 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ristonmaa, S. [ed.

    2000-04-01

    The Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) publishes annually a report about STUK's preparedness measures. The report describes notifications received by STUK's on duty system and further measures carried out after receiving a message. In addition, the emergence exercises STUK participated in during the year are described. The radiation situation in Finland is continuously monitored. STUK is the authority who carries out a wide range of environmental measurements, sampling and sensitive laboratory analyses. The measurement results are presented in the form of tables and graphically. (editor)

  4. Cancer incidence among a cohort of subjects exposed to low-dose rate chronic radiation exposure in utero and after birth in the techa riverbank villages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostroumova, E.V.; Akleyev, A.V.; Akleyev, A.V.; Hall, P.

    2003-01-01

    As a result of releases of liquid radioactive waste by the Mayak Production Association (PA) into the Techa River since 1949 till 1956 the population of the Riverside villages was exposed to a protracted effect of combined (external and internal) radiation. The 1-st-generation offspring of exposed residents born on 01.01.1950 and later were exposed both in utero and after birth. In all, 46 cancer cases, including 4 cases of leukemia, were registered among the study cohort members numbering 7,890 subjects born in the Techa Riverside villages in the Chelyabinsk province over the period since 1950 till 1998. No significant differences were noted in cancer incidence rates between men and women. Cancer incidence in the offspring's cohort was by 30-35% higher compared with the unexposed population of the USSR and Russia, the differences, however, are statistically insignificant. No influence of the parents total gonadal dose on cancer development in offspring was observed. The positive dose-effect dependence of cancer incidence on both antenatal and postnatal exposure was traced

  5. The Use of Categorized Time-Trend Reporting of Radiation Oncology Incidents: A Proactive Analytical Approach to Improving Quality and Safety Over Time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, Anthony; Delaney, Geoff P.; Cassapi, Lynette; Barton, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Radiotherapy is a common treatment for cancer patients. Although incidence of error is low, errors can be severe or affect significant numbers of patients. In addition, errors will often not manifest until long periods after treatment. This study describes the development of an incident reporting tool that allows categorical analysis and time trend reporting, covering first 3 years of use. Methods and Materials: A radiotherapy-specific incident analysis system was established. Staff members were encouraged to report actual errors and near-miss events detected at prescription, simulation, planning, or treatment phases of radiotherapy delivery. Trend reporting was reviewed monthly. Results: Reports were analyzed for the first 3 years of operation (May 2004-2007). A total of 688 reports was received during the study period. The actual error rate was 0.2% per treatment episode. During the study period, the actual error rates reduced significantly from 1% per year to 0.3% per year (p < 0.001), as did the total event report rates (p < 0.0001). There were 3.5 times as many near misses reported compared with actual errors. Conclusions: This system has allowed real-time analysis of events within a radiation oncology department to a reduced error rate through focus on learning and prevention from the near-miss reports. Plans are underway to develop this reporting tool for Australia and New Zealand.

  6. Involved field radiotherapy (IFRT) versus elective nodal irradiation (ENI) for locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer: a meta-analysis of incidence of elective nodal failure (ENF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ruijian; Yu, Liang; Lin, Sixiang; Wang, Lina; Dong, Xin; Yu, Lingxia; Li, Weiyi; Li, Baosheng

    2016-09-21

    The use of involved field radiotherapy (IFRT) has generated concern about the increasing incidence of elective nodal failure (ENF) in contrast to elective nodal irradiation (ENI). This meta-analysis aimed to provide more reliable and up-to-date evidence on the incidence of ENF between IFRT and ENI. We searched three databases for eligible studies where locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients received IFRT or ENI. Outcome of interest was the incidence of ENF. The fixed-effects model was used to pool outcomes across the studies. There were 3 RCTs and 3 cohort studies included with low risk of bias. There was no significant difference in incidence of ENF between IFRT and ENI either among RCTs (RR = 1.38, 95 % CI: 0.59-3.25, p = 0.46) or among cohort studies (RR = 0.99, 95 % CI: 0.46-2.10, p = 0.97). There was also no significant difference in incidence of ENF between IFRT and ENI when RCTs and cohort studies were combined (RR = 1.15, 95 % CI: 0.65-2.01, p = 0.64). I 2 of test for heterogeneity was 0 %. This meta-analysis provides more reliable and stable evidence that there is no significant difference in incidence of ENF between IFRT and ENI.

  7. Incidence of radiation-induced Graves' disease in patients treated with radioiodine for thyroid autonomy before and after introduction of a high-sensitivity TSH receptor antibody assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunkelmann, Simone; Wolf, Ricarda; Koch, Annedore; Kittner, Christian; Groth, Peter; Schuemichen, Carl

    2004-01-01

    Autoimmune hyperthyroidism may occur several months after radioiodine therapy (RIT) for functional thyroid autonomy. Exacerbation of pre-existing subclinical Graves' disease (GD) has been held responsible for this phenomenon. Determination of TSH receptor antibody using solubilised porcine epithelial cell membranes is insensitive and may have failed to diagnose GD in these patients before RIT. Following the introduction of a more sensitive assay, using the human TSH receptor as an antigen, it has been expected that the incidence of radiation-induced GD after RIT for functional thyroid autonomy will be reduced. In a first group of 1,428 patients treated between November 1993 and March 1997 (group I) we used the porcine TRAb assay to exclude GD, while in a second group comprising 1,408 patients treated between January 2000 and December 2001 (group II), GD was excluded using the human TRAb assay. A matched control group of 231 patients was derived from group II. In group I a total of 15 (1.05%) patients developed obvious or suspected radiation-induced GD, while in group II 17 (1.2%) did so; the interval until development of GD was 8.4 and 8.8 months, respectively, after RIT. Serum anti-thyroid peroxidase levels before RIT were elevated in 36.4% of group I patients and 47.1% of group II patients, but in only 5.6% of the control group. Other non-specific signs of mild immunopathy of the thyroid were seen retrospectively in 73.3%, 64.7% and 16.0% of the patients in these three groups, respectively. In conclusion, the introduction of a high-sensitivity TRAb assay did not reduce the incidence of autoimmune hyperthyroidism occurring late after RIT for functional thyroid autonomy, but mild immunopathy of the thyroid is seen more frequently in these patients and seems to be a predisposing factor in the development of radiation-induced GD. (orig.)

  8. Calibration of photographic dosemeters to evaluate the personal equivalent dose, Hp (10), irradiated by different radiation qualities and angles of incidence; Calibracao de dosimetros fotograficos para avaliar o equivalente de dose pessoal, Hp(10), irradiados por diferentes qualidades de radiacao e angulos de incidencia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santoro, Christiana; Antonio Filho, Joao, E-mail: chsantoro@gmail.com, E-mail: jaf@ufpe.br [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (DEN/UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Departamento de Energia Nuclear; Santos, Marcus Aurelio P.; Goncalves Filho, Luiz Carlos, E-mail: masantos@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: l.filho@cnen.gov.br [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, Pe (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    To use radiation detectors, should periodically perform tests and calibrations on instruments in order to verify its good functionality. One way to ascertain the quality of the instrument is to conduct a study of the angular dependence of the response of the radiation detectors. The photographic dosimetry has been used widely to quantify the radiation doses and to estimate levels of doses received by workers involved with X-and gamma radiation. Photographic dosimeters are used because provide wide range of exposure and good accuracy. One of the sources of error have been introduced by different irradiation geometries between calibration and measurement in radiation fields used in x-ray and gamma ray sources, therefore, there is a need for an evaluation of the sensitivity of dosimeters with variation of the angle of the incident beam. In this study were tested 190 photographic dosemeters in the Metrology Laboratory of the Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-NE) using the phantom H{sub p} (10), where the dosimeters are evaluated on the basis of the new operational magnitude for individual monitoring, the equivalent personal dose, H{sub p} (10). Angular dependence of these radiation detectors was studied in X radiation fields (in the range of 45 keV energy to 164 keV) and gamma radiation ({sup 137}Cs-662 keV e {sup 60}Co - 1250 keV)

  9. Autophagic cell death induced by reactive oxygen species is involved in hyperthermic sensitization to ionizing radiation in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Guang-Jin; Deng, Jun-Jian; Cao, De-Dong; Shi, Lei; Chen, Xin; Lei, Jin-Ju; Xu, Xi-Ming

    2017-08-14

    To investigate whether autophagic cell death is involved in hyperthermic sensitization to ionizing radiation in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells, and to explore the underlying mechanism. Human hepatocellular carcinoma cells were treated with hyperthermia and ionizing radiation. MTT and clonogenic assays were performed to determine cell survival. Cell autophagy was detected using acridine orange staining and flow cytometric analysis, and the expression of autophagy-associated proteins, LC3 and p62, was determined by Western blot analysis. Intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) were quantified using the fluorescent probe DCFH-DA. Treatment with hyperthermia and ionizing radiation significantly decreased cell viability and surviving fraction as compared with hyperthermia or ionizing radiation alone. Cell autophagy was significantly increased after ionizing radiation combined with hyperthermia treatment, as evidenced by increased formation of acidic vesicular organelles, increased expression of LC3II and decreased expression of p62. Intracellular ROS were also increased after combined treatment with hyperthermia and ionizing radiation. Pretreatment with N-acetylcysteine, an ROS scavenger, markedly inhibited the cytotoxicity and cell autophagy induced by hyperthermia and ionizing radiation. Autophagic cell death is involved in hyperthermic sensitization of cancer cells to ionizing radiation, and its induction may be due to the increased intracellular ROS.

  10. The effects of low-level ionizing radiation and copper exposure on the incidence of antibiotic resistance in lentic biofilm bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McArthur, J Vaun; Dicks, Christian A; Bryan, A Lawrence; Tuckfield, R Cary

    2017-09-01

    Environmental reservoirs of antibiotic resistant bacteria are poorly understood. Understanding how the environment selects for resistance traits in the absence of antibiotics is critical in developing strategies to mitigate this growing menace. Indirect or co-selection of resistance by environmental pollution has been shown to increase antibiotic resistance. However no attention has been given to the effects of low-level ionizing radiation or the interactions between radiation and heavy metals on the maintenance or selection for antibiotic resistance (AR) traits. Here we explore the effect of radiation and copper on antibiotic resistance. Bacteria were collected from biofilms in two ponds - one impacted by low-level radiocesium and the other an abandoned farm pond. Through laboratory controlled experiments we examined the effects of increasing concentrations of copper on the incidence of antibiotic resistance. Differences were detected in the resistance profiles of the controls from each pond. Low levels (0.01 mM) of copper sulfate increased resistance but 0.5 mM concentrations of copper sulfate depressed the AR response in both ponds. A similar pattern was observed for levels of multiple antibiotic resistance per isolate. The first principal component response of isolate exposure to multiple antibiotics showed significant differences among the six isolate treatment combinations. These differences were clearly visualized through a discriminant function analysis, which showed distinct antibiotic resistance response patterns based on the six treatment groups. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Incidence of thyroid cancer in women in relation to previous exposure to radiation therapy and history of thyroid disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McTiernan, A.M.; Weiss, N.S.; Daling, J.R.

    1984-01-01

    Female residents of 13 counties of Western Washington, in whom papillary, follicular, or mixed papillary-follicular thyroid carcinomas had been diagnosed between 1974 and 1979 were interviewed regarding their medical and reproductive histories and past exposure to radiation treatments. For comparison, a random sample of women from the same population was interviewed. Women who had received radiation treatments to the head or neck prior to 5 years before interview were 16.5 times (95% confidence interval . 8.1-33.5) more likely than unexposed women to develop cancer. The relative risk (RR) was highest for papillary cancer (19.4) but also was elevated substantially for follicular and mixed papillary-follicular tumors. Women first irradiated at age 19 years or younger had a much higher RR than did women irradiated at age 20 or older. Regardless of prior radiation exposure, women who ever had had a goiter were at increased risk of developing thyroid cancer. Women who had ever developed a goiter had 17 times the risk of developing follicular cancer and almost 7 times the risk of developing papillary cancer as compared with women who never had had a goiter. Risk of thyroid cancer was elevated even among women who had had a history of goiter many years prior to diagnosis. A history of thyroid nodules was also a risk factor for papillary and mixed thyroid cancer. Neither a history of hypothyroidism nor hyperthyroidism was found to increase the risk of thyroid cancer

  12. Local thermodynamic equilibrium and related metrological issues involving collisional-radiative model in laser-induced aluminum plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Travaille, G.; Peyrusse, O.; Bousquet, B.; Canioni, L.; Pierres, K. Michel-Le; Roy, S.

    2009-01-01

    We present a collisional-radiative approach of the theoretical analysis of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) plasmas. This model, which relies on an optimized effective potential atomic structure code, was used to simulate a pure aluminum plasma. The description of aluminum involved a set of 220 atomic levels representative of three different stages of ionization (Al 0 , Al + and Al ++ ). The calculations were carried for stationary plasmas, with input parameters (n e and T e ) ranging respectively between 10 13-18 cm -3 and 0.3-2 eV. A comparison of our atomic data with some existing databases is made. The code was mainly developed to address the validity of the local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) assumption. For usual LIBS plasma parameters, we did not reveal a sizeable discrepancy of the radiative equilibrium of the plasma towards LTE. For cases where LTE was firmly believed to stand, the Boltzmann plot outputs of this code were used to check the physical accuracy of the Boltzmann temperature, as it is currently exploited in several calibration-free laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (CF-LIBS) studies. In this paper, a deviation ranging between 10 and 30% of the measured Boltzmann temperature to the real excitation temperature is reported. This may be due to the huge dispersion induced on the line emissivities, on which the Boltzmann plots are based to extract this parameter. Consequences of this fact on the CF-LIBS procedure are discussed and further insights to be considered for the future are introduced.

  13. Elevated UV-B radiation incident on Quercus robur leaf canopies enhances decomposition of resulting leaf litter in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newsham, K.K.; Greenslade, P.D.; Kennedy, V.H.; McLeod, A.R.

    1999-01-01

    We examined whether the exposure of Quercus robur L. to elevated UV-B radiation (280–315 nm) during growth would influence leaf decomposition rate through effects on litter quality. Saplings were exposed for eight months at an outdoor facility in the UK to a 30% elevation above the ambient level of erythemally weighted UV-B radiation under UV-B treatment arrays of fluorescent lamps filtered with cellulose diacetate, which transmitted both UV-B and UV-A (315–400 nm) radiation. Saplings were exposed to elevated UV-A alone under control arrays of lamps filtered with polyester and to ambient radiation under unenergised arrays of lamps. Abscised leaves from saplings were enclosed in 1 mm2 mesh nylon bags, placed in a Quercus–Fraxinus woodland and were sampled at 0.11, 0.53, 1.10 and 1.33 years for dry weight loss, chemical composition and saprotrophic fungal colonization. At abscission, litters from UV-A control arrays had ≈ 7.5% higher lignin/nitrogen ratios than those from UV-B treatment and ambient arrays (P < 0.06). Dry weight loss of leaves treated with elevated UV-B radiation during growth was 2.5% and 5% greater than that of leaves from UV-A control arrays at 0.53 and 1.33 years, respectively. Litter samples from UV-B treatment arrays lost more nitrogen and phosphorus than samples from ambient arrays and more carbon than samples from UV-A control arrays. The annual fractional weight loss of litter from UV-B treatment arrays was 8% and 6% greater than that of litter from UV-A control and ambient arrays, respectively. Regression analyses indicated that the increased decomposition rate of UV-B treated litters was associated with enhanced colonization of leaves by basidiomycete fungi, the most active members of the soil fungal community, and that the frequency of these fungi was negatively associated with the initial lignin/nitrogen ratio of leaves. (author)

  14. Caspase-independent cell death mediated by apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) nuclear translocation is involved in ionizing radiation induced HepG2 cell death

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Hengwen [Department of Radiation, Cancer Center of Guangdong General Hospital (Guangdong Academy of Medical Science), Guangzhou, 510080, Guangdong (China); Yang, Shana; Li, Jianhua [Department of Physiology, Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, 510182, Guangdong (China); Zhang, Yajie [Department of Pathology, Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, 510182, Guangdong (China); Gao, Dongsheng [Department of Oncology, Guangdong Medical College Affiliated Pengpai Memorial Hospital, Hai Feng, 516400, Gungdong (China); Zhao, Shenting, E-mail: zhaoshenting@126.com [Department of Physiology, Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, 510182, Guangdong (China)

    2016-03-25

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the fifth most common cancer in the world. The aim of radiotherapy is to eradicate cancer cells with ionizing radiation. Except for the caspase-dependent mechanism, several lines of evidence demonstrated that caspase-independent mechanism is directly involved in the cell death responding to irradiation. For this reason, defining the contribution of caspase-independent molecular mechanisms represents the main goal in radiotherapy. In this study, we focused on the role of apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF), the caspase-independent molecular, in ionizing radiation induced hepatocellular carcinoma cell line (HepG2) cell death. We found that ionizing radiation has no function on AIF expression in HepG2 cells, but could induce AIF release from the mitochondria and translocate into nuclei. Inhibition of AIF could reduce ionizing radiation induced HepG2 cell death. These studies strongly support a direct relationship between AIF nuclear translocation and radiation induced cell death. What's more, AIF nuclear translocation is caspase-independent manner, but not caspase-dependent manner, in this process. These new findings add a further attractive point of investigation to better define the complex interplay between caspase-independent cell death and radiation therapy. - Highlights: • AIF nuclear translocation is involved in ionizing radiation induced hepatocellular carcinoma cell line HepG2 cell death. • AIF mediated cell death induced by ionizing radiation is caspase-independent. • Caspase-independent pathway is involved in ionzing radiation induced HepG2 cell death.

  15. Evaluation of moving-coil loudspeaker and passive radiator parameters using normal-incidence sound transmission measurements: theoretical developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leishman, Timothy W; Anderson, Brian E

    2013-07-01

    The parameters of moving-coil loudspeaker drivers are typically determined using direct electrical excitation and measurement. However, as electro-mechano-acoustical devices, their parameters should also follow from suitable mechanical or acoustical evaluations. This paper presents the theory of an acoustical method of excitation and measurement using normal-incidence sound transmission through a baffled driver as a plane-wave tube partition. Analogous circuits enable key parameters to be extracted from measurement results in terms of open and closed-circuit driver conditions. Associated tools are presented that facilitate adjacent field decompositions and derivations of sound transmission coefficients (in terms of driver parameters) directly from the circuits. The paper also clarifies the impact of nonanechoic receiving tube terminations and the specific benefits of downstream field decompositions.

