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Sample records for incident x-ray micro

  1. Novel micro-reactor flow cell for investigation of model catalysts using in situ grazing-incidence X-ray scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kehres, Jan; Pedersen, Thomas; Masini, Federico

    2016-01-01

    -incidence small-angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS) in transmission through 10 µm-thick entrance and exit windows by using micro-focused beams. An additional thinning of the Pyrex glass reactor lid allows simultaneous acquisition of the grazing-incidence wide-angle X-ray scattering (GIWAXS). In situ experiments......The design, fabrication and performance of a novel and highly sensitive micro-reactor device for performing in situ grazing-incidence X-ray scattering experiments of model catalyst systems is presented. The design of the reaction chamber, etched in silicon on insulator (SIO), permits grazing...

  2. Development and applications of X ray micro focusing optics

    CERN Document Server

    Ablett, J M

    2001-01-01

    The motivation for this thesis is the design and implementation of novel elliptical x-ray reflective micro-focusing optics. The advancement of x-ray micro-beam applications is a primary objective. Sputtering of a heavy metal onto a spherical substrate can produce the required elliptical profile, and the combination of two mirrors in an orthogonal arrangement can deliver intense x-ray micro-beams at an x-ray synchrotron source. It is believed that this new deposition process offers the best way of obtaining accurate elliptical profiles. Traditionally, reflective x-ray micro-focusing has been achieved by bending a smooth flat substrate, and the new deposition technique renders a much simpler experimental arrangement. Moreover, producing enhanced mirror profiles has the opportunity to provide sub-micron focused x-ray beams with larger apertures and longer working distances. Grazing-incidence rhodium-coated spherical substrates were employed to investigate a variety of systems, using several experimental methods:...

  3. Adjustable Grazing-Incidence X-Ray Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dell, Stephen L.; Reid, Paul B.

    2015-01-01

    With its unique subarcsecond imaging performance, NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory illustrates the importance of fine angular resolution for x-ray astronomy. Indeed, the future of x-ray astronomy relies upon x-ray telescopes with comparable angular resolution but larger aperture areas. Combined with the special requirements of nested grazing-incidence optics, mass, and envelope constraints of space-borne telescopes render such advances technologically and programmatically challenging. The goal of this technology research is to enable the cost-effective fabrication of large-area, lightweight grazing-incidence x-ray optics with subarcsecond resolution. Toward this end, the project is developing active x-ray optics using slumped-glass mirrors with thin-film piezoelectric arrays for correction of intrinsic or mount-induced distortions.

  4. Grazing Incidence X-ray Scattering and Diffraction

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    tion. In thia article, various aspects of surface X- ray diffraction and scattering are discussed with illustrations of some typical applications of these techniques. 1. ..... ray reflectivity. Here, X-rays are incident on the sample at very small grazing angles to the surface and below the critical angle, αc. As explained earlier, this ...

  5. Design and development of grazing incidence x-ray mirrors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Fuchang; Mei, Zhiwu; Ma, Tao; Deng, Loulou; Shi, Yongqiang; Li, Liansheng

    2016-01-01

    X-ray pulsar navigation has attracted extensive attentions from academy and engineering domains. The navigation accuracy is can be enhanced through design of X-ray mirrors to focus X-rays to a small detector. The Wolter-I optics, originally proposed based on a paraboloid mirror and a hyperboloid mirror for X-ray imaging, has long been widely developed and employed in X-ray observatory. Some differences, however, remain in the requirements on optics between astronomical X-ray observation and pulsar navigation. The simplified Wolter-I optics, providing single reflection by a paraboloid mirror, is more suitable for pulsar navigation. In this paper, therefore, the grazing incidence X-ray mirror was designed further based on our previous work, with focus on the reflectivity, effective area, angular resolution and baffles. To evaluate the performance of the manufactured mirror, the surface roughness and reflectivity were tested. The test results show that the grazing incidence mirror meets the design specifications. On the basis of this, the reflectivity of the mirror in the working bandwidth was extrapolated to evaluate the focusing ability of the mirror when it works together with the detector. The purpose of our current work to design and develop a prototype mirror was realized. It can lay a foundation and provide guidance for the development of multilayer nested X-ray mirror with larger effective area.

  6. Normal incidence X-ray mirror for chemical microanalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Martin J.; Romig, Jr., Alton D.

    1990-01-01

    A non-planar, focusing mirror, to be utilized in both electron column instruments and micro-x-ray fluorescence instruments for performing chemical microanalysis on a sample, comprises a concave, generally spherical base substrate and a predetermined number of alternating layers of high atomic number material and low atomic number material contiguously formed on the base substrate. The thickness of each layer is an integral multiple of the wavelength being reflected and may vary non-uniformly according to a predetermined design. The chemical analytical instruments in which the mirror is used also include a predetermined energy source for directing energy onto the sample and a detector for receiving and detecting the x-rays emitted from the sample; the non-planar mirror is located between the sample and detector and collects the x-rays emitted from the sample at a large solid angle and focuses the collected x-rays to the sample. For electron column instruments, the wavelengths of interest lie above 1.5 nm, while for x-ray fluorescence instruments, the range of interest is below 0.2 nm. Also, x-ray fluorescence instruments include an additional non-planar focusing mirror, formed in the same manner as the previously described m The invention described herein was made in the performance of work under contract with the Department of Energy, Contract No. DE-AC04-76DP00789, and the United States Government has rights in the invention pursuant to this contract.

  7. Development and applications of grazing exit micro X-ray fluorescence instrument using a polycapillary X-ray lens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emoto, T.; Sato, Y.; Konishi, Y.; Ding, X.; Tsuji, K.

    2004-01-01

    A polycapillary X-ray lens is an effective optics to obtain a μm-size X-ray beam for micro-X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (μ-XRF). We developed a μ-XRF instrument using a polycapillary X-ray lens, which also enabled us to perform Grazing Exit μ-XRF (GE-μ-XRF). The evaluated diameter of the primary X-ray beam was 48 μm at the focal distance of the X-ray lens. Use of this instrument enabled two-dimensional mapping of the elemental distributions during growth of the plant 'Quinoa'. The results of the mapping revealed elemental transition during growth. In addition, a small region of thin film was analyzed by GE-μ-XRF. We expect that GE-μ-XRF will become an effective method of estimating the film thickness of a small region

  8. Development and applications of grazing exit micro X-ray fluorescence instrument using a polycapillary X-ray lens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emoto, T.; Sato, Y.; Konishi, Y.; Ding, X.; Tsuji, K. E-mail: tsuji@a-chem.eng.osaka-cu.ac.jp

    2004-08-31

    A polycapillary X-ray lens is an effective optics to obtain a {mu}m-size X-ray beam for micro-X-ray fluorescence spectrometry ({mu}-XRF). We developed a {mu}-XRF instrument using a polycapillary X-ray lens, which also enabled us to perform Grazing Exit {mu}-XRF (GE-{mu}-XRF). The evaluated diameter of the primary X-ray beam was 48 {mu}m at the focal distance of the X-ray lens. Use of this instrument enabled two-dimensional mapping of the elemental distributions during growth of the plant 'Quinoa'. The results of the mapping revealed elemental transition during growth. In addition, a small region of thin film was analyzed by GE-{mu}-XRF. We expect that GE-{mu}-XRF will become an effective method of estimating the film thickness of a small region.

  9. Design and fabrication of micro X-ray diffraction system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Yang Soon; Han, Sun Ho; Kim, Jong Goo; Jee, Kwang Yong

    2006-10-15

    It has been observed that microstructure changes occur at the pellet periphery(rim) of the fuel at very high burn-up. Despite its narrow range (below some hundreds microns in depth), this peripheral region(rim) determines the behaviour of nuclear fuel. To determine lattice parameter with XRD at intervals as small as 30-50 {mu} m in radial direction of irradiated fuel samples, a micro X-ray diffraction system was designed and fabricated. This report describes the micro X-ray diffraction system consisted of an X-ray microbeam alignment system and a sample micro translation system, its characterization, and its performance test through the analysis for the micro region of some specimens. This system will be set in a radiation shielded glove box, and then used for analysis of lattice parameter change and the phase change at intervals as small as 30-50 {mu} m in radial direction of the rim of an irradiated fuel sample and a fuel cladding.

  10. Fluorescence X-ray micro-spectroscopy activities at ESRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salome, M; Bleuet, P; Chalmin, E; Cloetens, P; Andrade, V De; Martinez-Criado, G; Petitgirard, S; Rak, M; Tresserras, J A Sans; Tucoulou, R; Susini, J; Bohic, S; Cauzid, J; Cotte, M; Szlachetko, J

    2009-01-01

    The X-ray Microscopy and Micro-analysis beamlines at ESRF operate complementary state-of-the-art instruments at ID21, ID22, ID18F and more recently ID22NI. Within a multi-modal strategy, these beamlines develop micro-imaging techniques with various contrast mechanisms (μXRF, μXANES, μXRD and phase contrast) and host experiments with scientific topics ranging from Geochemistry to Archeology, Environmental sciences, Biology and Material sciences. Future challenges include pushing spatial resolution down to the nano-scale and the development of innovative 3D micro-analysis techniques.

  11. An X-ray grazing incidence phase multilayer grating

    CERN Document Server

    Chernov, V A; Mytnichenko, S V

    2001-01-01

    An X-ray grazing incidence phase multilayer grating, representing a thin grating placed on a multilayer mirror, is proposed. A high efficiency of grating diffraction can be obtained by the possibility of changing the phase shift of the wave diffracted from the multilayer under the Bragg and total external reflection conditions. A grazing incidence phase multilayer grating consisting of Pt grating stripes on a Ni/C multilayer and optimized for the hard X-ray range was fabricated. Its diffraction properties were studied at photon energies of 7 and 8 keV. The obtained maximum value of the diffraction efficiency of the +1 grating order was 9% at 7 keV and 6.5% at 8 keV. The data obtained are in a rather good accordance with the theory.

  12. Modern approaches to investigation of thin films and monolayers: X-ray reflectivity, grazing-incidence X-ray scattering and X-ray standing waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shcherbina, M. A.; Chvalun, S. N.; Ponomarenko, S. A.; Kovalchuk, M. V.

    2014-12-01

    The review concerns modern experimental methods of structure determination of thin films of different nature. The methods are based on total reflection of X-rays from the surface and include X-ray reflectivity, grazing-incidence X-ray scattering and X-ray standing waves. Their potential is exemplified by the investigations of various organic macromolecular systems that exhibit the properties of semiconductors and are thought to be promising as thin-film transistors, light-emitting diodes and photovoltaic cells. It is shown that combination of the title methods enable high-precision investigations of the structure of thin-film materials and structure formation in them, i.e., it is possible to obtain information necessary for improvement of the operating efficiency of elements of organic electronic devices. The bibliography includes 92 references.

  13. Quantification procedures in micro X-ray fluorescence analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanngiesser, Birgit

    2003-01-01

    For the quantification in micro X-ray fluorescence analysis standardfree quantification procedures have become especially important. An introduction to the basic concepts of these quantification procedures is given, followed by a short survey of the procedures which are available now and what kind of experimental situations and analytical problems are addressed. The last point is extended by the description of an own development for the fundamental parameter method, which renders the inclusion of nonparallel beam geometries possible. Finally, open problems for the quantification procedures are discussed

  14. The Marshall Grazing Incidence X-ray Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Ken; Winebarger, Amy R.; Savage, Sabrina; Champey, Patrick; Cheimets, Peter N.; Hertz, Edward; Bruccoleri, Alexander R.; Golub, Leon; Ramsey, Brian; Ranganathan, Jaganathan; Marquez, Vanessa; Allured, Ryan; Parker, Theodore; Heilmann, Ralf K.; Schattenburg, Mark L.

    2017-08-01

    The Marshall Grazing Incidence X-ray Spectrometer (MaGIXS) is a NASA sounding rocket instrument designed to obtain spatially resolved soft X-ray spectra of the solar atmosphere in the 6-24 Å (0.5-2.0 keV) range. The instrument consists of a single shell Wolter Type-I telescope, a slit, and a spectrometer comprising a matched pair of grazing incidence parabolic mirrors and a planar varied-line space diffraction grating. The instrument is designed to achieve a 50 mÅ spectral resolution and 5 arcsecond spatial resolution along a +/-4-arcminute long slit, and launch is planned for 2019. We report on the status and our approaches for fabrication and alignment for this novel optical system. The telescope and spectrometer mirrors are replicated nickel shells, and are currently being fabricated at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. The diffraction grating is currently under development by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT); because of the strong line spacing variation across the grating, it will be fabricated through e-beam lithography.

  15. X-ray microscopy using grazing-incidence reflection optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, R.H.

    1981-01-01

    The Kirkpatrick-Baez microscopes are described along with their role as the workhorse of the x-ray imaging devices. This role is being extended with the development of a 22X magnification Kirkpatrick-Baez x-ray microscope with multilayer x-ray mirrors. These mirrors can operate at large angles, high x-ray energies, and have a narrow, well defined x-ray energy bandpass. This will make them useful for numerous experiments. However, where a large solid angle is needed, the Woelter microscope will still be necessary and the technology needed to build them will be useful for many other types of x-ray optics

  16. High temperature x-ray micro-tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacDowell, Alastair A., E-mail: aamacdowell@lbl.gov; Barnard, Harold; Parkinson, Dilworth Y.; Gludovatz, Bernd [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Haboub, Abdel [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); current –Lincoln Univ., Jefferson City, Missouri, 65101 (United States); Larson, Natalie; Zok, Frank [University California Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara CA 93106 (United States); Panerai, Francesco; Mansour, Nagi N. [NASA Ames Research Centre, Moffett Field, CA, 94035 (United States); Bale, Hrishikesh [University California Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); current - Carl Zeiss X-ray Microscopy, 4385 Hopyard Rd #100, Pleasanton, CA 94588 (United States); Acevedo, Claire [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); University California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94143 (United States); Liu, Dong [University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 1TH (United Kingdom); Ritchie, Robert O. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); University California Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2016-07-27

    There is increasing demand for 3D micro-scale time-resolved imaging of samples in realistic - and in many cases extreme environments. The data is used to understand material response, validate and refine computational models which, in turn, can be used to reduce development time for new materials and processes. Here we present the results of high temperature experiments carried out at the x-ray micro-tomography beamline 8.3.2 at the Advanced Light Source. The themes involve material failure and processing at temperatures up to 1750°C. The experimental configurations required to achieve the requisite conditions for imaging are described, with examples of ceramic matrix composites, spacecraft ablative heat shields and nuclear reactor core Gilsocarbon graphite.

  17. A laboratory based system for Laue micro x-ray diffraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, P. A.; Stevenson, A. W.; Liang, D.; Parry, D.; Wilkins, S.; Tamura, N.

    2007-02-01

    A laboratory diffraction system capable of illuminating individual grains in a polycrystalline matrix is described. Using a microfocus x-ray source equipped with a tungsten anode and prefigured monocapillary optic, a micro-x-ray diffraction system with a 10 μm beam was developed. The beam profile generated by the ellipsoidal capillary was determined using the "knife edge" approach. Measurement of the capillary performance, indicated a beam divergence of 14 mrad and a useable energy bandpass from 5.5 to 19 keV. Utilizing the polychromatic nature of the incident x-ray beam and application of the Laue indexing software package X-Ray Micro-Diffraction Analysis Software, the orientation and deviatoric strain of single grains in a polycrystalline material can be studied. To highlight the system potential the grain orientation and strain distribution of individual grains in a polycrystalline magnesium alloy (Mg 0.2 wt % Nd) was mapped before and after tensile loading. A basal (0002) orientation was identified in the as-rolled annealed alloy; after tensile loading some grains were observed to undergo an orientation change of 30° with respect to (0002). The applied uniaxial load was measured as an increase in the deviatoric tensile strain parallel to the load axis.

  18. Non-scanning x-ray fluorescence microscope: application to real time micro-imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakurai, K.; Eba, H.

    2000-01-01

    So far, x-ray fluorescence (XRF) micro-imaging has been performed by a 2D positional scan of a sample against a collimated beam. Obtaining information on specific elements in a nondestructive manner is an attractive prospect for many scientific applications. Furthermore, a synchrotron micro-beam can enhance the spatial resolution down to 0.1 μm. However, the total measuring time becomes quite long (a few hours to a half day), since one needs a number of scanning points in order to obtain a high-quality image. It is possible to obtain an x-ray image with 1 M pixels and with 20 μm resolution in a very short time of 20 sec - 3 min using a non-scanning XRF microscope, which is based on completely different concept. In the present report, we discuss the application of this technique to real time micro-imaging. The experiments were carried out at BL-4A, Photon Factory, Tsukuba, Japan. We employed a grazing-incidence arrangement to make primary x-rays illuminate the whole sample surface. We adopted parallel-beam optics and extremely-close-geometry in order to detect x-ray fluorescence with a CCD camera. The selective-excitation capability of tunable monochromatic synchrotron radiation is a feasible method for distinguishing the elements of interest. One can obtain an image of each element by differentiating the images obtained above and below the absorption edges of interest. The growth of metallic dendrites from a solution dropped on a substrate was studied successfully. Several different growth patterns, corresponding to concentration and other conditions for diffusion, were observed as x-ray images. Since the present technique requires only 40 sec for each shot, it is possible to record a growing process through repeated exposures like a movie. The authors would like to thank Prof. A. Iida (Photon Factory) for his valuable comments. (author)

  19. Laboratory micro-X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy instrumentation and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Haschke, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Micro-X-ray fluorescence offers the possibility for a position- sensitive and non-destructive analysis that can be used for the analysis of non-homogeneous materials and layer systems. This analytical technique has shown a dynamic development in the last 15 years and is used for the analysis of small particles, inclusions, of elemental distributions for a wide range of different applications both in research and quality control. The first experiments were performed on synchrotrons but there is a requirement for laboratory instruments which offers a fast and immediate access for analytical results. The book discuss the main components of a µ-XRF instrument and the different measurement modes, it gives an overview about the various instruments types, considers the special requirements for quantification of non-homogeneous materials and presents a wide range of application for single point and multi-point analysis as well as for distribution analysis in one, two and three dimensions.

  20. Micro-fresnel structures for microscopy of laser generated bright x-ray sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceglio, N.M.; Shavers, D.C.; Flanders, D.C.; Smith, H.I.

    1979-01-01

    A brief parametric survey of the x-ray characteristics of a gold micro-disk irradiated at 3 x 10 14 watt/cm 2 by a 1 nsec Nd-glass laser pulse has been provided as an example of a laser generated bright x-ray source. It was shown that a simple phenomenological model of the laser generated x-ray source as a microscopic equilibrium plasma radiating as a blackbody for a finite time determined by its hydrodynamic disassembly and radiation losses, serves to provide an adequate approximation to the x-ray characteristics of such sources. The current state of x-ray microscopy within the LLL laser fusion program was briefly reviewed. Kirpatrick--Baez grazing incidence reflection x-ray microscopes are being used to provide 3 to 5 μm resolution, broadband images (ΔE/E approx. 0.3) over a spectral range from .6 keV to 3.5 keV. Zone Plate Coded Imaging is used to provide 5 to 10 μm resolution, broadband (ΔE/E approx. 0.5) images over a spectral range from 3 keV to 50 keV. Efficient x-ray lensing elements with anticipated submicron resolution are being developed for narrowband (ΔE/E approx. 10 -2 ) imaging applications over a spectral range .1 keV to 8 keV. The x-ray lens design is that of a transmission blazed Fresnel phase plate. Micro--Fresnel zone plates with 3200 A minimum linewidth have been fabricated and preliminary resolution tests begun. The first resolution test pattern, having minimum linewidth of 2.5 μm, was imaged in lambda = 8.34 A light with no difficulty. Newer test patterns with submicron minimum line are being prepared for the next stage of resolution testing. An off-axis Fresnel zone plate with 1600 A minimum linewidth is presently being fabricated for use as an imaging spectrometer in order to provide spatially separated, chromatically distinct images of characteristic line emissions from laser fusion targets

  1. High-throughput screening with micro-x-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Havrilla, George J.; Miller, Thomasin C.

    2005-01-01

    Micro-x-ray fluorescence (MXRF) is a useful characterization tool for high-throughput screening of combinatorial libraries. Due to the increasing threat of use of chemical warfare (CW) agents both in military actions and against civilians by terrorist extremists, there is a strong push to improve existing methods and develop means for the detection of a broad spectrum of CW agents in a minimal amount of time to increase national security. This paper describes a combinatorial high-throughput screening technique for CW receptor discovery to aid in sensor development. MXRF can screen materials for elemental composition at the mesoscale level (tens to hundreds of micrometers). The key aspect of this work is the use of commercial MXRF instrumentation coupled with the inherent heteroatom elements within the target molecules of the combinatorial reaction to provide rapid and specific identification of lead species. The method is demonstrated by screening an 11-mer oligopeptide library for selective binding of the degradation products of the nerve agent VX. The identified oligopeptides can be used as selective molecular receptors for sensor development. The MXRF screening method is nondestructive, requires minimal sample preparation or special tags for analysis, and the screening time depends on the desired sensitivity

  2. Development of a carbon nanotube based micro-focus X-ray tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, H. K.; Cheong, Y. M.; Lee, Y. S.; Choi, Y. S.; Joo, Y. S.; Park, S. K.; Sim, C. M.

    2010-02-01

    The electron field-emission properties of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) enable the fabrication of new cold cathodes for many X-ray instruments. The utilization of these cathodes is an attractive alternative for thermo-ionic cathodes for generating X-rays. CNT has been successfully incorporated into the x-ray tube. CNT fibers offer some advantages over CNT coating for a new generation of X-ray tube, with low power consumption, long lifetime due to the unraveling effect, and high resolution due to the micro-scale emission area. Further research is needed for CNT fiber for x-ray tube in order to increase the stability and consistency for an application to a portable x-ray machine and high resolution x-ray equipment

  3. Laboratory-based micro-X-ray fluorescence setup using a von Hamos crystal spectrometer and a focused beam X-ray tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kayser, Y.; Błachucki, W.; Dousse, J.-Cl.; Hoszowska, J.; Neff, M.; Romano, V.

    2014-01-01

    The high-resolution von Hamos bent crystal spectrometer of the University of Fribourg was upgraded with a focused X-ray beam source with the aim of performing micro-sized X-ray fluorescence (XRF) measurements in the laboratory. The focused X-ray beam source integrates a collimating optics mounted on a low-power micro-spot X-ray tube and a focusing polycapillary half-lens placed in front of the sample. The performances of the setup were probed in terms of spatial and energy resolution. In particular, the fluorescence intensity and energy resolution of the von Hamos spectrometer equipped with the novel micro-focused X-ray source and a standard high-power water-cooled X-ray tube were compared. The XRF analysis capability of the new setup was assessed by measuring the dopant distribution within the core of Er-doped SiO 2 optical fibers

  4. Laboratory-based micro-X-ray fluorescence setup using a von Hamos crystal spectrometer and a focused beam X-ray tube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayser, Y; Błachucki, W; Dousse, J-Cl; Hoszowska, J; Neff, M; Romano, V

    2014-04-01

    The high-resolution von Hamos bent crystal spectrometer of the University of Fribourg was upgraded with a focused X-ray beam source with the aim of performing micro-sized X-ray fluorescence (XRF) measurements in the laboratory. The focused X-ray beam source integrates a collimating optics mounted on a low-power micro-spot X-ray tube and a focusing polycapillary half-lens placed in front of the sample. The performances of the setup were probed in terms of spatial and energy resolution. In particular, the fluorescence intensity and energy resolution of the von Hamos spectrometer equipped with the novel micro-focused X-ray source and a standard high-power water-cooled X-ray tube were compared. The XRF analysis capability of the new setup was assessed by measuring the dopant distribution within the core of Er-doped SiO2 optical fibers.

  5. Flow method and apparatus for screening chemicals using micro x-ray fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Benjamin P [Los Alamos, NM; Havrilla, George J [Los Alamos, NM; Miller, Thomasin C [Bartlesville, OK; Lewis, Cris [Los Alamos, NM; Mahan, Cynthia A [Los Alamos, NM; Wells, Cyndi A [Los Alamos, NM

    2009-04-14

    Method and apparatus for screening chemicals using micro x-ray fluorescence. A method for screening a mixture of potential pharmaceutical chemicals for binding to at least one target binder involves flow-separating a solution of chemicals and target binders into separated components, exposing them to an x-ray excitation beam, detecting x-ray fluorescence signals from the components, and determining from the signals whether or not a binding event between a chemical and target binder has occurred.

  6. Micro-X-ray fluorescence spectrometer with x-ray single bounce metallic capillary optics for light element analysis (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mroczka, Robert; Żukociński, Grzegorz; Łopucki, Rafał

    2017-05-01

    In the last 20 years, , due to the rapid development of X-ray optics, micro X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (micro-XRF) has become a powerful tool to determine the spatial distribution of major, minor, and trace elements within a sample. Micro-X-ray fluorescence (micro-XRF) spectrometers for light element analysis (6 work was supported and co-funded by the European Union as part of the Operational Programme Development of Eastern Poland for 2007-2013, Priority I Innovative Economy, Measure I.3. Support for Innovations and The National Centre for Research and Development, Project no. TANGO1,267102/NCBR/2015

  7. JAX: a micro-computer based X-ray diffractometer controller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naval, P.C. Jr.

    1987-05-01

    This paper describes a micro-computer based X-ray diffractometer controller and explores its possibilities in simplifying acquisition and analysis of X-ray powder diffraction data. The interrupt-driven controller can operate in both present time and present count data acquisition modes and allows a data analysis program to execute concurrently with data collection. (Auth.). 16 figs.; 2 tabs

  8. In situ micro-focused X-ray beam characterization with a lensless camera using a hybrid pixel detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kachatkou, Anton; Marchal, Julien; Silfhout, Roelof van

    2014-01-01

    Position and size measurements of a micro-focused X-ray beam, using an X-ray beam imaging device based on a lensless camera that collects radiation scattered from a thin foil placed in the path of the beam at an oblique angle, are reported. Results of studies on micro-focused X-ray beam diagnostics using an X-ray beam imaging (XBI) instrument based on the idea of recording radiation scattered from a thin foil of a low-Z material with a lensless camera are reported. The XBI instrument captures magnified images of the scattering region within the foil as illuminated by the incident beam. These images contain information about beam size, beam position and beam intensity that is extracted during dedicated signal processing steps. In this work the use of the device with beams for which the beam size is significantly smaller than that of a single detector pixel is explored. The performance of the XBI device equipped with a state-of-the-art hybrid pixel X-ray imaging sensor is analysed. Compared with traditional methods such as slit edge or wire scanners, the XBI micro-focused beam characterization is significantly faster and does not interfere with on-going experiments. The challenges associated with measuring micrometre-sized beams are described and ways of optimizing the resolution of beam position and size measurements of the XBI instrument are discussed

  9. Fluence thresholds for grazing incidence hard x-ray mirrors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Aquila, A.; Sobierajski, R.; Ozkan, C.; Hájková, Věra; Burian, Tomáš; Chalupský, Jaromír; Juha, Libor; Störmer, M.; Bajt, S.; Klepka, M.T.; Dlužewski, P.; Morawiec, K.; Ohashi, H.; Koyama, T.; Tono, K.; Inubushi, Y.; Yabashi, M.; Sinn, H.; Tschentscher, T.; Mancuso, A.P.; Gaudin, J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 106, č. 24 (2015), "241905-1"-"241905-5" ISSN 0003-6951 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-29772S Grant - others:AVČR(CZ) M100101221 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : XFEL * Free Electron Laser * damage threshold * X-ray optics Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 3.142, year: 2015

  10. Bone Mechanical Strength Estimation from Micro X-ray CT Image

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Matani, A

    2001-01-01

    ... (Bone Mineral Density), an index to evaluate the mechanical strength of the bone, does not always reflect the strength, On the other hand, micro X-ray CT has revealed the inner structure of bone, Under such circumstances...

  11. Micro-Slit Collimators for X-ray/Gamma-ray Imaging, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Mikro Systems, Inc. (MSI) will advance the state-of-the-art in high resolution, high-aspect-ratio x-ray/gamma-ray collimator fabrication into the micro-slit regime...

  12. X-ray micro diffraction study on mesostructured silica thin films

    CERN Document Server

    Noma, T; Miyata, H; Iida, A

    2001-01-01

    The local structure of highly ordered mesostructured silica films was investigated by using a synchrotron X-ray microbeam and a CCD X-ray detector. Two-dimensional X-ray diffraction patterns clearly showed the detailed arrangement of the mesostructures, in which the hexagonal mesochannels aligned uniaxially in the mesostructured silica films formed on a silica glass substrate with a rubbing-treated thin polyimide coating. The alignment direction was shown to be perpendicular to the rubbing direction. The grazing incidence condition revealed the structural anisotropy of the mesostructures, while normal incidence X-ray diffraction data indicated the in-plane structural uniformity of the films. Extra spots were observed in the diffraction patterns. This suggested that the X-ray beam reflected at the boundary of the mesostructured silica film and the substrate.

  13. Micro-beam X-ray fluorescence and absorption imaging techniques at the IAEA Laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wegrzynek, Dariusz; Markowicz, A.; Bamford, S.; Chinea-Cano, E.; Bogovac, M.

    2005-01-01

    X-ray tube based, micro-beam X-ray fluorescence scanning spectrometer has been equipped with two energy dispersive X-ray detectors. The two-detector configuration allows for simultaneous collection of X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and transmitted X-ray beam signals with a spatial resolution in the range of 10-50 μm, depending on the X-ray focussing element in use. The XRF signal is collected with a standard, liquid nitrogen cooled Si(Li) detector. The X-ray beam transmitted through the sample is acquired with a thermoelectrically cooled, silicon drift (SD) detector. The data acquisition is carried out in a fully automatic way under control of the SPECTOR-LOCATOR software. The software controls the scanning procedure and X-ray spectra acquisition during the scan. The energy dispersive X-ray spectra collected at every 'pixel' are stored for off-line processing. For selected regions of interest (ROI's), the element maps are constructed and displayed on-line. The spectrometer has been used for mapping elemental distributions and for performing 2D- and 3D-tomograpic imaging of minute objects in X-ray absorption and in X-ray fluorescence mode. A unique feature of the described system is simultaneous utilization of the two detectors, Si(Li) and SD, which adds new options for quantitative analysis and data interpretation. Examples of elemental mapping and 3D tomographic imaging as well as the advanced features of the SPECTOR-LOCATOR measurement control and data acquisition software are presented in this work

  14. Grazing Incidence X-Ray Fluorescence of periodic structures – a comparison between X-ray Standing Waves and Geometrical Optics calculations.

    OpenAIRE

    Reinhardt Falk; Nowak Stanislaw H.; Beckhoff Burkhard; Dousse Jean-Claude; Schoengen Max

    2014-01-01

    Grazing incidence X-ray fluorescence spectra of nano-scaled periodic line structures were recorded at the four crystal monochromator beamline in the laboratory of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt at the synchrotron radiation facility BESSY II. For different tilt angles between the lines and the plane of incidence of the monochromatic synchrotron radiation, spectral features are observed which can be understood and explained with calculations of the emerging X-ray standing wave (XSW) ...

  15. X-ray fluorescence analysis of thin films at glancing-incident and -takeoff angles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuji, K.; Sato, S.; Hirokawa, K.

    1995-01-01

    We have developed a new analytical method, Glancing-Incidence and -Takeoff X-Ray Fluorescence (GIT-XRF) method for the first time. Here, we present an idea for a thin-film analysis and a surface analysis by the GIT-XRF method. In this method, the dependence of the fluorescent x-ray intensity on takeoff angle is measured at various incident angles of the primary x-ray. Compared with a total reflection x-ray fluorescence method, the GIT-XRF method allows a detailed thin-film analysis, because the thin film is cross-checked by many experimental curves. Moreover, a surface-sensitive analysis is also possible by the GIT-XRF method. (author)

  16. Method for detecting binding events using micro-X-ray fluorescence spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Benjamin P.; Havrilla, George J.; Mann, Grace

    2010-12-28

    Method for detecting binding events using micro-X-ray fluorescence spectrometry. Receptors are exposed to at least one potential binder and arrayed on a substrate support. Each member of the array is exposed to X-ray radiation. The magnitude of a detectable X-ray fluorescence signal for at least one element can be used to determine whether a binding event between a binder and a receptor has occurred, and can provide information related to the extent of binding between the binder and receptor.

  17. Application of confocal X-ray fluorescence micro-spectroscopy to the investigation of paint layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Tianxi; Liu, Zhiguo; Wang, Guangfu; Ma, Yongzhong; Peng, Song; Sun, Weiyuan; Li, Fangzuo; Sun, Xuepeng; Ding, Xunliang

    2014-12-01

    A confocal micro X-ray fluorescence (MXRF) spectrometer based on polycapillary X-ray optics was used for the identification of paint layers. The performance of the confocal MXRF was studied. Multilayered paint fragments of a car were analyzed nondestructively to demonstrate that this confocal MXRF instrument could be used in the discrimination of the various layers in multilayer paint systems. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. X-ray Polarimetry with a Micro-Pattern Gas Detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Joe

    2005-01-01

    Topics covered include: Science drivers for X-ray polarimetry; Previous X-ray polarimetry designs; The photoelectric effect and imaging tracks; Micro-pattern gas polarimeter design concept. Further work includes: Verify results against simulator; Optimize pressure and characterize different gases for a given energy band; Optimize voltages for resolution and sensitivity; Test meshes with 80 micron pitch; Characterize ASIC operation; and Quantify quantum efficiency for optimum polarization sensitivity.

  19. Project Title: Radiochemical Analysis by High Sensitivity Dual-Optic Micro X-ray Fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Havrilla, George J.; Gao, Ning

    2002-01-01

    A novel dual-optic micro X-ray fluorescence instrument will be developed to do radiochemical analysis of high-level radioactive wastes at DOE sites such as Savannah River Site and Hanford. This concept incorporates new X-ray optical elements such as monolithic polycapillaries and double bent crystals, which focus X-rays. The polycapillary optic can be used to focus X-rays emitted by the X-ray tube thereby increasing the X-ray flux on the sample over 1000 times. Polycapillaries will also be used to collect the X-rays from the excitation site and screen the radiation background from the radioactive species in the specimen. This dual-optic approach significantly reduces the background and increases the analyte signal thereby increasing the sensitivity of the analysis. A doubly bent crystal used as the focusing optic produces focused monochromatic X-ray excitation, which eliminates the bremsstrahlung background from the X-ray source. The coupling of the doubly bent crystal for monochromatic excitation with a polycapillary for signal collection can effectively eliminate the noise background and radiation background from the specimen. The integration of these X-ray optics increases the signal-to-noise and thereby increases the sensitivity of the analysis for low-level analytes. This work will address a key need for radiochemical analysis of high-level waste using a non-destructive, multi-element, and rapid method in a radiation environment. There is significant potential that this instrumentation could be capable of on-line analysis for process waste stream characterization at DOE sites

  20. Direct intensity calibration of X-ray grazing-incidence microscopes with home-lab source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yaran; Xie, Qing; Chen, Zhiqiang; Xin, Qiuqi; Wang, Xin; Mu, Baozhong; Wang, Zhanshan; Liu, Shenye; Ding, Yongkun

    2018-01-01

    Direct intensity calibration of X-ray grazing-incidence microscopes is urgently needed in quantitative studies of X-ray emission from laser plasma sources in inertial confinement fusion. The existing calibration methods for single reflecting mirrors, crystals, gratings, filters, and X-ray detectors are not applicable for such X-ray microscopes due to the specific optical structure and the restrictions of object-image relation. This article presents a reliable and efficient method that can be performed using a divergent X-ray source and an energy dispersive Si-PIN (silicon positive-intrinsic-negative) detector in an ordinary X-ray laboratory. The transmission theory of X-ray flux in imaging diagnostics is introduced, and the quantities to be measured are defined. The calibration method is verified by a W/Si multilayer-coated Kirkpatrick-Baez microscope with a field of view of ∼95 μm at 17.48 keV. The mirror reflectance curve in the 1D coordinate is drawn with a peak value of 20.9% and an uncertainty of ∼6.0%.

  1. Direct intensity calibration of X-ray grazing-incidence microscopes with home-lab source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yaran; Xie, Qing; Chen, Zhiqiang; Xin, Qiuqi; Wang, Xin; Mu, Baozhong; Wang, Zhanshan; Liu, Shenye; Ding, Yongkun

    2018-01-01

    Direct intensity calibration of X-ray grazing-incidence microscopes is urgently needed in quantitative studies of X-ray emission from laser plasma sources in inertial confinement fusion. The existing calibration methods for single reflecting mirrors, crystals, gratings, filters, and X-ray detectors are not applicable for such X-ray microscopes due to the specific optical structure and the restrictions of object-image relation. This article presents a reliable and efficient method that can be performed using a divergent X-ray source and an energy dispersive Si-PIN (silicon positive-intrinsic-negative) detector in an ordinary X-ray laboratory. The transmission theory of X-ray flux in imaging diagnostics is introduced, and the quantities to be measured are defined. The calibration method is verified by a W/Si multilayer-coated Kirkpatrick-Baez microscope with a field of view of ˜95 μm at 17.48 keV. The mirror reflectance curve in the 1D coordinate is drawn with a peak value of 20.9% and an uncertainty of ˜6.0%.

  2. Grazing Incidence X-ray Scattering and Diffraction

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    tion between the incident plane wave and the medium is sufficiently weak, then the first Born approximation, can be applied. In this approximation, the scattered wave function ψ(r ) can be assumed to be the same as the incident plane wave and hence the scattering amplitude takes a simpler form f(kf ,ki) = ∫ dr ϱ(r )e iq.r.

  3. Production of X-ray transition radiation with relativistic electrons propagating at grazing incidence

    CERN Document Server

    Couillaud, C

    2002-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the production of X-ray transition radiation when a relativistic electron crosses the interface between two media of different permittivities at the grazing incidence. The production yields are derived analytically when a thick interface is considered and are compared with those obtained when the electron crosses the interface at normal incidence. The production of X-ray photons having an energy between two photoabsorption edges or close to a photoabsorption edge is also investigated. The main features of the transition radiation produced are then exhibited and it is shown that the intensity can be increased by many orders of magnitude. We also show that, at grazing incidence, the backward transition radiation has an intensity close to the forward emission one, contrary to the normal incidence case. The production of quasi-monochromatic radiation is also presented. Finally, the production of X-ray transition radiation using a multilayer radiator is considered and compared in both ...

  4. Investigation of chemical vapour deposition diamond detectors by X- ray micro-beam induced current and X-ray micro-beam induced luminescence techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Olivero, P; Vittone, E; Fizzotti, F; Paolini, C; Lo Giudice, A; Barrett, R; Tucoulou, R

    2004-01-01

    Tracking detectors have become an important ingredient in high-energy physics experiments. In order to survive the harsh detection environment of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), trackers need to have special properties. They must be radiation hard, provide fast collection of charge, be as thin as possible and remove heat from readout electronics. The unique properties of diamond allow it to fulfill these requirements. In this work we present an investigation of the charge transport and luminescence properties of "detector grade" artificial chemical vapour deposition (CVD) diamond devices developed within the CERN RD42 collaboration, performed by means of X-ray micro-beam induced current collection (XBICC) and X-ray micro- beam induced luminescence (XBIL) techniques. XBICC technique allows quantitative estimates of the transport parameters of the material to be evaluated and mapped with micrometric spatial resolution. In particular, the high resolution and sensitivity of the technique has allowed a quantitati...

  5. Differential Deposition for Surface Figure Corrections in Grazing Incidence X-Ray Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Brian D.; Kilaru, Kiranmayee; Atkins, Carolyn; Gubarev, Mikhail V.; Broadway, David M.

    2015-01-01

    Differential deposition corrects the low- and mid- spatial-frequency deviations in the axial figure of Wolter-type grazing incidence X-ray optics. Figure deviations is one of the major contributors to the achievable angular resolution. Minimizing figure errors can significantly improve the imaging quality of X-ray optics. Material of varying thickness is selectively deposited, using DC magnetron sputtering, along the length of optic to minimize figure deviations. Custom vacuum chambers are built that can incorporate full-shell and segmented Xray optics. Metrology data of preliminary corrections on a single meridian of full-shell x-ray optics show an improvement of mid-spatial frequencies from 6.7 to 1.8 arc secs HPD. Efforts are in progress to correct a full-shell and segmented optics and to verify angular-resolution improvement with X-ray testing.

  6. Design of grazing-incidence multilayer supermirrors for hard-X-ray reflectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joensen, K. D.; Voutov, P.; Szentgyorgyi, A.

    1995-01-01

    -X-ray reflector and a hard-X-ray telescope) shows that an improved performance can be obtained. A multilayer whose bilayer thicknesses are given by a power law expression is found to provide the best solution; however, it is only slightly better than some of the adapted neutron designs......Extremely broadband grazing-incidence multilayers for hard-X-ray reflection can be obtained by a gradual change of the layer thicknesses down through the structure. Existing approaches for designing similar neutron optics, called supermirrors, are shown to provide respectable performance when...... applied to X-ray multilayers. However, none of these approaches consider the effects of imperfect layer interfaces and absorption in the overlying layers. Adaptations of neutron designs that take these effects into account are presented, and a thorough analysis of two specific applications (a single hard...

  7. X-ray grazing incidence diffraction from multilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tixier, S.; Boeni, P.; Swygenhoven, H. van; Horisberger, M. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-09-01

    Grazing incidence scattering geometries using synchrotron radiation have been applied in order to characterise the roughness profiles and the structural coherence of multilayers. The lateral correlation length of the roughness profiles was evaluated using diffuse reflectivity in the `out of plane` geometry. This type of measurement is the only diffuse reflectivity technique allowing large lateral momentum transfer. It is typically suitable for correlation lengths smaller than 1000 A. The lateral structural coherence length of Ni{sub 3}Al/Ni multilayers as a function of the layer thickness was obtained by grazing incidence diffraction (GID). 3 figs., 1 ref.

  8. Phase analysis of micro-alloyed steels using X-ray diffraction measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tobisch, J.; Kleinstueck, K.; Schatt, W.; Riehle, M.; Technische Univ., Dresden

    1977-01-01

    The applicability of neutron diffraction and X-ray diffraction to phase analyses of micro-alloyed steels is tested. The results show that the resolution of neutron reflexes was too low for quantitative statements. X-ray diffraction measurements of the reflex intensity permit quantitative analyses of the phase TiN, TiC, and Ti 4 C 2 S 2 in micro-alloyed steels without and after heat treatment. The values of the quantitative determination of these phases ranged from about 0.03 to 0.4 per cent by weight

  9. A portable semi-micro-X-ray fluorescence spectrometer for archaeometrical studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarkadas, Ch.; Karydas, A. G.

