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Sample records for incidental encoding task

  1. Imbalance of incidental encoding across tasks: an explanation for non-memory-related hippocampal activations?

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    Reas, Emilie T; Brewer, James B

    2013-11-01

    Functional neuroimaging studies have increasingly noted hippocampal activation associated with a variety of cognitive functions--such as decision making, attention, perception, incidental learning, prediction, and working memory--that have little apparent relation to declarative memory. Such findings might be difficult to reconcile with classical hippocampal lesion studies that show remarkable sparing of cognitive functions outside the realm of declarative memory. Even the oft-reported hippocampal activations during confident episodic retrieval are not entirely congruent with evidence that hippocampal lesions reliably impair encoding but inconsistently affect retrieval. Here we explore the conditions under which the hippocampus responds during episodic recall and recognition. Our findings suggest that anterior hippocampal activity may be related to the imbalance of incidental encoding across tasks and conditions rather than due to retrieval per se. Incidental encoding and hippocampal activity may be reduced during conditions where retrieval requires greater attentional engagement. During retrieval, anterior hippocampal activity decreases with increasing search duration and retrieval effort, and this deactivation corresponds with a coincident impaired encoding of the external environment (Israel, Seibert, Black, & Brewer, 2010; Reas & Brewer, 2013; Reas, Gimbel, Hales, & Brewer, 2011). In light of this emerging evidence, we discuss the proposal that some hippocampal activity observed during memory retrieval, or other non-memory conditions, may in fact be attributable to concomitant encoding activity that is regulated by the attentional demands of the principal task. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  2. Imbalance of incidental encoding across tasks: An explanation for non-memory-related hippocampal activations?

    OpenAIRE

    Reas, Emilie T.; Brewer, James B.

    2013-01-01

    Functional neuroimaging studies have increasingly noted hippocampal activation associated with a variety of cognitive functions such as decision-making, attention, perception, incidental learning, prediction and working memory, which have little apparent relation to declarative memory. Such findings might be difficult to reconcile with classical hippocampal lesion studies that show remarkable sparing of cognitive functions outside the realm of declarative memory. Even the oft-reported hippoca...

  3. The effects of divided attention on encoding processes under incidental and intentional learning instructions: underlying mechanisms?

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    Naveh-Benjamin, Moshe; Guez, Jonathan; Hara, Yoko; Brubaker, Matthew S; Lowenschuss-Erlich, Iris

    2014-01-01

    Divided attention (DA) at encoding has been shown to significantly disrupt later memory for the studied information. However, what type of processing gets disrupted during DA remains unresolved. In this study, we assessed the degree to which strategic effortful processes are affected under DA by comparing the effects of DA at encoding under intentional and pure incidental learning instructions. In three experiments, participants studied list of words or word pairs under either full or divided attention. Results of three experiments, which used different methodologies, converged to show that the effects of DA at encoding reduce memory performance to the same degree under incidental and intentional learning. Secondary task performance indicated that encoding under intentional learning instructions was more effortful than under incidental learning instructions. In addition, the results indicated enhanced attention to the initial appearance of the words under both types of learning instructions. Results are interpreted to imply that other processes, rather than only strategic effortful ones, might be affected by DA at encoding.

  4. Task type and incidental L2 vocabulary learning: Repetition versus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the effect of task type on incidental L2 vocabulary learning. The different tasks investigated in this study differed in terms of repetition of encounters and task involvement load. In a within-subjects design, 72 Iranian learners of English practised 18 target words in three exercise conditions: three ...

  5. Cingulo-opercular activity affects incidental memory encoding for speech in noise.

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    Vaden, Kenneth I; Teubner-Rhodes, Susan; Ahlstrom, Jayne B; Dubno, Judy R; Eckert, Mark A

    2017-08-15

    Correctly understood speech in difficult listening conditions is often difficult to remember. A long-standing hypothesis for this observation is that the engagement of cognitive resources to aid speech understanding can limit resources available for memory encoding. This hypothesis is consistent with evidence that speech presented in difficult conditions typically elicits greater activity throughout cingulo-opercular regions of frontal cortex that are proposed to optimize task performance through adaptive control of behavior and tonic attention. However, successful memory encoding of items for delayed recognition memory tasks is consistently associated with increased cingulo-opercular activity when perceptual difficulty is minimized. The current study used a delayed recognition memory task to test competing predictions that memory encoding for words is enhanced or limited by the engagement of cingulo-opercular activity during challenging listening conditions. An fMRI experiment was conducted with twenty healthy adult participants who performed a word identification in noise task that was immediately followed by a delayed recognition memory task. Consistent with previous findings, word identification trials in the poorer signal-to-noise ratio condition were associated with increased cingulo-opercular activity and poorer recognition memory scores on average. However, cingulo-opercular activity decreased for correctly identified words in noise that were not recognized in the delayed memory test. These results suggest that memory encoding in difficult listening conditions is poorer when elevated cingulo-opercular activity is not sustained. Although increased attention to speech when presented in difficult conditions may detract from more active forms of memory maintenance (e.g., sub-vocal rehearsal), we conclude that task performance monitoring and/or elevated tonic attention supports incidental memory encoding in challenging listening conditions. Copyright © 2017

  6. Led into temptation? Rewarding brand logos bias the neural encoding of incidental economic decisions.

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    Carsten Murawski

    Full Text Available Human decision-making is driven by subjective values assigned to alternative choice options. These valuations are based on reward cues. It is unknown, however, whether complex reward cues, such as brand logos, may bias the neural encoding of subjective value in unrelated decisions. In this functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI study, we subliminally presented brand logos preceding intertemporal choices. We demonstrated that priming biased participants' preferences towards more immediate rewards in the subsequent temporal discounting task. This was associated with modulations of the neural encoding of subjective values of choice options in a network of brain regions, including but not restricted to medial prefrontal cortex. Our findings demonstrate the general susceptibility of the human decision making system to apparently incidental contextual information. We conclude that the brain incorporates seemingly unrelated value information that modifies decision making outside the decision-maker's awareness.

  7. Led into temptation? Rewarding brand logos bias the neural encoding of incidental economic decisions.

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    Murawski, Carsten; Harris, Philip G; Bode, Stefan; Domínguez D, Juan F; Egan, Gary F

    2012-01-01

    Human decision-making is driven by subjective values assigned to alternative choice options. These valuations are based on reward cues. It is unknown, however, whether complex reward cues, such as brand logos, may bias the neural encoding of subjective value in unrelated decisions. In this functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, we subliminally presented brand logos preceding intertemporal choices. We demonstrated that priming biased participants' preferences towards more immediate rewards in the subsequent temporal discounting task. This was associated with modulations of the neural encoding of subjective values of choice options in a network of brain regions, including but not restricted to medial prefrontal cortex. Our findings demonstrate the general susceptibility of the human decision making system to apparently incidental contextual information. We conclude that the brain incorporates seemingly unrelated value information that modifies decision making outside the decision-maker's awareness.

  8. Use of incidentally encoded memory from a single experience in cats.

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    Takagi, Saho; Tsuzuki, Mana; Chijiiwa, Hitomi; Arahori, Minori; Watanabe, Arii; Saito, Atsuko; Fujita, Kazuo

    2017-08-01

    We examined whether cats could retrieve and utilize incidentally encoded information from a single past event in a simple food-exploration task previously used for dogs (Fujita et al., 2012). In Experiment 1, cats were led to four open, baited containers and allowed to eat from two of them (Exposure phase). After a 15-min delay during which the cats were absent and all containers were replaced with empty ones, the cats were unexpectedly returned to the room and allowed to explore the containers (Test phase). Although the cats' first choice of container to visit was random, they explored containers from which they had not previously eaten for longer than those from which they did previously eat. In the Exposure phase of Experiment 2, two containers held food, one held a nonedible object, and the fourth was empty. Cats were allowed to eat from one of them. In the post-delay Test phase, the cats first visited the remaining baited-uneaten container significantly more often than chance and they spent more time exploring this container. Because the cats' behavior in the Test phase cannot be explained by association of the container with a pleasant experience (eating), the results suggest that cats retrieved and utilized "what" and "where" information from an incidentally encoded memory from a single experience. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. The effect of encoding condition on free recall in Parkinson's disease: incidental and intentional memory are equally affected.

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    Ellfolk, Ulla; Huurinainen, Salla; Joutsa, Juho; Karrasch, Mira

    2012-01-01

    Free recall memory deficits are common at early stages of Parkinson's disease (PD). As most studies have used intentional memory tasks, there is little information on how non-intentional, incidental encoding conditions affect memory performance in PD. We studied possible differences between PD patients and controls on free recall using incidental and intentional visual memory tasks. Free recall was examined in relation to attentive/executive functioning and subjective memory complaints. A total of 29 non-demented, medicated PD patients (age 60, disease duration 19 months) and 29 healthy controls (age 61) participated in the study. Incidental free recall was studied using a memory-modification of the Boston naming test (Memo-BNT) and intentional free recall with the 20 Objects test. There was a significant main effect for group due to worse free recall performances in the PD group. No statistically significant interaction between group and encoding condition was observed. The free recall deficit in the PD group was related to cognitive/psychomotor slowing, but not to attentive/executive task demands, or to subjective memory complaints. The results indicate that PD patients are impaired on free recall irrespective of encoding condition.

  10. Modulating the Focus of Attention for Spoken Words at Encoding Affects Frontoparietal Activation for Incidental Verbal Memory

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    Thomas A. Christensen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Attention is crucial for encoding information into memory, and current dual-process models seek to explain the roles of attention in both recollection memory and incidental-perceptual memory processes. The present study combined an incidental memory paradigm with event-related functional MRI to examine the effect of attention at encoding on the subsequent neural activation associated with unintended perceptual memory for spoken words. At encoding, we systematically varied attention levels as listeners heard a list of single English nouns. We then presented these words again in the context of a recognition task and assessed the effect of modulating attention at encoding on the BOLD responses to words that were either attended strongly, weakly, or not heard previously. MRI revealed activity in right-lateralized inferior parietal and prefrontal regions, and positive BOLD signals varied with the relative level of attention present at encoding. Temporal analysis of hemodynamic responses further showed that the time course of BOLD activity was modulated differentially by unintentionally encoded words compared to novel items. Our findings largely support current models of memory consolidation and retrieval, but they also provide fresh evidence for hemispheric differences and functional subdivisions in right frontoparietal attention networks that help shape auditory episodic recall.

  11. Modulating the focus of attention for spoken words at encoding affects frontoparietal activation for incidental verbal memory.

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    Christensen, Thomas A; Almryde, Kyle R; Fidler, Lesley J; Lockwood, Julie L; Antonucci, Sharon M; Plante, Elena

    2012-01-01

    Attention is crucial for encoding information into memory, and current dual-process models seek to explain the roles of attention in both recollection memory and incidental-perceptual memory processes. The present study combined an incidental memory paradigm with event-related functional MRI to examine the effect of attention at encoding on the subsequent neural activation associated with unintended perceptual memory for spoken words. At encoding, we systematically varied attention levels as listeners heard a list of single English nouns. We then presented these words again in the context of a recognition task and assessed the effect of modulating attention at encoding on the BOLD responses to words that were either attended strongly, weakly, or not heard previously. MRI revealed activity in right-lateralized inferior parietal and prefrontal regions, and positive BOLD signals varied with the relative level of attention present at encoding. Temporal analysis of hemodynamic responses further showed that the time course of BOLD activity was modulated differentially by unintentionally encoded words compared to novel items. Our findings largely support current models of memory consolidation and retrieval, but they also provide fresh evidence for hemispheric differences and functional subdivisions in right frontoparietal attention networks that help shape auditory episodic recall.

  12. A Review of Effect of Different Tasks on Incidental Vocabulary Acquisition

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    Liu, Chen L.

    2015-01-01

    Studies of incidental vocabulary acquisition in second language learning have got more and more attention both at home and abroad. By first introducing the definition and theoretical foundations of incidental vocabulary acquisition, this paper reviews empirical studies of effect of different tasks on incidental vocabulary acquisition and points…

  13. Modulating the Focus of Attention for Spoken Words at Encoding Affects Frontoparietal Activation for Incidental Verbal Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Christensen, Thomas A.; Almryde, Kyle R.; Fidler, Lesley J.; Lockwood, Julie L.; Antonucci, Sharon M.; Plante, Elena

    2012-01-01

    Attention is crucial for encoding information into memory, and current dual-process models seek to explain the roles of attention in both recollection memory and incidental-perceptual memory processes. The present study combined an incidental memory paradigm with event-related functional MRI to examine the effect of attention at encoding on the subsequent neural activation associated with unintended perceptual memory for spoken words. At encoding, we systematically varied attention levels as ...

  14. The effect of encoding conditions on learning in the prototype distortion task.

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    Lee, Jessica C; Livesey, Evan J

    2017-06-01

    The prototype distortion task demonstrates that it is possible to learn about a category of physically similar stimuli through mere observation. However, there have been few attempts to test whether different encoding conditions affect learning in this task. This study compared prototypicality gradients produced under incidental learning conditions in which participants performed a visual search task, with those produced under intentional learning conditions in which participants were required to memorize the stimuli. Experiment 1 showed that similar prototypicality gradients could be obtained for category endorsement and familiarity ratings, but also found (weaker) prototypicality gradients in the absence of exposure. In Experiments 2 and 3, memorization was found to strengthen prototypicality gradients in familiarity ratings in comparison to visual search, but there were no group differences in participants' ability to discriminate between novel and presented exemplars. Although the Search groups in Experiments 2 and 3 produced prototypicality gradients, they were no different in magnitude to those produced in the absence of stimulus exposure in Experiment 1, suggesting that incidental learning during visual search was not conducive to producing prototypicality gradients. This study suggests that learning in the prototype distortion task is not implicit in the sense of resulting automatically from exposure, is affected by the nature of encoding, and should be considered in light of potential learning-at-test effects.

  15. Associative false consumer memory: effects of need for cognition and encoding task.

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    Parker, Andrew; Dagnall, Neil

    2018-04-01

    Two experiments investigated the effects of product-attribute associations on false consumer memory. In both experiments, subjects were presented with sets of related product attributes under incidental encoding conditions. Later, recognition memory was tested with studied attributes, non-studied but associated attributes (critical lures) and non-studied unrelated attributes. In Experiment 1, the effect of Need for Cognition (NFC) was assessed. It was found that individuals high in NFC recognised more presented attributes and falsely recognised more associative critical lures. The increase in both true and associative false memory was accompanied by a greater number of responses that index the retrieval of detailed episodic-like information. Experiment 2, replicated the main findings through an experimental manipulation of the encoding task that required subjects to consider purchase likelihood. Explanations for these findings are considered from the perspective of activation processes and knowledge structures in the form of gist-based representations.

  16. Incidental orthographic learning during a color detection task.

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    Protopapas, Athanassios; Mitsi, Anna; Koustoumbardis, Miltiadis; Tsitsopoulou, Sofia M; Leventi, Marianna; Seitz, Aaron R

    2017-09-01

    Orthographic learning refers to the acquisition of knowledge about specific spelling patterns forming words and about general biases and constraints on letter sequences. It is thought to occur by strengthening simultaneously activated visual and phonological representations during reading. Here we demonstrate that a visual perceptual learning procedure that leaves no time for articulation can result in orthographic learning evidenced in improved reading and spelling performance. We employed task-irrelevant perceptual learning (TIPL), in which the stimuli to be learned are paired with an easy task target. Assorted line drawings and difficult-to-spell words were presented in red color among sequences of other black-colored words and images presented in rapid succession, constituting a fast-TIPL procedure with color detection being the explicit task. In five experiments, Greek children in Grades 4-5 showed increased recognition of words and images that had appeared in red, both during and after the training procedure, regardless of within-training testing, and also when targets appeared in blue instead of red. Significant transfer to reading and spelling emerged only after increased training intensity. In a sixth experiment, children in Grades 2-3 showed generalization to words not presented during training that carried the same derivational affixes as in the training set. We suggest that reinforcement signals related to detection of the target stimuli contribute to the strengthening of orthography-phonology connections beyond earlier levels of visually-based orthographic representation learning. These results highlight the potential of perceptual learning procedures for the reinforcement of higher-level orthographic representations. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Task-based incidental vocabulary learning in L2 Arabic: The role of proficiency and task performance

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    Ayman A. Mohamed

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study tests the claim that word learning in a second language are contingent upon a task’s involvement load (i.e. the amount of need, search, and evaluation it imposes, as proposed by Laufer and Hulstijn (2001. Fifty-three English-speaking learners of Arabic were assigned to one of three vocabulary learning tasks that varied in the degree of involvement: reading comprehension with glosses (low, fill-in-the-gap task (medium, and sentence writing (high. Ten words, selected based on a pretest, were targeted in the tasks. Results showed a main effect of task, with the sentence writing task yielding the highest rates of vocabulary learning, followed by the gap-fill task, and finally the reading comprehension task. A significant correlation was found between accuracy of performance across participants and their subsequent vocabulary acquisition in the immediate posttest. Within groups, only the performance of the writing group correlated significantly with their posttest scores. Results of the present study validate the hypothesis and point to multiple factors at play in incidental vocabulary acquisition. The study provides further arguments to refine the hypothesis and implement pedagogical practices that accommodate incidental learning in foreign language settings.

  18. The Effect of Task-based Teaching on Incidental Vocabulary Learning in English for Specific Purposes

    OpenAIRE

    FALLAHRAFIE, Zahra; RAHMANY, Ramin; SADEGHI, Bahador

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. Learning vocabulary is an essential part of language learning linking the four skills of speaking, listening, reading and writing together. This paper considers the incidental vocabulary teaching and learning within the framework of task-based activities in the hope of improving learners’ vocabulary acquiring in English for Specific Purposes courses (ESP), concentrating on Mechanical Engineering students at Islamic Azad University of Hashtgerd, Iran. A total number of 55 male and fe...

  19. Recall of Others' Actions after Incidental Encoding Reveals Episodic-like Memory in Dogs.

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    Fugazza, Claudia; Pogány, Ákos; Miklósi, Ádám

    2016-12-05

    The existence of episodic memory in non-human animals is a debated topic that has been investigated using different methodologies that reflect diverse theoretical approaches to its definition. A fundamental feature of episodic memory is recalling after incidental encoding, which can be assessed if the recall test is unexpected [1]. We used a modified version of the "Do as I Do" method [2], relying on dogs' ability to imitate human actions, to test whether dogs can rely on episodic memory when recalling others' actions from the past. Dogs were first trained to imitate human actions on command. Next, they were trained to perform a simple training exercise (lying down), irrespective of the previously demonstrated action. This way, we substituted their expectation to be required to imitate with the expectation to be required to lie down. We then tested whether dogs recalled the demonstrated actions by unexpectedly giving them the command to imitate, instead of lying down. Dogs were tested with a short (1 min) and a long (1 hr) retention interval. They were able to recall the demonstrated actions after both intervals; however, their performance declined more with time compared to conditions in which imitation was expected. These findings show that dogs recall past events as complex as human actions even if they do not expect the memory test, providing evidence for episodic-like memory. Dogs offer an ideal model to study episodic memory in non-human species, and this methodological approach allows investigating memory of complex, context-rich events. VIDEO ABSTRACT. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Task-selective memory effects for successfully implemented encoding strategies.

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    Leshikar, Eric D; Duarte, Audrey; Hertzog, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    Previous behavioral evidence suggests that instructed strategy use benefits associative memory formation in paired associate tasks. Two such effective encoding strategies--visual imagery and sentence generation--facilitate memory through the production of different types of mediators (e.g., mental images and sentences). Neuroimaging evidence suggests that regions of the brain support memory reflecting the mental operations engaged at the time of study. That work, however, has not taken into account self-reported encoding task success (i.e., whether participants successfully generated a mediator). It is unknown, therefore, whether task-selective memory effects specific to each strategy might be found when encoding strategies are successfully implemented. In this experiment, participants studied pairs of abstract nouns under either visual imagery or sentence generation encoding instructions. At the time of study, participants reported their success at generating a mediator. Outside of the scanner, participants further reported the quality of the generated mediator (e.g., images, sentences) for each word pair. We observed task-selective memory effects for visual imagery in the left middle occipital gyrus, the left precuneus, and the lingual gyrus. No such task-selective effects were observed for sentence generation. Intriguingly, activity at the time of study in the left precuneus was modulated by the self-reported quality (vividness) of the generated mental images with greater activity for trials given higher ratings of quality. These data suggest that regions of the brain support memory in accord with the encoding operations engaged at the time of study.

  1. Task-selective memory effects for successfully implemented encoding strategies.

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    Eric D Leshikar

    Full Text Available Previous behavioral evidence suggests that instructed strategy use benefits associative memory formation in paired associate tasks. Two such effective encoding strategies--visual imagery and sentence generation--facilitate memory through the production of different types of mediators (e.g., mental images and sentences. Neuroimaging evidence suggests that regions of the brain support memory reflecting the mental operations engaged at the time of study. That work, however, has not taken into account self-reported encoding task success (i.e., whether participants successfully generated a mediator. It is unknown, therefore, whether task-selective memory effects specific to each strategy might be found when encoding strategies are successfully implemented. In this experiment, participants studied pairs of abstract nouns under either visual imagery or sentence generation encoding instructions. At the time of study, participants reported their success at generating a mediator. Outside of the scanner, participants further reported the quality of the generated mediator (e.g., images, sentences for each word pair. We observed task-selective memory effects for visual imagery in the left middle occipital gyrus, the left precuneus, and the lingual gyrus. No such task-selective effects were observed for sentence generation. Intriguingly, activity at the time of study in the left precuneus was modulated by the self-reported quality (vividness of the generated mental images with greater activity for trials given higher ratings of quality. These data suggest that regions of the brain support memory in accord with the encoding operations engaged at the time of study.

  2. Alpha Oscillations during Incidental Encoding Predict Subsequent Memory for New "Foil" Information.

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    Vogelsang, David A; Gruber, Matthias; Bergström, Zara M; Ranganath, Charan; Simons, Jon S

    2018-05-01

    People can employ adaptive strategies to increase the likelihood that previously encoded information will be successfully retrieved. One such strategy is to constrain retrieval toward relevant information by reimplementing the neurocognitive processes that were engaged during encoding. Using EEG, we examined the temporal dynamics with which constraining retrieval toward semantic versus nonsemantic information affects the processing of new "foil" information encountered during a memory test. Time-frequency analysis of EEG data acquired during an initial study phase revealed that semantic compared with nonsemantic processing was associated with alpha decreases in a left frontal electrode cluster from around 600 msec after stimulus onset. Successful encoding of semantic versus nonsemantic foils during a subsequent memory test was related to decreases in alpha oscillatory activity in the same left frontal electrode cluster, which emerged relatively late in the trial at around 1000-1600 msec after stimulus onset. Across participants, left frontal alpha power elicited by semantic processing during the study phase correlated significantly with left frontal alpha power associated with semantic foil encoding during the memory test. Furthermore, larger left frontal alpha power decreases elicited by semantic foil encoding during the memory test predicted better subsequent semantic foil recognition in an additional surprise foil memory test, although this effect did not reach significance. These findings indicate that constraining retrieval toward semantic information involves reimplementing semantic encoding operations that are mediated by alpha oscillations and that such reimplementation occurs at a late stage of memory retrieval, perhaps reflecting additional monitoring processes.

  3. Stimulus Similarity and Encoding Time Influence Incidental Recognition Memory in Adult Monkeys with Selective Hippocampal Lesions

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    Zeamer, Alyson; Meunier, Martine; Bachevalier, Jocelyne

    2011-01-01

    Recognition memory impairment after selective hippocampal lesions in monkeys is more profound when measured with visual paired-comparison (VPC) than with delayed nonmatching-to-sample (DNMS). To clarify this issue, we assessed the impact of stimuli similarity and encoding duration on the VPC performance in monkeys with hippocampal lesions and…

  4. Enhanced recognition memory after incidental encoding in children with developmental dyslexia.

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    Martina Hedenius

    Full Text Available Developmental dyslexia (DD has previously been associated with a number of cognitive deficits. Little attention has been directed to cognitive functions that remain intact in the disorder, though the investigation and identification of such strengths might be useful for developing new, and improving current, therapeutical interventions. In this study, an old/new recognition memory paradigm was used to examine previously untested aspects of declarative memory in children with DD and typically developing control children. The DD group was not only not impaired at the task, but actually showed superior recognition memory, as compared to the control children. These findings complement previous reports of enhanced cognition in other domains (e.g., visuo-spatial processing in DD. Possible underlying mechanisms for the observed DD advantage in declarative memory, and the possibility of compensation by this system for reading deficits in dyslexia, are discussed.

  5. Incidental encoding of emotional pictures: affective bias studied through event related brain potentials.

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    Tapia, Manuel; Carretié, Luis; Sierra, Benjamín; Mercado, Francisco

    2008-06-01

    Emotional stimuli are better remembered than neutral stimuli. Most of the studies taking into account this emotional bias refer to explicit memory, use behavioral measures of the recall and predict better recall of negative stimuli. The few studies taking into account implicit memory and the valence emotional dimension are inconclusive on the effect of the stimulus' emotional valence. In the present study, 120 pictures (30 positive, 30 negative, 30 relaxing and 30 neutral) were shown to, and assessed by, 28 participants (study phase). Subsequently, event related brain potentials (ERPs) were recorded during the presentation of 120 new (shown for the first time) and 120 old (already shown in the study phase) pictures (test phase). No explicit instructions or clues related to recovery were given to participants, and a distractor task was employed, in order to maintain implicit the memory assessment. As expected from other studies' data, our results showed that old stimuli elicited an enhanced late positive component 450 ms after stimulus onset (repetition effect). Moreover, this effect was modulated by the stimuli's emotional valence, since the most positively valenced stimuli were associated with a decreased repetition effect with respect to the most negatively valenced stimuli. This effect was located at ventromedial prefrontal cortex. These results suggest the existence of a valence-mediated bias in implicit memory.

  6. Trial-by-trial adjustments in control triggered by incidentally encoded semantic cues.

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    Blais, Chris; Harris, Michael B; Sinanian, Michael H; Bunge, Silvia A

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive control mechanisms provide the flexibility to rapidly adapt to contextual demands. These contexts can be defined by top-down goals-but also by bottom-up perceptual factors, such as the location at which a visual stimulus appears. There are now several experiments reporting contextual control effects. Such experiments establish that contexts defined by low-level perceptual cues such as the location of a visual stimulus can lead to context-specific control, suggesting a relatively early focus for cognitive control. The current set of experiments involved a word-word interference task designed to assess whether a high-level cue, the semantic category to which a word belongs, can also facilitate contextual control. Indeed, participants exhibit a larger Flanker effect to items pertaining to a semantic category in which 75% of stimuli are incongruent than in response to items pertaining to a category in which 25% of stimuli are incongruent. Thus, both low-level and high-level stimulus features can affect the bottom-up engagement of cognitive control. The implications for current models of cognitive control are discussed.

  7. The Effect of Using Online Collaborative Tasks on Incidental Vocabulary Learning of Impulsive vs. Reflective Iranian EFL Learners

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    Khalil Motallebzadeh

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Incidental vocabulary learning is one of the most significant sources of learning vocabulary for language learners Laufer  & Hulstjin, 2001. This study endeavored to investigate the effect of using online collaborative tasks on incidental vocabulary learning of impulsive vs. reflective Iranian EFL learners. To this end, Nelson vocabulary proficiency test was administered to 100 Iranian EFL learners as the homogeneity test and the pretest. Using random sampling procedure, 75 learners were selected as the main participants for this study. Kember, McKay, Sinclair and Wong (2008 reflective thinking questionnaire was administered to these learners, based on which they were distinguished based on their cognitive thinking styles, i.e., impulsivity and reflectivity. The participants were homogenously distributed into 3 main groups (impulsive experimental group, reflective experimental group, and the control group. All participants went through 4 weeks of treatment. Experimental groups were conducted using Telegram software and the control group was conducted in a classroom. The results of t-test after 4 weeks of treatment revealed that reflective learners benefited from online collaborative groups with regard to incidental vocabulary learning. The findings of the study are discussed in light of previous research.

  8. Distinctiveness of Encoding and Memory for Learning Tasks.

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    Glover, John A.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    A distinctiveness of encoding hypothesis, as applied to the facilitative effects that higher order objectives have on readers' prose recall, was evaluated in three experiments. Results suggest that distinctiveness of encoding may offer a theoretical basis for the effects of adjunct aids as well as a guide to their construction. (Author/GK)

  9. Incidental Learning of Rewarded Associations Bolsters Learning on an Associative Task

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    Freedberg, Michael; Schacherer, Jonathan; Hazeltine, Eliot

    2016-01-01

    Reward has been shown to change behavior as a result of incentive learning (by motivating the individual to increase their effort) and instrumental learning (by increasing the frequency of a particular behavior). However, Palminteri et al. (2011) demonstrated that reward can also improve the incidental learning of a motor skill even when…

  10. Evidence for the Task-Induced Involvement Construct in Incidental Vocabulary Acquisition through Digital Gaming

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    Reynolds, Barry Lee

    2017-01-01

    This article reports on an investigation of the suitability of mobile vocabulary games for inducing a state of incidental vocabulary acquisition. Draw Something, a social digital drawing game in which players draw and guess words, was selected as a focus for this investigation. Results from an exploratory factor analysis of the questionnaire data…

  11. Perceptual and Conceptual Priming of Cue Encoding in Task Switching

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    Schneider, Darryl W.

    2016-01-01

    Transition effects in task-cuing experiments can be partitioned into task switching and cue repetition effects by using multiple cues per task. In the present study, the author shows that cue repetition effects can be partitioned into perceptual and conceptual priming effects. In 2 experiments, letters or numbers in their uppercase/lowercase or…

  12. Task relevant variables are encoded in OFC neurons

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    Ramon Nogueira

    2015-04-01

    Our results demonstrate that OFC in rats might not only be involved in reward processing but it also conveys a wide variety of task relevant variables. Our hypothesis is that OFC acts as a hub for complex decision-making tasks where all possible information is processed and conveyed to other brain regions responsible for decision execution.

  13. Memory for Emotional Words in the First and the Second Language: Effects of the Encoding Task

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    Ferre, Pilar; Sanchez-Casas, Rosa; Fraga, Isabel

    2013-01-01

    Emotional words are better remembered than neutral words in the first language. Ferre, Garcia, Fraga, Sanchez-Casas and Molero (2010) found this emotional effect also for second language words by using an encoding task focused on emotionality. The aim of the present study was to test whether the same effect can also be observed with encoding tasks…

  14. An experimental examination of catastrophizing-related interpretation bias for ambiguous facial expressions of pain using an incidental learning task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali eKHATIBI

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Individuals with pain-related concerns are likely to interpret ambiguous pain-related information in a threatening manner. It is unknown whether this interpretation bias also occurs for ambiguous pain-related facial expressions. This study examined whether individuals who habitually attach a catastrophic meaning to pain are characterized by negative interpretation bias for ambiguous pain-related facial expressions. Sixty-four female undergraduates completed an incidental learning task during which pictures of faces were presented, each followed by a visual target at one of two locations. Participants indicated target location by pressing one of two response keys. During the learning phase, happy and painful facial expressions predicted target location. During two test phases, morphed facial expressions of pain and happiness were added, equally often followed by a target at either location. Faster responses following morphs to targets at the location predicted by painful expressions compared to targets at the location predicted by happy expressions were taken to reflect pain-related interpretation bias. During one test phase, faces were preceded by either a safe or threatening context cue. High, but not low, pain-catastrophizers responded faster following morphs to targets at the location predicted by painful expressions than to targets at the other location (when participants were aware of the contingency between expression type and target location. When context cues were presented, there was no indication of interpretation bias. Participants were also asked to directly classify the facial expressions that were presented during the incidental learning task. Participants classified morphs more often as happy than as painful, independent of their level of pain catastrophizing. This observation is discussed in terms of differences between indirect and direct measures of interpretation bias.

  15. Non-interfering effects of active post-encoding tasks on episodic memory consolidation in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Varma, S.; Takashima, A.; Krewinkel, S.C.; Kooten, M.E. van; Fu, L.; Medendorp, W.P.; Kessels, R.P.C.; Daselaar, S.M.

    2017-01-01

    So far, studies that investigated interference effects of post-learning processes on episodic memory consolidation in humans have only used tasks involving complex and meaningful information. Such tasks require reallocation of general or encoding-specific resources away from consolidation-relevant

  16. Enabling task-based information prioritization via semantic web encodings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaelis, James R.

    2016-05-01

    Modern Soldiers rely upon accurate and actionable information technology to achieve mission objectives. While increasingly rich sensor networks for Areas of Operation (AO) can offer many directions for aiding Soldiers, limitations are imposed by current tactical edge systems on the rate that content can be transmitted. Furthermore, mission tasks will often require very specific sets of information which may easily be drowned out by other content sources. Prior research on Quality and Value of Information (QoI/VoI) has aimed to define ways to prioritize information objects based on their intrinsic attributes (QoI) and perceived value to a consumer (VoI). As part of this effort, established ranking approaches for obtaining Subject Matter Expert (SME) recommendations, such as the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) have been considered. However, limited work has been done to tie Soldier context - such as descriptions of their mission and tasks - back to intrinsic attributes of information objects. As a first step toward addressing the above challenges, this work introduces an ontology-backed approach - rooted in Semantic Web publication practices - for expressing both AHP decision hierarchies and corresponding SME feedback. Following a short discussion on related QoI/VoI research, an ontology-based data structure is introduced for supporting evaluation of Information Objects, using AHP rankings designed to facilitate information object prioritization. Consistent with alternate AHP approaches, prioritization in this approach is based on pairwise comparisons between Information Objects with respect to established criteria, as well as on pairwise comparison of the criteria to assess their relative importance. The paper concludes with a discussion of both ongoing and future work.

  17. Non-Interfering Effects of Active Post-Encoding Tasks on Episodic Memory Consolidation in Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varma, Samarth; Takashima, Atsuko; Krewinkel, Sander; van Kooten, Maaike; Fu, Lily; Medendorp, W Pieter; Kessels, Roy P C; Daselaar, Sander M

    2017-01-01

    So far, studies that investigated interference effects of post-learning processes on episodic memory consolidation in humans have used tasks involving only complex and meaningful information. Such tasks require reallocation of general or encoding-specific resources away from consolidation-relevant activities. The possibility that interference can be elicited using a task that heavily taxes our limited brain resources, but has low semantic and hippocampal related long-term memory processing demands, has never been tested. We address this question by investigating whether consolidation could persist in parallel with an active, encoding-irrelevant, minimally semantic task, regardless of its high resource demands for cognitive processing. We distinguish the impact of such a task on consolidation based on whether it engages resources that are: (1) general/executive, or (2) specific/overlapping with the encoding modality. Our experiments compared subsequent memory performance across two post-encoding consolidation periods: quiet wakeful rest and a cognitively demanding n-Back task. Across six different experiments (total N = 176), we carefully manipulated the design of the n-Back task to target general or specific resources engaged in the ongoing consolidation process. In contrast to previous studies that employed interference tasks involving conceptual stimuli and complex processing demands, we did not find any differences between n-Back and rest conditions on memory performance at delayed test, using both recall and recognition tests. Our results indicate that: (1) quiet, wakeful rest is not a necessary prerequisite for episodic memory consolidation; and (2) post-encoding cognitive engagement does not interfere with memory consolidation when task-performance has minimal semantic and hippocampally-based episodic memory processing demands. We discuss our findings with reference to resource and reactivation-led interference theories.

  18. Incidental Vocabulary Acquisition: The Effects of Task Type, Word Occurrence and Their Combination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laufer, Batia; Rozovski-Roitblat, Bella

    2011-01-01

    We investigated how long-term retention of new words was affected by task type, number of word occurrences in the teaching materials and the combination of the two factors. The tasks were: reading a text with occasional Focus on Form when learners used dictionaries (T+F), or reading a text with Focus on Forms, i.e. word focused exercises (T+Fs).…

  19. Implementation-intention encoding in a prospective memory task enhances spontaneous retrieval of intentions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rummel, Jan; Einstein, Gilles O; Rampey, Hilary

    2012-01-01

    Although forming implementation intentions (Gollwitzer, 1999) has been demonstrated to generally improve prospective memory, the underlying cognitive mechanisms are not completely understood. It has been proposed that implementation-intention encoding encourages spontaneous retrieval (McDaniel & Scullin, 2010). Alternatively one could assume the positive effect of implementation-intention encoding is caused by increased or more efficient monitoring for target cues. To test these alternative explanations and to further investigate the cognitive mechanisms underlying implementation-intention benefits, in two experiments participants formed the intention to respond to specific target cues in a lexical decision task with a special key, but then had to suspend this intention during an intervening word-categorisation task. Response times on trials directly following the occurrence of target cues in the intervening task were significantly slower with implementation-intention encoding than with standard encoding, indicating that spontaneous retrieval was increased (Experiment 1). However, when activation of the target cues was controlled for, similar slowing was found with both standard and implementation-intention encoding (Experiment 2). The results imply that implementation-intention encoding as well as increased target-cue activation foster spontaneous retrieval processes.

  20. Memory for emotional words: The role of semantic relatedness, encoding task and affective valence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferré, Pilar; Fraga, Isabel; Comesaña, Montserrat; Sánchez-Casas, Rosa

    2015-01-01

    Emotional stimuli have been repeatedly demonstrated to be better remembered than neutral ones. The aim of the present study was to test whether this advantage in memory is mainly produced by the affective content of the stimuli or it can be rather accounted for by factors such as semantic relatedness or type of encoding task. The valence of the stimuli (positive, negative and neutral words that could be either semantically related or unrelated) as well as the type of encoding task (focused on either familiarity or emotionality) was manipulated. The results revealed an advantage in memory for emotional words (either positive or negative) regardless of semantic relatedness. Importantly, this advantage was modulated by the encoding task, as it was reliable only in the task which focused on emotionality. These findings suggest that congruity with the dimension attended at encoding might contribute to the superiority in memory for emotional words, thus offering us a more complex picture of the underlying mechanisms behind the advantage for emotional information in memory.

  1. The intersubject and intrasubject reproducibility of FMRI activation during three encoding tasks: implications for clinical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrington, Greg S. [Virginia Commonwealth University, Department of Radiology, Richmond, VA (United States); Tomaszewski Farias, Sarah [University of California at Davis, Department of Neurology, Sacramento (United States); Buonocore, Michael H. [University of California at Davis, Department of Radiology, Sacramento (United States); Yonelinas, Andrew P. [University of California at Davis, Department of Psychology, Davis (United States)

    2006-07-15

    The goal of the present study was to evaluate the inter- and intrasubject reproducibility of FMRI activation for three memory encoding tasks previously used in the context of presurgical functional mapping. The primary region of interest (ROI) was the medial temporal lobe (MTL). Comparative ROIs included the inferior frontal and fusiform gyri which are less affected by susceptibility-induced signal losses than the MTL regions. Eighteen subjects were scanned using three memory encoding paradigms: word-pair, pattern, and scene encoding. Nine subjects underwent repeat scanning. Intersubject reproducibility of FMRI activation was evaluated by examining the percent of subjects who showed activation within a given ROI and the range to which individual laterality indices (LIs) varied from the mean. Intrasubject test-retest reproducibility was evaluated by examining the LI test-retest correlation, the average difference between LIs from two separate imaging sessions, and concordance ratios of activation volumes (R{sub volume} and R{sub overlap}). For scene encoding the reproducibility of activation volume and LIs within the MTL were as good as or better than the reproducibility within the fusiform and inferior frontal ROIs. For pattern encoding and word-pair encoding, the reproducibility of activation volume and LIs within the MTL tended to be worse compared to the fusiform and inferior frontal ROIs. The differences in FMRI reproducibility appeared more dependent on the task than the susceptibility effects. The results of this study suggest that FMRI-based assessment of the neural substrates of memory using a scene encoding task may be a useful clinical tool. (orig.)

  2. The intersubject and intrasubject reproducibility of FMRI activation during three encoding tasks: implications for clinical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrington, Greg S.; Tomaszewski Farias, Sarah; Buonocore, Michael H.; Yonelinas, Andrew P.

    2006-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to evaluate the inter- and intrasubject reproducibility of FMRI activation for three memory encoding tasks previously used in the context of presurgical functional mapping. The primary region of interest (ROI) was the medial temporal lobe (MTL). Comparative ROIs included the inferior frontal and fusiform gyri which are less affected by susceptibility-induced signal losses than the MTL regions. Eighteen subjects were scanned using three memory encoding paradigms: word-pair, pattern, and scene encoding. Nine subjects underwent repeat scanning. Intersubject reproducibility of FMRI activation was evaluated by examining the percent of subjects who showed activation within a given ROI and the range to which individual laterality indices (LIs) varied from the mean. Intrasubject test-retest reproducibility was evaluated by examining the LI test-retest correlation, the average difference between LIs from two separate imaging sessions, and concordance ratios of activation volumes (R volume and R overlap ). For scene encoding the reproducibility of activation volume and LIs within the MTL were as good as or better than the reproducibility within the fusiform and inferior frontal ROIs. For pattern encoding and word-pair encoding, the reproducibility of activation volume and LIs within the MTL tended to be worse compared to the fusiform and inferior frontal ROIs. The differences in FMRI reproducibility appeared more dependent on the task than the susceptibility effects. The results of this study suggest that FMRI-based assessment of the neural substrates of memory using a scene encoding task may be a useful clinical tool. (orig.)

  3. All varieties of encoding variability are not created equal: Separating variable processing from variable tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huff, Mark J.; Bodner, Glen E.

    2014-01-01

    Whether encoding variability facilitates memory is shown to depend on whether item-specific and relational processing are both performed across study blocks, and whether study items are weakly versus strongly related. Variable-processing groups studied a word list once using an item-specific task and once using a relational task. Variable-task groups’ two different study tasks recruited the same type of processing each block. Repeated-task groups performed the same study task each block. Recall and recognition were greatest in the variable-processing group, but only with weakly related lists. A variable-processing benefit was also found when task-based processing and list-type processing were complementary (e.g., item-specific processing of a related list) rather than redundant (e.g., relational processing of a related list). That performing both item-specific and relational processing across trials, or within a trial, yields encoding-variability benefits may help reconcile decades of contradictory findings in this area. PMID:25018583

  4. Serotonin transporter genotype modulates subgenual response to fearful faces using an incidental task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Nions, Elizabeth J P; Dolan, Raymond J; Roiser, Jonathan P

    2011-11-01

    This study assessed the impact of serotonin transporter genotype (5-HTTLPR) on regional responses to emotional faces in the amygdala and subgenual cingulate cortex (sgACC), while subjects performed a gender discrimination task. Although we found no evidence for greater amygdala reactivity or reduced amygdala-sgACC coupling in short variant 5-HTTLPR homozygotes (s/s), we observed an interaction between genotype and emotion in sgACC. Only long variant homozygotes (la/la) exhibited subgenual deactivation to fearful versus neutral faces, whereas the effect in s/s subjects was in the other direction. This absence of subgenual deactivation in s/s subjects parallels a recent finding in depressed subjects [Grimm, S., Boesiger, P., Beck, J., Schuepbach, D., Bermpohl, F., Walter, M., et al. Altered negative BOLD responses in the default-mode network during emotion processing in depressed subjects. Neuropsychopharmacology, 34, 932-943, 2009]. Taken together, the findings suggest that subgenual cingulate activity may play an important role in regulating the impact of aversive stimuli, potentially conferring greater resilience to the effects of aversive stimuli in la/la subjects. Using dynamic causal modeling of functional magnetic resonance imaging data, we explored the effects of genotype on effective connectivity and emotion-specific changes in coupling across a network of regions implicated in social processing. Viewing fearful faces enhanced bidirectional excitatory coupling between the amygdala and the fusiform gyrus, and increased the inhibitory influence of the amygdala over the sgACC, although this modulation of coupling did not differ between the genotype groups. The findings are discussed in relation to the role of sgACC and serotonin in moderating responses to aversive stimuli [Dayan, P., & Huys, Q. J., Serotonin, inhibition, and negative mood. PLoS Comput Biol, 4, e4, 2008; Mayberg, H. S., Liotti, M., Brannan, S. K., McGinnis, S., Mahurin, R. K., Jerabek, P. A., et

  5. Obligatory encoding of task-irrelevant features depletes working memory resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Louise; Bays, Paul M

    2013-02-18

    Selective attention is often considered the "gateway" to visual working memory (VWM). However, the extent to which we can voluntarily control which of an object's features enter memory remains subject to debate. Recent research has converged on the concept of VWM as a limited commodity distributed between elements of a visual scene. Consequently, as memory load increases, the fidelity with which each visual feature is stored decreases. Here we used changes in recall precision to probe whether task-irrelevant features were encoded into VWM when individuals were asked to store specific feature dimensions. Recall precision for both color and orientation was significantly enhanced when task-irrelevant features were removed, but knowledge of which features would be probed provided no advantage over having to memorize both features of all items. Next, we assessed the effect an interpolated orientation-or color-matching task had on the resolution with which orientations in a memory array were stored. We found that the presence of orientation information in the second array disrupted memory of the first array. The cost to recall precision was identical whether the interfering features had to be remembered, attended to, or could be ignored. Therefore, it appears that storing, or merely attending to, one feature of an object is sufficient to promote automatic encoding of all its features, depleting VWM resources. However, the precision cost was abolished when the match task preceded the memory array. So, while encoding is automatic, maintenance is voluntary, allowing resources to be reallocated to store new visual information.

  6. Incidental findings in musculoskeletal radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wuennemann, F.; Rehnitz, C.; Weber, M.A.

    2017-01-01

    Increasing numbers of conventional X-rays, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging in the inpatient, outpatient and scientific routine leads to an increasing number of incidental findings. The correct interpretation of these incidental findings with respect to the relevance and the evaluation concerning further work-up is an important task of radiologists. Description of common incidental findings in musculoskeletal imaging and their clinical classification. A PubMed literature search was performed using the following terms: incidental findings, population-based imaging, musculoskeletal imaging, non-ossifying fibroma, enchondroma, osteodystrophia deformans, chondrosarcoma, fibrous dysplasia, simple bone cyst, unicameral bone cyst, solitary bone cyst, aneurysmal bone cyst, vertebral hemangioma, bone island, osteopoikilosis, Tarlov cyst and diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH). Incidental findings are observed in up to 40% of imaging procedures. In up to 6% these incidental findings involve the skeletal system. Common incidental findings are discussed and their clinical relevance is explained. (orig.) [de

  7. Semantic encoding and retrieval in the left inferior prefrontal cortex: a functional MRI study of task difficulty and process specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demb, J B; Desmond, J E; Wagner, A D; Vaidya, C J; Glover, G H; Gabrieli, J D

    1995-09-01

    Prefrontal cortical function was examined during semantic encoding and repetition priming using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), a noninvasive technique for localizing regional changes in blood oxygenation, a correlate of neural activity. Words studied in a semantic (deep) encoding condition were better remembered than words studied in both easier and more difficult nonsemantic (shallow) encoding conditions, with difficulty indexed by response time. The left inferior prefrontal cortex (LIPC) (Brodmann's areas 45, 46, 47) showed increased activation during semantic encoding relative to nonsemantic encoding regardless of the relative difficulty of the nonsemantic encoding task. Therefore, LIPC activation appears to be related to semantic encoding and not task difficulty. Semantic encoding decisions are performed faster the second time words are presented. This represents semantic repetition priming, a facilitation in semantic processing for previously encoded words that is not dependent on intentional recollection. The same LIPC area activated during semantic encoding showed decreased activation during repeated semantic encoding relative to initial semantic encoding of the same words. This decrease in activation during repeated encoding was process specific; it occurred when words were semantically reprocessed but not when words were nonsemantically reprocessed. The results were apparent in both individual and averaged functional maps. These findings suggest that the LIPC is part of a semantic executive system that contributes to the on-line retrieval of semantic information.

  8. Depth of processing effects on neural correlates of memory encoding: relationship between findings from across- and within-task comparisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otten, L J; Henson, R N; Rugg, M D

    2001-02-01

    Neuroimaging studies have implicated the prefrontal cortex and medial temporal areas in the successful encoding of verbal material into episodic memory. The present study used event-related functional MRI to investigate whether the brain areas associated with successful episodic encoding of words in a semantic study task are a subset of those demonstrating depth of processing effects. In addition, we tested whether the brain areas associated with successful episodic encoding differ depending on the nature of the study task. At study, 15 volunteers were cued to make either animacy or alphabetical decisions about words. A recognition memory test including confidence judgements followed after a delay of 15 min. Prefrontal and medial temporal regions showed greater functional MRI activations for semantically encoded words relative to alphabetically encoded words. Two of these regions (left anterior hippocampus and left ventral inferior frontal gyrus) showed greater activation for semantically encoded words that were subsequently recognized confidently. However, other regions (left posterior hippocampus and right inferior frontal cortex) demonstrated subsequent memory effects, but not effects of depth of processing. Successful memory for alphabetically encoded words was also associated with greater activation in the left anterior hippocampus and left ventral inferior frontal gyrus. The findings suggest that episodic encoding for words in a semantic study task involves a subset of the regions activated by deep relative to shallow processing. The data provide little evidence that successful episodic encoding during a shallow study task depends upon regions different from those that support the encoding of deeply studied words. Instead, the findings suggest that successful episodic encoding during a shallow study task relies on a subset of the regions engaged during successful encoding in a deep task.

  9. Encoding and immediate retrieval tasks in patients with epilepsy: A functional MRI study of verbal and visual memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saddiki, Najat; Hennion, Sophie; Viard, Romain; Ramdane, Nassima; Lopes, Renaud; Baroncini, Marc; Szurhaj, William; Reyns, Nicolas; Pruvo, Jean Pierre; Delmaire, Christine

    2018-05-01

    Medial lobe temporal structures and more specifically the hippocampus play a decisive role in episodic memory. Most of the memory functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies evaluate the encoding phase; the retrieval phase being performed outside the MRI. We aimed to determine the ability to reveal greater hippocampal fMRI activations during retrieval phase. Thirty-five epileptic patients underwent a two-step memory fMRI. During encoding phase, subjects were requested to identify the feminine or masculine gender of faces and words presented, in order to encourage stimulus encoding. One hour after, during retrieval phase, subjects had to recognize the word and face. We used an event-related design to identify hippocampal activations. There was no significant difference between patients with left temporal lobe epilepsy, patients with right temporal lobe epilepsy and patients with extratemporal lobe epilepsy on verbal and visual learning task. For words, patients demonstrated significantly more bilateral hippocampal activation for retrieval task than encoding task and when the tasks were associated than during encoding alone. Significant difference was seen between face-encoding alone and face retrieval alone. This study demonstrates the essential contribution of the retrieval task during a fMRI memory task but the number of patients with hippocampal activations was greater when the two tasks were taken into account. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  10. Incidental and Intentional Memory: Their Relation with Attention and Executive Functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontaxopoulou, Dionysia; Beratis, Ion N; Fragkiadaki, Stella; Pavlou, Dimosthenis; Yannis, George; Economou, Alexandra; Papanicolaou, Andrew C; Papageorgiou, Sokratis G

    2017-08-01

    The aim of the current study was to investigate the impact of gender and age on incidental and intentional memory in healthy participants and to explore the strength of the association of incidental and intentional memory with attentional and executive functioning. A total number of 47 participants underwent a driving simulation experiment and went through detailed neuropsychological testing. Incidental memory was assessed with a questionnaire that evaluated the memorization of information related to the driving simulator task while intentional memory was assessed using the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Revised and the Brief Visuospatial Memory Test-Revised. The analysis revealed a greater impact of age on incidental as compared to intentional memory. Gender did not appear to have such an effect on either incidental or intentional memory. Finally, attentional and executive functioning were more strongly associated with incidental memory than the intentional memory measures that were utilized in the current study. Ageing appears to affect incidental rather than intentional memory to a greater extent. In addition, attentional and executive functioning seem to play a more important role in incidental than intentional encoding and consolidation processes. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Motor cortical encoding of serial order in a context-recall task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, A F; Georgopoulos, A P; Pellizzer, G

    1999-03-12

    The neural encoding of serial order was studied in the motor cortex of monkeys performing a context-recall memory scanning task. Up to five visual stimuli were presented successively on a circle (list presentation phase), and then one of them (test stimulus) changed color; the monkeys had to make a single motor response toward the stimulus that immediately followed the test stimulus in the list. Correct performance in this task depends on memorization of the serial order of the stimuli during their presentation. It was found that changes in neural activity during the list presentation phase reflected the serial order of the stimuli; the effect on cell activity of the serial order of stimuli during their presentation was at least as strong as the effect of motor direction on cell activity during the execution of the motor response. This establishes the serial order of stimuli in a motor task as an important determinant of motor cortical activity during stimulus presentation and in the absence of changes in peripheral motor events, in contrast to the commonly held view of the motor cortex as just an "upper motor neuron."

  12. Encoding tasks dissociate the effects of divided attention on category-cued recall and category-exemplar generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Andrew; Dagnall, Neil; Munley, Gary

    2012-01-01

    The combined effects of encoding tasks and divided attention upon category-exemplar generation and category-cued recall were examined. Participants were presented with pairs of words each comprising a category name and potential example of that category. They were then asked to indicate either (i) their liking for both of the words or (ii) if the exemplar was a member of the category. It was found that divided attention reduced performance on the category-cued recall task under both encoding conditions. However, performance on the category-exemplar generation task remained invariant across the attention manipulation following the category judgment task. This provides further evidence that the processes underlying performance on conceptual explicit and implicit memory tasks can be dissociated, and that the intentional formation of category-exemplar associations attenuates the effects of divided attention on category-exemplar generation.