  16. WE-G-BRA-03: Developing a Culture of Patient Safety Utilizing the National Radiation Oncology Incident Learning System (ROILS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasson, B; Workie, D; Geraghty, C [Anne Arundel Medical Center, Annapolis, MD (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To transition from an in-house incident reporting system to a ROILS standards system with the intent to develop a safety focused culture in the Department and enroll in ROILS. Methods: Since the AAPM Safety Summit (2010) several safety and reporting systems have been implemented within the Department. Specific checklists and SBAR reporting systems were introduced. However, the active learning component was lost due to reporting being viewed with distrust and possible retribution.To Facilitate introducing ROILS each leader in the Department received a copy of the ROILS participation guide. Four specific tasks were assigned to each leader: develop a reporting tree, begin the ROILS based system, facilitate adopting ROILS Terminology, and educate the staff on expectations of safety culture. Next, the ROILS questions were broken down into area specific questions (10–15) per departmental area. Excel spreadsheets were developed for each area and setup for error reporting entries. The Role of the Process Improvement Committee (PI) has been modified to review and make recommendations based on the ROILS entries. Results: The ROILS based Reporting has been in place for 4 months. To date 64 reports have been entered. Since the adoption of ROILS the reporting of incidents has increased from 2/month to 18/month on average. Three reports had a dosimetric effect on the patient (<5%) dose variance. The large majority of entries have been Characterized as Processes not followed or not sure how to Characterize, and Human Behavior. Conclusion: The majority of errors are typo’s that create confusion. The introduction of the ROILS standards has provided a platform for making changes to policies that increase patient safety. The goal is to develop a culture that sees reporting at a national level as a safe and effective way to improve our safety, and to dynamically learn from other institutions reporting.

  17. WE-G-BRA-03: Developing a Culture of Patient Safety Utilizing the National Radiation Oncology Incident Learning System (ROILS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasson, B; Workie, D; Geraghty, C

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To transition from an in-house incident reporting system to a ROILS standards system with the intent to develop a safety focused culture in the Department and enroll in ROILS. Methods: Since the AAPM Safety Summit (2010) several safety and reporting systems have been implemented within the Department. Specific checklists and SBAR reporting systems were introduced. However, the active learning component was lost due to reporting being viewed with distrust and possible retribution.To Facilitate introducing ROILS each leader in the Department received a copy of the ROILS participation guide. Four specific tasks were assigned to each leader: develop a reporting tree, begin the ROILS based system, facilitate adopting ROILS Terminology, and educate the staff on expectations of safety culture. Next, the ROILS questions were broken down into area specific questions (10–15) per departmental area. Excel spreadsheets were developed for each area and setup for error reporting entries. The Role of the Process Improvement Committee (PI) has been modified to review and make recommendations based on the ROILS entries. Results: The ROILS based Reporting has been in place for 4 months. To date 64 reports have been entered. Since the adoption of ROILS the reporting of incidents has increased from 2/month to 18/month on average. Three reports had a dosimetric effect on the patient (<5%) dose variance. The large majority of entries have been Characterized as Processes not followed or not sure how to Characterize, and Human Behavior. Conclusion: The majority of errors are typo’s that create confusion. The introduction of the ROILS standards has provided a platform for making changes to policies that increase patient safety. The goal is to develop a culture that sees reporting at a national level as a safe and effective way to improve our safety, and to dynamically learn from other institutions reporting

  18. Review, analysis and report on the radiological consequences resulting from accidents and incidents involving radioactive materials during transport in the period 1975-1986 by and within member states of the european communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lombard, J.; Ringot, C.; Tomachevsky, E.; Hughes, J.S.; Shaw, K.B.

    1990-01-01

    Radioactive materials are routinely transported throughout the European Communities, by all modes of transport. These shipments occur in accordance with comprehensive regulations and the vast majority of these shipments are made without incident. Occasionally however accidents and other incidents have occurred at various stages of transport operations and the purpose of this study was to examine the available information on events that occurred within the Communities during the years 1975 to 1986. The information was gathered from Member States' Competent Authorities and other organisations, using a questionnaire. Most of the detailed information came from the two countries carrying out the study, the UK and France. The information gathered covered many different types of event involving a wide range of materials: it is concluded that under-reporting is a major source of uncertainty in the results. Therefore, it is emphasised that care should be used in comparisons between the results for different types of transport operations, since accidents and incidents involving certain types of transport are more fully reported than others. Consequently, the authors stress the need for improved reporting and recording procedures. No evidence was found of any major health consequences resulting from the accidents and incidents studied. However, there were instances of high doses having been received by workers, mainly as a result of inadequate preparation of packages prior to despatch. These events point to the need to maintain high standards of quality assurance at all stages of transport operations

  19. Results of the implementation of a learning system with incidents in an radiotherapy department

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radicchi, Lucas Augusto; Vilela, Ellen Pedroso Severino; Faustino, Fabio de Lima C.; Rodrigues, Fernanda Arantes C.; Gomes, Franciele N.; Souza, Guilherme Vicente de; Silva, Rose Marta S.; Toledo, Jose Carlos de

    2016-01-01

    An incident learning system (ILS) is an important tool for improving aspects of patient and staff safety. In radiation oncology, ILS has been implemented both at the institutional level as at the national level, allowing to share lessons learned from incidents that have already occurred. The objective of this study is to present the preliminary results of the ILS implemented in a radiation oncology department. In total, 128 incidents were reviewed by a multidisciplinary committee, and the professional groups that registered more were medical physicists, radiation oncologists and radiation therapists. In addition, incidents have occurred and have been detected mainly in the treatment step. The incident learning system proved to be an important process improvement tool, according to the results shown,the improvement actions proposed and the perception of the people involved. (author)

  20. [Systemic approach to ecologic safety at objects with radiation jeopardy, involved into localization of low and medium radioactive waste].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veselov, E I

    2011-01-01

    The article deals with specifying systemic approach to ecologic safety of objects with radiation jeopardy. The authors presented stages of work and algorithm of decisions on preserving reliability of storage for radiation jeopardy waste. Findings are that providing ecologic safety can cover 3 approaches: complete exemption of radiation jeopardy waste, removal of more dangerous waste from present buildings and increasing reliability of prolonged localization of radiation jeopardy waste at the initial place. The systemic approach presented could be realized at various radiation jeopardy objects.

  1. Gamma-H2AX biodosimetry for use in large scale radiation incidents: comparison of a rapid ‘96 well lyse/fix’ protocol with a routine method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayne Moquet

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Following a radiation incident, preliminary dose estimates made by γ-H2AX foci analysis can supplement the early triage of casualties based on clinical symptoms. Sample processing time is important when many individuals need to be rapidly assessed. A protocol was therefore developed for high sample throughput that requires less than 0.1 ml blood, thus potentially enabling finger prick sampling. The technique combines red blood cell lysis and leukocyte fixation in one step on a 96 well plate, in contrast to the routine protocol, where lymphocytes in larger blood volumes are typically separated by Ficoll density gradient centrifugation with subsequent washing and fixation steps. The rapid ‘96 well lyse/fix’ method reduced the estimated sample processing time for 96 samples to about 4 h compared to 15 h using the routine protocol. However, scoring 20 cells in 96 samples prepared by the rapid protocol took longer than for the routine method (3.1 versus 1.5 h at zero dose; 7.0 versus 6.1 h for irradiated samples. Similar foci yields were scored for both protocols and consistent dose estimates were obtained for samples exposed to 0, 0.2, 0.6, 1.1, 1.2, 2.1 and 4.3 Gy of 250 kVp X-rays at 0.5 Gy/min and incubated for 2 h. Linear regression coefficients were 0.87 ± 0.06 (R2 = 97.6% and 0.85 ± 0.05 (R2 = 98.3% for estimated versus actual doses for the routine and lyse/fix method, respectively. The lyse/fix protocol can therefore facilitate high throughput processing for γ-H2AX biodosimetry for use in large scale radiation incidents, at the cost of somewhat longer foci scoring times.

  2. Population exposure to ultraviolet radiation in Finland 1920-1995: Exposure trends and a time-series analysis of exposure and cutaneous melanoma incidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kojo, Katja; Jansen, Christer T.; Nybom, Pia; Huurto, Laura; Laihia, Jarmo; Ilus, Taina; Auvinen, Anssi

    2006-01-01

    Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) is the principal cause of cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM). However, the relation between CMM and UVR exposure is not clear. We present the trends of population exposure to UVR and conduct a time-series analysis of the relation between UVR exposure and incidence of CMM. Data on CMM incidence were obtained from the Finnish Cancer Registry. Clothing coverage of the body was scored from archival photographs and the proportion of uncovered skin was used as a measure of solar exposure. Information on the number of sunny resort holidays, duration of annual holidays, and sunscreen sales were obtained from various sources. Exposed skin area doubled from 1920 to 1985. The average duration of annual holidays increased 30-fold. The number of sunny resort holidays and the sales of sunscreens increased rapidly from 1980. CMM was most strongly associated with solar exposure of 5-19 years earlier. There is a considerable decrease in clothing coverage during the 20th century. UVR exposure preceding CMM occurrence 4 years or less does not appear relevant, whereas the period 5-19 years prior to CMM occurrence might be the most relevant period. However, findings of ecological studies may not be applicable at the individual level

  3. Studying the effect of spectral variations intensity of the incident solar radiation on the Si solar cells performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Elsayed Ghitas

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Solar spectral variation is important in characterization of photovoltaic devices. We present results of an experimental investigation of the effects of the daily spectral variation on the device performance of multicrystalline silicon photovoltaic module. The investigation concentrate on the analysis of outdoor solar spectral measurements carried out at 1 min intervals on clear sky days. Short circuit current and open circuit voltage have been measured to describe the module electrical performance. We have shown that the shift in the solar spectrum towards infrared has a negative impact on the device performance of the module. The spectral bands in the visible region contribute more to the short circuit current than the bands in the infrared region while the ultraviolet region contributes least. The quantitative effect of the spectral variation on the performance of the photovoltaic module is reflected on their respective device performance parameters. The decrease in the visible and the increase in infrared of the radiation spectra account for the decreased current collection and hence power of the module.

  4. The conundrum of Hodgkin lymphoma nodes: to be or not to be included in the involved node radiation fields. The EORTC-GELA lymphoma group guidelines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Girinsky, Theodore; Specht, Lena; Ghalibafian, Mithra

    2008-01-01

    PURPOSE: To develop easily applicable guidelines for the determination of initially involved lymph nodes to be included in the radiation fields. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with supra-diaphragmatic Hodgkin lymphoma. All the imaging procedures were carried out with patients in the treatment pos...

  5. TGF beta-1 dependent fast stimulation of ATM and p53 phosphorylation following exposure to ionizing radiation does not involve TGF beta-receptor I signalling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiegman, Erwin M.; Blaese, Marcet A.; Loeffler, Heidi; Coppes, Rob P.; Rodemann, H. Peter

    Background and purpose: It has been proposed that radiation induced stimulation of ATM and downstream components involves activation of TGF beta-1 and that this may be due to TGF beta-1-receptor I-Smad signalling. Therefore, the aim of this study was to clarify the distinct role of TGF

  6. Comparison of the incidence and time patterns of radiation-induced skin cancer in humans and rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albert, R.E.; Burns, F.J.; Shore, R.

    1978-01-01

    Cancer induction in rat skin and human skin are compared following exposure to X-rays. The human data were obtained by follow-up of 2213 children irradiated between 1940 and 1959 for tinea capitis (ringworm) of the scalp. The scalp was irradiated at one session using five fields of 100 kVp X-rays. The scalp dose ranged from 500-800 rads. The rats were irradiated on their dorsal skin with a 1100-rad dose of 30 kVp X-rays. The tumours were predominantly basal cell carcinomas in both species. The proportion of people with tumours as a function of elapsed time since exposure was consistent with a power function with an exponent of 5.4, and had reached 3% or 0.08 tumours per person in most recent survey (35 years after exposure). Of the 64 tumours observed in human skin, a substantial proportion was on the directly irradiated skin just outside the hair-covered regions of the scalp. So far there are no tumours among the 530 irradiated nonwhites in the study when about eight cases would be expected in a comparable group of irradiated whites. Only four skin tumours have been observed in 1396 control patients. The temporal curve of radiation-induced tumours for human skin could be approximately superimposed on that for rats by contracting the time scale by a factor of 37.1. The temporal response of the two species is approximately proportional to their median life spans. (author)

  7. Incidence of fruit flies on coffee and citrus and quarantine treatment of citrus fruits by gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raga, Adalton

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the fruit fly infestation on coffee and citrus, and also to determine gamma radiation doses for immature stages of Ceratitis capitata and Anastrepha fraterculus, in order to satisfy quarantine regulations. Coffee arabica varieties Icatu Vermelho, Catuai Amarelo, Mundo Novo and Sarchimor showed the highest infestation indices (pupa/berry): 0.53; 0,41; 0.33 and 0.36. respectively Icatu Vermelho and Catuai Vermelho showed the highest values of pupa/berry weight (0.49 and 0.39, respectively), and Robusta (Coffea canephora) presented the lowest index (0.01). The following fruit flies were found in coffee berries: C. capitata (76.6%) Anastrepha spp. (7.4%) and Lonchaeidae (17.0%). In area near coffee plantation, fruit fly infestation indices in sweet oranges were of 4.77 larvae/kg and 0.55 larva/fruit. The infestation indices for sweet orange, collected from five regions of the State of Sao Paulo ranged from 0.73 to 7.60 pupa/kg and 0.12 to 1.27 pupa/fruit. The same species of fruit flies were found in oranges. In the case of C. capitata eggs with 24-48 hours old, 20 Gy prevented completely adult emergence (artificial diet and orange). No emergence of adult occurred when C. capitata larvae of third instar were irradiated at 20 Gy in their rearing medium. But at 25 Gy, the number of adults was reduced by 54% and 97% from larval infestation in oranges and grapefruit, respectively. A dose of 30 Gy was required to prevent medfly emergence from third instar larvae in grapefruit. A dose of 15 Gy was required for third instar, to prevent adult emergence of A. fraterculus. No adult emerged from C third instar, to prevent adult emergence of A. fraterculus. No adult emerged from C capitata pre-pupa irradiated at 30 Gy. One medfly adult emerged from pupa (3-4 days after pupating) irradiated at 120 Gy. At the same dose, sixteen A. fraterculus adults emergency from irradiated pupa with 5-6 days old. (author)

  8. Radiation protection following nuclear power accidents: a survey of putative mechanisms involved in the radioprotective actions of taurine during and after radiation exposure

    OpenAIRE

    Christophersen, Olav Albert

    2012-01-01

    There are several animal experiments showing that high doses of ionizing radiation lead to strongly enhanced leakage of taurine from damaged cells into the extracellular fluid, followed by enhanced urinary excretion. This radiation-induced taurine depletion can itself have various harmful effects (as will also be the case when taurine depletion is due to other causes, such as alcohol abuse or cancer therapy with cytotoxic drugs), but taurine supplementation has been shown to have radioprotect...

  9. Early Brain Response to Low-Dose Radiation Exposure Involves Molecular Networks and Pathways Associated with Cognitive Functions, Advanced Aging and Alzheimer's Disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowe, Xiu R.; Bhattacharya, Sanchita; Marchetti, Francesco; Wyrobek, Andrew J.

    2008-01-01

    Understanding the cognitive and behavioral consequences of brain exposures to low-dose ionizing radiation has broad relevance for health risks from medical radiation diagnostic procedures, radiotherapy, environmental nuclear contamination, as well as earth orbit and space missions. Analyses of transcriptome profiles of murine brain tissue after whole-body radiation showed that low-dose exposures (10 cGy) induced genes not affected by high dose (2 Gy), and low-dose genes were associated with unique pathways and functions. The low-dose response had two major components: pathways that are consistently seen across tissues, and pathways that were brain tissue specific. Low-dose genes clustered into a saturated network (p -53 ) containing mostly down-regulated genes involving ion channels, long-term potentiation and depression, vascular damage, etc. We identified 9 neural signaling pathways that showed a high degree of concordance in their transcriptional response in mouse brain tissue after low-dose radiation, in the aging human brain (unirradiated), and in brain tissue from patients with Alzheimer's disease. Mice exposed to high-dose radiation did not show these effects and associations. Our findings indicate that the molecular response of the mouse brain within a few hours after low-dose irradiation involves the down-regulation of neural pathways associated with cognitive dysfunctions that are also down regulated in normal human aging and Alzheimer's disease

  10. Early Brain Response to Low-Dose Radiation Exposure Involves Molecular Networks and Pathways Associated with Cognitive Functions, Advanced Aging and Alzheimer's Disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowe, Xiu R; Bhattacharya, Sanchita; Marchetti, Francesco; Wyrobek, Andrew J.

    2008-06-06

    Understanding the cognitive and behavioral consequences of brain exposures to low-dose ionizing radiation has broad relevance for health risks from medical radiation diagnostic procedures, radiotherapy, environmental nuclear contamination, as well as earth orbit and space missions. Analyses of transcriptome profiles of murine brain tissue after whole-body radiation showed that low-dose exposures (10 cGy) induced genes not affected by high dose (2 Gy), and low-dose genes were associated with unique pathways and functions. The low-dose response had two major components: pathways that are consistently seen across tissues, and pathways that were brain tissue specific. Low-dose genes clustered into a saturated network (p < 10{sup -53}) containing mostly down-regulated genes involving ion channels, long-term potentiation and depression, vascular damage, etc. We identified 9 neural signaling pathways that showed a high degree of concordance in their transcriptional response in mouse brain tissue after low-dose radiation, in the aging human brain (unirradiated), and in brain tissue from patients with Alzheimer's disease. Mice exposed to high-dose radiation did not show these effects and associations. Our findings indicate that the molecular response of the mouse brain within a few hours after low-dose irradiation involves the down-regulation of neural pathways associated with cognitive dysfunctions that are also down regulated in normal human aging and Alzheimer's disease.