    2004-10-01

    A portable semi-micro-X-ray fluorescence (μ-XRF) spectrometer was developed in the Laboratory for Material Analysis of the N.C.S.R "Demokritos". It utilizes a novel end-window, battery-operated, low-power X-ray tube (40 kV, 40 μA) with Au as anode material, a peltier cooled Si-PIN X-ray detector and associated electronics. The unique design of the probe-like X-ray tube anode allows very close coupling of any optical component to the tube anode, as well as to the sample position. A 240 μm pin-hole collimator was used to form the semi-microbeam. Monte Carlo calculations, as well as several sets of measurements, were performed, in order to determine the optimum geometrical and operational parameters. Preliminary results about the performance of our spectrometer are presented and compared to those reported in the literature for other micro-XRF instruments utilizing various optical elements (pin-holes, poly-capillary lenses) for focusing X-rays. The potential of this semi-micro-XRF spectrometer in the archaeometrical research is also discussed.

  10. Normal incidence X-ray telescope power spectra of X-ray emission from solar active regions. I - Observations. II - Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Daniel O.; Martens, Petrus C. H.; Golub, Leon

    1993-01-01

    Fourier analysis is applied to very high resolution image of coronal active regions obtained by the Normal Incidence X-Ray Telescope is used to find a broad isotropic power-law spectrum of the spatial distribution of soft X-ray intensities. Magnetic structures of all sizes are present down to the resolution limit of the instrument. Power spectra for the X-ray intensities of a sample of topologically different active regions are found which fall off with increasing wavenumber as 1/k-cubed. A model is presented that relates the basic features of coronal magnetic fluctuations to the subphotospheric hydrodynamic turbulence that generates them. The model is used to find a theoretical power spectrum for the X-ray intensity which falls off with increasing wavenumber as 1/k-cubed. The implications of a turbulent regime in active regions are discussed.

  11. Development of synchrotron x-ray micro-spectroscopic techniques and application to problems in low temperature geochemistry. Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-01

    The focus of the technical development effort has been the development of apparatus and techniques for the utilization of X-ray Fluorescence (XRF), Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS) and X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure (XANES) spectroscopies in a microprobe mode. The present XRM uses white synchrotron radiation (3 to 30 keV) from a bending magnet for trace element analyses using the x-ray fluorescence technique Two significant improvements to this device have been recently implemented. Focusing Mirror: An 8:1 ellipsoidal mirror was installed in the X26A beamline to focus the incident synchrotron radiation and thereby increase the flux on the sample by about a factor of 30. Incident Beam Monochromator: The monochromator has been successfully installed and commissioned in the X26A beamline upstream of the mirror to permit analyses with focused monochromatic radiation. The monochromator consists of a channel-cut silicon (111) crystal driven by a Klinger stepping motor translator. We have demonstrated the operating range of this instrument is 4 and 20 keV with 0.01 eV steps and produces a beam with a {approximately}10{sup {minus}4} energy bandwidth. The primary purpose of the monochromator is for x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) measurements but it is also used for selective excitation in trace element microanalysis. To date, we have conducted XANES studies on Ti, Cr, Fe, Ce and U, spanning the entire accessible energy range and including both K and L edge spectra. Practical detection limits for microXANES are 10--100 ppM for 100 {mu}m spots.

  12. Full Field X-Ray Fluorescence Imaging Using Micro Pore Optics for Planetary Surface Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarrazin, P.; Blake, D. F.; Gailhanou, M.; Walter, P.; Schyns, E.; Marchis, F.; Thompson, K.; Bristow, T.

    2016-01-01

    Many planetary surface processes leave evidence as small features in the sub-millimetre scale. Current planetary X-ray fluorescence spectrometers lack the spatial resolution to analyse such small features as they only provide global analyses of areas greater than 100 mm(exp 2). A micro-XRF spectrometer will be deployed on the NASA Mars 2020 rover to analyse spots as small as 120m. When using its line-scanning capacity combined to perpendicular scanning by the rover arm, elemental maps can be generated. We present a new instrument that provides full-field XRF imaging, alleviating the need for precise positioning and scanning mechanisms. The Mapping X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometer - "Map-X" - will allow elemental imaging with approximately 100µm spatial resolution and simultaneously provide elemental chemistry at the scale where many relict physical, chemical and biological features can be imaged in ancient rocks. The arm-mounted Map-X instrument is placed directly on the surface of an object and held in a fixed position during measurements. A 25x25 mm(exp 2) surface area is uniformly illuminated with X-rays or alpha-particles and gamma-rays. A novel Micro Pore Optic focusses a fraction of the emitted X-ray fluorescence onto a CCD operated at a few frames per second. On board processing allows measuring the energy and coordinates of each X-ray photon collected. Large sets of frames are reduced into 2d histograms used to compute higher level data products such as elemental maps and XRF spectra from selected regions of interest. XRF spectra are processed on the ground to further determine quantitative elemental compositions. The instrument development will be presented with an emphasis on the characterization and modelling of the X-ray focussing Micro Pore Optic. An outlook on possible alternative XRF imaging applications will be discussed.

  13. X-ray phase-contrast micro-tomography and image analysis of wood microstructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayo, Sheridan; Evans, Robert; Chen, Fiona; Lagerstrom, Ryan

    2009-01-01

    A number of commercially important properties of wood depend on details of the wood micro- and nano- structure. CSIRO Forest Biosciences have developed SilviScan, an analytical instrument which uses a number of high-speed techniques for analyzing these properties. X-ray micro-tomographic analysis of wood samples provides detailed 3D reconstructions of the wood microstructure which can be used to validate results from SilviScan measurements. A series of wood samples was analysed using laboratory-based phase-contrast x-ray micro-tomography. Image analysis techniques were applied to the 3D data sets to extract significant features and statistical properties of the specimens. These data provide a means of verification of results from the more rapid SilviScan techniques, and will clarify the results of micro-diffraction studies of wood microfibrils.

  14. Development of a normal incidence multilayer, imaging X-ray microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shealy, D.L.; Hoover, R.B.; Walker, A.B.C. Jr.; Barbee, T.W. Jr.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes the design, analysis, and fabrication of a normal-incidence multilayer 20x Schwarzschild imaging X-ray microscope. The microscope is being fabricated using much of the technology implemented in the Multispectral Solar Telescope Array. Results of diffraction analysis show that better than 400 A spatial resolution in the object plane up to a 1-mm field of view can be achieved with 125 A radiation. Other microscope systems for use in conjunction with X-ray telescopes are analyzed and designed. 18 refs

  15. Synchrotron radiation based micro X-ray fluorescence analysis of the calibration samples used in surface sensitive total reflection and grazing emission X-ray fluorescence techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubala-Kukuś, A.; Banaś, D.; Pajek, M.; Szlachetko, J.; Jagodziński, P.; Susini, J.; Salomé, M.

    2013-12-01

    Total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) and grazing emission X-ray fluorescence (GEXRF) are surface sensitive techniques and can be used for detailed surface studies of different materials, including ultra-low concentration contamination or the lateral and depth distributions of elements. The calibration procedure typically used involves placing a micro-droplet (˜μl) of the standard solution onto a silicon wafer (or quartz backing). After evaporation of the solvent, the residual amount of elements is used as a reference standard. Knowledge of the distribution of residue material on the substrate surface is crucial for precise quantification. In the present work the investigation of the lateral distribution of elements in the multielemental calibrating samples, containing the 23 most commonly studied elements, by using the synchrotron radiation based micro X-ray fluorescence is presented. The goal of this project was the study of a uniformity of the elemental distributions and determination of the residual elements morphology depending on the temperature of the drying process. The X-ray images were compared with optical and SEM images. Paper presents in details the experimental setup, sample preparation procedures, measurements and results. In the analysis of the X-ray images of the sample dried in high temperature the censoring approach was applied improving the quality of statistical analysis. The information on the elements distribution in the calibrating samples can be useful for developing more accurate calibration procedures applied in quantitative analysis of surface sensitive TXRF and GEXRF techniques.

  16. TH-AB-209-01: Making Benchtop X-Ray Fluorescence Computed Tomography (XFCT) Practical for in Vivo Imaging by Integration of a Dedicated High-Performance X-Ray Source in Conjunction with Micro-CT Functionality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manohar, N; Cho, S; Reynoso, F

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To make benchtop x-ray fluorescence computed tomography (XFCT) practical for routine preclinical imaging tasks with gold nanoparticles (GNPs) by deploying, integrating, and characterizing a dedicated high-performance x-ray source and addition of simultaneous micro-CT functionality. Methods: Considerable research effort is currently under way to develop a polychromatic benchtop cone-beam XFCT system capable of imaging GNPs by stimulation and detection of gold K-shell x-ray fluorescence (XRF) photons. Recently, an ad hoc high-power x-ray source was incorporated and used to image the biodistribution of GNPs within a mouse, postmortem. In the current work, a dedicated x-ray source system featuring a liquid-cooled tungsten-target x-ray tube (max 160 kVp, ∼3 kW power) was deployed. The source was operated at 125 kVp, 24 mA. The tube’s compact dimensions allowed greater flexibility for optimizing both the irradiation and detection geometries. Incident x-rays were shaped by a conical collimator and filtered by 2 mm of tin. A compact “OEM” cadmium-telluride x-ray detector was implemented for detecting XRF/scatter spectra. Additionally, a flat panel detector was installed to allow simultaneous transmission CT imaging. The performance of the system was characterized by determining the detection limit (10-second acquisition time) for inserts filled with water/GNPs at various concentrations (0 and 0.010–1.0 wt%) and embedded in a small-animal-sized phantom. The phantom was loaded with 0.5, 0.3, and 0.1 wt% inserts and imaged using XFCT and simultaneous micro-CT. Results: An unprecedented detection limit of 0.030 wt% was experimentally demonstrated, with a 33% reduction in acquisition time. The reconstructed XFCT image accurately localized the imaging inserts. Micro-CT imaging did not provide enough contrast to distinguish imaging inserts from the phantom under the current conditions. Conclusion: The system is immediately capable of in vivo preclinical XFCT

  17. Hybrid setup for micro- and nano-computed tomography in the hard X-ray range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fella, Christian; Balles, Andreas; Hanke, Randolf; Last, Arndt; Zabler, Simon

    2017-12-01

    With increasing miniaturization in industry and medical technology, non-destructive testing techniques are an area of ever-increasing importance. In this framework, X-ray microscopy offers an efficient tool for the analysis, understanding, and quality assurance of microscopic samples, in particular as it allows reconstructing three-dimensional data sets of the whole sample's volume via computed tomography (CT). The following article describes a compact X-ray microscope in the hard X-ray regime around 9 keV, based on a highly brilliant liquid-metal-jet source. In comparison to commercially available instruments, it is a hybrid that works in two different modes. The first one is a micro-CT mode without optics, which uses a high-resolution detector to allow scans of samples in the millimeter range with a resolution of 1 μm. The second mode is a microscope, which contains an X-ray optical element to magnify the sample and allows resolving 150 nm features. Changing between the modes is possible without moving the sample. Thus, the instrument represents an important step towards establishing high-resolution laboratory-based multi-mode X-ray microscopy as a standard investigation method.

  18. Study of a new portable x-ray source with micro-beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kaige; Li, Ji; Yang, Qinlao; Guo, Jinchuan; Guo, Baoping; Kuo, Xiaomei; Zhou, Junlan; Niu, Hanben

    2006-02-01

    A novel X-ray source with micro-beam has been studied in theory and experiment. The source is composed of three portions: LaB 6 crystal cathode electron gun emitting system, electrostatic focusing system, and permutable metal target system. The electronic current emitted by the electron-gun are controlled by modulating cathode temperature and Wehnelt grid voltage and ratio D w/H, two-equal-radius-cylinder-electrodes focusing system concentrates electron beam, the X-ray photons are irradiated by high energy electron beam bombarding the metal target. The new x-ray source's general-purpose capabilities such as continuous radiation and pulse radiation, focus size and luminance, are also tested. When the temperature of LaB6 cathode is about 1900K and partial pressures being kept below 10 -7 torr, the minimal focus diameter is merely about 10 microns. The new micro focus x-ray source has other lots of advantages such as economy, safety and facility.

  19. Characterization of ion beam sputtered deposited W/Si multilayers by grazing incidence x-ray diffraction and x-ray reflectivity technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhawan, Rajnish; Rai, Sanjay

    2016-05-01

    W/Si multilayers four samples have been deposited on silicon substrate using ion beam sputtering system. Thickness of tungsten (W) varies from around 10 Å to 40 Å while the silicon (Si) thickness remains constant at around 30 Å in multilayers [W-Si]x4. The samples have been characterized by grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXRD) and X-ray reflectivity technique (XRR). GIXRD study shows the crystalline behaviour of W/Si multilayer by varying W thickness and it is found that above 20 Å the W film transform from amorphous to crystalline phase and X-ray reflectivity data shows that the roughnesses of W increases on increasing the W thicknesses in W/Si multilayers.

  20. Analysis of mesoporous thin films by X-ray reflectivity, optical reflectivity and grazing incidence small angle X-ray scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibaud, A.; Dourdain, S.; Vignaud, G.

    2006-01-01

    It is well-established that X-ray reflectivity (XR) is an invaluable tool to investigate the structure of thin films. Indeed, this technique provides under correct analysis, the electron density profile of thin films in the direction perpendicular to the substrate. For thin films that exhibit lateral ordering at the nanometer scale, grazing incidence small angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS) ideally complements the XR technique to measure the scattering in off-specular directions. As typical examples, XR and GISAXS data of mesoporous silica thin films and porous materials are presented. The analysis of the XR curve allows to determine the porosity of the film. We also show that the combination of X-ray and visible optical reflection provides information about the index of refraction of thin films. Finally we report how capillary condensation of water can be monitored by XR and GISAXS

  1. Diffraction leveraged modulation of X-ray pulses using MEMS-based X-ray optics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, Daniel; Shenoy, Gopal; Wang, Jin; Walko, Donald A.; Jung, Il-Woong; Mukhopadhyay, Deepkishore

    2016-08-09

    A method and apparatus are provided for implementing Bragg-diffraction leveraged modulation of X-ray pulses using MicroElectroMechanical systems (MEMS) based diffractive optics. An oscillating crystalline MEMS device generates a controllable time-window for diffraction of the incident X-ray radiation. The Bragg-diffraction leveraged modulation of X-ray pulses includes isolating a particular pulse, spatially separating individual pulses, and spreading a single pulse from an X-ray pulse-train.

  2. A set-up of micro-X-ray fluorescence system based on polycapillary X-ray optics and applications for archaeology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Lin; Pan Qiuli; Ding Xunliang; Liu Zhiguo

    2008-01-01

    The paper concerns in the structures, performances and characteristics and applications for archaeology of a new micro-X-ray fluorescence system based on rotating anode X-ray generator and polycapillary X-ray optics. The polycapillary X-ray optics used here can focus the primary X-ray beam down to some tens of micrometers in diameters that allows for non-destructive and local analysis of sub-mm samples with minor/ trace level sensitivity. In order to prove the potentials of this instrument used in archaeology, a piece of Chinese ancient blue and white porcelain produced in Ming Dynasty was analyzed. The results show that intensities of Mn-Kα, Co-Kα are variable in agree with the thick of blue glaze. The correlation analysis indicates the Mn and Co have the best correlations. So, the concentrations or ratios of Mn and Co are crucial to determine the provenance and identify from a fake one of Chinese ancient blue and white porcelain. (authors)

  3. Note: Grazing incidence small and wide angle x-ray scattering combined with imaging ellipsometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koerstgens, V.; Meier, R.; Ruderer, M. A.; Guo, S.; Chiang, H.-Y.; Mueller-Buschbaum, P. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Physik-Department, Lehrstuhl fuer Funktionelle Materialien, James-Franck-Str. 1, 85748 Garching (Germany); Perlich, J.; Roth, S. V.; Gehrke, R. [HASYLAB, DESY, Notkestr. 85, 22607, Hamburg (Germany)

    2012-07-15

    The combination of grazing incidence small angle x-ray scattering (GISAXS) and grazing incidence wide angle x-ray scattering (GIWAXS) with optical imaging ellipsometry is presented as an upgrade of the available measurement techniques at the wiggler beamline BW4 of the Hamburger Synchrotronstrahlungslabor. The instrument is introduced with the description of the alignment procedure to assure the measurement of imaging ellipsometry and GISAXS/GIWAXS on the same sample spot. To demonstrate the possibilities of the new instrument examples of morphological investigation on films made of poly(3-hexylthiophene) and [6,6]-phenyl-C{sub 61} butyric acid methyl ester as well as textured poly(9,9-dioctylfluorene-alt-benzo-thia-diazole) are shown.

  4. The visualization of hepatic vasculature by x-ray micro-computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ananda, Shalini; Marsden, Valerie; Korkmaz, Emine; Tsafnat, Naomi; Soon, Lilian; Jones, Allan; Braet, Filip; Vekemans, Katrien

    2006-01-01

    In this study, X-ray micro-computed tomography (CT) was used to reconstruct the fine structure macro- and microvasculature in three dimensions in contrast-enhanced rat liver samples. The subsequent application in the experimental CC531s colorectal caner model was concurrent with results obtained from confocal microscopy in earlier studies. The en bloc stains osmium tetroxide in combination with uranyl acetate provided an excellent contrasting result for hepatic tissue after a trial of several contrasting agents. X-ray micro-CT allowed us to image the large blood vessels together with the branching sinusoids of hepatic tissue in three dimensions. Furthermore, interruption of the microvasculature was noted when rats were injected with CC531s colorectal cancer cells indicating the presence of hepatic metastases. (author)

  5. The X-ray-fluorescence facility at ANKA, Karlsruhe: Minimum detection limits and micro probe capabilities

    CERN Document Server

    Simon, R; Hagelstein, M

    2003-01-01

    At the recently constructed synchrotron radiation facility ANKA at Karlsruhe, Germany, a beamline partially dedicated to X-ray fluorescence has been constructed where TXRF and micro probe SRXRF experiments can be performed. The beam line with its retractable double multilayer monochromator is described. First measurements on reference samples allow a preliminary characterization of beam line parameters like exploitable energy range and the energy resolution as well as the sensitivity of the set-up in means of minimum detection limits.

  6. Plutonium-uranium mixed oxide characterization by coupling micro-X-ray diffraction and absorption investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degueldre, C.; Martin, M.; Kuri, G.; Grolimund, D.; Borca, C.

    2011-09-01

    Plutonium-uranium mixed oxide (MOX) fuels are currently used in nuclear reactors. The potential differences of metal redox state and microstructural developments of the matrix before and after irradiation are commonly analysed by electron probe microanalysis. In this work the structure and next-neighbor atomic environments of Pu and U oxide features within unirradiated homogeneous MOX and irradiated (60 MW d kg -1) MOX samples was analysed by micro-X-ray fluorescence (μ-XRF), micro-X-ray diffraction (μ-XRD) and micro-X-ray absorption fine structure (μ-XAFS) spectroscopy. The grain properties, chemical bonding, valences and stoichiometry of Pu and U are determined from the experimental data gained for the unirradiated as well as for irradiated fuel material examined in the center of the fuel as well as in its peripheral zone (rim). The formation of sub-grains is observed as well as their development from the center to the rim (polygonization). In the irradiated sample Pu remains tetravalent (>95%) and no (oxidation in the rim zone. Any slight potential plutonium oxidation is buffered by the uranium dioxide matrix while locally fuel cladding interaction could also affect the redox of the fuel.

  7. [Application of in situ micro energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence analysis in mineralogy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hai; Ge, Liang-Quan; Gu, Yi; Zhang, Qing-Xian; Xiong, Sheng-Qing

    2013-11-01

    Thirteen rock samples were collected for studying the variation of element content in the mineral during the alteration process from Xinjiang, China. The IED-6000 in situ micro energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence developed by CDUT was applied to get chemical and physical data from minerals. The non-destructive spectrometer is based on a low-power Mo-anode X-ray tube and a Si-PIN peltier cooled X-ray detector. The unique design of the tube's probe allows very close coupling of polycapillary and makes the use of micro-area measurement feasible and efficient. The spectrometer can be integrated into any microscope for analysis. The long axis diameter of beam spot is about 110 microm. According to micro-EDXRF measurement, the tetrahedrite was corrected to pyrite, improving the efficiency and accuracy of the mineral identification. The feldspar of mineralized rock sample is rich in Cu and Zn which can be used as prospecting indicator elements. Element content of Cr, Mn and Co shows negative correlation with the degree of mineralization.

  8. Bright X-ray source from a laser-driven micro-plasma-waveguide

    CERN Document Server

    Yi, Longqing

    2016-01-01

    Bright tunable x-ray sources have a number of applications in basic science, medicine and industry. The most powerful sources are synchrotrons, where relativistic electrons are circling in giant storage rings. In parallel, compact laser-plasma x-ray sources are being developed. Owing to the rapid progress in laser technology, very high-contrast femtosecond laser pulses of relativistic intensities become available. These pulses allow for interaction with micro-structured solid-density plasma without destroying the structure by parasitic pre-pulses. The high-contrast laser pulses as well as the manufacturing of materials at micro- and nano-scales open a new realm of possibilities for laser interaction with photonic materials at the relativistic intensities. Here we demonstrate, via numerical simulations, that when coupling with a readily available 1.8 Joule laser, a micro-plasma-waveguide (MPW) may serve as a novel compact x-ray source. Electrons are extracted from the walls by the laser field and form a dense ...

  9. Development of a micro-XRF system for biological samples based on proton-induced quasimonochromatic X-rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ploykrachang, K., E-mail: ploykrachang.k.aa@m.titech.ac.jp [Research Laboratory for Nuclear Reactors, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8550 (Japan); Hasegawa, J. [Department of Energy Sciences, Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta-cho, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8502 (Japan); Kondo, K.; Fukuda, H.; Oguri, Y. [Research Laboratory for Nuclear Reactors, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8550 (Japan)

    2014-07-15

    We have developed a micro-XRF system based on a proton-induced quasimonochromatic X-ray (QMXR) microbeam for in vivo measurement of biological samples. A 2.5-MeV proton beam impinged normally on a Cu foil target that was slightly thicker than the proton range. The emitted QMXR behind the Cu target was focused with a polycapillary X-ray half lens. For application to analysis of wet or aquatic samples, we prepared a QMXR beam with an incident angle of 45° with respect to the horizontal plane by using a dipole magnet in order to bend the primary proton beam downward by 45°. The focal spot size of the QMXR microbeam on a horizontal sample surface was evaluated to be 250 × 350 μm by a wire scanning method. A microscope camera with a long working distance was installed perpendicular to the sample surface to identify the analyzed position on the sample. The fluorescent radiation from the sample was collected by a Si-PIN photodiode X-ray detector. Using the setup above, we were able to successfully measure the accumulation and distribution of Co in the leaves of a free-floating aquatic plant on a dilute Co solution surface.

  10. Field emission behavior of carbon nanotube yarn for micro-resolution X-ray tube cathode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Jae Won; Mo, Chan Bin; Jung, Hyun Kyu; Ryu, Seongwoo; Hong, Soon Hyung

    2013-11-01

    Carbon nanotube (CNT) has excellent electrical and thermal conductivity and high aspect ratio for X-ray tube cathode. However, CNT field emission cathode has been shown unstable field emission and short life time due to field evaporation by high current density and detachment by electrostatic force. An alternative approach in this direction is the introduction of CNT yarn, which is a one dimensional assembly of individual carbon nanotubes bonded by the Van der Waals force. Because CNT yarn is composed with many CNTs, CNT yarns are expected to increase current density and life time for X-ray tube applications. In this research, CNT yarn was fabricated by spinning of a super-aligned CNT forest and was characterized for application to an X-ray tube cathode. CNT yarn showed a high field emission current density and a long lifetime of over 450 hours. Applying the CNT yarn field emitter to the X-ray tube cathode, it was possible to obtain micro-scale resolution images. The relationship between the field emission properties and the microstructure evolution was investigated and the unraveling effect of the CNT yarn was discussed.

  11. LabVIEW control software for scanning micro-beam X-ray fluorescence spectrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrobel, Pawel; Czyzycki, Mateusz; Furman, Leszek; Kolasinski, Krzysztof; Lankosz, Marek; Mrenca, Alina; Samek, Lucyna; Wegrzynek, Dariusz

    2012-05-15

    Confocal micro-beam X-ray fluorescence microscope was constructed. The system was assembled from commercially available components - a low power X-ray tube source, polycapillary X-ray optics and silicon drift detector - controlled by an in-house developed LabVIEW software. A video camera coupled to optical microscope was utilized to display the area excited by X-ray beam. The camera image calibration and scan area definition software were also based entirely on LabVIEW code. Presently, the main area of application of the newly constructed spectrometer is 2-dimensional mapping of element distribution in environmental, biological and geological samples with micrometer spatial resolution. The hardware and the developed software can already handle volumetric 3-D confocal scans. In this work, a front panel graphical user interface as well as communication protocols between hardware components were described. Two applications of the spectrometer, to homogeneity testing of titanium layers and to imaging of various types of grains in air particulate matter collected on membrane filters, were presented. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Magnetic field assisted finishing of ultra-lightweight and high-resolution MEMS x-ray micro-pore optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riveros, Raul E.; Yamaguchi, Hitomi; Mitsuishi, Ikuyuki; Takagi, Utako; Ezoe, Yuichiro; Kato, Fumiki; Sugiyama, Susumu; Yamasaki, Noriko; Mitsuda, Kazuhisa

    2009-05-01

    In recent years, X-ray telescopes have been shrinking in both size and weight to reduce cost and volume on space flight missions. Current designs focus on the use of MEMS technologies to fabricate ultra-lightweight and high-resolution X-ray optics. In 2006, Ezoe et al. introduced micro-pore X-ray optics fabricated using anisotropic wet etching of silicon (110) wafers. These optics, though extremely lightweight (completed telescope weight 1 kg or less for an effective area of 1000 cm2), had limited angular resolution, as the reflecting surfaces were flat crystal planes. To achieve higher angular resolution, curved reflecting surfaces should be used. Both silicon dry etching and X-ray LIGA were used to create X-ray optics with curvilinear micro-pores; however, the resulting surface roughness of the curved micro-pore sidewalls did not meet X-ray reflection criteria of 10 nm rms in a 10 μm2 area. This indicated the need for a precision polishing process. This paper describes the development of an ultra-precision polishing process employing an alternating magnetic field assisted finishing process to polish the micro-pore side walls to a mirror finish (< 4 nmrms). The processing principle is presented, and a polishing machine is designed and fabricated to explore the feasibility of this polishing process as a possible method for processing MEMS X-ray optics to meet X-ray reflection specifications.

  13. X-ray imaging with grazing-incidence microscopes developed for the LIL program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosch, R.; Boutin, J. Y.; Le Breton, J. P.; Gontier, D.; Jadaud, J. P.; Reverdin, C.; Soullie, G.; Lidove, G.; Maroni, R.

    2007-01-01

    This article describes x-ray imaging with grazing-incidence microscopes, developed for the experimental program carried out on the Ligne d'Integration Laser (LIL) facility [J. P. Le Breton et al., Inertial Fusion Sciences and Applications 2001 (Elsevier, Paris, 2002), pp. 856-862] (24 kJ, UV--0.35 nm). The design includes a large target-to-microscope (400-700 mm) distance required by the x-ray ablation issues anticipated on the Laser MegaJoule facility [P. A. Holstein et al., Laser Part. Beams 17, 403 (1999)] (1.8 MJ) which is under construction. Two eight-image Kirkpatrick-Baez microscopes [P. Kirkpatrick and A. V. Baez J. Opt. Soc. Am. 38, 766 (1948)] with different spectral wavelength ranges and with a 400 mm source-to-mirror distance image the target on a custom-built framing camera (time resolution of ∼80 ps). The soft x-ray version microscope is sensitive below 1 keV and its spatial resolution is better than 30 μm over a 2-mm-diam region. The hard x-ray version microscope has a 10 μm resolution over an 800-μm-diam region and is sensitive in the 1-5 keV energy range. Two other x-ray microscopes based on an association of toroidal/spherical surfaces (T/S microscopes) produce an image on a streak camera with a spatial resolution better than 30 μm over a 3 mm field of view in the direction of the camera slit. Both microscopes have been designed to have, respectively, a maximum sensitivity in the 0.1-1 and 1-5 keV energy range. We present the original design of these four microscopes and their test on a dc x-ray tube in the laboratory. The diagnostics were successfully used on LIL first experiments early in 2005. Results of soft x-ray imaging of a radiative jet during conical shaped laser interaction are shown

  14. Partially coherent X-ray wavefront propagation simulations including grazing-incidence focusing optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canestrari, Niccolo; Chubar, Oleg; Reininger, Ruben

    2014-09-01

    X-ray beamlines in modern synchrotron radiation sources make extensive use of grazing-incidence reflective optics, in particular Kirkpatrick-Baez elliptical mirror systems. These systems can focus the incoming X-rays down to nanometer-scale spot sizes while maintaining relatively large acceptance apertures and high flux in the focused radiation spots. In low-emittance storage rings and in free-electron lasers such systems are used with partially or even nearly fully coherent X-ray beams and often target diffraction-limited resolution. Therefore, their accurate simulation and modeling has to be performed within the framework of wave optics. Here the implementation and benchmarking of a wave-optics method for the simulation of grazing-incidence mirrors based on the local stationary-phase approximation or, in other words, the local propagation of the radiation electric field along geometrical rays, is described. The proposed method is CPU-efficient and fully compatible with the numerical methods of Fourier optics. It has been implemented in the Synchrotron Radiation Workshop (SRW) computer code and extensively tested against the geometrical ray-tracing code SHADOW. The test simulations have been performed for cases without and with diffraction at mirror apertures, including cases where the grazing-incidence mirrors can be hardly approximated by ideal lenses. Good agreement between the SRW and SHADOW simulation results is observed in the cases without diffraction. The differences between the simulation results obtained by the two codes in diffraction-dominated cases for illumination with fully or partially coherent radiation are analyzed and interpreted. The application of the new method for the simulation of wavefront propagation through a high-resolution X-ray microspectroscopy beamline at the National Synchrotron Light Source II (Brookhaven National Laboratory, USA) is demonstrated.

  15. X-ray Micro-Tomography of Ablative Heat Shield Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panerai, Francesco; Ferguson, Joseph; Borner, Arnaud; Mansour, Nagi N.; Barnard, Harold S.; MacDowell, Alastair A.; Parkinson, Dilworth Y.

    2016-01-01

    X-ray micro-tomography is a non-destructive characterization technique that allows imaging of materials structures with voxel sizes in the micrometer range. This level of resolution makes the technique very attractive for imaging porous ablators used in hypersonic entry systems. Besides providing a high fidelity description of the material architecture, micro-tomography enables computations of bulk material properties and simulations of micro-scale phenomena. This presentation provides an overview of a collaborative effort between NASA Ames Research Center and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, aimed at developing micro-tomography experiments and simulations for porous ablative materials. Measurements are carried using x-rays from the Advanced Light Source at Berkeley Lab on different classes of ablative materials used in NASA entry systems. Challenges, strengths and limitations of the technique for imaging materials such as lightweight carbon-phenolic systems and woven textiles are discussed. Computational tools developed to perform numerical simulations based on micro-tomography are described. These enable computations of material properties such as permeability, thermal and radiative conductivity, tortuosity and other parameters that are used in ablator response models. Finally, we present the design of environmental cells that enable imaging materials under simulated operational conditions, such as high temperature, mechanical loads and oxidizing atmospheres.Keywords: Micro-tomography, Porous media, Ablation

  16. Studies on polymer thin film structure by X-ray and neutron reflectivity and grazing incidence small angle scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, Hiroki; Kanaya, Toshiji

    2011-01-01

    We have reviewed structure studies of polymer thin films using synchrotron radiation X-ray and neutron reflectivity as well as recently developed grazing incidence small-angle X-ray and neutron scattering, including studies on polymer thin films with embedded ordered nanometer cells, distribution of glass transition temperature Tg in thin polystyrene films, and dewetting process of polymer blend thin films. (author)

  17. First combined total reflection X-ray fluorescence and grazing incidence X-ray absorption spectroscopy characterization of aeolian dust archived in Antarctica and Alpine deep ice cores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cibin, G. [Diamond Light Source, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot, Oxon OX110DE (United Kingdom); IMONT/EIM, Ente Italiano della Montagna, P.za dei Caprettari 70, 00176 Roma (Italy); Universita' degli Studi di Roma Tre, Dipartimento di Scienze Geologiche, L.go S. Leonardo Murialdo 1, 00146 Roma (Italy)], E-mail: giannantonio.cibin@diamond.ac.uk; Marcelli, A. [INFN - Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, P.O. Box 13, 00044 Frascati (Roma) (Italy); Maggi, V. [Universita degli Studi di Milano-Bicocca, Dipartimento di Scienze dell' Ambiente e del Territorio, Piazza della Scienza 1, 20126 Milano (Italy); Sala, M. [Universita degli Studi di Milano-Bicocca, Dipartimento di Scienze dell' Ambiente e del Territorio, Piazza della Scienza 1, 20126 Milano (Italy); Universita degli Studi di Milano, Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra ' A. Desio' , Sez. Mineralogia, Via Mangiagalli 34, 20133 Milano (Italy); Marino, F.; Delmonte, B. [Universita degli Studi di Milano-Bicocca, Dipartimento di Scienze dell' Ambiente e del Territorio, Piazza della Scienza 1, 20126 Milano (Italy); Albani, S. [Universita degli Studi di Milano-Bicocca, Dipartimento di Scienze dell' Ambiente e del Territorio, Piazza della Scienza 1, 20126 Milano (Italy); Universita degli Studi di Siena, Dottorato in Scienze Polari, via Laterina 8, 53100 Siena (Italy); Pignotti, S. [IMONT/EIM, Ente Italiano della Montagna, P.za dei Caprettari 70, 00176 Roma (Italy)

    2008-12-15

    Aeolian mineral dust archived in polar and mid latitude ice cores represents a precious proxy for assessing environmental and climatic variations at different timescales. In this respect, the identification of dust mineralogy plays a key role. In this work we performed the first preliminary X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) experiments on mineral dust particles extracted from Antarctic and from Alpine firn cores using grazing incidence geometry at the Fe K-edge. A dedicated high vacuum experimental chamber was set up for normal-incidence and total-reflection X-Ray Fluorescence and Absorption Spectroscopy analyses on minor amounts of mineral materials at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory. Results show that this experimental technique and protocol allows recognizing iron inclusion mineral fraction on insoluble dust in the 1-10 {mu}g range.

  18. Optimization of Grazing Incidence Optics for Wide-Field X-Ray Survey Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roming, P. W. A.; Burrows, D. N.; Garmire, G. P.; Roush, W. B.

    1999-12-01

    Optimization of wide-field X-ray optics could greatly enhance X-ray surveys. Discussions of optimizing wide-field X-ray optics, with field-of-views less-than 1.1 degree-squared, have been made previously in the literature. However, very little has been published about the optimizing of wide-field X-ray optics with larger fields-of-view. We have been working on the design of a wide-field (3.1 degree-squared field-of-view), short focal length (190.5 cm), grazing incidence mirror shell set, with a desired rms image spot size of 15 arcsec. The baseline design incorporates Wolter I type mirror shells with polynomial perturbations applied to the grazing incidence surface. By optimizing the polynomial, the rms image spot size can be minimized for a large range of grazing angles. The overall minimization technique is to efficiently optimize the polynomial coefficients that directly influence the angular resolution, without stepping through the entire multidimensional coefficient space. The multidimensional minimization techniques that have been investigated include: the downhill simplex method; the coupling of genetic algorithms with full and fractional, including Plackett-Burman, factorial designs; and the coupling of genetic algorithms with Box-Behnken and central composite response surface designs. We have also examined the use of neural networks, coupled with genetic algorithms, as a method of multidimensional minimization. Investigations of backpropagation, probabilistic (PNN), general regression (GRNN), and group method of data handling (GMDH) neural networks have been made. We report our findings to date. This research is funded by NASA grant #NAG5-5093.

  19. Combined evaluation of grazing incidence X-ray fluorescence and X-ray reflectivity data for improved profiling of ultra-shallow depth distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingerle, D; Meirer, F; Pepponi, G; Demenev, E; Giubertoni, D; Wobrauschek, P; Streli, C

    2014-09-01

    The continuous downscaling of the process size for semiconductor devices pushes the junction depths and consequentially the implantation depths to the top few nanometers of the Si substrate. This motivates the need for sensitive methods capable of analyzing dopant distribution, total dose and possible impurities. X-ray techniques utilizing the external reflection of X-rays are very surface sensitive, hence providing a non-destructive tool for process analysis and control. X-ray reflectometry (XRR) is an established technique for the characterization of single- and multi-layered thin film structures with layer thicknesses in the nanometer range. XRR spectra are acquired by varying the incident angle in the grazing incidence regime while measuring the specular reflected X-ray beam. The shape of the resulting angle-dependent curve is correlated to changes of the electron density in the sample, but does not provide direct information on the presence or distribution of chemical elements in the sample. Grazing Incidence XRF (GIXRF) measures the X-ray fluorescence induced by an X-ray beam incident under grazing angles. The resulting angle dependent intensity curves are correlated to the depth distribution and mass density of the elements in the sample. GIXRF provides information on contaminations, total implanted dose and to some extent on the depth of the dopant distribution, but is ambiguous with regard to the exact distribution function. Both techniques use similar measurement procedures and data evaluation strategies, i.e. optimization of a sample model by fitting measured and calculated angle curves. Moreover, the applied sample models can be derived from the same physical properties, like atomic scattering/form factors and elemental concentrations; a simultaneous analysis is therefore a straightforward approach. This combined analysis in turn reduces the uncertainties of the individual techniques, allowing a determination of dose and depth profile of the implanted

  20. Polychromatic X-ray Micro- and Nano-Beam Science and Instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ice, G. E.; Larson, B. C.; Liu, W.; Barabash, R. I.; Specht, E. D.; Pang, J. W. L.; Budai, J. D.; Tischler, J. Z.; Khounsary, A.; Liu, C.; Macrander, A. T.; Assoufid, L.

    2007-01-01

    Polychromatic x-ray micro- and nano-beam diffraction is an emerging nondestructive tool for the study of local crystalline structure and defect distributions. Both long-standing fundamental materials science issues, and technologically important questions about specific materials systems can be uniquely addressed. Spatial resolution is determined by the beam size at the sample and by a knife-edge technique called differential aperture microscopy that decodes the origin of scattering from along the penetrating x-ray beam. First-generation instrumentation on station 34-ID-E at the Advanced Photon Source (APS) allows for nondestructive automated recovery of the three-dimensional (3D) local crystal phase and orientation. Also recovered are the local elastic-strain and the dislocation tensor distributions. New instrumentation now under development will further extend the applications of polychromatic microdiffraction and will revolutionize materials characterization.

  1. Polychromatic X-ray Micro- and Nano-Beam Science and Instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ice, G.E.; Larson, Ben C.; Liu, Wenjun; Barabash, Rozaliya; Specht, Eliot D; Pang, Judy; Budai, John D.; Tischler, Jonathan Zachary; Khounsary, Ali; Liu, Chian; Macrander, Albert T.; Assoufid, Lahsen

    2007-01-01

    Polychromatic x-ray micro- and nano-beam diffraction is an emerging nondestructive tool for the study of local crystalline structure and defect distributions. Both long-standing fundamental materials science issues, and technologically important questions about specific materials systems can be uniquely addressed. Spatial resolution is determined by the beam size at the sample and by a knife-edge technique called differential aperture microscopy that decodes the origin of scattering from along the penetrating x-ray beam. First-generation instrumentation on station 34-ID-E at the Advanced Photon Source (APS) allows for nondestructive automated recovery of the three-dimensional (3D) local crystal phase and orientation. Also recovered are the local elastic-strain and the dislocation tensor distributions. New instrumentation now under development will further extend the applications of polychromatic microdiffraction and will revolutionize materials characterization

  2. Status of the Micro-X Sounding Rocket X-Ray Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldfinger, D. C.; Adams, J. S.; Baker, R.; Bandler, S. R.; Danowski, M. E.; Doriese, W. B.; Eckart, M. E.; Figueroa-Feliciano, E.; Hilton, G. C.; Hubbard, A. J. F.; hide

    2016-01-01

    Micro-X is a sounding rocket borne X-ray telescope that utilizes transition edge sensors to perform imaging spectroscopy with a high level of energy resolution. Its 2.1m focal length X-ray optic has an effective area of 300 sq cm, a field of view of 11.8 arcmin, and a bandpass of 0.12.5 keV. The detector array has 128 pixels and an intrinsic energy resolution of 4.5 eV FWHM. The integration of the system has progressed with functional tests of the detectors and electronics complete, and performance characterization of the detectors is underway. We present an update of ongoing progress in preparation for the upcoming launch of the instrument.

  3. Study of the grazing-incidence X-ray scattering of strongly disturbed fractal surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roshchin, B. S., E-mail: ross@crys.ras.ru; Chukhovsky, F. N.; Pavlyuk, M. D.; Opolchentsev, A. M.; Asadchikov, V. E. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography, Federal Research Centre “Crystallography and Photonics” (Russian Federation)

    2017-03-15

    The applicability of different approaches to the description of hard X-ray scattering from rough surfaces is generally limited by a maximum surface roughness height of no more than 1 nm. Meanwhile, this value is several times larger for the surfaces of different materials subjected to treatment, especially in the initial treatment stages. To control the roughness parameters in all stages of surface treatment, a new approach has been developed, which is based on a series expansion of wavefield over the plane eigenstate-function waves describing the small-angle scattering of incident X-rays in terms of plane q-waves propagating through the interface between two media with a random function of relief heights. To determine the amplitudes of reflected and transmitted plane q-waves, a system of two linked integral equations was derived. The solutions to these equations correspond (in zero order) to the well-known Fresnel expressions for a smooth plane interface. Based on these solutions, a statistical fractal model of an isotropic rough interface is built in terms of root-mean-square roughness σ, two-point correlation length l, and fractal surface index h. The model is used to interpret X-ray scattering data for polished surfaces of single-crystal cadmium telluride samples.