  13. Benefits of deep encoding in Alzheimer disease. Analysis of performance on a memory task using the Item Specific Deficit Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oltra-Cucarella, J; Pérez-Elvira, R; Duque, P

    2014-06-01

    the aim of this study is to test the encoding deficit hypothesis in Alzheimer disease (AD) using a recent method for correcting memory tests. To this end, a Spanish-language adaptation of the Free and Cued Selective Reminding Test was interpreted using the Item Specific Deficit Approach (ISDA), which provides three indices: Encoding Deficit Index, Consolidation Deficit Index, and Retrieval Deficit Index. We compared the performances of 15 patients with AD and 20 healthy control subjects and analysed results using either the task instructions or the ISDA approach. patients with AD displayed deficient encoding of more than half the information, but items that were encoded properly could be retrieved later with the help of the same semantic clues provided individually during encoding. Virtually all the information retained over the long-term was retrieved by using semantic clues. Encoding was shown to be the most impaired process, followed by retrieval and consolidation. Discriminant function analyses showed that ISDA indices are more sensitive and specific for detecting memory impairments in AD than are raw scores. These results indicate that patients with AD present impaired information encoding, but they benefit from semantic hints that help them recover previously learned information. This should be taken into account for intervention techniques focusing on memory impairments in AD. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  14. Facilitation of memory encoding in primate hippocampus by a neuroprosthesis that promotes task-specific neural firing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampson, Robert E.; Song, Dong; Opris, Ioan; Santos, Lucas M.; Shin, Dae C.; Gerhardt, Greg A.; Marmarelis, Vasilis Z.; Berger, Theodore W.; Deadwyler, Sam A.

    2013-12-01

    Objective. Memory accuracy is a major problem in human disease and is the primary factor that defines Alzheimer’s, ageing and dementia resulting from impaired hippocampal function in the medial temporal lobe. Development of a hippocampal memory neuroprosthesis that facilitates normal memory encoding in nonhuman primates (NHPs) could provide the basis for improving memory in human disease states. Approach. NHPs trained to perform a short-term delayed match-to-sample (DMS) memory task were examined with multi-neuron recordings from synaptically connected hippocampal cell fields, CA1 and CA3. Recordings were analyzed utilizing a previously developed nonlinear multi-input multi-output (MIMO) neuroprosthetic model, capable of extracting CA3-to-CA1 spatiotemporal firing patterns during DMS performance. Main results. The MIMO model verified that specific CA3-to-CA1 firing patterns were critical for the successful encoding of sample phase information on more difficult DMS trials. This was validated by the delivery of successful MIMO-derived encoding patterns via electrical stimulation to the same CA1 recording locations during the sample phase which facilitated task performance in the subsequent, delayed match phase, on difficult trials that required more precise encoding of sample information. Significance. These findings provide the first successful application of a neuroprosthesis designed to enhance and/or repair memory encoding in primate brain.

  15. Levels of word processing and incidental memory: dissociable mechanisms in the temporal lobe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, E M; Simos, P G; Davis, R N; Breier, J; Fitzgerald, M E; Papanicolaou, A C

    2001-11-16

    Word recall is facilitated when deep (e.g. semantic) processing is applied during encoding. This fact raises the question of the existence of specific brain mechanisms supporting different levels of information processing that can modulate incidental memory performance. In this study we obtained spatiotemporal brain activation profiles, using magnetic source imaging, from 10 adult volunteers as they performed a shallow (phonological) processing task and a deep (semantic) processing task. When phonological analysis of the word stimuli into their constituent phonemes was required, activation was largely restricted to the posterior portion of the left superior temporal gyrus (area 22). Conversely, when access to lexical/semantic representations was required, activation was found predominantly in the left middle temporal gyrus and medial temporal cortex. The differential engagement of each mechanism during word encoding was associated with dramatic changes in subsequent incidental memory performance.

  16. Effects of level of processing at encoding and types of retrieval task in mild cognitive impairment and normal aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froger, Charlotte; Taconnat, Laurence; Landré, Lionel; Beigneux, Katia; Isingrini, Michel

    2009-04-01

    A total of 16 young (M = 27.25 years), 13 healthy elderly (M = 75.38 years), and 10 older adults with probable mild cognitive impairment (MCI; M = 78.6 years) carried out a task under two different encoding conditions (shallow vs. semantic) and two retrieval conditions (free recall vs. recognition). For the shallow condition, participants had to decide whether the first or last letter of each word in a list was "E." For the semantic condition, they had to decide whether each word represented a concrete or abstract entity. The MCI group was only able to benefit from semantic encoding to the same extent as the healthy older adults in the recognition task, whereas the younger and healthy older adults benefited in both retrieval tasks. These results suggest that the MCI group required cognitive support at retrieval to make effective use of semantic processing carried out at encoding. In the discussion, we suggest that adults with MCI engage more in deep processing, using the semantic network, than hitherto thought.

  17. Incidental Learning: A Brief, Valid Measure of Memory Based on the WAIS-IV Vocabulary and Similarities Subtests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Robert J; Reckow, Jaclyn; Drag, Lauren L; Bieliauskas, Linas A

    2016-12-01

    We assessed the validity of a brief incidental learning measure based on the Similarities and Vocabulary subtests of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV). Most neuropsychological assessments for memory require intentional learning, but incidental learning occurs without explicit instruction. Incidental memory tests such as the WAIS-III Symbol Digit Coding subtest have existed for many years, but few memory studies have used a semantically processed incidental learning model. We conducted a retrospective analysis of 37 veterans with traumatic brain injury, referred for outpatient neuropsychological testing at a Veterans Affairs hospital. As part of their evaluation, the participants completed the incidental learning tasks. We compared their incidental learning performance to their performance on traditional memory measures. Incidental learning scores correlated strongly with scores on the California Verbal Learning Test-Second Edition (CVLT-II) and Brief Visuospatial Memory Test-Revised (BVMT-R). After we conducted a partial correlation that controlled for the effects of age, incidental learning correlated significantly with the CVLT-II Immediate Free Recall, CVLT-II Short-Delay Recall, CVLT-II Long-Delay Recall, and CVLT-II Yes/No Recognition Hits, and with the BVMT-R Delayed Recall and BVMT-R Recognition Discrimination Index. Our incidental learning procedures derived from subtests of the WAIS-IV Edition are an efficient and valid way of measuring memory. These tasks add minimally to testing time and capitalize on the semantic encoding that is inherent in completing the Similarities and Vocabulary subtests.

  18. Neurons in Primary Motor Cortex Encode Hand Orientation in a Reach-to-Grasp Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Chaolin; Ma, Xuan; Fan, Jing; He, Jiping

    2017-08-01

    It is disputed whether those neurons in the primary motor cortex (M1) that encode hand orientation constitute an independent channel for orientation control in reach-to-grasp behaviors. Here, we trained two monkeys to reach forward and grasp objects positioned in the frontal plane at different orientation angles, and simultaneously recorded the activity of M1 neurons. Among the 2235 neurons recorded in M1, we found that 18.7% had a high correlation exclusively with hand orientation, 15.9% with movement direction, and 29.5% with both movement direction and hand orientation. The distributions of neurons encoding hand orientation and those encoding movement direction were not uniform but coexisted in the same region. The trajectory of hand rotation was reproduced by the firing patterns of the orientation-related neurons independent of the hand reaching direction. These results suggest that hand orientation is an independent component for the control of reaching and grasping activity.

  19. Primate Prefrontal Neurons Encode the Association of Paired Visual Stimuli during the Pair-Association Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreau, Jorge Mario; Funahashi, Shintaro

    2011-01-01

    The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is known to contribute to memory processes such as encoding representations into long-term-memory (LTM) and retrieving these representations from LTM. However, the details of the PFC's contribution to LTM processes are not well known. To examine the characteristics of the PFC's contribution to LTM processes, we analyzed…

  20. Attention improves encoding of task-relevant features in the human visual cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jehee, Janneke F.M.; Brady, Devin K.; Tong, Frank

    2011-01-01

    When spatial attention is directed towards a particular stimulus, increased activity is commonly observed in corresponding locations of the visual cortex. Does this attentional increase in activity indicate improved processing of all features contained within the attended stimulus, or might spatial attention selectively enhance the features relevant to the observer’s task? We used fMRI decoding methods to measure the strength of orientation-selective activity patterns in the human visual cortex while subjects performed either an orientation or contrast discrimination task, involving one of two laterally presented gratings. Greater overall BOLD activation with spatial attention was observed in areas V1-V4 for both tasks. However, multivariate pattern analysis revealed that orientation-selective responses were enhanced by attention only when orientation was the task-relevant feature, and not when the grating’s contrast had to be attended. In a second experiment, observers discriminated the orientation or color of a specific lateral grating. Here, orientation-selective responses were enhanced in both tasks but color-selective responses were enhanced only when color was task-relevant. In both experiments, task-specific enhancement of feature-selective activity was not confined to the attended stimulus location, but instead spread to other locations in the visual field, suggesting the concurrent involvement of a global feature-based attentional mechanism. These results suggest that attention can be remarkably selective in its ability to enhance particular task-relevant features, and further reveal that increases in overall BOLD amplitude are not necessarily accompanied by improved processing of stimulus information. PMID:21632942

  1. Attention, gaze shifting, and dual-task interference from phonological encoding in spoken word planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelofs, A.P.A.

    2008-01-01

    Controversy exists about whether dual-task interference from word planning reflects structural bottleneck or attentional control factors. Here, participants named pictures whose names could or could not be phonologically prepared. and they manually responded to arrows presented away from (Experiment

  2. Temporally specific divided attention tasks in young adults reveal the temporal dynamics of episodic encoding failures in elderly adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Ray; Nessler, Doreen; Friedman, David

    2013-06-01

    Nessler, Johnson, Bersick, and Friedman (D. Nessler, R. Johnson, Jr., M. Bersick, & D. Friedman, 2006, On why the elderly have normal semantic retrieval but deficient episodic encoding: A study of left inferior frontal ERP activity, NeuroImage, Vol. 30, pp. 299-312) found that, compared with young adults, older adults show decreased event-related brain potential (ERP) activity over posterior left inferior prefrontal cortex (pLIPFC) in a 400- to 1,400-ms interval during episodic encoding. This altered brain activity was associated with significantly decreased recognition performance and reduced recollection-related brain activity at retrieval (D. Nessler, D. Friedman, R. Johnson, Jr., & M. Bersick, 2007, Does repetition engender the same retrieval processes in young and older adults? NeuroReport, Vol. 18, pp. 1837-1840). To test the hypothesis that older adults' well-documented episodic retrieval deficit is related to reduced pLIPFC activity at encoding, we used a novel divided attention task in healthy young adults that was specifically timed to disrupt encoding in either the 1st or 2nd half of a 300- to 1,400-ms interval. The results showed that diverting resources for 550 ms during either half of this interval reproduced the 4 characteristic aspects of the older participants' retrieval performance: normal semantic retrieval during encoding, reduced subsequent episodic recognition and recall, reduced recollection-related ERP activity, and the presence of "compensatory" brain activity. We conclude that part of older adults' episodic memory deficit is attributable to altered pLIPFC activity during encoding due to reduced levels of available processing resources. Moreover, the findings also provide insights into the nature and timing of the putative "compensatory" processes posited to be used by older adults in an attempt to compensate for age-related decline in cognitive function. These results support the scaffolding account of compensation, in which the

  3. Information processing biases concurrently and prospectively predict depressive symptoms in adolescents: Evidence from a self-referent encoding task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, Samantha L; Abramson, Lyn Y; Alloy, Lauren B

    2016-01-01

    Negative information processing biases have been hypothesised to serve as precursors for the development of depression. The current study examined negative self-referent information processing and depressive symptoms in a community sample of adolescents (N = 291, Mage at baseline = 12.34 ± 0.61, 53% female, 47.4% African-American, 49.5% Caucasian and 3.1% Biracial). Participants completed a computerised self-referent encoding task (SRET) and a measure of depressive symptoms at baseline and completed an additional measure of depressive symptoms nine months later. Several negative information processing biases on the SRET were associated with concurrent depressive symptoms and predicted increases in depressive symptoms at follow-up. Findings partially support the hypothesis that negative information processing biases are associated with depressive symptoms in a nonclinical sample of adolescents, and provide preliminary evidence that these biases prospectively predict increases in depressive symptoms.

  4. Incidental Vocabulary Learning in Second Language Acquisition: A Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Falcon Dario Restrepo Ramos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This literature review aims to analyze previous studies that address the incidental learning of vocabulary in second language acquisition. The articles included in this literature review look into the understanding of vocabulary learning through incidental means, the relationship of reading and incidental vocabulary learning, and the strategies and tasks that promote the incidental learning of vocabulary. The findings show that L2 learners develop much of their vocabulary by incidental means through exposure to words in informative contexts. Moreover, this exposure is promoted by reading, and enhanced through multimodal glosses. Further research may focus on listening for higher lexical retention rates, the circumstances that allow incidental learning of multi-word phrases and collocations, and the use of technology-based methods for incidental vocabulary acquisition.

  5. INCIDENTAL VOCABULARY LEARNING THROUGH READING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holly Warzecha, M.A. TESOL

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the following paper is to take a closer look at the benefits of incidental learning through reading, with a specific focus on vocabulary acquisition. The teaching of vocabulary has traditionally been an explicit process where the target vocabulary is taken out of context and taught separately. However, this kind of explicit teaching and learning may only take into account a form-meaning connection. Therefore, this paper explores research on incidental learning and specifically looks at what it takes to acquire new vocabulary incidentally through reading while considering the coverage rates of texts, how many words must be known already from the text, how many repetitions it takes to learn a word, types of texts that promote learning, and the effects of pairing students‘ reading with learner tasks. After reviewing many studies, it can be concluded that more reading is better. More specifically, extensive reading of chosen novels at an appropriate level and interest to the students showed important gains in vocabulary. In addition, readings that were supplemented with additional activities that focused on both form and meaning showed an even higher increase in word retention.

  6. Visual search for changes in scenes creates long-term, incidental memory traces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utochkin, Igor S; Wolfe, Jeremy M

    2018-05-01

    Humans are very good at remembering large numbers of scenes over substantial periods of time. But how good are they at remembering changes to scenes? In this study, we tested scene memory and change detection two weeks after initial scene learning. In Experiments 1-3, scenes were learned incidentally during visual search for change. In Experiment 4, observers explicitly memorized scenes. At test, after two weeks observers were asked to discriminate old from new scenes, to recall a change that they had detected in the study phase, or to detect a newly introduced change in the memorization experiment. Next, they performed a change detection task, usually looking for the same change as in the study period. Scene recognition memory was found to be similar in all experiments, regardless of the study task. In Experiment 1, more difficult change detection produced better scene memory. Experiments 2 and 3 supported a "depth-of-processing" account for the effects of initial search and change detection on incidental memory for scenes. Of most interest, change detection was faster during the test phase than during the study phase, even when the observer had no explicit memory of having found that change previously. This result was replicated in two of our three change detection experiments. We conclude that scenes can be encoded incidentally as well as explicitly and that changes in those scenes can leave measurable traces even if they are not explicitly recalled.

  7. Neural correlates of memory encoding and recognition for own-race and other-race faces in an associative-memory task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzmann, Grit; Minor, Greta; Adkins, Makenzie

    2017-01-15

    The ability to recognize faces of family members, friends, and acquaintances plays an important role in our daily interactions. The other-race effect is the reduced ability to recognize other-race faces as compared to own-race faces. Previous studies showed different patterns of event-related potentials (ERPs) associated with recollection and familiarity during memory encoding (i.e., Dm) and recognition (i.e., parietal old/new effect) for own-race and other-race faces in a subjective-recollection task (remember-know judgments). The present study investigated the same neural correlates of the other-race effect in an associative-memory task, in which Caucasian and East Asian participants learned and recognized own-race and other-race faces along with background colors. Participants made more false alarms for other-race faces indicating lower memory performance. During the study phase, subsequently recognized other-race faces (with and without correct background information) elicited more positive mean amplitudes than own-race faces, suggesting increased neural activation during encoding of other-race faces. During the test phase, recollection-related old/new effects dissociated between own-race and other-race faces. Old/new effects were significant only for own-race but not for other-race faces, indicating that recognition only of own-race faces was supported by recollection and led to more detailed memory retrieval. Most of these results replicated previous studies that used a subjective-recollection task. Our study also showed that the increased demand on memory encoding during an associative-memory task led to Dm patterns that indicated similarly deep memory encoding for own-race and other-race faces. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Temporally Specific Divided Attention Tasks in Young Adults Reveal the Temporal Dynamics of Episodic Encoding Failures in Elderly Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Ray; Nessler, Doreen; Friedman, David

    2012-01-01

    Nessler, Johnson, Bersick, and Friedman (D. Nessler, R. Johnson, Jr., M. Bersick, & D. Friedman, 2006, On why the elderly have normal semantic retrieval but deficient episodic encoding: A study of left inferior frontal ERP activity, NeuroImage, Vol. 30, pp. 299–312) found that, compared with young adults, older adults show decreased event-related brain potential (ERP) activity over posterior left inferior prefrontal cortex (pLIPFC) in a 400- to 1,400-ms interval during episodic encoding. This...

  9. Incidental renal neoplasms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rabjerg, Maj; Mikkelsen, Minne Nedergaard; Walter, Steen

    2014-01-01

    On the basis of associations between tumor size, pathological stage, histological subtype and tumor grade in incidentally detected renal cell carcinoma vs symptomatic renal cell carcinoma, we discussed the need for a screening program of renal cell carcinoma in Denmark. We analyzed a consecutive...... series of 204 patients with renal tumors in 2011 and 2012. The tumors were classified according to detection mode: symptomatic and incidental and compared to pathological parameters. Eighty-nine patients (44%) were symptomatic, 113 (55%) were incidental. Information was not available in two patients...

  10. Negative incidental emotions augment fairness sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Cuizhen; Chai, Jing Wen; Yu, Rongjun

    2016-04-22

    Previous studies have shown that task-unrelated emotions induced incidentally exert carryover effects on individuals' subsequent decisions in financial negotiations. However, the specificity of these emotion effects are not clear. In three experiments, we systematically investigated the role of seven transiently induced basic emotions (disgust, sadness, anger, fear, happiness, surprise and neutral) on rejection of unfair offers using the ultimatum game. We found that all negative emotions (disgust, sadness, anger and fear), but not happiness or surprise, significantly increased rejection rates, suggesting that the effect of incidental negative emotions on fairness is not specific to the type of negative emotion. Our findings highlight the role of fleeting emotions in biasing decision-making processes and suggest that all incidental negative emotions exert similar effects on fairness sensitivity, possibly by potentiating attention towards negative aspects of the situation.

  11. [The Brumory test, an incidental long-term memory task designed for foreign, non-French-speaking people with low educational level].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderaspoilden, V; Nury, D; Frisque, J; Peigneux, P

    2015-12-01

    Cognitive assessment among foreign patients is a growing need for several reasons: foreign patients have a different culture, they have an insufficient command of the language of the consulting center, and the available cognitive tools are largely unsuitable. For these reasons, we developed a non-verbal test of long-term memory called the Brumory test. This test is based on incident encoding of 48 colored images followed by retrieval by recognition. We compared the performance of indigenous participants with that of immigrant participants (mainly from Morocco). Immigrant participants did not speak French properly and had a low educational level. The results indicate no significant difference in memory performance between the two groups of participants. Moreover, the instructions were easily understood by immigrant participants, despite the fact they do not master French. We conclude that the Brumory test is an appropriate test to assess memory among foreign non-French-speaking patients people with low educational level. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Generation and associative encoding in young and old adults: the effect of the strength of association between cues and targets on a cued recall task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taconnat, Laurence; Froger, Charlotte; Sacher, Mathilde; Isingrini, Michel

    2008-01-01

    The generation effect (i.e., better recall of the generated items than the read items) was investigated with a between-list design in young and elderly participants. The generation task difficulty was manipulated by varying the strength of association between cues and targets. Overall, strong associates were better recalled than weak associates. However, the results showed different generation effect patterns according to strength of association and age, with a greater generation effect for weak associates in younger adults only. These findings suggest that generating weak associates leads to more elaborated encoding, but that elderly adults cannot use this elaborated encoding as well as younger adults to recall the target words at test.

  13. Maintaining binding in working memory : Comparing the effects of intentional goals and incidental affordances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morey, Candice C.

    Much research on memory for binding depends on incidental measures. However, if encoding associations benefits from conscious attention, then incidental measures of binding memory might not yield a sufficient understanding of how binding is accomplished. Memory for letters and spatial locations was

  14. Incidental emotions influence risk preference and outcome evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ding; Gu, Ruolei; Tang, Ping; Yang, Qiwei; Luo, Yue-Jia

    2016-10-01

    Incidental emotions, which are irrelevant to the current decision, play a significant role in the decision-making process. In this study, to investigate the influence of incidental emotions on behavioral, psychological, and electrophysiological responses in the process of decision making, participants were required to perform a monetary gambling task. During the selection stage, an emotional picture, which was chosen from the Chinese Affective Picture System and fell into one of three categories: negative, neutral, and positive, was presented between two alternatives (small/large amount of bet). The pictures were provided to induce incidental emotions. ERPs and self-rating emotional experiences to outcome feedback were recorded during the task. Behavioral results showed that positive incidental emotions elicited risk preference, but emotional experiences to outcome feedback were not influenced by incidental emotions. The feedback-related negativity amplitudes were larger in the positive emotion condition than in the negative and neutral emotion conditions for small outcomes (including wins and losses), whereas there was no difference between the three conditions for large outcomes. In addition, the amplitudes of P3 were reduced overall in the negative emotion condition. We suggest that incidental emotions have modulated both the option assessment stage (manifested in behavioral choices) and the outcome evaluation stage (manifested in ERP amplitudes) of decision making unconsciously (indicated by unchanged subjective emotional experiences). The current findings have expanded our understanding of the role of incidental emotion in decision making. © 2016 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  15. Crane. Incidental Classroom Instruction 20295

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reynolds, Richard Jennings [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this course is to introduce safe hoisting and rigging practices to personnel who are attempting to become LANL incidental crane operators and to review and refresh safe hoisting and rigging practices with existing incidental crane operators.

  16. Fine motor movements while drawing during the encoding phase of a serial verbal recall task reduce working memory performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tindle, Richard; Longstaff, Mitchell G

    2016-02-01

    The time-based resource-sharing (TBRS) model of working memory indicates that secondary tasks that capture attention for relatively long periods can result in the interference of working memory processing and maintenance. The current study investigates if discrete and continuous movements have differing effects on a concurrent, verbal serial recall task. In the listening condition, participants were asked to recall spoken words presented in lists of six. In the drawing conditions, participants performed the same task while producing discrete (star) or continuous (circle) movements. As hypothesised, participants recalled more words overall in the listening condition compared to the combined drawing conditions. The prediction that the continuous movement condition would reduce recall compared to listening was also supported. Fine-grained analysis at each serial position revealed significantly more words were recalled at mid serial positions in the listening condition, with worst recall for the continuous condition at position 5 compared to the listening and discrete conditions. Kinematic analysis showed that participants increased the size and speed of the continuous movements resulting in a similar duration and number of strokes for each condition. The duration of brief pauses in the discrete condition was associated with the number of words recalled. The results indicate that fine motor movements reduced working memory performance; however, it was not merely performing a movement but the type of the movement that determined how resources were diverted. In the context of the TBRS, continuous movements could be capturing attention for longer periods relative to discrete movements, reducing verbal serial recall. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Brain correlates of performance in a free/cued recall task with semantic encoding in Alzheimer disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lekeu, Françoise; Van der Linden, Martial; Chicherio, Christian; Collette, Fabienne; Degueldre, Christian; Franck, Georges; Moonen, Gustave; Salmon, Eric

    2003-01-01

    The goal of this study was to explore in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) the brain correlates of free and cued recall performance using an adaptation of the procedure developed by Grober and Buschke (1987). This procedure, which ensures semantic processing and coordinates encoding and retrieval, has been shown to be very sensitive to an early diagnosis of AD. Statistical parametric mapping (SPM 99) was used to establish clinicometabolic correlations between performance at free and cued verbal recall and resting brain metabolism in 31 patients with AD. Results showed that patient's score on free recall correlated with metabolic activity in right frontal regions (BA 10 and BA 45), suggesting that performance reflected a strategic retrieval attempt. Poor retrieval performance was tentatively attributed to a loss of functional correlation between frontal and medial temporal regions in patients with AD compared with elderly controls. Performance on cued recall was correlated to residual metabolic activity in bilateral parahippocampal regions (BA 36), suggesting that performance reflected retrieval of semantic associations, without recollection in AD. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that the diagnostic sensitivity for Alzheimer's disease of the cued recall performance in the Grober and Buschke procedure (1987) depends on the activity of parahippocampal regions, one of the earliest targets of the disease. Moreover, the results suggest that the poor performance of patients with AD during free and cued recall is related to a decreased connectivity between parahippocampal regions and frontal areas.

  18. Recognition memory of neutral words can be impaired by task-irrelevant emotional encoding contexts: behavioral and electrophysiological evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qin; Liu, Xuan; An, Wei; Yang, Yang; Wang, Yinan

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies on the effects of emotional context on memory for centrally presented neutral items have obtained inconsistent results. And in most of those studies subjects were asked to either make a connection between the item and the context at study or retrieve both the item and the context. When no response for the contexts is required, how emotional contexts influence memory for neutral items is still unclear. Thus, the present study attempted to investigate the influences of four types of emotional picture contexts on recognition memory of neutral words using both behavioral and event-related potential (ERP) measurements. During study, words were superimposed centrally onto emotional contexts, and subjects were asked to just remember the words. During test, both studied and new words were presented without the emotional contexts and subjects had to make "old/new" judgments for those words. The results revealed that, compared with the neutral context, the negative contexts and positive high-arousing context impaired recognition of words. ERP results at encoding demonstrated that, compared with items presented in the neutral context, items in the positive and negative high-arousing contexts elicited more positive ERPs, which probably reflects an automatic process of attention capturing of high-arousing context as well as a conscious and effortful process of overcoming the interference of high-arousing context. During retrieval, significant FN400 old/new effects occurred in conditions of the negative low-arousing, positive, and neutral contexts but not in the negative high-arousing condition. Significant LPC old/new effects occurred in all conditions of context. However, the LPC old/new effect in the negative high-arousing condition was smaller than that in the positive high-arousing and low-arousing conditions. These results suggest that emotional context might influence both the familiarity and recollection processes.

  19. Functional Dissociation of Confident and Not-Confident Errors in the Spatial Delayed Response Task Demonstrates Impairments in Working Memory Encoding and Maintenance in Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jutta S. Mayer

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Even though extensively investigated, the nature of working memory (WM deficits in patients with schizophrenia (PSZ is not yet fully understood. In particular, the contribution of different WM sub-processes to the severe WM deficit observed in PSZ is a matter of debate. So far, most research has focused on impaired WM maintenance. By analyzing different types of errors in a spatial delayed response task (DRT, we have recently demonstrated that incorrect yet confident responses (which we labeled as false memory errors rather than incorrect/not-confident responses reflect failures of WM encoding, which was also impaired in PSZ. In the present study, we provide further evidence for a functional dissociation between confident and not-confident errors by manipulating the demands on WM maintenance, i.e., the length over which information has to be maintained in WM. Furthermore, we investigate whether these functionally distinguishable WM processes are impaired in PSZ. Twenty-four PSZ and 24 demographically matched healthy controls (HC performed a spatial DRT in which the length of the delay period was varied between 1, 2, 4, and 6 s. In each trial, participants also rated their level of response confidence. Across both groups, longer delays led to increased rates of incorrect/not-confident responses, while incorrect/confident responses were not affected by delay length. This functional dissociation provides additional support for our proposal that false memory errors (i.e., confident errors reflect problems at the level of WM encoding, while not-confident errors reflect failures of WM maintenance. Schizophrenic patients showed increased numbers of both confident and not-confident errors, suggesting that both sub-processes of WM—encoding and maintenance—are impaired in schizophrenia. Combined with the delay length-dependent functional dissociation, we propose that these impairments in schizophrenic patients are functionally distinguishable.

  20. Incidental Learning of Gender Agreement in L2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denhovska, Nadiia; Serratrice, Ludovica

    2017-10-01

    Incidental learning of grammar has been an area of interest for many decades; nevertheless, existing research has primarily focused on artificial or semi-artificial languages. The present study examines the incidental acquisition of the grammar of a natural language by exposing adult speakers of an ungendered L1 (English) to the gender agreement patterns in Russian (a language that was novel to the learners). Both receptive and productive knowledge and the mediating role of working memory (WM) in learning were measured. Speakers of the ungendered language were able to successfully acquire receptive but not productive grammatical knowledge in a new language under incidental exposure. WM was engaged in production but not in a grammaticality judgment task in the incidental learning condition, indicating cognitive effort during knowledge retrieval.

  1. Distinct neural correlates of associative working memory and long-term memory encoding in the medial temporal lobe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmann, Heiko C; Rijpkema, Mark; Fernández, Guillén; Kessels, Roy P C

    2012-11-01

    Increasing evidence suggests a role for the hippocampus not only in long-term memory (LTM) but also in relational working memory (WM) processes, challenging the view of the hippocampus as being solely involved in episodic LTM. However, hippocampal involvement reported in some neuroimaging studies using "classical" WM tasks may at least partly reflect incidental LTM encoding. To disentangle WM processing and LTM formation we administered a delayed-match-to-sample associative WM task in an event-related fMRI study design. Each trial of the WM task consisted of four pairs of faces and houses, which had to be maintained during a delay of 10 s. This was followed by a probe phase consisting of three consecutively presented pairs; for each pair participants were to indicate whether it matched one of the pairs of the encoding phase. After scanning, an unexpected recognition-memory (LTM) task was administered. Brain activity during encoding was analyzed based on WM and LTM performance. Hence, encoding-related activity predicting WM success in the absence of successful LTM formation could be isolated. Furthermore, regions critical for successful LTM formation for pairs previously correctly processed in WM were analyzed. Results showed that the left parahippocampal gyrus including the fusiform gyrus predicted subsequent accuracy on WM decisions. The right anterior hippocampus and left inferior frontal gyrus, in contrast, predicted successful LTM for pairs that were previously correctly classified in the WM task. Our results suggest that brain regions associated with higher-level visuo-perceptual processing are involved in successful associative WM encoding, whereas the anterior hippocampus and left inferior frontal gyrus are involved in successful LTM formation during incidental encoding. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. ‘Distracters’ do not always distract: Visual working memory for angry faces is enhanced by incidental emotional words.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Cecilia Jackson

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available We are often required to filter out distraction in order to focus on a primary task during which working memory (WM is engaged. Previous research has shown that negative versus neutral distracters presented during a visual WM maintenance period significantly impair memory for neutral information. However, the contents of WM are often also emotional in nature. The question we address here is how incidental information might impact upon visual WM when both this and the memory items contain emotional information. We presented emotional versus neutral words during the maintenance interval of an emotional visual WM faces task. Participants encoded two angry or happy faces into WM, and several seconds into a 9 second maintenance period a negative, positive, or neutral word was flashed on the screen three times. A single neutral test face was presented for retrieval with a face identity that was either present or absent in the preceding study array. WM for angry face identities was significantly better when an emotional (negative or positive versus neutral (or no word was presented. In contrast, WM for happy face identities was not significantly affected by word valence. These findings suggest that the presence of emotion within an intervening stimulus boosts the emotional value of threat-related information maintained in visual WM and thus improves performance. In addition, we show that incidental events that are emotional in nature do not always distract from an ongoing WM task.

  3. The incidental binding of color and shape is insensitive to the perceptual load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Cezar Palhares Ferreira

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The binding of information in visual short-term memory may occur incidentally when irrelevant information for the task at hand is stored together with relevant information. We investigated the process of the incidental conjunction of color and shape (Exp1 and its potential association with the selection of relevant information to the memory task (Exp2. The results in Exp1 show that color and shape are incidentally and asymmetrically conjugated: color interferes with the recognition of shape; however, shape does not interfere with the recognition of color. In Exp2, we investigated whether an increase in perceptual load would eliminate the processing of irrelevant information. The results of this experiment show that even with a high perceptual load, the incidental conjunction is not affected, and color remains to interfere with shape recognition, suggesting that the incidental conjunction is an automatic process.

  4. Determining optimal parameters of the self-referent encoding task: A large-scale examination of self-referent cognition and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dainer-Best, Justin; Lee, Hae Yeon; Shumake, Jason D; Yeager, David S; Beevers, Christopher G

    2018-06-07

    Although the self-referent encoding task (SRET) is commonly used to measure self-referent cognition in depression, many different SRET metrics can be obtained. The current study used best subsets regression with cross-validation and independent test samples to identify the SRET metrics most reliably associated with depression symptoms in three large samples: a college student sample (n = 572), a sample of adults from Amazon Mechanical Turk (n = 293), and an adolescent sample from a school field study (n = 408). Across all 3 samples, SRET metrics associated most strongly with depression severity included number of words endorsed as self-descriptive and rate of accumulation of information required to decide whether adjectives were self-descriptive (i.e., drift rate). These metrics had strong intratask and split-half reliability and high test-retest reliability across a 1-week period. Recall of SRET stimuli and traditional reaction time (RT) metrics were not robustly associated with depression severity. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Prestimulus default mode activity influences depth of processing and recognition in an emotional memory task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soravia, Leila M; Witmer, Joëlle S; Schwab, Simon; Nakataki, Masahito; Dierks, Thomas; Wiest, Roland; Henke, Katharina; Federspiel, Andrea; Jann, Kay

    2016-03-01

    Low self-referential thoughts are associated with better concentration, which leads to deeper encoding and increases learning and subsequent retrieval. There is evidence that being engaged in externally rather than internally focused tasks is related to low neural activity in the default mode network (DMN) promoting open mind and the deep elaboration of new information. Thus, reduced DMN activity should lead to enhanced concentration, comprehensive stimulus evaluation including emotional categorization, deeper stimulus processing, and better long-term retention over one whole week. In this fMRI study, we investigated brain activation preceding and during incidental encoding of emotional pictures and on subsequent recognition performance. During fMRI, 24 subjects were exposed to 80 pictures of different emotional valence and subsequently asked to complete an online recognition task one week later. Results indicate that neural activity within the medial temporal lobes during encoding predicts subsequent memory performance. Moreover, a low activity of the default mode network preceding incidental encoding leads to slightly better recognition performance independent of the emotional perception of a picture. The findings indicate that the suppression of internally-oriented thoughts leads to a more comprehensive and thorough evaluation of a stimulus and its emotional valence. Reduced activation of the DMN prior to stimulus onset is associated with deeper encoding and enhanced consolidation and retrieval performance even one week later. Even small prestimulus lapses of attention influence consolidation and subsequent recognition performance. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Attention promotes episodic encoding by stabilizing hippocampal representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aly, Mariam; Turk-Browne, Nicholas B.

    2016-01-01

    Attention influences what is later remembered, but little is known about how this occurs in the brain. We hypothesized that behavioral goals modulate the attentional state of the hippocampus to prioritize goal-relevant aspects of experience for encoding. Participants viewed rooms with paintings, attending to room layouts or painting styles on different trials during high-resolution functional MRI. We identified template activity patterns in each hippocampal subfield that corresponded to the attentional state induced by each task. Participants then incidentally encoded new rooms with art while attending to the layout or painting style, and memory was subsequently tested. We found that when task-relevant information was better remembered, the hippocampus was more likely to have been in the correct attentional state during encoding. This effect was specific to the hippocampus, and not found in medial temporal lobe cortex, category-selective areas of the visual system, or elsewhere in the brain. These findings provide mechanistic insight into how attention transforms percepts into memories. PMID:26755611

  7. The influence of encoding strategy on episodic memory and cortical activity in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonner-Jackson, Aaron; Haut, Kristen; Csernansky, John G; Barch, Deanna M

    2005-07-01

    Recent work suggests that episodic memory deficits in schizophrenia may be related to disturbances of encoding or retrieval. Schizophrenia patients appear to benefit from instruction in episodic memory strategies. We tested the hypothesis that providing effective encoding strategies to schizophrenia patients enhances encoding-related brain activity and recognition performance. Seventeen schizophrenia patients and 26 healthy comparison subjects underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging scans while performing incidental encoding tasks of words and faces. Subjects were required to make either deep (abstract/concrete) or shallow (alphabetization) judgments for words and deep (gender) judgments for faces, followed by subsequent recognition tests. Schizophrenia and comparison subjects recognized significantly more words encoded deeply than shallowly, activated regions in inferior frontal cortex (Brodmann area 45/47) typically associated with deep and successful encoding of words, and showed greater left frontal activation for the processing of words compared with faces. However, during deep encoding and material-specific processing (words vs. faces), participants with schizophrenia activated regions not activated by control subjects, including several in prefrontal cortex. Our findings suggest that a deficit in use of effective strategies influences episodic memory performance in schizophrenia and that abnormalities in functional brain activation persist even when such strategies are applied.

  8. Intentional Learning Vs Incidental Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Shahbaz Ahmed

    2017-01-01

    This study is conducted to demonstrate the knowledge of intentional learning and incidental learning. Hypothesis of this experiment is intentional learning is better than incidental learning, participants were demonstrated and were asked to learn the 10 non sense syllables in a specific sequence from the colored cards in the end they were asked to recall the background color of each card instead of non-sense syllables. Independent variables of the experiment are the colored cards containing n...

  9. Effects of attention during encoding on sex differences in object location memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barel, Efrat

    2018-04-16

    Attention plays a key role in memory processes and has been widely studied in various memory tasks. The role of attention in sex differences in object location memory is not clearly understood. In the present study, two experiments involving 186 participants and using an object array presented on paper were conducted to examine two encoding conditions: incidental and intentional. In each experiment, the participants were randomly assigned to divided versus full attention conditions. In the first experiment, which involved incidental encoding, women outperformed men in memorising location-exchanged objects in both the full and in the divided attention condition. In the second experiment, which involved intentional encoding, women outperformed men in memorising location-exchanged objects in the full attention condition, but not the divided attention condition. These findings deepen our knowledge regarding the role of attention in object location memory, specifically in terms of the conditions under which females have an advantage for detecting changes in an array of objects. © 2018 International Union of Psychological Science.

  10. The self-pleasantness judgment modulates the encoding performance and the Default Mode Network activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perrone-Bertolotti eMarcela

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI study, we evaluated the effect of self-relevance on cerebral activity and behavioral performance during an incidental encoding task. Recent findings suggest that pleasantness judgments reliably induce self-oriented (internal thoughts and increase default mode network (DMN activity. We hypothesized that this increase in DMN activity would relate to increased memory recognition for pleasantly-judged stimuli (which depend on internally-oriented attention but decreased recognition for unpleasantly-judged items (which depend on externally-oriented attention. To test this hypothesis, brain activity was recorded from 21 healthy participants while they performed a pleasantness judgment requiring them to rate visual stimuli as pleasant or unpleasant. One hour later, participants performed a surprise memory recognition test outside of the scanner. Thus, we were able to evaluate the effects of pleasant and unpleasant judgments on cerebral activity and incidental encoding. The behavioral results showed that memory recognition was better for items rated as pleasant than items rated as unpleasant. The whole brain analysis indicated that successful encoding activates the inferior frontal and lateral temporal cortices, whereas unsuccessful encoding recruits two key medial posterior DMN regions, the posterior cingulate cortex and precuneus. A region of interest analysis including classic DMN areas, revealed significantly greater involvement of the medial Prefrontal Cortex in pleasant compared to unpleasant judgments, suggesting this region’s involvement in self-referential (i.e., internal processing. This area may be responsible for the greater recognition performance seen for pleasant stimuli. Furthermore, a significant interaction between the encoding performance (successful vs. unsuccessful and pleasantness was observed for the posterior cingulate cortex, precuneus and inferior frontal gyrus. Overall, our

  11. To boost or to CRUNCH? Effect of effortful encoding on episodic memory in older adults is dependent on executive functioning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Fu

    Full Text Available It is essential to develop effective interventions aimed at ameliorating age-related cognitive decline. Previous studies found that effortful encoding benefits episodic memory in older adults. However, to date it is unclear whether this benefit is different for individuals with strong versus weak executive functioning (EF. Fifty-one older adults were recruited and divided into low (N = 26 and high (N = 25 functioning groups, based on their EF capacity. All participants performed a semantic and a perceptual incidental encoding task. Each encoding task was performed under four difficulty levels to establish different effort levels. Encoding was followed by a recognition task. Results showed that the high EF group benefitted from increased effort in both tasks. However, the low EF group only showed a beneficial effect under low levels of effort. Results are consistent with the Compensation-Related Utilization of Neural Circuits Hypothesis (CRUNCH and suggest that future research directed at developing efficient memory strategies to reduce negative cognitive aging effects should take individual cognitive differences among older adults into account, such as differences in EF.

  12. The role of verbal and pictorial information in multimodal incidental acquisition of foreign language vocabulary

    OpenAIRE

    Bisson, Marie-Josée; Van Heuven, Walter J.B.; Conklin, Kathy; Tunney, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    This study used eye tracking to investigate the allocation of attention to multimodal stimuli during an incidental learning situation, as well as its impact on subsequent explicit learning. Participants were exposed to foreign language (FL) auditory words on their own, in conjunction with written native language (NL) translations, or with both written NL translations and pictures. Incidental acquisition of FL words was assessed the following day through an explicit learning task where partici...

  13. Incidental findings in musculoskeletal radiology; Zufallsbefunde in der muskuloskeletalen Radiologie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wuennemann, F.; Rehnitz, C.; Weber, M.A. [Universitaetsklinikum Heidelberg, Klinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2017-04-15

    Increasing numbers of conventional X-rays, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging in the inpatient, outpatient and scientific routine leads to an increasing number of incidental findings. The correct interpretation of these incidental findings with respect to the relevance and the evaluation concerning further work-up is an important task of radiologists. Description of common incidental findings in musculoskeletal imaging and their clinical classification. A PubMed literature search was performed using the following terms: incidental findings, population-based imaging, musculoskeletal imaging, non-ossifying fibroma, enchondroma, osteodystrophia deformans, chondrosarcoma, fibrous dysplasia, simple bone cyst, unicameral bone cyst, solitary bone cyst, aneurysmal bone cyst, vertebral hemangioma, bone island, osteopoikilosis, Tarlov cyst and diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH). Incidental findings are observed in up to 40% of imaging procedures. In up to 6% these incidental findings involve the skeletal system. Common incidental findings are discussed and their clinical relevance is explained. (orig.) [German] Mit steigender Menge an konventionellen Roentgen- sowie CT- und MRT-Bildern im stationaeren, ambulanten und wissenschaftlichen Alltag steigt unweigerlich auch die Zahl der Zufallsbefunde. Die korrekte Einordnung bzgl. deren Relevanz, ob eine weitere Abklaerung notwendig ist oder nicht, stellt eine wichtige Aufgabe des Radiologen dar. Vorstellung haeufiger Zufallsbefunde des muskuloskeletalen Systems und deren klinische Einordnung. Pubmed-Literaturrecherche zu den Stichworten ''incidental findings'', ''population-based imaging'', ''musculoskeletal imaging'', ''non-ossifying fibroma'', ''enchondroma'', ''osteodysthrophia deformans'', ''chondrosarcoma'', ''fibrous dysplasia'', &apos

  14. Mental rotation impairs attention shifting and short-term memory encoding: neurophysiological evidence against the response-selection bottleneck model of dual-task performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pannebakker, M.M.; van Dam, W.O.; Band, G.P.H.; Ridderinkhof, K.R.; Hommel, B.

    2011-01-01

    Dual tasks and their associated delays have often been used to examine the boundaries of processing in the brain. We used the dual-task procedure and recorded event-related potentials (ERPs) to investigate how mental rotation of a first stimulus (S1) influences the shifting of visual-spatial

  15. Interaction between attentional systems and episodic memory encoding: the impact of conflict on binding of information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperduti, Marco; Armougum, Allan; Makowski, Dominique; Blondé, Philippe; Piolino, Pascale

    2017-12-01

    Episodic memory (EM) is defined as a long-term memory system that stores information that can be retrieved along with details of the context of the original events (binding). Several studies have shown that manipulation of attention during encoding can impact subsequent memory performance. An influential model of attention distinguishes between three partially independent attentional networks: the alerting, the orienting and the executive or conflict resolution component. To date, the impact of the engagement of these sub-systems during encoding on item and relational context binding has not been investigated. Here, we developed a new task combining the Attentional Network Test and an incidental episodic memory encoding task to study this issue. We reported that when the alerting network was not solicited, resolving conflict hindered item encoding. Moreover, resolving conflict, independently of the cueing condition, had a negative impact on context binding. These novel findings could have a potential impact in the understanding EM formation, and memory disorders in different populations, including healthy elderly people.

  16. Attending Globally or Locally: Incidental Learning of Optimal Visual Attention Allocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Melissa R.; Goldstein, Rebecca R.; van Lamsweerde, Amanda E.; Ericson, Justin M.

    2018-01-01

    Attention allocation determines the information that is encoded into memory. Can participants learn to optimally allocate attention based on what types of information are most likely to change? The current study examined whether participants could incidentally learn that changes to either high spatial frequency (HSF) or low spatial frequency (LSF)…

  17. Effect of post-encoding emotion on recollection and familiarity for pictures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bo; Ren, Yanju

    2017-07-01

    Although prior studies have examined the effect of post-encoding emotional arousal on recognition memory for words, it is unknown whether the enhancement effect observed on words generalizes to pictures. Furthermore, prior studies using words have showed that the effect of emotional arousal can be modulated by stimuli valence and delay in emotion induction, but it is unclear whether such modulation can extend to pictures and whether other factors such as encoding method (incidental vs. intentional encoding) can be modulatory. Five experiments were conducted to answer these questions. In Experiment 1, participants encoded a list of neutral and negative pictures and then watched a 3-min neutral or negative video. The delayed test showed that negative arousal impaired recollection regardless of picture valence but had no effect on familiarity. Experiment 2 replicated the above findings. Experiment 3 was similar to Experiment 1 except that participants watched a 3-min neutral, negative, or positive video and conducted free recall before the recognition test. Unlike the prior two experiments, the impairment effect of negative arousal disappeared. Experiment 4, where the free recall task was eliminated, replicated the results from Experiment 3. Experiment 5 replicated Experiments 1 and 2 and further showed that the impairment effects of negative arousal could be modulated by delay in emotion induction but not by encoding method or stimuli valence. Taken together, the current study suggests that the enhancement effect observed on words may not generalize to pictures.

  18. Fragments of a larger whole: retrieval cues constrain observed neural correlates of memory encoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otten, Leun J

    2007-09-01

    Laying down a new memory involves activity in a number of brain regions. Here, it is shown that the particular regions associated with successful encoding depend on the way in which memory is probed. Event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging signals were acquired while subjects performed an incidental encoding task on a series of visually presented words denoting objects. A recognition memory test using the Remember/Know procedure to separate responses based on recollection and familiarity followed 1 day later. Critically, half of the studied objects were cued with a corresponding spoken word, and half with a corresponding picture. Regardless of cue, activity in prefrontal and hippocampal regions predicted subsequent recollection of a word. Type of retrieval cue modulated activity in prefrontal, temporal, and parietal cortices. Words subsequently recognized on the basis of a sense of familiarity were at study also associated with differential activity in a number of brain regions, some of which were probe dependent. Thus, observed neural correlates of successful encoding are constrained by type of retrieval cue, and are only fragments of all encoding-related neural activity. Regions exhibiting cue-specific effects may be sites that support memory through the degree of overlap between the processes engaged during encoding and those engaged during retrieval.

  19. The role of verbal and pictorial information in multimodal incidental acquisition of foreign language vocabulary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisson, Marie-Josée; van Heuven, Walter J B; Conklin, Kathy; Tunney, Richard J

    2015-01-01

    This study used eye tracking to investigate the allocation of attention to multimodal stimuli during an incidental learning situation, as well as its impact on subsequent explicit learning. Participants were exposed to foreign language (FL) auditory words on their own, in conjunction with written native language (NL) translations, or with both written NL translations and pictures. Incidental acquisition of FL words was assessed the following day through an explicit learning task where participants learned to recognize translation equivalents, as well as one week later through recall and translation recognition tests. Results showed higher accuracy scores in the explicit learning task for FL words presented with meaning during incidental learning, whether written meaning or both written meaning and picture, than for FL words presented auditorily only. However, participants recalled significantly more FL words after a week delay if they had been presented with a picture during incidental learning. In addition, the time spent looking at the pictures during incidental learning significantly predicted recognition and recall scores one week later. Overall, results demonstrated the impact of exposure to multimodal stimuli on subsequent explicit learning, as well as the important role that pictorial information can play in incidental vocabulary acquisition.

  20. Displacement encoder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hesketh, T.G.

    1983-01-01

    In an optical encoder, light from an optical fibre input A is encoded by means of the encoding disc and is subsequently collected for transmission via optical fibre B. At some point in the optical path between the fibres A and B, the light is separated into component form by means of a filtering or dispersive system and each colour component is associated with a respective one of the coding channels of the disc. In this way, the significance of each bit of the coded information is represented by a respective colour thereby enabling the components to be re-combined for transmission by the fibre B without loss of information. (author)

  1. Controlled encoding strategies in memory tests in lithium patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opgenoorth, E; Karlick-Bolten, E

    1986-03-01

    The "levels of processing" theory (Craik and Lockhart) and "dual coding" theory (Paivio) provide new aspects for clinical memory research work. Therefore, an incidental learning paradigm on the basis of these two theoretical approaches was chosen to test aspects of memory performances with lithium therapy. Results of two experiments, with controlled non-semantic processing (rating experiment "comparison of size") and additive semantic processing (rating "living--non-living") indicate a slight reduction in recall (Fig. 1) and recognition performance (Fig. 2) in lithium patients. Effects on encoding strategies are of equal quality in patients and healthy subjects (Tab. 1, 2) but performance differs between both groups: poorer systematic benefit from within code repetitions ("word-word" items, "picture-picture" items) and dual coding (repeated variable item presentation "picture-word") is obtained. The less efficient encoding strategies in the speeded task are discussed with respect to cognitive rigidity and slowing of performance by emotional states. This investigation of so-called "memory deficits" with lithium is an attempt to explore impairments at an early stage of processing; the characterization of the perceptual cognitive analysis seems useful for further clinical research work on this topic.

  2. 78 FR 33357 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-04

    ... confidence in these values is unknown. Table 3--Marine Mammal Density Estimates Density Species (animals/km\\2... unintentional taking of marine animals occurring incidental to the shock testing which involved large explosives... Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Conducting...

  3. Mental rotation impairs attention shifting and short-term memory encoding: neurophysiological evidence against the response-selection bottleneck model of dual-task performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pannebakker, Merel M; Jolicœur, Pierre; van Dam, Wessel O; Band, Guido P H; Ridderinkhof, K Richard; Hommel, Bernhard

    2011-09-01

    Dual tasks and their associated delays have often been used to examine the boundaries of processing in the brain. We used the dual-task procedure and recorded event-related potentials (ERPs) to investigate how mental rotation of a first stimulus (S1) influences the shifting of visual-spatial attention to a second stimulus (S2). Visual-spatial attention was monitored by using the N2pc component of the ERP. In addition, we examined the sustained posterior contralateral negativity (SPCN) believed to index the retention of information in visual short-term memory. We found modulations of both the N2pc and the SPCN, suggesting that engaging mechanisms of mental rotation impairs the deployment of visual-spatial attention and delays the passage of a representation of S2 into visual short-term memory. Both results suggest interactions between mental rotation and visual-spatial attention in capacity-limited processing mechanisms indicating that response selection is not pivotal in dual-task delays and all three processes are likely to share a common resource like executive control. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The influence of encoding intention on electrophysiological indices of recognition memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hooff, Johanna Catharina

    2005-04-01

    The main aim of this study was to further specify the encoding and retrieval conditions that determine the success of an ERP-based memory assessment procedure, originally derived from lie detection studies. We examined whether event-related brain potentials (ERPs) recorded during successful and unsuccessful retrieval would vary according to intentional (study) and incidental (repetition) encoding conditions. Participants (N=20) were asked to indicate recognition of previously studied words (learned targets, p=0.2) and words that were used as distractors in a preceding recognition task (repeated targets, p=0.2). Words that were recognised elicited a P3 component, which was largely absent for new words and words that failed to be recognised. Encoding intention was found to increase the P3 amplitude slightly but had no influence on P3 scalp distribution, suggesting that the differently encoded targets were similarly processed during retrieval but to a different extent. The amplitude difference was explained in terms of variance in memory trace strength and decision confidence. With respect to negative findings for repeated items in our earlier study (Van Hooff, J.C., Golden, S. 2002. Validation of an event-related potential memory assessment procedure: Intentional learning as opposed to simple repetition. J. Psychophysiol., 16, 12-22.), it was suggested that the instruction to actively retrieve the repeated words was essential for obtaining reliable indications of the presence or absence of weak memory traces.