  11. Goiania incident case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petterson, J.S.

    1988-06-01

    The reasons for wanting to document this case study and present the findings are simple. According to USDOE technical risk assessments (and our own initial work on the Hanford socioeconomic study), the likelihood of a major accident involving exposure to radioactive materials in the process of site characterization, construction, operation, and closure of a high-level waste repository is extremely remote. Most would agree, however, that there is a relatively high probability that a minor accident involving radiological contamination will occur sometime during the lifetime of the repository -- for example, during transport, at an MRS site or at the permanent site itself during repacking and deposition. Thus, one of the major concerns of the Yucca Mountain Socioeconomic Study is the potential impact of a relatively minor radiation-related accident. A large number of potential impact of a relatively minor radiation-related accident. A large number of potential accident scenarios have been under consideration (such as a transportation or other surface accident which results in a significant decline in tourism, the number of conventions, or the selection of Nevada as a retirement residence). The results of the work in Goiania make it clear, however, that such a significant shift in established social patterns and trends is not likely to occur as a direct outcome of a single nuclear-related accident (even, perhaps, a relatively major one), but rather, are likely to occur as a result of the enduring social interpretations of such an accident -- that is, as a result of the process of understanding, communicating, and socially sustaining a particular set of associations with respect to the initial incident

  12. The involvement of topoisomerases and DNA polymerase I in the mechanism of induced thermal and radiation resistance in yeast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boreham, D.R.; Trivedi, A.; Weinberger, P.; Mitchel, R.E.

    1990-01-01

    Either an ionizing radiation exposure or a heat shock is capable of inducing both thermal tolerance and radiation resistance in yeast. Yeast mutants, deficient in topoisomerase I, in topoisomerase II, or in DNA polymerase I, were used to investigate the mechanism of these inducible resistances. The absence of either or both topoisomerase activities did not prevent induction of either heat or radiation resistance. However, if both topoisomerase I and II activities were absent, the sensitivity of yeast to become thermally tolerant (in response to a heat stress) was markedly increased. The absence of only topoisomerase I activity (top1) resulted in the constitutive expression of increased radiation resistance equivalent to that induced by a heat shock in wild-type cells, and the topoisomerase I-deficient cells were not further inducible by heat. This heat-inducible component of radiation resistance (or its equivalent constitutive expression in top1 cells) was, in turn, only a portion of the full response inducible by radiation. The absence of polymerase I activity had no detectable effect on either response. Our results indicate that the actual systems that confer resistance to heat or radiation are independent of either topoisomerase activity or DNA polymerase function, but suggest that topoisomerases may have a regulatory role during the signaling of these mechanisms. The results of our experiments imply that maintenance of correct DNA topology prevents induction of the heat-shock response, and that heat-shock induction of a component of the full radiation resistance in yeast may be the consequence of topoisomerase I inactivation

  13. Legal and technical analysis of the activities involving radiation applications. Analise tecnico-juridica das atividades envolvendo aplicacoes de radiacoes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borges, J C [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia

    1991-01-01

    Activities related to radiation applications have been worldwide target of studies concerning biology, medicine, sociology, psychology and law, since prediction of the possible risks and harms associated with the use of radiation, depends on probabilities not easy to quantify, mainly in the most common low-dose situations. In Brazil, legislation generated in the last forty years did not match evolution of the scientific domains related above. This way, more recent rules not rarely conflict with older regulations, without revoking them. (author).

  14. Circadian rhythms in the incidence of apoptotic cells and number of clonogenic cells in intestinal crypts after radiation using normal and reversed light conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ijiri, K.; Potten, C.S.

    1988-01-01

    Variations in the number of radiation-induced morphologically dead or dying cells (apoptotic cells) in the crypts in the small intestine of the mouse have been studied throughout a 24-h period under a normal light regimen. A clear circadian rhythm was displayed in the apoptotic incidence 3 or 6 h after irradiation for each gamma-ray dose studied (range 0.14-9.0 Gy). The most prominent circadian rhythm was obtained after 0.5 Gy. Peak time of day for inducing apoptosis was 06.00-09.00 h, and the trough occurred at 18.00-21.00 h. Some mice were also transferred to a reversed light cycle, and irradiated on different days after transfer. Apoptosis induced by 0.5 Gy or 9.0 Gy, or number of surviving crypts (microcolonies) after 11.0 Gy or 13.0 Gy was examined. The transition point for reversal of circadian rhythm in apoptosis (after 0.5 Gy) occurred 7 days after transfer and the rhythm was reversed by 14 days. The rhythm for crypt survival (i.e. for clonogenic cell radiosensitivity) was disturbed on 1 day and transition point for reversal occurred 3 days after transfer. The rhythm became reversed by 7 days. (author)

  15. In situ electrochemical impedance spectroscopy/synchrotron radiation grazing incidence X-ray diffraction-A powerful new technique for the characterization of electrochemical surfaces and interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Marco, Roland [Nanochemistry Research Institute, Department of Applied Chemistry, Curtin University of Technology, GPO Box U 1987, Perth, WA 6845 (Australia)]. E-mail: r.demarco@exchange.curtin.edu.au; Jiang, Z.-T. [Nanochemistry Research Institute, Department of Applied Chemistry, Curtin University of Technology, GPO Box U 1987, Perth, WA 6845 (Australia); Martizano, Jay [Nanochemistry Research Institute, Department of Applied Chemistry, Curtin University of Technology, GPO Box U 1987, Perth, WA 6845 (Australia); Lowe, Alex [Nanochemistry Research Institute, Department of Applied Chemistry, Curtin University of Technology, GPO Box U 1987, Perth, WA 6845 (Australia); Pejcic, Bobby [Nanochemistry Research Institute, Department of Applied Chemistry, Curtin University of Technology, GPO Box U 1987, Perth, WA 6845 (Australia); Riessen, Arie van [Materials Research Group, Department of Applied Physics, Curtin University of Technology, GPO Box U 1987, Perth, WA 6845 (Australia)

    2006-08-15

    A marriage of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and in situ synchrotron radiation grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (SR-GIXRD) has provided a powerful new technique for the elucidation of the mechanistic chemistry of electrochemical systems. In this study, EIS/SR-GIXRD has been used to investigate the influence of metal ion buffer calibration ligands, along with natural organic ligands in seawater, on the behaviour of the iron chalcogenide glass ion-selective electrode (ISE). The SR-GIXRD data demonstrated that citrate - a previously reported poor iron calibration ligand for the analysis of seawater - induced an instantaneous and total dissolution of crystalline GeSe and Sb{sub 2}Se{sub 3} in the modified surface layer (MSL) of the ISE, while natural organic ligands in seawater and a mixture of ligands in a mimetic seawater ligand system protected the MSL's crystalline inclusions of GeSe and Sb{sub 2}Se{sub 3} from oxidative attack. Expectedly, the EIS data showed that citrate induced a loss in the medium frequency time constant for the MSL of the ISE, while seawater's natural organic ligands and the mimetic ligand system preserved the medium frequency EIS response characteristics of the ISE's MSL. The new EIS/SR-GIXRD technique has provided insights into the suitability of iron calibration ligands for the analysis of iron in seawater.

  16. Radiological incidents in radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hobzova, L.; Novotny, J.

    2008-01-01

    In many countries a reporting system of radiological incidents to national regulatory body exists and providers of radiotherapy treatment are obliged to report all major and/or in some countries all incidents occurring in institution. State Office for Nuclear Safety (SONS) is providing a systematic guidance for radiotherapy departments from 1997 by requiring inclusion of radiation safety problems into Quality assurance manual, which is the basic document for obtaining a license of SONS for handling with sources of ionizing radiation. For that purpose SONS also issued the recommendation 'Introduction of QA system for important sources in radiotherapy-radiological incidents' in which the radiological incidents are defined and the basic guidance for their classification (category A, B, C, D), investigation and reporting are given. At regular periods the SONS in co-operation with radiotherapy centers is making a survey of all radiological incidents occurring in institutions and it is presenting obtained information in synoptic communication (2003 Motolske dny, 2005 Novy Jicin). This presentation is another summary report of radiological incidents that occurred in our radiotherapy institutions during last 3 years. Emphasis is given not only to survey and statistics, but also to analysis of reasons of the radiological incidents and to their detection and prevention. Analyses of incidents in radiotherapy have led to a much broader understanding of incident causation. Information about the error should be shared as early as possible during or after investigation by all radiotherapy centers. Learning from incidents, errors and near misses should be a part of improvement of the QA system in institutions. Generally, it is recommended that all radiotherapy facilities should participate in the reporting, analyzing and learning system to facilitate the dissemination of knowledge throughout the whole country to prevent errors in radiotherapy.(authors)

  17. 'We have to put up with it--don't we?' The experience of being the registered nurse on duty, managing a violent incident involving an elderly patient: a phenomenological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, N

    1998-02-01

    The incidence of violence directed towards nurses is well known. However, despite guidelines and training aimed at preventing or minimizing these incidents, recent reports indicate an increase in their occurrence. This phenomenological study investigated the experiences of five registered nurses who had to manage a violent incident involving an elderly patient. The purpose of this was to discover what these nurses 'know' about the structure of such an experience and, through the use of Colaizzi's method of data analysis, present this knowledge in the form of an exhaustive description of the experience. Taped interviews were used to collect the data. The analytical process revealed that the experience is structured around five themes: professional competence, nursing identity, powerlessness and oppression, loss (neglected and deserted) and strategies for survival. The discussion analyses these themes and the relationships between them, highlighting the issues of nurse autonomy and exercising accountability. The implications for nursing practice, education and research include recognition of nurses as a professional group to enable autonomous practice, the ways in which nurses' perceptions of nursing knowledge may affect their educative role and the need to extend this study further to provide answers to the questions raised therein.

  18. Early brain response to low-dose radiation exposure involves molecular networks and pathways associated with cognitive functions, advanced aging and Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Xiu R; Bhattacharya, Sanchita; Marchetti, Francesco; Wyrobek, Andrew J

    2009-01-01

    Understanding the cognitive and behavioral consequences of brain exposures to low-dose ionizing radiation has broad relevance for health risks from medical radiation diagnostic procedures, radiotherapy and environmental nuclear contamination as well as for Earth-orbit and space missions. Analyses of transcriptome profiles of mouse brain tissue after whole-body irradiation showed that low-dose exposures (10 cGy) induced genes not affected by high-dose radiation (2 Gy) and that low-dose genes were associated with unique pathways and functions. The low-dose response had two major components: pathways that are consistently seen across tissues and pathways that were specific for brain tissue. Low-dose genes clustered into a saturated network (P < 10(-53)) containing mostly down-regulated genes involving ion channels, long-term potentiation and depression, vascular damage, etc. We identified nine neural signaling pathways that showed a high degree of concordance in their transcriptional response in mouse brain tissue after low-dose irradiation, in the aging human brain (unirradiated), and in brain tissue from patients with Alzheimer's disease. Mice exposed to high-dose radiation did not show these effects and associations. Our findings indicate that the molecular response of the mouse brain within a few hours after low-dose irradiation involves the down-regulation of neural pathways associated with cognitive dysfunctions that are also down-regulated in normal human aging and Alzheimer's disease.

  19. Electronic compensation using multileaf collimation for involved field radiation to the neck and mediastinum in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and Hodgkin's lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacDonald, Shelly; Bernard, Shelley; Balogh, Alex; Spencer, David; Sawchuk, Stephen

    2005-01-01

    An efficient procedure is required for the preparation, planning, and delivery of radiation therapy for involved field radiation to the neck and mediastinum. This technique must reduce tissue complications while maintaining dose uniformity. An elegant intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) treatment that is forward planned has been developed. Both static fields and static subfields shaped by multileaf collimators (MLCs) and asymmetric jaws are used. Patients receiving involved field radiation to the neck and mediastinum are planned in 3 dimensions (3D), where 3D dose compensation is provided using subfields consisting of MLC or asymmetric jaws instead of physical compensators or wedges. Forward planning is performed, usually generating 2 pairs of parallel-opposed fields, with at least 1 of them consisting of subfields to eliminate elevated dose regions. Efficiency in the preparation, planning, and delivery of treatment has been achieved for more than 10 patients. Verification of treatment setup, target anatomy, and MLC configuration is quick when using an electronic portal imaging device. Thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) have verified point-dose uniformity noticeably to ± 5%. An efficient technique using forward planning for simple IMRT consisting of static MLC and asymmetric jaws has been developed

  20. Chronic Low Dose Rate Ionizing Radiation Exposure Induces Premature Senescence in Human Fibroblasts that Correlates with Up Regulation of Proteins Involved in Protection against Oxidative Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Loseva

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The risks of non-cancerous diseases associated with exposure to low doses of radiation are at present not validated by epidemiological data, and pose a great challenge to the scientific community of radiation protection research. Here, we show that premature senescence is induced in human fibroblasts when exposed to chronic low dose rate (LDR exposure (5 or 15 mGy/h of gamma rays from a 137Cs source. Using a proteomic approach we determined differentially expressed proteins in cells after chronic LDR radiation compared to control cells. We identified numerous proteins involved in protection against oxidative stress, suggesting that these pathways protect against premature senescence. In order to further study the role of oxidative stress for radiation induced premature senescence, we also used human fibroblasts, isolated from a patient with a congenital deficiency in glutathione synthetase (GS. We found that these GS deficient cells entered premature senescence after a significantly shorter time of chronic LDR exposure as compared to the GS proficient cells. In conclusion, we show that chronic LDR exposure induces premature senescence in human fibroblasts, and propose that a stress induced increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS is mechanistically involved.

  1. How Good Is Your Rule of Thumb? Validating Male-to-Female Case Ratio as a Proxy for Men Who Have Sex With Men Involvement in N. gonorrhoeae Incidence at the County Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenger, Mark; Bauer, Heidi; Klingler, Ellen; Bell, Teal; Donnelly, Jennifer; Eaglin, Margaret; Jespersen, Megan; Madera, Robbie; Mattson, Melanie; Torrone, Elizabeth

    2018-03-01

    Lacking information on men who have sex with men (MSM) for most reported cases, sexually transmitted disease (STD) programs in the United States have used crude measures such as male-to-female case ratios (MFCR) as a rule of thumb to gauge MSM involvement at the local level, primarily with respect to syphilis cases in the past. Suitability of this measure for gonorrhea incidence has not previously been investigated. A random sample of gonorrhea cases reported from January 2010 through June 2013 were interviewed in selected counties participating in the STD Surveillance Network to obtain gender of sex partners and history of transactional sex. Weighted estimates of proportion of cases among MSM and proportion reporting transactional sex were developed; correlation between MFCR and proportion MSM was assessed. Male-to-female case ratio ranged from 0.66 to 8.7, and the proportion of cases occurring among MSM varied from 2.5% to 62.3%. The MFCR was strongly correlated with proportion of cases among MSM after controlling for transactional sex (Pearson partial r = 0.754, P < 0.0001). Male-to-female case ratio for gonorrhea at the county level is a reliable proxy measure indicating MSM involvement in gonorrhea case incidence and should be used by STD programs to tailor their programmatic mix to include MSM-specific interventions.

  2. Involvement of DNA polymerase beta in repair of ionizing radiation damage as measured by in vitro plasmid assays.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vens, C.; Hofland, I.; Begg, A.C.

    2007-01-01

    Characteristic of damage introduced in DNA by ionizing radiation is the induction of a wide range of lesions. Single-strand breaks (SSBs) and base damages outnumber double-strand breaks (DSBs). If unrepaired, these lesions can lead to DSBs and increased mutagenesis. XRCC1 and DNA polymerase beta

  3. Involvement of p27CIP/KIP in HSP25 or HSP70 Mediated Adaptive Response by Low Dose Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Hang Rhan; Lee, Yoon Jin; Lee, Su Jae; Bae, Sang woo; Lee, Yun Sil

    2005-01-01

    Adaptive responses that reduce the harmful effects of subsequent exposure to high-dose radiation have demonstrated in chromosome aberration, cell survival, sister chromatid exchanges, micronucleus induction, mutation and neoplastic transformation. The mechanisms and conditions for the adaptive response to radiation have not been clarified, although the continuous production of free radicals from radiation and other sources has stimulated cells to evolve a repair system for chromosome breaks. An alteration of the DNA molecule triggers the repair system, and frequent activation may increase the general repair capacity, irrespective of the cause of the damage. Besides, cell cycle regulation systems, antioxidant defense systems, molecular chaperone or stress-response systems. Our previous data showed that when cells were preirradiated with 1cGy, they showed the adaptive response. A reduction of apoptosis by low-dose preirradiation is another potential mechanism for this effect. We previously demonstrated that mouse RIF cells, which did not induce HSP25 and HSP70 did not exhibit a adaptive response after 1cGy preirradiation. whereas the thermoresistant TR cells, which expressed inducible HSP25 and HSP70 showed a response. Moreover, when HSP70 and HSP25 were transfected to RIF cells, the cells acquired adaptive response. In this study, to elucidate the mechanisms in induction of adaptiveresponse, we compared cell cycle distribution by low dose radiation after HSP25 or HSP70 transfected cells and p27CIP/KIP is responsible for the different induction of adaptive response

  4. Wnt/β-catenin pathway involvement in ionizing radiation-induced invasion of U87 glioblastoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, Zhen; Zhou, Lin; Han, Na; Zhang, Mengxian; Lyu, Xiaojuan

    2015-01-01

    Radiotherapy has been reported to promote the invasion of glioblastoma cells; however, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we investigated the role of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway in radiation-induced invasion of glioblastoma cells. U87 cells were irradiated with 3 Gy or sham irradiated in the presence or absence of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway inhibitor XAV 939. Cell invasion was determined by an xCELLigence real-time cell analyser and matrigel invasion assays. The intracellular distribution of β-catenin in U87 cells with or without irradiation was examined by immunofluorescence and Western blotting of nuclear fractions. We next investigated the effect of irradiation on Wnt/β-catenin pathway activity using TOP/FOP flash luciferase assays and quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis of β-catenin target genes. The expression levels and activities of two target genes, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9, were examined further by Western blotting and zymography. U87 cell invasiveness was increased significantly by ionizing radiation. Interestingly, ionizing radiation induced nuclear translocation and accumulation of β-catenin. Moreover, we found increased β-catenin/TCF transcriptional activities, followed by up-regulation of downstream genes in the Wnt/β-catenin pathway in irradiated U87 cells. Importantly, inhibition of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway by XAV 939, which promotes degradation of β-catenin, significantly abrogated the pro-invasion effects of irradiation. Mechanistically, XAV 939 suppressed ionizing radiation-triggered up-regulation of MMP-2 and MMP-9, and inhibited the activities of these gelatinases. Our data demonstrate a pivotal role of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway in ionizing radiation-induced invasion of glioblastoma cells, and suggest that targeting β-catenin is a promising therapeutic approach to overcoming glioma radioresistance. (orig.) [de