  4. Fabrication of a Polymer Micro Needle Array by Mask-Dragging X-Ray Lithography and Alignment X-Ray Lithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yi-Gui; Yang Chun-Sheng; Liu Jing-Quan; Sugiyama Susumu

    2011-01-01

    Polymer materials such as transparent thermoplastic poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) have been of great interest in the research and development of integrated circuits and micro-electromechanical systems due to their relatively low cost and easy process. We fabricated PMMA-based polymer hollow microneedle arrays by mask-dragging and aligning x-ray lithography. Techniques for 3D micromachining by direct lithography using x-rays are developed. These techniques are based on using image projection in which the x-ray is used to illuminate an appropriate gold pattern on a polyimide film mask. The mask is imaged onto the PMMA sample. A pattern with an area of up to 100 × 100mm 2 can be fabricated with sub-micron resolution and a highly accurate order of a few microns by using a dragging mask. The fabrication technology has several advantages, such as forming complex 3D micro structures, high throughput and low cost. (cross-disciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  5. Integration of X-ray micro tomography and fluorescence for applications on natural building stones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dewanckele, J; Cnudde, V; Pieters, K; Jacobs, P; Boone, M; Loo, D Van; De Witte, Y; Vlassenbroeck, J; Dierick, M; Masschaele, B; Hoorebeke, L Van

    2009-01-01

    X-ray computed tomography (CT) is an excellent, non-destructive analysis tool for characterising many different materials. In geosciences, 3D visualisation is becoming of prime importance in characterising internal structures of various rock types. It enables new approaches in petrophysical research of rock components, including pore and mineral distribution. Although CT provides a lot of information, this technique is limited concerning information on chemical element distribution. X-ray fluorescence (XRF) on the other hand is an excellent technique to obtain the missing information on chemical properties. At the recently established 'Centre for X-ray Tomography' of Ghent University (UGCT) a micro- and nanoCT scanner has been constructed. It is expected that by combination of high-resolution CT and XRF it will be possible to characterise the spatial mineral and element distribution. The combination of both techniques has been applied on natural building stones, in order to get a better insight into some geological parameters (porosity, pore structure, mineral distribution, colour, grain orientation, etc.). Afterwards, the integration of the Morpho+ software tool provides us a 3D quantification of the resulting data.

  6. Synchrotron radiation micro-X-ray fluorescence analysis: A tool to increase accuracy in microscopic analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Adams, F

    2003-01-01

    Microscopic X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis has potential for development as a certification method and as a calibration tool for other microanalytical techniques. The interaction of X-rays with matter is well understood and modelling studies show excellent agreement between experimental data and calculations using Monte Carlo simulation. The method can be used for a direct iterative calculation of concentrations using available high accuracy physical constants. Average accuracy is in the range of 3-5% for micron sized objects at concentration levels of less than 1 ppm with focused radiation from SR sources. The end-station ID18F of the ESRF is dedicated to accurate quantitative micro-XRF analysis including fast 2D scanning with collection of full X-ray spectra. Important aspects of the beamline are the precise monitoring of the intensity of the polarized, variable energy beam and the high reproducibility of the set-up measurement geometry, instrumental parameters and long-term stability.

  7. The use of x-ray micro-digital radiography for clay material inspection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suparta, Gede B.; Louk, Andreas C.; Kurniasari, Herlina; Wiguna, Gede A.

    2014-06-01

    An x-ray micro-digital radiography (μ-DR) system has been developed at the Gadjah Mada University Indonesia. The μ- DR system was developed as an add-on unit on an x-ray Diffraction (XRD) system using one extra beam-port as its radiation source. A fluorescence screen encapsulated in a dark tube then coupled by a CCD camera was used as an imaging plate. The radiography objects were some sample clays for earthen or ceramic material of handicraft. The clays differ by particle size, namely: 40 mesh, 60 mesh, 80 mesh, and 100 mesh. The objects were put in front of the imaging plate and then they were exposed by x-ray beam. The image formed on the screen was captured by the CCD camera and then it was converted into digital microradiograph of a size of 720x576. Then, after noise suppression process and normalization procedure, the microradiograph were compared each other by considering particle size. This facility can be used as a non-destructive and testing material studies for examining the quality of earthen or ceramic handicraft.

  8. Improving x-ray fluorescence signal for benchtop polychromatic cone-beam x-ray fluorescence computed tomography by incident x-ray spectrum optimization: a Monte Carlo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manohar, Nivedh; Jones, Bernard L; Cho, Sang Hyun

    2014-10-01

    To develop an accurate and comprehensive Monte Carlo (MC) model of an experimental benchtop polychromatic cone-beam x-ray fluorescence computed tomography (XFCT) setup and apply this MC model to optimize incident x-ray spectrum for improving production/detection of x-ray fluorescence photons from gold nanoparticles (GNPs). A detailed MC model, based on an experimental XFCT system, was created using the Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) transport code. The model was validated by comparing MC results including x-ray fluorescence (XRF) and scatter photon spectra with measured data obtained under identical conditions using 105 kVp cone-beam x-rays filtered by either 1 mm of lead (Pb) or 0.9 mm of tin (Sn). After validation, the model was used to investigate the effects of additional filtration of the incident beam with Pb and Sn. Supplementary incident x-ray spectra, representing heavier filtration (Pb: 2 and 3 mm; Sn: 1, 2, and 3 mm) were computationally generated and used with the model to obtain XRF/scatter spectra. Quasimonochromatic incident x-ray spectra (81, 85, 90, 95, and 100 keV with 10 keV full width at half maximum) were also investigated to determine the ideal energy for distinguishing gold XRF signal from the scatter background. Fluorescence signal-to-dose ratio (FSDR) and fluorescence-normalized scan time (FNST) were used as metrics to assess results. Calculated XRF/scatter spectra for 1-mm Pb and 0.9-mm Sn filters matched (r ≥ 0.996) experimental measurements. Calculated spectra representing additional filtration for both filter materials showed that the spectral hardening improved the FSDR at the expense of requiring a much longer FNST. In general, using Sn instead of Pb, at a given filter thickness, allowed an increase of up to 20% in FSDR, more prominent gold XRF peaks, and up to an order of magnitude decrease in FNST. Simulations using quasimonochromatic spectra suggested that increasing source x-ray energy, in the investigated range of 81-100 ke

  9. Improving x-ray fluorescence signal for benchtop polychromatic cone-beam x-ray fluorescence computed tomography by incident x-ray spectrum optimization: A Monte Carlo study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manohar, Nivedh; Jones, Bernard L.; Cho, Sang Hyun

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To develop an accurate and comprehensive Monte Carlo (MC) model of an experimental benchtop polychromatic cone-beam x-ray fluorescence computed tomography (XFCT) setup and apply this MC model to optimize incident x-ray spectrum for improving production/detection of x-ray fluorescence photons from gold nanoparticles (GNPs). Methods: A detailed MC model, based on an experimental XFCT system, was created using the Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) transport code. The model was validated by comparing MC results including x-ray fluorescence (XRF) and scatter photon spectra with measured data obtained under identical conditions using 105 kVp cone-beam x-rays filtered by either 1 mm of lead (Pb) or 0.9 mm of tin (Sn). After validation, the model was used to investigate the effects of additional filtration of the incident beam with Pb and Sn. Supplementary incident x-ray spectra, representing heavier filtration (Pb: 2 and 3 mm; Sn: 1, 2, and 3 mm) were computationally generated and used with the model to obtain XRF/scatter spectra. Quasimonochromatic incident x-ray spectra (81, 85, 90, 95, and 100 keV with 10 keV full width at half maximum) were also investigated to determine the ideal energy for distinguishing gold XRF signal from the scatter background. Fluorescence signal-to-dose ratio (FSDR) and fluorescence-normalized scan time (FNST) were used as metrics to assess results. Results: Calculated XRF/scatter spectra for 1-mm Pb and 0.9-mm Sn filters matched (r ≥ 0.996) experimental measurements. Calculated spectra representing additional filtration for both filter materials showed that the spectral hardening improved the FSDR at the expense of requiring a much longer FNST. In general, using Sn instead of Pb, at a given filter thickness, allowed an increase of up to 20% in FSDR, more prominent gold XRF peaks, and up to an order of magnitude decrease in FNST. Simulations using quasimonochromatic spectra suggested that increasing source x-ray energy, in the

  10. Inside marginal adaptation of crowns by X-ray micro-computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dos Santos, T. M.; Lima, I.; Lopes, R. T. [Nuclear Instrumentation Laboratory, Nuclear Engineering Program, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, RJ, (Brazil); Author, S. B. Jr. [Department of Physics, Colorado State University, Ft. Collins, CO 80523, (United States)

    2015-07-01

    The objective of this work was to access dental arcade by using X-ray micro-computed tomography. For this purpose high resolution system was used and three groups were studied: Zirkonzahn CAD-CAM system, IPS e.max Press, and metal ceramic. The three systems assessed in this study showed results of marginal and discrepancy gaps clinically accepted. The great result of 2D and 3D evaluations showed that the used technique is a powerful method to investigate quantitative characteristics of dental arcade. (authors)

  11. Performance of a micro-strip gas chamber in solution X-ray scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Toyokawa, H; Inoko, Y; Nagayoshi, T; Nishi, Y; Nishikawa, Y; Ochi, A; Suzuki, M; Tanimori, T

    2001-01-01

    The performance of a Micro-Strip Gas Chamber in solution X-ray scattering was studied at the RIKEN structural biology beamline I of the SPring-8 facility. The practical dynamic range was confirmed to be approx 1,000,000 : 1 by measuring S sup - sup 4 decay from a polystyrene latex solution. Steep troughs of scattering profile from an apoferritin solution were clearly obtained without smearing. An unfolding process of a pH jump of cytochrome c was measured. A time resolution of 500 mu s was achieved.

  12. Micro energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence analysis of polychrome lead-glazed Portuguese faiences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guilherme, A.; Pessanha, S.; Carvalho, M.L.; Santos, J.M.F. dos; Coroado, J.

    2010-01-01

    Several glazed ceramic pieces, originally produced in Coimbra (Portugal), were submitted to elemental analysis, having as premise the pigment manufacture production recognition. Although having been produced in Coimbra, their location changed as time passed due to historical reasons. A recent exhibition in Coimbra brought together a great number of these pieces and in situ micro Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (μ-EDXRF) analyses were performed in order to achieve some chemical and physical data on the manufacture of faiences in Coimbra. A non-commercial μ-EDXRF equipment for in situ analysis was employed in this work, carrying some important improvements when compared to the conventional ones, namely, analyzing spot sizes of about 100 μm diameter. The combination of a capillary X-ray lens with a new generation of low power microfocus X-ray tube and a drift chamber detector enabled a portable unit for micro-XRF with a few tens of μm lateral resolution. The advantages in using a portable system emphasized with polycapillary optics enabled to distinguish proximal different pigmented areas, as well as the glaze itself. These first scientific results on the pigment analysis of the collection of faiences seem to point to a unique production center with own techniques and raw materials. This conclusion arose with identification of the blue pigments having in its constitution Mn, Fe Co and As and the yellows as a result of the combination between Pb and Sb. A statistical treatment was used to reveal groups of similarities on the pigments elemental profile.

  13. Synchrotron X-ray micro-beam studies of ancient Egyptian make-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinetto, P.; Anne, M.; Dooryhee, E.; Drakopoulos, M.; Dubus, M.; Salomon, J.; Simionovici, A.; Walter, Ph.

    2001-01-01

    Vases full of make-up are most often present in the burial furniture of Egyptian tombs dated from the pharaonic period. The powdered cosmetics made of isolated grains are analysed to identify their trace element signature. From this signature we identify the provenance of the mineral ingredients in the make-up and we observe different impurities in products, which have been demonstrated as synthetic substances by previous works. Focused X-ray micro-beam (2x5 μm 2 ) is successively tuned at 11 keV, below the L III absorption edge of Pb, and 31.8 keV for global characterisation of the metal impurities. The fluorescence signal integrated over each single grain is detected against the X-ray micro-diffraction pattern collected in transmission with a bi-dimensional detector. Furthermore, for galena grains rich in Zn, the XANES signal at the K-absorption edge of Zn shows its immediate nearest-neighbour environment

  14. Development of glancing-incidence and glancing-take-off X-ray fluorescence apparatus for surface and thin-film analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuji, Kouichi; Wagatsuma, Kazuaki; Yamada, Takashi; Utaka, Tadashi

    1997-01-01

    We have studied X-ray fluorescence analysis under glancing incidence and glancing take-off conditions. Recently, we have developed a third apparatus for detecting glancing-incidence and take-off X-ray fluorescence, which makes it possible to measure the incident-angle dependence, the take-off-angle dependence. X-ray reflectivity, and X-ray diffraction. Primarily, we have measured the take-off angular dependence of X-ray fluorescence using this apparatus. Glancing take-off X-ray fluorescence has some advantages in comparison with glancing-incidence X-ray fluorescence. The surface density and the absolute angles were determined by analysing the take-off angle dependence of the fluorescent X-rays emitted from identical atoms with the aid of the reciprocity theorem. (Author)

  15. Survey on th incidence of homeless pulmonary tuberculosis infection rate through chest x-ray examination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Mi Young; Shin, Sung Rae [Dept. of Nursing, Sahmyook University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ryu, Young Hwan [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Hwan Yeal [Dept. of Medical Business Administration, U1 University, Yeongdong (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-02-15

    This study, Seoul City shelter, you are trying to seek medical cooperation and cure rate increase proposal Yu fndings’s current situation and tuberculosis of homeless tuberculosis. Inspector, and has a total 591 people is targeted to implement an interview after acquiring utilization agreement in studies conducted chest X-ray photography. Of the interview questions, three or more protons, it is determined that the TB symptomatic conducted sputum examination, chest X-ray examination confrms the physician radiology, when sputum examination primarily chromatic fndings the double implemented and conducted by requesting the ship inspection also said inspection sputum acid-fast bacteria if it is true one, respectively. confrmed case result of checking whether there is a difference due to risk factors (Jb) at the chi square black, it was found that there is no statistically significant difference at 95% confidence level. (χ{sup 2}=0.276, p>0.05), suspected case (Ac, Ae) results of examining whether there is a difference due to risk factors in chi square black, that there is a statistically significant difference at 99% confidence level is I found (χ{sup 2}=9.414, p<0.01). The nature of the homeless tuberculosis screening and directed to the distance homeless specifc location are likely to evaluate the actual incidence low and aggressive or management needs, the rationale is allowed insufficient reality is. Through this research, future, for tuberculosis high risk tuberculosis patient, such as homeless to expand the tuberculosis screening of infectious tuberculosis patients in private medical institutions, and one-stop service that chest X-ray examination and sputum examination is carried out at the same time introduced immediately to prevent the inspection and examination, cure, and should establish a foundation that can be up to post administration.

  16. Survey on th incidence of homeless pulmonary tuberculosis infection rate through chest x-ray examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Mi Young; Shin, Sung Rae; Ryu, Young Hwan; Lim, Hwan Yeal

    2017-01-01

    This study, Seoul City shelter, you are trying to seek medical cooperation and cure rate increase proposal Yu fndings’s current situation and tuberculosis of homeless tuberculosis. Inspector, and has a total 591 people is targeted to implement an interview after acquiring utilization agreement in studies conducted chest X-ray photography. Of the interview questions, three or more protons, it is determined that the TB symptomatic conducted sputum examination, chest X-ray examination confrms the physician radiology, when sputum examination primarily chromatic fndings the double implemented and conducted by requesting the ship inspection also said inspection sputum acid-fast bacteria if it is true one, respectively. confrmed case result of checking whether there is a difference due to risk factors (Jb) at the chi square black, it was found that there is no statistically significant difference at 95% confidence level. (χ 2 =0.276, p>0.05), suspected case (Ac, Ae) results of examining whether there is a difference due to risk factors in chi square black, that there is a statistically significant difference at 99% confidence level is I found (χ 2 =9.414, p<0.01). The nature of the homeless tuberculosis screening and directed to the distance homeless specifc location are likely to evaluate the actual incidence low and aggressive or management needs, the rationale is allowed insufficient reality is. Through this research, future, for tuberculosis high risk tuberculosis patient, such as homeless to expand the tuberculosis screening of infectious tuberculosis patients in private medical institutions, and one-stop service that chest X-ray examination and sputum examination is carried out at the same time introduced immediately to prevent the inspection and examination, cure, and should establish a foundation that can be up to post administration

  17. Imaging biofilms in porous media using X-ray computed micro-tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davit, Y.; Debenest, G.; Quintard, M.

    2009-12-01

    In soils and rivers subsurface, bacterial biofilms growth induce modifications of mass and momentum transport dynamics. Evidence for these modifications have been developed essentially by inspection, that is, observation of the reduction of hydraulic conductivity, permeability, changes in porosity and anomalous transport. Deeper understanding of these sessile communities in porous media environments and of the multiscale/multiphase complexity of the system requires 3-D informations concerning the pore-scale/biofilm-scale geometry. Additionnally, breakthroughs in imaging techniques are likely to trigger breakthroughs in the theoretical analysis. In this study, we develop a new technique for direct observation and imaging of unstrained biofilms in porous media using X-ray computed micro-tomography. The biofilms are grown for ten days on polyamide and expanded polystyrene beads placed in small plastic columns. A circulation of water from the river Garonne (France) is imposed using peristaltic pumps. No particular bacterial strain is introduced, the micro-organisms being naturally present in the water from the river. The X-ray acquisition is performed by a Skyscan-1174 micro-CT. A special experimental technique, based on two different contrast agents, has been designed to solve the challenging problem of imaging 3 phases of initial similar absorption coefficients. On the one hand, we use a suspension of barium sulfate to enhance the contrast of the water-phase. On the other hand, the absorption of the biofilm-phase is increased using iodine which diffuses into the polymeric matrix. Examples of reconstructed images are given to illustrate the effectiveness of the method. We demonstrate how to combine the 3-D measurements with upscaling techniques such as volume averaging, by calculating the modifications of the permeability of the system when biofilms grow. At last, we aim to couple these 3-D measurements with upscaled reactive models to describe the Darcy

  18. Detection of short range order in SiO{sub 2} thin-films by grazing-incidence wide and small-angle X-ray scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagata, Kohki, E-mail: nagata.koki@iri-tokyo.jp [Tokyo Metropolitan Industrial Technology Research Institute, 2-4-10 Aomi, Koto-ku, Tokyo 135-0064 (Japan); School of Science and Technology, Meiji University, 1-1-1 Higashimita, Tama-ku, Kawasaki, Kanagawa 214-8571 (Japan); Ogura, Atsushi [School of Science and Technology, Meiji University, 1-1-1 Higashimita, Tama-ku, Kawasaki, Kanagawa 214-8571 (Japan); Hirosawa, Ichiro [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute (JASRI), 1-1-1, Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); Suwa, Tomoyuki; Teramoto, Akinobu; Ohmi, Tadahiro [New Industry Creation Hatchery Center, Tohoku University, 6-6-10 Aramakiazaaoba, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8579 (Japan)

    2016-04-21

    The effects of the fabrication process conditions on the microstructure of silicon dioxide thin films of <10 nm thickness are presented. The microstructure was investigated using grazing-incidence wide and small-angle X-ray scattering methods with synchrotron radiation. The combination of a high brilliance light source and grazing incident configuration enabled the observation of very weak diffuse X-ray scattering from SiO{sub 2} thin films. The results revealed different microstructures, which were dependent on oxidizing species or temperature. The micro-level properties differed from bulk properties reported in the previous literature. It was indicated that these differences originate from inner stress. The detailed structure in an amorphous thin film was not revealed owing to detection difficulties.

  19. Adjustable Grazing Incidence X-ray Optics with 0.5 Arc Second Resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Paul

    We seek to develop adjustable grazing incidence optics for x-ray astronomy. The goal of this development is thin, lightweight mirrors with angular resolution of 0.5 arc seconds, comparable to the Chandra X-ray Observatory. The new mirror design consists of thin segments of a Wolter-I grazing incidence mirror, with piezo-electric material deposited directly on the back surface of the mirror. Depositing a pattern of independently addressable electrodes on top of the piezoelectric material produces an array of independent piezo cells. Energizing a particular cell introduces a localized deformation in the mirror without the need for a reaction structure. By applying the appropriate voltage to the piezo cells, it is possible to correct mirror figure errors that result from mirror fabrication, gravity release, mounting, and thermal effects. Because the thin mirrors segments are lightweight, they can be densely nested to produce collecting area thirty times that of Chandra, on an affordably priced mission. This Supporting Technology program is a follow-on to an existing APRA program. In the existing program we demonstrated the first successful deposition of piezoelectric material on thermally formed glass substrates. We showed that the localized deformations produced by the piezo cells match finite element predictions, and the piezo cell adjustment range meets requirements necessary to achieve the desired figure correction. We have also shown through simulation that representative mirror figure errors can be corrected via modeled influence functions to achieve 0.5 arc sec imaging performance. This provides a firm foundation on which to develop further the technology. We will continue to optimize the deposition of thin piezoelectric films onto thermally formed glass and electroplated metal mirror segments to improve yield and manufacturability. We will deposit piezoelectric material onto conical mirror segments and demonstrate figure correction in agreement with prediction

  20. Development of a X-ray micro-tomograph and its application to reservoir rocks characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira de Paiva, R.

    1995-10-01

    We describe the construction and application to studies in three dimensions of a laboratory micro-tomograph for the characterisation of heterogeneous solids at the scale of a few microns. The system is based on an electron microprobe and a two dimensional X-ray detector. The use of a low beam divergence for image acquisition allows use of simple and rapid reconstruction software whilst retaining reasonable acquisition times. Spatial resolutions of better than 3 microns in radiography and 10 microns in tomography are obtained. The applications of microtomography in the petroleum industry are illustrated by the study of fibre orientation in polymer composites, of the distribution of minerals and pore space in reservoir rocks, and of the interaction of salt water with a model porous medium. A correction for X-ray beam hardening is described and used to obtain improved discrimination of the phases present in the sample. In the case of a North Sea reservoir rock we show the possibility to distinguish quartz, feldspar and in certain zone kaolinite. The representativeness of the tomographic reconstruction is demonstrated by comparing the surface of the reconstructed specimen with corresponding images obtained in scanning electron microscopy. (author). 58 refs., 10 tabs., 71 photos

  1. [Application of confocal micro-beam X-ray fluorescence in nondestructive scanning analysis of the distribution of elements in a single hair].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, He-He; Liu, Zhi-Guo; Sun, Tian-Xi; Peng, Song; Zhao, Wei-Gang; Sun, Wei-Yuan; Li, Yu-De; Lin, Xiao-Yan; Zhao, Guang-Cui; Luo, Ping; Ding, Xun-Liang

    2013-11-01

    The confocal micro X-ray fluorescence (XRF) based on polycapillary X-ray lens and conventional X-ray source was used to carry out the scanning analysis of the distribution of the elements in a single hair. The elemental distribution in the single hair was obtained. In the confocal micro XRF technology, the output focal spot of the polycapillary focusing X-ray lens and the input focal spot of the polycapillary parallel X-ray lens were adjusted confocally. The detector could only detect the X-rays from the overlapping foci. This confocal structure decreased the effects of the background on the X-ray spectra, and was accordingly helpful for improving the accuracy of this XRF technology. A polycapillary focusing X-ray lens with a high gain in power density was used to decrease the requirement of power of the X-ray source used in this confocal technology, and made it possible to perform such confocal micro XRF analysis by using the conventional X-ray source with low cost. Experimental results indicated that the confocal micro X-ray fluorescence based on polycapillary X-ray lens had potential applications in analyzing the elemental distribution of individual hairs.

  2. Micro-focus x-ray inspection of the bearing pad welded by laser for CANDU fuel element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, W. K.; Kim, S. S.; Lee, J. W.; Yang, M. S.

    2001-01-01

    To attach the bearing pads on the surface of CANDU fuel element, laser welding technique has been reviewed to replace brazing technology which is complicate process and makes use of the toxic beryllium. In this study, to evaluate the soundness of the weld of the bearing pad of CANDU fuel element, a precise X-ray inspection system was developed using a micro-focus X-ray generator with an image intensifier and a real time camera system. The weld of the bearing pad welded by Nd:YAG laser has been inspected by the developed inspection system. Image processing technique has been applied to reduce random noise and to enhance the contrast of the X-ray image. A few defects on the weld of the bearing pads have been detected by the X-ray inspection process

  3. Local layer structure of smectic liquid crystals by X-ray micro-diffraction

    CERN Document Server

    Takanishi, Y

    2003-01-01

    The local layer structure of smectic liquid crystal has been measured using time-resolved synchrotron X-ray micro-diffraction. Typical layer disorders observed in surface stabilized (anti-) ferroelectric liquid crystals, i.e. a stripe texture, a needed-like defect and a zigzag defect, are directly analyzed. The detailed analysis slows that the surface anchoring force due to the interaction between the liquid crystal molecule and the alignment thin film plays an important role to realize both the static and dynamic local layer structures. The layer structure of the circular domain observed in the liquid crystal of bent-shaped molecules found to depend on the applied electric field though the optical micrograph shows little difference. The frustrated, double and single layer structures of the bent-shaped molecule liquid crystal are determined depending on the terminal alkyl chain length. (author)

  4. A high-transparency, micro-patternable chip for X-ray diffraction analysis of microcrystals under native growth conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, Thomas D.; Lyubimov, Artem Y.; Ogata, Craig M.; Vo, Huy; Uervirojnangkoorn, Monarin; Brunger, Axel T.; Berger, James M.

    2015-01-01

    A highly X-ray-transparent, silicon nitride-based device has been designed and fabricated to harvest protein microcrystals for high-resolution X-ray diffraction data collection using microfocus beamlines and XFELs. Microcrystals present a significant impediment to the determination of macromolecular structures by X-ray diffraction methods. Although microfocus synchrotron beamlines and X-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs) can enable the collection of interpretable diffraction data from microcrystals, there is a need for efficient methods of harvesting small volumes (<2 µl) of microcrystals grown under common laboratory formats and delivering them to an X-ray beam source under native growth conditions. One approach that shows promise in overcoming the challenges intrinsic to microcrystal analysis is to pair so-called ‘fixed-target’ sample-delivery devices with microbeam-based X-ray diffraction methods. However, to record weak diffraction patterns it is necessary to fabricate devices from X-ray-transparent materials that minimize background scattering. Presented here is the design of a new micro-diffraction device consisting of three layers fabricated from silicon nitride, photoresist and polyimide film. The chip features low X-ray scattering and X-ray absorption properties, and uses a customizable blend of hydrophobic and hydrophilic surface patterns to help localize microcrystals to defined regions. Microcrystals in their native growth conditions can be loaded into the chips with a standard pipette, allowing data collection at room temperature. Diffraction data collected from hen egg-white lysozyme microcrystals (10–15 µm) loaded into the chips yielded a complete, high-resolution (<1.6 Å) data set sufficient to determine a high-quality structure by molecular replacement. The features of the chip allow the rapid and user-friendly analysis of microcrystals grown under virtually any laboratory format at microfocus synchrotron beamlines and XFELs

  5. A high-transparency, micro-patternable chip for X-ray diffraction analysis of microcrystals under native growth conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murray, Thomas D. [University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205 (United States); Lyubimov, Artem Y. [Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Ogata, Craig M. [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Vo, Huy [Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21205 (United States); Uervirojnangkoorn, Monarin; Brunger, Axel T., E-mail: brunger@stanford.edu [Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Berger, James M., E-mail: brunger@stanford.edu [Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205 (United States); University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2015-09-26

    A highly X-ray-transparent, silicon nitride-based device has been designed and fabricated to harvest protein microcrystals for high-resolution X-ray diffraction data collection using microfocus beamlines and XFELs. Microcrystals present a significant impediment to the determination of macromolecular structures by X-ray diffraction methods. Although microfocus synchrotron beamlines and X-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs) can enable the collection of interpretable diffraction data from microcrystals, there is a need for efficient methods of harvesting small volumes (<2 µl) of microcrystals grown under common laboratory formats and delivering them to an X-ray beam source under native growth conditions. One approach that shows promise in overcoming the challenges intrinsic to microcrystal analysis is to pair so-called ‘fixed-target’ sample-delivery devices with microbeam-based X-ray diffraction methods. However, to record weak diffraction patterns it is necessary to fabricate devices from X-ray-transparent materials that minimize background scattering. Presented here is the design of a new micro-diffraction device consisting of three layers fabricated from silicon nitride, photoresist and polyimide film. The chip features low X-ray scattering and X-ray absorption properties, and uses a customizable blend of hydrophobic and hydrophilic surface patterns to help localize microcrystals to defined regions. Microcrystals in their native growth conditions can be loaded into the chips with a standard pipette, allowing data collection at room temperature. Diffraction data collected from hen egg-white lysozyme microcrystals (10–15 µm) loaded into the chips yielded a complete, high-resolution (<1.6 Å) data set sufficient to determine a high-quality structure by molecular replacement. The features of the chip allow the rapid and user-friendly analysis of microcrystals grown under virtually any laboratory format at microfocus synchrotron beamlines and XFELs.

  6. Micro X-ray CT Imaging of Sediments under Confining Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, M.; Prasad, M.

    2016-12-01

    We developed a pressure and temperature control system for use inside the micro X-ray CT scanner Xradia 400. We succeeded in building a pressure vessel that can be pressurized to 34.5 MPa (5000 psi) while being transparent to X-rays. The setup can currently be cooled to -5°C and heated to 40°C. We were able to observe grain damage and porosity reduction due to applied confining pressure in clean quartz sand samples and quartz sand and bentonite samples. By comparing micro CT images at atmospheric pressure and 13.8 MPa (2000 psi) confining pressure, we observed compaction of the samples resulting in grain damage and fracturing of sediment grains (Figure 1). When the confining pressure was decreased some grains experienced further fracturing. The grain damage appears irreversible. Further fracturing of grains in pre-compacted sediment was observed upon repeated confining pressure cycling. We are currently working on feed-throughs for fluid lines and electric wiring to use ultrasonic transducers and pressure control in combination. Further we plan to include pore pressure in addition to confining pressure into the system. The pressure control system in combination with ultrasonic transducers will allow us to visually observe pore scale changes in rock samples while simultaneously identifying their influence on ultrasonic velocities. Such pore-scale changes are usually not taken into account by rock physics models and could help to identify why laboratory data diverges from theoretical models. Further, it is possible to compute compressibility from mCT images at different stress states by image correlation

  7. Quantitative micro x-ray fluorescence analyses without reference standard material; Referenzprobenfreie quantitative Mikro-Roentgenfluoreszenzanalyse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolff, Timo

    2009-07-15

    X-ray fluorescence analysis (XRF) is a standard method for non-destructive investigations. Due to the development of polycapillary optics and SDDdetectors requiring no cooling with liquid nitrogen, XRF becomes a suitable method for a large number of applications, e. g. for the analysis of objects in arts and archaeology. Spectrometers developed for those purposes allow investigations outside of laboratories und provide excitation areas with diameters of 10-70 {mu}m. In most applications, quantification of XRF data is realized by the usage of standard reference materials. Due to absorption processes in the samples the accuracy of the results depends strongly on the similarity of the sample and the reference standard. In cases where no suitable references are available, quantification can be done based on the ''fundamental parameter (fp) method''. This quantification procedure is based on a set of equations describing the fluorescence production and detection mathematical. The cross sections for the interaction of x-rays with matter can be taken from different databases. During an iteration process the element concentrations can be determined. Quantitative XRF based on fundamental parameters requires an accurate knowledge of the excitation spectrum. In case of a conventional setup this spectrum is given by the X-ray tube spectrum and can be calculated. The use of polycapillary optics in micro-XRF spectrometers changes the spectral distribution of the excitation radiation. For this reason it is necessary to access the transmission function of the used optic. The aim of this work is to find a procedure to describe this function for routine quantification based on fundamental parameters. Most of the measurements have been carried out using a commercial spectrometer developed for applications in arts and archaeology. On the one hand the parameters of the lens, used in the spectrometer, have been investigated by different experimental characterization

  8. Enhancement of measurement accuracy of X-ray PIV in comparison with the micro-PIV technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hanwook; Jung, Sung Yong; Park, Jun Hong; Kim, Jun Ho; Lee, Sang Joon

    2018-03-01

    The X-ray PIV (particle image velocimetry) technique has been used as a non-invasive measurement modality to investigate the haemodynamic features of blood flow. However, the extraction of two-dimensional velocity field data from the three-dimensional volumetric information contained in X-ray images is technically unclear. In this study, a new two-dimensional velocity field extraction technique is proposed to overcome technological limitations. To resolve the problem of finding a correction coefficient, the velocity field information obtained by X-ray PIV and micro-PIV techniques for disturbed flow in a concentric stenosis with 50% severity was quantitatively compared. Micro-PIV experiments were conducted for single-plane and summation images, which provide similar positional information of particles as X-ray images. The correction coefficient was obtained by establishing the relationship between velocity data obtained from summation images (V S ) and centre-plane images (V C ). The velocity differences between V S and V C along the vertical and horizontal directions were quantitatively analysed as a function of the geometric angle of the test model for applying the present two-dimensional velocity field extraction technique to a conduit of arbitrary geometry. Finally, the two-dimensional velocity field information at arbitrary positions could be successfully extracted from X-ray images by using the correction coefficient and several velocity parameters derived from V S .

  9. Marshall Grazing Incidence X-ray Spectrometer (MaGIXS) Slit-Jaw Imaging System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkerson, P.; Champey, P. R.; Winebarger, A. R.; Kobayashi, K.; Savage, S. L.

    2017-12-01

    The Marshall Grazing Incidence X-ray Spectrometer is a NASA sounding rocket payload providing a 0.6 - 2.5 nm spectrum with unprecedented spatial and spectral resolution. The instrument is comprised of a novel optical design, featuring a Wolter1 grazing incidence telescope, which produces a focused solar image on a slit plate, an identical pair of stigmatic optics, a planar diffraction grating and a low-noise detector. When MaGIXS flies on a suborbital launch in 2019, a slit-jaw camera system will reimage the focal plane of the telescope providing a reference for pointing the telescope on the solar disk and aligning the data to supporting observations from satellites and other rockets. The telescope focuses the X-ray and EUV image of the sun onto a plate covered with a phosphor coating that absorbs EUV photons, which then fluoresces in visible light. This 10-week REU project was aimed at optimizing an off-axis mounted camera with 600-line resolution NTSC video for extremely low light imaging of the slit plate. Radiometric calculations indicate an intensity of less than 1 lux at the slit jaw plane, which set the requirement for camera sensitivity. We selected a Watec 910DB EIA charge-coupled device (CCD) monochrome camera, which has a manufacturer quoted sensitivity of 0.0001 lux at F1.2. A high magnification and low distortion lens was then identified to image the slit jaw plane from a distance of approximately 10 cm. With the selected CCD camera, tests show that at extreme low-light levels, we achieve a higher resolution than expected, with only a moderate drop in frame rate. Based on sounding rocket flight heritage, the launch vehicle attitude control system is known to stabilize the instrument pointing such that jitter does not degrade video quality for context imaging. Future steps towards implementation of the imaging system will include ruggedizing the flight camera housing and mounting the selected camera and lens combination to the instrument structure.

  10. On the determination of stress profiles in expanded austenite by grazing incidence X-ray diffraction and successive layer removal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandes, Frederico Augusto Pires; Christiansen, Thomas L.; Winther, Grethe

    2015-01-01

    Surface layers of expanded austenite resulting from nitriding typically exhibit large gradients in residual stress and composition. Evaluation of residual-stress profiles is explored by means of grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GI-XRD), probing shallow depths, combined with successive layer...

  11. Multiple scattering in grazing-incidence X-ray diffraction : Impact on lattice-constant determination in thin films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Resel, Roland; Bainschab, Markus; Pichler, Alexander; Dingemans, T.J.; Simbrunner, Clemens; Stangl, Julian; Salzmann, Ingo

    2016-01-01

    Dynamical scattering effects are observed in grazing-incidence X-ray diffraction experiments using an organic thin film of 2,2′:6′,2′′-ternaphthalene grown on oxidized silicon as substrate. Here, a splitting of all Bragg peaks in the out-of-plane direction (z-direction) has been observed, the

  12. Accuracy validation of incident photon fluence on DQE for various measurement conditions and X-ray units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haba, Tomonobu; Kondo, Shimpei; Hayashi, Daiki; Koyama, Shuji

    2013-07-01

    Detective quantum efficiency (DQE) is widely used as a comprehensive metric for X-ray image evaluation in digital X-ray units. The incident photon fluence per air kerma (SNR²(in)) is necessary for calculating the DQE. The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) reports the SNR²(in) under conditions of standard radiation quality, but this SNR²(in) might not be accurate as calculated from the X-ray spectra emitted by an actual X-ray tube. In this study, we evaluated the error range of the SNR²(in) presented by the IEC62220-1 report. We measured the X-ray spectra emitted by an X-ray tube under conditions of standard radiation quality of RQA5. The spectral photon fluence at each energy bin was multiplied by the photon energy and the mass energy absorption coefficient of air; then the air kerma spectrum was derived. The air kerma spectrum was integrated over the whole photon energy range to yield the total air kerma. The total photon number was then divided by the total air kerma. This value is the SNR²(in). These calculations were performed for various measurement parameters and X-ray units. The percent difference between the calculated value and the standard value of RQA5 was up to 2.9%. The error range was not negligibly small. Therefore, it is better to use the new SNR²(in) of 30694 (1/(mm(2) μGy)) than the current [Formula: see text] of 30174 (1/(mm(2) μGy)).

  13. Confocal depth-resolved fluorescence micro-X-ray absorption spectroscopy for the study of cultural heritage materials: a new mobile endstation at the Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Guang; Chu, Shengqi; Sun, Tianxi; Sun, Xuepeng; Zheng, Lirong; An, Pengfei; Zhu, Jian; Wu, Shurong; Du, Yonghua; Zhang, Jing

    2017-08-10

    A confocal fluorescence endstation for depth-resolved micro-X-ray absorption spectroscopy is described. A polycapillary half-lens defines the incident beam path and a second polycapillary half-lens at 90° defines the probe sample volume. An automatic alignment program based on an evolutionary algorithm is employed to make the alignment procedure efficient. This depth-resolved system was examined on a general X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) beamline at the Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility. Sacrificial red glaze (AD 1368–1644) china was studied to show the capability of the instrument. As a mobile endstation to be applied on multiple beamlines, the confocal system can improve the function and flexibility of general XAS beamlines, and extend their capabilities to a wider user community.

  14. Physical characterization and performance evaluation of an x-ray micro-computed tomography system for dimensional metrology applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hiller, Jochen; Maisl, Michael; Reindl, Leonard M

    2012-01-01

    components of a CT scanner, i.e. the x-ray tube and the flat-panel detector, are characterized. The contrast and noise transfer property of the scanner is obtained using image-processing methods based on linear systems theory. A long-term temperature measurement in the scanner cabinet has been carried out......This paper presents physical and metrological characterization measurements conducted for an industrial x-ray micro-computed tomography (CT) system. As is well known in CT metrology, many factors, e.g., in the scanning and reconstruction process, the image processing, and the 3D data evaluation...

  15. Interests and instrument: a micro-history of object Wh.3469 (X-ray powder diffraction camera, ca. 1940).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheffler, Robin Wolfe

    2009-12-01

    This paper presents a micro-history of an object in the collection of the Whipple Museum of the History of Science (accession no. Wh.3469), with an emphasis on how Wh.3469 reflects a hybrid of two different interwar British X-ray crystallographic communities, namely those based in WL Bragg's physics laboratory at the Victoria University of Manchester and the Crystallographic Laboratory at the University of Cambridge. It explores connections between Wh.3469's final design and construction and the different interests each community had in X-ray crystallography.

  16. Numerical controlled diamond fly cutting machine for grazing incidence X-ray reflection mirrors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchida, Fumihiko; Moriyama, Shigeo; Seya, Eiiti

    1992-01-01

    Synchrotron radiation has reached the stage of practical use, and the application to the wide fields that support future advanced technologies such as spectroscopy, the structural analysis of matters, semiconductor lithography and medical light source is expected. For the optical system of the equipment utilizing synchrotron radiation, the total reflection mirrors of oblique incidence are used for collimating and collecting X-ray. In order to restrain their optical aberration, nonspherical shape is required, and as the manufacturing method with high precision for nonspherical mirrors, a numerically controlled diamond cutting machine was developed. As for the cutting of soft metals with diamond tools, the high precision machining of any form can be done by numerical control, the machining time can be reduced as compared with grinding, and the cooling effect is large in metals. The construction of the cutting machine, the principle of machining, the control system, the method of calculating numerical control data, the investigation of machinable forms and the result of evaluation are reported. (K.I.)

  17. Applications of a glazing incidence X-ray fluorescence analysis to forensic samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ninomiya, Toshio; Nomura, Shigeaki; Taniguchi, Kazuo; Ikeda, Shigero.

    1995-01-01

    A glazing incidence X-ray fluorescence analysis (GIXF) has been applied to forensic samples: a counterfeit 100-dollar bill, fragments of polyvinyl tapes, a trace of semen, illegal drugs, fingerprints and fake V.S.O.P brandy. Strontium could not be detected on the magnet-respondent letter of the counterfeit bill and Br was detected on the magnet-nonrespondent part of the counterfeit bill, while such phenomena could not be noticed on a true bill. Fragments of black vinyl tapes related to a sexual assault case could be discriminated from each other. Zinc as a characteristic ingredient could be detected in a trace of semen. Bromine was detected in each of what is called a pure methamphetamine crystal and K, Ca, Fe, Zn etc. were detected in heroin powders. Lead was sharply detected in gunshot residues attached to a finger after gunfiring. Sulfur as a contaminant was abundant in fake V.S.O.P brandy, while no S was detected in genuine V.S.O.P brandy. (author)

  18. Applications of a glazing incidence X-ray fluorescence analysis to forensic samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ninomiya, Toshio [Hyogo Prefecture, Kobe (Japan). Forensic Science Lab.; Nomura, Shigeaki; Taniguchi, Kazuo; Ikeda, Shigero

    1995-06-01

    A glazing incidence X-ray fluorescence analysis (GIXF) has been applied to forensic samples: a counterfeit 100-dollar bill, fragments of polyvinyl tapes, a trace of semen, illegal drugs, fingerprints and fake V.S.O.P brandy. Strontium could not be detected on the magnet-respondent letter of the counterfeit bill and Br was detected on the magnet-nonrespondent part of the counterfeit bill, while such phenomena could not be noticed on a true bill. Fragments of black vinyl tapes related to a sexual assault case could be discriminated from each other. Zinc as a characteristic ingredient could be detected in a trace of semen. Bromine was detected in each of what is called a pure methamphetamine crystal and K, Ca, Fe, Zn etc. were detected in heroin powders. Lead was sharply detected in gunshot residues attached to a finger after gunfiring. Sulfur as a contaminant was abundant in fake V.S.O.P brandy, while no S was detected in genuine V.S.O.P brandy. (author).

  19. Analysis of crystalline phases in airborne particulates by grazing incidence X-ray diffractometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozaki, Kana; Hanatani, Toshikazu; Nakamura, Toshihiro

    2005-07-01

    Amounts of crystalline phases of airborne particulates collected on a silicon wafer (10 x 10 mm) using a high-volume air sampler were analyzed by grazing incidence X-ray diffractometry (GIXD). Airborne particulates were classified into five size ranges (1.09-10.5 microm) with a cascade impactor attached on the sampling ports of the high-volume air sampler. GIXD was used throughout this analysis to obtain better sensitivity for small amounts of airborne particulates on the silicon wafer. Calibration standards on the silicon wafer for the diffractometric determination were prepared by the suspension droplet method of the crystalline standards dispersed in cyclohexane. Analytical lines were (020) for gypsum, (101) for quartz, (104) for calcite, (200) for halite, and (110) for sal ammoniac. The sample and the calibrating standards were heated at 350 degrees C for 2 h to avoid mutual interference with gypsum (041 and 221) when calcite and halite were determined. The GIXD method enables us to determine 0.23-13.2 microg of gypsum, quartz, calcite, halite and sal ammoniac in 0.110-0.233 mg of airborne particulates on the silicon wafer.