  5. Selecting Operations for Assembler Encoding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Praczyk

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Assembler Encoding is a neuro-evolutionary method in which a neural network is represented in the form of a simple program called Assembler Encoding Program. The task of the program is to create the so-called Network Definition Matrix which maintains all the information necessary to construct the network. To generate Assembler Encoding Programs and the subsequent neural networks evolutionary techniques are used.
    The performance of Assembler Encoding strongly depends on operations used in Assembler Encoding Programs. To select the most effective operations, experiments in the optimization and the predator-prey problem were carried out. In the experiments, Assembler Encoding Programs equipped with different types of operations were tested. The results of the tests are presented at the end of the paper.

  6. Animation, Incidental Learning, and Continuing Motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieber, Lloyd P.

    1991-01-01

    Effects of animated graphics presentations on incidental learning and the degree to which various computer practice activities contain intrinsically motivating characteristics were studied with 70 fourth graders learning about Newton's laws of motion. Incidental learning occurred without sacrifice of intentional learning. Students were highly…

  7. Prevalence and associated factors of incidentally diagnosed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... prostate specific antigen and Biopsy results were analyzed using STATA 11. The prevalence of incidental prostatic cancer was calculated and logistic regression ... had PSA >10 ng/mL and in total; 33 (21.71%) had incidental prostatic carcinoma. ... prostatectomy for presumed benign prostatic hyperplasia in Tanzania with ...

  8. 47 CFR 15.13 - Incidental radiators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Incidental radiators. 15.13 Section 15.13 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL RADIO FREQUENCY DEVICES General § 15.13 Incidental radiators. Manufacturers of these devices shall employ good engineering practices to minimize the risk of...

  9. Vividness of Visual Imagery and Incidental Recall of Verbal Cues, When Phenomenological Availability Reflects Long-Term Memory Accessibility

    OpenAIRE

    D’Angiulli, Amedeo; Runge, Matthew; Faulkner, Andrew; Zakizadeh, Jila; Chan, Aldrich; Morcos, Selvana

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between vivid visual mental images and unexpected recall (incidental recall) was replicated, refined and extended. In Experiment 1, participants were asked to generate mental images from imagery-evoking verbal-cues (controlled on several verbal properties) and then, on a trial-by-trial basis, rate the vividness of their images; thirty minutes later, participants were surprised with a task requiring free recall of the cues. Higher vividness ratings predicted better incidental ...

  10. The Effect of Incidental Focus on Form on EFL Learners’ Grammatical Accuracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somaieh Abdollahzadeh

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Focus on form instruction is a kind of instruction that draws students, attention to linguistic elements as they arise incidentally in meaning based instruction.  There are different types of focus on form instruction. The present study was designed to investigate the effect of incidental focus on form on grammatical accuracy among Iranian L2 learners. Eighty learners from Sahand language Institute in Miandoab after taking grammatical judgment test which was administered to homogenize them, were placed in two control and experimental groups. Learners in experimental group received feedback through recasting during retelling the reading passage according to principles of Jigsaw task. But learners in control group did not receive any feedback. After treatment, which lasted for eight sessions, post-test was given to both control and experimental groups to observe the difference resulted from the treatment. To be sure about the significance of the difference between post-test means of both groups, a t-test was used. The results at the end supported the hypotheses of the study and positive effect of incidental focus on form on grammatical accuracy of L2 learners. After that, for the purpose of analyzing the effect of incidental focus on form on accuracy of pronouns, tenses, articles and propositions separately, other tests (pronoun, article, tense, proposition tests was given to the learners in both control and experimental groups. The data collected was computed through t-test which revealed that the effect of incidental focus on form on grammatical accuracy of articles is greater than pronouns and tenses but incidental focus on form didn’t have any effect on accuracy of propositions. Pedagogical implications have been discussed. Keywords:  Focus on form, Incidental focus on form, recast, task, Accuracy

  11. Incidentals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The Master-of-Nets Garden has characteristic night scenery. From March 15 to November 20, it is open to visitors in the evenings. Apart from viewing the garden by night, visitors can also enjoy performances full of local color, such as pingtan (story telling and ballad singing in Suzhou dialect), music played on the guzheng (zither-like musical instruments), and Kunqu Opera.

  12. Repetition and brain potentials when recognizing natural scenes: task and emotion differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Margaret M.; Codispoti, Maurizio; Karlsson, Marie; Lang, Peter J.

    2013-01-01

    Repetition has long been known to facilitate memory performance, but its effects on event-related potentials (ERPs), measured as an index of recognition memory, are less well characterized. In Experiment 1, effects of both massed and distributed repetition on old–new ERPs were assessed during an immediate recognition test that followed incidental encoding of natural scenes that also varied in emotionality. Distributed repetition at encoding enhanced both memory performance and the amplitude of an old–new ERP difference over centro-parietal sensors. To assess whether these repetition effects reflect encoding or retrieval differences, the recognition task was replaced with passive viewing of old and new pictures in Experiment 2. In the absence of an explicit recognition task, ERPs were completely unaffected by repetition at encoding, and only emotional pictures prompted a modestly enhanced old–new difference. Taken together, the data suggest that repetition facilitates retrieval processes and that, in the absence of an explicit recognition task, differences in old–new ERPs are only apparent for affective cues. PMID:22842817

  13. Incidental versus non-incidental thyroid carcinoma: Clinical presentation, surgical management and prognosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Sánchez-Migallón, Elena; Flores-Pastor, Benito; Pérez-Guarinos, Carmen Victoria; Miguel-Perelló, Joana; Chaves-Benito, Asunción; Illán-Gómez, Fátima; Carrillo-Alcaraz, Andrés; Aguayo-Albasini, José Luis

    2016-11-01

    Thyroid cancer may be clinically evident as a tumor mass in the neck or as a histopathological incidental finding after thyroid surgery for an apparent benign condition. Our objective was to assess the differences in clinical signs, surgical management, and course between incidental and clinically diagnosed thyroid tumors. A retrospective study was conducted on patients operated on for benign or malignant thyroid disease from January 2000 to March 2014. Among the 1415 patients who underwent any thyroid surgery, 264 neoplasms were found, of which 170 were incidental. A comparison was made of incidental versus non-incidental carcinomas. Among incidental carcinomas, cases whose indication for surgery was Graves' disease were compared to those with multinodular goiter. Incidental carcinomas were in earlier stages and required less aggressive surgery. There were no differences in surgical complications between incidental and clinical tumors, but mortality and relapses were markedly higher in non-incidental cancers (4.4% vs 0% and 13.2% vs 4.8% respectively). Carcinomas developing on Graves' disease showed no differences from all other incidental tumors in terms of complications, mortality, or relapse after surgery. Early stage thyroid cancer has better survival and prognosis after surgical treatment. Copyright © 2016 SEEN. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. Encoding negative events under stress: high subjective arousal is related to accurate emotional memory despite misinformation exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoscheidt, Siobhan M; LaBar, Kevin S; Ryan, Lee; Jacobs, W Jake; Nadel, Lynn

    2014-07-01

    Stress at encoding affects memory processes, typically enhancing, or preserving, memory for emotional information. These effects have interesting implications for eyewitness accounts, which in real-world contexts typically involve encoding an aversive event under stressful conditions followed by potential exposure to misinformation. The present study investigated memory for a negative event encoded under stress and subsequent misinformation endorsement. Healthy young adults participated in a between-groups design with three experimental sessions conducted 48 h apart. Session one consisted of a psychosocial stress induction (or control task) followed by incidental encoding of a negative slideshow. During session two, participants were asked questions about the slideshow, during which a random subgroup was exposed to misinformation. Memory for the slideshow was tested during the third session. Assessment of memory accuracy across stress and no-stress groups revealed that stress induced just prior to encoding led to significantly better memory for the slideshow overall. The classic misinformation effect was also observed - participants exposed to misinformation were significantly more likely to endorse false information during memory testing. In the stress group, however, memory accuracy and misinformation effects were moderated by arousal experienced during encoding of the negative event. Misinformed-stress group participants who reported that the negative slideshow elicited high arousal during encoding were less likely to endorse misinformation for the most aversive phase of the story. Furthermore, these individuals showed better memory for components of the aversive slideshow phase that had been directly misinformed. Results from the current study provide evidence that stress and high subjective arousal elicited by a negative event act concomitantly during encoding to enhance emotional memory such that the most aversive aspects of the event are well remembered and

  15. Renal Myxoma, an Incidental Finding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parth Thakker

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Myxomas are mesenchymal tumors commonly found in the heart and skin. Renal myxomas are rare, having only been documented 14 times. Our case is a 55-year-old woman who presented to our clinic after a right renal mass was incidentally found on CT. Evaluation with MRI showed a mass that appeared to arise from the supero-medial cortex of the right kidney. As the imaging was concerning for renal cell carcinoma, the patient underwent a partial nephrectomy. Microscopic examination showed a well-circumscribed mass with polygonal to spindle-shaped cells in a granular eosinophilic cytoplasm. Immunohistochemical staining for CD-10, Desmin, HMB-45, and Pankeratin were negative.

  16. Impaired memory for material related to a problem solved prior to encoding: suppression at learning or interference at recall?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalczyk, Marek

    2017-07-01

    Earlier research by the author revealed that material encoded incidentally in a speeded affective classification task and related to the demands of a divergent problem tends to be recalled worse in participants who solved the problem prior to encoding than in participants in the control, no-problem condition. The aim of the present experiment was to replicate this effect with a new, size-comparison orienting task, and to test for possible mechanisms of impaired recall. Participants either solved a problem before the orienting task or not, and classified each item in this task either once or three times. There was a reliable effect of impaired recall of problem-related items in the repetition condition, but not in the no-repetition condition. Solving the problem did not influence repetition priming for these items. These results support an account that attributes the impaired recall to inhibitory processes at learning and speak against a proactive interference explanation. However, they can be also accommodated by an account that refers to inefficient context cues and competitor interference at retrieval.

  17. Motivated encoding selectively promotes memory for future inconsequential semantically-related events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyarzún, Javiera P; Packard, Pau A; de Diego-Balaguer, Ruth; Fuentemilla, Lluis

    2016-09-01

    Neurobiological models of long-term memory explain how memory for inconsequential events fades, unless these happen before or after other relevant (i.e., rewarding or aversive) or novel events. Recently, it has been shown in humans that retrospective and prospective memories are selectively enhanced if semantically related events are paired with aversive stimuli. However, it remains unclear whether motivating stimuli, as opposed to aversive, have the same effect in humans. Here, participants performed a three phase incidental encoding task where one semantic category was rewarded during the second phase. A memory test 24h after, but not immediately after encoding, revealed that memory for inconsequential items was selectively enhanced only if items from the same category had been previously, but not subsequently, paired with rewards. This result suggests that prospective memory enhancement of reward-related information requires, like previously reported for aversive memories, of a period of memory consolidation. The current findings provide the first empirical evidence in humans that the effects of motivated encoding are selectively and prospectively prolonged over time. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The Role of Medial Temporal Lobe Regions in Incidental and Intentional Retrieval of Item and Relational Information in Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei-Chun; Giovanello, Kelly S

    2016-06-01

    Considerable neuropsychological and neuroimaging work indicates that the medial temporal lobes are critical for both item and relational memory retrieval. However, there remain outstanding issues in the literature, namely the extent to which medial temporal lobe regions are differentially recruited during incidental and intentional retrieval of item and relational information, and the extent to which aging may affect these neural substrates. The current fMRI study sought to address these questions; participants incidentally encoded word pairs embedded in sentences and incidental item and relational retrieval were assessed through speeded reading of intact, rearranged, and new word-pair sentences, while intentional item and relational retrieval were assessed through old/new associative recognition of a separate set of intact, rearranged, and new word pairs. Results indicated that, in both younger and older adults, anterior hippocampus and perirhinal cortex indexed incidental and intentional item retrieval in the same manner. In contrast, posterior hippocampus supported incidental and intentional relational retrieval in both age groups and an adjacent cluster in posterior hippocampus was recruited during both forms of relational retrieval for older, but not younger, adults. Our findings suggest that while medial temporal lobe regions do not differentiate between incidental and intentional forms of retrieval, there are distinct roles for anterior and posterior medial temporal lobe regions during retrieval of item and relational information, respectively, and further indicate that posterior regions may, under certain conditions, be over-recruited in healthy aging. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Incidental findings on MRI of the spine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamath, S.; Jain, N.; Goyal, N.; Mansour, R. [Department of Radiology, University Hospital of Wales, Cardiff (United Kingdom); Mukherjee, K. [Department of Radiology, University Hospital of Wales, Cardiff (United Kingdom)], E-mail: kausikmukherjee@doctors.org.uk

    2009-04-15

    MRI is widely used as the imaging of choice for spinal disorders and may reveal either a clinically insignificant incidental abnormality or a significant lesion, unrelated to the spine, which may explain the patient's symptoms. This article attempts to establish the importance of such findings and describes a sensible approach to the reporting of MRI examinations of the spine with special attention to the incidental findings commonly encountered. The MRI characteristics of such findings are briefly described.

  20. Emotional arousal and memory after deep encoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leventon, Jacqueline S; Camacho, Gabriela L; Ramos Rojas, Maria D; Ruedas, Angelica

    2018-05-22

    Emotion often enhances long-term memory. One mechanism for this enhancement is heightened arousal during encoding. However, reducing arousal, via emotion regulation (ER) instructions, has not been associated with reduced memory. In fact, the opposite pattern has been observed: stronger memory for emotional stimuli encoded with an ER instruction to reduce arousal. This pattern may be due to deeper encoding required by ER instructions. In the current research, we examine the effects of emotional arousal and deep-encoding on memory across three studies. In Study 1, adult participants completed a writing task (deep-encoding) for encoding negative, neutral, and positive picture stimuli, whereby half the emotion stimuli had the ER instruction to reduce the emotion. Memory was strong across conditions, and no memory enhancement was observed for any condition. In Study 2, adult participants completed the same writing task as Study 1, as well as a shallow-encoding task for one-third of negative, neutral, and positive trials. Memory was strongest for deep vs. shallow encoding trials, with no effects of emotion or ER instruction. In Study 3, adult participants completed a shallow-encoding task for negative, neutral, and positive stimuli, with findings indicating enhanced memory for negative emotional stimuli. Findings suggest that deep encoding must be acknowledged as a source of memory enhancement when examining manipulations of emotion-related arousal. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Mixed-handedness advantages in episodic memory obtained under conditions of intentional learning extend to incidental learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christman, Stephen D; Butler, Michael

    2011-10-01

    The existence of handedness differences in the retrieval of episodic memories is well-documented, but virtually all have been obtained under conditions of intentional learning. Two experiments are reported that extend the presence of such handedness differences to memory retrieval under conditions of incidental learning. Experiment 1 used Craik and Tulving's (1975) classic levels-of-processing paradigm and obtained handedness differences under incidental and intentional conditions of deep processing, but not under conditions of shallow incidental processing. Experiment 2 looked at incidental memory for distracter items from a recognition memory task and again found a mixed-handed advantage. Results are discussed in terms of the relation between interhemispheric interaction, levels of processing, and episodic memory retrieval. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Fetal MRI: incidental findings in the mother

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdullah, Selwan B.; Dietz, Kelly R.; Holm, Tara L.

    2016-01-01

    Fetal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a routinely used tool in prenatal diagnosis; however, there is a lack of studies evaluating incidental findings observed in the mother. This study describes and quantifies incidental findings observed in the mother during fetal MRI. We reviewed all fetal MRI studies at the University of Minnesota Medical Center from February 2008 to September 2014. Two pediatric radiologists retrospectively conducted a consensus evaluation. The maternal findings were categorized into neurologic, gynecologic, urinary, gastrointestinal and musculoskeletal. Hydronephrosis consistent with the stage of pregnancy was recorded but was not included as an abnormal finding. Abnormal findings were classified into three groups, depending on their clinical significance: level I (low), level II (medium) and level III (high). We evaluated 332 pregnant patients with a mean age of 29.3 years and a mean gestational age of 29 weeks. Of these, 55.4% had at least 1 incidental finding, for a total of 262 incidental maternal findings. Of the 262 abnormalities, 113 (43.1%) were neurologic, 69 were gynecologic (26.3%), 36 (13.7%) urinary, 24 (9.2%) gastrointestinal and 20 (7.6%) musculoskeletal. Of the 262 incidental findings, 237 (90.5%) were level I, 24 (9.2%) were level II and 1 (0.4%) was level III. Our results suggest that although the vast majority of incidental maternal findings are benign, more significant findings are still encountered and should be expected. (orig.)

  3. Fetal MRI: incidental findings in the mother

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdullah, Selwan B. [University of Maryland Medical Center, Diagnostic Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States); University of Minnesota, Medical School, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Dietz, Kelly R.; Holm, Tara L. [University of Minnesota, Department of Radiology, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    2016-11-15

    Fetal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a routinely used tool in prenatal diagnosis; however, there is a lack of studies evaluating incidental findings observed in the mother. This study describes and quantifies incidental findings observed in the mother during fetal MRI. We reviewed all fetal MRI studies at the University of Minnesota Medical Center from February 2008 to September 2014. Two pediatric radiologists retrospectively conducted a consensus evaluation. The maternal findings were categorized into neurologic, gynecologic, urinary, gastrointestinal and musculoskeletal. Hydronephrosis consistent with the stage of pregnancy was recorded but was not included as an abnormal finding. Abnormal findings were classified into three groups, depending on their clinical significance: level I (low), level II (medium) and level III (high). We evaluated 332 pregnant patients with a mean age of 29.3 years and a mean gestational age of 29 weeks. Of these, 55.4% had at least 1 incidental finding, for a total of 262 incidental maternal findings. Of the 262 abnormalities, 113 (43.1%) were neurologic, 69 were gynecologic (26.3%), 36 (13.7%) urinary, 24 (9.2%) gastrointestinal and 20 (7.6%) musculoskeletal. Of the 262 incidental findings, 237 (90.5%) were level I, 24 (9.2%) were level II and 1 (0.4%) was level III. Our results suggest that although the vast majority of incidental maternal findings are benign, more significant findings are still encountered and should be expected. (orig.)

  4. The Role of Repeated Exposure to Multimodal Input in Incidental Acquisition of Foreign Language Vocabulary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisson, Marie-Josée; van Heuven, Walter J B; Conklin, Kathy; Tunney, Richard J

    2014-12-01

    Prior research has reported incidental vocabulary acquisition with complete beginners in a foreign language (FL), within 8 exposures to auditory and written FL word forms presented with a picture depicting their meaning. However, important questions remain about whether acquisition occurs with fewer exposures to FL words in a multimodal situation and whether there is a repeated exposure effect. Here we report a study where the number of exposures to FL words in an incidental learning phase varied between 2, 4, 6, and 8 exposures. Following the incidental learning phase, participants completed an explicit learning task where they learned to recognize written translation equivalents of auditory FL word forms, half of which had occurred in the incidental learning phase. The results showed that participants performed better on the words they had previously been exposed to, and that this incidental learning effect occurred from as little as 2 exposures to the multimodal stimuli. In addition, repeated exposure to the stimuli was found to have a larger impact on learning during the first few exposures and decrease thereafter, suggesting that the effects of repeated exposure on vocabulary acquisition are not necessarily constant.

  5. Incidental gallbladder cancer: what management?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidi Mohammed Bouchentouf

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Gallbladder cancer (GBC represents 3.8% of all gastrointestinal cancers and usually known to be of a poor prognosis. In 0.2–2.9% of cases, this cancer is found in cholecystectomy specimens. A better understanding of spread mode of this tumor helps a better surgical management. The aim of the present review is to underline the management of GBC based on the comprehension of risk factors and anatomic features. A Medline, PubMed database search was performed to identify articles published from 2000 to 2011 using the keywords ‘carcinoma of gallbladder’, ‘incidental gallbladder cancer’, ‘gallbladder neoplasm’ and ‘cholecystectomy’. Some pathological situations such as chronic lithiasis and biliopancreatic junction abnormalities have been clearly identified as predisposing to GBC. Laparoscopy increases peritoneal and parietal tumor dissemination, thus, it should not be performed when GBC is suspected. Most determinant prognostic factors are nodal, perineural and venous involvement, invasion of the cystic duct and the tumor differentiation. The simple cholecystectomy is sufficient for tumors classified as T1a; for other cancers exceeding the muscularis, radical re-resection is required due to the high risk of recurrence. This aggressive surgery improved the overall survival of patients. There is still no standard adjuvant treatment; patients should be included in prospective trials.

  6. The spacing effect in intentional and incidental free recall by children and adults: Limits on the automaticity hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toppino, Thomas C; Fearnow-Kenney, Melodie D; Kiepert, Marissa H; Teremula, Amanda C

    2009-04-01

    Preschoolers, elementary school children, and college students exhibited a spacing effect in the free recall of pictures when learning was intentional. When learning was incidental and a shallow processing task requiring little semantic processing was used during list presentation, young adults still exhibited a spacing effect, but children consistently failed to do so. Children, however, did manifest a spacing effect in incidental learning when an elaborate semantic processing task was used. These results limit the hypothesis that the spacing effect in free recall occurs automatically and constrain theoretical accounts of why the spacing between repetitions affects recall performance.

  7. Study-Test Congruency Affects Encoding-Related Brain Activity for Some but Not All Stimulus Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauch, Eva M.; Otten, Leun J.

    2012-01-01

    Memory improves when encoding and retrieval processes overlap. Here, we investigated how the neural bases of long-term memory encoding vary as a function of the degree to which functional processes engaged at study are engaged again at test. In an incidental learning paradigm, electrical brain activity was recorded from the scalps of healthy…

  8. Sources Of Incidental Events In Collective Water Supply System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szpak Dawid

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The publication presents the main types of incidental events in collective water supply system. The special attention was addressed to the incidental events associated with a decrease in water quality, posing a threat to the health and life of inhabitants. The security method against incidental contamination in the water source was described.

  9. Effects of Gloss Type on Text Recall and Incidental Vocabulary Learning in Mobile-Assisted L2 Listening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çakmak, Fidel; Erçetin, Gülcan

    2018-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of multimedia glosses on text recall and incidental vocabulary learning in a mobile-assisted L2 listening task. A total of 88 participants with a low level of proficiency in English were randomly assigned to one of four conditions that involved single channel (textual-only, pictorial-only) and dual-channel…

  10. Incidental transients problems in reactor. Application examples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marbach, G.

    1988-03-01

    The fast neutron reactor fuel element qualification should be made not only for nominal operation but also for incidental and accidental transients. Different studies and tests permit to bring this justification such as simulation in hot laboratory after irradiation of irradiated pins or specific tests interpretation [fr

  11. Incidental fear cues increase monetary loss aversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulreich, Stefan; Gerhardt, Holger; Heekeren, Hauke R

    2016-04-01

    In many everyday decisions, people exhibit loss aversion-a greater sensitivity to losses relative to gains of equal size. Loss aversion is thought to be (at least partly) mediated by emotional--in particular, fear-related--processes. Decision research has shown that even incidental emotions, which are unrelated to the decision at hand, can influence decision making. The effect of incidental fear on loss aversion, however, is thus far unclear. In two studies, we experimentally investigated how incidental fear cues, presented during (Study 1) or before (Study 2) choices to accept or reject mixed gambles over real monetary stakes, influence monetary loss aversion. We find that the presentation of fearful faces, relative to the presentation of neutral faces, increased risk aversion-an effect that could be attributed to increased loss aversion. The size of this effect was moderated by psychopathic personality: Fearless dominance, in particular its interpersonal facet, but not self-centered impulsivity, attenuated the effect of incidental fear cues on loss aversion, consistent with reduced fear reactivity. Together, these results highlight the sensitivity of loss aversion to the affective context. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Incidental learning in second language acquisition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulstijn, J.H.; Chapelle, C.A.

    2013-01-01

    The term incidental learning is used, in applied linguistics, to refer to the acquisition of a word or expression without the conscious intention to commit the element to memory, such as "picking up" an unknown word from listening to someone or from reading a text.

  13. Weight and see: Loading working memory improves incidental identification of irrelevant faces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David eCarmel

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Are task-irrelevant stimuli processed to a level enabling individual identification? This question is central both for perceptual processing models and for applied settings (e.g., eyewitness testimony. Lavie’s load theory proposes that working memory actively maintains attentional prioritization of relevant over irrelevant information. Loading working memory thus impairs attentional prioritization, leading to increased processing of task-irrelevant stimuli. Previous research has shown that increased working memory load leads to greater interference effects from response competing distractors. Here we test the novel prediction that increased processing of irrelevant stimuli under high working memory load should lead to a greater likelihood of incidental identification of entirely irrelevant stimuli. To test this, we asked participants to perform a word-categorization task while ignoring task-irrelevant images. The categorization task was performed during the retention interval of a working memory task with either low or high load (defined by memory set size. Following the final experimental trial, a surprise question assessed incidental identification of the irrelevant image. Loading working memory was found to improve identification of task-irrelevant faces, but not of building stimuli (shown in a separate experiment to be less distracting. These findings suggest that working memory plays a critical role in determining whether distracting stimuli will be subsequently identified.

  14. Clinically relevant incidental cardiovascular findings in CT examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voigt, P.; Fahnert, J.; Kahn, T.; Surov, A.; Schramm, D.; Bach, A.G.

    2017-01-01

    Incidental cardiovascular findings are a frequent phenomenon in computed tomography (CT) examinations. As the result of a dedicated PubMed search this article gives a systemic overview of the current literature on the most important incidental cardiovascular findings, their prevalence and clinical relevance. The majority of incidental cardiovascular findings are of only low clinical relevance; however, highly relevant incidental findings, such as aortic aneurysms, thromboses and thromboembolic events can also occasionally be found, especially in oncology patients. The scans from every CT examination should also be investigated for incidental findings as they can be of decisive importance for the further clinical management of patients, depending on their clinical relevance. (orig.) [de

  15. Incidental Cardiac Findings on Thoracic Imaging.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kok, Hong Kuan

    2013-02-07

    The cardiac structures are well seen on nongated thoracic computed tomography studies in the investigation and follow-up of cardiopulmonary disease. A wide variety of findings can be incidentally picked up on careful evaluation of the pericardium, cardiac chambers, valves, and great vessels. Some of these findings may represent benign variants, whereas others may have more profound clinical importance. Furthermore, the expansion of interventional and surgical practice has led to the development and placement of new cardiac stents, implantable pacemaker devices, and prosthetic valves with which the practicing radiologist should be familiar. We present a collection of common incidental cardiac findings that can be readily identified on thoracic computed tomography studies and briefly discuss their clinical relevance.

  16. The control of working memory resources in intentional forgetting: evidence from incidental probe word recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fawcett, Jonathan M; Taylor, Tracy L

    2012-01-01

    We combined an item-method directed forgetting paradigm with a secondary task requiring a response to discriminate the color of probe words presented 1400 ms, 1800 ms or 2600 ms following each study phase memory instruction. The speed to make the color discrimination was used to assess the cognitive demands associated with instantiating Remember (R) and Forget (F) instructions; incidental memory for probe words was used to assess whether instantiating an F instruction also affects items presented in close temporal proximity. Discrimination responses were slower following F than R instructions at the two longest intervals. Critically, at the 1800 ms interval, incidental probe word recognition was worse following F than R instructions, particularly when the study word was successfully forgotten (as opposed to unintentionally remembered). We suggest that intentional forgetting is an active cognitive process associated with establishing control over the contents of working memory. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. 78 FR 52135 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-22

    ...--Marine Mammal Density Estimates Density Species (animals/km \\2\\) Bottlenose dolphin \\1\\ 0.455 Atlantic... criteria and thresholds in a final rule on the unintentional taking of marine animals occurring incidental... analysis assumed the marine species populations were 100 percent small animals. The criterion with the...

  18. A model for visual memory encoding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolphe Nenert

    Full Text Available Memory encoding engages multiple concurrent and sequential processes. While the individual processes involved in successful encoding have been examined in many studies, a sequence of events and the importance of modules associated with memory encoding has not been established. For this reason, we sought to perform a comprehensive examination of the network for memory encoding using data driven methods and to determine the directionality of the information flow in order to build a viable model of visual memory encoding. Forty healthy controls ages 19-59 performed a visual scene encoding task. FMRI data were preprocessed using SPM8 and then processed using independent component analysis (ICA with the reliability of the identified components confirmed using ICASSO as implemented in GIFT. The directionality of the information flow was examined using Granger causality analyses (GCA. All participants performed the fMRI task well above the chance level (>90% correct on both active and control conditions and the post-fMRI testing recall revealed correct memory encoding at 86.33 ± 5.83%. ICA identified involvement of components of five different networks in the process of memory encoding, and the GCA allowed for the directionality of the information flow to be assessed, from visual cortex via ventral stream to the attention network and then to the default mode network (DMN. Two additional networks involved in this process were the cerebellar and the auditory-insular network. This study provides evidence that successful visual memory encoding is dependent on multiple modules that are part of other networks that are only indirectly related to the main process. This model may help to identify the node(s of the network that are affected by a specific disease processes and explain the presence of memory encoding difficulties in patients in whom focal or global network dysfunction exists.

  19. A model for visual memory encoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nenert, Rodolphe; Allendorfer, Jane B; Szaflarski, Jerzy P

    2014-01-01

    Memory encoding engages multiple concurrent and sequential processes. While the individual processes involved in successful encoding have been examined in many studies, a sequence of events and the importance of modules associated with memory encoding has not been established. For this reason, we sought to perform a comprehensive examination of the network for memory encoding using data driven methods and to determine the directionality of the information flow in order to build a viable model of visual memory encoding. Forty healthy controls ages 19-59 performed a visual scene encoding task. FMRI data were preprocessed using SPM8 and then processed using independent component analysis (ICA) with the reliability of the identified components confirmed using ICASSO as implemented in GIFT. The directionality of the information flow was examined using Granger causality analyses (GCA). All participants performed the fMRI task well above the chance level (>90% correct on both active and control conditions) and the post-fMRI testing recall revealed correct memory encoding at 86.33 ± 5.83%. ICA identified involvement of components of five different networks in the process of memory encoding, and the GCA allowed for the directionality of the information flow to be assessed, from visual cortex via ventral stream to the attention network and then to the default mode network (DMN). Two additional networks involved in this process were the cerebellar and the auditory-insular network. This study provides evidence that successful visual memory encoding is dependent on multiple modules that are part of other networks that are only indirectly related to the main process. This model may help to identify the node(s) of the network that are affected by a specific disease processes and explain the presence of memory encoding difficulties in patients in whom focal or global network dysfunction exists.

  20. Private Arbitration of Incidental Public Law Issues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werlauff, Erik

    2009-01-01

     The article discusses the incidental public law issues which can arise in an arbitration case, e.g. concerning power, heating, natural gas and other public facility legislation, national or Community legal restrictive trade practices law, and rules on state administration approval of the terms...... by arbitration, and where the award is nullifiable only if its findings are in violation of public policy, the ordre public. The article relies on UNCITRAL's Model Arbitration Law, the new Danish arbitration act (DAA), national European case law, and literature and case law of the European Court....

  1. An Incidentally Detected Right Ventricular Pseudoaneurysm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vamsi C. Gaddipati

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Ventricular pseudoaneurysm is an uncommon, potentially fatal complication that has been associated with myocardial infarction, cardiac surgery, chest trauma, and infectious processes. Diagnosis can be challenging, as cases are rare and slowly progressing and typically lack identifiable features on clinical presentation. As a result, advanced imaging techniques have become the hallmark of identification. Ahead, we describe a patient who presents with acute decompensated heart failure and was incidentally discovered to have a large right ventricular pseudoaneurysm that developed following previous traumatic anterior rib fracture.

  2. Incidental nuclear medicine findings affecting patient management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hector, B. M.

    2009-01-01

    Full text:A 62-year-old female patient presenting with flank pain and severe renal failure. Initial imaging modalities were unable to diagnose the cause, however, following a 18F fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) Positron Emission Tomography (PET) scan the patient was diagnosed and staged with Stage III cervical cancer. Stage III cervical cancer is usually treated by a combination of chemotherapy and radiotherapy. An incidental finding of a retroperitoneal urine leak on the PET scan and subsequent MAG-3 renal scan contraindicated the use of chemotherapy as a treatment and therefore severely affected patient management.

  3. Impact of reading purpose on incidental word learning from context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swanborn, MSL; de Glopper, Kees

    Children read texts for various reasons. We examined how reading texts for different purposes affected amounts of incidental word learning. Grade 6 students were asked to read texts for fun, to learn about the topic of the text, and for text comprehension. Proportions of words learned incidentally

  4. Incidental Learning of Gender Agreement in L2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denhovska, Nadiia; Serratrice, Ludovica

    2017-01-01

    Incidental learning of grammar has been an area of interest for many decades; nevertheless, existing research has primarily focused on artificial or semi-artificial languages. The present study examines the incidental acquisition of the grammar of a natural language by exposing adult speakers of an ungendered L1 (English) to the gender agreement…

  5. Differentiating the influence of incidental anger and fear on risk decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qiwei; Zhao, Ding; Wu, Yan; Tang, Ping; Gu, Ruolei; Luo, Yue-Jia

    2018-02-01

    Previous research has revealed that incidental emotions of different valence (positive/negative/neutral) produce distinct impacts on risk decision-making. This study went on to compare the effects of different emotions of which the valence are identical. We focused on anger and fear, both of which are negative emotions but differ in motivational and appraisal dimensions. Participants finished a forced-choice gambling task, during which incidental emotions (anger/fear/happy) were elicited by facial stimuli selected from the Chinese Facial Affective Picture System. Behavioral and event-related potential (ERP) data were recorded in the experiment, which showed that anger and fear were different in their influence on behavioral risk preference and the relationship between outcome processing and subsequent risk decisions. Regarding the behavioral results, risk preference in the anger condition was higher than the fear condition, but lower than the happy condition. Regarding the ERP results elicited by outcome feedback (gain/loss), in the fear condition, the feedback-related negativity (FRN) was positively correlated with risk preference; in the anger condition, the gain-related P3 component was positively correlated with risk preference; in the happy condition, both the FRN and the loss-related P3 was negatively correlated with risk preference. The current findings provide novel insight into distinguishing the effect of different incidental emotions on risk preference. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Encoding the world around us: motor-related processing influences verbal memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madan, Christopher R; Singhal, Anthony

    2012-09-01

    It is known that properties of words such as their imageability can influence our ability to remember those words. However, it is not known if other object-related properties can also influence our memory. In this study we asked whether a word representing a concrete object that can be functionally interacted with (i.e., high-manipulability word) would enhance the memory representations for that item compared to a word representing a less manipulable object (i.e., low-manipulability word). Here participants incidentally encoded high-manipulability (e.g., CAMERA) and low-manipulability words (e.g., TABLE) while making word judgments. Using a between-subjects design, we varied the depth-of-processing involved in the word judgment task: participants judged the words based on personal experience (deep/elaborative processing), word length (shallow), or functionality (intermediate). Participants were able to remember high-manipulability words better than low-manipulability words in both the personal experience and word length groups; thus presenting the first evidence that manipulability can influence memory. However, we observed better memory for low- than high-manipulability words in the functionality group. We explain this surprising interaction between manipulability and memory as being mediated by automatic vs. controlled motor-related cognition. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. 76 FR 41463 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to a...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-14

    ... requirements, many marine animals may need to remain in areas where they are exposed to chronic stimuli... Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to a Marine... Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS). ACTION: Notice; proposed...

  8. Examining the durability of incidentally learned trust from gaze cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strachan, James W A; Tipper, Steven P

    2017-10-01

    In everyday interactions we find our attention follows the eye gaze of faces around us. As this cueing is so powerful and difficult to inhibit, gaze can therefore be used to facilitate or disrupt visual processing of the environment, and when we experience this we infer information about the trustworthiness of the cueing face. However, to date no studies have investigated how long these impressions last. To explore this we used a gaze-cueing paradigm where faces consistently demonstrated either valid or invalid cueing behaviours. Previous experiments show that valid faces are subsequently rated as more trustworthy than invalid faces. We replicate this effect (Experiment 1) and then include a brief interference task in Experiment 2 between gaze cueing and trustworthiness rating, which weakens but does not completely eliminate the effect. In Experiment 3, we explore whether greater familiarity with the faces improves the durability of trust learning and find that the effect is more resilient with familiar faces. Finally, in Experiment 4, we push this further and show that evidence of trust learning can be seen up to an hour after cueing has ended. Taken together, our results suggest that incidentally learned trust can be durable, especially for faces that deceive.

  9. A double dissociation of dorsal and ventral hippocampal function on a learning and memory task mediated by the dorso-lateral striatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Robert J; Jones, Jana; Richards, Blake; Hong, Nancy S

    2006-09-01

    The objectives of this research were to further delineate the neural circuits subserving proposed memory-based behavioural subsystems in the hippocampal formation. These studies were guided by anatomical evidence showing a topographical organization of the hippocampal formation. Briefly, perpendicular to the medial/lateral entorhinal cortex division there is a second system of parallel circuits that separates the dorsal and ventral hippocampus. Recent work from this laboratory has provided evidence that the hippocampus incidentally encodes a context-specific inhibitory association during acquisition of a visual discrimination task. One question that emerges from this dataset is whether the dorsal or ventral hippocampus makes a unique contribution to this newly described function. Rats with neurotoxic lesions of the dorsal or ventral hippocampus were assessed on the acquisition of the visual discrimination task. Following asymptotic performance they were given reversal training in either the same or a different context from the original training. The results showed that the context-specific inhibition effect is mediated by a circuit that includes the ventral but not the dorsal hippocampus. Results from a control procedure showed that rats with either dorso-lateral striatum damage or dorsal hippocampal lesions were impaired on a tactile/spatial discrimination. Taken together, the results represent a double dissociation of learning and memory function between the ventral and dorsal hippocampus. The formation of an incidental inhibitory association was dependent on ventral but not dorsal hippocampal circuitry, and the opposite dependence was found for the spatial component of a tactile/spatial discrimination.

  10. Supporting the self-regulatory resource: does conscious self-regulation incidentally prime nonconscious support processes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorris, Derek C

    2009-11-01

    Ego-depletion (depletion of self-regulatory strength) can impair conscious efforts at self-regulation. Research into nonconscious self-regulation has demonstrated that preconscious automaticity and implementation intentions can automatically carry out regulatory tasks during times of ego-depletion. However, preconscious automaticity can only emerge during well-practiced tasks while implementation intentions can only support tasks that have been explicitly planned. Thus, when it comes to supporting the conscious self-regulation of nonroutine and unplanned behaviour during times of ego-depletion these processes should be ineffective. However, it is argued here that because the conscious self-regulation of nonroutine and unplanned behaviour can incidentally prime the underlying mental representations those primed representations can be postconsciously re-activated to support that behaviour during times of ego-depletion. Postconscious self-regulation might, therefore, support a type of self-regulatory behaviour that has, thus far, not been associated with any form of support.

  11. Indirect Encoding in Neuroevolutionary Ship Handling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslaw Lacki

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the author compares the efficiency of two encoding schemes for artificial intelligence methods used in the neuroevolutionary ship maneuvering system. This may be also be seen as the ship handling system that simulates a learning process of a group of artificial helmsmen - autonomous control units, created with an artificial neural network. The helmsman observes input signals derived form an enfironment and calculates the values of required parameters of the vessel maneuvering in confined waters. In neuroevolution such units are treated as individuals in population of artificial neural networks, which through environmental sensing and evolutionary algorithms learn to perform given task efficiently. The main task of this project is to evolve a population of helmsmen with indirect encoding and compare results of simulation with direct encoding method.

  12. Management of an incidentally discovered pulmonary nodule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beigelman-Aubry, Catherine; Hill, Catherine; Grenier, Philippe A.

    2007-01-01

    The incidental finding of a pulmonary nodule on computed tomography (CT) is becoming an increasingly frequent event. The discovery of such a nodule should evoke the possibility of a small bronchogenic carcinoma, for which excision is indicated without delay. However, invasive diagnostic procedures should be avoided in the case of a benign lesion. The objectives of this review article are: (1) to analyze the CT criteria defining benign nodules, nodules of high suspicion of malignancy and indeterminate nodules, (2) to analyze the diagnostic performances and limitations of complementary investigations requested to characterize indeterminate lung nodules, (3) to review the criteria permitting to assess the probability of malignancy of indeterminate nodules and (4) to report on the new guidelines provided by the Fleischner Society for the management of small indeterminate pulmonary nodules, according to their prior probability of malignancy. (orig.)

  13. Autosomal-dominant osteopetrosis: An incidental finding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajathi Maria

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Osteopetrosis is a descriptive term that refers to a group of rare, heritable disorders of the skeleton. Osteopetrotic conditions vary greatly in their presentation and severity, from just as an incidental finding on radiographs to causing life-threatening complications such as bone marrow suppression. It is caused by failure of osteoclast development and function. Osteopetrosis can be inherited as autosomal-recessive, autosomal-dominant or as X-linked traits, with the most severe forms being the autosomal-recessive ones. The severity of the disease is mild to moderate in the autosomal-dominant forms, with normal life expectancy. Diagnosis is largely based on clinical and radiographic evaluation. The present paper reports a case of autosomal-dominant osteopetrosis complicated by osteomyelitis with a short review of the condition.

  14. Incidental bony pathology when reporting trauma orthopantomograms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macanovic, M.; Gangidi, S.; Porter, G.; Brown, S.; Courtney, D.; Porter, J.

    2010-01-01

    Radiologists frequently report orthopantomograms (OPTs) and other views of the mandible, most often in patients who have suffered facial trauma. These examinations may reveal incidental pathology. It is important that radiologists are aware of the radiological appearances and the clinical significance of these lesions. In this review we will present examples of the more common odontogenic lesions including: radicular cyst, odontogenic keratocyst, dentigerous cyst, ameloblastoma, and also examples of non-odontogenic pathology: bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (BRONJ) and chronic osteomyelitis. Although some of the lesions will require computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for further lesion characterization and evaluation of the surrounding tissues, we are going to focus on the plain film appearances. We will also briefly discuss the pathogenesis, epidemiology, and treatment of these lesions.

  15. Incidental bony pathology when reporting trauma orthopantomograms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macanovic, M., E-mail: mladenmaca@gmail.co [Derriford Hospital NHS Trust, Plymouth (United Kingdom); Gangidi, S.; Porter, G.; Brown, S.; Courtney, D. [Derriford Hospital NHS Trust, Plymouth (United Kingdom); Porter, J. [Community Dental Service, Plymouth Primary Care Trust, Plymouth, Devon (United Kingdom)

    2010-10-15

    Radiologists frequently report orthopantomograms (OPTs) and other views of the mandible, most often in patients who have suffered facial trauma. These examinations may reveal incidental pathology. It is important that radiologists are aware of the radiological appearances and the clinical significance of these lesions. In this review we will present examples of the more common odontogenic lesions including: radicular cyst, odontogenic keratocyst, dentigerous cyst, ameloblastoma, and also examples of non-odontogenic pathology: bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (BRONJ) and chronic osteomyelitis. Although some of the lesions will require computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for further lesion characterization and evaluation of the surrounding tissues, we are going to focus on the plain film appearances. We will also briefly discuss the pathogenesis, epidemiology, and treatment of these lesions.

  16. Renal cell carcinoma: incidental detection and pathological staging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siow, W Y; Yip, S K; Ng, L G; Tan, P H; Cheng, W S; Foo, K T

    2000-10-01

    In developed countries, there has been increased incidental detection of renal cell carcinoma (RCC). The incidence, pathological stage and survival of incidentally detected carcinoma in a developing country in Asia where, from 1990 to 1998, 165 renal cell carcinomas were identified. The clinical presentation, diagnostic-imaging modality employed, pathological staging and patient survival was reviewed. Incidental renal cancers included those that were diagnosed through health screening or detected incidentally through imaging studies for other conditions. The survival between these incidentally detected lesions and their symptomatic counterparts (suspected group) was compared. Sixty-four patients (39%) had their tumours detected incidentally, including 39 who were entirely asymptomatic and 25 who presented with non-specific symptoms, not initially suggestive of RCC. For the entire group, computed tomography provided the definitive diagnosis in 81% of cases. The incidental detection group had significantly smaller size of tumour (5.9 cm c.f. 7.6 cm), lower stage and lower histological grading. In particular, 78% of patients with incidental RCC had stage I or II diseases (TNM stage classification), compared with 57% of patients with suspected tumour (p c.f. 66% at last follow up; p < 0.05; log-rank test) over a mean follow up period of 33 months (range 1-91). Regression analysis showed that stage of disease was the only independent variable predictive of clinical outcome. In conclusion, that significant numbers of RCC were detected incidentally. These tumours were of a lower clinical pathological stage and had a better prognosis.

  17. Incidental findings in youths volunteering for brain MRI research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gur, R E; Kaltman, D; Melhem, E R; Ruparel, K; Prabhakaran, K; Riley, M; Yodh, E; Hakonarson, H; Satterthwaite, T; Gur, R C

    2013-10-01

    MRIs are obtained in research in healthy and clinical populations, and incidental findings have been reported. Most studies have examined adults with variability in parameters of image acquisition and clinical measures available. We conducted a prospective study of youths and documented the frequency and concomitants of incidental findings. Youths (n = 1400) with an age range from 8-23 years were imaged on the same 3T scanner, with a standard acquisition protocol providing 1.0 mm(3) isotropic resolution of anatomic scans. All scans were reviewed by an experienced board-certified neuroradiologist and were categorized into 3 groups: 1) normal: no incidental findings; 2) coincidental: incidental finding(s) were noted, further reviewed with an experienced pediatric neuroradiologist, but were of no clinical significance; 3) incidental findings that on further review were considered to have potential clinical significance and participants were referred for appropriate clinical follow-up. Overall, 148 incidental findings (10.6% of sample) were noted, and of these, 12 required clinical follow-up. Incidental findings were not related to age. However, whites had a higher incidence of pineal cysts, and males had a higher incidence of cavum septum pellucidum, which was associated with psychosis-related symptoms. Incidental findings, moderated by race and sex, occur in approximately one-tenth of participants volunteering for pediatric research, with few requiring follow-up. The incidence supports a 2-tiered approach of neuroradiologic reading and clinical input to determine the potential significance of incidental findings detected on research MR imaging scans.

  18. ERP Correlates of Encoding Success and Encoding Selectivity in Attention Switching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Nick

    2016-01-01

    Long-term memory encoding depends critically on effective processing of incoming information. The degree to which participants engage in effective encoding can be indexed in electroencephalographic (EEG) data by studying event-related potential (ERP) subsequent memory effects. The current study investigated ERP correlates of memory success operationalised with two different measures—memory selectivity and global memory—to assess whether previously observed ERP subsequent memory effects reflect focused encoding of task-relevant information (memory selectivity), general encoding success (global memory), or both. Building on previous work, the present study combined an attention switching paradigm—in which participants were presented with compound object-word stimuli and switched between attending to the object or the word across trials—with a later recognition memory test for those stimuli, while recording their EEG. Our results provided clear evidence that subsequent memory effects resulted from selective attentional focusing and effective top-down control (memory selectivity) in contrast to more general encoding success effects (global memory). Further analyses addressed the question of whether successful encoding depended on similar control mechanisms to those involved in attention switching. Interestingly, differences in the ERP correlates of attention switching and successful encoding, particularly during the poststimulus period, indicated that variability in encoding success occurred independently of prestimulus demands for top-down cognitive control. These results suggest that while effects of selective attention and selective encoding co-occur behaviourally their ERP correlates are at least partly dissociable. PMID:27907075

  19. Landscape encodings enhance optimization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin Klemm

    Full Text Available Hard combinatorial optimization problems deal with the search for the minimum cost solutions (ground states of discrete systems under strong constraints. A transformation of state variables may enhance computational tractability. It has been argued that these state encodings are to be chosen invertible to retain the original size of the state space. Here we show how redundant non-invertible encodings enhance optimization by enriching the density of low-energy states. In addition, smooth landscapes may be established on encoded state spaces to guide local search dynamics towards the ground state.

  20. Landscape Encodings Enhance Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klemm, Konstantin; Mehta, Anita; Stadler, Peter F.

    2012-01-01

    Hard combinatorial optimization problems deal with the search for the minimum cost solutions (ground states) of discrete systems under strong constraints. A transformation of state variables may enhance computational tractability. It has been argued that these state encodings are to be chosen invertible to retain the original size of the state space. Here we show how redundant non-invertible encodings enhance optimization by enriching the density of low-energy states. In addition, smooth landscapes may be established on encoded state spaces to guide local search dynamics towards the ground state. PMID:22496860

  1. Case Report on Septate Uterus: An Incidental Finding in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Case Report on Septate Uterus: An Incidental Finding in a Multiparous Woman who Had an Emergency Cesarean Section. ... Journal of Basic and Clinical Reproductive Sciences. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search ...

  2. Decoding and Encoding Facial Expressions in Preschool-Age Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuckerman, Miron; Przewuzman, Sylvia J.

    1979-01-01

    Preschool-age children drew, decoded, and encoded facial expressions depicting five different emotions. Accuracy of drawing, decoding and encoding each of the five emotions was consistent across the three tasks; decoding ability was correlated with drawing ability among female subjects, but neither of these abilities was correlated with encoding…

  3. Total sleep deprivation does not significantly degrade semantic encoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honn, K A; Grant, D A; Hinson, J M; Whitney, P; Van Dongen, Hpa

    2018-01-17

    Sleep deprivation impairs performance on cognitive tasks, but it is unclear which cognitive processes it degrades. We administered a semantic matching task with variable stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) and both speeded and self-paced trial blocks. The task was administered at the baseline and 24 hours later after 30.8 hours of total sleep deprivation (TSD) or matching well-rested control. After sleep deprivation, the 20% slowest response times (RTs) were significantly increased. However, the semantic encoding time component of the RTs remained at baseline level. Thus, the performance impairment induced by sleep deprivation on this task occurred in cognitive processes downstream of semantic encoding.

  4. Esplenectomía incidental: ¿Está justificada?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eddy Sierra Enrique

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Se revisaron 77 historias clínicas de pacientes que presentaban lesiones incidentales del bazo ocurridas entre 1985 y 1994, durante operaciones intraabdominales y por examen laparoscópico. Las funciones inmunológicas del bazo y su papel contra las infecciones están bien definidas, por lo cual al ser suprimido este órgano a consecuencia de lesiones incidentales, favorecen las infecciones en dichos pacientes de por vida. De las 77 lesiones incidentales se realizaron 47(61 % esplenectomías incidentales y 30(39 % cirugías conservadoras. La úlcera duodenal y la hernia hiatal son las causas principales de esplenectomía incidental. Se presentaron 11 infecciones (23,4 % y 1 fallecido (2,1 % en la esplenectomía incidental contra 1 infección (3,3 % y ningún fallecido en la cirugía conservadora. Se llega a la conclusión de que la esplenectomía no está justificada dadas las desventajas que presenta77 medical histories of patients who presented incidental injuries of the spleen occurred between 1985 and 1994, during intraabdominal operations and by laparoscopic examination, were reviewed. The immunological functions of the spleen and its role against infections are well defined, so the removal of this organ due to incidental injuries favors the appearance of infections in these patients for the rest of their lives. Of the 77 incidental injuries 47 (61 % incidental splenectomies and 30 (39 % conservative surgeries were performed. Duodenal ulcer and hiatal hernia proved to be the main causes of incidental splenectomy. There were 11 infections (23.4 % and 1 death (2.1 % in the incidental splenectomy compared with 1 infection (3.3 % and no death in the conservative surgery. It is concluded that splenectomy is not justified because of its disadvantages

  5. Incidental mood state before dissonance induction affects attitude change.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Amélie Martinie

    Full Text Available The way that incidental affect impacts attitude change brought about by controlled processes has so far been examined when the incidental affective state is generated after dissonance state induction. We therefore investigated attitude change when the incidental mood occurs prior to dissonance state induction. We expected a negative mood to induce systematic processing, and a positive mood to induce heuristic processing. Given that both systematic processing and attitude change are cognitively costly, we expected participants who experienced the dissonance state in a negative mood to have insufficient resources to allocate to attitude change. In our experiment, after mood induction (negative, neutral or positive, participants were divided into low-dissonance and high-dissonance groups. They then wrote a counterattitudinal essay. Analysis of their attitudes towards the essay topic indicated that attitude change did not occur in the negative incidental mood condition. Moreover, written productivity-one indicator of cognitive resource allocation-varied according to the type of incidental mood, and only predicted attitude change in the high-dissonance group. Our results suggest that incidental mood before dissonance induction influences the style of information processing and, by so doing, affects the extent of attitude change.

  6. Blind encoding into qudits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaari, J.S.; Wahiddin, M.R.B.; Mancini, S.

    2008-01-01

    We consider the problem of encoding classical information into unknown qudit states belonging to any basis, of a maximal set of mutually unbiased bases, by one party and then decoding by another party who has perfect knowledge of the basis. Working with qudits of prime dimensions, we point out a no-go theorem that forbids 'shift' operations on arbitrary unknown states. We then provide the necessary conditions for reliable encoding/decoding

  7. An encoding device and a method of encoding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    The present invention relates to an encoding device, such as an optical position encoder, for encoding input from an object, and a method for encoding input from an object, for determining a position of an object that interferes with light of the device. The encoding device comprises a light source...... in the area in the space and may interfere with the light, which interference may be encoded into a position or activation....

