WorldWideScience

Sample records for incidents animal rights

  1. Bioethical Problems: Animal Welfare, Animal Rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    March, B. E.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses various bioethical issues and problems related to animal welfare and animal rights. Areas examined include: Aristotelian views; animal welfare legislation; Darwin and evolutionary theory; animal and human behavior; and vegetarianism. A 14-point universal declaration of the rights of animals is included. (JN)

  2. Marine Animal Incident Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Large whale stranding, death, ship strike and entanglement incidents are all recorded to monitor the health of each population and track anthropogenic factors that...

  3. Animal rights, animal minds, and human mindreading

    OpenAIRE

    Mameli, M; Bortolotti, L

    2006-01-01

    Do non‐human animals have rights? The answer to this question depends on whether animals have morally relevant mental properties. Mindreading is the human activity of ascribing mental states to other organisms. Current knowledge about the evolution and cognitive structure of mindreading indicates that human ascriptions of mental states to non‐human animals are very inaccurate. The accuracy of human mindreading can be improved with the help of scientific studies of animal minds. However, the s...

  4. Animal rights, animal minds, and human mindreading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mameli, M; Bortolotti, L

    2006-02-01

    Do non-human animals have rights? The answer to this question depends on whether animals have morally relevant mental properties. Mindreading is the human activity of ascribing mental states to other organisms. Current knowledge about the evolution and cognitive structure of mindreading indicates that human ascriptions of mental states to non-human animals are very inaccurate. The accuracy of human mindreading can be improved with the help of scientific studies of animal minds. However, the scientific studies do not by themselves solve the problem of how to map psychological similarities (and differences) between humans and animals onto a distinction between morally relevant and morally irrelevant mental properties. The current limitations of human mindreading-whether scientifically aided or not-have practical consequences for the rational justification of claims about which rights (if any) non-human animals should be accorded.

  5. What's Wrong with "Animal Rights"?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Adrian R.

    1992-01-01

    School leaders must withstand the pressures of the animal rights movement to disrupt the science curriculum. It would be tragic if this movement succeeded in turning a large number of students against the legitimate use of animals and, ultimately, against biomedical research. (MLF)

  6. Current status of animal welfare and animal rights in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jiaqi; Bayne, Kathryn; Wang, Jianfei

    2013-11-01

    In the past few years, new social passions have sparked on the Chinese mainland. At the centre of these burgeoning passions is a focus on animal welfare, animal treatment, and even animal rights, by the public and academic sectors. With China's rapid economic changes and greater access to information from around the world, societal awareness of animal issues is rising very fast. Hastening this paradigm shift were several highly public incidents involving animal cruelty, including exposés on bear bile harvesting for traditional Chinese medicine, the thousands of dogs rescued from China's meat trade, and the call to boycott shark fin soup and bird nest soup. This article outlines the current status of campaigning by animal advocates in China (specifically the animal rights movement) from three interlinked perspectives: wildlife conservation, companion animal protection, and laboratory animal protection. By reviewing this campaigning, we attempt to present not only the political and social impact of the concept of animal rights, but also the perceptions of, and challenges to, animal rights activities in China. 2013 FRAME.

  7. Animal rights and environmental terrorism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve Cooke

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Many paradigmatic forms of animal rights and environmental activism have been classed as terrorism both in popular discourse and in law. This paper argues that the labelling of many violent forms of direct action carried out in the name of animal rights or environmentalism as ‘terrorism’ is incorrect. Furthermore, the claim is also made that even those acts which are correctly termed as terrorism are not necessarily wrongful acts. The result of this analysis is to call into question the terms of public debate and the legitimacy of anti-terrorism laws targeting and punishing radical activism.

  8. Animal Protection and Animal 'Rights' in Hungary

    OpenAIRE

    Toth, Zoltan J.

    2012-01-01

    In Hungary, the first Act on Animal Protection, which aimed at handling and respecting animals as living creatures capable of feelings and suffering and thus deserving and entitled to protection, was adopted in 1998. Based on this, the Act contains several regulations which ensure that animals are protected against all possible kinds of avoidable physical or mental harm. Furthermore, it prohibits and imposes sanctions for any treatment that causes animals unnecessary suffering. The present st...

  9. [Pigeon sport and animal rights].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warzecha, M

    2007-03-01

    To begin, a short overview of the organization and the realization of the racing pigeon sport. Some physiological facts, relevant to racing pigeons, will be touched on. Lastly, a focus on the flights, their completion and the problems involved with the, in some cases, high number of lost pigeons. The German Club of Pigeon Breeders, has made improvements but, it is certainly not enough. The topic of "City Pigeons" will be briefed. The final part deals with pertinent animal rights issues, causes of mishaps, and some rectifying possibilities, which are available to the government veterinarian. Special emphasis will be placed on the international uniformity of this issue. The lecture should prove that there is a need for every government veterinarian to become actively involved, because the described problematic has a major effect on a very large number of animals.

  10. Animal rights and animal experimentation. Implications for physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelpi, A. P.

    1991-01-01

    Practicing physicians are just becoming aware of the animal rights movement, which during the 1980s spawned numerous acts of violence against research facilities throughout the United States. The animal rightists are challenging physicians to show moral justification for the human exploitation of nature and the world of subhuman species. They have aroused public interest in animal welfare, sparked protective legislation for experimental animals, and indirectly encouraged the creation of committees to oversee the conduct of animal experimentation and the conditions of animal confinement. This controversy has necessitated a closer look at the questions of animal experimentation and animal rights against the backdrop of human experimentation and human rights. Physicians and specialists in animal care seek to alleviate suffering and anxiety, and, as moderates, they may be able to bring both sides of the animal rights controversy together in a spirit of mutual tolerance and in the common cause of promoting both human and animal welfare. PMID:1949772

  11. Animal Rights Activism Threatens Dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, Constance

    1990-01-01

    Discussed is the movement against the use of dissections in science laboratories. Examples of protests across the United States are included. Compared is the plight of using animals in a biology classroom and the demise of the teaching of evolution in some areas. (KR)

  12. Opposing views on animal experimentation: do animals have rights?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauchamp, Tom L

    1997-01-01

    Animals have moral standing; that is, they have properties (including the ability to feel pain) that qualify them for the protections of morality. It follows from this that humans have moral obligations toward animals, and because rights are logically correlative to obligations, animals have rights.

  13. Rights, solidarity and the animal welfare state

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harfeld, Jes

    2016-01-01

    This article argues that aspects of the animal rights view can be constructively modulated through a communitarian approach and come to promote animal welfare through the social contexts of expanded caring communities. The Nordic welfare state is presented as a conceivable caring community within...... which animals could be viewed and treated appropriately as co-citizens with solidarity based rights and duties....

  14. [Thoughts on the concept of animal rights].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapouthier, Georges

    2013-01-01

    The human species, granting rights to abstract entities such as businesses, can easily grant such rights to animals, provided that they are clearly defined in relation to human rights. If it is accepted that laws and regulations already afford protection to animals, it may then be said that we already have "animal rights". Such "rights" are thus seen as the opposite of duties and constraints for animal welfare as imposed on humans by humans through laws. Such rights or restrictions should then be extended. From a philosophical point of view, a subtle definition of these rights will lead to the development of a practical and gradual moral stance, granting human rights their rightful position.

  15. Grounding Animal Rights in Mutual Advantage Contractarianism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Taylor

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Contrary to critics and advocates of contractarianism alike, I argue that mutual advantage contractarianism entails rights and protections for animals. In section one I outline the criteria that must be met in order for an individual to qualify for moral rights on the contractarian view. I then introduce an alternative form of ‘rights,’ which I call ‘protectorate status,’ from which an individual can receive protections indirectly. In section two I suggest guidelines for assigning animal rights based on two ways of categorizing animals. On the basis of the categorization according to benefit derived, I argue that animals used for companionship, security, hunting assistance, transportation, entertainment, medical service, nourishment, or clothing will tend to qualify for basic rights against starvation, predation, and disease. On the basis of the categorization according to species, I argue that, on top of the basic rights above, dogs tend to qualify for rights against abuse, and against frivolous medical experimentation, as well as further negotiated rights. Cows have the basic rights against starvation, predation, and disease, but squirrels and bears have no rights. In section three I argue that some animals qualify for protectorate status, which would establish various protections for different animals, but would also generally prohibit cruelty towards animals.

  16. The Ecologist's View of Animal Rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Walter E.

    1994-01-01

    Provides insights on the controversial issue of animal rights. Four factors are considered: (1) animals' rights; (2) research; (3) hunting and fishing; and (4) agriculture. Contends that it is imperative that the public knows all the facts before casting their vote on the issue. (ZWH)

  17. The rights of man and animal experimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, J

    1990-01-01

    Since emotions give contradictory signals about animal experimentation in medical science, man's relationship to animals must be based upon reason. Thomas Aquinas argues that man is essentially different from animals because man's intellectual processes show evidence of an abstract mechanism not possessed by animals. Man's rights arise in association with this essential difference. The consequence is that only man possesses true rights by Aquinas's definition; animals have them only by analogy. However, cruelty to animals is illicit and they should be protected, principally not because they have rights, but because he who is cruel to animals is more likely to be cruel to his fellowman. If there is a need for animal experimentation in science for the good of man, this approach gives philosophical justification for experimentation, since man's well-being must come before that of animals because of his unique possession of rights. However, those experiments should be carried out in the kindest way possible, to promote kindness towards man. To see man as solely part of a biological continuum in competition for rights with those beings close to him biologically, detracts from man's dignity. PMID:2135948

  18. Animal Rights as a Mainstream Phenomenon

    OpenAIRE

    Rollin, Bernard E.

    2011-01-01

    Simple Summary The twentieth century has witnessed a bewildering array of ethical revolutions, from civil rights to environmentalism to feminism. Often ignored is the rise of massive societal concern across the world regarding animal treatment. Regulation of animal research exists in virtually all western countries, and reform of “factory farming” is regnant in Europe and rapidly emerging in the United States. Opponents of concern for animals often dismiss the phenomenon as rooted in emotion ...

  19. [Alternatives to animal experimentation v.s. animal rights terrorism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurosawa, Tsutomu Miki

    2008-05-01

    Systematic modern animal experimentation was established by Bernard Claude who wrote "An Introduction to the Study of Experimental Medicine" in 1865. At this point, the public was already asking that the pain and distress of experimental animals be reduced. For this, scientists, William Russell and Rex Burch in 1959 proposed the principles of alternatives to animal experimentation, the "3Rs". Since that time, animal welfare advocates have promoted the 3Rs concept in biomedical research communities. However, cruel animal experiments have continued and there are reports of radical extremists showing their opposition by invasion, arson, theft and even bombing of institutions involved, resulting in killing of the animals. SHAC, one extremist group believed to be animal welfare activitists was recognized as a terrorist group after the 9.11 tragedy in USA and the government viewed their activities very seriously. In 2001, British animal extremists invaded Japanese universities and stole laboratory resources; one individual was arrested and sentenced to prison for three years; Japanese who assisted in the incident were arrested and one was sentenced for one year. In 2006, SHAC USA members were prosecuted and sentenced for up to 6 years for their terrorism activities including arson. We need to consider the background of these activities which are financially supported by animal welfare advocates. The way we, as scientists who conduct such experiments can respond is by promoting alternatives to this experimentation. In Japan, the animal welfare law was revised in 2005 stressing the importance of 3Rs in scientific activities with animals. The promotion of 3Rs should be strengthened in the pharmaceutical community.

  20. A Pathfinder for Animal Research and Animal Rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, David C.

    1992-01-01

    This pathfinder was originally prepared for "Biomedical Research and Animal Rights," a session sponsored by the Veterinary Medical Libraries and Research Libraries Sections of the Medical Library Association. Current resources are described, from bibliographies to electronic bulletin boards, which relate to the issue of laboratory animal…

  1. Animal Rights as a Mainstream Phenomenon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard E. Rollin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Businesses and professions must stay in accord with social ethics, or risk losing their autonomy.A major social ethical issue that has emerged in the past four decades is the treatment of animals in various areas of human use. Society’s moral concern has outgrown the traditional ethic of animal cruelty that began in biblical times and is encoded in the laws of all civilized societies. There are five major reasons for this new social concern, most importantly, the replacement of husbandry-based agriculture with industrial agriculture. This loss of husbandry to industry has threatened the traditional fair contract between humans and animals, and resulted in significant amounts of animal suffering arising on four different fronts. Because such suffering is not occasioned by cruelty, a new ethic for animals was required to express social concerns. Since ethics proceed from preexisting ethics rather than ex nihilo, society has looked to its ethic for humans, appropriately modified, to find moral categories applicable to animals. This concept of legally encoded rights for animals has emerged as a plausible vehicle for reform.

  2. Animal Rights as a Mainstream Phenomenon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollin, Bernard E

    2011-01-19

    Businesses and professions must stay in accord with social ethics, or risk losing their autonomy.A major social ethical issue that has emerged in the past four decades is the treatment of animals in various areas of human use. Society's moral concern has outgrown the traditional ethic of animal cruelty that began in biblical times and is encoded in the laws of all civilized societies. There are five major reasons for this new social concern, most importantly, the replacement of husbandry-based agriculture with industrial agriculture. This loss of husbandry to industry has threatened the traditional fair contract between humans and animals, and resulted in significant amounts of animal suffering arising on four different fronts. Because such suffering is not occasioned by cruelty, a new ethic for animals was required to express social concerns. Since ethics proceed from preexisting ethics rather than ex nihilo, society has looked to its ethic for humans, appropriately modified, to find moral categories applicable to animals. This concept of legally encoded rights for animals has emerged as a plausible vehicle for reform.

  3. Rig it right! Maya animation rigging concepts

    CERN Document Server

    O'Hailey, Tina

    2013-01-01

    Rigging a character can be a complicated undertaking. Move from a bi-pedal character to a quad- or poly-pedal and, well, things just got real. Where do you begin? Unlike all of those button-pushing manuals out there, Rig it Right! breaks down rigging so that you can achieve a fundamental understanding of the concept, allowing you to rig more intuitively in your own work. Veteran animation professor Tina O'Hailey will get you up and rigging in a matter of hours with step-by-step tutorials covering multiple animation control types, connection methods, interactive skinning, Blend

  4. Difficult Decisions: Animal Rights--Do We Have the Right to Do Research on Animals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parakh, Jal S.; Slesnick, Irwin L.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses who has the right to determine the use of animals in scientific research which includes medical experimentation and the toxicity testing of compounds, ranging from pesticides to cosmetics. Provides a list of questions for consideration and discussion. (RT)

  5. Animals have a right to life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balluch, Martin

    2006-01-01

    State and church must be separated; therefore the legal and the judicial system may not be based on religious dogmas but instead must be grounded on empirical-rational ethics, which are amenable to consensus. To achieve this, consciousness must be described in scientific terms and the anthropocentric view of animals as fundamentally different to humans must be criticised on a factual basis. It turns out that consciousness determines autonomy. And consciousness is an evolutionary continuity, meaning that there is no basic difference in consciousness between humans and animals. Life is of the utmost instrumental value to autonomous beings, as it enables them to realise their autonomy and is thus in their highest interests. In contrast, killing is the greatest harm that can be done to such beings. As I, being an autonomous being, want to act autonomously, I demand a right to life from society to do so. The principle of universality compels me to demand the same right for every other autonomous being.

  6. Discussing Animal Rights and Animal Research in the Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzog, Harold A.

    1990-01-01

    Reviews two prominent philosophical justifications for animal liberation and describes a simulation that facilitates class discussion of animal research issues. Students reported that the exercise increased their awareness of the issues and of the complexity of making ethical decisions. (DB)

  7. Animal Rights Groups Target High School Dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trotter, Andrew

    1992-01-01

    Two groups leading the charge against dissection are People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA) and the Student Action Corps for Animals (SACA). Protests by student and community members remain the movement's strongest weapon. (MLF)

  8. A retrospective study on incidence of lameness in domestic animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mohsina

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To study the incidence of lameness among different species of animals presented to the Veterinary Polyclinic, Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar. Materials and Methods: Outpatient department (OPD records for the period from January 2006 to December 2010 were referred and information was collected regarding number of lameness in different species, breeds, type of injury, limb affected, gender, age at onset, treatment offered, outcome and any reoccurrence. In this study, fractured cases were not included. Results: The incidence of lameness among different species were recorded: canine (56%, equine (21%, caprine (7%, feline (3%, cattle (7%, buffalo (5.47%, sheep (0.6%, monkey (0.39% and swine (0.19%. In dog, the different conditions were reported with hind quarter weakness recording 55% of lameness followed by right hind limb lameness (14.7%, left hind limb lameness (12.6%, left forelimb lameness (12%, hip dislocation (6.3% and hip dysplasia (4.2%. In caprines, important causes of lameness were right forelimb lameness (23%, right hind limb lameness (12%, left forelimb lameness (12%, posterior paresis (9%, left shoulder dislocation (14% and right shoulder dislocation (6%. In cattle, 34.28% of cases with right hind limb lameness, 28.5% cases were due to HQW, 14.28% had hip dysplasia, 8.57% suffered left hind limb lameness, 6% cases were recorded with obturator nerve paralysis and 8.57% cases suffered contracted tendon in calves. In buffaloes, cases reported were right carpal arthritis, foot rot and left hind limb lameness (14.28% each, due to bilateral upward luxation of patella and due bilateral purulent wound in stifle (18% each and hip dislocation (21.4%. In equines, lameness were reported with right hind limb affection (13%, left forelimb affection (11%, right forelimb affection (17%, 4% each due to disease of right shoulder, HQW and both forelimb affection, lateral dislocation of patella (3%, affection of both hind limbs (9%, 5

  9. The case against animal rights : a literary intervention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vugts, Adrianus Johanna

    2015-01-01

    This thesis aims at thinking through the ethical position of animals in a way that differs radically from the manner in wich this ethical position is thought within contemporary animal rights discourse. The reason for this alternative approach is that today's animal rights discourse is characterized

  10. Railroad right-of-way incident analysis research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    Locations of railroad right-of-way incidents in this research were identified as hotspots. These can be defined as highway-rail grade crossings or locations along the railroad right-of-way where collision or trespassing risk is unacceptably high and ...

  11. Animal Rights: Selected Resources and Suggestions for Further Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidoff, Donald J.

    1989-01-01

    Presents an annotated list of selected resources intended to serve as a guide to the growing amount of material on animal rights. Suggestions to aid in additional research include subject headings used to find books, indexes used to locate periodical articles, sources for locating organizations, and a selected list of animal rights organizations.…

  12. Improved animal welfare, the right technology and increased business.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Støier, S; Larsen, H D; Aaslyng, M D; Lykke, L

    2016-10-01

    Animal welfare is receiving increasing attention from the authorities, the public and NGOs. For this reason, the improvement of animal welfare and animal handling systems is of the utmost importance for the meat industry. Technological developments have led to more animal friendly systems that handle animals on the day of slaughter, and these developments will be even more important as consideration for animal welfare and sustainability is no longer just a trend but a licence to operate. Improvement of animal welfare also leads to a higher value of the carcasses due to higher product quality, less cut-off caused by fewer injuries, and reduced working load, which leads to increased business opportunities. Therefore, good animal welfare is good business, and the development and implementation of new technology is the way to obtain improved animal welfare. These subjects will be addressed using examples and cases from the pork and broiler production industry. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The political approach of animal rights from the perspective of the rights theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Rey Pérez

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, discussions about animal rights have focused on defending, in different ways, abolitionist or regulatory approaches. Recently, there has been a political change in the way of understanding these rights, which fits better a legal approach that considers that rights –in addition to having a moral dimension- are also effectiveness-oriented legal institutions. This leads to considering that the range of animal rights must be extended to rights linked to the condition of citizenship, such as social rights and particularly the right to healthcare and labour rights.

  14. Animal rights and welfare advocacy for enhanced food security in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The tropical conditions of the Nigerian environment favours domestic and wild animal production. It, therefore, not only offers ample investment opportunities in the livestock sub-sector of the economy, but also guarantees food security for the nation. This study examined basic animal welfare rights, and ascertained selected ...

  15. Subclinical Mastitis in Dairy Animals: Incidence, Economics, and Predisposing Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukesh Kr. Sinha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to assess the incidence and economics of subclinical form of bovine mastitis in Central Region of India. Daily milk records of 187 animals during three seasons were collected and subjected to analysis. The economic loss due to reduction in yield, clinical expenses, and additional resources used were quantified and aggregated. The losses due to mastitis in monetary terms were estimated to be INR1390 per lactation, among which around 49% was owing to loss of value from milk and 37% on account of veterinary expenses. Higher losses were observed in crossbred cows due to their high production potential that was affected during mastitis period. The cost of treating an animal was estimated to be INR509 which includes cost of medicine (31.10% and services (5.47%. Inadequate sanitation, hygiene, and veterinary services were the main predisposing factors for incidence and spread of mastitis as perceived by the respondents.

  16. Carl Cohen's 'kind' arguments for animal rights and against human rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobis, Nathan

    2004-01-01

    Carl Cohen's arguments against animal rights are shown to be unsound. His strategy entails that animals have rights, that humans do not, the negations of those conclusions, and other false and inconsistent implications. His main premise seems to imply that one can fail all tests and assignments in a class and yet easily pass if one's peers are passing and that one can become a convicted criminal merely by setting foot in a prison. However, since his moral principles imply that nearly all exploitive uses of animals are wrong anyway, foes of animal rights are advised to seek philosophical consolations elsewhere. I note that some other philosophers' arguments are subject to similar objections.

  17. Are Some Animals More Equal than Others? Animal Rights and Deep Ecology in Environmental Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopnina, Helen; Gjerris, Mickey

    2015-01-01

    This article focuses on the role of ethical perspectives such as deep ecology and animal rights in relation to environmental education, arguing that such perspectives are well-placed to reposition students as responsible planetary citizens. We focus on the linkage between non-consequentialism, animal rights, and deep ecology in an educational…

  18. Stop staring facial modeling and animation done right

    CERN Document Server

    Osipa, Jason

    2010-01-01

    The de facto official source on facial animation—now updated!. If you want to do character facial modeling and animation at the high levels achieved in today's films and games, Stop Staring: Facial Modeling and Animation Done Right, Third Edition , is for you. While thoroughly covering the basics such as squash and stretch, lip syncs, and much more, this new edition has been thoroughly updated to capture the very newest professional design techniques, as well as changes in software, including using Python to automate tasks.: Shows you how to create facial animation for movies, games, and more;

  19. Improving interactions between animal rights groups and conservation biologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Dan; Perry, Gad

    2008-02-01

    Invasive species are often considered to be a major threat to biodiversity, leading conservation biologists to often recommend their complete eradication. Animal rights groups typically categorically oppose killing animals, and their opposition has brought eradication attempts of gray squirrels in northern Italy (Europe) and mute swans in Vermont to a halt. As a result native red squirrels may disappear from Europe and ecosystem-wide impacts are expected to be caused by the swan. In contrast, cooperation between managers and animal rights groups has resulted in a successful control program for feral pigs in Fort Worth, Texas (U.S.A.). The philosophical differences between animal rights and conservation biologists' views make cooperation seem unlikely, yet documented cases of cooperation have been beneficial for both groups. We recommend that managers dealing with invasive species should consult with social scientists and ethicists to gain a better understanding of the implications of some of their policy decisions. In addition, we recommend that animal rights groups do more to support alternatives to lethal control, which are often excluded by economic limitations. Prevention of arrival of invasive species via application of the precautionary principle may be an especially productive avenue for such collaboration because it fits the goals and values of both groups.

  20. Declaration of the rights of animal and plant life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, M.

    1977-01-01

    i Each living creature on earth has the right to exist, independent of its usefulness to humans. ii Every effort should be made to preserve all species of animal and plant life from premature extinction. Special protection should be afforded to those species whose survival is already threatened.

  1. Right to Place: A Political Theory of Animal Rights in Harmony with Environmental and Ecological Principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleni Panagiotarakou

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this paper is on the “right to place” as a political theory of wild animal rights. Out of the debate between terrestrial cosmopolitans inspired by Kant and Arendt and rooted cosmopolitan animal right theorists, the right to place emerges from the fold of rooted cosmopolitanism in tandem with environmental and ecological principles. Contrary to terrestrial cosmopolitans—who favour extending citizenship rights to wild animals and advocate at the same time large-scale humanitarian interventions and unrestricted geographical mobility—I argue that the well-being of wild animals is best served by the right to place theory on account of its sovereignty model. The right to place theory advocates human non-interference in wildlife communities, opposing even humanitarian interventions, which carry the risk of unintended consequences. The right to place theory, with its emphasis on territorial sovereignty, bases its opposition to unrestricted geographical mobility on two considerations: (a the non-generalist nature of many species and (b the potential for abuse via human encroachment. In a broader context, the advantage of the right to place theory lies in its implicit environmental demands: human population control and sustainable lifestyles.

  2. Crisis planning to manage risks posed by animal rights extremists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Matthew R; Rich, Barbara A; Bennett, B Taylor

    2010-01-01

    Among the multitude of crises that US research institutions may face are those caused by animal rights activists. While most activists opposed to animal research use peaceful and lawful means of expressing their opinions, some extremists resort to illegal methods. Arson, break-ins, and theft with significant property damage at US animal research facilities began in the 1980s. The most troubling trend to develop in the past decade is the targeting of individuals associated with animal research, whether directly or indirectly, and the use of violent scare tactics to intimidate researchers and their families. The National Association for Biomedical Research has a 30-year history of monitoring the animal rights movement and assisting member institutions with crisis situations. In this article we discuss attacks on researchers at their homes, cyber crimes, exploitation of new media formats, infiltration of research facilities, and the targeting of external research stakeholders and business partners. We describe the need for a well-conceived crisis management plan and strong leadership to mitigate crisis situations. Institutions with well-informed leaders and crisis management teams ready to take timely action are best equipped to protect staff, laboratory animals, and research programs. They act on early warnings, provide support for targeted staff, seek legal remedies, thoughtfully control access to research facilities, and identify and enlist new research supporters. We underscore the importance of up-to-date crisis planning so that institutions are not only aware of ongoing risks posed by animal rights extremists but also better prepared to take preemptive action and able to manage those risks successfully.

  3. What about animals dealing with working dogs, pets and other animals during terrorism incidents and disasters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eifried, G.

    2009-01-01

    It is highly likely that K9 teams (patrol, search and rescue, and cadaver) will be exposed to hazardous materials as a result of an act of CBRN terrorism, and thus require decontamination. Service animals and pets which have been exposed to toxic agents and materials will also need to be decontaminated, along with their owners. Emergency evacuation and sheltering plans need to consider how service animals, pets and livestock will be handled. The United States has recently made significant changes to focus in this regard, to the extent that caring for animals must now be addressed in disaster preparedness planning. In this paper we describe lessons learned from work done by the Massachusetts Urban Search and Rescue Team (USAR), and the response to hurricane Katrina, concerning the handling and decontamination of animals following major incidents. We discuss: how the new Federal and state mandates have changed evacuation and sheltering concepts; cooperation among government entities, veterinarians, animal facilities, humane societies, animal rescue organizations and animal owners; and describe some practical considerations and solutions to sheltering and mass decontamination of animals along with their humans.(author)

  4. On Being the Right Size as an Animal with Plastids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cessa Rauch

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Plastids typically reside in plant or algal cells—with one notable exception. There is one group of multicellular animals, sea slugs in the order Sacoglossa, members of which feed on siphonaceous algae. The slugs sequester the ingested plastids in the cytosol of cells in their digestive gland, giving the animals the color of leaves. In a few species of slugs, including members of the genus Elysia, the stolen plastids (kleptoplasts can remain morphologically intact for weeks and months, surrounded by the animal cytosol, which is separated from the plastid stroma by only the inner and outer plastid membranes. The kleptoplasts of the Sacoglossa are the only case described so far in nature where plastids interface directly with the metazoan cytosol. That makes them interesting in their own right, but it has also led to the idea that it might someday be possible to engineer photosynthetic animals. Is that really possible? And if so, how big would the photosynthetic organs of such animals need to be? Here we provide two sets of calculations: one based on a best case scenario assuming that animals with kleptoplasts can be, on a per cm2 basis, as efficient at CO2 fixation as maize leaves, and one based on 14CO2 fixation rates measured in plastid-bearing sea slugs. We also tabulate an overview of the literature going back to 1970 reporting direct measurements or indirect estimates of the CO2 fixing capabilities of Sacoglossan slugs with plastids.

  5. The Impact of Animal Rights on the Use of Animals for Biomedical Research, Product Testing and Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baier, Stephen W.

    1993-01-01

    Clarifies the issues of animal rights as they effect animal use in research and education through an examination of the current use of animals, a historical look at animal use, and a consideration of the philosophical underpinnings of the animal rights and pro-use viewpoints. (PR)

  6. 77 FR 38747 - Reports by Air Carriers on Incidents Involving Animals During Air Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-29

    ...-2010-0211] RIN 2105-AE07 Reports by Air Carriers on Incidents Involving Animals During Air Transport... incidents involving animals during air transport, 14 CFR 234.13, to expand the reporting requirement to U.S... seats, to expand the definition of ``animal'' to include all cats and dogs transported by the carrier...

  7. Virtue: right reason in a scientist who experiments with animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Fernando Garcés Giraldo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Virtue according to Aristotle’s thought is a medium term with regard to us regulated by right reason, as a prudent man. would act. It is that mode of being by which man becomes good and through which he performs his function very well. Virtue is directly related to how people act; these steps or actions should lead to a good, and that good must be a generator of happiness in man. It depends just on man himself that the actions he performs are done well and according to virtue. Thus, it is expected that the scientist who experiments with animals to act according to virtue, to have a permanent disposition to work according to right reason, and to discuss what is good, particularly what does good especially to other forms of life which share with us the mystery of life. The Aristotelian virtuous man must search that his actions are mediated by reason to choose what is good , not for himself but for the common good.

  8. Isolated Right Varicocele and Incidence of Associated Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWitt, Molly Elmer; Greene, Daniel J; Gill, Bradley; Nyame, Yaw; Haywood, Sam; Sabanegh, Edmund

    2018-04-09

    To test the classic teaching that isolated right varicoceles are associated with significantly high rates of occult malignanices. Retrospective chart review included all men diagnosed with varicocele at the Cleveland Clinic from 2000 to 2015. Charts were queried for demographics, varicocele laterality, cross-sectional imaging, and subsequent diagnosis of abdominal malignancy or vascular anomaly. Descriptive statistics are presented as means + standard deviation. Comparative statistics include analyses of variance with Tukey-Kramer pair wise comparisons or chi-squared tests as indicated. All p<0.05 are considered significant. Varicocele was diagnosed in 4,060 men (3258 left, 337 right, 465 bilateral). Men with right varicoceles were significantly older (43.6+17.1) than left (33.4+14.9, p<0.0001) or bilateral (34.9+15.3, p<0.0001), and had higher body mass indices (right: 28.9+5.7, left: 26.4+5.5, p<0.0001, bilateral: 26.5+5.5, p<0.0001). Laterality of varicocele was not significantly associated with cancer diagnosis (p=0.313), with cancer diagnosed in 2.67% of right, 1.63% of left, and 2.15% of bilateral varicoceles. Rates of abdominal CT imaging differed significantly (p<0.0001) by laterality: 30.3% of right, 8.7% of left, and 11.2% of bilateral varicoceles were scanned. Vascular anomalies did not significantly differ by varicocele laterality. Men with right varicoceles were older, heavier, and underwent more CT scans than those with left or bilateral varicoceles, but did not have higher rates of cancer diagnosis. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. 77 FR 53779 - Reports by Air Carriers on Incidents Involving Animals During Air Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-04

    ... Involving Animals During Air Transport AGENCY: Office of the Secretary (OST), Department of Transportation... period of an NPRM on the reporting of incidents involving animals during air transport that was published... animal during air transport. The NPRM proposed to: (1) Expand the reporting requirement to U.S. carriers...

  10. Perverting medical history in the service of "animal rights".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Adrian R

    2002-01-01

    Scientists frequently disagree on the interpretation of data. Such disagreements follow an informal set of rules, where one assumes that the contestants are honestly engaged even though biases may cloud their minds. A new group of individuals with medical training operates under a different set of rules, however: any statement or argument may be used to support the animal rightists' contention that using animals to advance human medicine is wrong. These "medical scientists" pervert the scientific discourse in which most of us engage. Their fabrications are egregious. They take legitimate scientists' statements out of context, construct statements out of larger passages to twist arguments in their favor, and cite works that actually are contrary to their arguments for effect. This essay reveals the distortions by a number of such medically trained individuals that I and several colleagues have uncovered.

  11. Biomedical Research and the Animal Rights Movement: A Contrast in Values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Adrian R.

    1993-01-01

    This article explains how animals are used in research in an effort to counteract animal rights literature. Reveals how medical professionals and others trained in scholarship have misquoted the scientific literature to bolster their claims against the utility of animal research. (PR)

  12. Dilemmas experienced by government veterinarians when responding professionally to farm animal welfare incidents in Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devitt, C; Kelly, P; Blake, M; Hanlon, A; More, S J

    2014-01-01

    This paper identifies the dilemmas experienced by government veterinarians during their investigations of farm animal welfare incidents that involve herd owner social, health, and/or psychological difficulties. The paper builds on exploratory qualitative research into the impact of these difficulties on farm animal welfare. The study used a qualitative research approach. Focus groups were conducted. In Ireland, an Early Warning System (EWS), which brings together relevant agencies, is in place to identify and prevent farm animal welfare problems before they become critical. This study is concerned with the experiences of government veterinarians who respond to farm animal welfare incidents. Specific focus is on incidents that involve herd owner social/psychological/health-related difficulties. In total, n=18 government veterinarians (representing 15 per cent of the population sample), all with a keen interest in farm animal welfare, participated. These were selected on the basis of their interest, experience, and involvement in farm animal welfare. One government veterinarian declined to participate. Four focus groups were conducted with government veterinarians. These took place in the south (S), south-west (SW), midlands (M), and north-west region of Ireland (NW). All 16 District Veterinary Offices (DVOs) were represented in the focus groups. The results reveal three professional dilemmas that exist for government veterinarians: (1) defining professional parameters; (2) determining the appropriate response; (3) involvement versus detachment. Participants reported not wanting any additional training. Instead, it was agreed that a formal bridge to social service providers who have the professional capability to respond appropriately and with confidence, was required. Clearly defined guidelines are required for government veterinarians in their encounters with farm animal welfare incidents where there is a complex human component. A coordinated multiagency approach

  13. Dilemmas experienced by government veterinarians when responding professionally to farm animal welfare incidents in Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devitt, C.; Kelly, P.; Blake, M.; Hanlon, A.; More, S. J.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This paper identifies the dilemmas experienced by government veterinarians during their investigations of farm animal welfare incidents that involve herd owner social, health, and/or psychological difficulties. The paper builds on exploratory qualitative research into the impact of these difficulties on farm animal welfare. Design The study used a qualitative research approach. Focus groups were conducted. Setting In Ireland, an Early Warning System (EWS), which brings together relevant agencies, is in place to identify and prevent farm animal welfare problems before they become critical. This study is concerned with the experiences of government veterinarians who respond to farm animal welfare incidents. Specific focus is on incidents that involve herd owner social/psychological/health-related difficulties. Participants In total, n=18 government veterinarians (representing 15 per cent of the population sample), all with a keen interest in farm animal welfare, participated. These were selected on the basis of their interest, experience, and involvement in farm animal welfare. One government veterinarian declined to participate. Four focus groups were conducted with government veterinarians. These took place in the south (S), south-west (SW), midlands (M), and north-west region of Ireland (NW). All 16 District Veterinary Offices (DVOs) were represented in the focus groups. Results The results reveal three professional dilemmas that exist for government veterinarians: (1) defining professional parameters; (2) determining the appropriate response; (3) involvement versus detachment. Participants reported not wanting any additional training. Instead, it was agreed that a formal bridge to social service providers who have the professional capability to respond appropriately and with confidence, was required. Conclusions Clearly defined guidelines are required for government veterinarians in their encounters with farm animal welfare incidents where there is a

  14. Limitations and pitfalls in measurements of right ventricular stroke volume in an animal model of right heart failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vildbrad, Mads Dam; Andersen, Asger; Andersen, Thomas Krarup; Axelgaard, Sofie; Holmboe, Sarah; Andersen, Stine; Nielsen-Kudsk, Jens Erik; Ringgaard, Steffen

    2015-01-01

    Right heart failure occurs in various heart and pulmonary vascular diseases and may be fatal. We aimed to identify limitations in non-invasive measurements of right ventricular stroke volume in an animal model of right ventricular failure. Data from previous studies randomising rats to pulmonary trunk banding (PTB, n = 33) causing pressure-overload right ventricular failure or sham operation (n = 16) was evaluated retrospectively. We measured right ventricular stroke volume by high frequency echocardiography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We found correlation between right ventricular stroke volume measured by echocardiography and MRI in the sham animals (r = 0.677, p = 0.004) but not in the PTB group. Echocardiography overestimated the stroke volume compared to MRI in both groups. Intra- and inter-observer variation did not explain the difference. Technical, physiological and anatomical issues in the pulmonary artery might explain why echocardiography over-estimates stroke volume. Flow acceleration close to the pulmonary artery banding can cause uncertainties in the PTB model and might explain the lack of correlation. In conclusion, we found a correlation in right ventricular stroke volume measured by echocardiography versus MRI in the sham group but not the PTB group. Echocardiography overestimated right ventricular stroke volume compared to MRI. (paper)

  15. Worldwide incidence of hip fracture in elderly women: relation to consumption of animal and vegetable foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frassetto, L A; Todd, K M; Morris, R C; Sebastian, A

    2000-10-01

    Hip fracture, a major health problem in elderly persons, varies in incidence among the populations of different countries and is directly related to animal protein intake, a finding that suggests that bone integrity is compromised by endogenous acid production consequent to the metabolism of animal proteins. If that is so, vegetable foods might provide a countervailing effect, because they are a rich source of base (bicarbonate) in the form of metabolizable organic anions, which can neutralize protein-derived acid and supply substrate (carbonate) for bone formation. We analyzed reported hip fracture incidence (HFI) data among countries (N = 33) in women aged 50 years and older, in relation to corresponding country-specific data on per capita consumption of vegetable and animal foods as reported by the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization. HFI varied directly with total (r = +.67, p animal (r = +.82, p protein intake and inversely with vegetable protein intake (r = .37, p animal protein consumption, and invariably, vegetable protein (VP) consumption exceeded the country's corresponding intake of animal protein (AP): VP/AP > 1.0. By contrast, among the countries in the highest tertile of HFI, animal protein intake exceeded vegetable protein intake in nearly every case (10 of 11 countries). Among all countries, HFI correlated inversely and exponentially with the ratio of vegetable/animal protein intake (r = -.84, p protein intake, vegetable food consumption was an independent negative predictor of HFI. All findings were similar for the subset of 23 countries whose populations are predominantly Caucasian. The findings suggest that the critical determinant of hip fracture risk in relation to the acid-base effects of diet is the net load of acid in the diet, when the intake of both acid and base precursors is considered. Moderation of animal food consumption and an increased ratio of vegetable/animal food consumption may confer a protective effect.

  16. Comparison between the incidence of right and left sided congenital torticollis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aslam, S.; Bashir, M.S.; Hussain, S.I.

    2013-01-01

    Congenital torticollis is an intriguing condition of unknown origin, characterized by unilateral shortening and tightness of the sternocleidomastoid muscle. Patients usually present with head tilt, facial asymmetry and plagiocephaly. A sternomastoid mass or tumor may or may not be clinically apparent. Untreated, cervical function and facial cosmesis may be severely compromised. Objective: My study is aimed at establishing a comparison between the incidence of right versus left sided congenital torticollis. Method: This observational study included 30 patients of congenital torticollis that completed the questionnaire. The data was collected from patients coming to the Physiotherapy and Orthopedic departments of Children Hospital, Lahore. Results: Results showed that right side was involved in 19 (63.3%) patients and left side was involved in 11 (36.7%) patients. Out of 30 patients, 14 (46.7%) were male, of which 8 had right sided congenital torticollis and 6 had left sided congenital torticollis, and 16 (53.3%) were female, of which right sided congenital torticollis and 5 had left sided congenital torticollis. Conclusion: Hence it is concluded that incidence of right sided congenital torticollis is more common than left sided congenital torticollis. The incidence of con-genital torticollis is higher in females than in males. (author)

  17. Incidence of high-level evernimicin resistance in Enterococcus faecium among food animals and humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Frank Møller; McNicholas, P. M.

    2002-01-01

    to a susceptible E. faecium strain. The resulting transconjugants all tested positive for the presence of emtA, a gene encoding a methyltransferase previously linked with high-level evernimicin resistance. The four transconjugants derived from animal isolates all carried the same plasmid, while a differently sized......Six high-level evernimicin-resistant Enterococcus faecium isolates were identified among 304 avilarnycin-resistant E. faecium isolates from animals and 404 stool samples from humans with diarrhea. All four animal isolates, and one of the human isolates, were able to transfer resistance...... plasmid was found in the isolate from humans. This study demonstrated a low incidence of high-level evernimicin resistance mediated by the emtA gene in different E. faecium isolates of animal and human origin....

  18. Speciesism as Philosophical Argument of Non-Animal Rights as Acceptance of Subject

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Carlos Cruz Meneses

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to address the philosophical arguments against the acceptance of non- human animal as a subject of law, making an anthropological approach and proposing demonstrate the need for paradigm shift in dignity perspective of non- human animal. Thus, it is proposed away speciesism speech as a way to disregard moral engineered by humans to the detriment of non-human, for the adoption of a new language that recognizes men and animals with common characteristics, although in different degrees, to admit animals the subjects of rights condition for being intrinsic value holders.