  20. Speciation and localization of Zn in the hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii by extended X-ray absorption fine structure and micro-X-ray fluorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Lingli; Liao, Xingcheng; Labavitch, John; Yang, Xiaoe; Nelson, Erik; Du, Yonghua; Brown, Patrick H; Tian, Shengke

    2014-11-01

    Differences in metal homeostasis among related plant species can give important information of metal hyperaccumulation mechanisms. Speciation and distribution of Zn were investigated in a hyperaccumulating population of Sedum alfredii by using extended X-ray absorption fine structure and micro-synchrotron X-ray fluorescence (μ-XRF), respectively. The hyperaccumulator uses complexation with oxygen donor ligands for Zn storage in leaves and stems, and variations in the Zn speciation was noted in different tissues. The dominant chemical form of Zn in leaves was most probably a complex with malate, the most prevalent organic acid in S. alfredii leaves. In stems, Zn was mainly associated with malate and cell walls, while Zn-citrate and Zn-cell wall complexes dominated in the roots. Two-dimensional μ-XRF images revealed age-dependent differences in Zn localization in S. alfredii stems and leaves. In old leaves of S. alfredii, Zn was high in the midrib, margin regions and the petiole, whereas distribution of Zn was essentially uniform in young leaves. Zinc was preferentially sequestered by cells near vascular bundles in young stems, but was highly localized to vascular bundles and the outer cortex layer of old stems. The results suggest that tissue- and age-dependent variations of Zn speciation and distribution occurred in the hyperaccumulator S. alfredii, with most of the Zn complexed with malate in the leaves, but a shift to cell wall- and citric acid-Zn complexes during transportation and storage in stems and roots. This implies that biotransformation in Zn complexation occurred during transportation and storage processes in the plants of S. alfredii. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Response of the 'patient dose calibrator' chamber for incident positions and sizes of X-ray fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Cassio M.; Abrantes, Marcos Eugenio S.; Ferreira, Flavia C. Bastos; Lacerda, Marco A. de Souza; Alonso, Thessa C.; Silva, Teogenes A. da; Oliveira, Paulo Marcio C.

    2009-01-01

    The evaluation of patient doses is an important tool for optimizing radiodiagnostic medical procedures with conventional X-ray equipment and for improving the quality of the radiographic image. The Patient Dose Calibrator (PDC) chamber is a dosimetric instrument that is used in the evaluation of the air kerma-area product (P KA ) quantity aiming the reduction of patient doses. The objective this work was to study the P KA variation caused by different field incident positions and sizes of the X-ray beam on the PDC chamber. Results showed that the PDC chamber has repeatability lower than 0.6%, beam position dependence of 3% and linearity response within ± 6%; these characteristics are to be taken into account during evaluation of the radiological protection conditions of conventional x-ray equipment. (author)

  2. Grazing Incidence angle X-ray Diffraction of implanted stainless steel: comparison between simulated data and experimental data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dudognon, J.; Vayer, M.; Pineau, A.; Erre, R.

    2006-01-01

    Austenitic stainless steel was implanted with specific elements using specific conditions. The goal of this studies was to compare the predicted structural modifications within the implanted layer with the experimental ones observed by Grazing Incidence angle X-ray Diffraction (GIXD).During ion implantation implanted austenite steel layer undergoes modifications such as austenite lattice expansion, ferrite apparition and structure destruction. The X-ray diffraction austenite peak shape was predicted using the concentration depth profile of implanted element, the information depth profile of diffracted intensity and a linear relationship between implanted element concentration and lattice parameter. Experimental and predicted austenite X-ray diffraction peaks are in good accordance as long as the implanted layer contents mainly austenite. Whatever the nature of implanted element, ferrite appears above a given threshold of incoming energy amount. Moreover, the structure of the implanted layer is destroyed above a given amount of incoming energy

  3. Manipulating Electronic States at Oxide Interfaces Using Focused Micro X-Rays from Standard Lab Sources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poccia, Nicola; Ricci, Alessandro; Coneri, F.; Stehno, Martin; Campi, Gaetano; Demitri, Nicola; Bais, Giorgio; Wang, X. Renshaw; Hilgenkamp, H.

    2015-01-01

    Recently, X-ray illumination, using synchrotron radiation, has been used to manipulate defects, stimulate self-organization, and to probe their structure. Here, we explore a method of defect-engineering low-dimensional systems using focused laboratory-scale X-ray sources. We demonstrate an

  4. X-ray strain tensor imaging: FEM simulation and experiments with a micro-CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae G; Park, So E; Lee, Soo Y

    2014-01-01

    In tissue elasticity imaging, measuring the strain tensor components is necessary to solve the inverse problem. However, it is impractical to measure all the tensor components in ultrasound or MRI elastography because of their anisotropic spatial resolution. The objective of this study is to compute 3D strain tensor maps from the 3D CT images of a tissue-mimicking phantom. We took 3D micro-CT images of the phantom twice with applying two different mechanical compressions to it. Applying the 3D image correlation technique to the CT images under different compression, we computed 3D displacement vectors and strain tensors at every pixel. To evaluate the accuracy of the strain tensor maps, we made a 3D FEM model of the phantom, and we computed strain tensor maps through FEM simulation. Experimentally obtained strain tensor maps showed similar patterns to the FEM-simulated ones in visual inspection. The correlation between the strain tensor maps obtained from the experiment and the FEM simulation ranges from 0.03 to 0.93. Even though the strain tensor maps suffer from high level noise, we expect the x-ray strain tensor imaging may find some biomedical applications such as malignant tissue characterization and stress analysis inside the tissues.

  5. Scanning electron microscopic and X-ray micro analysis on tooth enamel exposed to alkaline agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taubee, Fabian; Steiniger, Frank; Nietzsche, Sandor; Norén, Jörgen G

    2010-01-01

    The background of this study comprises two clinical cases, where patients exposed to aerosols of an alkaline and surface active cleaning agent developed loss of enamel substance on their teeth, further resulting in loss of teeth and partially destroyed soft tissues. The alkaline cleaning agent consisted of potassium hydroxide and various surfactants. The purpose of this study was to investigate possible changes in morphology and composition in human teeth enamel exposed to alkaline solutions, by means of X-ray micro analysis (XRMA), FTIR-spectroscopic analyses and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Extracted premolars, exposed to potassium hydroxide solutions and alkaline cleaning solution,were analyzed by means of XRMA and SEM. Enamel powder, exposed to cleaning solution, was analyzed by means of FTIR. The SEM analysis revealed an increased porosity of the enamel surface and partially loss of enamel substance after exposure to alkaline solutions. The XRMA analyses revealed a decrease in carbon concentration while phosphorous and calcium showed no marked changes. The FTIR analyses showed no significant changes in peak heights or peak positions for phosphate, carbonate or hydroxide. It was concluded that human teeth enamel exposed to alkaline solutions showed loss of organic substance, marked pores in enamel surface and loss of substance in the enamel surface.

  6. Imaging honey bee brain anatomy with micro-X-ray-computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribi, Willi; Senden, Tim J; Sakellariou, Arthur; Limaye, Ajay; Zhang, Shaowu

    2008-06-15

    Technologies for imaging in three dimensions are greatly desired by researchers in many biological disciplines. However, when imaging small animals such as invertebrates, the achievement of satisfactory spatial resolution and adequate contrast between tissues often requires the use of expensive and time-consuming procedures. Micro-X-ray-computed tomography (muCT) is a convenient technique which is finding greater use alongside conventional microscopies. Staining with heavy metal salts, such as osmium tetroxide improves imaging in muCT, and allows visualization of the 3D structure of the honey bee brain undistorted within the intact head capsule. We obtained detailed information about the morphology of the different brain compartments and were able to show their orientations, relative to each other, within the head capsule. This technique offers a significant improvement in resolution, time, and expense for the quantitative, three-dimensional analysis of developing bee brain centers. In this article, we introduce a rapid, high-resolution, and inexpensive technique for the three-dimensional visualization of different compartments of the honey bee brain. A detailed discussion of the honey bee brain anatomy is provided, demonstrating that muCT, with osmium staining, can indeed visualise these structures. Hence, our results show that muCT is ideally suited for researchers who are interested in the 3D visualization of small invertebrate brains.

  7. Evaluation of Collateral Source Characteristics With 3-Dimensional Analysis Using Micro-X-Ray Computed Tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arima, Yuichiro; Hokimoto, Seiji; Tabata, Noriaki; Nakagawa, Osamu; Oshima, Asahi; Matsumoto, Yosuke; Sato, Takahiro; Mukunoki, Toshifumi; Otani, Jun; Ishii, Masanobu; Uchikawa, Michie; Yamamoto, Eiichiro; Izumiya, Yasuhiro; Kaikita, Koichi; Ogawa, Hisao; Nishiyama, Koichi; Tsujita, Kenichi

    2018-03-23

    Collateral arteries provide an alternative blood supply and protect tissues from ischemic damage in patients with peripheral artery disease. However, the mechanism of collateral artery development is difficult to validate. Collateral arteries were visualized using micro-x-ray computed tomography. Developmental characteristics were assessed using confocal microscopy. We conducted a single-center, retrospective, observational study and assessed the dilatation of collateral arteries on ischemic sides. We quantified the vascular volume in both ischemic and nonischemic legs. A prominent increase in vascular volume was observed in the ischemic leg using a murine hind-limb ischemia model. We also performed qualitative assessment and confirmed that the inferior gluteal artery functioned as a major collateral source. Serial analysis of murine hind-limb vessel development revealed that the inferior gluteal artery was a remnant of the ischial artery, which emerged as a representative vessel on the dorsal side during hind-limb organogenesis. We retrospectively analyzed consecutive patients who were admitted for the diagnosis or treatment of peripheral artery disease. The diameter of the inferior gluteal artery on the ischemic side showed significant dilatation compared with that on the nonischemic side. Our findings indicate that an embryonic remnant artery can become a collateral source under ischemic conditions. Flow enhancement in the inferior gluteal artery might become a novel therapeutic approach for patients with peripheral artery disease. © 2018 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  8. Study of the Microfocus X-Ray Tube Based on a Point-Like Target Used for Micro-Computed Tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Rifeng; Zhou, Xiaojian; Li, Xiaobin; Cai, Yufang; Liu, Fenglin

    2016-01-01

    For a micro-Computed Tomography (Micro-CT) system, the microfocus X-ray tube is an essential component because the spatial resolution of CT images, in theory, is mainly determined by the size and stability of the X-ray focal spot of the microfocus X-ray tube. However, many factors, including voltage fluctuations, mechanical vibrations, and temperature changes, can cause the size and the stability of the X-ray focal spot to degrade. A new microfocus X-ray tube based on a point-like micro-target in which the X-ray target is irradiated with an unfocused electron beam was investigated. EGS4 Monte Carlo simulation code was employed for the calculation of the X-ray intensity produced from the point-like micro-target and the substrate. The effects of several arrangements of the target material, target and beam size were studied. The simulation results demonstrated that if the intensity of X-rays generated at the point-like target is greater than half of the X-ray intensity produced on the substrate, the X-ray focal spot is determined in part by the point-like target rather than by the electron beam in the conventional X-ray tube. In theory, since it is able to reduce those unfavorable effects such as the electron beam trajectory swinging and the beam size changing for the microfocus X-ray tube, it could alleviate CT image artifacts caused by the X-ray focal spot shift and size change.

  9. X-ray micro-tomography for investigations of brain tissues on cellular level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khimchenko, Anna; Schulz, Georg; Deyhle, Hans; Thalmann, Peter; Zanette, Irene; Zdora, Marie-Christine; Bikis, Christos; Hipp, Alexander; Hieber, Simone E.; Schweighauser, Gabriel; Hench, Jürgen; Müller, Bert

    2016-10-01

    X-ray imaging in absorption contrast mode is well established for hard tissue visualization. However, performance for lower density materials is limited due to a reduced contrast. Our aim is three-dimensional (3D) characterization of micro-morphology of human brain tissues down to (sub-)cellular resolution within a laboratory environment. Using the laboratory-based microtomography (μCT) system nanotom m (GE Sensing and Inspection Technologies GmbH, Wunstorf, Germany) and synchrotron radiation at the Diamond-Manchester Imaging Branchline I13-2 (Diamond Light Source, Didcot, UK), we have acquired 3D data with a resolution down to 0.45 μm for visualization of a human cerebellum specimen down to cellular level. We have shown that all selected modalities, namely laboratory-based absorption contrast micro-tomography (LBμCT), synchrotron radiation based in-line single distance phase contrast tomography (SDPR) and synchrotron radiation based single-grating interferometry (GI), can reach cellular resolution for tissue samples with a size in the mm-range. The results are discussed qualitatively in comparison to optical microscopy of haematoxylin and eosin (HE) stained sections. As phase contrast yields to a better data quality for soft tissues and in order to overcome restrictions of limited beamline access for phase contrast measurements, we have equipped the μCT system nanotom m with a double-grating phase contrast set-up. Preliminary experimental results of a knee sample consisting of a bony part and a cartilage demonstrate that phase contrast data exhibits better quality compared to absorption contrast. Currently, the set-up is under adjustment. It is expected that cellular resolution would also be achieved. The questions arise (1) what would be the quality gain of laboratory-based phase contrast in comparison to laboratory-based absorption contrast tomography and (2) could laboratory-based phase contrast data provide comparable results to synchrotron radiation based

  10. Lead tolerance and cellular distribution in Elsholtzia splendens using synchrotron radiation micro-X-ray fluorescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jie [MOE Key Laboratory of Environment Remediation and Ecosystem Health, College of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Tian, Shengke [MOE Key Laboratory of Environment Remediation and Ecosystem Health, College of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Science, Indian River Research and Education Center, Fort Pierce, FL 34945 (United States); Lu, Lingli; Shohag, M.J.I.; Liao, Haibing [MOE Key Laboratory of Environment Remediation and Ecosystem Health, College of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Yang, Xiaoe, E-mail: xyang@zju.edu.cn [MOE Key Laboratory of Environment Remediation and Ecosystem Health, College of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China)

    2011-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Elsholtzia splendens had a good ability of lead tolerance and accumulation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Pb was mostly restricted to the vascular bundles and epidermis tissues. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Pb and Ca shared most similar distribution patterns in E. splendens. - Abstract: Hydroponic experiments were conducted to investigate the tolerance and spatial distribution of lead (Pb) in Elsholtzia splendens-a copper (Cu) accumulator plant using synchrotron-based micro-X-ray fluorescence. According to chlorophyll concentration and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters, E. splendens displayed certain tolerance at 100 {mu}M Pb treatment. Lead concentration in roots, stems and leaves of E. splendens reached 45,183.6, 1657.6, and 380.9 mg kg{sup -1}, respectively. Pb was mostly accumulated in the roots, and there were also high concentrations of Pb been transported into stems and leaves. Micro-XRF analysis of the stem and leaf cross section revealed that Pb was mostly restricted in the vascular bundles and epidermis tissues of both stem and leaf of E. splendens. The correlation between distribution of K, Ca, Zn and Pb were analyzed. There were significant positive correlations (P < 0.01) among Pb and Ca, K, Zn distribution both in stem and leaf of E. splendens. However, among the three elements, Ca shared the most similar distribution pattern and the highest correlation coefficients with Pb in both stem and leaf cross section of E. splendens. This suggests that Ca may play an important role in Pb accumulation in stem and leaf of E. splendens.

  11. Fast X-ray micro-CT for real-time 4D observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takano, H.; Yoshida, K.; Tsuji, T.; Koyama, T.; Tsusaka, Y.; Kagoshima, Y.

    2009-09-01

    Fast X-ray computed tomography (CT) system with sub-second order measurement for single CT acquisition has been developed. The system, consisting of a high-speed sample rotation stage and a high-speed X-ray camera, is constructed at synchrotron radiation beamline in order to utilize fully intense X-rays. A time-resolving CT movie (i.e. 4D CT) can be available by operating the fast CT system continuously. Real-time observation of water absorbing process of super-absorbent polymer (SAP) has been successfully performed with the 4D CT operation.

  12. Magnitude and effects of X-ray scatter of a cone-beam micro-CT for small animal imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ni, Y.C. [Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, Longtan 32546, Taiwan (China); Jan, M.L. [Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, Longtan 32546, Taiwan (China); Chen, K.W. [Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, Longtan 32546, Taiwan (China); Cheng, Y.D. [Department of Nuclear Science, National Tsing-Hua University, Hsinchu 30043, Taiwan (China); Chuang, K.S. [Department of Nuclear Science, National Tsing-Hua University, Hsinchu 30043, Taiwan (China); Fu, Y.K. [Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, Longtan 32546, Taiwan (China)]. E-mail: fufrank@iner.gov.tw

    2006-12-20

    We have developed a micro-CT system to provide high-resolution and anatomic information to combine with a microPET'' (registered) R4 system. This study was to evaluate the magnitude and effects of scatter for low kVp X-ray in this cone-beam micro-CT system. Slit collimators were used to simulate fan-beam micro-CT for comparison. The magnitudes of X-ray scatter were measured using the beam-stop method and were estimated by polynomial-fitting extrapolation to 0 mm size of stoppers. The scatter-to-primary ratio at center of the cone-beam system were 45% and 20% for rat and mouse phantoms, respectively, and were reduced to 5.86% and 4.2% in fan-beam geometric setup. The effects of X-ray scatter on image uniformity and contrast ratio were evaluated also. The uniformity response was examined by the profile of the reconstructed image. The degrees of 'cupping' in the fan-beam and cone-beam conditions were 1.75% and 3.81%, respectively, in rat phantom. A contrast phantom consisting of four inserts with physical densities similar to that of acrylic was used for measuring the effect of X-ray scatter on image contrast. Contrast ratios of the inserts and acrylic in cone-beam setup degraded 36.9% in average compared with fan-beam setup. A tumor-bearing mouse was scanned by the micro-CT system. The tumor-to-background contrast ratios were measured to be 0.331 and 0.249, respectively, with fan-beam and cone-beam setups.

  13. Study of decorated archeological ceramics by micro X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papadopoulou, D. [Archaeometry Laboratory, Cultural and Educational Technology Institute/R.C. ' Athena' , Tsimiski 58, 67100 Xanthi (Greece); Technological Educational Institute of Kavala, Department of Science, Agios Loukas, 654 04 Kavala (Greece); Sakalis, A. [Archaeometry Laboratory, Cultural and Educational Technology Institute/R.C. ' Athena' , Tsimiski 58, 67100 Xanthi (Greece)], E-mail: asakalis@ceti.gr; Merousis, N. [Hellenic Open University, Kyzikou 25-27, 55133 Kalamaria, Thessaloniki (Greece); Tsirliganis, N.C. [Archaeometry Laboratory, Cultural and Educational Technology Institute/R.C. ' Athena' , Tsimiski 58, 67100 Xanthi (Greece)

    2007-09-21

    Micro-X-ray fluorescence ({mu}-XRF) spectrometry is an analytical technique that is especially suitable for the study of archeological findings since it is non-destructive, rapid, universal, versatile and multi-elemental. In the present work a compact portable {mu}-XRF spectrometer was used to characterize decorated sherds of Neolithic pottery from Polyplatanos, North Greece. The sherds were divided into four decorative groups (crusted, classic Dimini, cream on red, and black on red) and the characterization was focused on the determination of certain major, minor and trace elements (Si, K, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni) on the decorated surface and in the clay body. The aim of this characterization was to supplement and confirm archeological information regarding the origin of the artifacts and the manufacturing techniques used for their production. The most predominant chemical elements were determined, and representative ratios (Ca/K, Fe/Mn) were calculated and compared for each individual sample group. The crusted samples and the cream on red samples showed higher concentrations of Ca in the white-crusted surface in comparison with the clay body while Fe was the predominant element in the red decorated surface. The analysis of the samples of classic Dimini, revealed higher concentrations of Mn in the black painted surfaces and higher Ca content in the light-coloured clay bodies. Finally, most samples of the black on red group present high concentrations of Mn in their decoration surface. Zn and Ni were also detected in this group in contrast with the remaining groups.

  14. Characterizing analogue caldera collapse with computerized X-ray micro-tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poppe, Sam; Holohan, Eoghan; Boone, Matthieu; Pauwels, Elin; Cnudde, Veerle; Kervyn, Matthieu

    2013-04-01

    Analogue models in the past mainly explored caldera collapse structures by documenting 2D model cross-sections. Kinematic aspects and 3D structures of caldera collapse are less well understood, although they are essential to interpret recent field and monitoring data. We applied high resolution radiography and computerized X-ray micro-tomography (µCT) to image the deformation during analogue fluid withdrawal in small-scale caldera collapse models. The models test and highlight the possibilities and limitations of µCT-scanning to qualitatively image and quantitatively analyse deformation of analogue volcano-tectonic experiments. High resolution interval radiography sequences document '2.5D' surface and internal model geometry, and subsidence kinematics of a collapsing caldera block into an emptying fluid body in an unprecedented way. During the whole drainage process, all subsidence was bound by caldera ring faults. Subsidence was associated with dilatation of the analogue granular material within the collapsing column. The temporal subsidence rate pattern within the subsiding volume comprised three phases: 1) Upward ring fault propagation, 2) Rapid subsidence with the highest subsidence rates within the uppermost subsiding volume, 3) Relatively slower subsidence rates over the whole column with intermittent subsidence rate acceleration. Such acceleration did almost never affect the whole column. By using radiography sequences it is possible in a non-destructive manner to obtain a continuous observation of fault propagation, down sag mechanisms and the subsequent development of collapse structures. Multi-angle µCT scans of the collapse result allow for a full virtual 3D reconstruction of the model. This leads to an unprecedented 3D view on fault geometries. The developed method is a step towards the quantitative documentation of volcano-tectonic models that would render data interpretations immediately comparable to monitoring data available from recent

  15. Preliminary results for X-ray phase contrast micro-tomography on the biomedical imaging beamline at SSRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Rongchang; Du Guohao; Xie Honglan; Deng Biao; Tong Yajun; Hu Wen; Xue Yanling; Chen Can; Ren Yuqi; Zhou Guangzhao; Wang Yudan; Xiao Tiqiao; Xu Hongjie; Zhu Peiping

    2009-01-01

    With X-ray phase contrast micro-tomography(CT), one is able to obtain edge-enhanced image of internal structure of the samples. This allows visualization of the fine internal features for biology tissues, which is not able to resolve by conventional absorption CT. After preliminary modulation, monochromatic X-rays (8-72.5 keV) are available for experiments on the experimental station of the biomedical imaging beamline at Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility(SSRF). In this paper, we report the in line phase contrast micro-tomography(IL-XPCT) of biology sample (locust) on the beamline. The reconstruct slice images and three dimensional rendering images of the locust were obtained, with clearly visible images of locus's wing, surface texture and internal tissue distribution. (authors)

  16. Characterisation of Late Bronze Age large size shield nails by EDXRF, micro-EDXRF and X-ray digital radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueiredo, E., E-mail: elin@itn.pt [Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, Estrada Nacional 10, 2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal); CENIMAT/I3N, Departamento de Ciencia dos Materiais, Faculdade de Ciencias e Tecnologia, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2829-516 Monte de Caparica (Portugal); Departamento de Conservacao e Restauro, Faculdade de Ciencias e Tecnologia, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2829-516 Monte de Caparica (Portugal); Araujo, M.F. [Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, Estrada Nacional 10, 2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal); Silva, R.J.C. [CENIMAT/I3N, Departamento de Ciencia dos Materiais, Faculdade de Ciencias e Tecnologia, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2829-516 Monte de Caparica (Portugal); Senna-Martinez, J.C. [Centro de Arqueologia (Uniarq), Faculdade de Letras, Universidade de Lisboa, 1600-214 Lisboa (Portugal); Ines Vaz, J.L. [Departamento de Letras, Universidade Catolica, Estrada da Circunvalacao, 3504-505 Viseu (Portugal)

    2011-09-15

    In the present study six exceptional large size metallic nails, a dagger and a sickle from the Late Bronze Age archaeological site of Figueiredo das Donas (Central Portugal) have been analysed by EDXRF, micro-EDXRF and X-ray digital radiography for the study of material composition and technology of fabrication. The combination of these analytical and examination techniques showed that all artefacts are made of bronze with As, Sb and Pb impurities, and that the nails were most likely manufactured using the casting-on technique. These results reinforce the use of binary bronze by Late Bronze Age in the region, and the incorporation of new fabrication technologies that resulted from ancient spheres of interaction. - Highlights: > EDXRF, micro-EDXRF and X-ray digital radiography in cultural heritage studies. > Archaeometallurgical study of a Late Bronze Age artefact collection from Portugal. > Practise of a specific and traditional bronze metallurgy. > Appearance of technological innovations as the casting-on technique.

  17. Element sensitive reconstruction of nanostructured surfaces with finite elements and grazing incidence soft X-ray fluorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltwisch, Victor; Hönicke, Philipp; Kayser, Yves; Eilbracht, Janis; Probst, Jürgen; Scholze, Frank; Beckhoff, Burkhard

    2018-03-29

    The geometry of a Si3N4 lamellar grating was investigated experimentally with reference-free grazing-incidence X-ray fluorescence analysis. While simple layered systems are usually treated with the matrix formalism to determine the X-ray standing-wave field, this approach fails for laterally structured surfaces. Maxwell solvers based on finite elements are often used to model electrical field strengths for any 2D or 3D structures in the optical spectral range. We show that this approach can also be applied in the field of X-rays. The electrical field distribution obtained with the Maxwell solver can subsequently be used to calculate the fluorescence intensities in full analogy to the X-ray standing-wave field obtained by the matrix formalism. Only the effective 1D integration for the layer system has to be replaced by a 2D integration of the finite elements, taking into account the local excitation conditions. We will show that this approach is capable of reconstructing the geometric line shape of a structured surface with high elemental sensitivity. This combination of GIXRF and finite-element simulations paves the way for a versatile characterization of nanoscale-structured surfaces.

  18. Tensile rupture of medial arterial tissue studied by X-ray micro-tomography on stained samples

    OpenAIRE

    Helfenstein-Didier, Clémentine; Taïnoff, Damien; Viville, Julien; Adrien, Jérôme; Maire, Éric; Badel, Pierre

    2017-01-01

    Detailed characterization of damage and rupture mechanics of arteries is one the current challenges in vascular biomechanics, which requires developing suitable experimental approaches. This paper introduces an approach using in situ tensile tests in an X-ray micro-tomography setup to observe mechanisms of damage initiation and progression in medial layers of porcine aortic samples. The technique requires the use of sodium polytungstate as a contrast agent, of which the conditions for use are...

  19. High Resolution Imaging of a Dense Micro-capillary Plasma with a Table-top Soft X-Ray Laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocca, J. J.; Marconi, M. C.; Moreno, C. H.; Macchietto, C. D.; Shlyaptsev, V. N.

    1998-11-01

    We report the first use of a table-top soft x-ray laser in the imaging of dense plasmas. Due to their short wavelength, high brightness, short pulse duration and high degree of collimation, soft x-ray lasers are excellent radiation sources to perform shadowgraphy studies in dense plasmas. Recently, a Ne-like Y x-ray laser pumped by the Nova laser was used at Lawrence Livermore National Lab. to image with micrometer-scale resolution laser-accelerated and laser-exploded foils(R. Cauble et al), Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3816, (1995). Now, the advent of saturated table top soft x-ray lasers(J.J. Rocca et al), Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 1476, (1996)^,(B. Benware et al), Opt. Lett. 22, 796, (1997) has opened the possibility to probe a wide variety of dense plasmas. We have obtained a sequence of high resolution (≈ 5 μm, 0.6-0.7 ns) shadowgrams that map the evolution of the plasma of a 380 μm micro-capillary discharge using a capillary discharge-pumped 46.9 nm laser backlighter. The measurements show that plasma evolves from an initially non-uniform distribution into a cylindrically symmetric plasma column with a density minimum on axis. This work was supported by DOE grant DE-FG03-98DP00208. We also acknowledge the support of NSF for the development of the laser.

  20. Grazing exit versus grazing incidence geometry for x-ray absorption near edge structure analysis of arsenic traces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meirer, F.; Streli, C.; Wobrauschek, P.; Zoeger, N.; Pepponi, G.

    2009-01-01

    In the presented study the grazing exit x-ray fluorescence was tested for its applicability to x-ray absorption near edge structure analysis of arsenic in droplet samples. The experimental results have been compared to the findings of former analyses of the same samples using a grazing incidence (GI) setup to compare the performance of both geometries. Furthermore, the investigations were accomplished to gain a better understanding of the so called self-absorption effect, which was observed and investigated in previous studies using a GI geometry. It was suggested that a normal incidence-grazing-exit geometry would not suffer from self-absorption effects in x-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) analysis due to the minimized path length of the incident beam through the sample. The results proved this assumption and in turn confirmed the occurrence of the self-absorption effect for GI geometry. Due to its lower sensitivity it is difficult to apply the GE geometry to XAFS analysis of trace amounts (few nanograms) of samples but the technique is well suited for the analysis of small amounts of concentrated samples

  1. Applications of RIGAKU Dmax Rapid II micro-X-ray diffractometer in the analysis of archaeological metal objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozgai, Viktória; Szabó, Máté; Bajnóczi, Bernadett; Weiszburg, Tamás G.; Fórizs, István; Mráv, Zsolt; Tóth, Mária

    2017-04-01

    During material analysis of archaeological metal objects, especially their inlays or corrosion products, not only microstructure and chemical composition, but mineralogical composition is necessary to be determined. X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) is a widely-used method to specify the mineralogical composition. However, when sampling is not or limitedly allowed due to e.g. the high value of the object, the conventional XRD analysis can hardly be used. Laboratory micro-XRD instruments provide good alternatives, like the RIGAKU Dmax Rapid II micro-X-ray diffractometer, which is a unique combination of a MicroMax-003 third generation microfocus, sealed tube X-ray generator and a curved 'image plate' detector. With this instrument it is possible to measure as small as 10 µm area in diameter on the object. Here we present case studies for the application of the micro-XRD technique in the study of archaeological metal objects. In the first case niello inlay of a Late Roman silver augur staff was analysed. Due to the high value of the object, since it is the only piece known from the Roman Empire, only non-destructive analyses were allowed. To reconstruct the preparation of the niello, SEM-EDX analysis was performed on the niello inlays to characterise their chemical composition and microstructure. Two types of niello are present: a homogeneous, silver sulphide niello (acanthite) and an inhomogeneous silver-copper sulphide niello (exsolution of acanthite and jalpaite or jalpaite and stromeyerite). The micro-X-ray diffractometer was used to verify the mineralogical composition of the niello, supposed on the base of SEM results. In the second case corrosion products of a Late Roman copper cauldron with uncertain provenance were examined, since they may hold clues about the burial conditions (pH, Eh, etc.) of the object. A layer by layer analysis was performed in cross sections of small metal samples by using electron microprobe and micro-X-ray diffractometer. The results

  2. Development of grazing incidence multilayer mirrors for hard X-ray focusing telescopes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mao, Peter H.; Harrison, Fiona A.; Platonov, Yuriy Y.

    1997-01-01

    We are developing depth-graded, multilayer-coated mirrors for astrophysical hard X-ray focusing telescopes. In this paper, we discuss the primary technical challenges associated with the multilayer coatings, and report on progress to date. We have sputtered constant d-spacing and depth-graded W/S...

  3. Medium-sized grazing incidence high-energy X-ray telescopes employing continuously graded multilayers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joensen, K. D.; Christensen, Finn Erland; Schnopper, H. W.

    1993-01-01

    The authors present a concept of continuously graded multilayer structures for medium-sized X-ray telescopes which is based on several material combinations. They show that the theoretical reflectivity characteristics of these structures make them very advantageous when applied to high energy X-r...

  4. Standing-wave effects in grazing-incidence x-ray diffraction from polycrystalline multilayers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krčmář, J.; Holý, V.; Horák, L.; Metzger, T. H.; Sobota, Jaroslav

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 103, č. 3 (2008), 033504:1-7 ISSN 0021-8979 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20650511 Keywords : acoustic wave interference * carbon * crystallites * interface structure * nickel * optical multilayers * superlattices * X-ray diffraction Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.201, year: 2008

  5. Quantitative determination of the lateral density and intermolecular correlation between proteins anchored on the membrane surfaces using grazing incidence small-angle X-ray scattering and grazing incidence X-ray fluorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuillan, Wasim; Vorobiev, Alexei; Hartel, Andreas; Jones, Nicola G; Engstler, Markus; Tanaka, Motomu

    2012-11-28

    As a physical model of the surface of cells coated with densely packed, non-crystalline proteins coupled to lipid anchors, we functionalized the surface of phospholipid membranes by coupling of neutravidin to biotinylated lipid anchors. After the characterization of fine structures perpendicular to the plane of membrane using specular X-ray reflectivity, the same membrane was characterized by grazing incidence small angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS). Within the framework of distorted wave Born approximation and two-dimensional Percus-Yevick function, we can analyze the form and structure factors of the non-crystalline, membrane-anchored proteins for the first time. As a new experimental technique to quantify the surface density of proteins on the membrane surface, we utilized grazing incidence X-ray fluorescence (GIXF). Here, the mean intermolecular distance between proteins from the sulfur peak intensities can be calculated by applying Abelé's matrix formalism. The characteristic correlation distance between non-crystalline neutravidin obtained by the GISAXS analysis agrees well with the intermolecular distance calculated by GIXF, suggesting a large potential of the combination of GISAXS and GIXF in probing the lateral density and correlation of non-crystalline proteins displayed on the membrane surface.

  6. Imaging of metastatic lymph nodes by X-ray phase-contrast micro-tomography.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torben Haugaard Jensen

    Full Text Available Invasive cancer causes a change in density in the affected tissue, which can be visualized by x-ray phase-contrast tomography. However, the diagnostic value of this method has so far not been investigated in detail. Therefore, the purpose of this study was, in a blinded manner, to investigate whether malignancy could be revealed by non-invasive x-ray phase-contrast tomography in lymph nodes from breast cancer patients. Seventeen formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded lymph nodes from 10 female patients (age range 37-83 years diagnosed with invasive ductal carcinomas were analyzed by X-ray phase-contrast tomography. Ten lymph nodes had metastatic deposits and 7 were benign. The phase-contrast images were analyzed according to standards for conventional CT images looking for characteristics usually only visible by pathological examinations. Histopathology was used as reference. The result of this study was that the diagnostic sensitivity of the image analysis for detecting malignancy was 100% and the specificity was 87%. The positive predictive value was 91% for detecting malignancy and the negative predictive value was 100%. We conclude that x-ray phase-contrast imaging can accurately detect density variations to obtain information regarding lymph node involvement previously inaccessible with standard absorption x-ray imaging.

  7. Imaging of metastatic lymph nodes by X-ray phase-contrast micro-tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Torben Haugaard; Bech, Martin; Binderup, Tina

    2013-01-01

    whether malignancy could be revealed by non-invasive x-ray phase-contrast tomography in lymph nodes from breast cancer patients. Seventeen formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded lymph nodes from 10 female patients (age range 37-83 years) diagnosed with invasive ductal carcinomas were analyzed by X-ray phase......Invasive cancer causes a change in density in the affected tissue, which can be visualized by x-ray phase-contrast tomography. However, the diagnostic value of this method has so far not been investigated in detail. Therefore, the purpose of this study was, in a blinded manner, to investigate......-contrast tomography. Ten lymph nodes had metastatic deposits and 7 were benign. The phase-contrast images were analyzed according to standards for conventional CT images looking for characteristics usually only visible by pathological examinations. Histopathology was used as reference. The result of this study...

  8. Interface characterization of B4C-based multilayers by X-ray grazing-incidence reflectivity and diffuse scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hui; Wang, Zhanshan; Zhu, Jingtao

    2013-05-01

    B4C-based multilayers have important applications for soft to hard X-rays. In this paper, X-ray grazing-incidence reflectivity and diffuse scattering, combining various analysis methods, were used to characterize the structure of B4C-based multilayers including layer thickness, density, interfacial roughness, interdiffusion, correlation length, etc. Quantitative results for W/B4C, Mo/B4C and La/B4C multilayers were compared. W/B4C multilayers show the sharpest interfaces and most stable structures. The roughness replications of La/B4C and Mo/B4C multilayers are not strong, and oxidations and structure expansions are found in the aging process. This work provides guidance for future fabrication and characterization of B4C-based multilayers.

  9. On the Alignment and Focusing of the Marshall Grazing Incidence X-ray Spectrometer (MaGIXS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champey, Patrick; Winebarger, Amy; Kobayashi, Ken; Savage, Sabrina; Cirtain, Jonathan; Cheimets, Peter; Hertz, Edward; Golub, Leon; Ramsey, Brian; McCracken, Jeff

    2016-01-01

    The Marshall Grazing Incidence X-ray Spectrometer (MaGIXS) is a NASA sounding rocket instrument that is designed to observe soft X-ray emissions from 24 - 6.0 A (0.5 - 2.0 keV energies) in the solar atmosphere. For the rst time, high-temperature, low-emission plasma will be observed directly with 5 arcsecond spatial resolution and 22 mA spectral resolution. The unique optical design consists of a Wolter - I telescope and a 3-optic grazing- incidence spectrometer. The spectrometer utilizes a nite conjugate mirror pair and a blazed planar, varied line spaced grating, which is directly printed on a silicon substrate using e-beam lithography. The grating design is being nalized and the grating will be fabricated by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and Izentis LLC. Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is producing the nickel replicated telescope and spectrometer mirrors using the same facilities and techniques as those developed for the ART-XC and FOXSI mirrors. The Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO) will mount and align the optical sub-assemblies based on previous experience with similar instruments, such as the Hinode X-Ray Telescope (XRT). The telescope and spectrometer assembly will be aligned in visible light through the implementation of a theodolite and reference mirrors, in addition to the centroid detector assembly (CDA) { a device designed to align the AXAF-I nested mirrors. Focusing of the telescope and spectrometer will be achieved using the X-ray source in the Stray Light Facility (SLF) at MSFC. We present results from an alignment sensitivity analysis performed on the on the system and we also discuss the method for aligning and focusing MaGIXS.

  10. Synchrotron radiation induced x-ray micro analysis: A realistic alternative for electron- and ion beam microscopy?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janssens, K.; Adams, F.

    1992-01-01

    Synchrotron Radiation induced X-ray micro Fluorescence analysis (μ-SRXRF) is compared with more conventional microanalytical techniques such as Secondary Ion Microscopy (SIMS) and Electron Probe X-ray Microanalysis (EPXMA) for two typical microanalytical applications. SRXRF and EPXMA are employed for the analysis of individual particles, showing the complementary character of both techniques. By means of element mapping of trace constituents in a heterogeneous feldspar, the strong and weak points of SRXRF in comparison to EPXMA and SIMS are illustrated. The most striking difference between SRXRF and the other two microanalytical methods is the ability of SRXRF to probe deep into the investigated Material, whereas SIMS and EPXMA only investigate the upper surface of the material. The possibilities of SRXRF at third generation synchrotron rings is also briefly discussed

  11. Micro-X-ray absorption near edge structure as a suitable probe to monitor live organisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oger, Phil M. [Laboratoire de Sciences de la Terre, UMR CNRS 5570, Ecole Normale Superieure de Lyon-Universite Claude Bernard Lyon 1, Lyon, F-69364 (France)], E-mail: poger@ens-lyon.fr; Daniel, I.; Simionovici, A.; Picard, A. [Laboratoire de Sciences de la Terre, UMR CNRS 5570, Ecole Normale Superieure de Lyon-Universite Claude Bernard Lyon 1, Lyon, F-69364 (France)

    2008-04-15

    X-ray spectroscopies are very powerful tools to determine the chemistry of complex dilute solutes in abiotic and biotic systems. We have assayed their suitability to monitor the chemistry of complex solutions in a live biotic system. The impact of the probe on cells was quantified for 4 different cellular organisms differing in their resistance level to environmental stresses. We show that none of the organisms tested can survive the radiation doses needed for the acquisition of meaningful spectroscopic data. Therefore, on one hand, X-ray spectroscopy cannot be applied to the monitoring of single cells, and cellular damages have to be taken into account in the interpretation of the evolution of such systems. On the other hand, due to the limited extension of X-ray induced cellular damages in the culture volume, it is possible to probe a population of live cells provided that the culture to beam probe ratio is large enough to minimize the impact of mortality on the evolution of the biological system. Our results suggest that it could be possible to probe the volume in the close vicinity of a cell without affecting its activity. Using this setup we could monitor the reduction of selenite by the X-ray sensitive bacterium, Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain C58, for 24 h. This method has a great potential to monitor the respiration of various metals, such as iron, manganese and arsenic, in situ under relevant environmental conditions by live microorganisms.

  12. Micro-X-ray absorption near edge structure as a suitable probe to monitor live organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oger, Phil M.; Daniel, I.; Simionovici, A.; Picard, A.

    2008-04-01

    X-ray spectroscopies are very powerful tools to determine the chemistry of complex dilute solutes in abiotic and biotic systems. We have assayed their suitability to monitor the chemistry of complex solutions in a live biotic system. The impact of the probe on cells was quantified for 4 different cellular organisms differing in their resistance level to environmental stresses. We show that none of the organisms tested can survive the radiation doses needed for the acquisition of meaningful spectroscopic data. Therefore, on one hand, X-ray spectroscopy cannot be applied to the monitoring of single cells, and cellular damages have to be taken into account in the interpretation of the evolution of such systems. On the other hand, due to the limited extension of X-ray induced cellular damages in the culture volume, it is possible to probe a population of live cells provided that the culture to beam probe ratio is large enough to minimize the impact of mortality on the evolution of the biological system. Our results suggest that it could be possible to probe the volume in the close vicinity of a cell without affecting its activity. Using this setup we could monitor the reduction of selenite by the X-ray sensitive bacterium, Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain C58, for 24 h. This method has a great potential to monitor the respiration of various metals, such as iron, manganese and arsenic, in situ under relevant environmental conditions by live microorganisms.

  13. Micro-X-ray absorption near edge structure as a suitable probe to monitor live organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oger, Phil M.; Daniel, I.; Simionovici, A.; Picard, A.