  5. Prospecting for the incidence of genes involved in ochratoxin and fumonisin biosynthesis in Brazilian strains of Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus welwitschiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massi, Fernanda Pelisson; Sartori, Daniele; de Souza Ferranti, Larissa; Iamanaka, Beatriz Thie; Taniwaki, Marta Hiromi; Vieira, Maria Lucia Carneiro; Fungaro, Maria Helena Pelegrinelli

    2016-03-16

    Aspergillus niger "aggregate" is an informal taxonomic rank that represents a group of species from the section Nigri. Among A. niger "aggregate" species Aspergillus niger sensu stricto and its cryptic species Aspergillus welwitschiae (=Aspergillus awamori sensu Perrone) are proven as ochratoxin A and fumonisin B2 producing species. A. niger has been frequently found in tropical and subtropical foods. A. welwitschiae is a new species, which was recently dismembered from the A. niger taxon. These species are morphologically very similar and molecular data are indispensable for their identification. A total of 175 Brazilian isolates previously identified as A. niger collected from dried fruits, Brazil nuts, coffee beans, grapes, cocoa and onions were investigated in this study. Based on partial calmodulin gene sequences about one-half of our isolates were identified as A. welwitschiae. This new species was the predominant species in onions analyzed in Brazil. A. niger and A. welwitschiae differ in their ability to produce ochratoxin A and fumonisin B2. Among A. niger isolates, approximately 32% were OTA producers, but in contrast only 1% of the A. welwitschiae isolates revealed the ability to produce ochratoxin A. Regarding fumonisin B2 production, there was a higher frequency of FB2 producing isolates in A. niger (74%) compared to A. welwitschiae (34%). Because not all A. niger and A. welwitschiae strains produce ochratoxin A and fumonisin B2, in this study a multiplex PCR was developed for detecting the presence of essential genes involved in ochratoxin (polyketide synthase and radHflavin-dependent halogenase) and fumonisin (α-oxoamine synthase) biosynthesis in the genome of A. niger and A. welwitschiae isolates. The frequency of strains harboring the mycotoxin genes was markedly different between A. niger and A. welwitschiae. All OTA producing isolates of A. niger and A. welwitschiae showed in their genome the pks and radH genes, and 95.2% of the nonproducing

  6. Incidence and outcome for patients with occult lymph node involvement in T1 and T2 oral squamous cell carcinoma: a prospective study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mücke, Thomas; Mitchell, David A; Wagenpfeil, Stefan; Ritschl, Lucas M; Wolff, Klaus-Dietrich; Kanatas, Anastasios

    2014-01-01

    The evidence base to inform the decision making process in patients with early stage oral cancer and a clinical and radiological N0 neck remains insufficient to answer the question when it is safe to “watch and wait” and when to proceed with a selective neck dissection. A total of 327 consecutive cases of histopathologically staged T 1–2 , N 0–1 and M 0 , but clinically N 0, squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue were prospectively analysed. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used for statistical analysis and are represented as Kaplan-Meier analyses or Cox proportional hazard regression analysis. In 61 patients (18.65%) lymph node involvement was found in the histopathological processing. The mean survival of all patients was 73.3 ± 48.6 months. The 2-year and 5-year overall survival rates of all patients were 87.5% and 68.4%, respectively. The 2-year and 5-year survival rates for stage N 0 were 89.1% and 70.7% compared to 83.3% and 62.9% in N 1 situations. The 2-year and 5-year survival rates for stage T 1 were 87.9% and 73.6% compared to 87.2% and 65.3% in stage T 2 , respectively . The time to recurrence in stage N 0 was 35.1 ± 30.5 months compared to 25.63 ± 24.6 months in cases with N 1 disease. Stage T 1 was associated with a time to recurrence of 38.1 ± 33.9 months compared with 27.2 ± 22.7 months in patients classified T 2 . Variables found to be strongly associated with survival in the univariate analysis included older age, higher tumour and N stage, and grading. Age, tumour stage (p = 0.011, 95% CI, 1.09 to 2.0), nodal stage (p = 0.038, 95% CI, 1.02 to 2.07), and recurrence were independently and significantly associated with survival in the multivariate analysis. This confirms a high overall disease free survival for patients with T1 and N0 treated with single modality surgery and in common with the literature confirms the poor impact on prognosis of the N positive neck

  7. Fibroblast growth factor 2 and DNA repair involvement in the keratinocyte stem cells response to ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harfouche, L'Emira Ghida

    2010-02-01

    Keratinocyte stem cells (KSCs) from the human inter follicular epidermis are regarded as the major target to radiation during radiotherapy. We found herein that KSCs are more resistant to ionizing radiation than their direct progeny, and presented more rapid DNA damage repair kinetics than the progenitors. Furthermore, we provided evidence describing the effect of fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) signaling on the ability of KSCs and progenitors to repair damaged DNA. Despite our knowledge of the fact, that FGF is an anti-apoptotic factor in multiple cell types, the direct link between DNA repair and FGF2 signaling has rarely been shown. Existence of such link is an important issue with implications not only to stem cell field but also to cancer therapy. (author)

  8. Involvement of ERK-Nrf-2 signaling in ionizing radiation induced cell death in normal and tumor cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raghavendra S Patwardhan

    Full Text Available Prolonged oxidative stress favors tumorigenic environment and inflammation. Oxidative stress may trigger redox adaptation mechanism(s in tumor cells but not normal cells. This may increase levels of intracellular antioxidants and establish a new redox homeostasis. Nrf-2, a master regulator of battery of antioxidant genes is constitutively activated in many tumor cells. Here we show that, murine T cell lymphoma EL-4 cells show constitutive and inducible radioresistance via activation of Nrf-2/ERK pathway. EL-4 cells contained lower levels of ROS than their normal counterpart murine splenic lymphocytes. In response to radiation, the thiol redox circuits, GSH and thioredoxin were modified in EL-4 cells. Pharmacological inhibitors of ERK and Nrf-2 significantly enhanced radiosensitivity and reduced clonogenic potential of EL-4 cells. Unirradiated lymphoma cells showed nuclear accumulation of Nrf-2, upregulation of its dependent genes and protein levels. Interestingly, MEK inhibitor abrogated its nuclear translocation suggesting role of ERK in basal and radiation induced Nrf-2 activation in tumor cells. Double knockdown of ERK and Nrf-2 resulted in higher sensitivity to radiation induced cell death as compared to individual knockdown cells. Importantly, NF-kB which is reported to be constitutively active in many tumors was not present at basal levels in EL-4 cells and its inhibition did not influence radiosensitivity of EL-4 cells. Thus our results reveal that, tumor cells which are subjected to heightened oxidative stress employ master regulator cellular redox homeostasis Nrf-2 for prevention of radiation induced cell death. Our study reveals the molecular basis of tumor radioresistance and highlights role of Nrf-2 and ERK.

  9. Involvement of DNA-PK and ATM in radiation- and heat-induced DNA damage recognition and apoptotic cell death

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomita, Masanori

    2010-01-01

    Exposure to ionizing radiation and hyperthermia results in important biological consequences, e.g. cell death, chromosomal aberrations, mutations, and DNA strand breaks. There is good evidence that the nucleus, specifically cellular DNA, is the principal target for radiation-induced cell lethality. DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are considered to be the most serious type of DNA damage induced by ionizing radiation. On the other hand, verifiable mechanisms which can lead to heat-induced cell death are damage to the plasma membrane and/or inactivation of heat-labile proteins caused by protein denaturation and subsequent aggregation. Recently, several reports have suggested that DSBs can be induced after hyperthermia because heat-induced phosphorylated histone H2AX (γ-H2AX) foci formation can be observed in several mammalian cell lines. In mammalian cells, DSBs are repaired primarily through two distinct and complementary mechanisms: non-homologous end joining (NHEJ), and homologous recombination (HR) or homology-directed repair (HDR). DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) and ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) are key players in the initiation of DSB repair and phosphorylate and/or activate many substrates, including themselves. These phosphorylated substrates have important roles in the functioning of cell cycle checkpoints and in cell death, as well as in DSB repair. Apoptotic cell death is a crucial cell suicide mechanism during development and in the defense of homeostasis. If DSBs are unrepaired or misrepaired, apoptosis is a very important system which can protect an organism against carcinogenesis. This paper reviews recently obtained results and current topics concerning the role of DNA-PK and ATM in heat- or radiation-induced apoptotic cell death. (author)

  10. Analysis of the Relation Between Exposure to Ionising Radiation from Computed Tomography Scans in Childhood and Cancer Incidence within the 'Cohorte Enfant Scanner' Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Journy, Neige

    2014-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) is a powerful imaging technique that provides great benefits for diagnosis and medical management of patients. Nonetheless, the widespread use of this procedure raises many concerns about the potential adverse effects induced by X-rays exposure, both in clinical practice and in terms of public health. First epidemiological studies have suggested an increased risk of cancer associated with CT scan exposures in childhood or adolescence. The interpretation of these results is, however, controversial, and evidence about radiation-induced risks of cancer is still limited at this level of exposure and during childhood. In France, the 'Enfant Scanner' cohort was set up by IRSN to study the incidence of cancer among more than 100,000 children who received CT scans before the age of 10 in 21 university hospitals. This study is part of the European Epi-CT project - coordinated by the International Agency for Research on Cancer - which includes nine national cohorts set up on the basis of a common protocol. The current thesis, based on the French cohort, focuses on characterizing the exposure of children receiving diagnostic CT scans and quantifying the risk of cancer associated with these exposures. Dosimetric assessment was performed from the radiological protocols used in paediatrics between 2000 and 2011 in the participating hospitals. This study presents the evolution of the exposures during the period and the variability of practices in the radiology departments. The results show that there is a leeway for optimizing the procedures and limiting the exposure of patients, especially for scans of the head that account for most of the examinations in paediatrics. A quantitative assessment of cancer risk potentially induced by CT scans in paediatrics was performed - on the basis of estimates of risk in other contexts of ionizing radiation exposure. The results show that each CT scan could be associated with an excess risk of tumours of the

  11. Radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pujol Mora, J.

    1999-01-01

    The exposition to ionizing radiations is a constant fact in the life of the human being and its utilization as diagnostic and therapeutic method is generalized. However, it is notorious how as years go on, the fear to the ionizing radiation seems to persist too, and this fact is not limited to the common individual, but to the technical personnel and professional personnel that labors with them same. (S. Grainger) [es

  12. Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidson, J.H.

    1986-01-01

    The basic facts about radiation are explained, along with some simple and natural ways of combating its ill-effects, based on ancient healing wisdom as well as the latest biochemical and technological research. Details are also given of the diet that saved thousands of lives in Nagasaki after the Atomic bomb attack. Special comment is made on the use of radiation for food processing. (U.K.)

  13. Interim report of the DOE [Department of Energy] Type B Investigation Group: Appendix C, Oral statements about the RSI [Radiation Sterilizers, Inc.] incident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hultgren, R.O.

    1990-07-01

    Sometime between April 28, 1988, and June 5, 1988, a 22-inch long by 2.625-inch diameter doubly encapsulated cesium-137 irradiation source began leaking in the RSI-Decatur, Georgia, irradiation facility. By November 1988 when the source was isolated, between 7 and 8 curies (0.4 grams) leaked. This source was one of 1576 produced at Hanford to isolate the highly radioactive elements of wastes stored in single-walled tanks there. The capsule was designed for long term storage in a benign controlled pool environment on the Hanford reservation. An investigation was conducted to evaluate the cause of the incident, the management and administrative matters including leasing and licensing, the capsule design and manufacture, and the capsule qualification process. This Appendix presents transcripts of oral testimony taken during this investigation and is include as an integral part of the factual data upon which the Findings of this report are based. The transcriptions in every case were made available to the individuals involved for correction of factual misstatements and to be cleaned of verbal idiosyncrasies that detract from the meaning of the text

  14. Acclimation to UV-B radiation and visible light in Lactuca sativa involves up-regulation of photosynthetic performance and orchestration of metabolome-wide responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wargent, J J; Nelson, B C W; McGhie, T K; Barnes, P W

    2015-05-01

    UV-B radiation is often viewed as a source of stress for higher plants. In particular, photosynthetic function has been described as a common target for UV-B impairment; yet as our understanding of UV-B photomorphogenesis increases, there are opportunities to expand the emerging paradigm of regulatory UV response. Lactuca sativa is an important dietary crop species and is often subjected to rapid sunlight exposure at field transfer. Acclimation to UV-B and visible light conditions in L. sativa was dissected using gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence measurements, in addition to non-destructive assessments of UV epidermal shielding (SUV ). After UV-B treatment, seedlings were subjected to wide-range metabolomic analysis using liquid chromatography hybrid quadrupole time-of-flight high-resolution mass spectrometry (LC-QTOF-HRMS). During the acclimation period, net photosynthetic rate increased in UV-treated plants, epidermal UV shielding increased in both subsets of plants transferred to the acclimatory conditions (UV+/UV- plants) and Fv /Fm declined slightly in UV+/UV- plants. Metabolomic analysis revealed that a key group of secondary compounds was up-regulated by higher light conditions, yet several of these compounds were elevated further by UV-B radiation. In conclusion, acclimation to UV-B radiation involves co-protection from the effects of visible light, and responses to UV-B radiation at a photosynthetic level may not be consistently viewed as damaging to plant development. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winther, J.F.; Ulbak, K.; Dreyer, L.; Pukkala, E.; Oesterlind, A.

    1997-01-01

    Exposure to solar and ionizing radiation increases the risk for cancer in humans. Some 5% of solar radiation is within the ultraviolet spectrum and may cause both malignant melanoma and non-melanocytic skin cancer; the latter is regarded as a benign disease and is accordingly not included in our estimation of avoidable cancers. Under the assumption that the rate of occurrence of malignant melanoma of the buttocks of both men and women and of the scalp of women would apply to all parts of the body in people completely unexposed to solar radiation, it was estimated that approximately 95% of all malignant melanomas arising in the Nordic populations around the year 2000 will be due to exposure to natural ultraviolet radiation, equivalent to an annual number of about 4700 cases, with 2100 in men and 2600 in women, or some 4% of all cancers notified. Exposure to ionizing radiation in the Nordic countries occurs at an average effective dose per capita per year of about 3 mSv (Iceland, 1.1 mSv) from natural sources, and about 1 mSv from man-made sources. While the natural sources are primarily radon in indoor air, natural radionuclides in food, cosmic radiation and gamma radiation from soil and building materials, the man-made sources are dominated by the diagnostic and therapeutic use of ionizing radiation. On the basis of measured levels of radon in Nordic dwellings and associated risk estimates for lung cancer derived from well-conducted epidemiological studies, we estimated that about 180 cases of lung cancer (1% of all lung cancer cases) per year could be avoided in the Nordic countries around the year 2000 if indoor exposure to radon were eliminated, and that an additional 720 cases (6%) could be avoided annually if either radon or tobacco smoking were eliminated. Similarly, it was estimated that the exposure of the Nordic populations to natural sources of ionizing radiation other than radon and to medical sources will each give rise to an annual total of 2120

  16. Involvement of hydroxyl radicals in the release by ionizing radiation of a cell surface nuclease from Micorcoccus radiodurans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchel, R.E.J.

    1975-01-01

    The ionizing radiation-induced release of a surface exonuclease from Micrococcus radiodurans is to a large extent inhibited by the removal of water. Irradiation of a cell suspension saturated with O 2 (an effective aqueous electron and hydrogen atom scavenger) allows the same release as irradiation in the presence of N 2 . Ethanol (a good hydroxyl radical scavenger) protects the enzyme from release. These data suggest that hydroxyl radicals produced by the radiolysis of water are important releasing agents. Hydroxyl radicals produced by the ultraviolet decomposition of H 2 O 2 were effective in releasing the enzyme

  17. Wheelchair incidents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drongelen AW van; Roszek B; Hilbers-Modderman ESM; Kallewaard M; Wassenaar C; LGM

    2002-01-01

    This RIVM study was performed to gain insight into wheelchair-related incidents with powered and manual wheelchairs reported to the USA FDA, the British MDA and the Dutch Center for Quality and Usability Research of Technical Aids (KBOH). The data in the databases do not indicate that incidents with

  18. Scattered radiation risk to the lens of the eyes for staff involved in using mobile C-arm fluoroscopy unit: Which position is riskiest?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salleh, H.; Matori, M. K.; Isa, M. J. M. [Agensi Nuklear Malaysia, Bangi, 43000 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia); Samat, S. B. [Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2015-09-25

    Cataractogenesis is something to be concerned by radiologist and radiographer who work extensively in fluoroscopy. The increasing use of fluoroscopy or interventional fluoroscopy has to come with safety awareness on scattered radiation risk for staff performing the procedure. This study is looking into the radiation risk to the lens of the eyes for staff involved in fluoroscopy using the mobile C-arm fluoroscopy unit. The Toshiba SXT-1000A and Alderson Rando phantom were used in this study. Based on the results, it is found clearly that over couch (OC) procedure is riskier than under couch (UC) procedure. The cathode bound area is clearly riskier than anode bound area especially for UC procedure. More doses (at least +1,568 % of safest position) are received by the lens of the eyes for staff standing at the cathode bound area especially the position opposite to the x-ray tube.

  19. Scattered radiation risk to the lens of the eyes for staff involved in using mobile C-arm fluoroscopy unit: Which position is riskiest?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salleh, H.; Matori, M. K.; Isa, M. J. M.; Samat, S. B.

