... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Incidental harassment authorization for Arctic waters. 216.107 Section 216.107 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL... Incidental to Specified Activities § 216.107 Incidental harassment authorization for Arctic waters. (a...
... location, and the time. (d) Where the proposed activity may affect the availability of a species or stock of marine mammal for taking for subsistence purposes, proposed monitoring plans or other research... an incidental harassment authorization for Arctic waters must submit reports to the Assistant...
McLaughlin, Heather; Uggen, Christopher; Blackstone, Amy
Power is at the core of feminist theories of sexual harassment, though it has rarely been measured directly in terms of workplace authority. While popular characterizations portray male supervisors harassing female subordinates, power-threat theories suggest that women in authority may be more frequent targets. This article analyzes longitudinal survey data and qualitative interviews from the Youth Development Study (YDS) to test this idea and to delineate why and how supervisory authority, gender non-conformity, and workplace sex ratios affect harassment. Relative to non-supervisors, female supervisors are more likely to report harassing behaviors and to define their experiences as sexual harassment. Sexual harassment can serve as an “equalizer” against women in power, motivated more by control and domination than by sexual desire. The interviews point to social isolation as a mechanism linking harassment to gender non-conformity and women’s authority, particularly in male-dominated work settings. PMID:23329855
McLaughlin, Heather; Uggen, Christopher; Blackstone, Amy
Power is at the core of feminist theories of sexual harassment, though it has rarely been measured directly in terms of workplace authority. While popular characterizations portray male supervisors harassing female subordinates, power-threat theories suggest that women in authority may be more frequent targets. This article analyzes longitudinal survey data and qualitative interviews from the Youth Development Study (YDS) to test this idea and to delineate why and how supervisory authority, gender non-conformity, and workplace sex ratios affect harassment. Relative to non-supervisors, female supervisors are more likely to report harassing behaviors and to define their experiences as sexual harassment. Sexual harassment can serve as an "equalizer" against women in power, motivated more by control and domination than by sexual desire. The interviews point to social isolation as a mechanism linking harassment to gender non-conformity and women's authority, particularly in male-dominated work settings.
McLaughlin, Heather; Uggen, Christopher; Blackstone, Amy
Power is at the core of feminist theories of sexual harassment, although it has rarely been measured directly in terms of workplace authority. Popular characterizations portray male supervisors harassing female subordinates, but power-threat theories suggest that women in authority may be more frequent targets. This article analyzes longitudinal…
McLaughlin, Heather; Uggen, Christopher; Blackstone, Amy
Power is at the core of feminist theories of sexual harassment, though it has rarely been measured directly in terms of workplace authority. While popular characterizations portray male supervisors harassing female subordinates, power-threat theories suggest that women in authority may be more frequent targets. This article analyzes longitudinal survey data and qualitative interviews from the Youth Development Study (YDS) to test this idea and to delineate why and how supervisory authority, g...
... mammals, by harassment, incidental to derelict creosote piling and structure removal within the Woodard... authorization to take, by harassment, small numbers of marine mammals incidental to derelict creosote piling and... restoration effort. The piles designated to be removed have been treated with creosote, a wood preservative...
....512 Payment of taxes and incidental fees to the Palestinian Authority. Effective April 12, 2006, U.S. persons are authorized to pay taxes or fees to, and purchase or receive permits or public utility services... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Payment of taxes and incidental fees...
... Payment of taxes and incidental fees to the Palestinian Authority. Effective April 12, 2006, U.S. persons are authorized to pay taxes or fees to, and purchase or receive permits or public utility services... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Payment of taxes and incidental fees...
... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Prohibitions under the General Authorization for Level B harassment for scientific research. 216.16 Section 216.16 Wildlife and Fisheries... Prohibitions under the General Authorization for Level B harassment for scientific research. It shall be...
... to non-tactical sonar sources used in conjunction with seismic surveys. The pseudo-random noise... request, the incidental, but not intentional, taking of small numbers of marine mammals by U.S. citizens... authorization to incidentally take small numbers of marine mammals by harassment. Section 101(a)(5)(D...
Greenlaw, Paul S.; Kohl, John P.
Most court cases involving harassment have dealt with male violators against females. However, five other types of harassment also exist. A diagram is used to analyze different types of harassment under different conditions. (Author/MLF)
... Observatory (L-DEO), a part of Columbia University, for an Incidental Harassment Authorization (IHA) to take... Korenaga (Yale University, New Haven, CT), William Sager (Texas A&M University, College Station, TX), and... strong sound source include stress, neurological effects, bubble formation, and other types of organ or...
... hereby given that NMFS has issued an Incidental Harassment Authorization (IHA) to Lamont-Doherty Earth... patterns, including, but not limited to, migration, breathing, nursing, breeding, feeding, or sheltering... subarrays will fire alternately, so that no more than 18 airguns will fire at any time during the survey...
where a person in a position of power harasses a subordinate) and contra power sexual harassment, (where a subordinate is the harasser of authority figure) in medical schools in Ghana. among. Design: Cross-sectional study. Method: Four ...
At a special colloquium at CERN on 31 May, social psychologist Véronique Ducret will discuss harassment in the workplace. The goal of her seminar is prevention of harassment, how to avoid it and how to react if you find yourself a victim. Véronique Ducret is a consultant social psychologist specialising in cases of harassment. She is author of the work'Pour une entreprise sans harcèlement sexuel', and has given several seminars on the subject at CERN. Her talk will be given in French, in the main auditorium at 14:00 on 31 May.
... harassment, small numbers of nine species of marine mammals incidental to in-ice marine seismic surveys in..., by harassment, from ION's in-ice seismic survey will have a negligible impacton the affected species... whales and other marine mammal species in the Beaufort and Chukchi Seas during ION's in-ice seismic...
Binder, R L
The number of civil lawsuits related to sexual harassment is increasing. The author bases this paper on her experience as an expert witness in 28 sexual harassment cases over the last 10 years. She delineates the psychological and legal issues about which forensic psychiatrists may be consulted. These include issues related to helping a jury determine the veracity of the complaints of harassment, the psychological effects of the harassment, the prognosis, and the treatment for women who have been harassed. The author gives examples of cases where psychiatric testimony was given to help in the decision making about damages related to the psychological effects of sexual harassment.
Megha Dhillon; Suparna Bakaya
This study attempted to understand street harassment as experienced by young women in Delhi. Interviews were conducted with 20 women between the ages of 18 and 30 years to understand the nature of harassment they faced, its perceived consequences, their ways of coping with it, and the changes they felt were needed for them to feel safer. Findings revealed that harassment occurred most often in crowded spots and in broa...
Puech, Paloma; Pitcho, Benjamin
Two types of harassment are distinguished: sexual and psychological. In the private sector, according to French labour laws and the penal code, psychological harassment is actionable. It is up to the employer to prove the absence of harassment. The sanctions incurred can be up to 5 years imprisonment and a 150,000 euro fine and various measures of compensation for damages can be envisaged.
Dekker, I; Barling, J
The authors investigated the predictors of workplace sexual harassment in 278 male university faculty and staff (M age = 45 years). Workplace variables (perceptions of organizational sanctions against harassment and perceptions of a sexualized workplace) and personal variables (adversarial sexual beliefs, sexual harassment beliefs, perspective taking, and self-esteem) were studied as predictors of sexualized and gender harassment. Social desirability was controlled. Both organizational variables and beliefs about sexual harassment predicted gender harassment and sexualized harassment. Perspective taking, adversarial sexual beliefs, and sexual harassment beliefs moderated the effects of perceived organizational sanctions against harassment on sexualized harassment. Findings are discussed as they relate to organizational efforts to reduce or prevent sexual harassment.
Sbraga, T P; O'Donohue, W
We review the current state of sexual harassment theory, research, treatment, and prevention. Definitional problems and implications are discussed. An examination of the epidemiology of sexual harassment is presented, highlighting correlates that include characteristics of the organizational environment, the perpetrator, and the recipient of unwanted sexual behavior. Normative responses to sexual harassment and consequences are discussed. Descriptions of the most prevalent models of sexual harassment are offered and the empirical evidence for them is briefly reviewed. From there, the effect of model development and evaluation on the prevention and treatment of sexual harassment is considered. We comment on the steps that would need to be taken to develop viable prevention and treatment programs. Suggestions for fruitful avenues of research and theory development are offered.
Journal of Counseling and Development, 1991
A counseling student describes her experience as a target of long-term, systematic harassment in the form of sexual seduction by her practicum supervisor. The author recounts the effects of experiencing the harassment, confronting her harasser, and enduring an investigation. Claims events of case demonstrate sexualization of professor-student…
... National Marine Sanctuary (MBNMS) to incidentally take, by Level B harassment only, California sea lions.... ADDRESSES: The LOA and supporting documentation are available for review in the Permits, Conservation, and... taking of California sea lions and Pacific harbor seals, by Level B harassment, incidental to commercial...
Full Text Available This study attempted to understand street harassment as experienced by young women in Delhi. Interviews were conducted with 20 women between the ages of 18 and 30 years to understand the nature of harassment they faced, its perceived consequences, their ways of coping with it, and the changes they felt were needed for them to feel safer. Findings revealed that harassment occurred most often in crowded spots and in broad daylight. High levels of harassment were attributed to factors like prevalent attitudes toward women and weak implementation of laws. Participants saw their lives as being restricted in several ways by the harassment. The police was seen as apathetic, and women took on themselves the responsibility for staying safe. Sometimes, women chose to defend themselves by moving away from harassers rather than confronting them due to fear of escalation. However, several participants felt that staying quiet allowed the perpetuation of harassment. The major change that women sought was more effective police functioning.
... Marine Mammals Incidental to Rocket Launches from Kodiak, AK AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service... (Eumetopias jubatus) and Pacific harbor seals (Phoca vitulina richardsi) incidental to rocket launches from... Steller sea lions and harbor seals, by harassment, incidental to rocket launches at KLC, became effective...
... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sexual harassment. 1300.104 Section 1300.104 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY STANDARDS OF CONDUCT FOR EMPLOYEES OF TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY § 1300.104 Sexual harassment. It is TVA policy that all TVA employees are responsible for...
Lundy-Wagner, Valerie; Winkle-Wagner, Rachelle
In this conceptual paper, the authors discuss how research about sexual harassment and campus racial climates for undergraduate students is relegated to separate silos. Drawing on intersectionality and critical race feminist frameworks, the authors juxtapose these strands of research with attention to ethnicity/race and gender, highlighting how…
... of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Dumbarton Bridge Seismic Retrofit Project... pile driving associated with the Dumbarton Bridge Seismic Retrofit Project. DATES: Effective August 15... request from Caltrans to harass marine mammals incidental to the Dumbarton Bridge Seismic Retrofit Project...
..., by harassment, incidental to derelict creosote piling and structure removal within the Woodard Bay... incidental to derelict creosote piling and structure removal associated with a habitat restoration project... proposed project involves the removal of 615 creosote treated wood pilings and overwater creosoted...
Young, Ellie L.; Ashbaker, Betty Y.
This article discusses ways on how to address the problem of sexual harassment in schools. Sexual harassment--simply defined as any unwanted and unwelcome sexual behavior--is a sensitive topic. Merely providing students, parents, and staff members with information about the school's sexual harassment policy is insufficient; schools must take…
Lewis, John F.; And Others
As in many other areas of society, sexual harassment has become an important issue in education. It has left the educational community with many questions about what constitutes sexual harassment, how to prevent it, and how to deal with the legal problems that may arise concerning it. This report dispels several myths about sexual harassment in…
Grauerholz, E; King, A
This study explores the explicit and implicit messages of sexual harassment that viewers receive when viewing prime-time television in the US. A content analysis of 48 hours of prime-time television reveals that sexual harassment on television is both highly visible and invisible. Sexual harassment is rendered visible simply by its prominence in these programs. Incidents involving quid-pro-quo harassment and environmental harassment occur with regularity on television. Furthermore, about 84% of the shows studied contained at least one incident of sexual harassment; yet these acts of sexual harassment remained largely invisible because none of the behaviors were labeled as sexual harassment. These incidents are presented in humorous ways, and victims are generally unharmed and very effective at ending the harassment. Although such programs may actually reflect the reality of many women's lives in terms of prevalence of sexual harassment, they perpetuate several myths about sexual harassment, such as that sexual harassment is not serious and that victims should be able to handle the situations themselves.
Mawdsley, Ralph D.
Reviews the legal principles and precedents that frame current sexual harassment laws as they relate to schools. Discusses school district liability and responsibility for providing school environments safe from sexual harassment. Includes guidelines for developing and implementing school policies regarding sexual harassment. (CFR)
McCabe, Marita P; Hardman, Lisa
The authors investigated how individual factors (age, gender, gender role, past experiences of sexual harassment) and organizational factors (gender ratio, sexual harassment policies, the role of employers) related to workers' attitudes toward and perceptions of sexual harassment. In Study 1, participants were 176 workers from a large, white-collar organization. In Study 2, participants were 75 workers from a smaller, blue-collar organization. Individuals from Study 2 experienced more sexual harassment, were more tolerant of sexual harassment, and perceived less behavior as sexual harassment than did individuals from Study 1. For both samples, organizational and individual factors predicted workers' attitudes toward and experiences of sexual harassment. Individual factors-such as age, gender, gender role, past experiences of sexual harassment, and perceptions of management's tolerance of sexual harassment-predicted attitudes toward sexual harassment. Workers' attitudes, the behavioral context, and the gender of the victim and perpetrator predicted perceptions of sexual harassment. The authors discussed the broader implications of these findings and suggested recommendations for future research.
Offermann, Lynn R; Malamut, Adam B
Using cases of harassment by leaders, the authors examined the effects of target perceptions of leader responses to sexual harassment and whether leader implementation of harassment policies made a difference beyond the impact of the policies themselves. Results showed that women who perceived that leaders made honest efforts to stop harassment felt significantly freer to report harassment, were more satisfied with the complaint process, and reported greater commitment than did those viewing leaders as more harassment tolerant. Different leadership levels had different effects, with hierarchically proximal leaders generally having the greatest impact. Leadership mediated the relationship between organizational policy and outcomes, supporting the view that a key role for leaders is establishing an ethical organizational climate that reinforces formal harassment policies through actions.
Norman, I D; Aikins, M; Binka, F N
This study investigated the prevalence and incidence of Traditional (where a person in a position of power harasses a subordinate) and contra power sexual harassment, (where a subordinate is the harasser of authority figure) in medical schools in Ghana. among. Cross-sectional study. Four hundred and nine medical students from four medical schools in Ghana were interviewed. We also considered if academic and financial dependence would predict either traditional or contra power sexual harassment. We further investigated, whether women were more bothered by sexual harassment than men and the correlation between sexual harassment and health. Women were 61% more likely to be sexually harassed than men 39%. Sexual harassment negatively affects the victims' health outcome. We found that the traditional form of sexual harassment was prevalent in medical schools in Ghana and that academic dependence predicted attacks. In the first and second years, women at these institutions are more likely to be sexually harassed than men. Sexual harassment policies of medical school need to be widely circulated. The various medical schools should provide reporting procedures and counseling for victims. This paper would inform policy and research.
Camargo, Aline; Liu, Li; Yousem, David M
To gauge the prevalence of sexual harassment (SH) and to understand the issues regarding its disclosure among radiologists. A questionnaire on ethics and SH was sent by e-mail to 1,569 radiologists and radiology trainees in an institutional database maintained for continuing medical education purposes on three separate occasions between September 17 and October 31, 2016. The link to the survey was also posted on social media sites via the authors' divisional and institutional accounts on Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, and Aunt Minnie, as well as on ACR and RSNA web blogs. Overall, 9.75% (39 of 400) respondents stated they had suffered SH, with more female (22 of 90 = 24.4%) than male victims (11 of 249 = 4.4%) (P sexual harassment but are less likely to report such cases. Steps need to be taken to eliminate a culture that leads radiologists to tolerate SH without addressing it. Copyright © 2017 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Whitmore, Robin L.
Sexual harassment at the University of California Davis was studied to provide information for campus officials. Attention was directed to: campus attitudes about sexual harassment; the incidence of sexual harassment among survey respondents; the circumstances and characteristics of sexual harassment incidents; the effects of sexual harassment on…
Magley, V J; Hulin, C L; Fitzgerald, L F; DeNardo, M
Research has consistently documented a discrepancy between experiencing offensive sex-related behaviors and labeling these situations as sexual harassment, leading to several attempts to understand this phenomenon. The authors propose that the issue of why it is that women who report such experiences generally do not indicate that they have been sexually harassed is an important psychological question, and may provide a path through the nested meanings of workplace harassment. The authors argue for the value of moving beyond a descriptive approach to this issue by examining the effects of self-labeling on the psychological, health, and work-related outcomes of unwelcome, sex-related experiences. They present data from female employees working in 3 separate organizations, demonstrating that women exposed to such behaviors report very similar consequences, whether they label their experiences as harassment or not.
Stringer, Donna M.; And Others
Applies the models of achieved, ascribed, and situational power to describe various forms of sexual harassment. Discusses seven specific reasons for sexual harassment and specific proposals for effective employer responses to each type. (Author)
Workplace sexual harassment is illegal, but many workers report that they have been sexually harassed. Exposure to the risk of sexual harassment may decrease productivity, which would reduce wages. Alternatively, workers may receive a compensating differential for exposure to sexual harassment, which would increase wages. Data on claims of sexual harassment filed with the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission are used to calculate the first measures of sexual harassment risks by industry, a...
Madison, J; Minichiello, V
This study identified how 16 Australian registered nurses classified sex-based harassers and explained their own behavior and the behavior of the harasser. A qualitative research design, relying on in-depth interviews, was used to collect the data. The study found that harassment is linked to gender roles and that the harassed are reluctant to blame the harasser--the harassed had "sound" rationalizations for harassment. Awareness of the interactional dynamics of self-blame and these rationalizations will help nurse executives ensure a harassment-free workplace.
Kim, Nicole Jung-Eun; Vásquez, Victoria Breckwich; Torres, Elizabeth; Nicola, R M Bud; Karr, Catherine
The purpose of this study was to understand Mexican women farmworkers' perceptions of workplace sexual harassment, its related factors and consequences, and potential points of intervention. This community-based participatory research study conducted focus groups with 20 women farmworkers in rural Washington. Four coders analyzed and gleaned interpretations from verbatim transcripts. Three main themes were identified. It was learned that women farmworkers: (1) frequently experienced both quid pro quo and hostile work environment forms of sexual harassment; (2) faced employment and health consequences due to the harassment; and (3) felt that both individual- and industry-level changes could prevent the harassment. Based on these findings, the authors identified three sets of risk factors contributing to workplace sexual harassment and recommend using a multilevel approach to prevent future harassment in the agriculture industry.
Apr 5, 2013 ... HarassMap, initially a group of volunteers, started working on ending the social acceptability of sexual harassment in 2010. Through the use of social media platforms and data collection techniques known as crowdsourcing, HarassMap receives reports of harassment from anonymous witnesses and victims ...
Elgart, Lloyd D.; Schanfield, Lillian
Sexual harassment in American higher education is currently a problem of ethics and morals rather than of law. Any meaningful remedy for the student victim must be created and implemented by the institution, because courts, legislatures, and administrative agencies do not offer a remedy to student victims of sexual harassment. (MSE)
Gosselin, H L
This article is an effort to shed new light on what has been commonly termed sexual harassment, to identify its forms and, most importantly, to explore its effect upon those who have been subjected to it. The author's hypothesis is that sexual harassment in the workplace is more a social phenomenon than a personal problem, and that it is the cause of lasting psychological, social and economic after-effects among its victims. Combatting sexual harassment is only part of the solution; we must look beyond its legal aspects to find ways of changing male-female occupational relationships, and we must provide support to victims of sexual harassment.
DeSouza, Eros R
The current study investigated incivility, sexual harassment, and racial-ethnic harassment simultaneously when the targets were faculty members and the perpetrators were students (i.e., academic contrapower harassment; ACH). The sample constituted 257 faculty members (90% were White and 53% were women) from a medium-sized state university in the Midwestern United States. They completed an anonymous survey, including an openended question about a critical ACH incident. The findings revealed that 72% of the total sample had experienced some type of mistreatment from students during the past 2 years. The author hypothesized gender differences in frequency rates for overall ACH, incivility, and sexual harassment; however, there were none. Hence, this hypothesis was not supported. The author also hypothesized that incivility would predict sexual and ethnic harassment. This hypothesis was generally supported. Furthermore, he hypothesized that demographic, work-related, and tolerance for faculty-student romance would predict ACH and its subscales. The findings generally supported this hypothesis, with somewhat different predictors by gender. He also hypothesized that harassed faculty, especially women, would experience worse job-related outcomes than never harassed faculty. Neither gender nor the interaction was significant, but the main effect for harassment was, with harassed faculty members experiencing worse job-related outcomes than nonharassed faculty members. Thus this hypothesis was partially supported. Practical implications are discussed.
Full Text Available Education should safely shape the minds and attitudes of young adults and children, especially with the in loco parentis principle in mind. Young adults who have experienced sexual harassment in the very environment that should have protected them as learners suffer greatly from social problems and from emotional and academic strain. Victims often become future harassers themselves. Sexual harassment should be eradicated from the education sector in toto to ensure a safe learning environment. High incidences of harassment have been found among college students in America, while a very small percentage of such transgressions have been reported. Similar statistics in South African universities are not available, the problem is therefore managed in a void. The position in schools is more alarming. In South Africa it has been found that 30 per cent of girls are raped at school and that male learners and educators are the main culprits. Not only is the magnitude of this problem gravely underestimated, but the effect of sexual harassment on learners has also not been managed properly. The authors argue that the focus is on avoiding legal responsibility and accountability, rather than on being proactive. The historic invisibility of sexual harassment in education can be attributed to the wrongful silencing thereof.
Shoop, Robert J.
A "boilerplate" sexual harassment policy embedded in the district policy manual is insufficient. Schools need a comprehensive sexual harassment prevention program addressing authority, accountability, responsibility, and training. Since the vast majority of sexual harassment in schools is student-to-student, training efforts should not be limited…
Mahlangu, Vimbi Petrus
This paper highlights legal understanding of quid pro quo sexual harassment in schools. Quid pro quo sexual harassment implies abuse of authority or position to gain something sexual. A duty of care rests on teachers, Schools Governing Bodies and the Department of Education to provide and maintain safe schools that are free from all forms of…
Knowledge and Perception of Sexual Harassment in an. Institution of Higher Education in Sub-Saharan Africa. 137. *Corresponding author. Department of Psychology,. University of Zambia,. P.O. Box 32379, Lusaka. Email: email@example.com. ABSTRACT. Objective: To find out if Sexual Harassment existed at a.
In the developing nations, because of customs and traditions, women are afraid to speak out. In addition, they feel ashamed and are fearful of losing their jobs if they bring sexual harassment to the attention of authorities. Also, Sexual harassment is clearly an example of the challenges faced by the Human Resource function ...
Welliver, Paul W.
Discusses a new principle which has been added to the AECT (Association for Educational Communications and Technology) Code of Professional Ethics regarding discrimination, harassment, and bias. An example is presented which illustrates a violation of a professional colleague's rights. (LRW)
At a special colloquium at CERN on 31 May, social psychologist Véronique Ducret will discuss harassment in the workplace. The goal of her seminar is prevention of harassment, how to avoid it and how to react if you find yourself a victim. Harassment takes many forms, some more obvious than others. At first glance, you may think that cases of sexual harassment would be clear-cut, but often there is misunderstanding as to what is unacceptable behaviour. The golden rule is always to put yourself in the other person's shoes. What is important is not necessarily what you intend, but how it is received. A harmless joke to some may be deeply offensive to others. Other forms of harassment, such as moral harassment or 'mobbing' and exclusion are equally pernicious, equally damaging, and also not always clear-cut. In some cases, the perpetrators may not realise the impact of their actions. Following an introduction by the CERN Director of Administration, Jan van der Boon, Ducret's symposium wil...
Berdahl, Jennifer L
In 3 studies, the author tested 2 competing views of sexual harassment: (a) It is motivated primarily by sexual desire and, therefore, is directed at women who meet feminine ideals, and (b) it is motivated primarily by a desire to punish gender-role deviants and, therefore, is directed at women who violate feminine ideals. Study 1 included male and female college students (N = 175) and showed that women with relatively masculine personalities (e.g., assertive, dominant, and independent) experienced the most sexual harassment. Study 2 (N = 134) showed that this effect was not because women with relatively masculine personalities were more likely than others to negatively evaluate potentially harassing scenarios. Study 3 included male and female employees at 5 organizations (N = 238) and showed that women in male-dominated organizations were harassed more than women in female-dominated organizations, and that women in male-dominated organizations who had relatively masculine personalities were sexually harassed the most. ((c) 2007 APA, all rights reserved.
Eom, Elizabeth; Restaino, Stephen; Perkins, Amy M; Neveln, Nicole; Harrington, John W
Sexual harassment can be physical interaction and touching, as well as, psychological, environmental, or via Internet and text messaging. An online survey in an urban clinic asked children, aged 12 to 18 years the following: demographic data, height and weight, chronic medical conditions, healthcare use, questions concerning sexual harassment-witnessed and exposure, and finally questions from the Pediatric Symptom Checklist (PSC-35). Overall, 124 of 210 (59%) of the 12- to 18-year-olds surveyed had experienced sexual harassment, with the predominance being female 69% (80/116) versus 48% (49/92) male. Participants who had experienced sexual harassment were significantly more likely to score positive for psychological impairment than those who had not experienced sexual harassment (chi-square test P sexual harassment (2-sample t test P = .08). Sexual harassment has a direct correlation to psychological impairment in adolescents, especially females. © The Author(s) 2014.
Robbins, I; Bender, M P; Finnis, S J
Sexual harassment is a problem faced by women in the workplace which can lead to adverse psychological consequences as well as impaired work performance. Sexual harassment is about the abuse of power and status rather then merely being about sex per se and has to be viewed in the context of institutionalized male power. Although there is a relative dearth of research, there is increasing evidence that sexual harassment of nurses is common and that it can have adverse effects on nurses physical and psychological health as well as a direct impact on patient care. Nursing, by its very nature of having to care for patients bodily needs, transgresses normal social rules regarding bodily contact. This is exploited by the perpetrator who relies on nurses' caring attitude to be able to harass. A descriptive model of the processes involved in harassment is presented which offers the possibility of being able to intervene at a number of points in the process. Interventions need to be aimed at both individual and organizational levels if there is to be a prospect of reducing a major occupational stressor for nurses.
Fasting, Kari; Brackenridge, Celia
Sexual harassment in sport has become an active research field within the past decade yet we know relatively little about the characteristics of the harassing coach. How are harassing coaches characterised by their victims, that is, the athletes themselves? Do they demonstrate specific kinds of behaviours? One purpose of this article is to address…
Borkowski, John W.; Brown, Lisa A.; Dodge, Jean Arnold; Ford, Tonya L.; Hoffman, Adam; Jacobs, Jennifer W.; Jaffe, Geraldine; Krent, Nancy Fredman; Schwartz, Richard A.; Shaw, Brian C.; Sneed, Maree
This monograph was designed to assist school attorneys, school board members, and administrators in their efforts to prevent, respond to, and defend against claims of sexual harassment by employees. It includes discussion of the law relating to harassment of employees by other employees and employee harassment of students. Practical advice is…
Full Text Available Moral harassment at the workplace has become in the last period a very often met phenomenon that severely affects the work relations and represents a significant health and safety danger. This problem has become in the last period an important issue for the European Union which has initiated a series of studie for analyzing the consequences of this pehenomenon on the normal process of the work relations, that has lead, in its turn to an awareness of this new dimenion of harassment between the employees at the internal level.
... receptor. Take of marine mammals by Level B harassment incidental to the activities mentioned in this... BP (BPXA, 1999). Underwater and in-air sounds and iceborne vibrations of various activities... and vibrations measured around the Northstar prospect. Ice road construction is difficult to separate...
Rabinerson, David; Maman, Maor; Glezerman, Marek
Sexual harassment is quite prevalent in medical organizations. The two most affected groups are medical students and nurses. In its broad perspective, sexual harassment is defined as any type of offensive behavior with sexual connotation aimed at any individual or minority. In Israel, sexual harassment is regarded as such only in the literal sense, although recently, courts tend to adopt a more comprehensive approach in their ruling. Final legislation of the law against sexual harassment, which includes employer liability for the actions of its workers, caused increased awareness of the phenomenon of sexual harassment and may serve in reducing its prevalence in the medical environment.
DeSouza, Eros R.; Cerqueira, Elder
Sexual harassment has been investigated mostly in developed countries. The authors examined frequency rates and consequences of sexual harassment among female domestic workers in Brazil. Twenty-six percent had been sexually harassed at work during the past year. Live-in workers were at significantly greater risk for experiencing sexual harassment…
Gruber, James; Fineran, Susan
A comparison of the impact of bullying and sexual harassment on five school outcomes was conducted on a sample of high school students. Results revealed that sexual harassment was a stronger predictor than bullying of all school outcomes for both sexes, but especially for girls. This study suggests that sexual harassment, which activates sexist and heterosexist stereotypes, erodes school engagement, alienates students from teachers, and adversely affects academic achievement, to a greater degree than bullying does. © The Author(s) 2015.
Hill, Catherine; Silva, Elena
This book presents a look at the "big picture." Is sexual harassment common? What kinds of behaviors are taking place? Who is being harassed, and who is doing the harassing? For students who admit to harassing others, why do they do it? How does sexual harassment affect students' educational experience? What do students think should be done about…
Clear, Emily R; Coker, Ann L; Cook-Craig, Patricia G; Bush, Heather M; Garcia, Lisandra S; Williams, Corrine M; Lewis, Alysha M; Fisher, Bonnie S
This large, population-based study is one of the few to examine prevalence rates of sexual harassment occurring during the past 12 months by victimization and perpetration among adolescents. In this large, cross-sectional survey of students attending 26 high schools, sexual harassment was defined using three questions from the Sexual Experiences Questionnaire. Among 18,090 students completing the survey, 30% disclosed sexual harassment victimization (37% of females, 21% of males) and 8.5% reported perpetration (5% of females, 12% of males). Sexual harassment perpetration was highly correlated with male sex, minority race/ethnicity, same-sex attraction, bullying, alcohol binge drinking, and intraparental partner violence. © The Author(s) 2014.
Avina, Claudia; O'Donohue, William
Sexual harassment has become a major social, legal, and mental health problem because of its high prevalence and its negative consequences for victims. These consequences can include decreased productivity, loss of job, decreased income, and impaired psychological and physical well-being. Despite evidence from empirical studies that victims often exhibit posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, some have argued that sexual harassment does not constitute legitimate trauma. We argue that many forms of sexual harassment meet the diagnostic Criteria A1 and A2 of PTSD. Finally, the DSM-IV trauma criterion is explicated, and its relationship with sexual harassment and its effects are discussed.
Jacobs, C D; Bergen, M R; Korn, D
To measure the effect of an intervention to reduce gender insensitivity and sexual harassment at one medical school. Stanford University School of Medicine undertook a multifaceted program to educate faculty and students regarding gender issues and to diminish sexual harassment. The authors developed a survey instrument to assess the faculty's perceptions regarding environment (five scales) and incidences of sexual harassment. Faculty were surveyed twice during the interventions (1994 and 1995). Between the two years, the authors measured significant improvements in mean ratings for positive climate (p = .004) and cohesion (p = .006) and decreases in the faculty's perceptions of sexual harassment (p = 0006), gender insensitivity (p = .001), and gender discrimination (p = .004). The faculty also reported fewer observations of harassing behavior during the study period. An intervention program to diminish gender insensitivity and sexual harassment can measurably improve a medical school's environment.
N Vanishree; V Chaithra; Amandeep Pabbla
Sexual harassment is a highly prevalent form of gender-based discrimination and sexual exploitation in the workplace and academic environment. In the dental field, there are a few studies regarding sexual harassment among the patients, professors and claims of their students. There is a silence of consent surrounding sexual harassment. It is clearly an issue about which the practicing dentists need to be informed in order to provide knowledgeable assessment and treatment for all patients. Den...
Workplace sexual harassment is internationally condemned as sex discrimination and a violation of human rights, and more than 75 countries have enacted legislation prohibiting it. Sexual harassment in the workplace increases absenteeism and turnover and lowers workplace productivity and job satisfaction. Yet it remains pervasive and underreported, and neither legislation nor market incentives have been able to eliminate it. Strong workplace policies prohibiting sexual harassment, workplace tr...
Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu; Frojd, Sari; Marttunen, Mauri
Sexual harassment has been studies as a mechanism reproducing inequality between sexes, as gender based discrimination, and more recently, as a public health problem. The role of family-related factors for subjection to sexual harassment in adolescent has been little studied. Our aim was to study the role of socio-demographic family factors and parental involvement in adolescent's persona life for experiences of sexual harassment among 14-18-year-old population girls and boys. An anonymous cr...
The proposed research concerns the engagement of companies operating in Finland in prevention of workplace harassment. The main target of the thesis is to understand the importance of the prevention of workplace harassment in the work environment. Research analyses what measures companies take in order to prevent workplace harassment and how is it monitored. As a primary research, interview findings of four Finnish companies (“Company X”, DHL Finland, ISS Palvelut and Management Institute...
...] Incidental Take Permit Amendment and Supplemental Environmental Assessment for Wind Energy Development... of a revised habitat conservation plan (revised HCP) and accompanying documents for wind energy... of Puerto Rican crested toad (Peltophryne lemur) incidental to the previously authorized wind energy...
..., including, but not limited to, migration, breathing, nursing, breeding, feeding, or sheltering [the MMPA... complement previously completed shallow ( http://www.werc.usgs.gov/Project.aspx?ProjectID=91 ). A small... male [[Page 59215
Rabjerg, Maj; Mikkelsen, Minne Nedergaard; Walter, Steen
On the basis of associations between tumor size, pathological stage, histological subtype and tumor grade in incidentally detected renal cell carcinoma vs symptomatic renal cell carcinoma, we discussed the need for a screening program of renal cell carcinoma in Denmark. We analyzed a consecutive...... series of 204 patients with renal tumors in 2011 and 2012. The tumors were classified according to detection mode: symptomatic and incidental and compared to pathological parameters. Eighty-nine patients (44%) were symptomatic, 113 (55%) were incidental. Information was not available in two patients...