  19. [Relationship between the veterinarian and animals, their rights and duties (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiadens, A

    1976-01-01

    The vulnerable position of the human organism with in kingdom of organisms entitles man to subsist as a species. Far-reaching specialization towards animality, resulting in high degree of differentiation, has rendered man extremely vulnerable and thus compelled him to search for possibilities to utilize his environment. However, the fact that he is inherently bound up with this environment imposes limitations on this right to manipulate within it. This right of man is not exclusive but analogously includes the rights of animals. This implies that man should accept the intrinsic value of animals. An animal is a value, not a person, and therefore only has rights analogously. Animals are constantly under the direct influence of man who influences or even destroys their biotopes. The only basic principle to be stressed in this regard is the right of animals to remain in their oecological niche wherever possible, taking into account the effects of selection and mutation which have eventually resulted from their association with man. In view of the above, the following code of conduct is suggested for veterinarians: (1) When man takes animals into his home as pets, he should at least see to it that these animals will be able to develop a natural behaviour in order to safeguard the intrinsic value of the animals wherever possible. (Keeping sporting dogs and greyhounds in flats is not permitted.) (2) Veterinarians should not tolerate symptom-suppressive forms of treatment. (Declawing a domestic cat is not permitted for the simple reason that the owner will usually have caused the abnormal behaviour of the animal.) (3) As an educator, the veterinarian will have to expose any tendency to humanize animals as a devaluation of man. (Laying out animal graveyards and fattening small animals.) (4) On an interdisciplinary basis and from the point of view of the subsistence of mankind, the veterinarian should raise the question of the responsibility of man as a social creature for

  20. Incidence of the enterococcal surface protein (esp) gene in human and animal fecal sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitman, R.L.; Przybyla-Kelly, K.; Shively, D.A.; Byappanahalli, M.N.

    2007-01-01

    The occurrence of the enterococcal surface protein (esp) gene in the opportunistic pathogens Enterococcus faecalis and E. faecium is well-documented in clinical research. Recently, the esp gene has been proposed as a marker of human pollution in environmental waters; however, information on its relative incidence in various human and animal fecal sources is limited. We have determined the occurrence of the esp gene in enterococci from human (n = 64) and animal (n = 233) fecal samples by polymerase chain reaction using two primer sets: one presumably specific for E. faecium (espfm) and the other for both E. faecalis and E. faecium (espfs/fm). We believe that this research is the first to explore the use of espfs/fm for the detection of human waste in natural environmental settings. The incidence in human sources was 93.1% espfm and 100% espfs/fm in raw sewage influent; 30% for both espfm and espfs/fm in septic waste; and 0% espfm and 80% espfs/fm in active pit toilets. The overall occurrence of the gene in animal feces was 7.7% (espfs/fm) and 4.7% (espfm); animal types with positive results included dogs (9/43, all espfm), gulls (10/34, espfs/fm; 2/34, espfm), mice (3/22, all espfs/fm), and songbirds (5/55, all espfs/fm). The esp gene was not detected in cat (0/34), deer (0/4), goose (0/18), or raccoon (0/23) feces. The inconsistent occurrence, especially in septic and pit toilet sewage, suggests a low statistical power of discrimination between animal and human sources, which means a large number of replicates should be collected. Both espfm and espfs/fm were common in raw sewage, but neither one efficiently differentiated between animal and other human sources.

  1. Vascular Structures of the Right Colon: Incidence and Variations with Their Clinical Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsabilah, J; Kim, W R; Kim, N K

    2017-06-01

    There is a demand for a better understanding of the vascular structures around the right colonic area. Although right hemicolectomy with the recent concept of meticulous lymph node dissection is a standardized procedure for malignant diseases among most surgeons, variations in the actual anatomical vascular are not well understood. The aim of the present review was to present a detailed overview of the vascular variation pertinent to the surgery for right colon cancer. Medical literature was searched for the articles highlighting the vascular variation relevant to the right colon cancer surgery. Recently, there have been many detailed studies on applied surgical vascular anatomy based on cadaveric dissections, as well as radiological and intraoperative examinations to overcome misconceptions concerning the arterial supply and venous drainage to the right colon. Ileocolic artery and middle colic artery are consistently present in all patients arising from the superior mesenteric artery. Even though the ileocolic artery passes posterior to the superior mesenteric vein in most of the cases, in some cases courses anterior to the superior mesenteric artery. The right colic artery is inconsistently present ranging from 63% to 10% across different studies. Ileocolic vein and middle colic vein is always present, while the right colic vein is absent in 50% of patients. The gastrocolic trunk of Henle is present in 46%-100% patients across many studies with variation in the tributaries ranging from bipodal to tetrapodal. Commonly, it is found that the right colonic veins, including the right colic vein, middle colic vein, and superior right colic vein, share the confluence forming the gastrocolic trunk of Henle in a highly variable frequency and different forms. Understanding the incidence and variations of the vascular anatomy of right side colon is of crucial importance. Failure to recognize the variation during surgery can result in troublesome bleeding especially during

  2. Rights and duties under the law of nature:contractarianism and the Moral Status of Animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Bull

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This is a philosophical inquiry into the moral status of animals, focusing on which ethical principle should guide us in our relationship with animals. The author examines the case for applying contractarian theory to animals other than human beings by looking in particular at the issues of rationality and trusteeship. From the law of nature and by way of a contractarian approach the author arrives at the principle of humility, which he advances as the ideal basis for our behaviour in respect of animals. He then tests certain prevailing philosophical positions in this area, including those of Singer and Regan, exploring utilitarian and rights conceptions. Finally, the author considers the significance of the principle of humility in practical terms in order to evaluate its utility as a moral judgment.

  3. Framing the Issue: Religion, Secular Ethics and the Case of Animal Rights Mobilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mika, Marie

    2006-01-01

    This article addresses social movement framing, generally, and within contemporary animal rights movements specifically by conducting focus group analyses of a non-activist population. This contrasts with previous studies of recruitment that have examined the conversion process retroactively, culling data from those already involved in a cause. By…

  4. Increasing incidence of injuries and fatalities inflicted by wild animals in Kashmir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabi, Dar G; Tak, Shafaat Rashid; Kangoo, K A; Halwai, Manzoor A

    2009-01-01

    To clarify the causes of the increased incidence of injuries inflicted by wild animals in Kashmir, and to suggest preventive measures. A retrospective study reviewed records of these injuries. Data were collected from the hospital in Srinagar and from the Wildlife Protection Department of Kashmir. A total of 203 attacks (26 deaths and 177 near-fatal injuries) were recorded from January 2005 to October 2007, involving 145 (71.5%) male and 58 (28.5%) female victims. The attacking animal was a black bear in 104 (51.2%), a leopard in 18 (8.8%), a wolf in 7 (3.4%) and unidentified in 74 (36.4%) cases; 130 (64%) of these attacks occurred in southern Kashmir. The steady increase in human population in areas close to jungle results in deforestation and destruction of wildlife habitat. The reduction in monkeys and deer (the staple food of leopards) causes these dangerous predators to search for food in the areas occupied by humans, who may then be attacked. Treatment of these cases requires a multidisciplinary approach, including an orthopaedic surgeon, plastic surgeon, microbiologist and psychiatrist, to achieve best cosmetic and functional results.

  5. Beyond multispecies ethnography: Engaging with violence and animal rights in anthropology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopnina, Helen

    2017-09-01

    Anthropologists have mediated between discriminated communities and outsiders, helping to influence public opinion through advocacy work. But can anthropological advocacy be applied to the case of violence against nonhumans? Ethical inquiries in anthropology also engage with the manifold ways through which human and nonhuman lives are entangled and emplaced within wider ecological relationships, converging in the so-called multispecies ethnography, but failing to account for exploitation. Reflecting on this omission, this article discusses the applicability of engaged anthropology to the range of issues from the use of nonhumans in medical experimentation and food production industry, to habitat destruction, and in broader contexts involving violence against nonhumans. Concluding that the existing forms of anthropological engagement are inadequate in dealing with the massive scale of nonhuman abuse, this article will suggest directions for a radical anthropology that engages with deep ecology, animal rights, animal welfare, and ecological justice.

  6. Socio-cultural animation in hospitals and the right to access culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dušana Findeisen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Socio-cultural animation has a long tradition in French hospitals. It started in most probability with a theatre performance staged by Marquis de Sade between 1800-1810, while he was patient of a Parisian hospital. The theatrical performance was attended by ”le Tout Paris” – all notables of the city. In 1999, a convention of ”Culture and Health” was signed and culture has been moving to hospitals ever since, transforming them into open institutions, with patients and staff having acquired a different perspective on body and culture. Moreover, Slovenian Third Age University has been educating and training cultural mediators (its students for transmitting culture and knowledge gained at the U3A to patients, patients’ relatives and staff within the University Clinical Centre Ljubljana. In this article, author sets a frame of mind for examining the importance and implications of a fundamental universal right – the right to culture.

  7. Intersecting Spaces and Species: Women´s Bodies and the Domestic Sphere in Animal Rights Activism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Alonso Recarte

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The object of this article is to explore how current animal rights activism draws on images of women-animal corporeal hybrids to articulate a plight for animals, and how the domestic setting used in such campaigns is strategically conveyed to either instill sympathy or abhorrence at the ‘miscegenation’ of species within a single bodily space. I begin with a few observations on the matter of animal ontology in accordance with the muchdebated notion of commonness with humans (and in particular women. I then make a comparative analysis between video campaigns by two major animal rights organizations, the Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (RSPCA and People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA to evaluate how their rhetoric of species hybridism conveys different assumptions regarding womanhood, and how domestic settings serve as instrumental tools through which to strengthen their rhetoric of animal liberation.

  8. Cultivating a Value for Non-Human Interests through the Convergence of Animal Welfare, Animal Rights, and Deep Ecology in Environmental Education

    OpenAIRE

    Kopnina, H.N.; Cherniak, B.

    2015-01-01

    While the original objective of environmental education (EE) and education for sustainable development (ESD) acquired an awareness of the natural world and its current plight, animal welfare (AW), animal rights (AR), and deep ecology (DE) have often been absent within EE and ESD. AW and AR focus their attention on individual animals, while the DE perspective recognizes the intrinsic value of the environment. In this article, we shall discuss how the integration of these three approaches withi...

  9. Ethics and Animal Experimentation in the Laboratory. A Critical Analysis of the Arguments for"Animal Rights"and"Animal Equality"

    OpenAIRE

    Tagha, Yuninui Eric

    2005-01-01

    Growing up as a child, we had a Dog. To us, it was like a means to an end. That is, hunting other animals for food and for protection, with no special care and treatment given to this animal. Butas days passed by I began to witness a wind of change against such actions. I was made to understand that we were committing two crimes-: using the Dog as a means to an end (for hunting and for eating animals). Today almost every newspaper has something to say about the treatment of animals by humans,...

  10. Humanizing the Non-Human Animal: the Framing Analysis of Dogs' Rights Movement in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prisilia Resolute

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available                                                                                                AbstrakKonsumsi daging anjing merupakan sebuah kebiasaan umum dalam beberapa dekade terakhir dan telah menjadi simbol bagi beberapa kelompok masyarakat di seluruh dunia. Dogs Are Not Food (DANF adalah sebuah gerakan sosial yang ditujukan untuk menghapuskan konsumsi daging anjing. Gerakan ini diinisiasi oleh beberapa organisasi hak asasi satwa di Indonesia. Kampanye tersebut menjadi kontradiksi tersendiri: mengapa organisasi-organisasi tersebut melarang konsumsi daging anjing namun tetap mengonsumsi daging satwa lain? Bertolak dari konsep analisis framing, tulisan ini menggunakan observasi partisipatoris dan wawancara mendalam dengan informan-informan yang mengidentifikasi dirinya sebagai aktivis satwa dan/atau pendukung gerakan DANF. Berbeda dengan studi-studi sebelumnya yang cenderung mengkritik gerakan DANF, tulisan ini memberikan sebuah penjelasan sosiologis mengenai fungsi anjing dalam masyarakat dan menganalisis framing gerakan DANF. Tulisan ini berargumen bahwa framing yang digunakan oleh gerakan DANF bertujuan untuk “memanusiakan” satwa. Oleh karena itu, pelarangan konsumsi daging anjing menjadi tujuan gerakan DANF.                                                                                               AbstractThe consumption of dog meat has been a common practice in the past few decades and a symbol for certain groups all around the world. Dogs Are Not Food (DANF is a new social movement aimed to ban dog meat consumption, initiated by several animal rights organizations in Indonesia. The campaign seems to be self-contradictory: why ban the consumption of dog meat while still allowing the consumption of meat from other animals? Drawing on framing

  11. Animal tumour registry of two provinces in northern Italy: incidence of spontaneous tumours in dogs and cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carminato Antonio

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cancer is a major cause of death in domestic animals. Furthermore, many forms of pet neoplasm resemble that of their human counterparts in biologic behaviour, pathologic expression, and recognised risk factors. In April 2005, a pilot project was activated so as to establish a dog and cat tumour registry living in the Venice and Vicenza provinces (Veneto Region, north-eastern Italy, with the aim of estimating the incidence of spontaneous tumours. Results Through a telephone survey, the estimates of canine and feline populations of the catchment area turned out to be of 296,318 (CI +/- 30,201 and 214,683 (CI +/- 21,755 subjects, respectively. During the first three years, overall 2,509 canine and 494 feline cases of neoplasia were diagnosed. In dogs, the estimated annual incidence rate (IR per 100,000 dogs for all tumours was 282 in all the catchment area, whereas in cats the IR was much lower (IR = 77. Malignant and benign tumours were equally distributed in male and female dogs, whereas cats had a 4.6-fold higher incidence of malignant tumours than benign. In both dogs and cats, purebreds had an almost 2-fold higher incidence of malignant tumours than mixed breeds. Tumour incidence increased with age in both dog and cat populations. Conclusion This study has provided estimates of incidence of spontaneous neoplasm in companion animals. Further attempts will be made to increase the accuracy in the population size assessment and to ascertain the real gap with the official regional canine demographic registry. Veterinary practitioners may also benefit from the tumour registry insofar they may obtain data for specific breeds, age groups or geographical areas.

  12. Incidence of animal poisoning cases in the Czech Republic: current situation

    OpenAIRE

    Modr?, Helena; Svobodov?, Zde?ka

    2009-01-01

    This article reports the most frequent cases of poisoning in farm animals, horses, cats, dogs, wild animals, fish and honey-bees in the Czech Republic. At present, there are fewer cases of acute poisoning caused by high doses of toxic substances but there are more and more cases of chronic poisoning as a consequence of environmental pollution.

  13. Incidence of animal poisoning cases in the Czech Republic: current situation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modrá, Helena; Svobodová, Zdeňka

    2009-06-01

    This article reports the most frequent cases of poisoning in farm animals, horses, cats, dogs, wild animals, fish and honey-bees in the Czech Republic. At present, there are fewer cases of acute poisoning caused by high doses of toxic substances but there are more and more cases of chronic poisoning as a consequence of environmental pollution.

  14. Do Animals Have Rights? Teacher's Packet (for 4th, 5th, & 6th Grades).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sammut-Tovar, Dorothy; Sturla, Kim

    Activities in this unit are designed to sensitize students in grades 4-6 to the needs of animals and to the injustices many species suffer. The lessons focus on inhumane acts such as the use of steel-jaw traps, dogfighting, hunting, keeping exotic pets in captivity, using animals in entertainment, habitat destruction, factory farming, and animal…

  15. Early Development of Right Ventricular Ischemic Lesions in a Novel Large Animal Model of Acute Right Heart Failure in Chronic Thromboembolic Pulmonary Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulate, David; Arthur Ataam, Jennifer; Connolly, Andrew J; Giraldeau, Genevieve; Amsallem, Myriam; Decante, Benoit; Lamrani, Lilia; Fadel, Elie; Dorfmuller, Peter; Perros, Frederic; Haddad, Francois; Mercier, Olaf

    2017-12-01

    Our aim was to develop a model of acute right heart failure (ARHF) in the setting of pulmonary hypertension and to characterize acute right ventricular lesions that develop early after hemodynamic restoration. We used a described piglet model of chronic pulmonary hypertension (cPH) induced by pulmonary artery occlusions. We induced ARHF in animals with cPH (ARHF-cPH group, n = 9) by volume loading and iterative acute pulmonary embolism until hemodynamic compromise followed by dobutamine infusion for hemodynamic restoration before sacrifice for right ventricular tissue evaluation. The median duration of ARHF before sacrifice was 162 (135-189) minutes. Although ventriculoarterial coupling (measured with multibeat pressure-volume loops) and stroke volume decreased after iterative pulmonary embolism and improved with dobutamine, relative pulmonary to systemic pressure increased by 2-fold and remained similarly increased with dobutamine. Circulating high-sensitivity troponin I increased after hemodynamic restoration. We found an increase in right ventricular subendocardial and subepicardial focal ischemic lesions and in expression of autophagy-related protein LC3-II (Western blot) in the ARHF-cPH group compared with the cPH (n = 5) and control (n = 5) groups. We developed and phenotyped a novel large animal model of ARHF on cPH in which right ventricular ischemic lesions were observed early after hemodynamic restoration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Validation of an animal model of right ventricular dysfunction and right bundle branch block to create close physiology to postoperative tetralogy of Fallot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thambo, Jean-Benoit; Roubertie, Francois; De Guillebon, Maxime; Labrousse, Louis; Iriart, Xavier; Ntsinjana, Hopewell; Lafitte, Stephane; Ploux, Sylvain; Haissaguerre, Michel; Roques, Xavier; Dos Santos, Pierre; Bordachar, Pierre

    2012-01-12

    In the past 5 years a few number of studies and case reports have come out focusing on biventricular (BiV) stimulation for treatment of congenital heart disease related ventricular dysfunction. The few available studies include a diverse group of pathophysiological entities ranging from a previously repaired tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) to a functional single ventricle anatomy. Patient's status is too heterogeneous to build important prospective study. To well understand the implication of prolonged electromechanical dyssynchrony we performed a chronic animal model that mimics essential parameters of postoperative TOF. Significant pulmonary regurgitation, mild stenosis, as well as right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT) scars were induced in 15 piglets to mimic repaired TOF. 4 months after hemodynamics and dyssynchrony parameters were compared with a control group and with a population of symptomatic adult with repaired TOF. Comparing the animal model with the animal control group on echocardiography, RV dilatation, RV and LV dysfunction, broad QRS complex and dyssynchrony were observed on the animal model piglets. Moreover, epicardial electrical mapping showed activation consistent with a right bundle branch block. The animal models displayed the same pathophysiological parameters as the post TOF repair patients in terms of QRS duration, pulmonary regurgitation biventricular dysfunction and dyssynchrony. This chronic swine model mimics electromechanical ventricular activation delay, RV and LV dysfunction, as in adult population of repair TOF. It does appear to be a very useful and interesting model to study the implication of dyssynchrony and the interest of resynchronization therapy in TOF failing ventricle. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Rights

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    About 20 percent of Malawians are Moslems (CIA 2001). 5 . 'Property grabbing” occurs when the relatives of a deceased man take all matrimo- nial property, leaving the widow and children with hardly anything (WLSA 2000). References. Armstrong, Alice. 1993. 'lnternalising International Women's Rights Norms', in.

  18. Incidence of aflatoxin M1 in human and animal milk in Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, Sharaf S

    2012-01-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the presence of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) in animal milk. In addition, exposure of infants to aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) and lactating mothers to aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) was examined using AFM1 in breast milk as a biomarker for exposure to AFB1. In total, 100 samples of fresh animal milk and fermented milk (buttermilk) and 80 samples of human breast milk were collected during the period 2011-2012. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used for the analysis of milk samples. AFM1 was detected in all animal fresh and fermented milk samples. The concentrations of AFM1 in 70 samples of fresh and fermented milk were higher than the maximum tolerance limit accepted by the European Union and the United States of 50 ng/kg. In human milk samples the average concentration of AFM1 was higher than the maximum tolerance limit accepted by the European Union and the United States of 25 ng/kg. Logistic regression analysis failed to show a correlation between AFM1 and type and amount of dairy consumption, vegetables, fruits, and meat. However, an association between AFM1 and cereal consumption was detected. This study is the first to report on the occurrence of AFM1 in milk consumed by the Jordanian population.

  19. Animal Rights and Human Growth: Intellectual Courage and Extending the Moral Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Bradley D.

    2009-01-01

    While the ethical dimension of human-animal relationships has become a legitimate, rich subject for contemporary moral philosophers, scholars of moral education, and to a large extent, philosophers of education, have remained surprisingly silent on this subject. The primary purpose of this essay is to illustrate the relationship between the moral…

  20. Animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skuterud, L.; Strand, P.; Howard, B.J.

    1997-01-01

    The radionuclides of most concern with respect to contamination of animals after a nuclear accident are radioiodine, radiocaesium and radiostrontium (ICRP 30, 1979). Of the other significant anthropogenic radionuclides likely to be released in most accidents, only small proportions of that ingested will be absorbed in an animals gut, and the main animal products, milk and meat, will not normally be contaminated to a significant extent. Animal products will mostly be contaminated as a result of ingestion of contaminated feed and possibly, but to a much lesser extent, from inhalation (for radioiodine only). Direct external contamination of animals is of little or no consequence in human food production. Radioiodine and radiostrontium are important with respect to contamination of milk; radiocaesium contaminates both milk and meat. The physical and chemical form of a radionuclide can influence its absorption in the animal gut. For example, following the Chernobyl accident radiocaesium incorporated into vegetation by root uptake was more readily absorbed than that associated with the original deposit. The transfer of radiocaesium and radiostrontium to animals will be presented both as transfer coefficients and aggregated transfer coefficients. For most animal meat products, only radiocaesium is important as other radionuclides do not significantly contaminate muscle. Farm animal products are the most important foodstuff determining radiocaesium intake by the average consumer in the Nordic countries. The major potential source of radioiodine and radiostrontium to humans is milk and milk products. Of the different species, the smaller animals have the highest transfer of radiocaesium from fodder to meat and milk. (EG)

  1. Social Media and Its Dual Use in Biopreparedness: Communication and Visualization Tools in an Animal Bioterrorism Incident

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjöberg, Elisabeth; Barker, Gary C.; Landgren, Jonas

    2013-01-01

    This article focuses on social media and interactive challenges for emergency organizations during a bioterrorism or agroterrorism incident, and it outlines the dual-use dilemma of social media. Attackers or terrorists can use social media as their modus of operandi, and defenders, including emer...... in stream graphs and networks showing clusters of Twitter and Facebook users. The visualization of social media can be an important preparedness tool in the response to bioterrorism and agroterrorism.......This article focuses on social media and interactive challenges for emergency organizations during a bioterrorism or agroterrorism incident, and it outlines the dual-use dilemma of social media. Attackers or terrorists can use social media as their modus of operandi, and defenders, including...... emergency organizations in law enforcement and public and animal health, can use it for peaceful purposes. To get a better understanding of the uses of social media in these situations, a workshop was arranged in Stockholm, Sweden, to raise awareness about social media and animal bioterrorism threats. Fifty...

  2. Animals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skuterud, L.; Strand, P. [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (Norway); Howard, B.J. [Inst. of Terrestrial Ecology (United Kingdom)

    1997-10-01

    The radionuclides of most concern with respect to contamination of animals after a nuclear accident are radioiodine, radiocaesium and radiostrontium (ICRP 30, 1979). Of the other significant anthropogenic radionuclides likely to be released in most accidents, only small proportions of that ingested will be absorbed in an animals gut, and the main animal products, milk and meat, will not normally be contaminated to a significant extent. Animal products will mostly be contaminated as a result of ingestion of contaminated feed and possibly, but to a much lesser extent, from inhalation (for radioiodine only). Direct external contamination of animals is of little or no consequence in human food production. Radioiodine and radiostrontium are important with respect to contamination of milk; radiocaesium contaminates both milk and meat. The physical and chemical form of a radionuclide can influence its absorption in the animal gut. For example, following the Chernobyl accident radiocaesium incorporated into vegetation by root uptake was more readily absorbed than that associated with the original deposit. The transfer of radiocaesium and radiostrontium to animals will be presented both as transfer coefficients and aggregated transfer coefficients. For most animal meat products, only radiocaesium is important as other radionuclides do not significantly contaminate muscle. Farm animal products are the most important foodstuff determining radiocaesium intake by the average consumer in the Nordic countries. The major potential source of radioiodine and radiostrontium to humans is milk and milk products. Of the different species, the smaller animals have the highest transfer of radiocaesium from fodder to meat and milk. (EG). 68 refs.

  3. Biofuels done right: land efficient animal feeds enable large environmental and energy benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, Bruce E; Bals, Bryan D; Kim, Seungdo; Eranki, Pragnya

    2010-11-15

    There is an intense ongoing debate regarding the potential scale of biofuel production without creating adverse effects on food supply. We explore the possibility of three land-efficient technologies for producing food (actually animal feed), including leaf protein concentrates, pretreated forages, and double crops to increase the total amount of plant biomass available for biofuels. Using less than 30% of total U.S. cropland, pasture, and range, 400 billion liters of ethanol can be produced annually without decreasing domestic food production or agricultural exports. This approach also reduces U.S. greenhouse gas emissions by 670 Tg CO₂-equivalent per year, or over 10% of total U.S. annual emissions, while increasing soil fertility and promoting biodiversity. Thus we can replace a large fraction of U.S. petroleum consumption without indirect land use change.

  4. Conservation Physiology of an Uncatchable Animal: The North Atlantic Right Whale (Eubalaena glacialis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Kathleen E; Rolland, Rosalind M; Kraus, Scott D

    2015-10-01

    The North Atlantic right whale, Eubalaena glacialis (NARW), a critically endangered species that has been under intensive study for nearly four decades, provides an excellent case study for applying modern methods of conservation physiology to large whales. By combining long-term sighting histories of known individuals with physiological data from newer techniques (e.g., body condition estimated from photographs; endocrine status derived from fecal samples), physiological state and levels of stress can be estimated despite the lack of any method for nonlethal capture of large whales. Since traditional techniques for validating blood assays cannot be used in large whales, assays of fecal hormones have been validated using information on age, sex, and reproductive state derived from an extensive NARW photo-identification catalog. Using this approach, fecal glucocorticoids have been found to vary dramatically with reproductive state. It is therefore essential that glucocorticoid data be interpreted in conjunction with reproductive data. A case study correlating glucocorticoids with chronic noise is presented as an example. Keys to a successful research program for this uncatchable species have included: consistent population monitoring over decades, data-sharing across institutions, an extensive photo-identification catalog that documents individual histories, and consistent efforts at noninvasive collection of samples over years. Future research will require flexibility to adjust to changing distributions of populations. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Social media and its dual use in biopreparedness: communication and visualization tools in an animal bioterrorism incident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjöberg, Elisabeth; Barker, Gary C; Landgren, Jonas; Griberg, Isaac; Skiby, Jeffrey E; Tubbin, Anna; von Stapelmohr, Anne; Härenstam, Malin; Jansson, Mikael; Knutsson, Rickard

    2013-09-01

    This article focuses on social media and interactive challenges for emergency organizations during a bioterrorism or agroterrorism incident, and it outlines the dual-use dilemma of social media. Attackers or terrorists can use social media as their modus operandi, and defenders, including emergency organizations in law enforcement and public and animal health, can use it for peaceful purposes. To get a better understanding of the uses of social media in these situations, a workshop was arranged in Stockholm, Sweden, to raise awareness about social media and animal bioterrorism threats. Fifty-six experts and crisis communicators from international and national organizations participated. As a result of the workshop, it was concluded that emergency organizations can collect valuable information and monitor social media before, during, and after an outbreak. In order to make use of interactive communication to obtain collective intelligence from the public, emergency organizations must adapt to social networking technologies, requiring multidisciplinary knowledge in the fields of information, communication, IT, and biopreparedness. Social network messaging during a disease outbreak can be visualized in stream graphs and networks showing clusters of Twitter and Facebook users. The visualization of social media can be an important preparedness tool in the response to bioterrorism and agroterrorism.

  6. Changes in overall ventricular myocardial architecture in the setting of a porcine animal model of right ventricular dilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agger, Peter; Ilkjær, Christine; Laustsen, Christoffer; Smerup, Morten; Frandsen, Jesper R; Ringgaard, Steffen; Pedersen, Michael; Partridge, John B; Anderson, Robert H; Hjortdal, Vibeke

    2017-11-27

    Chronic pulmonary regurgitation often leads to myocardial dysfunction and heart failure. It is not fully known why secondary hypertrophy cannot fully protect against the increase in wall stress brought about by the increased end-diastolic volume in ventricular dilation. It has been assumed that mural architecture is not deranged in this situation, but we hypothesised that there might be a change in the pattern of orientation of the aggregations of cardiomyocytes, which would contribute to contractile impairment. We created pulmonary valvular regurgitation by open chest, surgical suturing of its leaflets in seven piglets, performing sham operations in seven control animals. Using cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging after 12 weeks of recovery, we demonstrated significantly increased right ventricular volumes in the test group. After sacrifice, diffusion tensor imaging of their hearts permitted measurement of the orientation of the cardiomyocytes. The helical angles in the right ventricle approached a more circumferential orientation in the setting of right ventricular RV dilation (p = 0.007), with an increased proportion of surface-parallel cardiomyocytes. In contrast, this proportion decreased in the left ventricle. Also in the left ventricle a higher proportion of E3 angles with a value around zero was found, and conversely a lower proportion of angles was found with a numerical higher value. In the dilated right ventricle the proportion of E3 angles around -90° is increased, while the proportion around 90° is decreased. Contrary to traditional views, there is a change in the orientation of both the left ventricular and right ventricular cardiomyocytes subsequent to right ventricular dilation. This will change their direction of contraction and hinder the achievement of normalisation of cardiomyocytic strain, affecting overall contractility. We suggest that the aetiology of the cardiac failure induced by right vetricular dilation may be partly explained

  7. Intellectual property rights and gene-based technologies for animal production and health. Issues for developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutfield, G.

    2005-01-01

    Intellectual property rights (IPR) are legal and institutional devices to protect creations of the mind. With respect to gene-based innovation, the most significant IPR is patents. Appropriate patent regimes have the potential to foster innovation in animal biotechnology and the transfer of gene-based technologies. Inappropriate patent systems may be counter-productive. Indeed, many critics are doubtful that the current international patent standards, based as they are on a combination of the United States of America' and European regimes, can help countries that lack the capacity to do much life science and biotechnology research to become more innovative o r contribute to the acquisition, absorption and, where desirable, the adaptation of new gene-based technologies from outside. Present legislation in Europe, North America and internationally is considered, together with the controversies and important policy questions for developing countries, and the choices facing countries seeking to enhance their scientific and technological capacities in these areas. (author)

  8. Animal models of arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy: what have we learned and where do we go? Insight for therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padrón-Barthe, Laura; Domínguez, Fernando; Garcia-Pavia, Pablo; Lara-Pezzi, Enrique

    2017-09-01

    Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC) is a rare genetically-determined cardiac heart muscle disorder characterized by fibro-fatty replacement of the myocardium that results in heart failure and sudden cardiac death (SCD), predominantly in young males. The disease is often caused by mutations in genes encoding proteins of the desmosomal complex, with a significant minority caused by mutations in non-desmosomal proteins. Existing treatment options are based on SCD prevention with the implantable cardioverter defibrillator, antiarrhythmic drugs, and anti-heart failure medication. Heart transplantation may also be required and there is currently no cure. Several genetically modified animal models have been developed to characterize the disease, assess its progression, and determine the influence of potential environmental factors. These models have also been very valuable for translational therapeutic approaches, to screen new treatment options that prevent and/or reverse the disease. Here, we review the available ARVC animal models reported to date, highlighting the most important pathophysiological findings and discussing the effect of treatments tested so far in this setting. We also describe gaps in our knowledge of the disease, with the goal of stimulating research and improving patient outcomes.

  9. Marching out from Ultima Thule: Critical Counterstories of Emancipatory Educators Working at the Intersection of Human Rights, Animal Rights, and Planetary Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Richard; Humes, Brandy

    2009-01-01

    It is not altogether uncommon now to hear environmental educational theorists speak of the need to develop pedagogical methods that can work both for ecological sustainability and social justice. However, the majority of the socio-ecological turn in environmental education has failed to integrate nonhuman animal advocacy as a serious educational…

  10. Supporting the underdog: feminism, animal rights and citizenship in the work of Alice Morgan Wright and Edith Goode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birke, L

    2000-01-01

    In this article, the author examines the overlap between feminism and animal causes, particularly through the lives of two women, the sculptor, Alice Morgan Wright (1881-1975), and her friend, Edith Goode (1882-1970). Feminism and animal causes had connections in the late nineteenth century, particularly in campaigns to abolish vivisection. Wright and Goode held to these politics throughout their lives, and were "precursors of a generation yet to come" who would argue the connections - as many ecofeminists do today. Both women were involved in suffrage campaigns, and continued to be involved in women's organisations such as the National Woman's Party. They were, however, opposed to all injustice, including human mistreatment of animals. Feminism was, to Wright and Goode, part of a wider set of problems; animal cruelty reflected a greater barbarism leading to mistreatment of humans. Accordingly, they actively campaigned for legislation to protect animals and the environment, and lobbied the fledgling United Nations to include such measures. That challenge to the United Nations represented a unique attempt to bring animals into citizenship' a move being made again today, through initiatives such as the Great Ape Project.

  11. The incidence of peripheral arterial embolism in association with a patent foramen ovale (right-to-left shunt).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali Kausar Rushdi, Yusuf; Hina, Hina; Patel, Bijendra; Cross, Frank W

    2011-05-01

    The aim of this study was to examine a cohort of patients who had suffered an arterial embolism to see whether a patent foramen ovale (PFO) was an identifiable cause. This study was conducted in two parts; a retrospective limb involving an audit of patient records over a period of 10 years, and a prospective limb including selected patients from that audit to search for a PFO using an agitated saline test with transcranial Doppler ultrasound monitoring of the anterior cerebral artery. Data on patients with peripheral vascular disease were collected using a structured questionnaire. A clinical vascular department. All patients were seen in the vascular outpatients clinic. Patients who had been identified from a retrospective search based on the headline diagnosis of arterial embolus. Collected data on the 71 patients revealed that 75% had predisposing factors for DVT, 70% were male smokers, and 84.4% had a significant past history of vascular symptoms. Whether or not patients identified as having a possible PFO actually had one on objective testing with transcranial Doppler assessment of the cerebral circulation with an agitated saline solution. Fifteen patients who were suspected of having a PFO were selected from these 71 patients; 12 of these were found to have no PFO on testing, and three had already undergone a percutaneous PFO closure. The incidence of a PFO in this small study group is no higher than that found in the general population (3/15, 20%). There was high prevalence of male smokers with associated predisposing factors leading to a DVT.

  12. Identification of toxigenic microcystis strains after incidents of wild animal mortalities in the Kruger National Park, South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Oberholster, Paul J

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available animal health profes- sionals and wildlife managers to improve their preparedness and assist in the management of toxic Microcystis bloom events, as was experienced in the case of the Nhlanganzwane Dam. Uncited reference SPSS Inc. (1997.... Plank Res. 14, 235–247. Schwarm, A., Clauss, M., Flach, E.J., 2003. Passage rate and digestibility coefficients in captive hippopotamidae, a pilot study. Verhandlungsber. Erkrank. Zootiere 41, 413–418. SPSS Inc., 1997. Systat 7.0.1 for Windows...

  13. Changes in overall ventricular myocardial architecture in the setting of a porcine animal model of right ventricular dilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agger, Peter; Ilkjær, Christine; Laustsen, Christoffer

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Chronic pulmonary regurgitation often leads to myocardial dysfunction and heart failure. It is not fully known why secondary hypertrophy cannot fully protect against the increase in wall stress brought about by the increased end-diastolic volume in ventricular dilation. It has been...... of their hearts permitted measurement of the orientation of the cardiomyocytes. RESULTS: The helical angles in the right ventricle approached a more circumferential orientation in the setting of right ventricular RV dilation (p = 0.007), with an increased proportion of surface-parallel cardiomyocytes. In contrast...... the achievement of normalisation of cardiomyocytic strain, affecting overall contractility. We suggest that the aetiology of the cardiac failure induced by right vetricular dilation may be partly explained by morphological changes in the myocardium itself....

  14. The Customer Isn't Always Right-Conservation and Animal Welfare Implications of the Increasing Demand for Wildlife Tourism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moorhouse, Tom P; Dahlsjö, Cecilia A L; Baker, Sandra E; D'Cruze, Neil C; Macdonald, David W

    2015-01-01

    Tourism accounts for 9% of global GDP and comprises 1.1 billion tourist arrivals per annum. Visits to wildlife tourist attractions (WTAs) may account for 20-40% of global tourism, but no studies have audited the diversity of WTAs and their impacts on the conservation status and welfare of subject animals. We scored these impacts for 24 types of WTA, visited by 3.6-6 million tourists per year, and compared our scores to tourists' feedback on TripAdvisor. Six WTA types (impacting 1,500-13,000 individual animals) had net positive conservation/welfare impacts, but 14 (120,000-340,000 individuals) had negative conservation impacts and 18 (230,000-550,000 individuals) had negative welfare impacts. Despite these figures only 7.8% of all tourist feedback on these WTAs was negative due to conservation/welfare concerns. We demonstrate that WTAs have substantial negative effects that are unrecognised by the majority of tourists, suggesting an urgent need for tourist education and regulation of WTAs worldwide.

  15. Animal research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsson, I.A.S.; Sandøe, Peter

    2012-01-01

    in research is analyzed from the viewpoint of three distinct ethical approaches: contractarianism, utilitarianism, and animal rights view. On a contractarian view, research on animals is only an ethical issue to the extent that other humans as parties to the social contract care about how research animals...... are faring. From the utilitarian perspective, the use of sentient animals in research that may harm them is an ethical issue, but harm done to animals can be balanced by benefit generated for humans and other animals. The animal rights view, when thoroughgoing, is abolitionist as regards the use of animals...

  16. Incidence and Levels of Deoxynivalenol, Fumonisins and Zearalenone Contaminants in Animal Feeds Used in Korea in 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Ho Kim

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the occurrence and levels of deoxynivalenol (DON, fumonisins B1 and B2 (FBs, and zearalenone (ZEN contaminants in animal feeds used in Korea in 2012. Contamination with DON was observed in 91.33% and 53.33% in compound feeds and feed ingredients, respectively. Among compound feeds, poultry layer feed (laying exhibited the highest contaminant level of 1.492 mg/kg. FBs contaminants were present in compound feeds and feed ingredients at 93.33% and 83.33%, respectively. Most poultry broiler (early feeds were highly contaminated with FBs, and one of these feeds detected the level as 12.823 mg/kg as the highest level. The levels of ZEN in compound feeds and feed ingredients were 71.33% and 47%, respectively. Ninety-eight percent of compound feeds for cattle were contaminated with ZEN, and the highest contamination level of 0.405 mg/kg was observed in cattle fatting feeds.

  17. Comparison of the effects of inhaled {sup 239}PuO{sub 2} and {beta}- emitting radionuclides on the incidence of lung carcinomas in laboratory animals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahn, F.F.; Griffith, W.C.; Boecker, B.B.; Muggenburg, B.A.; Lundgren, D.L.

    1991-12-31

    The health effects of inhaling radioactive particles when the lung is the primary organ irradiated were studied in rats and Beagle dogs. The animals were exposed to aerosols of {sup 239}PuO{sub 2} or fission-product radionuclides in insoluble forms and observed for their life span. Lung carcinomas were the primary late-occuring effect. The incidence rate for lung carcinomas was modeled using a proportional hazard rate model. Linear functions predominated below 5 Gy to the lung. The life-time risk for lung carcinomas per 10{sup 4} Gy for beta emitters was 60 for rats and 65 for dogs, and for {sup 239}PuO{sub 2} it was 1500 for rats and 2300 for dogs.

  18. Exacerbated pulmonary arterial hypertension and right ventricular hypertrophy in animals with loss of function of extracellular superoxide dismutase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Dachun; Guo, Haipeng; Xu, Xin; Lu, Zhongbing; Fassett, John; Hu, Xinli; Xu, Yawei; Tang, Qizhu; Hu, Dayi; Somani, Arif; Geurts, Aron M; Ostertag, Eric; Bache, Robert J; Weir, E Kenneth; Chen, Yingjie

    2011-08-01

    Studies have demonstrated that increased oxidative stress contributes to the pathogenesis and the development of pulmonary artery hypertension (PAH). Extracellular superoxide dismutase (SOD3) is essential for removing extracellular superoxide anions, and it is highly expressed in lung tissue. However, it is not clear whether endogenous SOD3 can influence the development of PAH. Here we examined the effect of SOD3 knockout on hypoxia-induced PAH in mice and a loss-of-function SOD3 gene mutation (SOD3(E124D)) on monocrotaline (40 mg/kg)-induced PAH in rats. SOD3 knockout significantly exacerbated 2 weeks of hypoxia-induced right ventricular (RV) pressure and RV hypertrophy, whereas RV pressure in SOD3 knockout mice under normoxic conditions is similar to wild-type controls. In untreated control rats at age of 8 weeks, there was no significant difference between wild-type and SOD3(E124D) rats in RV pressure and the ratio of RV weight:left ventricular weight (0.25±0.02 in wild-type rats versus 0.25±0.01 in SOD3(E124D) rats). However, monocrotaline caused significantly greater increases of RV pressure in SOD3(E124D) rats (48.6±1.8 mm Hg in wild-type versus 57.5±3.1 mm Hg in SOD3(E124D) rats), of the ratio of RV weight:left ventricular weight (0.41±0.01 versus 0.50±0.09; Prats (55.2±2.3% versus 69.9±2.6%; P<0.05). Together, these findings indicate that the endogenous SOD3 has no role in the development of PAH under control conditions but plays an important role in protecting the lung from the development of PAH under stress conditions.