    2015-01-01

    Cataractogenesis is something to be concerned by radiologist and radiographer who work extensively in fluoroscopy. The increasing use of fluoroscopy or interventional fluoroscopy has to come with safety awareness on scattered radiation risk for staff performing the procedure. This study is looking into the radiation risk to the lens of the eyes for staff involved in fluoroscopy using the mobile C-arm fluoroscopy unit. The Toshiba SXT-1000A and Alderson Rando phantom were used in this study. Based on the results, it is found clearly that over couch (OC) procedure is riskier than under couch (UC) procedure. The cathode bound area is clearly riskier than anode bound area especially for UC procedure. More doses (at least +1,568 % of safest position) are received by the lens of the eyes for staff standing at the cathode bound area especially the position opposite to the x-ray tube

  20. Wnt/β-catenin pathway involvement in ionizing radiation-induced invasion of U87 glioblastoma cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Zhen [Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Department of Neurosurgery, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Wuhan (China); Zhou, Lin [Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Department of Histoembryology, Tongji Medical College, Wuhan (China); Han, Na; Zhang, Mengxian [Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Department of Oncology, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Wuhan (China); Lyu, Xiaojuan [Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Department of Oncology, The Central Hospital of Wuhan, Tongji Medical College, Wuhan (China)

    2015-08-15

    Radiotherapy has been reported to promote the invasion of glioblastoma cells; however, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we investigated the role of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway in radiation-induced invasion of glioblastoma cells. U87 cells were irradiated with 3 Gy or sham irradiated in the presence or absence of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway inhibitor XAV 939. Cell invasion was determined by an xCELLigence real-time cell analyser and matrigel invasion assays. The intracellular distribution of β-catenin in U87 cells with or without irradiation was examined by immunofluorescence and Western blotting of nuclear fractions. We next investigated the effect of irradiation on Wnt/β-catenin pathway activity using TOP/FOP flash luciferase assays and quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis of β-catenin target genes. The expression levels and activities of two target genes, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9, were examined further by Western blotting and zymography. U87 cell invasiveness was increased significantly by ionizing radiation. Interestingly, ionizing radiation induced nuclear translocation and accumulation of β-catenin. Moreover, we found increased β-catenin/TCF transcriptional activities, followed by up-regulation of downstream genes in the Wnt/β-catenin pathway in irradiated U87 cells. Importantly, inhibition of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway by XAV 939, which promotes degradation of β-catenin, significantly abrogated the pro-invasion effects of irradiation. Mechanistically, XAV 939 suppressed ionizing radiation-triggered up-regulation of MMP-2 and MMP-9, and inhibited the activities of these gelatinases. Our data demonstrate a pivotal role of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway in ionizing radiation-induced invasion of glioblastoma cells, and suggest that targeting β-catenin is a promising therapeutic approach to overcoming glioma radioresistance. (orig.) [German] Studien haben gezeigt, dass eine Strahlentherapie die Invasivitaet von

  1. Poster - 27: Incident Learning Practices in Ontario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angers, Crystal; Medlam, Gaylene; Liszewski, Brian; Simniceanu, Carina [The Ottawa Hospital Cancer Centre, Mississauga Halton/Central West Regional Cancer Center, Odette Cancer Centre, Cancer Care Ontario (Canada)

    2016-08-15

    Purpose: The Radiation Incident and Safety Committee (RISC), established and supported by Cancer Care Ontario (CCO), is responsible for advising the Provincial Head of the Radiation Treatment program on matters relating to provincial reporting of radiation incidents with the goal of improved risk mitigation. Methods: The committee is made up of Radiation Incident Leads (RILs) with representation from each of the 14 radiation medicine programs in the province. RISC routinely meets to review recent critical incidents and to discuss provincial reporting processes and future directions of the committee. Regular face to face meetings have provided an excellent venue for sharing incident learning practices. A summary of the incident learning practices across Ontario has been compiled. Results: Almost all programs in Ontario employ an incident learning committee to review incidents and identify corrective actions or process improvements. Tools used for incident reporting include: paper based reporting, a number of different commercial products and software solutions developed in-house. A wide range of classification schema (data taxonomies) are employed, although most have been influenced by national guidance documents. The majority of clinics perform root cause analyses but utilized methodologies vary significantly. Conclusions: Most programs in Ontario employ a committee approach to incident learning. However, the reporting tools and taxonomies in use vary greatly which represents a significant challenge to provincial reporting. RISC is preparing to adopt the National System for Incident Reporting – Radiation Therapy (NSIR-RT) which will standardize incident reporting and facilitate data analyses aimed at identifying targeted improvement initiatives.

  2. Poster - 27: Incident Learning Practices in Ontario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angers, Crystal; Medlam, Gaylene; Liszewski, Brian; Simniceanu, Carina

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The Radiation Incident and Safety Committee (RISC), established and supported by Cancer Care Ontario (CCO), is responsible for advising the Provincial Head of the Radiation Treatment program on matters relating to provincial reporting of radiation incidents with the goal of improved risk mitigation. Methods: The committee is made up of Radiation Incident Leads (RILs) with representation from each of the 14 radiation medicine programs in the province. RISC routinely meets to review recent critical incidents and to discuss provincial reporting processes and future directions of the committee. Regular face to face meetings have provided an excellent venue for sharing incident learning practices. A summary of the incident learning practices across Ontario has been compiled. Results: Almost all programs in Ontario employ an incident learning committee to review incidents and identify corrective actions or process improvements. Tools used for incident reporting include: paper based reporting, a number of different commercial products and software solutions developed in-house. A wide range of classification schema (data taxonomies) are employed, although most have been influenced by national guidance documents. The majority of clinics perform root cause analyses but utilized methodologies vary significantly. Conclusions: Most programs in Ontario employ a committee approach to incident learning. However, the reporting tools and taxonomies in use vary greatly which represents a significant challenge to provincial reporting. RISC is preparing to adopt the National System for Incident Reporting – Radiation Therapy (NSIR-RT) which will standardize incident reporting and facilitate data analyses aimed at identifying targeted improvement initiatives.

  3. Effects of expression level of DNA repair-related genes involved in the NHEJ pathway on radiation-induced cognitive impairment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Liyuan; Chen Liesong; Sun Rui; Ji Shengjun; Ding Yanyan; Wu Jia; Tian Ye

    2013-01-01

    Cranial radiation therapy can induce cognitive decline. Impairments of hippocampal neurogenesis are thought to be a paramountly important mechanism underlying radiation-induced cognitive dysfunction. In the mature nervous system, DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are mainly repaired by non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) pathways. It has been demonstrated that NHEJ deficiencies are associated with impaired neurogenesis. In our study, rats were randomly divided into five groups to be irradiated by single doses of 0 (control), 0 (anesthesia control), 2, 10, and 20 Gy, respectively. The cognitive function of the irradiated rats was measured by open field, Morris water maze and passive avoidance tests. Real-time PCR was also used to detect the expression level of DNA DSB repair-related genes involved in the NHEJ pathway, such as XRCC4, XRCC5 and XRCC6, in the hippocampus. The influence of different radiation doses on cognitive function in rats was investigated. From the results of the behavior tests, we found that rats receiving 20 Gy irradiation revealed poorer learning and memory, while no significant loss of learning and memory existed in rats receiving irradiation from 0-10 Gy. The real-time PCR and Western blot results showed no significant difference in the expression level of DNA repair-related genes between the 10 and 20 Gy groups, which may help to explain the behavioral results, id est (i.e.) DNA damage caused by 0-10 Gy exposure was appropriately repaired, however, damage induced by 20 Gy exceeded the body's maximum DSB repair ability. Ionizing radiation-induced cognitive impairments depend on the radiation dose, and more directly on the body's own ability to repair DNA DSBs via the NHEJ pathway. (author)

  4. Contaminated Mexican steel incident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    This report documents the circumstances contributing to the inadvertent melting of cobalt 60 (Co-60) contaminated scrap metal in two Mexican steel foundries and the subsequent distribution of contaminated steel products into the United States. The report addresses mainly those actions taken by US Federal and state agencies to protect the US population from radiation risks associated with the incident. Mexico had much more serious radiation exposure and contamination problems to manage. The United States Government maintained a standing offer to provide technical and medical assistance to the Mexican Government. The report covers the tracing of the source to its origin, response actions to recover radioactive steel in the United States, and return of the contaminated materials to Mexico. The incident resulted in significant radiation exposures within Mexico, but no known significant exposure within the United States. Response to the incident required the combined efforts of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Department of Energy, Department of Transportation, Department of State, and US Customs Service (Department of Treasury) personnel at the Federal level and representatives of all 50 State Radiation Control Programs and, in some instances, local and county government personnel. The response also required a diplomatic interface with the Mexican Government and cooperation of numerous commercial establishments and members of the general public. The report describes the factual information associated with the event and may serve as information for subsequent recommendations and actions by the NRC. 8 figures

  5. Factors involved in planning radiation-sterilization practices and technology in the developing countries, and the Agency's promotional role

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukherjee, R.N.; Yuan, H.C.

    1975-01-01

    The application of ionizing radiation for sterilizing ready-to-use medical supplies, sutures and grafts provides a broad scope for the up-grading of public health care and family planning programmes in the developing countries. Sterile ready-to-use medical supplies become particularly important for improving the standard of those services given through the improvised camp-hospitals and mobile medical units for the remote areas of such countries, if needed. The practices generated in the technologically advanced countries will form the basis of the planning, but the necessary adjustments should be made in their implementation to suit best the local conditions and needs and to promote utilization of local raw materials. Necessary research and development and an effective infrastructure should be emphasized. Plastic materials are among the major pollutants of the environment. Timely parallel practical steps need be adopted and an action programme planned to preserve the quality of the human environment. (author)

  6. Comparison of alkylating agent and radiation carcinogenesis: some aspects of the possible involvement of effects on DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawley, P.D.

    1976-01-01

    A series of alkylating agents was classified in terms of increasing relative ability to react at O-atom sites in DNA, MMS 6 -alkylguanines are directly miscoding bases. This series of agents was also used in a study of comparative carcinogenicity with respect to induction of thymic lymphoma in mice, a system in which x-irradiation yields tumors. A positive correlation between ability of agents to alkylate O-6 of guanine in DNA of thymus and carcinogenic potency was found. Although MMS was not active in this system, it was noted that it can induce tumors in other systems. The relationship between repair of alkylation and radiation induced damage in DNA was briefly discussed. The methylating agents induce single-strand breaks in DNA, and the principal repair system appears to fall into the category of short repair as denoted by Regan and Setlow (1974). These single-strand breaks may result from spontaneous hydrolytic depurinations of 3- and 7-methylpurines, or from enzymatic depurinations, e.g., of 3-alkyladenine and O 6 -alkylguanine. Aralkylating agents, which are also carcinogens, can evoke an alternative repair response of the uvr type

  7. A computer simulation study of optimal thyroid radiation protection during investigations involving the administration of radioiodine-labelled pharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wootton, R.; Hammond, B.J.

    1978-01-01

    The administration of iodide for thyroid blocking is now known to carry its own risks, at least in certain categories of patients. A theoretical study has been made by computer simulation of the efficacy of various thyroid blocking regimes. In the case of injected 125 I- or 131 I-iodide, substantial thyroid protection may theoretically be achieved by a single oral dose of inorganic iodide, for example a 90% reduction in radiation dose is produced by only 20 mg iodide. Repeating the initial blocking dose is of little value. A single blocking dose, however, affords poor protection against radioiodine released from labelled plasma proteins. Both for short-lived proteins such as fibrinogen, and for the longer-lived proteins such as albumin, the optimum dosage schedule appears to be stable iodide given daily for two to three weeks. For instance, 10 mg daily for a fortnight will reduce thyroid irradiation by a factor of ten following injections of 125 I-fibrinogen. (author)

  8. Disturbance of DKK1 level is partly involved in survival of lung cancer cells via regulation of ROMO1 and γ-radiation sensitivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, In Gyu, E-mail: igkim@kaeri.re.kr [Department of Radiation Biology, Environmental Radiation Research Group, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, P.O. Box 105, Yuseong, Daejeon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Radiation Biotechnology and Applied Radioisotope, University of Science and Technology (UST), 989-111 Daedeok-daero, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Seo Yoen [Department of Radiation Biology, Environmental Radiation Research Group, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, P.O. Box 105, Yuseong, Daejeon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of); Biomedical Translational Research Center, Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, 125 Gwahak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-806 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyun A; Kim, Jeong Yul [Department of Radiation Biology, Environmental Radiation Research Group, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, P.O. Box 105, Yuseong, Daejeon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jae Ha; Choi, Soo Im [Department of Radiation Biology, Environmental Radiation Research Group, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, P.O. Box 105, Yuseong, Daejeon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Radiation Biotechnology and Applied Radioisotope, University of Science and Technology (UST), 989-111 Daedeok-daero, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Han, Jeong Ran; Kim, Kug Chan [Department of Radiation Biology, Environmental Radiation Research Group, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, P.O. Box 105, Yuseong, Daejeon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Eun Wie [Biomedical Translational Research Center, Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, 125 Gwahak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-806 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-01-03

    Highlights: •DKK1 was expressed differently among non-small-cell lung cancer cell lines. •DKK1 negatively regulated ROMO1 gene expression. •Disturbance of DKK1 level induced the imbalance of cellular ROS. •DKK1/ROMO1-induced ROS imbalance is involved in cell survival in NSCLC. -- Abstract: Dickkopf1 (DKK1), a secreted protein involved in embryonic development, is a potent inhibitor of the Wnt signaling pathway and has been postulated to be a tumor suppressor or tumor promoter depending on the tumor type. In this study, we showed that DKK1 was expressed differently among non-small-cell lung cancer cell lines. The DKK1 expression level was much higher in A549 cells than in H460 cells. We revealed that blockage of DKK1 expression by silencing RNA in A549 cells caused up-regulation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) modulator (ROMO1) protein, followed by partial cell death, cell growth inhibition, and loss of epithelial–mesenchymal transition property caused by ROS, and it also increased γ-radiation sensitivity. DKK1 overexpression in H460 significantly inhibited cell survival with the decrease of ROMO1 level, which induced the decrease of cellular ROS. Thereafter, exogenous N-acetylcysteine, an antioxidant, or hydrogen peroxide, a pro-oxidant, partially rescued cells from death and growth inhibition. In each cell line, both overexpression and blockage of DKK1 not only elevated p-RB activation, which led to cell growth arrest, but also inactivated AKT/NF-kB, which increased radiation sensitivity and inhibited cell growth. This study is the first to demonstrate that strict modulation of DKK1 expression in different cell types partially maintains cell survival via tight regulation of the ROS-producing ROMO1 and radiation resistance.

  9. Disturbance of DKK1 level is partly involved in survival of lung cancer cells via regulation of ROMO1 and γ-radiation sensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, In Gyu; Kim, Seo Yoen; Kim, Hyun A; Kim, Jeong Yul; Lee, Jae Ha; Choi, Soo Im; Han, Jeong Ran; Kim, Kug Chan; Cho, Eun Wie

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: •DKK1 was expressed differently among non-small-cell lung cancer cell lines. •DKK1 negatively regulated ROMO1 gene expression. •Disturbance of DKK1 level induced the imbalance of cellular ROS. •DKK1/ROMO1-induced ROS imbalance is involved in cell survival in NSCLC. -- Abstract: Dickkopf1 (DKK1), a secreted protein involved in embryonic development, is a potent inhibitor of the Wnt signaling pathway and has been postulated to be a tumor suppressor or tumor promoter depending on the tumor type. In this study, we showed that DKK1 was expressed differently among non-small-cell lung cancer cell lines. The DKK1 expression level was much higher in A549 cells than in H460 cells. We revealed that blockage of DKK1 expression by silencing RNA in A549 cells caused up-regulation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) modulator (ROMO1) protein, followed by partial cell death, cell growth inhibition, and loss of epithelial–mesenchymal transition property caused by ROS, and it also increased γ-radiation sensitivity. DKK1 overexpression in H460 significantly inhibited cell survival with the decrease of ROMO1 level, which induced the decrease of cellular ROS. Thereafter, exogenous N-acetylcysteine, an antioxidant, or hydrogen peroxide, a pro-oxidant, partially rescued cells from death and growth inhibition. In each cell line, both overexpression and blockage of DKK1 not only elevated p-RB activation, which led to cell growth arrest, but also inactivated AKT/NF-kB, which increased radiation sensitivity and inhibited cell growth. This study is the first to demonstrate that strict modulation of DKK1 expression in different cell types partially maintains cell survival via tight regulation of the ROS-producing ROMO1 and radiation resistance

  10. Assessment of the accuracy of the conventional ray-tracing technique: Implications in remote sensing and radiative transfer involving ice clouds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bi, Lei; Yang, Ping; Liu, Chao; Yi, Bingqi; Baum, Bryan A.; Diedenhoven, Bastiaan van; Iwabuchi, Hironobu

    2014-01-01

    A fundamental problem in remote sensing and radiative transfer simulations involving ice clouds is the ability to compute accurate optical properties for individual ice particles. While relatively simple and intuitively appealing, the conventional geometric-optics method (CGOM) is used frequently for the solution of light scattering by ice crystals. Due to the approximations in the ray-tracing technique, the CGOM accuracy is not well quantified. The result is that the uncertainties are introduced that can impact many applications. Improvements in the Invariant Imbedding T-matrix method (II-TM) and the Improved Geometric-Optics Method (IGOM) provide a mechanism to assess the aforementioned uncertainties. The results computed by the II-TM+IGOM are considered as a benchmark because the II-TM solves Maxwell's equations from first principles and is applicable to particle size parameters ranging into the domain at which the IGOM has reasonable accuracy. To assess the uncertainties with the CGOM in remote sensing and radiative transfer simulations, two independent optical property datasets of hexagonal columns are developed for sensitivity studies by using the CGOM and the II-TM+IGOM, respectively. Ice cloud bulk optical properties obtained from the two datasets are compared and subsequently applied to retrieve the optical thickness and effective diameter from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) measurements. Additionally, the bulk optical properties are tested in broadband radiative transfer (RT) simulations using the general circulation model (GCM) version of the Rapid Radiative Transfer Model (RRTMG) that is adopted in the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Community Atmosphere Model (CAM, version 5.1). For MODIS retrievals, the mean bias of uncertainties of applying the CGOM in shortwave bands (0.86 and 2.13 μm) can be up to 5% in the optical thickness and as high as 20% in the effective diameter, depending on cloud optical

  11. Inhibition of G1-phase arrest induced by ionizing radiation in hematopoietic cells by overexpression of genes involved in the G1/S-phase transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epperly, M.; Berry, L.; Halloran, A.; Greenberger, J.S.