Huerta, Marisela; Cortina, Lilia M; Pang, Joyce S; Torges, Cynthia M; Magley, Vicki J
The authors build an integrated model of the process by which academic sexual harassment undermines women's well-being; also examined is harasser power as a potential moderator of this process. Data from 1,455 college women suggest that sexual harassment experiences are associated with increased psychological distress, which then relates to lower academic satisfaction, greater physical illness, and greater disordered eating. The cumulative effect is greater disengagement from the academic environment, which in turn relates to performance decline (i.e., lower grades). Regardless of how frequently the harassment occurred, academic satisfaction was lower when the harassment came from higher-status individuals (i.e., faculty, staff, or administrators). At the same time, harassment was equally detrimental to mental health, regardless of who perpetrated it. The article concludes with implications for theory, research, and intervention.
Stier, William F., Jr.
Sexual harassment, according to the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC), is when any unwelcome sexual advances for sexual favors, and other verbal or physical conduct of a sexual nature takes place. For sexual harassment to take place there must be some type of behavior, language, or material of a sexual nature, which is offensive.…
US Department of Education, 2008
Sexual harassment of students is illegal. A federal law, "Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972" ("Title IX"), prohibits discrimination on the basis of sex, including sexual harassment, in education programs and activities. All public and private education institutions that receive any federal funds must comply with…
Anderson, Patricia L.
School administrators should develop a clear policy statement prohibiting sexual harassment; create guidelines to implement the policy; and designate a key administrator to oversee and ensure compliance with laws related to sexual harassment. Lists steps for dealing with a claim, what teachers can do to protect themselves from claims, and what a…
Charlie L. Law, PhD Department of Psychology , Florida Southern College Summer Faculty Research Fellow, DEOMI Summer 2016 Kaitlyn McCarthy Penn...and Lean (2009), initial research on sexual harassment focused on two basic definitions of sexual harassment: legal harassment and psychological ...determining the effects of sexual harassment on organizational outcomes (e.g., Barling et al., Sexual Orientation and Harassment
Oakleaf, Linda; Grube, Angela Johnson
Employers are responsible for sexual harassment perpetrated by a supervisor. Camps may be responsible for sexual harassment between campers. Steps to reduce liability include providing multiple channels for reporting sexual harassment; having written policies prohibiting sexual harassment and procedures for reporting it; posting these policies and…
Faley, Robert H.
Reviewed 52 court cases to determine standards set by the courts for establishing a claim of sexual harassment under Title VII of the Civil Rights Act. Examined the gender-based nature of sexual harassment at work, employment-related consequences, and the extent of employer liability for acts of their employees. (Author)
harassment and sexual assault. 17 III. DATA AND METHODOLOGY In this chapter, I describe the data used for the empirical analysis and the construction...THE MILITARY: AN ANALYSIS OF SEXUAL ASSAULT AND SEXUAL HARASSMENT INCIDENTS AND REPORTING by William C. Souder, III March 2017 Thesis Advisor...ASSAULT AND SEXUAL HARASSMENT INCIDENTS AND REPORTING 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) William C. Souder, III 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND
Holmes, Mary Anne; Marin-Spiotta, Erika; Schneider, Blair
Harassment, sexual and otherwise, including bullying and discrimination, remains an ongoing problem in the science workforce. In response to monthly revelations of harassment in academic science in the U.S. in 2016, the American Geophysical Union (AGU) convened a workshop to discuss strategies for professional societies to address this pernicious practice. Participants included researchers on this topic and members from professional science societies, academia, and U.S. federal government agencies. We agreed on the following principles: - Harassment, discrimination and bullying most often occur between a superior (e.g., an advisor, professor, supervisor) and a student or early career professional, representing a power difference that disadvantages the less-powerful scientist. - Harassment drives excellent potential as well as current scientists from the field who would otherwise contribute to the advancement of science, engineering and technology. - Harassment, therefore, represents a form of scientific misconduct, and should be treated as plagiarism, falsification, and other forms of scientific misconduct are treated, with meaningful consequences. To address harassment and to change the culture of science, professional societies can and should: ensure that their Code of Ethics and/or Code of Conduct addresses harassment with clear definitions of what constitutes this behavior, including in academic, professional, conference and field settings; provide a clear and well-disseminated mechanism for reporting violations to the society; have a response person or team in the society that can assist those who feel affected by harassment; and provide a mechanism to revisit and update Codes on a regular basis. The Code should be disseminated widely to members and apply to all members and staff. A revised Code of Ethics is now being constructed by AGU, and will be ready for adoption in 2017. See http://harassment.agu.org/ for information updates.
Reynolds, Richard Jennings [Los Alamos National Laboratory
The purpose of this course is to introduce safe hoisting and rigging practices to personnel who are attempting to become LANL incidental crane operators and to review and refresh safe hoisting and rigging practices with existing incidental crane operators.
Mohipp, Charmaine; Senn, Charlene Y
This study compared the perceptions of 172 graduate students to traditional versus contrapower sexual harassment. Graduate students are a unique sample due to their dual role as a student and a teacher. After controlling for attitudes toward feminism and sexual harassment, participants viewed contrapower sexual harassment as less indicative of sexual harassment than traditional sexual harassment. Those with teaching experience perceived the scenarios provided as more indicative of sexual harassment than participants without teaching experience, and this effect was magnified for males. These findings suggest that people take sexual harassment less seriously in contrapower sexual harassment than in traditional sexual harassment. Furthermore, it is possible that teaching experience makes graduate students more aware of the complicated power differentials involved in classroom settings.
Full Text Available Sexual harassment is a highly prevalent form of gender-based discrimination and sexual exploitation in the workplace and academic environment. In the dental field, there are a few studies regarding sexual harassment among the patients, professors and claims of their students. There is a silence of consent surrounding sexual harassment. It is clearly an issue about which the practicing dentists need to be informed in order to provide knowledgeable assessment and treatment for all patients. Dentists also have a role in advocacy, expert consultation or testimony, research and prevention through education and training. It is a fact that sexual harassment is very commonly encountered by almost everyone especially women. It is the most unresolved and under recognized problem of today especially when professionals are concerned. Preventing sexual harassment requires a considerable investment of time and personnel. This paper reviews the topic of sexual harassment as a problem from its legal aspects and recommendations for further steps to resolve this issue in dentistry.
Full Text Available HarassMap is an NGO based in Cairo that collects and maps crowdsourced data on sexual harassment in Egypt. Alongside this crowd-sourced data gathering it also offers training, workshops and advocacy programs, working with relevant parties to reduce the acceptability of all forms of sexual harassment. The project has been running since 2010 based on the Ushaidi platform. Over this time it has collected a very large number of mapped events reported largely by anonymous members of the public. The data has value both in terms of its richness; mapping data, category of harassment and descriptions are all recorded; and also as a longitudinal dataset that can inform on the success of interventions as well as the development of new forms of harassment. The project has been approached in the past by a number of researchers interested in using the data it has collected. The interest from HarassMap in Pilot Project participation was originally to obtain technical support to address how best to share data. While some technical advice was offered the focus on practice and planning was still useful. Identifying what data resources the project had, and in what form, allowed them to develop an online portal through which data can be made available to researchers on request.
Chapman, Bryan Scott [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Wysong, Andrew Russell [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
This document addresses the incidental reflector reactivity worth of containerized fire extinguishing agents authorized for use in PF-4 at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The intent of the document is to analyze dry fire extinguishing agent that remains in a container and is not actively being used in a fire emergency. The incidental reflector reactivity worth is determined by comparison to various thicknesses of close fitting water reflection which is commonly used to bound incidental reflectors in criticality safety evaluations. The conclusion is that even in unlimited quantities, when containerized the authorized dry fire extinguishing agents are bound by 0.4 inches of close fitting water.
Sims, Carra S; Drasgow, Fritz; Fitzgerald, Louise F
Sexual harassment has consistently negative consequences for working women, including changes in job attitudes (e.g., lower satisfaction) and behaviors (e.g., increased work withdrawal). Cross-sectional evidence suggests that harassment influences turnover intentions. However, few studies have used actual turnover; rather, they rely on proxies. With a sample of 11,521 military servicewomen with turnover data spanning approximately 4 years, the authors used the appropriate method for longitudinal turnover data--Cox's regression--to investigate the impact of harassment on actual turnover. Experiences of harassment led to increased turnover, even after controlling for job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and marital status. Among officers, harassment also affected turnover over and above rank. Given turnover's relevance to organizational bottom lines, these findings have important implications not only for individual women but also for organizations. ((c) 2005 APA, all rights reserved).
Rotundo, M; Nguyen, D H; Sackett, P R
Research on gender differences in perceptions of sexual harassment informs an ongoing legal debate regarding the use of a reasonable person standard instead of a reasonable woman standard to evaluate sexual harassment claims. The authors report a meta-analysis of 62 studies of gender differences in harassment perceptions. An earlier quantitative review combined all types of social-sexual behaviors for a single meta-analysis; the purpose of this study was to investigate whether the magnitude of the female-male difference varies by type of behavior. An overall standardized mean difference of 0.30 was found, suggesting that women perceive a broader range of social-sexual behaviors as harassing. However, the meta-analysis also found that the female-male difference was larger for behaviors that involve hostile work environment harassment, derogatory attitudes toward women, dating pressure, or physical sexual contact than sexual propositions or sexual coercion.
Vimbi Petrus Mahlangu
Full Text Available Paper highlights legal understanding of quid pro quo sexual harassment in schools. Quid pro quo sexual harassment implies abuse of authority or position to gain something sexual. A duty of care rests on teachers, Schools Governing Bodies and the Department of Education to provide and maintain safe schools that are free from all forms of victimisation and abuse. However, there seems to be an abuse of power by all those who are supposedly to protect learners in schools. Paper used an abuse of organisational power theory and conceptualisation framework as a lens used in analysing various forms of victimisation and abuse with an effort to provide a better understanding of behaviour that amounts to abuse. Paper concludes with guidelines for handling harassment and bullying in the school contexts.
Diehl, Charlotte; Glaser, Tina; Bohner, Gerd
Prior research has shown that (1) better knowledge about the consequences of rape goes along with less rape-supportive attitudes and lower rape proclivity, and (2) empathy with the victims correlates negatively with sexual aggression. In two experiments, the authors combined these approaches in order to reduce sexual harassment myth acceptance (SHMA) and the likelihood to sexually harass (LSH). In Study 1, 101 male and female university students read a report describing sexual harassment as either serious or harmless, and completed scales assessing dispositional empathy and SHMA. Results showed that higher empathy was associated with lower SHMA; furthermore, learning about the seriousness (vs. harmlessness) of sexual harassment led to lower SHMA, particularly in participants low in empathy. Gender differences in SHMA were fully explained by gender differences in empathy. In Study 2, perspective taking, a crucial aspect of empathy, was manipulated. One hundred nineteen male and female participants read either a neutral text or a description of a sexual harassment case, which was written either from the female target's or from the male perpetrator's perspective; then they completed scales measuring SHMA and (only male participants) LSH. The target's perspective led to lower SHMA and to lower LSH than did the neutral text, whereas no such effect was found for the perpetrator's perspective. Implications for intervention programs are discussed. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false National origin harassment. 1300.105 Section 1300.105 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY... relating to an individual's national origin when such conduct: (a) Has the purpose or effect of creating an...
Seymour, William C.
Examines whether the prohibition against sex discrimination in Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 includes a prohibition against sexual harassment and the evolving theory in the federal court system that permits the plaintiff to include the corporate employer in her Title VII claim. (Author/IRT)
In recent years, an accumulation of Japanese research about sexual harassment and a number of very public court cases involving prominent public figures placed the issue of sexual harassment in the media spotlight. Japan was forced to recognise sexual harassment as a national problem, and not an issue, which was confined to the Western world. In April 1999, the Japanese government realised the need to amend existing laws to include sexual harassment under article twenty-one of the Equal Oppor...
We face a number of legal and ethical issues in our work as scientists and as AGU members. To uphold the highest ethical standards in our professional activities, the Council has adopted policies on free access to published material, ethics in publishing, and misconduct in science. But what about guidelines to govern the personal behavior that constitutes harassment, sexual or otherwise?For years the AGU headquarters staff has had a policy that offers protection from harassment and rules for dealing with it, but the membership went without one until 1994. That year the Council adopted a policy that extends to the membership as well as to the staff and the vendors they encounter at meetings. The law only requires a policy to prevent harassment in the workplace, but the Council felt that a harassment policy was particularly important for members because the subtle behavior that can constitute harassment is most likely to occur at events that combine work and social interaction, such as the meetings, conferences, and training seminars that AGU members attend.
Peoples, FM. Vol 15, No 1&2 (2008) - Articles Street Harassment in Cairo: A Symptom of Disintegrating Social Structures Abstract PDF. ISSN: 1024-0969. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions of ...
Yieke, F. Vol 6, No 2 (2004) - Articles Sexual Harassment in the Workplace: A Case for Linguistic and Sexual Politics? Abstract. ISSN: 1595-0956. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions of Use ...
Emma-Echiegu, NB. Vol 23, No 1-2 (2011) - Articles Prevalence of sexual harassment/victimization of female students in Ebonyi State University Abakaliki, southeast Nigeria Abstract PDF. ISSN: 0794-7410. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about ...
Rzygula, R. Vol 16, No 4 (2010): Supplement - Articles The perceptions and occurrence of sexual harassment among male student athletes with male coaches. Abstract. ISSN: 1117-4315. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's ...
Hill, Catherine; Kearl, Holly
Sexual harassment has long been an unfortunate part of the climate in middle and high schools in the United States. Often considered a kind of bullying, sexual harassment by definition involves sex and gender and therefore warrants separate attention. The legal definition of sexual harassment also differentiates it from bullying. Based on a…
... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sexual harassment. 700.561 Section 700.561 Indians THE OFFICE OF NAVAJO AND HOPI INDIAN RELOCATION COMMISSION OPERATIONS AND RELOCATION PROCEDURES Employee Responsibility and Conduct § 700.561 Sexual harassment. (a) Sexual harassment is a form of employee misconduct which undermines the integrity of the...
Wasserman, Nora M. Fraser
This document discusses the developing law of sexual harassment. Sexual harassment is discussed not only in the school environment, but also in the workplace. Two legally recognized forms of sexual harassment are described: (1) quid pro quo, or demanding sexual favors in exchange for grades, raises, promotions; and (2) the hostile environment…
Mohipp, Charmaine; Senn, Charlene Y.
This study compared the perceptions of 172 graduate students to traditional versus contrapower sexual harassment. Graduate students are a unique sample due to their dual role as a student and a teacher. After controlling for attitudes toward feminism and sexual harassment, participants viewed contrapower sexual harassment as less indicative of…
Dougherty, Debbie S.; Smythe, Mary Jeanette
While EEOC guidelines for managing sexual harassment prescribe a strong sexual harassment policy and aggressive remedial action following complaints, a communication approach suggests a need for a more complex understanding of sexual harassment as diffused throughout an organizational culture. The present case study uses a sensemaking approach to…
Franke, Ann H.
Several recent incidents have brought national attention to issues involving male professors and sexual-harassment policies on campuses. Allegations of harassment can involve high stakes for the accused, with dismissal as a possible penalty. Criminal charges for harassment, in contrast to assault, are rare. Within an institution, people accused of…
Offers an overview of complex issue of sexual harassment. Outlines definitions, prevalence data, cultural context, barriers to reporting these experiences to appropriate resources, and effects of sexual harassment on victims. Concludes educators must seek out opportunities to raise awareness of sexual harassment and prevent its occurrence.…
Celik, Yusuf; Celik, Sevilay Senol
To identify the prevalence and sources of sexual harassment against nurses in Turkey, its consequences, and factors affecting harassment experiences. Descriptive survey. Participants (N=622) were selected from nurses working in eight Ministry of Health hospitals in Turkey. Participants were surveyed with a Sexual Harassment Questionnaire, consisting of the sociodemographic characteristics of participants, types of sexual harassment, sources, feelings, ramifications, and ways to cope with sexual harassment behaviors. Frequency and percentage distributions, chi-square, and logistic regression were used for data analysis. The results showed 37.1% of participants had been harassed sexually. Physicians were identified as the primary instigators of sexual harassment. The most common reactions against harassers were anger and fear; frequently reported negative effects of sexual harassment were disturbed mental health function, decline in job performance, and headache. "Did nothing" was the coping method used most commonly by the nurses. About 80% of sexually harassed nurses did not report the incident of sexual harassment to hospital administration. The lower working status and power of nurses in the workplace, poor working conditions in healthcare settings, and insufficient administrative mechanisms, including the present law and regulations against sexual harassers, were identified as important factors in the work environment in Turkey.
Describes instances of harassment, including harassment of teachers by students, and discusses harassment as a sign system that has structure, folkloric elements, a wide paradigmatic range, behavioral effects on the receiver, and meaning beyond the normal significance of the sign. (GT)
Raver, Jana L; Nishii, Lisa H
Despite scholars' and practitioners' recognition that different forms of workplace harassment often co-occur in organizations, there is a paucity of theory and research on how these different forms of harassment combine to influence employees' outcomes. We investigated the ways in which ethnic harassment (EH), gender harassment (GH), and generalized workplace harassment (GWH) combined to predict target individuals' job-related, psychological, and health outcomes. Competing theories regarding additive, exacerbating, and inuring (i.e., habituating to hardships) combinations were tested. We also examined race and gender differences in employees' reports of EH, GH, and GWH. The results of two studies revealed that EH, GH, and GWH were each independently associated with targets' strain outcomes and, collectively, the preponderance of evidence supported the inurement effect, although slight additive effects were observed for psychological and physical health outcomes. Racial group differences in EH emerged, but gender and race differences in GH and GWH did not. Implications are provided for how multiple aversive experiences at work may harm employees' well-being. 2010 APA, all rights reserved
Full Text Available This paper presents the results of the survey on sexual harassment in public transportation in Belgrade, conducted during 2007. Authors of the survey are Milena Račeta and Branislava Tanasković, students on Philosophy faculty in Belgrade, psychology department. In introduction, authors give a short review of research methodology. In the rest of the paper, authors present quantitive survey results obtained through exploration of specific aspects of real sexual harassment experiences. Qualitive analysis of recommendations given by questioned females is also presented. This survey has been conducted using a questionnaire specially constructed by authors for the purpose of this research. Finally, in conclusion, authors summarize the data, and emphasizing the need of an appropriate social action offer some possible solutions for minimizing this type of violence.
harasment is defined as: (1) influencing, offering to influ- ence, or threatening the career, pay, or job of another person in exchange for sexual favors...r AD-A097 544 NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY CA F/ 5/11 SEXUAL HARASSMENT IN THE NAVY.U) DEC 80 P J REILY UNCLASSIFIED NL EEEEEEEl/ll/lI...1112iPiETS Cf-ATALOG uUgma., o.11-.?s..,___,..°..o_ .._ 4. TITLE (a" *uld .Itd ) S. Type Or REPORT a PERIOD COVEno SEXUAL HARASSMENT IN THE NAVY Master’s
Berdahl, Jennifer L; Moore, Celia
To date there have been no studies of how both sex and ethnicity might affect the incidence of both sexual and ethnic harassment at work. This article represents an effort to fill this gap. Data from employees at 5 organizations were used to test whether minority women are subject to double jeopardy at work, experiencing the most harassment because they are both women and members of a minority group. The results supported this prediction. Women experienced more sexual harassment than men, minorities experienced more ethnic harassment than Whites, and minority women experienced more harassment overall than majority men, minority men, and majority women.
Gasparini, Clelia; Devigili, Alessandro; Pilastro, Andrea
Sexual harassment is a common outcome of sexual conflict over mating rate. A large number of studies have identified several direct costs to females of sexual harassment including energy expenditure and reduced foraging ability. However, the fitness consequences of sexual harassment for descendants have rarely been investigated. Here, we manipulated the level of sexual harassment and mating rate in two groups of female guppies, Poecilia reticulata, a live-bearing fish in which sexual conflict over mating rate is particularly pronounced. Each female was allowed to interact with three males for one day (low sexual harassment, LSH) or for eight days (high sexual harassment, HSH) during each breeding cycle throughout their life. Female lifetime fecundity did not differ between the groups, but we found a strong effect on offspring fitness. HSH females produced (1) daughters with smaller bodies and (2) sons with shorter gonopodia, which were less attractive to females and less successful in coercive matings than their LSH counterparts. Although these results may be influenced by the indirect effects of sex ratio differences between treatments, they suggest that sexual harassment and elevated mating rate can have negative cross-generational fitness effects and more profound evolutionary consequences than currently thought. © 2011 The Author(s). Evolution© 2011 The Society for the Study of Evolution.
Full Text Available Unwelcome sexual advances, proposition or pressure for sexual activity, offensive flirtations, leering, whistling, making sexually suggestive gestures, sexual jokes, unwanted sexual looks, unwanted letters, telephone call, or materials of a sexual nature, unwanted physical contact, actual or attempting rape or sexual assault, this and more of this conduct if took place in the workplace would amount to a sexual harassment. The sexual harassment at work has become a serious issue of our time. It is an unjustified interference of integrity, dignity and well-being of workers, causing problems from headaches to depression, loss of confidence, panic attacks and perhaps suicide as the only way appearing to be the sole possible relief from the unremitting and frightening behavior. This article presents information concerning the sexual harassment at workplace, covering topics such as, the definitions for sexual harassment in both international and national context, a short history of sexual harassment, types of sexual harassment, effect of sexual harassment, measure to combat and prevent sexual harassment. It offers a short overview in sexual harassment legislation of some industrialized EU Member States and the legal remedies available against sexual harassment. The main purpose of this article is to provide a better understanding and prevention concerning the issue of sexual harassment in workplace.
Valente, Sharon M; Bullough, Vern
Nurses who are sexually harassed at work face frustration and emotional and economic consequences. Historically before the 1970s, nurses had little legal recourse and tolerated sexual harassment as a necessary "evil" associated with working. The Civil Rights Act of 1964 created the option for legal remedies for sexual harassment/discrimination cases. Successful court cases established the legal criteria for sexual harassment. This article discusses the history, definition, high profile cases, research, consequences, and prevention of sexual harassment. Although research is scant and little is known of how nurses respond to harassing behavior, prevention requires coordinated activities of employers, individual employees, and the healthcare profession. Sexual harassment at work increases anxiety and undermines the nurse's ability to focus on the delivery of safe and competent care.
Baker, Nancy V.
More than thirty years ago, an administrative assistant at Cornell University first challenged her university's indifference to her boss's sexually predatory behavior. While she did not prevail, her case sparked a movement. Litigation, news stories, and government guidelines defining sexual harassment followed. And universities responded: policies…
Puech, Paloma; Pitcho, Benjamin
The French Labour Code, which provides full protection against moral and sexual harassment, is not applicable to public sector workers. The public hospital is however not exempt from such behaviour, which could go unpunished. Public sector workers are therefore protected by the French General Civil Service Regulations and the penal code.
Full Text Available Sexual harassment is not a new phenomenon in tertiary institutions. It has been receiving considerable attention in research and the media and public awareness has increased dramatically. However, the term sexual harassment is not used uniformly across the globe because countries have defined it differently. Consequently, prevalence of sexual harassment in education varies across cultures. This paper examines sexual harassment from a comparative perspective. It specifically focuses on the definition of sexual harassment, incidence of sexual harassment of students in tertiary institutions, effects of sexual harassment on victims; and victims’ responses to sexual harassment. It also offers suggestions for curtailing sexual harassment in these institutions.
Full Text Available AIM: To study the incidence, epidemiology, and clinical characteristics of incidental malignant periocular tumors at the royal medical services hospitals of Jordan.METHODS: Retrospective medical charts of 327 patients with malignant periocular tumor diagnosis at Jordan military hospitals between 2004 and 2015 were reviewed. Study variables included age, gender, city where patient lived, the presenting complaint(not caused by or related to tumor, clinical and histological diagnosis, size of the tumor, location, and surgical procedure.RESULTS:A total of 327 charts reviewed, 46(14.1%patients were found to have incidental malignant periocular tumor. Males where affected more than females with a ratio of 2:1. The average age was 66.39±10.59(22-83y. The most common presenting symptom or disease was blurring of vision secondary to cataract(44%, followed by combined cataract and other associated complaints such as epiphora in 21.7%.Preliminary clinical diagnosis corresponded with histological diagnosis in 95.7% of skin cancer. The average size of the lesions was 1.04×0.85 mm2(0.2×0.2-3.0×3.0 mm2. There was no significant relationship between the maximum diameter of the tumor and age of the patient,(P=0.105. The most frequent location of tumors was the lower eyelid(30.4%followed by the medial canthus(26.1%. The follow up period ranged between 6mo and 3y(average 9.3mo.CONCLUSION: Incidental malignant periocular malignant tumors were relatively common in this study, which urges excision of any suspicious lesion particularly young patients. A prospective study is needed to investigate the reasons why some patients neglect these lesions.
Woods, Krystle C; Buchanan, Nicole T; Settles, Isis H
The current study examined differences in appraisal, harassment, and severity of posttraumatic stress symptoms among 105 Black women who were sexually harassed by either a White (cross-racial sexual harassment) or a Black man (intraracial sexual harassment). Analyses revealed that women appraised cross-racial more negatively than intraracial harassment, despite there being no significant differences in the likelihood of experiencing gender harassment, unwanted sexual attention, or sexual coercion. Further, cross-racial harassment was more likely to include racialized sexual harassment (harassing behaviors combining race and gender simultaneously) and higher status perpetrators. Finally, cross-racial sexual harassment had an indirect (but not direct) mediated effect on posttraumatic stress via participants' appraisals of their harassment. Specifically, the more negative appraisal associated with cross-racial sexual harassment was associated with increased posttraumatic stress symptoms. In light of these findings, consideration of perpetrator race and racially sexualized behaviors could prove significant additions to current models of sexual harassment.
Godier, Lauren R; Fossey, M
Despite media interest in alleged sexual violence and harassment in the UK military, there remains a paucity of UK-based peer-reviewed research in this area. Ministry of Defence and service-specific reports support the suggestion that UK service personnel may be at risk of experiencing sexual harassment. These reports however highlight a reluctance by service personnel to report sexual harassment through official channels. In this article, we discuss the paucity of UK-based research pertaining to the prevalence and impact of sexual harassment in the military, explore potential reasons for this gap in knowledge and outline future directions and priorities for academic research. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
Teseo, Serafino; Veerus, Liisa; Moreno, Céline; Mery, Frédéric
Across animals, sexual harassment induces fitness costs for females and males. However, little is known about the cognitive costs involved, i.e. whether it constrains learning processes, which could ultimately affect an individual's fitness. Here we evaluate the acquisition of environmental information in groups of fruit flies challenged with various levels of male sexual harassment. We show that, although high sexual harassment induces a temporary fitness cost for females, all fly groups of both sexes exhibit similar levels of learning. This suggests that, in fruit flies, the fitness benefits of acquiring environmental information are not affected by the fitness costs of sexual harassment, and that selection may favour cognition even in unfavourable social contexts. Our study provides novel insights into the relationship between sexual conflicts and cognition and the evolution of female counterstrategies against male sexual harassment. © 2016 The Author(s).
74% r % --------------------------------------------------------- Fouleo Femal Male Mle EnilhItd Ofie EnlhisedOfie Figure 10. Sexual harasment ...NPRDC-TR-94-2 December 13 Sexual Harassment in the Active-Duty Navy: Findings from the 1991 Navy-Wide Survey ɘ DTIC Authors ELECTE Amy L Culbertson...1991-1992 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5. FUNDING NUMBERS Sexual Harassment in the Active-Duty Navy: N0002293WREE500 Findings from the 1991 Navy-Wide Survey 6
López Pino, Carmen Marina; Universidad del Rosario; Seco Martín, Enrique; Ramírez Camacho, Diana
The article uses a structural and inter-subjective approach to ask what structural and organizational factors favour practices of harassment at work in Colombia. The initial hypothesis of the study is that there are structural conditions (economic crisis, business reconstruction, flexibility in the labour market etc.) and organizational structures in business which encourage practices of harassment at work or which do not favour its control. Supported by the theory of Bourdieu, the authors qu...
(1) Sexual harassment is a violation of The Civil Rights Act of 1964. (2) Most states do not require employers to conduct sexual harassment training. (3) Most sexual harassment training for state legislators occurs at their orientation.
Reviews resource materials for handling claims of sexual harassment. Includes guidelines for administrators in handling complaints of sexual harassment and discusses the responsibilities of management. Explores the definition of sexual harassment. (RC)
Rhodes, Frank H. T.
Discusses sexual harassment on college campuses. Focuses on harassing behavior that stems from power relationships and harassing behavior among peers. Describes how Cornell University is addressing these problems. (ABL)
Bell, Margret E; Street, Amy E; Stafford, Jane
Given the importance of reporting to sexual harassment prevention and intervention efforts, it is not surprising that an extensive scientific literature has developed on predictors of victims' decisions about making a formal report to authorities about their experiences. In contrast, little empirical work has focused on how reporting affects victims, particularly their psychosocial well-being. This study used a national sample of 1,562 former military Reservists who had experienced sexual harassment during their service to examine the relationship between reporting; experiences reporting; and psychosocial well-being, as indicated by post-harassment functioning, worst symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) following the harassment, and current symptoms of depression. Making a formal report was not associated with well-being, but among those who did report, perceiving that the report had resulted in the harassment being addressed by authorities was associated with better post-harassment functioning and fewer symptoms of PTSD. Satisfaction with the reporting process showed the strongest association with well-being, demonstrating small but meaningful associations with depression and medium-to-large and medium associations with post-harassment functioning and PTSD, respectively. Although findings did not vary by gender, predictors accounted for more variance in well-being for men than women. In the whole sample, satisfaction with the reporting process mediated the relationship between victims' perceptions of system responsiveness to the report and post-harassment functioning and PTSD. Findings suggest that a victim's perceptions of and satisfaction with the reporting process may impact well-being more strongly than whether the victim made a report to authorities. Men may be even more strongly impacted by their experiences with the reporting process than women.
assault and harassment : A campus community case study. Signs, 8, 296-319. Lyness, K. S., & Thompson, D. E. (1997). Above the glass ceiling ? A comparison of...Contrapower Sexual Harassment of Military Officers A Thesis Presented by Sarah K. Clapp to the Department of Psychology in partial fulfillment of the...requirements for the degree of Master of Arts Connecticut College New London, Connecticut August, 2007 20080630 215 Contrapower Sexual Harassment ii
Angelone, David J; Mitchell, Damon; Carola, Kara
The present study attempted to develop a laboratory analogue for the study of tolerance for sexual harassment by using an online speed-dating paradigm. In that context, the relation between participants' sexual harassment attitudes, perpetrator attractiveness, perpetrator status, and perceived dating potential of the perpetrator were examined as factors influencing participants' tolerance of sexually harassing behavior. Participants were 128 female college students from a small northeastern public university. Results indicated that attractiveness, high social status, and attitudinal beliefs about sexual harassment were all predictive of tolerance for sexual harassment, providing preliminary support for the validity of this paradigm. In addition, participants' self reported likelihood to date a bogus male dating candidate was also predictive of tolerance for sexual harassment, over and above the aforementioned variables, suggesting that dating potential can play a role in perceptions of sexual harassment. Further, this experiment demonstrated that perceptions of sexual harassment can be assessed using the in vivo measurement of behavior. In addition, using an online environment not only provides a contemporary spin and adds a greater degree of external validity compared to other sexual harassment analogues, it also reduces any risk of potential physical sexual contact for participants.
Lach, Denise H.; Gwartney-Gibbs, Patricia A.
Sexual harassment is the most visible example of workplace disputes that systematically disadvantage women. The prevalence of sexual harassment contributes to the persistence of occupational sex segregation. (SK)
Alexander, Pamela C; Alexander, Elmore R; Warner, Stephanie
.... Based on the study findings, organizations with the best programs for prevention of sexual harassment had effective human relations strategies in which policies and training on sexual harassment...
Klein, Kristen M; Apple, Kevin J; Kahn, Arnold S
Kelley's (Nebr Symp Motiv 15:192-238, 1967) attribution theory can inform sexual harassment research by identifying how observers use consensus, consistency, and distinctiveness information in determining whether a target or perpetrator is responsible for a sexual harassment situation. In this study, Kelley's theory is applied to a scenario in which a male perpetrator sexually harasses a female target in a university setting. Results from 314 predominantly female college students indicate that consistency and consensus information significantly affect participants' judgments of blame and responsibility for the situation. The authors discuss the importance of the reference groups used to derive consensus and distinctiveness information, and reintroduce Kelley's attribution theory as a means of understanding observers' perceptions of sexual harassment.
Barling, J; Rogers, A G; Kelloway, E K
The authors developed and tested a structural model predicting personal and organizational consequences of workplace violence and sexual harassment for health care professionals who work inside their client's home. The model suggests that workplace violence and sexual harassment predict fear of their recurrence in the workplace, which in turn predicts negative mood (anxiety and anger) and perceptions of injustice. In turn, fear, negative mood, and perceived injustice predict lower affective commitment and enhanced withdrawal intentions, poor interpersonal job performance, greater neglect, and cognitive difficulties. The results supported the model and showed that the associations of workplace violence and sexual harassment with organizational and personal outcomes are indirect, mediated by fear and negative mood. Conceptual implications for understanding sexual harassment and workplace violence, and future research directions, are suggested.
Ruth Corazón Llerena Benites
Full Text Available Objective: Determinate the perception and attitudes towards street sexual harassment among female students of the Human Medicine Faculty at San Martin de Porres University. Methods: Descriptive and transversal study in which the previously validated “Likert” questionnaires, “Scale of Acceptance of Modern Myths about Sexual Aggression” and “Street Harassment Scale” where applied in a virtual way to 227 female students from the 4th, 5th, 6th academic year of the Human Medicine Faculty at San Martin de Porres University. The analysis was made in the SPSS v22 program using descriptive statistics like media, mode, tables of frequency and percentage to determine the prevalence of street harassment and the level of acceptance of beliefs about sexual harassment. Results: We found that 91% of the participants considered that they had been (sexually harassed at least once in the last year. 48% of participants were absolutely disagree with the statements about the myths of sexual aggression. The th percentage of students that mentioned never have been harassed lowered for every year of study, from 13% in the 4 year th to 7.9% in the 6 year. Most of the students came from Central South Lima of which 88% were harassed at least once the past year. Approximately, about half of the participants, independent of the mean of transport they have used, said that they had been harassed once last year. The group of 22 years old was the most affected Conclusion: Even though the participants considered that the Street harassment only happened a few times the past year, we didn't underestimate the fact that for almost everyone this harassment had happened at least once. Also, the majority considered to be strongly disagree regarding the myths about sexual harassment. So, it appears that street harassment, despite acting as a social problem that affects the physical and mental well-being of the Young female community, hasn't been properly managed by the
Tahir, MC. Vol 8, No 1 (2006) - Articles Poland's syndrome: an incidental finding on routine medical examination. Abstract PDF. ISSN: 1595-1103. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions of Use ...