    2008-01-01

    X-ray spectroscopies are very powerful tools to determine the chemistry of complex dilute solutes in abiotic and biotic systems. We have assayed their suitability to monitor the chemistry of complex solutions in a live biotic system. The impact of the probe on cells was quantified for 4 different cellular organisms differing in their resistance level to environmental stresses. We show that none of the organisms tested can survive the radiation doses needed for the acquisition of meaningful spectroscopic data. Therefore, on one hand, X-ray spectroscopy cannot be applied to the monitoring of single cells, and cellular damages have to be taken into account in the interpretation of the evolution of such systems. On the other hand, due to the limited extension of X-ray induced cellular damages in the culture volume, it is possible to probe a population of live cells provided that the culture to beam probe ratio is large enough to minimize the impact of mortality on the evolution of the biological system. Our results suggest that it could be possible to probe the volume in the close vicinity of a cell without affecting its activity. Using this setup we could monitor the reduction of selenite by the X-ray sensitive bacterium, Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain C58, for 24 h. This method has a great potential to monitor the respiration of various metals, such as iron, manganese and arsenic, in situ under relevant environmental conditions by live microorganisms

  14. X-ray dark-field refraction-contrast imaging of micro-objects

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Protopopov, V. V.; Sobota, Jaroslav

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 213, 4/6 (2002), s. 267 - 279 ISSN 0030-4018 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2065902 Keywords : X-ray imaging * radiography * refraction Subject RIV: JI - Composite Materials Impact factor: 1.488, year: 2002

  15. Investigation of Essential Element Distribution in the Equine Metacarpophalangeal Joint using a Synchrotron Radiation Micro X-Ray Fluorescence Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaabar, Wejdan; Gundogdu, O.; Tzaphlidou, M.; Janousch, M.; Attenburrow, D.; Bradley, D. A.

    2008-05-01

    In articular cartilage, Ca, P, K and S are among some of the well known co-factors of the metalloproteinases enzymatic family, the latter playing a pivotal role in the growth and degeneration of the collagenous bone-cartilage interface of articulating joints. Current study forms part of a larger investigation concerning the distribution of these and other key elements in such media. For the purpose of evaluating these low atomic number elements (Z⩽20), use was made of the capabilities of the LUCIA Station, located at the synchrotron facility of the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI). Using an incident radiation energy of 4.06 keV, a synchrotron radiation micro x-ray fluorescence (SR-μXRF) technique was applied in examining the distribution of the essential elements Ca, P, K and S in the bone-cartilage interface of both healthy and diseased (osteoarthritic) areas of an equine metacarpophalangeal joint. The SR-μXRF mappings and line profile patterns have revealed remarkable changes in both the pattern and absolute distributions of these elements, agreeing with the findings of others. The elemental presence shown in the individual area scans encompassing the lesion each reflect the visibly abraded outer surface of the cartilage and change in shape of the bone surface. One of the area scans for the bone-cartilage interface shows a marked change in both the pattern and absolute elemental presence for all three elements compared to that observed at two other scan sites. The observation of change in bone cartilage composition around the surface of the articulating joint is thought to be novel, the variation being almost certainly due to the differing weight-bearing role of the subchondral bone at each location.

  16. High pressure-elevated temperature x-ray micro-computed tomography for subsurface applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglauer, Stefan; Lebedev, Maxim

    2017-12-28

    Physical, chemical and mechanical pore-scale (i.e. micrometer-scale) mechanisms in rock are of key importance in many, if not all, subsurface processes. These processes are highly relevant in various applications, e.g. hydrocarbon recovery, CO 2 geo-sequestration, geophysical exploration, water production, geothermal energy production, or the prediction of the location of valuable hydrothermal deposits. Typical examples are multi-phase flow (e.g. oil and water) displacements driven by buoyancy, viscous or capillary forces, mineral-fluid interactions (e.g. mineral dissolution and/or precipitation over geological times), geo-mechanical rock behaviour (e.g. rock compaction during diagenesis) or fines migration during water production, which can dramatically reduce reservoir permeability (and thus reservoir performance). All above examples are 3D processes, and 2D experiments (as traditionally done for micro-scale investigations) will thus only provide qualitative information; for instance the percolation threshold is much lower in 3D than in 2D. However, with the advent of x-ray micro-computed tomography (μCT) - which is now routinely used - this limitation has been overcome, and such pore-scale processes can be observed in 3D at micrometer-scale. A serious complication is, however, the fact that in the subsurface high pressures and elevated temperatures (HPET) prevail, due to the hydrostatic and geothermal gradients imposed upon it. Such HPET-reservoir conditions significantly change the above mentioned physical and chemical processes, e.g. gas density is much higher at high pressure, which strongly affects buoyancy and wettability and thus gas distributions in the subsurface; or chemical reactions are significantly accelerated at increased temperature, strongly affecting fluid-rock interactions and thus diagenesis and deposition of valuable minerals. It is thus necessary to apply HPET conditions to the aforementioned μCT experiments, to be able to mimic subsurface

  17. Possible Radiation-Induced Damage to the Molecular Structure of Wooden Artifacts Due to Micro-Computed Tomography, Handheld X-Ray Fluorescence, and X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopic Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madalena Kozachuk

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to ascertain whether radiation produced by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, micro-computed tomography (μCT and/or portable handheld X-ray fluorescence (XRF equipment might damage wood artifacts during analysis. Changes at the molecular level were monitored by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR analysis. No significant changes in FTIR spectra were observed as a result of μCT or handheld XRF analysis. No substantial changes in the collected FTIR spectra were observed when XPS analytical times on the order of minutes were used. However, XPS analysis collected over tens of hours did produce significant changes in the FTIR spectra.

  18. X-ray micro-beam characterization of a small pixel spectroscopic CdTe detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veale, M. C.; Bell, S. J.; Seller, P.; Wilson, M. D.; Kachkanov, V.

    2012-07-01

    A small pixel, spectroscopic, CdTe detector has been developed at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL) for X-ray imaging applications. The detector consists of 80 × 80 pixels on a 250 μm pitch with 50 μm inter-pixel spacing. Measurements with an 241Am γ-source demonstrated that 96% of all pixels have a FWHM of better than 1 keV while the majority of the remaining pixels have FWHM of less than 4 keV. Using the Diamond Light Source synchrotron, a 10 μm collimated beam of monochromatic 20 keV X-rays has been used to map the spatial variation in the detector response and the effects of charge sharing corrections on detector efficiency and resolution. The mapping measurements revealed the presence of inclusions in the detector and quantified their effect on the spectroscopic resolution of pixels.

  19. Analyzer-based phase-contrast imaging system using a micro focus x-ray source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Wei [BME Department, Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, Illinois 60616 (United States); Majidi, Keivan; Brankov, Jovan G., E-mail: brankov@iit.edu [ECE Department, Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, Illinois 60616 (United States)

    2014-08-15

    Here we describe a new in-laboratory analyzer based phase contrast-imaging (ABI) instrument using a conventional X-ray tube source (CXS) aimed at bio-medical imaging applications. Phase contrast-imaging allows visualization of soft tissue details usually obscured in conventional X-ray imaging. The ABI system design and major features are described in detail. The key advantage of the presented system, over the few existing CXS ABI systems, is that it does not require high precision components, i.e., CXS, X-ray detector, and electro-mechanical components. To overcome a main problem introduced by these components, identified as temperature stability, the system components are kept at a constant temperature inside of three enclosures, thus minimizing the electrical and mechanical thermal drifts. This is achieved by using thermoelectric (Peltier) cooling/heating modules that are easy to control precisely. For CXS we utilized a microfocus X-ray source with tungsten (W) anode material. In addition the proposed system eliminates tungsten's multiple spectral lines by selecting monochromator crystal size appropriately therefore eliminating need for the costly mismatched, two-crystal monochromator. The system imaging was fine-tuned for tungsten Kα{sub 1} line with the energy of 59.3 keV since it has been shown to be of great clinical significance by a number of researchers at synchrotron facilities. In this way a laboratory system that can be used for evaluating and quantifying tissue properties, initially explored at synchrotron facilities, would be of great interest to a larger research community. To demonstrate the imaging capability of our instrument we use a chicken thigh tissue sample.

  20. Analyzer-based phase-contrast imaging system using a micro focus X-ray source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wei; Majidi, Keivan; Brankov, Jovan G

    2014-08-01

    Here we describe a new in-laboratory analyzer based phase contrast-imaging (ABI) instrument using a conventional X-ray tube source (CXS) aimed at bio-medical imaging applications. Phase contrast-imaging allows visualization of soft tissue details usually obscured in conventional X-ray imaging. The ABI system design and major features are described in detail. The key advantage of the presented system, over the few existing CXS ABI systems, is that it does not require high precision components, i.e., CXS, X-ray detector, and electro-mechanical components. To overcome a main problem introduced by these components, identified as temperature stability, the system components are kept at a constant temperature inside of three enclosures, thus minimizing the electrical and mechanical thermal drifts. This is achieved by using thermoelectric (Peltier) cooling/heating modules that are easy to control precisely. For CXS we utilized a microfocus X-ray source with tungsten (W) anode material. In addition the proposed system eliminates tungsten's multiple spectral lines by selecting monochromator crystal size appropriately therefore eliminating need for the costly mismatched, two-crystal monochromator. The system imaging was fine-tuned for tungsten Kα1 line with the energy of 59.3 keV since it has been shown to be of great clinical significance by a number of researchers at synchrotron facilities. In this way a laboratory system that can be used for evaluating and quantifying tissue properties, initially explored at synchrotron facilities, would be of great interest to a larger research community. To demonstrate the imaging capability of our instrument we use a chicken thigh tissue sample.

  1. Spatial X-ray fluorescence micro-imaging of minerals in grain tissues of wheat and related genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sudhir P; Vogel-Mikuš, Katarina; Vavpetič, Primož; Jeromel, Luka; Pelicon, Primož; Kumar, Jitendra; Tuli, Rakesh

    2014-08-01

    Wheat and its related genotypes show distinct distribution patterns for mineral nutrients in maternal and filial tissues in grains. X-ray-based imaging techniques are very informative to identify genotypes with contrasting tissue-specific localization of different elements. This can help in the selection of suitable genotypes for nutritional improvement of food grain crops. Understanding mineral localization in cereal grains is important for their nutritional improvement. Spatial distribution of mineral nutrients (Mg, P, S, K, Ca, Fe, Zn, Mn and Cu) was investigated between and within the maternal and filial tissues in grains of two wheat cultivars (Triticum aestivum Cv. WH291 and WL711), a landrace (T. aestivum L. IITR26) and a related wild species Aegilops kotschyi, using micro-proton-induced X-ray emission (µ-PIXE) and micro-X-ray fluorescence (µ-XRF). Aleurone and scutellum were major storage tissues for macro (P, K, Ca and Mg) as well as micro (Fe, Zn, Cu and Mn) nutrients. Distinct elemental distribution patterns were observed in each of the four genotypes. A. kotschyi, the wild relative of wheat and the landrace, T. aestivum L. IITR26, accumulated more Zn and Fe in scutellum and aleurone than the cultivated wheat varieties, WH291 and WL711. The landrace IITR26, accumulated far more S in grains, Mn in scutellum, aleurone and embryo region, Ca and Cu in aleurone and scutellum, and Mg, K and P in scutellum than the other genotypes. Unlike wheat, lower Mn and higher Fe, Cu and Zn concentrations were noticed in the pigment strand of A. kotschyi. Multivariate statistical analysis, performed on mineral distribution in major grain tissues (aleurone, scutellum, endosperm and embryo region) resolved the four genotypes into distinct clusters.

  2. Anomalous grazing incidence small-angle x-ray scattering studies of Pt nanoparticles formed by cluster deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, B.; Seifert, S.; Riley, S.J.; Tikhonov, G.Y.; Tomczyk, N.A.; Vajda, S.; Winans, R.E.

    2005-01-01

    The size evolution of platinum nanoparticles formed on a SiO2/Si(111) substrate as a function of the level of surface coverage with deposited clusters has been investigated. The anisotropic shapes of sub-nanometer-size nanoparticles are changed to isotropic on the amorphous substrate as their sizes increased. Using anomalous grazing incidence small-angle x-ray scattering (AGISAXS), the scattering from nanoparticles on the surface of a substrate is well separated from that of surface roughness and fluorescence. We show that AGISAXS is a very effective method to subtract the background and can provide unbiased information about particle sizes of less than 1 nm.

  3. Study of the distribution of actinides in human tissues using synchrotron radiation micro X-ray fluorescence spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergucht, Eva; De Samber, Björn; Izmer, Andrei; Vekemans, Bart; Appel, Karen; Tolmachev, Sergei; Vincze, Laszlo; Vanhaecke, Frank

    2015-02-01

    This study aims at evaluating the capabilities of synchrotron radiation micro X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (SR micro-XRF) for qualitative and semi-quantitative elemental mapping of the distribution of actinides in human tissues originating from individuals with documented occupational exposure. The investigated lymph node tissues were provided by the United States Transuranium and Uranium Registries (USTUR) and were analyzed following appropriate sample pre-treatment. Semi-quantitative results were obtained via calibration by external standards and demonstrated that the uranium concentration level in the detected actinide hot spots reaches more than 100 μg/g. For the plutonium hot spots, concentration levels up to 31 μg/g were found. As illustrated by this case study on these unique samples, SR micro-XRF has a high potential for this type of elemental bio-imaging owing to its high sensitivity, high spatial resolution, and non-destructive character.

  4. Quantitative Study of Porosity and Pore Features in Moldavites by Means of X-ray Micro-CT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Pratesi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available X-ray micro-computer aided tomography (μ-CT, together with optical microscopy and imaging, have been applied to the study of six moldavite samples. These techniques enabled a complete characterization to be made of the textural features of both Muong Nong-type and common splashform moldavites. A detailed study of the size and distribution of pores or bubbles confirmed the marked variability in pore size among the samples, as well as within each sample, and indicated in the Muong Nong-type moldavites the presence of at least two deformation stages which occurred before and after pore formation.

  5. Application of X-ray computed micro-tomography to the study of damage and oxidation kinetics of thermostructural composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caty, Olivier, E-mail: caty@lcts.u-bordeaux1.fr [Laboratory of Thermostructural Composites (LCTS), Université de Bordeaux, CNRS, SAFRAN, CEA, 3 Allée La Boétie, 33600 Pessac (France); Ibarroule, Philippe; Herbreteau, Mathieu; Rebillat, Francis [Laboratory of Thermostructural Composites (LCTS), Université de Bordeaux, CNRS, SAFRAN, CEA, 3 Allée La Boétie, 33600 Pessac (France); Maire, Eric [MATEIS Laboratory, INSA Lyon, 7 Avenue Jean Capelle, 69621 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Vignoles, Gérard L. [Laboratory of Thermostructural Composites (LCTS), Université de Bordeaux, CNRS, SAFRAN, CEA, 3 Allée La Boétie, 33600 Pessac (France)

    2014-04-01

    Thermostructural composites are three-dimensionally (3D) structured materials. Weakening phenomena (mechanical and chemical) take place inside the material following its 3D structure and are thus hard to describe accurately. X-ray computed micro-tomography (μCT) is a recent solution that allows their experimental investigation. The technique is applied here to the study of failure under tensile loading and to the self healing processes during oxidation. Results are useful data to verify or invalidate hypotheses or estimations made in current models.

  6. X-ray absorption microtomography (microCT) and small beam diffraction mapping of sea urchin teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, S R; Barss, J; Dahl, T; Veis, A; Almer, J D

    2002-07-01

    Two noninvasive X-ray techniques, laboratory X-ray absorption microtomography (microCT) and X-ray diffraction mapping, were used to study teeth of the sea urchin Lytechinus variegatus. MicroCT revealed low attenuation regions at near the tooth's stone part and along the carinar process-central prism boundary; this latter observation appears to be novel. The expected variation of Mg fraction x in the mineral phase (calcite, Ca(1-x)Mg(x)CO(3)) cannot account for all of the linear attenuation coefficient decrease in the two zones: this suggested that soft tissue is localized there. Transmission diffraction mapping (synchrotron X-radiation, 80.8 keV, 0.1 x 0.1mm(2) beam area, 0.1mm translation grid, image plate area detector) simultaneously probed variations in 3-D and showed that the crystal elements of the "T"-shaped tooth were very highly aligned. Diffraction patterns from the keel (adaxial web) and from the abaxial flange (containing primary plates and the stone part) differed markedly. The flange contained two populations of identically oriented crystal elements with lattice parameters corresponding to x=0.13 and x=0.32. The keel produced one set of diffraction spots corresponding to the lower x. The compositions were more or less equivalent to those determined by others for camarodont teeth, and the high Mg phase is expected to be disks of secondary mineral epitaxially related to the underlying primary mineral element. Lattice parameter gradients were not noted in the keel or flange. Taken together, the microCT and diffraction results indicated that there was a band of relatively high protein content, of up to approximately 0.25 volume fraction, in the central part of the flange and paralleling its adaxial and abaxial faces. X-ray microCT and microdiffraction data used in conjunction with protein distribution data will be crucial for understanding the properties of various biocomposites and their mechanical functions.

  7. Grazing incidence X-ray fluorescence analysis of buried interfaces in periodically structured crystalline silicon thin-film solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisenhauer, David; Preidel, Veit; Becker, Christiane; Pollakowski, Beatrix; Beckhoff, Burkhard; Baumann, Jonas; Kanngiesser, Birgit; Amkreutz, Daniel; Rech, Bernd; Back, Franziska; Rudigier-Voigt, Eveline

    2015-01-01

    We present grazing incidence X-ray fluorescence (GIXRF) experiments on 3D periodically textured interfaces of liquid phase crystallized silicon thin-film solar cells on glass. The influence of functional layers (SiO x or SiO x /SiC x ) - placed between glass substrate and silicon during crystallization - on the final carbon and oxygen contaminations inside the silicon was analyzed. Baring of the buried structured silicon surface prior to GIXRF measurement was achieved by removal of the original nano-imprinted glass substrate by wet-chemical etching. A broad angle of incidence distribution was determined for the X-ray radiation impinging on this textured surface. Optical simulations were performed in order to estimate the incident radiation intensity on the structured surface profile considering total reflection and attenuation effects. The results indicate a much lower contamination level for SiO x compared to the SiO x /SiC x interlayers, and about 25% increased contamination when comparing structured with planar silicon layers, both correlating with the corresponding solar cell performances. (copyright 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  8. Studies for the development of a micro-focus monochromatic x-ray source with making use of a highly charged heavy ion beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Nobuyuki; Yoshiyasu, Nobuo; Nakayama, Ryo; Watanabe, Hirofumi

    2008-01-01

    We propose a new scheme for a micro-focus monochromatic X-ray source using a focused highly charged ion beam colliding with a solid surface. When highly charged ion approaches a surface, many electrons are captured into the ion and the so-called hollow atom is produced. The hollow atom will decay by emitting X-rays before and after hitting the surface. Such X-rays do not contain any contribution from bremsstrahlung, so that monochromatic X-rays can be obtained by using proper filters. For the first step of realizing the proposed scheme, an ion focusing system with a glass capillary has been developed. In order to study the monochromaticity of the emission, X-ray spectra from hollow atoms produced in the collisions between highly charged heavy ions and several surfaces have been observed. (author)

  9. Design and characterization of a multi-beam micro-CT scanner based on carbon nanotube field emission x-ray technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Rui

    In this dissertation, I will present the results for my Ph.D. research for the past five years. My project mainly focuses on advanced imaging applications with a multi-beam x-ray source array based on carbon nanotube field emission technology. In the past few years, research in carbon nanotubes gradually changed from the raw material science to its application. Field emission x-ray application is one of the hottest research areas for carbon nanotube. Compared to traditional thermionic x-ray sources, the carbon nanotube field emission x-ray source has some natural advantages over traditional thermionic x-ray sources such as instantaneous x-ray generation, programmability and miniaturization. For the past few years, the research and development of carbon nanotube field emission x-ray has shifted from single x-ray beam applications to spatially distributed multi-beam x-ray sources. Previously in Zhou group, we have already built a gated micro-CT system with single beam micro-focus x-ray tube for higher spatial and temporal resolution as required in live animal imaging and a multi-beam tomosynthesis system targeting for faster and more stable breast imaging. Now my project mainly focused on the design, characterization and optimization of a multi-beam micro-CT imaging system. With the increase of gantry rotation speed approaching the mechanical limit, it is getting more and more difficult to further speed up the CT scanning. My new system promises a potential solution for the problem, and it serves as a great test platform for truly stationary micro-CT geometry. The potential capabilities it showed during the characterization and imaging measurements was promising. The dissertation is composed of five chapters. In Chapter 1, I will generally review the physics principles of x-ray generation and interaction with matter. Then the discovery of carbon nanotube and its great potential to serve as an excellent field emission electron source will be introduced in the second

  10. Aplanatic telescopes based on Schwarzschild optical configuration: from grazing incidence Wolter-like x-ray optics to Cherenkov two-mirror normal incidence telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sironi, Giorgia

    2017-09-01

    At the beginning of XX century Karl Schwarzschild defined a method to design large-field aplanatic telescopes based on the use of two aspheric mirrors. The approach was then refined by Couder (1926) who, in order to correct for the astigmatic aberration, introduced a curvature of the focal plane. By the way, the realization of normal-incidence telescopes implementing the Schwarzschild aplanatic configuration has been historically limited by the lack of technological solutions to manufacture and test aspheric mirrors. On the other hand, the Schwarzschild solution was recovered for the realization of coma-free X-ray grazing incidence optics. Wolter-like grazing incidence systems are indeed free of spherical aberration, but still suffer from coma and higher order aberrations degrading the imaging capability for off-axis sources. The application of the Schwarzschild's solution to X-ray optics allowed Wolter to define an optical system that exactly obeys the Abbe sine condition, eliminating coma completely. Therefore these systems are named Wolter-Schwarzschild telescopes and have been used to implement wide-field X-ray telescopes like the ROSAT WFC and the SOHO X-ray telescope. Starting from this approach, a new class of X-ray optical system was proposed by Burrows, Burg and Giacconi assuming polynomials numerically optimized to get a flat field of view response and applied by Conconi to the wide field x-ray telescope (WFXT) design. The Schwarzschild-Couder solution has been recently re-discovered for the application to normal-incidence Cherenkov telescopes, thanks to the suggestion by Vassiliev and collaborators. The Italian Institute for Astrophysics (INAF) realized the first Cherenkov telescope based on the polynomial variation of the Schwarzschild configuration (the so-called ASTRI telescope). Its optical qualification was successfully completed in 2016, demonstrating the suitability of the Schwarzschild-like configuration for the Cherenkov astronomy requirements

  11. Radial lens distortion correction with sub-pixel accuracy for X-ray micro-tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vo, Nghia T; Atwood, Robert C; Drakopoulos, Michael

    2015-12-14

    Distortion correction or camera calibration for an imaging system which is highly configurable and requires frequent disassembly for maintenance or replacement of parts needs a speedy method for recalibration. Here we present direct techniques for calculating distortion parameters of a non-linear model based on the correct determination of the center of distortion. These techniques are fast, very easy to implement, and accurate at sub-pixel level. The implementation at the X-ray tomography system of the I12 beamline, Diamond Light Source, which strictly requires sub-pixel accuracy, shows excellent performance in the calibration image and in the reconstructed images.

  12. Glancing-incidence X-ray diffraction of Ag nanoparticles in gold lustre decoration of Italian Renaissance pottery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bontempi, E.; Colombi, P.; Depero, L.E.; Cartechini, L.; Presciutti, F.; Brunetti, B.G.; Sgamellotti, A.

    2006-01-01

    Lustre is known as one of the most significant decorative techniques of Medieval and Renaissance pottery in the Mediterranean basin, characterized by brilliant gold and red metallic reflections and iridescence effects. Previous studies by various techniques (SEM-EDS and TEM, UV-VIS, XRF, RBS and EXAFS) demonstrated that lustre consists of a heterogeneous metal-glass composite film, formed by Cu and Ag nanoparticles dispersed within the outer layer of a tin-opacified lead glaze. In the present work the investigation of an original gold lustre sample from Deruta has been carried out by means of glancing-incidence X-ray diffraction techniques (GIXRD). The study was aimed at providing information on structure and depth distribution of Ag nanoparticles. Exploiting the capability of controlling X-ray penetration in the glaze by changing the incidence angle, we used GIXRD measurements to estimate non-destructively thickness and depth of silver particles present in the first layers of the glaze. (orig.)

  13. Advanced laser-backlit grazing-incidence x-ray imaging systems for inertial confinement fusion research. II. Tolerance analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, Guy R.; Folta, James A.

    2001-01-01

    Two example ultrahigh-spatial resolution laser-backlit grazing-incidence x-ray microscope designs for inertial confinement fusion (ICF) research have been described [Appl. Opt. 40, 4570 (2001)]. Here details of fabrication, assembly, and optical surface errors that are characteristic of present state-of-the-art superpolished multilayer-coated spherical mirrors are given. They indicate that good image qualities can be expected; in particular, <0.5-μm spatial resolution at very high x-ray energies (up to 25 keV) appears to be feasible. Existing ICF imaging diagnostics approach ∼2 μm spatial at low (<2 keV) energy. The improvement in resolution compared with that of other grazing-incidence devices is attributed to a fortuitous residual on-axis aberration dependence on short wavelengths; recent advances in mirror fabrication, including a new thin-film deposition technique to correct figure errors precisely in one dimension; and novel design. For even higher resolution, a means of creating precise aspherical mirrors of spheric-quality microroughness may be possible by use of the same deposition technique

  14. Characterisation of Late Bronze Age large size shield nails by EDXRF, micro-EDXRF and X-ray digital radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Figueiredo, E.; Araujo, M.F.; Silva, R.J.C.; Senna-Martinez, J.C.; Ines Vaz, J.L.

    2011-01-01

    In the present study six exceptional large size metallic nails, a dagger and a sickle from the Late Bronze Age archaeological site of Figueiredo das Donas (Central Portugal) have been analysed by EDXRF, micro-EDXRF and X-ray digital radiography for the study of material composition and technology of fabrication. The combination of these analytical and examination techniques showed that all artefacts are made of bronze with As, Sb and Pb impurities, and that the nails were most likely manufactured using the casting-on technique. These results reinforce the use of binary bronze by Late Bronze Age in the region, and the incorporation of new fabrication technologies that resulted from ancient spheres of interaction. - Highlights: → EDXRF, micro-EDXRF and X-ray digital radiography in cultural heritage studies. → Archaeometallurgical study of a Late Bronze Age artefact collection from Portugal. → Practise of a specific and traditional bronze metallurgy. → Appearance of technological innovations as the casting-on technique.

  15. Archaeometric studies by neutron, x-ray radiography and microCT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latini, R. M.; Bellido, A. V. B.; Vinagre Filho, U. M.; Souza, M. I. S.; Lima, I.; Oliveira, D. F.; Lopes, R. T.

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate manufacturing techniques used in prehistoric Brazilian pottery from Acre state and Araruama, Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil, using Neutron and X-Ray Radiography. For the neutrongraphy different fragments of pottery were submitted to a neutron flux of the order of 105n.cm-2.s-1 for 3 minutes at the Argonauta research reactor of the Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN)/CNEN. Digital processing techniques using imaging plate were applied to process the image of the selected sample. For the radiography the sample were exposed to an X-Rays in the Feinfocus Model FX100 and the image was obtained by Flat Panel GE IT Model DXR 250V at the Laboratório de Instrumentação Nuclear (LIN) - COPPE/UFRJ. The Neutrongraphy and radiography shows two different manufacturing details: palette and rollers and the microtomography shows cavities in the clay body and different temper applied in the pottery production. The preliminary results shows promising techniques applied for the pottery manufacturing information and as complement for better understanding the ceramics classification and precedence.

  16. The study of chemical composition and elemental mappings of colored over-glaze porcelain fired in Qing Dynasty by micro-X-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Lin; Li Meitian; Kim Youshi; Fan Changsheng; Wang Shanghai; Pan Qiuli; Liu Zhiguo; Li Rongwu

    2011-01-01

    It is very difficult to measure the chemical composition of colored pigments of over-glaze porcelain by X-ray fluorescence because it contains high concentration of Pb. One of the disadvantages of our polycapillary optics is that it has low transmission efficiency to the high energy X-ray. However, it is beneficial to measure the chemical compositions of rich Pb sample. In this paper, we reported the performances of a tabletop setup of micro-X-ray fluorescence system base on slightly focusing polycapillary and its applications for analysis of rich Pb sample. A piece of Chinese ancient over-glaze porcelain was analyzed by micro-X-ray fluorescence. The experimental results showed that the Cu, Fe and Mn are the major color elements. The possibilities of the process of decorative technology were discussed in this paper, also.

  17. Quantitative 3D X-ray imaging of densification, delamination and fracture in a micro-composite under compression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bø Fløystad, Jostein; Skjønsfjell, Eirik Torbjørn Bakken; Guizar-Sicairos, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Phase-contrast three-dimensional tomograms showing in unprecedented detail the mechanical response of a micro-composite subjected to a mechanical compression test are reported. The X-ray ptychography images reveal the deformation and fracture processes of a 10 μm diameter composite, consisting......-dimensional tomograms reveal with unprecedented detail the mechanical response, including delamination, densification and fracture, of a polymer-core/silver-shell micro-composite subjected in situ to a mechanical compression test....... of the increasingly compressed polymer core is assessed quantitatively through the local densification at sub-micron resolution, supported by finite element analysis. Nanoscale mechanics is of rapidly growing importance in materials science, biotechnology and medicine, and this study demonstrates the use of coherent...

  18. X-ray filter for x-ray powder diffraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinsheimer, John Jay; Conley, Raymond P.; Bouet, Nathalie C. D.; Dooryhee, Eric; Ghose, Sanjit

    2018-01-23

    Technologies are described for apparatus, methods and systems effective for filtering. The filters may comprise a first plate. The first plate may include an x-ray absorbing material and walls defining first slits. The first slits may include arc shaped openings through the first plate. The walls of the first plate may be configured to absorb at least some of first x-rays when the first x-rays are incident on the x-ray absorbing material, and to output second x-rays. The filters may comprise a second plate spaced from the first plate. The second plate may include the x-ray absorbing material and walls defining second slits. The second slits may include arc shaped openings through the second plate. The walls of the second plate may be configured to absorb at least some of second x-rays and to output third x-rays.

  19. Optimization of phosphor-based detector design for oblique x-ray incidence in digital breast tomosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acciavatti, Raymond J; Maidment, Andrew D A

    2011-11-01

    In digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT), a volumetric reconstruction of the breast is generated from a limited range of x-ray projections. One trade-off of DBT is resolution loss in the projections due to non-normal (i.e., oblique) x-ray incidence. Although degradation in image quality due to oblique incidence has been studied using empirical data and Monte Carlo simulations, a theoretical treatment has been lacking. The purpose of this work is to extend Swank's calculations of the transfer functions of turbid granular phosphors to oblique incidence. The model is ultimately used as a tool for optimizing the design of DBT detectors. A quantum-limited system and 20 keV x-rays are considered. Under these assumptions, the modulation transfer function (MTF) and noise power spectra (NPS) are derived using the diffusion approximation to the Boltzmann equation to model optical scatter within the phosphor. This approach is applicable to a nonstructured scintillator such as gadolinium oxysulfide doped with terbium (Gd(2)O(2)S:Tb), which is commonly used in breast imaging and which can reasonably approximate other detector materials. The detective quantum efficiency (DQE) is then determined from the Nishikawa formulation, where it is written as the product of the x-ray quantum detection efficiency, the Swank factor, and the Lubberts fraction. Transfer functions are calculated for both front- and back-screen configurations, which differ by positioning the photocathode at the exit or entrance point of the x-ray beam, respectively. In the front-screen configuration, MTF and DQE are found to have considerable angular dependence, while NPS is shown to vary minimally with projection angle. As expected, the high frequency MTF and DQE are degraded substantially at large angles. By contrast, all transfer functions for the back-screen configuration have the advantage of significantly less angular dependence. Using these models, we investigated the possibility for optimizing the design of

  20. Fundamentals and recent advances in X-ray micro computed tomography (microCT) applied on thermal-fluid dynamics and multiphase flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santini, Maurizio

    2015-01-01

    X-ray computed tomography (CT) is a well-known technique nowadays, since its first practical application by Sir. G. Hounsfield (Nobel price for medicine 1979) has continually benefited from optimising improvements, especially in medical applications. Indeed, also application of CT in various engineering research fields provides fundamental informations on a wide range of applications, considering that the technique is not destructive, allowing 3D visualization without perturbation of the analysed material. Nowadays, it is technologically possible to design and realize an equipment that achieve a micrometric resolution and even improve the sensibility in revealing differences in materials having very radiotransparency, allowing i.e. to distinguish between different fluids (with different density) or states of matter (like with two-phase flows). At the University of Bergamo, a prototype of an X-ray microCT system was developed since 2008, so being fully operative from 2012, with specific customizations for investigations in thermal-fluid dynamics and multiphase flow researches. A technical session held at the UIT International Conference in L'Aquila (Italy), at which this paper is referring, has presented some microCT fundamentals, to allow the audience to gain basics to follow the “fil-rouge” that links all the instrumentation developments, till the recent applications. Hereinafter are reported some applications currently developed at Bergamo University at the X-ray computed micro-tomography laboratory. (paper)

  1. Characterisation of micro-sized and nano-sized tungsten oxide-epoxy composites for radiation shielding of diagnostic X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noor Azman, N.Z.; Siddiqui, S.A.; Low, I.M.

    2013-01-01

    Characteristics of X-ray transmissions were investigated for epoxy composites filled with 2–10 vol% WO 3 loadings using synchrotron X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) at 10–40 keV. The results obtained were used to determine the equivalent X-ray energies for the operating X-ray tube voltages of mammography and radiology machines. The results confirmed the superior attenuation ability of nano-sized WO 3 -epoxy composites in the energy range of 10–25 keV when compared to their micro-sized counterparts. However, at higher synchrotron radiation energies (i.e., 30–40 keV), the X-ray transmission characteristics were similar with no apparent size effect for both nano-sized and micro-sized WO 3 -epoxy composites. The equivalent X-ray energies for the operating X-ray tube voltages of the mammography unit (25–49 kV) were in the range of 15–25 keV. Similarly, for a radiology unit operating at 40–60 kV, the equivalent energy range was 25–40 keV, and for operating voltages greater than 60 kV (i.e., 70–100 kV), the equivalent energy was in excess of 40 keV. The mechanical properties of epoxy composites increased initially with an increase in the filler loading but a further increase in the WO 3 loading resulted in deterioration of flexural strength, modulus and hardness. - Highlights: • Nano-sized WO 3 -epoxy composites have superior x-ray shielding capability. • No size effect in x-ray attenuation was observed at 30–40 keV. • An optimum filler loading for improving the mechanical properties of WO 3 -epoxy composites

  2. Development of a reconstruction software of elemental maps by micro X-ray fluorescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, Andre Pereira de; Braz, Delson; Mota, Carla Lemos, E-mail: apalmeid@gmail.co, E-mail: delson@lin.ufrj.b, E-mail: clemos@con.ufrj.b [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (PEN/COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia. Programa de Energia Nuclear; Oliveira, Luis Fernando de; Barroso, Regina Cely; Pinto, Nivia Graciele Villela, E-mail: cely@uerj.b, E-mail: lfolive@uerj.b, E-mail: nitatag@gmail.co [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (IF/UERJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica; Cardoso, Simone Coutinho [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (IF/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica; Moreira, Silvana [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (FEC/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil) Faculdade de Engenharia Civil, Arquitetura e Urbanismo

    2009-07-01

    The technique of X-ray fluorescence (XRF) using SR microbeams is a powerful analysis tool for studying elemental composition in several samples. One application of this technique is the analysis done through the mapping of chemical elements forming a matrix of data. The aim of this work is the presentation of the program MapXRF, an in-house software designed to optimize the processing and mapping of fluorescence intensities data. This program uses spectra generated by QXAS as input data and separates the intensities of each chemical element found in the fluorescence spectra in files themselves. From these files, the program generates the intensity maps that can be visualized in any program of treatment of images. The proposed software was tested using fluorescence data obtained in the XRF beamline at National Synchrotron Light Laboratory (LNLS), Brazil. Automatic 2D scans were performed and element distribution maps were obtained in form of a matrix of data. (author)

  3. Development of a reconstruction software of elemental maps by micro X-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, Andre Pereira de; Braz, Delson; Mota, Carla Lemos; Oliveira, Luis Fernando de; Barroso, Regina Cely; Pinto, Nivia Graciele Villela; Cardoso, Simone Coutinho; Moreira, Silvana

    2009-01-01

    The technique of X-ray fluorescence (XRF) using SR microbeams is a powerful analysis tool for studying elemental composition in several samples. One application of this technique is the analysis done through the mapping of chemical elements forming a matrix of data. The aim of this work is the presentation of the program MapXRF, an in-house software designed to optimize the processing and mapping of fluorescence intensities data. This program uses spectra generated by QXAS as input data and separates the intensities of each chemical element found in the fluorescence spectra in files themselves. From these files, the program generates the intensity maps that can be visualized in any program of treatment of images. The proposed software was tested using fluorescence data obtained in the XRF beamline at National Synchrotron Light Laboratory (LNLS), Brazil. Automatic 2D scans were performed and element distribution maps were obtained in form of a matrix of data. (author)

  4. Micro-Slit Collimators for X-Ray/Gamma-Ray Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appleby, Michael; Fraser, Iain; Klinger, Jill

    2011-01-01

    A hybrid photochemical-machining process is coupled with precision stack lamination to allow for the fabrication of multiple ultra-high-resolution grids on a single array substrate. In addition, special fixturing and etching techniques have been developed that allow higher-resolution multi-grid collimators to be fabricated. Building on past work of developing a manufacturing technique for fabricating multi-grid, high-resolution coating modulation collimators for arcsecond and subarcsecond x-ray and gamma-ray imaging, the current work reduces the grid pitch by almost a factor of two, down to 22 microns. Additionally, a process was developed for reducing thin, high-Z (tungsten or molybdenum) from the thinnest commercially available foil (25 microns thick) down to approximately equal to 10 microns thick using precisely controlled chemical etching

  5. Effects of growth conditions on the GaAs/AlAs superlattices by grazing incidence X-ray reflectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Lingling; Gao, Huifang; Yuan, Aili

    2013-02-01

    The effects of growth conditions on the structural properties of the GaAs/AlAs superlattices were investigated by grazing incidence X-ray reflectivity (GIXRR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The GaAs/AlAs superlattices were prepared by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) at different growth temperatures (500 degrees C, 600 degrees C and 660 degrees C) and growth rates (1.0 microm/h and 0.7 microm/h for GaAs). And the thicknesses, surface/interface roughnesses and densities of the GaAs/AlAs superlattices were obtained by GIXRR by fitting the whole spectral reflectance curves based on the Parratt recurrence formula. The homogeneity of samples was also studied at different growth conditions. The results indicate that the superlattices grown at a high temperature and large growth rate ratio (rate of AlAs to that of GaAs) possess better structure and more homogeneity.

  6. Diagnosis of secondary caries in esthetic restorations: influence of the incidence vertical angle of the X-ray beam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Patrícia Lima; Messora, Michel Reis; Pereira, Stela Márcia; Almeida, Solange Maria de; Cruz, Adriana Dibo da

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy on the diagnosis of secondary caries-like lesions simulated on esthetic restorations of different materials, changing the incidence vertical angle (IVA) of the x-ray beam. Twenty human teeth received MOD inlay preparations. In the experimental group (n=10), a round cavity was made in the floor of the proximal box to simulate the caries-like lesion. All teeth were restored with 3 composite resins (Charisma, Filtek-Z250 and TPH-Spectrum) at 3 moments. Two radiographic images were acquired with 0º and 10º IVA. Ten observers evaluated the images using a 5-point confidence scale. Intra- and interobserver reliability was analyzed with the Interclass Correlation Coefficient and the diagnostic accuracy was evaluated using the area under the ROC curve (A(z)), Friedman test and Wilcoxon test (α=0.05). Higher accuracy values were obtained with 10º IVA (A(z)=0.66, Filtek-Z250>A(z)=0.56, TPH-Spectrum) compared to 0º (A(z)=0.55, Charisma>A(z)=0.37, TPH-Spectrum), though without statistically significant difference (p>0.05). The detection of secondary caries-like lesions simulated on esthetic restorations of different materials suffered no negative influence by changing the IVA of the x-ray beam.

  7. Stress measurements by multi-reflection grazing-incidence X-ray diffraction method (MGIXD) using different radiation wavelengths and different incident angles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marciszko, Marianna; Baczmański, Andrzej; Braham, Chedly; Wróbel, Mirosław; Wroński, Sebastian; Cios, Grzegorz

    2017-01-01

    The presented study introduces the development of the multi-reflection grazing-incidence X-ray diffraction method (MGIXD) for residual stress determination. The proposed new methodology is aimed at obtaining more reliable experimental data and increasing the depth of non-destructive stress determination below the sample surface. To verify proposed method measurements were performed on a classical X-ray diffractometer (Cu Kα radiation) and using synchrotron radiation (three different wavelengths: λ = 1.2527 Å, λ = 1.5419 Å and λ = 1.7512 Å). The Al2017 alloy subjected to three different surface treatments was investigated in this study. The obtained results showed that the proposed development of MGIXD method, in which not only different incident angles but also different wavelengths of X-ray are used, can be successfully applied for residual stress determination, especially when stress gradients are present in the sample.

  8. JGIXA - A software package for the calculation and fitting of grazing incidence X-ray fluorescence and X-ray reflectivity data for the characterization of nanometer-layers and ultra-shallow-implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingerle, D.; Pepponi, G.; Meirer, F.; Wobrauschek, P.; Streli, C.

    2016-04-01

    Grazing incidence XRF (GIXRF) is a very surface sensitive, nondestructive analytical tool making use of the phenomenon of total external reflection of X-rays on smooth polished surfaces. In recent years the method experienced a revival, being a powerful tool for process analysis and control in the fabrication of semiconductor based devices. Due to the downscaling of the process size for semiconductor devices, junction depths as well as layer thicknesses are reduced to a few nanometers, i.e. the length scale where GIXRF is highly sensitive. GIXRF measures the X-ray fluorescence induced by an X-ray beam incident under varying grazing angles and results in angle dependent intensity curves. These curves are correlated to the layer thickness, depth distribution and mass density of the elements in the sample. But the evaluation of these measurements is ambiguous with regard to the exact distribution function for the implants as well as for the thickness and density of nanometer-thin layers. In order to overcome this ambiguity, GIXRF can be combined with X-ray reflectometry (XRR). This is straightforward, as both techniques use similar measurement procedures and the same fundamental physical principles can be used for a combined data evaluation strategy. Such a combined analysis removes ambiguities in the determined physical properties of the studied sample and, being a correlative spectroscopic method, also significantly reduces experimental uncertainties of the individual techniques. In this paper we report our approach to a correlative data analysis, based on a concurrent calculation and fitting of simultaneously recorded GIXRF and XRR data. Based on this approach we developed JGIXA (Java Grazing Incidence X-ray Analysis), a multi-platform software package equipped with a user-friendly graphic user interface (GUI) and offering various optimization algorithms. Software and data evaluation approach were benchmarked by characterizing metal and metal oxide layers on

  9. Caliste-SO X-ray micro-camera for the STIX instrument on-board Solar Orbiter space mission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meuris, A.; Hurford, G.; Bednarzik, M.; Limousin, O.; Gevin, O.; Le Mer, I.; Martignac, J.; Horeau, B.; Grimm, O.; Resanovic, R.; Krucker, S.; Orleański, P.