  19. Persistence and proliferation of human mesenchymal stromal cells in the right ventricular myocardium after intracoronary injection in a large animal model of pulmonary hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badr Eslam, Roza; Croce, Kevin; Mangione, Fernanda Marinho; Musmann, Robert; Leopold, Jane A; Mitchell, Richard N; Waxman, Aaron B

    2017-06-01

    In this study, we demonstrate long-term persistence of human mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSCs) after intracoronary injection in a large animal model of pulmonary hypertension (PH). Commercially available placenta-derived hMSCs were used. Experiments were conducted on 14 female Yorkshire swine. Four animals served as controls, and 10 underwent pulmonary vein (PV) banding. After 12 ± 2 weeks, PH and PV dysfunction were confirmed by right heart catheterization and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. hMSCs were injected in the marginal branch of the right coronary artery. Tissues were harvested 6, 9 or 24 days after infusion. After 12 ± 2 weeks after PV banding, all subjects had increased mean pulmonary artery pressure (13.6 ± 3.6 versus 30.8 ± 4.5 mm Hg, P cells in the right ventricle (RV) that were Ki67 + . This was confirmed by fluorescence in situ hybridization. CD45 + porcine inflammatory cells were identified, commonly seen adjacent to areas of healing microscopic infarction that likely dated to the time of the original hMSC injection. Anti-CD31 staining produced strong signals in areas of injected hMSCs. Immunohistochemistry staining for vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 showed upregulation in the clusters, where mononuclear cells were located. hMSCs injected via intracoronary infusion survived up to 24 days and demonstrated proliferative capacity. hMSCs can persist long term in the RV and are potential cell source for tissue repair in RV dysfunction. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. 3D late gadolinium enhanced cardiovascular MR with CENTRA-PLUS profile/view ordering: Feasibility of right ventricular myocardial damage assessment using a swine animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaji, Keigo; Tanaka, Akiko; Patel, Mita B; Wang, Hui; Maffessanti, Francesco; Ota, Takeyoshi; Patel, Amit R

    2017-06-01

    To develop a high-resolution, 3D late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique for improved assessment of myocardial scars, and evaluate its performance against 2D breath-held (BH) LGE MRI using a surgically implanted animal scar model in the right ventricle (RV). A k-space segmented 3D LGE acquisition using CENTRA-PLUS (Contrast ENhanced Timing Robust Acquisition with Preparation of LongitUdinal Signal; or CP) ordering is proposed. 8 pigs were surgically prepared with cardiac patch implantation in the RV, followed in 60days by 1.5T MRI. LGE with Phase-Sensitive Inversion Recovery (PSIR) were performed as follows: 1) 2DBH using pneumatic control, and 2) navigator-gated, 3D free-breathing (3DFB)-CP-LGE with slice-tracking. The animal heart was excised immediately after cardiac MR for scar volume quantification. RV scar volumes were also delineated from the 2DBH and 3DFB-CP-LGE images for comparison against the surgical standard. Apparent scar/normal tissue signal-to-noise ratio (aSNR) and contrast-to-noise ratio (aCNR) were also calculated. 3DFB-CP-LGE technique was successfully performed in all animals. No difference in aCNR was noted, but aSNR was significantly higher using the 3D technique (p<0.05). Against the surgical reference volume, the 3DFB-CP-LGE-derived delineation yielded significantly less volume quantification error compared to 2DBH-derived volumes (15±10% vs 55±33%; p<0.05). Compared to conventional 2DBH-LGE, 3DFB-LGE acquisition using CENTRA-PLUS provided superior scar volume quantification and improved aSNR. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Recourse right

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopes, M.R.M.

    1979-01-01

    The recourse right concerning nuclear power plants is analysed. It is emphasized that in the Brazilian civil liability legislation, the operator has this right against who admitted it through a written contract or against the individual who has acted or omitted to act whith the intent to provoke nuclear incidents. (A.L.S.L.) [pt

  2. Acute right heart failure after hemorrhagic shock and trauma pneumonectomy-a management approach: A blinded randomized controlled animal trial using inhaled nitric oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubitz, Andrea L; Sjoholm, Lars O; Goldberg, Amy; Pathak, Abhijit; Santora, Thomas; Sharp, Thomas E; Wallner, Markus; Berretta, Remus M; Poole, Lauren A; Wu, Jichuan; Wolfson, Marla R

    2017-02-01

    Hemorrhagic shock and pneumonectomy causes an acute increase in pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR). The increase in PVR and right ventricular (RV) afterload leads to acute RV failure, thus reducing left ventricular (LV) preload and output. Inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) lowers PVR by relaxing pulmonary arterial smooth muscle without remarkable systemic vascular effects. We hypothesized that with hemorrhagic shock and pneumonectomy, iNO can be used to decrease PVR and mitigate right heart failure. A hemorrhagic shock and pneumonectomy model was developed using sheep. Sheep received lung protective ventilatory support and were instrumented to serially obtain measurements of hemodynamics, gas exchange, and blood chemistry. Heart function was assessed with echocardiography. After randomization to study gas of iNO 20 ppm (n = 9) or nitrogen as placebo (n = 9), baseline measurements were obtained. Hemorrhagic shock was initiated by exsanguination to a target of 50% of the baseline mean arterial pressure. The resuscitation phase was initiated, consisting of simultaneous left pulmonary hilum ligation, via median sternotomy, infusion of autologous blood and initiation of study gas. Animals were monitored for 4 hours. All animals had an initial increase in PVR. PVR remained elevated with placebo; with iNO, PVR decreased to baseline. Echo showed improved RV function in the iNO group while it remained impaired in the placebo group. After an initial increase in shunt and lactate and decrease in SvO2, all returned toward baseline in the iNO group but remained abnormal in the placebo group. These data indicate that by decreasing PVR, iNO decreased RV afterload, preserved RV and LV function, and tissue oxygenation in this hemorrhagic shock and pneumonectomy model. This suggests that iNO may be a useful clinical adjunct to mitigate right heart failure and improve survival when trauma pneumonectomy is required.

  3. Animal Deliberation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driessen, C.P.G.

    2014-01-01

    While much has been written on environmental politics on the one hand, and animal ethics and welfare on the other, animal politics, as the interface of the two, is underexamined. There are key political implications in the increase of animal protection laws, the rights of nature, and political

  4. Impact of the right ventricular lead position on clinical outcome and on the incidence of ventricular tachyarrhythmias in patients with CRT-D

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kutyifa, Valentina; Bloch Thomsen, Poul Erik; Huang, David T.

    2013-01-01

    Data on the impact of right ventricular (RV) lead location on clinical outcome and ventricular tachyarrhythmias in cardiac resynchronization therapy with defibrillator (CRT-D) patients are limited.......Data on the impact of right ventricular (RV) lead location on clinical outcome and ventricular tachyarrhythmias in cardiac resynchronization therapy with defibrillator (CRT-D) patients are limited....

  5. Common Causes of Pesticide Incidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    There are many types of pesticide incidents. EPA staff analyze pesticide incident reports involving people (including children and farm workers), pets, domestic animals, wildlife including bees and other pollinators, and the environment.

  6. Animal ethics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palmer, Clare; Sandøe, Peter

    2011-01-01

    This chapter describes and discusses different views concerning our duties towards animals. First, we explain why it is necessary to engage in thinking about animal ethics and why it is not enough to rely on feelings alone. Secondly, we present and discuss five different kinds of views about the ...... the nature of our duties to animals. They are: contractarianism, utilitarianism, the animal rights view, contextual views, and a respect for nature view. Finally, we briefly consider whether it is possible to combine elements from the presented views, and how to make up one’s mind....

  7. Gender vulnerabilities, spousal abuse and the incidence of HIV in Lesotho:a case for an integrative rights-based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olowu, 'Dejo

    2011-09-01

    The article posits that imbalances in gender relations are influencing two distinctive yet connected crises for women in Lesotho: the HIV epidemic and spousal abuse. The overarching premise is that as spousal abuse is increasingly recognised and as HIV infections spread, responses to the phenomenon do not reflect the related risks and consequences in married women's lives. This article underscores the nexus of connections between HIV and spousal abuse in Lesotho, identifying potential areas for pragmatic state-led responses. Applying a rights-based approach, it assesses women's vulnerability to each problem at the individual, societal and programmatic levels, noting that there are both direct and underlying factors heightening risks for women. The article asks, what is the value added by a rights-based approach to the subject under discourse? And, how can a rights-based approach be translated into practical tools for planning, monitoring and evaluating projects and programmes aimed at tackling the multifaceted risks and challenges of HIV and spousal abuse confronting women in Lesotho? In response to these questions, the author identifies three trajectories of opportunities for an integrated, comprehensive response. The unmistakable anchor of the article's propositions is the rights-based approach. Although the discussion focuses on Lesotho, the implications for the broader African region cannot be overemphasised in light of commonly shared experiences pertaining to the severe difficulties posed by spousal abuse and HIV.

  8. "Don't Just Do Something … Stand There!" Emergency Responders' Peri-Incident Perceptions of Animal Owners in Bushfire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westcott, Rachel Anne Nosworthy; Ronan, Kevin; Bambrick, Hilary; Taylor, Melanie

    2017-01-01

    Narrowing the awareness-preparedness gap in bushfires (wildfires) means that new strategies and tactics will be needed to improve human safety and survival in this increasingly frequent and severe globally significant natural hazard. One way to do this is to explore the peri-event experiences of novel demographic groups living and working in at-risk areas to determine how best to strengthen a collaborative, mutually beneficial interface with emergency responders. Thus, this study included participants from one novel demographic, animal owners, in combination with emergency responders. Animal owners themselves are a large, diverse group whose preparedness and response behavior has not been assessed with respect to their potential contribution to contemporary natural hazard management. Data were collected using semi-structured interviews and focus group discussions from four emergency responder classifications who were asked about their perceptions of animal owners in bushfire. Thematic analysis was used for data analysis because of its flexibility and suitability to this pragmatic qualitative study. Results from the first of 10 themes, chosen for its "overview" properties, are discussed in this paper, and indicate that exploring the animal owner-emergency responder interface has the potential to generate useful additions to public policy and expansion of social theory. Analysis of these data in this paper supports the potential for positive outcomes gained by reciprocal collaboration between animal owners and emergency responders. Some simple practical solutions are evident and two major outcome streams are identified. These are (1) policy development and implementation and (2) etiology of decision-making. Considerations and recommendations for research examining the efficacy of these streams and solutions are provided.

  9. Association between community socioeconomic factors, animal feeding operations, and campylobacteriosis incidence rates: Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet), 2004-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg Goldstein, Rachel E; Cruz-Cano, Raul; Jiang, Chengsheng; Palmer, Amanda; Blythe, David; Ryan, Patricia; Hogan, Brenna; White, Benjamin; Dunn, John R; Libby, Tanya; Tobin-D'Angelo, Melissa; Huang, Jennifer Y; McGuire, Suzanne; Scherzinger, Karen; Lee, Mei-Ling Ting; Sapkota, Amy R

    2016-07-22

    Campylobacter is a leading cause of foodborne illness in the United States. Campylobacter infections have been associated with individual risk factors, such as the consumption of poultry and raw milk. Recently, a Maryland-based study identified community socioeconomic and environmental factors that are also associated with campylobacteriosis rates. However, no previous studies have evaluated the association between community risk factors and campylobacteriosis rates across multiple U.S. states. We obtained Campylobacter case data (2004-2010; n = 40,768) from the Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet) and socioeconomic and environmental data from the 2010 Census of Population and Housing, the 2011 American Community Survey, and the 2007 U.S. Census of Agriculture. We linked data by zip code and derived incidence rate ratios using negative binomial regression models. Community socioeconomic and environmental factors were associated with both lower and higher campylobacteriosis rates. Zip codes with higher percentages of African Americans had lower rates of campylobacteriosis (incidence rate ratio [IRR]) = 0.972; 95 % confidence interval (CI) = 0.970,0.974). In Georgia, Maryland, and Tennessee, three leading broiler chicken producing states, zip codes with broiler operations had incidence rates that were 22 % (IRR = 1.22; 95 % CI = 1.03,1.43), 16 % (IRR = 1.16; 95 % CI = 0.99,1.37), and 35 % (IRR = 1.35; 95 % CI = 1.18,1.53) higher, respectively, than those of zip codes without broiler operations. In Minnesota and New York FoodNet counties, two top dairy producing areas, zip codes with dairy operations had significantly higher campylobacteriosis incidence rates (IRR = 1.37; 95 % CI = 1.22, 1.55; IRR = 1.19; 95 % CI = 1.04,1.36). Community socioeconomic and environmental factors are important to consider when evaluating the relationship between possible risk factors and Campylobacter infection.

  10. Incidence of acquisition of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Clostridium difficile, and other health-care-associated pathogens by dogs that participate in animal-assisted interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefebvre, Sandra L; Reid-Smith, Richard J; Waltner-Toews, David; Weese, J Scott

    2009-06-01

    To determine whether dogs that visited human health-care facilities were at greater risk of acquiring certain health-care-associated pathogens, compared with dogs performing animal-assisted interventions in other settings, and to identify specific behaviors of dogs associated with an increased risk of acquiring these pathogens. Prospective cohort and nested case-control studies. 96 dogs that visited human health-care facilities and 98 dogs involved in other animal-assisted interventions. Fecal samples and nasal swab specimens were collected from dogs at the time of recruitment and every 2 months for 1 year and were tested for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Clostridium difficile, and other selected bacteria. Information was also obtained on facilities visited during animal-assisted interventions, dog diet, dog illnesses, and antimicrobial use within the home. At the end of the study, dog handlers were asked about the behavior of their dogs during visits to health-care facilities. Rates of acquisition of MRSA and C difficile were 4.7 and 2.4 times as high, respectively, among dogs that visited human health-care facilities, compared with rates among dogs involved in other animal-assisted interventions. Among dogs that visited human health-care facilities, those that licked patients or accepted treats during visits were more likely to be positive for MRSA and C difficile than were dogs that did not lick patients or accept treats. Results suggested that dogs that visited human health-care facilities were at risk of acquiring MRSA and C difficile, particularly when they licked patients or accepted treats during visits.

  11. Ontwikkelingen in octrooien die invloed hebben op het gebruiksrecht van dieren in de veehouderij = Developments in patents that impact on the right of use of animals in animal production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Napel, ten J.; Oonk, H.B.; Hiemstra, S.J.

    2011-01-01

    European and Dutch legislation allow applications for patenting animals, provided that certain criteria are met. In practice, the precise interpretation of these criteria is not clear en it takes relatively long before an application is granted or rejected. Analysis of patent applications concerning

  12. Right ventricular failure due to chronic pressure load : What have we learned in animal models since the NIH working group statement?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borgdorff, Marinus A J; Dickinson, Michael G; Berger, Rolf M F; Bartelds, Beatrijs

    Right ventricular (RV) failure determines outcome in patients with pulmonary hypertension, congenital heart diseases and in left ventricular failure. In 2006, the Working Group on Cellular and Molecular Mechanisms of Right Heart Failure of the NIH advocated the development of preclinical models to

  13. Rooster fighting, animal rights and the environment for the brazilian federal supreme court – a review of the adi 1856/rj

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Carneiro Lima

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The present paper realized an analysis of the articulated issues and the decision rendered by the Supreme Court in ADI 1856/RJ that discusses the legal validity of the Law enacted by the state of Rio de Janeiro that regulates the practice of the rooster fighting. The standard was declared unconstitutional by the reason of the cruelty, which is subjected the combatant race birds. The decision had as a parameter the principle of human dignity and the constitutional determination that the environment must be protected by the government and by the community. The study is realized under the anthropocentric conception. The goal is to analyze the issue of cruelty against the animals and the protection of the man against the loss of their own dignity with violent actions. For the study, the deductive method was used, by the means bibliographic search to answer the problem that has its heart in reason to protect animals from cruel acts.

  14. Right Where, Right When?

    OpenAIRE

    Graham, Beryl

    2015-01-01

    This exhibition catalogue essay was invited by the curator of The Lowry, Salford, for her Right Here, Right Now exhibition. The international artists included Thomson and Craighead, Timo Arnall, Mishka Henner and Daniel Rozin.

  15. A Review of Introducing Issues with Opposing Viewpoints: Animal Rights. By Lauri S. Friedman. Greenhaven Press: Farmington Hills, MI, USA, 2010; Hardcover, 144 pp; Price: $33.58; ISBN: 978-0737749373

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee J. Markowitz

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Given the volatile nature of animal rights issues and the extensive array of writings on the topic, one might expect several introductory anthologies to be available. The only anthologies in print, however, are scholarly tomes (listed below geared towards more advanced readers. Fortunately, Lauri S. Friedman, author of dozens of anthologies on controversial topics such as gun control, national security, terrorism, fast food, sexually transmitted diseases, and many other topics, fills this void well with her volume titled Introducing Issues with Opposing Viewpoints: Animal Rights. She has included articles by influential authors in a diverse range of lay outlets such as The Wall Street Journal, Slate, Guardian, Christianity Today, Food & Wine, among others. Below, I describe the contents of the book, its strengths and weaknesses, and how educators might use the book in classroom settings.

  16. Minimal and maximal incidence rates of skin cancer in Caucasians estimated by use of sigmoidal UV dose-incidence curves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juzeniene, Asta; Grigalavicius, Mantas; Baturaite, Zivile; Moan, Johan

    2014-11-01

    Sigmoidal (S-shaped) dose-cancer incidence relationships are often observed in animal bioassays for carcinogenicity. Ultraviolet (UV) radiation is an established skin carcinogen. The aim of this study is to examine if S-shaped curves describe the relationship between solar UV doses and skin cancer incidences, and if such relationships can be used to estimate threshold levels of non-carcinogenic UV exposure, as well as maximal incidence rates. We studied the incidence rate-annual erythema-effective UV dose relationship for squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and cutaneous melanoma (CM) among different Caucasian populations in Europe, Australia and New Zealand. Our analysis indicates that S-shaped associations describe the data well (P skin cancer was absent. Avoidance of UV radiation has a potential to reduce the incidence of skin cancer in fair-skinned population. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. Right patient, Right blood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selberg, Hanne; Madsen, Trine Stougaard

    2014-01-01

    : The objective of the current study was to test workshops focusing on procedures of safe blood transfusion by combining theory and practice, integrating current guidelines on safe blood transfusion and hereby help students to better recognize and handle errors and adverse reactions. Methods: 372 third year......Right patient, Right Blood Simulation based training in blood transfusion practice in nursing education Background: In spite of strict checking procedures to handling transfusion of blood severe adverse reactions are likely to happen and the major cause of morbidity occurs to be liable to human...... errors. Nursing students have limited possibility to practice safe blood transfusion during clinical placements. We introduced simulation-based workshops to reinforce safe transfusion practice and thus increase patient safety but equally important to bridge the gap between theory and practice. Objectives...

  18. Ethics in Animal Experimentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuf Ergun

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Experimental animals are frequently used to obtain information for primarily scientific reasons. In the present review, ethics in animal experimentation is examined. At first, the history of animal experimentation and animal rights is outlined. Thereafter, the terms in relation with the topic are defined. Finally, prominent aspects of 3Rs constituting scientific and ethical basis in animal experimentation are underlined. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2010; 19(4.000: 220-235

  19. Wheelchair incidents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drongelen AW van; Roszek B; Hilbers-Modderman ESM; Kallewaard M; Wassenaar C; LGM

    2002-01-01

    This RIVM study was performed to gain insight into wheelchair-related incidents with powered and manual wheelchairs reported to the USA FDA, the British MDA and the Dutch Center for Quality and Usability Research of Technical Aids (KBOH). The data in the databases do not indicate that incidents with

  20. Incidents analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francois, P.

    1996-01-01

    We undertook a study programme at the end of 1991. To start with, we performed some exploratory studies aimed at learning some preliminary lessons on this type of analysis: Assessment of the interest of probabilistic incident analysis; possibility of using PSA scenarios; skills and resources required. At the same time, EPN created a working group whose assignment was to define a new approach for analysis of incidents on NPPs. This working group gave thought to both aspects of Operating Feedback that EPN wished to improve: Analysis of significant incidents; analysis of potential consequences. We took part in the work of this group, and for the second aspects, we proposed a method based on an adaptation of the event-tree method in order to establish a link between existing PSA models and actual incidents. Since PSA provides an exhaustive database of accident scenarios applicable to the two most common types of units in France, they are obviously of interest for this sort of analysis. With this method we performed some incident analyses, and at the same time explores some methods employed abroad, particularly ASP (Accident Sequence Precursor, a method used by the NRC). Early in 1994 EDF began a systematic analysis programme. The first, transient phase will set up methods and an organizational structure. 7 figs

  1. Incidents in nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franzen, L.F.; Wienhold, W.

    1976-09-01

    With reference to the incident list of the Ministry for the period 1971-74, Prof. Bechert has expressed a lot of questions and statements in a letter to the Government. The letter is quoted in full. Inadequate conclusions drawn by Prof. Bechert in connection with quotations from daily newspapers and other documents are put right. (HP) [de

  2. [Ethics and animal experiments.].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnaider, Taylor Brandão; Souza, Cláudio de

    2003-04-01

    This is a major subject since the aim is to grant human beings physical, mental, social and spiritual well-being without forgetting the sacred rights of all animals. Most international codes dealing with health-related research practices state that research developed in human beings should be based on previous lab animal experiments or on other scientific data. This article aimed at explaining ethics in animal experiments. The concepts of dissertation and thesis, experimental thesis, experimental essay or pilot experiment and experimental animal facilities are reviewed. Then, a historical retrospective is drawn about the first attempt to develop experimental research policies during the mid 19th Century, in London. It is highlighted that some criteria defined by that time still persist. The first animal research ethical committee was created in Sweden in 1979, followed by the USA in1984. In Brazil, animal research ethical committees were created as late as in the 90s. The Federal Law 6638 was passed in May 1979 and provides for the didactic-scientific practice of animal vivisection. This law, however, is still waiting for regulation. In addition, there are some drafts being analyzed by the Congress, which provide for the use of animals for teaching and research purposes. Finally, the policies adopted by the Brazilian College of Animal Experiments and the Universal Declaration of Animal Rights are presented. Professors, postgraduates, residents and graduate students of a Medical School involved in animal research should be aware of the ethical principles aiming at protecting animals selected for scientific work.

  3. Cancer Statistics Animator

    Science.gov (United States)

    This tool allows users to animate cancer trends over time by cancer site and cause of death, race, and sex. Provides access to incidence, mortality, and survival. Select the type of statistic, variables, format, and then extract the statistics in a delimited format for further analyses.

  4. Whose Rights?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aktor, Mikael

    2016-01-01

    The debate over ritual infant male circumcision has increasingly been thematized as a Human Rights issue. But the claims on such rights seem highly conflicting. In particular, the rights of the child seems to conflict with the freedom of religion of parents, the rights of religious and ethnic...

  5. Political Communication with Animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, E.

    2013-01-01

    In this article I sketch the outlines of a theory of political human-animal conversations, based on ideas about language that I borrow from Ludwig Wittgenstein’s later work, in particular his notion of language-games. I present this theory as a supplement to the political theory of animal rights Sue

  6. Lightning incidents in Mongolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myagmar Doljinsuren

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This is one of the first studies that has been conducted in Mongolia on the distribution of lightning incidents. The study covers a 10-year period from 2004 to 2013. The country records a human death rate of 15.4 deaths per 10 million people per year, which is much higher than that of many countries with similar isokeraunic level. The reason may be the low-grown vegetation observed in most rural areas of Mongolia, a surface topography, typical to steppe climate. We suggest modifications to Gomes–Kadir equation for such countries, as it predicts a much lower annual death rate for Mongolia. The lightning incidents spread over the period from May to August with the peak of the number of incidents occurring in July. The worst lightning affected region in the country is the central part. Compared with impacts of other convective disasters such as squalls, thunderstorms and hail, lightning stands as the second highest in the number of incidents, human deaths and animal deaths. Economic losses due to lightning is only about 1% of the total losses due to the four extreme weather phenomena. However, unless precautionary measures are not promoted among the public, this figure of losses may significantly increase with time as the country is undergoing rapid industrialization at present.

  7. Children's Rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlene, Vickie J.

    1992-01-01

    Provides a sampling of citations in the ERIC database on children's rights. Includes human rights education, United Nations' conventions, state takeovers of local school districts, and federal law as it affects student rights. Covers child abuse, corporal punishment, child welfare, and child advocacy. (DK)

  8. Right hepatic artery aneurysm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernal, Astrid Del Pilar Ardila; Loures, Paulo; Calle, Juan Cristóbal Ospina; Cunha, Beatriz; Córdoba, Juan Camilo

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of an aneurysm of the right hepatic artery and its multidisciplinary management by general surgery, endoscopy and radiology services. Being a case of extremely low incidence, it is important to show its diagnostic and therapeutic approach. RESUMO Relatamos um caso de aneurisma da artéria hepática direita conduzido de forma multidisciplinar pelos Serviços de Cirurgia Geral, Endoscopia e Radiologia. Em se tratando de caso de incidência baixíssima, é importante mostrar o enfoque diagnóstico e terapêutico usado em seu manejo.

  9. Natural Rights and Human Rights

    OpenAIRE

    Nasser Qorban Nia

    2013-01-01

    Any human rights bereft of philosophical and anthropological foundations are susceptible to weakness and vulnerability. The question as to how from a logical point of view we arrive at the conclusion that the fact of being a human accords us with rights is one that has been provided with several answers. Belief in the natural rights is justification for some prominent proponents. However, in spite of serious challenges facing the proponents of natural rights, it is possible to consider the...

  10. Animal Bites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild animals usually avoid people. They might attack, however, if they feel threatened, are sick, or are protecting their ... or territory. Attacks by pets are more common. Animal bites rarely are life-threatening, but if they ...

  11. Animal experimentation

    OpenAIRE

    Laz, Alak; Cholakova, Tanya Stefanova; Vrablova, Sofia; Arshad, Naverawaheed

    2016-01-01

    Animal experimentation is a crucial part of medical science. One of the ways to define it is any scientific experiment conducted for research purposes that cause any kind of pain or suffering to animals. Over the years, the new discovered drugs or treatments are first applied on animals to test their positive outcomes to be later used by humans. There is a debate about violating ethical considerations by exploiting animals for human benefits. However, different ethical theories have been made...

  12. 9 CFR 121.14 - Incident response. 11

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Incident response. 11 121.14 Section 121.14 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... (including information systems); severe weather and other natural disasters; workplace violence; bomb threats...

  13. Righting wrongs and reforming rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivey, Laurie C

    2014-03-01

    Discusses issues faced by LGBT people, such as a lack of equal civil rights and the need for extra legal and financial protection for families because partners cannot be married. The author notes that, in our society, it is no longer acceptable to be racist, but it is still okay to be homophobic. The many campaigns against gay marriage and efforts in the legislature to prevent change toward equal civil rights and protections are prime examples. In our current political climate, two things are very clear: (a) homophobia is freely tolerated and (b) the times are changing as we inch closer to equal rights every day. We are "righting wrongs and reforming rights."

  14. Animal models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gøtze, Jens Peter; Krentz, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    In this issue of Cardiovascular Endocrinology, we are proud to present a broad and dedicated spectrum of reviews on animal models in cardiovascular disease. The reviews cover most aspects of animal models in science from basic differences and similarities between small animals and the human...

  15. [The diversity of animal ethics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilmer, J B Jeangène

    2013-01-01

    Animal ethics is not a set of rules telling humans how to behave when interacting with animals, but an area for research into the moral responsibility of humans towards animals as individuals. The present article studies the subject by examining a number of dichotomies: French humanism and Anglo-Saxon animal ethics, justice vs. compassion, welfarism and abolitionism, and the divide between proponents of animal rights and those who prefer to speak of "interests".

  16. [On the Decision of the European Court of Human Rights. The S.H. and others against Austria. TEDH 2010/56 of April 1, on human assisted reproduction and its incidence on the European legislative arena].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal Martínez, Jaime

    2011-01-01

    The judgment of ECHR 2010/56 responds positively the appeal on the part of four Austrian citizens (two married couples) against the Austrian state. The applicants complained that the prohibition of sperm and ova donation for in vitro fertilisation as established in the Austrian Law of 1992 amounts to discrimination, against article 14 of the European Convention on Human Rights in conjunction with article 8, which establishes that everyone has the right to respect for his private and family life. After a detailed exposition of the circumstances surrounding this case, the author examines the origin of the practices of artificial insemination and IVF. The author highlights the transcendence of questions linked to extracorporeal fertilisation and human embryology and looks at the European regulation and the doctrine of reproductive rights, paying attention to the widespread use of the abovementioned techniques in the globalised world and the transborder practices in the European territories. The author points out that the current implementation of assisted reproduction techniques and the lack of uniform regulation in the European context might have influenced the above judgment of the ECHR 2010/56, which pronounced that the 1992 Austrian Law of Artificial Reproduction was not in accordance with article 14 of the European Convention on Human Rights, contrary to the judgment passed by the Austrian Constitutional Court eleven years earlier. It was not questioned, and so it was established by the ECHR, that the applicants right to use assisted reproduction techniques is protected by article 8 of the Convention. However, this does not make the estate liable to allow or regulate the abovementioned practices as long as this does not result in discrimination. According to the author, the right to resort to artificial reproduction techniques is contingent and therefore different from the freedom to procreate that is inherent to the human person, and covered under the right of

  17. Incidence of tuberculosis in and around Banglore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. L. Phaniraja

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Incidence of Tuberculosis is higher in developing countries due to absence of National control and Eradication programme. Incidence is higher due to close contact with infected animal or human being. In the present study, 2668 bovines were screened for tuberculosis by single intradermal test from 15 different organized government and private farm. Currently, the SID test is used worldwide to determine whether an animal is sensitized to Mycobacterial antigens or not and the test is approved by OIE. Out of which, incidence of 2.89% in HF cross breeds, 0.69% in Jersey cross bred animals and none were shown reactor to Single Intradermal test in Indigenous animals. The higher incidence of 3.26% was found in female and 0.48% found in male. The calves which were below two year of age were found 1.56% reactor. [Vet World 2010; 3(4.000: 161-164

  18. Working rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babić Jovan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The first part of the article focuses on 'Employment at will', a scheme in which all obligations and rights of employers and employees are subject to negotiation and explicit agreement of the parties in the working process. Free consent and almost absolute freedom to terminate the relations are features of this scheme. The second part of the article deals with the issue of the right to work and rights in the working place. As restrictions of the freedom contained in the original Employment at Will scheme, all these rights have to be justified from the moral point of view. The third part deals with due process in the workplace, especially regarding the issue of layoffs.

  19. Doing the right things right

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Pernille Hammar; Hussmann, Peter Munkebo; Jensen, Helge Elbrønd

    2009-01-01

    Are we doing the right things and are we doing them right? These questions should be subject to constant attention within Higher Education Institutions in pursuit of high quality educations and attracting students nationally as well as internationally. And due to the international development...

  20. Animal consciousness

    OpenAIRE

    Bernard, Emilie; Boissy, Alain; Boivin, Xavier; Calandreau, Ludovic; Delon, Nicolas; Deputte, Bertrand; Desmoulin‐Canselier, Sonia; Dunier, Muriel; Faivre, Nathan; Giurfa, Martin; Guichet, Jean‐Luc; Lansade, Léa; Larrère, Raphaël; Mormède, Pierre; Prunet, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    After reviewing the literature on current knowledge about consciousness in humans, we present a state-of-the art discussion on consciousness and related key concepts in animals. Obviously much fewer publications are available on non-human species than on humans, most of them relating to laboratory or wild animal species, and only few to livestock species. Human consciousness is by definition subjective and private. Animal consciousness is usually assessed through behavioural performance. Beha...

  1. Animal therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, D A

    1997-01-01

    This article explores the concept of animal therapy. The discussion includes a brief history of animal therapy, its importance, its relationship to rehabilitation, and its usefulness as a tool to influence adaptation, change, power, communication, advocacy, teaching, accountability, responsibility, and locus of control. This theoretical concept is important because of the joy and unconditional love animals can provide their owners. Relationships with animals can promote feelings of self-worth, help offset loneliness, reduce anxiety, provide contact, comfort, security, and the feeling of being needed.

  2. Animated Asphalt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paldam, Camilla Skovbjerg

    2015-01-01

    “animation”, defined as “an innate (and learnable) ability of our bodies to discover life in inanimate images” (Belting 2012, 188). In this essay I investigate the animation of pictures in dialogue with Mitchell, both by addressing general questions such as: how is animation of otherwise static pictures...... to be understood? How does animation differ in different media? And in particular by focusing on and questioning the gender positions inherent in Mitchell’s theory. Animation has an erotic component of seduction and desire, and what pictures want, becomes for Mitchell, what women want. There is of course no simple...

  3. [Patients' rights].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bert, Giorgio; Morello, Enrico; Quadrino, Silvana

    2018-02-01

    Forty years have passed since the publication of the "Patients' Rights Charter" (included in a separate section at the end of the work: "Patients' rights: a critical guide to understanding and usage of civil hospital facilities"), but it still remains remarkably topical. We here provide an analysis of the original Charter (1975) taking into consideration the changes that have occurred in sensitivity to gender, cultural as well as socioeconomic differences, the right to body privacy and to continuity of care, the key role of general practitioners, the reciprocal relations in the information and decision-making processes with shared diagnostic and therapeutic pathways and active patient participation, which mandates that adequate education in communication and care strategies be provided to all caregivers.

  4. ANIMAL code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindemuth, I.R.

    1979-02-28

    This report describes ANIMAL, a two-dimensional Eulerian magnetohydrodynamic computer code. ANIMAL's physical model also appears. Formulated are temporal and spatial finite-difference equations in a manner that facilitates implementation of the algorithm. Outlined are the functions of the algorithm's FORTRAN subroutines and variables.

  5. ANIMAL code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindemuth, I.R.

    1979-01-01

    This report describes ANIMAL, a two-dimensional Eulerian magnetohydrodynamic computer code. ANIMAL's physical model also appears. Formulated are temporal and spatial finite-difference equations in a manner that facilitates implementation of the algorithm. Outlined are the functions of the algorithm's FORTRAN subroutines and variables

  6. Kindergarten Animation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinshaw, Craig

    2012-01-01

    Animation is one of the last lessons that come to mind when thinking of kindergarten art. The necessary understanding of sequencing, attention to small, often detailed drawings, and the use of technology all seem more suitable to upper elementary. With today's emphasis on condensing and integrating curriculum, consider developing animation lessons…

  7. Animal magic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denny, Mark

    2017-11-01

    Writing a popular-science book about animal biophysics is hard work. Authors must read through hundreds of research papers as the subject is so multidisciplinary. On both counts of research and writing, Matin Durrani and Liz Kalaugher have done a good to excellent job with their book Furry Logic: the Physics of Animal Life

  8. Animal Detectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulvey, Bridget; Warnock, Carly

    2015-01-01

    During a two-week inquiry-based 5E learning cycle unit, children made observations and inferences to guide their explorations of animal traits and habitats (Bybee 2014). The children became "animal detectives" by studying a live-feed webcam and digital images of wolves in their natural habitat, reading books and online sources about…

  9. Employee Rights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheuer, Steen

    2016-01-01

    , on the one hand, and what is considered as equitable (in accordance with employment rights) by employees, on the other. Since equality in reward counts for more among a considerable fraction of employees, while equity in contribution counts more for most employers, this is an inherent dilemma, constantly...

  10. Human rights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaay Fortman, B. de

    2006-01-01

    Human rights reflect a determined effort to protect the dignity of each and every human being against abuse of power. This endeavour is as old as human history. What is relatively new is the international venture for the protection of human dignity through internationally accepted legal standards

  11. Systems analysis of voluntary reported anaesthetic safety incidents occurring in a university teaching hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillan, Matthew W; Lehnus, Kristina S

    2018-01-01

    to many safety incidents but tend to occur concurrently with other factors. Anaesthetist intervention limits the consequences of incidents for most animals. Copyright © 2017 Association of Veterinary Anaesthetists and American College of Veterinary Anesthesia and Analgesia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Constructing nonhuman animal emotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bliss-Moreau, Eliza

    2017-10-01

    Scientists and lay-people alike have long been fascinated with the emotional lives of nonhuman animals. To date, scientific approaches to the study of 'animal' emotion have assumed that emotions are biologically evolutionarily conserved, hardwired and have discrete behavioral and physiological outputs. According to this view, emotions and their outputs are homologous across species, allowing humans to accurately perceive (or 'read') animal emotion using our own concepts of what emotions are. In this paper, I discuss the challenges to that perspective and propose using an alternative theoretical approach to understand animal emotion. Adopting this alternative approach, which represents a collection of similar theories (referred to as 'Theories of Constructed Emotion'), changes the questions that we ask about animal emotion, how we study emotion across phylogeny and advance translational science, and how we understand the evolution of emotion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Human Rights

    OpenAIRE

    Schlundt, Marie Gertz

    2011-01-01

    The project intends to investigate to what extent and under what conditions, United Nations human rights conventions have been internalized in the minimally democratic and isolated state of the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (DPRK). The ‘spiral model’ of Risse et al (1999) will be used as the theoretical framework for the project. This framework sets out to understand the process of socialization by which principled ideas held by individuals become norms in the sense of collective unde...

  14. Animal Transports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Ludrovcová

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose and Originality: The research is aimed to the animal transports issue, from two points of view – first is the animal cruelty and second is the policy and economic consideration. The goal is to acquaint the readers with the transports risks and its cruelty and evaluation of the economic, political aspects for he involved countries. The study is oriented on more points of view, what is rare in works with a similar theme. Method: This paper examines many issues and examinations from different authors and subsequently summarized the findings with authors own knowledge to one expanded unit. Results: Results proves, that livestock transports have negative impact on animal´s health, environment. Number of transported animals is rising every year. Society: Research familiarize the society with the animal transports, cruelty against animals during them, and influence of transports on some countries, their economy, policy. People get better informed and can form their own opinion on this topic. They may start acting, undertaking some steps to improve the present situation, what could help a lot to animals and environment. Limitations / further research: Future research could show progress and improvement of transports, quality of food supply and economics.

  15. Animal experimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolar, Roman

    2006-01-01

    Millions of animals are used every year in often times extremely painful and distressing scientific procedures. Legislation of animal experimentation in modern societies is based on the supposition that this is ethically acceptable when certain more or less defined formal (e.g. logistical, technical) demands and ethical principles are met. The main parameters in this context correspond to the "3Rs" concept as defined by Russel and Burch in 1959, i.e. that all efforts to replace, reduce and refine experiments must be undertaken. The licensing of animal experiments normally requires an ethical evaluation process, often times undertaken by ethics committees. The serious problems in putting this idea into practice include inter alia unclear conditions and standards for ethical decisions, insufficient management of experiments undertaken for specific (e.g. regulatory) purposes, and conflicts of interest of ethics committees' members. There is an ongoing societal debate about ethical issues of animal use in science. Existing EU legislation on animal experimentation for cosmetics testing is an example of both the public will for setting clear limits to animal experiments and the need to further critically examine other fields and aspects of animal experimentation.

  16. Animal Bioacoustics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Neville H.

    Animals rely upon their acoustic and vibrational senses and abilities to detect the presence of both predators and prey and to communicate with members of the same species. This chapter surveys the physical bases of these abilities and their evolutionary optimization in insects, birds, and other land animals, and in a variety of aquatic animals other than cetaceans, which are treated in Chap. 20. While there are many individual variations, and some animals devote an immense fraction of their time and energy to acoustic communication, there are also many common features in their sound production and in the detection of sounds and vibrations. Excellent treatments of these matters from a biological viewpoint are given in several notable books [19.1,2] and collections of papers [19.3,4,5,6,7,8], together with other more specialized books to be mentioned in the following sections, but treatments from an acoustical viewpoint [19.9] are rare. The main difference between these two approaches is that biological books tend to concentrate on anatomical and physiological details and on behavioral outcomes, while acoustical books use simplified anatomical models and quantitative analysis to model vocalization frequency scaling in animals hearing sound production animal animal biological biological bioacoustics whole-system behavior. This latter is the approach to be adopted here.

  17. Giant right atrial myxoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valdes Martin, Alexander; Ortega Torres, Yanela Yordanka; Hevia Sanchez, Luis

    2012-01-01

    Primary tumors of the heart are rare, their estimated incidence ranging between 0.0017-0.19%, and among them cardiac myxomas are the most common (50%). Right atrial localization is uncommon, occurring only in 15-20% of cases. Their clinical presentation ranges from an asymptomatic status to the presence of constitutional symptoms or symptoms pointing to the presence of cardiac obstruction or pulmonary embolism. A case is presented of a 36-year-old male patient with a history of asthenia, palpitations and reduced functional capacity. Transthoracic echocardiography revealed a large mass in the right atrium which prolapsed into the right ventricle and obstructed the tricuspid valve. The patient underwent cardiopulmonary bypass surgery and the mass (9x9 cm) was removed without any complication. Histological examination confirmed the diagnosis of myxoma.