Asha P Shetty
Full Text Available Introduction: Workplace harassment is the belittling or threatening behavior directed at an individual worker or a group of workers. Matters of workplace harassment recently gained interest among practitioners and researchers as it is becoming one of the most sensitive areas of effective workplace management. Materials and Methods: Nonexperimental cross-sectional exploratory survey approach with quantitative design was adopted. Samples constituted both male and female employees 20–60 years working for minimum 6 h in an institution selected by random sampling technique. Data were collected using demographic tool and workplace harassment experience tool developed by the investigator. The Institutional Ethics Committee approval and the individual subject consent were also obtained. Results: Data obtained from 210 employees indicated that majority (20% were between the age group of 30–35 years. Majority, 63.3%, of the employees had occasional harassment, 8.1% had mild harassment, 0.5% had severe harassment, and 28.1% reported no harassment at the workplace. Area-wise analysis indicated that highest possible area among participants was psychological (15.5 ± 7.26 and the lowest harassment was in the area of physical harassment (3.74 ± 1.75. Conclusion: Workplace harassment is a serious concern which requires immediate attention for better outcome. Although majority of the participants experience at least some form of harassment, they hesitate to objectively indicate the same due to fear of consequences of losing the job and facing further ramifications. The issue requires to be addressed with appropriate policies at the workplace. The study will help to plan the strategies to be implemented for building a healthy workplace environment.
Holly Warzecha, M.A. TESOL
The purpose of the following paper is to take a closer look at the benefits of incidental learning through reading, with a specific focus on vocabulary acquisition. The teaching of vocabulary has traditionally been an explicit process where the target vocabulary is taken out of context and taught separately. However, this kind of explicit teaching and learning may only take into account a form-meaning connection. Therefore, this paper explores research on incidental learning and specifically ...
Nye, Christopher D; Brummel, Bradley J; Drasgow, Fritz
Sexual harassment has received a substantial amount of empirical attention over the past few decades, and this research has consistently shown that experiencing these behaviors has a detrimental effect on employees' well-being, job attitudes, and behaviors at work. However, these findings, and the conclusions that are drawn from them, make the implicit assumption that the empirical models used to examine sexual harassment are properly specified. This article presents evidence that properly specified aggregate construct models are more consistent with theoretical structures and definitions of sexual harassment and can result in different conclusions about the nomological network of harassment. Results from 3 large samples, 2 military and 1 from a civilian population, are used to illustrate the differences between aggregate construct and reflective indicator models of sexual harassment. These analyses suggested that the factor structure and the nomological network of sexual harassment differ when modeling harassment as an aggregate construct. The implications of these results for the continued study of sexual harassment are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).
Thacker, Rebecca A.
Keeping sexual harassment incidents at bay in the workplace involves prevention training that teaches people how to identify harassment and how to respond, using such techniques as role play and discussion. Trainees should also be informed of the organization's policy and procedures for reporting complaints. (JOW)
Lewis, John F.; Hastings, Susan C.
As in most workplaces, sexual harassment has been an issue of significant magnitude in educational institutions as well. It has left the education community with many questions about what constitutes sexual harassment, how to prevent it, and how to deal with the legal problems that may arise concerning it. This report dispels several myths about…
Taylor, Elizabeth A.; Hardin, Robin; Rode, Cheryl R.
Sexual harassment and incivility in the workplace are the unwanted sexual attention and bullying of employees by their superior. There are times, however, when the roles are reversed and the superior is the target of such behavior. Contrapower harassment refers to subordinate incivility and/or sexual attention directed toward a superior. The focus…
Hoyman, Michele; Robinson, Ronda
Discusses sexual harrassment guidelines which legally define the term as sex discrimination. While this is good for those facing harassment, it unrealistically places a socially-based problem on the shoulders of personnel managers. Points out the long-term benefits of a workplace free from harassment and intimidation. (JOW)
The aim of the study was to examine perceptions of sexual harassment among recent female graduates in Johannesburg. A qualitative methodology was used to assess participants' perception of sexual harassment in the workplace. There were eight black unmarried women who volunteered to participate in the study.
This paper reviews the literature and case law related to the issue of sexual harassment of females and specifically focuses on the adolescent female in the public middle school setting. The controversial thesis statement the researcher explored was: "sexual harassment is a manifestation of the ubiquitous power imbalance between men and women…
... Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY COMMISSION GUIDELINES ON DISCRIMINATION... employees, an employer is responsible for acts of sexual harassment in the workplace where the employer (or... the acts of non-employees, with respect to sexual harassment of employees in the workplace, where the...
Martin, Jennifer L.
This intervention study examines the problem of sexual harassment in an alternative high school for at-risk students. It was hypothesized that creating a forum where girls felt safe to share their experiences would increase their awareness of sexual harassment and its effects, eventually contributing to a decrease in incidents of sexual harassment…
Madson, Laura; Shoda, Jennifer
We created a classroom activity to illustrate the complexity involved in identifying sexual harassment. In the activity, students decided whether 6 fictional scenarios constituted sexual harassment. The activity stimulates animated discussion, and evaluation data indicate that it received positive feedback from students and refined students'…
Although data on sexual harassment in the community college is limited, it is clear that it does exist and that it runs counter to the colleges' educational mission. Sexual harassment has been defined as verbal or physical conduct of a sexual nature, imposed on the basis of sex, that denies, limits, or provides different treatment. Recent legal…
Studies have indicated that as many as 80% of students experience some form of sexual harassment in public schools. Such statistics are troublesome, considering that peer sexual harassment can have long-term psychological effects on student victims. Public schools have a responsibility to provide a safe educational environment free of peer sexual…
... Feelings Expert Answers Q&A Movies & More for Teens Teens site Sitio para adolescentes Body Mind Sexual Health ... Español Sexual Harassment and Sexual Bullying KidsHealth / For Teens / Sexual Harassment and Sexual Bullying What's in this ...
Limback, E. Rebecca; Bland, Zinna
To prevent sexual harassment, schools should have a written policy and should educate students about it. Suggested teaching activities include using current court cases, examining and refining school policy, roleplaying on video, inviting speakers, and using an "Is This Sexual Harassment?" questionnaire describing various behaviors. (SK)
Shoop, Robert J.
Addresses how administrators should investigate sexual harassment complaints. When conducted properly, the investigation process will resolve the claim fairly and reduce the likelihood of further harassment and the risk of litigation. Administrators should keep a file of all complaints, investigate thoroughly, conduct interviews properly, make…
Lydiard, Beverly W.
Since its 1980 sexual harassment guidelines went into effect, a vocational technical high school in Lexington, Massachusetts, has actively educated its staff and 700 students about sexual harassment. The program involves a discipline policy included in the school's "Handbook for Parents," a first-year seminar, staff inservice training,…
Krøjer, Jo; Lehn-Christiansen, Sine; Nielsen, Mette Lykke
Sexual harassment is illegal and may have very damaging effects on the people exposed to it. One would expect organizations, employers, and institutions to take very good care to prevent employees from exposure to sexual harassment from anyone in their workplace. And yet, many people, mostly women...... focusing on the relation between elderly citizens in need of care and their professional caregivers. In this article, we argue that sexual harassment from the elderly toward newcomers in elder care should also be seen as an effect of institutional practices. Based upon a Foucauldian-inspired notion......, are exposed to sexual harassment at work. In care work, such behaviour is often directed toward their female caregiver by elderly citizens in need of care. Contemporary Nordic studies of working life and work environment have primarily investigated the interpersonal dimensions of sexual harassment, thus...
Friborg, Maria K.; Hansen, Jørgen V.; Aldrich, Per T.
workplace initiatives modified the association between sexual harassment by clients or customers and level of depressive symptoms. Methods: We used data from the Work Environment and Health in Denmark cohort study (WEHD) and the Work Environment Activities in Danish Workplaces Study (WEADW) collected...... employees and supervisors in 1041 organizations within 5 occupations. Data were analyzed using multilevel regression and analyses adjusted for gender, age, occupation and socioeconomic position. Results: Exposure to workplace sexual harassment from clients or customers was statistically significantly...... no statistically significant interactions between harassment from clients and customers and any of the examined psychosocial workplace initiatives (all p > 0.05). Conclusions: The association between sexual harassment and depressive symptoms differed for employees harassed by clients or customers and those...
Withers, Nancy A.
Sexual harassment is a problem in high schools, on college campuses, and in the workplace, although unclear definitions and misinterpretations of sexual harassment have led many to believe that the amount of sexual harassment that occurs is minimal. Sexual harassment has been defined as a continuum of behaviors, with physical sexual assault at one…
Tillar, Darrel Long
Legal issues concerning sexual harassment on the job are considered to aid administrators of colleges and universities. The concept of sexual harassment is examined from a historical perspective, and the development of legal thought and solutions for harassment in employment settings is delineated. The nature and extent of harassment have been…
Deane, Nancy H.; Tillar, Darrel L.
A practical approach to the prevention of sexual harassment is considered, and a study of sexual harassment as perceived by victims, the courts, and the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) is presented. Attention is directed to the sociology of sexual harassment and to the following possible responses available to victims of harassment:…
Sexual harassment is not a new phenomenon in tertiary institutions. It has been receiving considerable attention in research and the media and public awareness has increased dramatically. However, the term sexual harassment is not used uniformly across the globe because countries have defined it differently. Consequently, prevalence of sexual harassment in education varies across cultures. This paper examines sexual harassment from a comparative perspective...
This dissertation aims to contribute to a comprehensive explanation of sexual harassment by the investigation of three social-psychological processes, which seem to crucially contribute to the etiology of sexual harassment: motivation to sexually harass (e.g., power or sexuality), enabling processes (e.g., through diverse situational cues), and legitimization of sexually harassing behavior (e.g., by applying myths about sexual harassment). By consolidating these three processes into one multi...
Witte, Florence M; Stratton, Terry D; Nora, Lois Margaret
Previous studies have documented the prevalence of gender discrimination and sexual harassment during medical training, but very few have examined the behaviors that students perceive as discriminatory or harassing. The authors addressed this lack of information by examining graduating medical students' written descriptions of personal experiences with such behaviors during medical school. The authors reviewed the responses of graduating seniors at 12 U.S. medical schools to a questionnaire, administered in 2001-02, that asked them to provide written descriptions of their personal experiences with gender discrimination and sexual harassment. Seven response categories were created on the basis of recurring themes: educational inequalities; stereotypical comments; sexual overtures; offensive, embarrassing, or sexually explicit comments; inappropriate touching; sexist remarks; and not classifiable. The three authors examined the students' written accounts and placed each into one or more of the categories. Of the students' responses, 290 (36.6%) contained 313 written descriptions of personal experiences that the students perceived as either discriminatory or harassing. The most frequently reported experiences involved educational inequalities; experiences in this category were reported more frequently by men than by women. All other categories of experiences were reported more frequently by women. The results support earlier findings of the prevalence of gender discrimination and sexual harassment during undergraduate medical education. Perhaps formal antiharassment policies should provide examples of unacceptable behavior that are based on categories such as those revealed by this analysis. Perhaps, too, medical students' comments could be used to develop educational interventions for physicians in supervisory positions.
Full Text Available HarassMap is an Egyptian organisation that works to create an environment where sexual harassment is not tolerated, and where individuals and institutions take action against it. For the purpose of this project, the project team cleaned up, organised, and made openly available for the public to access and use through a web portal, three main types of data: Crowdsourced reports of sexual harassment incidents (reports on HarassMap’s online reporting and mapping system - CSV and XLS Field data from HarassMap’s research on sexual harassment using traditional qualitative and quantitative research methods - DOCX, PDF, SAV, MP3 Social media conversations (comment threads and messages related to sexual harassment on harassMap’s Facebook page - XLS The social media data was collected retrospectively from our Facebook page during the project period and covers the period 2010-2016. The crowdsourced data and the research data was cleaned and organised to make sure it is usable for the public but still kept in its raw format. During the collection and organisation period, we also made sure to clear out all personal identifiers from the data to ensure anonymity and confidentiality, and prepared descriptions of each dataset that will help the public understand how the data was collected and how it can and cannot be used. The data is stored online on a web portal that we built together with a web developer during the project period. On the web portal, the data is available for the public to view, search and download for research or other purposes. The data is also backed up on a hard drive and the cloud. The web portal and HarassMap open data will be advertised on our website, and the direct link shared with our contacts and others who approach us with interest in our data.
Rabelo, Verónica Caridad; Cortina, Lilia M
This project investigated the incidence, interplay, and impact of gender- and sexuality-based harassment, as experienced by lesbian, gay, bisexual, and queer (LGBQ) employees in higher education. Unlike much queer empirical research, participants in this study were residents of noncoastal regions of the U.S. that are predominantly White, rural, and conservative (i.e., "red states"). They completed surveys about their harassment experiences (gender harassment-sexist, gender harassment-policing, and heterosexist harassment), perceived support systems (from supervisors and organizations), and job attitudes (job burnout, job stress, and job satisfaction). Results showed that gender harassment-both sexist and policing subtypes-rarely occurred absent heterosexist harassment, and vice versa. Harassment severity (experiencing moderate to high levels of all three harassment types) was significantly associated with greater levels of job burnout (both disengagement and exhaustion) and job dissatisfaction. Even infrequent experiences of harassment related to large increases in the "threat" variety of job stress (i.e., sense of feeling hassled and overwhelmed on the job). Additionally, employees who perceived the lowest organizational support reported the most harassment. We interpret results in light of research on organizational behavior and LGBQ psychology. Moreover, we discuss our findings in the context of Title VII, currently interpreted to protect against harassment based on gender, sex, and sex stereotyping, but not sexual orientation. Our results can inform several possible avenues of expanding gay civil rights in employment: broadening judicial interpretations of Title VII, passing new legislation (e.g., the Employment Non-Discrimination Act, or ENDA), and strengthening organizational supports and policies that protect against sexuality-based abuses.
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Robb, L A; Doverspike, D
The interaction between the likelihood of males engaging in sexual harassment and the effectiveness of a 1-hr. sexual harassment-prevention training was explored in a laboratory study. An interaction of scores on the Likelihood to Sexually Harass Scale and training condition for 90 undergraduate men was found, such that sexual harassment-prevention training had a small negative effect on the attitudes of males with a high proclivity to harass.
McGinley, Meredith; Richman, Judith A.; Rospenda, Kathleen M.
While harassment in the workplace has been linked to deleterious drinking outcomes, researchers have yet to examine the long-term effects of chronic workplace harassment. During a ten year longitudinal mail survey, university employees (N = 2265) were administered measures of sexual harassment, generalized workplace harassment, and problematic drinking. Using growth mixture modeling, two latent classes of workplace harassment emerged: infrequent and chronic. Demographic characteristics (gende...
May 30, 2014 ... Case Report doi:10.4102/sajr.v18i1.592 http://sajr.org.za. Incidental right Bochdalek hernia with interruption of the inferior vena cava and hepatic venous collateral continuation: A case report. Authors: Farzanah I. Ismail1. Rule Human2. Anith Chacko1. Parmanand Naran2. Samia Ahmad1. Siraj Ellemdin2.
Battersby, Sarah E.; Golledge, Reginald G.; Marsh, Meredith J.
In this paper, the authors evaluate map overlay, a concept central to geospatial thinking, to determine how it is naively and technically understood, as well as to identify when it is leaner innately. The evaluation is supported by results from studies at three grade levels to show the progression of incidentally learned geospatial knowledge as…
R. Peters; P.A. Bourne
Within the Caribbean only countries such as Belize, Bahamas and Guyana have legitimized legislation against sexual harassment. Countries such as Jamaica, Barbados and St. Kitts and Nevis have draft bills before parliament. In the Jamaican context, the country in September 1981 signed the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) which came into effect in 1984 which deals with the issue of sexual harassment under Articles 2 (Policy Measures and Legislat...
... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Incidental expenses. 700.199 Section 700.199 Indians THE... Expenses § 700.199 Incidental expenses. (a) Eligible costs. Subject to the limitations in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section, the incidental expenses to be paid are those actually incurred by the...
Bates, Carol K; Jagsi, Reshma; Gordon, Lynn K; Travis, Elizabeth; Chatterjee, Archana; Gillis, Marin; Means, Olivia; Chaudron, Linda; Ganetzky, Rebecca; Gulati, Martha; Fivush, Barbara; Sharma, Poonam; Grover, Amelia; Lautenberger, Diana; Flotte, Terence R
While more women are in leadership positions in academic medicine now than ever before in U.S. history, evidence from recent surveys of women and graduating medical students demonstrates that sexual harassment continues in academic health centers. Academic medicine's ability to change its culture is hampered by victims' fear of reporting episodes of harassment, which is largely due to fear of retaliation. In this Perspective, the authors describe efforts in scientific societies to address the issue of sexual harassment and to begin to establish safe environments at national meetings. The authors contend that each institution must work to make it safe for individuals to come forward, to provide training for victims and for bystanders, and to abolish "locker room" talk that is demeaning to women.
Last year, the U.S. Court of Appeals for the 11th Circuit ruled in "Davis" that a student can sue for damages if school officials know a student is being sexually harassed but fail to intervene. (MLF)
Full Text Available This paper aims to present results of the survey on sexual harassment of students of the Faculty of Special Education and Rehabilitation, University of Belgrade. It starts with presenting and discussing different definitions of the term ‘sexual harassment’. Afterwards, a brief overview of available surveys on this subject is provided. Results of the surveys completed so far show that this kind of students’ victimization in educational institutions is frequent in all parts of the world, regardless of the economic, ethnic and religious grounds. The aim of the survey conducted at the Faculty of Special Education and Rehabilitation (FASPER was to identify the prevalence and characteristics of sexual harassment among undergraduate students, as well as possible forms of assistance and support to students who experience sexual harassment. A survey was conducted by the students of FASPER during April and May 2014 on a sample of 147 students of all four years of undergraduate studies. For data collection a victimization survey was used. The survey results suggested that sexual harassment of students of FASPER is prevalent, while it only manifests itself in a form of verbal harassment with a sexual connotation. Female students are more exposed to harassment than male students, but we need to interpret this finding with a caution due to the fact that a sample was mostly consisted of female respondents. According to the students’ opinion, possible solutions for preventing and eliminating sexual harassment of students of FASPER are education of students and employees, adoption of rules for protection of students from this kind of victimization and establishment of support service for students who experience victimization by sexual harassment.
Unwelcome sexual advances, proposition or pressure for sexual activity, offensive flirtations, leering, whistling, making sexually suggestive gestures, sexual jokes, unwanted sexual looks, unwanted letters, telephone call, or materials of a sexual nature, unwanted physical contact, actual or attempting rape or sexual assault, this and more of this conduct if took place in the workplace would amount to a sexual harassment. The sexual harassment at work has become a serious issue of our time. I...
King, C S
Sexual harassment in health care institutions presents a formidable challenge for nurse leaders as solutions and accountabilities get mired in power, politics, and a historical tradition of secrecy and silence. Harassment is devastating to all individuals, but especially to women because it blatantly violates the victim's personal autonomy and individual sense of equality. Sexual harassment lingers in the corridors of all types of organizations, preying on women as they struggle to overcome cultural and socially imposed barriers. Nurse executives must learn the subtle complexities surrounding harassment, voice strong opposition against harassment, and take swift and comprehensive action to prevent sexual harassment.
Pinkos Cobb, Ellen
Workplace Bullying and Harassment: New Developments in International Law provides a comprehensive tour around the globe, summarizing relevant legislation and key developments in workplace bullying, harassment, sexual harassment, discrimination, violence, and stress in over 50 countries in Europe, the Asia Pacific region, the Americas region, and the Middle East and Africa. Workplace bullying, harassment, and other psychological workplace hazards are becoming increasingly acknowledged and legislated against in the modern work world. The costs of bullying, harassment, violence, discrimination, and stress at work are huge and far-reaching. Frequently under-reported and misunderstood, workplace bullying, harassment, violence, discrimination, and stress wreak havoc on the vitality and prosperity of organizations and individuals alike.
Allen, Ben T.
This booklet on sexual harassment on college campuses covers sexual harassment law, harassment prevention, protection from liability, and handling allegations. Chapter 1, "What Is Sexual Harassment?" defines the term and gives an overview of sexual harassment law. Chapter 2, "How Does Sexual Harassment Law Apply in Actual Situations?" illustrates…
McGinley, Meredith; Richman, Judith A.; Rospenda, Kathleen M.
While harassment in the workplace has been linked to deleterious drinking outcomes, researchers have yet to examine the long-term effects of chronic workplace harassment. During a ten year longitudinal mail survey, university employees (N = 2265) were administered measures of sexual harassment, generalized workplace harassment, and problematic drinking. Using growth mixture modeling, two latent classes of workplace harassment emerged: infrequent and chronic. Demographic characteristics (gender, age, and race) predicted the shape of the trajectories and likelihood of class membership. As hypothesized, membership in the chronic harassment classes was linked to future problematic drinking, even after controlling for previous drinking. PMID:21745045
McGinley, Meredith; Richman, Judith A; Rospenda, Kathleen M
Although harassment in the workplace has been linked to deleterious drinking outcomes, researchers have yet to examine the long-term effects of chronic workplace harassment. During a 10-year longitudinal mail survey, university employees (N = 2,265) were administered measures of sexual harassment, generalized workplace harassment, and problematic drinking. Using growth mixture modeling, two latent classes of workplace harassment emerged: infrequent and chronic. Demographic characteristics (gender, age, and race) predicted the shape of the trajectories and likelihood of class membership. As hypothesized, membership in the chronic harassment classes was linked to future problematic drinking, even after controlling for previous drinking.
van Lieshout, Sanne; Mevissen, Fraukje E F; van Breukelen, Gerard; Jonker, Marianne; Ruiter, Robert A C
Sexual harassment-unwanted sexual comments, advances, or behaviors-and sexual violence are still prevalent worldwide, leading to a variety of physical, cognitive, and emotional problems among those being harassed. In particular, youth in care are at risk of becoming perpetrators (and victims) of sexual harassment. However, in general, there are very few interventions targeting this at-risk group, and no such programs exist in the Netherlands. To this end, a group intervention program-Make a Move-targeting determinants of sexual harassment was developed. This program was implemented and evaluated among boys (N = 177) in Dutch residential youth care (20 institutions). A pre-test, post-test, and 6-month follow-up design including an intervention and a waiting list control group with randomized assignment of institutions (cluster randomized trial) was used to measure the effects of the intervention on determinants of sexual harassment. Multilevel (mixed) regression analysis with Bonferroni correction for multiple testing (α = .005) showed no significant effects of Make a Move on determinants of sexual harassment (ps > .03, Cohen's ds < .44). Results are discussed in light of a three-way explanatory model focusing on intervention content, evaluation, and implementation as potential explanations for not finding any measurable intervention effects. © The Author(s) 2016.
Cortina, Lilia M; Wasti, S Arzu
This study explicates the complexity of sexual harassment coping behavior among 4 diverse samples of working women: (a) working-class Hispanic Americans, (b) working-class Anglo Americans, (c) professional Turks, and (d) professional Anglo Americans. K-means cluster analysis revealed 3 common harassment coping profiles: (a) detached, (b) avoidant negotiating, and (c) support seeking. The authors then tested an integrated framework of coping profile determinants, involving social power, stressor severity, social support, and culture. Analysis of variance, chi-square, and discriminant function results identified significant determinants at each of the 4 levels of this ecological model. These findings underscore the importance of focusing on whole patterns of experience--and considering influences at the level of the individual employee and multiple levels of the surrounding context--when studying how women cope with workplace sexual harassment.
World of Work, 1997
A discussion of judicial and arbitral trends regarding sexual harassment addresses what constitutes harassment, outlines legislative action and judicial decisions, and identifies recent trends that show the evolution of social responses to it. (JOW)
. P Bowen, P Edwards, H Lingard, K Cattell. Abstract. This article examines the workplace discrimination and harassment experiences of professional quantity surveyors in South Africa and explores the relationship between harassment, ...
... them. Data are from the 2004 Workplace and Gender Relations Survey of Reserve Components (WGRR), which was designed both to estimate the level of sexual harassment and provide information on a variety of consequences of harassment...
... of race, color, religion, age, or disability. 1300.106 Section 1300.106 Conservation of Power and... AUTHORITY § 1300.106 Harassment on the basis of race, color, religion, age, or disability. It is TVA policy... basis of race, color, religion, age, or disability. Accordingly, all employees must avoid any action or...
Shaw, Linda R.; Chan, Fong; McMahon, Brian T.
A possible interaction among the characteristics of disability, race, gender, and age was examined with respect to formal allegations of disability harassment. Using data from the National Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) Americans With Disabilities Act (ADA) Research Project, the authors examined whether there was an interaction…
Jardim, Lucia Rodrigues
This study aims to determine how sexual harassment can effectively be managed in the workplace in accordance with sexual harassment policies and procedures. The literature review takes an in depth view into: local and international codes with reference to the differences and similarities between the codes; the processes and procedures managers should follow when faced with sexual harassment grievances; the legal alternatives available to victims of sexual harassment. The empirical research wa...
Fasting, K; Brackenridge, CH; Walseth, K
Sexual harassment research was first undertaken in the workplace and educational settings. Research on sexual harassment in sport is scarce but has grown steadily since the mid-1980s. Even so, very little is known about the causes and/or characteristics and/or consequences of sexual harassment in sport settings. This article reports on the findings from interviews with 25 elite female athletes in Norway who indicated in a prior survey (N =572) that they had experienced sexual harassment from ...
Langner, S.; Buelow, R.; Kirsch, M. [University Medicine Greifswald (Germany). Inst. for Diagnostic Radiology and Neuroradiology; Fleck, S. [University Medicine Greifswald (Germany). Dept. of Neurosurgery; Angermaier, A. [University Medicine Greifswald (Germany). Dept. of Neurology
The wider use of MRI for imaging of the head in both research and clinical practice has led to an increasing number of intracranial incidental findings. Most of these findings have no immediate medical consequences. Nevertheless, knowledge of common intracranial incidental findings and their clinical relevance is necessary to adequately discuss the findings with the patient. Based on the author's experiences from a large population-based study, the most common incidental MR findings in the brain will be presented, discussing their clinical relevance and giving recommendations for management according to the current literature and guidelines.
Holly Warzecha, M.A. TESOL
Full Text Available The purpose of the following paper is to take a closer look at the benefits of incidental learning through reading, with a specific focus on vocabulary acquisition. The teaching of vocabulary has traditionally been an explicit process where the target vocabulary is taken out of context and taught separately. However, this kind of explicit teaching and learning may only take into account a form-meaning connection. Therefore, this paper explores research on incidental learning and specifically looks at what it takes to acquire new vocabulary incidentally through reading while considering the coverage rates of texts, how many words must be known already from the text, how many repetitions it takes to learn a word, types of texts that promote learning, and the effects of pairing students‘ reading with learner tasks. After reviewing many studies, it can be concluded that more reading is better. More specifically, extensive reading of chosen novels at an appropriate level and interest to the students showed important gains in vocabulary. In addition, readings that were supplemented with additional activities that focused on both form and meaning showed an even higher increase in word retention.
Ashbaughm, Lauren P.; Cornell, Dewey G.
Sexual harassment is widely viewed as a form of bullying, but has received little attention in studies of middle school students. A survey of 109 6th grade students found that 29% of students reported at least one sexual harassment experience in the past 30 days, with 11% reporting harassment once per week or more. Although boys and girls reported…
... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sexual harassment. 73.735-306 Section 73.735-306 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION STANDARDS OF CONDUCT Conduct on the Job § 73.735-306 Sexual harassment. Sexual harassment is deliberate unsolicited verbal comments, gestures, or physical contact of a...
Walsh, Benjamin M.; Bauerle, Timothy J.; Magley, Vicki J.
Studies have evaluated the outcomes of sexual harassment training, but considerably less research has focused on variables that influence sexual harassment training effectiveness. To address this need, we developed and tested a model of individual and contextual inhibitors of sexual harassment training motivation to learn. Survey data collected…
Lytell, Maria C.
Organizational tolerance of sexual harassment has been repeatedly touted as an important antecedent of sexual harassment. Yet, not much is known about the antecedents of perceptions of organizational tolerance. Based on theories from the sexual harassment, organizational justice, and psychological climate literatures, individuals were hypothesized…
American Association of University Women, 2011
Sexual harassment has long been an unfortunate part of the climate in middle and high schools in the United States. Often considered a kind of bullying, sexual harassment by definition involves sex and gender and therefore warrants separate attention. The legal definition of sexual harassment also differentiates it from bullying. Based on a…
This study is an ongoing project related the problem of sexual harassment in academic setting. The objectives are (i) to determine the awareness of sexual harassment among students in higher learning institutions, (ii) to identify the existence of sexual harassment in higher learning institutions, and (iii) to investigate the risk ...
Petersen, Jennifer L.; Hyde, Janet Shibley
The current study describes longitudinal trends in sexual harassment by adolescent peers and highlights gender, pubertal status, attractiveness, and power as predictors of harassment victimization. At the end of 5th, 7th, and 9th grades, 242 adolescents completed questionnaires about sexual harassment victimization, pubertal status, and perceived…
York, Kenneth M.
In 1980, the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) published the Guidelines on Sexual Harassment, specifying that sexual harassment is a kind of sex discrimination under Title VII and is an unlawful employment practice. While the determination of the behaviors that constitute sexual harassment would enable employees to write more…
Dziech, Billie Wright; Weiner, Linda
The issue of sexual harassment of students by academicians is addressed, including the dilemma of teacher-student dating, newly devised policy statements on sexual harassment from several institutions, and faculty uneasiness about administrative directives on sexual harassment. Chapters are as follows: "Sexual Harrassment on Campus: The State of…
This study was designed to investigate the prevalence and nature of peer sexual harassment among female Nigerian university students. It also examined the perception of students about peer sexual harassment and ascertained the coping mechanisms adopted by victims of peer sexual harassment. Participants consisted ...
This article investigates sexual harassment issues by means of an in depth literature review and by analyzing and comparing the sexual harassment policies of selected universities in South Africa. Various alternatives that categorize sexual harassment are proposed in order to form a clear perspective on the different ...
This digest reviews effective strategies currently used by schools to combat sexual harassment. Sexual harassment is considered any unwelcome behavior of a sexual nature that interferes with the life of the target individual. Experts agree that sexual harassment is about power, not sex. A serious effort to keep a school free of sexual harassment…
Fineran, Susan; Gruber, James E.
Objective: An examination of the frequency and impact of workplace sexual harassment on work, health, and school outcomes on high school girls is presented in two parts. The first compares the frequency of harassment in this sample (52%) to published research on adult women that used the same measure of sexual harassment. The second part compares…
Shelton, J. Nicole; Chavous, Tabbye M.
Examined how racial factors influence college women's perceptions of sexual harassment with samples of 46 black and 89 white women. Data suggest that sexual harassment between black women and black men is trivialized compared to sexual behavior between black women and white men. Discusses implications for the study of sexual harassment. (SLD)
Wishnietsky, Dan H.
Study surveyed North Carolina school superintendents (n=140) and high school seniors (n=300) on the extent of teacher-student sexual harassment. Data revealed discrepancies between the number of teachers disciplined for student sexual harassment and the number of students claiming harassment. Presents a structure for establishing guidelines to…
Background: A number of studies conducted on sexual harassment focused on general magnitude rather than specific details of the various forms of sexual harassment and their effect on psychological health. Thus, the objective of this study was to assess the prevalence rates of the various forms of sexual harassments and ...
Woody, Robert Henley; Perry, Nancy Walker
Examines legal proscriptions and practical definitions of sexual harassment, describes psychological effects of sexual harassment (Sexual Harassment Trauma Syndrome) for victim-client and impact on family system, and offers guidance for family therapy. Focuses on vulnerability of victim-client, reconstruction of self-concept as primary goal of…
Describes and compares the law applicable to sexual harassment at work in 23 industrialized countries. Shows how different legal approaches have been adopted to combat sexual harassment in the countries surveyed and how this diversity reflects differences of legal traditions and of attitudes toward the legal classification of sexual harassment.…
Cochran, Caroline; Frazier, Patricia
As recent events attest, sexual harassment is an important yet misunderstood problem. Because it has only recently been recognized as a significant issue, research on sexual harassment is somewhat limited. Knowledge of the prevalence and effects on sexual harassment on campus is necessary to ensure that all people have access to a safe and…
Stedham, Yvonne; Mitchell, Merwin C.
This study focuses on sexual harassment and job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and employee turnover among casino employees. It is the first study investigating sexual harassment in the gaming industry. Based on sex-role spillover theory it was expected that sexual harassment has less of an impact on casino employees than on employees in other industries. Six Reno, Nevada casinos participated in the study and 330 responses were generated from casino employees. The study results show that sexual harassment of and by casino employees is perceived to occur at about the same rate as in other industries. Sexually harassed employees were compared to employees who indicated that they had not been sexually harassed. Sexually harassed employees were less satisfied with their jobs and less committed to the organization. However, they were not more likely to quit their jobs. Sexually harassed employees tended to be younger, Caucasian, and in dealer positions. Hence, in addition to the well-publicized cost of sexual harassment lawsuits, the study shows that sexual harassment in casinos may well be the source of hidden costs important to human resources managers. A result of major interest was that employees who had been harassed held management responsible for not ensuring a work environment that is free of sexual harassment. Implications for casino management are discussed.
Full Text Available Mobbing and harassment are widely analysed in organizations providing various services but are little studied in the companies undertaking industrial activities. Therefore, the aim of the paper is to diagnose the prevalence of mobbing and harassment in the steel enterprises. The case study analysis of the largest steel producer in the world, and specifically its division in Poland was used to determine the prevalence of these phenomena. It was found out that the said company is the example of the ethically and socially responsible organization. However, the interviews indicate that single cases of mobbing and harassment activities (though relatively rare were also observed. They were distributed among three groups of employees: 1 those who do physical work (are directly engaged in the production process; 2 employees involved in the administrative activity and sales; and 3 managerial staff.