  8. Comparison of explicit and incidental learning strategies in memory-impaired patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Christine N; Urgolites, Zhisen J; Hopkins, Ramona O; Squire, Larry R

    2014-01-07

    Declarative memory for rapidly learned, novel associations is thought to depend on structures in the medial temporal lobe (MTL), whereas associations learned more gradually can sometimes be supported by nondeclarative memory and by structures outside the MTL. A recent study suggested that even rapidly learned associations can be supported by structures outside the MTL when an incidental encoding procedure termed "fast mapping" (FM) is used. We tested six memory-impaired patients with bilateral damage to hippocampus and one patient with large bilateral lesions of the MTL. Participants saw photographs and names of animals, plants, and foods that were previously unfamiliar (e.g., mangosteen). Instead of asking participants to study name-object pairings for a later memory test (as with traditional memory instructions), participants answered questions that allowed them to infer which object corresponded to a particular name. In a second condition, participants learned name-object associations of unfamiliar items by using standard, explicit encoding instructions (e.g., remember the mangosteen). In FM and explicit encoding conditions, patients were impaired (and performed no better than a group that was given the same tests but had not previously studied the material). The same results were obtained in a second experiment that used the same procedures with modifications to allow for more robust learning and more reliable measures of performance. Thus, our results with the FM procedure and memory-impaired patients yielded the same deficits in learning and memory that have been obtained by using other more traditional paradigms.

  9. Divided attention reduces resistance to distraction at encoding but not retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeks, Jennifer C; Hasher, Lynn

    2017-08-01

    Older adults show implicit memory for previously seen distraction, an effect attributed to poor attentional control. It is unclear whether this effect results from lack of control over encoding during the distraction task, lack of retrieval constraint during the test task, or both. In the present study, we simulated poor distraction control in young adults using divided attention at encoding, at retrieval, at both times, or not at all. The encoding task was a 1-back task on pictures with distracting superimposed letter strings, some of which were words. The retrieval task was a word fragment completion task testing implicit memory for the distracting words. Attention was divided using an auditory odd digit detection task. Dividing attention at encoding, but not at retrieval, resulted in significant priming for distraction, which suggests that control over encoding processes is a primary determinant of distraction transfer in populations with low inhibitory control (e.g. older adults).

  10. Dose assessment under incidental and accidental conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huebschmann, W.G.

    1988-01-01

    Dose assessment for the licesing process of a nuclear power plant covers the routine release of radioactive substances into the atmosphere as well as releases due to incidents. Source terms for these incidents are evaluated by the detailed incident analysis of the plant. The types of incidents to be covered are determined in the FRG by the ''Stoerfall-Leitlinien'' of the Ministry of the Interior. The calculation of dose equivalents in the environment of the plant differs from the calculation of doses due to routine releases, as incidents are single events occuring at undeterminate time, and the results must be conservative. Some details are being described. During the operation of the plant it is essential to measure not only the radioactivity release rates but also the necessary meteorological parameters for the instantaneous determination of the atmospheric dispersion in case of incidental or accidental releases of radioactivity. This instantaneous assessment assists in taking measurements of ground contamination and in deciding about countermeasures for the protection of plant personnell and population. (author) [pt

  11. Incidental Vocabulary Learning: A Semantic Field Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvaneh Khosravizadeh

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    This study is an attempt to explore the difference between acquiring new words with different semantic fields to which they belong. In other words, the purpose of this study is to scrutinize the contribution of semantic field theory in learning new vocabulary items in an EFL setting. Thirty-eight students of three different levels of education took part in this research. They were exposed to some new words from four different semantic fields, and then they were tested on their acquisition of the words meaning. This exposure was through reading texts and the aim of reading was just comprehension, therefore the words were acquired incidentally. The outcome showed significant differences between groups with different levels of education regarding retention of words from different semantic fields.

  12. Incidental mastoid opacification in children on MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Sumit; Kuruva, Manohar [University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Pediatric Radiology, Little Rock, AR (United States); Rettiganti, Mallikarjuna Rao [University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences and Arkansas Children' s Hospital Research Institute, Biostatistics Program, Department of Pediatrics, Little Rock, AR (United States); Qin, Curtis [Georgetown University Hospital, Radiology, Washington, DC (United States); Hegde, Shilpa V. [University of Pittsburgh Medical Centre, Section of Neuroradiology, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2016-05-15

    The opacification the mastoid cavity is frequently reported by radiologists on cross-sectional imaging done for non-otological indications. It is well known that presence of fluid the mastoid does not amount to mastoiditis. This study seeks to provide an evidence-based confirmation of this known finding. The purpose of our study was to determine the prevalence of mastoid opacification in children undergoing outpatient brain MRI examination. Our study included 515 outpatient children who had brain MRI for indications other than mastoiditis or otitis media from January 2014 to March 2014. Children with history of skull base trauma or radiation were excluded. The age range was 15 days to 18 years. The overall prevalence of mastoid opacification was determined using one sample proportion and exact 95% Clopper-Pearson confidence intervals. The prevalence of mastoid opacification was analyzed based on gender, age and presenting symptoms using chi-square test of association. One hundred ten children (21.4%) had mastoid opacification. Younger patients tended to have higher opacification rates with the prevalence in children younger than 1 year of age and between 1 and 2 years of age as high as 41.7% (20/48) and 47.5% (38/80), respectively. The diagnosis of mastoiditis in children should not be based upon a radiologist's report of finding fluid or mucosal thickening in the mastoid air cells as incidental opacification the mastoid is seen frequently. (orig.)

  13. Incidental mastoid opacification in children on MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Sumit; Kuruva, Manohar; Rettiganti, Mallikarjuna Rao; Qin, Curtis; Hegde, Shilpa V.

    2016-01-01

    The opacification the mastoid cavity is frequently reported by radiologists on cross-sectional imaging done for non-otological indications. It is well known that presence of fluid the mastoid does not amount to mastoiditis. This study seeks to provide an evidence-based confirmation of this known finding. The purpose of our study was to determine the prevalence of mastoid opacification in children undergoing outpatient brain MRI examination. Our study included 515 outpatient children who had brain MRI for indications other than mastoiditis or otitis media from January 2014 to March 2014. Children with history of skull base trauma or radiation were excluded. The age range was 15 days to 18 years. The overall prevalence of mastoid opacification was determined using one sample proportion and exact 95% Clopper-Pearson confidence intervals. The prevalence of mastoid opacification was analyzed based on gender, age and presenting symptoms using chi-square test of association. One hundred ten children (21.4%) had mastoid opacification. Younger patients tended to have higher opacification rates with the prevalence in children younger than 1 year of age and between 1 and 2 years of age as high as 41.7% (20/48) and 47.5% (38/80), respectively. The diagnosis of mastoiditis in children should not be based upon a radiologist's report of finding fluid or mucosal thickening in the mastoid air cells as incidental opacification the mastoid is seen frequently. (orig.)

  14. Asymptomatic young man with an incidental murmur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shojaeifard, Maryam; Pouraliakbar, Hamid Reza; Houshmand, Golnaz

    2018-05-31

    A 32-year old man was referred to our institution for transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) following detection of an incidental murmur on physical examination before blood donation. He was asymptomatic with no significant medical history. Physical examination revealed dual heart sounds with a grade II/VI systolic murmur heard in the left sternal border. An ECG was in normal sinus rhythm. TTE was performed (figure 1A-C, online supplementary videos 1-4) followed by cardiac CT angiography (CTA) (figure 1D,E).heartjnl;heartjnl-2018-313223v1/F1F1F1Figure 1(A) Transthoracic echocardiography, parasternal left ventricular long axis view. (B) Colour Doppler of modified short axis in the mid-left ventricular level. (C) Doppler flow velocity profile. (D) Cardiac CT angiography (CTA) sagittal reconstruction. (E) Three-dimensional CTA reconstruction of the heart. What is the diagnosis?Pericardial cyst.Ventricular septal defect.Kawasaki.Anomalous left coronary artery from pulmonary artery (ALCAPA). © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  15. The Incidental Acquisition of English Nominal Structures by a Young EFL Learner under Comprehension-based Lessons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhlisin Rasuki

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports incidental acquisition of English nominal structures by a young EFL learner under comprehension-based lessons. The learner was exposed to a series of English sentences containing the target structures through listen-and-do activities. These activities required that the learner select different items based on the instructions given by the researcher. The exposure took place between 40 and 60 minutes in total spread over 3 days. In the fourth day, the learner was asked to give instructions (in English to the researcher to select particular items. The learner’s task performance was then transcribed and analyzed using complexity and accuracy measures. The results indicated that comprehension-based lessons were effective in facilitating incidental acquisition the target structures for the learner.

  16. Incidental extra-mammary findings in breast MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alduk, A.M.; Prutki, M.; Stern-Padovan, R.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the frequency, distribution, and nature of incidental extra-mammary findings detected with breast MRI. Materials and methods: Incidental findings were defined as unexpected lesions outside the breast, not previously known or suspected at the time of referral. Five hundred consecutive breast MRI studies performed from June 2010 to September 2012 were reviewed in this retrospective study for which the institutional review board granted approval and waived the requirement for informed consent. MRI findings were compared with subsequent diagnostic procedures in order to differentiate benign from malignant lesions. Results: One hundred and thirty-eight incidental findings were found in 107 of the 500 (21.4%) examined patients. The most common site was the liver (61/138; 44.2%), followed by the lung (24/138; 17.4%), mediastinum (22/138; 15.9%), pleural cavity (15/138; 10.9%), bone tissue (9/138; 6.5%), spleen (3/138; 2.2%), major pectoral muscle (3/138; 2.2%), and kidney (1/138; 0.7%). Twenty-five of the 138 (18.1%) incidental findings were confirmed to be malignant, whereas the remaining 113 (81.9%) were benign. Malignant findings were exclusively detected in patients with known breast carcinoma, whereas incidental findings in patients without a history of carcinoma were all benign. Twenty-five of 100 (24.8%) incidental findings among patients with history of breast cancer were malignant. Conclusion: Although many of incidental findings were benign, some were malignant, altering the diagnostic work-up, staging, and treatment. Therefore, it is important to assess the entire field of view carefully for abnormalities when reviewing breast MRI studies. - Highlights: • 500 consecutive breast MRI studies were retrospectively reviewed. • Incidental findings were found in 107/500 (21.4%) of examined patients. • Incidental extra-mammary findings on breast MRI are common. • Malignant findings were exclusively detected in patients with known breast

  17. Incidental biasing of attention from visual long-term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Judith E; Turk-Browne, Nicholas B

    2016-06-01

    Holding recently experienced information in mind can help us achieve our current goals. However, such immediate and direct forms of guidance from working memory are less helpful over extended delays or when other related information in long-term memory is useful for reaching these goals. Here we show that information that was encoded in the past but is no longer present or relevant to the task also guides attention. We examined this by associating multiple unique features with novel shapes in visual long-term memory (VLTM), and subsequently testing how memories for these objects biased the deployment of attention. In Experiment 1, VLTM for associated features guided visual search for the shapes, even when these features had never been task-relevant. In Experiment 2, associated features captured attention when presented in isolation during a secondary task that was completely unrelated to the shapes. These findings suggest that long-term memory enables a durable and automatic type of memory-based attentional control. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Fostering incidental experiences of nature through green infrastructure planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beery, Thomas H; Raymond, Christopher M; Kyttä, Marketta; Olafsson, Anton Stahl; Plieninger, Tobias; Sandberg, Mattias; Stenseke, Marie; Tengö, Maria; Jönsson, K Ingemar

    2017-11-01

    Concern for a diminished human experience of nature and subsequent decreased human well-being is addressed via a consideration of green infrastructure's potential to facilitate unplanned or incidental nature experience. Incidental nature experience is conceptualized and illustrated in order to consider this seldom addressed aspect of human interaction with nature in green infrastructure planning. Special attention has been paid to the ability of incidental nature experience to redirect attention from a primary activity toward an unplanned focus (in this case, nature phenomena). The value of such experience for human well-being is considered. The role of green infrastructure to provide the opportunity for incidental nature experience may serve as a nudge or guide toward meaningful interaction. These ideas are explored using examples of green infrastructure design in two Nordic municipalities: Kristianstad, Sweden, and Copenhagen, Denmark. The outcome of the case study analysis coupled with the review of literature is a set of sample recommendations for how green infrastructure can be designed to support a range of incidental nature experiences with the potential to support human well-being.

  19. Incidentally Detected Enhancing Breast Lesions on Chest Computed Tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Wen Chiung; Hsu, Hsian He; Yu, Jyh Cherng; Hsu, Giu Cheng; Yu, Cheng Ping; Chang, Tsun Hou; Huang, Guo Shu; Li, Chao Shiang

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the nature and imaging appearance of incidental enhancing breast lesions detected on a routine contrast-enhanced chest CT. Twenty-three patients with incidental enhancing breast lesions on contrast-enhanced chest CT were retrospectively reviewed. The breast lesions were reviewed by unenhanced and enhanced CT, and evaluated by observing the shapes, margins, enhancement patterns and backgrounds of breast lesions. A histopathologic diagnosis or long-term follow-up served as reference standard. Sixteen (70%) patients had malignant breast lesions and seven (30%) had benign lesions. In 10 patients, the breast lesions were exclusively detected on contrast-enhanced CT. Using unenhanced CT, breast lesions with fi broglandular backgrounds were prone to be obscured (p < 0.001). Incidental primary breast cancer showed an non-significant trend of a higher percentage irregular margin (p = 0.056). All of the four incidental breast lesions with non-mass-like enhancement were proven to be malignant. Routine contrast-enhanced chest CT can reveal sufficient details to allow for the detection of unsuspected breast lesions, in which some cases may be proven as malignant. An irregular margin of incidental enhancing breast lesion can be considered a suggestive sign of malignancy

  20. Recognition memory is improved by a structured temporal framework during encoding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sathesan eThavabalasingam

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to function optimally within our environment, we continuously extract temporal patterns from our experiences and formulate expectations that facilitate adaptive behavior. Given that our memories are embedded within spatiotemporal contexts, an intriguing possibility is that mnemonic processes are sensitive to the temporal structure of events. To test this hypothesis, in a series of behavioral experiments we manipulated the regularity of interval durations at encoding to create temporally structured and unstructured frameworks. Our findings revealed enhanced recognition memory (d’ for stimuli that were explicitly encoded within a temporally structured versus unstructured framework. Encoding information within a temporally structured framework was also associated with a reduction in the negative effects of proactive interference and was linked to greater recollective recognition memory. Furthermore, rhythmic temporal structure was found to enhance recognition memory for incidentally encoded information. Collectively, these results support the possibility that we possess a greater capacity to learn and subsequently remember temporally structured information.

  1. Incidental learning during rapid information processing on the symbol-digit modalities test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denney, Douglas R; Hughes, Abbey J; Elliott, Jacquelyn K; Roth, Alexandra K; Lynch, Sharon G

    2015-06-01

    The Symbol--Digit Modalities Test (SDMT) is widely used to assess processing speed in MS patients. We developed a computerized version of the SDMT (c-SDMT) that scored participants' performance during subintervals over the course of the usual 90-s time period and also added an incidental learning test (c-ILT) to assess how well participants learned the symbol-digit associations while completing the c-SDMT. Patients with MS (n = 65) achieved lower scores than healthy controls (n = 38) on both the c-SDMT and c-ILT, and the scores on the two tests were correlated. However, no increase in the rate of item completion occurred for either group over the course of the c-SDMT, and the difference between groups was the same during each subinterval. Therefore, it seems implausible that controls completed more items on the c-SDMT because they were more adept at learning the symbol-digit associations as the test ensued. Instead, MS patients' poorer incidental learning performance appears to reflect the greater attentional burden that tasks requiring rapid serial processing of information impose upon them. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Patients' views on incidental findings from clinical exome sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin E. Clift

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article characterizes the opinions of patients and family members of patients undergoing clinical genomic-based testing regarding the return of incidental findings from these tests. Over sixteen months, we conducted 55 in-depth interviews with individuals to explore their preferences regarding which types of results they would like returned to them. Responses indicate a diversity of attitudes toward the return of incidental findings and a diversity of justifications for those attitudes. The majority of participants also described an imperative to include the patient in deciding which results to return rather than having universal, predetermined rules governing results disclosure. The results demonstrate the importance of a patient centered-approach to returning incidental findings.

  3. Implication and Approach to Incidental Findings in Live Ultrasound Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahram Lotfipour

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Incidental findings during ultrasound examinations occur frequently with live models in training sessions. Because of the broad scope of training sessions available, the ethics and guidelines of dealing with incidental findings in live models need to be discussed. Methods: We provide a case of an endovaginal ultrasound that had significant unexpected findings. Results: This report demonstrates an important finding uncovered during an endovaginal modeling session. Conclusion: Models should be notified beforehand of the possibility of an incidental finding, informed about it, made aware of potential associated costs, referred to another physician for follow-up, and provided a copy of the scans. A secure copy of the ultrasound scan should be stored for future reference. [West J Emerg Med. 2011;12(4:472–474.

  4. Defining incidental perineural invasion: the need for a national registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Lauren; De'Ambrosis, Brian; DeAmbrosis, Kathryn; Warren, Timothy; Huilgol, Shyamala; Soyer, H Peter; Panizza, Benedict

    2014-05-01

    This article by the Perineural Invasion (PNI) Registry Group aims to clarify clinical and histopathological ambiguities surrounding PNI in non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC). PNI is reportedly present in approximately 2-6% of cases of NMSC and is associated with greater rates of morbidity and mortality. The distinction between clinical PNI and incidental PNI is somewhat unclear, especially in regard to management and prognosis. One important objective of the PNI Registry is to develop a standardised method of classifying perineural invasion. Hence, in this article we propose a definition for PNI and for its sub-classification. This article also provides a critical analysis of the current literature on the treatment of incidental PNI by evaluating the key cohort studies that have investigated the use of surgery or radiotherapy in the management of incidental PNI. At present, there are no universal clinical guidelines that specify the acceptable treatment of NMSC exhibiting incidental PNI. Consequently, patients often receive surgery with varying wider margins, or radiotherapy despite the limited evidence substantiating such management options. It is evident from the existing literature that current opinion is divided over the benefit of adjuvant radiotherapy. Certain prognostic factors have been proposed, such as the size and depth of tumour invasion, nerve diameter, the presence of multifocal PNI and the type of tumour. The PNI Registry is a web-based registry that has been developed to assist in attaining further data pertaining to incidental PNI in NMSC. It is envisaged that this information will provide the foundation for identifying and defining best practice in managing incidental PNI. © 2013 The Australasian College of Dermatologists.

  5. The hidden cost of coaching: intentional training of shot adequacy discrimination in basketball hampers utilization of informative incidental cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez Cadenas, Ernesto; Cárdenas, David; Sánchez Delgado, Guillermo; Perales, José C

    2015-02-01

    The goal was to identify the advantages and disadvantages of using intentional guidance to teach to discriminate between good and bad circumstances to shoot in basketball. A simulated shot-adequacy learning task was developed, in which participants were asked to decide, in each trial, whether the player in possession of the ball should shoot or not. After each decision, they received feedback on their response (determined by five cues: Opposition, Rebound, Balance, Alternative, and Distance). 65 naïve participants (M age = 18.6 yr., SD = 1.3) were divided into two groups. The Incidental group received no guiding instructions. The Intentional group was instructed to utilize four of the five cues. The Distance cue was kept incidental for both groups. Participants effectively incorporated the cues into their decisions. Guidance had a markedly different effect across cues. The Intentional group utilized Distance less efficiently than the Incidental group, i.e., intentional instructions on the other four cues nearly blocked the utilization of Distance.

  6. Fostering incidental experiences of nature through green infrastructure planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beery, Thomas H; Raymond, Christopher M; Kyttä, Marketta

    2017-01-01

    of such experience for human well-being is considered. The role of green infrastructure to provide the opportunity for incidental nature experience may serve as a nudge or guide toward meaningful interaction. These ideas are explored using examples of green infrastructure design in two Nordic municipalities...... to consider this seldom addressed aspect of human interaction with nature in green infrastructure planning. Special attention has been paid to the ability of incidental nature experience to redirect attention from a primary activity toward an unplanned focus (in this case, nature phenomena). The value...

  7. Partial spline score test to determine if tumors are incidental

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffith, W.C.

    1994-01-01

    A primary consideration in many rodent bioassays is whether a tumor observed in an animal has affected its life span. When tumors are incidental, the natural death times can be regarded as random sampling times unrelated to the presence of the tumor. In this case, animals dying from natural causes and those sacrificed can be combined to estimate the prevalence p(t) of the tumors in the living animals. When tumors are incidental, the tumor incidence rate, λ T (t), is related to the prevalence by λ T (t) = p(t) 1 - p(t) , where p(t) is the derivative of the prevalence

  8. 50 CFR 216.107 - Incidental harassment authorization for Arctic waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Incidental harassment authorization for Arctic waters. 216.107 Section 216.107 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL... Incidental to Specified Activities § 216.107 Incidental harassment authorization for Arctic waters. (a...

  9. 77 FR 31062 - Programs To Reduce Incidental Capture of Sea Turtles in Shrimp Fisheries; Certifications Pursuant...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice 7894] Programs To Reduce Incidental Capture of Sea Turtles in... programs to reduce the incidental capture of sea turtles in their shrimp fisheries comparable to the... other countries and one economy do not pose a threat of the incidental taking of sea turtles protected...

  10. a permutation encoding te algorithm solution of reso tation encoding

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    Keywords: Genetic algorithm, resource constrained. 1. INTRODUCTION. 1. .... Nigerian Journal of Technology. Vol. 34, No. 1, January 2015. 128 ... 4. ENCODING OF CHROMOSOME. ENCODING OF CHROMOSOME .... International Multi conference of Engineers and ... method”, Naval Research Logistics, vol 48, issue 2,.

  11. Effect of tobacco craving cues on memory encoding and retrieval in smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heishman, Stephen J; Boas, Zachary P; Hager, Marguerite C; Taylor, Richard C; Singleton, Edward G; Moolchan, Eric T

    2006-07-01

    Previous studies have shown that cue-elicited tobacco craving disrupted performance on cognitive tasks; however, no study has examined directly the effect of cue-elicited craving on memory encoding and retrieval. A distinction between encoding and retireval has been reported such that memory is more impaired when attention is divided at encoding than at retrieval. This study tested the hypothesis that active imagery of smoking situations would impair encoding processes, but have little effect on retrieval. Imagery scripts (cigarette craving and neutral content) were presented either before presentation of a word list (encoding trials) or before word recall (retrieval trials). A working memory task at encoding and free recall of words were assessed. Results indicated that active imagery disrupted working memory on encoding trials, but not on retrieval trials. There was a trend toward impaired working memory following craving scripts compared with neutral scripts. These data support the hypothesis that the cognitive underpinnings of encoding and retrieval processes are distinct.

  12. Texture and flavour memory in foods : an incidental learning experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mojet, J.; Koster, E.P.

    2002-01-01

    Memory plays a major role in the formation of food expectations. How accessible and how accurate is incidentally acquired and stored product information? In the present experiment the memory for variations in texture (and flavour) was tested with a new and ecologically valid method. Subjects (N=69:

  13. Preliminary Assessment of Cetacean Incidental Mortality in Artisanal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three dolphin species and humpback whales were reported accidentally caught in fishing gear meant to catch sharks. Dolphins were mostly reported as to be entangled in gillnets; conversely longlines were only described to incidentally catch humpback whales. Bottlenose and spinner dolphins were respectively 48.10% ...

  14. Texture and flavour memory in foods : an incidental learning experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mojet, J.; Köster, E.P.

    2002-01-01

    Memory plays a major role in the formation of food expectations. How accessible and how accurate is incidentally acquired and stored product information? In the present experiment the memory for variations in texture (and flavour) was tested with a new and ecologically valid method. Subjects (N =

  15. Incidental right Bochdalek hernia with interruption of the inferior ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-05-30

    May 30, 2014 ... Case Report doi:10.4102/sajr.v18i1.592 http://sajr.org.za. Incidental right Bochdalek hernia with interruption of the inferior vena cava and hepatic venous collateral continuation: A case report. Authors: Farzanah I. Ismail1. Rule Human2. Anith Chacko1. Parmanand Naran2. Samia Ahmad1. Siraj Ellemdin2.

  16. Guidance of Spatial Attention by Incidental Learning and Endogenous Cuing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yuhong V.; Swallow, Khena M.; Rosenbaum, Gail M.

    2013-01-01

    Our visual system is highly sensitive to regularities in the environment. Locations that were important in one's previous experience are often prioritized during search, even though observers may not be aware of the learning. In this study we characterized the guidance of spatial attention by incidental learning of a target's spatial probability,…

  17. Renal arterial aneurysm--an incidental finding at autopsy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaideeswar P

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Herein we describe a rare case of saccular renal artery aneurysm seen as an incidental autopsy finding in an elderly, hypertensive female. The aneurysm was seen as a small exophytic mass with calcified wall and lumen occluded by recanalized thrombus.

  18. Incidental finding of hypertension and diminished femoral pulses ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-06-08

    Jun 8, 2012 ... Case Study: Incidental finding of hypertension and diminished femoral pulses. 168. Vol 55 No 2. S Afr Fam Pract 2013. Introduction. Coarctation of the aorta is ... Surgery of the aorta and its branches. Philadelphia: WB Saunders Company, 2000; p. 3-10. 2. Rao PS. Coarctation of the aorta. Curr Cardiol Rep.

  19. Implicit and Explicit Cognitive Processes in Incidental Vocabulary Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ender, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Studies on vocabulary acquisition in second language learning have revealed that a large amount of vocabulary is learned without an overt intention, in other words, incidentally. This article investigates the relevance of different lexical processing strategies for vocabulary acquisition when reading a text for comprehension among 24 advanced…

  20. Is Incidental Vocabulary Acquisition Feasible to EFL Learning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jian-ping

    2013-01-01

    For learning English as a foreign language, the efficiency of the approach of incidental vocabulary acquisition depends on the word frequency and text coverage. However, the statistics of English corpus reveals that English is a language that has a large vocabulary size but a low word frequency as well as text coverage, which is obviously not in…

  1. Papillary Cystadenoma: An Incidental Finding in Tubal Ligation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tabitha Lynn Ward

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available von Hippel-Lindau disease (vHLD is a rare autosomal dominant disorder with multiple benign and malignant tumors of different organs. We report a papillary cystadenoma of the mesosalpinx found in close association with an adenomatoid tumor discovered incidentally following tubal ligation in a patient with vHLD.

  2. Positron emission tomography of incidentally detected small pulmonary nodules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, B M; Mortensen, J; Dirksen, A

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the value of fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG PET) imaging of small pulmonary nodules incidentally detected by spiral computed tomography (CT) in a high-risk population. Ten patients (five females, five males, aged 54-72 years) were recruited...

  3. Asymptomatic renal cell carcinoma incidentally detected by abdominal CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoneda, Fumio; Miyake, Noriaki; Tsujimura, Haruhiro; Nakajima, Mikio; Akiyama, Hajime

    1987-01-01

    Four cases of renal cell carcinoma that were incidentally detected by abdominal CT are reported. Abdominal CT was performed during gastro-intestinal examination in two patients and for suspected liver disease in the other two. No patient had symptoms of renal cell carcinoma, or hematuria. In all cases, the histopathological diagnosis was renal cell carcinoma of a low stage. (author)

  4. Spatial Contiguity and Incidental Learning in Multimedia Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paek, Seungoh; Hoffman, Daniel L.; Saravanos, Antonios

    2017-01-01

    Drawing on dual-process theories of cognitive function, the degree to which spatial contiguity influences incidental learning outcomes was examined. It was hypothesized that spatial contiguity would mediate what was learned even in the absence of an explicit learning goal. To test this hypothesis, 149 adults completed a multimedia-related task…

  5. Historical harvest and incidental capture of fishers in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey C. Lewis; William J. Zielinski

    1996-01-01

    Recent petitions to list the fisher (Martes pennanti) under the Endangered Species Act have brought attention to fisher conservation. Although commercial trapping of fishers in California ended in 1946, summarizing the commercial harvest data can provide a historical perspective to fisher conservation and may indicate the prevalence of incidental...

  6. Low-dose Propofol–induced Amnesia Is Not due to a Failure of Encoding

    OpenAIRE

    Veselis, Robert A.; Pryor, Kane O.; Reinsel, Ruth A.; Mehta, Meghana; Pan, Hong; Johnson, Ray

    2008-01-01

    Background—Propofol may produce amnesia by affecting encoding. The hypothesis that propofol weakens encoding was tested by measuring regional cerebral blood flow during verbal encoding. Methods—17 volunteer participants (12 M, 30.4±6.5 years old) had regional cerebral blood flow measured using H2O15 positron emission tomography during complex and simple encoding tasks (deep vs. shallow level of processing), to identify a region of interest in the left inferior prefrontal cortex...

  7. Parallel encoders for pixel detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikityuk, N.M.

    1991-01-01

    A new method of fast encoding and determining the multiplicity and coordinates of fired pixels is described. A specific example construction of parallel encodes and MCC for n=49 and t=2 is given. 16 refs.; 6 figs.; 2 tabs

  8. Incidental findings in chest X-rays; Zufallsbefunde im Roentgenthorax

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wielpuetz, M.O.; Kauczor, H.U. [Universitaetsklinikum Heidelberg, Klinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie, Heidelberg (Germany); Universitaet Heidelberg, Translational Lung Research Center (TLRC), Deutsches Zentrum fuer Lungenforschung (DZL), Heidelberg (Germany); Universitaetsklinikum Heidelberg, Klinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie mit Nuklearmedizin, Thoraxklinik, Heidelberg (Germany); Weckbach, S. [Universitaetsklinikum Heidelberg, Klinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie, Heidelberg (Germany); Universitaet Heidelberg, Translational Lung Research Center (TLRC), Deutsches Zentrum fuer Lungenforschung (DZL), Heidelberg (Germany)

    2017-04-15

    Conventional projection radiography (chest x-ray) is one of the most frequently requested procedures in radiology. Even though chest x-ray imaging is frequently performed in asymptomatic patients for preoperative assessment, clinically relevant incidental findings are relatively scarce. This is due to the relatively low sensitivity of chest x-rays where few clinically relevant incidental findings are to be expected, as any detectable pathologies will as a rule already be clinically symptomatic. Recommendations from relevant societies for the management of incidental findings, apart from the clarification of incidental nodules, do not exist. This review article therefore describes the most frequent and typical incidental findings of lung parenchyma (apart from pulmonary nodules), mediastinal structures including the hilum of the lungs, pleura, chest wall and major vessels. Also described are those findings which can be diagnosed with sufficient certainty from chest x-rays so that further clarification is not necessary and those which must be further clarified by multislice imaging procedures or other techniques. (orig.) [German] Eine der haeufigsten Untersuchungen in der Radiologie ist die konventionelle Projektionsradiographie des Thorax (Roentgenthorax). Auch wenn projektionsradiographische Aufnahmen im Rahmen einer praeoperativen Abklaerung haeufig als orientierende Untersuchung angefertigt werden, sind - bedingt durch die relativ geringe Sensitivitaet des Roentgenthorax - wenig klinisch relevante Zufallsbefunde zu erwarten, da nachweisbare Pathologien in der Regel bereits auch klinisch apparent sind. Empfehlungen entsprechender Fachgesellschaften zu Zufallsbefunden im Roentgenthorax jenseits der Abklaerung von Rundherden liegen nicht vor. Die vorliegende Arbeit beleuchtet daher haeufige und typische Zufallsbefunde des Lungenparenchyms (ausser den Lungenrundherden), der mediastinalen Strukturen einschliesslich der Hili, der Pleura, der Thoraxwand sowie der

  9. Source-constrained retrieval influences the encoding of new information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danckert, Stacey L; MacLeod, Colin M; Fernandes, Myra A

    2011-11-01

    Jacoby, Shimizu, Daniels, and Rhodes (Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 12, 852-857, 2005) showed that new words presented as foils among a list of old words that had been deeply encoded were themselves subsequently better recognized than new words presented as foils among a list of old words that had been shallowly encoded. In Experiment 1, by substituting a deep-versus-shallow imagery manipulation for the levels-of-processing manipulation, we demonstrated that the effect is robust and that it generalizes, also occurring with a different type of encoding. In Experiment 2, we provided more direct evidence for context-related encoding during tests of deeply encoded words, showing enhanced priming for foils presented among deeply encoded targets when participants made the same deep-encoding judgments on those items as had been made on the targets during study. In Experiment 3, we established that the findings from Experiment 2 are restricted to this specific deep judgment task and are not a general consequence of these foils being associated with deeply encoded items. These findings provide support for the source-constrained retrieval hypothesis of Jacoby, Shimizu, Daniels, and Rhodes: New information can be influenced by how surrounding items are encoded and retrieved, as long as the surrounding items recruit a coherent mode of processing.

  10. Thought probes during prospective memory encoding: Evidence for perfunctory processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniel, Mark A.; Dasse, Michelle N.; Lee, Ji hae; Kurinec, Courtney A.; Tami, Claudina; Krueger, Madison L.

    2018-01-01

    For nearly 50 years, psychologists have studied prospective memory, or the ability to execute delayed intentions. Yet, there remains a gap in understanding as to whether initial encoding of the intention must be elaborative and strategic, or whether some components of successful encoding can occur in a perfunctory, transient manner. In eight studies (N = 680), we instructed participants to remember to press the Q key if they saw words representing fruits (cue) during an ongoing lexical decision task. They then typed what they were thinking and responded whether they encoded fruits as a general category, as specific exemplars, or hardly thought about it at all. Consistent with the perfunctory view, participants often reported mind wandering (42.9%) and hardly thinking about the prospective memory task (22.5%). Even though participants were given a general category cue, many participants generated specific category exemplars (34.5%). Bayesian analyses of encoding durations indicated that specific exemplars came to mind in a perfunctory manner rather than via strategic, elaborative mechanisms. Few participants correctly guessed the research hypotheses and changing from fruit category cues to initial-letter cues eliminated reports of specific exemplar generation, thereby arguing against demand characteristics in the thought probe procedure. In a final experiment, encoding duration was unrelated to prospective memory performance; however, specific-exemplar encoders outperformed general-category encoders with no ongoing task monitoring costs. Our findings reveal substantial variability in intention encoding, and demonstrate that some components of prospective memory encoding can be done “in passing.” PMID:29874277

  11. 76 FR 12070 - Incidental Taking of Marine Mammals; Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to the Explosive Removal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-04

    ... Energy's EROS operations in 2010: Marine mammals Biological impacts Company Structure Dates sighted... Taking of Marine Mammals; Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to the Explosive Removal of Offshore Structures in the Gulf of Mexico AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and...

  12. 76 FR 35856 - Incidental Taking of Marine Mammals; Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to the Explosive Removal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-20

    ... Taking of Marine Mammals; Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to the Explosive Removal of Offshore Structures in the Gulf of Mexico AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and... accordance with the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA) and implementing regulations, notification is hereby...

  13. 75 FR 8921 - Incidental Taking of Marine Mammals; Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to the Explosive Removal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-26

    ... Taking of Marine Mammals; Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to the Explosive Removal of Offshore Structures in the Gulf of Mexico AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and... accordance with the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA) and implementing regulations, notification is hereby...

  14. 76 FR 33704 - Incidental Taking of Marine Mammals; Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to the Explosive Removal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-09

    ... Taking of Marine Mammals; Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to the Explosive Removal of Offshore Structures in the Gulf of Mexico AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and... accordance with the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA) and implementing regulations, notification is hereby...

  15. 77 FR 45341 - Incidental Taking of Marine Mammals; Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to the Explosive Removal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-31

    ... Taking of Marine Mammals; Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to the Explosive Removal of Offshore Structures in the Gulf of Mexico AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and...). SUMMARY: In accordance with the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA) and implementing regulations...

  16. 77 FR 10481 - Incidental Taking of Marine Mammals; Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to the Explosive Removal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-22

    ... Taking of Marine Mammals; Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to the Explosive Removal of Offshore Structures in the Gulf of Mexico AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and... accordance with the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA) and implementing regulations, notification is hereby...

  17. 77 FR 16539 - Incidental Taking of Marine Mammals; Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to the Explosive Removal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-21

    ... Taking of Marine Mammals; Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to the Explosive Removal of Offshore Structures in the Gulf of Mexico AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and...). SUMMARY: In accordance with the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA) and implementing regulations...

  18. 76 FR 23570 - Incidental Taking of Marine Mammals; Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to the Explosive Removal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-27

    ... Taking of Marine Mammals; Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to the Explosive Removal of Offshore Structures in the Gulf of Mexico AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and... accordance with the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA) and implementing regulations, notification is hereby...

  19. 75 FR 28566 - Incidental Taking of Marine Mammals; Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to the Explosive Removal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-21

    ... Taking of Marine Mammals; Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to the Explosive Removal of Offshore Structures in the Gulf of Mexico AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and... accordance with the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA) and implementing regulations, notification is hereby...

  20. 78 FR 22517 - Incidental Taking of Marine Mammals; Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to the Explosive Removal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-16

    ... Taking of Marine Mammals; Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to the Explosive Removal of Offshore Structures in the Gulf of Mexico AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and...). SUMMARY: In accordance with the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA) and implementing regulations...

  1. 75 FR 31423 - Incidental Taking of Marine Mammals; Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to the Explosive Removal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-03

    ... Taking of Marine Mammals; Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to the Explosive Removal of Offshore Structures in the Gulf of Mexico AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and...: In accordance with the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA) and implementing regulations, notification...

  2. 78 FR 13865 - Incidental Taking of Marine Mammals; Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to the Explosive Removal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    ... Taking of Marine Mammals; Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to the Explosive Removal of Offshore Structures in the Gulf of Mexico AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and...). SUMMARY: In accordance with the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA) and implementing regulations...

  3. 75 FR 54851 - Incidental Taking of Marine Mammals; Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to the Explosive Removal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-09

    ... Taking of Marine Mammals; Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to the Explosive Removal of Offshore Structures in the Gulf of Mexico AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and... accordance with the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA) and implementing regulations, notification is hereby...

  4. 75 FR 38078 - Incidental Taking of Marine Mammals; Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to the Explosive Removal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Taking of Marine Mammals; Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to the Explosive Removal of Offshore Structures in the Gulf of Mexico AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and... accordance with the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA) and implementing regulations, notification is hereby...

  5. 77 FR 39485 - Incidental Taking of Marine Mammals; Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to the Explosive Removal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-03

    ... Taking of Marine Mammals; Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to the Explosive Removal of Offshore Structures in the Gulf of Mexico AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and...). SUMMARY: In accordance with the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA) and implementing regulations...

  6. Central load reduces peripheral processing: Evidence from incidental memory of background speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halin, Niklas; Marsh, John E; Sörqvist, Patrik

    2015-12-01

    Is there a trade-off between central (working memory) load and peripheral (perceptual) processing? To address this question, participants were requested to undertake an n-back task in one of two levels of central/cognitive load (i.e., 1-back or 2-back) in the presence of a to-be-ignored story presented via headphones. Participants were told to ignore the background story, but they were given a surprise memory test of what had been said in the background story, immediately after the n-back task was completed. Memory was poorer in the high central load (2-back) condition in comparison with the low central load (1-back) condition. Hence, when people compensate for higher central load, by increasing attentional engagement, peripheral processing is constrained. Moreover, participants with high working memory capacity (WMC) - with a superior ability for attentional engagement - remembered less of the background story, but only in the low central load condition. Taken together, peripheral processing - as indexed by incidental memory of background speech - is constrained when task engagement is high. © 2015 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology published by Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. How can survival processing improve memory encoding?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Meng; Geng, Haiyan

    2013-11-01

    We investigated the psychological mechanism of survival processing advantage from the perspective of false memory in two experiments. Using a DRM paradigm in combination with analysis based on signal detection theory, we were able to separately examine participants' utilization of verbatim representation and gist representation. Specifically, in Experiment 1, participants rated semantically related words in a survival scenario for a survival condition but rated pleasantness of words in the same DRM lists for a non-survival control condition. The results showed that participants demonstrated more gist processing in the survival condition than in the pleasantness condition; however, the degree of item-specific processing in the two encoding conditions did not significantly differ. In Experiment 2, the control task was changed to a category rating task, in which participants were asked to make category ratings of words in the category lists. We found that the survival condition involved more item-specific processing than did the category condition, but we found no significant difference between the two encoding conditions at the level of gist processing. Overall, our study demonstrates that survival processing can simultaneously promote gist and item-specific representations. When the control tasks only promoted either item-specific representation or gist representation, memory advantages of survival processing occurred.

  8. Neural correlates of incidental memory in mild cognitive impairment: an fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandzia, Jennifer L; McAndrews, Mary Pat; Grady, Cheryl L; Graham, Simon J; Black, Sandra E

    2009-05-01

    Behaviour and fMRI brain activation patterns were compared during encoding and recognition tasks in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) (n=14) and normal controls (NC) (n=14). Deep (natural vs. man-made) and shallow (color vs. black and white) decisions were made at encoding and pictures from each condition were presented for yes/no recognition 20 min later. MCI showed less inferior frontal activation during deep (left only) and superficial encoding (bilaterally) and in both medial temporal lobes (MTL). When performance was equivalent (recognition of words encoded superficially), MTL activation was similar for the two groups, but during recognition testing of deeply encoded items NC showed more activation in both prefrontal and left MTL region. In a region of interest analysis, the extent of activation during deep encoding in the parahippocampi bilaterally and in left hippocampus correlated with subsequent recognition accuracy for those items in controls but not in MCI, which may reflect the heterogeneity of activation responses in conjunction with different degrees of pathology burden and progression status in the MCI group.

  9. Feature-specific encoding flexibility in visual working memory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aki Kondo

    Full Text Available The current study examined selective encoding in visual working memory by systematically investigating interference from task-irrelevant features. The stimuli were objects defined by three features (color, shape, and location, and during a delay period, any of the features could switch between two objects. Additionally, single- and whole-probe trials were randomized within experimental blocks to investigate effects of memory retrieval. A series of relevant-feature switch detection tasks, where one feature was task-irrelevant, showed that interference from the task-irrelevant feature was only observed in the color-shape task, suggesting that color and shape information could be successfully filtered out, but location information could not, even when location was a task-irrelevant feature. Therefore, although location information is added to object representations independent of task demands in a relatively automatic manner, other features (e.g., color, shape can be flexibly added to object representations.

  10. Feature-specific encoding flexibility in visual working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Aki; Saiki, Jun

    2012-01-01

    The current study examined selective encoding in visual working memory by systematically investigating interference from task-irrelevant features. The stimuli were objects defined by three features (color, shape, and location), and during a delay period, any of the features could switch between two objects. Additionally, single- and whole-probe trials were randomized within experimental blocks to investigate effects of memory retrieval. A series of relevant-feature switch detection tasks, where one feature was task-irrelevant, showed that interference from the task-irrelevant feature was only observed in the color-shape task, suggesting that color and shape information could be successfully filtered out, but location information could not, even when location was a task-irrelevant feature. Therefore, although location information is added to object representations independent of task demands in a relatively automatic manner, other features (e.g., color, shape) can be flexibly added to object representations.

  11. A Neural Signature Encoding Decisions under Perceptual Ambiguity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Sai; Yu, Rongjun; Wang, Shuo

    2017-01-01

    People often make perceptual decisions with ambiguous information, but it remains unclear whether the brain has a common neural substrate that encodes various forms of perceptual ambiguity. Here, we used three types of perceptually ambiguous stimuli as well as task instructions to examine the neural basis for both stimulus-driven and task-driven perceptual ambiguity. We identified a neural signature, the late positive potential (LPP), that encoded a general form of stimulus-driven perceptual ambiguity. In addition to stimulus-driven ambiguity, the LPP was also modulated by ambiguity in task instructions. To further specify the functional role of the LPP and elucidate the relationship between stimulus ambiguity, behavioral response, and the LPP, we employed regression models and found that the LPP was specifically associated with response latency and confidence rating, suggesting that the LPP encoded decisions under perceptual ambiguity. Finally, direct behavioral ratings of stimulus and task ambiguity confirmed our neurophysiological findings, which could not be attributed to differences in eye movements either. Together, our findings argue for a common neural signature that encodes decisions under perceptual ambiguity but is subject to the modulation of task ambiguity. Our results represent an essential first step toward a complete neural understanding of human perceptual decision making.

  12. The prevalence of incidentally detected adrenal enlargement on CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Y.Z.; Bharwani, N.; Micco, M.; Akker, S.; Rockall, A.G.; Sahdev, A.

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To assess the prevalence and the department's detection rate of adrenocortical hyperplasia. Materials and methods: All computed tomography (CT) examinations of the adrenal glands between February and April 2011 were reviewed. The study excluded patients with known underlying cancer, abdominal trauma, or endocrine disease. The adrenal gland was deemed enlarged if its body was greater than 10 mm diameter, or a limb greater than 5 mm. Results: There were a total of 564 eligible CT studies during this period. A total of 64 cases of incidental adrenal enlargement were found giving a prevalence of 11.3%. Only nine cases were reported in the contemporaneous CT report. Conclusion: The results of the present study show that incidental adrenal enlargement has a significant prevalence. It is often dismissed during reporting, and awareness needs to be raised in the radiological community. Equally, the clinical and biochemical significance needs to be assessed with endocrine correlation

  13. Incidental findings, genetic screening and the challenge of personalisation

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    Carlo Petrini

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Genetic tests frequently produce more information than is initially expected. Several documents have addressed this issue and offer suggestions regarding how this information should be managed and, in particular, concerning the expedience of revealing (or not revealing it to the persons concerned. While the approaches to the management of these incidental findings (IFs vary, it is usually recommended that the information be disclosed if there is confirmed clinical utility and the possibility of treatment or prevention. However, this leaves unsolved some fundamental issues such as the different ways of interpreting "clinical utility", countless sources of uncertainty and varying ways of defining the notion of "incidental". Guidelines and other reference documents can offer indications to those responsible for managing IFs but should not be allowed to relieve researchers and healthcare professionals of their responsibilities.

  14. PROMOTING INCIDENTAL VOCABULARY LEARNING THROUGH VERBAL DRAMATIZATION OF WORDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Looi-Chin Ch’ng

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite the fact that explicit teaching of vocabulary is often practised in English as a Second Language (ESL classrooms, it has been proven to be rather ineffective, largely because words are not taught in context. This has prompted the increasing use of incidental vocabulary learning approach, which emphasises on repeated readings as a source for vocabulary learning. By adopting this approach, this study aims to investigate students’ ability in learning vocabulary incidentally via verbal dramatization of written texts. In this case, readers’ theatre (RT is used as a way to allow learners to engage in active reading so as to promote vocabulary learning. A total of 160 diploma students participated in this case study and they were divided equally into two groups, namely classroom reading (CR and RT groups. A proficiency test was first conducted to determine their vocabulary levels. Based on the test results, a story was selected as the reading material in the two groups. The CR group read the story through a normal reading lesson in class while the RT group was required to verbally dramatize the text through readers’ theatre activity. Then, a post-test based on vocabulary levels was carried out and the results were compared. The findings revealed that incidental learning was more apparent in the RT group and their ability to learn words from the higher levels was noticeable through higher accuracy scores. Although not conclusive, this study has demonstrated the potential of using readers’ theatre as a form of incidental vocabulary learning activity in ESL settings.

  15. Waste Incidental to Reprocessing Evaluation for Disposing Saltcake to Saltstone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, R.T.

    2002-01-01

    This Waste Incidental to Reprocessing Evaluation is performed in accordance with Department of Energy Order 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management. This evaluation is performed in order to determine whether saltcake currently stored in the Tank Farms, when separated from supernate, meets WIR requirements and can therefore be managed as Low Level Waste and disposed in the Saltstone Production and Disposal Facility in Z-Area

  16. Using Incidental Vocabulary Acquisition to Enrich the Students Vocabulary Mastery

    OpenAIRE

    Asmayanti, St

    2015-01-01

    The research aimed to find out the improvement the students'vocabulary in terms of improving their understanding about of nouns and adjectives. To explain the increase, the researcher used a classroom action research (CAR) which was conducted in two cycles in which each cycle consisted of four meetings.The subject was the students at the eight grade of SMP Askari Pallangga Gowa. The number of samples consisted of 37 students. The research findings indicated that using Incidental Vocabulary Ac...

  17. Risk of appendicitis in patients with incidentally discovered appendicoliths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Muhammad Sohaib; Chaudhry, Mustafa Belal Hafeez; Shahzad, Noman; Tariq, Marvi; Memon, Wasim Ahmed; Alvi, Abdul Rehman

    2018-01-01

    An appendicolith-related appendiceal obstruction leading to appendicitis is a commonly encountered surgical emergency that has clear evidence-based management plans. However, there is no consensus on management of asymptomatic patients when appendicoliths are found incidentally. The objective of this study was to determine the risk of appendicitis in patients with an incidental finding of the appendicolith. A retrospective matched cohort study of patients with appendicolith discovered incidentally on computed tomographic scan from January 2008 to December 2014 at our institution was completed. The size and position of the appendicolith were ascertained. The study group was matched by age and gender to a control group. Both groups were contacted and interviewed regarding development of appendicitis. In total, 111 patients with appendicolith were successfully contacted and included in the study. Mean age was found to be 38 ± 15 y with 36 (32%) of the study population being females. Mean length of appendix was 66 ± 16 mm, and mean width was 5.8 ± 0.9 mm. Mean size of the appendicolith was 3.6 ± 1.1 mm (1.4-7.8 mm). Fifty-eight percent of appendicoliths was located at the proximal end or whole of appendix, 31% at mid area, and 11% at the distal end of appendix. All patients of the study and control groups were contacted, and at a mean follow-up of 4.0 ± 1.7 y, there was no occurrence of acute appendicitis in either group. Patients with incidentally discovered appendicolith on radiological imaging did not develop appendicitis. Hence, the risk of developing acute appendicitis for these patients does not seem higher than the general population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Clinicopathologic features of incidental prostatic adenocarcinoma in radical cystoprostatectomy specimens

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    Vuruskan Hakan

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study is to review all features of incidentally discovered prostate adenocarcinoma in patients undergoing radical cystoprostatectomy for bladder cancer. Methods The medical charts of 300 male patients who underwent radical cystoprostatectomy for bladder cancer between 1997 and 2005 were retrospectively reviewed. The mean age of the patients was 62 (range 51-75 years. Results Prostate adenocarcinoma was present in 60 (20% of 300 specimens. All were acinar adenocarcinoma. Of these, 40 (66.7% were located in peripheral zone, 20 (33.3% had pT2a tumor, 12 (20% had pT2b tumor, 22(36.7% had pT2c and, 6 (10% had pT3a tumor. Gleason score was 6 or less in 48 (80% patients. Surgical margins were negative in 54 (90% patients, and tumor volume was less than 0.5 cc in 23 (38.3% patients. Of the 60 incidentally detected cases of prostate adenocarcinoma 40 (66.7% were considered clinically significant. Conclusion Incidentally detected prostate adenocarcinoma is frequently observed in radical cystoprostatectomy specimens. The majority are clinically significant.

  19. Managing incidental findings in population based biobank research

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    Berge Solberg

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available With the introduction of whole genome sequencing in medical research, the debate on how to handle incidental findings is becoming omnipresent. Much of the literature on the topic so far, seems to defend the researcher’s duty to inform, the participant’s right to know combined with a thorough informed consent in order to protect and secure high ethical standards in research. In this paper, we argue that this ethical response to incidental findings and whole genome sequencing is appropriate in a clinical context, in what we call therapeutic research. However, we further argue, that it is rather inappropriate in basic research, like the research going on in public health oriented population based biobanks. Our argument is based on two premises: First, in population based biobank research the duties and rights involved are radically different from a clinical based setting. Second, to introduce the ethical framework from the clinical setting into population based basic research, is not only wrong, but it may lead to unethical consequences. A Norwegian population based biobank and the research-ethical debate in Norway on the regulation of whole genome sequencing is used as an illustrative case to demonstrate the pitfalls when approaching the debate on incidental findings in population based biobank research.

  20. Incidental MRI Findings in Patients with Impaired Cognitive Function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Yoon Joon

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the incidental findings on brain MRI of patients with cognitive function impairments. We analyzed magnetic resonance (MR) findings of 236 patients with decreased cognitive function. MR protocols include conventional T2 weighted axial images, fluid attenuated inversion recovery axial images, T1 weighted coronal 3-dimensional magnetization-prepared rapid acquisition of gradient echo and diffusion tensor images. We retrospectively evaluated the signal changes that suggest acute/subacute infarction and space occupying lesions which show mass effect. Incidental MR findings were seen in 16 patients. Nine patients (3.8%) showed increased signal intensity on trace map of diffusion tensor images suggesting acute/subacute infarctions. Space occupying lesions were detected in 7 patients, and 3 lesions (1.27%) had mass effect and edema and were considered clinically significant lesions that diminish cognitive functions. Several incidental MR findings were detected in patients with decreased cognitive function, and the incidence of aucte/subacute infarctions were higher. Proper evaluations of MRI in patients with impaired cognitive functions will be helpful in early detection and management of ischemic lesions and space occupying lesions.