    2012-01-01

    The Spectrometer Telescope for Imaging X-rays (STIX) is an instrument on the Solar-Orbiter space mission that performs hard X-ray imaging spectroscopy of solar flares. It consists of 32 collimators with grids and 32 spectrometer units called Caliste-SO for indirect Fourier-transform imaging. Each Caliste-SO device integrates a 1 cm 2 CdTe pixel sensor with a low-noise low-power analog front-end ASIC and circuits for supply regulation and filtering. The ASIC named IDeF-X HD is designed by CEA/Irfu (France) whereas CdTe-based semiconductor detectors are provided by the Laboratory for Micro- and Nanotechnology, Paul Scherrer Institute (Switzerland). The design of the hybrid, based on 3D Plus technology (France), is well suited for STIX spectroscopic requirements (1 keV FWHM at 6 keV, 4 keV low-level threshold) and system constraints (4 W power and 5 kg mass). The performance of the sub-assemblies and the design of the first Caliste-SO prototype are presented.

  10. In situ X-ray scattering studies of protein solution droplets drying on micro- and nanopatterned superhydrophobic PMMA surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accardo, Angelo; Gentile, Francesco; Mecarini, Federico; De Angelis, Francesco; Burghammer, Manfred; Di Fabrizio, Enzo; Riekel, Christian

    2010-09-21

    Superhydrophobic poly(methyl methacrylate) surfaces with contact angles of ∼170° and high optical and X-ray transparencies have been fabricated through the use of optical lithography and plasma etching. The surfaces contain either a microscale pattern of micropillars or a random nanofibrillar pattern. Nanoscale asperities on top of the micropillars closely resemble Nelumbo nucifera lotus leaves. The evolution of the contact angle of water and lysozyme solution droplets during evaporation was studied on the micro- and nanopatterned surfaces, showing in particular contact-line pinning for the protein solution droplet on the nanopatterned surface. The microstructural evolution of lysozyme solution droplets was studied on both types of surfaces in situ under nearly contact-free conditions by synchrotron radiation microbeam wide-angle and small-angle X-ray scattering revealing the increasing protein concentration and the onset of precipitation. The solid residuals show hollow sphere morphologies. Rastermicrodiffraction of the detached residuals suggests about a 1/3 volume fraction of ≥17 nm lysozyme nanocrystalline domains and about a 2/3 short-range-order volume fraction. About 5-fold larger nanocrystalline domains were observed at the attachment points of the sphere to the substrates, which is attributed to particle growth in a shear flow. Such surfaces represent nearly contact-free sample supports for studies of inorganic and organic solution droplets, which find applications in biochips.

  11. Characterization of continuous and pulsed emission modes of a hybrid micro focus x-ray source for medical imaging applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghani, Muhammad U.; Wong, Molly D.; Ren, Liqiang; Wu, Di; Zheng, Bin [Center for Biomedical Engineering and School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK 73019 (United States); Rong, John X. [Department of Imaging Physics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Wu, Xizeng [Department of Radiology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35249 (United States); Liu, Hong, E-mail: liu@ou.edu [Center for Biomedical Engineering and School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK 73019 (United States)

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this study was to quantitatively characterize a micro focus x-ray tube that can operate in both continuous and pulsed emission modes. The micro focus x-ray source (Model L9181-06, Hamamatsu Photonics, Japan) has a varying focal spot size ranging from 16 µm to 50 µm as the source output power changes from 10 to 39 W. We measured the source output, beam quality, focal spot sizes, kV accuracy, spectra shapes and spatial resolution. Source output was measured using an ionization chamber for various tube voltages (kVs) with varying current (µA) and distances. The beam quality was measured in terms of half value layer (HVL), kV accuracy was measured with a non-invasive kV meter, and the spectra was measured using a compact integrated spectrometer system. The focal spot sizes were measured using a slit method with a CCD detector with a pixel pitch of 22 µm. The spatial resolution was quantitatively measured using the slit method with a CMOS flat panel detector with a 50 µm pixel pitch, and compared to the qualitative results obtained by imaging a contrast bar pattern. The focal spot sizes in the vertical direction were smaller than that of the horizontal direction, the impact of which was visible when comparing the spatial resolution values. Our analyses revealed that both emission modes yield comparable imaging performances in terms of beam quality, spectra shape and spatial resolution effects. There were no significantly large differences, thus providing the motivation for future studies to design and develop stable and robust cone beam imaging systems for various diagnostic applications. - Highlights: • A micro focus x-ray source that operates in both continuous and pulse emission modes was quantitatively characterized. • The source output, beam quality, focal spot measurements, kV accuracy, spectra analyses and spatial resolution were measured. • Our analyses revealed that both emission modes yield comparable imaging performances in terms of beam

  12. Quantitative analysis on orientation of human bone integrated with midpalatal implant by micro X-ray diffractometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murata, Masaru; Akazawa, Toshiyuki; Yuasa, Toshihiro; Okayama, Miki; Tazaki, Junichi; Hanawa, Takao; Arisue, Makoto; Mizoguchi, Itaru

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► A titanium fixture is implanted into palatal bone of an 18-year-old patient as the unmoved anchorage for the orthodontic treatment. ► The fixture is integrated with compact bone with cortical bone-like osteon. ► Microbeam X-ray diffraction denotes the crystallinity and orientation of HAp. ► X-ray images of c-face in HAp reveal functionally graded distribution of bone quality. ► The crystal growth of c-face is caused by propagation of the continuous lateral stress. - Abstract: A midpalatal implant system has been used as the unmoved anchorage for teeth movement. An 18-year-old male patient presented with reversed occlusion and was diagnosed as malocclusion. A pure titanium fixture (lengths: 4 mm, diameter: 3.3 mm, Orthosystem ® , Institute Straumann, Switzerland) was implanted into the palatal bone of the patient as the orthodontic anchorage. The implant anchorage was connected with the upper left and right first molars, and had been used for 3 years. After dynamic treatments, the titanium fixture connected with bone was removed surgically, fixed in formalin solution, and embedded in resin. Specimens were cut along the frontal section of face and the direction of longitudinal axis of the implant, stained, and observed histologically. The titanium fixture was integrated directly with compact bone showing cortical bone-like structure such as lamella and osteon. In addition, to qualitatively characterize the implant-supported human bone, the crystallinity and orientation of hydroxyapatite (HAp) phase were evaluated by the microbeam X-ray diffraction analysis. Preferential alignment of c-axis of HAp crystals was represented by the relative intensity ratio of (0 0 2)-face diffraction peak to (3 1 0)-face one. The values decreased monotonously along the direction of the lateral stress from the site near the implant thread to the distant site in all horizontal lines of the map. These results indicated that the X-ray images for the intensity of c

  13. Quantitative analysis on orientation of human bone integrated with midpalatal implant by micro X-ray diffractometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murata, Masaru, E-mail: murata@hoku-iryo-u.ac.jp [Health Sciences University of Hokkaido, 1757 Kanazawa, Tobetsu-cho 061-0293 (Japan); Akazawa, Toshiyuki [Hokkaido Research Organization, Nishi-11, Kita-19, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-0819 (Japan); Yuasa, Toshihiro; Okayama, Miki; Tazaki, Junichi [Health Sciences University of Hokkaido, 1757 Kanazawa, Tobetsu-cho 061-0293 (Japan); Hanawa, Takao [Tokyo Medical and Dental University, 2-3-10 Kandasurugadai, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 101-0062 (Japan); Arisue, Makoto; Mizoguchi, Itaru [Health Sciences University of Hokkaido, 1757 Kanazawa, Tobetsu-cho 061-0293 (Japan)

    2012-12-01

    implant thread to the distant site in all horizontal lines of the map. These results indicated that the X-ray images for the intensity of c-face in HAp revealed functionally graded distribution of cortical bone quality. The micro-scale measurements of HAp structure could be a useful method for evaluating the mechanical stress distribution in human hard tissues.

  14. Nondestructive quantitative synchrotron grazing incidence x-ray scattering analysis of cylindrical nanostructures in supported thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, J.; Yang, S. Y.; Lee, B.; Joo, W.; Heo, K.; Kim, J. K.; Ree, M.; X-Ray Science Division; Pohang Univ. of Science and Technology

    2007-01-01

    Nondestructive nanostructural analysis is indispensable in the development of nanomaterials and nanofabrication processes for use in nanotechnology applications. This paper demonstrates a quantitative, nondestructive analysis of nanostructured thin films supported on substrates and their templated nanopores by using grazing incidence X-ray scattering and data analysis with a derived scattering theory. The analysis disclosed that vertically oriented nanodomain cylinders had formed in 20-100 nm thick films supported on substrates, which consisted of a mixture of poly(styrene-b-methyl methacrylate) (PS-b-PMMA) and PMMA homopolymer, and that the PMMA nanodomain cylinders were selectively etched out by ultraviolet light exposure and a subsequent rinse with acetic acid, resulting in a well ordered nanostructure consisting of hexagonally packed cylindrical nanopores

  15. Computer-Controlled Cylindrical Polishing Process for Development of Grazing Incidence Optics for Hard X-Ray Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Gufran Sayeed; Gubarev, Mikhail; Speegle, Chet; Ramsey, Brian

    2010-01-01

    The presentation includes grazing incidence X-ray optics, motivation and challenges, mid spatial frequency generation in cylindrical polishing, design considerations for polishing lap, simulation studies and experimental results, future scope, and summary. Topics include current status of replication optics technology, cylindrical polishing process using large size polishing lap, non-conformance of polishin lap to the optics, development of software and polishing machine, deterministic prediction of polishing, polishing experiment under optimum conditions, and polishing experiment based on known error profile. Future plans include determination of non-uniformity in the polishing lap compliance, development of a polishing sequence based on a known error profile of the specimen, software for generating a mandrel polishing sequence, design an development of a flexible polishing lap, and computer controlled localized polishing process.

  16. Depth profile characterization of electrodeposited multi-thin-film structures by low angle of incidence X-ray diffractometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nauer, M.; Ernst, K.; Kautek, W.; Neumann-Spallart, M.

    2005-01-01

    Typical structures of heterojunction photovoltaic cells were prepared by sequential electrodeposition of II-VI semiconductor thin films on a transparent conductor, SnO 2 on glass. The structures comprised a wide bandgap window, ZnSe or ZnTe, a medium bandgap light absorber, CdTe, and an ohmic back contact. It is demonstrated that low incidence angle X-ray diffraction (LIXD) can be successfully used as a process monitoring tool, featuring non-destructive depth profiling and phase characterization of such thin film structures. LIXD results are compared to Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy (SIMS) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) data. Both, SIMS and SEM, corroborate the LIXD results as to layer sequence and presence/absence of intermixing

  17. Structure of a monolayer of molecular rotors on aqueous subphase from grazing-incidence X-ray diffraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaleta, Jiří; Wen, Jin; Magnera, Thomas F; Dron, Paul I; Zhu, Chenhui; Michl, Josef

    2018-03-23

    In situ grazing-incidence X-ray scattering shows that a monolayer of artificial rod-shaped dipolar molecular rotors produced on the surface of an aqueous subphase in a Langmuir trough has a structure conducive to a 2D ferroelectric phase. The axes of the rotors stand an average of 0.83 nm apart in a triangular grid, perpendicular to the surface within experimental error. They carry 2,3-dichlorophenylene rotators near rod centers, between two decks of interlocked triptycenes installed axially on the rotor axle. The analysis is based first on simultaneous fitting of observed Bragg rods and second on fitting the reflectivity curve with only three adjustable parameters and the calculated rotor electron density, which also revealed the presence of about seven molecules of water near each rotator. Dependent on preparation conditions, a minor and variable amount of a different crystal phase may also be present in the monolayer.

  18. Classification of lead white pigments using synchrotron radiation micro X-ray diffraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welcomme, E.; Walter, P.; Bleuet, P.; Hodeau, J.-L.; Dooryhee, E.; Martinetto, P.; Menu, M.

    2007-12-01

    Lead white pigment was used and synthesised for cosmetic and artistic purposes since the antiquity. Ancient texts describe the various recipes, and preparation processes as well as locations of production. In this study, we describe the results achieved on several paint samples taken from Matthias Grünewald’s works. Grünewald, who was active between 1503 and 1524, was a major painter at the beginning of the German Renaissance. Thanks to X-ray diffraction analysis using synchrotron radiation, it is possible to associate the composition of the paint samples with the masters ancient recipes. Different approaches were used, in reflection and transmission modes, directly on minute samples or on paint cross-sections embedded in resin. Characterisation of lead white pigments reveals variations in terms of composition, graininess and proportion of mineral phases. The present work enlightens the presence of lead white as differentiable main composition groups, which could be specific of a period, a know-how or a geographical origin. In this way, we aim at understanding the choices and the trading of pigments used to realise paintings during northern European Renaissance.

  19. Classification of lead white pigments using synchrotron radiation micro X-ray diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welcomme, E.; Walter, P.; Menu, M. [Centre de Recherche et de Restauration des Musees de France - CNRS UMR 171, Paris (France); Bleuet, P. [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, BP 220, Grenoble Cedex (France); Hodeau, J.L.; Dooryhee, E.; Martinetto, P. [Institut Neel CNRS-UPR 503-1, 25, Av. des Martyrs, BP 166, Grenoble Cedex 9 (France)

    2007-12-15

    Lead white pigment was used and synthesised for cosmetic and artistic purposes since the antiquity. Ancient texts describe the various recipes, and preparation processes as well as locations of production. In this study, we describe the results achieved on several paint samples taken from Matthias Gruenewald's works. Gruenewald, who was active between 1503 and 1524, was a major painter at the beginning of the German Renaissance. Thanks to X-ray diffraction analysis using synchrotron radiation, it is possible to associate the composition of the paint samples with the masters ancient recipes. Different approaches were used, in reflection and transmission modes, directly on minute samples or on paint cross-sections embedded in resin. Characterisation of lead white pigments reveals variations in terms of composition, graininess and proportion of mineral phases. The present work enlightens the presence of lead white as differentiable main composition groups, which could be specific of a period, a know-how or a geographical origin. In this way, we aim at understanding the choices and the trading of pigments used to realise paintings during northern European Renaissance. (orig.)

  20. Classification of lead white pigments using synchrotron radiation micro X-ray diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welcomme, E.; Walter, P.; Menu, M.; Bleuet, P.; Hodeau, J.L.; Dooryhee, E.; Martinetto, P.

    2007-01-01

    Lead white pigment was used and synthesised for cosmetic and artistic purposes since the antiquity. Ancient texts describe the various recipes, and preparation processes as well as locations of production. In this study, we describe the results achieved on several paint samples taken from Matthias Gruenewald's works. Gruenewald, who was active between 1503 and 1524, was a major painter at the beginning of the German Renaissance. Thanks to X-ray diffraction analysis using synchrotron radiation, it is possible to associate the composition of the paint samples with the masters ancient recipes. Different approaches were used, in reflection and transmission modes, directly on minute samples or on paint cross-sections embedded in resin. Characterisation of lead white pigments reveals variations in terms of composition, graininess and proportion of mineral phases. The present work enlightens the presence of lead white as differentiable main composition groups, which could be specific of a period, a know-how or a geographical origin. In this way, we aim at understanding the choices and the trading of pigments used to realise paintings during northern European Renaissance. (orig.)

  1. Depth profiling study of in situ CdCl{sub 2} treated CdTe/CdS heterostructure with glancing angle incidence X-ray diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vamsi Krishna, K.; Dutta, V

    2004-03-01

    CdTe thin films have been deposited using spray pyrolysis technique without and with in situ CdCl{sub 2} treatment. Scanning electron microscopy studies show enhanced grain growth in the presence of CdCl{sub 2}. Glancing angle incidence X-ray diffraction is used for the micro structural study of polycrystalline CdS/CdTe heterostructure at different depths by changing the incident angle. Spraying of CdCl{sub 2} on CdS prior to CdTe deposition promotes S diffusion throughout CdTe film and also Te diffusion into CdS. Whereas spraying of CdCl{sub 2} in between CdTe deposition prevents S diffusion partially and Te diffusion completely. There is an associated change in the microstress of the CdTe film at different layers. The films without CdCl{sub 2} treatment show compressive microstress varying from -98 to -158 MPa with increasing incident angle. CdCl{sub 2} spray during CdTe deposition shows compressive microstress, which varies from -98 MPa at the interface to -19 MPa near the surface and CdCl{sub 2} spray prior to CdTe deposition leads to a mildly tensile stress, from +40 to +20 MPa, which is very close to the standard shear stress of {approx}10 MPa for CdTe.

  2. Individual particle analysis of coarse air suspended particulate material by synchrotron radiation X-ray micro fluorescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Silvana; Melo Junior, Ariston [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Civil, Arquitetura e Urbanismo. Dept. de Recursos Hidricos]. E-mail: silvana@fec.unicamp.br; Perez, Carlos Alberto [Laboratorio Nacional de Luz Sincrotron (LNLS), Campinas, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: perez@lnls.br; Vives, Ana Elisa S. de [Universidade Metodista de Piracicaba (UNIMEP), Santa Barbara D' Oeste, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia, Arquitetura e Urbanismo]. E-mail: aesvives@unimep.br; Nascimento Filho, Virgilio F. [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Instrumentacao Nuclear]. E-mail: virgilio@cena.usp.br

    2005-07-01

    The purpose of this work is evaluate the size of individual particles present in the air suspended particulate material collected in Campinas, Sao Paulo State, and analyze quantitatively the particles using the synchrotron radiation X-ray micro fluorescence ({mu}-SRXRF) associated with the fundamental parameter method to correct attenuation/absorption effects by the matrix. The particles analyzed have size between 50-10 {mu}m and to perform the spatial distribution a white beam of synchrotron radiation condensed by a conical capillary (13 {mu}m diameter) was used. For the quantitative analysis punctual measures in thin films standards in Mylar subtract were performed. The elements detected were Si, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ba and Pb. (author)

  3. Individual particle analysis of coarse air suspended particulate material by synchrotron radiation X-ray micro fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreira, Silvana; Melo Junior, Ariston; Vives, Ana Elisa S. de; Nascimento Filho, Virgilio F.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this work is evaluate the size of individual particles present in the air suspended particulate material collected in Campinas, Sao Paulo State, and analyze quantitatively the particles using the synchrotron radiation X-ray micro fluorescence (μ-SRXRF) associated with the fundamental parameter method to correct attenuation/absorption effects by the matrix. The particles analyzed have size between 50-10 μm and to perform the spatial distribution a white beam of synchrotron radiation condensed by a conical capillary (13 μm diameter) was used. For the quantitative analysis punctual measures in thin films standards in Mylar subtract were performed. The elements detected were Si, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ba and Pb. (author)

  4. Distribution of lead in lead-accumulating pteridophyte Blechnum niponicum, measured by synchrotron radiation micro X-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kodera, Hirofumi; Nishioka, Hiroshi; Muramatsu, Yasuji; Terada, Yasuko

    2008-01-01

    The distribution of lead (Pb) accumulated in the pteridophyte Blechnum niponicum, a Pb-hyperaccumulator, was measured using synchrotron-radiation micro X-ray fluorescence (SR-μ-XRF) at BL37XU of SPring-8. From two dimensional (2D) imagings of Pb at the root, petiole, leaf vein, pinna epidermis and sorus in the Blechnum niponicum, the mechanism for the transportation and accumulation of Pb can be suggested to be as follows: Lead is accumulated in conductive tissues. Most of the Pb solubilized in the rhizosphere is fixed in the conductive tissue, with the remainder being transported with the transpiration stream to the above-ground parts of the plant. Lead transported to the upper parts of the plant ultimately remains at the terminal points of the transpiration stream, including the stomatal apparatus and water pores; it was shown that these sections contain high concentrations of Pb. (author)

  5. Soft X-ray angle-resolved photoemission with micro-positioning techniques for metallic V2O3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Hidenori; Kiss, Takayuki; Wakabayashi, Yuki K.; Nishitani, Yoshito; Mori, Takeo; Nakata, Yuki; Kitayama, Satoshi; Fukushima, Kazuaki; Ikeda, Shinji; Fuchimoto, Hiroto; Minowa, Yosuke; Mo, Sung-Kwan; Denlinger, Jonathan D.; Allen, James W.; Metcalf, Patricia; Imai, Masaki; Yoshimura, Kazuyoshi; Suga, Shigemasa; Muro, Takayuki; Sekiyama, Akira

    2015-01-01

    Soft X-ray angle-resolved photoemission has been performed for metallic V2O3. By combining a microfocus beam (40 µm × 65 µm) and micro-positioning techniques with a long-working-distance microscope, it has been possible to observe band dispersions from tiny cleavage surfaces with a typical size of several tens of µm. The photoemission spectra show a clear position dependence, reflecting the morphology of the cleaved sample surface. By selecting high-quality flat regions on the sample surface, it has been possible to perform band mapping using both photon-energy and polar-angle dependences, opening the door to three-dimensional angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy for typical three-dimensional correlated materials where large cleavage planes are rarely obtained. PMID:25931096

  6. X-ray micro-diffraction analysis of reconstructed bone at Zr prosthetic surface with sub-micrometre spatial resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cedola, A; Stanic, V; Burghammer, M; Lagomarsino, S; Rustichelli, F; Giardino, R; Aldini, N Nicoli; Fini, M; Komlev, V; Fonzo, S Di

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of the present investigation is to demonstrate the power of the x-ray micro-diffraction technique in biological studies. In particular the reported experiment concerns the study of the interface between a Zr prosthetic device implanted in a rat femur and the newly-formed bone, with a spatial resolution of 0.5 μm. The obtained results give interesting information on the Zr deformation and on the crystallographic phase, the grain size and the orientation of the new bone. Moreover the study reveals a marked difference in the structure of the reconstructed bone with respect to the native bone, which cannot be appreciated with other techniques. (note)

  7. A novel technique combining high-resolution synchrotron x-ray microtomography and x-ray diffraction for characterization of micro particulates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merrifield, David R; Ramachandran, Vasuki; Roberts, Kevin J; Armour, Wesley; Axford, Danny; Basham, Mark; Connolley, Thomas; Evans, Gwyndaf; McAuley, Katherine E; Owen, Robin L; Sandy, James

    2011-01-01

    The processing of solids, such as crystals, is strongly influenced by the surface properties of the material. In recent years the pharmaceutical industry has shown great interest in identifying, or chemically speciating, the molecular components of crystal faces. Formerly, characterization of the molecular identity of crystal faces was restricted to the study of large single crystals. This would have been primarily for structure determination as part of the drug registration process. Diamond Light Source in Oxfordshire is a new synchrotron facility in the UK, having 18 operational beamlines with 4 more in the construction phase. Beamlines at this medium energy light source enable the study of micron-sized objects in great detail. It is well known that x-ray microtomography (XMT) can be used to investigate the external morphology of a crystal whereas x-ray diffraction (XRD) is used to study the molecular orientation, structure and packing within the crystal. The objective of this research is to assess the feasibility of, and thereby develop a new methodology for, characterizing the molecular identity of a particular face of a crystalline particle at a scale of scrutiny of 20–50 µm by combining these two powerful techniques. This work demonstrates the application of XMT and XRD to investigate respectively the shape and crystalline phase/orientation of relevant test crystals. This research has applications in the pharmaceutical industry in that when the exact molecular nature of a particular face is known, the important physico-pharmaceutical properties stemming from that can be better understood. Some initial data are presented and discussed

  8. Characterization of Continuous and Pulsed Emission modes of a Hybrid Micro Focus X-ray Source for Medical Imaging Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghani, Muhammad U; Wong, Molly D; Ren, Liqiang; Wu, Di; Zheng, Bin; Rong, John X; Wu, Xizeng; Liu, Hong

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this study was to quantitatively characterize a micro focus x-ray tube that can operate in both continuous and pulsed emission modes. The micro focus x-ray source (Model L9181-06, Hamamatsu Photonics, Japan) has a varying focal spot size ranging from 16-50 μm as the source output power changes from 10-39 W. We measured the source output, beam quality, focal spot sizes, kV accuracy, spectra shapes and spatial resolution. Source output was measured using an ionization chamber for various tube voltages (kVs) with varying current (μA) and distances. The beam quality was measured in terms of half value layer (HVL), kV accuracy was measured with a non-invasive kV meter, and the spectra was measured using a compact integrated spectrometer system. The focal spot sizes were measured using a slit method with a CCD detector with a pixel pitch of 22 μm. The spatial resolution was quantitatively measured using the slit method with a CMOS flat panel detector with a 50 μm pixel pitch, and compared to the qualitative results obtained by imaging a contrast bar pattern. The focal spot sizes in the vertical direction were smaller than that of the horizontal direction, the impact of which was visible when comparing the spatial resolution values. Our analyses revealed that both emission modes yield comparable imaging performances in terms of beam quality, spectra shape and spatial resolution effects. There were no significantly large differences, thus providing the motivation for future studies to design and develop stable and robust cone beam imaging systems for various diagnostic applications.

  9. X-ray tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webley, R.S.

    1975-01-01

    The object of the invention described is to provide an X-ray tube providing a scanned X-ray output which does not require a scanned electron beam. This is obtained by an X-ray tube including an anode which is rotatable about an axis, and a source of a beam of energy, for example an electron beam, arranged to impinge on a surface of the anode to generate X-radiation substantially at the region of incidence on the anode surface. The anode is rotatable about the axis to move the region of incidence over the surface. The anode is so shaped that the rotation causes the region of incidence to move in a predetermined manner relative to fixed parts of the tube so that the generated X-radiation is scanned in a predetermined manner relative to the tube. (UK)

  10. A Preliminary Study on Sinus Fungus Ball with MicroCT and X-Ray Fluorescence Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zidong; Zhang, Kai; Huang, Wanxia; Yuan, Qingxi

    2016-01-01

    Sinus fungus ball, an accumulation of fungal dense concretions, is a common disease in practice, and might cause fatal complications or lead to death once converted into invasive type. Early preoperative diagnosis of this disease can lead to appropriate treatment for patients and prevent multiple surgical procedures. Up to now, the diagnostic criteria of sinus fungus ball have been defined and computed tomography (CT) scan was considered as a valuable preoperative diagnostic tool. However, the sensitivity of clinical CT is only about 62%. Thus, investigating the factors which influence sensitivity is necessary for clinical CT to be a more valuable preoperative diagnosis tool. Furthermore, CT scan usually presents micro-calcifications or spots with metallic density in sinus fungus ball. Previous literatures show that there are some metallic elements such as calcium and zinc in fungus ball, and they concluded that endodontic treatment has a strong correlation with the development of maxillary sinus fungus ball and zinc ion was an exogenous risk factor. But the pathogenesis of sinus fungus ball still remains unclear because fungus ball can also develop in other non-maxillary sinuses or the maxillary sinus without root canal treatment. Is zinc ion the endogenous factor? Study on this point might be also helpful for investigating the pathogenesis of sinus fungus ball. In this paper, we tried to investigate the factors which influence the sensitivity of clinical CT by imaging sinus fungus ball with microCT. The origin of zinc ion was also studied through elements test for different fungal ball samples using x-ray fluorescence technique. Specimens including fungal ball material and sinus mucosa from patients confirmed by pathological findings were extracted after surgery. All fungal ball specimens came from sphenoid sinus, ethmoidal sinus and maxillary sinus with or without previous endodontic treatment respectively. All of them were imaged by microCT with spatial

  11. Grazing incidence reflectivity and total electron yield effects in soft x-ray absorption spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alders, D; Hibma, T; Sawatzky, G.A; Cheung, K.C.; van Dorssen, G.E.; Roper, M.D.; Padmore, H.A.; van der Laan, G.; Vogel, J; Sacchi, M.

    1997-01-01

    We report on a study of grazing incidence absorption and reflection spectra of NiO in the region of the Ni 2p edge. The aim is to evaluate the distortion of the near edge spectrum by the critical angle behavior of individual components within the spectrum. This can be used to improve the separation

  12. Contribution to the X-ray diffraction analysis method of the micro-structural and mechanical state of heterogenous materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji, V.

    2003-09-01

    The analysis of internal stresses through X-ray diffraction (DRX) has been used to study the micro-structure of various heterogenous materials: two-phase materials, composite materials, coated materials and alloys such as Ti-Al, Inconel-600 and 20CDV5-08 steel. In the case of the Ti-Al alloy we have achieved for the first time the experimental assessment of the compliance constant, of the level of internal stresses, and of the behaviour law of each phase as a function of the changes in duplex micro-structures. Local, direct and accurate information given by DRX have been used to feed micro-mechanical simulations and the results of the simulation are consistent with macroscopic mechanical testing. Accurate DRX analyses on CMC (ceramic matrix composite) have allowed us to confirm the thermal origin of internal stresses. As for thick copper layers made through thermal projection, DRX method combined to in-situ tensile testing has permitted us to measure the elasticity modulus and the distribution of macroscopic stresses inside the coating and the substrate. We have also determined the elastic limit of a TiN layer on a steel substrate. (A.C.)

  13. Studying signal collection in the punch-through protection area of a silicon micro-strip sensor using a micro-focused X-ray beam

    CERN Document Server

    Poley, Anne-luise; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    For the Phase-II Upgrade of the ATLAS detector, a new, all-silicon tracker will be constructed in order to cope with the increased track density and radiation level of the High-Luminosity Large Hadron Collider. While silicon strip sensors are designed to minimise the fraction of dead material and maximise the active area of a sensor, concessions must be made to the requirements of operating a sensor in a particle physics detector. Sensor geometry features like the punch-through protection deviate from the standard sensor architecture and thereby affect the charge collection in that area. In order to study the signal collection of silicon strip sensors over their punch-through-protection area, ATLAS silicon strip sensors were scanned with a micro-focused X-ray beam at the Diamond Light Source. Due to the highly focused X-ray beam ($\\unit[2\\times3]{\\upmu\\text{m}}^2$) and the short average path length of an electron after interaction with an X-ray photon ($\\unit[\\leq2]{\\upmu\\text{m}}$), local signal collection i...

  14. Damage thresholds for blaze diffraction gratings and grazing incidence optics at an X-ray free-electron laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzywinski, Jacek; Conley, Raymond; Moeller, Stefan; Gwalt, Grzegorz; Siewert, Frank; Waberski, Christoph; Zeschke, Thomas; Cocco, Daniele

    2018-01-01

    The Linac Coherent Light Source is upgrading its machine to high repetition rate and to extended ranges. Novel coatings, with limited surface oxidation, which are able to work at the carbon edge, are required. In addition, high-resolution soft X-ray monochromators become necessary. One of the big challenges is to design the mirror geometry and the grating profile to have high reflectivity (or efficiency) and at the same time survive the high peak energy of the free-electron laser pulses. For these reasons the experimental damage threshold, at 900 eV, of two platinum-coated gratings with different blazed angles has been investigated. The gratings were tested at 1° grazing incidence. To validate a model for which the damage threshold on the blaze grating can be estimated by calculating the damage threshold of a mirror with an angle of incidence identical to the angle of incidence on the grating plus the blaze angle, tests on Pt-coated substrates have also been performed. The results confirmed the prediction. Uncoated silicon, platinum and SiB 3 (both deposited on a silicon substrate) were also investigated. In general, the measured damage threshold at grazing incidence is higher than that calculated under the assumption that there is no energy transport from the volume where the photons are absorbed. However, it was found that, for the case of the SiB 3 coating, the grazing incidence condition did not increase the damage threshold, indicating that the energy transport away from the extinction volume is negligible.

  15. Quantitative analysis on orientation of human bone integrated with midpalatal implant by micro X-ray diffractometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, Masaru; Akazawa, Toshiyuki; Yuasa, Toshihiro; Okayama, Miki; Tazaki, Junichi; Hanawa, Takao; Arisue, Makoto; Mizoguchi, Itaru

    2012-12-01

    A midpalatal implant system has been used as the unmoved anchorage for teeth movement. An 18-year-old male patient presented with reversed occlusion and was diagnosed as malocclusion. A pure titanium fixture (lengths: 4 mm, diameter: 3.3 mm, Orthosystem®, Institute Straumann, Switzerland) was implanted into the palatal bone of the patient as the orthodontic anchorage. The implant anchorage was connected with the upper left and right first molars, and had been used for 3 years. After dynamic treatments, the titanium fixture connected with bone was removed surgically, fixed in formalin solution, and embedded in resin. Specimens were cut along the frontal section of face and the direction of longitudinal axis of the implant, stained, and observed histologically. The titanium fixture was integrated directly with compact bone showing cortical bone-like structure such as lamella and osteon. In addition, to qualitatively characterize the implant-supported human bone, the crystallinity and orientation of hydroxyapatite (HAp) phase were evaluated by the microbeam X-ray diffraction analysis. Preferential alignment of c-axis of HAp crystals was represented by the relative intensity ratio of (0 0 2)-face diffraction peak to (3 1 0)-face one. The values decreased monotonously along the direction of the lateral stress from the site near the implant thread to the distant site in all horizontal lines of the map. These results indicated that the X-ray images for the intensity of c-face in HAp revealed functionally graded distribution of cortical bone quality. The micro-scale measurements of HAp structure could be a useful method for evaluating the mechanical stress distribution in human hard tissues.

  16. X-ray fluorescence analysis with micro glass beads using milligram-scale siliceous samples for archeology and geochemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ichikawa, Shintaro, E-mail: sichi@meiji.ac.jp [Organization for the Strategic Coordination of Research and Intellectual Properties, Meiji University, Kawasaki 214-8571 (Japan); Nakamura, Toshihiro [Department of Applied Chemistry, Meiji University, Kawasaki 214-8571 (Japan)

    2014-06-01

    A micro glass bead technique was developed to assay precious siliceous samples for geochemical and archeological analyses. The micro-sized (approximately 3.5 mm in diameter and 0.8 mm in height) glass beads were prepared by mixing and fusing 1.1 mg of the powdered sample and 11.0 mg of the alkali lithium tetraborate flux for wavelength-dispersive X-ray fluorescence determination of major oxides (Na{sub 2}O, MgO, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, SiO{sub 2}, P{sub 2}O{sub 5}, K{sub 2}O, CaO, TiO{sub 2}, MnO, and total Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}). The preparation parameters, including temperature and agitation during the fusing process, were optimized for the use of a commercial platinum crucible rather than a custom-made crucible. The procedure allows preparation of minute sample amounts of siliceous samples using conventional fusing equipment. Synthetic calibration standards were prepared by compounding chemical reagents such as oxides, carbonates, and diphosphates. Calibration curves showed good linearity with r values > 0.997, and the lower limits of detection were in the 10s to 100s of μg g{sup −1} range (e.g., 140 μg g{sup −1} for Na{sub 2}O, 31 μg g{sup −1} for Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, and 8.9 μg g{sup −1} for MnO). Using the present method, we determined ten major oxides in igneous rocks, stream sediments, ancient potteries, and obsidian. This was applicable to siliceous samples with various compositions, because of the excellent agreement between the analytical and recommended values of six geochemical references. This minimal-scale analysis may be available for precious and limited siliceous samples (e.g., rock, sand, soil, sediment, clay, and archeological ceramics) in many fields such as archeology and geochemistry. - Highlights: • X-ray fluorescence determination of major oxides was performed using 1.1 mg of sample. • Preparation and measurement techniques of the XRF micro glass bead specimen were optimized. • Calibration curves using synthetic standards showed good

  17. Characterisation of micro-sized and nano-sized tungsten oxide-epoxy composites for radiation shielding of diagnostic X-rays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azman, N Z Noor; Siddiqui, S A; Low, I M

    2013-12-01

    Characteristics of X-ray transmissions were investigated for epoxy composites filled with 2-10 vol% WO3 loadings using synchrotron X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) at 10-40 keV. The results obtained were used to determine the equivalent X-ray energies for the operating X-ray tube voltages of mammography and radiology machines. The results confirmed the superior attenuation ability of nano-sized WO3-epoxy composites in the energy range of 10-25 keV when compared to their micro-sized counterparts. However, at higher synchrotron radiation energies (i.e., 30-40 keV), the X-ray transmission characteristics were similar with no apparent size effect for both nano-sized and micro-sized WO3-epoxy composites. The equivalent X-ray energies for the operating X-ray tube voltages of the mammography unit (25-49 kV) were in the range of 15-25 keV. Similarly, for a radiology unit operating at 40-60 kV, the equivalent energy range was 25-40 keV, and for operating voltages greater than 60 kV (i.e., 70-100 kV), the equivalent energy was in excess of 40 keV. The mechanical properties of epoxy composites increased initially with an increase in the filler loading but a further increase in the WO3 loading resulted in deterioration of flexural strength, modulus and hardness. © 2013.

  18. P3HT/PCBM polymer thin films studied by synchrotron-based grazing incidence X-ray diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Yingguo; Zhengguan Haojie; Ji Gengwu; Feng Shanglei; Li Xiaolong; Gao Xingyu

    2014-01-01

    Background: The microstructures of P3HT (poly(3-hexyl-thiophene)) in P3HT/PCBM ([6, 6]-phenyl C61-butyric acid methyl ester) thin films play a key role in governing the performance of organic solar cells (OSCs) based on these films. Purpose: We aim to study the self-organization of P3HT in the P3HT/PCBM thin films annealed at different temperatures. Methods: Using different incidence angles, information about the microstructures of P3HT at different depths in these films was obtained by synchrotron based grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXRD). Results: It is shown that the crystalline structure of P3HT has been substantially improved by thermal annealing. One dimensional GIXRD clearly indicates that P3HT edge-on structures in the inner layers have been improved with their number increased in comparison with those at the surface and the interface layers. In addition, thermal annealing also helps the formation of P3HT face-on structures in the films, as evidenced by 2 dimensional GIXRD. Conclusion: The improved structures in these films lead to more charge transport channels formed to improve the carrier mobility, which in turn helps the improvement of OSCs. Thus, the present GIXRD results will improve the understanding of annealing effects at different depths of the P3HT/PCBM thin films for enhanced OSCs devices. (authors)

  19. A perfusion procedure for imaging of the mouse cerebral vasculature by X-ray micro-CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanavati, Sahar; Yu, Lisa X; Lerch, Jason P; Sled, John G

    2014-01-15

    Micro-CT is a novel X-ray imaging modality which can provide 3D high resolution images of the vascular network filled with contrast agent. The cerebrovascular system is a complex anatomical structure that can be imaged with contrast enhanced micro-CT. However, the morphology of the cerebrovasculature and many circulatory anastomosis in the brain result in high variations in the extent of contrast agent filling in the blood vessels and as a result, the vasculature of different subjects appear differently in the acquired images. Specifically, the posterior circulation is not consistently perfused with the contrast agent in many brain specimens and thus, many major vessels that perfuse blood to the midbrain and hindbrain are not visible in the micro-CT images acquired from these samples. In this paper, we present a modified surgical procedure of cerebral vasculature perfusion through the left ventricle with Microfil contrast agent, in order to achieve a more uniform perfusion of blood vessels throughout the brain and as a result, more consistent images of the cerebrovasculature. Our method consists of filling the posterior cerebral circulation with contrast agent, followed by the perfusion of the whole cerebrovasculature. Our histological results show that over 90% of the vessels in the entire brain, including the cerebellum, were filled with contrast agent. Our results show that the new technique of sample perfusion decreases the variability of the posterior circulation in the cerebellum in micro-CT images by 6.9%. This new technique of sample preparation improves the quality of cerebrovascular images. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Investigating morphological changes in treated vs. untreated stone building materials by x-ray micro-CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugani, Simone; Camaiti, Mara; Morselli, Luciano; Van de Casteele, Elke; Janssens, Koen

    2008-06-01

    Calcareous stones have been largely used to build historical buildings. Among these, the calcarenites are usually characterized by a high content of calcite and a high open porosity, which make them very sensitive to the weathering caused by physical and chemical agents. In order to prevent their deterioration and to retard their decay, different protective products-mainly polymers-are applied on the stone artefact surfaces. In this work we apply the methodology tested in a preliminary study to investigate the morphological changes of the internal structure of a biocalcarenite (Lecce stone) by micro x-ray computed tomography (micro-CT). The porosity and other morphological parameters of the rock before and after the conservation treatment were calculated on a significant number of samples. The Student's t test was applied for statistical comparison. The results reveal that the treatment with Paraloid B72 (PB 72) is homogenously distributed and causes small changes to the natural properties of the rock, whereas the application of a fluoroelastomer (NH) causes an appreciable decrease in porosity and variation in terms of wall thickness distribution, probably resulting from its inhomogeneous distribution.

  1. Quantitative 3D shape description of dust particles from treated seeds by means of X-ray micro-CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devarrewaere, Wouter; Foqué, Dieter; Heimbach, Udo; Cantre, Dennis; Nicolai, Bart; Nuyttens, David; Verboven, Pieter

    2015-06-16

    Crop seeds are often treated with pesticides before planting. Pesticide-laden dust particles can be abraded from the seed coating during planting and expelled into the environment, damaging nontarget organisms. Drift of these dust particles depends on their size, shape and density. In this work, we used X-ray micro-CT to examine the size, shape (sphericity) and porosity of dust particles from treated seeds of various crops. The dust properties quantified in this work were very variable in different crops. This variability may be a result of seed morphology, seed batch, treatment composition, treatment technology, seed cleaning or an interaction of these factors. The intraparticle porosity of seed treatment dust particles varied from 0.02 to 0.51 according to the crop and generally increased with particle size. Calculated settling velocities demonstrated that accounting for particle shape and porosity is important in drift studies. For example, the settling velocity of dust particles with an equivalent diameter of 200 μm may vary between 0.1 and 1.2 m s(-1), depending on their shape and density. Our analysis shows that in a wind velocity of 5 m s(-1), such particles ejected at 1 m height may travel between 4 and 50 m from the source before settling. Although micro-CT is a valuable tool to characterize dust particles, the current image processing methodology limits the number of particles that can be analyzed.