O'Connell, Colleen E.; Korabik, Karen
A survey of 214 female university employees found that gender harassment was most frequently experienced, but it was not related to age. Harassment by peers was associated with higher stress and intent to quit. Harassment by higher-level men was associated with a wider variety of negative outcomes. (SK)
Full Text Available This paper follows on a previous paper describing a studyconducted on sexual harassment in the physiotherapy work environment inSouth Africa. A survey questionnaire was used to determine the reactions ofphysiotherapists after they experienced their worst incidents of sexualharassment. The most common method of handling the sexual harassmentwas to avoid the perpetrator or situation. The most common effects relatedto work performance after the sexual harassment had occurred, were adecrease in concentration, job pleasure and confidence in job performanceand the most common emotional effect experienced was anger.
... confidence in these values is unknown. Table 3--Marine Mammal Density Estimates Density Species (animals/km\\2... unintentional taking of marine animals occurring incidental to the shock testing which involved large explosives... Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Conducting...
Cléa Adas Saliba Garbin
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Sexual harassment is unlawful in all work and educational environments in most nations of the world. The goals of this study were to describe the sexual harassment prevalence and to evaluate the experiences and attitudes of undergraduate students in one dental school in Brazil. MATERIAL AND METHODS: An 18-item questionnaire was administered to 254 dental students with a completion rate of 82% (208. Students were requested to respond to questions about their background and academic level in dental school, their personal experiences with sexual harassment and their observation of someone else being sexually harassed. Bivariate statistical analyses were performed. RESULTS: Fifteen percent of the students reported being sexually harassed by a patient, by a relative of a patient or by a professor. Male students had 3 times higher probability of being sexually harassed than female student [OR=2.910 (1.113-7.611]. Additionally, 25.4% of the students reported witnessing sexual harassment at the school environment. The majority of students did not feel professionally prepared to respond to unwanted sexual behaviors. CONCLUSION: These findings demonstrate that sexual harassment can occur in a dental school setting. There is a need for ongoing sexual harassment education programs for students and university staff. Increased knowledge of sexual harassment during graduation can better prepare dental professionals to respond to sexual harassment during their practice.
Garbin, Cléa Adas Saliba; Zina, Lívia Guimarães; Garbin, Artênio José Insper; Moimaz, Suzely Adas Saliba
Sexual harassment is unlawful in all work and educational environments in most nations of the world. The goals of this study were to describe the sexual harassment prevalence and to evaluate the experiences and attitudes of undergraduate students in one dental school in Brazil. An 18-item questionnaire was administered to 254 dental students with a completion rate of 82% (208). Students were requested to respond to questions about their background and academic level in dental school, their personal experiences with sexual harassment and their observation of someone else being sexually harassed. Bivariate statistical analyses were performed. Fifteen percent of the students reported being sexually harassed by a patient, by a relative of a patient or by a professor. Male students had 3 times higher probability of being sexually harassed than female student [OR=2.910 (1.113-7.611)]. Additionally, 25.4% of the students reported witnessing sexual harassment at the school environment. The majority of students did not feel professionally prepared to respond to unwanted sexual behaviors. These findings demonstrate that sexual harassment can occur in a dental school setting. There is a need for ongoing sexual harassment education programs for students and university staff. Increased knowledge of sexual harassment during graduation can better prepare dental professionals to respond to sexual harassment during their practice.
Owoaje, Eme T; Olusola-Taiwo, Omolara
The sexual harassment experiences of female graduates from tertiary institutions in Nigeria, were explored using self-administered questionnaires. Information was obtained on the respondents' socio-demographic characteristics and experiences of sexual harassment while in their various tertiary institutions. The majority (69.8%) of the respondents had been sexually harassed, with the main perpetrators being male classmates and lecturers. About two-thirds experienced the non-physical type of sexual harassment; 48.2% experienced the physical type. Non-physical harassment included sexual comments (57.8%) and requests to do something sexual in exchange for academic favors (32.2%). Physical forms of sexual harassment included unwanted sexual touching (29.4%) and being intentionally brushed against in a sexual way (28.9%). The effects experienced by victims were depression and perceived insecurity on campus. Sexual harassment is a common occurrence in Nigerian tertiary institutions. Appropriate institutional interventions should be developed to reduce these occurrences.
Blackstone, Amy; Uggen, Christopher; McLaughlin, Heather
Studies of legal mobilization often focus on people who have perceived some wrong, but rarely consider the process that selects them into the pool of potential “mobilizers.” Similarly, studies of victimization or targeting rarely go on to consider what people do about the wrong, or why some targets come forward and others remain silent. We here integrate sociolegal, feminist, and criminological theories in a conceptual model that treats experiencing sexual harassment and mobilizing in response to it as interrelated processes. We then link these two processes by modeling them as jointly determined outcomes and examine their connections using interviews with a subset of our survey respondents. Our results suggest that targets of harassment are selected, in part, because they are least likely to tell others about the experience. Strategies that workers employ to cope with and confront harassment are also discussed. We find that traditional formal/informal dichotomies of mobilization responses may not fully account for the range of ways individuals respond to harassment, and we propose a preliminary typology of responses. PMID:20300446
Rogers, Frances E.
No school board member, administrator, or teacher wants to see a student suffering from taunts of the student's peers, but with budget cutbacks, reductions in force, and increased class size, teachers and administrators are stretched too thin to easily identify, investigate, and remedy student-on-student harassment. But school districts must…
... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sexual harassment. 1019.5 Section 1019.5 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) SURFACE TRANSPORTATION BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS REGULATIONS GOVERNING CONDUCT OF SURFACE TRANSPORTATION BOARD EMPLOYEES § 1019.5 Sexual harassmen...
The consequences of any of these forms of sexual harassment can be lasting emotional damages, depression, fear, frustration, and reduced productivity. Narcissism as a psycho – social problem on the job assumes the forms of an erotic self – love or a morbid and excessive self – admiration of employees at the work place ...
... Relating to Labor (Continued) EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY COMMISSION GUIDELINES ON DISCRIMINATION BECAUSE... to Guidelines on Discrimination Because of Sex, § 1604.11(a) n. 1, 45 FR 7476 sy 74677 (November 10... for acts of harassment in the workplace on the basis of national origin, where the employer, its...
Newman, Meredith A.; Jackson, Robert A.; Baker, Douglas D.
Data from the U.S. Merit Systems Protection Board (n=8,081) determined that worker characteristics (age, marital status, employment status) are the principal influence on the likelihood that workers will be sexually harassed. Those most likely also perceive training to be ineffective. Training programs must be reevaluated and upgraded. (Contains…
Shingles, René Revis; Smith, Yevonne
Objective: To describe and analyze the experiences of ethnically diverse female certified athletic trainers (ATCs) in order to discern the perceived nature of sexual harassment in the athletic training profession. Design and Setting: Both quantitative and qualitative methods were used for a larger study; however, only the qualitative data are…
... taking are set forth. NMFS has defined ``negligible impact'' in 50 CFR 216.103 as ``an impact resulting... with respect to certain activities not pertinent here, the MMPA defines ``harassment'' as: any act of... 922.132). Authorization of professional firework displays has required a steady refinement of policies...
Introduction: Pre-existing renal lesions predispose kidneys to effects of otherwise insignificant blunt trauma, and may uncommonly present as an incidental finding in the workup of a suspected renal injury. Observation: This is a case report of a 28-year-old male diagnosed incidentally with Autosomal Dominant Polycystic ...
Using nationally representative data from the 1992 U.S. National Health and Social Life Survey, this study queried the prevalence and risk factors of lifetime workplace sexual harassment among both women and men. Among those aged 18-60 reporting ever having worked, 41% of women (CI, 37-44) reported any workplace harassment over their lifetime, with men's harassment prevalence significantly lower, at 32% (CI, 29-35). In the youngest age groups (those in their 20s or younger), there was no statistically significant difference between women's and men's harassment prevalence. Multivariate analysis of risk factors suggested that, in contrast to much of the harassment literature, among both genders workplace harassment seemed to have at least as much to do with a system of "routine activities" mechanisms-a victim's conscious or unconscious sexual signaling, more exposure to potential harassers, and a perpetrator's lower cost of harassment-as with unobserved differences in power between victim and perpetrator. Strikingly, both women's and men's harassment was strongly linked to markers of sexualization, whether early developmental factors or behavioral patterns in adulthood-a mechanism insufficiently emphasized in the harassment literature.
Bucchianeri, Michaela M; Gower, Amy L; McMorris, Barbara J; Eisenberg, Marla E
Despite prejudice-based harassment's associations with serious physical and mental health risks, research examining multiple forms of harassment among children/adolescents is lacking. This study documents the prevalence of prejudice-based harassment (i.e., harassment on the basis of gender, race/ethnicity, weight or physical appearance, sexual orientation, and disability status) among a large, statewide, school-based Midwestern U.S. sample of 162,034 adolescents. Weight-/appearance-based harassment was most prevalent among both girls (25.3%) and boys (19.8%). Adolescents from certain vulnerable groups experienced higher rates of multiple types of harassment, even when controlling for other sociodemographic characteristics. Prejudice-based harassment experiences are prevalent among adolescent girls and boys. Differential rates of each type of harassment are reported across groups within the corresponding sociodemographic status (e.g., white female adolescents report a significantly lower rate of race-based harassment (4.8%), as compared to Native American (18.6%), mixed/other race (18.9%), Hispanic/Latina (21.5%), Asian/Pacific Islander (24.2%), or Black/African American (24.8%) female adolescents); but a pattern of cross-harassment also is evident, such that differences in prevalence of each harassment type emerge across a variety of statuses (e.g., disability-based harassment was statistically significantly higher among discordant heterosexual (12.7%), gay (13.0%), bisexual (15.3%), and unsure (15.3%) male adolescents than among heterosexual male (7.2%) adolescents). Adolescents from specific sociodemographic groups are particularly vulnerable to certain types of harassment. Copyright © 2016 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
González-Sánchez-Migallón, Elena; Flores-Pastor, Benito; Pérez-Guarinos, Carmen Victoria; Miguel-Perelló, Joana; Chaves-Benito, Asunción; Illán-Gómez, Fátima; Carrillo-Alcaraz, Andrés; Aguayo-Albasini, José Luis
Thyroid cancer may be clinically evident as a tumor mass in the neck or as a histopathological incidental finding after thyroid surgery for an apparent benign condition. Our objective was to assess the differences in clinical signs, surgical management, and course between incidental and clinically diagnosed thyroid tumors. A retrospective study was conducted on patients operated on for benign or malignant thyroid disease from January 2000 to March 2014. Among the 1415 patients who underwent any thyroid surgery, 264 neoplasms were found, of which 170 were incidental. A comparison was made of incidental versus non-incidental carcinomas. Among incidental carcinomas, cases whose indication for surgery was Graves' disease were compared to those with multinodular goiter. Incidental carcinomas were in earlier stages and required less aggressive surgery. There were no differences in surgical complications between incidental and clinical tumors, but mortality and relapses were markedly higher in non-incidental cancers (4.4% vs 0% and 13.2% vs 4.8% respectively). Carcinomas developing on Graves' disease showed no differences from all other incidental tumors in terms of complications, mortality, or relapse after surgery. Early stage thyroid cancer has better survival and prognosis after surgical treatment. Copyright © 2016 SEEN. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Bacharach, Samuel B; Bamberger, Peter A; McKinney, Valerie M
Drawing from the literature linking alcohol consumption and aggressive behavior, the authors examine the degree to which the risk of gender harassment toward female workers may be associated with the drinking behaviors and perceived workplace drinking norms of their male coworkers. Using multilevel analyses to examine data from 1,301 workers (including 262 women employed in 58 work units in the manufacturing, service and construction sectors), our findings indicate that, even when controlling for a variety of other demographic and unit-level factors, there is a significant association between the proportion of males in a work unit identified as being heavy or "at-risk" drinkers and the probability of gender harassment toward unit females. Our findings further indicate that this association is amplified as a function of the embeddedness of permissive workplace drinking norms among males' referent others. Copyright 2007 APA
Full Text Available No study has been conducted on sexual harassment of physiotherapists in South Africa and it is therefore not known whether harassment occurs and if it does, to what extent. To this purpose, a questionnaire on sexual harassment and other sexual-related issues in the physiotherapy work environment in South Africa, was sent to a random selection of 982 physiotherapists registered with the Health Professions Council of South Africa. The response rate was 32%. This paper presents the results of the first half of the questionnaire, which was devoted to sexual harassment of the physiotherapist. Approximately 60% had experienced sexual harassment, of which 83.98% had been perpetrated by patients. Only 5.82% of the respondents had received some form of information in this regard. The most common form of harassment was requests for a hug or kiss.
Sexual harassment and hostile work environments are explored. Managerial roles are discussed, including taking a proactive approach and dealing appropriately with an employee's claim. Nurse managers must confront the issue of sexual harassment as complaints continue to develop throughout the industry. Because managers are responsible for employees' actions, it is essential that they familiarize themselves with what constitutes the act and how to handle a claim. Sexual harassment is defined by US Civil Rights Acts (1964 and 1991), US Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, UK's Equal Opportunities Commission, American Nurses Association and the Royal College of Nursing. Frederick Herzberg's Two-Factor Theory of Motivation is also related to workplace sexual harassment. Sexual harassment is a widespread problem within the industry, claiming both men and women as its victims. Managers can be held responsible for sexual harassment even if they are unaware of the existence of behaviour.
Robinson, Robert K; Franklin, Geralyn Mcclure; Tinney, Cathie H; Crow, Stephen M; Hartman, Sandra J
Actionable sexual harassment is defined as a violation of Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964. In recent years, there have been a number of significant developments in sexual harassment case law and litigation including: (1) nationwide legal recognition for same-sex sexual harassment; (2) increased standards on employer liability for sexual harassment perpetrated by supervisory and managerial personnel; and (3) guidelines for mitigating damages when employers are found liable. These developments are of particular concern in those professions such as healthcare in which women historically have been represented as a significant portion of the workforce. Moreover, because management and supervisory relationships in healthcare are often cloudy, harassment by "supervisors" in healthcare settings can be an issue of special concern. In this article, we review relevant issues related to sexual harassment and provide guidance in dealing with the issue in the workplace.
Decker, P J
Sexual harassment in health care is a problem because of exorbitant legal costs, lost productivity, poor morale, and nonproductive absenteeism or turnover. Sexual harassment is more prevalent in health care. Health care organizations often do little to prevent it and do not respond properly when it occurs. In this article, legal precedents are reviewed, and a model of sexual harassment is developed to illustrate the phenomenon and identify interventions. Harassing and stereotyping behavior can be changed. Victims' responses and willingness to report incidents can be changed. Policies, sanctions, accountability, training, the type of investigations, and changed organizational culture help reduce sexual harassment. It is argued that reduction of sexual harassment in health care is important because it is a major productivity issue.
Full Text Available Myxomas are mesenchymal tumors commonly found in the heart and skin. Renal myxomas are rare, having only been documented 14 times. Our case is a 55-year-old woman who presented to our clinic after a right renal mass was incidentally found on CT. Evaluation with MRI showed a mass that appeared to arise from the supero-medial cortex of the right kidney. As the imaging was concerning for renal cell carcinoma, the patient underwent a partial nephrectomy. Microscopic examination showed a well-circumscribed mass with polygonal to spindle-shaped cells in a granular eosinophilic cytoplasm. Immunohistochemical staining for CD-10, Desmin, HMB-45, and Pankeratin were negative.
Halgas, Jordan T. L.
In a litigious society, it is of particular importance that students understand the law of sexual harassment and sexual harassment investigations. Sexual harassment litigation can create a heavy financial burden on employers. Sexual harassment investigations and litigation also cause a social impact on employers. In order to provide students with…
Jo Krøjer; Sine Lehn-Christiansen; Mette Lykke Nielsen
Sexual harassment is illegal and may have very damaging effects on the people exposed to it. One would expect organizations, employers, and institutions to take very good care to prevent employees from exposure to sexual harassment from anyone in their workplace. And yet, many people, mostly women, are exposed to sexual harassment at work. In care work, such behaviour is often directed toward their female caregiver by elderly citizens in need of care. Contemporary Nordic studies of working li...
Lee Kum Chee; Mohd Nazari Ismail; Chan Foong Bee
This study examined the potential risks factors associated with sexually harassing behaviors within the framework of the four-factor model of sexual harassment. The factors examined are unprofessional work environment, skewed gender ratio in the workplace, knowledge of grievance procedure for sexual harassment, sexist attitudes among co-workers, privacy of workspace, physical attractiveness, dress manner of victims, job status, and sex roles. The dependent variable is incidence of sexual hara...
Bendixen, Mons; Kennair, Leif Edward Ottesen
Sexual harassment has traditionally been studied as men's harassment of women. This has led to a lack of knowledge about same sex harassment, and women harassing peers. This has also downplayed the inherent sexual nature of sexual harassment acts. While keeping in mind that sexual harassment is undesirable and causes distress, one needs to consider that many acts that are perceived as unwanted may not primarily be motivated by a wish to derogate but rather by an interest in soliciting short-t...
Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu; Fröjd, Sari; Marttunen, Mauri
Sexual harassment has been studies as a mechanism reproducing inequality between sexes, as gender based discrimination, and more recently, as a public health problem. The role of family-related factors for subjection to sexual harassment in adolescent has been little studied. Our aim was to study the role of socio-demographic family factors and parental involvement in adolescent's persona life for experiences of sexual harassment among 14-18-year-old population girls and boys. An anonymous cross-sectional classroom survey was carried out in comprehensive and secondary schools in Finland. 90953 boys and 91746 girls aged 14-18 participated. Sexual harassment was elicited with five questions. Family structure, parental education, parental unemployment and parental involvement as perceived by the adolescent were elicited. The data were analyzed using cross-tabulations with chi-square statistics and logistic regressions. All types of sexual harassment experiences elicited were more common among girls than among boys. Parental unemployment, not living with both parents and low parental education were associated with higher likelihood of reporting experiences of sexual harassment, and parental involvement in the adolescent's personal life was associated with less reported sexual harassment. Parental involvement in an adolescent's life may be protective of perceived sexual harassment. Adolescents from socio-economically disadvantaged families are more vulnerable to sexual harassment than their more advantaged peers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
M. Carmen Herrera
Full Text Available Sexual harassment is one of the most widespread forms of gender violence. Perceptions of sexual harassment depend on gender, context, the perceivers’ ideology, and a host of other factors. Research has underscored the importance of coping strategies in raising a victim’s self-confidence by making her feel that she plays an active role in overcoming her own problems. The aim of this study was to assess the men’s perceptions of sexual harassment in relation to different victim responses. The study involved 101 men who were administered a questionnaire focusing on two of the most frequent types of harassment (gender harassment vs. unwanted sexual attention and victim response (confrontation vs. non confrontation, both of which were manipulated. Moreover, the influences of ideological variables, ambivalent sexism, and the acceptance of myths of sexual harassment on perception were also assessed. The results highlight the complexities involved in recognizing certain behaviors as harassment and the implications of different victim responses to incidents of harassment. As the coping strategies used by women to confront harassment entail drawbacks that pose problems or hinder them, the design and implementation of prevention and/or education programs should strive to raise awareness among men and women to further their understanding of this construct.
Fitzgerald, L F
Sexual harassment has been a fixture of the workplace since women first began to work outside the home. Although true epidemiological studies do not exist, large-scale surveys of working women suggest that approximately 1 of every 2 women will be harassed at some point during their academic or working lives. The data indicate that harassment is degrading, frightening, and sometimes physically violent; frequently extends over a considerable period of time; and can result in profound job-related, psychological; and health-related consequences. This article provides a brief review of the prevalence and consequences of sexual harassment and outlines social policy implications for research, legislation, and primary prevention.
Quick, James Campbell; McFadyen, M Ann
Sexual harassment (SH) is a continuing, chronic occupational health problem in organizations and work environments. First addressed in the Journal of Occupational Health Psychology through a 1998 Special Section on Sexual Harassment, we return to this consequential issue. If the goal is to reduce SH in organizations, and we believe that it should be, then a key question is whether we have made progress in 2 decades. The answer is mixed. Yes, there is a 28% decline in SH complaints. No, there is an increase in complaints by males. No, there has been an increase in the percentage of merit resolutions and monetary benefits. Maybe, because how do we explain the complexity of SH with emergent gay, lesbian, and transgender workforce members. One persistent problematic aspect of SH lack of agreement on definition. We address 2 of the 3 definitional approaches. We consider the broad, negative consequences for organizations and for individual victims. Harassers and aggressors destroy lives, leaving long legacies of suffering. In addition, we offer some suggestions for moving forward in science and practice, with emphasis on the role of the bystander. We conclude that SH is a preventable, if not always predictable, occupational health problem. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Around 300 people attended the talk on 'Sexual and psychological harassment: suffering at work' given by specialist Véronique Ducret at CERN at the end of May. The Equal Opportunities Advisory Panel organised this event with the aim of making it clear to CERN personnel what sexual harassment and mobbing are, and how to combat them. Véronique Ducret during her talk at CERN. A look can have a thousand different connotations. But at what point does it stop being just a look and become an intrusion on someone's privacy? When someone persists in this kind of behaviour, it ends up by making the other person feel uncomfortable. This was one of the questions that was answered during Véronique Ducret's talk on 'Sexual and psychological harassment: suffering at work'. Another question answered concerned mobbing - up to what point is it acceptable to put pressure on someone at work? Here again her answer pointed to situations which persist over time and the manner in which the pressure is applied. These kinds o...
Rospenda, Kathleen M; Richman, Judith A; Shannon, Candice A
Using three waves of data from an ongoing study of current and former university employees (N = 1,656), the authors reexamined the roles of sexual (SH) and generalized (GWH) workplace harassment and gender in predicting use of professional services by focusing on patterning (chronic, remission, onset, intermittent, and never harassed). The authors also reexamined whether services moderated relationships between SH and GWH patterns and drinking and mental health outcomes. All patterns of SH, but only chronic GWH, predicted increased odds of services use. Services use did not moderate relationship between SH patterns and outcomes, but was associated with lower alcohol consumption for men with GWH remission or chronicity, reduced escape drinking for those with GWH remission, and reduced hostility for those with intermittent GWH.
Cass, Stacie A; Levett, Lora M; Kovera, Margaret Bull
Community members reporting for jury duty (N = 128) read a sexual harassment trial summary in which harassment severity and the organization's sexual harassment policy and response were manipulated. Jurors who read the severe harassment scenario were more likely to agree that the plaintiff had suffered and should be compensated for her suffering and that the organization should be punished than were jurors who read the mild harassment scenario. When the organization had and enforced a sexual harassment policy, jurors believed that the plaintiff had suffered little and the organization should not be punished compared with conditions in which the organization did not have an enforced sexual harassment policy. Harassment severity influenced jurors' compensatory awards, and organizational behavior influenced jurors' punitive awards. These results have implications for plaintiffs, who must decide whether to claim specific or garden-variety damages; organizations, which could create or modify sexual harassment policy to limit damages; and trial lawyers, who could tailor arguments to maximize or minimize awards. 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Strecker, Thomas; Scheuermann, Sabine; Nooh, Ehab; Weyand, Michael; Agaimy, Abbas
Primary cardiac tumors are very rare, papillary fibroelastoma (PFE) being the second most common benign tumor of the heart in previous series. However, as a consequence of increased imaging examinations, incidental PFE may represent the most common cardiac tumor. Their clinical presentation varies from incidental asymptomatic masses to severe life-threatening cardiovascular complications necessitating emergency surgery. Here we report the diagnostic evaluation and successful surgical resectio...
Abdullah, Selwan B. [University of Maryland Medical Center, Diagnostic Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States); University of Minnesota, Medical School, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Dietz, Kelly R.; Holm, Tara L. [University of Minnesota, Department of Radiology, Minneapolis, MN (United States)
Fetal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a routinely used tool in prenatal diagnosis; however, there is a lack of studies evaluating incidental findings observed in the mother. This study describes and quantifies incidental findings observed in the mother during fetal MRI. We reviewed all fetal MRI studies at the University of Minnesota Medical Center from February 2008 to September 2014. Two pediatric radiologists retrospectively conducted a consensus evaluation. The maternal findings were categorized into neurologic, gynecologic, urinary, gastrointestinal and musculoskeletal. Hydronephrosis consistent with the stage of pregnancy was recorded but was not included as an abnormal finding. Abnormal findings were classified into three groups, depending on their clinical significance: level I (low), level II (medium) and level III (high). We evaluated 332 pregnant patients with a mean age of 29.3 years and a mean gestational age of 29 weeks. Of these, 55.4% had at least 1 incidental finding, for a total of 262 incidental maternal findings. Of the 262 abnormalities, 113 (43.1%) were neurologic, 69 were gynecologic (26.3%), 36 (13.7%) urinary, 24 (9.2%) gastrointestinal and 20 (7.6%) musculoskeletal. Of the 262 incidental findings, 237 (90.5%) were level I, 24 (9.2%) were level II and 1 (0.4%) was level III. Our results suggest that although the vast majority of incidental maternal findings are benign, more significant findings are still encountered and should be expected. (orig.)
Sidi Mohammed Bouchentouf
Full Text Available Gallbladder cancer (GBC represents 3.8% of all gastrointestinal cancers and usually known to be of a poor prognosis. In 0.2–2.9% of cases, this cancer is found in cholecystectomy specimens. A better understanding of spread mode of this tumor helps a better surgical management. The aim of the present review is to underline the management of GBC based on the comprehension of risk factors and anatomic features. A Medline, PubMed database search was performed to identify articles published from 2000 to 2011 using the keywords ‘carcinoma of gallbladder’, ‘incidental gallbladder cancer’, ‘gallbladder neoplasm’ and ‘cholecystectomy’. Some pathological situations such as chronic lithiasis and biliopancreatic junction abnormalities have been clearly identified as predisposing to GBC. Laparoscopy increases peritoneal and parietal tumor dissemination, thus, it should not be performed when GBC is suspected. Most determinant prognostic factors are nodal, perineural and venous involvement, invasion of the cystic duct and the tumor differentiation. The simple cholecystectomy is sufficient for tumors classified as T1a; for other cancers exceeding the muscularis, radical re-resection is required due to the high risk of recurrence. This aggressive surgery improved the overall survival of patients. There is still no standard adjuvant treatment; patients should be included in prospective trials.
Act to provide for the establishment of an Atomic Energy Authority and an advisory committee to advise such authority, to specify the power, duties, rights and functions of such authority, and to provide for matters connected therewith or incidental thereto
Sexual harassment is a recurring decimal in tertiary institutions. The paper therefore investigates the effects of sexual harassment on the academic performance of female students, using Delta State University, Abraka, as case study. The participants were randomly selected 200level – 500level students from various ...
Mansell, Jamie; Moffit, Dani M.; Russ, Anne C.; Thorpe, Justin N.
Context: Sexual harassment is a growing concern in higher education. Athletic training students should feel safe in their programs, whether in the didactic or clinical setting. Though the Commission on Accreditation of Athletic Training Education creates standards to keep the students safe, there are none regarding sexual harassment training for…
28 mars 2017 ... More than 95 per cent of women in Egypt have experienced sexual harassment at least once, but many citizens there turn a blind eye when it happens. The HarassMap project is aiming to change that attitude at home and abroad, empowering women and changing the attitudes of men in the process.
Petersen, Jennifer L.; Hyde, Janet S.
Peer sexual harassment is a pervasive problem in schools and is associated with a variety of negative mental health outcomes. Objectification theory suggests that sexual attention in the form of peer harassment directs unwanted attention to the victim's body and may lead to a desire to alter the body via disordered eating. In the current study, we…
de Haas, Stans; Timmerman, Greetje; Höing, Mechtild
The aims of this study were to investigate whether sexual harassment is related to mental and physical health of both men and women, and to explore the possible moderating effects of gender on the relation between sexual harassment and health. In addition, we investigated whether women were more often bothered by sexual harassment than men, and whether victims who report being bothered by the harassment experience more health problems compared to victims who did not feel bothered. A representative sample of 3,001 policemen and 1,295 policewomen in the Dutch police force filled out an Internet questionnaire. It appeared that women were more often bothered by sexual harassment than men, but gender did not moderate the relation between sexual harassment and mental and physical health. In addition, victims who felt bothered by the harassing behaviors reported more mental and physical health problems than victims who did not feel bothered. The distinction between bothered and nonbothered victims is important because appraisal is an essential aspect in the operationalization of sexual harassment. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved.
Scarduzio, Jennifer A; Sheff, Sarah E; Smith, Mathew
The ways sexual harassment occurs both online and in face-to-face settings has become more complicated. Sexual harassment that occurs in cyberspace or online sexual harassment adds complexity to the experiences of victims, current research understandings, and the legal dimensions of this phenomenon. Social networking sites (SNS) are a type of social media that offer unique opportunities to users and sometimes the communication that occurs on SNS can cross the line from flirtation into online sexual harassment. Victims of sexual harassment employ communicative strategies such as coping to make sense of their experiences of sexual harassment. The current study qualitatively examined problem-focused, active emotion-focused, and passive emotion-focused coping strategies employed by sexual harassment victims across multiple settings. We conducted 26 in-depth interviews with victims that had experienced sexual harassment across multiple settings (e.g., face-to-face and SNS). The findings present 16 types of coping strategies-five problem-focused, five active emotion-focused, and six passive emotion-focused. The victims used an average of three types of coping strategies during their experiences. Theoretical implications extend research on passive emotion-focused coping strategies by discussing powerlessness and how victims blame other victims. Furthermore, theoretically the findings reveal that coping is a complex, cyclical process and that victims shift among types of coping strategies over the course of their experience. Practical implications are offered for victims and for SNS sites.
Timmerman, M.C.; Bajema, C.W.
A substantial body of research addressing the issue of sexual harassment in the workplace has been developed over the past decade. In this article we consider the complexity of cross-cultural comparisons of the incidence rates of sexual harassment and present the results of our research on sexual
The paper focuses on the incidence of sexual harassment in tertiary science education and its attendant effects on students and academics. Data from a survey of six higher institutions comprising two universities, two colleges of education and two polytechnics was used. Results indicate high rate of sexual harassment of ...
Conroy, Nicole E.
This article provides an integrative review of the literature on adolescent sexual harassment and highlights potential contributions of feminist theory for research. Although developmental theories for studying sexual harassment are useful in their own right, the discussion focuses on how they fail to address the ways in which sexual harassment…
Mansfield, Katherine Cumings; Beck, Amy Gray; Fung, Kakim; Montiel, Marta; Goldman, Madeline
Gender discrimination and sexual harassment persist on college campuses across the United States. This seems especially obvious at the beginning of the academic year when many freshman women and their parents are welcomed to campus with sexually explicit signs displayed on all-male residences. But, sometimes, sexual harassment and gender…
Timmerman, M.C.; Bajema, C.W.
A substantial body of research addressing the issue of sexual harassment in the workplace has been developed over the past decade. In this article, we present the results of our review study of research on sexual harassment in the workplace in 11 Northern and Western European countries and consider
Vance, Suzy; Wendt, Anne
Developed a construct of sexual issues/sexual harassment in the workplace based on survey responses of 101 participants in a training program on sexual harassment before the training and 111 participants after the training. Results show a progression of attitudes toward behaviors from safe to most dangerous. (SLD)
Robin, Gaëlle; Stéphan, Florian; Le Galudec, Mickaël; Hazif-Thomas, Cyril; Walter, Michel
Harassment may be either moral, physical or sexual. It is defined as a phenomenon that happens repeatedly. It is underestimated in professional environments and probably even more so in private life. Without referring to a pathological personality, harassers have common pathological traits.
Keyton, Joann; Rhodes, Steve
A study identified the verbal and nonverbal behaviors that people associate with flirting as opposed to sexual harassment, determined whether people could successfully distinguish between flirting and sexual harassment, and examined the relationship between variables that might affect the first two objectives. Subjects, 57 females and 32 males…
Business and Professional Women's Foundation, Washington, DC.
This paper focuses on the problem of sexual harassment in the workplace. The legal definition of sexual harassment as drawn up by the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission is: "unwelcome sexual advances, requests for sexual favors, and other verbal or physical conduct of a sexual nature that are explicitly or implicitly a term or condition…
Watstein, Sarah Barbara
Examines the issue of sexual harassment in the library workplace and library profession. Laws relating to sexual harassment in the library are explored, and the immediate and long-term preventive solutions at the individual, institutional, and association levels are discussed. (KRN)
Sexual harassment is a form of sexual violence that has become a social problem in our society, in the world, over there are accusations and counter accusations of one form of sexual harassment or the other in the work place. The academic environment is not left out of this problem, in fact, the prevalence and dimensions ...
This study investigates the reasons for sexual harassment, its nature and policy implications in a departmental store in Gweru, Zimbabwe. It also analyses the costs of sexual harassment on both the individual and the organisation. The study is based on a qualitative research conducted between January and July 2008.
Objective: To find out if Sexual Harassment existed at a higher institute of learning and explore perception of sexual harassment in the university community and to make recommendations based on the findings. Methodology: This was a cross sectional study that collected both primary and secondary data. The participants ...
Evidence in literature and reports showed that both male and female athletes are sexually harassed in their course of participating in sports. The purpose of the study was to find out the perpetrators of sexual harassment experienced by athletes in southern Nigerian universities. A cross-sectional survey design was ...
This paper examines how sexual harassment impacts on student nurses. The purpose of the paper is to find out the prevalence of unwarranted sexual behaviors against student nurses in Nigeria. Forty one students participated in the survey in which they were asked questions to indicate their feelings, to identify harassers ...
This confirmed the predicted hypothesis that male and females differ in their perception of what constitute sexual harassment in the university. The need to establish a center to handle sensitization of the university community about the contents and consequences of sexual harassment on one hand, and its prevention and ...
Roč. 47, č. 6 (2011), s. 1119-1147 ISSN 0038-0288 R&D Projects: GA MŠk OK08007; GA ČR GAP 404/10/0021 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70280505 Keywords : sexual harassment * higher education * anti-harassment policy Subject RIV: AO - Sociology, Demography Impact factor: 0.357, year: 2011
Using new technology and social media in tandem with a data collection technique called crowdsourcing, Harrassmap tracks incidents of sexual harassment in the Greater Cairo area. The goal is to change the social acceptability of sexual harassment in Egypt. This research will offer an opportunity to compare the quality of ...