  18. Wild Animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Web Feet K-8, 2000

    2000-01-01

    This annotated subject guide to Web sites and other resources focuses on wild animals. Includes Web sites, CD-ROMs and software, videos, books, audios, magazines, and professional resources, as well as a class activity. (LRW)

  19. Animated Asphalt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paldam, Camilla Skovbjerg

    2015-01-01

    In What do pictures want? The lives and loves of images (2005) J. W. T. Mitchell writes about pictures as “vital signs”, not signs for living things, but signs as living things (Mitchell 6). With a notion from the German art historian and media theorist Hans Belting this symbolic act can be called...... “animation”, defined as “an innate (and learnable) ability of our bodies to discover life in inanimate images” (Belting 2012, 188). In this essay I investigate the animation of pictures in dialogue with Mitchell, both by addressing general questions such as: how is animation of otherwise static pictures...... to be understood? How does animation differ in different media? And in particular by focusing on and questioning the gender positions inherent in Mitchell’s theory. Animation has an erotic component of seduction and desire, and what pictures want, becomes for Mitchell, what women want. There is of course no simple...

  20. Mentalizing animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kasperbauer, Tyler Joshua

    2017-01-01

    Ethicists have tended to treat the psychology of attributing mental states to animals as an entirely separate issue from the moral importance of animals’ mental states. In this paper I bring these two issues together. I argue for two theses, one descriptive and one normative. The descriptive thesis...... holds that ordinary human agents use what are generally called phenomenal mental states (e.g., pain and other emotions) to assign moral considerability to animals. I examine recent empirical research on the attribution of phenomenal states and agential states (e.g., memory and intelligence) to argue...... that phenomenal mental states are the primary factor, psychologically, for judging an animal to be morally considerable. I further argue that, given the role of phenomenal states in assigning moral considerability, certain theories in animal ethics will meet significant psychological resistance. The normative...

  1. Animation & Neurocinematics*

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carpe Pérez, Inmaculada Concepción

    2015-01-01

    machines that think”-(Damasio, A. Descartes error). Such feelings come from the interpretation of the emotions in our bodies. Emotions are our universal language, the motivation of living, the key to what makes a movie successful and truly an art piece that you will remember because moves you. Animation......, indeed, can be considered a social/ emotional learning media, which goes beyond the limitations of live action movies. This is due to the diversity of techniques, and its visual plasticity that constructs the impossible. Animators are not real actors but more like the midwife who brings the anima...... into aliveness, which requires knowing how emotions work. Ed Hooks as an expert in training animators and actors, always remarks: “emotions tend to lead to action”. In this paper we want to argue that by producing animated films, as we watch them, cause a stronger effect, not only in our brains, but also in our...

  2. Animal tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillette, E.L.

    1983-01-01

    There are few trained veterinary radiation oncologists and the expense of facilities has limited the extent to which this modality is used. In recent years, a few cobalt teletherapy units and megavoltage x-ray units have been employed in larger veterinary institutions. In addition, some radiation oncologists of human medical institutions are interested and willing to cooperate with veterinarians in the treatment of animal tumors. Carefully designed studies of the response of animal tumors to new modalities serve two valuable purposes. First, these studies may lead to improved tumor control in companion animals. Second, these studies may have important implications to the improvement of therapy of human tumors. Much remains to be learned of animal tumor biology so that appropriate model systems can be described for such studies. Many of the latter studies can be sponsored by agencies interested in the improvement of cancer management

  3. Groundwater animals

    OpenAIRE

    Maurice, Louise; Bloomfield, John; Robertson, Anne; Allen, Debbie

    2010-01-01

    Groundwater animals are adapted to live in environments with no light and limited nutrients, They can provide insights into fundamental questions of evolution, ecology and biodiversity. They also have an important role to play in informing the reconstruction of past changes in geomorphology and climate, and can be used for characterising aquifers. The BGS is undertaking a systematic survey of selected areas and lithologies in the UK where groundwater animals have not been inves...

  4. Reproductive Rights are Human Rights

    OpenAIRE

    Jacqueline Pitanguy

    1999-01-01

    Jacqueline Pitanguy outlines the political context of the ICPD +5 process on the basis of her work in Brazil and internationally on reproductive rights. She argues that the women's movement has to continue to lobby hard to decrease the gap between what has been promised and the reality of most women's lives, particularly in the context of the cuts in state funding towards social and health services. Development (1999) 42, 11–14. doi:10.1057/palgrave.development.1110002

  5. Incidence of Canine Hip Dysplasia : A Survey of 272 Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. D. Rao

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available A total of 272 cases of hip dysplasia were reviewed. A review of clinical cases presented with the clinical signs of hip dysplasia were referred to Radiology Unit of Madras Veterinary College, from May 2007-April 2009 was taken for this study.The incidence was highest in young animals of age group over three months to one year (52.94 percent. The breed-wise incidence was more common in Labrador Retriever (36.76 percent. Male dogs were found to be more affected (59.55 percent than female dogs. Bilateral hip dysplasia was found to be more (88.60 percent than unilateral. Among the unilateral hip dysplasia, left side was found to be more (54.83 percent than right. [Vet. World 2010; 3(5.000: 219-220

  6. Hope for Animals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    It discusses how captive breed- ing programs are trying hard to reintroduce the species in the wild so that they will be back to their rightful homes. It also brings out various problems associated with each of the programs and how smart and dedicated people eventually overcome these problems. Captive-bred animals are ...

  7. Animal culture: chimpanzee conformity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Schaik, Carel P

    2012-05-22

    Culture-like phenomena in wild animals have received much attention, but how good is the evidence and how similar are they to human culture? New data on chimpanzees suggest their culture may even have an element of conformity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Animal toxicology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amdur, M.

    1996-12-31

    The chapter evaluates results of toxicological studies on experimental animals to investigate health effects of air pollutants and examines the animal data have predicted the response to human subject. Data are presented on the comparative toxicity of sulfur dioxide and sulfuric acid. The animal data obtained by measurement of airway resistance in guinea pigs and of bronchial clearance of particles in donkeys predicted clearly that sulfuric acid was more irritant than sulfur dioxide. Data obtained on human subjects confirmed this prediction. These acute studies also correctly predicted the comparative toxicity of the two compounds in two year studies of monkeys. Such chronic studies are not possible in human subjects but it is a reasonable to assume that sulfuric acid would be more toxic than sulfur dioxide. Current findings in epidemiological studies certainly support this assumption.

  9. Animated symbols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frølunde, Lisbeth

    2008-01-01

    This paper is based on data about animation film production by 18-year-old students in a Danish upper secondary school. The optic is the on-going potential for learning and development of reflection. The purpose is to clarify what might support young people's reflection on media. I propose...... an analytic working model called Animated Symbols concerning critical reflection in a dialogic learning process. The model shows dialogue as interactions that involve two types of transformation: inner ‘learning processes' and outer signs and symbols. The classroom-based research study is part of a Ph...

  10. Animal evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Claus

    This book provides a comprehensive analysis of evolution in the animal kingdom. It reviews the classical, morphological information from structure and embryology, as well as the new data gained from studies using immune stainings of nerves and muscles and blastomere markings, which makes it possi......This book provides a comprehensive analysis of evolution in the animal kingdom. It reviews the classical, morphological information from structure and embryology, as well as the new data gained from studies using immune stainings of nerves and muscles and blastomere markings, which makes...

  11. [Poisonous animals at bathing beaches].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junghanss, T; Bodio, M

    2000-05-18

    Tourists and native inhabitants of tropical and subtropical regions differ significantly with regard to the risk and nature of incidents involving venomous and poisonous animals. While the indigenous population encounters such risks daily during work and other activities, tourists are usually endangered while swimming or diving, or by ingesting toxin-containing fish and/or other seafood. Whether abroad or at home, allergic reactions to the stings of bees, wasps and hornets are probably the most common manifestations of an encounter with a "poisonous animal". Travellers should be well acquainted with the dangers entailed in encountering or ingesting a venomous or poisonous animal--prevention is the most important measure.

  12. Animal impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norbert V. DeByle

    1985-01-01

    The aspen ecosystem is rich in number and species of animals, especially in comparison to associated coniferous forest types. This natural species diversity and richness has been both increased and influenced by the introduction of domestic livestock. The high value of the aspen type as a forage resource for livestock and as forage and cover for wildlife makes the...

  13. Animated Symbols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frolunde, Lisbeth

    ' processer af fem udvalgte elever er gennemgået i forhold til tre opdelinger: filmskabere, filmskabelse processen og film. Den teoretiske tilgang er pragmatisme, social semiotik og diskursanalyse. Modellen "Animating Symbols" er udviklet og diskuteret som forsøg på at forstå reflektion og design som en slags...

  14. Biotecnologia animal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Lehmann Coutinho

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A biotecnologia animal tem fornecido novas ferramentas para os programas de melhoramento e, dessa forma, contribuído para melhorar a eficiência da produção dos produtos de origem animal. No entanto, os avanços têm sido mais lentos do que antecipados, especialmente em razão da dificuldade na identificação dos genes responsáveis pelas características fenotípicas de interesse zootécnico. Três estratégias principais têm sido utilizadas para identificar esses genes - mapeamento de QTL, genes candidatos e sequenciamento de DNA e mRNA - e cada uma tem suas vantagens e limitações. O mapeamento de QTL permite determinar as regiões genômicas que contêm genes, mas o intervalo de confiança do QTL pode ser grande e conter muitos genes. A estratégia de genes candidatos é limitada por causa do conhecimento ainda restrito das funções de todos os genes. Os sequenciamentos de genomas e de sequências expressas podem auxiliar na identificação da posição de genes e de vias metabólicas associadas à característica de interesse. A integração dessas estratégias por meio do desenvolvimento de programas de bioinformática permitirá a identificação de novos genes de interesse zootécnico. Assim, os programas de melhoramento genético se beneficiarão pela inclusão da informação obtida diretamente do DNA na avaliação do mérito genético dos plantéis disponíveis.Animal biotechnology is providing new tools for animal breeding and genetics and thus contributing to advances in production efficiency and quality of animal products. However, the progress is slower than anticipated, mainly because of the difficulty involved in identifying genes that control phenotypic characteristics of importance to the animal industry. Three main strategies: QTL mapping, candidate genes and DNA and mRNA sequencing have been used to identify genes of economic interest to animal breeding and each has advantages and disadvantages. QTL mapping allows

  15. Animal Locomotion

    CERN Document Server

    Taylor, Graham K; Tropea, Cameron

    2010-01-01

    This book provides a wide-ranging snapshot of the state-of-the-art in experimental research on the physics of swimming and flying animals. The resulting picture reflects not only upon the questions that are of interest in current pure and applied research, but also upon the experimental techniques that are available to answer them. Doubtless, many new questions will present themselves as the scope and performance of our experimental toolbox develops over the coming years.

  16. Animal behavior and animal welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houpt, K A

    1991-04-15

    The value of behavioral techniques in assessing animal welfare, and in particular assessing the psychological well being of animals, is reviewed. Using cats and horses as examples, 3 behavioral methods are presented: (1) comparison of behavior patterns and time budgets; (2) choice tests; and (3) operant conditioning. The behaviors of intact and declawed cats were compared in order to determine if declawing led to behavioral problems or to a change in personality. Apparently it did not. The behavior of free ranging horses was compared with that of stabled horses. Using two-choice preference tests, the preference of horses for visual contact with other horses and the preference for bedding were determined. Horses show no significant preference for locations from which they can make visual contact with other horses, but they do prefer bedding, especially when lying down. Horses will perform an operant response in order to obtain light in a darkened barn or heat in an outside shed. These same techniques can be used to answer a variety of questions about an animal's motivation for a particular attribute of its environment.

  17. Animal evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Claus

    , and even whole genomes, has brought a new stability to the field. The book brings together the information from these varied fields, and demonstrates that it is indeed now possible to build a phylogenetic tree from a combination of both morphology and gene sequences. This thoroughly revised third edition......This book provides a comprehensive analysis of evolution in the animal kingdom. It reviews the classical, morphological information from structure and embryology, as well as the new data gained from studies using immune stainings of nerves and muscles and blastomere markings, which makes...

  18. Animated war

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frølunde, Lisbeth

    2012-01-01

    in production: Gzim Rewind (Sweden, 2011) by Knutte Wester, and In-World War (USA, expected 2011) by DJ Bad Vegan. These films have themes of war and include film scenes that are ‘machinima’ (real-time animation made in 3D graphic environments) within live action film scenes. Machinima harnesses...... DIY multimedia storytellers explore new ways to tell and to ‘animate’ stories. The article contains four parts: introduction to machinima and the notions of resemiosis and authorial practice, presentation of DIY filmmaking as a practice that intertwines with new networked economics, analysis...

  19. Commodifying animals: ethical issues in genetic engineering of animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almond, B

    2000-03-01

    The genetic modification of living beings raises special ethical concerns which go beyond general discussion of animal rights or welfare. Although the goals may be similar, biotechnology has accelerated the process of modification of types traditionally carried out by cross-breeding. These changes are discussed in relation to two areas: biomedicine, and animal husbandry. Alternative ethical approaches are reviewed, and it is argued that the teleological thesis underlying virtue ethics has special relevance here. The case for and the case against genetic engineering and patenting of life-forms are examined, and conclusions are drawn which favour regulation, caution and respect for animals and animal species.

  20. Right colonic diverticulitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, In Kyu

    2010-08-01

    Although right colonic diverticultis (RCD) has been reported to be a rare disease in Western countries, RCD is a common diagnosis, with an incidence per 2.9-17 case of appendicitis, in Korea. Many Western studies have reported that it is difficult to differentiate the presenting symptoms of RCD from those of appendicitis before surgery because the signs and symptoms are similar. However, performing a computed tomography scan after the application of the diagnostic criteria for RCD has increased the preoperative RCD diagnostic rate. Treatment strategies have been difficult to define for this condition due to its low preoperative diagnosis rate. However, recent reports have shown that conservative medical treatment of uncomplicated RCD can be recommended and that such treatment is effective due to the benign and self-limited natural history of RCD. Therefore, in this review, we discuss the controversies surrounding RCD management.

  1. MCFRS Incidents by Station

    Data.gov (United States)

    Montgomery County of Maryland — This dataset contains the monthly summary data indicating incident occurred in each fire station response area. The summary data is the incident count broken down by...

  2. Police Incident Reports Written

    Data.gov (United States)

    Town of Chapel Hill, North Carolina — This table contains incident reports filed with the Chapel Hill Police Department. Multiple incidents may have been reported at the same time. The most serious...

  3. Incident Information Management Tool

    CERN Document Server

    Pejovic, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    Flaws of\tcurrent incident information management at CMS and CERN\tare discussed. A new data\tmodel for future incident database is\tproposed and briefly described. Recently developed draft version of GIS-­‐based tool for incident tracking is presented.

  4. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Veterinary Home Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health Antimicrobial Resistance Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it ... Veterinary Medicine is cited as the corporate author. Animation Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance (video) Animation of Antimicrobial ...

  5. Incidence of zearalenol (Fusarium mycotoxin) in animal feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirocha, C J; Schauerhamer, B; Christensen, C M; Niku-Paavola, M L; Nummi, M

    1979-01-01

    Zearalenol, the reduction product of zearalenone produced by Fusarium roseum growing in cereals, was found for the first time naturally occurring in oats and corn. This metabolite is three to four times more active estrogenically than zearalenone. PMID:161492

  6. Grant Patents on Animals? An Ethical and Legal Battle Looms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, David L.

    1987-01-01

    Rulings on applications for animal patents being considered by the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office could profoundly influence university patent and research income. Many animal-rights advocates have expressed philosophical objections to genetic engineering of animals. (MLW)

  7. Animal models of tinnitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brozoski, Thomas J; Bauer, Carol A

    2016-08-01

    motivational manipulation, but its sensitivity, reliability, mechanism, and optimal implementation are incompletely understood. While to date animal models have significantly expanded the neuroscience of tinnitus, they have been limited to examining sensory features. In the human condition, emotional and cognitive factors are also important. It is not clear that the emotional features of tinnitus can be further understood using animal models, but models may be applied to examine cognitive factors. A recently developed model is described that reveals an interaction between tinnitus and auditory attention. This research suggests that effective tinnitus therapy could rely on modifying attention to the sensation rather than modifying the sensation itself. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled . Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... video) Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance (text version) Arabic Translation of Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance Chinese Translation of Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance French Translation of ...

  9. Animal intelligence as encephalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerison, H J

    1985-02-13

    There is no consensus on the nature of animal intelligence despite a century of research, though recent work on cognitive capacities of dolphins and great apes seems to be on one right track. The most precise quantitative analyses have been of relative brain size, or structural encephalization, undertaken to find biological correlates of mind in animals. Encephalization and its evolution are remarkably orderly, and if the idea of intelligence were unknown it would have to be invented to explain encephalization. The scientific question is: what behaviour or dimensions of behaviour evolved when encephalization evolved? The answer: the relatively unusual behaviours that require increased neural information processing capacity, beyond that attributable to differences among species in body size. In this perspective, the different behaviours that depend on augmented processing capacity in different species are evidence of different intelligences (in the plural) that have evolved.

  10. The Neuroethological Paradox of Animal Consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutfreund, Yoram

    2017-04-01

    The more advanced our understanding of the brain of an animal is, the less likely that this animal is a conscious being. This provocative logical paradox is explained and analyzed, leading to the conclusion that to advance understanding of animal consciousness it is necessary to resolve first how our consciousness is produced by our brain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The wild animal as a research animal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swart, JAA

    2004-01-01

    Most discussions on animal experimentation refer to domesticated animals and regulations are tailored to this class of animals. However, wild animals are also used for research, e. g., in biological field research that is often directed to fundamental ecological-evolutionary questions or to

  12. 36 CFR 4.20 - Right of way.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Right of way. 4.20 Section 4... TRAFFIC SAFETY § 4.20 Right of way. An operator of a motor vehicle shall yield the right of way to pedestrians, saddle and pack animals and vehicles drawn by animals. Failure to yield the right of way is...

  13. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Animal & Veterinary Home Animal & Veterinary Safety & ... Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products

  14. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Animal & Veterinary Home Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health ... Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products

  15. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Home Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Animal & Veterinary Home Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health Antimicrobial Resistance Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance Share ...

  16. Learning Anime Studio

    CERN Document Server

    Troftgruben, Chad

    2014-01-01

    Anime Studio is your complete animation program to help you create 2D movies, cartoons, anime, and cut out animations. You can create your own animated shorts and use Anime Studio to produce cartoon animations for film, video, or streaming over the Web, which can be enjoyed on YouTube, Vimeo, and other popular sites. Anime Studio is great for hobbyists and professionals alike, combining tools for both illustration and animation. With Anime Studio's easy-to-use interface, you will be creating an animated masterpiece in no time. This practical, step-by-step guide will provide you with a structur

  17. Incidence and Economic Cost of Bovine Trypanosomosis in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Incidence and economic cost of cases of bovine trypanosomosis in nomadic herds at the Jos Plateau from 1997 to 2001 were determined. These were done using records kept at the Plateau State Ministry of Animal and Forest Resources headquarters at Jos, and the model described by Alonge et al. (1984). The incidence ...

  18. Positive rights, negative rights and health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Andrew

    2010-12-01

    In the current debate about healthcare reform in the USA, advocates for government-ensured universal coverage assume that health care is a right. Although this position is politically popular, it is sometimes challenged by a restricted view of rights popular with libertarians and individualists. The restricted view of rights only accepts 'negative' rights as legitimate rights. Negative rights, the argument goes, place no obligations on you to provide goods to other people and thus respect your right to keep the fruits of your labour. A classic enumeration of negative rights includes life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness. Positive rights, by contrast, obligate you either to provide goods to others, or pay taxes that are used for redistributive purposes. Health care falls into the category of positive rights since its provision by the government requires taxation and therefore redistribution. Therefore, the libertarian or individualist might argue that health care cannot be a true right. This paper rejects the distinction between positive and negative rights. In fact, the protection of both positive and negative rights can place obligations on others. Furthermore, because of its role in helping protect equality of opportunity, health care can be tied to the rights to life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness. There is, therefore, good reason to believe that health care is a human right and that universal access should be guaranteed. The practical application, by governments and non-governmental organisations, of several of the arguments presented in this paper is also discussed.

  19. Acute incidents during anaesthesia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Incidents can occur during induction, maintenance and emergence from anaesthesia. The following acute critical incidents are discussed in this article: • Anaphylaxis. • Aspiration ..... Already used in South Africa and Malawi, a scale-up of the technique is under way in Tanzania, Rwanda and Ghana. The report found that.

  20. Decontamination of High-risk Animal and Zoonotic Pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menrath, Andrea; Tomuzia, Katharina; Braeunig, Juliane; Appel, Bernd

    2013-01-01

    Preparedness for the decontamination of affected environments, premises, facilities, and products is one prerequisite for an immediate response to an animal disease outbreak. Various information sources provide recommendations on how to proceed in an outbreak situation to eliminate biological contaminants and to stop the spread of the disease. In order to facilitate the identification of the right decontamination strategy, we present an overview of relevant references for a collection of pathogenic agents. The choice of pathogens is based on a survey of lists containing highly pathogenic agents and/or biological agents considered to be potential vehicles for deliberate contamination of food, feed, or farm animals. European legislation and guidelines from national and international institutions were screened to find decontamination protocols for each of the agents. Identified recommendations were evaluated with regard to their area of application, which could be facilities and equipment, wastes, food, and other animal products. The requirements of a disinfectant for large-scale incidents were gathered, and important characteristics (eg, inactivating spectrum, temperature range, toxicity to environment) of the main recommended disinfectants were summarized to assist in the choice of a suitable and efficient approach in a crisis situation induced by a specific high-risk animal or zoonotic pathogen. The literature search revealed numerous relevant recommendations but also legal gaps for certain diseases, such as Q fever or brucellosis, and legal difficulties for the use of recommended disinfectants. A lack of information about effective disinfectants was identified for some agents. PMID:23971795

  1. Radiological incidents in radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hobzova, L.; Novotny, J.

    2008-01-01

    In many countries a reporting system of radiological incidents to national regulatory body exists and providers of radiotherapy treatment are obliged to report all major and/or in some countries all incidents occurring in institution. State Office for Nuclear Safety (SONS) is providing a systematic guidance for radiotherapy departments from 1997 by requiring inclusion of radiation safety problems into Quality assurance manual, which is the basic document for obtaining a license of SONS for handling with sources of ionizing radiation. For that purpose SONS also issued the recommendation 'Introduction of QA system for important sources in radiotherapy-radiological incidents' in which the radiological incidents are defined and the basic guidance for their classification (category A, B, C, D), investigation and reporting are given. At regular periods the SONS in co-operation with radiotherapy centers is making a survey of all radiological incidents occurring in institutions and it is presenting obtained information in synoptic communication (2003 Motolske dny, 2005 Novy Jicin). This presentation is another summary report of radiological incidents that occurred in our radiotherapy institutions during last 3 years. Emphasis is given not only to survey and statistics, but also to analysis of reasons of the radiological incidents and to their detection and prevention. Analyses of incidents in radiotherapy have led to a much broader understanding of incident causation. Information about the error should be shared as early as possible during or after investigation by all radiotherapy centers. Learning from incidents, errors and near misses should be a part of improvement of the QA system in institutions. Generally, it is recommended that all radiotherapy facilities should participate in the reporting, analyzing and learning system to facilitate the dissemination of knowledge throughout the whole country to prevent errors in radiotherapy.(authors)

  2. Injury incidence and balance in rugby players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    M, Jaco Ras; Puckree, Threethambal

    2014-01-01

    Objective : This study determined and correlated injury incidence and balance in rugby players. A prospective survey with balance testing was conducted on first year rugby academy players (N= 114). Injury incidence, static and dynamic balance were tested pre and post-season using a Biosway portable balance system. The data was analysed using paired and independent samples t-tests at pscrum-half (14.80%) playing position, injuries in the 2nd half of the match (57%), and during contact (67%). Conclusion : Injury incidence was related to static and dynamic balance in forward right direction only.

  3. Communication rights: Fundamental human rights for all.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Sharynne

    2018-02-01

    The right to communicate includes the right to "freedom of opinion and expression" and rights and freedoms "without distinction of … language". The 70th anniversary of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights is a time to celebrate and reflect on communication as a human right, particularly with respect to Article 19 and its relationship to national and international conventions, declarations, policies and practices. This review profiles articles from the special issue of International Journal of Speech-Language Pathology (volume 20, issue 1) addressing communication rights from four perspectives: (1) communication rights of all people; (2) communication rights of people with communication disabilities; (3) communication rights of children and (4) communication rights relating to language. Divergent perspectives from across the globe are considered. First-hand accounts of people whose right to communicate is compromised/upheld are included and perspectives are provided from people with expertise and advocacy roles in speech-language pathology, audiology, linguistics, education, media, literature and law, including members of the International Communication Project. Three steps are outlined to support communication rights: acknowledge people - adjust the communication style - take time to listen. Future advocacy for communication rights could be informed by replicating processes used to generate the Yogyakarta Principles.

  4. SIMULATED ANIMAL EXPERIMENTS IN TEACHING AND RESEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chirag B. Mistry, Shreya M. Shah, Jagatkumar D. Bhatt

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Animal experiments are of paramount importance in the pre-clinical screening of new chemical entity. On the other hand, various regulatory guidelines for animal experiments are becoming more stringent in the face of worldwide protests by animal rights activists. Moreover, simulated animal experiments’ softwares are being developed and they can be implemented in the postgraduate and graduate students’ curriculum for demonstration of standard physiological and pharmacological principles compared to real time animal experiments. In fact, implementation of virtual experiment will decrease hand on experience of animal experiments among medical students, but after medical graduation, animal experiment is lest utilized during their day to day clinical practice. Similarly, in case of postgraduate pharmacology curriculum, computer based virtual animal experiments can facilitate teaching and learning in a short span of time with various protocols, without sacrificing any animal for already established experimental outcomes.

  5. Narrating Animal Trauma in Bulgakov and Tolstoy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastassiya Andrianova

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Following the recent “animal turn” in literary studies, which has inspired scholars to revisit traditional human-centered interpretations of texts narrated by animals, this article focuses on the convergence of animal studies and trauma theory. It offers new animal-centered close readings of Tolstoy’s Strider and Bulgakov’s Heart of a Dog, paying attention to animal pain rather than seeing it, and the text as a whole, as an allegory of human society. Like many other authors of literary fiction featuring animal narrators, Tolstoy and Bulgakov employ a kind of empathic ventriloquism to narrate animal pain, an important project which, however, given the status of both the animal and trauma outside human language, and thus susceptible to being distorted by it, produces inauthentic discourse (animal-like, rather than animal narration; therefore, these authors get closest to animal pain, not through sophisticated narration, but through the use of ellipses and onomatopoeia. Ultimately, any narratological difficulty with animal focalization is minor compared to the ethical imperative of anti-speciesist animal-standpoint criticism, and the goal is to reconceive the status of animals in literature so as to change their ontological place in the world, urging that this critical work and animal rights advocacy be continued in the classroom.

  6. [Animal experimentation, animal welfare and scientific research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tal, H

    2013-10-01

    Hundreds of thousands of laboratory animals are being used every year for scientific experiments held in Israel, mostly mice, rats, rabbits, guinea pigs, and a few sheep, cattle, pigs, cats, dogs, and even a few dozen monkeys. In addition to the animals sacrificed to promote scientific research, millions of animals slain every year for other purposes such as meat and fine leather fashion industries. While opening a front against all is an impossible and perhaps an unjustified task, the state of Israel enacted the Animal Welfare (Animal Experimentation) Law (1994). The law aims to regulate scientific animal experiments and to find the appropriate balance between the need to continue to perform animal experiments for the advancement of research and medicine, and at the same time to avoid unnecessary trials and minimize animal suffering. Among other issues the law deals with the phylogenetic scale according to which experimental animals should be selected, experiments for teaching and practicing, and experiments for the cosmetic industry. This article discusses bioethics considerations in animal experiments as well as the criticism on the scientific validity of such experiments. It further deals with the vitality of animal studies and the moral and legal obligation to prevent suffering from laboratory animals.

  7. Critical incident stress management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, J J; Childs, J; Gonsalves, K

    2000-10-01

    Recent studies have indicated implementation of the CISM Program has impacted and reduced the cost of workers' compensation claims for stress related conditions and the number of lost work days (Ott, 1997; Western Management Consultants, 1996). Occupational health professionals need to be ready to develop and implement a comprehensive critical incident stress management process in anticipation of a major event. The ability to organize, lead, or administer critical incident stress debriefings for affected employees is a key role for the occupational health professional. Familiarity with these concepts and the ability to identify a critical incident enhances value to the business by mitigating the stress and impact to the workplace. Critical Incident Stress Management Systems have the potential for decreasing stress and restoring employees to normal life function--a win/win situation for both the employees and the organization.

  8. Police Incident Blotter (Archive)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — The Police Blotter Archive contains crime incident data after it has been validated and processed to meet Uniform Crime Reporting (UCR) standards, published on a...

  9. Prediction of Safety Incidents

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Safety incidents, including injuries, property damage and mission failures, cost NASA and contractors thousands of dollars in direct and indirect costs. This project...

  10. 2011 Japanese Nuclear Incident

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA’s RadNet system monitored the environmental radiation levels in the United States and parts of the Pacific following the Japanese Nuclear Incident. Learn about EPA’s response and view historical laboratory data and news releases.

  11. Right heart ventriculography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angiography - right heart ... The catheter will be moved forward into the right side of the heart. As the catheter is advanced, the doctor can record pressures from the right atrium and right ventricle. Contrast material ("dye") is ...

  12. Information Security Incident Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. I. Persanov

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The present report highlights the points of information security incident management in an enterprise. Some aspects of the incident and event classification are given. The author presents his view of the process scheme over the monitoring and processing information security events. Also, the report determines a few critical points of the listed process and gives the practical recommendations over its development and optimization.

  13. Physiology, propaganda, and pound animals: medical research and animal welfare in mid-twentieth century America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parascandola, John

    2007-07-01

    In 1952, the University of Michigan physiologist Robert Gesell shocked his colleagues at the business meeting of the American Physiological Society by reading a prepared statement in which he claimed that some of the animal experimentation being carried out by scientists was inhumane. He especially attacked the National Society for Medical Research (NSMR), an organization that had been founded to defend animal experimentation. This incident was part of a broader struggle taking place at the time between scientists and animal welfare advocates with respect to what restrictions, if any, should be placed on animal research. A particularly controversial issue was whether or not pound animals should be made available to laboratories for research. Two of the prominent players in this controversy were the NSMR and the Animal Welfare Institute, founded and run by Gesell's daughter, Christine Stevens. This article focuses on the interaction between these two organizations within the broader context of the debate over animal experimentation in the mid-twentieth century.

  14. [Animal ethics in the 19th century and Swiss animal protection law].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloch, I

    2018-01-01

    The development of animal ethics and animal rights from the antiquity up to modern times is described. The relationship of humans to animals was primarily based on fear and animal cult, developed by the domestication to a partnership. The philosophers of the early modern age denied the animals the reason, what was disadvantageous to the position of the animals in the society and the behavior of humans to the animals. By the end of the 19th century the animal protection concept developed with numerous postulates for legal regulations. With the Swiss animal protection law, which came into force in 1981, most of the postulates could be realised. It is shown, how animal protection has developed since that time.

  15. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Animal & Veterinary ... Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products

  16. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Animal & Veterinary Home ... Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products

  17. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Center for Veterinary Medicine is cited as the corporate author. Animation Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance (video) Animation ... Information Safety Emergency Preparedness International Programs News & Events Training & Continuing Education Inspections & Compliance Federal, State & Local Officials ...

  18. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... The Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) Center for Veterinary Medicine (CVM) produced a nine-minute animation explaining how ... and distributed as long as FDA's Center for Veterinary Medicine is cited as the corporate author. Animation Animation ...

  19. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Home Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Animal & ... back Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products

  20. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health Antimicrobial Resistance Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... of Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance More in Antimicrobial ... Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System About NARMS 2015 NARMS Integrated ...

  1. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health Antimicrobial Resistance Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... of Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance More in Antimicrobial ... Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System About NARMS 2015 NARMS Integrated ...

  2. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health Antimicrobial Resistance Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... CVM) produced a nine-minute animation explaining how antimicrobial resistance both emerges and proliferates among bacteria. Over time, ...

  3. Gaps in US Animal Welfare Law for Laboratory Animals: Perspectives From an Animal Law Attorney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frasch, Pamela D

    2016-05-01

    The use of animals in biomedical, toxicological, and basic research has been common practice, and a tool for scientists and researchers, for many years. And yet, serious conflict continues to exist between those who believe that the use of animals in research will yield scientific results that benefit humans and those who believe such practices are unethical regardless of use or outcome. High-profile undercover cases have further raised public awareness and have put the entire industry under pressure to be transparent, accountable, and aggressive in its adoption of reduction, refinement, and replacement (3R) principles. Many animal law attorneys are deeply frustrated by what they see as weak US laws that are unevenly enforced, especially when compared with legal advances in other countries and regions. This article (1) explores those gaps in US animal welfare laws with an emphasis on the Animal Welfare Act, (2) argues in favor of stronger laws and rigorous enforcement, and (3) suggests steps to advance these goals. These steps include (1) expanding the definition of "animal" in the Animal Welfare Act (AWA), (2) improving and expanding minimum care requirements in USDA regulations, (3) instituting mandatory reporting requirements, improving Institutional Animal Care and Use Committees, and allowing easier accessibility to laboratory reports and plans, (4) adding a citizen suit provision to the AWA, and (5) continuing education about the emotional and social capacities of animals and a stronger commitment to 3R principles. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Institute for Laboratory Animal Research. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Ethics and animal experimentation: what is debated?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Leal Paixão

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to raise some points for an understanding of the contemporary debate over the ethics of using animals in scientific experiments. We present the various positions from scientific and moral perspectives establishing different ways of viewing animals, as well as several concepts like 'animal ethics', 'animal rights', and 'animal welfare'. The paper thus aims to analyze the importance and growth of this debate, while proposing to expand the academic approach to this theme in the field of health.

  5. Ethics and animal experimentation: what is debated?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paixão Rita Leal

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to raise some points for an understanding of the contemporary debate over the ethics of using animals in scientific experiments. We present the various positions from scientific and moral perspectives establishing different ways of viewing animals, as well as several concepts like 'animal ethics', 'animal rights', and 'animal welfare'. The paper thus aims to analyze the importance and growth of this debate, while proposing to expand the academic approach to this theme in the field of health.

  6. Clinical incidents involving students on placement: an analysis of incident reports to identify potential risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaida, J E; Maloney, S; Lo, K; Morgan, P

    2015-06-01

    Students are sometimes involved in incidents during clinical training. To the authors' knowledge, no quantitative studies of incidents specifically involving physiotherapy students on clinical placement are available in the literature. A retrospective audit (2008 to 2011) of incident reports involving physiotherapy students was conducted to identify the nature and features of incidents. The study aimed to determine if injuries to a student or patient were more or less likely when the supervisor was in close proximity, and whether students with lower academic performance in their preclinical semester were more likely to be involved in an incident. There were 19 care-delivery-related and three equipment-related incidents. There were no incidents of violent, aggressive or demeaning behaviour towards students. The incident rate was 9.0/100,000 student-hours for third-year students and 6.8/100,000 student-hours for fourth-year students. The majority of incidents (55%) occurred from 11 am to 12-noon and from 3 pm to 3.30 pm. Incidents more often resulted in patient or student injury when the supervisor was not in close proximity (approximately 50% vs approximately 20%), although the difference was not significant (P=0.336). The academic results of students involved in incidents were equivalent to the whole cohort in their preclinical semester {mean 75 [standard deviation (SD) 6] vs 76 (SD 7); P=0.488}. The unexpected temporal clustering of incidents warrants further investigation. Student fatigue may warrant attention as a potential contributor; however, contextual factors, such as staff workload, along with organisational systems, structures and procedures may be more relevant. The potential relationship between supervisor proximity and injury also warrants further exploration. The findings of the present study should be integrated into clinical education curricula and communicated to clinical educators. Copyright © 2014 Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. Published by

  7. Seeing the animal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harfeld, Jes Lynning; Cornou, Cecile; Kornum, Anna

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses the notion that the invisibility of the animalness of the animal constitutes a fundamental obstacle to change within current production systems. It is discussed whether housing animals in environments that resemble natural habitats could lead to a re-animalization...... of the animals, a higher appreciation of their moral significance, and thereby higher standards of animal welfare. The basic claim is that experiencing the animals in their evolutionary and environmental context would make it harder to objectify animals as mere bioreactors and production systems. It is argued...... that the historic objectification of animals within intensive animal production can only be reversed if animals are given the chance to express themselves as they are and not as we see them through the tunnel visions of economy and quantifiable welfare assessment parameters....

  8. Radiation incidents in dentistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lovelock, D.J.

    1996-01-01

    Most dental practitioners act as their own radiographer and radiologist, unlike their medical colleagues. Virtually all dental surgeons have a dental X-ray machine for intraoral radiography available to them and 40% of dental practices have equipment for dental panoramic tomography. Because of the low energy of X-ray equipment used in dentistry, radiation incidents tend to be less serious than those associated with other aspects of patient care. Details of 47 known incidents are given. The advent of the 1985 and 1988 Ionising Radiation Regulations has made dental surgeons more aware of the hazards of radiation. These regulations, and general health and safety legislation, have led to a few dental surgeons facing legal action. Because of the publicity associated with these court cases, it is expected that there will be a decrease in radiation incidents arising from the practice of dentistry. (author)

  9. The Evil Animal: A Terror Management Theory Perspective on the Human Tendency to Kill Animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lifshin, Uri; Greenberg, Jeff; Zestcott, Colin A; Sullivan, Daniel

    2017-06-01

    This research tested whether support for the killing of animals serves a terror management function. In five studies, death primes caused participants to support the killing of animals more than control primes, unless the participants' self-esteem had been elevated (Study 4). This effect was not moderated by gender, preexisting attitudes toward killing animals or animal rights, perceived human-animal similarity, religiosity, political orientation, or by the degree to which the killing was justified. Support for killing animals after subliminal death primes was also associated with an increased sense of power and invulnerability (Study 5). Implications and future directions are discussed.

  10. Eating right during pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prenatal care - eating right ... is hard work for a woman's body. Eating right is one of the best things you can ... a well-rounded diet with all of the right nutrients and getting at least 30 minutes of ...

  11. Your Health Information Rights

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to Protect Your Health Information Your Health Information Rights The Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of ... Rights . Protect Patients’ Health Information and Their Privacy Rights The US Dept. of Health and Human Services ...

  12. Localizing human rights

    OpenAIRE

    Feyter, De, Koen

    2007-01-01

    International human rights lawyers tend to focus on establishing the universality of human rights rather than on improving the usefulness of human rights in addressing local problems. This paper draws attention to the need to make human rights more locally relevant, particularly in a context of economic globalisation. Human rights can be made more locally relevant by interpreting existing global norms in the light of needs identified by community organisations, and by developing human rights ...

  13. From moral rights to constitutional rights: beyond élitist and electiv speciesism

    OpenAIRE

    Sônia T. Felipe

    2007-01-01

    Animal rights movement and the laws it have propounded since the 19 th Century are critically analyzed in this article under the perspective of the elitist and elective speciesism that constitute both the foundation of anthropocentric and non-anthropocentric ethics. Moral tradition considers non human animal species as inferior to the human species since non human animals lack any characteristic for being morally considerable. This is conceived here as elitist sp...

  14. Ian Ingram: Next Animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    Ian Ingram: Next Animals is an exhibition catalogue presenting research on the work by Ian Ingram in relation to his exhibition Next Animals at Nikolaj Kunsthal in 2015.......Ian Ingram: Next Animals is an exhibition catalogue presenting research on the work by Ian Ingram in relation to his exhibition Next Animals at Nikolaj Kunsthal in 2015....

  15. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Español Search FDA Submit search Popular Content Home Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, ... Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Animal & Veterinary Home Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health Antimicrobial Resistance Animation of ...

  16. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... ol Search FDA Submit search Popular Content Home Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Animal & Veterinary Home Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health Antimicrobial Resistance Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance Share ...

  17. Animal Bites: First Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    First aid Animal bites: First aid Animal bites: First aid By Mayo Clinic Staff These guidelines can help you care for a minor animal bite, such ... 26, 2017 Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/first-aid/first-aid-animal-bites/basics/ART-20056591 . Mayo ...

  18. Animal Production Research Advances

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Animal Production Research Advances is a peer-review journal established expressly to promote the production of all animal species utilized as food. The journal has an international scope and is intended for professionals in animal production and related sciences. We solicit contributions from animal production and ...

  19. Physics for Animation Artists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, David; Garcia, Alejandro L.

    2011-01-01

    Animation has become enormously popular in feature films, television, and video games. Art departments and film schools at universities as well as animation programs at high schools have expanded in recent years to meet the growing demands for animation artists. Professional animators identify the technological facet as the most rapidly advancing…

  20. Ethics in Animal-Based Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Dominik; Tolba, René H

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, there have been a number of new demands and regulations which have reignited the discussion on ethics in animal-based research. In the light of this development, the present review first presents an overview of underlying core ethical questions and issues. This is followed by an outline of the current discussion on whether animals (used for experimentation) should have rights ascribed to them and whether animals need to have certain characteristics in order to be the beneficiaries of rights. The discourse on concepts of sentience and the 'sociozoological scale' in particular is mapped out in this regard. There follows an outline of relevant ethical positions and current moral approaches to animal-based research (animal rights position, utilitarianism, 'convergence position', intrinsic cultural value of fundamental research, 'contractarianism', anthropocentrism, principle of the three Rs). 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Animal ethics profiling of vegetarians, vegans and meat-eaters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Thomas Bøker; McKeegan, Dorothy E. F.; Cribbin, Clare

    2016-01-01

    ), but predominantly the utilitarian position. Propensity to hold animal rights and re- lational views increased with the number of meat products not consumed by meat-eaters. Vegans and vegetarians revealed more consistent animal ethics viewpoints, especially the vegan group which had a very high propen- sity to hold...... an animal rights position. Vegetarians were also inclined to hold the animal rights position, but additionally had a tendency to draw on utilitarian reasoning. Subscription to animal rights views was a defining char- acteristic of vegans regardless of the number of years they had followed the diet, while...