  2. The effect of X-ray micro computed tomography image resolution on flow properties of porous rocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latief, F D E; Fauzi, U; Irayani, Z; Dougherty, G

    2017-04-01

    The study of digital rock physics has seen significant advances due to the development of X-ray micro computed tomography scanning devices. One of the advantages of using such a device is that the pore structure of rock can be mapped down to the micrometre level in three dimensions. However, in providing such high-resolution images (low voxel size), the resulting file sizes are necessarily large (of the order of gigabytes). Lower image resolution (high voxel size) produces smaller file sizes (of the order of hundreds of megabytes), but risks losing significant details. This study describes the effect of the image resolution obtained by means of hardware-based and software-based approach. Four samples of porous rock were scanned using a SkyScan 1173 High Energy Micro-CT. We found that acquisition using increased pixel binning of the camera (hardware-based resizing) significantly affects the calculated physical properties of the samples. By contrast, voxel resizing by means of a software-based approach during the reconstruction process yielded less effect on the porosity and specific surface area of the samples. However, the decreasing resolution of the image obtained by both the hardware-based and the software-based approaches affects the permeability significantly. We conclude that simulating fluid flow through the pore space using the Lattice Boltzmann method to calculate the permeability has a significant dependency on the image resolution. © 2017 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2017 Royal Microscopical Society.

  3. Visible micro-Raman spectroscopy of single human mammary epithelial cells exposed to x-ray radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delfino, Ines; Perna, Giuseppe; Lasalvia, Maria; Capozzi, Vito; Manti, Lorenzo; Camerlingo, Carlo; Lepore, Maria

    2015-03-01

    A micro-Raman spectroscopy investigation has been performed in vitro on single human mammary epithelial cells after irradiation by graded x-ray doses. The analysis by principal component analysis (PCA) and interval-PCA (i-PCA) methods has allowed us to point out the small differences in the Raman spectra induced by irradiation. This experimental approach has enabled us to delineate radiation-induced changes in protein, nucleic acid, lipid, and carbohydrate content. In particular, the dose dependence of PCA and i-PCA components has been analyzed. Our results have confirmed that micro-Raman spectroscopy coupled to properly chosen data analysis methods is a very sensitive technique to detect early molecular changes at the single-cell level following exposure to ionizing radiation. This would help in developing innovative approaches to monitor radiation cancer radiotherapy outcome so as to reduce the overall radiation dose and minimize damage to the surrounding healthy cells, both aspects being of great importance in the field of radiation therapy.

  4. Evaluation of laboratory powder X-ray micro-diffraction for applications in the fields of cultural heritage and forensic science

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Švarcová, Silvie; Kočí, Eva; Bezdička, Petr; Hradil, David; Hradilová, J.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 398, č. 2 (2010), s. 1061-1076 ISSN 1618-2642 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB200320901 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40320502 Keywords : powder X-ray micro-diffraction * quantitative phase analysis * forensic Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 3.841, year: 2010

  5. Automated Quantitative Bone Analysis in In Vivo X-ray Micro-Computed Tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrooz, Ali; Kask, Peet; Meganck, Jeff; Kempner, Joshua

    2017-09-01

    Measurement and analysis of bone morphometry in 3D micro-computed tomography volumes using automated image processing and analysis improve the accuracy, consistency, reproducibility, and speed of preclinical osteological research studies. Automating segmentation and separation of individual bones in 3D micro-computed tomography volumes of murine models presents significant challenges considering partial volume effects and joints with thin spacing, i.e., 50 to [Formula: see text]. In this paper, novel hybrid splitting filters are presented to overcome the challenge of automated bone separation. This is achieved by enhancing joint contrast using rotationally invariant second-derivative operators. These filters generate split components that seed marker-controlled watershed segmentation. In addition, these filters can be used to separate metaphysis and epiphysis in long bones, e.g., femur, and remove the metaphyseal growth plate from the detected bone mask in morphometric measurements. Moreover, for slice-by-slice stereological measurements of long bones, particularly curved bones, such as tibia, the accuracy of the analysis can be improved if the planar measurements are guided to follow the longitudinal direction of the bone. In this paper, an approach is presented for characterizing the bone medial axis using morphological thinning and centerline operations. Building upon the medial axis, a novel framework is presented to automatically guide stereological measurements of long bones and enhance measurement accuracy and consistency. These image processing and analysis approaches are combined in an automated streamlined software workflow and applied to a range of in vivo micro-computed tomography studies for validation.

  6. Hard x-ray micro-tomography of a human head post-mortem as a gold standard to compare x-ray modalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalstra, M.; Schulz, G.; Dagassan-Berndt, D.; Verna, C.; Müller-Gerbl, M.; Müller, B.

    2016-10-01

    An entire human head obtained at autopsy was micro-CT scanned in a nano/micro-CT scanner in a 6-hour long session. Despite the size of the head, it could still be scanned with a pixel size of 70 μm. The aim of this study was to obtain an optimal quality 3D data-set to be used as baseline control in a larger study comparing the image quality of various cone beam CT systems currently used in dentistry. The image quality of the micro-CT scans was indeed better than the ones of the clinical imaging modalities, both with regard to noise and streak artifacts due to metal dental implants. Bony features in the jaws, like the trabecular architecture and the thin wall of the alveolar bone were clearly visible. Therefore, the 3D micro-CT data-set can be used as the gold standard for linear, angular, and volumetric measurements of anatomical features in and around the oral cavity when comparing clinical imaging modalities.

  7. Hard x-ray micro-tomography of a human head post-mortem as a gold standard to compare X-ray modalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalstra, Michel; Schulz, Georg; Dagassan-Berndt, Dorothea

    2016-01-01

    in a larger study comparing the image quality of various cone beam CT systems currently used in dentistry. The image quality of the micro-CT scans was indeed better than the ones of the clinical imaging modalities, both with regard to noise and streak artifacts due to metal dental implants. Bony features......An entire human head obtained at autopsy was micro-CT scanned in a nano/micro-CT scanner in a 6-hour long session. Despite the size of the head, it could still be scanned with a pixel size of 70 μm. The aim of this study was to obtain an optimal quality 3D data-set to be used as baseline control...... in the jaws, like the trabecular architecture and the thin wall of the alveolar bone were clearly visible. Therefore, the 3D micro-CT data-set can be used as the gold standard for linear, angular, and volumetric measurements of anatomical features in and around the oral cavity when comparing clinical imaging...

  8. Study of sulphation of Candoglia marble by means of micro X-ray diffraction experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrazzani, R.; Alessandri, I.; Bontempi, E.; Cappitelli, F.; Cianci, M.; Pantos, E.; Toniolo, L.; Depero, L. E.

    2006-06-01

    This research is aimed at assessing the particular kind of damage caused by the interaction between atmospheric pollution and the marble surface of a magnificent late gothic church, Milan Cathedral, restored in the early 1970s. On the basis of visual inspections and diagnostic investigations the facade appears to be seriously damaged by surface erosion and thick black crusts; biological crusts, micro-fractures and detachments are widely present. This paper reports on SR-μXRD data collected at the Synchrotron Radiation Source (SRS), Daresbury Laboratory, and at the European Synchrotron Radiation Source (ESRF) from selected samples, covered with black crusts, originating from the Milan Cathedral facade. Mineralogical maps of the deterioration layers have been recorded by two spatial resolutions (5-100 μm), from the bulk of the stone material to the outer layer of the black surface. These maps help in elucidating the mechanism of formation of the black crusts.

  9. Angle resolved x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (ARXPS) analysis of lanthanum oxide for micro-flexography printing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, S.; Yusof, M. S.; Embong, Z.; Maksud, M. I.

    2016-01-01

    Micro-flexography printing was developed in patterning technique from micron to nano scale range to be used for graphic, electronic and bio-medical device on variable substrates. In this work, lanthanum oxide (La2O3) has been used as a rare earth metal candidate as depositing agent. This metal deposit was embedded on Carbon (C) and Silica (Si) wafer substrate using Magnetron Sputtering technique. The choose of Lanthanum as a target is due to its wide application in producing electronic devices such as thin film battery and printed circuit board. The La2O3 deposited on the surface of Si wafer substrate was then analyzed using Angle Resolve X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (ARXPS). The position for each synthetic component in the narrow scan of Lanthanum (La) 3d and O 1s are referred to the electron binding energy (eV). The La 3d narrow scan revealed that the oxide species of this particular metal is mainly contributed by La2O3 and La(OH)3. The information of oxygen species, O2- component from O 1s narrow scan indicated that there are four types of species which are contributed from the bulk (O2-), two chemisorb component (La2O3) and La(OH)3 and physisorp component (OH). Here, it is proposed that from the adhesive and surface chemical properties of La, it is suitable as an alternative medium for micro-flexography printing technique in printing multiple fine solid lines at nano scale. Hence, this paper will describe the capability of this particular metal as rare earth metal for use in of micro-flexography printing practice. The review of other parameters contributing to print fine lines will also be described later.

  10. Angle resolved x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (ARXPS) analysis of lanthanum oxide for micro-flexography printing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassan, S., E-mail: suhaimihas@uthm.edu.my; Yusof, M. S., E-mail: mdsalleh@uthm.edu.my; Maksud, M. I., E-mail: midris1973@gmail.com [Faculty of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia, 86400 Batu Pahat, Johor (Malaysia); Embong, Z., E-mail: zaidi@uthm.edu.my [Faculty of Science, Technology and Human Development, Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia, 86400 Batu Pahat, Johor (Malaysia)

    2016-01-22

    Micro-flexography printing was developed in patterning technique from micron to nano scale range to be used for graphic, electronic and bio-medical device on variable substrates. In this work, lanthanum oxide (La{sub 2}O{sub 3}) has been used as a rare earth metal candidate as depositing agent. This metal deposit was embedded on Carbon (C) and Silica (Si) wafer substrate using Magnetron Sputtering technique. The choose of Lanthanum as a target is due to its wide application in producing electronic devices such as thin film battery and printed circuit board. The La{sub 2}O{sub 3} deposited on the surface of Si wafer substrate was then analyzed using Angle Resolve X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (ARXPS). The position for each synthetic component in the narrow scan of Lanthanum (La) 3d and O 1s are referred to the electron binding energy (eV). The La 3d narrow scan revealed that the oxide species of this particular metal is mainly contributed by La{sub 2}O{sub 3} and La(OH){sub 3}. The information of oxygen species, O{sup 2-} component from O 1s narrow scan indicated that there are four types of species which are contributed from the bulk (O{sup 2−}), two chemisorb component (La{sub 2}O{sub 3}) and La(OH){sub 3} and physisorp component (OH). Here, it is proposed that from the adhesive and surface chemical properties of La, it is suitable as an alternative medium for micro-flexography printing technique in printing multiple fine solid lines at nano scale. Hence, this paper will describe the capability of this particular metal as rare earth metal for use in of micro-flexography printing practice. The review of other parameters contributing to print fine lines will also be described later.

  11. Measurement of UO2 surface oxidation using grazing-incidence x-ray diffraction: Implications for nuclear forensics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracy, Cameron L.; Chen, Chien-Hung; Park, Sulgiye; Davisson, M. Lee; Ewing, Rodney C.

    2018-04-01

    Nuclear forensics involves determination of the origin and history of interdicted nuclear materials based on the detection of signatures associated with their production and trafficking. The surface oxidation undergone by UO2 when exposed to air is a potential signature of its atmospheric exposure during handling and transport. To assess the sensitivity of this oxidation to atmospheric parameters, surface sensitive grazing-incidence x-ray diffraction (GIXRD) measurements were performed on UO2 samples exposed to air of varying relative humidity (34%, 56%, and 95% RH) and temperature (room temperature, 50 °C, and 100 °C). Near-surface unit cell contraction was observed following exposure, indicating oxidation of the surface and accompanying reduction of the uranium cation ionic radii. The extent of unit cell contraction provides a measure of the extent of oxidation, allowing for comparison of the effects of various exposure conditions. No clear influence of relative humidity on the extent of oxidation was observed, with samples exhibiting similar degrees of unit cell contraction at all relative humidities investigated. In contrast, the thickness of the oxidized layers increased substantially with increasing temperature, such that differences on the order of 10 °C yielded readily observable crystallographic signatures of the exposure conditions.

  12. X-ray micro computed tomography for the visualization of an atherosclerotic human coronary artery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matviykiv, Sofiya; Buscema, Marzia; Deyhle, Hans; Pfohl, Thomas; Zumbuehl, Andreas; Saxer, Till; Müller, Bert

    2017-06-01

    Atherosclerosis refers to narrowing or blocking of blood vessels that can lead to a heart attack, chest pain or stroke. Constricted segments of diseased arteries exhibit considerably increased wall shear stress, compared to the healthy ones. One of the possibilities to improve patient’s treatment is the application of nano-therapeutic approaches, based on shear stress sensitive nano-containers. In order to tailor the chemical composition and subsequent physical properties of such liposomes, one has to know precisely the morphology of critically stenosed arteries at micrometre resolution. It is often obtained by means of histology, which has the drawback of offering only two-dimensional information. Additionally, it requires the artery to be decalcified before sectioning, which might lead to deformations within the tissue. Micro computed tomography (μCT) enables the three-dimensional (3D) visualization of soft and hard tissues at micrometre level. μCT allows lumen segmentation that is crucial for subsequent flow simulation analysis. In this communication, tomographic images of a human coronary artery before and after decalcification are qualitatively and quantitatively compared. We analyse the cross section of the diseased human coronary artery before and after decalcification, and calculate the lumen area of both samples.

  13. Determination of Residual Stresses and Mechanical Properties using Neutron, X-ray Diffraction, Micro- and Nanoindentation Techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsson, Cecilia

    2003-12-01

    The existence of residual stresses in engineering materials can significantly affect subsequent lifetime by augmenting or impeding failure. Consequently, for an accurate assessment of engineering lifetimes, there is a need to quantify residual stresses. Furthermore, knowledge of the origin of these stresses in conjunction with mechanical properties such as hardness and fracture toughness, among others, can be used to improve functionality by tailoring the microstructure through processing. In this work, neutron, x-ray diffraction, micro- and nanoindentation techniques were used for residual stress determination and mechanical characterization of WC-Co functionally graded composites, a Co-based Haynes 25 alloy weld, compressed steel and compacted Fe-brass powders. The neutron and x-ray diffraction techniques were used to assess residual strains and stresses while the instrumented indentation techniques were used to determine hardness, fracture toughness and elastic modulus. In each of these engineering materials, valuable insight relating to the overall mechanical performance was obtained. X-ray diffraction was used to determine thermal residual stresses that develop in a functionally graded WC-Co composite, commonly used as tool bits. Microstresses in the graded zone were attributed to the thermal mismatch between WC and the Co phase. The compressive macrostresses were determined to be a result of the compositional gradient. Micro- and nanoindentation experiments were used to determine hardness as a function of depth in two WC-Co functionally graded materials (FGMs). A relationship between hardness and Co phase content was established and explained for the two graded and five homogeneous samples. An experimental and simulation study of residual stresses was made in the vicinity of a gas tungsten arc weld in a Co-based Haynes 25 alloy used in a satellite component. The experimental measurements were made by neutron diffraction on the recently commissioned

  14. Soil pore characteristics assessed from X-ray micro-CT derived images and correlations to soil friability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munkholm, Lars Juhl; Heck, R; Deen, B

    2012-01-01

    X-ray computed tomography (CT) scanning technology has, in recent decades, been shown to be a very powerful technique to visualize and quantify soil structure. The objective of this project was to quantify soilporecharacteristics, on undisturbed field moist soil, using a high resolution X-rayCT s...

  15. Investigation of surface and sub-surface damage in high quality synthetic diamonds by X-ray reflectivity and grazing incidence in-plane diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bussone, Genziana; Lafford, Tamzin A.; Masiello, Fabio; Carbone, Gerardina; Schuelli, Tobias U.; Rommeveaux, Amparo Vivo; Haertwig, Juergen [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, 6, Rue Jules Horowitz, BP 220, 38043 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Gibaud, Alain [Laboratoire PEC, Universite du Maine le Mans, Avenue Olivier Messiaen, 72 085 Le Mans (France); Connell, Simon H. [University of Johannesburg, cnr Kingsway Ave and University Rd, Auckland Park, 2006, Johannesburg (South Africa); Wormington, Matthew [Jordan Valley Semiconductors Inc., 8601 Cross Park Drive, Suite 200, Austin, TX 78754-4578 (United States)

    2011-11-15

    High quality single-crystal synthetic diamond is the most suitable material for selected X-ray optical applications in the latest generation X-ray light sources. Excellent heat handling properties, as well as low absorption, coupled with high perfection in the crystal bulk and very good surface quality, are crucial for such applications. In recent years, some progress has been made in the fields of surface treatments and growth techniques. Conventional scaife polishing is largely ineffective on the diamond (111) surface. To overcome this disadvantage, one possibility is to use the Hot Metal polishing technique. An investigation of surface and sub-surface damage of Hot Metal polished and cleaved surfaces, has been carried out using depth-sensitive non-destructive X-ray techniques. The near surface crystalline quality was studied as a function of depth using in-plane grazing incidence X-ray diffraction. Additionally, X-ray reflectivity was used to investigate the density, thickness and roughness of near-surface layers. The measurements enable us to estimate the thickness of the affected sub-surface layer. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  16. Characterisation of corrosion processes of using electron micro-probe, scanning probe microscopy and synchrotron-generated x-ray fluorescence imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neufeld, A.K.; Cole, I.S.; Furman, S.A.; Isaacs, H.S.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: With recent advances in computerized technology, the study of chemical reactions can now be visualized as they occur in real time and has resulted in analytical techniques with orders of magnitude greater sensitivity and resolution. This ability offers the corrosion scientist a unique opportunity to study the processes relevant to degradation science which could only be theoretically considered. Neufeld el al (1,2) have attempted to explain in great detail the mechanism of corrosion initiation of zinc by using X-ray micro-probe, Scanning Kelvin probe, and more recently by using synchrotron-generated X-rays and X-ray fluorescence imaging. New results are presented from the synchrotron studies where the transport of ions in-situ has been investigated. The synthesis of information from the techniques will also be discussed in its relevance to atmospheric corrosion processes. Copyright (2002) Australian Society for Electron Microscopy Inc

  17. X-ray micro-CT and neutron CT as complementary imaging tools for non-destructive 3D imaging of rare silicified fossil plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karch, J.; Dudák, J.; Žemlička, J.; Vavřík, D.; Kumpová, I.; Kvaček, J.; Heřmanová, Z.; Šoltés, J.; Viererbl, L.; Morgano, M.; Kaestner, A.; Trtík, P.

    2017-12-01

    Computed tomography provides 3D information of inner structures of investigated objects. The obtained information is, however, strongly dependent on the used radiation type. It is known that as X-rays interact with electron cloud and neutrons with atomic nucleus, the obtained data often provide different contrast of sample structures. In this work we present a set of comparative radiographic and CT measurements of rare fossil plant samples using X-rays and thermal neutrons. The X-ray measurements were performed using large area photon counting detectors Timepix at IEAP CTU in Prague and Perkin Elmer flat-panel detector at Center of Excellence Telč. The neutron CT measurement was carried out at Paul Scherrer Institute using BOA beam-line. Furthermore, neutron radiography of fossil samples, provided by National Museum, were performed using a large-area Timepix detector with a neutron-sensitive converting 6LiF layer at Research Centre Rez, Czech Republic. The obtained results show different capabilities of both imaging approaches. While X-ray micro-CT provides very high resolution and enables visualization of fine cracks or small cavities in the samples neutron imaging provides high contrast of morphological structures of fossil plant samples, where X-ray imaging provides insufficient contrast.

  18. [Distribution and speciation of Pb in Arabidopsis thaliana shoot and rhizosphere soil by in situ synchrotron radiation micro X-ray fluorescence and X-ray absorption near edge structure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Ya-Ting

    2014-03-01

    In order to investigate plant reacting mechanism with heavy metal stress in organ and tissue level, synchrotron radiation micro X-ray fluorescence (micro-SRXRF) was used to determine element distribution characteristics of K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Pb in an Arabidopsis thaliana seedling grown in tailing dam soil taken from a lead-zinc mine exploration area. The results showed a regular distribution characters of K, Ca, Fe, Cu and Zn, while Pb appeared not only in root, but also in a leaf bud which was beyond previously understanding that Pb mainly appeared in plant root. Pb competed with Mn in the distribution of the whole seedling. Pb may cause the increase of oxidative stress in root and leaf bud, and restrict Mn absorption and utilization which explained the phenomenon of seedling death in this tailing damp soil. Speciation of Pb in Arabidopsis thaliana and tailing damp rhizosphere soil were also presented after using PbL3 micro X-ray absorption near edge structure (micro-XANES). By comparison of PbL3 XANES peak shape and peak position between standard samples and rhizosphere soil sample, it was demonstrated that the tailing damp soil was mainly formed by amorphous forms like PbO (64.2%), Pb (OH)2 (28.8%) and Pb3O4 (6.3%) rather than mineral or organic Pb speciations. The low plant bioavailability of Pb demonstrated a further research focusing on Pb absorption and speciation conversion is needed, especially the role of dissolve organic matter in soil which may enhance Pb bioavailability.

  19. Quantification of Wear and Deformation in Different Configurations of Polyethylene Acetabular Cups Using Micro X-ray Computed Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saverio Affatato

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Wear is currently quantified as mass loss of the bearing materials measured using gravimetric methods. However, this method does not provide other information, such as volumetric loss or surface deviation. In this work, we validated a technique to quantify polyethylene wear in three different batches of ultrahigh-molecular-polyethylene acetabular cups used for hip implants using nondestructive microcomputed tomography. Three different configurations of polyethylene acetabular cups, previously tested under the ISO 14242 parameters, were tested on a hip simulator for an additional 2 million cycles using a modified ISO 14242 load waveform. In this context, a new approach was proposed in order to simulate, on a hip joint simulator, high-demand activities. In addition, the effects of these activities were analyzed in terms of wear and deformations of those polyethylenes by means of gravimetric method and micro X-ray computed tomography. In particular, while the gravimetric method was used for weight loss assessment, microcomputed tomography allowed for acquisition of additional quantitative information about the evolution of local wear and deformation through three-dimensional surface deviation maps for the entire cups’ surface. Experimental results showed that the wear and deformation behavior of these materials change according to different mechanical simulations.

  20. Tensile rupture of medial arterial tissue studied by X-ray micro-tomography on stained samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helfenstein-Didier, Clémentine; Taïnoff, Damien; Viville, Julien; Adrien, Jérôme; Maire, Éric; Badel, Pierre

    2018-02-01

    Detailed characterization of damage and rupture mechanics of arteries is one the current challenges in vascular biomechanics, which requires developing suitable experimental approaches. This paper introduces an approach using in situ tensile tests in an X-ray micro-tomography setup to observe mechanisms of damage initiation and progression in medial layers of porcine aortic samples. The technique requires the use of sodium polytungstate as a contrast agent, of which the conditions for use are detailed in this paper. Immersion of the samples during 24h in a 15g/L concentrated solution provided the best compromise for viewing musculo-elastic units in this tissue. The process of damage initiation, delamination and rupture of medial tissue under tensile loading was observed and can be described as an elementary process repeating several times until complete failure. This elementary process initiates with a sudden mode I fracture of a group of musculo-elastic units, followed by an elastic recoil of these units, causing mode II separation of these, hence a delamination plane. The presented experimental approach constitutes a basis for observation of other constituents, or for investigations on other tissues and damage mechanisms. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. Characterisation of edgeless technologies for pixellated and strip silicon detectors with a micro-focused X-ray beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, R.; Blue, A.; Christophersen, M.; Eklund, L.; Ely, S.; Fadeyev, V.; Gimenez, E.; Kachkanov, V.; Kalliopuska, J.; Macchiolo, A.; Maneuski, D.; Phlips, B. F.; Sadrozinski, H. F.-W.; Stewart, G.; Tartoni, N.; Zain, R. M.

    2013-01-01

    Reduced edge or ``edgeless'' detector design offers seamless tileability of sensors for a wide range of applications from particle physics to synchrotron and free election laser (FEL) facilities and medical imaging. Combined with through-silicon-via (TSV) technology, this would allow reduced material trackers for particle physics and an increase in the active area for synchrotron and FEL pixel detector systems. In order to quantify the performance of different edgeless fabrication methods, 2 edgeless detectors were characterized at the Diamond Light Source using an 11 μm FWHM 15 keV micro-focused X-ray beam. The devices under test were: a 150 μm thick silicon active edge pixel sensor fabricated at VTT and bump-bonded to a Medipix2 ROIC; and a 300 μm thick silicon strip sensor fabricated at CIS with edge reduction performed by SCIPP and the NRL and wire bonded to an ALiBaVa readout system. Sub-pixel resolution of the 55 μm active edge pixels was achieved. Further scans showed no drop in charge collection recorded between the centre and edge pixels, with a maximum deviation of 5% in charge collection between scanned edge pixels. Scans across the cleaved and standard guard ring edges of the strip detector also show no reduction in charge collection. These results indicate techniques such as the scribe, cleave and passivate (SCP) and active edge processes offer real potential for reduced edge, tiled sensors for imaging detection applications.

  2. Compression-recovery model of absorptive glass mat (AGM) separator guided by X-ray micro-computed tomography analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kameswara Rao, P. V.; Rawal, Amit; Kumar, Vijay; Rajput, Krishn Gopal

    2017-10-01

    Absorptive glass mat (AGM) separators play a key role in enhancing the cycle life of the valve regulated lead acid (VRLA) batteries by maintaining the elastic characteristics under a defined level of compression force with the plates of the electrodes. Inevitably, there are inherent challenges to maintain the required level of compression characteristics of AGM separators during the charge and discharge of the battery. Herein, we report a three-dimensional (3D) analytical model for predicting the compression-recovery behavior of AGM separators by formulating a direct relationship with the constituent fiber and structural parameters. The analytical model of compression-recovery behavior of AGM separators has successfully included the fiber slippage criterion and internal friction losses. The presented work uses, for the first time, 3D data of fiber orientation from X-ray micro-computed tomography, for predicting the compression-recovery behavior of AGM separators. A comparison has been made between the theoretical and experimental results of compression-recovery behavior of AGM samples with defined fiber orientation characteristics. In general, the theory agreed reasonably well with the experimental results of AGM samples in both dry and wet states. Through theoretical modeling, fiber volume fraction was established as one of the key structural parameters that modulates the compression hysteresis of an AGM separator.

  3. Study of UO2 mechanical behaviour implanted with helium ions using X-ray micro-diffraction and mechanical modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, Marcelle

    2015-01-01

    In order to study the mechanical behavior of nuclear fuel during direct long term storage, UO 2 polycrystals were implanted with Helium ions at a thin surface layer (1 μm approximately), which leads to stress and strain fields in the layer. Strains were measured, at the grains scale, by X-ray micro-diffraction, using synchrotron radiation (ESRF). Image analysis methods were developed for an automatic analysis of the large number of diffraction patterns. Applying statistical tools to Laue patterns allows an automatic detection of low quality images, and enhances the measurement precision. At low layer thickness, the mechanical interaction between grains can be neglected. At higher thickness, experimental results showed a higher mechanical interaction near grain boundaries that can be modeled using finite elements method. Geostatistical tools were used to quantify these interactions. The swelling and the elastic constants in the implanted layer can be estimated through the measured strains on a large number of grains with different orientations. This work allows the determination of the swelling of nuclear fuel in irradiation conditions, as well as the modification of its elastic properties. (author) [fr

  4. Skull x-ray

    Science.gov (United States)

    X-ray - head; X-ray - skull; Skull radiography; Head x-ray ... There is low radiation exposure. X-rays are monitored and regulated to provide the minimum amount of radiation exposure needed to produce the image. Most ...

  5. Neck x-ray

    Science.gov (United States)

    X-ray - neck; Cervical spine x-ray; Lateral neck x-ray ... There is low radiation exposure. X-rays are monitored so that the lowest amount of radiation is used to produce the image. Pregnant women and ...

  6. Gas bubble network formation in irradiated beryllium pebbles monitored by X-Ray micro-tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolier, E; Ferrero, C. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Zimer 203, Gebaeude 451, Abteilung HVT-TL (Germany); Moslang, A. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH, FZK, Karlsruhe (Germany); Pieritz, R.A. [CNRS, Lab. de Glaciologie et Geophysique de l' Environnement, 38 - Saint Martin d' Heres (France)

    2007-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: The efficient and safe operation of helium cooled ceramic breeder blankets requires among others an efficient tritium release during operation at blanket relevant temperatures. In the past out-of-pile thermal desorption studies on low temperature neutron irradiated beryllium have shown that tritium and helium release peaks occur together. This phenomenon can be interpreted in terms of growth and coalescence of helium bubbles and tritium that either is trapped inside the helium bubbles in form of T{sub 2} molecules or in their strain field. With increasing temperature the bubble density and size at grain interfaces increase together with the probability of interconnected porosities and channel formation to the outer surface, leading to simultaneous helium and tritium release peaks in TDS. For a reliable prediction of gas release up to end-of-life conditions at blanket relevant temperatures, knowledge of the dynamics of bubble growth and coalescence as well as the 3D distribution of bubble network formation is indispensable. Such data could also be used to experimentally validate any future model predictions of tritium and helium release rates. A high resolution computer aided micro-tomography (CMT) setup has been developed at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility which allowed reconstructing 3-D images of beryllium pebbles without damaging them. By postprocessing the data a 3D rendering of inner surfaces and of interconnected channel networks can be obtained, thus allowing the identification of open porosities in neutron irradiated and tempered beryllium pebbles. In our case Beryllium pebbles of 2 mm diameter had been neutron irradiated in the 'Beryllium' experiment at 770 K with 1.24 x 10{sup 25} nxm{sup -2} resulting in 480 appm He and 12 appm Tritium. After annealing at 1500 K CMT was performed on the pebbles with 4.9 and 1.4 {mu}m voxel resolution, respectively, followed by morphological and topological post

  7. Quantitative 3D elemental analysis inside plant roots by means of synchrotron confocal micro X-ray fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terzano, R.; Vekemans, B.; Tomasi, N.; Spagnuolo, M.; Schoonjans, T.; Vincze, L.; Pinton, R.; Cesco, S.; Ruggiero, P.

    2009-04-01

    The knowledge of the distribution and concentration of elements within plants is a fundamental step to better understand how these plants uptake specific elements from the medium of growth and how they manage acquisition and compartmentalisation of nutrients as well as toxic metals. For some elements, either nutrients or toxicants, it can be of relevance to know their concentration level within microscopic volumes in plant organs, where they are stored or accumulated. Usually, this type of microscopic analysis requires complex cutting procedures and extensive sample manipulations. In this research, the technique of synchrotron micro X-ray fluorescence in the confocal mode was applied to image the distribution of elements in selected key-planes of tomato roots without the need of any sample preparation, except washing and freeze-drying. Using this method, a first polycapillary lens focussed the X-ray beam with an energy of 12.4 keV down to a 20 µm beam that is penetrating the sample, and a second polycapillary half-lens, that was positioned at the detection side at 90 degrees to the first polycapillary, could then restrict further the view on this irradiated volume to a defined microscopic volume (typically 20x20x20 µm3) from which the induced fluorescent radiation is finally collected by the energy dispersive detector. In this way, it was possible to investigate the concentration levels of some elements such as K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Cu and Zn within the roots of tomato plants. The quantification was performed by means of a dedicated XRF Fundamental Parameter (FP) method in order to calculate the concentrations of trace elements within the analysed plants. Utilizing fundamental atomic parameters, the applied FP method is taking into account the influence of sample self-absorption and especially the specific detection processes by the polycapillary lens. Quantification was assessed and validated by using different standards: NIST SRM 1573a (trace elements in tomato leaves

  8. Impact of Lipid Oxidization on Vertical Structures and Electrostatics of Phospholipid Monolayers Revealed by Combination of Specular X-ray Reflectivity and Grazing-Incidence X-ray Fluorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korytowski, Agatha; Abuillan, Wasim; Makky, Ali; Konovalov, Oleg; Tanaka, Motomu

    2015-07-30

    The influence of phospholipid oxidization of floating monolayers on the structure perpendicular to the global plane and on the density profiles of ions near the lipid monolayer has been investigated by a combination of grazing incidence X-ray fluorescence (GIXF) and specular X-ray reflectivity (XRR). Systematic variation of the composition of the floating monolayers unravels changes in the thickness, roughness and electron density of the lipid monolayers as a function of molar fraction of oxidized phospholipids. Simultaneous GIXF measurements enable one to qualitatively determine the element-specific density profiles of monovalent (K(+) or Cs(+)) and divalent ions (Ca(2+)) in the vicinity of the interface in the presence and absence of two types of oxidized phospholipids (PazePC and PoxnoPC) with high spatial accuracy (±5 Å). We found the condensation of Ca(2+) near carboxylated PazePC was more pronounced compared to PoxnoPC with an aldehyde group. In contrast, the condensation of monovalent ions could hardly be detected even for pure oxidized phospholipid monolayers. Moreover, pure phospholipid monolayers exhibited almost no ion specific condensation near the interface. The quantitative studies with well-defined floating monolayers revealed how the elevation of lipid oxidization level alters the structures and functions of cell membranes.

  9. Effects of organic ligands on Pb absorption and speciation changes in Arabidopsis as determined by micro X-ray fluorescence and X-ray absorption near-edge structure analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Ya Ting; Song, Yu Fang

    2017-03-01

    Pb can pass through the food chain via plants and threaten human health, which has attracted widespread attention. Changes in Pb speciation affect its bioavailability in soils and water. However, whether organic ligands can change the uptake and mobility of Pb in plants and increase or decrease Pb bioavailability remains uncertain. To reveal the roles of organic and inorganic Pb in Pb metabolism in plants, the localization and speciation changes of Pb in Arabidopsis thaliana plants grown in organic and inorganic Pb were characterized by synchrotron radiation micro X-ray fluorescence and X-ray absorption near-edge structure, respectively. These results demonstrated that Arabidopsis absorbed more Pb from Pb(NO 3 ) 2 than Pb(CH 3 COO) 2 at the same exposure concentration. A higher percentage of Pb-citrate was found in Arabidopsis exposed to inorganic Pb solution, which suggested that Pb-citrate was the main complex for root-to-shoot transportation in Arabidopsis exposed to inorganic Pb solutions. Pb complexed with the organic ligand CH 3 COO - significantly inhibited primary root growth and lateral root development, while, at the same time, Pb was blocked by root hairs, which represented another way to reduce Pb absorption and protect the plant from biotoxicity.

  10. Development of a new micro-furnace for "in situ" high-temperature single crystal X-ray diffraction measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvaro, Matteo; Angel, Ross J.; Marciano, Claudio; Zaffiro, Gabriele; Scandolo, Lorenzo; Mazzucchelli, Mattia L.; Milani, Sula; Rustioni, Greta; Domeneghetti, Chiara M.; Nestola, Fabrizio

    2015-04-01

    Several experimental methods to reliably determine elastic properties of minerals at non-ambient conditions have been developed. In particular, different techniques for generating high-pressure and high-temperature have been successfully adopted for single-crystal and powder X-ray diffraction measurements. High temperature devices for "in-situ" measurements should provide the most controlled isothermal environment as possible across the entire sample. It is intuitive that in general, thermal gradients across the sample increase as the temperature increases. Even if the small isothermal volume required for single-crystal X-ray diffraction experiments makes such phenomena almost negligible, the design of a furnace should also aim to reduce thermal gradients by including a large thermal mass that encloses the sample. However this solution often leads to complex design that results in a restricted access to reciprocal space or attenuation of the incident or diffracted intensity (with consequent reduction of the accuracy and/or precision in lattice parameter determination). Here we present a newly-developed H-shaped Pt-Pt/Rh resistance microfurnace for in-situ high-temperature single-crystal X-ray diffraction measurements. The compact design of the furnace together with the long collimator-sample-detector distance allows us to perform measurements up to 2θ = 70° with no further restrictions on any other angular movement. The microfurnace is equipped with a water cooling system that allows a constant thermal gradient to be maintained that in turn guarantees thermal stability with oscillations smaller than 5°C in the whole range of operating T of room-T to 1200°C. The furnace has been built for use with a conventional 4-circle Eulerian geometry equipped with point detector and automated with the SINGLE software (Angel and Finger 2011) that allows the effects of crystal offsets and diffractometer aberrations to be eliminated from the refined peak positions by the 8

  11. Molecular-beam epitaxy growth and structural characterization of semiconductor-ferromagnet heterostructures by grazing incidence X-ray diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satapathy, D.K.

    2005-12-19

    The present work is devoted to the growth of the ferromagnetic metal MnAs on the semiconductor GaAs by molecular-beam epitaxy (MBE). The MnAs thin films are deposited on GaAs by molecular-beam epitaxy (MBE). Grazing incidence diffraction (GID) and reflection high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED) are used in situ to investigate the nucleation, evolution of strain, morphology and interfacial structure during the MBE growth. Four stages of the nucleation process during growth of MnAs on GaAs(001) are revealed by RHEED azimuthal scans. GID shows that further growth of MnAs films proceed via the formation of relaxed islands at a nominal thickness of 2.5 ML which increase in size and finally coalesce to form a continuous film. Early on, an ordered array of misfit dislocations forms at the interface releasing the misfit strain even before complete coalescence occurs. The fascinating complex nucleation process of MnAs on GaAs(0 0 1) contains elements of both Volmer-Weber and Stranski-Krastanov growth. A nonuniform strain amounting to 0.66%, along the [1 -1 0] direction and 0.54%, along the [1 1 0] direction is demonstrated from x-ray line profile analysis. A high correlation between the defects is found along the GaAs[1 1 0] direction. An extremely periodic array of misfit dislocations with a period of 4.95{+-}0.05 nm is formed at the interface along the [1 1 0] direction which releases the 7.5% of misfit. The inhomogeneous strain due to the periodic dislocations is confined at the interface within a layer of 1.6 nm thickness. The misfit along the [1 -1 0] direction is released by the formation of a coincidence site lattice. (orig.)

  12. Surface and bulk 3D analysis of natural and processed ruby using electron probe micro analyzer and X-ray micro CT scan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahoo, Rakesh K.; Singh, Saroj K.; Mishra, B.K.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Firm linking between two advance techniques: Micro-CT and EPMA for mineral analysis. • Attempt to identify and differentiate the treated gem stone from natural counterpart. • 3D structural and surface elemental analysis of the natural gem stone. - Abstract: The change in surface compositional and bulk structural characteristics of the natural ruby stone, before and after heat treatment with lead oxide has been analyzed using two advance characterization techniques like: X-ray micro CT scan (μ-CT) and electron probe micro analyzer (EPMA). The analytical correlation between these two techniques in identification as well as in depth study of the ores and minerals before and after processing has been presented. Also, we describe the aesthetic enhancement of a low quality defective ruby stone by lead oxide filling and the sequential analysis of this ruby stone before and after treatment using these two advanced techniques to identify and to confirm the change in its aesthetic value. The cracks healing and pores filling by the metal oxide on the surface of the ruby have been analyzed using μ-CT and EPMA. Moreover, in this work we describe the advance characterization of the repaired gem stones especially ruby stones. This work will light up the path for in-depth understanding of diffusion mechanism and abstract information of impurity particles inside the minerals. Based on these observations, EPMA and micro CT are shown to be powerful tools for the identification as well as research in gem stones.

  13. X-ray region of interest imaging system for rapid-sequence angiography and fluoroscopy: The micro-angiographic fluoroscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ye

    Neuro-endovascular interventional diagnosis and treatment require high resolution x-ray imaging guidance of fluoroscopy and angiography. Our group has developed a small field of view, 5 frames per second, high-resolution micro-angiographic imager. This imager has demonstrated substantial high-resolution advantages for angiography over the conventional image intensifier. The work of this dissertation is to build a new micro-angiographic fluoroscope (MAF) to expand the capabilities of the micro-angiographic imager to include fluoroscopic imaging over a small field of view. The components of the MAF are all commercially available including CsI (T1) scintillator, fiber-optic taper, light image intensifier (LII), mirror, lens, and CCD camera. The critical component is the microchannel plate based LII with very high spatial resolution. The LII has a large range of gain that can be controlled easily by a 5V to 9V DC voltage. This property enables the MAF to be used for angiography with a low gain of the LII, and for fluoroscopy with a high gain of the LII. This design was justified by the quantum accounting diagram calculation. The preliminary experimental results from the test model MAF demonstrated the feasibility of this design. The improved prototype MAF model demonstrates high-resolution imaging for both fluoroscopy and angiography. The performance descriptors of the prototype MAF such as MTF, NPS, and DQE, were measured in both angiographic mode and fluoroscopic mode. For angiographic mode, at spatial frequencies of 4 and 10 lp/mm, the MTF for the MAF was 14% and 1.5% respectively, the DQE for the MAF was 12% and 1.2% respectively, while the DQE (0) was about 60%. For fluoroscopic mode, at spatial frequency of 4 lp/mm, the MTF for the MAF was 11%, and the DQE for the MAF was 9.5%. The image lag for the MAF in fluoroscopic mode at a rate of 30 fps was measured to be minimal. The allowable maximum entrance exposure rate was found to be related with the maximum LII

  14. Dual-energy X-ray micro-CT imaging of hybrid Ni/Al open-cell foam

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fíla, T.; Kumpová, Ivana; Koudelka_ml., P.; Zlámal, P.; Vavřík, Daniel; Jiroušek, O.; Jung, A.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 1 (2016), C01005 ISSN 1748-0221. [International Workshop on Radiation Imaging Detectors (IWORID2015) /17./. Hamburg, 28.06.2015-02.07.2015] Institutional support: RVO:68378297 Keywords : computerized tomography (CT) * computed radiography (CR) * X-ray radiography and digital radiography (DR) * inspection with x-rays Subject RIV: JJ - Other Materials Impact factor: 1.220, year: 2016 http://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1748-0221/11/01/C01005/pdf

  15. Portable pulse X-ray micro and nanosecond range apparatus for studying fast-going processes in opaque media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goganov, D.A.; Komyak, N.I.; Pelix, E.A.

    Pulse X-radiography (X-ray flash duration in the order of 10 -6 -10 -9 sec) is the principal method for studying fast-going processes in opaque media by serial and parallel radiographic imaging. Description is given and main features are outlined of pulse X-ray apparatus IRA-4b, 5b, 6b producing X-radiation flashes from 0.3 μsec to 10-20 nsec in duration

  16. [Quantitative structure characteristics and fractal dimension of Chinese medicine granules measured by synchrotron radiation X-ray computed micro tomography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xiao-long; Zheng, Qin; Yin, Xian-zhen; Xiao, Guang-qing; Liao, Zu-hua; Yang, Ming; Zhang, Ji-wen

    2015-06-01

    The shape and structure of granules are controlled by the granulation process, which is one of the main factors to determine the nature of the solid dosage forms. In this article, three kinds of granules of a traditional Chinese medicine for improving appetite and promoting digestion, namely, Jianwei Granules, were prepared using granulation technologies as pendular granulation, high speed stirring granulation, and fluidized bed granulation and the powder properties of them were investigated. Meanwhile, synchrotron radiation X-ray computed micro tomography (SR-µCT) was applied to quantitatively determine the irregular internal structures of the granules. The three-dimensional (3D) structure models were obtained by 3D reconstruction, which were more accurately to characterize the three-dimensional structures of the particles through the quantitative data. The models were also used to quantitatively compare the structural differences of granules prepared by different granulation processes with the same formula, so as to characterize how the production process plays a role in the pharmaceutical behaviors of the granules. To focus on the irregularity of the particle structure, the box counting method was used to calculate the fractal dimensions of the granules. The results showed that the fractal dimension is more sensitive to reflect the minor differences in the structure features than the conventional parameters, and capable to specifically distinct granules in structure. It is proved that the fractal dimension could quantitatively characterize the structural information of irregular granules. It is the first time suggested by our research that the fractal dimension difference (Df,c) between two fractal dimension parameters, namely, the volume matrix fractal dimension and the surface matrix fractal dimension, is a new index to characterize granules with irregular structures and evaluate the effects of production processes on the structures of granules as a new

  17. Tunable dynamic moduli of magnetic elastomers: from characterization by x-ray micro-computed tomography to mesoscopic modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pessot, Giorgio; Schümann, Malte; Gundermann, Thomas; Odenbach, Stefan; Löwen, Hartmut; Menzel, Andreas M.