McLaughlin, Heather; Uggen, Christopher; Blackstone, Amy
Young disadvantaged workers are especially vulnerable to harassment due to their age and social class position. As young people enter the workforce, their experiences of, and reactions to, harassment may vary dramatically from those of older adult workers. Three case studies introduce theory and research on the relationship between social class…
Sexual harassment broke into the national consciousness in 1991, when Anita Hill accused Clarence Thomas--then a nominee to the U.S. Supreme Court--of having made sexually inappropriate comments to her. The controversy spawned a flood of charges nationwide, including on college campuses. Since then colleges have tried to stem harassment with…
... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sexual behavior and harassment. 638.512... establish rules concerning sexual behavior and harassment. See also §§ 638.539(g) and 638.813(a) of this... PROGRAM UNDER TITLE IV-B OF THE JOB TRAINING PARTNERSHIP ACT Center Operations § 638.512 Sexual behavior...
De Coster, Stacy; Estes, Sarah Beth; Mueller, Charles W.
In criminology, routine activities of potential victims can be used to predict victimization. Application to organizational sexual harassment data shows that organizational features (proximity in job location, supervisor or work group guardianship) and individual characteristics (target attractiveness) can predict sexual harassment victimization,…
Lewis, Jacqueline; Coursol, Diane; Wahl, Kay Herting
Workplace harassment includes dysfunctional personal interactions characterized by bullying behaviors, personal attacks, and attempts to denigrate others. Targets of workplace harassment may experience stress, depression, low self-esteem, loss of sleep, and even posttraumatic stress disorder. Strategies that counselors can use to work effectively…
This article argues that street harassment is symptomatic of high unemployment rates and of a consequentially weakening patriarchal system. It identifies the everyday spectacle of male-to-female street harassment as indicative of the frustration and difficulties in adhering to cultural ideals in a time of immense structural
de Haas, Stans; Hoing, Mechtild; Timmerman, M.C.
The aims of this study were to investigate whether sexual harassment is related to mental and physical health of both men and women, and to explore the possible moderating effects of gender on the relation between sexual harassment and health. In addition, we investigated whether women were more
Review of national legislation and key cases on sexual harassment in North America, Europe, Asia, and Africa identified the following trends: recognition of harassment as employment discrimination, the importance of the legal framework used and the composition of the hearing body, the issue of individual or employer liability, and the influence of…
Vogt, Dawne; Bruce, Tamara A; Street, Amy E; Stafford, Jane
Women are more likely to experience sexual harassment in some work settings than others; specifically, work settings that have a large proportion of male workers, include a predominance of male supervisors, and represent traditional male occupations may be places in which there is greater tolerance for sexual harassment. The focus of the study was to document attitudes toward women among military personnel, to identify demographic and military characteristics associated with more positive attitudes toward women, and to examine associations between attitudes toward women and tolerance for sexual harassment. The study was based on data from 2,037 male and female former Reservists who reported minimal or no experiences of sexual harassment and no sexual assault in the military. Results suggest that attitudes toward women vary across content domains, are associated with several key demographic and military characteristics, and predict tolerance for sexual harassment. Implications of the findings and future directions are discussed.
Lee Kum Chee
Full Text Available This study examined the potential risks factors associated with sexually harassing behaviors within the framework of the four-factor model of sexual harassment. The factors examined are unprofessional work environment, skewed gender ratio in the workplace, knowledge of grievance procedure for sexual harassment, sexist attitudes among co-workers, privacy of workspace, physical attractiveness, dress manner of victims, job status, and sex roles. The dependent variable is incidence of sexual harassment which was evaluated using the Sexual Experience Questionnaire developed by Fitzgerald, Shullman, Bailey, Richards, Swecker, Gold, Ormerod, and Weitzman (1988. Data were collected from 657 women employees working in Malaysian organizations. The findings showed that the predictions of the four-factor model are also largely true in the case of the Malaysian workplace. The study also found that sexual harassment behaviors are fairly widespread in Malaysia.
Kisa, Adnan; Dziegielewski, Sophia F; Ates, Metin
Sexual harassment remains a universal factor that can affect nursing performance and worker productivity in any type of health care facility. There are few studies in this area that have been conducted in developing countries. To measure the occurrence of sexual harassment, a questionnaire was given to 353 nurses in two different hospitals yielding a response rate of 61%. Overall, the majority of the respondents (n = 157 out of 251) reported that they had been subjected to sexual harassment in the workplace, and the harassment experience was strong enough to affect worker productivity. In addition, many nurses reported the belief that sexual harassment remains a disturbing problem in this developing country that should not be ignored. Based on these findings, implications for policy and further study are suggested.
Graser, M; Manaouil, C; Verrier, A; Doutrellot-Phillipon, C; Jardé, O
The recent French Law on Social Modernisation of 17 January 2002 introduced into the French Labour Code and into the French Criminal Code, the concept of "moral" harassment. The definition of psychological harassment under this law adopts quite a broad conception of the notion of psychological harassment. The legislator has established a means for "friendly" settlement of disputes: mediation. When it has not been possible to settle the dispute internally, the Courts have a number of sanctions available to them. The French Labour Code provides that any termination of the contract of employment resulting from a situation of psychological harassment is automatically null and void. Such nullification should therefore be applicable whatever the nature of the termination: dismissal, resignation or negotiated departure and it punishes psychological harassment at work by imprisonment for one year and a fine of 3,750 Euros. The French Criminal Code prescribes penalties of one year and 15,000 Euros.
Bergman, Mindy E; Langhout, Regina Day; Palmieri, Patrick A; Cortina, Lilia M; Fitzgerald, Louise F
This study places the reporting of sexual harassment within an integrated model of the sexual harassment process. Two structural models were developed and tested in a sample (N = 6,417) of male and female military personnel. The 1st model identifies determinants and effects of reporting; reporting did not improve--and at times worsened--job, psychological, and health outcomes. The authors argue that organizational responses to reports (i.e., organizational remedies, organizational minimization, and retaliation) as well as procedural satisfaction can account for these negative effects. The 2nd model examines these mediating mechanisms; results suggest that these mediators, and not reporting itself, are the source of the negative effects of reporting. Organizational and legal implications of these findings are discussed.
Sanjobo, N. Vol 41, No 3 (2014) - Articles Knowledge and Perception of Sexual Harassment in an Institution of Higher Education in Sub-Saharan Africa Abstract PDF · Vol 43, No 1 (2016) - Articles Knowledge and Perception of Sexual Harassment in an Institution of Higher Education in Sub-Saharan Africa Abstract PDF.
Abstract PDF · Vol 41, No 3 (2014) - Articles Knowledge and Perception of Sexual Harassment in an Institution of Higher Education in Sub-Saharan Africa Abstract PDF · Vol 43, No 1 (2016) - Articles Knowledge and Perception of Sexual Harassment in an Institution of Higher Education in Sub-Saharan Africa Abstract PDF.
Michiue, Masanori. [Tottori University, Tottori (Japan)
Authors carried out the outside evaluation that the education system, equipment from curriculum and results of faculty staff were checked by not only self-inspection and evaluation but also insight people outside the faculty in the engineering faculty in the Tottori University. As one part of this evaluation, a guideline to the sexual harassment was made. After then, a guideline to the sexual harassment in each university was completed after learned from the example of the Tottori University. This kind of regulation was made in offices of each ministry and agency, self governing body and company according to the direction of the National Personal Authority. Until recent time, the regulation related to student discussion on the sexual harassment was set up in whole the Tottori University, an environment to make students study at ease was adjusted. These items had the regulation related to student discussion, protection, guideline, when damage happened, and the student discussion room. These items were listed in the student living guideline on the homepage of the Tottori University. (NEDO)
Comer, Debra R.; Cooper, Elizabeth A.
Describes how to use Michael Crichton's novel "Disclosure" and the film based on it for class discussions of such issues as what constitutes sexual harassment, harassment of men, relationship between sexual harassment and power, organizational responses to harassment, and gender differences in career advancement tactics. (SK)
Birdeau, Danielle R.; Somers, Cheryl L.; Lenihan, Genie O.
This study assessed the effectiveness of two educational strategies designed to prevent sexual harassment among college students. The treatment groups demonstrated better outcomes than the comparison group. Women perceived ambiguous situations as more harassing. Severity ratings of sexually harassing behavior did not vary by gender of harasser or…
Spector, Paul E; Zhou, Zhiqing E; Che, Xin Xuan
This paper provides a quantitative review that estimates exposure rates by type of violence, setting, source, and world region. A quantitative review of the nursing violence literature was summarized. A literature search was conducted using the CINAHL, Medline and PsycInfo data bases. Studies included had to report empirical results using a nursing sample, and include data on bullying, sexual harassment, and/or violence exposure rates. A total of 136 articles provided data on 151,347 nurses from 160 samples. Articles were identified through a database search and by consulting reference lists of review articles that were located. Relevant data were coded by the three authors. Categories depended on the availability of at least five studies. Exposure rates were coded as percentages of nurses in the sample who reported a given type of violence. Five types of violence were physical, nonphysical, bullying, sexual harassment, and combined (type of violence was not indicated). Setting, timeframe, country, and source of violence were coded. Overall violence exposure rates were 36.4% for physical violence, 66.9% for nonphysical violence, 39.7% for bullying, and 25% for sexual harassment, with 32.7% of nurses reporting having been physically injured in an assault. Rates of exposure varied by world region (Anglo, Asia, Europe and Middle East), with the highest rates for physical violence and sexual harassment in the Anglo region, and the highest rates of nonphysical violence and bullying in the Middle East. Regions also varied in the source of violence, with patients accounting for most of it in Anglo and European regions, whereas patents' families/friends were the most common source in the Middle East. About a third of nurses worldwide indicated exposure to physical violence and bullying, about a third reported injury, about a quarter experienced sexual harassment, and about two-thirds indicated nonphysical violence. Physical violence was most prevalent in emergency
Kumra, Sanjiv; Ashtari, Manzar; Anderson, Britt; Cervellione, Kelly L.; Kan, Li
Objective: The authors examined the ethical and practical management issues resulting from the detection of incidental abnormal findings on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) research studies in healthy pediatric volunteers. Method: A retrospective examination of the findings from 60 clinical reports of research MRI scans from a cohort of healthy…
Vasconcelos, Rodrigo Abdalla de; Pereira, Emanuelle Santiago [Hospital de Base do Distrito Federal (HBDF), Brasilia, DF (Brazil); Bauab Junior, Tufik [Instituto de Radiodiagnostico Rio Preto - Ultra-X and Hospital de Base de Faculdade de Medicina de Sao Jose do Rio Preto (Famerp), Sao Jose do Rio Preto, SP (Brazil); Valente, Rodolfo Silva [Hospital Universitario de Brasilia (HUB), Brasilia, DF (Brazil)
Renal lymphangiectasia is a rare condition characterized by parapyelic and perirenal fluid collections, which may progress from asymptomatic condition to chronic renal failure. The present report describes a case of incidental computed tomography finding of bilateral lymphangiectasia in an asymptomatic patient, as well as the main imaging findings with a comprehensive literature review. (author)
Fugita, Dalton Yukio A.; Cruz, Daniela Nogueira; Cappucci, Alessandro; Arakava, Marcia Mayumi; Guimaraes, Maria Carolina; Wolosker, Angela Maria B.; Yamashita, Helio Kiitiro [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Diagnostico por Imagem; Manso, Paulo Goes [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Oftalmologia
We retrospectively studied the computed tomography scans of the orbit in 75 patients in order to identify the presence of incidental calcifications (scleral and trochlear apparatus calcifications.). These imaging findings should integrate the vast list of differential diagnosis of orbital calcifications, as they may help radiologists to distinguish these calcifications from orbital foreign bodies. (author)
The individual perception of sexual harassment and the gap between the individual and legal-institutional defi nitions of sexual harassment has been subject to intense scientifi c scrutiny as this is considered to be one of the reasons for the failure of anti-harassment policies. This article focuses on perceptions and constructions of sexual harassment by students and the gap between students’ individual defi nitions and expert (mainly legislative) definitions of sexual harassment. The artic...
Pierre Joubert; Christo van Wyk; Sebastiaan Rothmann
This article aims to investigate the perceptions of academic staff relating to the incidence of sexual harassment at higher education institutions in South Africa. The results show a relatively low incidence level of sexual harassment, with gender harassment being more prevalent than unwanted sexual attention and quid pro quo harassment. No statistically significant effect of gender, age, population group or years of service was found on the perceptions of the incidence of sexual harassment. ...
Abo Ali, Ehab A; Saied, Shimaa M; Elsabagh, Hala M; Zayed, Hanaa A
Sexual harassment against nurses is a major workplace problem causing adverse psychological effects and may affect the occupational performance of the nurses. This study aimed to assess the magnitude of this problem, and its characteristics and consequences among the nursing staff in Tanta University Hospitals, Gharbeia Governorate, Egypt. A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out on 430 nurses at Tanta University Hospitals using a semistructured, self-administered questionnaire to collect the data concerning the exposure and characteristics of harassment situations. A representative sample of the nurses was taken randomly from the emergency, medical and surgical departments. Overall, 70.2% of the studied nurses were ever exposed to sexual harassment at the workplace; 43.7% of the harassed nurses were working in both day and night shifts. Staring in a suggestive manner emerged as the most common form of harassment, followed by hearing sexual words and comments or jokes (70.9, 58.6 and 57.3%, respectively). The relatives of the patients were the most common perpetrators, followed by the hospital staff other than the doctors (61.9, 45.4%, respectively). During the harassment situation, astonishment and shock were the most frequent responses in 65.2% of the harassed nurses, while after its occurrence 38.4% ignored the situation. About 95% of the harassed nurses were left with psychological effects, mostly in the form of disappointment and depression (76.5 and 67.9%, respectively). The prevalence of sexual harassment among nurses at the workplace was high with relation to certain occupational factors, and it led to marked psychological effects on the victims. Hence, protective legislations and measures should be taken by the hospital management for prevention of this problem in the future.
Full Text Available Sexual harassment is illegal and may have very damaging effects on the people exposed to it. One would expect organizations, employers, and institutions to take very good care to prevent employees from exposure to sexual harassment from anyone in their workplace. And yet, many people, mostly women, are exposed to sexual harassment at work. In care work, such behaviour is often directed toward their female caregiver by elderly citizens in need of care. Contemporary Nordic studies of working life and work environment have primarily investigated the interpersonal dimensions of sexual harassment, thus focusing on the relation between elderly citizens in need of care and their professional caregivers. In this article, we argue that sexual harassment from the elderly toward newcomers in elder care should also be seen as an effect of institutional practices. Based upon a Foucauldianinspired notion of practice-making, the article carries out a secondary analysis of three different empirical studies in order to explore how sexual harassment is produced and maintained through institutional practices in elder care. The term institution in this perspective includes three dimensions; a political, an educational (educational institutions in health and elder care, and a work organizational dimension. By examining elder care in these different dimensions, we identify how sexual harassment of professional caregivers is produced and maintained through institutional practice-making in elder care. The article thus contributes to our knowledge on working life by expanding and qualifying the understanding of the problematic working environment in care work, and by offering an alternative theoretical and analytical approach to the study of sexual harassment. Together, these insights suggest how elder care institutions might act to prevent sexual harassment toward caregivers.
María del Carmen Herrera
Full Text Available Current research has postulated that sexual harassment is one of the most serious social problems. Perceptions of sexual harassment vary according to some factors: gender, context, and perceiver’s ideology. The strategies most commonly used by women to cope with harassment range from avoiding or ignoring the harasser to confronting the harasser or reporting the incident. The aim of this study was to explore women’s perception of sexual harassment, and to assess the implications of different victim responses to harassment. A total of 138 women were administered a questionnaire where the type of harassment, and victim response were manipulated. Moreover, the influence of ideological variables (i.e. ambivalent sexism and the acceptance of myths of sexual harassment on perception was assessed. Results show perception of sexual harassment was lower in gender harassment than in unwanted sexual attention and participants believed women who confronted their harasser would be evaluated negatively by men. Furthermore, effects of ideology on perception of harassment were found. The results underscore the complexities involved in defining certain behaviours as harassment, and the implications of different victim responses to harassment.
Lawson, Angela K; Wright, Caroline Vaile; Fitzgerald, Louise F
Relatively few targets of sexual harassment cope with the psychological sequelae of their experiences by engaging in litigation. Those who do are often subjected to forensic examination to evaluate their history of psychological distress or disorder and to determine whether such a condition could be reasonably attributed to the alleged harassment, as opposed to some other cause. An unbiased approach to such examinations is critical to all parties, as well as to the profession itself. This study investigates the relationship between the clinical and restructured clinical scales of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2, the Trauma Symptom Inventory subscales, the Crime-Related Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (CR-PTSD) scale, and an American Psychiatric Association diagnosis (APA, Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders; DSM-IV-TR; 4th ed., text rev., 2000, Washington, DC, Author) of PTSD in a sample of sexual harassment plaintiffs. All measures performed well independently, but together provided improved predictive accuracy, suggesting that the use of multiple validated measures as well as structured diagnostic interviews may help us better understand litigants' experiences and reduce bias in evaluations. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved
Settles, Isis H; Buchanan, Nicole T; Yap, Stevie C Y; Harrell, Zaje A T
This study examined data from U.S. military personnel (1,764 men; 4,540 women) to determine whether appraisals of sexual harassment as frightening mediate the relationship between perpetrator characteristics (perpetrator sex and rank) and three psychological/job outcomes (psychological distress, role limitations, and work satisfaction), and whether these relationships were stronger for women than men. Results indicated that frightening appraisals mediated the relationship between perpetrator rank and all outcomes for both sexes. However, frightening appraisals mediated the relationship between perpetrator sex and outcomes only for women. As predicted, having a male perpetrator or a higher status perpetrator was more strongly related to frightening appraisals for women than men. However, unexpectedly, the relationship between frightening appraisals and more psychological distress, more role limitations, and less work satisfaction was stronger for men than women. We discuss the results in terms of expectancy norm violations and sexual harassment as a form of dominance.
Richman, Judith A; Rospenda, Kathleen M; Flaherty, Joseph A; Freels, Sally; Zlatoper, Ken
Research has linked workplace harassment and abuse with distress and drinking. However, increasing societal attention to sexual harassment (SH) has been accompanied by pressures on work organizations to censure harassing behaviors. We address altered perceptions of the organizational tolerance (OT) for SH and generalized workplace abuse (GWA), changes in the prevalence and incidence of these experiences, and their impact on distress and drinking behaviors. A cohort of workers completed a mail survey at three points in time. Questionnaires assessed perceptions of OT for SH and GWA, experiences of SH and GWA, coping, and distress and drinking behaviors. Both sexes perceived that tolerance of SH and GWA has decreased over time. Changes in reported prevalence of these experiences differed by gender, and incidence for both genders decreased more strongly than prevalence. The linkages between SH/GWA and distress and drinking changed over time, but in different ways for women and men. SH and GWA still have deleterious consequences, and replications of this research and greater efforts at prevention are needed.
The Country Women's Association (CWA) is a nationwide Australian group that started in the 1920s in response to isolated women's need to socialize. The group's activities have expanded greatly over time. It distributes essential food and clothing to needy rural families, and its extensive involvement in incidental education for women includes…
anterior neck mass, but other nodules may be detected incidentally during radiological evaluation of the neck. ..... Our 5.7% false-negative rate for FNAB in detecting cancer is similar to the findings of Rumstadt et al. ... our institution most of these cases are treated medically with antithyroid medication followed by radioactive.
Schulreich, Stefan; Gerhardt, Holger; Heekeren, Hauke R
In many everyday decisions, people exhibit loss aversion-a greater sensitivity to losses relative to gains of equal size. Loss aversion is thought to be (at least partly) mediated by emotional--in particular, fear-related--processes. Decision research has shown that even incidental emotions, which are unrelated to the decision at hand, can influence decision making. The effect of incidental fear on loss aversion, however, is thus far unclear. In two studies, we experimentally investigated how incidental fear cues, presented during (Study 1) or before (Study 2) choices to accept or reject mixed gambles over real monetary stakes, influence monetary loss aversion. We find that the presentation of fearful faces, relative to the presentation of neutral faces, increased risk aversion-an effect that could be attributed to increased loss aversion. The size of this effect was moderated by psychopathic personality: Fearless dominance, in particular its interpersonal facet, but not self-centered impulsivity, attenuated the effect of incidental fear cues on loss aversion, consistent with reduced fear reactivity. Together, these results highlight the sensitivity of loss aversion to the affective context. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Hulstijn, J.H.; Chapelle, C.A.
The term incidental learning is used, in applied linguistics, to refer to the acquisition of a word or expression without the conscious intention to commit the element to memory, such as "picking up" an unknown word from listening to someone or from reading a text.
Best, Connie L; Smith, Daniel W; Raymond, John R; Greenberg, Raymond S; Crouch, Rosalie K
There is a high incidence of sexual harassment and gender discrimination in academic health center (AHC) settings according to multiple surveys of medical students. Therefore, it is incumbent on AHCs to develop programs both to educate faculty, residents, and students and to handle complaints of possible episodes of sexual harassment or gender discrimination. Despite the apparent high prevalence of gender discrimination and sexual harassment, and the importance of handling complaints of gender discrimination and sexual harassment in a prompt, consistent, and rational manner, there are few descriptions of programs that address those concerns in AHCs.Herein, the authors describe their experiences in dealing with complaints of sexual harassment and gender discrimination for a 10-year period of time (late 1997 to early 2007) at the Medical University of South Carolina, through an Office of Gender Equity. They describe their complaint process, components of their prevention training, and the outcomes of 115 complaints. Key elements of their policies are highlighted. The authors offer an approach that could serve as a model for other AHCs.
Prunas, Antonio; Bandini, Elisa; Fisher, Alessandra D; Maggi, Mario; Pace, Valeria; Quagliarella, Luca; Todarello, Orlando; Bini, Maurizio
The present study aims to provide an overview of experiences of discrimination, harassment, and violence in a sample of Italian transsexuals who have undergone sex-reassignment surgery (SRS). Lack of support for gender transition from family members was also assessed, before and after SRS. Data were collected in the context of a multicentric study (Milan, Florence, and Bari) on SRS outcome. Patients who underwent SRS were contacted and asked to fill out a questionnaire concerning experiences of discrimination, harassment, violence, and crime they might have experienced in previous years. Seventy-two participants took part in the research: 46 were male-to-female (MtF; 64%) and 26 were female-to-male (FtM; 36%). Thirty-six percent of the total sample (with no differences between MtF and FtM) experienced at least one episode of harassment, violence, or discrimination. The workplace was reported to be the social area with the highest risk of discrimination and harassment (22% of participants). Reports of more than one incident of discrimination, harassment, and violence characterized the majority of participants in the MtF sample. Compared with previous studies carried out in other countries, a much larger proportion of participants could count on a supportive family environment before and after transition. Our results show that Italian society at large is prejudiced against transsexuals, but at a more "micro" level, having a trans person as a family member might result in a protective and tolerant attitude. © The Author(s) 2016.
Expósito, Francisca; Herrera, Antonio; Valor-Segura, Inmaculada; Herrera, M Carmen; Lozano, Luis M
Sexual harassment is among the most serious forms of gender violence, and what all violent acts have in common are the many myths associated with them. Three studies were conducted to adapt a Spanish version of the Illinois Sexual Harassment Myth Acceptance (ISHMA) scale, which assesses myths about sexual harassment. The first study aimed to, for the first time, present psychometric data on the Spanish version of the ISHMA. The participants were 339 college students. After adapting the items and measuring their content validity, we examined the test's dimensional structure, statistically analyzed the items, and determined the instrument's reliability (α = .91 for the total scale and between .77 and .84 for the different dimensions). Study 2 involved 326 adult participants from the general population and its objective was to evaluate the scale's dimensional structure through confirmatory factor analysis (χ2 143 = 244.860, p sexual harassment.
Cook, Paul J; Jones, Alan M; Lipari, Rachel N; Lancaster, Anita R
This report provides the results for the Service Academy 2005 Sexual Harassment and Assault Survey that the Defense Manpower Defense Center conducted in response to Section 527 of the National Defense...
Naveed, Anila; Tharani, Ambreen; Alwani, Nasreen
In today's world women are increasingly participating in the realm of work force, yet they are facing many obstacles in their way. Sexual harassment is one of those obstacles. Sexual harassment at work place is prevalent in every society. It could happen to anyone but women are the targeted victims. Sexual harassment is considered as a traumatic event and the victim may end up in having physical and mental sufferings that hinders a person to work effectively. At an organisational level this may result in decrease work effectiveness, decreased work productivity, high absenteeism, high turnover, and low staff morale. Hence there is a need that, organisations and government should look seriously into this matter. Proper education and training programs should be developed to deal with these issues. The goal must be both to deal with sexual harassment incidents effectively and to prevent the occurrence of future incidents.
Chema, J. R
.... Navy has adopted a punitive regulation that directly criminalizes sexual harassment, and has pending a legislative proposal to add a specific article to the Uniform Code of Military Justice (UCMJ...
Nielsen, Maj Britt D.; Kjær, Susie; Aldrich, Per T.
, sexual harassment is a taboo. The managers, shop stewards and safety representatives in this study were often not aware of the frequency and the impact of the episodes had on the care workers. The workplaces participating in this study, rarely had guidelines or policies for managing and/or preventing......Background: Care workers are often exposed to sexual harassment from patients. Research shows that such exposure may have detrimental effects on mental health of the care workers. Inappropriate sexual behaviour from patients is a particular challenge for formal and informal care workers alike....... There is a scarceness of studies investigating the experience and the handling of sexual harassment from patients. Objectives: To investigate the experience and handling of sexual harassment from patients in care work. Design: The study follows an explorative qualitative approach based on group interviews (n = 19...
Gema Martín Seoane
Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to study the relationship among gender, school grade and peer harassment at Primary School. The participants were 2.050 children aged 8 to 13. The overall sample was designed to represent all students in grades 3th through 6th in both public and private schools. A self-report questionnaire on peer harassment situations was administered to the participants. Factor analysis revealed two different dimensions: ‘physical violence and property attacks’ and ‘verbal violence and social exclusion’. Boys reported higher levels of peer harassment among classmates than girls. No effect of the school grade on the gender differences CONTEXTOS EDUCATIVOS, 13 (2010, 11-26 11 Contextos Educ., 13 (2010, 11-26 was found. This paper provides a better understanding of peer harassment as well as some prevention indications.
Fineran, Susan; Gruber, James E
An examination of the frequency and impact of workplace sexual harassment on work, health, and school outcomes on high school girls is presented in two parts. The first compares the frequency of harassment in this sample (52%) to published research on adult women that used the same measure of sexual harassment. The second part compares outcomes for girls who experienced harassment versus those who did not. Students in a small, suburban high school for girls completed a paper and pencil survey during class. A modified version of the Sexual Experiences Questionnaire (SEQ: Fitzgerald et al., 1988) was used to identify sexually harassed working teenagers. Work attitudes, assessments of physical health and mental health, and school-related outcomes were measured using standardized scales. Data were analyzed using difference of proportions tests, t-tests, and regression. The percentage of harassed girls was significantly higher than the figures reported in most studies of working women. Girls who were sexually harassed were less satisfied with their jobs and supervisors, had higher levels of academic withdrawal, and were more apt to miss school than their non-harassed peers. Sexual harassment significantly impacts employed high school girls' connections to work and school. It not only taints their attitudes toward work but it also threatens to undermine their commitment to school. Educators, practitioners and community leaders should be aware of the negative impact this work experience may have on adolescents and explore these issues carefully with students who are employed outside of school. Teenage students, stressed by sexual harassment experienced at work may find their career development or career potential impeded or threatened due to school absence and poor academic performance. In addition, the physical safety of working students may be at risk, creating a need for teenagers to receive training to deal with sexual assault and other types of workplace violence
Mohamed, Ashgar Ali Ali
The vitality of school in proffering solutions to the societal challenges cannot be underrated. However, school as a hub and pivot place in addressing multifarious challenges in our society is faced with some social ills such as bullying and sexual harassment. More profusely, an escalation of sexual harassment in schools’ and on campuses cannot be denied. More copiously, of greater challenges in our contemporary period is inadequate and ineffective measure to curb prevalence of sexual harassm...
Jovanović Slađana; Simeunović-Patić Biljana
The paper gives an overview of the most important EU acts that prohibit the sexual harassment in the workplace and recommend the protection mechanisms. The problem of sexual harassment has been perceived from the aspect of gender (in)equality and discrimination while its solution is found in urgeing for consistent implementation of the principle of equal opportunity of women and men in the sphere of labor and employment. For the purpose of providing a comparative insight, it has been also giv...
Over the last decade, there has been a growing awareness worldwide of the existence and extent of sexual harassment in the workplace. Governments, employers’ and workers’ organizations in both industrialized and developing countries have introduced a range of laws, policies and procedures aimed at preventing and combating it. Given this proliferation of measures designed to prevent sexual harassment, it is useful to review their development and consider the range of issues enco...
Quick, James Campbell; McFadyen, M. Ann
Sexual harassment (SH) is a continuing, chronic occupational health problem in organizations and work environments. First addressed in the Journal of Occupational Health Psychology through a 1998 Special Section on Sexual Harassment, we return to this consequential issue. If the goal is to reduce SH inorganizations, and we believe that it should be, then a key question is whether we have made progress in 2 decades. The answer is mixed. Yes, there is a 28% decline in SH complaints. No, there i...
Figueiredo, M. C.; Suleman, F.; Botelho, M.C.
Using an original dataset, our study explores types of abuse and harassment suffered by a sample of domestic workers in Portugal (n=684). Empirical evidence based on multiple correspondence and cluster analyses pointed to three segments of domestic workers: victims of labour abuse related to contract and wages, victims of multiple abuse including mistreatment and also psychological and sexual harassment, and a segment with no occurrence of abuse. Descriptive statistics suggest migrants, es...
Falcon Dario Restrepo Ramos
Full Text Available This literature review aims to analyze previous studies that address the incidental learning of vocabulary in second language acquisition. The articles included in this literature review look into the understanding of vocabulary learning through incidental means, the relationship of reading and incidental vocabulary learning, and the strategies and tasks that promote the incidental learning of vocabulary. The findings show that L2 learners develop much of their vocabulary by incidental means through exposure to words in informative contexts. Moreover, this exposure is promoted by reading, and enhanced through multimodal glosses. Further research may focus on listening for higher lexical retention rates, the circumstances that allow incidental learning of multi-word phrases and collocations, and the use of technology-based methods for incidental vocabulary acquisition.
Dionisi, Angela M; Barling, Julian; Dupré, Kathryne E
We focus on the differential outcomes associated with experiencing workplace aggression and sexual harassment by a supervisor. To do so, we identify and empirically address several issues within current workplace aggression and sexual harassment research, including the need to (a) conceptualize their multidimensional nature, (b) contrast comparable dimensions between the two, (c) recognize and control for covictimization, and (d) consider the role of target gender. Data were analyzed using multiple regression and dominance analyses on a sample of 467 employed women (M age = 40 years). Results showed that all forms of sexual harassment were more strongly associated with work withdrawal and psychological well-being than comparable forms of workplace aggression. Nonphysical workplace aggression accounted for more of the variance in attitudinal outcomes (job, coworker and supervisor satisfaction, intent to quit, commitment) than nonphysical sexual harassment. Sexual harassment accounted for more of the variance than workplace aggression in all outcomes when the harassment and aggression involved some form of threatened or actual physical contact. Conceptual and methodological issues are discussed.
Wolfram, Hans-Joachim; Linton, Kenisha; McDuff, Nona
In this study, we examined the direct effect of (positive vs. negative) evaluation of potentially harassing experiences due to ethnic background on impaired well-being as well as the moderating effect of ethnic identity centrality on the relationship between (lower vs. higher) frequency of potentially harassing experiences and impaired well-being. Using a gender-balanced sample with equal proportions of black and minority ethnic and white undergraduate students (N = 240), we found that, expectedly, ethnic identity centrality intensified the effects of higher frequency of potentially harassing experiences on lower self-esteem and lower positive affect. Unexpectedly, however, gender identity centrality buffered the effects of higher frequency as well as more negative evaluation of potentially harassing experiences on lower self-esteem, indicating that gender identity centrality may be a protective resource, even though it is not specific to ethnic harassment. Exploratory analyses revealed that for black and minority ethnic respondents with high ethnic identity centrality and for white respondents with low ethnic identity centrality, there were associations between more negative evaluation of potentially harassing experiences and lower self-esteem and lower positive affect. This finding might indicate that ethnic identity centrality was a risk factor in black and ethnic minority respondents, but a protective factor in white respondents.
Mathews, Ben; Bismark, Marie M
Sexual harassment of women in medicine has become a subject of national debate after a senior female surgeon stated that if a woman complained of unwanted advances her career would be jeopardised, and subsequent reports suggest that sexual harassment is a serious problem in the medical profession. Sexual harassment of women in the medical profession by their colleagues presents substantial legal, ethical and cultural questions for the profession. Women have enforceable legal rights to gender equality and freedom from sexual harassment in the workplace. Both individual offenders and employers face significant legal consequences for sexual harassment in every Australian state and territory, and individual medical practitioners and employers need to understand their legal and ethical rights and responsibilities in this context. An individual offender may be personally liable for criminal offences, and for breaching anti-discrimination legislation, duties owed in civil law, professional standards and codes of conduct. An employer may be liable for breaching anti-discrimination legislation, workplace safety laws, duties owed in contract law, and a duty of care owed to the employee. Employers, professional colleges and associations, and regulators should use this national debate as an opportunity to improve gender equality and professional culture in medicine; individuals and employers have clear legal and ethical obligations to minimise sexual harassment to the greatest extent possible.