  2. A Review of the Conflict between Environmental Rights and Human ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Man often laid claim to different kinds of rights. These rights vary from his rights to life, bodily integrity, freedom of speech, freedom of association and right to own properties. The right to own properties is extended to own land, animals and dominate one's environment. In fact, man is always quick to use the biblical injunction ...

  3. Carotenoids in Marine Animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maoka, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    Marine animals contain various carotenoids that show structural diversity. These marine animals accumulate carotenoids from foods such as algae and other animals and modify them through metabolic reactions. Many of the carotenoids present in marine animals are metabolites of β-carotene, fucoxanthin, peridinin, diatoxanthin, alloxanthin, and astaxanthin, etc. Carotenoids found in these animals provide the food chain as well as metabolic pathways. In the present review, I will describe marine animal carotenoids from natural product chemistry, metabolism, food chain, and chemosystematic viewpoints, and also describe new structural carotenoids isolated from marine animals over the last decade. PMID:21566799

  4. The morality of Xenotransplantation procedure: a case for animals ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In these clinics, animal' organs and tissues would be transplanted into humans to cure some ailments, without much thought for the animals so sacrificed for the service of man. What is the justification for using animals as means to service man's end? Do animals not have interests and rights, they would wish to protect?

  5. Fire Incident Reporting Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-02-01

    the result of an incident that requires (or should require) treatment by a practitioner of medicine , a registered emergency medical technician, or a...UNANNOUNCED AIRCRAFT EMERGENCYS ~~PRIOR TO TAKE OFF OR AFTERLADN 5 FUEL OPERATIONS REQUIRING 1AREING G A FIRE10 ARRESTING GEAR’BARRIER FR . ENGAGEMENTS AND

  6. Aristotle on Animals in the Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloch, David Kristian

    2006-01-01

    This article examines the apparently very harsh views on animals that are found in two passages of the Politics. These passages have not received much scholarly attention, but they have regularly been invoked by defenders of animal rights. In this article it is argued that an interpretation...... of these passages demands close scrutiny of the context, and furthermore that they must be taken into consideration along with the psychological and the biological writings if Aristotle's views on animals are to be convincingly established....

  7. Carotenoids in Marine Animals

    OpenAIRE

    Maoka, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    Marine animals contain various carotenoids that show structural diversity. These marine animals accumulate carotenoids from foods such as algae and other animals and modify them through metabolic reactions. Many of the carotenoids present in marine animals are metabolites of β-carotene, fucoxanthin, peridinin, diatoxanthin, alloxanthin, and astaxanthin, etc. Carotenoids found in these animals provide the food chain as well as metabolic pathways. In the present review, I will describe marine a...

  8. Animal Images and Metaphors in Animal Farm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Sun

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In literary works animal images are frequently used as the “source domain” of a metaphor to disclose the natures of the “target domain”, human beings. This is called “cross-domain mapping” or “conceptual metaphor” in cognitive linguistics, which is based on the similar qualities between animals and human beings. Thus the apparent descriptions of the animals are really the deep revelations of the human beings. Animal Farm is one exemplary product of this special expressing way. Diversified animal images are intelligently used by George Orwell to represent the people, so all the characters are animals in appearance, but humans in nature. Starting from the animal images and then the conceptual metaphors, readers can perceive a fresh understanding of this classical book. In this novel, three conceptual metaphors are identified and the special findings can be illustrated as the following: Firstly, the whole story of the animals represents the history and politics of the Soviet Union. Secondly, the pigs symbolize the authorities of the society. Thirdly, the names of the characters in the novel reveal their identities.

  9. Basic principles of experimental animals welfare protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vučinić Marijana

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Ethical considerations of animal protection and welfare require that the use of experimental animals is limited as much as possible. Animal experiments should only be performed when no alternative is available and when the benefit of the experiment outweighs the suffering of the animal. This review paper describes the basic principles for the ethical use of experimental animals. These are: "Three Rs rule" (replacement, reduction and refinement, "five freedoms" for animals and "Solna principles". "Replacement" means the substitution for conscious living higher animals of insentient material. "Reduction" means reduction in the numbers of animals used to obtain information of a given amount and precision. "Refinement" means any decrease in the incidence or severity of inhumane procedures applied to those animals which still have to be used. The "five freedoms" are: freedom from hunger and thirst, freedom from adverse environmental impacts, freedom from disease and injury, freedom to exhibit normal behavior and freedom from adverse mental states. "Solna principles" state that tests for regulatory purposes need to reflect the following: biological Relevance (meaningfulness and usefulness of a test for a particular purpose, Reliability (reproducibility of results within and between laboratories, and Regulatory acceptability (suitability of a test for risk assessment purposes (human health /environment.

  10. Incidence of dog bites in Milwaukee, wis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndon, J A; Jach, G J; Wehrenberg, W B

    1996-04-01

    Dogs are everywhere. The incidence of and injuries caused by dog bites have grown to such epidemic proportions in certain parts of the United States that they are now considered a major public health concern. Playful Rover is no longer a harmless pet. Uncontrolled, he now can be considered a public nuisance. In this study, we evaluated the epidemiology of dog bites recorded in Milwaukee, for calendar years 1989-1991. This assessment included anatomical location of bites, victims' ages, behavioral antecedents, leading up to the bite incidents, season of the year, and animal ownership. The evaluation also measured the correlation coefficient between the frequency of dog bite incidents and median household income distribution within the city. During the 3-year period, a total of 3,926 animal bites, including 3,244 (83%) dog bites, were reported to the City of Milwaukee Department of Health. Of all the dog bites reported, 60% were on the upper extremities. Children less than 15 years old sustained 44% of the injuries, mostly to the head and face. Provocation by the victim accounted for 19% of the cases. The majority of the incidents (67%) occurred during the spring and summer months. In 49% of all cases, the victims families or neighbors owned the animals involved in the biting. Researchers also observed a significant negative correlation between bites and median household income distribution. Study results suggest a need to educate the public about the magnitude of dog-bite problems, enforce leash laws and impound stray dogs as an integral part of prevention programs.

  11. Are some animals more equal than others?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kopnina, Helen; Gjerris, Mickey

    2015-01-01

    This article focuses on the role of ethical perspectives such as deep ecology and animal rights in relation to environmental education, arguing that such perspectives are well-placed to reposition students as responsible planetary citizens. We focus on the linkage between non-consequentialism, an......This article focuses on the role of ethical perspectives such as deep ecology and animal rights in relation to environmental education, arguing that such perspectives are well-placed to reposition students as responsible planetary citizens. We focus on the linkage between non......-consequentialism, animal rights, and deep ecology in an educational context and discuss the broader issue of ethics in education. Finally, we discuss how the inclusion of deep ecology and animal rights perspectives would improve current environmental education programs by deepening the respect for non...

  12. Double Outlet Right Ventricle

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Right Ventricle Menu Topics Topics FAQs Double Outlet Right Ventricle Double outlet right ventricle (DORV) is a rare form of congenital heart disease. Article Info En español Double outlet right ventricle (DORV) is a rare form of congenital ...

  13. The construction of rights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dowding, Keith; Hees, Martin van

    The paper examines the sense in which rights can be said to exist. We examine various approaches to the definition and analysis of rights, focusing in particular on the compossibility of rights. Concentrating on three existing approaches to rights-social choice-theoretic, game-theoretic, and

  14. The Forgotten Property Rights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, Thomas; Tarp, Finn; Van Den Broeck, Katleen

    Studies of land property rights usually focus on tenure security and transfer rights. Rights to determine how to use the land are regularly ignored. However, in transition economies such as Vietnam and China, user rights are often limited. Relying on a unique Vietnamese panel data set at both...

  15. Human Rights, History of

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Baets, Antoon; Wright, James

    2015-01-01

    In this article, six basic debates about human rights are clarified from a historical perspective: the origin of human rights as moral rights connected to the natural law doctrine and opposed to positive rights; the wave of criticism of their abstract and absolute character by nineteenth-century

  16. Rights, goals, and capabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hees, M.V.B.P.M

    This article analyses the relationship between rights and capabilities in order to get a better grasp of the kind of consequentialism that the capability theory represents. Capability rights have been defined as rights that have a capability as their object (rights to capabilities). Such a

  17. Intervention and Human Rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Arthur J.

    1988-01-01

    Defends the right of nations to criticize human rights violations within other nations. Pointing out that the human rights protections cannot be left to domestic jurisdiction, Goldberg cites numerous treaties and declarations which make human rights protection a matter of international law. (GEA)

  18. Aristotle on Animals in the Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloch, David Kristian

    2006-01-01

    This article examines the apparently very harsh views on animals that are found in two passages of the Politics. These passages have not received much scholarly attention, but they have regularly been invoked by defenders of animal rights. In this article it is argued that an interpretation of th...

  19. Allometry of animal-microbe interactions and global census of animal-associated microbes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieft, Thomas L; Simmons, Karen A

    2015-07-07

    Animals live in close association with microorganisms, mostly prokaryotes, living in or on them as commensals, mutualists or parasites, and profoundly affecting host fitness. Most animal-microbe studies focus on microbial community structure; for this project, allometry (scaling of animal attributes with animal size) was applied to animal-microbe relationships across a range of species spanning 12 orders of magnitude in animal mass, from nematodes to whales. Microbial abundances per individual animal were gleaned from published literature and also microscopically counted in three species. Abundance of prokaryotes/individual versus animal mass scales as a nearly linear power function (exponent = 1.07, R(2) = 0.94). Combining this power function with allometry of animal abundance indicates that macrofauna have an outsized share of animal-associated microorganisms. The total number of animal-associated prokaryotes in Earth's land animals was calculated to be 1.3-1.4 × 10(25) cells and the total of marine animal-associated microbes was calculated to be 8.6-9.0 × 10(24) cells. Animal-associated microbes thus total 2.1-2.3 × 10(25) of the approximately 10(30) prokaryotes on the Earth. Microbes associated with humans comprise 3.3-3.5% of Earth's animal-associated microbes, and domestic animals harbour 14-20% of all animal-associated microbes, adding a new dimension to the scale of human impact on the biosphere. This novel allometric power function may reflect underlying mechanisms involving the transfer of energy and materials between microorganisms and their animal hosts. Microbial diversity indices of animal gut communities and gut microbial species richness for 60 mammals did not indicate significant scaling relationships with animal body mass; however, further research in this area is warranted. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  20. [Right lung cancer with right aortic arch].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaguchi, Yasuo; Noriyuki, T; Kuroda, Y; Kuranishi, F; Nakahara, M; Fukuda, T; Ishizaki, Y; Hotta, R; Akimoto, E; Mori, H

    2008-02-01

    An abnormal shadow was detected on chest X-ray mass screening in an asymptomatic 63-year-old man. The further examinations revealed the shadow to be primary lung cancer (Rt. S6. adenocarcinoma, cT2N0M0, c-stage IB) with right aortic arch. We used 3 dimentional-computed tomography (3D-CT) to assess an anatomical feature of vessels in detail. The right lower lobectomy and the dissection of medi astinal lymph nodes was performed. We confirmed no abnormal anatomy of pulmonary artery and vein at surgery, and it was possible to perform right lower lobectomy with the common procedure. Since lymph node was found by intraopetrative pathological examination, since no metastasis from interlobar to subcarinal lymph node was found, we did not perform dissection of upper mediastinal dissection, which was equivalent to ND2a lymph nodes dissection of the left lung cancer in General Rule for Clinical and Pathological Record of Lung Cancer. The patient with right aortic arch is known to have variant anatomy of other intrathoracic vessels occasionally. 3D-CT was quite useful in assessing anatomical feature, and enabled us to perform safe operation.

  1. Constipation and Incident CKD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumida, Keiichi; Molnar, Miklos Z; Potukuchi, Praveen K; Thomas, Fridtjof; Lu, Jun Ling; Matsushita, Kunihiro; Yamagata, Kunihiro; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar; Kovesdy, Csaba P

    2017-04-01

    Constipation is one of the most prevalent conditions in primary care settings and increases the risk of cardiovascular disease, potentially through processes mediated by altered gut microbiota. However, little is known about the association of constipation with CKD. In a nationwide cohort of 3,504,732 United States veterans with an eGFR ≥60 ml/min per 1.73 m 2 , we examined the association of constipation status and severity (absent, mild, or moderate/severe), defined using diagnostic codes and laxative use, with incident CKD, incident ESRD, and change in eGFR in Cox models (for time-to-event analyses) and multinomial logistic regression models (for change in eGFR). Among patients, the mean (SD) age was 60.0 (14.1) years old; 93.2% of patients were men, and 24.7% were diabetic. After multivariable adjustments, compared with patients without constipation, patients with constipation had higher incidence rates of CKD (hazard ratio, 1.13; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.11 to 1.14) and ESRD (hazard ratio, 1.09; 95% CI, 1.01 to 1.18) and faster eGFR decline (multinomial odds ratios for eGFR slope constipation associated with an incrementally higher risk for each renal outcome. In conclusion, constipation status and severity associate with higher risk of incident CKD and ESRD and with progressive eGFR decline, independent of known risk factors. Further studies should elucidate the underlying mechanisms. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  2. Cancer incidence among firefighters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pukkala, Eero; Martinsen, Jan Ivar; Weiderpass, Elisabete

    2014-01-01

    .51), adenocarcinoma of the lung (SIR=1.90, 95% CI 1.34 to 2.62), and mesothelioma (SIR=2.59, 95% CI 1.24 to 4.77). By contrast with earlier studies, the incidence of testicular cancer was decreased (SIR=0.51, 95% CI 0.23 to 0.98). CONCLUSIONS: Some of these associations have been observed previously, and potential...

  3. Cancer incidence among waiters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reijula, Jere; Kjaerheim, Kristina; Lynge, Elsebeth

    2015-01-01

    AIMS: To study cancer risk patterns among waiters in the Nordic countries. METHODS: We identified a cohort of 16,134 male and 81,838 female waiters from Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden. During the follow-up period from 1961 to 2005, we found that 19,388 incident cancer cases were...... diagnosed. Standardised incidence ratio (SIR) was defined as the observed number of cancer cases divided by the expected number, based on national age, time period and gender-specific cancer incidence rates in the general population. RESULTS: The SIR of all cancers in waiters, in the five countries combined......, was 1.46 (95% CI 1.41-1.51) in men and 1.09 (1.07-1.11) in women. In male waiters, the SIR decreased from 1.79 (1.63-1.96) in 1961-1975, to 1.33 (1.26-1.40) in 1991-2005, but remained stable among women. The SIR among male waiters was highest for cancers in the pharynx (6.11; 95% CI 5.02-7.37), oral...

  4. Contaminated Mexican steel incident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    This report documents the circumstances contributing to the inadvertent melting of cobalt 60 (Co-60) contaminated scrap metal in two Mexican steel foundries and the subsequent distribution of contaminated steel products into the United States. The report addresses mainly those actions taken by US Federal and state agencies to protect the US population from radiation risks associated with the incident. Mexico had much more serious radiation exposure and contamination problems to manage. The United States Government maintained a standing offer to provide technical and medical assistance to the Mexican Government. The report covers the tracing of the source to its origin, response actions to recover radioactive steel in the United States, and return of the contaminated materials to Mexico. The incident resulted in significant radiation exposures within Mexico, but no known significant exposure within the United States. Response to the incident required the combined efforts of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Department of Energy, Department of Transportation, Department of State, and US Customs Service (Department of Treasury) personnel at the Federal level and representatives of all 50 State Radiation Control Programs and, in some instances, local and county government personnel. The response also required a diplomatic interface with the Mexican Government and cooperation of numerous commercial establishments and members of the general public. The report describes the factual information associated with the event and may serve as information for subsequent recommendations and actions by the NRC. 8 figures

  5. RETHINKING THE ANIMATE, RE-ANIMATING THOUGHT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Ingold

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Animism is often described as the imputation of life to inert objects. Such imputation is more typical of people in western societies who dream of finding life on other planets than of indigenous peoples to whom the label of animism has classically been applied. These peoples are united not in their beliefs but in a way of being that is alive and open to a world in continuous birth. In this animic ontology, beings do not propel themselves across a ready-made world but rather issue forth through a world-in-formation, along the lines of their relationships. To its inhabitants this weather-world, embracing both sky and earth, is a source of astonishment but not surprise. Re-animating the ‘western’ tradition of thought means recovering the sense of astonishment banished from offi cial science.

  6. [Laboratory animals and official Mexican norms (NOM-062-ZOO-1999)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Aluja, Aline S

    2002-01-01

    This article concerns animal experimentation and official Mexican norm Nom 0062-Zoo-1999 entitled Technical specifications for the production, care and use of laboratory animals. The history of animal experimentation is briefly resumed. During the nineteenth century, doubts arose as to the right to expose animals to experimental procedures that frequently cause pain and suffering. The first law which protected animals against cruelty was passed in Great Britain in 1876; subsequently, other nations approved similar legislation. During the second part of the twentieth century, opposition to animal experimentation grew. Other groups, mainly scientists and pharmaceutical concerns, defended the right to use animals in research. New knowledge concerning the neurophysiology, cognitive capacity, and the animal faculty to experience pain is briefly mentioned. Guidelines on care and use of animals used in research published in several countries are listed. Finally, the recently published Mexican legislation (Norm) referring to production, care and use of laboratory animals is discussed and its benefits are stressed.

  7. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Veterinary Safety & Health Antimicrobial Resistance Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... produced a nine-minute animation explaining how antimicrobial resistance both emerges and proliferates among bacteria. Over time, ...

  8. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... version) Arabic Translation of Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance Chinese Translation of Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance French Translation ... FEAR Act Site Map Nondiscrimination Website Policies U.S. Food and Drug Administration 10903 New Hampshire Avenue Silver ...

  9. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... FDA Submit search Popular Content Home Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & ... by Product Area Product Areas back Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & ...

  10. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... search Popular Content Home Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics ... Area Product Areas back Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics ...

  11. Determinants of regional differences in the incidence of impetigo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razmjou, R Ghotb; Willemsen, Sten P; Koning, Sander; Oranje, Arnold P; Schellevis, François; van der Wouden, Johannes C

    2009-07-01

    Impetigo is a common contagious skin infection, mostly seen in children and caused by Staphylococcus aureus and/or group A B-hemolytic Streptococcus. Two surveys performed in general practice showed a strong geographical gradient in the incidence rates among children in the Netherlands. The incidence in the south was approximately twice as high as in the rest of the Netherlands. We hypothesized that this difference could be explained by differences in the presence of animal farms and differences in temperature. This study examined whether there is a relationship with the numbers of bovines, pigs, sheep, and poultry per km2, and temperature, which could explain the observed regional gradient in the incidence of impetigo. In this ecological study, data on the incidence of impetigo in children 0-17 years of age from the second Dutch national survey were linked to data on the density of farm animals from Statistics Netherlands and temperature data from the Dutch Metereological Service. Using logistic regression allowing for overdispersion, we tested the significance of the effect of bovines, pigs, sheep, and poultry per km2, and temperature on the incidence of impetigo, correcting for known risk factors. Only the number of sheep at the (COROP) regional level was significant; however, this effect could not explain the regional differences. The regional differences in the incidence of impetigo in children cannot be explained by the variation in the presence of farm animals or differences in temperature.

  12. The right data for the right decision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chockie, A.D.; Olson, J.L.; Thurber, J.A.

    1988-01-01

    This paper identifies and discusses a number of issues associated with the development and use of performance indicators for commercial nuclear power plants. The paper reviews the objectives of various users of performance indicators and addresses the problem of applying the right performance indicators to the needs of these users. The analysis concludes with a brief discussion of how the different user objectives of performance indicators can lead to conflicts over the definition and implementation of performance indicator systems

  13. Free the animals? Investigating attitudes toward animal testing in Britain and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swami, Viren; Furnham, Adrian; Christopher, Andrew N

    2008-06-01

    In this study, 185 British and 143 American undergraduates completed a battery of tests that measured attitudes toward animal testing and various individual difference variables. Attitudes toward animal testing factored into two interpretable factors: general attitudes toward animal testing, and animal welfare and conditions of testing. Overall, there was support for animal testing under the right conditions, although there was also concern for the welfare of animals and the conditions under which testing takes place. There were small but significant national difference on both factors (with Americans more positive about testing and less positive about animal welfare), and a significant sex difference on the first factor (women were more negative about testing). Correlation and regression analyses showed that there were few significant individual difference predictors of both factors. These results are discussed in relation to past and future work on attitudes toward animal testing.

  14. An Argument for Animalism

    OpenAIRE

    Olson, E.T.

    2003-01-01

    The view that we are human animals, "animalism", is deeply unpopular. This\\ud paper explains what that claim says and why it is so contentious. It then\\ud argues that those who deny it face an awkward choice. They must either\\ud deny that there are any human animals, deny that human animals can think,\\ud or deny that we are the thinking things located where we are.

  15. Animal Welfare Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Jayson L. Lusk; F. Bailey Norwood

    2011-01-01

    This article highlights some key areas where economics can contribute to the current debate about animal welfare. Production economics reveals that producers will not maximize animal welfare, even if animal well-being is highly correlated with output. Welfare economics raises thorny issues about the double-counting of benefits when humans exhibit altruism towards animals, while public economics uncovers potential market failures and possible solutions. Consumer economics provides a means of d...

  16. Teaching Human Rights Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, Howard R.

    1985-01-01

    The international community has developed a system of human rights law relevant to many areas of legal encounter, which American law schools have been slow to incorporate into curricula. Teaching human rights law provides an opportunity for law schools to enrich the learning process and contribute creatively to the respect for rights in society.…

  17. Special Section: Human Rights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frydenlund, Knut; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Eleven articles examine human rights in Europe. Topics include unemployment, human rights legislation, role of the Council of Europe in promoting human rights, labor unions, migrant workers, human dignity in industralized societies, and international violence. Journal available from Council of Europe, Directorate of Press and Information, 67006…

  18. Colonial Voting Rights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besselink, L.F.M.

    2008-01-01

    This case note discusses recent cases on voting rights for the European Parliament in Gibraltar and the Dutch Carribean countries, as well as the case of (lack of) voting rights for Carribean Dutch citizens for the national parliament in the European Court of Human Rights. It highlights the manner

  19. Contested water rights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ansink, E.J.H.; Weikard, H.P.

    2009-01-01

    In many international river basins disputes over property rights to water lead to inefficient water allocation and a waste of resources. In this paper, we examine how contested water rights impede water trade. To show this, we use a model in which property rights to water are contested because

  20. Contested water rights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ansink, Erik; Weikard, Hans Peter

    In many international river basins disputes over property rights to water lead to inefficient water allocation and a waste of resources. In this paper, we examine how contested water rights impede water trade. To show this, we use a model in which property rights to water are contested because

  1. Who likes circus animals?

    OpenAIRE

    Zanola, Roberto

    2008-01-01

    Using a sample based on 268 questionnaires submitted to people attending the Acquatico Bellucci circus, Italy, this paper analyzes the circusgoers's preferences for circus animals. Results show that higher preferences for circus animals are related to frequency of consumption. However, differently from what commonly expected, more educated and younger people seem to be less sensitive to the claims of animal welfare organizations.

  2. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Skip to common links HHS U.S. Department of Health and Human Services U.S. Food and Drug Administration ... Tobacco Products Animal & Veterinary Home Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health Antimicrobial Resistance Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance Share Tweet ...

  3. Animal violence demystified

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Natarajan, Deepa; Caramaschi, Doretta

    2010-01-01

    Violence has been observed in humans and animals alike, indicating its evolutionary/biological significance. However, violence in animals has often been confounded with functional forms of aggressive behavior. Currently, violence in animals is identified primarily as either a quantitative behavior

  4. Soybean diet breast tumor incidence in irradiated rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Troll, W.; Wiesner, R.

    1980-01-01

    The relationship between feeding a diet rich in protease inhibitors and the reduction of mammary cancer induced by x-irradiation in Sprague-Dawley rats was examined. Of a total of 145 irradiated animals, 44% of the 45 rats fed a raw soybean diet containing a high concentration of protease inhibitor developed mammary tumors as compared to 74% of 50 rats fed a casein diet containing no protease inhibitor. Animals fed Purina rat chow which contained low levels of protease inhibitor exhibited a 70% mammary tumor incidence. No spontaneous neoplasms were found in any of the non-irradiated animals on the raw soybean diet whereas about 10% of the animals on the protease-free diet developed tumors. Thus, soybeans which are rich in protease inhibitors reduced the induction of mammary cancer in x-irradiated rats. This suggested that diets rich in protease inhibitors may contribute to reducing cancer incidence in man. (author)

  5. Medication incidents reported to an online incident reporting system.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Alrwisan, Adel

    2011-01-15

    AIMS: Approximately 20% of deaths from adverse events are related to medication incidents, costing the NHS an additional £500 million annually. Less than 5% of adverse events are reported. This study aims to assess the reporting rate of medication incidents in NHS facilities in the north east of Scotland, and to describe the types and outcomes of reported incidents among different services. Furthermore, we wished to quantify the proportion of reported incidents according to the reporters\\' profession. METHODS: A retrospective description was made of medication incidents reported to an online reporting system (DATIX) over a 46-month-period (July 2005 to April 2009). Reports originated from acute and community hospitals, mental health, and primary care facilities. RESULTS: Over the study period there were 2,666 incidents reported with a mean monthly reporting rate of 78.2\\/month (SD±16.9). 6.1% of all incidents resulted in harm, with insulin being the most commonly implicated medication. Nearly three-quarters (74.2%, n=1,978) of total incidents originated from acute hospitals. Administration incidents were implicated in the majority of the reported medication incidents (59%), followed by prescribing (10.8%) and dispensing (9.9%), while the nondescript "other medication incidents" accounted for 20.3% of total incidents. The majority of reports were made by nursing and midwifery staff (80%), with medical and dental professionals reporting the lowest number of incidents (n=56, 2%). CONCLUSIONS: The majority of medication incidents in this study were reported by nursing and midwifery staff, and were due to administration incidents. There is a clear need to elucidate the reasons for the limited contribution of the medical and dental professionals to reporting medication incidents.

  6. RIGHT TO EXTIMACY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iuri Bolesina

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available From the constitutionalization of law and through the contributions of the phenomenology-hermeneutics, this paper aims a legal study about a possibility right to extimacy. Thus, the free development of the personality is approached. Next, it is studied the idea of extimacy, from the author Serge Tisseron. Then, the three assumptions of the right to extimacy are worked. Lastly, it is suggested the legal construction of the right to extimacy. It is concluded that, in general terms, the extimacy is the socially active and enjoyed life of the intimacy, which has no specific protection. It is understood that the right to extimacy has nature of fundamental right of the personality, implicit and attached to the right to intimacy and to the right of free speech, which protects immediately the existential good of the extimacy and mediately the development of the personal identity.

  7. The right and development: the nuclear right

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coimbra, Guilhermina Lavos.

    1986-02-01

    The author analyses some juridical instruments signed among Brazil and his commercial partners in the nuclear field: the way as it has been reflected and it has modeled the Brazilian Nuclear Program - BNP. It is very much important a Nuclear Law/Bill of the Nuclear Rights directed to the uranium and the BNP defense. It is compared the Brazilian petroleum situation, before 1952, with the present uranium situation. It is purposed a Constitutional disposal, protecting the uranium and all the other nuclear strategic minerals state monopoly, to be inserted in the next Brazilian Constitution and the URANIOBRAS creation, similar to PETROBRAS. (author). 163 refs

  8. Incident users of antipsychotics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baandrup, Lone; Kruse, Marie

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: In Denmark, as well as in many other countries, consumption of antipsychotics is on the rise, partly due to increasing off-label use. The aim of this study was to analyze and quantify the extent of off-label use and polypharmacy in incident users of antipsychotic medication, and to examine...... initial antipsychotic prescribing patterns and associated use of mental health care services. METHOD: Population-based cohort study linking the following Danish national registers: the Central Psychiatric Research Register, the Register of Medicinal Product Statistics, and Statistics Denmark. RESULTS...

  9. Animal model and neurobiology of suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preti, Antonio

    2011-06-01

    Animal models are formidable tools to investigate the etiology, the course and the potential treatment of an illness. No convincing animal model of suicide has been produced to date, and despite the intensive study of thousands of animal species naturalists have not identified suicide in nonhuman species in field situations. When modeling suicidal behavior in the animal, the greatest challenge is reproducing the role of will and intention in suicide mechanics. To overcome this limitation, current investigations on animals focus on every single step leading to suicide in humans. The most promising endophenotypes worth investigating in animals are the cortisol social-stress response and the aggression/impulsivity trait, involving the serotonergic system. Astroglia, neurotrophic factors and neurotrophins are implied in suicide, too. The prevention of suicide rests on the identification and treatment of every element increasing the risk. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Animals for teaching purposes: medical students' attitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glick, S M

    1995-01-01

    Animal rights movements have increased the scope and intensity of their activities over the past decade. While it is generally assumed that doctors and other members of the health care professions favour the use of animals for science, few data are available. Student protests in various medical schools against use of animals in teaching laboratories indicated further need for objective data. A questionnaire about attitudes to the use of animals for teaching purposes was distributed to all the medical students at the Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, present during classes on a given day. All students present (200) returned the questionnaire (70% of the student body). Also queried were attitudes towards related subjects. A high percentage of medical students surveyed had significant reservations about animal experimentation for teaching purposes and about the preferential priority for human life over that of animals. These attitudes, if confirmed, have serious implications for educators both in the health fields and otherwise.

  11. Improving freight crash incident management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the most effective way to mitigate the effect of freight : crash incidents on Louisiana freeways. Candidate incident management strategies were reviewed from : practice in other states and from those publi...

  12. Animal welfare impact assessments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandøe, Peter; Gamborg, Christian

    2017-01-01

    of this paper is to evaluate the potential of AWIA. We begin by showing how ideas akin to AWIA already play a significant role in other animal ethics controversies, particularly those concerning laboratory animal use and livestock production; and we bring in lessons learnt from these controversies. Then we......Control of wild animals may give rise to controversy, as is seen in the case of badger control to manage TB in cattle in the UK. However, it is striking that concerns about the potential suffering of the affected animals themselves are often given little attention or completely ignored in policies...... aimed at dealing with wild animals. McCulloch and Reiss argue that this could be remedied by means of a “mandatory application of formal and systematic Animal Welfare Impact Assessment (AWIA)”. Optimistically, they consider that an AWIA could help to resolve controversies involving wild animals. The aim...

  13. Health Rights and Realization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushton, Simon

    2016-01-01

    In their hypothesis published in IJHPM, Lisa Forman and colleagues examined the prominence of the right to health and sexual and reproductive health rights (as well as related language) in four of the key reports that fed into the process of negotiating the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Now that the SDGs have been formally adopted, this comment builds on some of the insights of Forman and colleagues to examine the extent to which those rights have been incorporated in SDGs 3 and 5. I argue that sexual and reproductive health rights are relatively well-covered within the SDGs. In terms of the right to health, however, the picture is much less clear. Some of the elements that make up that right are present and correct, but the SDGs have delivered no coherent vision of how a ‘right to health’ might actually be realized. An important task facing global health and human rights advocates is to continue pushing human rights framings so that progress is made both on meeting the SDGs and on realizing the right to health. PMID:27239886

  14. THE RESALE RIGHT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana-Maria MARINESCU

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses one of the most important rights of the authors of original works of art namely: the resale right. It will be analyzed the subject matter of the resale right, the works of art to which the resale right relates, the rates applicable to the resale right, the persons entitled to receive royalties, the term of protection of the resale right, third-country nationals entitled to receive royalties and the right to obtain information. Also, the article will refer to the EU Directive in the field: Directive 2001/84/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 27 September 2001 on the resale right for the benefit of the author of an original work of art. It will be the subject of the article, also, the European Court of Justice jurisprudence related to the resale right, for example the judgment in the case C-518/08 (VEGAP vs. ADAGP, underlying that, in the light of the objectives pursued by Directive 2001/84, Member States may make their own legislative choice in determining the categories of persons capable of benefiting from the resale right after the death of the author of a work of art. One of parts of the article, will analyses the collective management for the resale right, especially: the terms of the collective management, forms of the collective management and examples. For all the above mentioned reasons, the article will refer to the main aspects of the resale right in a comprehensive manner and will analyses in a scientifically manner this very important right of the authors of original works of art.

  15. From moral rights to constitutional rights: beyond élitist and electiv speciesism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sônia T. Felipe

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Animal rights movement and the laws it have propounded since the 19 th Century are critically analyzed in this article under the perspective of the elitist and elective speciesism that constitute both the foundation of anthropocentric and non-anthropocentric ethics. Moral tradition considers non human animal species as inferior to the human species since non human animals lack any characteristic for being morally considerable. This is conceived here as elitist speciesism. On the other hand, animal protection movements consider certain kinds of animals as morally considerable while ignoring thesuffering and pain of all others; this represents another kind of speciesism called in this article elective speciesism. The history of animal protection laws shows that even in England and in the United States of America the first laws evidenced elective speciesism. The same kind of bias is typicalfor Brazilian animal protection laws. I hope to contribute to the notion that if we really want to protect animals, not only a certain kind of them, we have to give up our emotional preferences and predilections for some animals and move toward a complete abolition of both institutionalized and particular forms of animal use, abuse and murder.

  16. Increasing incidence of pyogenic spondylodiscitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kehrer, Michala; Pedersen, Court; Jensen, Thøger G

    2014-01-01

    Smaller studies indicate that the incidence of pyogenic spondylodiscitis is increasing, possible related to a growing elderly population. Data supporting this is sparse, and we therefore studied patient characteristics and changes in spondylodiscitis incidence 1995-2008.......Smaller studies indicate that the incidence of pyogenic spondylodiscitis is increasing, possible related to a growing elderly population. Data supporting this is sparse, and we therefore studied patient characteristics and changes in spondylodiscitis incidence 1995-2008....

  17. Incident Management: Process into Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaac, Gayle; Moore, Brian

    2011-01-01

    Tornados, shootings, fires--these are emergencies that require fast action by school district personnel, but they are not the only incidents that require risk management. The authors have introduced the National Incident Management System (NIMS) and the Incident Command System (ICS) and assured that these systems can help educators plan for and…

  18. Abortion and human rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Dorothy

    2010-10-01

    Abortion has been a reality in women's lives since the beginning of recorded history, typically with a high risk of fatal consequences, until the last century when evolutions in the field of medicine, including techniques of safe abortion and effective methods of family planning, could have ended the need to seek unsafe abortion. The context of women's lives globally is an important but often ignored variable, increasingly recognised in evolving human rights especially related to gender and reproduction. International and regional human rights instruments are being invoked where national laws result in violations of human rights such as health and life. The individual right to conscientious objection must be respected and better understood, and is not absolute. Health professional organisations have a role to play in clarifying responsibilities consistent with national laws and respecting reproductive rights. Seeking common ground using evidence rather than polarised opinion can assist the future focus. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Other interferences from animal studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luz, A.; Mueller, W.A.; Linzner, U.; Murray, A.B.

    1990-01-01

    The author gave a description of some of the problems that occur in experimental radiation biology. The main points were the influence of the size of injection, the length of exposure, the importance of the size of the tumor as opposed to its mere incidence, and biological variability which still exceeds our ability to control the system. Also important were age effects for the one month, twelve months, eighteen month-old animals, all of whom got tumors at about the same time in spite of their different ages. Also he discussed the influence of genetic effects and even some excepts from molecular biology, during which he referred to the identification of an oncogene in the ANL radium patients which is not seen in the controls. (orig./HP)

  20. Are human rights universal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurbuchen, Simone

    2010-12-01

    It is often held that the universality of human rights can best be defended on the basis of the idea of an "overlapping consensus". This paper contends that some of the most prominent philosophical human rights conceptions that have recently been proposed ("basis-driven" conceptions) cannot be reconciled with this idea. It is however possible to sketch an alternative strategy for defending the universality of human rights.

  1. Rights Under Pressure

    OpenAIRE

    O Cinneide, C. P.

    2017-01-01

    Human rights law faces a crisis of legitimacy, both in the UK and across much of the wider democratic world. A drumbeat of media criticism focusing on the alleged incompatibility of human rights norms with both ‘common sense’ and the principle of democratic self-government has grown louder, while sceptical voices can increasingly be heard in academia and elsewhere questioning whether the legal protection of human rights has ‘gone too far’. In response, rights enthusiasts have clung to old ver...

  2. The Forgotten Property Rights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, Thomas; Tarp, Finn; Van Den Broeck, Katleen

    2011-01-01

    Studies of land property rights usually focus on tenure security and transfer rights. Rights to determine how to use the land are regularly ignored. However, user rights are often limited. Relying on a unique Vietnamese panel data set at both household and plot levels, we show that crop choice...... restrictions are widespread and prevent crop diversification. Restrictions do not decrease household income, but restricted households work harder, and there are indications that they are supplied with higher quality inputs. Our findings are consistent with the view that it is possible to intervene effectively...

  3. Nature of Human Rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos López Dawson

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In the formation of a new Constitution the constituents will require to know or reach an agreement on the nature of human rights; then, to determine how the State will enforce the respect to those rights. To do so, it is necessary to resort to the history and evolution of these rights, and the present work aims to contribute to an efficient productive debate about the nature of human rights, so that citizens can decide on the understanding that this is a thoughtful democratic and humanistic founded decision. The analysis is in the actual technical-ideological republican system which correspond to the current state of international law

  4. Toxoplasma gondii in animals and the environment

    OpenAIRE

    Parigi, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular parasite capable of infecting virtually all warm-blooded species, including humans, but cats are the only definitive hosts. Humans or animals acquire T. gondii infection by ingesting food or water contaminated with sporulated oocysts or by ingesting tissue cysts containing bradyzoites. Toxoplasmosis has the highest human incidence among zoonotic parasitic diseases, but it is still considered an underreported zoonosis. The importance of T. gondii ...

  5. Rights of Identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Kofman

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A person’s identity is their sense of who and what they are, of who stands in significant relations to them, and of what is valuable to them. This is inevitably very broad, an immediate implication of which is that the concept of identity taken alone cannot do significant normative work. In some cases a person’s identity is bound up with the evil that they do or wish to do, and cannot thereby give them any right to do it. In other cases very powerful elements of a person’s identity – such as their attachment to loved ones – is certainly related to important rights, but it is not entirely clear that one needs the concept of identity to explicate or justify these rights; the deep involvement of their identity is arguably a byproduct of other important values in these cases (such as love, and those values can do the grounding work of the rights by themselves and more simply and clearly. Nevertheless, when suitably qualified, a person’s identity is central to accounting for important political rights. These ranges from rights to participate in cultural practices of one’s group, which sometimes implies duties on governments to support minorities threatened with extinction, to – at the outer limit – rights to arrange political administration. These rights are connected to both autonomy and fairness. Cultural rights are often taken either to be opposed to autonomy, or at best instrumental to personal autonomy (by providing ‘options’, but in fact, the ideal of autonomy, expressed by Mill as being the author of one’s life, requires that one be in control of significant aspects of one’s identity. Significant aspects of one’s identity are collectively determined within a culture. Cultures are not static, and their development is particularly affected by political boundaries. A fundamental right of autonomy implies, therefore, that groups be allowed, within reasonable constraints of general feasibility and stability, to arrange

  6. Short Communication Pygmy right whale Caperea marginata ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... younger animals may cause them to become 'entrapped' in the bay. These data contribute substantially to the limited information on pygmy right whale distribution worldwide and the cetacean fauna of Namibia. Keywords: Benguela Current, strandings, Walvis Bay African Journal of Marine Science 2013, 35(1): 133–139 ...

  7. Race, Rights and Rebels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suárez-Krabbe, Julia

    An analysis of the evolution of the overlapping histories of human rights and development, and an exploration of the alternatives, through the lens of indigenous and other southern theories and epistemologies......An analysis of the evolution of the overlapping histories of human rights and development, and an exploration of the alternatives, through the lens of indigenous and other southern theories and epistemologies...

  8. The right to life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.Sc. Stavri Sinjari

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The right to life constitutes one of the main human rights and freedoms, foreseen by article 21 of the Albanian Constitution and article 2 of European Human Rights Convention. No democratic or totalitarian society can function without guarantees and protection of the human right to life We intend to address these issues on our article: What is life. What we legally understand with life. When the life starts and finish. How this right has evolved. Which is the state interest on protecting the life. Should we consider that the life is the same for all. Should the state interfere at any cost to protect the life. Is there any criminal charge for responsible persons to the violation of this right. Is this issue treated by European Human Rights Court. What are the Albanian legal provisions on protection of this right. This research is performed mainly according to a comparative and analytical methodology. Comperative analysis will be present almost throughout the paper. Treatment of issues of this research will be achieved through a system comparable with international standards in particular and the most advanced legislation in this area. At the same time, this research is conducted by analytical and statistical data processing. We believe that our research will make a modest contribution, not only to the legal literature, but also to criminal policy makers, law makers, lawyers and attorneys.