  1. Incidental Parathyroidectomy during Total Thyroidectomy: Risk Factors and Consequences

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    Dimitrios K. Manatakis

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate the incidence of accidental parathyroidectomy in our series of total thyroidectomies, to investigate its clinical and biochemical consequences, and to identify potential risk factors. Methods. Patients who underwent total thyroidectomy between January 2006 and December 2015 were retrospectively analyzed. Pathology reports were reviewed to identify those cases who had an incidental parathyroidectomy and these were compared to patients with no parathyroidectomy, in terms of clinical (age, sex, and symptoms of hypocalcemia, pathological (thyroid specimen weight, Hashimoto thyroiditis, and malignancy, and biochemical (serum calcium and phosphate levels factors. Results. 281 patients underwent total thyroidectomy during the study period. Incidental parathyroidectomy was noticed in 24.9% of cases, with 44.3% of parathyroid glands found in an intrathyroidal location. Evidence of postoperative biochemical hypocalcemia was noticed in 28.6% of patients with parathyroidectomy, compared with 13.3% in the no-parathyroidectomy group (p=0.003. Symptomatic hypocalcemia was observed in 5.7% and 3.8%, respectively (p=0.49. Age, sex, thyroid specimen weight, Hashimoto thyroiditis, and malignancy did not differ significantly between the two groups. Conclusions. Our study found an association of incidental parathyroidectomy with transient postoperative biochemical hypocalcemia, but not with clinically symptomatic disease. Age, sex, thyroid gland weight, Hashimoto thyroiditis, and malignancy were not identified as risk factors.

  2. Incidental Learning of Melodic Structure of North Indian Music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohrmeier, Martin; Widdess, Richard

    2017-07-01

    Musical knowledge is largely implicit. It is acquired without awareness of its complex rules, through interaction with a large number of samples during musical enculturation. Whereas several studies explored implicit learning of mostly abstract and less ecologically valid features of Western music, very little work has been done with respect to ecologically valid stimuli as well as non-Western music. The present study investigated implicit learning of modal melodic features in North Indian classical music in a realistic and ecologically valid way. It employed a cross-grammar design, using melodic materials from two modes (rāgas) that use the same scale. Findings indicated that Western participants unfamiliar with Indian music incidentally learned to identify distinctive features of each mode. Confidence ratings suggest that participants' performance was consistently correlated with confidence, indicating that they became aware of whether they were right in their responses; that is, they possessed explicit judgment knowledge. Altogether our findings show incidental learning in a realistic ecologically valid context during only a very short exposure, they provide evidence that incidental learning constitutes a powerful mechanism that plays a fundamental role in musical acquisition. Copyright © 2016 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  3. Aerobic Exercise During Encoding Impairs Hippocampus-Dependent Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soga, Keishi; Kamijo, Keita; Masaki, Hiroaki

    2017-08-01

    We investigated how aerobic exercise during encoding affects hippocampus-dependent memory through a source memory task that assessed hippocampus-independent familiarity and hippocampus-dependent recollection processes. Using a within-participants design, young adult participants performed a memory-encoding task while performing a cycling exercise or being seated. The subsequent retrieval phase was conducted while sitting on a chair. We assessed behavioral and event-related brain potential measures of familiarity and recollection processes during the retrieval phase. Results indicated that source accuracy was lower for encoding with exercise than for encoding in the resting condition. Event-related brain potential measures indicated that the parietal old/new effect, which has been linked to recollection processing, was observed in the exercise condition, whereas it was absent in the rest condition, which is indicative of exercise-induced hippocampal activation. These findings suggest that aerobic exercise during encoding impairs hippocampus-dependent memory, which may be attributed to inefficient source encoding during aerobic exercise.

  4. Orienting task effects on text recall in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, E W; Dixon, R A; Nowak, C A; Hultsch, D F

    1982-09-01

    This investigation examined the effects of orienting task-controlled processing on the text recall of younger (18 to 32 years), middle-aged (39 to 51 years), and older (59 to 76 years) adults. The participants were presented with a 500-word narrative text. Three groups performed orienting tasks (syntactic, stylistic, advice) within an incidental memory paradigm. A fourth group was asked for intentional recall. Analysis indicated a significant age by orienting task interaction. Younger adults recalled more propositions when recall was intentional or when it was preceded by a deep-orienting task than when it was preceded by a shallow-orienting task. Middle-aged and older adults recalled more propositions when recall was intentional than when it was incidental, regardless of the depth of the orienting task. There were no significant differences in intentional recall. In addition, a significant age x orienting task x propositional level interaction indicated that younger adults recalled more of the main ideas of the text following deep processing, whereas the middle-aged and older adults recalled more of these ideas following intentional processing.

  5. The facilitative effects of incidental teaching on preposition use by autistic children.

    OpenAIRE

    McGee, G G; Krantz, P J; McClannahan, L E

    1985-01-01

    In a comparison of incidental teaching and traditional training procedures, three language-delayed autistic children were taught expressive use of prepositions to describe the location of preferred edibles and toys. Traditional highly structured training and incidental teaching procedures were used in a classroom setting, and generalization was assessed during free-play sessions. Results clearly indicate that incidental teaching promoted greater generalization and more spontaneous use of prep...

  6. Analysis And Assessment Of The Security Method Against Incidental Contamination In The Collective Water Supply System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szpak Dawid

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the main types of surface water incidental contaminations and the security method against incidental contamination in water sources. Analysis and assessment the collective water supply system (CWSS protection against incidental contamination was conducted. Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA was used. The FMEA method allow to use the product or process analysis, identification of weak points, and implementation the corrections and new solutions for eliminating the source of undesirable events. The developed methodology was shown in application case. It was found that the risk of water contamination in water-pipe network of the analyzed CWSS caused by water source incidental contamination is at controlled level.

  7. The effect of encoding strategy on the neural correlates of memory for faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Lori J; Beig, Sania; Siegenthaler, Amy L; Grady, Cheryl L

    2002-01-01

    Encoding and recognition of unfamiliar faces in young adults were examined using positron emission tomography to determine whether different encoding strategies would lead to encoding/retrieval differences in brain activity. Three types of encoding were compared: a 'deep' task (judging pleasantness/unpleasantness), a 'shallow' task (judging right/left orientation), and an intentional learning task in which subjects were instructed to learn the faces for a subsequent memory test but were not provided with a specific strategy. Memory for all faces was tested with an old/new recognition test. A modest behavioral effect was obtained, with deeply-encoded faces being recognized more accurately than shallowly-encoded or intentionally-learned faces. Regardless of encoding strategy, encoding activated a primarily ventral system including bilateral temporal and fusiform regions and left prefrontal cortices, whereas recognition activated a primarily dorsal set of regions including right prefrontal and parietal areas. Within encoding, the type of strategy produced different brain activity patterns, with deep encoding being characterized by left amygdala and left anterior cingulate activation. There was no effect of encoding strategy on brain activity during the recognition conditions. Posterior fusiform gyrus activation was related to better recognition accuracy in those conditions encouraging perceptual strategies, whereas activity in left frontal and temporal areas correlated with better performance during the 'deep' condition. Results highlight three important aspects of face memory: (1) the effect of encoding strategy was seen only at encoding and not at recognition; (2) left inferior prefrontal cortex was engaged during encoding of faces regardless of strategy; and (3) differential activity in fusiform gyrus was found, suggesting that activity in this area is not only a result of automatic face processing but is modulated by controlled processes.

  8. Deep and shallow encoding effects on face recognition: an ERP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzi, Tessa; Viggiano, Maria Pia

    2010-12-01

    Event related potentials (ERPs) were employed to investigate whether and when brain activity related to face recognition varies according to the processing level undertaken at encoding. Recognition was assessed when preceded by a "shallow" (orientation judgement) or by a "deep" study task (occupation judgement). Moreover, we included a further manipulation by presenting at encoding faces either in the upright or inverted orientation. As expected, deeply encoded faces were recognized more accurately and more quickly with respect to shallowly encoded faces. The ERP showed three main findings: i) as witnessed by more positive-going potentials for deeply encoded faces, at early and later processing stage, face recognition was influenced by the processing strategy adopted during encoding; ii) structural encoding, indexed by the N170, turned out to be "cognitively penetrable" showing repetition priming effects for deeply encoded faces; iii) face inversion, by disrupting configural processing during encoding, influenced memory related processes for deeply encoded faces and impaired the recognition of faces shallowly processed. The present study adds weight to the concept that the depth of processing during memory encoding affects retrieval. We found that successful retrieval following deep encoding involved both familiarity- and recollection-related processes showing from 500 ms a fronto-parietal distribution, whereas shallow encoding affected only earlier processing stages reflecting perceptual priming. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Adult ADHD and working memory: neural evidence of impaired encoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soyeon; Liu, Zhongxu; Glizer, Daniel; Tannock, Rosemary; Woltering, Steven

    2014-08-01

    To investigate neural and behavioural correlates of visual encoding during a working memory (WM) task in young adults with and without Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). A sample of 30 college students currently meeting a diagnosis of ADHD and 25 typically developing students, matched on age and gender, performed a delayed match-to-sample task with low and high memory load conditions. Dense-array electroencephalography was recorded. Specifically, the P3, an event related potential (ERP) associated with WM, was examined because of its relation with attentional allocation during WM. Task performance (accuracy, reaction time) as well as performance on other neuropsychological tasks of WM was analyzed. Neural differences were found between the groups. Specifically, the P3 amplitude was smaller in the ADHD group compared to the comparison group for both load conditions at parietal-occipital sites. Lower scores on behavioural working memory tasks were suggestive of impaired behavioural WM performance in the ADHD group. Findings from this study provide the first evidence of neural differences in the encoding stage of WM in young adults with ADHD, suggesting ineffective allocation of attentional resources involved in encoding of information in WM. These findings, reflecting alternate neural functioning of WM, may explain some of the difficulties related to WM functioning that college students with ADHD report in their every day cognitive functioning. Copyright © 2013 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. How does cognitive load influence speech perception? An encoding hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitterer, Holger; Mattys, Sven L

    2017-01-01

    Two experiments investigated the conditions under which cognitive load exerts an effect on the acuity of speech perception. These experiments extend earlier research by using a different speech perception task (four-interval oddity task) and by implementing cognitive load through a task often thought to be modular, namely, face processing. In the cognitive-load conditions, participants were required to remember two faces presented before the speech stimuli. In Experiment 1, performance in the speech-perception task under cognitive load was not impaired in comparison to a no-load baseline condition. In Experiment 2, we modified the load condition minimally such that it required encoding of the two faces simultaneously with the speech stimuli. As a reference condition, we also used a visual search task that in earlier experiments had led to poorer speech perception. Both concurrent tasks led to decrements in the speech task. The results suggest that speech perception is affected even by loads thought to be processed modularly, and that, critically, encoding in working memory might be the locus of interference.

  11. Incidental Findings in Neuroimaging: Ethical and Medicolegal Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Lawrence

    2013-01-01

    With the rapid advances in neurosciences in the last three decades, there has been an exponential increase in the use of neuroimaging both in basic sciences and clinical research involving human subjects. During routine neuroimaging, incidental findings that are not part of the protocol or scope of research agenda can occur and they often pose a challenge as to how they should be handled to abide by the medicolegal principles of research ethics. This paper reviews the issue from various ethical (do no harm, general duty to rescue, and mutual benefits and owing) and medicolegal perspectives (legal liability, fiduciary duties, Law of Tort, and Law of Contract) with a suggested protocol of approach.

  12. Incidental solid renal mass in a cadaveric donor kidney

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R M Meyyappan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The number of patients living with end-stage renal disease (ESRD is increasing in our country and demand for renal grafts is ever increasing. Cadaver renal transplantation is being established as a viable supplement to live transplantation. We present a case where a mass lesion was encountered in the donor kidney from a cadaver. Enucleation of the lesion was done and we proceeded with the grafting. Histopathological examination showed a ′Renomedullary interstitial cell tumour′, a rare benign lesion. Post transplant, the renal function recovered well and the patient is asymptomatic. Such incidental renal masses present an ethical dilemma to the operating surgeon.

  13. Incidental finding of cutaneous meningeal heterotopia in aplasia cutis congenita.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenyon, Katharine; Zedek, Daniel; Sayed, Christopher

    2016-07-01

    Aplasia cutis congenita and cutaneous meningeal heterotopia are both rare congenital conditions that most commonly occur on the scalp and may appear clinically and histologically similar. A subtype of aplasia cutis congenita, membranous aplasia cutis congenita, and cutaneous meningeal heterotopia are both proposed to result from neural tube closure errors. However, neither non-membranous nor membranous aplasia cutis congenita are known to occur together with cutaneous meningeal heterotopia in the same lesion. We report the incidental finding of cutaneous meningeal heterotopia within a lesion of aplasia cutis congenita. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Incidental invasive thymoma during coronary artery bypass surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Smady, Moaath M.; Hammdan, Farouq F.; Abu-Abeeleh, Mahmood M.; Massad, Islam M.

    2009-01-01

    We encountered 2 incidental cases of invasive thymomas at Jordan University Hospital, Amman, Jordan: during the routine coronary artery bypass graft surgery between 2005 and 2008 with an incidence of 0.6%. Both patients presented with angina pain. None of the 2 patients had pressure symptoms (cough, shortness of breath or superior vena cava syndrome) or Myasthenia Gravis symptoms. Total thyectomy with dissection of perithymic fat was performed on both cases. No radiotherapy was given. No recurrence of the tumor was seen in 2 years follow-up. These cases are presented to emphasize the occurrence of this tumor. (author)

  15. Clinical value of renal images obtained incidentally to bone scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohishi, Y.; Machida, T.; Miki, M.; Kido, A.; Tanaka, A.

    1982-01-01

    Various studies were made on 400 renal (including 325 clinical cases) observed during whole-body bone scintigraphy using 99mTc-MDP. Asymmetrical renal images in bone scintigrams were obtained from 40% of the urologic patients and 7.5% of the nonurologic patients. Out of the asymmetrical images of the urologic patients, 50% provided nonvisualized kidneys and 35% showed unilateral renal high accumulation. It can be said from the above that renal images incidentally obtained during whole-body bone scintigraphy should not be overlooked

  16. Divided Attention Can Enhance Memory Encoding: The Attentional Boost Effect in Implicit Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spataro, Pietro; Mulligan, Neil W.; Rossi-Arnaud, Clelia

    2013-01-01

    Distraction during encoding has long been known to disrupt later memory performance. Contrary to this long-standing result, we show that detecting an infrequent target in a dual-task paradigm actually improves memory encoding for a concurrently presented word, above and beyond the performance reached in the full-attention condition. This absolute…

  17. The Role of Executive Control of Attention and Selective Encoding for Preschoolers' Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roderer, Thomas; Krebs, Saskia; Schmid, Corinne; Roebers, Claudia M.

    2012-01-01

    Selectivity in encoding, aspects of attentional control and their contribution to learning performance were explored in a sample of preschoolers. While the children are performing a learning task, their encoding of relevant and attention towards irrelevant information was recorded through an eye-tracking device. Recognition of target items was…

  18. Selective Memories: Infants' Encoding Is Enhanced in Selection via Suppression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markant, Julie; Amso, Dima

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined the hypothesis that inhibitory visual selection mechanisms play a vital role in memory by limiting distractor interference during item encoding. In Experiment 1a we used a modified spatial cueing task in which 9-month-old infants encoded multiple category exemplars in the contexts of an attention orienting mechanism…

  19. Vividness of visual imagery and incidental recall of verbal cues, when phenomenological availability reflects long-term memory accessibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amedeo eD'Angiulli

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between vivid visual mental images and unexpected recall (incidental recall was replicated, refined and extended. In Experiment 1, participants were asked to generate mental images from imagery-evoking verbal-cues (controlled on several verbal properties and then, on a trial-by-trial basis, rate the vividness of their images; thirty minutes later, participants were surprised with a task requiring free recall of the cues. Higher vividness ratings predicted better incidental recall of the cues than individual differences (whose effect was modest. Distributional analysis of image latencies through ex-Gaussian modeling showed an inverse relation between vividness and latency. However, recall was unrelated to image latency. The follow-up Experiment 2 showed that the processes underlying trial-by-trial vividness ratings are unrelated to the Vividness of Visual Imagery Questionnaire (VVIQ, as further supported by a meta-analysis of a randomly selected sample of relevant literature. The present findings suggest that vividness may act as an index of availability of long-term sensory traces, playing a non-epiphenomenal role in facilitating the access of those memories.

  20. Vividness of visual imagery and incidental recall of verbal cues, when phenomenological availability reflects long-term memory accessibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Angiulli, Amedeo; Runge, Matthew; Faulkner, Andrew; Zakizadeh, Jila; Chan, Aldrich; Morcos, Selvana

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between vivid visual mental images and unexpected recall (incidental recall) was replicated, refined, and extended. In Experiment 1, participants were asked to generate mental images from imagery-evoking verbal cues (controlled on several verbal properties) and then, on a trial-by-trial basis, rate the vividness of their images; 30 min later, participants were surprised with a task requiring free recall of the cues. Higher vividness ratings predicted better incidental recall of the cues than individual differences (whose effect was modest). Distributional analysis of image latencies through ex-Gaussian modeling showed an inverse relation between vividness and latency. However, recall was unrelated to image latency. The follow-up Experiment 2 showed that the processes underlying trial-by-trial vividness ratings are unrelated to the Vividness of Visual Imagery Questionnaire (VVIQ), as further supported by a meta-analysis of a randomly selected sample of relevant literature. The present findings suggest that vividness may act as an index of availability of long-term sensory traces, playing a non-epiphenomenal role in facilitating the access of those memories.

  1. Food memory and its relation with age and liking: an incidental learning experiment with children, young and elderly people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laureati, M; Morin-Audebrand, L; Pagliarini, E; Sulmont-Rossé, C; Köster, E P; Mojet, J

    2008-09-01

    The present study compared incidental learning and food memory in children, young adults and elderly people for three sensory modalities (taste, texture and aroma). The relation of gender and liker-status (i.e. how much we like a product) with food memory was also investigated. Participants received a complete meal including a custard dessert used as target under incidental learning conditions. 24h later, participants were confronted with a series of samples consisting of the target and slightly modified versions of the target (distractors) and were unexpectedly asked to perform an "absolute memory" ("Did you eat this sample yesterday?") and a "relative memory" test ("Is the present sample less/equal/more pleasant than the one you ate yesterday?"). Participants also performed a hedonic and a discrimination test. Memory for the custard was poor and did not depend on age, but it was related to gender, and to how much participants liked the product. Females and high-likers outperformed males and low-likers in the absolute memory task, but they were not better in discriminating the products on both the hedonic and the perceptual dimension. Results also showed that, contrary to common belief, not all sensory aspects that can be discriminated in perception and in liking, are equally well remembered.

  2. Graph Regularized Auto-Encoders for Image Representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yiyi Liao; Yue Wang; Yong Liu

    2017-06-01

    Image representation has been intensively explored in the domain of computer vision for its significant influence on the relative tasks such as image clustering and classification. It is valuable to learn a low-dimensional representation of an image which preserves its inherent information from the original image space. At the perspective of manifold learning, this is implemented with the local invariant idea to capture the intrinsic low-dimensional manifold embedded in the high-dimensional input space. Inspired by the recent successes of deep architectures, we propose a local invariant deep nonlinear mapping algorithm, called graph regularized auto-encoder (GAE). With the graph regularization, the proposed method preserves the local connectivity from the original image space to the representation space, while the stacked auto-encoders provide explicit encoding model for fast inference and powerful expressive capacity for complex modeling. Theoretical analysis shows that the graph regularizer penalizes the weighted Frobenius norm of the Jacobian matrix of the encoder mapping, where the weight matrix captures the local property in the input space. Furthermore, the underlying effects on the hidden representation space are revealed, providing insightful explanation to the advantage of the proposed method. Finally, the experimental results on both clustering and classification tasks demonstrate the effectiveness of our GAE as well as the correctness of the proposed theoretical analysis, and it also suggests that GAE is a superior solution to the current deep representation learning techniques comparing with variant auto-encoders and existing local invariant methods.

  3. Prolonged hemodynamic response during incidental facial emotion processing in inter-episode bipolar I disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfeld, Ethan S; Pearlson, Godfrey D; Sweeney, John A; Tamminga, Carol A; Keshavan, Matcheri S; Nonterah, Camilla; Stevens, Michael C

    2014-03-01

    This fMRI study examined whether hemodynamic responses to affectively-salient stimuli were abnormally prolonged in remitted bipolar disorder, possibly representing a novel illness biomarker. A group of 18 DSM-IV bipolar I-diagnosed adults in remission and a demographically-matched control group performed an event-related fMRI gender-discrimination task in which face stimuli had task-irrelevant neutral, happy or angry expressions designed to elicit incidental emotional processing. Participants' brain activation was modeled using a "fully informed" SPM5 basis set. Mixed-model ANOVA tested for diagnostic group differences in BOLD response amplitude and shape within brain regions-of-interest selected from ALE meta-analysis of previous comparable fMRI studies. Bipolar-diagnosed patients had a generally longer duration and/or later-peaking hemodynamic response in amygdala and numerous prefrontal cortex brain regions. Data are consistent with existing models of bipolar limbic hyperactivity, but the prolonged frontolimbic response more precisely details abnormalities recognized in previous studies. Prolonged hemodynamic responses were unrelated to stimulus type, task performance, or degree of residual mood symptoms, suggesting an important novel trait vulnerability brain dysfunction in bipolar disorder. Bipolar patients also failed to engage pregenual cingulate and left orbitofrontal cortex-regions important to models of automatic emotion regulation-while engaging a delayed dorsolateral prefrontal cortex response not seen in controls. These results raise questions about whether there are meaningful relationships between bipolar dysfunction of specific ventromedial prefrontal cortex regions believed to automatically regulate emotional reactions and the prolonged responses in more lateral aspects of prefrontal cortex.

  4. 77 FR 30996 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals: Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Navy's Research...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-24

    ... harassment incidental to its Research, Development, Test and Evaluation (RDT&E) activities at the NAVSEA... period of four years, to take, by harassment, marine mammals incidental to proposed training activities... Navy's 2011 RDT&E activities can be found in the exercise report posted on NMFS Web site: http://www...

  5. 30 CFR 947.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 947.702 Section 947.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... other minerals. Part 702 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal Extraction Incidental to the Extraction of...

  6. 30 CFR 933.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 933.702 Section 933.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... other minerals. Part 702 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal Extraction Incidental to the Extraction of...

  7. 30 CFR 939.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 939.702 Section 939.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... other minerals. Part 702 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal Extraction Incidental to the Extraction of...

  8. 30 CFR 903.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 903.702 Section 903.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... minerals. Part 702 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal Extraction Incidental to the Extraction of Other...

  9. 30 CFR 912.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 912.702 Section 912.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... minerals. Part 702 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal Extraction Incidental to the Extraction of Other...

  10. 30 CFR 937.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 937.702 Section 937.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... minerals. Part 702 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal Extraction Incidental to the Extraction of Other...

  11. 30 CFR 921.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 921.702 Section 921.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... other minerals. Part 702 of the chapter, Exemption for Coal Extraction Incidental to the Extraction of...

  12. 30 CFR 905.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 905.702 Section 905.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... other minerals. Part 702 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal Extraction Incidental to the Extraction of...

  13. 30 CFR 942.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 942.702 Section 942.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... minerals. Part 702 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal Extraction Incidental to the Extraction of Other...

  14. 30 CFR 910.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 910.702 Section 910.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... minerals. Part 702 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal Extraction Incidental to the Extraction of Other...

  15. 30 CFR 922.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 922.702 Section 922.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... minerals. Part 702 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal Extraction Incidental to the Extraction of Other...

  16. 30 CFR 941.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 941.702 Section 941.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... other minerals. Part 702 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal Extraction Incidental to the Extraction of...

  17. 76 FR 23306 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Russian River Estuary Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-26

    ... Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Russian River Estuary Management Activities AGENCY...) to incidentally harass, by Level B harassment only, three species of marine mammals during estuary... December 31, 2010; and Russian River Estuary Outlet Channel Adaptive Management Plan. NMFS' Environmental...

  18. 77 FR 24471 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Russian River Estuary Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-24

    ... Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Russian River Estuary Management Activities AGENCY...) to incidentally harass, by Level B harassment only, three species of marine mammals during estuary... Estuary Outlet Channel Adaptive Management Plan; and Feasibility of Alternatives to the Goat Rock State...

  19. 76 FR 17434 - Receipt of Application for an Endangered Species Act Incidental Take Permit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-29

    ... Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA020 Receipt of Application for an Endangered Species Act Incidental Take..., the Services) for incidental take permits (ITPs) under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended...) and implementing regulations prohibit the taking of animal species listed as endangered or threatened...

  20. 46 CFR 276.1 - Partial repayment-incidental domestic trading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Partial repayment-incidental domestic trading. 276.1 Section 276.1 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING...—incidental domestic trading. In every instance where a vessel, with respect to which a construction...

  1. 22 CFR 92.68 - Foreign Service fees and incidental costs in the taking of evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Foreign Service fees and incidental costs in... SERVICES NOTARIAL AND RELATED SERVICES Depositions and Letters Rogatory § 92.68 Foreign Service fees and incidental costs in the taking of evidence. The fees for the taking of evidence by officers of the Foreign...

  2. Does the Freedom of Reader Choice Affect Second Language Incidental Vocabulary Acquisition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Barry Lee; Bai, Yi Ling

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the effect of freedom of reader choice on the incidental acquisition of vocabulary was investigated in English as a Foreign Language (EFL) reading classes. Despite advocating free extensive reading as a means of obtaining a native-like L2 vocabulary,existing studies investigating the incidental acquisition of vocabulary have not…

  3. Incidental L2 Vocabulary Acquisition "from" and "while" Reading: An Eye-Tracking Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellicer-Sánchez, Ana

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that reading is an important source of incidental second language (L2) vocabulary acquisition. However, we still do not have a clear picture of what happens when readers encounter unknown words. Combining offline (vocabulary tests) and online (eye-tracking) measures, the incidental acquisition of vocabulary knowledge…

  4. Involvement in Traditional Cultural Practices and American Indian Children's Incidental Recall of a Folktale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsethlikai, Monica; Rogoff, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    This study examined incidental recall of a folktale told to 91 Tohono O'odham American Indian children (average age 9 years) who either were directly addressed or had the opportunity to overhear the telling of the folktale. Learning from surrounding incidental events contrasts with learning through direct instruction common in Western schooling,…

  5. 77 FR 17033 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals: Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Navy's Training...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-23

    ... take marine mammals by harassment incidental to its training activities at the Gulf of Mexico (GOMEX... Importing Marine Mammals: Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Navy's Training Activities at the Gulf of Mexico Range Complex AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric...

  6. 76 FR 14884 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Modification of the Retention of Incidentally-Caught Highly...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-18

    ... mortality, both directed and incidental, so as to ensure the long-term sustainability of HMS stocks, and to..., MD, 20910; Mid-Atlantic Fishery Management Council (MAFMC) Meeting, Historic Inn of Annapolis, 58... directed and incidental, so as to ensure the long-term sustainability of HMS stocks, and to provide the...

  7. Incidental learning and memory for food varied in sweet taste in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laureati, M.; Pagliarini, E.; Mojet, J.; Köster, E.P.

    2011-01-01

    This experiment investigated incidental learning and memory in children (age 7–10 years) for three different foods (fruit juice, fruit purée and biscuit), varied in sweetness. Children (N = 286) were exposed to three target foods and 24 h later their incidental learning was tested for one of the

  8. Impact of lymphocytic thyroiditis on incidence of pathological incidental thyroid carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Eric; Heffron, Cynthia; Murphy, Matthew; O'Leary, Gerard; Sheahan, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of lymphocytic thyroiditis on incidence of incidental thyroid cancers. We conducted a retrospective review of 713 consecutive patients who underwent thyroidectomies. Incidental thyroid cancer was defined as an unexpected cancer discovered on pathological examination outside the index nodule undergoing preoperative cytology. We excluded 65 cases because of preoperative diagnosis of thyroid cancer, and 68 because of nonincidental cancer within the index nodule. Among the remaining 580 cases, there were 43 cases (7.4%) of incidental thyroid cancers. Incidental thyroid cancers were significantly associated with moderate/severe lymphocytic thyroiditis (relative risk = 2.5; p = .03). Sixteen of 56 patients with moderate/severe lymphocytic thyroiditis had Graves' disease, none of whom had incidental thyroid cancer. The risk of incidental thyroid cancer associated with moderate/severe lymphocytic thyroiditis was significantly higher in non-Graves' than patients with Graves' disease (p = .05). The risk of incidental thyroid cancer is significantly increased in patients with moderate/severe lymphocytic thyroiditis. Moderate/severe lymphocytic thyroiditis associated with Graves' disease seems to have a lower risk of incidental thyroid cancer. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck 39: 122-127, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. 77 FR 38587 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Harbor Activities Related to the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-28

    ... Northern elephant seals by Level B harassment only. To date, we have issued nine, one-year, Incidental... as far north as Alaska and as far south as Mexico. Northern elephant seals spend much of the year... numbers of marine mammals, incidental to conducting Delta Mariner harbor operations for one year. We...

  10. 30 CFR 750.21 - Coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coal extraction incidental to the extraction of... ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR INDIAN LANDS PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS FOR SURFACE COAL MINING AND RECLAMATION OPERATIONS ON INDIAN LANDS § 750.21 Coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals...

  11. Incidental Vocabulary Learning in Second Language Acquisition: A Literature Review (Aprendizaje incidental de vocabulario en la adquisición de una segunda lengua: una revisión de literatura)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restrepo Ramos, Falcon Dario

    2015-01-01

    This literature review aims to analyze previous studies that address the incidental learning of vocabulary in second language acquisition. The articles included in this literature review look into the understanding of vocabulary learning through incidental means, the relationship of reading and incidental vocabulary learning, and the strategies…

  12. Testing the encoding elaboration hypothesis: The effects of exemplar ranking on recognition and recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnur, P

    1977-11-01

    Two experiments investigated the effects of exemplar ranking on retention. High-ranking exemplars are words judged to be prototypical of a given category; low-ranking exemplars are words judged to be atypical of a given category. In Experiment 1, an incidental learning paradigm was used to measure reaction time to answer an encoding question as well as subsequent recognition. It was found that low-ranking exemplars were classified more slowly but recognized better than high-ranking exemplars. Other comparisons of the effects of category encoding, rhyme encoding, and typescript encoding on response latency and recognition replicated the results of Craik and Tulving (1975). In Experiment 2, unanticipated free recall of live previously learned paired associate lists revealed that a list composed of low-ranking exemplars was better recalled than a comparable list composed of high-ranking exemplars. Moreover, this was true only when the lists were studied in the context of appropriate category cues. These findings are discussed in terms of the encoding elaboration hypothesis.

  13. Neutral details associated with emotional events are encoded: evidence from a cued recall paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickley Steinmetz, Katherine R; Knight, Aubrey G; Kensinger, Elizabeth A

    2016-11-01

    Enhanced emotional memory often comes at the cost of memory for surrounding background information. Narrowed-encoding theories suggest that this is due to narrowed attention for emotional information at encoding, leading to impaired encoding of background information. Recent work has suggested that an encoding-based theory may be insufficient. Here, we examined whether cued recall-instead of previously used recognition memory tasks-would reveal evidence that non-emotional information associated with emotional information was effectively encoded. Participants encoded positive, negative, or neutral objects on neutral backgrounds. At retrieval, they were given either the item or the background as a memory cue and were asked to recall the associated scene element. Counter to narrowed-encoding theories, emotional items were more likely than neutral items to trigger recall of the associated background. This finding suggests that there is a memory trace of this contextual information and that emotional cues may facilitate retrieval of this information.

  14. Analysing and Comparing Encodability Criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirstin Peters

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Encodings or the proof of their absence are the main way to compare process calculi. To analyse the quality of encodings and to rule out trivial or meaningless encodings, they are augmented with quality criteria. There exists a bunch of different criteria and different variants of criteria in order to reason in different settings. This leads to incomparable results. Moreover it is not always clear whether the criteria used to obtain a result in a particular setting do indeed fit to this setting. We show how to formally reason about and compare encodability criteria by mapping them on requirements on a relation between source and target terms that is induced by the encoding function. In particular we analyse the common criteria full abstraction, operational correspondence, divergence reflection, success sensitiveness, and respect of barbs; e.g. we analyse the exact nature of the simulation relation (coupled simulation versus bisimulation that is induced by different variants of operational correspondence. This way we reduce the problem of analysing or comparing encodability criteria to the better understood problem of comparing relations on processes.

  15. Incompletely characterized incidental renal masses: emerging data support conservative management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Stuart G; Israel, Gary M; Trinh, Quoc-Dien

    2015-04-01

    With imaging, most incidental renal masses can be diagnosed promptly and with confidence as being either benign or malignant. For those that cannot, management recommendations can be devised on the basis of a thorough evaluation of imaging features. However, most renal masses are either too small to characterize completely or are detected initially in imaging examinations that are not designed for full evaluation of them. These masses constitute a group of masses that are considered incompletely characterized. On the basis of current published guidelines, many masses warrant additional imaging. However, while the diagnosis of renal cancer at a curable stage remains the first priority, there is the additional need to reduce unnecessary healthcare costs and radiation exposure. As such, emerging data now support foregoing additional imaging for many incompletely characterized renal masses. These data include the low risk of progression to metastases or death for small renal masses that have undergone active surveillance (including biopsy-proven cancers) and a better understanding of how specific imaging features can be used to diagnose their origins. These developments support (a) avoidance of imaging entirely for those incompletely characterized renal masses that are highly likely to be benign cysts and (b) delay of further imaging of small solid masses in selected patients. Although more evidence-based data are needed and comprehensive management algorithms have yet to be defined, these recommendations are medically appropriate and practical, while limiting the imaging of many incompletely characterized incidental renal masses.

  16. Computed Tomography Features of Incidentally Detected Diffuse Thyroid Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myung Ho Rho

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This study aimed to evaluate the CT features of incidentally detected DTD in the patients who underwent thyroidectomy and to assess the diagnostic accuracy of CT diagnosis. Methods. We enrolled 209 consecutive patients who received preoperative neck CT and subsequent thyroid surgery. Neck CT in each case was retrospectively investigated by a single radiologist. We evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of individual CT features and the cut-off CT criteria for detecting DTD by comparing the CT features with histopathological results. Results. Histopathological examination of the 209 cases revealed normal thyroid (n=157, Hashimoto thyroiditis (n=17, non-Hashimoto lymphocytic thyroiditis (n=34, and diffuse hyperplasia (n=1. The CT features suggestive of DTD included low attenuation, inhomogeneous attenuation, increased glandular size, lobulated margin, and inhomogeneous enhancement. ROC curve analysis revealed that CT diagnosis of DTD based on the CT classification of “3 or more” abnormal CT features was superior. When the “3 or more” CT classification was selected, the sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and accuracy of CT diagnosis for DTD were 55.8%, 95.5%, 80.6%, 86.7%, and 85.6%, respectively. Conclusion. Neck CT may be helpful for the detection of incidental DTD.

  17. Does long-term object priming depend on the explicit detection of object identity at encoding?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alexandre Gomes

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available It is currently unclear whether objects have to be explicitly identified at encoding for reliable behavioural long-term object priming to occur. We conducted two experiments that investigated long-term object and non-object priming using a selective-attention encoding manipulation that reduces explicit object identification. In Experiment 1, participants either counted dots flashed within an object picture (shallow encoding or engaged in an animacy task (deep encoding at study, whereas, at test, they performed an object-decision task. Priming, as measured by reaction times, was observed for both types of encoding, and was of equivalent magnitude. In Experiment 2, non-object priming (faster reaction times for studied relative to unstudied non-objects was also obtained under the same selective-attention encoding manipulation as in Experiment 1, and the magnitude of the priming effect was equivalent between experiments. In contrast, we observed a linear decrement in recognition memory accuracy across conditions (deep encoding of Experiment 1 > shallow encoding Experiment 1 > shallow encoding of Experiment 2, suggesting that priming was not contaminated by explicit memory strategies. We argue that our results are more consistent with the identification/production framework than the perceptual/conceptual distinction, and we conclude that priming of pictures largely ignored at encoding can be subserved by the automatic retrieval of two types of instances: one at the motor-level and another at an object-decision level.

  18. When do objects become landmarks? A VR study of the effect of task relevance on spatial memory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Han

    Full Text Available We investigated how objects come to serve as landmarks in spatial memory, and more specifically how they form part of an allocentric cognitive map. Participants performing a virtual driving task incidentally learned the layout of a virtual town and locations of objects in that town. They were subsequently tested on their spatial and recognition memory for the objects. To assess whether the objects were encoded allocentrically we examined pointing consistency across tested viewpoints. In three experiments, we found that spatial memory for objects at navigationally relevant locations was more consistent across tested viewpoints, particularly when participants had more limited experience of the environment. When participants' attention was focused on the appearance of objects, the navigational relevance effect was eliminated, whereas when their attention was focused on objects' locations, this effect was enhanced, supporting the hypothesis that when objects are processed in the service of navigation, rather than merely being viewed as objects, they engage qualitatively distinct attentional systems and are incorporated into an allocentric spatial representation. The results are consistent with evidence from the neuroimaging literature that when objects are relevant to navigation, they not only engage the ventral "object processing stream", but also the dorsal stream and medial temporal lobe memory system classically associated with allocentric spatial memory.

  19. Premotor and Motor Cortices Encode Reward.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavan Ramkumar

    Full Text Available Rewards associated with actions are critical for motivation and learning about the consequences of one's actions on the world. The motor cortices are involved in planning and executing movements, but it is unclear whether they encode reward over and above limb kinematics and dynamics. Here, we report a categorical reward signal in dorsal premotor (PMd and primary motor (M1 neurons that corresponds to an increase in firing rates when a trial was not rewarded regardless of whether or not a reward was expected. We show that this signal is unrelated to error magnitude, reward prediction error, or other task confounds such as reward consumption, return reach plan, or kinematic differences across rewarded and unrewarded trials. The availability of reward information in motor cortex is crucial for theories of reward-based learning and motivational influences on actions.

  20. Does Incidental Disgust Amplify Moral Judgment? A Meta-Analytic Review of Experimental Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landy, Justin F; Goodwin, Geoffrey P

    2015-07-01

    The role of emotion in moral judgment is currently a topic of much debate in moral psychology. One specific claim made by many researchers is that irrelevant feelings of disgust can amplify the severity of moral condemnation. Numerous researchers have found this effect, but there have also been several published failures to replicate it. Clarifying this issue would inform important theoretical debates among rival accounts of moral judgment. We meta-analyzed all available studies--published and unpublished--in which incidental disgust was manipulated prior to or concurrent with a moral judgment task (k = 50). We found evidence for a small amplification effect of disgust (d = 0.11), which is strongest for gustatory/olfactory modes of disgust induction. However, there is also some suggestion of publication bias in this literature, and when this is accounted for, the effect disappears entirely (d = -0.01). Moreover, prevalent confounds mean that the effect size that we estimate is best interpreted as an upper bound on the size of the amplification effect. On the basis of the results of this meta-analysis, we argue against strong claims about the causal role of affect in moral judgment and suggest a need for new, more rigorous research on this topic. © The Author(s) 2015.

  1. Radiology reports for incidental thyroid nodules on CT and MRI: high variability across subspecialties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grady, A T; Sosa, J A; Tanpitukpongse, T P; Choudhury, K R; Gupta, R T; Hoang, J K

    2015-02-01

    Variability in radiologists' reporting styles and recommendations for incidental thyroid nodules can lead to confusion among clinicians and may contribute to inconsistent patient care. Our aim was to describe reporting practices of radiologists for incidental thyroid nodules seen on CT and MR imaging and to determine factors that influence reporting styles. This is a retrospective study of patients with incidental thyroid nodules reported on CT and MR imaging between January and December 2011, identified by text search for "thyroid nodule" in all CT and MR imaging reports. The studies included CT and MR imaging scans of the neck, spine, and chest. Radiology reports were divided into those that mentioned the incidental thyroid nodules only in the "Findings" section versus those that reported the incidental thyroid nodules in the "Impression" section as well, because this latter reporting style gives more emphasis to the finding. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to identify radiologist, patient, and nodule characteristics that influenced reporting styles. Three hundred seventy-five patients met the criterion of having incidental thyroid nodules. One hundred thirty-eight (37%) patients had incidental thyroid nodules reported in the "Impression" section. On multivariate analysis, only radiologists' divisions and nodule size were associated with reporting in "Impression." Chest radiologists and neuroradiologists were more likely to report incidental thyroid nodules in the "Impression" section than their abdominal imaging colleagues, and larger incidental thyroid nodules were more likely to be reported in "Impression" (P ≤ .03). Seventy-three percent of patients with incidental thyroid nodules of ≥20 mm were reported in the "Impression" section, but higher variability in reporting was seen for incidental thyroid nodules measuring 10-14 mm and 15-19 mm, which were reported in "Impression" for 61% and 50% of patients, respectively. Reporting

  2. Multidimensionally encoded magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Fa-Hsuan

    2013-07-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) typically achieves spatial encoding by measuring the projection of a q-dimensional object over q-dimensional spatial bases created by linear spatial encoding magnetic fields (SEMs). Recently, imaging strategies using nonlinear SEMs have demonstrated potential advantages for reconstructing images with higher spatiotemporal resolution and reducing peripheral nerve stimulation. In practice, nonlinear SEMs and linear SEMs can be used jointly to further improve the image reconstruction performance. Here, we propose the multidimensionally encoded (MDE) MRI to map a q-dimensional object onto a p-dimensional encoding space where p > q. MDE MRI is a theoretical framework linking imaging strategies using linear and nonlinear SEMs. Using a system of eight surface SEM coils with an eight-channel radiofrequency coil array, we demonstrate the five-dimensional MDE MRI for a two-dimensional object as a further generalization of PatLoc imaging and O-space imaging. We also present a method of optimizing spatial bases in MDE MRI. Results show that MDE MRI with a higher dimensional encoding space can reconstruct images more efficiently and with a smaller reconstruction error when the k-space sampling distribution and the number of samples are controlled. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Postural responses to specific types of working memory tasks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramenzoni, V.C.; Riley, M.A.; Shockley, K.; Chiu, C.Y.P.

    2007-01-01

    Standing participants performed working memory tasks that varied along three dimensions: (1) type of information presented (verbal or visual); (2) the primary cognitive process engaged (encoding or rehearsal); and (3) interference that targeted the working memory components (phonological loop and

  4. Distinctiveness and encoding effects in online sentence comprehension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip eHofmeister

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In explicit memory recall and recognition tasks, elaboration and contextual isolation both facilitate memory performance. Here, we investigate these effects in the context of sentence processing: targets for retrieval during online sentence processing of English object relative clause constructions differ in the amount of elaboration associated with the target noun phrase, or the homogeneity of superficial features (text color. Experiment 1 shows that greater elaboration for targets during the encoding phase reduces reading times at retrieval sites, but elaboration of non-targets has considerably weaker effects. Experiment 2 illustrates that processing isolated superficial features of target noun phrases --- here, a green word in a sentence with words colored white --- does not lead to enhanced memory performance, despite triggering longer encoding times. These results are interpreted in the light of the memory models of Nairne 1990, 2001, 2006, which state that encoding remnants contribute to the set of retrieval cues that provide the basis for similarity-based interference effects.

  5. Virally encoded 7TM receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenkilde, M M; Waldhoer, M; Lüttichau, H R

    2001-01-01

    expression of this single gene in certain lymphocyte cell lineages leads to the development of lesions which are remarkably similar to Kaposi's sarcoma, a human herpesvirus 8 associated disease. Thus, this and other virally encoded 7TM receptors appear to be attractive future drug targets.......A number of herpes- and poxviruses encode 7TM G-protein coupled receptors most of which clearly are derived from their host chemokine system as well as induce high expression of certain 7TM receptors in the infected cells. The receptors appear to be exploited by the virus for either immune evasion...

  6. Incidental experiences of affective coherence and incoherence influence persuasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntsinger, Jeffrey R

    2013-06-01

    When affective experiences are inconsistent with activated evaluative concepts, people experience what is called affective incoherence; when affective experiences are consistent with activated evaluative concepts, people experience affective coherence. The present research asked whether incidental feelings of affective coherence and incoherence would regulate persuasion. Experiences of affective coherence and incoherence were predicted and found to influence the processing of persuasive messages when evoked prior to receipt of such messages (Experiments 1 and 3), and to influence the confidence with which thoughts generated by persuasive messages were held when evoked after presentation of such messages (Experiments 2 and 3). These results extend research on affective coherence and incoherence by showing that they exert a broader impact on cognitive activity than originally assumed.

  7. Incidental Findings in Neuroimaging: Ethical and Medicolegal Considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence Leung

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid advances in neurosciences in the last three decades, there has been an exponential increase in the use of neuroimaging both in basic sciences and clinical research involving human subjects. During routine neuroimaging, incidental findings that are not part of the protocol or scope of research agenda can occur and they often pose a challenge as to how they should be handled to abide by the medicolegal principles of research ethics. This paper reviews the issue from various ethical (do no harm, general duty to rescue, and mutual benefits and owing and medicolegal perspectives (legal liability, fiduciary duties, Law of Tort, and Law of Contract with a suggested protocol of approach.

  8. Giant adrenal myelolipoma: Incidentaloma with a rare incidental association

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wani Nisar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Adrenal myelolipoma is an unusual, benign and biochemically inactive tumor that is composed of mature adipose and hematopoietic tissue. It is usually diagnosed accidentally and nowadays much more frequently because of widespread use of ultrasonography, computed tomography (CT and magnetic resonance imaging. Adrenal myelolipoma is usually unilateral and asymptomatic, though known to be associated with obesity, hypertension, endocrinological disorders and some malignancies. We report herein two cases of right-sided giant adrenal myelolipoma diagnosed by multidetector-row CT. One patient was symptomatic because of a large mass in the right upper abdomen, which on imaging with CT was seen to be right adrenal myelolipoma. Another patient had a large left side Bochdalek hernia and right adrenal myelolipoma was incidentally discovered on CT.

  9. Managing incidental findings in human subjects research: analysis and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Susan M; Lawrenz, Frances P; Nelson, Charles A; Kahn, Jeffrey P; Cho, Mildred K; Clayton, Ellen Wright; Fletcher, Joel G; Georgieff, Michael K; Hammerschmidt, Dale; Hudson, Kathy; Illes, Judy; Kapur, Vivek; Keane, Moira A; Koenig, Barbara A; Leroy, Bonnie S; McFarland, Elizabeth G; Paradise, Jordan; Parker, Lisa S; Terry, Sharon F; Van Ness, Brian; Wilfond, Benjamin S

    2008-01-01

    No consensus yet exists on how to handle incidental findings (IFs) in human subjects research. Yet empirical studies document IFs in a wide range of research studies, where IFs are findings beyond the aims of the study that are of potential health or reproductive importance to the individual research participant. This paper reports recommendations of a two-year project group funded by NIH to study how to manage IFs in genetic and genomic research, as well as imaging research. We conclude that researchers have an obligation to address the possibility of discovering IFs in their protocol and communications with the IRB, and in their consent forms and communications with research participants. Researchers should establish a pathway for handling IFs and communicate that to the IRB and research participants. We recommend a pathway and categorize IFs into those that must be disclosed to research participants, those that may be disclosed, and those that should not be disclosed.

  10. Intracranial incidental findings on brain MR images in a pediatric neurology practice: a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Surya N; Belay, Brook

    2008-01-15

    Previous studies have addressed the prevalence of incidental findings largely in healthy adult and pediatric populations. Our study aims to elucidate the prevalence of incidental findings in a pediatric neurology practice. We reviewed the charts of 1618 patients seen at a pediatric neurology practice at a tertiary care center from September 2003 to December 2005 for clinical data and incidental intracranial findings on brain magnetic resonance imaging reports. Incidental findings were divided into two categories: normal or abnormal variants. Clinical and demographic data were assessed for associations with incidental findings. From 1618 charts reviewed, only 666 patients (41% of all patients) had brain MRIs ordered. One-hundred and seventy-one (171) patients (25.7% of all patients; 95% CI: 22.6, 29.0) had incidental findings. Of these, 113 (17.0%; 95% CI: 14.1, 19.8) were classified as normal-variants and 58 (8.7%; 95% CI: 6.6, 10.9) were classified as abnormal. The nature of incidental findings was not related to age group, sex or clinical diagnosis (p=0.29, p=0.31 and p=0.69 respectively). Two patients (0.3%; 95% CI: approximately 0.0, 0.7) required neurosurgical referral. We report a high prevalence of and a low rate of referrals for incidental findings in comparison to previous studies. The present study may help guide management decisions and discussions with patients and families. Future studies should attempt to address issues of associations between primary or secondary diagnoses and intracranial incidental findings in a controlled, prospective fashion.

  11. Movement Interferes with Visuospatial Working Memory during the Encoding: An ERP Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rumeysa Gunduz Can

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study focuses on the functional interactions of cognition and manual action control. Particularly, we investigated the neurophysiological correlates of the dual-task costs of a manual-motor task (requiring grasping an object, holding it, and subsequently placing it on a target for working memory (WM domains (verbal and visuospatial and processes (encoding and retrieval. Thirty participants were tested in a cognitive-motor dual-task paradigm, in which a single block (a verbal or visuospatial WM task was compared with a dual block (concurrent performance of a WM task and a motor task. Event-related potentials (ERPs were analyzed separately for the encoding and retrieval processes of verbal and visuospatial WM domains both in single and dual blocks. The behavioral analyses show that the motor task interfered with WM and decreased the memory performance. The performance decrease was larger for the visuospatial task compared with the verbal task, i.e., domain-specific memory costs were obtained. The ERP analyses show the domain-specific interference also at the neurophysiological level, which is further process-specific to encoding. That is, comparing the patterns of WM-related ERPs in the single block and dual block, we showed that visuospatial ERPs changed only for the encoding process when a motor task was performed at the same time. Generally, the present study provides evidence for domain- and process-specific interactions of a prepared manual-motor movement with WM (visuospatial domain during the encoding process. This study, therefore, provides an initial neurophysiological characterization of functional interactions of WM and manual actions in a cognitive-motor dual-task setting, and contributes to a better understanding of the neuro-cognitive mechanisms of motor action control.

  12. Modality-specific Alpha Modulations Facilitate Long-term Memory Encoding in the Presence of Distracters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jiang, H.; Gerven, M.A.J. van; Jensen, O.

    2015-01-01

    It has been proposed that long-term memory encoding is not only dependent on engaging task-relevant regions but also on disengaging task-irrelevant regions. In particular, oscillatory alpha activity has been shown to be involved in shaping the functional architecture of the working brain because it

  13. Modality-specific Alpha Modulations Facilitate Long-term Memory Encoding in the Presence of Distracters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jiang, H.; Gerven, M.A.J. van; Jensen, O.

    2014-01-01

    It has been proposed that long-term memory encoding is not only dependent on engaging task-relevant regions but also on disengaging task-irrelevant regions. In particular, oscillatory alpha activity has been shown to be involved in shaping the functional architecture of the working brain because it

  14. Incidental pineal cysts in children who undergo 3-T MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitehead, Matthew T.; Oh, Christopher C.; Choudhri, Asim F.

    2013-01-01

    Pineal cysts, both simple and complex, are commonly encountered in children. More cysts are being detected with MR technology; however, nearly all pineal cysts are benign and require no follow-up. To discover the prevalence of pineal cysts in children at our institution who have undergone high-resolution 3-T MRI. We retrospectively reviewed 100 consecutive 3-T brain MRIs in children ages 1 month to 17 years (mean 6.8 ± 5.1 years). We evaluated 3-D volumetric T1-W imaging, axial T2-W imaging, axial T2-W FLAIR (fluid attenuated inversion recovery) and coronal STIR (short tau inversion recovery) sequences. Pineal parenchymal and cyst volumes were measured in three planes. Cysts were analyzed for the presence and degree of complexity. Pineal cysts were present in 57% of children, with a mean maximum linear dimension of 4.2 mm (range 1.5-16 mm). Of these cysts, 24.6% showed thin septations or fluid levels reflecting complexity. None of the cysts demonstrated complete T2/FLAIR signal suppression. No cyst wall thickening or nodularity was present. There was no significant difference between the ages of children with and without cysts. Cysts were more commonly encountered in girls than boys (67% vs. 52%; P = 0.043). There was a slight trend toward increasing pineal gland volume with age. Pineal cysts are often present in children and can be incidentally detected by 3-T MRI. Characteristic-appearing pineal cysts in children are benign, incidental findings, for which follow-up is not required if there are no referable symptoms or excessive size. (orig.)

  15. Management of intracranial incidental findings on brain MRI; Management intrakranieller Zufallsbefunde in der MRT-Bildgebung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langner, S.; Buelow, R.; Kirsch, M. [University Medicine Greifswald (Germany). Inst. for Diagnostic Radiology and Neuroradiology; Fleck, S. [University Medicine Greifswald (Germany). Dept. of Neurosurgery; Angermaier, A. [University Medicine Greifswald (Germany). Dept. of Neurology

    2016-12-15

    The wider use of MRI for imaging of the head in both research and clinical practice has led to an increasing number of intracranial incidental findings. Most of these findings have no immediate medical consequences. Nevertheless, knowledge of common intracranial incidental findings and their clinical relevance is necessary to adequately discuss the findings with the patient. Based on the author's experiences from a large population-based study, the most common incidental MR findings in the brain will be presented, discussing their clinical relevance and giving recommendations for management according to the current literature and guidelines.