Richman, J A; Rospenda, K M; Flaherty, J A; Freels, S
While sexual harassment and generalized workplace abuse (GWA) have been linked with alcohol use and abuse, active problem-focused coping has been shown to lessen vulnerability to deleterious mental health consequences of varied social stressors. At the same time, active coping is relatively more efficacious in response to stressors, which are amenable to change by personal actions. However, the moderating role that coping plays in relation to harassment and drinking is unknown. Using data from a two-wave survey of university employees (N=2038), we addressed the extent to which (1) active coping was utilized by harassed and abused employees, (2) whether coping impacted on the continuation or cessation of harassment and abuse, and (3) the extent to which nonsuccessful coping was predictive of alcohol use and abuse. Active coping had no significant impact on the ability to end harassing or abusive experiences. Moreover, the use of problem-focused coping that was unsuccessful predicted some drinking outcomes for both men and women, controlling for Wave I drinking and sociodemographic characteristics. The data suggest that increased institutional attention to the prevention of workplace harassment and abuse might impact on decreasing alcohol use and abuse.
McLaughlin, Heather; Uggen, Christopher; Blackstone, Amy
Many working women will experience sexual harassment at some point in their careers. While some report this harassment, many leave their jobs to escape the harassing environment. This mixed-methods study examines whether sexual harassment and subsequent career disruption affect women's careers. Using in-depth interviews and longitudinal survey data from the Youth Development Study, we examine the effect of sexual harassment for women in the early career. We find that sexual harassment increases financial stress, largely by precipitating job change, and can significantly alter women's career attainment.
Wolak, Janis; Mitchell, Kimberly J; Finkelhor, David
To shed light on the nature of online harassment and the extent to which it may be bullying by examining differences in the characteristics of harassed youth, online harassment incidents, and distressing online harassment based on the identity of online harassers (known peer vs. online-only contact). A telephone survey of a nationally representative sample of 1500 youth Internet users, ages 10 to 17, conducted between March and June 2005. Nine percent (n = 129) of youth were harassed online in the past year, 43% (n = 56) by known peers and 57% (n = 73) by people they met online and did not know in person (online-only contacts). Most online harassment incidents did not appear to meet the standard definition of bullying used in school-based research and requiring aggression, repetition, and power imbalance. Only 25% of incidents by known peers and 21% by online-only contacts involved both repeated incidents and either distress to targets or adult intervention. In many cases, the concept of "bullying" or "cyber-bullying" may be inappropriate for online interpersonal offenses. We suggest using "online harassment," with disclaimers that it does not constitute bullying unless it is part of or related to offline bullying. This would include incidents perpetrated by peers that occur entirely online, but arise from school-related events or relationships and have school-related consequences for targets. The Internet provides opportunities for the extension of conventional school bullying to new venues. Those who study conventional school bullying should include online forms of the behavior in research, prevention, and intervention paradigms.
... marine species would be less significant in comparison. During ice management, the vessel's propeller is... seal (75 FR 77496) in the Federal Register. Neither of these two ice seal species is considered... to take, by Level B harassment only, eight species of marine mammals during the specified activity...
... the resulting effects to marine species would be less significant in comparison. During ice-management... its proposal to issue an IHA to Shell to take, by Level B harassment only, 12 species of marine... impact on the species or stock(s), will not have an unmitigable adverse impact on the availability of the...
..., breathing, nursing, breeding, feeding, or sheltering [Level B harassment].'' Summary of Request On October... post-partum nursing does not occur. Limiting visits to the breeding and lactation sites to periods when... ensure that another injury or death does not occur and to ensure that the applicant remains in compliance...
... not limited to, migration, breathing, nursing, breeding, feeding, or sheltering [Level B harassment... about a week before going on their first feeding trip. Females will alternate feeding trips with nursing... prevent them from leaving the area. In these circumstances, the risk of injury, serious injury, or death...
... not limited to, migration, breathing, nursing, breeding, feeding, or sheltering [Level B harassment... going on their first feeding trip. Females will alternate feeding trips with nursing bouts until the pup... the area. In these circumstances, the risk of injury, serious injury, or death to hauled-out animals...
... not limited to, migration, breathing, nursing, breeding, feeding, or sheltering [Level B harassment... observer determines that the cause of the injury or death is unknown and the death is relatively recent (i... or dead marine mammal, and the lead observer determines that the injury or death is [[Page 67801...
..., but not limited to, migration, breathing, nursing, breeding, feeding, or sheltering [Level B... death does not occur and to ensure that the applicant remains in compliance with the MMPA. A draft final... to, migration, breathing, nursing, breeding, feeding, or sheltering [Level B harassment]. All...
Bucchianeri, Michaela M; Eisenberg, Marla E; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne
To document the prevalence of harassment on the basis of weight, race/ethnicity, and socioeconomic status, as well as sexual harassment, among a diverse population of adolescents. Specifically, this study examined rates of each type of harassment reported across groups within the corresponding sociodemographic category (e.g., racial/ethnic category differences in prevalence of racial harassment), and also explored patterns of "cross-harassment" (i.e., differences in prevalence of each harassment type across all other sociodemographic characteristics). We used data from Project Eating and Activity in Teens 2010 for the study. The sample was composed of 2,793 adolescents (53% female; 81% nonwhite). We conducted regression analyses to yield prevalence estimates of each type of harassment in each demographic and body mass index category. Weight- and race-based harassment (35.3% and 35.2%, respectively) was most prevalent, followed by sexual harassment (25.0%) and socioeconomic status-based harassment (16.1%). Overweight and obese adolescents reported disproportionately higher rates of all forms of harassment than did normal-weight and underweight adolescents. In addition, Asian and mixed-/other race adolescents were more vulnerable to harassment overall compared with those from other racial/ethnic groups. Harassment experiences are prevalent among adolescent boys and girls. Differential rates of each type of harassment are reported across groups within the corresponding sociodemographic category, but a pattern of cross-harassment also is evident, such that differences in prevalence of each type of harassment emerge across a variety of sociodemographic characteristics. Adolescents from various intersecting sociodemographic and weight-status groups are particularly vulnerable to certain types of harassment. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kattari, Shanna K; Hasche, Leslie
Given the increasing diversity among older adults and changes in health policy, knowledge is needed on potential barriers to health care for transgender and gender non-conforming (GNC) individuals. Using the 2010 National Transgender Discrimination Survey (NTDS), logistic regression models test differences between age groups (below 35, 35-49, 50-64, and 65 and above) in lifetime experience of anti-transgender discrimination, harassment, and victimization within health care settings while considering the influences of insurance status, level of passing, time of transition, and other socio-demographic factors. Although more than one fifth of transgender and GNC individuals of all ages reported health discrimination, harassment, or victimization, significant age differences were found. Insurance status and level of passing were also influential. Medicare policy changes and this study's findings prompt further consideration for revising other health insurance policies. In addition, expanded cultural competency trainings that are specific to transgender and GNC individuals are crucial. © The Author(s) 2015.
Kok, Hong Kuan
The cardiac structures are well seen on nongated thoracic computed tomography studies in the investigation and follow-up of cardiopulmonary disease. A wide variety of findings can be incidentally picked up on careful evaluation of the pericardium, cardiac chambers, valves, and great vessels. Some of these findings may represent benign variants, whereas others may have more profound clinical importance. Furthermore, the expansion of interventional and surgical practice has led to the development and placement of new cardiac stents, implantable pacemaker devices, and prosthetic valves with which the practicing radiologist should be familiar. We present a collection of common incidental cardiac findings that can be readily identified on thoracic computed tomography studies and briefly discuss their clinical relevance.
Hayashi, Hisami; Fischer, Hans
The calcification of knee ligaments is a finding noted only in a handful of case reports. The finding of an anterior cruciate ligament calcification has been reported once in the literature. Comparable studies involving the posterior cruciate ligament, medial collateral ligament and an ossicle within the anterior cruciate ligament are likewise discussed in reports of symptomatic patients. We report a case of incidentally discovered anterior cruciate ligament calcification. We discuss the likely etiology and clinical implications of this finding.
Gutek, Barbara A.; Koss, Mary P.
Reviews research on work-related, psychological, and somatic effects of sexual harassment. Addresses victims' responses and attempts to cope. Elaborates reasons for the lack of research on the outcomes of sexual harassment. (67 references) (SK)
In this series, the Bulletin aims to explain the role of the Ombuds at CERN by presenting practical examples of misunderstandings that could have been resolved by the Ombuds if he had been contacted earlier. Please note that, in all the situations we present, the names are fictitious and used only to improve clarity. Bill*, thanks to his technical competence, has been nominated leader of a group in charge of various projects. During his learning phase, he benefited from the experience of his collaborators and had a good working relationship with all of them. However, after few months, his relationship with Mike*, a senior member of the group in charge of some specific developments, turned sour. As the situation did not improve after many weeks, Mike decided to file an informal complaint of harassment with the Ombuds against his group leader, as he was convinced that Bill was bullying him. Mike explained that Bill was interfering more and more with his responsibilities in the project, by interac...
Based on literature reviews, methodologies, and findings, this paper presents an empirical study of sexual harassment in the hospitality industry. Zhongjing Grand Hotel is used as a case study of sexual harassment in the context of China. The similarities and differences from literatures and research findings are indicated. The research proposes two main arguments: (1) the definitions of sexual harassment need to be improved and specific. (2) sexual harassment can happen every places and ever...
Paola A Campos; Kathryn L Falb; Sara Hernández; Claudia Díaz-Olavarrieta; Jhumka Gupta
Objective. To document the frequency and forms of street harassment and examine the association between street harassment experiences and perceptions of social cohesion. Materials and methods. Baseline survey data collected among women seeking care in public health clinics in Mexico City were used for analysis. Results. Nearly two-thirds (62.8%) of women reported experiencing some form of street harassment in the prior month; women with street harassment experiences reported significantly low...
Darden, Safi K.; James, Richard; Ramnarine, Indar W.; Croft, Darren P.
Across sexually reproducing species, males and females are in conflict over the control of reproduction. At the heart of this conflict in a number of taxa is male harassment of females for mating opportunities and female strategies to avoid this harassment. One neglected consequence that may result from sexual harassment is the disruption of important social associations. Here, we experimentally manipulate the degree of sexual harassment that wild female guppies (Poecilia reticulata) experien...
Morgan, J.; Porter, S.
A survey was carried out of psychiatric trainees' work-related experiences of unwanted sexual contact. A structured postal questionnaire was administered to 100 psychiatric trainees from senior house officer to specialist registrar level in a large psychiatric rotation. There was an 85% response rate; 86% (73) of the sample had experienced unwanted sexual contact, with 47% (40) experiencing deliberate touching, leaning over or cornering, and 18% (15) receiving letters, telephone calls or material of a sexual nature. Three-quarters (64) of respondents had experienced unwanted sexual contact from patients and 64% (54) from staff. Experiences and attitudes did not generally differ by gender, grade or training experience. Four out of 48 female respondents described stalking by patients. Of the 39 respondents who had reported harassment by patients, 31 felt supported by colleagues, while of the 13 who had reported harassment by colleagues, eight felt supported. Two-thirds of the respondents considered sexual harassment `sometimes' or `frequently' a problem for the profession. Diagnoses of confusional states, mania or schizophrenia made subjects less likely to consider unwanted sexual behaviour to be `sexual harassment' (86%, 80%, and 67%, respectively), but not for other diagnoses. Levels of threatening and intrusive sexual harassment are unacceptably high in this study group. Health trusts should adopt policies of `zero tolerance' and all incidents should be reported. Psychological impact on victims should be acknowledged even when the behaviour of the perpetrator can be explained by diagnosis. PMID:10474725
About one year since I last covered the topic of sexual harassment, I am returning to this theme again as it continues to be raised in the Ombud office. This trend is likely to continue as long as everyday sexism and harassment remain hidden and our workplace culture persists in turning a blind eye to these issues… In previous articles, we discussed how to say “stop” to unwelcome behaviour and what to do when the situation persists. We also discussed what is meant by harassment, defined in CERN’s Operational Circular No. 9 as “…unwelcome behaviour that has the effect of violating a person’s dignity and/or creating a hostile work environment…” Finally, we underlined the need to promote a peer culture that recognises the early signs of any behaviour that risks deteriorating into harassment. So, what more is there to say? Sexual harassment in the workplace remains an invisible i...
Zewude, Bereket Tessema; Ashine, Kidus Meskele
An attempt has been done on attitude towards sexual harassment which is critical issue nowadays in higher institutions. The result of the study could suggest for putting proper polices in place which is considered as vital in preventing sexual harassment as well as creating awareness about sexual harassment issue specially in higher institutions…
Tully, Carol A.
Early studies on the prevalence of peer sexual harassment in schools have left little doubt that it is a serious problem, often with negative consequences. Research indicates that sexual harassment is a subjective and gendered phenomenon, and peer sexual harassment is further complicated by the developmental changes associated with adolescence.…
Chang, Yu-Ting; Hayter, Mark; Lin, Mei-Ling
Sexual harassment is a significant issue in the lives of students. Understanding how young adolescents feel about sexual harassment and their coping strategies is a central element to guide school nursing interventions promoting sexual health. This study explored the sexual harassment experiences of young adolescents in Taiwan. A qualitative…
Beauregard, Terri Kinion
The sexual harassment experienced by a sample of women (N=154) in a university setting was compared with the sexual harassment experienced by them in a workplace setting. Results appeared to support the following generalizations: (1) there is greater gender harassment, unwanted sexual attention, and sexual coercion in the workplace setting than in…
Darnell, Doyanne A.; Cook, Sarah L.
Street harassment, the act of sexual harassment by strangers in public, is a common experience shared by many women. This paper reports the first experimental evaluation of the impact of a popular documentary-style film, "War Zone," on men's attitudes toward street harassment and empathy for women who experience it. The sample was an ethnically…
Krings, Franciska; Facchin, Stephanie
This study demonstrated relations between men's perceptions of organizational justice and increased sexual harassment proclivities. Respondents reported higher likelihood to sexually harass under conditions of low interactional justice, suggesting that sexual harassment likelihood may increase as a response to perceived injustice. Moreover, the…
Murnen, Sarah K.; Smolak, Linda
Investigated elementary students' interpretations of sexual harassment and how they related to self-esteem and body esteem. After hearing scenarios exemplifying peer harassment, students expressed their thoughts and completed gender role, self-esteem, and body esteem scales. Most children had experienced peer harassment. Total harassment…
Reviews issues and relevant court decisions related to sexual harassment in the workplace. Focuses on definitions and types of sexual harassment, circumstances and institutional settings under which it occurs, its effects on an organization, and steps an organization might take to keep sexual harassment out of the workplace. (35 citations) (MAB)
Northwest Women's Law Center, Seattle, WA.
This report describes ways of eliminating sexual harassment from Washington State schools. It is divided into nine sections. Section I examines the relationship between sexual harassment and societal norms and myths which support sexual exploitation of women. Section II defines sexual harassment as any unwanted sexual attention on the job or in…
Bates, Rebecca C.
This article describes a three-part classroom guidance lesson that teaches middle school students the definition of sexual harassment, the difference between flirting and sexual harassment, and the harmful effects of sexual harassment. An action research study evaluated the effectiveness of the lessons in decreasing referrals for sexual harassment…
Lichty, Lauren F.; Torres, Jennifer M. C.; Valenti, Maria T.; Buchanan, NiCole T.
Background: Peer sexual harassment is a significant social problem with consequences for both students and schools. Four out of 5 students report experiencing sexual harassment. These experiences have been linked to poor psychological health and academic withdrawal. Recognizing the seriousness of sexual harassment in schools, Supreme Court rulings…
Romito, Patrizia; Cedolin, Carlotta; Bastiani, Federica; Saurel-Cubizolles, Marie-Josèphe
The aim of this study is to describe sexual harassment among Italian university students and analyze the relationship between harassment and disordered eating behaviors. An observational survey was conducted among university students at Trieste University (Italy) in spring 2014. Students answered an anonymous self-administered questionnaire about sexual harassment, including three domains-sexual harassment, unwanted comments on physical appearance, cyber-harassment-and disordered eating behaviors. The global sexual harassment index was computed with three levels: Level 0, no harassment; Level 1, harassment in at least one of the three domains; and Level 2, harassment in two or three domains. Disordered eating behaviors were classified by at least one of the following: (a) eating without being able to stop or vomiting at least once or twice a month, (b) using laxatives or diuretics at least once or twice a week, (c) monitoring weight every day, and (d) dieting at least very often. The sample included 759 students (347 men and 412 women; 18-29 years old). Experiencing sexual harassment was related to eating disorder symptoms for both genders with a regular gradient: the higher the harassment score, the more frequent the disordered eating behavior symptoms, even after adjusting for age and previous sexual violence. The association was stronger for males than females. Sexual harassment and disordered eating behaviors have long been considered mainly a female problem. Men are not exempt from these problems and in some cases may be more affected than women. The topics should be assessed in men and women.
Beran, Tanya; Li, Qing
A total of 432 students from grades 7-9 in Canadian schools reported their experiences of cyber-harassment, which is a form of harassment that occurs through the use of electronic communications such as e-mail and cell phones. More than two-thirds of students (69%) have heard of incidents of cyber-harassment, about one quarter (21%) have been…
Watstein, Sarah Barbara
This second part of an article on sexual harassment and libraries features stories of library workers who have suffered sexual harassment. Highlights include problems from men and women; homosexuality issues; harassment from supervisors, employees being supervised, co-workers, and patrons; and the involvement of Equal Employment Opportunity…
Dec 11, 2017 ... HarassMap began as a group of volunteers working to end the social acceptability of sexual harassment in Cairo, Egypt. With IDRC support, the group used social media platforms and data collection techniques known as crowdsourcing to track and report sexual harassment incidents anonymously, ...
Bayram Özdemir, Sevgi; Özdemir, Metin; Stattin, Håkan
Immigrant youth are at risk of experiencing harassment in school; however, we have only limited understanding of what makes youth harass their peers on ground of their ethnic origin. To address this major limitation, we examined (a) whether youth's negative attitudes toward immigrants impact their engagement in ethnic harassment over time and (b)…
Sexual harassment can range from touching, tickling, pinching, patting, or grabbing; to comments about one's body; to sexual remarks, innuendoes, and jokes that cause discomfort; to obscene gestures, staring, or leering; to assault and rape. This paper addresses student testimonies of harassment, provides a profile of harassment behaviors, and…
Malloy, David Cruise; Zakus, Dwight H.
The literature discussing harassment issues in sport primarily focuses on sexual harassment and abuse. Discussion of this topic is dominated by definitions of harassment in terms of the biological, psychological, cultural, and organizational rationale for its occurrence and a variety of educational methods to transmit the "facts" of this…
... campaign. 301.6104(d)-3 Section 301.6104(d)-3 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Returns and Records § 301.6104(d)-3 Tax-exempt organization subject to harassment campaign. (a) In general... subject of a harassment campaign and compliance with the requests that are part of the harassment campaign...
Workplace sexual harassment and depressive symptoms:A cross-sectional multilevel analysis comparing harassment from clients or customers to harassment from other employees amongst 7603 Danish employees from 1041 organizations
Friborg, Maria K.; Hansen, Jørgen V.; Aldrich, Per T.; Folker, Anna P.; Kjær, Susie; Nielsen, Maj Britt D.; Rugulies, Reiner; Madsen, Ida E. H.
Background Previous research has reported that sexual harassment can lead to reduced mental health. Few studies have focused on sexual harassment conducted by clients or customers, which might occur in person-related occupations such as eldercare work, social work or customer service work. This study examined the cross-sectional association between sexual harassment by clients or customers and depressive symptoms. We also examined if this association was different compared to sexual harassmen...
Full Text Available The paper gives an overview of the most important EU acts that prohibit the sexual harassment in the workplace and recommend the protection mechanisms. The problem of sexual harassment has been perceived from the aspect of gender (inequality and discrimination while its solution is found in urgeing for consistent implementation of the principle of equal opportunity of women and men in the sphere of labor and employment. For the purpose of providing a comparative insight, it has been also given an overview of national legislative in this domain proceeding by conclusion that only few initial steps in creating the adequate mechanisms of protection from sexual harassment in the workplace have been made so far. .
Workplace sexual harassment and depressive symptoms: a cross-sectional multilevel analysis comparing harassment from clients or customers to harassment from other employees amongst 7603 Danish employees from 1041 organizations.
Friborg, Maria K; Hansen, Jørgen V; Aldrich, Per T; Folker, Anna P; Kjær, Susie; Nielsen, Maj Britt D; Rugulies, Reiner; Madsen, Ida E H
Previous research has reported that sexual harassment can lead to reduced mental health. Few studies have focused on sexual harassment conducted by clients or customers, which might occur in person-related occupations such as eldercare work, social work or customer service work. This study examined the cross-sectional association between sexual harassment by clients or customers and depressive symptoms. We also examined if this association was different compared to sexual harassment conducted by a colleague, supervisor or subordinate. Further, we investigated if psychosocial workplace initiatives modified the association between sexual harassment by clients or customers and level of depressive symptoms. We used data from the Work Environment and Health in Denmark cohort study (WEHD) and the Work Environment Activities in Danish Workplaces Study (WEADW) collected in 2012. WEHD is based on a random sample of employed individuals aged 18-64. In WEADW, organizational supervisors or employee representatives provided information on workplace characteristics. By combining WEHD and WEADW we included self-reported information on working conditions and health from 7603 employees and supervisors in 1041 organizations within 5 occupations. Data were analyzed using multilevel regression and analyses adjusted for gender, age, occupation and socioeconomic position. Exposure to workplace sexual harassment from clients or customers was statistically significantly associated with a higher level of depressive symptoms (2.05; 95% CI: 0.98-3.12) compared to no exposure. Employees harassed by colleagues, supervisors or subordinates had a higher mean level of depressive symptoms (2.45; 95% CI: 0.57-4.34) than employees harassed by clients or customers. We observed no statistically significant interactions between harassment from clients and customers and any of the examined psychosocial workplace initiatives (all p > 0.05). The association between sexual harassment and depressive
Workplace sexual harassment and depressive symptoms: a cross-sectional multilevel analysis comparing harassment from clients or customers to harassment from other employees amongst 7603 Danish employees from 1041 organizations
Maria K. Friborg
Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous research has reported that sexual harassment can lead to reduced mental health. Few studies have focused on sexual harassment conducted by clients or customers, which might occur in person-related occupations such as eldercare work, social work or customer service work. This study examined the cross-sectional association between sexual harassment by clients or customers and depressive symptoms. We also examined if this association was different compared to sexual harassment conducted by a colleague, supervisor or subordinate. Further, we investigated if psychosocial workplace initiatives modified the association between sexual harassment by clients or customers and level of depressive symptoms. Methods We used data from the Work Environment and Health in Denmark cohort study (WEHD and the Work Environment Activities in Danish Workplaces Study (WEADW collected in 2012. WEHD is based on a random sample of employed individuals aged 18–64. In WEADW, organizational supervisors or employee representatives provided information on workplace characteristics. By combining WEHD and WEADW we included self-reported information on working conditions and health from 7603 employees and supervisors in 1041 organizations within 5 occupations. Data were analyzed using multilevel regression and analyses adjusted for gender, age, occupation and socioeconomic position. Results Exposure to workplace sexual harassment from clients or customers was statistically significantly associated with a higher level of depressive symptoms (2.05; 95% CI: 0.98–3.12 compared to no exposure. Employees harassed by colleagues, supervisors or subordinates had a higher mean level of depressive symptoms (2.45; 95% CI: 0.57–4.34 than employees harassed by clients or customers. We observed no statistically significant interactions between harassment from clients and customers and any of the examined psychosocial workplace initiatives (all p > 0
Full Text Available Orientation: Globally, women have become an essential part of the mining workforce. Among other jobs, they fulfil management positions, operate heavy machinery and are involved in artisanal mining processes. In South Africa, new mining legislation not only prohibits the exclusion of women but requires from companies to actively change the demographic profile of their workforce. Mining companies are obliged to also employ women in core mining activities. Although well intended, women appointed in core positions work side by side with men, often in isolation, and are frequently at risk of sexual abuse and/or harassment. Research purpose: This research determined perceptions regarding the occurrence of sexual harassment among women working in core mining positions. Motivation for the study: Currently, there is a paucity of published data on the occurrence of sexual harassment in the mining industry. Method: A mixed-method research design was used including quantitative and qualitative research paradigms. Quantitative data were collected by means of a structured questionnaire. Qualitative data were collected by means of individual and group interviews. Main findings: From the literature review and the empirical findings, it is evident that women are still exploited and sexually harassed in the mining industry. Incidents taking place on a daily basis vary from whistling; name calling; use of vulgar or derogatory language; display of body parts; physical contact, ranging from touching to sexual assault and rape; to the exchange of sexual favours for promotion. Practical/managerial implications: It is evident from the research that a holistic approach is required to effectively eradicate sexual harassment in the mining industry, involving the commitment of relevant state departments, human resource managers and labour experts. Contribution: Practical recommendations are made to effectively address sexual harassment in the mining industry.
Kumi Hirokawa; Toshiyo Taniguchi; Jiro Takaki
The aim of this study was to investigate associations of workplace bullying and harassment with headache, stiffness of the neck or shoulders, lumbago, and pain of two or more joints. The subjects in this cross-sectional study were recruited from workers (n = 1,913) at 35 healthcare or welfare facilities in Japan. Because of non-participation or missing data, the number of subjects included in the analysis varied (response rate ? 77.1%). Workplace bullying and harassment were assessed using th...
Full Text Available Interactions in internet discussion forums provide data on a variety of social issues. Forums are often a meeting-place for people affected by a given problem; in fact, cyberspace has become a framework of reference in the study of such interaction. The ready availability of the participants’ discourse, and the textual nature of the forum's contents, facilitate the use of qualitative methodologies. The present article analyses harassment in internet forums in order to study its subjective implications, specially those aspects related to the formulation of participants' identities. The article also explores the organizational implications of harassment, focusing on its structural and functional dimensions.
Gutek, B A; Koss, M P
This chapter focuses on the consequences of sexual harassment of women, including the effects on the victim's work and health and the organization for which she works as well as the woman's attempts to cope with harassment when confronted with it. The responses of victims are influenced by the amount of support and understanding they receive from significant others and employers. The extent of emotional, physical, and psychological damage depends on the responsiveness of other people and the organization for which the woman works.
Waugh, Irma Morales
This study examined sexual harassment experiences of Mexican immigrant farmworking women (n = 150) employed on California farms. Of the estimated one million California farmworkers, 78% are Latino, mostly from Mexico, and 28% are women. Unlike gender-segregated worksites of Mexico, women farmworkers in the United States labor alongside men, facilitating harassment from coworkers and supervisors. Simultaneous sexist, racist, and economic discrimination are comparable to converging lanes of automobile traffic (Crenshaw, 2000) that women, standing at the intersections, manage to avoid harm. Findings highlight how discrimination shapes women's experiences and demonstrate the need for institutional policies to protect them.
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Chan, Darius K. S.; Tang, Catherine So-Kum; Chan, Wai
Investigated the impact of sexual harassment on women in the workplace and college in Hong Kong. Questionnaires assessed sexual harassment experiences, perceived prevalence of sexual harassment at work, job or study satisfaction, and organizational commitment. Personal experience with sexual harassment negatively associated with job and study…
HarassMap: Using Crowdsourced Data in the Social Sciences. Women in Cairo are now able to report rape, harassment, and assaults through Harrassmap, a pilot project in Cairo, Egypt. The goal is to change the social acceptability of sexual harassment in Egypt. View moreHarassMap: Using Crowdsourced Data in the ...
This four-page monograph discusses the legal background of sexual harassment, provides explanations for sexual harassment, and lists the effects of sexual harassment. It then moves to actions that individuals, educators, and administrators can take to combat sexual harassment. Also included are six annotated resources for educators to use in…
Campos, Paola A; Falb, Kathryn L; Hernández, Sara; Díaz-Olavarrieta, Claudia; Gupta, Jhumka
To document the frequency and forms of street harassment and examine the association between street harassment experiences and perceptions of social cohesion. Baseline survey data collected among women seeking care in public health clinics in Mexico City were used for analysis. Nearly two-thirds (62.8%) of women reported experiencing some form of street harassment in the prior month; women with street harassment experiences reported significantly lower perceived social cohesion (b=-0.46; 95%CI: -0.69,-0.22). Findings indicate reducing street harassment may have important implications for improving women's perceived social cohesion and their safety in Mexico City.
Calafat, Amador; Hughes, Karen; Blay, Nicole; Bellis, Mark A; Mendes, Fernando; Juan, Montse; Lazarov, Philip; Cibin, Barbara; Duch, Mari Angels
Despite the known increase in substance use and risky sexual behaviors among young people during holiday periods, issues of sexual harassment (SH) and having sex against one's will (SAW) have not received adequate attention. We implemented a cross-sectional airport-based study to identify experience of SH and SAW in 6,502 British and German holidaymakers aged 16-35 years visiting tourist resorts in Southern Europe (Crete, Cyprus, Italy, Portugal, and Spain) in summer 2009. Across all participants, 8.6 % reported SH during their holiday and 1.5 % reported SAW. Women reported higher levels of SH than heterosexual males. However, gay and bisexual males reported SH levels similar to females and the highest levels of SAW. Of 19 predictor variables tested, ten were independently associated with SH. SH was increased in those who were visitors to Mallorca or Crete, British, younger, female, gay or bisexual, frequently drunk on holiday, cocaine users, and attracted to bars where people get drunk, or where there are opportunities for sex. Among 13 predictor variables tested for SAW, four were significant. SAW reduced in those visiting Cyprus, and was strongly associated with being a gay or bisexual male, using cannabis on holiday and being attracted to bars where there were opportunities for sex. Holiday resorts represent a key location for SH and SAW, especially for holidaymakers who get drunk and use drugs. Preventive programs can raise awareness of the risks of unwanted sexual encounters on holiday and work with the tourist industry and tourist authorities to develop environments where sexual aggression is not tolerated.
Vamsi C. Gaddipati
Full Text Available Ventricular pseudoaneurysm is an uncommon, potentially fatal complication that has been associated with myocardial infarction, cardiac surgery, chest trauma, and infectious processes. Diagnosis can be challenging, as cases are rare and slowly progressing and typically lack identifiable features on clinical presentation. As a result, advanced imaging techniques have become the hallmark of identification. Ahead, we describe a patient who presents with acute decompensated heart failure and was incidentally discovered to have a large right ventricular pseudoaneurysm that developed following previous traumatic anterior rib fracture.
The article discusses the incidental public law issues which can arise in an arbitration case, e.g. concerning power, heating, natural gas and other public facility legislation, national or Community legal restrictive trade practices law, and rules on state administration approval of the terms...... by arbitration, and where the award is nullifiable only if its findings are in violation of public policy, the ordre public. The article relies on UNCITRAL's Model Arbitration Law, the new Danish arbitration act (DAA), national European case law, and literature and case law of the European Court....
Rosen, L N; Martin, L
This study examines the effects of three types of unwanted sexual experiences in the workplace on the psychological well-being of male and female U.S. Army soldiers, and the mediating or moderating roles of appraisal of sexual harassment, organizational climate, and the sociodemographic profile of victims. A survey was administered to 1,060 male soldiers and 305 female soldiers between May and July, 1995, at three Army posts in the United States. Unwanted sexual experiences were found to be significant predictors of psychological symptoms for male and female soldiers. Certain aspects of organizational climate and appraisal of sexual harassment were also significant predictors of psychological symptoms.
Hsieh, Hsing-Hsiu; Wilder, David A.; Abellon, O. Elizabeth
A brief training package consisting of modeling, rehearsal, and feedback was evaluated to train caregivers to use incidental teaching to teach 3 children with autism to request an item or activity. The training package improved correct implementation of the incidental teaching procedure by caregivers. In addition, probes indicated that caregivers…
Grey, Sarah; Williams, John N.; Rebuschat, Patrick
Evidence of learning following incidental exposure has been found for aspects of nonnative syntax in adults (Rebuschat & Williams, 2006, 2012; Williams & Kuribara, 2008). However, little research has tested delayed effects of learning under an incidental condition or moved beyond word order. This study investigated learning of third…
Freels, Sally A; Richman, Judith A; Rospenda, Kathleen M
Data from a longitudinal study of university employees across four waves is used to determine the extent to which workplace harassment predicts drinking or conversely the extent to which drinking predicts workplace harassment, and to address gender differences in these relationships. Mixed effects regression models are used to test the effects of 1) harassment at the previous wave on drinking at the current wave, adjusting for drinking at the previous wave, and 2) drinking at the previous wave on harassment at the current wave, adjusting for harassment at the previous wave. For males, drinking at the previous wave predicts sexual harassment at the current wave, whereas for females, sexual harassment at the previous wave predicts drinking at the current wave.
Mènard, Kim S; Shoss, Naomi E; Pincus, Aaron L
The purpose of this study was to examine a trait model of personality (Five-Factor Model) as a mediator of the relationship between attachment styles and sexually harassing behavior in a sample of male (N = 148) and female (N = 278) college students. We found that gender (male) and low Agreeableness predicted engaging in sexual harassment and all three of its subtypes; gender harassment, unwanted sexual attention, and sexual coercion. Further, low Conscientiousness predicted overall sexual harassment, gender harassment, and unwanted sexual attention. Personality traits mediated the relationship between insecure attachment styles (Preoccupation with Relationships and Relationships as Secondary) and sexually harassing behaviors. Thus, factors beyond gender can help predict students' propensity to sexually harass others.
Sinclair, Katerina O; Bauman, Sheri; Poteat, V Paul; Koenig, Brian; Russell, Stephen T
To examine how two forms of interstudent harassment, cyber and bias-based harassment, are associated with academic, substance use, and mental health problems. We used a population-based survey of 17,366 middle and high school students that assessed harassment due to race/ethnicity or sexual orientation, and harassment through the Internet or text messaging along with other forms of interstudent harassment. Odds ratios indicated that students experiencing both cyber and bias-based harassment were at the greatest risk for adjustment problems across all indicators, with suicidal ideation and attempts having the largest risk differences. Assessments of adolescent health and adjustment should include questions regarding both cyber and bias-based harassment. Copyright © 2012 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Shute, Rosalyn H
This study, carried out in the high school context, is the first direct test of Berdahl's status theory of sex-based harassment. The theory covers not just male harassment of females, but female harassment of males and same-sex harassment. Participants were 771 males and 679 females, from Years 8 to 10, in five co-educational lower socioeconomic status (SES) Australian city schools, participating in a wider study of peer victimization. They indicated on a 5-point scale (from never to almost every day) how frequently they had experienced each of six sex-based harassment behaviors over the previous year, from same-sex and from opposite-sex peers, and responded to a question about sense of safety at school. Nonparametric analyses supported five of seven hypotheses derived from the theory: boys harassed others most often, girls were harassed most often, boy-to-girl harassment was the most frequent, girls harassed girls more than they did boys, and girl-to-boy harassment was the least frequent. However, contrary to the theory, boys' same-sex harassment was no more frequent than that between girls, and girl-to-girl harassment was just as threatening to victims' sense of safety as boy-to-boy harassment. The study largely supports Berdahl's theory. The unexpected results can be understood in terms of the intimate nature of adolescent girls' groups in high schools and their centrality for identity formation. In this context, girls are highly motivated to defend their status in terms of stereotypically feminine standards regarding appearance, sexual activity, and access to high-status boys. The theory implies that structural changes to reduce the salience of sex differences and sex stereotyping will be crucial to efforts to address sex-based harassment.
... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Authority. 374.503 Section 374.503 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION... Incidental Charter Rights § 374.503 Authority. Motor carriers transporting passengers, in interstate or...
Sexual harassment and sexual violence are complex social issues and a prevalent problem on college and university campuses. College students are an "at risk" population because of their age, developmental stage, proximity to one another, and their access to social activities influenced by peer pressure, alcohol, and other drugs. In this…
Rademakers, J.J.D.J.M.; Muijsenbergh, M.E.T.C. van den; Slappendel, G.; Lagro-Janssen, A.L.M.; Borleffs, J.C.C.
CONTEXT: Sexual harassment of medical students has been the focus of many international studies. Prevalence rates from 18% to over 60% have been reported. However, a Dutch study at Nijmegen Medical School found the prevalence rate to be lower (13.3% in the total group; 20% among female students
Objective: To assess the prevalence, types and consequences of sexual harassment/victimization of female students in the University. Methodology: This was a cross sectional descriptive study. Using a cluster sampling method, 295 female students resident in the four campuses of the university were recruited and ...
After1994 several pieces of legislation were passed in South Africa to ensure equity in education and equal opportunities for all learners. Some shocking reports have indicated that sexual harassment of girls is a serious problem in many of our schools. These girls are denied equal opportunities and effective education in ...
Pletcher, Beth A
The American Academy of Pediatrics is committed to working to ensure that workplaces and educational settings in which pediatricians spend time are free of sexual harassment. The purpose of this statement is to heighten awareness and sensitivity to this important issue, recognizing that institutions, clinics, and office-based practices may have existing policies.
Mohamed, A.A.; van Nes, A.
EIncidents of sexual harassment are unequally distributed in the Greater Cairo Region because cities, generally speaking, have uneven patterns of movement and activity with higher rates of pedestrian and vehicular movement and activities in some quarters than others. Central areas usually have
Wolohan, John T.
This article reviews what constitutes sexual harassment in sports by examining Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972 and the effect it has had on charges of sexual harrassment in educational institutions. Athletic administrators are provided with strategies and recommendations to help schools and athletic departments develop sexual…
This article explores the perceptions and the occurrence of sexual harassment among male student athletes with male coaches. Most research in this field of study has been conducted from a male perpetrator-female victim paradigm and has thus been biased towards the study of female student athletes with male coaches.
Education should safely shape the minds and attitudes of young adults and children, especially with the in loco parentis principle in mind. Young adults who have experienced sexual harassment in the very environment that should have protected them as learners suffer greatly from social problems and from emotional and ...
This study investigated how secondary school pupils perceive and conceptualise sexual harassment by peers. The study involved pupils drawn from secondary schools in Harare's high density suburbs. A questionnaire and follow-up interviews were the instruments used to source data from the subjects. The majority of the ...
Although illegal, sexual harassment is frequent in the American workplace and extremely disruptive and costly to employees and employers alike. Most organizational responses to the problem have been hard line, short term, after-the-fact measures that inform, threaten, or discipline employees. What is needed, however, is a training program with an…
Nahar, P.; van Reeuwijk, M.; Reis, R.
Violence against women is a social mechanism confirming women's subordination in many societies. Sexual violence and harassment have various negative psychological impacts on girls, including a persistent feeling of insecurity and loss of self-esteem. This article aims to contextualize a particular
Maryland State Department of Education, 2016
In accordance with the provisions of Section 7-424.1 of the Education Article of the Annotated Code of Maryland, the Maryland State Board of Education has developed and adopted a Model Policy to address bullying, harassment, or intimidation. This report presents the Model Policy, which is organized into the following eight points: (1) Prohibition…
The major causes of stress were identified as being low pay, heavy work load and the surgeons. Overall, 84% of them felt that the single main source of stress was low pay while 29% attributed their stress to the surgeons as being their major cause of work place stress. Personal harassment by the surgeons was reported by ...
This data-based study examined the nature and practice of cyber-harassment and its negative implications for psychological violence against women using Facebook as an example. This study was anchored on the uses and gratification theory, which stipulates that many individuals gain satisfaction by using Facebook for ...
Lichty, Lauren F.; Campbell, Rebecca
School-based peer-to-peer sexual harassment (SH) emerged as an issue of concern in the early 1990s. As a developing field, this literature has several notable gaps. The current study extends previous research by, (a) exploring the understudied experiences of middle school students, (b) assessing students' experiences witnessing SH, and (c)…
Rademakers, J.J.D.J.M.; Muijsenbergh, M.E.T.C. van den; Slappendel, G.; Lagro-Janssen, A.L.M.; Borleffs, J.C.C.
Context Sexual harassment of medical students has been the focus of many international studies. Prevalence rates from 18% to over 60% have been reported. However, a Dutch study at Nijmegen Medical School found the prevalence rate to be lower (13.3% in the total group; 20% among female students
Mar 13, 2012 ... on the internet, male-to-female harassment in Cairo gained national, regional, and international attention. ... impact on the general economic development of Egypt and on the tourist industry in particular (Fayed 2008). .... Designed to keep privacy a main concern, the streets in Cairo were narrow with many ...
Apr 28, 2016 ... The challenge of collecting data on sensitive issues like gender-based violence is well-documented across the globe. Stigma and shame prevent many victims of sexual harassment from talking about or reporting these crimes. However, new technologies and social media platforms open up possibilities to ...
The purpose of the present study was to investigate the extent to which sexual harassment, self-esteem, and academic engagement predict academic success of female secondary school students in Gondar city. Correlational design was employed to answer the research questions raised. Respondents were 366 female ...
... requirements, many marine animals may need to remain in areas where they are exposed to chronic stimuli... Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to a Marine... Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS). ACTION: Notice; proposed...
Broad, Jonathan; Matheson, Marion; Verrall, Fabienne; Taylor, Anna K; Zahra, Daniel; Alldridge, Louise; Feder, Gene
Discrimination and harassment create a hostile environment with deleterious effects on student well-being and education. In this study, we aimed to: (i) measure prevalences and types of discrimination and harassment in one UK medical school, and (ii) understand how and why students report them. The study used a mixed-methods design. A medical school population survey of 1318 students was carried out in March 2014. Students were asked whether they had experienced, witnessed or reported discrimination or harassment and were given space for free-text comments. Two focus group sessions were conducted to elicit information on types of harassment and the factors that influenced reporting. Proportions were analysed using the Wilson score method and associations tested using chi-squared and regression analyses. Qualitative data were subjected to framework analysis. Degrees of convergence between data were analysed. A total of 259 (19.7%) students responded to the survey. Most participants had experienced (63.3%, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 57.3-69.0) or witnessed (56.4%, 95% CI: 50.3-62.3) at least one type of discrimination or harassment. Stereotyping was the form most commonly witnessed (43.2%, 95% CI: 37.4-49.3). In the qualitative data, reports of inappropriate joking and invasion of personal space were common. Black and minority ethnic students had witnessed and religious students had experienced a greater lack of provision (χ 2 = 4.73, p = 0.03 and χ 2 = 4.38, p = 0.04, respectively). Non-heterosexual students had experienced greater joking (χ 2 = 3.99, p = 0.04). Students with disabilities had experienced more stereotyping (χ 2 = 13.5, p < 0.01). Female students and students in clinical years had 2.6 (95% CI: 1.3-5.3) and 3.6 (95% CI: 1.9-7.0) greater odds, respectively, of experiencing or witnessing any type of discrimination or harassment. Seven of 140 survey respondents had reported incidents (5.0%, 95% CI: 2.4-10.0). Reporting was
Hughes, Jean O.; Sandler, Bernice R.
A guide on sexual harassment for female college students is presented. Sexual harassment is defined as coerced, unethical, and unwanted intimacy. The following topics are covered: who is likely to be harassed, the effects of sexual harassment, the difference between voluntary sexual relationships and sexual harassment, verbal and physical sexual…
Graham, Kathryn; Bernards, Sharon; Abbey, Antonia; Dumas, Tara M; Wells, Samantha
Women frequently experience unwanted sexual touching and persistent advances at bars and parties. This study explored women's responses to these unwanted experiences through online surveys completed by 153 female bargoers (aged 19-29) randomly recruited from a bar district. More than 75% had experienced sexual touching or persistence (46% both). Most women used multiple deterrent strategies, including evasion, facial expressions, direct refusals, aggression, friends' help, and leaving the premises. Women experienced negative feelings (disrespected, violated, disgusted, angry, embarrassed), especially from incidents involving touching. Cultural change is needed to reduce substantial negative impacts of sexual harassment on women in drinking and other settings. © The Author(s) 2016.
Gwandure, Calvin. Vol 42, No 1 (2012) - Articles Violence, Interpersonal Trust and Gullibility in HIV Risk in Africa Abstract · Vol 44, No 4 (2015) - Articles Examining Perceptions of Sexual Harassment among Recent Female Graduates in the Workplace Abstract · Vol 45, No 1 (2015) - Articles Exploring the Challenges of ...
Ugokwe-Ossai, RN. Vol 17, No 2 (2009) - Articles Primary Nocturnal Enuresis In Secondary School Children: A Gender – Behaviour Descriptive Analysis Abstract · Vol 20, No 1 (2012) - Articles The roles of sexual harassment and personality trait types on sexual response among nigerian university undergraduates
Cattell, K. Vol 20, No 2 (2013) - Articles Workplace stress experienced by quantity surveyors. Abstract PDF · Vol 20, No 2 (2013) - Articles Harassment and discrimination experienced by quantity surveyors in South Africa Abstract PDF. ISSN: 2415-0487. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers ...
Bowen, P. Vol 20, No 2 (2013) - Articles Workplace stress experienced by quantity surveyors. Abstract PDF · Vol 20, No 2 (2013) - Articles Harassment and discrimination experienced by quantity surveyors in South Africa Abstract PDF. ISSN: 1023-0564. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers ...
Edwards, P. Vol 20, No 2 (2013) - Articles Workplace stress experienced by quantity surveyors. Abstract PDF · Vol 20, No 2 (2013) - Articles Harassment and discrimination experienced by quantity surveyors in South Africa Abstract PDF. ISSN: 2415-0487. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers ...
Musepa, M. Vol 36, No 2 (2009) - Articles University students' perspective of sexual harassment: A case study at the University of Zambia Abstract PDF · Vol 41, No 3 (2014) - Articles Appropriate HIV and AIDS Interventions drawn from Baseline Knowledge Attitude and Behaviour Surveys of University Students Abstract PDF ...
The status of tuberculosis infection control measures in health care facilities rendering joint TB/ HIV services in “German Leprosy and Tuberculosis Relief Association” supported states in Nigeria Abstract PDF · Vol 23, No 1-2 (2011) - Articles Prevalence of sexual harassment/victimization of female students in Ebonyi State ...
Van Niekerk, RL. Vol 16, No 4 (2010): Supplement - Articles The perceptions and occurrence of sexual harassment among male student athletes with male coaches. Abstract · Vol 16, No 4 (2010): Supplement - Articles Understanding the barriers to and reasons for physical exercise among university students. Abstract.
Houle, Jason N.; Staff, Jeremy; Mortimer, Jeylan T.; Uggen, Christopher; Blackstone, Amy
Sexual harassment has been theorized as a stressor with consequences for the physical and mental health of its targets. Though social scientists have documented a negative association between sexual harassment and mental health, few longitudinal studies have investigated the association between sexual harassment and depressive symptoms. Using longitudinal survey data from the Youth Development Study, combined with in-depth interviews, this article draws on Louise Fitzgerald’s theoretical framework, stress theory, and the life course perspective to assess the impact of sexual harassment on depressive affect during the early occupational career. In support of Fitzgerald’s model, our findings confirm that sexual harassment is a stressor that is associated with increased depressive symptoms. Our quantitative results show that women and men who experience more frequent sexual harassment at work have significantly higher levels of depressed mood than non-harassed workers, even after controlling for prior harassment and depressive symptoms. Moreover, we find evidence that sexual harassment early in the career has long-term effects on depressive symptoms in adulthood. Interviews with a subset of our survey respondents point to a variety of coping strategies and reveal further links between harassment and other aspects of mental health, such as anger and self-doubt. PMID:22140650
Walsh, Kate; Galea, Sandro; Cerda, Magdalena; Richards, Catherine; Liberzon, Israel; Tamburrino, Marijo B; Calabrese, Joseph; Koenen, Karestan C
Despite concerns about increased sexual harassment and assault after the 2013 legislation repealing the ban on women in combat, little research has examined military factors that could prevent sexual harassment and assault during deployment. This study examined whether unit support, which reflects the quality of service members' relationships within their unit, protects against sexual harassment and assault during deployment. Participants were 1,674 Ohio Army National Guard service members who reported at least one deployment during a telephone survey conducted in 2008 and 2009. Participants completed measures of sexual harassment/assault, unit support, and psychosocial support. Logistic regression was used to model odds of sexual harassment/assault. Approximately 13.2% of men (n = 198) and 43.5% of women (n = 74) reported sexual harassment, and 1.1% of men (n = 17) and 18.8% of women (n = 32) reported sexual assault during their most recent deployment. Greater unit support was associated with decreased odds of sexual harassment and assault. A substantial proportion of men and women reported sexual harassment/assault. Greater unit support was associated with diminished odds of sexual harassment/assault during deployment. Programming designed to improve unit cohesion has the potential to reduce sexual harassment and assault. Copyright © 2014 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Walsh, Kate; Galea, Sandro; Cerda, Magdalena; Richards, Catherine; Liberzon, Israel; Tamburrino, Marijo B.; Calabrese, Joseph; Koenen, Karestan C.
Objective Despite concerns about increased sexual harassment and assault following 2013 legislation repealing the ban on women in combat, little research has examined military factors that could prevent sexual harassment and assault during deployment. This study examined whether unit support, which reflects the quality of service members’ relationships within their unit, protects against sexual harassment and assault during deployment. Methods Participants were 1674 Ohio Army National Guard service members who reported at least one deployment during a telephone survey conducted in 2008-2009. Participants completed measures of sexual harassment/assault, unit support, and psychosocial support. Logistic regression was used to model odds of sexual harassment/assault. Results Approximately 13.2% (n=198) of men and 43.5% (n=74) of women reported sexual harassment, and 1.1% (n=17) of men and 18.8% (n=32) of women reported sexual assault during their most recent deployment. Higher unit support was associated with decreased odds of sexual harassment and assault. Conclusions A substantial proportion of men and women reported sexual harassment/assault. Higher unit support was associated with diminished odds of sexual harassment/assault during deployment. Programming designed to improve unit cohesion has potential to reduce sexual harassment and assault. PMID:25442705
Fnais, Naif; al-Nasser, Muhammad; Zamakhshary, Mohammad; Abuznadah, Wesam; Dhukair, Shahla Al; Saadeh, Mayssa; Al-Qarni, Ali; Bokhari, Bayan; Alshaeri, Taqreed; Aboalsamh, Nouf; Binahmed, AbdulAziz
Multiple surveys of medical residents have shown a high incidence of harassment and discrimination in academic health centers. Harassment has a negative effects on residents' health and on their ability to function. No previous study has documented the prevalence of harassment and discrimination among residents in Saudi Arabia. We aimed in this study to assess the prevalence of harassment and discrimination among residents at a tertiary care academic hospitals in Saudi Arabia. Cross-sectional survey conducted at National Guard Hospitals in Riyadh, Jeddah and Al-Ahsa'a from 27 July to 20 August 2010. The survey included questions on the prevalence of harassment of different types, inlcuding verbal, academic, physical and sexual harassment, as well as discrimination on the basis of gender, region of origin or physical appearance. Of 380 residents, 213 (56%) returned a completed questionnaire (123 male, 57.8%). At least one of type of harassment and discrimination was reported by 83.6% of respondents. The most frequently reported forms were verbal harassment and gender discrimination (61.5% and 58.3%, respectively). Sexual harassment was commonly reported (19.3%) and was experienced significantly more often by female residents than by male residents (P=.0061). Harassment and discrimination of Saudi residents is common with more than three-quarters reporting having had such an experience. Identification of the risk factors is a necessary first step in clarifying this issue and could be used when planning strategies for prevention.
The assumption of a twofold cost of sex not only complicates the maintenance of sex but also sets conditions for sexual conflict: in organisms with the twofold cost, males often sexually harass females. Sexual harassment is detrimental to female fitness and thus might help maintain sexual populations if male harassment inflicts a harsher cost on parthenogens than on sexual females (asymmetric harassment cost). However, the generality of this concept is now considered doubtful because selective harassment of parthenogens results in loss of mating opportunities for males. Using three mathematical models, I show here that sexual harassment still can impose the asymmetric cost on parthenogens. First, I apply the Lotka-Volterra model to show the degree of asymmetric harassment cost that permits sex to be maintained stably in the population. Second, using adaptive dynamics, I examine whether sexually antagonistic coevolution for sexual harassment, which occurs only in sexual populations, can promote the asymmetric harassment cost. Finally, an individual-based model, which assumes a spatial structure unlike that in the other two, demonstrates that the asymmetric evolution of harassment cost prevents further invasions of parthenogens from different patches into sexual lineages; these mechanisms may account for allopatric distributions of sexual and parthenogenetic lineages as well as the maintenance of sex.
Darden, Safi K; James, Richard; Ramnarine, Indar W; Croft, Darren P
Across sexually reproducing species, males and females are in conflict over the control of reproduction. At the heart of this conflict in a number of taxa is male harassment of females for mating opportunities and female strategies to avoid this harassment. One neglected consequence that may result from sexual harassment is the disruption of important social associations. Here, we experimentally manipulate the degree of sexual harassment that wild female guppies (Poecilia reticulata) experience by establishing replicated, semi-natural pools with different population sex ratios. We quantify the effects of sexual harassment on female social structure and the development of social recognition among females. When exposed to sexual harassment, we found that females had more disparate social networks with limited repeated interactions when compared to females that did not experience male harassment. Furthermore, females that did not experience harassment developed social recognition with familiar individuals over an 8-day period, whereas females that experienced harassment did not, an effect we suggest is due to disruption of association patterns. These results show that social network structure and social recognition can be affected by sexual harassment, an effect that will be relevant across taxonomic groups and that we predict will have fitness consequences for females.
Zhao, Ding; Gu, Ruolei; Tang, Ping; Yang, Qiwei; Luo, Yue-Jia
Incidental emotions, which are irrelevant to the current decision, play a significant role in the decision-making process. In this study, to investigate the influence of incidental emotions on behavioral, psychological, and electrophysiological responses in the process of decision making, participants were required to perform a monetary gambling task. During the selection stage, an emotional picture, which was chosen from the Chinese Affective Picture System and fell into one of three categories: negative, neutral, and positive, was presented between two alternatives (small/large amount of bet). The pictures were provided to induce incidental emotions. ERPs and self-rating emotional experiences to outcome feedback were recorded during the task. Behavioral results showed that positive incidental emotions elicited risk preference, but emotional experiences to outcome feedback were not influenced by incidental emotions. The feedback-related negativity amplitudes were larger in the positive emotion condition than in the negative and neutral emotion conditions for small outcomes (including wins and losses), whereas there was no difference between the three conditions for large outcomes. In addition, the amplitudes of P3 were reduced overall in the negative emotion condition. We suggest that incidental emotions have modulated both the option assessment stage (manifested in behavioral choices) and the outcome evaluation stage (manifested in ERP amplitudes) of decision making unconsciously (indicated by unchanged subjective emotional experiences). The current findings have expanded our understanding of the role of incidental emotion in decision making. © 2016 Society for Psychophysiological Research.
Bell, Katy JL; Del Mar, Chris; Wright, Gordon; Dickinson, James; Glasziou, Paul
Prostate cancer screening may detect nonprogressive cancers, leading to overdiagnosis and overtreatment. The potential for overdiagnosis can be assessed from the reservoir of prostate cancer in autopsy studies that report incidental prostate cancer rates in men who died of other causes. We aimed to estimate the age-specific incidental cancer prevalence from all published autopsy studies. We identified eligible studies by searches of Medline and Embase, forward and backward citation searches and contacting authors. We screened the titles and abstracts of all articles; checked the full-text articles for eligibility and extracted clinical and pathology data using standardized forms. We extracted mean cancer prevalence, age-specific cancer prevalence and validity measures and then pooled data from all studies using logistic regression models with random effects. The 29 studies included in the review dated from 1948 to 2013. Incidental cancer was detected in all populations, with no obvious time trends in prevalence. Prostate cancer prevalence increased with each decade of age, OR = 1.7 (1.6–1.8), and was higher in studies that used the Gleason score, OR = 2.0 (1.1–3.7). No other factors were significantly predictive. The estimated mean cancer prevalence increased in a nonlinear fashion from 5% (95% CI: 3–8%) at age 79 years. There was substantial variation between populations in estimated cancer prevalence. There is a substantial reservoir of incidental prostate cancer which increases with age. The high risk of overdiagnosis limits the usefulness of prostate cancer screening. What’s new? Before symptoms of prostate cancer manifest clinically, many men die of other causes. Yet, prostate screening, particularly in older men, frequently turns out positive, resulting in overdiagnosis and overtreatment. This meta-analysis of published autopsy studies shows that incidental prostate cancer increases with age and with the use of sensitive screening strategies
Macanovic, M., E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Derriford Hospital NHS Trust, Plymouth (United Kingdom); Gangidi, S.; Porter, G.; Brown, S.; Courtney, D. [Derriford Hospital NHS Trust, Plymouth (United Kingdom); Porter, J. [Community Dental Service, Plymouth Primary Care Trust, Plymouth, Devon (United Kingdom)
Radiologists frequently report orthopantomograms (OPTs) and other views of the mandible, most often in patients who have suffered facial trauma. These examinations may reveal incidental pathology. It is important that radiologists are aware of the radiological appearances and the clinical significance of these lesions. In this review we will present examples of the more common odontogenic lesions including: radicular cyst, odontogenic keratocyst, dentigerous cyst, ameloblastoma, and also examples of non-odontogenic pathology: bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (BRONJ) and chronic osteomyelitis. Although some of the lesions will require computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for further lesion characterization and evaluation of the surrounding tissues, we are going to focus on the plain film appearances. We will also briefly discuss the pathogenesis, epidemiology, and treatment of these lesions.
Vural, Veli; Türkoğlu, Mehmet Akif; Karatas, Gulnur
Intestinal malrotation is defined as intestinal nonrotation or incomplete rotation around superior mesenteric artery (SMA), involving anomalies of intestinal fixation as well. The patients may be recognized incidentally during other surgical procedures or at autopsy. Here in, we present a case of midgut malrotation which was diagnosed incidentally during hepaticojejunostomy procedure for benign biliary stricture. A 46 years old male patient was referred to our clinic with failed surgery for biliary stricture due to extensive adhesions. Prior to our surgery, intestinal malrotation was not reported and noticed by the diagnostic tools. When the patient underwent relaparotomy, midgut malrotation was observed. Distruption in the normal embryological development of bowel is the cause of intestinal malrotation. Various anatomic configurations and anomalies resulting from rotation anomalies of midgut. Adult patients are usually asymptomatic and the anomaly is discovered only at autopsy or incidentally at surgery. The role of additional surgery especially in patients with asymptomatic disease related to malrotation is debated. Performing loop hepaticojejunostomy with Braun enteroenterostomy is feasible and acceptable option rather than Roux-N-Y hepaticojejunostomy in case of intestinal malrotation. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Chang, Yu-Ting; Hayter, Mark; Lin, Mei-Ling
Sexual harassment is a significant issue in the lives of students. Understanding how young adolescents feel about sexual harassment and their coping strategies is a central element to guide school nursing interventions promoting sexual health. This study explored the sexual harassment experiences of young adolescents in Taiwan. A qualitative research design was employed using focus groups to collect data from 47 elementary students, 10 and 12 years of age. Three themes emerged from the data analysis: "experiences of physical harassment," "experiences of verbal harassment," and "coping with harassment." The potential for school nurses to influence students' behavior, improve sexual health instruction, and create a healthy school environment is significant. School nurses should participate in sexual health education classes actively to advance the sexual health behaviors of school children.
Glass, Nancy; Hanson, Ginger C; Anger, W Kent; Laharnar, Naima; Campbell, Jacquelyn C; Weinstein, Marc; Perrin, Nancy
The study examines the effectiveness of a workplace violence and harassment prevention and response program with female homecare workers in a consumer driven model of care. Homecare workers were randomized to either; computer based training (CBT only) or computer-based training with homecare worker peer facilitation (CBT + peer). Participants completed measures on confidence, incidents of violence, and harassment, health and work outcomes at baseline, 3, 6 months post-baseline. Homecare workers reported improved confidence to prevent and respond to workplace violence and harassment and a reduction in incidents of workplace violence and harassment in both groups at 6-month follow-up. A decrease in negative health and work outcomes associated with violence and harassment were not reported in the groups. CBT alone or with trained peer facilitation with homecare workers can increase confidence and reduce incidents of workplace violence and harassment in a consumer-driven model of care. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Madison, J; Minichiello, V
To explore how registered nurses (RNs) recognized and labeled incidents of sex-based and sexual harassment in the Australian health care workplace. Qualitative, using 16 unstructured interviews with registered nurses in Australia. Verbatim transcripts were analyzed largely by inductive analysis. Key categories were identified as themes or concepts for analysis. RNs reported several indicators of sexual harassment, including the invasion of space, confirmation from others, lack of respect, the deliberate nature of the behavior, perceived power or control, overly friendly behavior, and a sexualized workplace. RNs rarely labeled harassing behaviors as sex-based or sexual harassment. Many forces reduce the likelihood that RNs will correctly recognize and label unwelcome sexualized behavior as sexual harassment. Recognition is associated with a variety of workplace behaviors that sometimes precede harassment. Implications for the health care workplace are discussed.
Rolfe, Shawn M; Schroeder, Ryan D
Research has recently found that sexual harassment occurs throughout our education system. Although the focus of these studies has been on both verbal and physical sexual harassment, the literature is scant when examining just verbal sexual harassment. Using self-report data from 30 New York City middle schools, the current study adds to the literature by examining the prevalence of verbal sexual harassment victimization and perpetration through the lens of gender and dating experiences. The study highlights that boys are verbally sexually harassed more than girls and students with dating experience are more likely to be victims or perpetrators of verbal sexual harassment. Additional findings, limitations, and policy implications are discussed.
Romito, P; Cedolin, C; Bastiani, F; Beltramini, L; Saurel-Cubizolles, M J
Menstrual disorders and sexual harassment are common among young women and interfere with their life and activities. We aimed to describe the association of sexual harassment and menstrual disorders among female university students. This cross-sectional, observational study examined the association between sexual harassment and menstrual disorders in a sample of 349 university students in Italy. Students answered an anonymous self-administered questionnaire. Descriptive bivariate analyses and logistic regression analyses were performed. Main outcome measures were associations between levels of exposure to sexual harassment (none, levels 1 and 2) and five menstrual disorders (premenstrual symptoms, heavy bleeding, pain, irregular cycles, and amenorrhea). Among the women interviewed (mean age 20.4 ± 1.45 years), 146 (41.8%) had experienced sexual harassment in the previous 12 months: 91 (26.1%) level 1 and 55 (15.7%) level 2. The frequency of premenstrual symptoms was 31.9% ( n=110); heavy bleeding, 35.3% ( n=124); pain, 51.4% ( n=181); irregular cycles, 55.5% ( n=195); and amenorrhea, 6.7% ( n=23). After adjustment for age, place of birth, being in a couple relationship and receiving hormone therapy, the frequency of menstrual disorders, except for amenorrhea, was increased with sexual harassment, with a regular gradient from no harassment to level 2 harassment. Introducing factors of depression, specific gynaecological problems and lifetime sexual violence did not change the results. For instance, the adjusted odds ratios of premenstrual symptoms were 2.10 [1.19-3.68] for women with level 1 harassment and 3.58 [1.83-7.03] for women with level 2 compared with women without harassment exposure. Sexual harassment is related to the prevalence of menstrual disorders. Healthcare providers should encourage dialogue with patients and address the issue of sexual violence or harassment.
Flores, Nina M.
Whether on foot, bike, bus, or train, women are often targets of street harassment such as catcalls, unwanted touching, or leering. When women are forced to navigate harassment in the city, it limits their ability to access public spaces with the same freedom and ease as their male counterparts. As a planning issue, examining street harassment reveals serious concerns about gender justice, and can deepen our understanding of gender-based safety issues in public. Drawing on feminist theory, th...
Rospenda, Kathleen M.; Fujishiro, Kaori; Shannon, Candice A.; Richman, Judith A.
Research suggests that workplace harassment (WH) significantly predicts alcohol use and problem drinking behavior, but has generally failed to consider concurrent effects of other sources of stress. This two-wave study (n=1418) is the first to explore whether sexual harassment (SH) and generalized workplace harassment (GWH) predict increased drinking independently of the effects of job and life stress, and whether effects differ by gender, in a nationally representative sample. SH and GWH pre...
Houle, Jason N.; Staff, Jeremy; Mortimer, Jeylan T.; Uggen, Christopher; Blackstone, Amy
Sexual harassment has been theorized as a stressor with consequences for the physical and mental health of its targets. Though social scientists have documented a negative association between sexual harassment and mental health, few longitudinal studies have investigated the association between sexual harassment and depressive symptoms. Using longitudinal survey data from the Youth Development Study, combined with in-depth interviews, this article draws on Louise Fitzgerald’s theoretical fram...
Shannon, Candice A.; Rospenda, Kathleen M.; Richman, Judith A.
This study constitutes the first national longitudinal survey to address the relationship between workplace harassment and service utilization. We examine how patterns of sexual harassment and generalized workplace harassment are linked to utilization of mental health, health, legal, spiritual, and work-related services, and whether and how gender influences these relationships. Data derive from a random digit dial telephone survey with a continental U.S. sample of employed adults. Eligibilit...
L. Bütow-Dütoit; C. A. Eksteen; M. De Waal
This paper presents the legal framework within which sexual harassment of healthcare professionals, including physiotherapists, may be managed in their work environment in South Africa. According to both international and national legal principles, sexual harassment is considered a form of discrimination. There are various statutes in South Africa that may assist physiotherapists when they seek redress after being sexually harassed. These entail labour-related laws, laws aimed at removing all...
Wear, Delese; Aultman, Julie
Sexual harassment occurs with regularity during medical training, and it remains largely unreported. This study is one institution’s attempt to understand how third and fourth-year medical students perceive and experience sexual harassment, what they believe about reporting sexual harassment, and how they believe it might be eradicated from the educational environment. We used a qualitative research method for our investigation, which would generate more specific language to use in a larger e...
Thomas C. Head; Peter F. Sorensen, Jr.; Laura B. Pincus
A major difficulty in controlling sexual harassment is that it is actually a perceptual phenomenon. A survey was created to determine what effects a perpetratorÕs gender and management status and evaluatorÕs education have on whether fifteen behaviors are perceived as sexual harassment. Responses indicated a strong negative bias towards male superiors, while a positive bias appeared for female peers. Graduate degree subjects perceived more of the behaviors as harassing, but were much less bia...
Beery, Thomas H; Raymond, Christopher M; Kyttä, Marketta
Concern for a diminished human experience of nature and subsequent decreased human well-being is addressed via a consideration of green infrastructure's potential to facilitate unplanned or incidental nature experience. Incidental nature experience is conceptualized and illustrated in order...... to consider this seldom addressed aspect of human interaction with nature in green infrastructure planning. Special attention has been paid to the ability of incidental nature experience to redirect attention from a primary activity toward an unplanned focus (in this case, nature phenomena). The value...... of such experience for human well-being is considered. The role of green infrastructure to provide the opportunity for incidental nature experience may serve as a nudge or guide toward meaningful interaction. These ideas are explored using examples of green infrastructure design in two Nordic municipalities...
Saroj K. Golay
Full Text Available Background:To determine the prevalence of incidental Kienböck disease. Methods: A retrospective analysis of 150,912 radiological reports or images obtained over a five year period was performed of 76,174 patients who underwent a radiograph or computed tomography scan which included the wrist, in Edinburgh and Lothian, UK. Results: There were 5 cases of incidental Kienböck disease and 13 cases of symptomatic Kienböck disease. There were no significant differences in age, sex, ethnicity, comorbidities, smoking status, excess alcohol use or Lichtman stage between the incidental and symptomatic Kienböck groups. Conclusion: The radiological prevalence of incidental Kienböck disease was 0.0066% or 7 in 100,000 patients.
Martin-Storey, Alexa; Crosnoe, Robert
The well-documented higher rates of depression among sexual minority youth are increasingly viewed by developmentalists as a byproduct of the stigmatization of sexual minority status in American society and of the negative impact this stigma has on the processes associated with depression. This study attempted to spur future research by testing Hatzenbuehler’s (2009) psychological mediation framework to investigate the ways in which peer harassment related to sexuality puts young people at risk by influencing the cognitive, social, and regulatory factors associated with depression. Analyses of 15 year olds in the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development revealed that sexual minority status was largely associated with depressive outcomes via harassment, which was subsequently associated with depression via cognitive and social factors. Results point to various avenues for exploring the importance of the social world and self-concept for the outcomes of sexual minority adolescents in the future. PMID:22401842
Conflict happens, and in a large international organisation like ours it is often inevitable. Indeed, when it happens in the context of a confrontation of different ideas, opinions or methods it can be considered to be a healthy component of effective collaboration. Yet, when conflict becomes personal, when it is underpinned by unethical actions and hostile interactions, these interpersonal differences can rapidly deteriorate into moral harassment or bullying behaviour. Moral harassment or bullying behaviour occurs in the work environment when healthy relations break down between two people or between an individual and a group of people. As stated in CERN’s Operational Circular No. 9, it is behaviour that is “contrary to the principles of equal opportunity, non-discrimination and mutual respect [and]… it is detrimental to health and safety at the workplace and the good functioning of the Organization in general”. It often involves an abuse or misuse of p...