  9. Human Rights in Prisons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jefferson, Andrew M.; Gaborit, Liv Stoltze

    Drawing on participatory action research conducted in Sierra Leone, Kosovo and the Philippines, Human Rights in Prisons analyses encounters between rights-based non-governmental organisations and prisons. It explores the previously under-researched perspectives of prison staff and prisoners...

  10. A Human Rights Glossary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flowers, Nancy

    1998-01-01

    Presents a human rights glossary that includes definitions of basic terms, treaties, charters, and groups/organizations that have been featured in previous articles in this edition of "Update on Law-Related Education"; the human rights terms have been compiled as part of the celebration of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights…

  11. CIVIL RIGHTS AND MINORITIES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    HARTMAN, PAUL

    A MAJOR INTENT OF THE CONSTITUTION AND ITS AMENDMENTS, TO GUARANTEE EQUAL RIGHTS TO ALL CITIZENS REGARDLESS OF RACE, CREED, OR COLOR, HAS BEEN REINFORCED BY THE CIVIL RIGHTS STATUTES OF MANY STATES. IN SOME STATES SUCH LAWS HAVE BEEN ON RECORD FOR THREE-QUARTERS OF A CENTURY. IN OTHER STATES THE SAME CONSTITUTIONAL INTENT HAS BEEN DENIED BY…

  12. Trade Union Rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Heribert; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Excerpts addresses from an international symposium regarding workers' education, human rights, labor standards and law, socioeconomic factors, trade unions, workers' rights, professionalism, and globalization. Includes a background paper, "Participation of Workers and Their Organizations in the Field of International Labour Standards and the…

  13. Urbanization and human rights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mihr, A.

    Urban governance on the basis of human rights can help to set up problem solving mechanisms to guarantee social peace, economic growth and political participation.If states both integrate more in international or regional human rights regime and give more autonomy to urban governments and local

  14. Denialism and Human Rights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moerland, Roland; Nelen, Hans; Willems, Jan CM

    2016-01-01

    The safeguarding of human rights remains highly problematic, despite the proliferation of human rights instruments and the many actions taken by a variety of actors, such as governmental and non-governmental organizations, (individual) states and the international community over the past decades.

  15. Animals as disgust elicitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kasperbauer, Tyler Joshua

    2015-01-01

    This paper attempts to explain how and why nonhuman animals elicit disgust in human beings. I argue that animals elicit disgust in two ways. One is by triggering disease–protection mechanisms, and the other is by eliciting mortality salience, or thoughts of death. I discuss how these two types...... of disgust operate and defend their conceptual and theoretical coherence against common objections. I also outline an explanatory challenge for disgust researchers. Both types of disgust indicate that a wide variety of animals produce aversive and avoidant reactions in human beings. This seems somewhat odd......, given the prominence of animals in human lives. The challenge, then, is explaining how humans cope with the presence of animals. I propose, as a hypothesis for further exploration, that we cope with animals, and our disgust responses to them, by attributing mental states that mark them as inferior...

  16. The Right to Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varvara Coman

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we set ourselves to analyze a subject, which, due to its importance andextreme complexity, generated many discussions and controversies both at national and international level:the right to life. The great evolution of the contemporary society and the progress registered in various fieldsbrought into the attention of the states, international organizations, specialists in the field and public opinionthe pressing problem of interpreting the content and limits of the human fundamental rights and liberties. Weset ourselves to analyze the main international instruments regulating the right to life and to identify thesituations where determining the content of this fundamental right in necessary. Without the intent of acomplete work, we understand, throughout this study, to highline the great importance of the right to liferespecting for the entire humanity.

  17. Bioethics and "Rightness".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Arthur W

    2017-03-01

    If bioethics seeks to affect what people do and don't do as they respond to the practical issues that confront them, then it is useful to take seriously people's sense of rightness. Rightness emerges from the fabric of a life-including the economy of its geography, the events of its times, its popular culture-to be what the sociologist Pierre Bourdieu calls a predisposition. It is the product of a way of life and presupposes continuing to live that way. Rightness is local and communal, holding in relationship those who share the same predisposing sense of how to experience. Rightness is an embodied way of evaluating what is known to matter and choosing among possible responses. Bioethics spends considerable time on what people should do and on the arguments that support recommended actions. It might spend more time on what shapes people's sense of the rightness of what they feel called to do. © 2017 The Hastings Center.

  18. Autonomy and minority rights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barten, Ulrike

    2008-01-01

    in the cultural, educational, religious and social sectors which have of course are exercised in a limited territory; however, do not threaten the state's sovereignty in the same way as independent political decisions could do. How far minority rights have the same dimensions, will be another issue. Minorities......'? I will look at this in connection with minority rights, as minority rights accord special rights and procedures to a specific group. For example, minorities have sometimes far reaching competences in the educational field: setting up and running their own schools and to a certain degree also decide......, are they at odds with each other or do they possibly overlap? This last possibility would be that minority rights are so extensive that they actually amount to autonomy. Autonomy has a range of dimensions and one must distinguish between political autonomy which is largely territorial in nature and autonomy...

  19. Pursuing an understanding of animal consciousness: Implications for animal morality and a creaturely theology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornel W. du Toit

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The importance of animals in the evolutionary history of homo sapiens comes to the fore in light of an increasingly trans-human techno-scientific environment. New research on consciousness, and animal consciousness in particular, has prompted questions relating to animal rights, animal morality and the emergence of a creaturely theology and theological primatology. The possibility of understanding nonhuman animals is investigated with reference to notions like consciousness, thinking, awareness, language and communication, including the importance of emotion in communication. Special attention is given to the nature of animal communication as it came to the fore in bonobo and other chimpanzee research. Building on the notion of awareness and communication, the article focuses on the notion of animal morality and comments on some aspects of a creaturely theology.

  20. Grazing incidence beam expander

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akkapeddi, P.R.; Glenn, P.; Fuschetto, A.; Appert, Q.; Viswanathan, V.K.

    1985-01-01

    A Grazing Incidence Beam Expander (GIBE) telescope is being designed and fabricated to be used as an equivalent end mirror in a long laser resonator cavity. The design requirements for this GIBE flow down from a generic Free Electron Laser (FEL) resonator. The nature of the FEL gain volume (a thin, pencil-like, on-axis region) dictates that the output beam be very small. Such a thin beam with the high power levels characteristic of FELs would have to travel perhaps hundreds of meters or more before expanding enough to allow reflection from cooled mirrors. A GIBE, on the other hand, would allow placing these optics closer to the gain region and thus reduces the cavity lengths substantially. Results are presented relating to optical and mechanical design, alignment sensitivity analysis, radius of curvature analysis, laser cavity stability analysis of a linear stable concentric laser cavity with a GIBE. Fabrication details of the GIBE are also given.

  1. Critical incidents in a French department of paediatric anaesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupersztych-Hagege, Elisa; Duracher-Gout, Caroline; Ortego, Rocio; Carli, Pierre; Orliaguet, Gilles

    2017-04-01

    Several studies have highlighted the importance of critical incident (CI) reporting in order to enhance patient safety. We have implemented an anonymous procedure for CI reporting in our department of paediatric anaesthesia. This study aims at analysing those CIs so as to improve patient care and risk management. CIs were reported by the anaesthetic team using the World Health Organization classification and analysed using the ORION methodology. CIs were classified according to type, surgery and complications. Risk factors and consequences for patients and for the institution were analysed. Risk factors with high degree of harm for the patient were identified using a univariate analysis and odds ratios (OR). Over an 18-month period, 114 CIs were reported for 103 patients (median age: 7.0 years [95% CI: 3.6-9.8]). We found that 29.9% of reported CIs had consequences for the patients and 76.3% were considered preventable. The two main types of CI were "respiratory" (28.8%) and "drug-related" (22.8%) incidents. The main risk factor was 'human error' (42.3%). Several consequences for the patient and the hospital were identified. An ASA score≥3 (OR: 2.52; [95% CI: 1.10-5.78]) was an independent risk factor for a high degree of patient harm. Improving quality of care must be a priority for paediatric anaesthesiologists as most of the CIs observed are preventable and have consequences for the patient and the institution. Copyright © 2016 Société française d'anesthésie et de réanimation (Sfar). Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Animal Violence Demystified

    OpenAIRE

    Natarajan, Deepa; Caramaschi, Doretta

    2010-01-01

    Violence has been observed in humans and animals alike, indicating its evolutionary/ biological significance. However, violence in animals has often been confounded with functional forms of aggressive behavior. Currently, violence in animals is identified primarily as either a quantitative behavior (an escalated, pathological and abnormal form of aggression characterized primarily by short attack latencies, and prolonged and frequent harm-oriented conflict behaviors) or a qualitative one (cha...

  3. Our love for animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scruton, Roger

    2013-12-01

    Love does not necessarily benefit its object, and cost-free love may damage both object and subject. Our love of animals mobilises several distinct human concerns and should not be considered always as a virtue or always as a benefit to the animals themselves. We need to place this love in its full psychological, cultural, and moral context in order to assess what form it ought to take if animals are to benefit from it.

  4. Lightning safety of animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Chandima

    2012-11-01

    This paper addresses a concurrent multidisciplinary problem: animal safety against lightning hazards. In regions where lightning is prevalent, either seasonally or throughout the year, a considerable number of wild, captive and tame animals are injured due to lightning generated effects. The paper discusses all possible injury mechanisms, focusing mainly on animals with commercial value. A large number of cases from several countries have been analyzed. Economically and practically viable engineering solutions are proposed to address the issues related to the lightning threats discussed.

  5. God, Christ and Animals

    OpenAIRE

    Fergusson, David

    2014-01-01

    One of the most significant contributions to the field in recent times, David Clough's work On Animals: Volume 1, Systematic Theology, should ensure that theologies of creation, redemption, and eschatological fulfillment give proper attention to animals. In a landmark study, he draws upon resources in Scripture and tradition to present a systematic theology that is alert to the place of animals in the divine economy. Amidst his relentless criticism of all forms of anthropocentrism, however, i...

  6. ANIMALS IN RESOCIALIZATION

    OpenAIRE

    Czerw, Monika

    2017-01-01

    The benefits of relations between humans and animals have encouraged both scientists and members of other communities to popularize the knowledge in the field of animal-assisted therapy. Currently, animal-assisted therapy has been used not only in therapy, but also in resocialization. The increasing popularity of this form of supporting maladjusted people who are isolated from society or people with disabilities encouraged both practitioners and researchers to organize knowledge, thus reducin...

  7. Incidence rate of clinical bovine mastitis in selected smallholder ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted in Gondar town in six selected smallholder farms from. August 2005 to January 2006 for six months to measure incidence rate of clinical bovine mastitis. Monitoring was performed by animal attendants of each farm after training and supervision of the monitoring activities and collection of data.

  8. 1976 Hanford americium exposure incident: overview and perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, R.C.

    1982-01-01

    Salient features of the 1976 Hanford americium exposure incident are discussed. Comparisons are made with previous human and animal exposure data, and conclusions drawn relative to the injured workman, to health physics practices, and to the adequacy of current exposure limits

  9. 7 CFR 331.14 - Incident response. 6

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Incident response. 6 331.14 Section 331.14 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... other natural disasters; workplace violence; bomb threats and suspicious packages; and emergencies such...

  10. Incidence rate of clinical bovine mastitis in selected smallholder ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted in Gondar town in six selected smallholder farms from August 2005 to January 2006 for six months to measure incidence rate of clinical bovine mastitis. Monitoring was performed by animal attendants of each farm after training and supervision of the monitoring activities and collection of data was ...

  11. Animal MRI Core

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Animal Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Core develops and optimizes MRI methods for cardiovascular imaging of mice and rats. The Core provides imaging expertise,...

  12. 3D Animation Essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Beane, Andy

    2012-01-01

    The essential fundamentals of 3D animation for aspiring 3D artists 3D is everywhere--video games, movie and television special effects, mobile devices, etc. Many aspiring artists and animators have grown up with 3D and computers, and naturally gravitate to this field as their area of interest. Bringing a blend of studio and classroom experience to offer you thorough coverage of the 3D animation industry, this must-have book shows you what it takes to create compelling and realistic 3D imagery. Serves as the first step to understanding the language of 3D and computer graphics (CG)Covers 3D anim

  13. Ethical issues in animal experimentation--view of the animal rightist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsson, B

    1986-01-01

    The basic stand-point of the animal rightist is that other animals than man are living beings also capable of feeling pain and distress, pleasure and joy. The capacity for suffering we have in common with other animals. This is quite obvious from the biological point of view and, in point of fact, a prerequisite for a lot of animal experimentation, the results of which would be invalid if the likeness was false. There would be no need for ethics of any kind, if man was not sentient. However, since sentience is a characteristic of other animals as well as man, logically the ethics applied to mankind must be extended to encompass all animals. For the animal rightist it is apparent that not only man, but other animals, too, must be attributed an intrinsic value. Consequently, using animals in procedures to which they would not consent, if they were able to speak for themselves, and which are carried out solely because of the means of power man possesses and the other animals lack, and are used to exploit those who are less powerful, is not good ethics. It is the dirty reality of oppression, based on prejudice, which is of the same brand as racism or sexism, but was given its own name, symptomatically, only 15 years ago, namely speciesism. Power is the key to animal experimentation, on the industrial, university, legislative and individual level. There is a growing public concern about animals being used in experiments, which must be taken into account by animal experimenters, regulation authorities and politicians alike. The question of animal rights is a political issue with wide-reaching implications for man and other animals, if animal experiments were reduced, replaced or totally abolished. The great number of animal experiments do not benefit mankind, only various groups of people, who for different reasons have an interest in experiments on animals being carried out. Would there be a bigger benefit to society as a whole, including man, other animals and nature

  14. Deuteronomy and Human Rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Braulik

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available If one compares the articles of the "Universal Declaration of Human Rights" dated December 10th, 1948, with the regulations of the book of Deuteronomy, one detects a surprising abundance of correspondences, or at least of similar tendencies, between them. As the social theorists of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, the architects of the catalogue of Human Rights, knew the Scripture very well. References to Deuteronomy are historically well probable and factually hardly coincidental. Deuteronomy rightly boasts about its social laws (4:8 that are unique in the Ancient Near East. The paper orientates itself to the short formula of Human Rights and at the same time to the normative basic character of each human right, as it is formulated in the first article of the declaration: "liberty", "equality", "fraternity". Each of these basic categories are concretised in terms of several Deuteronomic regulations and prove themselves to be central matters of concern within the YHWH religion. Finally, it is outlined how the connection between Deuteronomy and modem expressions of human rights might be explained, and further it is shown what actually makes up the peculiarity of biblical thinking on human rights.

  15. Incidence and characteristics of chemical burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Dong-Hee; Lee, Sang-Gil; Kim, Hwan-Cheol

    2017-05-01

    Chemical burns can lead to serious health outcomes. Previous studies about chemical burns have been performed based on burn center data so these studies have provided limited information about the incidence of chemical burns at the national level. The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence and characteristics of chemical burns using nationwide databases. A cohort representing the Korean population, which was established using a national health insurance database, and a nationwide workers' compensation database were used to evaluate the incidence and characteristics of chemical burns. Characteristics of the affected body region, depth of burns, industry, task, and causative agents were analyzed from two databases. The incidence of chemical burns was calculated according to employment status. The most common regions involving chemical burns with hospital visits were the skin followed by the eyes. For skin lesions, the hands and wrists were the most commonly affected regions. Second degree burns were the most common in terms of depth of skin lesions. The hospital visit incidence was 1.96 per 10,000 person-year in the general population. The compensated chemical burns incidence was 0.17 per 10,000 person-year. Employees and the self-employed showed a significantly increased risk of chemical burns undergoing hospital visits compared to their dependents. Chemical burns on the skin and eyes are almost equally prevalent. The working environment was associated with increased risk of chemical burns. Our results may aid in estimating the size of the problem and prioritizing prevention of chemical burns. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  16. Gentrification and Occupancy Rights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huber, Jakob; Wolkenstein, Gregor Fabio

    2018-01-01

    What, if anything, is wrong with gentrification? This paper addresses this question from the perspective of normative political theory. We argue that gentrification is a wrong insofar as it involves a violation of city-dwellers occupancy rights. We distinguish these rights from other forms...... of territorial rights, and discuss the different implications of the argument for urban governance. If we agree on the ultimate importance of being able to pursue one’s located life-plans, the argument goes, we must also agree on limiting the impact on gentrification on people’s lives. Limiting gentrification...

  17. Colonial Voting Rights

    OpenAIRE

    Besselink, L.F.M.

    2008-01-01

    This case note discusses recent cases on voting rights for the European Parliament in Gibraltar and the Dutch Carribean countries, as well as the case of (lack of) voting rights for Carribean Dutch citizens for the national parliament in the European Court of Human Rights. It highlights the manner in which the ECJ and ECtHR are at odds on the same issue (but in different context), and how this context is determined by the way these courts wish to conceive of constitutional relations between E...

  18. The interaction of ethical questions and farm animal welfare science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandøe, Peter; Forkman, Björn; Jensen, Karsten Klint

    2012-01-01

    In the early days of farm animal welfare science it was often claimed that a sharp distinction should be drawn between, on one hand, the science-based study of animal welfare and, on the other hand, ethical investigation of what is right, and what is wrong, in our dealings with animals. However...

  19. Nearly Nice Right Triangles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Bob

    1989-01-01

    Relationships among the sides are developed for right triangles whose sides are in the ratios 1:3, 1:4, and 1:5. The golden ratio appears in the results which can be used in secondary mathematics. (DC)

  20. Right Whale Critical Habitat

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data represent the critical habitat for Right Whale as designated by Federal Register Vol. 59, No. 28805, May 19, 1993, Rules and Regulations.

  1. Extraterritorial Human Rights Obligations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amsinck Boie, Hans Nikolaj; Torp, Kristian

    The book addresses the issue of corporate respect for human rights by examining if and how states are obligated to ensure that corporations originating from their jurisdiction respect human rights when they operate abroad. The existence of such a duty is much debated by academics at national...... and international level, and in an attempt to bring something new to the table, the book examines both if states have extraterritorial obligations in regard to their corporations and what can be required of states under such an obligation. The complex issue of states and corporate respect for human rights cannot...... adequately be addressed without including the approach to the problem taken in practice; Corporate Social Responsibility, CSR. The book therefore draws upon the concept of CSR and the approaches developed here and discusses whether states may utilize the CSR-based concept of human rights due diligence...

  2. Data Rights and Responsibilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyndham, Jessica M.

    2015-01-01

    A human-rights-based analysis can be a useful tool for the scientific community and policy makers as they develop codes of conduct, harmonized standards, and national policies for data sharing. The human rights framework provides a shared set of values and norms across borders, defines rights and responsibilities of various actors involved in data sharing, addresses the potential harms as well as the benefits of data sharing, and offers a framework for balancing competing values. The right to enjoy the benefits of scientific progress and its applications offers a particularly helpful lens through which to view data as both a tool of scientific inquiry to which access is vital and as a product of science from which everyone should benefit. PMID:26297755

  3. Extraterritorial Human Rights Obligations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amsinck Boie, Hans Nikolaj; Torp, Kristian

    adequately be addressed without including the approach to the problem taken in practice; Corporate Social Responsibility, CSR. The book therefore draws upon the concept of CSR and the approaches developed here and discusses whether states may utilize the CSR-based concept of human rights due diligence...... and international level, and in an attempt to bring something new to the table, the book examines both if states have extraterritorial obligations in regard to their corporations and what can be required of states under such an obligation. The complex issue of states and corporate respect for human rights cannot......The book addresses the issue of corporate respect for human rights by examining if and how states are obligated to ensure that corporations originating from their jurisdiction respect human rights when they operate abroad. The existence of such a duty is much debated by academics at national...

  4. Urbanization and human rights

    OpenAIRE

    Mihr, A.

    2010-01-01

    Urban governance on the basis of human rights can help to set up problem solving mechanisms to guarantee social peace, economic growth and political participation.If states both integrate more in international or regional human rights regime and give more autonomy to urban governments and local authorities, many of these issues of urbanization can be solved. Where people organize themselves on local levels and in neighborhood initiatives, new forms of governance mechanisms evolve. These mecha...

  5. Archives: Animal Research International

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 40 of 40 ... Archives: Animal Research International. Journal Home > Archives: Animal Research International. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives. 1 - 40 of 40 ...

  6. Trends in animal experimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Rosangela; Brandau, Ricardo; Gomes, Walter J; Braile, Domingo M

    2009-01-01

    The search of the understanding of etiological factors, mechanisms and treatment of the diseases has been taking to the development of several animal models in the last decades. To discuss aspects related to animal models of experimentation, animal choice and current trends in this field in our country. In addition, this study evaluated the frequency of experimental articles in medical journals. Five Brazilian journals indexed by LILACS, SciELO, MEDLINE, and recently incorporate for Institute for Scientific Information Journal of Citation Reports were analyzed. All the papers published in those journals, between 2007 and 2008, that used animal models, were selected based on the abstracts. Of the total of 832 articles published in the period, 92 (11.1%) experimentation papers were selected. The number of experimental articles ranged from 5.2% to 17.9% of the global content of the journal. In the instructions to the authors, four (80%) journals presented explicit reference to the ethical principles in the conduction of studies with animals. The induced animal models represented 100% of the articles analyzed in this study. The rat was the most employed animal in the analyzed articles (78.3%). The present study can contribute, supplying subsidies for adoption of future editorials policies regarding the publication of animal research papers in Brazilian Journal of Cardiovascular Surgery.

  7. Inuit-Style Animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Rayma

    1999-01-01

    Presents an art activity where students create Inuit-style animals. Discusses the Inuit (Eskimo) artform in which the compositions utilize patterning and textures, such as small lines signifying fur. Explains that this project is well suited to a study of animals or to integrate with a social studies unit about Canada. (CMK)

  8. Animal damage management handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugh C. Black

    1994-01-01

    This handbook treats animal damage management (ADM) in the West in relation to forest, range, and recreation resources; predator management is not addressed. It provides a comprehensive reference of safe, effective, and practical methods for managing animal damage on National Forest System lands. Supporting information is included in references after each chapter and...

  9. Animal damage to birch

    Science.gov (United States)

    James S. Jordan; Francis M. Rushmore

    1969-01-01

    A relatively few animal species are responsible for most of the reported damage to the birches. White-tailed deer, yellow-bellied sapsuckers, porcupines, moose, and hares are the major animals involved. We will review reports of damage, discuss the underlying causes, and describe possible methods of control. For example, heavy deer browsing that eliminates birch...

  10. Control of pet animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, T F

    1976-06-26

    Pet animals play an important and valuable role in human society, but irresponsible ownership has created problems of surplus animals, threats to health, pollution, nuisance, cruelty and neglect. Urgent and drastic action is required to deal with the situation, and the measures proposed include the appointment of dog wardens, limitation of numbers, enclosure and leash laws, and subsidised spay clinics.

  11. Animating Preservice Teachers' Noticing

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Araujo, Zandra; Amador, Julie; Estapa, Anne; Weston, Tracy; Aming-Attai, Rachael; Kosko, Karl W.

    2015-01-01

    The incorporation of animation in mathematics teacher education courses is one method for transforming practices and promoting practice-based education. Animation can be used as an approximation of practice that engages preservice teachers (PSTs) in creating classroom scenes in which they select characters, regulate movement, and construct…

  12. Animal models of dementia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsson, I. Anna S.; Sandøe, Peter

    2011-01-01

    This chapter aims to encourage scientists and others interested in the use of animal models of disease – specifically, in the study of dementia – to engage in ethical reflection. It opens with a general discussion of the moral acceptability of animal use in research. Three ethical approaches are ...

  13. Animals in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Ken

    2011-01-01

    Use of animals in middle school science classrooms is a curriculum component worthy of consideration, providing proper investigation and planning are addressed. A responsible approach to this action, including safety, must be adopted for success. In this month's column, the author provides some suggestions on incorporating animals into the…

  14. Cocombustion of animal meal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roggen, M.

    2001-01-01

    The electricity production companies are prepared to co-fire animal meal in their coal-fired power stations. Tests conducted at the Maasvlakte power station, Netherlands, demonstrate that adding animal meal to the coal has no negative influence on human beings, the environment, the plant or the fly ash quality

  15. Animal models of dementia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsson, I. Anna S.; Sandøe, Peter

    2011-01-01

    This chapter aims to encourage scientists and others interested in the use of animal models of disease – specifically, in the study of dementia – to engage in ethical reflection. It opens with a general discussion of the moral acceptability of animal use in research. Three ethical approaches...

  16. Animal-free toxicology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Lisbeth E

    2013-01-01

    assessment, in accordance with the legislation on chemical, medicine and food safety. Toxicology studies based on human mechanistic and exposure information can replace animal studies. These animal-free approaches can be further supplemented by new in silico methods and chemical structure...

  17. Endangered Animals. Second Grade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popp, Marcia

    This second grade teaching unit centers on endangered animal species around the world. Questions addressed are: What is an endangered species? Why do animals become extinct? How do I feel about the problem? and What can I do? Students study the definition of endangered species and investigate whether it is a natural process. They explore topics…

  18. The Classroom Animal: Snails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, David S.

    1985-01-01

    Points out that snails are interesting and easily-managed classroom animals. One advantage of this animal is that it requires no special attention over weekends or holidays. Background information, anatomy, reproduction, and feeding are discussed, along with suggestions for housing aquatic and/or land snails. (DH)

  19. Animal ethics dilemma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dich, Trine; Hansen, Tina; Algers, Anne

    2006-01-01

    'Animal Ethics Dilemma' is a freely available computer-supported learning tool (www.animalethicsdilemma.net or www.aedilemma.net) which has been developed primarily for veterinary undergraduates but is applicable also to students in other fields of animal science. The objectives of the computer...... program are to promote students' understanding of the ethics related to animal use, to illustrate ethical dilemmas that arise in animal use, to broaden students' moral imagination, and to enable students to differentiate between types of ethical argument. The program comprises five case studies: (1......) the blind hens; (2) ANDi the genetically modified monkey; (3) euthanasia of a healthy dog; (4) animal slaughter; and (5) rehabilitation of seals. Special consideration has been given to enhancing the pedagogic value of the program. Students can control their learning by selecting a variety of ways...

  20. Animation-based Sketching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vistisen, Peter

    of contributions. In the produced work, I expand upon animation as a sketching approach to communicate, and explore interaction and user experience design concepts that are hard to grasp via traditional means of sketching. I propose that the sequential, temporal, material and narrative qualities of animation may...... experiments has been carried out, applying animation-based sketching in various contexts and at varying points in the design process. In the studies, I evaluate the viability of the approach, the practical integration into the design process, and map how consensus between stakeholders in design can...... be established through animation -based sketches. Thus, the scope of this project is practice-inclined, towards qualifying animation as an approach for design sketching in practice....

  1. Is animal experimentation fundamental?

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Acampora, Armando José; Rossi, Lucas Félix; Ely, Jorge Bins; de Vasconcellos, Zulmar Acciolli

    2009-01-01

    The understanding about the utilization of experimental animals in scientific research and in teaching is many times a complex issue. Special attention needs to be paid to attain the understanding by the general public of the importance of animal experimentation in experimental research and in undergraduate medical teaching. Experimental teaching and research based on the availability of animals for experimentation is important and necessary for the personal and scientific development of the physician-to-be. The technological arsenal which intends to mimic experimentation animals and thus fully replace their use many times does not prove to be compatible with the reality of the living animal. The purpose of this paper is to discuss aspects concerning this topic, bringing up an issue which is complex and likely to arouse in-depth reflections.

  2. Becoming Sheep, Becoming Animal..

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grum, Charlotte; Svabo, Connie

    -acting and becoming with the heath habitat, the other by-passing human and non-human animals, the changing weather and their fluctuating biological needs. She wanted to explore the discursive and material effects of a site specific human-nonhuman animal intra-action, to challenge the gendered and anthropocentric...... reading of a particular historical subject and to explore the messy constituents of the very categories of women and animals. In general she is occupied with how to animate and perform the intra-active entanglement of subjectivity and materiality.The “Becoming Sheep” project produced a variety of visual...... practice.Continuing explorations of how to undo authorship, activate multiple subject positions and animate the very resources through which we practice and continuously become, for this conference artist Charlotte Grum has invited Connie Svabo, Associate Professor in Performance-Design at Roskilde...

  3. Sketching with animation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vistisen, Peter

    This book offers a contribution to the theory, method and techniques involved in the use of animation as a tool for temporal design sketching. Lifted from its traditional role as a genre of entertainment and art and reframed in the design domain, animation offers support during the early phases...... of exploring and assessing the potential of new and emerging digital technologies. This approach is relatively new and has been touched upon by few academic contributions in the past. Thus, the aim of the text is not to promote a claim that sketching with animation is an inherently new phenomenon. Instead......, the aim is to present a range of analytical arguments and experimental results that indicate the need for a systematic approach to realising the potential of animation within design sketching. This will establish the foundation for what we label animation-based sketching....

  4. Telos and the Ethics of Animal Farming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harfeld, Jes Lynning

    2012-01-01

    The concept of animal welfare in confinement agriculture—and an ethical theory based upon this concept—necessitates an idea ofwhat kind of being it is that fares well and what ‘‘well’’ is for this being. This double-question is at the heart of understanding and adequately defining welfare...... as qualitatively embedded in the experiencing subject. The notion of telos derives (philosophically) from Aristotle and is a way of accounting for the good life of an animal from the unique speciesness of the animal in question. The first part of the article will address the contemporary philosophical and ethical...... analysis of animals based upon this Aristotelian idea (Rollin in Animal rights and human morality (1st ed. 1981). Prometheus Books, New York, 2006b). Telos is here employed to illustrate the dimensions of what matters in welfare assessment and ethical evaluation. The second half of the article addresses...

  5. Principles of animal extrapolation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calabrese, E.J.

    1991-01-01

    Animal Extrapolation presents a comprehensive examination of the scientific issues involved in extrapolating results of animal experiments to human response. This text attempts to present a comprehensive synthesis and analysis of the host of biomedical and toxicological studies of interspecies extrapolation. Calabrese's work presents not only the conceptual basis of interspecies extrapolation, but also illustrates how these principles may be better used in selection of animal experimentation models and in the interpretation of animal experimental results. The book's theme centers around four types of extrapolation: (1) from average animal model to the average human; (2) from small animals to large ones; (3) from high-risk animal to the high risk human; and (4) from high doses of exposure to lower, more realistic, doses. Calabrese attacks the issues of interspecies extrapolation by dealing individually with the factors which contribute to interspecies variability: differences in absorption, intestinal flora, tissue distribution, metabolism, repair mechanisms, and excretion. From this foundation, Calabrese then discusses the heterogeneticity of these same factors in the human population in an attempt to evaluate the representativeness of various animal models in light of interindividual variations. In addition to discussing the question of suitable animal models for specific high-risk groups and specific toxicological endpoints, the author also examines extrapolation questions related to the use of short-term tests to predict long-term human carcinogenicity and birth defects. The book is comprehensive in scope and specific in detail; for those environmental health professions seeking to understand the toxicological models which underlay health risk assessments, Animal Extrapolation is a valuable information source.

  6. Annual meeting keynote address: Animal agriculture and emerging social ethics for animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollin, B E

    2004-03-01

    Businesses and professions must stay in accord with social ethics, or risk losing their autonomy. A major social ethical issue that has emerged in the past three decades is the treatment of animals in various areas of human use. This point can be illustrated with numerous examples across all areas of animal use. These examples reflect society's moral concern having outgrown the traditional ethic of animal cruelty that began in biblical times and is encoded in the laws of all civilized societies. There are five major reasons for this new social concern, most importantly, the replacement of husbandry-based agriculture with industrial agriculture. This loss of husbandry to industry has threatened the traditional fair contract between humans and animals, and resulted in significant amounts of animal suffering arising on four different fronts. Because such suffering is not occasioned by cruelty, a new ethic for animals was required to express social concerns. Since ethics proceed from preexisting ethics rather than ex nihilo, society has looked to its ethic for humans, appropriately modified, to find moral categories applicable to animals. This concept of legally encoded rights for animals has emerged as a plausible vehicle for reform. The meaning of this ethical movement for animal agriculture is examined. Animal agriculture should explore ways to replace the animal husbandry lost to industrialization.

  7. RIGHTS, RULES, AND DEMOCRACY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard S. Kay, University of Connecticut-School of Law, Estados Unidos

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Democracy require protection of certain fundamental rights, but can we expect courts to follow rules? There seems little escape from the proposition that substantive constitutional review by an unelected judiciary is a presumptive abridgement of democratic decision-making. Once we have accepted the proposition that there exist human rights that ought to be protected, this should hardly surprise us. No one thinks courts are perfect translators of the rules invoked before them on every occasion. But it is equally clear that rules sometimes do decide cases. In modern legal systems the relative roles of courts and legislators with respect to the rules of the system is a commonplace. Legislatures make rules. Courts apply them in particular disputes. When we are talking about human rights, however, that assumption must be clarified in at least one way. The defense of the practice of constitutional review in this article assumes courts can and do enforce rules. This article also makes clear what is the meaning of “following rules”. Preference for judicial over legislative interpretation of rights, therefore, seems to hang on the question of whether or not judges are capable of subordinating their own judgment to that incorporated in the rules by their makers. This article maintains that, in general, entrenched constitutional rules (and not just constitutional courts can and do constrain public conduct and protect human rights. The article concludes that the value judgments will depend on our estimate of the benefits we derive from the process of representative self-government. Against those benefits we will have to measure the importance we place on being able to live our lives with the security created by a regime of human rights protected by the rule of law. Keywords: Democracy. Human Rights. Rules. Judicial Review.

  8. Animal Protection in the Lands of Pacha Mama: The Insufficiency of the Proposed Law Organic Animal Welfare in Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos Machado Júnior

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Considering that the Pacha Mama is subject of right in the Ecuadorian Constitution, this project analyzes the rights of animals in Ecuador according to its Civil Code and its proposal for the Animal Welfare Act. For comparison purposes the laws of other countries that recognize the sentience of animals are quoted. The conclusion is that despite the paradigm of the Andean constitutionalism, Equatorian animals are legally considered things, a reality that will not change if approved the Law of Animal Welfare. The deductive method is used with bibliographic research and analysis of foreign law.

  9. Risk factors for radiotherapy incidents: a single institutional experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishiyama, Hiromichi; Shuto, Nobuaki; Terazaki, Tsuyoshi; Noda, Shigetoshi; Ishigami, Minoru; Yogo, Katsunori; Hayakawa, Kazushige

    2018-01-30

    We aimed to analyze risk factors for incidents occurring during the practice of external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) at a single Japanese center. Treatment data for EBRT from June 2014 to March 2017 were collected. Data from incident reports submitted during this period were reviewed. Near-miss cases were not included. Risk factors for incidents, including patient characteristics and treatment-related factors, were explored using uni- and multivariate analyses. Factors contributing to each incident were also retrospectively categorized according to the recommendations of the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM). A total of 2887 patients were treated during the study period, and 26 incidents occurred (0.90% per patient). Previous history of radiotherapy and large fraction size were identified as risk factors for incidents by univariate analysis. Only previous history of radiotherapy was detected as a risk factor in multivariate analysis. Identified categories of contributing factors were human behavior (50.0%), communication (40.6%), and technical (9.4%). The incident rate of EBRT was 0.90% per patient in our institution. Previous history of radiotherapy and large fraction size were detected as risk factors for incidents. Human behavior and communication errors were identified as contributing factors for most incidents. Copyright © 2018 American Association of Medical Dosimetrists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Human rights and citizenship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojić-Mitrović Marta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The phenomenon of universal human rights, as described in the Universal declaration of human rights in 1948 doesn’t seem to be able to exert itself as truly universal. For this, there are two reasons: one is politico-legal in nature, and the other is conceptual. From a politico-legal point of view, human rights are a practice which is perceived as law, a precedent which is still taking place, the illusion of law, a custom practice by a few which aims to become the law of all, practice/”law” which came into being as the consequence of specific historical and political circumstances but strives to impose itself as a kind of universal logos, independent from the geopolitical relations of power. From the conceptual point of view, human rights as they have been determined, are inextricably bound up with the concept of citizenship, but the nation-state is not the universally optimal polis/social order, through which a universal human whose rights are to be protected can be defined. Human rights, as they are defined, are too culturally and historically specific in order to become universal. As an example, I will give the different treatment received by persons of different citizenship in situations in which their lives are in peril. It turns out that human rights are less (or not at all protected if the persons in need aren’t perceived as fullfledged members of the group, and hence, cannot fully participate in political life. That is to say, people who are perceived as non-citizens or whose citizenship is perceived as less valuable, and especially those whose existence has been reduced to survival are being politically dehumanized. Human rights remain reserved for so-called active citizens, those who have influence over matters of public importance, which points us to the conclusion that the practice of protecting human rights is completely politicized. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 177027: Multietnicitet, multikulturalnost

  11. Autonomy and minority rights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barten, Ulrike

    2008-01-01

    to a specific group. The question never posed is, if there is a point and in that case at what point the group can actually talk about being autonomous. Is there a minimum in the number of special rights and procedures that has to be reached in order for the package of rights to qualify as ‘granting autonomy......'? I will look at this in connection with minority rights, as minority rights accord special rights and procedures to a specific group. For example, minorities have sometimes far reaching competences in the educational field: setting up and running their own schools and to a certain degree also decide...... with kin-states face a two-way situation regarding autonomy. First there is the autonomy from the home-state - the state the minority exists in. Secondly, though, there is the question of autonomy from the kin-state: How autonomous is a minority when it is (partly) financed by the kin-state? The discussion...

  12. Scientists and Human Rights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makdisi, Yousef

    2012-02-01

    The American Physical Society has a long history of involvement in defense of human rights. The Committee on International Freedom of Scientists was formed in the mid seventies as a subcommittee within the Panel On Public Affairs ``to deal with matters of an international nature that endangers the abilities of scientists to function as scientists'' and by 1980 it was established as an independent committee. In this presentation I will describe some aspects of the early history and the impetus that led to such an advocacy, the methods employed then and how they evolved to the present CIFS responsibility ``for monitoring concerns regarding human rights for scientists throughout the world''. I will also describe the current approach and some sample cases the committee has pursued recently, the interaction with other human rights organizations, and touch upon some venues through which the community can engage to help in this noble cause.

  13. Right bundle branch block

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bussink, Barbara E; Holst, Anders Gaarsdal; Jespersen, Lasse

    2013-01-01

    AimsTo determine the prevalence, predictors of newly acquired, and the prognostic value of right bundle branch block (RBBB) and incomplete RBBB (IRBBB) on a resting 12-lead electrocardiogram in men and women from the general population.Methods and resultsWe followed 18 441 participants included.......5%/2.3% in women, P Right bundle branch block was associated with significantly...... increased all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in both genders with age-adjusted hazard ratios (HR) of 1.31 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.11-1.54] and 1.87 (95% CI, 1.48-2.36) in the gender pooled analysis with little attenuation after multiple adjustment. Right bundle branch block was associated...

  14. Rail passengers rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đurđev Dušanka J.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The legal framework of rail passengers rights is set out in a combination of international and European law: an international measure, the rather unwieldy Uniform Rules concerning the Contract for International Carriage of Passengers and Luggage by Rail, forming part of the Convention concerning International Carriage by Rail of 9 May 1980 (as amended by the Vilnius Protocol of 3 June 1999 ['CIV'], lays down a basic framework which is then fleshed out by more recent EU legislation, Regulation (EC No 1371/2007 on Rail Passengers ' Rights and Obligations. Regulation 1371/2007/EC on rail passenger rights and obligations sets out minimum quality standards that have to be guaranteed to all passengers on all lines. .

  15. Right upper quadrant pain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ralls, P.W.; Colletti, P.M.; Boswell, W.D. Jr.; Halls, J.M.

    1984-01-01

    Historically, assessment of acute right upper quadrant abdominal pain has been a considerable clinical challenge. While clinical findings and laboratory data frequently narrow the differential diagnosis, symptom overlap generally precludes definitive diagnosis among the various diseases causing acute right upper quadrant pain. Fortunately, the advent of newer diagnostic imaging modalities has greatly improved the rapidity and reliability of diagnosis in these patients. An additional challenge to the physician, with increased awareness of the importance of cost effectiveness in medicine, is to select appropriate diagnostic schema that rapidly establish accurate diagnoses in the most economical fashion possible. The dual goals of this discussion are to assess not only the accuracy of techniques used to evaluate patients with acute right upper quadrant pain, but also to seek out cost-effective, coordinated imaging techniques to achieve this goal

  16. Progress Toward Replacing Animals in Toxicity Testing for Cosmetics

    OpenAIRE

    Nye, Marisa B.

    2006-01-01

    In the 1980’s, animal rights activists successfully motivated the cosmetic industry to begin researching alternatives to animal tests. The European Union has taken action to stimulate development and validation of alternatives to animal testing through the Sixth and Seventh Amendments to the Cosmetics Directive. In this paper, I will briefly describe the history of the search for alternatives to animal testing for cosmetics. I will then discuss the progress that has been ma...

  17. Testing Cosmetics on Animals: An Idea Who's Time Has Gone

    OpenAIRE

    Lewis, Noah

    2005-01-01

    Despite tremendous progress in reducing animal testing in the assessment the safety of cosmetic products, it persists and there is no definitive end in sight. The reasons for this are not entirely clear because the major constituents, consumers, animal rights activists, and the corporations engaged in the testing all seem to want it to end. While the government still requires animal testing for drugs and other consumer products, there is no explicit requirement for the animal testing of cosme...