    1995-01-01

    D-type cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinase (cdk-4) are likely involved in regulating passage of cells through the G 1 phase of the cell cycle. A decrease in the proportion of cells in G 1 , a relatively radiation-sensitive phase of the cell cycle, should result in increased resistance to ionizing radiation; however, the effect of such overexpression on X-ray-induced G 1 -phase arrest is not known. Radiation survival curves were obtained at a dose rate of either 8 cGy/min or 1 Gy/min for subclones of the IL-3-dependent hematopoietic progenitor cell line 32D cl 3 expressing transgenes for either cyclin-D1, D2 or D3 or cdk-4. We compared the results to those with overexpression of the transgene for Bcl-2, whose expression enhances radiation survival and delays apoptosis. Cells overexpressing transgenes for each D-type cyclin or Bcl-2 had an increased number of cells in S phase compared to parent line 32D cl 3; however, overexpression of cdk-4 had no effect on cell cycle distribution. Cell death resulting from withdrawal of IL-3 was not affected by overexpression of D2, cdk-4 or Bcl-2. Flow cytometry 24 h after 5 Gy irradiation demonstrated that overexpression of each G 1 -phase regulatory transgene decreased the proportion of cells at the G 1 /S-phase border. Western analysis revealed induction of cyclin-D protein levels by irradiation, but no change in the D O , but a significant increase in the rvec n for cyclin-D or cdk-4 transgene-overexpressing clones at 1 Gy/min (P 1 /S-phase arrest. 31 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs

  12. Heme oxygenase up-regulation under ultraviolet-B radiation is not epigenetically restricted and involves specific stress-related transcriptions factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Santa-Cruz

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1 plays a protective role against oxidative stress in plants. The mechanisms regulating its expression, however, remain unclear. Here we studied the methylation state of a GC rich HO-1 promoter region and the expression of several stress-related transcription factors (TFs in soybean plants subjected to ultraviolet-B (UV-B radiation. Genomic DNA and total RNA were isolated from leaves of plants irradiated with 7.5 and 15 kJ m-2 UV-B. A 304 bp HO-1 promoter region was amplified by PCR from sodium bisulfite-treated DNA, cloned into pGEMT plasmid vector and evaluated by DNA sequencing. Bisulfite sequencing analysis showed similar HO-1 promoter methylation levels in control and UV-B-treated plants (C: 3.4±1.3%; 7.5: 2.6±0.5%; 15: 3.1±1.1%. Interestingly, HO-1 promoter was strongly unmethylated in control plants. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis of TFs showed that GmMYB177, GmMYBJ6, GmWRKY21, GmNAC11, GmNAC20 and GmGT2A but not GmWRK13 and GmDREB were induced by UV-B radiation. The expression of several TFs was also enhanced by hemin, a potent and specific HO inducer, inferring that they may mediate HO-1 up-regulation. These results suggest that soybean HO-1 gene expression is not epigenetically regulated. Moreover, the low level of HO-1 promoter methylation suggests that this antioxidant enzyme can rapidly respond to environmental stress. Finally, this study has identified some stress-related TFs involved in HO-1 up-regulation under UV-B radiation. Keywords: Heme oxygenase, DNA methylation, Transcription factors, Ultraviolet-B radiation, Glycine max

  13. The conundrum of hodgkin lymphoma nodes: To be or not to be included in the involved node radiation fields. The EORTC-GELA lymphoma group guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girinsky, Theodore; Specht, Lena; Ghalibafian, Mithra; Edeline, Veronique; Bonniaud, Guillaume; Maazen, Richard van der; Aleman, Berthe; Paumier, Amaury; Meijnders, Paul; Lievens, Yolande; Noordijk, Evert; Poortmans, Philip

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To develop easily applicable guidelines for the determination of initially involved lymph nodes to be included in the radiation fields. Patients and methods: Patients with supra-diaphragmatic Hodgkin lymphoma. All the imaging procedures were carried out with patients in the treatment position. The prechemotherapy PET/CT was coregistered with the postchemotherapy CT simulation for planning purposes. Initially involved lymph nodes were determined on fused prechemotherapy CT and FDG-PET imaging data. The initial assessment was verified with the postchemotherapy CT scan. Results: The classic guidelines for determining the involvement of lymph nodes were not easily applicable and did not seem to reflect the exact extent of Hodgkin lymphoma. Three simple steps were used to pinpoint involved lymph nodes. First, FDG-PET scans were meticulously analysed to detect lymph nodes that were overlooked on CT imaging. Second, any morphological and/or functional asymmetry was sought on CT and FDG-PET scans. Third, a decrease in size or the disappearance of initially visible lymph nodes on the prechemotherapy CT scan as compared to the postchemotherapy CT scan was considered as surrogate proof of initial involvement. Conclusions: All the radiological procedures should be performed on patients in the treatment position for proper coregistration. It is highly advisable that all CT and/or CT/PET scans be performed with IV contrast. Using the above-mentioned three simple guidelines, initially involved lymph nodes can be detected with very satisfactory accuracy. It is also emphasized that the classic guidelines (2, 3, 4) can always be used when deemed necessary

  14. Behavioral and electrophysiological evidence for the mechanisms involved in the detection of ionizing radiations by the crayfish Pacifastacus trowbridgii

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, A.

    1976-01-01

    The light-adapted crayfish, Pacifastacus trowbridgii, displayed a behavioral response to exposure to 300 kV x-rays at exposure rates of 10 to 30 R/s. Within this range, the proportion of subjects that responded increased with an increase in exposure rate. The response latency was inversely proportional to the exposure rate. Ophthalmectomized animals exhibited a similar response with a significantly shorter latency than the intact animals at the same exposure rate (30 R/s). Partial body exposure of ophthalmectomized animals also elicited a behavioral response and indicated that a radiation-sensitive receptor was located in the abdomen. X-ray exposure of the dark-adapted compound eye evoked an electroretinogram (ERG) that was similar to the light evoked ERG. The x-ray evoked ERG amplitude was found to be dependent on total exposure for stimulus durations of 300 ms or less. With stimulus durations greater than 300 ms, the ERG amplitude increased in relation to the logarithm of the exposure rate. Similar responses with light indicated that the mechanism of interaction may be the same for x-rays. The time course for maximal dark-adaptation, after a 500 ms exposure to 3.85 ft-c of light, was comparable for both x-ray and light exposure (9 min). Differences observed in ERG amplitude between the light and x-ray evoked responses during the initial recovery period can be attributed to absorption of light by migrating accessory pigments or by differential interaction of light with photosensitive pigments in the eye

  15. Incidents analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francois, P.

    1996-01-01

    We undertook a study programme at the end of 1991. To start with, we performed some exploratory studies aimed at learning some preliminary lessons on this type of analysis: Assessment of the interest of probabilistic incident analysis; possibility of using PSA scenarios; skills and resources required. At the same time, EPN created a working group whose assignment was to define a new approach for analysis of incidents on NPPs. This working group gave thought to both aspects of Operating Feedback that EPN wished to improve: Analysis of significant incidents; analysis of potential consequences. We took part in the work of this group, and for the second aspects, we proposed a method based on an adaptation of the event-tree method in order to establish a link between existing PSA models and actual incidents. Since PSA provides an exhaustive database of accident scenarios applicable to the two most common types of units in France, they are obviously of interest for this sort of analysis. With this method we performed some incident analyses, and at the same time explores some methods employed abroad, particularly ASP (Accident Sequence Precursor, a method used by the NRC). Early in 1994 EDF began a systematic analysis programme. The first, transient phase will set up methods and an organizational structure. 7 figs

  16. Incidents analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francois, P

    1997-12-31

    We undertook a study programme at the end of 1991. To start with, we performed some exploratory studies aimed at learning some preliminary lessons on this type of analysis: Assessment of the interest of probabilistic incident analysis; possibility of using PSA scenarios; skills and resources required. At the same time, EPN created a working group whose assignment was to define a new approach for analysis of incidents on NPPs. This working group gave thought to both aspects of Operating Feedback that EPN wished to improve: Analysis of significant incidents; analysis of potential consequences. We took part in the work of this group, and for the second aspects, we proposed a method based on an adaptation of the event-tree method in order to establish a link between existing PSA models and actual incidents. Since PSA provides an exhaustive database of accident scenarios applicable to the two most common types of units in France, they are obviously of interest for this sort of analysis. With this method we performed some incident analyses, and at the same time explores some methods employed abroad, particularly ASP (Accident Sequence Precursor, a method used by the NRC). Early in 1994 EDF began a systematic analysis programme. The first, transient phase will set up methods and an organizational structure. 7 figs.

  17. Radiation practices. Annual report 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rantanen, E. (ed.)

    2012-09-15

    conducted by an international expert group. There were 46 abnormal incidents involving the use of radiation in 2011. 13 of these incidents concerned the use of radiation in industry, research and education, 29 involved medical uses of radiation, 1 arose in transportation of radiation sources and 3 concerned the use of non-ionizing radiation. None of these incidents had serious consequences. (orig.)

  18. ROS and calcium signaling mediated pathways involved in stress responses of the marine microalgae Dunaliella salina to enhanced UV-B radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xinxin; Tang, Xuexi; Wang, Ming; Zhang, Wei; Zhou, Bin; Wang, You

    2017-08-01

    UV-B ray has been addressed to trigger common metabolic responses on marine microalgae, however, the upstream events responsible for these changes in marine microalgae are poorly understood. In the present study, a species of marine green microalgae Dunaliella salina was exposed to a series of enhanced UV-B radiation ranging from 0.25 to 1.00 KJ·m -2 per day. The role of ROS and calcium signaling in the D. salina responses to UV-B was discussed. Results showed that enhanced UV-B radiation markedly decreased the cell density in a dose-dependent manner, but the contents of protein and glycerol that were essential for cell growth increased. It suggested that it was cell division instead of cell growth that UV-B exerted negative effects on. The subcellular damages on nuclei and plasmalemma further evidenced the hypothesis. The nutrient absorption was affected with UV-B exposure, and the inhibition on PO 4 3- uptake was more serious compared to NO 3 - uptake. UV-B radiation promoted reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) contents, decreased the redox status and altered the antioxidant enzyme activities. The addition of the ROS scavenger and the glutathione biosynthesis precursor N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC) alleviated the stress degree, implying ROS-mediated pathway was involved in the stress response to UV-B radiation. Transient increase in Ca 2+ -ATPase was triggered simultaneously with UV-B exposure. Meanwhile, the addition of an intracellular free calcium chelator aggravated the damage of cell division, but exogenous calcium and ion channel blocker applications did not, inferring that endogenously initiated calcium signaling played roles in response to UV-B. Cross-talk analysis showed a relatively clear relationship between ROS inhibition and Ca 2+ -ATPase suppression, and a relation between Ca 2+ inhibition and GPx activity change was also observed. It was thus presumed that ROS-coupled calcium signaling via the

  19. Intraoperative Radiation Therapy Reduces Local Recurrence Rates in Patients With Microscopically Involved Circumferential Resection Margins After Resection of Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alberda, Wijnand J.; Verhoef, Cornelis [Department of Surgery, Division of Surgical Oncology, Erasmus MC Cancer Institute, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Nuyttens, Joost J. [Department of Radiotherapy, Erasmus MC Cancer Institute, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Meerten, Esther van [Department of Medical Oncology, Erasmus MC Cancer Institute, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Rothbarth, Joost [Department of Surgery, Division of Surgical Oncology, Erasmus MC Cancer Institute, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Wilt, Johannes H.W. de [Department of Surgery, Division of Surgical Oncology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Center, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Burger, Jacobus W.A., E-mail: j.burger@erasmusmc.nl [Department of Surgery, Division of Surgical Oncology, Erasmus MC Cancer Institute, Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    2014-04-01

    Purpose: Intraoperative radiation therapy (IORT) is advocated by some for patients with locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC) who have involved or narrow circumferential resection margins (CRM) after rectal surgery. This study evaluates the potentially beneficial effect of IORT on local control. Methods and Materials: All surgically treated patients with LARC treated in a tertiary referral center between 1996 and 2012 were analyzed retrospectively. The outcome in patients treated with IORT with a clear but narrow CRM (≤2 mm) or a microscopically involved CRM was compared with the outcome in patients who were not treated with IORT. Results: A total of 409 patients underwent resection of LARC, and 95 patients (23%) had a CRM ≤ 2 mm. Four patients were excluded from further analysis because of a macroscopically involved resection margin. In 43 patients with clear but narrow CRMs, there was no difference in the cumulative 5-year local recurrence-free survival of patients treated with (n=21) or without (n=22) IORT (70% vs 79%, P=.63). In 48 patients with a microscopically involved CRM, there was a significant difference in the cumulative 5-year local recurrence-free survival in favor of the patients treated with IORT (n=31) compared with patients treated without IORT (n=17) (84 vs 41%, P=.01). Multivariable analysis confirmed that IORT was independently associated with a decreased local recurrence rate (hazard ratio 0.24, 95% confidence interval 0.07-0.86). There was no significant difference in complication rate of patients treated with or without IORT (65% vs 52%, P=.18) Conclusion: The current study suggests that IORT reduces local recurrence rates in patients with LARC with a microscopically involved CRM.

  20. Radiation practices. Annual report 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rantanen, E.

    2009-09-01

    1775 safety licences for the use of radiation were current at the end of 2008. 1831 responsible parties were engaged in notifiable licence-exempt dental X-ray activities. Use of radiation was controlled through regular inspections performed at places of use, test packages sent by post to dental X-ray facilities and maintenance of the Dose Register. Radiation safety guides were also published and research was conducted in support of regulatory control. STUK conducted 424 inspections of licensed practices and 18 inspections of notifiable licence-exempt dental X-ray practices in 2008. 209 repair orders and recommendations were issued. Use of one appliance was prohibited. A total of just over 11 500 workers were subject to individual monitoring in 2008, and about 140 000 dose entries were made in the Dose Register maintained by STUK. Regulatory control of natural radiation focused on radon at workplaces and exposure of aircrews to cosmic radiation. 89 workplaces including a total of 201 work areas were subject to radon monitoring during 2008. Some 3700 pilots and cabin crew members were monitored for exposure to cosmic radiation. Metrological activities continued with calibration and development work as in previous years. Regulatory control of the use of non-ionizing radiation in 2008 focused particularly on mobile phones, sunbeds and lasers. Ten mobile phone types and five baby monitors were tested in market surveillance of wireless communication devices. 25 sunbed facilities were inspected and nine laser display inspections were performed. There were 22 abnormal incidents involving the use of radiation in 2008. Seventeen of these incidents concerned the use of radiation in industry, research or transportation, four concerned the use of radiation in health care, and one concerned the use of non-ionizing radiation. None of these incidents had serious consequences. (orig.)

  1. Handling of radiation emergency involving accidental detachment of 20 Ci iridium-192 source in a guide tube of a radiographic equipment in industrial radiography site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaparde, S.P.; Murthy, B.K.S.; Vora, V.B.; Subramanian, G.

    1979-01-01

    The source capsule containing about 17.2 Ci of iridium-192 got accidently unscrewed in a guide tube of a gamma radiography equipment while carrying out the radiography of the spiral casing at construction site of a Hydroelectric Power Station. Immediately after the incident about 10 meter distance all around the spiral casing was cordoned off. The unscrewed capsule along with the source pellet was transferred to a lead container by raising the closed end of the guide tube of about 1/2 meters in length. The source pencil cable and cap of source capsule were separated from the source pellet. The source pellet was further shielded by a steel container and lead sheets. The source pellet was reloaded in the source capsule with limited facilities available at the work site. The source capsule cap was perfectly screwed by standing behind the L bench temporarily constructed out of lead sheets for the above jobs. During the above operation, the person received a whole body dose of 2000 mR and extrimety dose of 3000 mR. Handling of one more radiation emergency of similar type is described. A few appliances designed and fabricated for use in such emergencies are briefly described. (auth.)

  2. Radiation Practices. Annual report 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rantanen, E.

    2005-06-01

    particularly concerned assessments of the health risks of mobile communications and methods of determining radiation exposure caused by mobile phones. There were 18 abnormal incidents involving the use of radiation in 2004. Six of these incidents concerned the use of radiation in industry, research and education, eleven involved medical uses of radiation and one concerned the use of non-ionizing radiation. None of these incidents resulted in serious consequences. (orig.)

  3. Estimation of radiation dosage and transmutation effect of 14C involved in measuring rate of albumin synthesis with 14C-carbonate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yap, A.H.; Hafkenscheid, J.C.M.; Goossens, C.M.I.C.; Buys, W.C.A.M.; Binkhorst, R.A.; Van Tongeren, J.H.M.

    1975-01-01

    For direct measurement of the rate of albumin synthesis, Na 2 14 CO 3 was used intravenously. The assessment of the radiation hazard involved in the study was based on the knowledge of the minimum dose of Na 2 14 CO 3 necessary for a sufficient incorporation of 14 C in the guanidine-C of arginine in albumin to obtain measurable radioactivity. By measurement of expired 14 CO 2 and excreted 14 C-urea in the urine during a 5-hr period following intravenous administration of Na 2 14 CO 3 in five subjects, some quantitative data on 14 C retention and radiation dosage were obtained. In comparison with animal studies, the rate of expiration of 14 CO 2 in man is slower. About 50 percent of the total radioactivity injected was lost through the respiratory route in the first hour. The total amount of expired 14 C during the 5 hr of investigation was about 75 percent of the injected dose for the five subjects. The amount of 14 C excreted as urinary 14 C-urea during the 5 hr of investigation is very small in comparison with the expired 14 C; it was only about 0.5 percent of the dose injected. The total absorbed radiation dose after complete elimination of 14 C from the body was calculated with various assumptions. The extra risk of genetic damage due to disintegration of retained 14 C in comparison with that of natural 14 C in the body during 30 living years is about 50 percent. (U.S.)

  4. Identification of human genes involved in cellular responses to ionizing radiation: molecular and cellular studies of gene encoding the p68 helicase in mammalian cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menaa, F.