Norman D. Pautasso
This article is intended to collect some results of the several studies that have been made concerning Bullying and Harassment among boys and girls who attend basic education institutions in the central part of Santa Cruz province, in Argentina. It encloses theoretical framework about the problem of bullying and violence among children at school. It presents information about the region, some common aggressive behaviors as well as different ways and places in which those violent habits might ...
Secretary of the Navy (who reportedly visited some of the hospitality suites one of which had a rhinoceros phallic device dispensing white Russian drinks to...because it was overbroad. In the principal concurring opinion, Justice White stated that under the majority’s new "underinclusiveness" theory, "Title VII...attempted to explain that Title VII hostile environment sexual harassment need not fall under the rationale 15615of the opinion,. Justice White refuted
Sara M. Turner
Full Text Available Concern over incidental catches in commercial fisheries has been increasing, and while simple mitigation strategies have been effective, few effective mitigation strategies have been established for more complex species interactions. Incidental catches of alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus and blueback herring (A. aestivalis in the commercial Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus fishery have received substantial attention on the Northeast U.S. continental shelf, despite an existing bycatch avoidance program. This study evaluates the utility of existing species distribution forecasts to predict river herring catches in the southern New England small mesh bottom trawl Atlantic herring fishery, with the ultimate goal of incorporating incidental catch forecasts into the bycatch avoidance program. Commercial Atlantic herring bottom trawl vessels assisted with field-based evaluation of alewife, blueback herring, and Atlantic herring species distribution forecast models. Vessels were equipped with conductivity, temperature, and depth probes, and sampling occurred throughout the fishery season (January–March. Locations of expected low and high forecasted incidental catches were sampled, as well as locations the captain expected to find low and high incidental catches. This allowed us to sample within the spatial area the fishery occurs, and to evaluate the forecasted conditions, and predictions, at the spatial scale of the fishery. Catch differences between high and low probability stations were small and variable, as were differences in modeled probability of species presence. No differences were observed between observations at model-predicted stations and captain-selected stations. The sampling provided a better understanding of the potential effectiveness of distribution forecasts for further reducing incidental catches. Existing models have limited use at the spatial scale of this fishery, but could be improved by developing models with fishery
Eddy Sierra Enrique
Full Text Available Se revisaron 77 historias clínicas de pacientes que presentaban lesiones incidentales del bazo ocurridas entre 1985 y 1994, durante operaciones intraabdominales y por examen laparoscópico. Las funciones inmunológicas del bazo y su papel contra las infecciones están bien definidas, por lo cual al ser suprimido este órgano a consecuencia de lesiones incidentales, favorecen las infecciones en dichos pacientes de por vida. De las 77 lesiones incidentales se realizaron 47(61 % esplenectomías incidentales y 30(39 % cirugías conservadoras. La úlcera duodenal y la hernia hiatal son las causas principales de esplenectomía incidental. Se presentaron 11 infecciones (23,4 % y 1 fallecido (2,1 % en la esplenectomía incidental contra 1 infección (3,3 % y ningún fallecido en la cirugía conservadora. Se llega a la conclusión de que la esplenectomía no está justificada dadas las desventajas que presenta77 medical histories of patients who presented incidental injuries of the spleen occurred between 1985 and 1994, during intraabdominal operations and by laparoscopic examination, were reviewed. The immunological functions of the spleen and its role against infections are well defined, so the removal of this organ due to incidental injuries favors the appearance of infections in these patients for the rest of their lives. Of the 77 incidental injuries 47 (61 % incidental splenectomies and 30 (39 % conservative surgeries were performed. Duodenal ulcer and hiatal hernia proved to be the main causes of incidental splenectomy. There were 11 infections (23.4 % and 1 death (2.1 % in the incidental splenectomy compared with 1 infection (3.3 % and no death in the conservative surgery. It is concluded that splenectomy is not justified because of its disadvantages
Ybarra, Michele L; Diener-West, Marie; Leaf, Philip J
As more and more youth utilize the Internet, concern about Internet harassment and its consequences for adolescents is growing. This paper examines the potential overlap in online and school harassment, as well as the concurrence of Internet harassment and school behavior problems. The Growing Up with Media survey is a national cross-sectional online survey of 1588 youth between the ages of 10 and 15 years old. Our main measures were Internet harassment (i.e., rude or nasty comments, spreading of rumors, threatening or aggressive comments) and school functioning (i.e., academic performance; skipping school; detentions and suspensions; and carrying a weapon to school in the last 30 days). Although some overlap existed, 64% of youth who were harassed online did not report also being bullied at school. Nonetheless, youth harassed online were significantly more likely to also report two or more detentions or suspensions, and skipping school in the previous year. Especially concerning, youth who reported being targeted by Internet harassment were eight times more likely than all other youth to concurrently report carrying a weapon to school in the past 30 days (odds ratio = 8.0, p = .002). Although the data do not support the assumption that many youth who are harassed online are bullied by the same (or even different) peers at school, findings support the need for professionals working with children and adolescents, especially those working in the schools, to be aware of the possible linkages between school behavior and online harassment for some youth.
Dardis, Christina M; Vento, Stephanie A; Gradus, Jaimie L; Street, Amy E
Victims' conceptualizations of traumatic experiences can impact screening responses and decisions to utilize health care. Despite experiencing events constituting sexual harassment, many victims do not label their experiences as such. In the military, specific situational factors (e.g., occurred on-duty, higher ranking harasser) and victim appraisals of experiences (e.g., offensive, threatening) have been associated with increased labeling of sexual harassment. However, no research has examined sexual harassment labeling among those deployed in recent Afghanistan and Iraq conflicts, where the context of harassment may differ from peacetime settings. The purpose of the present study was to examine frequencies of labeling sexual harassment during deployment, factors associated with labeling, and associations between labeling and perceived need for and use of mental health services. 2,348 veterans (51% women, 49% men) drawn from a random sample of veterans deployed in support of the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq completed a mail survey. Women were significantly more likely than men to label experiences as harassment. Whereas appraisals of events were associated with both women's and men's labeling, situational factors were only associated with women's labeling. Among women, labeling was associated with a greater perceived need for and use of mental health services among those who experienced nonassaultive harassment. These results confirm the importance of using behavioral language when screening for experiences of harassment among veterans returning from deployment. We discuss strategies for addressing labeling in the context of mental health treatment. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Nawyn, S J; Richman, J A; Rospenda, K M; Hughes, T L
While workplace sexual harassment has received a great deal of attention in both the popular media and scientific literature, less attention has been directed to the differential occurrence of sexual harassment among lesbians, gay men, and heterosexual men and women, and the relationships between these experiences and alcohol-related outcomes. Additionally, the distribution of alcohol-related outcomes of non-sexual forms of workplace harassment among these groups have not been adequately explored. Using data from a university-based study of workplace harassment and alcohol use (N = 2492), we focus on exposure to workplace harassment and alcohol-related outcomes for lesbians, gay men, and bisexuals compared to heterosexual men and women. Lesbian/bisexual women did not differ significantly from heterosexual women in their experiences of workplace harassment. However, stronger linkages between harassment and increased alcohol consumption and problems were found for lesbian and bisexual women than for heterosexual women. Gay/bisexual men, on the other hand, experienced significantly more sexual harassment than heterosexual men, but did not report a corresponding increase in alcohol use and abuse. Implications for future research on sexual identity, alcohol use, and workplace harassment are discussed.
Fallahi Khoshknab, Masoud; Oskouie, Fatemeh; Ghazanfari, Nahid; Najafi, Fereshteh; Tamizi, Zahra; Afshani, Shahla; Azadi, Ghazal
There are high levels of sexual harassment in health care systems. Also, workplace violence occurs against ethnic and racial minorities. This study aimed to identify the frequency of and the factors contributing to and preventing sexual and racial harassment in the workplace towards health professionals in Iran. This cross-sectional study was conducted on 6500 out of 57000 health workers who were selected by multistage random sampling from some teaching hospitals in Iran. Data were collected using the questionnaire of "workplace violence in the health sector" developed by the International Labor Organization, International Council of Nurses, World Health Organization, and Public Services International. According to the findings, the frequencies of sexual harassment and racial harassment were, respectively, 4.7% and 12% for the 12 months prior to the study (2011). Among healthcare workers, nurses reported the highest rate of violence. The most important contributing factors in sexual and racial harassment were lack of security facilities (45.8%) and people's ignorance of employees' tasks (55.7%). The presence of security force, safety measures in the wards, and guards were noted as the most important preventive factor to harassment. Based on the results, the frequency of sexual and racial harassment is low, which can be attributed to underreporting due to cultural sensitivity or fear. So, identifying the reasons for refusal to report harassment, developing a clear mechanism for reporting and providing the necessary trainings to health workers are essential in order to deal with harassment.
Bergman, Mindy E; Drasgow, Fritz
L. F. Fitzgerald, C. L. Hulin, and F. Drasgow (1995) proposed that victim characteristics, such as race, might moderate the relationships between sexual harassment and its job, psychological, and health status outcomes. This study describes 2 theoretical positions, tokenism and double jeopardy, that could account for this possible moderation by race, as well as the alternative view that no moderating effects exist. The effects of race are empirically examined through simultaneous path analysis. Results indicate that whereas mean levels of harassment differ across race, the phenomenon of sexual harassment unfolds similarly across races; race is not a moderator of the relationships between sexual harassment and the variables proposed as its antecedents and outcomes.
Paludi, Michele; Nydegger, Rudy; Desouza, Eros; Nydegger, Liesl; Dicker, Kelsey Allen
The incidence, psychological dimensions, reporting, and impact of sexual harassment of college students throughout the world are reviewed. Special attention is paid to methodological constraints in conducting cross-cultural research in sexual harassment, including difficulty in securing research participants, different methodologies to collect incidence data, use of retrospective data, and varying, definitions of sexual harassment. Recommendations for implementing intervention programs are offered. The strategies suggested deal with the social causes that maintain the harassment, including renegotiating the balance of power between men and women.
Hom, Melanie A; Stanley, Ian H; Spencer-Thomas, Sally; Joiner, Thomas E
This cross-sectional study investigated the association between harassment, career suicidality, and psychiatric symptoms among women firefighters. Women firefighters (n = 290) completed self-report measures of experiences with harassment on the job, career suicidality, and various psychiatric symptoms. Logistic regression analyses and one-way analyses of variance were used to address study aims. Of the sample, 21.7% reported having experienced sexual harassment and 20.3% reported having been threatened or harassed in another way on their firefighting job. Sexual harassment and other threats/harassment on the job were both significantly associated with a greater likelihood of reporting career suicidal ideation, as well as reporting more severe psychiatric symptoms. Harassment and threats experienced on the job may be associated with increased suicide risk and more severe psychiatric symptoms among women firefighters. Efforts are needed to reduce the occurrence of harassment and threats within the fire service and provide support for women firefighters who have been harassed or threatened.
Isabelle Cristinne Pinto Costa
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To analyze scientific production about workplace bullying and harassment in dissertations and theses in Brazil, with emphasis on the year of publication; educational institution; area of knowledge; professional and academic background of the authors; keywords used; and concept map organization. METHOD Bibliometric study with a quantitative approach with a sample consisting of 57 papers, 5 theses and 52 dissertations, published between 2002 and 2012. RESULTS It was found that 2012 was the year with the highest number of publications in this topic area. The region that stood out was the Southeast. The institution with the highest number of publications was the Federal University of Santa Catarina. There was a predominance of dissertations and most publications were produced by researchers focused on a multidisciplinary perspective. CONCLUSION Expanding the views regarding bullying in order to disseminate scientific production was proposed, promoting further advancement of debates and raising pertinent questions.
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate associations of workplace bullying and harassment with headache, stiffness of the neck or shoulders, lumbago, and pain of two or more joints. The subjects in this cross-sectional study were recruited from workers (n = 1,913 at 35 healthcare or welfare facilities in Japan. Because of non-participation or missing data, the number of subjects included in the analysis varied (response rate ≥ 77.1%. Workplace bullying and harassment were assessed using the Negative Acts Questionnaire. Depression was assessed using the Brief Job Stress Questionnaire. The frequency of pain experienced by workers in the previous month was evaluated using a four-point scale. Many of the associations of person-related bullying, work-related bullying, and sexual harassment with headache, stiffness of the neck or shoulders, lumbago, and pain of two or more joints were positive and significant (p < 0.05. Even after adjustment for depression, some of the associations remained significant (p < 0.05. For example, changes in the prevalence ratio for headache associated with a 1-point increase in the work-related bullying score were 1.05 (95% confidence interval (CI 1.01 to 1.09 in men and 1.03 (95% CI 1.01 to 1.05 in women after adjustment for age, marital status, employment status, work shift, and depression.
Takaki, Jiro; Taniguchi, Toshiyo; Hirokawa, Kumi
The aim of this study was to investigate associations of workplace bullying and harassment with headache, stiffness of the neck or shoulders, lumbago, and pain of two or more joints. The subjects in this cross-sectional study were recruited from workers (n = 1,913) at 35 healthcare or welfare facilities in Japan. Because of non-participation or missing data, the number of subjects included in the analysis varied (response rate ≥ 77.1%). Workplace bullying and harassment were assessed using the Negative Acts Questionnaire. Depression was assessed using the Brief Job Stress Questionnaire. The frequency of pain experienced by workers in the previous month was evaluated using a four-point scale. Many of the associations of person-related bullying, work-related bullying, and sexual harassment with headache, stiffness of the neck or shoulders, lumbago, and pain of two or more joints were positive and significant (p < 0.05). Even after adjustment for depression, some of the associations remained significant (p < 0.05). For example, changes in the prevalence ratio for headache associated with a 1-point increase in the work-related bullying score were 1.05 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.01 to 1.09) in men and 1.03 (95% CI 1.01 to 1.05) in women after adjustment for age, marital status, employment status, work shift, and depression.
Darden, Safi K; Watts, Lauren
Male harassment of females to gain mating opportunities is a consequence of an evolutionary conflict of interest between the sexes over reproduction and is common among sexually reproducing species. Male Trinidadian guppies Poecilia reticulata spend a large proportion of their time harassing females for copulations and their presence in female social groups has been shown to disrupt female-female social networks and the propensity for females to develop social recognition based on familiarity. In this study, we investigate the behavioural mechanisms that may lead to this disruption of female sociality. Using two experiments, we test the hypothesis that male presence will directly affect social behaviours expressed by females towards other females in the population. In experiment one, we tested for an effect of male presence on female shoaling behaviour and found that, in the presence of a free-swimming male guppy, females spent shorter amounts of time with other females than when in the presence of a free-swimming female guppy. In experiment two, we tested for an effect of male presence on the incidence of aggressive behaviour among female guppies. When males were present in a shoal, females exhibited increased levels of overall aggression towards other females compared with female only shoals. Our work provides direct evidence that the presence of sexually harassing males alters female-female social behaviour, an effect that we expect will be recurrent across taxonomic groups.
Full Text Available The way that incidental affect impacts attitude change brought about by controlled processes has so far been examined when the incidental affective state is generated after dissonance state induction. We therefore investigated attitude change when the incidental mood occurs prior to dissonance state induction. We expected a negative mood to induce systematic processing, and a positive mood to induce heuristic processing. Given that both systematic processing and attitude change are cognitively costly, we expected participants who experienced the dissonance state in a negative mood to have insufficient resources to allocate to attitude change. In our experiment, after mood induction (negative, neutral or positive, participants were divided into low-dissonance and high-dissonance groups. They then wrote a counterattitudinal essay. Analysis of their attitudes towards the essay topic indicated that attitude change did not occur in the negative incidental mood condition. Moreover, written productivity-one indicator of cognitive resource allocation-varied according to the type of incidental mood, and only predicted attitude change in the high-dissonance group. Our results suggest that incidental mood before dissonance induction influences the style of information processing and, by so doing, affects the extent of attitude change.
Martinie, Marie-Amélie; Almecija, Yves; Ros, Christine; Gil, Sandrine
The way that incidental affect impacts attitude change brought about by controlled processes has so far been examined when the incidental affective state is generated after dissonance state induction. We therefore investigated attitude change when the incidental mood occurs prior to dissonance state induction. We expected a negative mood to induce systematic processing, and a positive mood to induce heuristic processing. Given that both systematic processing and attitude change are cognitively costly, we expected participants who experienced the dissonance state in a negative mood to have insufficient resources to allocate to attitude change. In our experiment, after mood induction (negative, neutral or positive), participants were divided into low-dissonance and high-dissonance groups. They then wrote a counterattitudinal essay. Analysis of their attitudes towards the essay topic indicated that attitude change did not occur in the negative incidental mood condition. Moreover, written productivity-one indicator of cognitive resource allocation-varied according to the type of incidental mood, and only predicted attitude change in the high-dissonance group. Our results suggest that incidental mood before dissonance induction influences the style of information processing and, by so doing, affects the extent of attitude change.
Full Text Available
This study is an attempt to explore the difference between acquiring new words with different semantic fields to which they belong. In other words, the purpose of this study is to scrutinize the contribution of semantic field theory in learning new vocabulary items in an EFL setting. Thirty-eight students of three different levels of education took part in this research. They were exposed to some new words from four different semantic fields, and then they were tested on their acquisition of the words meaning. This exposure was through reading texts and the aim of reading was just comprehension, therefore the words were acquired incidentally. The outcome showed significant differences between groups with different levels of education regarding retention of words from different semantic fields.
Hovis, Jeffery K; Ramaswamy, Shankaran
Because there is little information available as to how fatigue and color vision interact, we present some incidental findings on how a protanope and a color-normal perform on several color vision tests after 1 night of sleep deprivation. A series of clinically and occupationally based color vision tests were administered to a protanope and a color-normal subject after they had stayed awake all night and after a regular night's sleep. There was essentially no change in their performance on the clinical color vision tests; however, both did worse on the occupationally based color vision tests after 1 night of sleep deprivation. The color-normal made numerous errors in identifying colors displayed on a video display terminal, whereas the protanope had a large increase in errors on the CN Lantern Test. Both subjects passed these respective tests after a regular night's sleep. The primary reason for color-normal's poor performance on the video display terminal test was probably due to a decrement in his visuo-motor control rather than a loss in color discrimination. In contrast, the protanope's poor performance on the lantern test was probably due to the additive effects of the inherent limitations of his visual system and fatigue.
Huysmans, Michaël; Bronckaers, Marc; Schillebeeckx, Charlotte; Servaes, Dirk
The objective of this study was to analyze the incidence and treatment options of occult cancer or atypical lesions found in the histopathological examination of reduction mammoplasty (RM) specimens. The role of preoperative mammography and systematic histopathological examination are discussed. We performed a retrospective single-center database review of all patients who underwent a RM between January 2005 and December 2014. Preoperative examination, histopathological findings and follow-up were documented. A total of 1045 patients underwent RM, of which 97% were bilateral (1021). All patients received a mammography and routine clinical examination to exclude cancer preoperatively. The overall mean patient age was 40.2 years (14.2-73.4). A total of 19 patients (1.18%) had significant histopathological findings, all of whom were over 40 years of age. There were 4 incidental carcinomas (0.38%), of which 2 were DCIS (0.19%) and 2 invasive ductal carcinomas (0.19%). Incidence of postoperative diagnosis of occult breast cancer in RM specimens remains low, but poses significant therapeutic challenges. While emphasis should lay on preoperative diagnostics, routine histological analysis of RM specimens is recommended.
Singh, Sumit; Kuruva, Manohar; Rettiganti, Mallikarjuna Rao; Qin, Curtis; Hegde, Shilpa V.
The opacification the mastoid cavity is frequently reported by radiologists on cross-sectional imaging done for non-otological indications. It is well known that presence of fluid the mastoid does not amount to mastoiditis. This study seeks to provide an evidence-based confirmation of this known finding. The purpose of our study was to determine the prevalence of mastoid opacification in children undergoing outpatient brain MRI examination. Our study included 515 outpatient children who had brain MRI for indications other than mastoiditis or otitis media from January 2014 to March 2014. Children with history of skull base trauma or radiation were excluded. The age range was 15 days to 18 years. The overall prevalence of mastoid opacification was determined using one sample proportion and exact 95% Clopper-Pearson confidence intervals. The prevalence of mastoid opacification was analyzed based on gender, age and presenting symptoms using chi-square test of association. One hundred ten children (21.4%) had mastoid opacification. Younger patients tended to have higher opacification rates with the prevalence in children younger than 1 year of age and between 1 and 2 years of age as high as 41.7% (20/48) and 47.5% (38/80), respectively. The diagnosis of mastoiditis in children should not be based upon a radiologist's report of finding fluid or mucosal thickening in the mastoid air cells as incidental opacification the mastoid is seen frequently. (orig.)
Singh, Sumit; Kuruva, Manohar [University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Pediatric Radiology, Little Rock, AR (United States); Rettiganti, Mallikarjuna Rao [University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences and Arkansas Children' s Hospital Research Institute, Biostatistics Program, Department of Pediatrics, Little Rock, AR (United States); Qin, Curtis [Georgetown University Hospital, Radiology, Washington, DC (United States); Hegde, Shilpa V. [University of Pittsburgh Medical Centre, Section of Neuroradiology, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)
The opacification the mastoid cavity is frequently reported by radiologists on cross-sectional imaging done for non-otological indications. It is well known that presence of fluid the mastoid does not amount to mastoiditis. This study seeks to provide an evidence-based confirmation of this known finding. The purpose of our study was to determine the prevalence of mastoid opacification in children undergoing outpatient brain MRI examination. Our study included 515 outpatient children who had brain MRI for indications other than mastoiditis or otitis media from January 2014 to March 2014. Children with history of skull base trauma or radiation were excluded. The age range was 15 days to 18 years. The overall prevalence of mastoid opacification was determined using one sample proportion and exact 95% Clopper-Pearson confidence intervals. The prevalence of mastoid opacification was analyzed based on gender, age and presenting symptoms using chi-square test of association. One hundred ten children (21.4%) had mastoid opacification. Younger patients tended to have higher opacification rates with the prevalence in children younger than 1 year of age and between 1 and 2 years of age as high as 41.7% (20/48) and 47.5% (38/80), respectively. The diagnosis of mastoiditis in children should not be based upon a radiologist's report of finding fluid or mucosal thickening in the mastoid air cells as incidental opacification the mastoid is seen frequently. (orig.)
Lee, Sun-Kyoung; Song, Ju-Eun; Kim, Sue
The purpose of this study was to identify the experience and perception of sexual harassment during the clinical practice of Korean nursing students. The descriptive study was conducted using a self-report questionnaire from December 2009 to January 2010. Participants were 542 nursing students recruited from 12 nursing colleges in Korea, who had finished 1,000 hours of clinical practice which is the minimum requirement for graduation. Data were analyzed by descriptive statistics. Ninety-seven participants (17.9%) reported that they experienced sexual harassment during clinical practice and 36 participants (6.7%) answered whether it was a sexual harassment or not. When sexual harassment was asked by the specific 18 items in the sexual harassment checklist, 52.0% (n = 282) of participants reported that they experienced at least 1 item among 18 items of sexual harassment. Sexual harassments were frequently made by the persons in their 40s (41.2%), men (97.9%) and patients (96.9%) and in the psychiatric wards (67.0%). Many respondents recognized that sexual harassment during clinical practice was caused by abnormal sexual desire of a pervert (34.5%) or men's sexual impulse (26.2%). Also, sexual harassment was perceived as a serious problem (19.4%) and education was necessary for prevention (88.3%). Education program is needed to prevent sexual harassment and enhance the gender sensitivity of nursing students, who are in the high-risk group of sexual harassment during clinical practice. This will in turn contribute to a safe educational environment for clinical practice. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Kabat-Farr, Dana; Cortina, Lilia M
Legal definitions of sex-based harassment have evolved over the decades; it is important that social science perspectives on this phenomenon evolve as well. This study seeks to refine our understanding of conditions in which sex-based harassment thrives, with empirical evidence from three organizations. Previous research has suggested that underrepresentation of one's gender in the employment context increases risk for sex-based harassment. This work has focused mainly on sexual-advance forms of harassment, mainly in the lives of women. Less is known about the gender harassment of women, or about any kind of harassment of men. Extending this scholarship, we analyzed survey data from women and men working in three diverse domains: academia (N = 847), the court system (N = 1,158), and the military (N = 19,960). Across all samples, the underrepresentation of women in a workgroup related to increased odds of women experiencing gender harassment, but not sexual-advance harassment. For men, the opposite pattern emerged: underrepresentation did not increase men's risk for either type of harassment, instead relating to decreased odds of harassment in some contexts. We interpret these results in light of theories of tokenism, gender stereotyping, and sex role spillover in organizations. Our findings support the recommendation that, to reduce harassment (whether it be illegal or legal, gender- or sexuality-based, targeted at women or men), organizations should strive for gender balance in every job at every level. For male-dominated contexts, this implies a need to recruit, retain, and integrate more women throughout the organizational hierarchy.
Rospenda, Kathleen M.; Richman, Judith A.; Shannon, Candice A.
This study describes past-year prevalence and effects on mental health and drinking outcomes for harassment and discrimination in the workplace (HDW) in a nationally-representative random-digit dial phone survey conducted in 2003–2004 (n=2,151). HDW measures included experiences and perceptions of sexual harassment and generalized workplace harassment, and perceived harassment or discrimination due to race/ethnicity. Prevalence was examined by sex, race, age, occupation, marital status, and e...
Aland, Nusrat I.J.; Pawar, Shwetal Uday; Tilve, Gundu Hari
A sternal cleft is an extremely rare developmental anomaly, which results from failure of fusion of sternal bars which contribute to the formation of the sternum. Most cases are diagnosed in early childhood, where it is associated with serious other midline defects. A sternal cleft is seen as a photopenic area on technetium-99m methylene diphosphonate bone scan and can be confused with other conditions. We report an extremely rare case of isolated upper sternal cleft in a 45-years-old male, found incidentally on '9 9m Tc MDP bone scan. (author)
Ivanova, D.; Balev, B.
Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PNET) are primary, usually we 11-differentiated pancreatic tumors. Their origin is not fully understood, but they are thought to develop from the pluripotent cells in the exocrine part of the pancreas. PNET are a heterogeneous group with different malignant potential. In some of the patients with sporadical forms of PNET there is association with other malignancies such as ovarian cancer, breast cancer, bladder and prostate cancers. We present a case of 50-year-old woman, with incidentally found pancreatic neoplasm, during a follow-up CT for ovarian cancer. Laparotomy and pancreatic biopsy are performed. Histological diagnosis confirms a well- differentiated endocrine tumor of the pancreas. (authors)
Nightingale, S.; Schofield, I.S.; Dawes, P.J.D.K.
Visual, cortical somatosensory and brainstem auditory evoked potentials were recorded before incidental irradiation of the rhombencephalon during radiotherapy in and around the middle ear, and at 11 weeks and eight months after completion of treatment. No patient experienced neurological symptoms during this period. No consistent changes in evoked potentials were found. The failure to demonstrate subclinical radiation-induced demyelination suggests either that the syndrome of early-delayed radiation rhombencephalopathy occurs in an idiosyncratic manner, or that any subclinical lesions are not detectable by serial evoked potential recordings. (author)
Perry, Elissa L.; Kulik, Carol T.; Bustamante, Jennifer; Golom, Frank D.
The current study explored the use of best training practices on human resources managers' perceptions of sexual harassment training success and frequency of sexual harassment complaints. Results revealed no main effects of best training practices on sexual harassment training success. However, effects of best training practices on sexual…
Clodfelter, Tammatha A.; Turner, Michael G.; Hartman, Jennifer L.; Kuhns, Joseph B.
Sexual harassment of college students may lead to more serious forms of sexual assault. Few studies have investigated sexual harassment predictors framed within competing theoretical perspectives. In this study, the literature is extended by examining (a) three types of sexual harassment on a college campus, (b) the nature of reporting, and (c)…
approach to counting service members who experienced sexual assault, sexual harassment, and gender discrimination , providing DoD with unprecedented... discrimination . If service members who chose not to participate in the survey had different sexual assault or sexual harassment experiences from...of sexual assault, sexual harassment, and gender discrimination . Service members with characteristics associated with a higher risk of sexual
Gostlow, Hannah; Vega, Camila Vega; Marlow, Nicholas; Babidge, Wendy; Maddern, Guy
To assess and report on surgeons' ability to identify and manage incidences of harassment. The Royal Australasian College of Surgeons is committed to driving out discrimination, bullying, harassment, and sexual harassment from surgical training and practice, through changing the culture of the workplace. To eradicate these behaviors, it is first critical to understand how the current workforce responds to these actions. A retrospective analysis of video data of an operating theatre simulation was conducted to identify how surgeons, from a range of experience levels, react to instances of harassment. Thematic analysis was used to categorize types of harassment and participant response characteristics. The frequency of these responses was assessed and reported. The type of participant response depended on the nature of harassment being perpetuated and the seniority of the participant. In the 50 instances of scripted harassment, active responses were enacted 52% of the time, acknowledgment responses 16%, and no response enacted in 30%. One senior surgeon also perpetuated the harassment (2%). Trainees were more likely to respond actively compared with consultants. It is apparent that trainees are more aware of instances of harassment, and were more likely to intervene during the simulated scenario. However, a large proportion of harassment was unchallenged. The hierarchical nature of surgical education and the surgical workforce in general needs to enable a culture in which the responsibility to intervene is allowed and respected. Simulation-based education programs could be developed to train in the recognition and intervention of discrimination, bullying, harassment and sexual harassment.
Hershcovis, M. Sandy; Barling, Julian
In 2 studies, we investigated victim attributions (Study 1) and outcomes (Study 2) for workplace aggression and sexual harassment. Drawing on social categorization theory, we argue that victims of workplace aggression and sexual harassment may make different attributions about their mistreatment. In Study 1, we investigated victim attributions in…
Miller, Ellery M., Jr.; Mondschein, Eric S.
As the focus on bullying has grown, attention to incidents of and concern about sexual harassment has diminished. It is easy to understand that sexual harassment can be a form of bullying, especially when it is used to intimidate, but it is also a form of discrimination prohibited by federal and state laws. Effective implementation and enforcement…
Fasting, Kari; Chroni, Stiliani; Knorre, Nada
The study investigates whether sport is an especially risky environment for sexual harassment to occur. It explores female students' experiences of sexual harassment in organized sport and compares them with their experiences in formal education, by addressing the following research questions: (1) Are there any differences in female sport…
Bullying in schools is often discussed, but sexual harassment in schools, and how it differs from bullying is often overlooked. In fact, though, sexual harassment (committed both by fellow students and school personnel) is more common and yet more easily and quickly dismissed by those involved, though its consequences for the victim can be…
McDonald, Paula; Graham, Tina; Martin, Brian
Sexual harassment can be conceptualized as a series of interactions between harassers and targets that either inhibit or increase outrage by third parties. The outrage management model predicts the kinds of actions likely to be used by perpetrators to minimize outrage, predicts the consequences of failing to use these tactics--namely backfire, and…
Charmaraman, Linda; Jones, Ashleigh E.; Stein, Nan; Espelage, Dorothy L.
Background: This study fills a gap in the literature by examining how school staff members view bullying and sexual harassment and their role in preventing both. Given recent legislation, increasingly more attention is paid to bully prevention; however, student-on-student sexual harassment is less addressed. Methods: Four focus groups were…
Rahimi, Regina; Liston, Delores
Sexual harassment is a highly troubling gendered phenomenon that plagues young women on a daily basis. The way in which sexual harassment is perceived and treated is varied and is largely based on racial and class stereotypes. This paper highlights the findings from a study in which a group of middle and high school teachers were interviewed and…
Reinken, Michelle A.
Bound by federal and state laws, which protect individuals from sex discrimination, public higher education institutions must respond to the challenge of eliminating sexual harassment on campus. Statistics published by the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission suggest that in spite of well-designed sexual harassment policies and action plans,…
Since the 1970s many feminists working for gender justice in education have highlighted the predominance and seriousness of sexual harassment in schools and condemned the enduring trivialization of such behaviours. This paper develops this body of work by focusing on how issues of sexual harassment are located within prevailing contemporary…
Mushtaq, Mamoona; Sultana, Safia; Imtiaz, Iqra
To determine the prevalence of sexual harassment in nurses and to observe its correlation with negative mental health (depression, anxiety and stress). Further to examine the role of sexual harassment as a predictor of negative mental health in nurses and to explore the differences in the experience of sexual harassment, depression, anxiety and stress between junior and senior nurses. Cross-sectional descriptive study. Public Sector Hospitals in Lahore, from December 2011 to March 2012. Asample of 200 nurses with age range 23 to 46 years was obtained. Assessment tools used in the study were Sexual Harassment Experience Questionnaire (SHEQ) by Kamal, and Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS) by Lovibond and Lovibond. Mean age of the nurses was 29.80 ±7.10 years. Among these 63% were married and 37% unmarried. The mean working experience of nurses was 13.7 ±3. 52 years and their mean monthly income was 27820 ±13687.32 rupees. Their working hours ranged from 8 to 16 hours (M = 8.32, SD = 2.12). The mean prevalence of sexual harassment was 71.66 ±19.01. A significant positive correlation of sexual harassment with depression, anxiety, stress and combined effect of them (DASS) was found. Multiple regression analysis showed sexual harassment as significant predictor of depression (β= 0.47, p Sexual harassment was found to be a predictor of negative mental health in the form of depression, anxiety and stress in nurses of public hospitals.
Oneglia, Stewart B.; Cornelius, Susan French
The Equal Employment Opportunity Commission's new guidelines, although untested in court, are consistent with prior Title VII case law in the areas of racial harassment and employer liability and more expansive though consistent with existing sexual harassment case law. They should also establish some specificity in the parameters of sexual…
Maintains that, on the 75th anniversary of women's suffrage, significant advances in the legal status, achievements, and opportunities for women have been made. Contends, however, that sexual harassment is still widespread in the nation's schools. Includes six charts defining and describing forms of sexual harassment. (CFR)
Sun-Kyoung Lee, PhD, RN
Conclusion: Education program is needed to prevent sexual harassment and enhance the gender sensitivity of nursing students, who are in the high-risk group of sexual harassment during clinical practice. This will in turn contribute to a safe educational environment for clinical practice.