  18. The Community of Rights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgård, Jonas Ross

    2012-01-01

    The article presents the argument that in order to have human rights in the years of the French Revolution it was necessary to be and act in accordance with an ambiguous concept of the natural. While the idea of the natural or of human nature could be an inclusive and universal one, it could also...... be used in a particularistic and excluding way which was the case in the legislation of Maximilien de Robespierre’s Terror Regime. Situated somewhere between inclusion in and exclusion from the community of rights, the playwright and political activist Olympe de Gouges sought to propagate an understanding...

  19. Protection of personality rights

    OpenAIRE

    Strejcová, Klára

    2016-01-01

    The thesis deals with the legal regulation of protection of personality rights. According to the certain changes in personality protection legal regulation caused by recent adoption of new Civil Code, Law no. 89/2012 Coll., the topic appears to be up to date. The aim of this thesis is to bring current legal regulation of this issue in its general terms. The thesis is divided into eight chapters. The first chapter explains basic terms such as personality and general right of personality. Secon...

  20. Finding the right balance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Toke Haunstrup

    2011-01-01

    and their considerations about the possibility of moving together with a partner (again). The interviews suggest a widespread ambiguity among solo-livers as they emphasize the positive qualities of living alone at the same time as they express a hope of meeting “the right one” to move together with and share their life...... of individual independence while at the same time sharing the daily life with their partner. In order to secure the “right balance”, they consider different “strategies” such as having “one’s own room” in the shared dwelling or living-apart-together as a permanent solution....

  1. Choosing the right technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milan, Christian; Nielsen, Mads Pagh; Bojesen, Carsten

    2014-01-01

    . These systems not only require an optimal design with respect to the installed capacities but also the right choice in combining the available technologies assuring a cost-effective solution. e aim of this paper is to present an optimization methodology for residential on-site energy supply systems based...... on mixed integer linear programming. The methodology chooses the right combination of technologies and sizes the components based on on-site weather data and expected consumption profiles. Through this approach the fluctuations of RES as well as the user behavior are taken into account already during...

  2. A right to strike?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, K; Western, G

    1997-07-01

    During 1995, there was a major shift in the United Kingdom in the debate of whether it is right for nurses to strike. The Royal College of Nursing, the former advocate of a non-industrial action policy, moved towards the UNISON position that industrial action is ethical in some circumstances, as well as the necessary thing to do. The authors, both nurses and UNISON officials, look at the reasons for this change and why UNISON's historical position sees industrial action as an effective weapon in defending services, as well as wages and jobs. It can be right to strike.

  3. Business and Human Rights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhmann, Karin

    This article analyses the United Nations (UN) Guidelines on Business and Human Rights adopted in 2011 by the UN Human Rights Council from the perspective of Transnational Business Governance Interactions (TBGI) analytical framework (Eberlein et al. 2014). The article identifies and discusses...... that the UN Guiding Principles are unique in several respects of relevance to transnational business governance interaction and indicate the relevance of the TBGI approach to public regulatory transnational business governance initiatives. The analysis of the Guiding Principles as interactional transnational...... business governance suggests that this form of governance offers prospects for public institutions as a means towards regulating global sustainability concerns....

  4. Grazing Incidence Optics Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Brian; Smith, W. Scott; Gubarev, Mikhail; McCracken, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    This project is to demonstrate the capability to directly fabricate lightweight, high-resolution, grazing-incidence x-ray optics using a commercially available robotic polishing machine. Typical x-ray optics production at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) uses a replication process in which metal mirrors are electroformed on to figured and polished mandrels from which they are later removed. The attraction of this process is that multiple copies can be made from a single master. The drawback is that the replication process limits the angular resolution that can be attained. By directly fabricating each shell, errors inherent in the replication process are removed. The principal challenge now becomes how to support the mirror shell during all aspects of fabrication, including the necessary metrology to converge on the required mirror performance specifications. This program makes use of a Zeeko seven-axis computer-controlled polishing machine (see fig. 1) and supporting fabrication, metrology, and test equipment at MSFC. The overall development plan calls for proof-of-concept demonstration with relatively thick mirror shells (5-6 mm, fig. 2) which are straightforward to support and then a transition to much thinner shells (2-3 mm), which are an order of magnitude thinner than those used for Chandra. Both glass and metal substrates are being investigated. Currently, a thick glass shell is being figured. This has enabled experience to be gained with programming and operating the polishing machine without worrying about shell distortions or breakage. It has also allowed time for more complex support mechanisms for figuring/ polishing and metrology to be designed for the more challenging thinner shells. These are now in fabrication. Figure 1: Zeeko polishing machine.

  5. Goiania incident case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petterson, J.S.

    1988-06-01

    The reasons for wanting to document this case study and present the findings are simple. According to USDOE technical risk assessments (and our own initial work on the Hanford socioeconomic study), the likelihood of a major accident involving exposure to radioactive materials in the process of site characterization, construction, operation, and closure of a high-level waste repository is extremely remote. Most would agree, however, that there is a relatively high probability that a minor accident involving radiological contamination will occur sometime during the lifetime of the repository -- for example, during transport, at an MRS site or at the permanent site itself during repacking and deposition. Thus, one of the major concerns of the Yucca Mountain Socioeconomic Study is the potential impact of a relatively minor radiation-related accident. A large number of potential impact of a relatively minor radiation-related accident. A large number of potential accident scenarios have been under consideration (such as a transportation or other surface accident which results in a significant decline in tourism, the number of conventions, or the selection of Nevada as a retirement residence). The results of the work in Goiania make it clear, however, that such a significant shift in established social patterns and trends is not likely to occur as a direct outcome of a single nuclear-related accident (even, perhaps, a relatively major one), but rather, are likely to occur as a result of the enduring social interpretations of such an accident -- that is, as a result of the process of understanding, communicating, and socially sustaining a particular set of associations with respect to the initial incident

  6. Computer facial animation

    CERN Document Server

    Parke, Frederic I

    2008-01-01

    This comprehensive work provides the fundamentals of computer facial animation and brings into sharper focus techniques that are becoming mainstream in the industry. Over the past decade, since the publication of the first edition, there have been significant developments by academic research groups and in the film and games industries leading to the development of morphable face models, performance driven animation, as well as increasingly detailed lip-synchronization and hair modeling techniques. These topics are described in the context of existing facial animation principles. The second ed

  7. Environmentally friendly animal litter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chett, Boxley; McKelvie, Jessica

    2013-08-20

    A method of making an animal litter that includes geopolymerized ash, wherein, the animal litter is made from a quantity of a pozzolanic ash mixed with a sufficient quantity of water and an alkaline activator to initiate a geopolymerization reaction that forms geopolymerized ash. After the geopolymerized ash is formed, it is dried, broken into particulates, and sieved to a desired size. These geopolymerized ash particulates are used to make a non-clumping or clumping animal litter. Odor control may be accomplished with the addition of a urease inhibitor, pH buffer, an odor eliminating agent, and/or fragrance.

  8. Windows on animal minds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, D R

    1995-06-01

    The simple kinds of conscious thinking that probably occur in nonhuman animals can be studied objectively by utilizing the same basic procedure that we use every day to infer what our human companions think and feel. This is to base such inferences on communicative behavior, broadly defined to include human language, nonverbal communication, and semantic communication in apes, dolphins, parrots, and honeybees. It seems likely that animals often experience something similar to the messages they communicate. Although this figurative window on other minds is obviously imperfect, it is already contributing significantly to our growing understanding and appreciation of animal mentality.

  9. Characteristics and tolerances of the pocket mouse and incidence of disease. [CNS lesions during space flights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindberg, R. G.; Kraft, L. M.; Simmonds, R. C.; Bailey, O. T.; Dunlap, W. A.; Haymaker, W.

    1975-01-01

    Studies carried out on the pocket mouse colony on Apollo XVII are reported. They revealed no serological evidence of viral disease, no pathogenic enterobacteria or respiratory Mycoplasma on culture, a 25% incidence of sarcosporidiosis, and a 2% incidence of chronic meningitis or meningoencephalitis. It is concluded that the pocket mouse is a highly adaptive animal and very well-suited to space flight.

  10. At Right Angles

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 17; Issue 9. At Right Angles. Shailesh A Shirali. Information and Announcements Volume 17 Issue 9 September 2012 pp 920-920. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/017/09/0920-0920 ...

  11. Access Rights Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. M. Pestunova

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The main aspects of the development of the information system, which grants users the rights for access to automated information system resources on the basis of the organization business-processes, are considered. The conceptual, informational, functional models of the system, as well as a model, which allows to realize control while using various formal models (RBAC, DAC, MAC, are described.

  12. The Consumer Rights Directive

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luzak, J.A.; Mak, V.; Hartkamp, A.S.; Sieburgh, C.H.; Keus, L.A.D.; Kortmann, J.S.; Wissink, M.H.

    2014-01-01

    This contribution discusses the impact of the CRD on Dutch private law. How will the new directive influence consumer rights and how does this fit with existing law? Considering the background of the directive and its importance for European consumer law, however, we discuss these questions in the

  13. At Right Angles

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 17; Issue 9. At Right Angles. Shailesh A Shirali. Information and Announcements Volume 17 Issue 9 September 2012 pp 920-920. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/017/09/0920-0920 ...

  14. Adjudicating socioeconomic rights

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Christo Heunis

    It is trite to say that the adjudication of socio-economic rights is a new enterprise in South African jurisprudence, as it is to the jurisprudence of many other jurisdictions. Professor van Rensburg's paper seeks to analyse the influence of political, socio-economic and cultural considerations on the interpretation and application ...

  15. Intellectual Property Rights Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alkærsig, Lars; Beukel, Karin; Reichstein, Toke

    Intellectual Property Rights Management explores how the entire toolbox of intellectual property (IP) protection and management are successfully combined and how firms generate value from IP. In particular, this book provides a framework of archetypes which firms will be able to self...

  16. Intellectual property rights management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alkærsig, Lars; Beukel, Karin; Reichstein, Toke

    Intellectual Property Rights Management explores how the entire toolbox of intellectual property (IP) protection and management are successfully combined and how firms generate value from IP. In particular, this book provides a framework of archetypes which firms will be able to self...

  17. Digital Rights Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koster, P.; Jonker, Willem; Blanken, Henk; de Vries, A.P.; Blok, H.E.; Feng, L.

    2007-01-01

    Digital Rights Management, or DRM for short, is a much-discussed topic nowadays. The main reason for this is that DRM technology is often mentioned in the context of protection of digital audio and video content, for example to avoid large scale copying of CDs and DVDs via peer-to-peer networks in

  18. [Tuberculosis and human rights].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, Hideaki; Inagaki, Tomokazu; Toyoda, Emiko; Kawabe, Yoshiko; Fujiwara, Keiko; Masuyama, Hidenori; Takahashi, Shigeru

    2005-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) patients must be hospitalized while the smear of sputum is positive because TB spreads through air. Cooperation of a patient is important in order to complete the treatment of TB. However, a small number of patients are noncooperative for the treatment and may sometimes refuse it. At this symposium, we discussed about whether we could restrict the human rights of noncooperative TB patients. Although the patients' human rights must be protected, we also have to protect the human rights of people who may receive TB infection. The balance of the both people's rights is fully considered in the TB control policy. It is epoch-making that the TB society took up the theme about the human rights' restriction of TB patients. Five speakers presented their papers from each position. There were presentations about the scientific evidence of isolation, the actual cases, the situation of the United States, and the legal view on the human rights' restriction of TB patients. The present situation and the legal problems in Japan became clear at this symposium. We need further discussion about the human rights' restriction of TB patients for the revision of the Tuberculosis Protection Act and have to obtain the national consensus on it. 1. The evidence for isolation: Emiko TOYODA (International Medical Center of Japan) To determine appropriate periods of respiratory isolation, available biological, clinical, and epidemiological issues and data were studied. Although absolute lack of infectiousness requires consecutive culture negative and it takes too long and impractical periods. There seems to be no established evidence for noncontagiousness after 2 to 3 weeks effective treatment. Practically conversion to 3 negative consecutive smear results may used as a surrogate for noninfectiousness, even though a small risk of transmission still be present. Chemical isolation has been more important and administration with DOT should be indicated to keep compliance. 2

  19. Tackling Human Rights

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLester, Susan

    2005-01-01

    In 2003, four high school students from the Tashkent International School in the capital city confronted the issue of their nation's human rights problems head on by researching the topic and publishing their findings on the Web. The site, "Uzbekistan: Opaque Reality," was created as an entry for the non-profit Global SchoolNet's Doors…

  20. Physics for Animation Artists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, David; Garcia, Alejandro L.

    2011-11-01

    Animation has become enormously popular in feature films, television, and video games. Art departments and film schools at universities as well as animation programs at high schools have expanded in recent years to meet the growing demands for animation artists. Professional animators identify the technological facet as the most rapidly advancing (and now indispensable) component of their industry. Art students are keenly aware of these trends and understand that their future careers require them to have a broader exposure to science than in the past. Unfortunately, at present there is little overlap between art and science in the typical high school or college curriculum. This article describes our experience in bridging this gap at San Jose State University, with the hope that readers will find ideas that can be used in their own schools.

  1. Animal transportation networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perna, Andrea; Latty, Tanya

    2014-01-01

    Many group-living animals construct transportation networks of trails, galleries and burrows by modifying the environment to facilitate faster, safer or more efficient movement. Animal transportation networks can have direct influences on the fitness of individuals, whereas the shape and structure of transportation networks can influence community dynamics by facilitating contacts between different individuals and species. In this review, we discuss three key areas in the study of animal transportation networks: the topological properties of networks, network morphogenesis and growth, and the behaviour of network users. We present a brief primer on elements of network theory, and then discuss the different ways in which animal groups deal with the fundamental trade-off between the competing network properties of travel efficiency, robustness and infrastructure cost. We consider how the behaviour of network users can impact network efficiency, and call for studies that integrate both network topology and user behaviour. We finish with a prospectus for future research. PMID:25165598

  2. Understanding philosophical animal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popović Una

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, inspired by the Predrag Krstić's book Philosophical Animal author is trying to find hers way through a broad and complex web of philosophies and roles that different animals play in them. The main question is how to understand philosophy itself in a present day context, which philosophy is supposed to think and rethink through. Animals as presented in concepts, more precisely philosophical contexts, open one interesting and innovative way to deal with this question, balancing between tradition of philosophy and its presence, structure of philosophical arguments and questioning of language of philosophy, abstract and individual. In this frame philosopher as the true philosophical animal is revealed as the main symbol that requires analysis in his philosophical strategies.

  3. Animal Telemetry Network (ATN)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data (updated daily) are from the Animal Telemetry Network (ATN) program. Begun as one of the field projects in the international Census of Marine Life, the...

  4. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Medicine (CVM) produced a nine-minute animation explaining how antimicrobial resistance both emerges and proliferates among bacteria. ... concept more understandable to non-scientists by showing how bacterial antimicrobial resistance can develop and spread. All ...

  5. Animal Product Safety Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Minimization Action Plans (RiskMAPs) for Approved Products Steroid Hormone Implants Used for Growth in Food-Producing Animals Veterinary Medication Errors Veterinary Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs ( ...

  6. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... complex. This video was designed to make the concept of antimicrobial resistance more real and understandable to ... audiences. We hope this animation will make the concept more understandable to non-scientists by showing how ...

  7. [Alternatives to animal testing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabre, Isabelle

    2009-11-01

    The use of alternative methods to animal testing are an integral part of the 3Rs concept (refine, reduce, replace) defined by Russel & Burch in 1959. These approaches include in silico methods (databases and computer models), in vitro physicochemical analysis, biological methods using bacteria or isolated cells, reconstructed enzyme systems, and reconstructed tissues. Emerging "omic" methods used in integrated approaches further help to reduce animal use, while stem cells offer promising approaches to toxicologic and pathophysiologic studies, along with organotypic cultures and bio-artificial organs. Only a few alternative methods can so far be used in stand-alone tests as substitutes for animal testing. The best way to use these methods is to integrate them in tiered testing strategies (ITS), in which animals are only used as a last resort.

  8. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) Center for Veterinary Medicine (CVM) produced a nine-minute animation explaining how ... efforts are underway in both veterinary and human medicine to preserve the effectiveness of these drugs. One ...

  9. A right to reproduce?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emson, H E

    1992-10-31

    Conscious control of the environment by homo sapiens has brought almost total release from the controls of ecology that limit the population of all other species. After a mere 10,000 years, humans have brought the planet close to collapse, and all the debate in the world seems unlikely to save it. A combination of uncontrolled breeding and rapacity is propelling us down the slippery slope 1st envisioned by Malthus, dragging the rest of the planet along. Only the conscious control, and most likely voluntary, reimposition of controls on breeding will reduce the overgrowth of humans, and we have far to go in that direction. "According to the United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948, articles 16[I] and 16 [III]), Men and women of full age without any limitation due to race, nationality or religion have the right to marry and to found a family ... the family is the natural and fundamental group unit of society." The rhetoric of rights without the balancing of responsibilities is wrong in health care, and even more wrong in the context of world population. The mind-set of dominance and exploitation over the rest of creation has meant human reluctance to admit participation in a system where every part is interdependent. We must balance the right to reproduce with it responsible use, valuing interdependence, understanding, and respect with a duty not to unbalance, damage, or destroy. It is long overdue that we discard every statement of right that is unmatched by the equivalent duty and responsibility.

  10. Companion Animals as a Source of Viruses for Human Beings and Food Production Animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reperant, L A; Brown, I H; Haenen, O L; de Jong, M D; Osterhaus, A D M E; Papa, A; Rimstad, E; Valarcher, J-F; Kuiken, T

    2016-07-01

    basis for more in-depth analysis of the risk of companion animals as sources of viruses for human and food production animal health. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Real time freeway incident detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    The US Department of Transportation (US-DOT) estimates that over half of all congestion : events are caused by highway incidents rather than by rush-hour traffic in big cities. Real-time : incident detection on freeways is an important part of any mo...

  12. Enzymes in animal nutrition

    OpenAIRE

    Scientific Committee on Animal Nutrition

    2011-01-01

    This report brings overview of endogenous as well as exogenous enzymes and their role and importance in animal nutrition. Enzymes for animal nutrition have been systematically developed since 1980´s. Phytase, xylanase and β-glucanase are used in poultry-rising, pig breeding, aquaculture and begin to push to the ruminant nutrition. Phytase increase availability of P, Ca, Zn, digestibility of proteins and fats. Its positive effect on the environment is well described – enzymes decrease the cont...

  13. Trade, Environment & Animal Welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morrison, Peter; Nielsen, Laura

    2013-01-01

    Regulation of animal welfare and the environment under the WTO GATT and GATS Agreements - including introduction of the innovative idea of limiting consumption abroad (mode 2) for e.g. bull fights.......Regulation of animal welfare and the environment under the WTO GATT and GATS Agreements - including introduction of the innovative idea of limiting consumption abroad (mode 2) for e.g. bull fights....

  14. Animal and human influenzas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peiris, M; Yen, H-L

    2014-08-01

    Influenza type A viruses affect humans and other animals and cause significant morbidity, mortality and economic impact. Influenza A viruses are well adapted to cross species barriers and evade host immunity. Viruses that cause no clinical signs in wild aquatic birds may adapt in domestic poultry to become highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses which decimate poultry flocks. Viruses that cause asymptomatic infection in poultry (e.g. the recently emerged A/H7N9 virus) may cause severe zoonotic disease and pose a major pandemic threat. Pandemic influenza arises at unpredictable intervals from animal viruses and, in its global spread, outpaces current technologies for making vaccines against such novel viruses. Confronting the threat of influenza in humans and other animals is an excellent example of a task that requires a One Health approach. Changes in travel, trade in livestock and pets, changes in animal husbandry practices, wet markets and complex marketing chains all contribute to an increased risk of the emergence of novel influenza viruses with the ability to cross species barriers, leading to epizootics or pandemics. Coordinated surveillance at the animal- human interface for pandemic preparedness, risk assessment, risk reduction and prevention at source requires coordinated action among practitioners in human and animal health and the environmental sciences. Implementation of One Health in the field can be challenging because of divergent short-term objectives. Successful implementation requires effort, mutual trust, respect and understanding to ensure that long-term goals are achieved without adverse impacts on agricultural production and food security.

  15. Modelling Farm Animal Welfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Lisa M.; Part, Chérie E.

    2013-01-01

    Simple Summary In this review paper we discuss the different modeling techniques that have been used in animal welfare research to date. We look at what questions they have been used to answer, the advantages and pitfalls of the methods, and how future research can best use these approaches to answer some of the most important upcoming questions in farm animal welfare. Abstract The use of models in the life sciences has greatly expanded in scope and advanced in technique in recent decades. However, the range, type and complexity of models used in farm animal welfare is comparatively poor, despite the great scope for use of modeling in this field of research. In this paper, we review the different modeling approaches used in farm animal welfare science to date, discussing the types of questions they have been used to answer, the merits and problems associated with the method, and possible future applications of each technique. We find that the most frequently published types of model used in farm animal welfare are conceptual and assessment models; two types of model that are frequently (though not exclusively) based on expert opinion. Simulation, optimization, scenario, and systems modeling approaches are rarer in animal welfare, despite being commonly used in other related fields. Finally, common issues such as a lack of quantitative data to parameterize models, and model selection and validation are discussed throughout the review, with possible solutions and alternative approaches suggested. PMID:26487411

  16. Coronary Artery Anomalies in Animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scansen, Brian A

    2017-04-12

    Coronary artery anomalies represent a disease spectrum from incidental to life-threatening. Anomalies of coronary artery origin and course are well-recognized in human medicine, but have received limited attention in veterinary medicine. Coronary artery anomalies are best described in the dog, hamster, and cow though reports also exist in the horse and pig. The most well-known anomaly in veterinary medicine is anomalous coronary artery origin with a prepulmonary course in dogs, which limits treatment of pulmonary valve stenosis. A categorization scheme for coronary artery anomalies in animals is suggested, dividing these anomalies into those of major or minor clinical significance. A review of coronary artery development, anatomy, and reported anomalies in domesticated species is provided and four novel canine examples of anomalous coronary artery origin are described: an English bulldog with single left coronary ostium and a retroaortic right coronary artery; an English bulldog with single right coronary ostium and transseptal left coronary artery; an English bulldog with single right coronary ostium and absent left coronary artery with a prepulmonary paraconal interventricular branch and an interarterial circumflex branch; and a mixed-breed dog with tetralogy of Fallot and anomalous origin of all coronary branches from the brachiocephalic trunk. Coronary arterial fistulae are also described including a coronary cameral fistula in a llama cria and an English bulldog with coronary artery aneurysm and anomalous shunting vessels from the right coronary artery to the pulmonary trunk. These examples are provided with the intent to raise awareness and improve understanding of such defects.

  17. Does size matter? Animal units and animal unit months

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamar Smith; Joe Hicks; Scott Lusk; Mike Hemmovich; Shane Green; Sarah McCord; Mike Pellant; John Mitchell; Judith Dyess; Jim Sprinkle; Amanda Gearhart; Sherm Karl; Mike Hannemann; Ken Spaeth; Jason Karl; Matt Reeves; Dave Pyke; Jordan Spaak; Andrew Brischke; Del Despain; Matt Phillippi; Dave Weixelmann; Alan Bass; Jessie Page; Lori Metz; David Toledo; Emily Kachergis

    2017-01-01

    The concepts of animal units, animal unit months, and animal unit equivalents have long been used as standards for range management planning, estimating stocking rates, reporting actual use, assessing grazing fees, ranch appraisal, and other purposes. Increasing size of cattle on rangelands has led some to suggest that the definition of animal units and animal unit...

  18. Solar cell angle of incidence corrections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Dale R.; Mueller, Robert L.

    1995-01-01

    from normal which prevented any firm conclusions about extreme angle effects although a trend in the right direction was seen. Measurement errors were estimated and found to be consistent with the conclusions that were drawn. A controlled experiment using coverglasses and cells from the same lots and extending to larger incidence angles would probably lead to further insight into the subject area.

  19. Continued implication of the banned pesticides carbofuran and aldicarb in the poisoning of domestic and wild animals of the Canary Islands (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Suárez, Norberto; Boada, Luis D; Henríquez-Hernández, Luis A; González-Moreo, Federico; Suárez-Pérez, Alejandro; Camacho, María; Zumbado, Manuel; Almeida-González, Maira; Del Mar Travieso-Aja, María; Luzardo, Octavio P

    2015-02-01

    Although nowadays the intentional poisoning of domestic and wild animals is a crime in EU, in the past the poison was used in rural areas of a number of European countries to kill animals that were considered harmful for human activities. In Spain evidences indicate that intentional poisonings continue to occur throughout the entire country nowadays. This situation seems to be of particular concern in the Canary Islands (Spain), where this study was performed. Our results confirmed that 225 animals were poisoned by pesticides over the study period (32 months; 2010-2013). The intentionality of the poisoning was confirmed in 117 cases. It has to be highlighted that the other 108 animals also died by pesticide poisoning, although the intentionality was only suspected. This incidence is currently the highest reported in any region from European Union. The pesticides carbofuran, bromadiolone, brodifacoum and aldicarb were the most frequently detected involved. Among the affected species, it has to be highlighted that endangered species are frequently affected in poisoning incidents. Notably, chemicals banned in the EU (carbofuran and aldicarb) were identified in approximately 75% of cases, and in almost 100% of baits, which suggests that these pesticides are still available to the population. Several circumstances may explain these results. Firstly, little control over the sale and possession of pesticide products, and the potential existence of an illegal market of pesticides banned in the European Union in the neighbouring African continent. In addition, the limited awareness of the population about the dangerousness of these compounds, for the environment, animals, or even people, make the situation very worrying in these islands. Stronger regulations, control of legal and illegal pesticide use, development of educational programs and legal action in poisoning incidents are needed to decrease the impact of pesticide misuse on wildlife and domestic animals. Copyright

  20. Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soni, Roopali; Oade, Yvette

    2011-08-24

    Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC) is a rare inherited disease of the heart muscle that causes ventricular tachyarrhythmias and sudden death in young people and athletes. It results in fibrofatty replacement of the right ventricle, and the subepicardial region of the left ventricle. It is the most common cause of sudden cardiac death in young people after hypertrophic heart disease. Diagnosis can be difficult and at present there is no cure for ARVC. Prevention of sudden death is the most important management strategy. Paediatricians need to be aware of the possibility of ARVC in adolescents and young adults presenting with palpitations, fatigue, syncope or cardiac arrest. The authors present two cases of apparently healthy teenage boys who died suddenly and unexpectedly. Postmortem examination of the myocardium was strongly suggestive of ARVC in both cases.

  1. Rights to Language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Phillipson, Robert

    language and power issues. Drawn from all parts of the world, the contributors are active in a range of scientific and professional areas including bilingual education; sociolinguistics; the sociology of education, law and language; economics and language; linguistics; sign language; racism; communication......; discourse analysis; language policy; minority issues; and language pedagogy. The book situates issues of minorities and bilingual education in broader perspectives of human rights, power and the ecology of language. It aims at a distillation of themes that are central to an understanding of language rights...... topics can cross-fertilize each other, and that our understanding of the issues can benefit from coverage that is global, reflective and committed. A website with additional resource material to this book can be found at http://babel.ruc.dk/-robert/. Brings together scholarship in language, education...

  2. Arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vignolo Puglia, W.; Freire Colla, D.; Rivara Urrutia, D.; Lujambio Grene, M.; Arbiza Bruno, T.; Oliveira, G.; Cobas Rodriguez, J.

    1997-01-01

    The arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia is a condition predominantly well defined with arrhythmic events. We analyze three cases diagnosed by the group. These cases were presented as ventricular tachycardia with a morphology of left bundle branch block, presenting one of them aborted sudden death in evolution. The baseline electrocardiogram and signal averaging were abnormal in two of the three cases, like the echocardiogram. The electrophysiological study was able to induce in the three patients with sustained monomorphic ventricular tachycardia morphology of left bundle branch block. The definitive diagnosis was made by right ventriculography in two cases and magnetic resonance imaging in the other. Treatment included antiarrhythmic drugs in the three cases and the placement of an automatic defibrillator which survived a sudden death (Author)

  3. Territory, Rights and Mobility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Chenchen

    2014-01-01

    The overarching objective of this dissertation is to conceptualise the spatiality of citizenship through an exposure to its various others – especially to mobile subjectivity. In particular, it examines the changing patterns of territorialising space, distributing rights and regulating mobility...... the governing structure and the acts of the governed that rupture, resist or appropriate it. In this framework, the thesis first of all looks at the spatial configurations of national citizenship by analysing the trajectories in which the interrelated concepts of territory, rights and mobility participate...... Tunnel project as one that involves competing patterns of territoriality and manifests the dynamics between facilitated and obstructed mobilities at a moving border. However, the permeability of this border is partly enabled by the uneven and ambiguous configurations of Schengenland itself, and draws...

  4. Business and Human Rights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhmann, Karin

    2015-01-01

    This article analyses the United Nations (UN) Guidelines on Business and Human Rights adopted in 2011 by the UN Human Rights Council from the perspective of transnational business governance interactions (TBGI) analytical framework.1 The article identifies and discusses dimensions of interaction...... and components of regulatory governance which characterize the Guiding Principles, focusing in particular on rule formation and implementation. The article notes that the Guiding Principles actively enrolled other actors for the rule-making process, ensuring support in a politically and legally volatile field...... in several areas of relevance to transnational business governance interaction and indicates the relevance of the TBGI approach to public regulatory transnational business governance initiatives. The analysis of the Guiding Principles as interactional transnational business governance suggests that this form...

  5. Evaluating Human Rights INGOs

    OpenAIRE

    Graffeo, Elizabeth Marie

    2010-01-01

    Over the past several decades, the numbers of international nongovernmental organizations (INGOs) that focus on tackling human rights issues have grown rapidly. These organizations operate internationally and work with governments, legislatures, social movement leaders, activists, donors, and individual citizens. As the number of operating INGOs has risen dramatically, researchers have simultaneously begun to investigate the possibility of creating a global civil society that would govern its...

  6. Asking the Right Questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richter, Line

    Based on fieldwork in Mali this paper discusses the role of anthropology (and the anthropologist) in a large public health research project on children's health. In the uncertainty and disquiet that comes with the battle to combat and avoid diseases in a setting where poverty and abysmal diseases......, is the ability to move beyond even the best hidden assumptions and question our own questions, thereby enabling us to ask the right questions....

  7. Prior User Rights

    OpenAIRE

    Carl Shapiro

    2006-01-01

    Keywords: patents, innovation, oligopoly JEL codes: L13, O31. ABSTRACT: Many inventions, great and small, are discovered independently at roughly the same time by two or more individuals or organizations. Famous examples include the light bulb (Edison and Swan), the telephone (Bell and Gray), and the integrated circuit (Kilby and Noyce). Such independent invention is common for minor technological improvements. How should property rights to an invention be defined and awarde...

  8. Homoaffectivity and Human Rights

    OpenAIRE

    Luiz Mott

    2006-01-01

    The civil union between persons of the same sex is analyzed in this essay through the discussion of the roots of the anti-homosexual prejudice and the fight for the citizenship of gays, lesbians and transgenders in Brazil, and through listing the different manifestations of homofobia in our social environment. We deconstruct the contrary opinions against the homosexual marriage, justifying with etho-historical evidences the extending of equal rights to the couples of the same s...

  9. The surface right

    OpenAIRE

    Del Risco Sotil, Luis Felipe

    2017-01-01

    This article addresses over the regulation of the surface right in the Peruvian Law along with its main points of contact with other important institutions in the field of real estate. The author points the evolution of this figure in the Peruvian legislation and determinates its legal nature and its characteristics, establishing its relation with the principle of real estate accession property and the implications of the transitional division that the surface generates. In other relevant asp...

  10. Right atrial lipoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pêgo-Fernandes Paulo M.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Benign cardiac tumors are rare, and lipomas are among those less frequently found. We report the case of a 48-year-old male complaining of high blood pressure and epistaxis in the last 2 months, with a diagnosis of right atrial lipoma established on echocardiography, magnetic resonance imaging, and anatomicopathological examination. The tumor was successfully removed, and up to 42 months after surgical excision, no evidence of tumor relapse was observed.

  11. Inconvenient Human Rights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Natasha

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Following an increase in Roma migration under the European “freedom of movement” laws, Swedish municipalities initiated more than 80 evictions of informal Roma settlements on the grounds of poor sanitation between 2013 and 2016. These evictions echo policies from earlier in the 20th century, when Roma living in Sweden were often marginalized through the denial of access to water and sanitation facilities. The recent Swedish evictions also follow similar government actions across Europe, where Roma settlements are controlled through the denial of access to water and sanitation. However, access to water and sanitation—central aspects of human health—are universal human rights that must be available to all people present in a jurisdiction, regardless of their legal status. The evictions described here violated Sweden’s obligations under both European and international human rights law. More positive government responses are required, such as providing shelters or camping sites, setting up temporary facilities, and directly engaging with communities to address water and sanitation issues. The authors conclude by providing guidance on how states and municipalities can meet their human rights obligations with respect to water and sanitation for vulnerable Roma individuals and informal settlements in their communities. PMID:29302163

  12. Peak regulation right

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Z. |; Ren, Z.; Li, Z.; Zhu, R.

    2005-01-01

    A peak regulation right concept and corresponding transaction mechanism for an electricity market was presented. The market was based on a power pool and independent system operator (ISO) model. Peak regulation right (PRR) was defined as a downward regulation capacity purchase option which allowed PRR owners to buy certain quantities of peak regulation capacity (PRC) at a specific price during a specified period from suppliers. The PRR owner also had the right to decide whether or not they would buy PRC from suppliers. It was the power pool's responsibility to provide competitive and fair peak regulation trading markets to participants. The introduction of PRR allowed for unit capacity regulation. The PRR and PRC were rated by the supplier, and transactions proceeded through a bidding process. PRR suppliers obtained profits by selling PRR and PRC, and obtained downward regulation fees regardless of whether purchases are made. It was concluded that the peak regulation mechanism reduced the total cost of the generating system and increased the social surplus. 6 refs., 1 tab., 3 figs

  13. Double chambered right ventricle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Chul Koo; Yu, Yun Jeong; Yeon, Kyung Mo; Han, Man Chung [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1983-12-15

    Fourteen cases of double chambered right ventricle were diagnosed angiographically and of these nine cases were confirmed after operation and autopsy at Seoul National University Hospital in recent four years since 1979. The clinical and radiological findings with the emphasis on the cinecardiographic findings were analysed. The summaries of the analysis are as follows: 1. Among 14 cases, 6 cases were male and 8 cases were female. Age distribution was from 4 years to 36 years. 2. In chest x-ray findings, pulmonary vascularity was increased in 8 cases, decreased in 4 cases, and normal in 2 cases. Cardiomegaly was observed in 8 cases and other showed normal heart size. 3. In cinecardiography, 11 cases had interventricular septal defect. Among these 11 cases, VSD located in proximal high pressure chamber was in 2 cases and located in distal low pressure chamber was in 9 cases. 4. The location of aberrant muscle bundle in sinus portion of right ventricle was in 8 cases. In the rest 6 cases, the aberrant muscle bundle was located below the infundibulum of right ventricle. 5. For accurate diagnosis and differential diagnosis with other congenital cardiac anomalies such as Tetralogy of Fallot or isolated pulmonic stenosis, biplane cineangiography and catheterization is an essential procedure.

  14. Double chambered right ventricle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Chul Koo; Yu, Yun Jeong; Yeon, Kyung Mo; Han, Man Chung

    1983-01-01

    Fourteen cases of double chambered right ventricle were diagnosed angiographically and of these nine cases were confirmed after operation and autopsy at Seoul National University Hospital in recent four years since 1979. The clinical and radiological findings with the emphasis on the cinecardiographic findings were analysed. The summaries of the analysis are as follows: 1. Among 14 cases, 6 cases were male and 8 cases were female. Age distribution was from 4 years to 36 years. 2. In chest x-ray findings, pulmonary vascularity was increased in 8 cases, decreased in 4 cases, and normal in 2 cases. Cardiomegaly was observed in 8 cases and other showed normal heart size. 3. In cinecardiography, 11 cases had interventricular septal defect. Among these 11 cases, VSD located in proximal high pressure chamber was in 2 cases and located in distal low pressure chamber was in 9 cases. 4. The location of aberrant muscle bundle in sinus portion of right ventricle was in 8 cases. In the rest 6 cases, the aberrant muscle bundle was located below the infundibulum of right ventricle. 5. For accurate diagnosis and differential diagnosis with other congenital cardiac anomalies such as Tetralogy of Fallot or isolated pulmonic stenosis, biplane cineangiography and catheterization is an essential procedure

  15. Ethology in animal quarters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyerson, B J

    1986-01-01

    This contribution will be concerned with the interaction between environment, adaptability optimization and behaviour. Animal laboratory experiments demand repeated measurements under identical environmental conditions. This is a prerequisite for the conventional statistical methodology used in order to clarify causal relationships involved in various biological functions. The understanding of biological functions is a necessary fundament for knowledge to prevent illness and to achieve a palliative or specific therapy. It is reasonable to assume that the routines in the quarters are very artificial, considering an animal's normal living conditions. The experimental situation as well as animal maintenance involves a process of adaptation. Adaptability depends on type of animal, degree of domestification etc. However, even with respect to choice of suitable species, strain and genetic manipulation, the process of adaptation becomes an important variable for ethical and practical points of view. The more emphasis on constancy, the more do we run the risk of increasing the span between normal and laboratory conditions and subsequently increase the factor and problem of adaptation. This vicious circle should be broken rather by finding optimal conditions than by a middle course determined by experimental requirements, economical frames and general notions about what may be good for the animal. Optimization must involve an understanding of how the experiment and the way of maintenance of the animal in the animal quarters influence adaptability. This understanding requires a systematic exploring of what physio-chemical and psychological factors are of importance. We will probably never be able to control the variability in the degree of adaptation.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  16. Coding and encoding rights in internet infrastructure

    OpenAIRE

    Stefania Milan; Niels ten Oever

    2017-01-01

    This article explores bottom-up grassroots ordering in internet governance, investigating the efforts by a group of civil society actors to inscribe human rights in internet infrastructure, lobbying the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers. Adopting a Science and Technology Studies (STS) perspective, we approach this struggle as a site of contestation, and expose the sociotechnical imaginaries animating policy advocacy. Combining quantitative mailing-list analysis, participant ...

  17. Commercialization of animal biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faber, D C; Molina, J A; Ohlrichs, C L; Vander Zwaag, D F; Ferré, L B

    2003-01-01

    Commercialization of animal biotechnology is a wide-ranging topic for discussion. In this paper, we will attempt to review embryo transfer (ET) and related technologies that relate to food-producing mammals. A brief review of the history of advances in biotechnology will provide a glimpse to present and future applications. Commercialization of animal biotechnology is presently taking two pathways. The first application involves the use of animals for biomedical purposes. Very few companies have developed all of the core competencies and intellectual properties to complete the bridge from lab bench to product. The second pathway of application is for the production of animals used for food. Artificial insemination (AI), embryo transfer, in vitro fertilization (IVF), cloning, transgenics, and genomics all are components of the toolbox for present and future applications. Individually, these are powerful tools capable of providing significant improvements in productivity. Combinations of these technologies coupled with information systems and data analysis, will provide even more significant change in the next decade. Any strategies for the commercial application of animal biotechnology must include a careful review of regulatory and social concerns. Careful review of industry infrastructure is also important. Our colleagues in plant biotechnology have helped highlight some of these pitfalls and provide us with a retrospective review. In summary, today we have core competencies that provide a wealth of opportunities for the members of this society, commercial companies, producers, and the general population. Successful commercialization will benefit all of the above stakeholders. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science Inc.

  18. ANIMAL ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubreuil, J. Daniel; Isaacson, Richard E.; Schifferli, Dieter M.

    2016-01-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is the most common cause of E. coli diarrhea in farm animals. ETEC are characterized by the ability to produce two types of virulence factors; adhesins that promote binding to specific enterocyte receptors for intestinal colonization and enterotoxins responsible for fluid secretion. The best-characterized adhesins are expressed in the context of fimbriae, such as the F4 (also designated K88), F5 (K99), F6 (987P), F17 and F18 fimbriae. Once established in the animal small intestine, ETEC produces enterotoxin(s) that lead to diarrhea. The enterotoxins belong to two major classes; heat-labile toxin that consist of one active and five binding subunits (LT), and heat-stable toxins that are small polypeptides (STa, STb, and EAST1). This chapter describes the disease and pathogenesis of animal ETEC, the corresponding virulence genes and protein products of these bacteria, their regulation and targets in animal hosts, as well as mechanisms of action. Furthermore, vaccines, inhibitors, probiotics and the identification of potential new targets identified by genomics are presented in the context of animal ETEC. PMID:27735786

  19. Animal models of sarcoidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yijie; Yibrehu, Betel; Zabini, Diana; Kuebler, Wolfgang M

    2017-03-01

    Sarcoidosis is a debilitating, inflammatory, multiorgan, granulomatous disease of unknown cause, commonly affecting the lung. In contrast to other chronic lung diseases such as interstitial pulmonary fibrosis or pulmonary arterial hypertension, there is so far no widely accepted or implemented animal model for this disease. This has hampered our insights into the etiology of sarcoidosis, the mechanisms of its pathogenesis, the identification of new biomarkers and diagnostic tools and, last not least, the development and implementation of novel treatment strategies. Over past years, however, a number of new animal models have been described that may provide useful tools to fill these critical knowledge gaps. In this review, we therefore outline the present status quo for animal models of sarcoidosis, comparing their pros and cons with respect to their ability to mimic the etiological, clinical and histological hallmarks of human disease and discuss their applicability for future research. Overall, the recent surge in animal models has markedly expanded our options for translational research; however, given the relative early stage of most animal models for sarcoidosis, appropriate replication of etiological and histological features of clinical disease, reproducibility and usefulness in terms of identification of new therapeutic targets and biomarkers, and testing of new treatments should be prioritized when considering the refinement of existing or the development of new models.