    2003-12-01

    Cells submitted to genotoxic factors -like IR- activate several and important mechanisms such as repair, cell cycle arrest or 'apoptosis' to maintain genetic integrity. So, the damaged cells will induce many and different genes. The human transcriptome analysis by 'SSH' method in a human breast carcinoma cell line MCF7 γ-irradiated versus not irradiated, allowed to identify about one hundred genes. Among of these genes, we have focused our study on a radio-induced gene encoding the p68 helicase. In the conditions of irradiation used, our results show that the kinetic and the regulation of this gene expression differs between the nature of radiations used. Indeed, in γ-irradiated mammalian cells, ATM, a protein kinase activated by DSB and IR, is required to induce quickly P68 gene via the important transcription factor p53 stabilized by IR. In the case of UVC-irradiated cells, the P68 gene induction is late and the intracellular signalling pathway that lead to this induction is independent from the p53 protein. Finally, we show that the p68 protein under-expression is responsible for an increased radiosensitivity of MCF7 cells. Consequently, we can postulate that the p68 protein is involved in cellular responses to radiations to reduce the increased radiosensitivity of cells exposed to γ-rays. (author)

  5. A case of syndrome involving the inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone developed during radiation therapy in a patient with invasive thymoma complicated with myasthenia gravis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chikuie, Naoki; Ishida, Simon; Sato, Tomohiko; Furutama, Daisuke; Sugino, Shyouichi; Kimura, Humihiro; Hanafusa, Toshiaki

    2007-01-01

    We present the case of a 56-year-old male with a syndrome involving the inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (SIADH), which developed during radiation therapy for invasive thymoma, complicated with myasthenia gravis (MG). Chest computed tomography revealed a huge mediastinal mass lesion spreading to the pulmonary artery, vena cava and pericardium. He was diagnosed with invasive thymoma, based on the pathological findings of a mediastinal tumor biopsy under computed tomography guidance. He received outpatient radiotherapy for the invasive thymoma, and two weeks after the initiation of radiation at a dose of 22 Gy, was admitted to our hospital because of hypercapnea due to weakness of the diaphragm and disturbance of consciousness. Laboratory examinations of the patient showed hyponatremia, plasma hypoosmolarity in the presence of concentrated urine and inappropriately increased concentration of the plasma antidiuretic hormone. He was also diagnosed as having myasthenia gravis, based on the existence of an anti-acetylcholine receptor antibody. The SIADH was treated by fluid restriction and sodium chloride, and MG was treated with plasma exchange and prednisolone. He recovered from respiratory failure, and his hyponatremia was improved. To our knowledge, this is a rare description of an invasive thymoma associated with SIADH. (author)

  6. INEX 5 - General information. INEX 5 Exercise on Notification, Communication and Interfaces Related to Catastrophic Events Involving Radiation or Radiological Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okyar, Halil Burcin; Lazo, Ted

    2014-01-01

    international organizations, countries may consider using video conferencing as a tool for interaction, as well as face-to-face settings. The exercise begins when a potential problem is identified (NPP is experiencing minor problems; a broken radiation source has been found and there is a potential area of contamination; etc.) and discussions will begin with a focus on initial notification and communication interfaces and understandings by each player. This document provides an overview of the INEX 5 exercises on Notification, Communication and Interfaces Related to Catastrophic Events involving Radiation or Radiological Materials, organized under the auspices of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency. It provides basic information on the exercise and is intended to facilitate decisions on national participation in the INEX 5 exercise series by those organizations responsible for national exercise programmes. (authors)

  7. Potential hazards of diagnostic radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Houston, C S; Shokeir, M H

    1977-03-01

    There are no precise data for determining the extent of somatic damage from small doses of radiation used in diagnostic radiology. Diagnostic radiation given to pregnant women, knowingly or unknowingly, should rarely reach teratogenic levels causing brain and eye abnormalities. Evidence suggests that it does increase the risk of childhood malignancy, especially leukemia. Although rapidly growing tissues seem most susceptible, all radiation probably carries a very small risk of carcinogenesis. Genetic damage is equally difficult to estimate. Diagnostic radiation of females, even in childhood, may be related to an increased incidence of Down's syndrome in older mothers. Radiation also causes point mutations, which may explain the increase of some genetic abnormalities in progeny of older fathers. Whenever an abdominal or pelvic radiograph is ordered before the end of the reproductive period, there must be a potential benefit to balance the small risk involved.

  8. Traffic incident management resource management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    The necessity of a multi-disciplinary approach involving law enforcement, fire and rescue, transportation, towing and recovery, and others has been well-recognized and integrated into incident management operations. This same multidisciplinar...

  9. Short term and long term radiation protection aspects of a nuclear accident: a Cd-Rom for a better stake holders' involvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oudiz, A.; Badie, M.; Brenot, J.

    2002-01-01

    Many players are involved in managing a nuclear accident apart from radiation protection and nuclear safety experts. In an emergency response situation, the decision making process involves many non-technical players who nonetheless have a major role to play: in France these may include the Prefet, the emergency and civil defence services, the health services, the police, the gendarmerie and local councillors, with advice from the safety and radiological protection authorities and expert evaluation organisations. Within the post-accident response, other players will be involved alongside those already described: professional bodies, particularly farming organisations, residents' associations, those responsible for environmental decontamination, agencies responsible for compensating victims, etc., etc. In both the short and the long-term phases of the crisis management process, it is essential to enable participants who may have very different backgrounds and professional experience to work together with co-operation and mutual understanding. If non-technical players are to contribute effectively, there needs to be a minimum level of mutual understanding between them and the technical players on what the nuclear risk really is and what is the rationale of the short and long term counter-measures aimed at protecting the public and restoring the contaminated environment. Local communities also need to share this basic understanding because their cooperation is required in order to implement the counter-measures properly. Conversely, if the experts are to advise the local authorities properly, they need to understand the criteria on which these local authorities and communities base their decisions: what psycho-sociological factors apply, what logistical support is needed, what are the concerns of the local communities?

  10. Radiation control in the nondestructive inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kariya, Yukihiro

    1982-01-01

    In the early days of radiation nondestructive inspection about ten years ago, the loss of radiation sources and careless radiation exposure gave the impression of radiography inspection being immediately slipshod management. In this problem, the peculiar nature of the business in this field is involved. In Nondestructive Inspection Co., Ltd., besides the safety management of radioisotopes, the radiation exposure control of personnel in the regular inspection of nuclear power plants has become increasingly important. The following matters are described: radiation utilization in nondestructive inspection (X- and #betta#-ray radiography, #betta#-ray leak test on shield), radiation control problems in nondestructive inspection business (the peculiar aspects of the business, the analysis of the incidents related with nondestructive inspection), and the practice of radiation control in nondestructive inspection in Nondestructive Inspection Co., Ltd. (Mori, K.)

  11. Biologically based analysis of lung cancer incidence in a large Canadian occupational cohort with low-LET low-dose radiation exposure, and comparison with Japanese atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazelton, W.D.; Curtis, S.B.; Moolgavkar, S.H.; Hutchinson, F.; Krewski, D.

    2003-01-01

    Lung cancer incidence is analyzed in a large Canadian National Dose Registry (CNDR) cohort with individual annual dosimetry for low-dose occupational exposure to gamma and tritium radiation using several types of multistage models. The primary analysis utilizes the two-stage clonal expansion model (TSCE), with sensitivity analyses using extensions of this model incorporating additional stages. Characteristic and distinct temporal patterns of risk are found for dose-response affecting early, middle, or late stages of carcinogenesis, e.g. initiation with one or more stages, clonal expansion, or malignant conversion. Fixed lag or lag distributions are used to model time from first malignant cell to incidence. Background rates are analyzed by gender, job classification and birth cohort. Lacking individual smoking data, surrogate doses based on US annual per capita cigarette consumption appear to account for much of the birth cohort effect. Males, with mean cumulative exposure for gamma and tritium of 11.5 mSv and 322 incident lung cancer cases have a significant dose-response with 33 cases attributable to radiation. Female dose-response, with mean cumulative exposure of 1.7 mSv and 78 incident cases, appears similar but is not statistically significant. Findings for males include an inverse-dose-rate effect (increased risk with protraction of a given dose) and dose-response effects on initiation, promotion and malignant conversion, although the effect on initiation is not statistically significant. The excess relative risk (ERR) and excess absolute risk (EAR) depend on age at exposure, duration, dose, and age at follow-up. The ERR increases with dose, tapering off at higher doses, making a plot of ERR against dose concave-downward, similar to apparent low-dose results seen below 1 Sv for solid tumor mortality of atomic bomb survivors. The concave-downward trend of ERR and the inverse-dose-rate effect are both counter to prevailing beliefs about effects of low

  12. Radiation Practices. Annual Report 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rantanen, E.

    2004-01-01

    2003, STUK investigated 15 abnormal incidents involving the use of radiation. Eight of these incidents concerned the use of radiation in industry, research and education, six involved medical uses of radiation and one concerned the use of non-ionizing radiation. None of these incidents resulted in serious consequences. (orig.)

  13. Radiation injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubner, K.F.

    1988-01-01

    Radiation accidents and incidents continue to be of great interest and concern to the public. Issues such as the threat of nuclear war, the Chernobyl reactor accident, or reports of sporadic incidences of accidental radiation exposure keep this interest up and maintain a high level of fear among the public. In this climate of real concern and radiation phobia, physicians should not only be prepared to answer questions about acute or late effects of ionizing radiation, but also be able to participate in the initial assessment and management of individuals who have been exposed to ionizing radiation or contaminated with radioactive material. Some of the key facts about radiation injury and its medical treatment are discussed by the author

  14. Radiation imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redmayne, I.

    1986-05-21

    A detector for the detection of radiation such as X-ray radiation comprises an array of scintillation elements embedded in a sheet of radiation absorbing material. The scintillation elements are monitored individually, for example by a corresponding array of photodiodes, to build up a picture of the incident radiation. The front face of the sheet and the inner walls of the bores may be coated with a reflective material. The detector finds particular application in weld radiography. The detector may be stepped relative to the radiation source, the signals produced by the rows of the detector as they pass a predetermined point being summed.

  15. Radiation imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redmayne, Ian.

    1986-01-01

    A detector for the detection of radiation such as X-ray radiation comprises an array of scintillation elements embedded in a sheet of radiation absorbing material. The scintillation elements are monitored individually, for example by a corresponding array of photodiodes, to build up a picture of the incident radiation. The front face of the sheet and the inner walls of the bores may be coated with a reflective material. The detector finds particular application in weld radiography. The detector may be stepped relative to the radiation source, the signals produced by the rows of the detector as they pass a predetermined point being summed. (author)

  16. Incidence of radiation-induced Graves' disease in patients treated with radioiodine for thyroid autonomy before and after introduction of a high-sensitivity TSH receptor antibody assay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunkelmann, Simone; Wolf, Ricarda; Koch, Annedore; Kittner, Christian; Groth, Peter; Schuemichen, Carl [University of Rostock, Clinic of Nuclear Medicine, Rostock (Germany)

    2004-10-01

    Autoimmune hyperthyroidism may occur several months after radioiodine therapy (RIT) for functional thyroid autonomy. Exacerbation of pre-existing subclinical Graves' disease (GD) has been held responsible for this phenomenon. Determination of TSH receptor antibody using solubilised porcine epithelial cell membranes is insensitive and may have failed to diagnose GD in these patients before RIT. Following the introduction of a more sensitive assay, using the human TSH receptor as an antigen, it has been expected that the incidence of radiation-induced GD after RIT for functional thyroid autonomy will be reduced. In a first group of 1,428 patients treated between November 1993 and March 1997 (group I) we used the porcine TRAb assay to exclude GD, while in a second group comprising 1,408 patients treated between January 2000 and December 2001 (group II), GD was excluded using the human TRAb assay. A matched control group of 231 patients was derived from group II. In group I a total of 15 (1.05%) patients developed obvious or suspected radiation-induced GD, while in group II 17 (1.2%) did so; the interval until development of GD was 8.4 and 8.8 months, respectively, after RIT. Serum anti-thyroid peroxidase levels before RIT were elevated in 36.4% of group I patients and 47.1% of group II patients, but in only 5.6% of the control group. Other non-specific signs of mild immunopathy of the thyroid were seen retrospectively in 73.3%, 64.7% and 16.0% of the patients in these three groups, respectively. In conclusion, the introduction of a high-sensitivity TRAb assay did not reduce the incidence of autoimmune hyperthyroidism occurring late after RIT for functional thyroid autonomy, but mild immunopathy of the thyroid is seen more frequently in these patients and seems to be a predisposing factor in the development of radiation-induced GD. (orig.)

  17. Low-Dose Involved-Field Radiation in the Treatment of Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma: Predictors of Response and Treatment Failure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russo, Andrea L., E-mail: alrusso@partners.org [Harvard Radiation Oncology Program, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Chen, Yu-Hui [Biostatistics Core, Dana Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Martin, Neil E.; Vinjamoori, Anant; Luthy, Sarah K. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital and Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Freedman, Arnold [Department of Hematologic Oncology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital and Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Michaelson, Evan M.; Silver, Barbara; Mauch, Peter M.; Ng, Andrea K. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital and Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)

    2013-05-01

    Purpose: To investigate clinical and pathologic factors significant in predicting local response and time to further treatment after low-dose involved-field radiation therapy (LD-IFRT) for non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). Methods and Materials: Records of NHL patients treated at a single institution between April 2004 and September 2011 were retrospectively reviewed. Low-dose involved-field radiation therapy was given as 4 Gy in 2 fractions over 2 consecutive days. Treatment response and disease control were determined by radiographic studies and/or physical examination. A generalized estimating equation model was used to assess the effect of tumor and patient characteristics on disease response. A Cox proportional hazards regression model was used to assess time to further treatment. Results: We treated a total of 187 sites in 127 patients with LD-IFRT. Histologies included 66% follicular, 9% chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL)/small lymphocytic lymphoma, 10% marginal zone, 6% mantle cell lymphoma (MCL), and 8% other. Median follow-up time was 23.4 months (range, 0.03-92.2 months). The complete response, partial response, and overall response rates were 57%, 25%, and 82%, respectively. A CLL histology was associated with a lower response rate (odds ratio 0.2, 95% confidence interval 0.1-0.5, P=.02). Tumor size, site, age at diagnosis, and prior systemic therapy were not associated with response. The median time to first recurrence was 13.6 months. Those with CLL and age ≤50 years at diagnosis had a shorter time to further treatment for local failures (hazard ratio [HR] 3.63, P=.01 and HR 5.50, P=.02, respectively). Those with CLL and MCL had a shorter time to further treatment for distant failures (HR 11.1 and 16.3, respectively, P<.0001). Conclusions: High local response rates were achieved with LD-IFRT across most histologies. Chronic lymphocytic leukemia and MCL histologies and age ≤50 years at diagnosis had a shorter time to further treatment after LD-IFRT.

  18. Regulations No. 187 of 31 May 1988 amending section 7 of the regulations on protective measures during work involving ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    These regulations amend regulations No. 1157 of 14 Jun 1985 on protective measures during radiation work. Henceforth workers simultaneously exposed to radiation and cytostatic substances must be given special work instructions to secure their safety. (NEA) [fr

  19. Results of the implementation of a learning system with incidents in an radiotherapy department; Resultados da implementacao de um sistema de aprendizagem com incidentes em um Departamento de Radioterapia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radicchi, Lucas Augusto; Vilela, Ellen Pedroso Severino; Faustino, Fabio de Lima C.; Rodrigues, Fernanda Arantes C.; Gomes, Franciele N.; Souza, Guilherme Vicente de; Silva, Rose Marta S. [Hospital de Cancer de Barretos, SP (Brazil); Toledo, Jose Carlos de [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCar), SP (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    An incident learning system (ILS) is an important tool for improving aspects of patient and staff safety. In radiation oncology, ILS has been implemented both at the institutional level as at the national level, allowing to share lessons learned from incidents that have already occurred. The objective of this study is to present the preliminary results of the ILS implemented in a radiation oncology department. In total, 128 incidents were reviewed by a multidisciplinary committee, and the professional groups that registered more were medical physicists, radiation oncologists and radiation therapists. In addition, incidents have occurred and have been detected mainly in the treatment step. The incident learning system proved to be an important process improvement tool, according to the results shown,the improvement actions proposed and the perception of the people involved. (author)

  20. The protection of operating personnel in nuclear power plants against the risk of nuclear incidents and ionizing radiation arising from normal operation of the plant. Rules and problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortore, F.; Scalera, D.

    1980-03-01

    After an analysis of the nuclear third party liability insurance policy to be taken out in Italy in implementation of Act no. 1860 of 31 December 1962 and Decree No. 519 of 10 May 1979, the collective policy against radiation injuries taken out for operating personnel in nuclear installations is described. The author is in favour of further harmonization of the legal system presently in force in this respect. (NEA) [fr

  1. The incidence of unstable chromosome aberrations in peripheral blood lymphocytes from occupationally exposed people in Boris Kidric Institute of nuclear sciences (Radiation protection department)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zunic, Z; Markovic, S; Bajic, V; Milic, O; Radotic, N; Horvat, Dj; Nikolic, M; Lakoski, A [Institute of Nuclear Sciences Boris Kidric, Vinca, Beograd (Serbia and Montenegro)

    1989-07-01

    The results of the chromosome analysis of 17 employees of Radiation protection department of Boris Kidric Institute of Nuclear Sciences were related to the corresponding values of thermoluminescence dosimetry (TLD) measurements within the past eight years. The results obtained show the biological effects (structural chromosome aberrations) of chronic of fractionated exposures, low-level acute doses, even in the cases when the individual cumulative equivalent doses were 10 times lower than the order of maximum permissible occupational exposures (author)

  2. Radiation practices. Annual report 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rantanen, E.

    2010-08-01

    performed. There were 30 abnormal incidents involving the use of radiation in 2009. 22 of these incidents concerned the use of radiation in industry, research and education, seven involved medical uses of radiation and one concerned the use of non-ionizing radiation. None of these incidents had serious consequences. (orig.)

  3. Radiation practices. Annual report 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rantanen, E. (ed.)

    2011-07-01

    wireless communication devices. There were 32 abnormal incidents involving the use of radiation in 2010. 22 of these incidents concerned the use of radiation in industry, research and education, nine involved medical uses of radiation and one concerned the use of non-ionizing radiation. None of these incidents had serious consequences. (orig.)