  16. Prevalence and clinical significance of extravascular incidental findings in patients undergoing CT cervico-cerebral angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crockett, Matthew Thomas; Murphy, Blathnaid; Smith, Jennifer; Kavanagh, Eoin Carl

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • CT cervico-cerebral angiography (CTCCA) is a commonly performed study for assessment of vascular pathologies of head and neck. • This study assessed the prevalence, clinical significance and management of extravascular incidental findings detected on CTCCA. • This study demonstrated the presence of clinically significant incidental findings in 14% of patients undergoing CTCCA with 8% of these findings deemed to be highly significant. 19% of patients with highly clinically significant findings did not receive appropriate follow up. • A standardised method of reporting incidental findings, such as that used in this paper is suggested to aid radiologists and referring physicians in recording and communicating these findings. - Abstract: Introduction: CT cervico-cerebral angiography (CTCCA) is now the first line diagnostic imaging modality for the majority of vascular pathologies of the head and neck with diagnostic value comparable to or better than traditional angiographic techniques. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence, clinical significance and management of extravascular incidental findings detected on CTCCA. Materials and methods: A retrospective review of the CTCCA reports of 302 consecutive patients from 2009 to 2013 was undertaken. Extravascular incidental findings were classified, according to an adaptation of the CT colonography data and reporting system (CRADS), as EV1–EV4. EV1 = no incidental findings, EV2 = clinically insignificant incidental finding, EV3 = incidental finding of intermediate clinical significance, EV4 = highly clinically significant finding. Follow up of the electronic medical records of patients with EV3 or EV4 findings was undertaken to determine subsequent management. Results: Potentially clinically significant findings were demonstrated in 14.2% of patients with 8.6% of patients having a highly clinically significant finding. 4 incidental findings were confirmed to be malignant lesions and 5

  17. Face and object encoding under perceptual load: ERP evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Markus F; Mohamed, Tarik N; Schweinberger, Stefan R

    2011-02-14

    According to the perceptual load theory, processing of a task-irrelevant distractor is abolished when attentional resources are fully consumed by task-relevant material. As an exception, however, famous faces have been shown to elicit repetition modulations in event-related potentials - an N250r - despite high load at initial presentation, suggesting preserved face-encoding. Here, we recorded N250r repetition modulations by unfamiliar faces, hands, and houses, and tested face specificity of preserved encoding under high load. In an immediate (S1-S2) repetition priming paradigm, participants performed a letter identification task on S1 by indicating whether an "X" vs. "N" was among 6 different (high load condition) or 6 identical (low load condition) letters. Letter strings were superimposed on distractor faces, hands, or houses. Subsequent S2 probes were either identical repetitions of S1 distractors, non-repeated exemplars from the same category, or infrequent butterflies, to which participants responded. Independent of attentional load at S1, an occipito-temporal N250r was found for unfamiliar faces. In contrast, no repetition-related neural modulation emerged for houses or hands. This strongly suggests that a putative face-selective attention module supports encoding under high load, and that similar mechanisms are unavailable for other natural or artificial objects. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Healthy aging attenuates task-related specialization in the human medial temporal lobe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramsøy, Thomas Z.; Liptrot, Matthew George; Skimminge, Arnold Jesper Møller

    2012-01-01

    conflicting findings. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we have recently shown that young healthy individuals show a stronger activation of the MTL during encoding of objects as compared with encoding of positions. Using the same encoding task, the present study addressed the question...

  19. Incidental acquisition of foreign language vocabulary through brief multi-modal exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisson, Marie-Josée; van Heuven, Walter J B; Conklin, Kathy; Tunney, Richard J

    2013-01-01

    First language acquisition requires relatively little effort compared to foreign language acquisition and happens more naturally through informal learning. Informal exposure can also benefit foreign language learning, although evidence for this has been limited to speech perception and production. An important question is whether informal exposure to spoken foreign language also leads to vocabulary learning through the creation of form-meaning links. Here we tested the impact of exposure to foreign language words presented with pictures in an incidental learning phase on subsequent explicit foreign language learning. In the explicit learning phase, we asked adults to learn translation equivalents of foreign language words, some of which had appeared in the incidental learning phase. Results revealed rapid learning of the foreign language words in the incidental learning phase showing that informal exposure to multi-modal foreign language leads to foreign language vocabulary acquisition. The creation of form-meaning links during the incidental learning phase is discussed.

  20. 76 FR 67419 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Piling and Structure Removal in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    ... create optimal spacing and heat requirements for the maternity roost. Equipment employed will include..., and for 30 minutes after crew leave the site (or until dark). The PSO will record incidental takes (i...

  1. 77 FR 33718 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals: Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Navy Training Exercises...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-07

    ... (LOA) to take marine mammals, by harassment, incidental to conducting training exercises within the... issue an LOA to the Navy that includes the use of time delayed firing devices (TDFDs), which have not been explicitly addressed previously, to [[Page 33719

  2. Incidentally detected lung nodules: clinical predictors of adherence to fleischner society surveillance guidelines.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ridge, Carole A

    2014-02-28

    The objective of this study was to determine adherence to incidentally detected lung nodule computed tomographic (CT) surveillance recommendations and identify demographic and clinical factors that increase the likelihood of CT surveillance.

  3. Negative affect promotes encoding of and memory for details at the expense of the gist: affect, encoding, and false memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storbeck, Justin

    2013-01-01

    I investigated whether negative affective states enhance encoding of and memory for item-specific information reducing false memories. Positive, negative, and neutral moods were induced, and participants then completed a Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) false-memory task. List items were presented in unique spatial locations or unique fonts to serve as measures for item-specific encoding. The negative mood conditions had more accurate memories for item-specific information, and they also had fewer false memories. The final experiment used a manipulation that drew attention to distinctive information, which aided learning for DRM words, but also promoted item-specific encoding. For the condition that promoted item-specific encoding, false memories were reduced for positive and neutral mood conditions to a rate similar to that of the negative mood condition. These experiments demonstrated that negative affective cues promote item-specific processing reducing false memories. People in positive and negative moods encode events differently creating different memories for the same event.

  4. Similar patterns of neural activity predict memory function during encoding and retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kragel, James E; Ezzyat, Youssef; Sperling, Michael R; Gorniak, Richard; Worrell, Gregory A; Berry, Brent M; Inman, Cory; Lin, Jui-Jui; Davis, Kathryn A; Das, Sandhitsu R; Stein, Joel M; Jobst, Barbara C; Zaghloul, Kareem A; Sheth, Sameer A; Rizzuto, Daniel S; Kahana, Michael J

    2017-07-15

    Neural networks that span the medial temporal lobe (MTL), prefrontal cortex, and posterior cortical regions are essential to episodic memory function in humans. Encoding and retrieval are supported by the engagement of both distinct neural pathways across the cortex and common structures within the medial temporal lobes. However, the degree to which memory performance can be determined by neural processing that is common to encoding and retrieval remains to be determined. To identify neural signatures of successful memory function, we administered a delayed free-recall task to 187 neurosurgical patients implanted with subdural or intraparenchymal depth electrodes. We developed multivariate classifiers to identify patterns of spectral power across the brain that independently predicted successful episodic encoding and retrieval. During encoding and retrieval, patterns of increased high frequency activity in prefrontal, MTL, and inferior parietal cortices, accompanied by widespread decreases in low frequency power across the brain predicted successful memory function. Using a cross-decoding approach, we demonstrate the ability to predict memory function across distinct phases of the free-recall task. Furthermore, we demonstrate that classifiers that combine information from both encoding and retrieval states can outperform task-independent models. These findings suggest that the engagement of a core memory network during either encoding or retrieval shapes the ability to remember the past, despite distinct neural interactions that facilitate encoding and retrieval. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Relative Preference and Localized Food Affect Predator Space Use and Consumption of Incidental Prey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tyler E Schartel

    Full Text Available Abundant, localized foods can concentrate predators and their foraging efforts, thus altering both the spatial distribution of predation risk and predator preferences for prey that are encountered incidentally. However, few investigations have quantified the spatial scale over which localized foods affect predator foraging behavior and consumption of incidental prey. In spring 2010, we experimentally tested how point-source foods altered how generalist predators (white-footed mice, Peromyscus leucopus utilized space and depredated two incidental prey items: almonds (Prunus dulcis; highly profitable and maple seeds (Acer saccharum; less profitable. We estimated mouse population densities with trapping webs, quantified mouse consumption rates of these incidental prey items, and measured local mouse activity with track plates. We predicted that 1 mouse activity would be elevated near full feeders, but depressed at intermediate distances from the feeder, 2 consumption of both incidental prey would be high near feeders providing less-preferred food and, 3 consumption of incidental prey would be contingent on predator preference for prey relative to feeders providing more-preferred food. Mouse densities increased significantly from pre- to post-experiment. Mean mouse activity was unexpectedly greatest in control treatments, particularly <15 m from the control (empty feeder. Feeders with highly preferred food (sunflower seeds created localized refuges for incidental prey at intermediate distances (15 to 25m from the feeder. Feeders with less-preferred food (corn generated localized high risk for highly preferred almonds <10 m of the feeder. Our findings highlight the contingent but predictable effects of locally abundant food on risk experienced by incidental prey, which can be positive or negative depending on both spatial proximity and relative preference.

  6. Sumatera Incidental Music Di Taman Budaya Sumatera Utara: Deskripsi Pengelolaan, Pertunjukan, dan Struktur Musik.

    OpenAIRE

    Hutagalung, Jefri

    2011-01-01

    Group musik Sumatera Incidental Music adalah salah satu grup musik yang menyajikan musik etnik dalam setiap pertunjukannya. Grup ini di ketuai oleh Hendri Perangin Angin dan bersekretariat di Taman Budaya Sumatera Utara. Pada awalnya Sumatera Incidental Music dibentuk oleh Hendri Perangin Angin dan Winarto Kartupat. Hendri Perangin Angin dan Winarto Kartupat mempunyai visi dan pemikiran yang sama untuk membentuk sebuah grup musik pada tahun 2000. Sehingga pada tanggal 8 apri...

  7. Encoding information into precipitation structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martens, Kirsten; Bena, Ioana; Droz, Michel; Rácz, Zoltan

    2008-01-01

    Material design at submicron scales would be profoundly affected if the formation of precipitation patterns could be easily controlled. It would allow the direct building of bulk structures, in contrast to traditional techniques which consist of removing material in order to create patterns. Here, we discuss an extension of our recent proposal of using electrical currents to control precipitation bands which emerge in the wake of reaction fronts in A + + B – → C reaction–diffusion processes. Our main result, based on simulating the reaction–diffusion–precipitation equations, is that the dynamics of the charged agents can be guided by an appropriately designed time-dependent electric current so that, in addition to the control of the band spacing, the width of the precipitation bands can also be tuned. This makes straightforward the encoding of information into precipitation patterns and, as an amusing example, we demonstrate the feasibility by showing how to encode a musical rhythm

  8. MPEG-1 low-cost encoder solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grueger, Klaus; Schirrmeister, Frank; Filor, Lutz; von Reventlow, Christian; Schneider, Ulrich; Mueller, Gerriet; Sefzik, Nicolai; Fiedrich, Sven

    1995-02-01

    A solution for real-time compression of digital YCRCB video data to an MPEG-1 video data stream has been developed. As an additional option, motion JPEG and video telephone streams (H.261) can be generated. For MPEG-1, up to two bidirectional predicted images are supported. The required computational power for motion estimation and DCT/IDCT, memory size and memory bandwidth have been the main challenges. The design uses fast-page-mode memory accesses and requires only one single 80 ns EDO-DRAM with 256 X 16 organization for video encoding. This can be achieved only by using adequate access and coding strategies. The architecture consists of an input processing and filter unit, a memory interface, a motion estimation unit, a motion compensation unit, a DCT unit, a quantization control, a VLC unit and a bus interface. For using the available memory bandwidth by the processing tasks, a fixed schedule for memory accesses has been applied, that can be interrupted for asynchronous events. The motion estimation unit implements a highly sophisticated hierarchical search strategy based on block matching. The DCT unit uses a separated fast-DCT flowgraph realized by a switchable hardware unit for both DCT and IDCT operation. By appropriate multiplexing, only one multiplier is required for: DCT, quantization, inverse quantization, and IDCT. The VLC unit generates the video-stream up to the video sequence layer and is directly coupled with an intelligent bus-interface. Thus, the assembly of video, audio and system data can easily be performed by the host computer. Having a relatively low complexity and only small requirements for DRAM circuits, the developed solution can be applied to low-cost encoding products for consumer electronics.

  9. Incidental Biasing of Attention from Visual Long-Term Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Judith E.; Turk-Browne, Nicholas B.

    2016-01-01

    Holding recently experienced information in mind can help us achieve our current goals. However, such immediate and direct forms of guidance from working memory are less helpful over extended delays or when other related information in long-term memory is useful for reaching these goals. Here we show that information that was encoded in the past…

  10. Children's Incidental Memory for Pictures: Item Processing Versus List Organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghatala, Elizabeth S.; Levin, Joel R.

    1981-01-01

    Two experiments which tested recall differences among young children indicated: (1) organizational factors, not item processing per se, influenced previously found differences in children's recall of pictures following semantic and physical orienting tasks; and (2) physical orienting tasks may effectively inhibit subjects' processing of words, but…

  11. Spatial resolution and chest nodule detection: an interesting incidental finding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toomey, R. J.; McEntee, M. F.; Ryan, J. T.; Evanoff, M. G.; Hayes, A.; Brennan, P. C.

    2010-02-01

    This study reports an incidental finding from a larger work. It examines the relationship between spatial resolution and nodule detection for chest radiographs. Twelve examining radiologists with the American Board of Radiology read thirty chest radiographs in two conditions - full (1500 × 1500 pixel) resolution, and 300 × 300 pixel resolution linearly interpolated to 1500 × 1500 pixels. All images were surrounded by a 10-pixel sharp grey border to aid in focussing the observer's eye when viewing the comparatively unsharp interpolated images. Fifteen of the images contained a single simulated pulmonary nodule. Observers were asked to rate their confidence that a nodule was present on each radiograph on a scale of 1 (least confidence, certain no lesion is present) to 6 (most confidence, certain a lesion was present). All other abnormalities were to be ignored. No windowing, levelling or magnification of the images was permitted and viewing distance was constrained to approximately 70cm. Images were displayed on a 3 megapixel greyscale monitor. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was applied to the results of the readings using the Dorfman-Berbaum-Metz multiplereader, multiple-case method. No statistically significant differences were found with either readers and cases treated as random or with cases treated as fixed. Low spatial frequency information appears to be sufficient for the detection of chest lesion of the type used in this study.

  12. Liver schwannoma incidentally discovered in a patient with breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akin, Murat; Bozkirli, Bahadir; Leventoglu, Sezai; Unal, Kemal; Kapucu, L Ozlem; Akyurek, Nalan; Sare, Mustafa

    2009-01-01

    Benign schwannomas, also referred to as neurilemomas, neurinomas, and perineural fibroblastomas, are encapsulated nerve sheath tumors. Primary schwannomas of the liver are extremely rare. We present a case of liver schwannoma, incidentally found in a patient with breast cancer. A 66-year-old female consulted her physician for a mass she palpated on her left breast. The abdominal ultrasonography (USG) revealed a 44 x 28 mm mass in the medial segment of the left lobe of her liver suspicious of a metastasis. An USG-guided biopsy was performed and the histo-pathological examination revealed a "peripheral nerve sheath tumor". Positron emission tomography (PET-CT) revealed a pathologic FDG uptake in the lesion that was previously defined in the liver. The tumor resected from the liver was 5 x 4 x 3 cm, yellowish, soft, and capsulated tumor. Microscopic examination revealed that the mass consisted of bundles of spindle cells with hypercellular and hypocellular areas. In immunohistochemistry, there was a strong positive staining for S-100. The tumor was diagnosed as benign liver schwannoma. Schwannomas are benign, encapsulated neoplasms. Symptoms and signs vary depending on the anatomical site and the size of the neoplasm; however, most schwannomas present as an asymptomatic or painless mass. Recurrence is unusual, despite of an incomplete removal, and malignant transformation is exceedingly rare (Fig. 4, Ref. 8). Full Text (Free, PDF) www.bmj.sk.

  13. Incidentally detected gastrointestinal stromal tumor: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tolga Canbak

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST are mesenchymal tumors located primarily in the gastrointestinal tract. We aimed to present a case report of GIST incidentally detected during laparoscopic cholecystectomy.A 60-year-old woman was admitted to the emergency room due to abdominal pain for one day. The physical examination revealed sensitivity on the right upper quadrant. In the laboratory examinations, white blood cell count 6,490 k/uL, hemoglobin 12 g/dL, hematocrit 35% and other biochemical tests were normal. Abdominal ultrasound revealed hydropic gallbladder, several gallstones with a maximum diameter of 15 mm and pericholecystic fluid collection was present. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy was planned due to acute cholecystitis. In exploration, beside the presence of acute cholecystitis, a mass of approximately 5 cm, located 15 cm distal to the ligament of Treitz was detected. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy was performed. Conversion to open laparotomy was done; small intestine resection with end-to-end anastomosis was performed. Gastrointestinal stromal tumor with CD117, CD34 and S100 positivity was detected on histopathologic examination.It is thought that GISTs are mesenchymal tumors originating from precursors of Kajal cells. GISTs are usually detected in their 60s. The first option for treatment is surgical resection.

  14. Incidental placental choriocarcinoma in a term pregnancy: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung Christopher

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Gestational choriocarcinoma occurs in 1 in 40,000 pregnancies. Of all forms of gestational choriocarcinoma, placental choriocarcinoma is the most rare. Maternal choriocarcinoma is usually diagnosed in symptomatic patients with metastases. The incidental finding of a choriocarcinoma confined to the placenta with no evidence of dissemination to the mother, or infant is the least common scenario. Case presentation The patient is an 18 year-old Gravida 1 Para 1 African American female who delivered a viable 3641 g female infant at 39 weeks gestation. Her pregnancy course was complicated by gestational hypertension during the third trimester. Her placenta revealed intraplacental choriocarcinoma. She was then followed closely by the Gynecologic Oncology service with a weekly serum beta human chorionic gonadotropin value. Beta human chorionic gonadotropin values dropped from 3070 mIU/ml to less than 2 mIU/ml two months post partum. No chemotherapy was initiated. Metastasis was ruled out by chest x-ray and whole body computed tomography scan. To date, both mother and baby are well. Conclusion Due to the potential fatal outcome of placental choriocarcinoma, careful evaluation of both mother and infant after the diagnosis is made is important. The incidence of placental choriocarcinoma may actually be higher than expected since it is not routine practice to send placentas for pathological evaluation after a normal spontaneous delivery. The obstetrician, pathologist, and pediatrician should have an increased awareness of placental choriocarcinoma and its manifestations.

  15. Incidental diagnosis of pregnancy on bone and gallium scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palestro, C.J.; Malat, J.; Collica, C.J.; Richman, A.H.

    1986-01-01

    Bone and gallium scintigraphy were performed as part of the diagnostic workup of a 21-yr-old woman who presented at our institution with a history of progressively worsening low back pain over a 1-wk period of time. The angiographic phase of the bone scan demonstrated a well-defined radionuclide blush within the pelvis just cephalad to the urinary bladder with persistent hyperemia noted in the blood-pool image. We attribute these findings to a uterine blush secondary to the pronounced uterine muscular hyperplasia, hyperemia, and edema that accompany pregnancy. Gallium scintigraphy demonstrated intense bilateral breast accumulation of the imaging agent in a typical doughnut pattern which is commonly found in the prelactating and lactating breast. Also demonstrated was apparent gallium accumulation in the placenta. This case is presented to emphasize the radionuclide findings that occur during pregnancy, particularly the incidental finding of radionuclide blush during the angiographic phase of a radionuclide scintigraphy which should alert the nuclear physician to the possibility of pregnancy in a woman of childbearing age

  16. Incidental potable water reuse in a Catalonian basin: living downstream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Mujeriego

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A preliminary assessment of incidental potable water reuse (IPR in the Llobregat River basin has been conducted by estimating the dilution factor of treated effluent discharges upstream of six river flow measurement sections. IPR in the Llobregat River basin is an everyday occurrence, because of the systematic discharge of treated effluents upstream of river sections used as drinking water sources. Average river flows at the Sant Joan Despí measurement section increased from 400,000 m3/d (2007 to 864,000 m3/d (2008 and to 931,000 m3/d (2013, while treated effluent discharges upstream of that section ranged from 109,000 m3/d to 114,000 m3/d in those years. The highest degree of IPR occurs downstream of the Abrera and Sant Joan Despí flow measurement sections, from where about half of the drinking water supplied to the Barcelona Metropolitan Area is abstracted. Based on average annual flows, the likelihood that drinking water produced from that river stretch contained treated effluent varied from 25% (2007 to 13% (2008 and to 12% (2013. Water agencies and drinking water production utilities have strived for decades to ensure that drinking water production satisfies applicable quality requirements and provides the required public health protection.

  17. Incidental intraductal papillomas (breast diagnosed on needle core biopsy do not need to be excised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffer, Shabnam; Bleiweiss, Ira J; Nagi, Chandandeep

    2013-01-01

    Most authors recommend excision of intraductal papillomas diagnosed on core needle biopsy. This leads to the question of whether or not excision is necessary for incidental intraductal papillomas on core needle biopsy as opposed to those corresponding to imaging findings. Using the pathology computerized data base we retrospectively identified 46 incidental intraductal papillomas diagnosed on core needle biopsy from 1/2000 to 12/2008. Clinical, radiologic, and pathologic information was gathered and correlated. All core needle biopsies were reviewed to confirm the diagnosis of incidental intraductal papillomas, and excision specimens reviewed when available. Of the 46 patients, follow-up information was available in only 38. The age of the patients ranged from 39 to 82 years (mean = 48 years). Most incidental intraductal papillomas were diagnosed by mammotome core needle biopsy (36 cases). A total of 33 cases were performed for calcifications with the following indications: clustered = 21, new = 4, pleomorphic = 3, increasing = 3, indeterminant = 2. The correlating diagnoses included the following: fibrocystic changes with calcium phosphate = 18 or calcium oxalate = 10, fibroadenoma with calcifications = 5. The three masses were: two cases of cystic papillary apocrine metaplasia (I Ultrasound and 1 MRI) and 1 fibroadenoma (Ultrasound). In all cases, the intraductal papillomas were ≤0.2 cm, were not associated with calcifications, and were incidental to them or the underlying mass. A total of 14 patients underwent excision, whereas the remaining 24 have remained radiologically stable for over 12 months. The excision specimen findings were: fibrocystic changes = 8 and intraductal papilloma = 6. With the exception of one case, all the intraductal papilloma remained incidental to imaging findings. In this solitary case, the calcifications were described as pleomorphic and corresponded to fibrocystic changes calcifications on core needle

  18. A Developmental Study of Conceptual, Semantic Differential, and Acoustical Dimensions as Encoding Categories in Short-Term Memory. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pender, Nola J.

    The purpose of this research was to investigate developmental changes in encoding processes. It attempted to determine the extent to which children of varying ages utilize semantic (denotative or connotative) and acoustical encoding categories in a short-term memory task. It appears to be a reasonable assumption that as associational hierarchies…

  19. Prefrontal activity and impaired memory encoding strategies in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimond, Synthia; Hawco, Colin; Lepage, Martin

    2017-08-01

    Schizophrenia patients have significant memory difficulties that have far-reaching implications in their daily life. These impairments are partly attributed to an inability to self-initiate effective memory encoding strategies, but its core neurobiological correlates remain unknown. The current study addresses this critical gap in our knowledge of episodic memory impairments in schizophrenia. Schizophrenia patients (n = 35) and healthy controls (n = 23) underwent a Semantic Encoding Memory Task (SEMT) during an fMRI scan. Brain activity was examined for conditions where participants were a) prompted to use semantic encoding strategies, or b) not prompted but required to self-initiate such strategies. When prompted to use semantic encoding strategies, schizophrenia patients exhibited similar recognition performance and brain activity as healthy controls. However, when required to self-initiate these strategies, patients had significant reduced recognition performance and brain activity in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, as well as in the left temporal gyrus, left superior parietal lobule, and cerebellum. When patients were divided based on performance on the SEMT, the subgroup with more severe deficits in self-initiation also showed greater reduction in left dorsolateral prefrontal activity. These results suggest that impaired self-initiation of elaborative encoding strategies is a driving feature of memory deficits in schizophrenia. We also identified the neural correlates of impaired self-initiation of semantic encoding strategies, in which a failure to activate the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex plays a key role. These findings provide important new targets in the development of novel treatments aiming to improve memory and ultimately patients' outcome. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Hall effect encoding of brushless dc motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berard, C. A.; Furia, T. J.; Goldberg, E. A.; Greene, R. C.

    1970-01-01

    Encoding mechanism integral to the motor and using the permanent magnets embedded in the rotor eliminates the need for external devices to encode information relating the position and velocity of the rotating member.

  1. Working memory and individual differences in the encoding of vertical, horizontal and diagonal symmetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi-Arnaud, Clelia; Pieroni, Laura; Spataro, Pietro; Baddeley, Alan

    2012-09-01

    Previous studies, using a modified version of the sequential Corsi block task to examine the impact of symmetry on visuospatial memory, showed an advantage of vertical symmetry over non-symmetrical sequences, but no effect of horizontal or diagonal symmetry. The present four experiments investigated the mechanisms underlying the encoding of vertical, horizontal and diagonal configurations using simultaneous presentation and a dual-task paradigm. Results indicated that the recall of vertically symmetric arrays was always better than that of all other patterns and was not influenced by any of the concurrent tasks. Performance with horizontally or diagonally symmetrical patterns differed, with high performing participants showing little effect of concurrent tasks, while low performers were disrupted by concurrent visuospatial and executive tasks. A verbal interference had no effect on either group. Implications for processes involved in the encoding of symmetry are discussed, together with the crucial importance of individual differences. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. The Effects of Incidental Teaching on the Generalized Use of Social Amenities at School by a Mildly Handicapped Adolescent

    OpenAIRE

    Oswald, L. K.; Lignugaris/Kraft, Benjamin; West, R.

    1990-01-01

    Recently, researchers have begun exploring the effects of incidental teaching on the acquisition of socially appropriate behavior by handicapped children and adults. The results of these investigations suggest that incidental teaching may facilitate the generalization of newly trained social skills. This study used incidental teaching procedures to teach a 16-year-old mildly handicapped student to use social amenities in a resource classroom. In addition, generalization was assessed to anothe...

  3. Flipped-Adversarial AutoEncoders

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Jiyi; Dang, Hung; Lee, Hwee Kuan; Chang, Ee-Chien

    2018-01-01

    We propose a flipped-Adversarial AutoEncoder (FAAE) that simultaneously trains a generative model G that maps an arbitrary latent code distribution to a data distribution and an encoder E that embodies an "inverse mapping" that encodes a data sample into a latent code vector. Unlike previous hybrid approaches that leverage adversarial training criterion in constructing autoencoders, FAAE minimizes re-encoding errors in the latent space and exploits adversarial criterion in the data space. Exp...

  4. PREVALENCE OF INCIDENTAL GALLBLADDER CANCER IN A TERTIARY-CARE HOSPITAL FROM PERNAMBUCO, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Euclides Dias MARTINS-FILHO

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundGallbladder cancer is sometimes incidentally uncovered following cholecystectomy for gallstones diseases. The supposed highly variable prevalence of incidental gallbladder cancer through our country is unknown.ObjectiveTo explore the prevalence of incidental gallbladder cancer in our tertiary-care hospital.MethodsA cross-sectional study was carried out on patients who consecutively underwent cholecystectomy due to gallstones disease at Faculdade Pernambucana de Saúde, Instituto de Medicina Integral Professor Fernando Figueira - FPS/IMIP, from January, 2007 to December, 2010. Data on incidental gallbladder cancer patients were explored for prevalence estimation and description of our experience with the management of this malignancy.ResultsOur analysis involved 2018 patients with a marked predominance of women (n=1.697; 84.1% over men (n=321; 15.9%. The 3-year prevalence estimate of 0.34% was recorded for incidental gallbladder cancer in our sample. Regarding tumor staging, there were 1 T1a, 1 T1b, and 5 T2 adenocarcinoma tumors. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy alone was performed for the T1a tumor, and additional radical surgery was performed in five others. One patient presented metastatic disease at the time of repeat surgery. The final pathology revealed residual/additional disease in all T2 tumors after radical surgery whereas the T1b patient underwent a salvage Whipple’s procedure due to a secondary distal cholangiocarcinoma. The patient with T1a tumor is alive after 3-year follow-up but all of the others died because of disease recurrence/progression up to 12 months.ConclusionThis study confirms the poor prognosis of Gallbladder cancer even when incidentally diagnosed following cholecystectomy and supposes a 3-year prevalence estimate of 0.34% for incidental gallbladder cancer in our Center from Pernambuco State, Brazil.

  5. Incidental benign parotid lesions on FDG-PET: prevalence and clinico-pathologic findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Il Han; Lee, Won Woo; Chung, Jin Haeng; Park, So Yeon; Kim, Sang Hee; Kim, Yu Kyeong; Kim, Sang Eun

    2007-01-01

    Incidental parotid lesions on F-18 FDG-PET can mimic distant metastasis of underlying malignancy. The prevalence and the clinico-pathologic findings of PET positive parotid lesions have not been known. We investigated how often incidental parotid lesions are found on clinical FDG-PET studies and what the clinico-pathologic characteristics of those parotid lesions are in the present study. We retrospectively reviewed 3,344 cases of FDG-PET which had been obtained in our hospital from May 2003 to Dec 2006. The indications of FDG-PET were: evaluation of known/suspected cancer (n = 3,212) or screening of cancer in healthy subjects (n = 132). Incidental parotid lesion on FDG-PET was defined as an un-expected FDG uptake in one of parotid glands which was not primary target lesion of current FDG/PET. FDG uptake was represented by maximum standardized uptake value (maxSUV). Final diagnosis was made by pathologic analysis or clinical follow-up assessment. Fifteen (0.45% = 15/3,344) incidental parotid lesions were found and they were all benign lesions. The maxSUV ranged from 1.7 to 8.6 (mean ± s.d. = 3.7 ± 1.9). Final diagnoses of the incidental parotid lesions were; Warthin's tumor (n = 2), pleomorphic adenoma (n = 1), other un-specified benign lesion (n 1), and benign lesions under bases of imaging studies (n = 3) and of clinical follow-up (n = 8). All of incidentally found parotid lesions in clinical FDG-PET studies were confirmed as benign lesions with prevalence of 0.45%. Close follow up using PET or CT might be a reasonable approach for determining the nature of incidentally found parotid lesions

  6. Incidental pulmonary embolism in cancer patients: clinical characteristics and outcome – a comprehensive cancer center experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel-Razeq H

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Hikmat N Abdel-Razeq1, Asem H Mansour2, Yousef M Ismael11Department of Internal Medicine, 2Department of Radiology, King Hussein Cancer Center, Amman, JordanBackground and objectives: Cancer patients undergo routine imaging studies much more than others. The widespread use of the recently introduced multi-detector CT scanners has resulted in an increasing number of incidentally diagnosed pulmonary embolism (PE in asymptomatic cancer patients. The significance and clinical outcome of such incidental PE is described.Methods: Both radiology department and hospital databases were searched for all cancer patients with a diagnosis of incidental PE. CT scans were performed using a 64-slice scanner with a 5.0 mm slice thickness.Results: During the study period, 34 patients with incidental PE were identified. The mean age (±SD was 57.7 (±12.4 years. All patients had active cancer, gastric, lung, colorectal, and lymphomas being the most frequent. Most patients had advanced-stage disease at the time of PE diagnosis; 26 (77% patients had stage IV, whereas only 3 patients had stages I or II disease. Twenty-seven (79% patients had their PE while undergoing active treatment with chemotherapy (68% or radiotherapy (12%; none, however, were on hormonal therapy. Most (74% patients had their PE diagnosed without history of recent hospital admission. Except for 5 (15%, all other patients were anticoagulated. With follow-up, 2 patients developed recurrent PE, 2 others had clinical and echocardiographic evidence of pulmonary hypertension, and 9 (26% died suddenly within 30 days of the diagnosis of incidental PE; 2 of these where among the 5 patients who were not anticoagulated.Conclusion: Incidental PE in cancer patients is increasingly encountered. Similar to symptomatic PE, many were diagnosed in patients with advanced stage disease and while undergoing active anti-cancer therapy. A significant percentage of patients had recurrent emboli, pulmonary hypertension

  7. System-Level Process Change Improves Communication and Follow-Up for Emergency Department Patients With Incidental Radiology Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baccei, Steven J; Chinai, Sneha A; Reznek, Martin; Henderson, Scott; Reynolds, Kevin; Brush, D Eric

    2018-04-01

    The appropriate communication and management of incidental findings on emergency department (ED) radiology studies is an important component of patient safety. Guidelines have been issued by the ACR and other medical associations that best define incidental findings across various modalities and imaging studies. However, there are few examples of health care facilities designing ways to manage incidental findings. Our institution aimed to improve communication and follow-up of incidental radiology findings in ED patients through the collaborative development and implementation of system-level process changes including a standardized loop-closure method. We assembled a multidisciplinary team to address the nature of these incidental findings and designed new workflows and operational pathways for both radiology and ED staff to properly communicate incidental findings. Our results are based on all incidental findings received and acknowledged between November 1, 2016, and May 30, 2017. The total number of incidental findings discovered was 1,409. Our systematic compliance fluctuated between 45% and 95% initially after implementation. However, after overcoming various challenges through optimization, our system reached a compliance rate of 93% to 95%. Through the implementation of our new, standardized communication system, a high degree of compliance with loop closure for ED incidental radiology findings was achieved at our institution. Copyright © 2017 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Episodic Memory Encoding Interferes with Reward Learning and Decreases Striatal Prediction Errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Erin Kendall; Daw, Nathaniel D.

    2014-01-01

    Learning is essential for adaptive decision making. The striatum and its dopaminergic inputs are known to support incremental reward-based learning, while the hippocampus is known to support encoding of single events (episodic memory). Although traditionally studied separately, in even simple experiences, these two types of learning are likely to co-occur and may interact. Here we sought to understand the nature of this interaction by examining how incremental reward learning is related to concurrent episodic memory encoding. During the experiment, human participants made choices between two options (colored squares), each associated with a drifting probability of reward, with the goal of earning as much money as possible. Incidental, trial-unique object pictures, unrelated to the choice, were overlaid on each option. The next day, participants were given a surprise memory test for these pictures. We found that better episodic memory was related to a decreased influence of recent reward experience on choice, both within and across participants. fMRI analyses further revealed that during learning the canonical striatal reward prediction error signal was significantly weaker when episodic memory was stronger. This decrease in reward prediction error signals in the striatum was associated with enhanced functional connectivity between the hippocampus and striatum at the time of choice. Our results suggest a mechanism by which memory encoding may compete for striatal processing and provide insight into how interactions between different forms of learning guide reward-based decision making. PMID:25378157

  9. Episodic memory encoding interferes with reward learning and decreases striatal prediction errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimmer, G Elliott; Braun, Erin Kendall; Daw, Nathaniel D; Shohamy, Daphna

    2014-11-05

    Learning is essential for adaptive decision making. The striatum and its dopaminergic inputs are known to support incremental reward-based learning, while the hippocampus is known to support encoding of single events (episodic memory). Although traditionally studied separately, in even simple experiences, these two types of learning are likely to co-occur and may interact. Here we sought to understand the nature of this interaction by examining how incremental reward learning is related to concurrent episodic memory encoding. During the experiment, human participants made choices between two options (colored squares), each associated with a drifting probability of reward, with the goal of earning as much money as possible. Incidental, trial-unique object pictures, unrelated to the choice, were overlaid on each option. The next day, participants were given a surprise memory test for these pictures. We found that better episodic memory was related to a decreased influence of recent reward experience on choice, both within and across participants. fMRI analyses further revealed that during learning the canonical striatal reward prediction error signal was significantly weaker when episodic memory was stronger. This decrease in reward prediction error signals in the striatum was associated with enhanced functional connectivity between the hippocampus and striatum at the time of choice. Our results suggest a mechanism by which memory encoding may compete for striatal processing and provide insight into how interactions between different forms of learning guide reward-based decision making. Copyright © 2014 the authors 0270-6474/14/3414901-12$15.00/0.

  10. From proactive to retroactive dual-task interference: The important role of Task-2 probability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwenstein, Mark; Scholz, S.; Broers, Nico

    2014-01-01

    Dual-task studies on the attentional blink (AB) and psychological refractory period (PRP) effect show that the processing of a first target (T1) obstructs the processing of a shortly following target (T2). Recently, Nieuwenstein and Wyble (2014) found an opposite pattern, such that a memory encoding

  11. Dynamical encoding of looming, receding, and focussing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longtin, Andre; Clarke, Stephen Elisha; Maler, Leonard; CenterNeural Dynamics Collaboration

    This talk will discuss a non-conventional neural coding task that may apply more broadly to many senses in higher vertebrates. We ask whether and how a non-visual sensory system can focus on an object. We present recent experimental and modeling work that shows how the early sensory circuitry of electric sense can perform such neuronal focusing that is manifested behaviorally. This sense is the main one used by weakly electric fish to navigate, locate prey and communicate in the murky waters of their natural habitat. We show that there is a distance at which the Fisher information of a neuron's response to a looming and receding object is maximized, and that this distance corresponds to a behaviorally relevant one chosen by these animals. Strikingly, this maximum occurs at a bifurcation between tonic firing and bursting. We further discuss how the invariance of this distance to signal attributes can arise, a process that first involves power-law spike frequency adaptation. The talk will also highlight the importance of expanding the classic dual neural encoding of contrast using ON and OFF cells in the context of looming and receding stimuli. The authors acknowledge support from CIHR and NSERC.

  12. Individual differences in rate of encoding predict estimates of visual short-term memory capacity (K).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jannati, Ali; McDonald, John J; Di Lollo, Vincent

    2015-06-01

    The capacity of visual short-term memory (VSTM) is commonly estimated by K scores obtained with a change-detection task. Contrary to common belief, K may be influenced not only by capacity but also by the rate at which stimuli are encoded into VSTM. Experiment 1 showed that, contrary to earlier conclusions, estimates of VSTM capacity obtained with a change-detection task are constrained by temporal limitations. In Experiment 2, we used change-detection and backward-masking tasks to obtain separate within-subject estimates of K and of rate of encoding, respectively. A median split based on rate of encoding revealed significantly higher K estimates for fast encoders. Moreover, a significant correlation was found between K and the estimated rate of encoding. The present findings raise the prospect that the reported relationships between K and such cognitive concepts as fluid intelligence may be mediated not only by VSTM capacity but also by rate of encoding. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Evolution and Morphogenesis of Simulated Modular Robots: A Comparison Between a Direct and Generative Encoding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veenstra, Frank; Faina, Andres; Risi, Sebastian

    2017-01-01

    Modular robots oer an important benet in evolutionary robotics, which is to quickly evaluate evolved morphologies and control systems in reality. However, articial evolution of simulated modular robotics is a dicult and time consuming task requiring signicant computational power. While articial...... evolution in virtual creatures has made use of powerful generative encodings, here we investigate how a generative encoding and direct encoding compare for the evolution of locomotion in modular robots when the number of robotic modules changes. Simulating less modules would decrease the size of the genome...

  14. Spatially dynamic recurrent information flow across long-range dorsal motor network encodes selective motor goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Peter E; Hagan, Maureen A; John, Sam E; Opie, Nicholas L; Ordidge, Roger J; O'Brien, Terence J; Oxley, Thomas J; Moffat, Bradford A; Wong, Yan T

    2018-03-08

    Performing voluntary movements involves many regions of the brain, but it is unknown how they work together to plan and execute specific movements. We recorded high-resolution ultra-high-field blood-oxygen-level-dependent signal during a cued ankle-dorsiflexion task. The spatiotemporal dynamics and the patterns of task-relevant information flow across the dorsal motor network were investigated. We show that task-relevant information appears and decays earlier in the higher order areas of the dorsal motor network then in the primary motor cortex. Furthermore, the results show that task-relevant information is encoded in general initially, and then selective goals are subsequently encoded in specifics subregions across the network. Importantly, the patterns of recurrent information flow across the network vary across different subregions depending on the goal. Recurrent information flow was observed across all higher order areas of the dorsal motor network in the subregions encoding for the current goal. In contrast, only the top-down information flow from the supplementary motor cortex to the frontoparietal regions, with weakened recurrent information flow between the frontoparietal regions and bottom-up information flow from the frontoparietal regions to the supplementary cortex were observed in the subregions encoding for the opposing goal. We conclude that selective motor goal encoding and execution rely on goal-dependent differences in subregional recurrent information flow patterns across the long-range dorsal motor network areas that exhibit graded functional specialization. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Automatic semantic encoding in verbal short-term memory: evidence from the concreteness effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campoy, Guillermo; Castellà, Judit; Provencio, Violeta; Hitch, Graham J; Baddeley, Alan D

    2015-01-01

    The concreteness effect in verbal short-term memory (STM) tasks is assumed to be a consequence of semantic encoding in STM, with immediate recall of concrete words benefiting from richer semantic representations. We used the concreteness effect to test the hypothesis that semantic encoding in standard verbal STM tasks is a consequence of controlled, attention-demanding mechanisms of strategic semantic retrieval and encoding. Experiment 1 analysed the effect of presentation rate, with slow presentations being assumed to benefit strategic, time-dependent semantic encoding. Experiments 2 and 3 provided a more direct test of the strategic hypothesis by introducing three different concurrent attention-demanding tasks. Although Experiment 1 showed a larger concreteness effect with slow presentations, the following two experiments yielded strong evidence against the strategic hypothesis. Limiting available attention resources by concurrent tasks reduced global memory performance, but the concreteness effect was equivalent to that found in control conditions. We conclude that semantic effects in STM result from automatic semantic encoding and provide tentative explanations for the interaction between the concreteness effect and the presentation rate.

  16. Enhanced tactile encoding and memory recognition in congenital blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Angiulli, Amedeo; Waraich, Paul

    2002-06-01

    Several behavioural studies have shown that early-blind persons possess superior tactile skills. Since neurophysiological data show that early-blind persons recruit visual as well as somatosensory cortex to carry out tactile processing (cross-modal plasticity), blind persons' sharper tactile skills may be related to cortical re-organisation resulting from loss of vision early in their life. To examine the nature of blind individuals' tactile superiority and its implications for cross-modal plasticity, we compared the tactile performance of congenitally totally blind, low-vision and sighted children on raised-line picture identification test and re-test, assessing effects of task familiarity, exploratory strategy and memory recognition. What distinguished the blind from the other children was higher memory recognition and higher tactile encoding associated with efficient exploration. These results suggest that enhanced perceptual encoding and recognition memory may be two cognitive correlates of cross-modal plasticity in congenital blindness.

  17. The olfactory tubercle encodes odor valence in behaving mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadziola, Marie A; Tylicki, Kate A; Christian, Diana L; Wesson, Daniel W

    2015-03-18

    Sensory information acquires meaning to adaptively guide behaviors. Despite odors mediating a number of vital behaviors, the components of the olfactory system responsible for assigning meaning to odors remain unclear. The olfactory tubercle (OT), a ventral striatum structure that receives monosynaptic input from the olfactory bulb, is uniquely positioned to transform odor information into behaviorally relevant neural codes. No information is available, however, on the coding of odors among OT neurons in behaving animals. In recordings from mice engaged in an odor discrimination task, we report that the firing rate of OT neurons robustly and flexibly encodes the valence of conditioned odors over identity, with rewarded odors evoking greater firing rates. This coding of rewarded odors occurs before behavioral decisions and represents subsequent behavioral responses. We predict that the OT is an essential region whereby odor valence is encoded in the mammalian brain to guide goal-directed behaviors. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/354515-13$15.00/0.

  18. The significance of incidental focal colonic 18FDG uptake on PET scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartholomeusz, Dylan; Schultz, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    Full text: The incidental discovery of colonic polyps, colonic malignancy, diverticulitis and inflammation during PET scanning is well described. This study is a retrospective review of the incidence and follow up of incidental focal FOG uptake in the colon detected during routine PET scanning. PET scan reports over 12 months were reviewed for the reporting of incidental colonic uptake and then clinical follow up performed in available patient records for the incidence of further colonic investigation and results. In 2008, 1985 PET scans were reported at the Royal Adelaide Hospital for the staging and detection of malignancy. Review of the results show that incidental focal colonic uptake was seen in 27 cases, (II female aged 56-83 years). Follow up colonoscopy was performed in 8 cases and in 4 cases showed tubulovillous adenomas, 7-9 mm in size, in the region of abnormal FOG uptake, I had divetticulae and another focal inflammation. Two colonoscopies revealed no abnormality (25% false negative rate). One patient with Head and Neck cancer did not have colonoscopy but the colonic lesion resolved on a post therapy PET scan. Of the 18 cases that did not have colonoscopic follow up 5 were reported on the PET scan to have diffuse probably physiological caecal activity but 13 had focal lesions in the large bowel. Although incidental colonic lesions were detected in only 1.3% of studies, of those having colonoscopy 75 % had significant findings.

  19. Incidental copy-number variants identified by routine genome testing in a clinical population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boone, Philip M.; Soens, Zachry T.; Campbell, Ian M.; Stankiewicz, Pawel; Cheung, Sau Wai; Patel, Ankita; Beaudet, Arthur L.; Plon, Sharon E.; Shaw, Chad A.; McGuire, Amy L.; Lupski, James R.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Mutational load of susceptibility variants has not been studied on a genomic scale in a clinical population, nor has the potential to identify these mutations as incidental findings during clinical testing been systematically ascertained. Methods Array comparative genomic hybridization, a method for genome-wide detection of DNA copy-number variants, was performed clinically on DNA from 9,005 individuals. Copy-number variants encompassing or disrupting single genes were identified and analyzed for their potential to confer predisposition to dominant, adult-onset disease. Multigene copy-number variants affecting dominant, adult-onset cancer syndrome genes were also assessed. Results In our cohort, 83 single-gene copy-number variants affected 40 unique genes associated with dominant, adult-onset disorders and unrelated to the patients’ referring diagnoses (i.e., incidental) were found. Fourteen of these copy-number variants are likely disease-predisposing, 25 are likely benign, and 44 are of unknown clinical consequence. When incidental copy-number variants spanning up to 20 genes were considered, 27 copy-number variants affected 17 unique genes associated with dominant, adult-onset cancer predisposition. Conclusion Copy-number variants potentially conferring susceptibility to adult-onset disease can be identified as incidental findings during routine genome-wide testing. Some of these mutations may be medically actionable, enabling disease surveillance or prevention; however, most incidentally observed single-gene copy-number variants are currently of unclear significance to the patient. PMID:22878507

  20. Reciprocal within-day associations between incidental affect and exercise: An EMA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerson, Jessica A; Dunsiger, Shira; Williams, David M

    2018-01-01

    Previous research suggests that how people feel throughout the course of a day (i.e. incidental affect) is predictive of exercise behaviour. A mostly separate literature suggests that exercise can lead to more positive incidental affect. This study examines the potential reciprocal effects of incidental affect and exercise behaviour within the same day. Fifty-nine low-active (exercise exercise promotion programme. Ecological momentary assessment was used to record self-reported exercise sessions in real time and incidental affective valence (feeling good/bad) as assessed by the 11-point Feeling Scale at random times throughout the day. Use of a within-subjects cross-lagged, autoregressive model showed that participants were more likely to exercise on days when they experienced more positive incidental affect earlier in the day (b = .58, SE = .10, p exercised (b = .26, SE = .03, p exercising are reciprocally influential within the course of a day.

  1. Clinical magnetic resonance imaging. Frequent incidental cerebral findings; Klinische Magnetresonanztomographie. Haeufige zerebrale Zufallsbefunde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, A.; Ditter, P.; Schild, H.H.; Hattingen, E. [Universitaetsklinikum Bonn, Funktionseinheit Neuroradiologie der Klinik fuer Radiologie, Bonn (Germany); Weidauer, S. [St.-Katharinen-Krankenhaus, Neurologische Klinik, Frankfurt/M (Germany)

    2017-04-15

    The increasing use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in clinical diagnostics means that patients and physicians are confronted more often with incidental findings. In the literature there are fluctuating data on the incidence of such findings and guidelines concerning the further procedure exist in only very few cases, such as incidental aneurysms and pituitary adenomas. The diagnostic and therapeutic implications which can be derived from incidental findings depend on multiple factors, such as anatomical location, patient age, comorbidity and patient wishes. For this reason it often makes sense to refer patients with incidental findings to an interdisciplinary neurological center at an early stage. In this review frequent incidental cerebral findings, epidemiological data, imaging criteria and, where possible, recommendations for the further procedure are shown. (orig.) [German] Durch den gehaeuften Einsatz der MRT in der zerebralen Diagnostik werden Arzt und Patienten in zunehmendem Masse mit Zufallsbefunden, auch Nebenbefunde genannt, konfrontiert. In der Literatur existieren sehr schwankende Angaben zur Haeufigkeit solcher Zufallsbefunde. Nur fuer einzelne dieser Befunde, wie z. B. das inzidentelle Aneurysma oder das Hypophysenadenom, existieren Leitlinien fuer das weitere Prozedere. Die aus einem Zufallsbefund abzuleitenden diagnostischen und therapeutischen Konsequenzen sind von vielen Faktoren, wie z. B. der anatomischen Lage, dem Patientenalter, den Komorbiditaeten und dem Patientenwunsch abhaengig. Daher ist es oft sinnvoll, den Patienten mit einem Zufallsbefund fruehzeitig in einem interdisziplinaeren Neurozentrum vorzustellen. In der vorliegenden Arbeit werden haeufige zerebrale Zufallsbefunde mit epidemiologischen Daten, bildgebenden Kriterien und - wenn moeglich - Empfehlungen bzgl. des weiteren Vorgehens gezeigt. (orig.)

  2. Trends in port-site metastasis after laparoscopic resection of incidental gallbladder cancer: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger-Richardson, David; Chesney, Tyler R; Englesakis, Marina; Govindarajan, Anand; Cleary, Sean P; Swallow, Carol J

    2017-03-01

    The risk of port-site metastasis after laparoscopic removal of incidental gallbladder cancer was previously estimated to be 14-30%. The present study was designed to determine the incidence of port-site metastasis in incidental gallbladder cancer in the modern era (2000-2014) versus the historic era (1991-1999). We also investigated the site of port-site metastasis. Using PRISMA, a systematic review was conducted to identify papers that addressed the development of port-site metastasis after laparoscopic resection of incidental gallbladder cancer. Studies that described cancer-specific outcomes in ≥5 patients were included. A validated quality appraisal tool was used, and a weighted estimate of the incidence of port-site metastasis was calculated. Based on data extracted from 27 papers that met inclusion criteria, the incidence of port-site metastasis in incidental gallbladder cancer has decreased from 18.6% prior to 2000 (95% confidence interval 15.3-21.9%, n = 7) to 10.3% since then (95% confidence interval 7.9-12.7%, n = 20) (P extraction site is at significantly higher risk than nonextraction sites. The incidence of port-site metastasis in incidental gallbladder cancer has decreased but remains high relative to other primary tumors. Any preoperative finding that raises the suspicion of gallbladder cancer should prompt further investigation and referral to a hepato-pancreato-biliary specialist. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Disability in patients with trapeziometacarpal joint arthrosis: incidental versus presenting diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Stéphanie J E; Makarawung, Dennis J S; Spit, Silke A; King, John D; Ring, David

    2014-10-01

    To test the hypothesis that there is no difference in trapeziometacarpal (TMC) joint arthrosis-related symptoms and disability between patients seeking treatment for symptoms of TMC arthrosis and those with incidental TMC joint arthrosis. We compared 64 patients presenting for care of TMC joint arthrosis with 64 with incidental TMC joint arthrosis. For both groups, the diagnosis was based on crepitation on examination. Bivariate and multivariate analyses assessed factors associated with symptoms and disability related to TMC joint arthrosis. In bivariate analysis, patients presenting for care of TMC joint arthrosis had significantly more symptoms and disability from TMC joint arthrosis than those with incidental TMC joint arthrosis. The best multivariate linear regression model for fewer TMC joint arthrosis-related symptoms and disability included patients with incidental TMC joint arthrosis, male sex, no other painful conditions, less catastrophic thinking, and fewer depressive symptoms and explained 74% of the variability. Having incidental TMC joint arthrosis (25%) and more adaptive coping strategies (less catastrophic thinking; 5%) were the most important contributors to fewer symptoms and less disability. Future studies are merited to determine whether training in better coping strategies (eg, less catastrophic thinking and fewer depressive symptoms) can decrease symptoms and disability in patients with TMC joint arthrosis. Prognostic III. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Clinically relevant incidental cardiovascular findings in CT examinations; Klinisch relevante kardiovaskulaere Zufallsbefunde bei CT-Untersuchungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voigt, P.; Fahnert, J.; Kahn, T.; Surov, A. [Universitaetsklinikum Leipzig, Klinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie, Leipzig (Germany); Schramm, D.; Bach, A.G. [Universitaetsklinikum Halle (Saale), Klinik fuer Radiologie, Halle (Germany)

    2017-04-15

    Incidental cardiovascular findings are a frequent phenomenon in computed tomography (CT) examinations. As the result of a dedicated PubMed search this article gives a systemic overview of the current literature on the most important incidental cardiovascular findings, their prevalence and clinical relevance. The majority of incidental cardiovascular findings are of only low clinical relevance; however, highly relevant incidental findings, such as aortic aneurysms, thromboses and thromboembolic events can also occasionally be found, especially in oncology patients. The scans from every CT examination should also be investigated for incidental findings as they can be of decisive importance for the further clinical management of patients, depending on their clinical relevance. (orig.) [German] Inzidentelle kardiovaskulaere Befunde sind ein haeufiges Phaenomen bei CT-Untersuchungen. Mit dieser Arbeit soll nach gezielter PubMed-Recherche ein systematischer Literaturueberblick ueber die wichtigsten kardiovaskulaeren Zufallsbefunde sowie deren Haeufigkeit und klinische Relevanz gegeben werden. Die Mehrzahl der inzidentellen kardiovaskulaeren Befunde sind klinisch nur von untergeordneter Bedeutung, allerdings werden immer wieder auch hochgradig relevante Zufallsbefunde wie beispielsweise Aortenaneurysmata oder - gerade bei onkologischen Patienten - Thrombosen und thrombembolische Ereignisse detektiert. Jede CT-Untersuchung sollte gezielt nach inzidentellen Befunden durchsucht werden, da diese je nach klinischer Relevanz von entscheidender Bedeutung fuer das weitere klinische Management des Patienten sein koennen. (orig.)