  20. Pursuing the Right to an Effective Remedy for Human Rights ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Undoubtedly, global and regional human rights instruments clearly entrench the right to an effective remedy for a human rights violation. The substantive nature of the right to an effective remedy makes it relevant to the realisation of the right to equality as well as the right to equal protection under the law. Cameroon, as a ...

  1. Geometry and self-righting of turtles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domokos, Gábor; Várkonyi, Péter L

    2008-01-07

    Terrestrial animals with rigid shells face imminent danger when turned upside down. A rich variety of righting strategies of beetle and turtle species have been described, but the exact role of the shell's geometry in righting is so far unknown. These strategies are often based on active mechanisms, e.g. most beetles self-right via motion of their legs or wings; flat, aquatic turtles use their muscular neck to flip back. On the other hand, highly domed, terrestrial turtles with short limbs and necks have virtually no active control: here shape itself may serve as a fundamental tool. Based on field data gathered on a broad spectrum of aquatic and terrestrial turtle species we develop a geometric model of the shell. Inspired by recent mathematical results, we demonstrate that a simple mechanical classification of the model is closely linked to the animals' righting strategy. Specifically, we show that the exact geometry of highly domed terrestrial species is close to optimal for self-righting, and the shell's shape is the predominant factor of their ability to flip back. Our study illustrates how evolution solved a far-from-trivial geometrical problem and equipped some turtles with monostatic shells: beautiful forms, which rarely appear in nature otherwise.

  2. Living with companion animals after stroke: experiences of older people in community and primary care nursing.

    OpenAIRE

    Johansson, Maria; Ahlström, Gerd; Jönsson, Ann-Cathrin

    2014-01-01

    Older people often have companion animals, and the significance of animals in human lives should be considered by nurses-particularly in relation to older people's health, which can be affected by diseases. The incidence of stroke increases with age and disabilities as a result of stroke are common. This study aimed to explore older people's experiences of living with companion animals after stroke, and their life situation with the animals in relation to the physical, psychological a...

  3. Decreasing incidence rates of bacteremia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Stig Lønberg; Pedersen, C; Jensen, T G

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Numerous studies have shown that the incidence rate of bacteremia has been increasing over time. However, few studies have distinguished between community-acquired, healthcare-associated and nosocomial bacteremia. METHODS: We conducted a population-based study among adults with first......-acquired, 50.0 for healthcare-associated and 66.7 for nosocomial bacteremia. During 2000-2008, the overall incidence rate decreased by 23.3% from 254.1 to 198.8 (3.3% annually, p ...) and the incidence rate of nosocomial bacteremia decreased by 28.9% from 82.2 to 56.0 (4.2% annually, p

  4. Homoaffectivity and Human Rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Mott

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available The civil union between persons of the same sex is analyzed in this essay through the discussion of the roots of the anti-homosexual prejudice and the fight for the citizenship of gays, lesbians and transgenders in Brazil, and through listing the different manifestations of homofobia in our social environment. We deconstruct the contrary opinions against the homosexual marriage, justifying with etho-historical evidences the extending of equal rights to the couples of the same sex, including the legal recognition of the civil union.

  5. Intellectual Property Rights Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alkærsig, Lars; Beukel, Karin; Reichstein, Toke

    Intellectual Property Rights Management explores how the entire toolbox of intellectual property (IP) protection and management are successfully combined and how firms generate value from IP. In particular, this book provides a framework of archetypes which firms will be able to self-identify wit...... to large organization but also reflect the practices and operations that reside in SMEs. This volume also utilizes labor market and firm data to determine whether there is a definitive relationship between IP and economic performance on the firm level....

  6. Einstein was right!

    CERN Document Server

    Hess, Karl

    2014-01-01

    All modern books on Einstein emphasize the genius of his relativity theory and the corresponding corrections and extensions of the ancient space-time concept. However, Einstein's opposition to the use of probability in the laws of nature and particularly in the laws of quantum mechanics is criticized and often portrayed as outdated. The author of Einstein Was Right! takes a unique view and shows that Einstein created a ""Trojan horse"" ready to unleash forces against the use of probability as a basis for the laws of nature. Einstein warned that the use of probability would, in the final analys

  7. The animal experimentation controversy: Ethical views of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... and scientific research. The responses were analysed qualitatively and quantitatively. The results showed that most prospective teachers are in favour of animal rights and that females are more averse to vivisection than males. A number of suggestions are made with regard to vivisection in schools and tertiary institutions.

  8. Animal Poetry and Empathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tirza Brüggemann

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses how our ideas of empathy are influenced by the dichotomy of mind versus body, also known as Cartesian dualism. Within the aesthetic field, this dichotomy is seen when researchers define narrative empathy as imaginatively reconstructing the fictional character’s thoughts and feelings. Conversely, the empathy aroused by a non-narrative work of art is seen as an unconscious bodily mirroring of movements, postures or moods. Thinking dualistically does not only have consequences for what we consider human nature; it also affects our view on animals. To show the untenability of dualistic thinking, this article focuses on the animal poetry genre. Using the ideas of the French phenomenologist Maurice Merleau-Ponty, I analyze two animal poems: “Inventing a Horse” by Meghan O’Rourke and “Spermaceti” by Les Murray. The analysis of these two poems suggests that the presiding ideas about aesthetic empathy and empathy in general need re-evaluation.

  9. Animals, images, anthropocentrism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Creed

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Anthropocentrism is central to the nature of discourse across all disciplines, from science to philosophy and the arts. We argue that anthropocentrism has become particularly marked in modernity despite the avowal by some theorists that modernity signified a radical break with traditional approaches. A powerful strategy, invoked by such discourses, and designed to cement the anthropocentric perspective, is that of contradiction. Media theorists and scholars working in the broader field of (human animal studies have begun to unravel and demystify such discourses, questioning the nature of these contradictory perspectives and the anthropocentric point of view at work in visual texts. This is particularly evident in the current work of contemporary theorists who are researching the representation of animals in media texts. For it is the figure of the animal, as represented in visual discourses, from film to photography and new media, that offers a powerful challenge to the dominant anthropocentric worldview.

  10. Theriocide: Naming Animal Killing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piers Beirne

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In this essay I recommend ‘theriocide’ as the name for those diverse human actions that cause the deaths of animals. Like the killing of one human by another, theriocide may be socially acceptable or unacceptable, legal or illegal. It may be intentional or unintentional and may involve active maltreatment or passive neglect. Theriocide may occur one-on-one, in small groups or in large-scale social institutions. The numerous and sometimes intersecting sites of theriocide include intensive rearing regimes; hunting and fishing; trafficking; vivisection; militarism; pollution; and human-induced climate change. If the killing of animals by humans is as harmful to them as homicide is to humans, then the proper naming of such deaths offers a remedy, however small, to the extensive privileging of human lives over those of other animals. Inevitably, the essay leads to a shocking question: Is theriocide murder?

  11. Animals and ICE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Hemmen, J Leo; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob; Carr, Catherine E

    2016-01-01

    experimental and mathematical foundation, it is known that there is a low-frequency regime where the internal time difference (iTD) as perceived by the animal may well be 2-5 times higher than the external ITD, the interaural time difference, and that there is a frequency plateau over which the fraction i......TD/ITD is constant. There is also a high-frequency regime where the internal level (amplitude) difference iLD as perceived by the animal is much higher than the interaural level difference ILD measured externally between the two ears. The fundamental tympanic frequency segregates the two regimes. The present special...... issue devoted to "internally coupled ears" provides an overview of many aspects of ICE, be they acoustic, anatomical, auditory, mathematical, or neurobiological. A focus is on the hotly debated topic of what aspects of ICE animals actually exploit neuronally to localize a sound source....

  12. Animal welfare and eggs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Laura Mørch

    This paper identifies revealed willingness to pay for animal welfare using a panel mixed logit model allowing for correlation between willingness to pay for different types of production. We utilize a unique household level panel, combining real purchases with survey data on perceived public...... and private good attributes of different types of eggs. We find that the estimated correlations are consistent with the levels of animal welfare, and that consumers perceiving a stronger connection between animal welfare and the organic label have higher willingness to pay for organic eggs, even when we...... control for private good attributes such as food safety also connected to the label. Our results suggest that altruistic motives may play an important role in the demand for agricultural products....

  13. Animal violence demystified

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepa Natarajan

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Violence has been observed in humans and animals alike, indicating its evolutionary/ biological significance. However, violence in animals has often been confounded with functional forms of aggressive behavior. Currently, violence in animals is identified primarily as either a quantitative behavior (an escalated, pathological and abnormal form of aggression characterized primarily by short attack latencies, and prolonged and frequent harm-oriented conflict behaviors or a qualitative one (characterized by attack bites aimed at vulnerable parts of the opponent’s body and context independent attacks regardless of the environment or the sex and type of the opponent. Identification of an operational definition for violence thus not only helps in understanding its potential differences from adaptive forms of aggression but also in the selection of appropriate animal models for both. To begin with, we address this issue theoretically by drawing parallels from research on aggression and appeasement in humans and other animals. We also provide empirical evidences for violence in mice selected for high aggression by comparing our findings with other currently available potentially violent rodent models. The following violence-specific features namely 1. Display of low levels of pre-escalatory/ritualistic behaviors. 2. Immediate and escalated offense durations with low withdrawal rates despite the opponent’s submissive supine and crouching/defeat postures. 3. Context independent indiscriminate attacks aimed at familiar/unfamiliar females, anaesthetized males and opponents and in neutral environments. 4. Orientation of attack-bites toward vulnerable body parts of the opponent resulting in severe wounding 5. Low pre-frontal serotonin (5-HT levels upon repeated aggression. 6. Low basal heart rates and hyporesponsive hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA axis were identified uniquely in the short attack latency (SAL mice suggesting a qualitative

  14. Animal violence demystified.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natarajan, Deepa; Caramaschi, Doretta

    2010-01-01

    Violence has been observed in humans and animals alike, indicating its evolutionary/biological significance. However, violence in animals has often been confounded with functional forms of aggressive behavior. Currently, violence in animals is identified primarily as either a quantitative behavior (an escalated, pathological and abnormal form of aggression characterized primarily by short attack latencies, and prolonged and frequent harm-oriented conflict behaviors) or a qualitative one (characterized by attack bites aimed at vulnerable parts of the opponent's body and context independent attacks regardless of the environment or the sex and type of the opponent). Identification of an operational definition for violence thus not only helps in understanding its potential differences from adaptive forms of aggression but also in the selection of appropriate animal models for both. We address this issue theoretically by drawing parallels from research on aggression and appeasement in humans and other animals. We also provide empirical evidences for violence in mice selected for high aggression by comparing our findings with other currently available potentially violent rodent models. The following violence-specific features namely (1) Display of low levels of pre-escalatory/ritualistic behaviors. (2) Immediate and escalated offense durations with low withdrawal rates despite the opponent's submissive supine and crouching/defeat postures. (3) Context independent indiscriminate attacks aimed at familiar/unfamiliar females, anaesthetized males and opponents and in neutral environments. (4) Orientation of attack-bites toward vulnerable body parts of the opponent resulting in severe wounding. (5) Low prefrontal serotonin (5-HT) levels upon repeated aggression. (6) Low basal heart rates and hyporesponsive hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis were identified uniquely in the short attack latency (SAL) mice suggesting a qualitative difference between violence and

  15. God, animals and zombies

    OpenAIRE

    Lynch, Joseph J.

    2011-01-01

    Argumentos neo-cartesianos recientes intentan reducir los animales a zombis filosóficos, seres sin estados de conciencia fenoménica. Si tales argumentos fuesen correctos, los animales verdaderamente no sufrirían, y, por tanto, no existiría el problema de Dios y el sufrimiento animal. En mi opinión, la afirmación de que los animales son zombis no es suficientemente plausible para proporcionar una teodicea adecuada acerca del problema de Dios y el dolor animal.

  16. Marine animal stings or bites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stings - marine animals; Bites - marine animals ... Things you can do to prevent a marine animal sting or bite include: Swim near a lifeguard. Observe posted signs that may warn of danger from jellyfish or other hazardous marine life. ...

  17. Traffic incident management resource management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    The necessity of a multi-disciplinary approach involving law enforcement, fire and rescue, transportation, towing and recovery, and others has been well-recognized and integrated into incident management operations. This same multidisciplinar...

  18. Police Incident Blotter (30 Day)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — The 30 Day Police Blotter contains the most recent initial crime incident data, updated on a nightly basis. All data is reported at the block/intersection level,...

  19. Criteria for feasibility, health and welfare assessment of requirement to use second and subsequent generations of non-human primates or animals from self-sustaining colonies in research Critères d’évaluation de la faisabilité, de l’incidence sanitaire et des répercussions sur le bien-être animal, relatifs à l'obligation future d'utiliser des primates non humains issus uniquement des animaux de deuxième génération et plus ou des animaux provenant de colonies d'élevage auto-entretenues pour la recherche expérimentale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Smith

    2011-10-01

    -être animal devraient être définis rigoureusement par des experts pour faciliter et accélérer le travail de la Commission européenne. Cet article identifie les critères qui peuvent être utiles dans la prise de décisions politiques sur la confirmation de l’exigence de la directive ou sur le réexamen de l'échéancier de mise en œuvre de l'exigence d'utiliser dans le futur uniquement des primates non-humains de générations F2. Un élément clé avant qu'un certain nombre de critères puissent être évalués est la détermination de données de base relatives à l'offre et la demande de primates non humains, à leur état sanitaire et leur état de bien-être dans les colonies de reproduction destinées à approvisionner le marché européen. Trois grandes catégories ont été identifiées, à savoir la faisabilité de gérer ces colonies d'élevage, leur incidence sur la recherche scientifique et la garantie du bien-être animal. Pour chaque catégorie, un certain nombre de paramètres sont définis et justifiés, avec des éléments d'information suggérés et discutés.

  20. Regional comparison of cancer incidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obralic, N.; Gavrankapetanovic, F.; Dizdarevic, Z.; Duric, O.; Sisic, F.; Selak, I.; Balta, S.; Nakas, B.

    2004-01-01

    Background. Due to specific war and post-war situation in Balkan region, differences in the number, type, development, biological course, treatment of malignant tumours and its outcome are possible. In order to perceive the situation realistically, it is necessary to gather continuously exact data about malignant tumours and compare them with the data from other European and world countries.The aim of the study was to collect and analyse the data on cancer incidence in the region of Sarajevo city, which represents a symbol of difficult times in the recent past, and to compare it to the incidence in the neighbouring countries. Patients and methods. Data on all newly diagnosed cancer cases, permanent residents of Sarajevo Canton, in the years 1999 and 2000 were collected. Crude incidence rate has been calculated according to the years observed, gender and localizations of the disease The data were compared to the cancer registries of Slovenia and Croatia and were observed in the light of specific local situation. Results. The crude cancer incidence of all sites but skin was the highest in both years and by both genders in Croatia. The incidence of the most common tumours (lung and breast cancer) was similar in all three countries. The differences in the incidence between both genders in the Sarajevo canton were registered in laryngeal and urinary bladder cancer, as well as in bone and cartilage sarcoma. Cervical cancer had extremely high incidence and was high up on the incidence list in the Sarajevo canton, which correlates with the data in developing countries. The incidence of other tumours in the post-war period is reaching expected numbers. Conclusions. It is difficult to identify whether the war and post-war stress, irregular and insufficient nutrition during and after the siege of the city of Sarajevo or some other factor influenced the cancer incidence among exposed population. The prevalence of smoking in the whole region is extremely high, in Bosnia and

  1. Asymptotics for incidence matrix classes

    OpenAIRE

    Cameron, Peter; Prellberg, Thomas; Stark, Dudley

    2005-01-01

    We define {\\em incidence matrices} to be zero-one matrices with no zero rows or columns. A classification of incidence matrices is considered for which conditions of symmetry by transposition, having no repeated rows/columns, or identification by permutation of rows/columns are imposed. We find asymptotics and relationships for the number of matrices with $n$ ones in these classes as $n\\to\\infty$.

  2. Incidence Handling and Response System

    OpenAIRE

    Kalbande, Prof. Dhananjay R.; Thampi, Dr. G. T.; Singh, Mr. Manish

    2009-01-01

    A computer network can be attacked in a number of ways. The security-related threats have become not only numerous but also diverse and they may also come in the form of blended attacks. It becomes difficult for any security system to block all types of attacks. This gives rise to the need of an incidence handling capability which is necessary for rapidly detecting incidents, minimizing loss and destruction, mitigating the weaknesses that were exploited and restoring the computing services. I...

  3. Cancer incidence in Spain, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galceran, J; Ameijide, A; Carulla, M; Mateos, A; Quirós, J R; Rojas, D; Alemán, A; Torrella, A; Chico, M; Vicente, M; Díaz, J M; Larrañaga, N; Marcos-Gragera, R; Sánchez, M J; Perucha, J; Franch, P; Navarro, C; Ardanaz, E; Bigorra, J; Rodrigo, P; Bonet, R Peris

    2017-07-01

    Periodic cancer incidence estimates of Spain from all existing population-based cancer registries at any given time are required. The objective of this study was to present the current situation of cancer incidence in Spain. The Spanish Network of Cancer Registries (REDECAN) estimated the numbers of new cancer cases occurred in Spain in 2015 by applying the incidence-mortality ratios method. In the calculus, incidence data from population-based cancer registries and mortality data of all Spain were used. In 2015, nearly a quarter of a million new invasive cancer cases were diagnosed in Spain, almost 149,000 in men (60.0%) and 99,000 in women. Globally, the five most common cancers were those of colon-rectum, prostate, lung, breast and urinary bladder. By gender, the four most common cancers in men were those of prostate (22.4%), colon-rectum (16.6%), lung (15.1%) and urinary bladder (11.7%). In women, the most common ones were those of breast (28.0%), colon-rectum (16.9%), corpus uteri (6.2%) and lung (6.0%). In recent years, cancer incidence in men seems to have stabilized due to the fact that the decrease in tobacco-related cancers compensates for the increase in other types of cancer like those of colon and prostate. In women, despite the stabilization of breast cancer incidence, increased incidence is due, above all, to the rise of colorectal and tobacco-related cancers. To reduce these incident cancer cases, improvement of smoking control policies and extension of colorectal cancer screening should be the two priorities in cancer prevention for the next years.

  4. Tony Yengeni's ritual slaughter: Animal anti-cruelty vs. Culture ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    I address the question: 'Are acts of the ritual slaughter of animals, of the kind recently engaged in by the Yengeni family, morally justifiable?' Using the. Yengeni incident as a springboard for my discussion, I focus on the moral question of the relative weight of two competing ethical claims. I weigh the claim that we have an ...

  5. RIGHTS CONTENT ON DESIGNS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ovidia IONESCU

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Our intellect characterizes us and helps us make a difference in life. Due to our intellect we can understand the world around us, our personality is shaped and developed and, depending on such development, we can learn new things that are beneficial to us both as individuals and the humankind as a whole. Intellectual property focuses on the intellect and the protection of everything that is a creation, represents an important element of day-to-day life and ensures the adequate progress of things deriving from and related to said aspect. Authors are the creators of intellectual property, and their creation must be protected. Furthermore, they benefit from a protection system, respectively a protection title, as well as patrimonial and non-patrimonial rights in connection with their achieved creation and in full dependence thereupon.

  6. Philanthropy and Human Rights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Øjvind

    2013-01-01

    in Germany, England, France and USA. In each tradition is developed special features of the concept of philanthropy. The four traditions are summarized in the UN universal human rights, which has become the common normative reference for global philanthropy. In this way philanthropy has become, in a modern......, and normally utilized to promote one’s own prestige in the city-state. In Roman context, universal humanism, humanitas, was invented. This universal perspective was also supported by Christianity. It is this universal concept of philanthropy which is the foundation for the different philanthropic traditions...... sense, a charitable act with the aim to promote human happiness independent of gender, class, race, etc. This is the genealogy of the modern understanding of philanthropy, which will be developed in this paper....

  7. Experiment, right or wrong

    CERN Document Server

    Franklin, Allan

    2008-01-01

    In Experiment, Right or Wrong, Allan Franklin continues his investigation of the history and philosophy of experiment presented in his previous book, The Neglect of Experiment. In this new study, Franklin considers the fallibility and corrigibility of experimental results and presents detailed histories of two such episodes: 1) the experiment and the development of the theory of weak interactions from Fermi's theory in 1934 to the V-A theory of 1957 and 2) atomic parity violation experiments and the Weinberg-Salam unified theory of electroweak interactions of the 1970s and 1980s. In these episodes Franklin demonstrates not only that experimental results can be wrong, but also that theoretical calculations and the comparison between experiment and theory can also be incorrect. In the second episode, Franklin contrasts his view of an "evidence model" of science in which questions of theory choice, confirmation, and refutation are decided on the basis of reliable experimental evidence, with that proposed by the ...

  8. Rights to Language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Phillipson, Robert

    topics can cross-fertilize each other, and that our understanding of the issues can benefit from coverage that is global, reflective and committed. A website with additional resource material to this book can be found at http://babel.ruc.dk/-robert/. Brings together scholarship in language, education......This work brings together cutting-edge scholarship in language, education and society from all parts of the world. Celebrating the 60th birthday of Tove Skutnabb-Kangas, it is inspired by her work in minority, indigenous and immigrant education; multilingualism; linguistic human rights; and global...... language and power issues. Drawn from all parts of the world, the contributors are active in a range of scientific and professional areas including bilingual education; sociolinguistics; the sociology of education, law and language; economics and language; linguistics; sign language; racism; communication...

  9. Intellectual Property Rights Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alkærsig, Lars; Beukel, Karin; Reichstein, Toke

    Intellectual Property Rights Management explores how the entire toolbox of intellectual property (IP) protection and management are successfully combined and how firms generate value from IP. In particular, this book provides a framework of archetypes which firms will be able to self......-identify with and which will allow companies to focus on the IP and IP Management issues most relevant to them. By doing so, the authors offer further insights as to the use of IP and IP management practices across firms. By looking at empirical data covering the population of firms, the findings not only pertain...... to large organization but also reflect the practices and operations that reside in SMEs. This volume also utilizes labor market and firm data to determine whether there is a definitive relationship between IP and economic performance on the firm level....

  10. Laboratory Animal Sciences Program (LASP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Laboratory Animal Sciences Program (LASP) is a comprehensive resource for scientists performing animal-based research to gain a better understanding of cancer,...

  11. Hope for Animals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 20; Issue 8. Hope for Animals. Prasanna Venkhatesh V. Book Review Volume 20 Issue 8 August 2015 pp 753-754. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/020/08/0753-0754. Author Affiliations.

  12. Do Animals Have Memes?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reader, S.M.; Laland, K.N.

    1999-01-01

    Imitation has been put forward as a defining feature of memetic transmission. Since there is currently poor evidence for imitation in non-human animals, such definitions have been interpreted as restricting meme theory to the study of human behaviour patterns and birdsong. We believe this is a

  13. Pathological anxiety in animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ohl, F.; Arndt, S.S.; Staay, van der F.J.

    2008-01-01

    selective breeding programmes in domestic and laboratory animals generally focus on physiological and/or anatomical characteristics. However, selection may have an (unintended) impact on other characteristics and may lead to dysfunctional behaviour that can affect biological functioning and, as a

  14. Animal Bites - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Spanish (español) Vietnamese (Tiếng Việt) HealthReach resources will open in a new window. Arabic (العربية) Expand Section Animal Bites and Scratches - العربية (Arabic) Bilingual PDF Health Information ...

  15. Antibiotic resistance in animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Mary D; Pratt, Rachael; Hart, Wendy S

    2003-01-01

    There is currently no systematic surveillance or monitoring of antibiotic resistance in Australian animals. Registration of antibiotics for use in animals is tightly controlled and has been very conservative. Fluoroquinolones have not been registered for use in food producing animals and other products have been removed from the market because of human health concerns. In the late 1970s, the Animal Health Committee coordinated a survey of resistance in Salmonella and Escherichia coli isolates from cattle, pigs and poultry and in bovine Staphylococcus aureus. Some additional information is available from published case reports. In samples collected prior to the withdrawal of avoparcin from the market, no vancomycin resistant Enterococcus faecium or Enterococcus faecalis were detected in samples collected from pigs, whereas some vanA enterococci, including E. faecium and E. faecalis, were found in chickens. No vanB enterococci were detected in either species. Virginiamycin resistance was common in both pig and poultry isolates. Multiple resistance was common in E. coli and salmonellae isolates. No fluoroquinolone resistance was found in salmonellae, E. coli or Campylobacter. Beta-lactamase production is common in isolates from bovine mastitis, but no methicillin resistance has been detected. However, methicillin resistance has been reported in canine isolates of Staphylococcus intermedius and extended spectrum beta-lactamase producing E. coli has been found in dogs.

  16. ANIMAL MODELS IN SURGICAL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ASSEMBLED BY

    1 Dept.of Veterinary Surgery and Medicine 2Veterinary Teaching Hospital Ahmadu Bello University. Zaria .... unnecessary suffering., Administration of poisons .... way that humans are. Vivisection/ Surgical Training And Research. Animal model use: In both the human and veterinary medical practice, there continue to be ...

  17. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Recalls Report an Adverse Event MedWatch Safety Alerts News Releases Consumer Updates About FDA Contact FDA Browse by Product Area Product Areas back Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products

  18. Animals Come Alive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicks-Patnaude, Trina

    2004-01-01

    In teaching drawing and painting, the author encourages students' creative spirits. She also encourages creative writing to accompany their artwork. Colorful language in their written work and personal response to an artwork makes a complete, meaningful lesson. In this mixed-media exploration, using animals as a theme, third-grade artists explored…

  19. An animated virtual drummer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kragtwijk, M.; Giagourta, V.; Nijholt, Antinus; Strintzis, M.G.; Zwiers, Jakob

    2001-01-01

    We describe a system for the automatic generation of a 3D animation of a drummer playing along with a given piece of music. The input, consisting of a sound wave, is analysed to determine which drums are struck at what moments. The Standard MIDI File format is used to store the recognised notes.

  20. Morris Animal Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... whose mission is to advance the health of animals. November 16, 2017 Prions – Zombies of the Infectious Disease World In the closing days of 1984, when veterinarian David Bee was called out to look at a sick cow on a farm in Sussex, England, little did he realize that ...

  1. Mapping farm animal genomes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čepica, Stanislav

    1998-01-01

    Roč. 43, č. 9 (1998), s. 386 ISSN 0044-4847. [Genetics Day-International conference on animal genetics /18./. 08.09.1998-10.09.1998, České Budějovice] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA523/96/0597 Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology

  2. Hope for Animals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 20; Issue 8. Hope for Animals. Prasanna Venkhatesh V. Book Review Volume 20 Issue 8 August 2015 pp 753-754. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/020/08/0753-0754. Author Affiliations.

  3. SHORT COMMUNICATIONS the animals

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Immediately after being shot the animals were measured and weighed and stomach samples were preserved in either 10 per cent formalin or. 70 per cent alcohol; skulls were also kept for age determinations (Zumpt 1969). In the laboratory the volume of the entire contents of the stomach was measured and the contents ...

  4. Animal models of sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Mitchell P

    2014-01-01

    Sepsis remains a common, serious, and heterogeneous clinical entity that is difficult to define adequately. Despite its importance as a public health problem, efforts to develop and gain regulatory approval for a specific therapeutic agent for the adjuvant treatment of sepsis have been remarkably unsuccessful. One step in the critical pathway for the development of a new agent for adjuvant treatment of sepsis is evaluation in an appropriate animal model of the human condition. Unfortunately, the animal models that have been used for this purpose have often yielded misleading findings. It is likely that there are multiple reasons for the discrepancies between the results obtained in tests of pharmacological agents in animal models of sepsis and the outcomes of human clinical trials. One of important reason may be that the changes in gene expression, which are triggered by trauma or infection, are different in mice, a commonly used species for preclinical testing, and humans. Additionally, many species, including mice and baboons, are remarkably resistant to the toxic effects of bacterial lipopolysaccharide, whereas humans are exquisitely sensitive. New approaches toward the use of animals for sepsis research are being investigated. But, at present, results from preclinical studies of new therapeutic agents for sepsis must be viewed with a degree of skepticism.

  5. Hope for Animals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    capture your attention immediately with its spectacular shining golden hair and a leonine mane. It is disheartening to know that it is still one of the endangered new world primates. 'Hope for Animals' is about the efforts made by several people to conserve such species under the threat of extinction – ranging from the carrion ...

  6. ANIMAL MODELS FOR IMMUNOTOXICITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greater susceptibility to infection is a hallmark of compromised immune function in humans and animals, and is often considered the benchmark against which the predictive value of immune function tests are compared. This focus of this paper is resistance to infection with the pa...

  7. Bereavement and Companion Animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisman, Avery D.

    1991-01-01

    Describes a bereavement counseling program at a humane society and reports findings that confirm parallels between human and animal bonding and bereavements. The act of consenting to euthanasia was particularly disturbing. Most of the bereaved owners reported depths of feeling that were unique and in most cases beyond those experienced in other…

  8. Cyber Incidents Involving Control Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert J. Turk

    2005-10-01

    The Analysis Function of the US-CERT Control Systems Security Center (CSSC) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has prepared this report to document cyber security incidents for use by the CSSC. The description and analysis of incidents reported herein support three CSSC tasks: establishing a business case; increasing security awareness and private and corporate participation related to enhanced cyber security of control systems; and providing informational material to support model development and prioritize activities for CSSC. The stated mission of CSSC is to reduce vulnerability of critical infrastructure to cyber attack on control systems. As stated in the Incident Management Tool Requirements (August 2005) ''Vulnerability reduction is promoted by risk analysis that tracks actual risk, emphasizes high risk, determines risk reduction as a function of countermeasures, tracks increase of risk due to external influence, and measures success of the vulnerability reduction program''. Process control and Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems, with their reliance on proprietary networks and hardware, have long been considered immune to the network attacks that have wreaked so much havoc on corporate information systems. New research indicates this confidence is misplaced--the move to open standards such as Ethernet, Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol, and Web technologies is allowing hackers to take advantage of the control industry's unawareness. Much of the available information about cyber incidents represents a characterization as opposed to an analysis of events. The lack of good analyses reflects an overall weakness in reporting requirements as well as the fact that to date there have been very few serious cyber attacks on control systems. Most companies prefer not to share cyber attack incident data because of potential financial repercussions. Uniform reporting requirements will do much to make this

  9. Animal models of RLS phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Richard P; Donelson, Nathan C; Jones, Byron C; Li, Yuqing; Manconi, Mauro; Rye, David B; Sanyal, Subhabrata; Winkelmann, Juliane

    2017-03-01

    Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a complex disorder that involves sensory and motor systems. The major pathophysiology of RLS is low iron concentration in the substantia nigra containing the cell bodies of dopamine neurons that project to the striatum, an area that is crucial for modulating movement. People who have RLS often present with normal iron values outside the brain; recent studies implicate several genes are involved in the syndrome. Like most complex diseases, animal models usually do not faithfully capture the full phenotypic spectrum of "disease," which is a uniquely human construct. Nonetheless, animal models have proven useful in helping to unravel the complex pathophysiology of diseases such as RLS and suggesting novel treatment paradigms. For example, hypothesis-independent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified several genes as increasing the risk for RLS, including BTBD9. Independently, the murine homolog Btbd9 was identified as a candidate gene for iron regulation in the midbrain in mice. The relevance of the phenotype of another of the GWAS identified genes, MEIS1, has also been explored. The role of Btbd9 in iron regulation and RLS-like behaviors has been further evaluated in mice carrying a null mutation of the gene and in fruit flies when the BTBD9 protein is degraded. The BTBD9 and MEIS1 stories originate from human GWAS research, supported by work in a genetic reference population of mice (forward genetics) and further verified in mice, fish flies, and worms. Finally, the role of genetics is further supported by an inbred mouse strain that displays many of the phenotypic characteristics of RLS. The role of animal models of RLS phenotypes is also extended to include periodic limb movements. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Graphics and Animation on iOS A Beginner's Guide to Core Graphics and Core Animation

    CERN Document Server

    Nahavandipoor, Vandad

    2011-01-01

    Jazz up your iPhone and iPad apps with some slick graphics and animation-and keep users from looking elsewhere. This short and concise book shows developers with even little Cocoa programming experience how to create impressive graphics and animation effects with relatively easy coding. Learn how to incorporate smooth animations and draw images in your apps to achieve the classy look you want. The recipes in this book include step-by-step instructions and simple code solutions that you can put to work right away. Learn basic concepts for adapting to different screen sizesConstruct, set, and

  11. Foundations of Collective Cultural Rights in International Human Rights Law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donders, Y.; Jakubowski, A.

    2016-01-01

    Although collective cultural rights are included in international human rights law, their place and their nature and significance are not well-explored or understood. This chapter aims to classify collective cultural rights in international human rights instruments and to explore how these rights

  12. Speaking Truth to Power: Women's Rights as Human Rights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crocco, Margaret Smith

    2007-01-01

    The author considers the treatment of women's rights as human rights in the social studies curriculum. She discusses the role of the United Nations in promoting women's rights since the adoption of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights in 1948. She also reviews the treatment of women's rights within social studies curriculum today through a…

  13. Acquisition and analysis of road incidents based on vehicle dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naude, Claire; Serre, Thierry; Dubois-Lounis, Maxime; Fournier, Jean-Yves; Lechner, Daniel; Guilbot, Michèle; Ledoux, Vincent

    2017-03-09

    Because motor vehicle crashes have decreased during the last decade in many countries in the world and are more diffuse, local authorities have difficulties to define road safety policies. An experiment with 51 cars of public fleets equipped with a specific Event Data Recorder was carried out in France during one year. The purposes of this research were to evaluate if incident data (critical driving situations) help to understand crashes, and to explore a new way for road infrastructure safety diagnosis. The analysis of 339 genuine incidents and 1237 simple events recorded illustrates the potentiality of such an experiment and provides: some insights about conditions in which incidents occur, a general overview of their distribution according to different road layouts, as well as information on the different levels of accelerations reached. It can be noticed that there is an overrepresentation of incidents in right curves compared to left curves. The simple events involving mostly the infrastructure could be used to detect road defects. Genuine incidents where the vehicle is subjected to important dynamic demands, related to potentially unsafe driving situations, can be used to improve knowledge of the motor vehicle crashes thanks to incident mechanisms analysis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Fostering Kinship with Animals: Animal Portraiture in Humane Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalof, Linda; Zammit-Lucia, Joe; Bell, Jessica; Granter, Gina

    2016-01-01

    Visual depictions of animals can alter human perceptions of, emotional responses to, and attitudes toward animals. Our study addressed the potential of a slideshow designed to activate emotional responses to animals to foster feelings of kinship with them. The personal meaning map measured changes in perceptions of animals. The participants were…

  15. Episodic memory in nonhuman animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templer, Victoria L; Hampton, Robert R

    2013-09-09

    Episodic memories differ from other types of memory because they represent aspects of the past not present in other memories, such as the time, place, or social context in which the memories were formed. Focus on phenomenal experience in human memory, such as the sense of 'having been there', has resulted in conceptualizations of episodic memory that are difficult or impossible to apply to nonhuman species. It is therefore a significant challenge for investigators to agree on objective behavioral criteria that can be applied in nonhuman animals and still capture features of memory thought to be critical in humans. Some investigators have attempted to use neurobiological parallels to bridge this gap; however, defining memory types on the basis of the brain structures involved rather than on identified cognitive mechanisms risks missing crucial functional aspects of episodic memory, which are ultimately behavioral. The most productive way forward is likely a combination of neurobiology and sophisticated cognitive testing that identifies the mental representations present in episodic memory. Investigators that have refined their approach from asking the naïve question "do nonhuman animals have episodic memory" to instead asking "what aspects of episodic memory are shared by humans and nonhumans" are making progress. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Animal venoms as antimicrobial agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perumal Samy, Ramar; Stiles, Bradley G; Franco, Octavio L; Sethi, Gautam; Lim, Lina H K

    2017-06-15

    Hospitals are breeding grounds for many life-threatening bacteria worldwide. Clinically associated gram-positive bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus/methicillin-resistant S. aureus and many others increase the risk of severe mortality and morbidity. The failure of antibiotics to kill various pathogens due to bacterial resistance highlights the urgent need to develop novel, potent, and less toxic agents from natural sources against various infectious agents. Currently, several promising classes of natural molecules from snake (terrestrial and sea), scorpion, spider, honey bee and wasp venoms hold promise as rich sources of chemotherapeutics against infectious pathogens. Interestingly, snake venom-derived synthetic peptide/snake cathelicidin not only has potent antimicrobial and wound-repair activity but is highly stable and safe. Such molecules are promising candidates for novel venom-based drugs against S. aureus infections. The structure of animal venom proteins/peptides (cysteine rich) consists of hydrophobic α-helices or β-sheets that produce lethal pores and membrane-damaging effects on bacteria. All these antimicrobial peptides are under early experimental or pre-clinical stages of development. It is therefore important to employ novel tools for the design and the development of new antibiotics from the untapped animal venoms of snake, scorpion, and spider for treating resistant pathogens. To date, snail venom toxins have shown little antibiotic potency against human pathogens. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. An animated depiction of major depression epidemiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patten Scott B

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epidemiologic estimates are now available for a variety of parameters related to major depression epidemiology (incidence, prevalence, etc.. These estimates are potentially useful for policy and planning purposes, but it is first necessary that they be synthesized into a coherent picture of the epidemiology of the condition. Several attempts to do so have been made using mathematical modeling procedures. However, this information is not easy to communicate to users of epidemiological data (clinicians, administrators, policy makers. Methods In this study, up-to-date data on major depression epidemiology were integrated using a discrete event simulation model. The mathematical model was animated in Virtual Reality Modeling Language (VRML to create a visual, rather than mathematical, depiction of the epidemiology. Results Consistent with existing literature, the model highlights potential advantages of population health strategies that emphasize access to effective long-term treatment. The paper contains a web-link to the animation. Conclusion Visual animation of epidemiological results may be an effective knowledge translation tool. In clinical practice, such animations could potentially assist with patient education and enhanced long-term compliance.

  18. Animal models of preeclampsia; uses and limitations.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McCarthy, F P

    2012-01-31

    Preeclampsia remains a leading cause of maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality and has an unknown etiology. The limited progress made regarding new treatments to reduce the incidence and severity of preeclampsia has been attributed to the difficulties faced in the development of suitable animal models for the mechanistic research of this disease. In addition, animal models need hypotheses on which to be based and the slow development of testable hypotheses has also contributed to this poor progress. The past decade has seen significant advances in our understanding of preeclampsia and the development of viable reproducible animal models has contributed significantly to these advances. Although many of these models have features of preeclampsia, they are still poor overall models of the human disease and limited due to lack of reproducibility and because they do not include the complete spectrum of pathophysiological changes associated with preeclampsia. This review aims to provide a succinct and comprehensive assessment of current animal models of preeclampsia, their uses and limitations with particular attention paid to the best validated and most comprehensive models, in addition to those models which have been utilized to investigate potential therapeutic interventions for the treatment or prevention of preeclampsia.

  19. Breast cancer incidence in Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altantsetseg, Dalkhjav; Davaasambuu, Ganmaa; Rich-Edwards, Janet; Davaalkham, Dambadarjaa; Tretli, Steinar; Hoover, Robert N.; Frazier, A. Lindsay

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Data on international variation in breast cancer incidence may help to identify additional risk factors. Substantially lower breast cancer rates in Asia than in North America and Western Europe are established, but differences within Asia have been largely ignored despite heterogeneity in lifestyles and environments. Mongolia’s breast cancer experience is of interest because of its shared genetics but vastly different diet compared with other parts of Asia. Methods Age-standardized breast cancer incidence and mortality rates obtained from the International Association of Cancer Registries are presented for several Asian countries. Mongolian incidence rates obtained from its cancer registry describe incidence within the country. Results Breast cancer incidence in Mongolia (age standardized 8.0/100,000) is almost a third of rates in China (21.6/100,000), and over five times that of Japan (42.7/100,000) and Russia (43.2/100,000). Rates within Mongolia appear to have increased slightly over the last decade and are higher in urban than rural areas (annual percentage increase of age-standardized rates from 1998 to 2005 was 3.60 and 2.57%, respectively). The increase in breast cancer incidence with age plateaus at menopause, as in other Asian populations. Conclusions Mongolia’s low breast cancer incidence is of particular interest because of their unusual diet (primarily red meat and dairy) compared with other Asian countries. More intensive study of potential dietary, reproductive and lifestyle factors in Mongolia with comparison to other Asian populations may provide more clarity in what drives the international breast cancer rate differences. PMID:22543542

  20. The right balance

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    Over the course of her career as a physicist, Felicitas Pauss, currently responsible for CERN's External Relations, has often been the sole woman in an environment dominated by men. While she freely admits that being a woman physicist can have as many advantages as disadvantages, she thinks the best strategy is to maintain the right balance.   From a very early age, Felicitas Pauss always wanted to be involved in projects that interested and fascinated her. That's how she came to study physics. When she was a first-year university student in Austria in 1970, it was still fairly uncommon for women to go into physics research. "I grew up in Salzburg with a background in music. At that time, it was certainly considered more ‘normal’ for a woman to study music than to do research in physics. But already in high school I was interested in physics and technical instruments and wanted to know how things work and what they are made of”. At the beginning of her care...