  4. Assessment of ionizing radiation as a risk factor for breast cancer incidence in Goiania; Avaliacao da radiacao ionizante como fator de risco para a incidencia de cancer de mama em Goiania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lage, Leonardo Bastos

    2016-11-01

    This research aims to evaluate whether exposure to ionizing radiation to which women are subjected can be associated with the incidence of breast cancer in Goiania. The defined study area is the central region of Goiania, or the Sanitary Districts of Campinas-Centro and Sul, in which are the seven major accident sources of contamination with Cesium 137, and also, as shown by previous study, the majority of new cases of breast cancer (60,43 %). We used the geographical division of the city in census tracts and health districts. The data collection was divided in two stages: the first, for the survey of radiometric measurements, and the second, for identifying the addresses of women diagnosed with breast cancer. The radiometric survey occurred between 2010 and 2014, in which was used an environmental gamma radiation mobile measuring system. This system was composed by a high-sensitivity detector coupled to a Global Positioning System (GPS) and a microcomputer. The assembly was installed on a motor vehicle so that the height of the detector is found at one meter from the ground, and programmed to obtain a measurement of the doses absorbed in the air rate each second. The data collected were: doses absorbed in the air rate, geographical coordinates, altitude, date and time of acquisition. From Mobisys software, files were generated and from ArcGIS 10.0 platform, geospatial assessment survey through the elaboration of thematic maps and geospatial analysis statistics. The annual averages of effective doses and collective effective doses were estimated from the rate of doses absorbed in air collected by the system and the resident population in the census tracts. The second stage begun from the data collection at the Registry of Goiania's Population Based Cancer (RCBPGO), in which were identified addresses of women diagnosed with breast cancer between 2001 and 2010. Part of the data was geographically referenced and using census data were estimated and compared the

  5. Analgesia induced by repeated exposure to low dose X-rays in mice, and involvement of the accessory olfactory system in modulation of the radiation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyachi, Yukihisa; Yamada, Takeshi

    1997-01-01

    The effects of low-dose X-rays on mouse nociceptive behavior were examined using a formalin injected test which rated the amount of time the animals spent licking the injected hind-paw. Male ICR White Swiss mice showed a marked suppression of licking behavior after repeated low-dose X-irradiation (5 cGy/day, 6 consecutive days). The most profound effect was observed on the day 30 after irradiation. The decline of licking behavior, however, was not observed at all following olfactory bulbectomy or vomeronasal tract cut. The analgesic effects could be observed in writhing animals administered acetic-acid intraperitoneally. Moreover, analgesia was totally blocked by the administration of N-nitro-L-arginine, a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, to accessory olfactory bulbs prior to the exposure. The present results indicate that the olfactory system plays an important role in modulation of radiation-induced analgesia, and a possible involvement of nitric oxide in the formation of recognition memory subjected to repeated X-rays. Relatively higher doses (5 cGy x 9 days, 5 cGy x 12 days), however, did not induce such effects, namely, the decline of nociceptive response was limited to the animals irradiated with the smaller dose. (author)

  6. Preparedness for and response to a radiological or nuclear incident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norman Coleman, C.

    2014-01-01

    Public health and medical planning for a nuclear or radiological incident requires a complex, multi-faceted systematic approach involving federal, state and local governments, private sector organizations, academia, industry, international partners and individual experts and volunteers. The approach developed by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services in collaboration with other U.S. Departments is the result of efforts from government and non-government experts that connect the available capabilities, resources, guidance tools, underlying concepts and science into the Nuclear Incident Medical Enterprise (NlME). It is a systems approach that can be used to support planning for, response to, and recovery from the effects of a nuclear incident. Experience is gained in exercises specific to radiation but also from other mass casualty incidents as there are many principles and components in common. Resilience and the ability to mitigate the consequences of a nuclear incident are enhanced by effective planning, preparation and training, timely response, clear communication, and continuous improvements based on new science, technology, experience and ideas. Recognizing that preparation for a radiological or nuclear incident will be a lower priority for healthcare workers and responders due to other demands, the Radiation Emergency Medical Management website has been developed with the National Library of Medicine. This includes tools for education and training, just-in-time medical management and triage among others. Most of the components of NIME are published in the peer review medical and disaster medicine literature to help ensure high quality and accessibility. While NIME is a continuous work-in-progress, the current status of the public health and medical preparedness and response for a nuclear incident is presented. (author)

  7. Targeting safety improvements through identification of incident origination and detection in a near-miss incident learning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novak, Avrey; Nyflot, Matthew J.; Ermoian, Ralph P.; Jordan, Loucille E.; Sponseller, Patricia A.; Kane, Gabrielle M.; Ford, Eric C.; Zeng, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Radiation treatment planning involves a complex workflow that has multiple potential points of vulnerability. This study utilizes an incident reporting system to identify the origination and detection points of near-miss errors, in order to guide their departmental safety improvement efforts. Previous studies have examined where errors arise, but not where they are detected or applied a near-miss risk index (NMRI) to gauge severity. Methods: From 3/2012 to 3/2014, 1897 incidents were analyzed from a departmental incident learning system. All incidents were prospectively reviewed weekly by a multidisciplinary team and assigned a NMRI score ranging from 0 to 4 reflecting potential harm to the patient (no potential harm to potential critical harm). Incidents were classified by point of incident origination and detection based on a 103-step workflow. The individual steps were divided among nine broad workflow categories (patient assessment, imaging for radiation therapy (RT) planning, treatment planning, pretreatment plan review, treatment delivery, on-treatment quality management, post-treatment completion, equipment/software quality management, and other). The average NMRI scores of incidents originating or detected within each broad workflow area were calculated. Additionally, out of 103 individual process steps, 35 were classified as safety barriers, the process steps whose primary function is to catch errors. The safety barriers which most frequently detected incidents were identified and analyzed. Finally, the distance between event origination and detection was explored by grouping events by the number of broad workflow area events passed through before detection, and average NMRI scores were compared. Results: Near-miss incidents most commonly originated within treatment planning (33%). However, the incidents with the highest average NMRI scores originated during imaging for RT planning (NMRI = 2.0, average NMRI of all events = 1.5), specifically

  8. Targeting safety improvements through identification of incident origination and detection in a near-miss incident learning system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novak, Avrey; Nyflot, Matthew J.; Ermoian, Ralph P.; Jordan, Loucille E.; Sponseller, Patricia A.; Kane, Gabrielle M.; Ford, Eric C.; Zeng, Jing, E-mail: jzeng13@uw.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Washington Medical Center, 1959 NE Pacific Street, Campus Box 356043, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States)

    2016-05-15

    Purpose: Radiation treatment planning involves a complex workflow that has multiple potential points of vulnerability. This study utilizes an incident reporting system to identify the origination and detection points of near-miss errors, in order to guide their departmental safety improvement efforts. Previous studies have examined where errors arise, but not where they are detected or applied a near-miss risk index (NMRI) to gauge severity. Methods: From 3/2012 to 3/2014, 1897 incidents were analyzed from a departmental incident learning system. All incidents were prospectively reviewed weekly by a multidisciplinary team and assigned a NMRI score ranging from 0 to 4 reflecting potential harm to the patient (no potential harm to potential critical harm). Incidents were classified by point of incident origination and detection based on a 103-step workflow. The individual steps were divided among nine broad workflow categories (patient assessment, imaging for radiation therapy (RT) planning, treatment planning, pretreatment plan review, treatment delivery, on-treatment quality management, post-treatment completion, equipment/software quality management, and other). The average NMRI scores of incidents originating or detected within each broad workflow area were calculated. Additionally, out of 103 individual process steps, 35 were classified as safety barriers, the process steps whose primary function is to catch errors. The safety barriers which most frequently detected incidents were identified and analyzed. Finally, the distance between event origination and detection was explored by grouping events by the number of broad workflow area events passed through before detection, and average NMRI scores were compared. Results: Near-miss incidents most commonly originated within treatment planning (33%). However, the incidents with the highest average NMRI scores originated during imaging for RT planning (NMRI = 2.0, average NMRI of all events = 1.5), specifically

  9. Incidence and Predictive Factors of Pain Flare After Spine Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy: Secondary Analysis of Phase 1/2 Trials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan, Hubert Y.; Allen, Pamela K.; Wang, Xin S.; Chang, Eric L.; Rhines, Laurence D.; Tatsui, Claudio E.; Amini, Behrang; Wang, Xin A.; Tannir, Nizar M.; Brown, Paul D.; Ghia, Amol J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose/Objective(s): To perform a secondary analysis of institutional prospective spine stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) trials to investigate posttreatment acute pain flare. Methods and Materials: Medical records for enrolled patients were reviewed. Study protocol included baseline and follow-up surveys with pain assessment by Brief Pain Inventory and documentation of pain medications. Patients were considered evaluable for pain flare if clinical note or follow-up survey was completed within 2 weeks of SBRT. Pain flare was defined as a clinical note indicating increased pain at the treated site or survey showing a 2-point increase in worst pain score, a 25% increase in analgesic intake, or the initiation of steroids. Binary logistic regression was used to determine predictive factors for pain flare occurrence. Results: Of the 210 enrolled patients, 195 (93%) were evaluable for pain flare, including 172 (88%) clinically, 135 (69%) by survey, and 112 (57%) by both methods. Of evaluable patients, 61 (31%) had undergone prior surgery, 57 (29%) had received prior radiation, and 34 (17%) took steroids during treatment, mostly for prior conditions. Pain flare was observed in 44 patients (23%). Median time to pain flare was 5 days (range, 0-20 days) after the start of treatment. On multivariate analysis, the only independent factor associated with pain flare was the number of treatment fractions (odds ratio = 0.66, P=.004). Age, sex, performance status, spine location, number of treated vertebrae, prior radiation, prior surgery, primary tumor histology, baseline pain score, and steroid use were not significant. Conclusions: Acute pain flare after spine SBRT is a relatively common event, for which patients should be counseled. Additional study is needed to determine whether prophylactic or symptomatic intervention is preferred

  10. Incidence and Predictive Factors of Pain Flare After Spine Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy: Secondary Analysis of Phase 1/2 Trials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Hubert Y.; Allen, Pamela K. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer, Houston, Texas (United States); Wang, Xin S. [Department of Symptom Research, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer, Houston, Texas (United States); Chang, Eric L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer, Houston, Texas (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, USC Norris Cancer Center, Los Angeles, California (United States); Rhines, Laurence D.; Tatsui, Claudio E. [Department of Neurosurgery, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer, Houston, Texas (United States); Amini, Behrang [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer, Houston, Texas (United States); Wang, Xin A. [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer, Houston, Texas (United States); Tannir, Nizar M. [Department of Genitourinary Medical Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer, Houston, Texas (United States); Brown, Paul D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer, Houston, Texas (United States); Ghia, Amol J., E-mail: AJGhia@mdanderson.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer, Houston, Texas (United States)

    2014-11-15

    Purpose/Objective(s): To perform a secondary analysis of institutional prospective spine stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) trials to investigate posttreatment acute pain flare. Methods and Materials: Medical records for enrolled patients were reviewed. Study protocol included baseline and follow-up surveys with pain assessment by Brief Pain Inventory and documentation of pain medications. Patients were considered evaluable for pain flare if clinical note or follow-up survey was completed within 2 weeks of SBRT. Pain flare was defined as a clinical note indicating increased pain at the treated site or survey showing a 2-point increase in worst pain score, a 25% increase in analgesic intake, or the initiation of steroids. Binary logistic regression was used to determine predictive factors for pain flare occurrence. Results: Of the 210 enrolled patients, 195 (93%) were evaluable for pain flare, including 172 (88%) clinically, 135 (69%) by survey, and 112 (57%) by both methods. Of evaluable patients, 61 (31%) had undergone prior surgery, 57 (29%) had received prior radiation, and 34 (17%) took steroids during treatment, mostly for prior conditions. Pain flare was observed in 44 patients (23%). Median time to pain flare was 5 days (range, 0-20 days) after the start of treatment. On multivariate analysis, the only independent factor associated with pain flare was the number of treatment fractions (odds ratio = 0.66, P=.004). Age, sex, performance status, spine location, number of treated vertebrae, prior radiation, prior surgery, primary tumor histology, baseline pain score, and steroid use were not significant. Conclusions: Acute pain flare after spine SBRT is a relatively common event, for which patients should be counseled. Additional study is needed to determine whether prophylactic or symptomatic intervention is preferred.

  11. Risk of cancer incidence before the age of 15 years after exposure to ionising radiation from computed tomography: results from a German cohort study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krille, L. [University Medical Center Mainz, Institute of Medical Biostatistics, Epidemiology and Informatics, Mainz (Germany); International Agency for Research on Cancer, Lyon (France); Dreger, S.; Zeeb, H. [University of Bremen, Leibniz - Institute for Prevention Research and Epidemiology - BIPS, Research Focus Health Sciences Bremen, Bremen (Germany); Schindel, R.; Blettner, M. [University Medical Center Mainz, Institute of Medical Biostatistics, Epidemiology and Informatics, Mainz (Germany); Albrecht, T. [Vivantes, Klinikum Neukoelln, Institut fuer Radiologie und Interventionelle Therapie, Berlin (Germany); Asmussen, M. [Zentralinstitut fuer Bildgebende Diagnostik, Staedtisches Klinikum Karlsruhe, Karlsruhe (Germany); Barkhausen, J. [Universitaetsklinikum Schleswig Holstein, Klinik fuer Radiologie und Nuklearmedizin, Campus Luebeck, Luebeck (Germany); Berthold, J.D. [Medizinische Hochschule Hannover, Institut fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie, Hannover (Germany); Chavan, A. [Klinikum Oldenburg GmbH, Institut fuer Diagnostische and Interventionelle Radiologie, Oldenburg (Germany); Claussen, C. [Universitaetsklinikum Tuebingen, Abt. fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie, Tuebingen (Germany); Forsting, M. [Universitaetsklinikum Essen, Institut fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie und Neuroradiologie, Essen (Germany); Gianicolo, E.A.L. [University Medical Center Mainz, Institute of Medical Biostatistics, Epidemiology and Informatics, Mainz (Germany); National Research Council, Institute of Clinical Physiology, Lecce (Italy); Jablonka, K. [Klinikum Bremen-Mitte, Klinik fuer Radiologische Diagnostik und Nuklearmedizin, Bremen (Germany); Jahnen, A. [Centre de Recherche Public Henri Tudor, Luxembourg (Luxembourg); Langer, M. [Universitaetsklinikum Freiburg, Klinik fuer Radiologie, Freiburg (Germany); Laniado, M. [Universitaetsklinikum Carl Gustav Carus Dresden, Institut und Poliklinik fuer Radiologische Diagnostik, Dresden (Germany); Lotz, J. [Universitaetsmedizin Goettingen, Institut fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie, Goettingen (Germany); Mentzel, H.J. [Universitaetsklinikum Jena, Institut fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie, Sektion Kinderradiologie, Jena (Germany); Queisser-Wahrendorf, A. [Universitaetsmedizin Mainz, Zentrum fuer Kinder- und Jugendmedizin, Mainz (Germany); Rompel, O. [Universitaetsklinikum Erlangen, Radiologisches Institut, Erlangen (Germany); Schlick, I. [Klinikum Nuernberg Sued, Institut fuer Radiologie und Neuroradiologie, Nuremberg (Germany); Schneider, K.; Seidenbusch, M. [Institut fuer Klinische Radiologie, Klinikum der Universitaet Muenchen, Dr. von Haunersches Kinderspital, Munich (Germany); Schumacher, M. [Universitaetsklinik Freiburg, Klinik fuer Neuroradiologie, Neurozentrum, Freiburg (Germany); Spix, C. [University Medical Center Mainz, German Childhood Cancer Registry, Mainz (Germany); Spors, B. [Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Kinderradiologie, Standort Campus Virchow Klinikum, Berlin (Germany); Staatz, G. [Universitaetsmedizin Mainz, Klinik und Poliklinik fuer diagnostische und interventionelle Radiologie, Sektion Kinderradiologie, Mainz (Germany); Vogl, T. [Klinikum der Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universitaet Frankfurt/Main, Institut fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie, Frankfurt (Germany); Wagner, J. [Vivantes, Klinikum im Friedrichshain, Institut fuer Radiologie und Interventionelle Therapie, Berlin (Germany); Weisser, G. [Universitaetsklinikum Mannheim, Institut fuer Klinische Radiologie und Nuklearmedizin, Mannheim (Germany)

    2015-03-15

    The aim of this cohort study was to assess the risk of developing cancer, specifically leukaemia, tumours of the central nervous system and lymphoma, before the age of 15 years in children previously exposed to computed tomography (CT) in Germany. Data for children with at least one CT between 1980 and 2010 were abstracted from 20 hospitals. Cancer cases occurring between 1980 and 2010 were identified by stochastic linkage with the German Childhood Cancer Registry (GCCR). For all cases and a sample of non-cases, radiology reports were reviewed to assess the underlying medical conditions at time of the CT. Cases were only included if diagnosis occurred at least 2 years after the first CT and no signs of cancer were recorded in the radiology reports. Standardised incidence ratios (SIR) using incidence rates from the general population were estimated. The cohort included information on 71,073 CT examinations in 44,584 children contributing 161,407 person-years at risk with 46 cases initially identified through linkage with the GCCR. Seven cases had to be excluded due to signs possibly suggestive of cancer at the time of first CT. Overall, more cancer cases were observed (O) than expected (E), but this was mainly driven by unexpected and possibly biased results for lymphomas. For leukaemia, the SIR (SIR = O/E) was 1.72 (95 % CI 0.89-3.01, O = 12), and for CNS tumours, the SIR was 1.35 (95 % CI 0.54-2.78, O = 7). Despite careful examination of the medical information, confounding by indication or reverse causation cannot be ruled out completely and may explain parts of the excess. Furthermore, the CT exposure may have been underestimated as only data from the participating clinics were available. This should be taken into account when interpreting risk estimates. (orig.)

  12. Risk of cancer incidence before the age of 15 years after exposure to ionising radiation from computed tomography: results from a German cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krille, L; Dreger, S; Schindel, R; Albrecht, T; Asmussen, M; Barkhausen, J; Berthold, J D; Chavan, A; Claussen, C; Forsting, M; Gianicolo, E A L; Jablonka, K; Jahnen, A; Langer, M; Laniado, M; Lotz, J; Mentzel, H J; Queißer-Wahrendorf, A; Rompel, O; Schlick, I; Schneider, K; Schumacher, M; Seidenbusch, M; Spix, C; Spors, B; Staatz, G; Vogl, T; Wagner, J; Weisser, G; Zeeb, H; Blettner, M

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this cohort study was to assess the risk of developing cancer, specifically leukaemia, tumours of the central nervous system and lymphoma, before the age of 15 years in children previously exposed to computed tomography (CT) in Germany. Data for children with at least one CT between 1980 and 2010 were abstracted from 20 hospitals. Cancer cases occurring between 1980 and 2010 were identified by stochastic linkage with the German Childhood Cancer Registry (GCCR). For all cases and a sample of non-cases, radiology reports were reviewed to assess the underlying medical conditions at time of the CT. Cases were only included if diagnosis occurred at least 2 years after the first CT and no signs of cancer were recorded in the radiology reports. Standardised incidence ratios (SIR) using incidence rates from the general population were estimated. The cohort included information on 7