  5. Incidental dentomaxillofacial findings on cone beam computed tomography images of Iranian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Khojastepour

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIM: The present study aimed to assess the nature and prevalence of incidental findings in cone beam computed tomography (CBCT images of oral and maxillofacial patients. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, 773 CBCT samples were retrieved from archives of a private oral and maxillofacial radiology center. Any findings that were not related to the reason of CBCT request was recorded in forms designed originally for this study. RESULTS: 475 patients out of 773 had at least one incidental finding. It composed about 60% of the patients. The largest frequency of incidental findings were cases of periapical lesions. (n = 189, followed by mucous thickening of maxillary sinus (n = 170, retained root (n = 32, impaction and 3rd molar (n = 26. Other incidental findings were torus (n = 25, dental anomalies (n = 13, vertical root fracture (n = 5, intra bony lesion and periapical pathosis (n = 4 and the lowest frequency was sialoliths (n = 1. CONCLUSION: About half of the subjects have had at least one incidental finding, so the precise review of the CBCT images seems to be necessary.

  6. Effects of Incidental Emotions on Moral Dilemma Judgments: An Analysis Using the CNI Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawronski, Bertram; Conway, Paul; Armstrong, Joel; Friesdorf, Rebecca; Hütter, Mandy

    2018-02-01

    Effects of incidental emotions on moral dilemma judgments have garnered interest because they demonstrate the context-dependent nature of moral decision-making. Six experiments (N = 727) investigated the effects of incidental happiness, sadness, and anger on responses in moral dilemmas that pit the consequences of a given action for the greater good (i.e., utilitarianism) against the consistency of that action with moral norms (i.e., deontology). Using the CNI model of moral decision-making, we further tested whether the three kinds of emotions shape moral dilemma judgments by influencing (a) sensitivity to consequences, (b) sensitivity to moral norms, or (c) general preference for inaction versus action regardless of consequences and moral norms (or some combination of the three). Incidental happiness reduced sensitivity to moral norms without affecting sensitivity to consequences or general preference for inaction versus action. Incidental sadness and incidental anger did not show any significant effects on moral dilemma judgments. The findings suggest a central role of moral norms in the contribution of emotional responses to moral dilemma judgments, requiring refinements of dominant theoretical accounts and supporting the value of formal modeling approaches in providing more nuanced insights into the determinants of moral dilemma judgments. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Tagging, Encoding, and Jones Optimality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier; Lopez, Pablo E. Martinez

    2003-01-01

    A partial evaluator is said to be Jones-optimal if the result of specializing a self-interpreter with respect to a source program is textually identical to the source program, modulo renaming. Jones optimality has already been obtained if the self-interpreter is untyped. If the selfinterpreter...... is typed, however, residual programs are cluttered with type tags. To obtain the original source program, these tags must be removed. A number of sophisticated solutions have already been proposed. We observe, however, that with a simple representation shift, ordinary partial evaluation is already Jones......-optimal, modulo an encoding. The representation shift amounts to reading the type tags as constructors for higherorder abstract syntax. We substantiate our observation by considering a typed self-interpreter whose input syntax is higher-order. Specializing this interpreter with respect to a source program yields...

  8. Encoding of temporal intervals in the rat hindlimb sensorimotor cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Bean Knudsen

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The gradual buildup of neural activity over experimentally imposed delay periods, termed climbing activity, is well documented and is a potential mechanism by which interval time is encoded by distributed cortico-thalamico-striatal networks in the brain. Additionally, when multiple delay periods are incorporated, this activity has been shown to scale its rate of climbing proportional to the delay period. However, it remains unclear whether these patterns of activity occur within areas of motor cortex dedicated to hindlimb movement. Moreover, the effects of behavioral training (e.g. motor tasks under different reward conditions but with similar behavioral output are not well addressed. To address this, we recorded activity from the hindlimb sensorimotor cortex (HLSMC of two groups of rats performing a skilled hindlimb press task. In one group, rats were trained only to a make a valid press within a finite window after cue presentation for reward (non-interval trained, nIT; n=5, while rats in the second group were given duration-specific cues in which they had to make presses of either short or long duration to receive reward (interval trained, IT; n=6. Using PETH analyses, we show that cells recorded from both groups showed climbing activity during the task in similar proportions (35% IT and 47% nIT, however only climbing activity from IT rats was temporally scaled to press duration. Furthermore, using single trial decoding techniques (Wiener filter, we show that press duration can be inferred using climbing activity from IT animals (R=0.61 significantly better than nIT animals (R=0.507, p<0.01, suggesting IT animals encode press duration through temporally scaled climbing activity. Thus, if temporal intervals are behaviorally relevant then the activity of climbing neurons is temporally scaled to encode the passage of time.

  9. Human visual system automatically encodes sequential regularities of discrete events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Motohiro; Schröger, Erich; Czigler, István; Ohira, Hideki

    2010-06-01

    For our adaptive behavior in a dynamically changing environment, an essential task of the brain is to automatically encode sequential regularities inherent in the environment into a memory representation. Recent studies in neuroscience have suggested that sequential regularities embedded in discrete sensory events are automatically encoded into a memory representation at the level of the sensory system. This notion is largely supported by evidence from investigations using auditory mismatch negativity (auditory MMN), an event-related brain potential (ERP) correlate of an automatic memory-mismatch process in the auditory sensory system. However, it is still largely unclear whether or not this notion can be generalized to other sensory modalities. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the contribution of the visual sensory system to the automatic encoding of sequential regularities using visual mismatch negativity (visual MMN), an ERP correlate of an automatic memory-mismatch process in the visual sensory system. To this end, we conducted a sequential analysis of visual MMN in an oddball sequence consisting of infrequent deviant and frequent standard stimuli, and tested whether the underlying memory representation of visual MMN generation contains only a sensory memory trace of standard stimuli (trace-mismatch hypothesis) or whether it also contains sequential regularities extracted from the repetitive standard sequence (regularity-violation hypothesis). The results showed that visual MMN was elicited by first deviant (deviant stimuli following at least one standard stimulus), second deviant (deviant stimuli immediately following first deviant), and first standard (standard stimuli immediately following first deviant), but not by second standard (standard stimuli immediately following first standard). These results are consistent with the regularity-violation hypothesis, suggesting that the visual sensory system automatically encodes sequential

  10. The Arithmetic of Emotion: Integration of Incidental and Integral Affect in Judgments and Decisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel eVastfjall

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Research has demonstrated that two types of affect have an influence on judgment and decision making: incidental affect (affect unrelated to a judgment or decision such as a mood and integral affect (affect that is part of the perceiver’s internal representation of the option or target under consideration. So far, these two lines of research have seldom crossed so that knowledge concerning their combined effects is largely missing. To fill this gap, the present review highlights differences and similarities between integral and incidental affect. Further, common and unique mechanisms that enable these two types of affect to influence judgment and choices are identified. Finally, some basic principles for affect integration when the two sources co-occur are outlined. These principles are discussed in relation to existing work that has focused on incidental or integral affect but not both.

  11. Keratomycosis after incidental spillage of vegetative material into the eye: Report of two cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Tabatabaee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Fungal corneal ulcers mostly occur after incidental corneal trauma by plant leaves in farm lands or the use of topical corticosteroids or antibiotics. The infection is more prevalent among farmers and harvesters and in some parts of the world is considered as an occupational disease; however, there have been a few reports on the occurrence of such ulcers in healthy individuals after incidental spillage of vegetative material into the eye. The importance of these ulcers is their long-term and refractory course, which makes the visual prognosis unfavorable in most patients, even after appropriate antifungal therapy or ocular interventions. Herein, we present two rare cases of fungal ulcers caused by incidental spillage of vegetative material into the eye while eating nuts and corn. We also discuss the diagnostic and therapeutic approaches, as well as visual outcome reviewing the relevant literature.

  12. How could disclosing incidental information from whole-genome sequencing affect patient behavior?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Kurt D; Green, Robert C

    2013-06-01

    In this article, we argue that disclosure of incidental findings from whole-genome sequencing has the potential to motivate individuals to change health behaviors through psychological mechanisms that differ from typical risk assessment interventions. Their ability to do so, however, is likely to be highly contingent upon the nature of the incidental findings and how they are disclosed, the context of the disclosure and the characteristics of the patient. Moreover, clinicians need to be aware that behavioral responses may occur in unanticipated ways. This article argues for commentators and policy makers to take a cautious but optimistic perspective while empirical evidence is collected through ongoing research involving whole-genome sequencing and the disclosure of incidental information.

  13. Determining the Neural Substrate for Encoding a Memory of Human Pain and the Influence of Anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Ming-Tsung; Kong, Yazhuo; Eippert, Falk; Tracey, Irene

    2017-12-06

    To convert a painful stimulus into a briefly maintainable construct when the painful stimulus is no longer accessible is essential to guide human behavior and avoid dangerous situations. Because of the aversive nature of pain, this encoding process might be influenced by emotional aspects and could thus vary across individuals, but we have yet to understand both the basic underlying neural mechanisms as well as potential interindividual differences. Using fMRI in combination with a delayed-discrimination task in healthy volunteers of both sexes, we discovered that brain regions involved in this working memory encoding process were dissociable according to whether the to-be-remembered stimulus was painful or not, with the medial thalamus and the rostral anterior cingulate cortex encoding painful and the primary somatosensory cortex encoding nonpainful stimuli. Encoding of painful stimuli furthermore significantly enhanced functional connectivity between the thalamus and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). With regards to emotional aspects influencing encoding processes, we observed that more anxious participants showed significant performance advantages when encoding painful stimuli. Importantly, only during the encoding of pain, the interindividual differences in anxiety were associated with the strength of coupling between medial thalamus and mPFC, which was furthermore related to activity in the amygdala. These results indicate not only that there is a distinct signature for the encoding of a painful experience in humans, but also that this encoding process involves a strong affective component. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT To convert the sensation of pain into a briefly maintainable construct is essential to guide human behavior and avoid dangerous situations. Although this working memory encoding process is implicitly contained in the majority of studies, the underlying neural mechanisms remain unclear. Using fMRI in a delayed-discrimination task, we found that the

  14. Whole-body MRI in neurofibromatosis: incidental findings and prevalence of scoliosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaremko, Jacob L.; MacMahon, Peter J.; Torriani, Martin; Bredella, Miriam A.; Merker, Vanessa L.; Plotkin, Scott R.; Mautner, Victor F.

    2012-01-01

    To demonstrate incidental findings and scoliosis on whole-body MRI (WBMRI) in patients with neurofibromatosis type 1 and 2 (NF1 and NF2, respectively), and schwannomatosis. Institutional review board approval and written informed consent were obtained for this prospective HIPAA-compliant study. A total of 247 subjects (141 with NF1, 55 with NF2, 51 with schwannomatosis; 132 women (53.5%); mean age, 41 years, range, 18-97 years) underwent WBMRI using coronal STIR (TR/TE: 4190/111 ms, TI: 150 ms) and T1-weighted images (TR/TE: 454/10 ms), 10-mm slice thickness, imaging time ∝40 min. Images were reviewed for the presence of incidental findings, outside of nerve sheath tumors. The presence of scoliosis was recorded and curve morphology was assessed and quantified. Incidental findings other than scoliosis were recorded in 104/247 (42%) patients, most often affecting the musculoskeletal system (65/247 patients, 26%). We found 16/247 (6.5%) significant incidental findings likely to affect clinical management, including avascular necrosis of bone in eight patients (five with NF2), eight insufficiency fractures, and four non-neurogenic neoplasms (Hodgkin's lymphoma, liposarcoma, dermoid cyst, large uterine myoma requiring excision). Scoliosis was seen in 50/247 patients (20%), including 8/55 with NF2 (15%) and 11/51 with schwannomatosis (22%). Incidental findings in the neurofibromatoses frequently involve the skeleton. Given the relatively high incidence of unsuspected osteonecrosis and stress fractures, close attention to the skeleton on WBMRI is advised. In addition, knowledge of common incidental findings can help clinicians prepare patients who undergo WBMRI for potential unexpected findings. (orig.)

  15. Whole-body MRI in neurofibromatosis: incidental findings and prevalence of scoliosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaremko, Jacob L.; MacMahon, Peter J.; Torriani, Martin; Bredella, Miriam A. [Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Musculoskeletal Imaging and Intervention, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Merker, Vanessa L.; Plotkin, Scott R. [Massachusetts General Hospital, Department of Neurology and Cancer Center, Boston, MA (United States); Mautner, Victor F. [University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Department of Neurology, Hamburg (Germany)

    2012-08-15

    To demonstrate incidental findings and scoliosis on whole-body MRI (WBMRI) in patients with neurofibromatosis type 1 and 2 (NF1 and NF2, respectively), and schwannomatosis. Institutional review board approval and written informed consent were obtained for this prospective HIPAA-compliant study. A total of 247 subjects (141 with NF1, 55 with NF2, 51 with schwannomatosis; 132 women (53.5%); mean age, 41 years, range, 18-97 years) underwent WBMRI using coronal STIR (TR/TE: 4190/111 ms, TI: 150 ms) and T1-weighted images (TR/TE: 454/10 ms), 10-mm slice thickness, imaging time {proportional_to}40 min. Images were reviewed for the presence of incidental findings, outside of nerve sheath tumors. The presence of scoliosis was recorded and curve morphology was assessed and quantified. Incidental findings other than scoliosis were recorded in 104/247 (42%) patients, most often affecting the musculoskeletal system (65/247 patients, 26%). We found 16/247 (6.5%) significant incidental findings likely to affect clinical management, including avascular necrosis of bone in eight patients (five with NF2), eight insufficiency fractures, and four non-neurogenic neoplasms (Hodgkin's lymphoma, liposarcoma, dermoid cyst, large uterine myoma requiring excision). Scoliosis was seen in 50/247 patients (20%), including 8/55 with NF2 (15%) and 11/51 with schwannomatosis (22%). Incidental findings in the neurofibromatoses frequently involve the skeleton. Given the relatively high incidence of unsuspected osteonecrosis and stress fractures, close attention to the skeleton on WBMRI is advised. In addition, knowledge of common incidental findings can help clinicians prepare patients who undergo WBMRI for potential unexpected findings. (orig.)

  16. The effects of age on the neural correlates of episodic encoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grady, C L; McIntosh, A R; Rajah, M N; Beig, S; Craik, F I

    1999-12-01

    Young and old adults underwent positron emission tomographic scans while encoding pictures of objects and words using three encoding strategies: deep processing (a semantic living/nonliving judgement), shallow processing (size judgement) and intentional learning. Picture memory exceeded word memory in both young and old groups, and there was an age-related decrement only in word recognition. During the encoding tasks three brain activity patterns were found that differentiated stimulus type and the different encoding strategies. The stimulus-specific pattern was characterized by greater activity in extrastriate and medial temporal cortices during picture encoding, and greater activity in left prefrontal and temporal cortices during encoding of words. The older adults showed this pattern to a significantly lesser degree. A pattern distinguishing deep processing from intentional learning of words and pictures was identified, characterized mainly by differences in prefrontal cortex, and this pattern also was of significantly lesser magnitude in the old group. A final pattern identified areas with increased activity during deep processing and intentional learning of pictures, including left prefrontal and bilateral medial temporal regions. There was no group difference in this pattern. These results indicate age-related dysfunction in several encoding networks, with sparing of one specifically involved in more elaborate encoding of pictures. These age-related changes appear to affect verbal memory more than picture memory.

  17. On the relationships between generative encodings, regularity, and learning abilities when evolving plastic artificial neural networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Tonelli

    Full Text Available A major goal of bio-inspired artificial intelligence is to design artificial neural networks with abilities that resemble those of animal nervous systems. It is commonly believed that two keys for evolving nature-like artificial neural networks are (1 the developmental process that links genes to nervous systems, which enables the evolution of large, regular neural networks, and (2 synaptic plasticity, which allows neural networks to change during their lifetime. So far, these two topics have been mainly studied separately. The present paper shows that they are actually deeply connected. Using a simple operant conditioning task and a classic evolutionary algorithm, we compare three ways to encode plastic neural networks: a direct encoding, a developmental encoding inspired by computational neuroscience models, and a developmental encoding inspired by morphogen gradients (similar to HyperNEAT. Our results suggest that using a developmental encoding could improve the learning abilities of evolved, plastic neural networks. Complementary experiments reveal that this result is likely the consequence of the bias of developmental encodings towards regular structures: (1 in our experimental setup, encodings that tend to produce more regular networks yield networks with better general learning abilities; (2 whatever the encoding is, networks that are the more regular are statistically those that have the best learning abilities.

  18. Parametric fMRI analysis of visual encoding in the human medial temporal lobe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rombouts, S A; Scheltens, P; Machielson, W C; Barkhof, F; Hoogenraad, F G; Veltman, D J; Valk, J; Witter, M P

    1999-01-01

    A number of functional brain imaging studies indicate that the medial temporal lobe system is crucially involved in encoding new information into memory. However, most studies were based on differences in brain activity between encoding of familiar vs. novel stimuli. To further study the underlying cognitive processes, we applied a parametric design of encoding. Seven healthy subjects were instructed to encode complex color pictures into memory. Stimuli were presented in a parametric fashion at different rates, thus representing different loads of encoding. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to assess changes in brain activation. To determine the number of pictures successfully stored into memory, recognition scores were determined afterwards. During encoding, brain activation occurred in the medial temporal lobe, comparable to the results obtained by others. Increasing the encoding load resulted in an increase in the number of successfully stored items. This was reflected in a significant increase in brain activation in the left lingual gyrus, in the left and right parahippocampal gyrus, and in the right inferior frontal gyrus. This study shows that fMRI can detect changes in brain activation during variation of one aspect of higher cognitive tasks. Further, it strongly supports the notion that the human medial temporal lobe is involved in encoding novel visual information into memory.

  19. SnoVault and encodeD: A novel object-based storage system and applications to ENCODE metadata.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin C Hitz

    Full Text Available The Encyclopedia of DNA elements (ENCODE project is an ongoing collaborative effort to create a comprehensive catalog of functional elements initiated shortly after the completion of the Human Genome Project. The current database exceeds 6500 experiments across more than 450 cell lines and tissues using a wide array of experimental techniques to study the chromatin structure, regulatory and transcriptional landscape of the H. sapiens and M. musculus genomes. All ENCODE experimental data, metadata, and associated computational analyses are submitted to the ENCODE Data Coordination Center (DCC for validation, tracking, storage, unified processing, and distribution to community resources and the scientific community. As the volume of data increases, the identification and organization of experimental details becomes increasingly intricate and demands careful curation. The ENCODE DCC has created a general purpose software system, known as SnoVault, that supports metadata and file submission, a database used for metadata storage, web pages for displaying the metadata and a robust API for querying the metadata. The software is fully open-source, code and installation instructions can be found at: http://github.com/ENCODE-DCC/snovault/ (for the generic database and http://github.com/ENCODE-DCC/encoded/ to store genomic data in the manner of ENCODE. The core database engine, SnoVault (which is completely independent of ENCODE, genomic data, or bioinformatic data has been released as a separate Python package.

  20. Thermal behaviour of fuel: influence on the behavior of fuel elements in nominal and incidental operating conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Languille, A.

    1984-02-01

    The behaviour of the oxide, in normal conditions as well as in incidental conditions is an important care at the fuel element design level in a fast reactor. In nominal operating conditions, the probability of melt to core of the pellet is very low and even for high burnup. The behaviour in incidental operating conditions is also satisfying, especially for inadvertent rod ejections [fr

  1. 12 CFR 7.5001 - Electronic activities that are part of, or incidental to, the business of banking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... light of risks presented, innovations, strategies, techniques and new technologies for producing and... incidental to, the business of banking. 7.5001 Section 7.5001 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY... activities that are part of, or incidental to, the business of banking. (a) Purpose. This section identifies...

  2. Incidental Findings in Imaging Research: Evaluating Incidence, Benefit and Burden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orme, Nicholas M.; Fletcher, Joel G.; Siddiki, Hassan A.; Harmsen, W. Scott; O’Byrne, Megan M.; Port, John D.; Tremaine, William J.; Pitot, Henry C.; McFarland, Beth; Robinson, Marguerite E.; Koenig, Barabara A.; King, Bernard F.; Wolf, Susan M.

    2013-01-01

    Context Little information exists concerning the frequency of clinically significant incidental findings (IFs) identified in the course of imaging research across a broad spectrum of imaging modalities and body regions. Objective To estimate the frequency with which research imaging IFs generate further clinical action, and the medical benefit/burden of identifying these IFs. Design, Setting, and Participants Retrospective review of subjects undergoing a research imaging exam that was interpreted by a radiologist for IFs in the first quarter of 2004, with 3-year clinical follow-up. An expert panel reviewed IFs generating clinical action to determine medical benefit/burden based on predefined criteria. Main Outcome Measures Frequency of (1) IFs that generated further clinical action by modality, body part, age, gender, and (2) IFs resulting in clear medical benefit or burden. Results 1376 patients underwent 1426 research imaging studies. 40% (567/1426) of exams had at least one IF (1055 total). Risk of an IF increased significantly by age (OR=1.5; [1.4–1.7=95% C.I.] per decade increase). Abdominopelvic CT generated more IFs than other exams (OR=18.9 compared with ultrasound; 9.2% with subsequent clinical action), with CT Thorax and MR brain next (OR=11.9 and 5.9; 2.8% and 2.2% with action, respectively). Overall 6.2% of exams (35/567) with an IF generated clinical action, resulting in clear medical benefit in 1.1% (6/567) and clear medical burden in 0.5% (3/567). In most instances, medical benefit/burden was unclear (4.6%; 26/567). Conclusions The frequency of IFs in imaging research exams varies significantly by imaging modality, body region and age. Research imaging studies at high risk for generating IFs can be identified. Routine evaluation of research images by radiologists may result in identification of IFs in a substantial number of cases and subsequent clinical action to address them in much smaller number. Such clinical action can result in medical

  3. Contextual control over task-set retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crump, Matthew J C; Logan, Gordon D

    2010-11-01

    Contextual cues signaling task likelihood or the likelihood of task repetition are known to modulate the size of switch costs. We follow up on the finding by Leboe, Wong, Crump, and Stobbe (2008) that location cues predictive of the proportion of switch or repeat trials modulate switch costs. Their design employed one cue per task, whereas our experiment employed two cues per task, which allowed separate assessment of modulations to the cue-repetition benefit, a measure of lower level cue-encoding processes, and to the task-alternation cost, a measure of higher level processes representing task-set information. We demonstrate that location information predictive of switch proportion modulates performance at the level of task-set representations. Furthermore, we demonstrate that contextual control occurs even when subjects are unaware of the associations between context and switch likelihood. We discuss the notion that contextual information provides rapid, unconscious control over the extent to which prior task-set representations are retrieved in the service of guiding online performance.

  4. Radioiodine Accumulation in a Giant Ovarian Cystadenofibroma Detected Incidentally by 131-I Whole Body Scans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mebarki, Mohammed; Menemani, Abdelghani; Medjahedi, Abdelkader; Boualou, Fouad; Slama, Abdelhak; Ouguirti, Sarah; Kherbouche, Fatima Zahra; Berber, Nécib

    2012-01-01

    Ovarian cystadenofibroma is a relatively rare tumor; it is usually asymptomatic and is found incidentally. We present the case of a 24-year-old female patient, who had undergone total thyroidectomy for thyroid papillary carcinoma, with an asymptomatic giant cystadenofibroma, incidentally discovered by diagnostic 131I-SPECT/CT WBSs. We summarize the clinical history, imaging data, and histopathological study on a rare case of radioiodine accumulation in cystadenofibroma, and we discuss the mechanism of uptake of radioiodine in this case. PMID:23119215

  5. An Incidental Renal Oncocytoma: 18F-Choline PET/MRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Mallia

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available PET/MRI is a new hybrid imaging modality and has the potential to become a powerful imaging tool. It is currently one of the most active areas of research in diagnostic imaging. The characterisation of an incidental renal lesion can be difficult. In particular, the differentiation of an oncocytoma from other solid renal lesions such as renal cell carcinoma (RCC represents a diagnostic challenge. We describe the detection of an incidental renal oncocytoma in a 79-year gentleman who underwent a re-staging 18F-Choline PET/MRI following a rise in PSA values (4.07, nadir 1.3.

  6. Musical expertise has minimal impact on dual task performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocchini, Gianna; Filardi, Maria Serena; Crhonkova, Marcela; Halpern, Andrea R

    2017-05-01

    Studies investigating effect of practice on dual task performance have yielded conflicting findings, thus supporting different theoretical accounts about the organisation of attentional resources when tasks are performed simultaneously. Because practice has been proven to reduce the demand of attention for the trained task, the impact of long-lasting training on one task is an ideal way to better understand the mechanisms underlying dual task decline in performance. Our study compared performance during dual task execution in expert musicians compared to controls with little if any musical experience. Participants performed a music recognition task and a visuo-spatial task separately (single task) or simultaneously (dual task). Both groups showed a significant but similar performance decline during dual tasks. In addition, the two groups showed a similar decline of dual task performance during encoding and retrieval of the musical information, mainly attributed to a decline in sensitivity. Our results suggest that attention during dual tasks is similarly distributed by expert and non-experts. These findings are in line with previous studies showing a lack of sensitivity to difficulty and lack of practice effect during dual tasks, supporting the idea that different tasks may rely on different and not-sharable attentional resources.

  7. Intranasal ketamine for the management of incidental pain during wound dressing in cancer patients: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nivedita Page

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cancer wounds need regular dressing; else they develop infection, foul odor, and in extreme cases, maggots. Patients resist dressing due to the severe incidental pain during dressing. Intranasal ketamine was tried as an analgesic to reduce this incidental pain. Materials and Methods: Twenty patients with wounds requiring regular dressing were selected; these patients had a basal pain score of 4/10 and incidental pain score of 7/10 during four consecutive dressings. Ketamine 0.5 mg/kg was administered transmucosally 10 min before dressing, and pain scores, hemodynamic parameters, and sedation were recorded for up to 2 h in six consecutive dressings. Results: Ketamine produced a significant reduction in incidental pain without any hemodynamic changes or sedation. Conclusion: Ketamine appears to be a safe and effective analgesic when used intranasally for incidental pain.

  8. [Effect of chlorpromazine and amphetamine on incidental memory and its relation to the introvert-extravert structure of personality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaimov, K; Kokoshkarova, A

    1978-10-01

    A total of fifty-four test subjects divided into one control group and two experimental groups were used to study the effects of chlorpromazine and amphetamine upon the incidental memory, its accuracy, and possible dependence on the introversive or extroversive personality structure, respectively. It has been found that chlorpromazine tends to lessen the incidental memory in extent and increase the number of allomnesias or instances of inaccurate remembrance, whereas amphetamine has the effects of increasing the extent of the incidental memory and reducing the number of allomnesias. A comparison of the extent of the incidental memory with the structure of personality in respect of introversion or extroversion in the control group also showed significant differences, the incidental memory being of smaller extent in the case of introversion and greater extent in the case of extroversion.

  9. Neuroanatomical correlates of encoding in episodic memory: levels of processing effect.

    OpenAIRE

    Kapur, S; Craik, F I; Tulving, E; Wilson, A A; Houle, S; Brown, G M

    1994-01-01

    Cognitive studies of memory processes demonstrate that memory for stimuli is a function of how they are encoded; stimuli processed semantically are better remembered than those processed in a perceptual or shallow fashion. This study investigates the neural correlates of this cognitive phenomenon. Twelve subjects performed two different cognitive tasks on a series of visually presented nouns. In one task, subjects detected the presence or absence of the letter a; in the other, subjects catego...

  10. Dorso-Lateral Frontal Cortex of the Ferret Encodes Perceptual Difficulty during Visual Discrimination

    OpenAIRE

    Zhe Charles Zhou; Chunxiu Yu; Kristin K. Sellers; Flavio Fröhlich

    2016-01-01

    Visual discrimination requires sensory processing followed by a perceptual decision. Despite a growing understanding of visual areas in this behavior, it is unclear what role top-down signals from prefrontal cortex play, in particular as a function of perceptual difficulty. To address this gap, we investigated how neurons in dorso-lateral frontal cortex (dl-FC) of freely-moving ferrets encode task variables in a two-alternative forced choice visual discrimination task with high- and low-contr...

  11. Processing Resources in Attention, Dual Task Performance, and Workload Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-07-01

    levels of processing in encoding and memory ( Craik & Lockhart , 1972) employs the capacity metaphore when describing the amount of processing ...depending upon the nature of a paired task. Second, encoding or rehearsal of verbal material may differ in the "depth of processing " ( Craik & Lockhart ...F.I.M., & Lockhart , F.S. Levels of processing : A framework for mem- ory research. Journal of Verbal Learning & Verbal Behavior, 1972, 11, 671-684.

  12. NMDA receptors and memory encoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Richard G M

    2013-11-01

    It is humbling to think that 30 years have passed since the paper by Collingridge, Kehl and McLennan showing that one of Jeff Watkins most interesting compounds, R-2-amino-5-phosphonopentanoate (d-AP5), blocked the induction of long-term potentiation in vitro at synapses from area CA3 of the hippocampus to CA1 without apparent effect on baseline synaptic transmission (Collingridge et al., 1983). This dissociation was one of the key triggers for an explosion of interest in glutamate receptors, and much has been discovered since that collectively contributes to our contemporary understanding of glutamatergic synapses - their biophysics and subunit composition, of the agonists and antagonists acting on them, and their diverse functions in different networks of the brain and spinal cord. It can be fairly said that Collingridge et al.'s (1983) observation was the stimulus that has led, on the one hand, to structural biological work at the atomic scale describing the key features of NMDA receptors that enables their coincidence function to happen; and, on the other, to work with whole animals investigating the contributions that calcium signalling via this receptor can have on rhythmical activities controlled by spinal circuits, memory encoding in the hippocampus (the topic of this article), visual cortical plasticity, sensitization in pain, and other functions. In this article, I lay out how my then interest in long-term potentiation (LTP) as a model of memory enabled me to recognise the importance of Collingridge et al.'s discovery - and how I and my colleagues endeavoured to take things forward in the area of learning and memory. This is in some respects a personal story, and I tell it as such. The idea that NMDA receptor activation is essential for memory encoding, though not for storage, took time to develop and to be accepted. Along the way, there have been confusions, challenges, and surprises surrounding the idea that activation of NMDA receptors can

  13. Encoder designed to work in harsh environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toop, L.

    2007-05-15

    Dynapar has developed the Acuro AX71 absolute encoder for use on offshore or land-based oil rig operations. It provides feedback on the operation of automated systems such as draw works, racking systems, rotary tables and top drives. By ensuring that automated systems function properly, this encoder responds to a need by the oil and gas industry to keep workers safe and improve efficiency, particularly for operations in rugged situations. The encoder provides feedback from motor systems to controllers, giving information about position and speed of downhole drill bits. This newly developed encoder is better than commonly used incremental encoders which are not precise in strong electrical noise environments. Rather, the absolute encoder uses a different method of reporting to the controller. A digital signal is transmitted constantly as the device operates. It is less susceptible to noise issues. It is highly accurate, tolerant of noise and is not affected by power outages. However, the absolute encoder is generally more delicate in drilling applications with high ambient temperatures and shock levels. Dynapar addressed this issue by developing compact stainless steel housing that is useful for corrosion resistance in marine applications. The AX71 absolute encoder can withstand up to 100 G of mechanical shock and ambient temperatures of up to 60 degrees C. The encoder is ATEX certified without barriers, and offers the high resolution feedback of 4,000 counts of multiturn rotation and 16,000 counts of position. 1 fig.

  14. Modality-specific alpha modulations facilitate long-term memory encoding in the presence of distracters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Haiteng; van Gerven, Marcel A J; Jensen, Ole

    2015-03-01

    It has been proposed that long-term memory encoding is not only dependent on engaging task-relevant regions but also on disengaging task-irrelevant regions. In particular, oscillatory alpha activity has been shown to be involved in shaping the functional architecture of the working brain because it reflects the functional disengagement of specific regions in attention and memory tasks. We here ask if such allocation of resources by alpha oscillations generalizes to long-term memory encoding in a cross-modal setting in which we acquired the ongoing brain activity using magnetoencephalography. Participants were asked to encode pictures while ignoring simultaneously presented words and vice versa. We quantified the brain activity during rehearsal reflecting subsequent memory in the different attention conditions. The key finding was that successful long-term memory encoding is reflected by alpha power decreases in the sensory region of the to-be-attended modality and increases in the sensory region of the to-be-ignored modality to suppress distraction during rehearsal period. Our results corroborate related findings from attention studies by demonstrating that alpha activity is also important for the allocation of resources during long-term memory encoding in the presence of distracters.

  15. Cognitive training of self-initiation of semantic encoding strategies in schizophrenia: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimond, Synthia; Lepage, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Available cognitive remediation interventions have a significant but relatively small to moderate impact on episodic memory in schizophrenia. The present study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and feasibility of a brief novel episodic memory training targeting the self-initiation of semantic encoding strategies. To select patients with such deficits, 28 participants with schizophrenia performed our Semantic Encoding Memory Task (SEMT) that provides a measure of self-initiated semantic encoding strategies. This task identified a deficit in 13 participants who were then offered two 60-minute training sessions one week apart. After the training, patients performed an alternate version of the SEMT. The CVLT-II (a standardised measure of semantic encoding strategies) and the BVMT-R (a control spatial memory task) were used to quantify memory pre- and post-training. After the training, participants were significantly better at self-initiating semantic encoding strategies in the SEMT (p = .004) and in the CVLT-II (p = .002). No significant differences were found in the BVMT-R. The current study demonstrates that a brief and specific training in memory strategies can help patients to improve a deficient memory process in schizophrenia. Future studies will need to test this intervention further using a randomised controlled trial, and to explore its functional impact.

  16. Music improves verbal memory encoding while decreasing prefrontal cortex activity: an fNIRS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreri, Laura; Aucouturier, Jean-Julien; Muthalib, Makii; Bigand, Emmanuel; Bugaiska, Aurelia

    2013-01-01

    Listening to music engages the whole brain, thus stimulating cognitive performance in a range of non-purely musical activities such as language and memory tasks. This article addresses an ongoing debate on the link between music and memory for words. While evidence on healthy and clinical populations suggests that music listening can improve verbal memory in a variety of situations, it is still unclear what specific memory process is affected and how. This study was designed to explore the hypothesis that music specifically benefits the encoding part of verbal memory tasks, by providing a richer context for encoding and therefore less demand on the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). Twenty-two healthy young adults were subjected to functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) imaging of their bilateral DLPFC while encoding words in the presence of either a music or a silent background. Behavioral data confirmed the facilitating effect of music background during encoding on subsequent item recognition. fNIRS results revealed significantly greater activation of the left hemisphere during encoding (in line with the HERA model of memory lateralization) and a sustained, bilateral decrease of activity in the DLPFC in the music condition compared to silence. These findings suggest that music modulates the role played by the DLPFC during verbal encoding, and open perspectives for applications to clinical populations with prefrontal impairments, such as elderly adults or Alzheimer's patients.

  17. Music improves verbal memory encoding while decreasing prefrontal cortex activity: an fNIRS study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura eFerreri

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Listening to music engages the whole brain, thus stimulating cognitive performance in a range of non purely musical activities such as language and memory tasks. This article addresses an ongoing debate on the link between music and memory for words. While evidence on healthy and clinical populations suggests that music listening can improve verbal memory in a variety of situations, it is still unclear what specific memory process is affected and how. This study was designed to explore the hypothesis that music specifically benefits the encoding part of verbal memory tasks, by providing a richer context for encoding and therefore less demand on the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC. 22 healthy young adults were subjected to functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS imaging of their bilateral DLPFC while encoding words in the presence of either a music or a silent background. Behavioral data confirmed the facilitating effect of music background during encoding on subsequent item recognition. fNIRS results revealed significantly greater activation of the left hemisphere during encoding (in line with the HERA model of memory lateralization and a sustained, bilateral decrease of activity in the DLPFC in the music condition compared to silence. These findings suggest that music modulates the role played by the DLPFC during verbal encoding, and open perspectives for applications to clinical populations with prefrontal impairments, such as elderly adults or Alzheimer's patients.

  18. Improvement of incidental recovery performances on console by the use of synthesis images in the monitoring phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oudiz, A.; Sicard, Y.; Siebert, S.; Thebault, M.H.

    1988-10-01

    In all industrial processes, the present day tendency in control room design is towards an ever increasing computerization. In particular, the design projects for new control interfaces in nuclear power station control rooms offer the possibility of optimizing suitability of control means to team capacities. In many situations the operator is still the decision maker (despite the high degree of plant automation), the aim is not to dispense with him but rather to come to a more complete understanding of his needs so as to assist him in his complex task. Our problem assumes, however, that we are able to solve a preliminary question, namely what will be the operator's behaviour when using a control tool of our design. Simulation enables us to get round this preliminary question inherent to all new designs. In our case, we simulate a process by means of calculation methods, and test prototype control interfaces, while observing how the operator adapts to this new tool - this once he has passed beyond the trainee stage. Comparison of the different analyses for each prototype enables the design criteria for future interfaces to be defined. This paper describes the method used for interface comparison, summarizes our previous works published elsewhere and describes the results of a comparison between incidental recovery activities carried out on desk with and without use of monitor orientated synthesis images

  19. Encoding of Spatial Attention by Primate Prefrontal Cortex Neuronal Ensembles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treue, Stefan

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Single neurons in the primate lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC) encode information about the allocation of visual attention and the features of visual stimuli. However, how this compares to the performance of neuronal ensembles at encoding the same information is poorly understood. Here, we recorded the responses of neuronal ensembles in the LPFC of two macaque monkeys while they performed a task that required attending to one of two moving random dot patterns positioned in different hemifields and ignoring the other pattern. We found single units selective for the location of the attended stimulus as well as for its motion direction. To determine the coding of both variables in the population of recorded units, we used a linear classifier and progressively built neuronal ensembles by iteratively adding units according to their individual performance (best single units), or by iteratively adding units based on their contribution to the ensemble performance (best ensemble). For both methods, ensembles of relatively small sizes (n decoding performance relative to individual single units. However, the decoder reached similar performance using fewer neurons with the best ensemble building method compared with the best single units method. Our results indicate that neuronal ensembles within the LPFC encode more information about the attended spatial and nonspatial features of visual stimuli than individual neurons. They further suggest that efficient coding of attention can be achieved by relatively small neuronal ensembles characterized by a certain relationship between signal and noise correlation structures. PMID:29568798

  20. Cognitive task analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schraagen, J.M.C.

    2000-01-01

    Cognitive task analysis is defined as the extension of traditional task analysis techniques to yield information about the knowledge, thought processes and goal structures that underlie observable task performance. Cognitive task analyses are conducted for a wide variety of purposes, including the

  1. Deep--deeper--deepest? Encoding strategies and the recognition of human faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sporer, S L

    1991-03-01

    Various encoding strategies that supposedly promote deeper processing of human faces (e.g., character judgments) have led to better recognition than more shallow processing tasks (judging the width of the nose). However, does deeper processing actually lead to an improvement in recognition, or, conversely, does shallow processing lead to a deterioration in performance when compared with naturally employed encoding strategies? Three experiments systematically compared a total of 8 different encoding strategies manipulating depth of processing, amount of elaboration, and self-generation of judgmental categories. All strategies that required a scanning of the whole face were basically equivalent but no better than natural strategy controls. The consistently worst groups were the ones that rated faces along preselected physical dimensions. This can be explained by subjects' lesser task involvement as revealed by manipulation checks.

  2. Semantic Encoding Enhances the Pictorial Superiority Effect in the Oldest-Old

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherry, Katie E.; Brown, Jennifer Silva; Walker, Erin Jackson; Smitherman, Emily A.; Boudreaux, Emily O.; Volaufova, Julia; Jazwinski, S. Michal

    2011-01-01

    We examined the effect of a semantic orienting task during encoding on free recall and recognition of simple line drawings and matching words in middle-aged (44 to 59 years), older (60 to 89 years), and oldest-old (90 + years) adults. Participants studied line drawings and matching words presented in blocked order. Half of the participants were given a semantic orienting task and the other half received standard intentional learning instructions. Results confirmed that the pictorial superiority effect was greater in magnitude following semantic encoding compared to the control condition. Analyses of clustering in free recall revealed that oldest-old adults’ encoding and retrieval strategies were generally similar to the two younger groups. Self-reported strategy use was less frequent among the oldest-old adults. These data strongly suggest that semantic elaboration is an effective compensatory mechanism underlying preserved episodic memory performance that persists well into the ninth decade of life. PMID:22053814

  3. Electrophysiological Correlates of Semantic Processing during Encoding of Neutral and Emotional Pictures in Patients with ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauel, Kerstin; Duzel, Emrah; Hinrichs, Hermann; Lenz, Daniel; Herrmann, Christoph S.; Santel, Stephanie; Rellum, Thomas; Baving, Lioba

    2009-01-01

    The current study investigated the relevance of semantic processing and stimulus salience for memory performance in young ADHD patients and healthy control participants. 18 male ADHD patients and 15 healthy control children and adolescents participated in an ERP study during a visual memory paradigm with two different encoding tasks requiring…

  4. What-Where-When Memory and Encoding Strategies in Healthy Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheke, Lucy G.

    2016-01-01

    Older adults exhibit disproportionate impairments in memory for item-associations. These impairments may stem from an inability to self-initiate deep encoding strategies. The present study investigates this using the "treasure-hunt task"; a what-where-when style episodic memory test that requires individuals to "hide" items…

  5. Speeded Verbal Responding in Adults Who Stutter: Are There Deficits in Linguistic Encoding?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennessey, Neville W.; Nang, Charn Y.; Beilby, Janet M.

    2008-01-01

    Linguistic encoding deficits in people who stutter (PWS, n = 18) were investigated using auditory priming during picture naming and word vs. non-word comparisons during choice and simple verbal reaction time (RT) tasks. During picture naming, PWS did not differ significantly from normally fluent speakers (n = 18) in the magnitude of inhibition of…

  6. A Release from Proactive Interference Analysis of Gender Schema Encoding for Occupations in Adults and Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kee, D.W.; Gregory-Domingue, A.; Rice, K.; Tone, K.

    2005-01-01

    The present study examined gender schema encoding (activation of gender stereotypes) in the absence deliberate purposes relating to people (stereotype application). A release from proactive interference short-term-memory task was used. College (Experiment 1) and sixth-grade (Experiment 2) participants were asked to retain item identity and…

  7. Theta and gamma oscillations predict encoding and retrieval of declarative memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Osipova, D.; Takashima, A.; Oostenveld, R.; Fernandez, G.S.E.; Maris, E.G.G.; Jensen, O.

    2006-01-01

    Although studies in animals and patients have demonstrated that brain oscillations play a role in declarative memory encoding and retrieval, little has been done to investigate the temporal dynamics and sources of brain activity in healthy human subjects performing such tasks. In a

  8. Theta and gamma oscillations predict encoding and retrieval of declarative memory.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Osipova, D.; Takashima, A.; Oostenveld, R.; Fernandez, G.S.E.; Maris, E.G.G.; Jensen, O.

    2006-01-01

    Although studies in animals and patients have demonstrated that brain oscillations play a role in declarative memory encoding and retrieval, little has been done to investigate the temporal dynamics and sources of brain activity in healthy human subjects performing such tasks. In a

  9. Neuroanatomical correlates of encoding in episodic memory: levels of processing effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapur, S; Craik, F I; Tulving, E; Wilson, A A; Houle, S; Brown, G M

    1994-03-15

    Cognitive studies of memory processes demonstrate that memory for stimuli is a function of how they are encoded; stimuli processed semantically are better remembered than those processed in a perceptual or shallow fashion. This study investigates the neural correlates of this cognitive phenomenon. Twelve subjects performed two different cognitive tasks on a series of visually presented nouns. In one task, subjects detected the presence or absence of the letter a; in the other, subjects categorized each noun as living or nonliving. Positron emission tomography (PET) scans using 15O-labeled water were obtained during both tasks. Subjects showed substantially better recognition memory for nouns seen in the living/nonliving task, compared to nouns seen in the a-checking task. Comparison of the PET images between the two cognitive tasks revealed a significant activation in the left inferior prefrontal cortex (Brodmann's areas 45, 46, 47, and 10) in the semantic task as compared to the perceptual task. We propose that memory processes are subserved by a wide neurocognitive network and that encoding processes involve preferential activation of the structures in the left inferior prefrontal cortex.

  10. Retention interval affects visual short-term memory encoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bankó, Eva M; Vidnyánszky, Zoltán

    2010-03-01

    Humans can efficiently store fine-detailed facial emotional information in visual short-term memory for several seconds. However, an unresolved question is whether the same neural mechanisms underlie high-fidelity short-term memory for emotional expressions at different retention intervals. Here we show that retention interval affects the neural processes of short-term memory encoding using a delayed facial emotion discrimination task. The early sensory P100 component of the event-related potentials (ERP) was larger in the 1-s interstimulus interval (ISI) condition than in the 6-s ISI condition, whereas the face-specific N170 component was larger in the longer ISI condition. Furthermore, the memory-related late P3b component of the ERP responses was also modulated by retention interval: it was reduced in the 1-s ISI as compared with the 6-s condition. The present findings cannot be explained based on differences in sensory processing demands or overall task difficulty because there was no difference in the stimulus information and subjects' performance between the two different ISI conditions. These results reveal that encoding processes underlying high-precision short-term memory for facial emotional expressions are modulated depending on whether information has to be stored for one or for several seconds.

  11. Alpha oscillations and early stages of visual encoding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang eKlimesch

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available For a long time alpha oscillations have been functionally linked to the processing of visual information. Here we propose an new theory about the functional meaning of alpha. The central idea is that synchronized alpha reflects a basic processing mode that controls access to information stored in a complex long-term memory system, which we term knowledge system (KS in order to emphasize that it comprises not only declarative memories but any kind of knowledge comprising also procedural information. Based on this theoretical background, we assume that during early stages of perception, alpha ‘directs the flow of information’ to those neural structures which represent information that is relevant for encoding. The physiological function of alpha is interpreted in terms of inhibition. We assume that alpha enables access to stored information by inhibiting task irrelevant neuronal structures and by timing cortical activity in task relevant neuronal structures. We discuss a variety findings showing that evoked alpha and phase locking reflect successful encoding of global stimulus features in an early poststimulus interval of about 0 - 150 ms.

  12. Divided attention disrupts perceptual encoding during speech recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattys, Sven L; Palmer, Shekeila D

    2015-03-01

    Performing a secondary task while listening to speech has a detrimental effect on speech processing, but the locus of the disruption within the speech system is poorly understood. Recent research has shown that cognitive load imposed by a concurrent visual task increases dependency on lexical knowledge during speech processing, but it does not affect lexical activation per se. This suggests that "lexical drift" under cognitive load occurs either as a post-lexical bias at the decisional level or as a secondary consequence of reduced perceptual sensitivity. This study aimed to adjudicate between these alternatives using a forced-choice task that required listeners to identify noise-degraded spoken words with or without the addition of a concurrent visual task. Adding cognitive load increased the likelihood that listeners would select a word acoustically similar to the target even though its frequency was lower than that of the target. Thus, there was no evidence that cognitive load led to a high-frequency response bias. Rather, cognitive load seems to disrupt sublexical encoding, possibly by impairing perceptual acuity at the auditory periphery.

  13. 76 FR 13605 - Notice of Availability of Draft Waste Incidental to Reprocessing Evaluation for the Vitrification...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-14

    ... selected offsite low-level waste disposal facility, either the NNSS Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management... in West Valley, New York, is waste incidental to reprocessing and thus is not high-level radioactive... evaluation pursuant to DOE Manual 435.1-1, Radioactive Waste Management. DOE is consulting with the Nuclear...

  14. Incidental and clinically actionable genetic variants in 1005 whole exomes and genomes from Qatar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhinav Jain

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Next generation sequencing (NGS technologies such as whole genome and whole exome sequencing has enabled accurate diagnosis of genetic diseases through identification of variations at the genome wide level. While many large populations have been adequately covered in global sequencing efforts little is known on the genomic architecture of populations from Middle East, and South Asia and Africa. Incidental findings and their prevalence in populations have been extensively studied in populations of Caucasian descent. The recent emphasis on genomics and availability of genome-scale datasets in public domain for ethnic population in the Middle East prompted us to estimate the prevalence of incidental findings for this population. In this study, we used whole genome and exome data for a total 1005 non-related healthy individuals from Qatar population dataset which contained 20,930,177 variants. Systematic analysis of the variants in 59 genes recommended by the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics for reporting of incidental findings revealed a total of 2 pathogenic and 2 likely pathogenic variants. Our analysis suggests the prevalence of incidental variants in population-scale datasets is approx. 0.6%, much lower than those reported for global populations. Our study underlines the essentiality to study population-scale genomes from ethnic groups to understand systematic differences in genetic variants associated with disease predisposition.

  15. 76 FR 61735 - Incidental Take Permit; Auwahi Wind Energy Generation Facility, Maui, HI; Draft Habitat...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service [FWS-R1-ES-2011-N161; 10120-1112-0000-F2] Incidental Take Permit; Auwahi Wind Energy Generation Facility, Maui, HI; Draft Habitat Conservation Plan and..., HI 96850. You may also send comments by facsimile to (808) 792-9580. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT...

  16. Cholestrol granuloma of the breast incidentally detected on dynamic abdominal CT: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Sun Hye; Lee, Eun Hye; Hong, Hyun Sook; Kwak, Jeong Ja [Soonchunhyang University College of Medicine, Bucheon Hospital, Bucheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-01-15

    A breast cholesterol granuloma is an uncommon nodular breast lesion. We incidentally detected a persistently enhancing breast mass on the dynamic abdominal computed tomography (CT) of a 78-year-old woman. The mass decreased in diameter over 50 days following a core needle biopsy. This report is the first to describe the dynamic-enhanced CT features of a breast cholesterol granuloma.

  17. 76 FR 11205 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Construction and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    ... Importing Marine Mammals; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Construction and Operation of a Liquefied Natural Gas Deepwater Port in the Gulf of Mexico AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... request from Port Dolphin Energy LLC (Port Dolphin) for authorization for the take, by Level B harassment...

  18. Primary thymic extranodal marginal zone B cell lymphoma as an incidental finding in a Caucasian woman

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh Petersen, Jeanette; Larsen, Thomas Stauffer; Møller, Michael Boe

    2015-01-01

    Primary thymic extranodal marginal zone B cell lymphoma (TML) is an extremely rare lymphoma strongly associated with autoimmune disease. We report an exceedingly rare case of TML found in a non-Asian population. TML was found incidentally in a 60-year-old Caucasian woman with a short history...

  19. Incidental findings of thyroid tissue in cervical lymph nodes: old controversy not yet resolved?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Triantafyllou, A.; Williams, M.D.; Angelos, P.; Shah, J.P.; Westra, W.H.; Hunt, J.L.; Devaney, K.O.; Rinaldo, A.; Slootweg, P.J.; Gnepp, D.R.; Silver, C.; Ferlito, A.

    2016-01-01

    The clinical significance of papillary or follicular thyroid tissue incidentally discovered in cervical lymph nodes during pathological assessment of neck dissections for non-thyroid cancers of the upper aero-digestive tract is critically reviewed. Special emphasis is given to controversies over

  20. Incidental diagnosis of diseases on un-enhanced helical computed tomography performed for ureteric colic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ather M Hammad

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients presenting in the emergency room with flank pain suggestive of acute ureteric colic may have alternative underlying conditions mimicking ureteric stones. An early diagnosis and appropriate treatment for other causes of flank pain is important. The majority of centers around the world are increasingly using un-enhanced helical CT (UHCT for evaluation of ureteric colic. This study was conducted to determine the incidence and spectrum of significant incidental diagnoses established or suggested on UHCT performed for suspected renal/ureteric colic. Methods Urologist and radiologist reviewed 233 consecutive UHCT, performed for suspected renal/ureteral colic along with assessment of the medical records. Radiological diagnoses of clinical entities not suspected otherwise were analyzed. All other relevant radiological, biochemical and serological investigations and per-operative findings were also noted. Results Ureteral calculi were identified in 148 examinations (64%, findings of recent passage of calculi in 10 (4% and no calculus in 75 examinations (32%. Overall the incidental findings (additional or alternative diagnosis were found in 28 (12% CT scans. Twenty (71% of these diagnoses were confirmed by per-operative findings, biopsy, and other radiological and biochemical investigations or on clinical follow up. Conclusion A wide spectrum of significant incidental diagnoses can be identified on UHCT performed for suspected renal/ureteral colic. In the present series of 233 consecutive CT examinations, the incidence of incidental diagnosis was 12%.

  1. 75 FR 77651 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Receipt of Application for Incidental Take Permit...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-13

    ... number TE176788-0. U.S. mail: Field Supervisor, Jacksonville Ecological Services Field Office, Attn... of occupied Florida scrub-jay foraging and sheltering habitat incidental to construction of an..., Volusia County, Florida. The project includes construction of an expansion to the existing YMCA facility...

  2. 77 FR 9628 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals: Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Navy's Mission...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-17

    ... revised LOA that is valid for two years, to take marine mammals by harassment incidental to the U.S. Navy... 3395). The application requested authorization, for a period of two years, to take, by harassment..., 2011 within the required timeframes and it is posted on NMFS Web site: http://www.nmfs.noaa.gov/pr...

  3. 77 FR 23463 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Space Vehicle and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-19

    ... survival.'' Regulations governing the taking of Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus), by harassment, and harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) (adults by harassment and pups by injury or mortality), incidental to space... required timeframe and the report is posted on NMFS Web site: http://www.nmfs.noaa.gov/pr/permits...

  4. 76 FR 18167 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Marine Geophysical Survey in the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    ..., many marine animals may need to remain in areas where they are exposed to chronic stimuli (Richardson... Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Marine Geophysical Survey in the Central Gulf of Alaska, June, 2011 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric...

  5. 78 FR 34047 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Navy Research, Development, Test and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-06

    ... levels for these animals may be estimated using TTS data from marine mammals and relationships between... Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Navy Research, Development, Test and Evaluation Activities at the Naval Surface Warfare Center Panama City Division AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service...

  6. 76 FR 77782 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Marine Geophysical Survey in the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-14

    ..., 1963), but because of ecological or physiological requirements, many marine animals may need to remain... Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Marine Geophysical Survey in the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, February to March 2012 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National...

  7. 77 FR 4765 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Marine Geophysical Survey in the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-31

    ... physiological requirements, many marine animals may need to remain in areas where they are exposed to chronic... readily audible to the animals based on measured received levels and the hearing sensitivity of the marine... Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Marine Geophysical Survey in the Northwest Pacific...

  8. 78 FR 17359 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Marine Geophysical Survey in the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-21

    ..., 1963), but because of ecological or physiological requirements, many marine animals may need to remain... Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Marine Geophysical Survey in the Northeast Atlantic Ocean, June to July, 2013 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and...

  9. 76 FR 33246 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Marine Geophysical Survey in the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-08

    ... ecological or physiological requirements, many marine animals may need to remain in areas where they are... Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Marine Geophysical Survey in the Central-Western Bering Sea, August 2011 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and...

  10. 77 FR 25966 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Three Marine Geophysical Surveys in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-02

    ..., 1963), but because of ecological or physiological requirements, many marine animals may need to remain... Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Three Marine Geophysical Surveys in the Northeast Pacific Ocean, June Through July 2012 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service, National Oceanic and...

  11. 78 FR 47282 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Navy Research, Development, Test and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-05

    ..., and location) and marine mammal and/or indicator presence, species, number of animals, their behavior... Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Navy Research, Development, Test and Evaluation Activities at the Naval Surface Warfare Center Panama City Division AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service...

  12. 76 FR 6430 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Marine Geophysical Survey in the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-04

    ..., many marine animals may need to remain in areas where they are exposed to chronic stimuli (Richardson... Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Marine Geophysical Survey in the Pacific Ocean off Costa Rica, April Through May, 2011 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic...

  13. 76 FR 57959 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Marine Geophysical Survey in the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-19

    ..., many marine animals may need to remain in areas where they are exposed to chronic stimuli (Richardson... Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Marine Geophysical Survey in the Central Pacific Ocean, November, 2011 Through January, 2012 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and...

  14. 77 FR 58255 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Marine Geophysical Survey off the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-19

    ... requirements, many marine animals may need to remain in areas where they are exposed to chronic stimuli... Vol. 77 Wednesday, No. 182 September 19, 2012 Part III Department of Commerce Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Marine Geophysical Survey off the Central Coast of California...

  15. Renal lymphangiectasia: incidental finding at multislice computed tomography and literature review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasconcelos, Rodrigo Abdalla de; Pereira, Emanuelle Santiago [Hospital de Base do Distrito Federal (HBDF), Brasilia, DF (Brazil); Bauab Junior, Tufik [Instituto de Radiodiagnostico Rio Preto - Ultra-X and Hospital de Base de Faculdade de Medicina de Sao Jose do Rio Preto (Famerp), Sao Jose do Rio Preto, SP (Brazil); Valente, Rodolfo Silva [Hospital Universitario de Brasilia (HUB), Brasilia, DF (Brazil)

    2012-05-15

    Renal lymphangiectasia is a rare condition characterized by parapyelic and perirenal fluid collections, which may progress from asymptomatic condition to chronic renal failure. The present report describes a case of incidental computed tomography finding of bilateral lymphangiectasia in an asymptomatic patient, as well as the main imaging findings with a comprehensive literature review. (author)

  16. 78 FR 34069 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Marine Geophysical Survey in the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-06

    ... mammals incidental to conducting a marine seismic survey on the high seas (i.e., International Waters) and... to the west of Spain. The cruise will be in International Waters (i.e., high seas) and in the... infinite homogeneous water column, not bounded by a seafloor). Because the L-DEO model assumes a...

  17. 75 FR 42691 - Small Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Exploratorium Relocation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-22

    ... application from the Exploratorium, a nature, science, art and technology museum, requesting an IHA for the... (Eschrichtius robustus) incidental to relocation of the Exploratorium museum. Upon receipt of additional... function of current and device effectiveness (Caltrans, 2009). Therefore, distances to the Level A and...

  18. Evaluation of the Significance of Incidental Breast Lesions Detected by Chest CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jae Hyun; Chang, Yun Woo; Hwang, Jung Hwa; Kim, Hyung Hwan; Lee, Eun Hye; Yang, Seung Boo

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the significance of incidentally detected breast lesions on a chest CT scan. Thirty-six incidental breast lesions in 26 patients were detected on a chest CT scan and were correlated with breast sonography, retrospectively. Among them, twenty-four breast lesions in 20 patients that were correlated with chest CT and sonography were available to pathology or follow up sonography. The CT findings were compared with sonographic findings according to the pathologic results. Incidentally detected breast lesions on a chest CT scan were correlated with sonography in 86% (31/36). Among 24 lesions that were available to pathology or follow up sonography, seven (29.2%) lesions were malignant and 17 (70.8%) lesions were benign. CT revealed a significant difference between benign and malignant lesions in terms of shape and margin (p = 0.007; p = 0.008, respectively). The CT findings were well correlated with sonographic findings in shape and margin (p = 0.001, respectively). Incidentally detected breast lesions on chest CT can be correlated with sonography. An irregular shape or a non-circumscribed margin of breast lesions on a CT scan can be considered as a suggestive sign of malignancy.

  19. 75 FR 42698 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Installation of Meteorological Data...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-22

    ... or ingestion of proposed action-related trash and debris by marine mammals would not be expected... Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Installation of Meteorological Data Collection Facilities in the Mid- Atlantic Outer Continental Shelf AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS...

  20. 50 CFR 216.108 - Requirements for monitoring and reporting under incidental harassment authorizations for Arctic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... location, and the time. (d) Where the proposed activity may affect the availability of a species or stock of marine mammal for taking for subsistence purposes, proposed monitoring plans or other research... an incidental harassment authorization for Arctic waters must submit reports to the Assistant...

  1. Incidental internal carotid artery calcifications on temporal bone CT in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, Bernadette; Jones, Blaise [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Blackham, Aaron [University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2007-02-15

    Incidental internal carotid artery (ICA) calcifications are occasionally noted on CT images of the brain and temporal bone. In adults, incidental calcifications have been correlated with increased incidence of hypercholesterolemia, cardiac disease, diabetes and carotid stenosis. To determine the incidence of incidental calcifications of the carotid siphon on temporal bone CT in children. We retrospectively reviewed 24 months of consecutive temporal bone CT examinations in children aged 18 years and younger. CT examinations on 663 patients were reviewed and the presence or absence of ICA calcifications was ranked as absent, questionable or definitive. In patients in whom definitive calcifications were identified, hospital charts were reviewed for evidence of diabetes mellitus, hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia, hyperlipidemia and chronic renal disease as potential causes of early atherosclerosis. Of the 663 patients, 25% had definitive calcifications within the wall of the ICA: 6% of children younger than 2 years and 28% of children 12-19 years of age. Incidentally noted ICA calcifications are a common finding on temporal bone CT in children, most likely a physiologic response to turbulent flow at natural bends in the artery rather than secondary to underlying disease predisposing to early atherosclerotic calcification. (orig.)

  2. Incidental Foreign-Language Acquisition by Children Watching Subtitled Television Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ina, Lekkai

    2014-01-01

    Series of international studies have shown that subtitled television programs provide a rich context for foreign language acquisition. This study investigated whether incidental language acquisition occurs from watching a television program with/without subtitles. Children in the experimental conditions watch: (a) a 15 minute snapshot of a well…

  3. The Role of Orthotactic Probability in Incidental and Intentional Vocabulary Acquisition L1 and L2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordag, Denisa; Kirschenbaum, Amit; Rogahn, Maria; Tschirner, Erwin

    2017-01-01

    Four experiments were conducted to examine the role of orthotactic probability, i.e. the sequential letter probability, in the early stages of vocabulary acquisition by adult native speakers and advanced learners of German. The results show different effects for orthographic probability in incidental and intentional vocabulary acquisition: Whereas…

  4. Exploring Learner Factors in Second Language (L2) Incidental Vocabulary Acquisition through Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Aiping; Guo, Ying; Biales, Carrie; Olszewski, Arnold

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the predictive role of several learner factors in second language (L2) incidental vocabulary acquisition through reading: L2 proficiency, motivation, anxiety, and mastery of strategies. Participants were 129 English learners in a comprehensive university in China. Participants read two English texts and were given an…

  5. Effects of Lexical Modification on Incidental Vocabulary Acquisition of Iranian EFL Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negari, Giti Mousapour; Rouhi, Mahdieh

    2012-01-01

    The present article reports on the results of a study designed to investigate the effects of two types of lexical modification i.e., lexical simplification and elaboration, on incidental vocabulary acquisition of Iranian EFL learners.To this end, four versions of experimental texts containing 20 target words were created: baseline and simplified…

  6. Examining Incidental Vocabulary Acquisition by Person-and Item-Level Factors in Secondary Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Jennifer LeeAnn

    2016-01-01

    Vocabulary knowledge is central to the process of reading comprehension (Cromely & Azevedo, 2007; Stahl & Nagy, 2005; Stanovich, 1986). The majority of our vocabulary knowledge is postulated to come from the process of incidental vocabulary acquisition (IVA) while reading (Nagy & Anderson, 1984). Prior studies have estimated an average…

  7. Factors affecting postoperative hypocalcemia after thyroid surgery: Importance of incidental parathyroidectomy

    OpenAIRE

    Ozemir, Ibrahim Ali; Buldanli, Mehmet Zeki; Yener, Oktay; Leblebici, Metin; Eren, Tunc; Baysal, Hakan; Alimoglu, Orhan

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The present study evaluated effects of incidental parathyroidectomy, surgical technique, and presence of thyroiditis or hyperthyroidism on occurrence of postoperative persistent or transient hypocalcemia. METHODS: Patients who underwent thyroidectomy at ?stanbul Medeniyet University between 2013 and 2015 were included in the study. Patient information, postoperative serum calcium levels, and pathology reports were investigated retrospectively. Group 1 was made up of patients who we...

  8. A case of right-sided Bochdalek hernia incidentally diagnosed in a gastric cancer patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Satoru; Nishizaki, Masahiko; Kuroda, Shinji; Kagawa, Shunsuke; Fujiwara, Toshiyoshi

    2016-06-01

    Bochdalek hernia (BH) is generally congenital, presenting with respiratory distress. However, this pathology is rarely detected in adults. Some adult cases of BH present with symptoms attributed to the hernia, but incidental detection of BH is increasing among asymptomatic adults due to advances in imaging modalities. This report presents the management of incidental BH patients detected in the preoperative period of gastric cancer. An asymptomatic 76-year-old woman was diagnosed with advanced gastric cancer during follow-up after radiotherapy for uterine cervical cancer. Computed tomography (CT) was performed to exclude metastatic gastric cancer, incidentally detecting right-sided BH. We planned distal gastrectomy with lymph node dissection for gastric cancer and simultaneous repair of BH using a laparoscopic approach. We performed laparoscopic gastrectomy for gastric cancer and investigated the right-sided BH to assess whether repair during surgery was warranted. Herniation of the liver into the right hemithorax was observed, but was followed-up without surgical repair because the right hepatic lobe was adherent to the remnant right anterior hemidiaphragm and covered the huge defect in the right hemidiaphragm. No intra- or postoperative pneumothorax was observed during pneumoperitoneum. Regardless of symptoms, repair of adult BH is generally recommended to prevent visceral incarceration. However, BH in asymptomatic adults appears to be more common than previously reported in the literature. Surgeons need to consider the management of incidental BH encountered during thoracic or abdominal surgery.

  9. Incidental Learning of Trust: Examining the Role of Emotion and Visuomotor Fluency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strachan, James W. A.; Kirkham, Alexander J.; Manssuer, Luis R.; Tipper, Steven P.

    2016-01-01

    Eye gaze is a powerful directional cue that automatically evokes joint attention states. Even when faces are ignored, there is incidental learning of the reliability of the gaze cueing of another person, such that people who look away from targets are judged less trustworthy. In a series of experiments, we demonstrated further properties of the…

  10. 76 FR 7548 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to Conducting Precision...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-10

    ... Importing Marine Mammals; Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to Conducting Precision Strike Weapons Testing and Training by Eglin Air Force Base in the Gulf of Mexico AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service... a Letter of Authorization. SUMMARY: In accordance with provisions of the Marine Mammal Protection...

  11. 75 FR 16754 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to Conducting Precision...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-02

    ... Importing Marine Mammals; Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to Conducting Precision Strike Weapons Testing and Training by Eglin Air Force Base in the Gulf of Mexico AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service... a Letter of Authorization. SUMMARY: In accordance with provisions of the Marine Mammal Protection...

  12. Disability in Patients With Trapeziometacarpal Joint Arthrosis: Incidental Versus Presenting Diagnosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Becker, Stéphanie J. E.; Makarawung, Dennis J. S.; Spit, Silke A.; King, John D.; Ring, David

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To test the hypothesis that there is no difference in trapeziometacarpal (TMC) joint arthrosis-related symptoms and disability between patients seeking treatment for symptoms of TMC arthrosis and those with incidental TMC joint arthrosis. Methods We compared 64 patients presenting for care

  13. An Incidentally Detected Venous Malformation of the Uterine Cervix: Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeşim Bayoğlu Tekin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Venous malformations of the uterine cervix are extremely rare. Most lesions are asymptomatic and incidental, however sometimes, they may present with abnormal vaginal bleeding. We aimed to describe a case of venous malformation of the uterine cervix and discuss the differential diagnosis and clinical management of this entity.

  14. 78 FR 54553 - Taking of Threatened or Endangered Marine Mammals Incidental to Commercial Fishing Operations...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-04

    ... pot fishery for the CA/OR/WA fin and sperm whale stocks. Response: NMFS agrees and is issuing the... individuals of three stocks of marine mammals listed as threatened or endangered under the Endangered Species...) and the incidental, but not intentional, taking of individuals from one stock by the Washington/Oregon...

  15. Communication between the right and circumflex coronary arteries discovered incidentally by multidetector computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Se Hwan; Kim, Eui Jong; Woo, Jong Shin; Kim, Soo Joong; Youn, Hyo Chul; Oh, Joo Hyeong [College of Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-09-15

    Intercoronary communication is a rare congenital coronary anomaly. We present a case of a 48-year-old man with an incidentally discovered communication between the right and circumflex coronary arteries, who was admitted with chest tightness and exertional dyspnea. The initial diagnosis was made using electrocardiogram-gated multidetector computed tomography.

  16. Gender-Linked Differences in the Incidental Memory of Children and Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherney, Isabelle D.; Ryalls, Brigette Oliver

    1999-01-01

    Two studies tested the hunter-gatherer theory predicting that females should have better incidental memory for objects and locations than males. Subjects were 3- to 6-year olds and adults. Results indicated that females and males remembered more toys or objects congruent with their own sex but that there was no overall advantage for females.…

  17. Incidental internal carotid artery calcifications on temporal bone CT in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, Bernadette; Jones, Blaise; Blackham, Aaron

    2007-01-01

    Incidental internal carotid artery (ICA) calcifications are occasionally noted on CT images of the brain and temporal bone. In adults, incidental calcifications have been correlated with increased incidence of hypercholesterolemia, cardiac disease, diabetes and carotid stenosis. To determine the incidence of incidental calcifications of the carotid siphon on temporal bone CT in children. We retrospectively reviewed 24 months of consecutive temporal bone CT examinations in children aged 18 years and younger. CT examinations on 663 patients were reviewed and the presence or absence of ICA calcifications was ranked as absent, questionable or definitive. In patients in whom definitive calcifications were identified, hospital charts were reviewed for evidence of diabetes mellitus, hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia, hyperlipidemia and chronic renal disease as potential causes of early atherosclerosis. Of the 663 patients, 25% had definitive calcifications within the wall of the ICA: 6% of children younger than 2 years and 28% of children 12-19 years of age. Incidentally noted ICA calcifications are a common finding on temporal bone CT in children, most likely a physiologic response to turbulent flow at natural bends in the artery rather than secondary to underlying disease predisposing to early atherosclerotic calcification. (orig.)

  18. Methods of measurements on incidental X-radiation from electron tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    The standard describes the method for detection of x-radiation and the method for the direct and indirect measurement of field pattern and exposure rate of random incidental radiation emanating from high voltage electron tubes. Required apparatus and calibration procedure for the exposure rate meter or film mount are described. (M.G.B.)

  19. 76 FR 61670 - Receipt of an Application for Incidental Take Permit (16230)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-05

    ... application includes endangered Kemp's ridley, leatherback, and hawksbill sea turtles and threatened green and... Division of Marine Fisheries (NCDMF) pursuant to the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (ESA). As... take of endangered or threatened species. The permit application is for the incidental take of ESA...

  20. 77 FR 65864 - Receipt of an Application for Incidental Take Permit (16230)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-31

    .... This application includes endangered Kemp's ridley, leatherback, and hawksbill sea turtles and... Fisheries (NCDMF) pursuant to the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (ESA). As required by the ESA... endangered or threatened species. The permit application is for the incidental take of ESA-listed adult and...

  1. Toward an Understanding of Incidental Input Enhancement in Computerized L2 Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gascoigne, Carolyn

    2006-01-01

    Computers, computer programs, and other novel and vivid technological applications to language learning can unintentionally redirect attentional resources and therefore increase the salience of unplanned as well as targeted features. Incidental activities such as keyboarding (Henry, 1992), manipulation of a mouse (Meunier, 1996), and other…

  2. Incidental findings on MRI scans of patients presenting with audiovestibular symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papanikolaou, Vasileios; Khan, Mohammad H; Keogh, Ivan J

    2010-06-07

    The evaluation of patients presenting with audiovestibular symptoms usually includes MRI of the internal auditory meatus, the cerebellopontine angle and the brain. A significant percentage of these scans will present unexpected, incidental findings, which could have important clinical significance. To determine the frequency and clinical significance of incidental findings on MRI scans of patients with audiovestibular symptoms. A retrospective analysis of 200 serial MRI scans. Gender distribution: equal. Age range: 17-82 years. One-hundred and four scans (52%) were normal and 1 scan (0.5%) demonstrated a unilateral vestibular schwannoma. Ninety-five scans (47.5%) demonstrated incidental findings. Sixty-six of these (33%) were considered of ishaemic origin and did not require further action. Five (2.5%) scans demonstrated significant findings which warranted appropriate referral; Two Gliomas (1%), 2 cases of extensive White Matter Lesions (1%), 1 lipoma (0.5%). The remaining scans demonstrated various other findings. Investigation of patients with audiovestibular symptoms with MRI scans revealed incidental findings in a significant percentage (47.5%). The majority of these findings were benign warranting no further action and only 2.5% required further referral. It is the responsibility of the referring Otolaryngologist to be aware of these findings, to be able to assess their significance, to inform the patient and if needed to refer for further evaluation.

  3. 78 FR 20689 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Receipt of Application for Renewal of Incidental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-05

    ... business hours at the office below. Send your comments or requests by any one of the following methods...-person drop-off: You may drop off information during regular business hours at the above office address... criteria, an incidental take permit's proposed actions must not jeopardize the existence of federally...

  4. 78 FR 40705 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Demolition and Construction...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-08

    ... (Zalophus californianus), and northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris) incidental to demolition and... activities by the general public. Over the last three years (2010 through 2012), an average of 1,556,184..., but because of basic year-round working condition needs for the lifeguards and the demand for...

  5. 77 FR 60109 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Harbor Activities Related to the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-02

    ...; and Northern elephant seals by Level B harassment only. To date, we have issued nine, 1-year... numbers of marine mammals, incidental to conducting Delta Mariner harbor operations for one year. We... California sea lions (Zalophus californianus), Pacific harbor seals (Phoca vitulina), and Northern elephant...

  6. 76 FR 33721 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Harbor Activities Related to the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-09

    ..., incidental to conducting Delta Mariner harbor operations for one year. NMFS reviewed the ULA application and... vitulina), and Northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris) hauled out on Small Haul-out Site 1 to... lions; and 43 Northern elephant seals by Level B harassment only. Description of the Specified...

  7. 76 FR 73600 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Missile Launch...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-29

    ... years if NMFS finds, after notification and opportunity for public comment, that the taking will have a... taking. Regulations governing the taking of northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris), Pacific... a period not to exceed 1 year, take of pinnipeds, by harassment, incidental to missile launch...

  8. 75 FR 28587 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Missile Launch...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-21

    ... granted for periods up to 5 years if NMFS finds, after notification and opportunity for public comment... such taking. Regulations governing the taking of northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris... would authorize, for a period not to exceed 1 year, take of pinnipeds, by harassment, incidental to...

  9. 75 FR 81972 - Taking of Threatened or Endangered Marine Mammals Incidental to Commercial Fishing Operations...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-29

    ..., and Steller sea lions (Western U.S. stock and Eastern U.S. stock) incidental to the fisheries... fin whales, NP sperm whales, Western U.S. stock of Steller sea lions, and the threatened Eastern U.S... Pacific (CNP) humpback whales, Western North Pacific (WNP) stock of humpback whales, Northeast Pacific...

  10. 78 FR 15374 - Notice of Availability of Draft Habitat Conservation Plan; Receipt of Application for Incidental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-11

    ... Department of Transportation (DOT) regulations in the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) at 49 CFR Part 195... things, such a taking is incidental to, and not the purpose of, otherwise lawful activities. Under the... application, HCP, EAS) may be obtained on the Internet at the following address: http://www.fws.gov/midwest...

  11. Direct Vocabulary Instruction in Preschool: A Comparison of Extended Instruction, Embedded Instruction, and Incidental Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loftus-Rattan, Susan M.; Mitchell, Alison M.; Coyne, Michael D.

    2016-01-01

    Based on its coincidence with a significant period in language development for children, preschool provides a favorable setting to foster vocabulary growth. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of two instructional conditions and an incidental exposure condition for teaching targeted vocabulary words to preschool students…

  12. The Effects of Hypertext Gloss on Comprehension and Vocabulary Retention under Incidental and Intentional Learning Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zandieh, Zeinab; Jafarigohar, Manoochehr

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated comprehension, immediate and delayed vocabulary retention under incidental and intentional learning conditions via computer mediated hypertext gloss. One hundred and eighty four (N = 184) intermediate students of English as a foreign language at an English school participated in the study. They were randomly assigned…

  13. Textual and Pictorial Glosses: Effectiveness on Incidental Vocabulary Growth When Reading in a Foreign Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kost, Claudia R.; Foss, Pamelo; Lenzini, John J.

    1999-01-01

    Investigates the effects of pictorial and textual glosses and a combination thereof on incidental vocabulary growth of foreign language learners. Subjects from second-semester German classes read a narrative text passage under one of three marginal gloss conditions: textual gloss (English translation); pictorial gloss; and text and pictures in the…

  14. Incidental findings on cone beam computed tomography scans in cleft lip and palate patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijpers, Mette A. R.; Pazera, Andrzej; Admiraal, Ronald J.; Berge, Stefaan J.; Vissink, Arjan; Pazera, Pawel

    Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) is frequently used in treatment planning for alveolar bone grafting (ABG) and orthognathic surgery in patients with cleft lip and palate (CLP). CBCT images may depict coincident findings. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of incidental findings

  15. The Effects of Target Word Properties on the Incidental Acquisition of Vocabulary through Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Barry Lee

    2016-01-01

    The primary aim of this investigation was to determine what combination of target word variables (frequency, patternedness, length, cognateness, lexicalization) could best predict the difficulty of incidentally acquiring vocabulary through reading. A group of adult English First Language (EL1) (n = 20) and adult English as a Foreign Language (EFL)…

  16. Second Language Incidental Vocabulary Learning: The Effect of Online Textual, Pictorial, and Textual Pictorial Glosses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahrokni, Seyyed Abdollah

    2009-01-01

    This empirical study investigates the effect of online textual, pictorial, and textual pictorial glosses on the incidental vocabulary learning of 90 adult elementary Iranian EFL learners. The participants were selected from a pool of 140 volunteers based on their performance on an English placement test as well as a knowledge test of the target…

  17. Fractionation of the component processes underlying successful episodic encoding: a combined fMRI and divided-attention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uncapher, Melina R; Rugg, Michael D

    2008-02-01

    Considerable evidence suggests that attentional resources are necessary for the encoding of episodic memories, but the nature of the relationship between attention and neural correlates of encoding is unclear. Here we address this question using functional magnetic resonance imaging and a divided-attention paradigm in which competition for different types of attentional resources was manipulated. Fifteen volunteers were scanned while making animacy judgments to visually presented words and concurrently performing one of three tasks on auditorily presented words: male/female voice discrimination (control task), 1-back voice comparison (1-back task), or indoor/outdoor judgment (semantic task). The 1-back and semantic tasks were designed to compete for task-generic and task-specific attentional resources, respectively. Using the "remember/know" procedure, memory for the study words was assessed after 15 min. In the control condition, subsequent memory effects associated with later recollection were identified in the left dorsal inferior frontal gyrus and in the left hippocampus. These effects were differentially attenuated in the two more difficult divided-attention conditions. The effects of divided attention seem, therefore, to reflect impairments due to limitations at both task-generic and task-specific levels. Additionally, each of the two more difficult divided-attention conditions was associated with subsequent memory effects in regions distinct from those showing effects in the control condition. These findings suggest the engagement of alternative encoding processes to those engaged in the control task. The overall pattern of findings suggests that divided attention can impact later memory in different ways, and accordingly, that different attentional resources, including task-generic and task-specific resources, make distinct contributions to successful episodic encoding.

  18. Feasibility study of a real-time operating system for a multichannel MPEG-4 encoder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehtoranta, Olli; Hamalainen, Timo D.

    2005-03-01

    Feasibility of DSP/BIOS real-time operating system for a multi-channel MPEG-4 encoder is studied. Performances of two MPEG-4 encoder implementations with and without the operating system are compared in terms of encoding frame rate and memory requirements. The effects of task switching frequency and number of parallel video channels to the encoding frame rate are measured. The research is carried out on a 200 MHz TMS320C6201 fixed point DSP using QCIF (176x144 pixels) video format. Compared to a traditional DSP implementation without an operating system, inclusion of DSP/BIOS reduces total system throughput only by 1 QCIF frames/s. The operating system has 6 KB data memory overhead and program memory requirement of 15.7 KB. Hence, the overhead is considered low enough for resource critical mobile video applications.

  19. The Arabic Diatessaron Project: Digitalizing, Encoding, Lemmatization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuliano Lancioni

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The Arabic Diatessaron Project (henceforth ADP is an international research project in Digital Humanities that aims to collect, digitalise and encode all known manuscripts of the Arabic Diatessaron (henceforth AD, a text that has been relatively neglected in scholarly research. ADP’s final goal is to provide a number of tools that can enable scholars to effectively query, compare and investigate all known variants of the text that will be encoded as far as possible in compliance with the Text Encoding Initiative (TEI guidelines. The paper addresses a number of issues involved in the process of digitalising manuscripts included in the two existing editions (Ciasca 1888 and Marmardji 1935, adding variants in unedited manuscripts, encoding and lemmatising the text. Issues involved in the design of the ADP include presentation of variants, choice of the standard text, applicability of TEI guidelines, automatic translation between different encodings, cross-edition concordances and principles of lemmatisation.

  20. The posterior medial cortex is involved in visual but not in verbal memory encoding processing: an intracerebral recording study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stillová, K; Jurák, P; Chládek, J; Halámek, J; Telecká, S; Rektor, I

    2013-03-01

    The objective is to study the involvement of the posterior medial cortex (PMC) in encoding and retrieval by visual and auditory memory processing. Intracerebral recordings were studied in two epilepsy-surgery candidates with depth electrodes implanted in the retrosplenial cingulate, precuneus, cuneus, lingual gyrus and hippocampus. We recorded the event-related potentials (ERP) evoked by visual and auditory memory encoding-retrieval tasks. In the hippocampus, ERP were elicited in the encoding and retrieval phases in the two modalities. In the PMC, ERP were recorded in both the encoding and the retrieval visual tasks; in the auditory modality, they were recorded in the retrieval task, but not in the encoding task. In conclusion, the PMC is modality dependent in memory processing. ERP is elicited by memory retrieval, but it is not elicited by auditory encoding memory processing in the PMC. The PMC appears to be involved not only in higher-order top-down cognitive activities but also in more basic, rather than bottom-up activities.

  1. The role of demographic compensation theory in incidental take assessments for endangered species

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowan, Conor P.; Ryan, Mark R.; Runge, Michael C.; Millspaugh, Joshua J.; Cochrane, Jean Fitts

    2011-01-01

    Many endangered species laws provide exceptions to legislated prohibitions through incidental take provisions as long as take is the result of unintended consequences of an otherwise legal activity. These allowances presumably invoke the theory of demographic compensation, commonly applied to harvested species, by allowing limited harm as long as the probability of the species' survival or recovery is not reduced appreciably. Demographic compensation requires some density-dependent limits on survival or reproduction in a species' annual cycle that can be alleviated through incidental take. Using a population model for piping plovers in the Great Plains, we found that when the population is in rapid decline or when there is no density dependence, the probability of quasi-extinction increased linearly with increasing take. However, when the population is near stability and subject to density-dependent survival, there was no relationship between quasi-extinction probability and take rates. We note however, that a brief examination of piping plover demography and annual cycles suggests little room for compensatory capacity. We argue that a population's capacity for demographic compensation of incidental take should be evaluated when considering incidental allowances because compensation is the only mechanism whereby a population can absorb the negative effects of take without incurring a reduction in the probability of survival in the wild. With many endangered species there is probably little known about density dependence and compensatory capacity. Under these circumstances, using multiple system models (with and without compensation) to predict the population's response to incidental take and implementing follow-up monitoring to assess species response may be valuable in increasing knowledge and improving future decision making.

  2. Incidental enhancing lesions found on preoperative breast MRI: management and role of second-look ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luciani, M L; Pediconi, F; Telesca, M; Vasselli, F; Casali, V; Miglio, E; Passariello, R; Catalano, C

    2011-09-01

    This study prospectively assessed second-look ultrasound (US) for the evaluation of incidental enhancing lesions identified on preoperative breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Between 2004 and 2007, 182 patients with malignant breast lesions detected on US and/or X-ray mammography and confirmed by cytology/histology underwent preoperative breast contrast-enhanced (CE)-MRI. Patients with incidental lesions on breast MRI underwent second-look high-resolution US directed at the site of the incidental finding. Diagnosis of incidental lesions was based on biopsy or 24-month follow-up. Breast MRI detected 55 additional lesions in 46/182 (25.2%) patients. Forty-two of 55 (76.3%) lesions were detected on second-look US in 38/46 (82.6%) patients. Malignancy was confirmed for 24/42 (57.1%) correlate lesions compared with 7/13 (53.8%) noncorrelate lesions. Second-look US depicted 8/9 (88.8%) Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) 5, 16/22 (72.7%) BI-RADS 4 and 18/24 (75%) BI-RADS 3 lesions. Sensitivity, specificity, accuracy and positive and negative predictive values for lesion detection/diagnosis was 100%, 88.9%, 94.6%, 90.3% and 100% for MRI and 64.3%, 70.4%, 67.3%, 69.2% and 65.5% for second-look US. Improved performance for US was obtained when masslike lesions only were considered. Second-look US is a confirmatory method for incidental findings on breast MRI, particularly for mass-like lesions.

  3. The effect of encoding duration on implicit and explicit eyewitness memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carol, Rolando N; Schreiber Compo, Nadja

    2018-05-01

    The present study investigated the effect of encoding duration on implicit and explicit eyewitness memory. Participants (N = 227) viewed a mock crime (brief, 15-s vs. long, 30-s vs. irrelevant/control) and were then tested with both implicit and explicit memory prompts or with explicit memory prompts only. Brief-encoding participants revealed more critical details implicitly than long-encoding or control participants. Further, the number and percentage of accurate details recalled explicitly were higher for long-encoding than for brief-encoding participants. Implicit testing prior to explicit recall-as compared to completing a filler task-was detrimental to free recall performance. Interestingly, brief-encoding participants were significantly more likely to remember critical details implicitly but not explicitly than long-encoding participants. This is the first study to investigate implicit eyewitness memory for a multimodal mock crime. Findings are theoretically consistent with prior research on cognition while expanding upon the extant eyewitness memory and investigative interviewing literature. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Developing a hippocampal neural prosthetic to facilitate human memory encoding and recall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampson, Robert E.; Song, Dong; Robinson, Brian S.; Fetterhoff, Dustin; Dakos, Alexander S.; Roeder, Brent M.; She, Xiwei; Wicks, Robert T.; Witcher, Mark R.; Couture, Daniel E.; Laxton, Adrian W.; Munger-Clary, Heidi; Popli, Gautam; Sollman, Myriam J.; Whitlow, Christopher T.; Marmarelis, Vasilis Z.; Berger, Theodore W.; Deadwyler, Sam A.

    2018-06-01

    Objective. We demonstrate here the first successful implementation in humans of a proof-of-concept system for restoring and improving memory function via facilitation of memory encoding using the patient’s own hippocampal spatiotemporal neural codes for memory. Memory in humans is subject to disruption by drugs, disease and brain injury, yet previous attempts to restore or rescue memory function in humans typically involved only nonspecific, modulation of brain areas and neural systems related to memory retrieval. Approach. We have constructed a model of processes by which the hippocampus encodes memory items via spatiotemporal firing of neural ensembles that underlie the successful encoding of short-term memory. A nonlinear multi-input, multi-output (MIMO) model of hippocampal CA3 and CA1 neural firing is computed that predicts activation patterns of CA1 neurons during the encoding (sample) phase of a delayed match-to-sample (DMS) human short-term memory task. Main results. MIMO model-derived electrical stimulation delivered to the same CA1 locations during the sample phase of DMS trials facilitated short-term/working memory by 37% during the task. Longer term memory retention was also tested in the same human subjects with a delayed recognition (DR) task that utilized images from the DMS task, along with images that were not from the task. Across the subjects, the stimulated trials exhibited significant improvement (35%) in both short-term and long-term retention of visual information. Significance. These results demonstrate the facilitation of memory encoding which is an important feature for the construction of an implantable neural prosthetic to improve human memory.

  5. Estrés Laboral como consecuencia de los incidentes en la planta concentradora Huari - La Oroya - 2014

    OpenAIRE

    Bautista Puente, Luis Alberto

    2016-01-01

    El presente trabajo de investigación, Estrés Laboral como consecuencia de los incidentes en la planta concentradora Huari – La Oroya – 2014, planteó la interrogante principal: ¿Cómo influye el Estrés Laboral en los Incidentes en la Planta Concentradora Huari – La Oroya – 2014?; el objetivo de la investigación fue determinar la influencia del Estrés Laboral en los Incidentes en la Planta Concentradora Huari – La Oroya – 2014. La base teórica que sustenta la investigación es el fundamento teóri...

  6. Task demand, task management, and teamwork

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braarud, Per Oeivind; Brendryen, Haavar

    2001-03-15

    The current approach to mental workload assessment in process control was evaluated in 3 previous HAMMLAB studies, by analysing the relationship between workload related measures and performance. The results showed that subjective task complexity rating was related to team's control room performance, that mental effort (NASA-TLX) was weakly related to performance, and that overall activity level was unrelated to performance. The results support the argument that general cognitive measures, i.e., mental workload, are weakly related to performance in the process control domain. This implies that other workload concepts than general mental workload are needed for valid assessment of human reliability and for valid assessment of control room configurations. An assessment of task load in process control suggested that how effort is used to handle task demand is more important then the level of effort invested to solve the task. The report suggests two main workload related concepts with a potential as performance predictors in process control: task requirements, and the work style describing how effort is invested to solve the task. The task requirements are seen as composed of individual task demand and team demand. In a similar way work style are seen as composed of individual task management and teamwork style. A framework for the development of the concepts is suggested based on a literature review and experiences from HAMMLAB research. It is suggested that operational definitions of workload concepts should be based on observable control room behaviour, to assure a potential for developing performance-shaping factors. Finally an explorative analysis of teamwork measures and performance in one study indicated that teamwork concepts are related to performance. This lends support to the suggested development of team demand and teamwork style as elements of a framework for the analysis of workload in process control. (Author)

  7. Encoding of coordination complexes with XML.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinoth, P; Sankar, P

    2017-09-01

    An in-silico system to encode structure, bonding and properties of coordination complexes is developed. The encoding is achieved through a semantic XML markup frame. Composition of the coordination complexes is captured in terms of central atom and ligands. Structural information of central atom is detailed in terms of electron status of valence electron orbitals. The ligands are encoded with specific reference to the electron environment of ligand centre atoms. Behaviour of ligands to form low or high spin complexes is accomplished by assigning a Ligand Centre Value to every ligand based on the electronic environment of ligand centre atom. Chemical ontologies are used for categorization purpose and to control different hybridization schemes. Complexes formed by the central atoms of transition metal, non-transition elements belonging to s-block, p-block and f-block are encoded with a generic encoding platform. Complexes of homoleptic, heteroleptic and bridged types are also covered by this encoding system. Utility of the encoded system to predict redox electron transfer reaction in the coordination complexes is demonstrated with a simple application. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Encoding entanglement-assisted quantum stabilizer codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yun-Jiang; Bai Bao-Ming; Li Zhuo; Xiao He-Ling; Peng Jin-Ye

    2012-01-01

    We address the problem of encoding entanglement-assisted (EA) quantum error-correcting codes (QECCs) and of the corresponding complexity. We present an iterative algorithm from which a quantum circuit composed of CNOT, H, and S gates can be derived directly with complexity O(n 2 ) to encode the qubits being sent. Moreover, we derive the number of each gate consumed in our algorithm according to which we can design EA QECCs with low encoding complexity. Another advantage brought by our algorithm is the easiness and efficiency of programming on classical computers. (general)

  9. Task-evoked pupillometry provides a window into the development of short-term memory capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Elizabeth L.; Miller Singley, Alison T.; Peckham, Andrew D.; Johnson, Sheri L.; Bunge, Silvia A.

    2014-01-01

    The capacity to keep multiple items in short-term memory (STM) improves over childhood and provides the foundation for the development of multiple cognitive abilities. The goal of this study was to measure the extent to which age differences in STM capacity are related to differences in task engagement during encoding. Children (n = 69, mean age = 10.6 years) and adults (n = 54, mean age = 27.5 years) performed two STM tasks: the forward digit span test from the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC) and a novel eyetracking digit span task designed to overload STM capacity. Building on prior research showing that task-evoked pupil dilation can be used as a real-time index of task engagement, we measured changes in pupil dilation while participants encoded long sequences of digits for subsequent recall. As expected, adults outperformed children on both STM tasks. We found similar patterns of pupil dilation while children and adults listened to the first six digits on our STM overload task, after which the adults' pupils continued to dilate and the children's began to constrict, suggesting that the children had reached their cognitive limits and that they had begun to disengage from the task. Indeed, the point at which pupil dilation peaked at encoding was a significant predictor of WISC forward span, and this relationship held even after partialing out recall performance on the STM overload task. These findings indicate that sustained task engagement at encoding is an important component of the development of STM. PMID:24659980

  10. Task-evoked pupillometry provides a window into the development of short-term memory capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Elizabeth L; Miller Singley, Alison T; Peckham, Andrew D; Johnson, Sheri L; Bunge, Silvia A

    2014-01-01

    The capacity to keep multiple items in short-term memory (STM) improves over childhood and provides the foundation for the development of multiple cognitive abilities. The goal of this study was to measure the extent to which age differences in STM capacity are related to differences in task engagement during encoding. Children (n = 69, mean age = 10.6 years) and adults (n = 54, mean age = 27.5 years) performed two STM tasks: the forward digit span test from the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC) and a novel eyetracking digit span task designed to overload STM capacity. Building on prior research showing that task-evoked pupil dilation can be used as a real-time index of task engagement, we measured changes in pupil dilation while participants encoded long sequences of digits for subsequent recall. As expected, adults outperformed children on both STM tasks. We found similar patterns of pupil dilation while children and adults listened to the first six digits on our STM overload task, after which the adults' pupils continued to dilate and the children's began to constrict, suggesting that the children had reached their cognitive limits and that they had begun to disengage from the task. Indeed, the point at which pupil dilation peaked at encoding was a significant predictor of WISC forward span, and this relationship held even after partialing out recall performance on the STM overload task. These findings indicate that sustained task engagement at encoding is an important component of the development of STM.

  11. Incidentes transfusionais imediatos: revisão integrativa da literatura Incidentes transfusionales inmediatos: revisión integrativa de la literatura Immediate transfusion incidents: an integrative literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Lemos de Sousa Neto

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo de revisão integrativa da literatura teve como objetivo analisar as pesquisas que abordam a ocorrência de incidentes transfusionais imediatos e ações de hemovigilância implantadas. Os dados foram obtidos por meio de busca nas bases de dados - LILACS, MEDLINE e PUBMED - abrangendo o período de 1980 a 2009, nos idiomas português, inglês e espanhol. Foram identificados 1.382 artigos, dos quais 29 atenderam aos critérios de inclusão estabelecidos. Destes artigos, 20 (69,0% eram estudos retrospectivos transversais, 8 (27,5% prospectivos e um (3,5% caso-controle. Em relação à abordagem, os estudos foram classificados em dois focos temáticos: tipos de incidentes transfusionais imediatos e ações de hemovigilância implantadas associadas aos tipos de incidentes transfusionais imediatos. A análise dos trabalhos destacou a maior ocorrência de reação febril não hemolítica e alérgica, avanço em ações de hemovigilância e maior preocupação com a qualidade da assistência hemoterápica.Este estudio de revisión integrativa de la literatura tuvo como objetivo analizar las investigaciones que abordan la ocurrencia de incidentes transfusionales inmediatos y acciones de hemovigilancia implantadas. Los datos fueron obtenidos por medio de la búsqueda en las bases de datos - LILACS, MEDLINE y PUBMED - abarcando el período de 1980 a 2009, en los idiomas portugués, inglés y español. Fueron identificados 1,382 artículos, de los cuales 29 atendieron a los criterios de inclusión establecidos. De estos artículos, 20 (69,0% eran estudios retrospectivos transversales, 8 (27,5% prospectivos y un (3,5% caso-control. En relación al abordaje, los estudios fueron clasificados en dos focos temáticos: tipos de incidentes transfusionales inmediatos y acciones de hemovigilancia implantadas asociadas a los tipos de incidentes transfusionales inmediatos. El análisis de los trabajos destacó una ocurrencia mayor de reacción febril no

  12. Project Tasks in Robotics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Torben; Hansen, Poul Erik

    1998-01-01

    Description of the compulsary project tasks to be carried out as a part of DTU course 72238 Robotics......Description of the compulsary project tasks to be carried out as a part of DTU course 72238 Robotics...

  13. A Novel Connectionist Network for Solving Long Time-Lag Prediction Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Keith; MacNish, Cara

    Traditional Recurrent Neural Networks (RNNs) perform poorly on learning tasks involving long time-lag dependencies. More recent approaches such as LSTM and its variants significantly improve on RNNs ability to learn this type of problem. We present an alternative approach to encoding temporal dependencies that associates temporal features with nodes rather than state values, where the nodes explicitly encode dependencies over variable time delays. We show promising results comparing the network's performance to LSTM variants on an extended Reber grammar task.

  14. Task-Driven Comparison of Topic Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Eric; Gleicher, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Topic modeling, a method of statistically extracting thematic content from a large collection of texts, is used for a wide variety of tasks within text analysis. Though there are a growing number of tools and techniques for exploring single models, comparisons between models are generally reduced to a small set of numerical metrics. These metrics may or may not reflect a model's performance on the analyst's intended task, and can therefore be insufficient to diagnose what causes differences between models. In this paper, we explore task-centric topic model comparison, considering how we can both provide detail for a more nuanced understanding of differences and address the wealth of tasks for which topic models are used. We derive comparison tasks from single-model uses of topic models, which predominantly fall into the categories of understanding topics, understanding similarity, and understanding change. Finally, we provide several visualization techniques that facilitate these tasks, including buddy plots, which combine color and position encodings to allow analysts to readily view changes in document similarity.

  15. Task assignment and coaching

    OpenAIRE

    Dominguez-Martinez, S.

    2009-01-01

    An important task of a manager is to motivate her subordinates. One way in which a manager can give incentives to junior employees is through the assignment of tasks. How a manager allocates tasks in an organization, provides information to the junior employees about his ability. Without coaching from a manager, the junior employee only has information about his past performance. Based on his past performance, a talented junior who has performed a difficult task sometimes decides to leave the...

  16. Functional Task Test (FTT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomberg, Jacob J.; Mulavara, Ajitkumar; Peters, Brian T.; Rescheke, Millard F.; Wood, Scott; Lawrence, Emily; Koffman, Igor; Ploutz-Snyder, Lori; Spiering, Barry A.; Feeback, Daniel L.; hide

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the Functional Task Test (FTT), an interdisciplinary testing regimen that has been developed to evaluate astronaut postflight functional performance and related physiological changes. The objectives of the project are: (1) to develop a set of functional tasks that represent critical mission tasks for the Constellation Program, (2) determine the ability to perform these tasks after space flight, (3) Identify the key physiological factors that contribute to functional decrements and (4) Use this information to develop targeted countermeasures.

  17. Microcarcinomas papilares de tiroides no incidentales Non-incidental papillary microcarcinomas of the thyroid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Monteros Alvi

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available El significado clínico de los microcarcinomas papilares de tiroides sigue siendo controvertido. La alta prevalencia en autopsias e incidental en tiroidectomías por patología benigna indican un comportamiento clínico indolente. Sin embargo, algunos desarrollan metástasis ganglionares y recurrencia local. Nuestro objetivo fue determinar características clínicas y patológicas de microcarcinonas papilares de tiroides no incidentales (MPT-NI. Se analizaron 18 pacientes con diagnóstico de microcarcinomas (tumor The clinical significance of papillary microcarcinoma of the thyroid gland keeps being controversial. Its high prevalence in autopsies and as incidental findings in thyroidectomy specimens for benign pathology indicate an indolent clinical behavior. Nevertheless some of the microcarcinomas develop lymph node metastasis and local recurrence. To determine the clinical and pathological characteristics of non-incidental papillary microcarcinomas of the thyroid (PTM -NI. 18 patients with diagnosis of non-incidental papillary microcarcinoma (tumor < 1cm with nodular expression in the thyroid gland or with lymph node metastasis have been studied. Initial diagnosis, prediction factors and evolution have been evaluated. Of 18 patients with PTM-NI, 12 demonstrated lymph node metastasis. 6 patients had positive fine needle aspiration (FNA of palpable thyroid nodules. Multifocality and extraglandular extension were associated with lymph node metastasis. Seven of the nine metastatic lymph nodes diagnosed by FNA were cystic. Histologically 83.3% of the nodules in the thyroid were non-encapsulated and showed papillary growth pattern. Multifocality and extrathyroid infiltration were associated with lymph node metastasis at presentation. 46% of the patients with thyroid nodules < 4 mm and lymph node involvement (N1 showed recurrence/persistence. The non-incidental intrathyroideal papillary microcarcinoma without capsular involvement, extraglandular

  18. "Incidental fear cues increase monetary loss aversion": Correction to Schulreich, Gerhardt, and Heekeren (2016).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Reports an error in "Incidental fear cues increase monetary loss aversion" by Stefan Schulreich, Holger Gerhardt and Hauke R. Heekeren ( Emotion , 2016[Apr], Vol 16[3], 402-412). In the current article, there was an error in the Study 2 portion of the article. The fourth paragraph of the Results section should read as follows: Performing the same analyses as in Study 1, we found an effect of incidental fear cues on decision behavior. Participants accepted fewer gambles in the fearful-face condition (32.77%) than in the neutral-face condition (33.96%), with Z = -2.187, p = .027, d = -0.998 in the Wilcoxon signed-ranks test and β = 0.012, SE = 0.0053, F(1, 21) = 4.434, p = .047, partial η² = .174 in the linear regression. This suggests increased risk aversion in the fearful-face condition. Concerning personality, however, there were no significant between-subjects effects or between-within interaction effects (all ps = .349). (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2015-52358-001.) In many everyday decisions, people exhibit loss aversion-a greater sensitivity to losses relative to gains of equal size. Loss aversion is thought to be (at least partly) mediated by emotional-in particular, fear-related-processes. Decision research has shown that even incidental emotions, which are unrelated to the decision at hand, can influence decision making. The effect of incidental fear on loss aversion, however, is thus far unclear. In two studies, we experimentally investigated how incidental fear cues, presented during (Study 1) or before (Study 2) choices to accept or reject mixed gambles over real monetary stakes, influence monetary loss aversion. We find that the presentation of fearful faces, relative to the presentation of neutral faces, increased risk aversion-an effect that could be attributed to increased loss aversion. The size of this effect was moderated by psychopathic personality: Fearless dominance, in particular its interpersonal facet

  19. Semantic Congruence Accelerates the Onset of the Neural Signals of Successful Memory Encoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Packard, Pau A; Rodríguez-Fornells, Antoni; Bunzeck, Nico; Nicolás, Berta; de Diego-Balaguer, Ruth; Fuentemilla, Lluís

    2017-01-11

    As the stream of experience unfolds, our memory system rapidly transforms current inputs into long-lasting meaningful memories. A putative neural mechanism that strongly influences how input elements are transformed into meaningful memory codes relies on the ability to integrate them with existing structures of knowledge or schemas. However, it is not yet clear whether schema-related integration neural mechanisms occur during online encoding. In the current investigation, we examined the encoding-dependent nature of this phenomenon in humans. We showed that actively integrating words with congruent semantic information provided by a category cue enhances memory for words and increases false recall. The memory effect of such active integration with congruent information was robust, even with an interference task occurring right after each encoding word list. In addition, via electroencephalography, we show in 2 separate studies that the onset of the neural signals of successful encoding appeared early (∼400 ms) during the encoding of congruent words. That the neural signals of successful encoding of congruent and incongruent information followed similarly ∼200 ms later suggests that this earlier neural response contributed to memory formation. We propose that the encoding of events that are congruent with readily available contextual semantics can trigger an accelerated onset of the neural mechanisms, supporting the integration of semantic information with the event input. This faster onset would result in a long-lasting and meaningful memory trace for the event but, at the same time, make it difficult to distinguish it from plausible but never encoded events (i.e., related false memories). Conceptual or schema congruence has a strong influence on long-term memory. However, the question of whether schema-related integration neural mechanisms occur during online encoding has yet to be clarified. We investigated the neural mechanisms reflecting how the active

  20. Encoding-related brain activity during deep processing of verbal materials: a PET study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Toshikatsu; Okuda, Jiro; Tsukiura, Takashi; Ohtake, Hiroya; Suzuki, Maki; Kawashima, Ryuta; Itoh, Masatoshi; Fukuda, Hiroshi; Yamadori, Atsushi

    2002-12-01

    The recent advent of neuroimaging techniques provides an opportunity to examine brain regions related to a specific memory process such as episodic memory encoding. There is, however, a possibility that areas active during an assumed episodic memory encoding task, compared with a control task, involve not only areas directly relevant to episodic memory encoding processes but also areas associated with other cognitive processes for on-line information. We used positron emission tomography (PET) to differentiate these two kinds of regions. Normal volunteers were engaged in deep (semantic) or shallow (phonological) processing of new or repeated words during PET. Results showed that deep processing, compared with shallow processing, resulted in significantly better recognition performance and that this effect was associated with activation of various brain areas. Further analyses revealed that there were regions directly relevant to episodic memory encoding in the anterior part of the parahippocampal gyrus, inferior frontal gyrus, supramarginal gyrus, anterior cingulate gyrus, and medial frontal lobe in the left hemisphere. Our results demonstrated that several regions, including the medial temporal lobe, play a role in episodic memory encoding.