    2018-03-01

    Ferrogels and magnetorheological elastomers are composite materials obtained by embedding magnetic particles of mesoscopic size in a crosslinked polymeric matrix. They combine the reversible elastic deformability of polymeric materials with the high responsivity of ferrofluids to external magnetic fields. These materials stand out, for example, for significant magnetostriction as well as a pronounced increase of the elastic moduli in the presence of external magnetic fields. By means of x-ray micro-computed tomography, the position and size of each magnetic particle can be measured with a high degree of accuracy. We here use data extracted from real magnetoelastic samples as input for coarse-grained dipole-spring modeling and calculations to investigate internal restructuring, stiffening, and changes in the normal modes spectrum. More precisely, we assign to each particle a dipole moment proportional to its volume and set a randomized network of springs between them that mimics the behavior of the polymeric elastic matrix. Extending our previously developed methods, we compute the resulting structural changes in the systems as well as the frequency-dependent elastic moduli when magnetic interactions are turned on. Particularly, with increasing magnetization, we observe the formation of chain-like aggregates. Interestingly, the static elastic moduli can first show a slight decrease with growing amplitude of the magnetic interactions, before a pronounced increase appears upon the chain formation. The change of the dynamic moduli with increasing magnetization depends on the frequency and can even feature nonmonotonic behavior. Overall, we demonstrate how theory and experiments can complement each other to learn more about the dynamic behavior of this interesting class of materials.

  18. Non-destructive, high-content analysis of wheat grain traits using X-ray micro computed tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan Hughes

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Wheat is one of the most widely grown crop in temperate climates for food and animal feed. In order to meet the demands of the predicted population increase in an ever-changing climate, wheat production needs to dramatically increase. Spike and grain traits are critical determinants of final yield and grain uniformity a commercially desired trait, but their analysis is laborious and often requires destructive harvest. One of the current challenges is to develop an accurate, non-destructive method for spike and grain trait analysis capable of handling large populations. Results In this study we describe the development of a robust method for the accurate extraction and measurement of spike and grain morphometric parameters from images acquired by X-ray micro-computed tomography (μCT. The image analysis pipeline developed automatically identifies plant material of interest in μCT images, performs image analysis, and extracts morphometric data. As a proof of principle, this integrated methodology was used to analyse the spikes from a population of wheat plants subjected to high temperatures under two different water regimes. Temperature has a negative effect on spike height and grain number with the middle of the spike being the most affected region. The data also confirmed that increased grain volume was correlated with the decrease in grain number under mild stress. Conclusions Being able to quickly measure plant phenotypes in a non-destructive manner is crucial to advance our understanding of gene function and the effects of the environment. We report on the development of an image analysis pipeline capable of accurately and reliably extracting spike and grain traits from crops without the loss of positional information. This methodology was applied to the analysis of wheat spikes can be readily applied to other economically important crop species.

  19. Percolative superconductivity in La{sub 2}CuO{sub 4.06} by lattice granularity patterns with scanning micro x-ray absorption near edge structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poccia, Nicola [MESA Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Twente, P. O. Box 217, 7500AE Enschede (Netherlands); RICMASS Rome International Center for Materials Science Superstripes, via dei Sabelli 119A, 00185 Roma (Italy); Chorro, Matthieu [Synchrotron SOLEIL L' Orme des Merisiers, 91190 Paris S.Aubin (France); Ricci, Alessandro [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Notkestraße 85, D-22607 Hamburg (Germany); RICMASS Rome International Center for Materials Science Superstripes, via dei Sabelli 119A, 00185 Roma (Italy); Xu, Wei [Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Marcelli, Augusto [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare - Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, 00044 Frascati, Rome (Italy); NSRL, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); RICMASS Rome International Center for Materials Science Superstripes, via dei Sabelli 119A, 00185 Roma (Italy); Campi, Gaetano [Institute of Crystallography, CNR, via Salaria Km 29.300, Monterotondo, 00015 Rome (Italy); RICMASS Rome International Center for Materials Science Superstripes, via dei Sabelli 119A, 00185 Roma (Italy); Bianconi, Antonio [RICMASS Rome International Center for Materials Science Superstripes, via dei Sabelli 119A, 00185 Roma (Italy); Institute of Crystallography, CNR, via Salaria Km 29.300, Monterotondo, 00015 Rome (Italy)

    2014-06-02

    The simplest cuprate superconductor La{sub 2}CuO{sub 4+y} with mobile oxygen interstitials exhibits a clear phase separation. It is known that oxygen interstitials enter into the rocksalt La{sub 2}O{sub 2+y} spacer layers forming oxygen interstitials rich puddles and poor puddles but only recently a bulk multiscale structural phase separation has been observed by using scanning micro X-ray diffraction. Here we get further information on their spatial distribution, using scanning La L{sub 3}-edge micro X-ray absorption near edge structure. Percolating networks of oxygen rich puddles are observed in different micrometer size portions of the crystals. Moreover, the complex surface resistivity shows two jumps associated to the onset of intra-puddle and inter-puddles percolative superconductivity. The similarity of oxygen doped La{sub 2}CuO{sub 4+y}, with the well established phase separation in iron selenide superconductors is also discussed.

  20. Crystalline self-assembly of organic molecules with metal ions at the air-aqueous solution interface. A grazing incidence X-ray scattering study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weissbuch, I.; Buller, R.; Kjær, K.

    2002-01-01

    The advent of intense X-rays from synchrotron sources made possible to probe, at the molecular level, the structural aspects of self-assemblies generated at interfaces. Here we present the two-dimensional (2-D) packing arrangements of two-, three- and multi-component organo-metallic self-assembli......The advent of intense X-rays from synchrotron sources made possible to probe, at the molecular level, the structural aspects of self-assemblies generated at interfaces. Here we present the two-dimensional (2-D) packing arrangements of two-, three- and multi-component organo-metallic self......-assemblies formed via interfacial reaction at the air-aqueous solution interface, as determined by grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIRD) and X-ray specular reflectivity techniques. GIXD yields structural information on the crystalline part of the Langmuir film, including the ions and counterions lateral order...... of metal ions bound to the polar head groups of amphipilic molecules; use of bolaamphiphiles to generate oriented thin films with metal ions arranged in periodic layers; delineation of differences in the lateral organization of metal ions at interfaces as induced by racemates and enantiomerically pure...

  1. Quantifying Electromigration Processes in Sn-0.7Cu Solder with Lab-Scale X-Ray Computed Micro-Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertens, James Charles Edwin

    For decades, microelectronics manufacturing has been concerned with failures related to electromigration phenomena in conductors experiencing high current densities. The influence of interconnect microstructure on device failures related to electromigration in BGA and flip chip solder interconnects has become a significant interest with reduced individual solder interconnect volumes. A survey indicates that x-ray computed micro-tomography (muXCT) is an emerging, novel means for characterizing the microstructures' role in governing electromigration failures. This work details the design and construction of a lab-scale muXCT system to characterize electromigration in the Sn-0.7Cu lead-free solder system by leveraging in situ imaging. In order to enhance the attenuation contrast observed in multi-phase material systems, a modeling approach has been developed to predict settings for the controllable imaging parameters which yield relatively high detection rates over the range of x-ray energies for which maximum attenuation contrast is expected in the polychromatic x-ray imaging system. In order to develop this predictive tool, a model has been constructed for the Bremsstrahlung spectrum of an x-ray tube, and calculations for the detector's efficiency over the relevant range of x-ray energies have been made, and the product of emitted and detected spectra has been used to calculate the effective x-ray imaging spectrum. An approach has also been established for filtering 'zinger' noise in x-ray radiographs, which has proven problematic at high x-ray energies used for solder imaging. The performance of this filter has been compared with a known existing method and the results indicate a significant increase in the accuracy of zinger filtered radiographs. The obtained results indicate the conception of a powerful means for the study of failure causing processes in solder systems used as interconnects in microelectronic packaging devices. These results include the

  2. Characterization of surface Ag nanoparticles in nanocomposite a-C:Ag coatings by grazing incidence X-ray diffraction at sub-critical angles of incidence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manninen, N.K.; Oliveira, J.C.; Cavaleiro, A. [University of Coimbra, SEG-CEMUC, Mechanical Engineering Department, Coimbra (Portugal); Carvalho, S. [University of Minho, GRF-CFUM, Physics Department, Guimaraes (Portugal)

    2016-03-15

    Silver diffusion within nanocomposite films and/or toward the film surface is often observed during annealing of the silver-based nanocomposite films. In order to control and/or minimize this process, it is crucial to characterize the aggregated silver nanoparticles on the films surface. In this paper grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXRD) with both sub-critical and supra-critical angles of incidence is used to characterize the Ag nanoparticles distribution, shape and structure both inside the matrix and on the nanocomposite film surface. The nanocomposite carbon coating containing Ag nanoparticles (a-C:Ag) was deposited by dc magnetron sputtering. The coatings were analyzed by GIXRD using fixed incident angles both below and above the critical angle for total reflection. By using sub-critical angles it was possible to eliminate diffraction from the bulk material allowing to estimate the size distribution of the nanoparticles sitting on the surface. The results obtained by GIXRD analysis were checked through comparison with the observations made by both TEM and SEM analysis. The proposed methodology can be used to characterized nanoparticles deposition on a surface and/or island formation during film growth as long an adequate substrate with high critical angle for total reflection is used. (orig.)

  3. Effective X-ray beam size measurements of an X-ray tube and polycapillary X-ray lens system using a scanning X-ray fluorescence method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gherase, Mihai R., E-mail: mgherase@csufresno.edu; Vargas, Andres Felipe

    2017-03-15

    Size measurements of an X-ray beam produced by an integrated polycapillary X-ray lens (PXL) and X-ray tube system were performed by means of a scanning X-ray fluorescence (SXRF) method using three different metallic wires. The beam size was obtained by fitting the SXRF data with the analytical convolution between a Gaussian and a constant functions. For each chemical element in the wire an effective energy was calculated based on the incident X-ray spectrum and its photoelectric cross section. The proposed method can be used to measure the effective X-ray beam size in XRF microscopy studies.

  4. Portable X-ray reflectometer using a low power polychromatic X-ray tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohnishi, Tsunemasa; Imashuku, Susumu; Yuge, Koretaka; Kawai, Jun; Shimura, Naomi

    2014-01-01

    We developed a portable X-ray reflectometer which measures energy dispersive X-ray reflectivity using a polychromatic X-rays from a low power (a few watts) X-ray tube and a silicon drift detector. A thin Cu film on silicon substrate using the portable reflectometer was measured. A fringe pattern was shifted due to the change of the X-ray incident angle. The measured peak position of the fringe pattern was satisfactorily agreed with the calculation. (author)

  5. Influence of Polarization of the Incident Beam on Integrated Intensities in X-Ray Energy-Dispersive Diffractometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, J. Staun; Buras, B.; Jensen, T.

    1978-01-01

    Polarization measurements of the primary X-ray beam produced by thick copper and tungsten anodes are reported and formulas derived for integrated intensities of Bragg reflections in energy-dispersive diffractometry with the polarization of the primary beam taken into account. It was found...

  6. X-ray imaging system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houston, J.M.

    1980-01-01

    A novel, high-speed apparatus for use in X-ray computerised tomography is described in detail. It consists of a semi-circular array of X-ray sources, collimators and an ion chamber array for detection of the X-rays. The X-ray sources may be pulsed in salvos such that the corresponding detectors in the array are only illuminated by one source. The use of computer controlled salvos speeds up the image processing by at least a factor of two. The ion chamber array is designed to have a constant detection efficiency for varying angles of X-ray incidence. A detailed description of the detector construction and suggested gaseous fillings are given. It is claimed that the present tomographic system allows fast and accurate imaging of internal body organs and is insensitive to the blurring effects which motion of these organs tends to produce. (UK)

  7. Application of principal component analysis for improvement of X-ray fluorescence images obtained by polycapillary-based micro-XRF technique

    OpenAIRE

    Aida, S.; Matsuno, T.; Hasegawa, T.; Tsuji, K.

    2017-01-01

    Micro X-ray fluorescence (micro-XRF) analysis is repeated as a means of producing elemental maps. In some cases, however, the XRF images of trace elements that are obtained are not clear due to high background intensity. To solve this problem, we applied principal component analysis (PCA) to XRF spectra. We focused on improving the quality of XRF images by applying PCA. XRF images of the dried residue of standard solution on the glass substrate were taken. The XRF intensities for the dried re...

  8. 2D X-ray and FTIR micro-analysis of the degradation of cadmium yellow pigment in paintings of Henri Matisse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouyet, E.; Cotte, M.; Fayard, B.; Salomé, M.; Meirer, F.; Mehta, A.; Uffelman, E. S.; Hull, A.; Vanmeert, F.; Kieffer, J.; Burghammer, M.; Janssens, K.; Sette, F.; Mass, J.

    2015-11-01

    The chemical and physical alterations of cadmium yellow (CdS) paints in Henri Matisse's The Joy of Life (1905-1906, The Barnes Foundation) have been recognized since 2006, when a survey by portable X-ray fluorescence identified this pigment in all altered regions of the monumental painting. This alteration is visible as fading, discoloration, chalking, flaking, and spalling of several regions of light to medium yellow paint. Since that time, synchrotron radiation-based techniques including elemental and spectroscopic imaging, as well as X-ray scattering have been employed to locate and identify the alteration products observed in this and related works by Henri Matisse. This information is necessary to formulate one or multiple mechanisms for degradation of Matisse's paints from this period, and thus ensure proper environmental conditions for the storage and the display of his works. This paper focuses on 2D full-field X-ray Near Edge Structure imaging, 2D micro-X-ray Diffraction, X-ray Fluorescence, and Fourier Transform Infra-red imaging of the altered paint layers to address one of the long-standing questions about cadmium yellow alteration—the roles of cadmium carbonates and cadmium sulphates found in the altered paint layers. These compounds have often been assumed to be photo-oxidation products, but could also be residual starting reagents from an indirect wet process synthesis of CdS. The data presented here allow identifying and mapping the location of cadmium carbonates, cadmium chlorides, cadmium oxalates, cadmium sulphates, and cadmium sulphides in thin sections of altered cadmium yellow paints from The Joy of Life and Matisse's Flower Piece (1906, The Barnes Foundation). Distribution of various cadmium compounds confirms that cadmium carbonates and sulphates are photo-degradation products in The Joy of Life, whereas in Flower Piece, cadmium carbonates appear to have been a [(partially) unreacted] starting reagent for the yellow paint, a role

  9. Comparing natural and artificial carious lesions in human crowns by means of conventional hard x-ray micro-tomography and two-dimensional x-ray scattering with synchrotron radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botta, Lea Maria; White, Shane N.; Deyhle, Hans; Dziadowiec, Iwona; Schulz, Georg; Thalmann, Peter; Müller, Bert

    2016-10-01

    Dental caries, one of the most prevalent infectious bacterial diseases in the world, is caused by specific types of acid-producing bacteria. Caries is a disease continuum resulting from the earliest loss of ions from apatite crystals through gross cavitation. Enamel dissolution starts when the pH-value drops below 5.5. Neutralizing the pH-value in the oral cavity opposes the process of demineralization, and so caries lesions occur in a dynamic cyclic de-mineralizing/remineralizing environment. Unfortunately, biomimetic regeneration of cavitated enamel is not yet possible, although remineralization of small carious lesions occurs under optimal conditions. Therefore, the development of methods that can regenerate carious lesions, and subsequently recover and retain teeth, is highly desirable. For the present proceedings we analyzed one naturally occurring sub-surface and one artificially produced lesion. For the characterization of artificial and natural lesions micro computed tomography is the method of choice when looking to determine three-dimensional mineral distribution and to quantify the degree of mineralization. In this pilot study we elucidate that the de-mineralized enamel in natural and artificially induced lesions shows comparable X-ray attenuation behavior, thereby implying that the study protocol employed herein seems to be appropriate. Once we know that the lesions are comparable, a series of well-reproducible in vitro experiments on enamel regeneration could be performed. In order to quantify further lesion morphology, the anisotropy of the enamel's nanostructure can be characterized by using spatially resolved, small-angle X-ray scattering. We wanted to demonstrate that the artificially induced defect fittingly resembles the natural carious lesion.

  10. Development of Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) micro-mechanical simulations of concrete specimens characterized by micro-X-ray fluorescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giorla, Alain B. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-08-01

    Concrete in Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) can be exposed to a wide range of degradation phenomena. In the past years, the Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) program has investigated Radiation-Induced Volumetric Expansion (RIVE) as a potential degradation mechanism for concrete biological shields [Graves et al., 2014, Rosseel et al., 2016]. RIVE causes swelling and micro-mechanical damage in concrete due to the amorphization of mineral phases contained in the aggregates under neutron irradiation [Hilsdorf et al., 1978, Rosseel et al., 2016]. For long-term operations, it is critical to assess the durability of concrete after 60 or 80 years of exposure to NPP operating conditions against this phenomenon. RIVE is dependent on the composition of the aggregates used in concrete. Quartz-bearing aggregates are more sensitive to RIVE than calcite-bearing aggregates, for example. However, the aggregate composition of a specific plant is generally not explicitly given in the concrete formulation, which makes it nearly impossible to predict the resistance of that concrete to RIVE. Additional characterization is needed to identify the radiation-sensitive mineral phases contained in the aggregates.

  11. Cosmic x ray physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mccammon, Dan; Cox, D. P.; Kraushaar, W. L.; Sanders, W. T.

    1991-01-01

    The annual progress report on Cosmic X Ray Physics for the period 1 Jan. to 31 Dec. 1990 is presented. Topics studied include: soft x ray background, new sounding rocket payload: x ray calorimeter, and theoretical studies.

  12. X-Ray

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... enema. What you can expect During the X-ray X-rays are performed at doctors' offices, dentists' offices, ... as those using a contrast medium. Your child's X-ray Restraints or other techniques may be used to ...

  13. Chest x-ray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chest radiography; Serial chest x-ray; X-ray - chest ... There is low radiation exposure. X-rays are monitored and regulated to provide the minimum amount of radiation exposure needed to produce the image. Most ...

  14. Abdominal x-ray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdominal film; X-ray - abdomen; Flat plate; KUB x-ray ... There is low radiation exposure. X-rays are monitored and regulated to provide the minimum amount of radiation exposure needed to produce the image. Most ...

  15. Multi-phase imaging of intermittency at steady state using differential imaging method by X-ray micro-tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Y.; Lin, Q.; Bijeljic, B.; Blunt, M. J.

    2017-12-01

    To observe intermittency in consolidated rock, we image a steady state flow of brine and decane in Bentheimer sandstone. We devise an experimental method based on X-ray differential imaging method to examine how changes in flow rate impact the pore-scale distribution of fluids during co-injection flow under dynamic flow conditions at steady state. This helps us elucidate the diverse flow regimes (connected, intermittent break-up, or continual break-up of the non-wetting phase pathways) for two capillary numbers. Also, relative permeability curves under both capillary and viscous limited conditions could be measured. We have performed imbibition sample floods using oil-brine and measured steady state relative permeability on a sandstone rock core in order to fully characterize the flow behaviour at low and high Ca. Two sets of experiments at high and low flow rates are provided to explore the time-evolution of the non-wetting phase clusters distribution under different flow conditions. The high flow rate is 0.5 mL/min, whose corresponding capillary number is 7.7×10-6. The low flow rate is 0.02 mL/min, whose capillary number is 3.1×10-7. A procedure based on using high-salinity brine as the contrast phase and applying differential imaging between the dry scan and that of the sample saturation with a 30 wt% Potassium iodide (KI) doped brine help to make sure there is no non-wetting phase in micro-pores. Then the intermittent phase in multiphase flow image at high Ca can be quantified by obtaining the differential image between the 30 wt% KI brine image and the scans that taken at each fixed fractional flow. By using the grey scale histogram distribution of the raw images at each condition, the oil proportion in the intermittent phase can be calculated. The pressure drops at each fractional flow at low and high Ca can be measured by high-precision pressure differential sensors and utilized to calculate to the relative permeability at pore scale. The relative

  16. Quantitative determination of lateral concentration and depth profile of histidine-tagged recombinant proteins probed by grazing incidence X-ray fluorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Körner, Alexander; Abuillan, Wasim; Deichmann, Christina; Rossetti, Fernanda F; Köhler, Almut; Konovalov, Oleg V; Wedlich, Doris; Tanaka, Motomu

    2013-05-02

    We have demonstrated that the complementary combination of grazing incidence X-ray fluorescence (GIXF) with specular X-ray reflectivity (XRR) can be used to quantitatively determine the density profiles of Ni(2)(+) ions complexed with chelator headgroups as well as S atoms in recombinant proteins anchored to lipid monolayers at the air/water interface. First, we prepared phospholipid monolayers incorporating chelator lipid anchors at different molar fractions at the air/water interface. The fine-structures perpendicular to the global plane of monolayers were characterized by XRR in the presence of Ni(2)(+) ions, yielding the thickness, roughness, and electron density of the stratified lipid monolayers. X-ray fluorescence intensities from Ni Kα core levels recorded at the incidence angles below and above the critical angle of total reflection allow for the determination of the position and lateral density of Ni(2)(+) ions associated with chelator headgroups with a high spatial accuracy (±5 Å). The coupling of histidine-tagged Xenopus cadherin 11 (Xcad-11) can also be identified by changes in the fines-structures using XRR. Although fluorescence intensities from S Kα level were much weaker than Ni Kα signals, we could detect the location of S atoms in recombinant Xcad-11 proteins.

  17. Utilization of X-ray computed micro-tomography to evaluate iron sulphide distribution in roofing slates

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vavro, Martin; Souček, Kamil; Daněk, T.; Matýsek, D.; Georgiovská, Lucie; Zajícová, Vendula

    (2018) ISSN 1470-9236 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1406 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : roofing slate * iron sulphides * X-ray CT * slate pathologies * dimension stone Subject RIV: JN - Civil Engineering Impact factor: 1.102, year: 2016 http://qjegh.lyellcollection.org/

  18. X-ray astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giacconi, R.; Gursky, H.

    1974-01-01

    This text contains ten chapters and three appendices. Following an introduction, chapters two through five deal with observational techniques, mechanisms for the production of x rays in a cosmic setting, the x-ray sky and solar x-ray emission. Chapters six through ten include compact x-ray sources, supernova remnants, the interstellar medium, extragalactic x-ray sources and the cosmic x-ray background. Interactions of x rays with matter, units and conversion factors and a catalog of x-ray sources comprise the three appendices. (U.S.)

  19. On how X-ray (micro) computed tomography on turbidites can help us unravel paleoflow successions, directions and dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Daele, Maarten; Cnudde, Veerle; Boone, Marijn; Deprez, Maxim; De Batist, Marc

    2016-04-01

    Even though X-ray computed tomography (CT) is becoming an increasingly widespread technique in many disciplines - among which sedimentology -, applications are still scarce in turbidite research. In the past few years we showed that medical X-ray CT scans of sediment cores can provide a wealth of information about turbidites and especially their internal structures. In Aysén fjord (Chile) as well as several Chilean and Alaskan lakes, we showed that sedimentary structures such as ripples can be used to reconstruct flow directions, as they can be visualized in 3D. When sedimentary structures are absent, fabrics (e.g. grain imbrication) can also be used. However, the resolution of medical X-ray CT scans is usually not sufficient to visualize single grains or clasts inside the sediment cores. Therefore, medical X-ray CT scans do not allow the determination of single grain orientations. Recently, however, subsamples of sediment cores from a Swiss and an Alaskan lake were scanned at the Centre for X-ray Tomography (UGCT, Ghent University) to obtain μCT data with a resolution of 2 μm. The data allows to isolate single grains that are larger than medium silt, determine their grain size, orientation, as well as other parameters. However, all these grains with variable parameters will react differently to certain flow conditions. While mud clasts are often imbricated, coarse silt grains seem to be only oriented parallel to the flow direction. Studying more turbidites with different compositions and comparing with results from modelling studies (analogue and numerical), will allow to better understand the relationship between flow direction, flow dynamics and grain orientation (for each type of particle). From such an improved understanding not only turbidite paleoseismology, but also many other research disciplines related to fluid flow and particle deposition will benefit.

  20. Residual stress mapping by micro X-ray diffraction: Application to the study of thin film buckling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goudeau, P.; Villain, P.; Tamura, N.; Celestre, R. S.; Padmore, H.

    2002-07-01

    Thin films deposited by Physical Vapour Deposition techniques on substrates generally exhibit large residual stresses which may be responsible of spontaneous detachment of the film from its substrate and in the case of compressive stresses, thin film buckling. Although these effects are undesirable for future applications, one may take benefit of it for thin film mechanical properties investigation. Since the 80's, a lot of theoretical works have been done to develop mechanical models with the aim to get a better understanding of driven mechanisms giving rise to this phenomenon and thus to propose solutions to avoid such problems. Nevertheless, only a few experimental works have been done on this subject to support these theoretical results and nothing concerning local stress/strain measurement mainly because of the small dimension of the buckling (few tenth μm). This paper deals with the application of micro beam x-ray diffraction available on synchrotron radiation sources for stress/strain mapping analysis of gold thin film buckling. Les films minces déposés par des techniques de dépôt physique sous vide sur substrats présentent généralement des contraintes résiduelles très élevées qui peuvent être responsables du délaminage spontané du film et dans le cas de contraintes de compression, de l'apparition de cloques. Bien que ces décollements soient indésirables pour les applications technologiques futures, ils peuvent être mis à profit pour analyser les propriétés mécaniques locales dans ces systèmes. Depuis le début des années 80, un grand nombre d'études théoriques ont permis de développer des modèles dans le soucis de mieux comprendre ces phénomènes de flambage. Néanmoins, la validation de ces modèles repose sur une confrontation avec des études expérimentales qui demeurent jusqu'à présent très rares. Ainsi, les champs de déformations associés à ces structures de décollements n'ont pas été déterminés du fait

  1. Study of molecule-metal interfaces by means of the normal incidence X-ray standing wave technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mercurio, Giuseppe

    2012-01-01

    Functional surfaces based on monolayers of organic molecules are currently subject of an intense research effort due to their applications in molecular electronics, sensing and catalysis. Because of the strong dependence of organic based devices on the local properties of the molecule-metal interface, a direct investigation of the interface chemistry is of paramount importance. In this context, the bonding distance, measured by means of the normal incidence X-ray standing wave technique (NIXSW), provides a direct access to the molecule-metal interactions. At the same time, NIXSW adsorption heights are used to benchmark different density functional theory (DFT) schemes and determine the ones with predictive power for similar systems. This work investigates the geometric and chemical properties of different molecule/metal interfaces, relevant to molecular electronics and functional surfaces applications, primarily by means of the NIXSW technique. All NIXSW data are analyzed with the newly developed open source program Torricelli, which is thoroughly documented in the thesis. In order to elucidate the role played by the substrate within molecule/metal interfaces, the prototype organic molecule 3,4,9,10-perylene-tetracarboxylic-dianhydride (PTCDA) is explored on the Ag(110) surface. The molecule results more distorted and at smaller bonding distances on the more reactive Ag(110) surface, in comparison with the Ag(100), the Ag(111) and Au(111) substrates. This conclusion follows from the detailed molecular adsorption geometry obtained from the differential analysis of nonequivalent carbon and oxygen species (including a careful error analysis). Subsequently, the chemisorptive PTCDA/Ag(110) interaction is tuned by the co-deposition of an external alkali metal, namely K. As a consequence, the functional groups of PTCDA unbind from the surface, which, in turn, undergoes major reconstruction. In fact, the resulting nanopatterned surface consists of alternated up and down

  2. A microbeam grazing-incidence approach to L-shell x-ray fluorescence measurements of lead concentration in bone and soft tissue phantoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gherase, Mihai Raul; Al-Hamdani, Summer

    2018-02-06

    L-shell x-ray fluorescence (LXRF) is a non-invasive approach to lead (Pb) concentration measurements in the human bone. The first studies were published in the early 1980s. In the same period the K-shell x-ray fluorescence (KXRF) method using a Cd-109 radionuclide source was developed and later improved and refined. Lower sensitivity and calibration difficulties associated with the LXRF method led the KXRF to be the most adopted method for in vivo human bone Pb studies. In the present study a microbeam-based grazing-incidence approach to Pb LXRF measurements was investigated. The microbeam produced by an integrated x-ray tube and polycapillary x-ray lens (PXL) unit was used to excite cylindrical plaster-of-Paris (poP) bone phantoms doped with Pb in seven concentrations: 0, 8, 16, 26, 34, 59, and 74 µg/g. Two 1 mm- and 3 mm-thick cylindrical shell soft tissue phantoms were made out of polyoxymethylene (POM) plastic. Three bone-soft tissue phantom sets corresponding to the 0, 1, and 3 mm POM thickness values resulted. Each phantom was placed between the microbeam and the detector; its position was controlled using a positioning stage. Small steps (0.1-0.5 mm) and short 30 s x-ray spectra acquisitions were used to find the optimal phantom position according to the maximum observed Sr Kα peak height. At the optimal geometry, five 180 s x-ray spectra were acquired for each phantom set. Calibration lines were obtained using the fitted peak heights of the two observed Pb Lα and Pb Lβ peaks. The lowest detection limit (DL) values were (2.9±0.2), (4.9±0.3), and (23±3) µg/g, respectively. The order of magnitude of the absorbed radiation dose in the POM plastic for the 180 s irradiation was estimated to be <1 mGy. The results are superior to a relatively recently-published LXRF phantom study and show promise for future designs of in vivo LXRF measurements. Creative Commons Attribution license.

  3. Synchrotron x-ray microbeam characteristics for x-ray fluorescence analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iida, Atsuo; Noma, Takashi

    1995-01-01

    X-ray fluorescence analysis using a synchrotron x-ray microprobe has become an indispensable technique for non-destructive micro-analysis. One of the most important parameters that characterize the x-ray microbeam system for x-ray fluorescence analysis is the beam size. For practical analysis, however, the photon flux, the energy resolution and the available energy range are also crucial. Three types of x-ray microbeam systems, including monochromatic and continuum excitation systems, were compared with reference to the sensitivity, the minimum detection limit and the applicability to various types of x-ray spectroscopic analysis. 16 refs., 5 figs

  4. A Three-Year Program of Micro- and Nano-System Technology Development for X-Ray Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canizares, Claude R.

    1997-01-01

    For many years the work at MIT aimed at the development of new concepts and technologies for space experiments in high-energy astrophysics, but not explicitly supported by flight programs, has been supported. This work has yielded new devices and techniques for X-ray astronomy, primarily low-noise, deep-depletion charge-coupled devices (CCDS) for spectrally-resolved X-ray imaging, and high-performance transmission gratings for high-resolution X-ray spectroscopy. Among the most significant recent achievements have been the development by G. Ricker and associates of the X-ray CCD camera flying on ASCA, and currently in development for AXAF and Astro-E, and the development by C. Canizares and associates of thick, 200 nm-period transmission gratings employing the phenomenon of phase shifting for high-resolution X-ray spectroscopy up to energies of 8- 1 0 keV that is essential for the operation of the AXAF High Energy Transmission Grating Spectrometer (HETGS). Through the current SR&T grant, the latter technology is now being extended successfully to the fabrication of 100 nm-period transmission gratings, which have twice the dispersion of the AXAF gratings. We note that, among other outcomes, the modest investments of past SR&T Grants at MIT resulted in the development of the key technologies for fully one-half of the scientific instrumentation on AXAF. In addition, NASA flight programs that have benefited from previous SR&T support at MIT include the SAS 3 X-ray Observatory, which carried the first rotation modulation collimator, the Focal Plane Crystal Spectrometer (FPCS) on the Einstein Observatory, the CCD cameras on ASCA and planned for Astro-E, the High Energy Transient Experiment (HETE), the Solar EUV Monitor on the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO), the Medium Energy Neutral Atom imager (MENA) on the Image for Magnetopause-to-aurora Global Exploration (IMAGE) mission, and the recently-approved Two Wide-Angle Imaging Neutral-atom Spectrometers (TWINS

  5. Grazing incidence diffraction and X-ray reflectivity studies of the interactions of inorganic mercury salts with membrane lipids in Langmuir monolayers at the air/water interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broniatowski, Marcin; Flasiński, Michał; Dynarowicz-Łatka, Patrycja; Majewski, Jarosław

    2010-07-29

    The interactions of mercury ions with the membrane phospholipids are considered to be of great importance regarding the toxicity of this metal in living organisms. To obtain deeper insight into this problem, we performed systematic studies applying the Langmuir technique complemented with synchrotron X-ray scattering methods (grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXD) and X-ray reflectivity (XR)). We focused our attention on the interactions of inorganic mercury salts dissolved in the aqueous subphase with lipid monolayers, formed by selected membrane phospholipids, namely, dipalmitoylphosphatidylglicerol (DPPG), dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC), 1-octadecyl 2-sn-phosphatidylcholine (lyso-PC), and sphingomyelin (SM). Two different inorganic mercury salts, one of a hydracid, HgCl(2), and the other of an oxacid, Hg(NO(3))(2), have been investigated. Our results proved that the elastic properties of phospholipid monolayers are a key factor regarding the interactions with mercury ions. Significant differences in mercury ions complexation are observed with double-chain phospholipids (such as DPPG and DPPC) forming fluid layers of low compressibility and phospholipids forming more compressible films (like SM and lyso-PC). Namely, important changes in the monolayer characteristic were observed only for the latter kind of lipids. This is an important finding taking into account the accumulation of mercury in the central nervous system and its neurotoxic effects. SM is one of the most abundant lipids in neurons shells and therefore can be considered as a target lipid complexing mercury ions.

  6. Experimental study for the feasibility of using hard x-rays for micro-XRF analysis of multilayered metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Polese

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Application of polycapillary optical systems to improve a spatial resolution for the μ-XRF analysis by focusing a primary x-ray beam and/or by collecting fluorescence emission is well known. The challenge is to optimize them in combination with x-ray source for exciting K-lines above 20 keV that could allow characterization of many materials composed by heavy elements. To pursue this goal, preliminary studies on possible polycapillary lens employment in thickness determination for multilayer metal materials will be presented in this work. In this paper, the results of first attempts of integrating PyMCA with Monte Carlo simulation code (XMI-MSIM that takes into account the secondary fluorescence effects on quantitative analysis of homogeneous matrices, in particular, metal alloys, are presented.

  7. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... about chest radiography also known as chest x-rays. Chest x-rays are the most commonly performed x-ray exams and use a very small dose of ... of the inside of the chest. A chest x-ray is used to evaluate the lungs, heart and ...

  8. Correction of the X-ray tube spot movement as a tool for improvement of the micro-tomography quality

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vavřík, Daniel; Jandejsek, Ivan; Pichotka, M.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 1 (2016), C01029 ISSN 1748-0221 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1219 Keywords : computerized tomography (CT) * computed radiography (CR) * inspection with x-rays * detector alignment and calibration methods Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage Impact factor: 1.220, year: 2016 http://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1748-0221/11/01/C01029

  9. Displacement Tracking in Single Human Trabecula with Metal-plated Micro-spheres using X-ray Radiography Imaging

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jiroušek, Ondřej; Kytýř, Daniel; Doktor, Tomáš; Dammer, J.; Krejčí, F.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 2 (2013), C02041-C02047 ISSN 1748-0221 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP105/10/2305 Institutional support: RVO:68378297 Keywords : pixelated detectors and associated VLSI electronic * X-ray radiography and digital radiography (DR) * single trabeculae Subject RIV: FI - Traumatology, Orthopedics Impact factor: 1.526, year: 2013 http://iopscience.iop.org/1748-0221/8/02/C02041

  10. X-ray sky

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruen, M.; Koubsky, P.

    1977-01-01

    The history is described of the discoveries of X-ray sources in the sky. The individual X-ray detectors are described in more detail, i.e., gas counters, scintillation detectors, semiconductor detectors, and the principles of X-ray spectrometry and of radiation collimation aimed at increased resolution are discussed. Currently, over 200 celestial X-ray sources are known. Some were identified as nebulae, in some pulsations were found or the source was identified as a binary star. X-ray bursts of novae were also observed. The X-ray radiation is briefly mentioned of spherical star clusters and of extragalactic X-ray sources. (Oy)

  11. A customizable software for fast reduction and analysis of large X-ray scattering data sets: applications of the new DPDAK package to small-angle X-ray scattering and grazing-incidence small-angle X-ray scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benecke, Gunthard; Wagermaier, Wolfgang; Li, Chenghao; Schwartzkopf, Matthias; Flucke, Gero; Hoerth, Rebecca; Zizak, Ivo; Burghammer, Manfred; Metwalli, Ezzeldin; Müller-Buschbaum, Peter; Trebbin, Martin; Förster, Stephan; Paris, Oskar; Roth, Stephan V; Fratzl, Peter

    2014-10-01

    X-ray scattering experiments at synchrotron sources are characterized by large and constantly increasing amounts of data. The great number of files generated during a synchrotron experiment is often a limiting factor in the analysis of the data, since appropriate software is rarely available to perform fast and tailored data processing. Furthermore, it is often necessary to perform online data reduction and analysis during the experiment in order to interactively optimize experimental design. This article presents an open-source software package developed to process large amounts of data from synchrotron scattering experiments. These data reduction processes involve calibration and correction of raw data, one- or two-dimensional integration, as well as fitting and further analysis of the data, including the extraction of certain parameters. The software, DPDAK (directly programmable data analysis kit), is based on a plug-in structure and allows individual extension in accordance with the requirements of the user. The article demonstrates the use of DPDAK for on- and offline analysis of scanning small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) data on biological samples and microfluidic systems, as well as for a comprehensive analysis of grazing-incidence SAXS data. In addition to a comparison with existing software packages, the structure of DPDAK and the possibilities and limitations are discussed.

  12. Arrangement for X-ray shield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    X-ray screen unit consisting of a light transmissive carrier onto which scintillation material is deposited, which is able to generate light under the influence of incident X-ray irradiation, characterised in that the X-ray screen comprises a number of sectors, wherein the surface with respect to the incident X-radiation is maintained at an acute angle. (G.C.)

  13. Isolated elliptically polarized attosecond soft X-ray with high-brilliance using polarization gating of harmonics from relativistic plasmas at oblique incidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zi-Yu; Li, Xiao-Ya; Li, Bo-Yuan; Chen, Min; Liu, Feng

    2018-02-19

    The production of intense isolated attosecond pulse is a major goal in ultrafast research. Recent advances in high harmonic generation from relativistic plasma mirrors under oblique incidence interactions gave rise to photon-rich attosecond pulses with circular or elliptical polarization. However, to achieve an isolated elliptical attosecond pulse via polarization gating using currently available long driving pulses remains a challenge, because polarization gating of high harmonics from relativistic plasmas is assumed only possible at normal or near-normal incidence. Here we numerically demonstrate a scheme around this problem. We show that via control of plasma dynamics by managing laser polarization, it is possible to gate an intense single attosecond pulse with high ellipticity extending to the soft X-ray regime at oblique incidence. This approach thus paves the way towards a powerful tool enabling high-time-resolution probe of dynamics of chiral systems and magnetic materials with current laser technology.

  14. Discrimination and quantification of contamination and implanted solar wind in Genesis collector shards using grazing incidence synchrotron x-ray techniques: Initial results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitts, K.; Sutton, S.; Eng, P.; Ghose, S.; Burnett, D.

    2006-01-01

    Grazing incidence X-ray fluorescence is a non-destructive technique that can differentiate the embedded solar wind component from surface contamination and collector background in the Genesis shards. Initial solar Fe abundance in D30554 is 8 x 10 12 /cm 2 . Accurate knowledge of the composition of the Sun provides a baseline, which allows an understanding of how the solar system has evolved over time and how solar processes and solar wind mechanics behave. Unfortunately, the errors in photospheric abundances are too large for many planetary science problems and this hampers our understanding of these different processes. Analyses of solar wind implanted in meteorites or lunar soils have provided more precise data but alteration processes on these bodies may complicate such information. In response to this need for pristine solar wind samples, NASA developed and launched the Genesis Probe. Unfortunately, the probe smashed into the Utah desert shattering the 300 collector plates into 15,000+ pieces all of which are now coated in a both a fine terrestrial dust and Si and Ge powder from the disrupted collectors themselves. The solar wind penetration depth is 100-200 nm and the superposed contamination layers are typically 40-50 nm. Stringent cleaning regimes have the potential of removing the solar wind itself. The best solution is to have sufficient spatial resolution to separately analyze the surface contamination and penetrated solar wind. To that end, three Genesis collector array shards and their appropriate flight spares were characterized via grazing incidence x-ray fluorescence and x-ray reflectivity. The goals were (1) to evaluate the various cleaning methods used to eliminate contamination, (2) to identify the collector substrates most suited for this technique, (3) to determine whether the solar wind signature could be deconvolved from the collector background signature, and (4) to measure the relative abundances of Ca to Ge in the embedded solar wind.

  15. Analysis of micro-structure in raw and heat treated meat emulsions from multimodal X-ray microtomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Einarsdottir, Hildur; Nielsen, Mikkel Schou; Miklos, Rikke

    2014-01-01

    protein network quality. Industrial relevance: Meat emulsions have previously been thoroughly studied, and the use of various fat substitutes and protein stabilizers has been investigated. The grating-based multimodal X-ray tomography method presented here is a feasible method to investigate...... the microstructural changes induced by heat treatment. It provides high-resolution three dimensional spatial information and in contrast to 2D imaging methods, quantitative parameters can be extracted by image analysis for the entire sample volume. Additionally, the non-destructive method allows for imaging the same...

  16. 2D X-ray and FTIR micro-analysis of the degradation of cadmium yellow pigment in paintings of Henri Matisse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pouyet, E.; Cotte, M.; Fayard, B.; Salome, M.; Kieffer, J.; Burghammer, M.; Sette, F.; Meirer, F.; Mehta, A.; Uffelman, E.S.; Hull, A.; Vanmeert, F.; Janssens, K.; Mass, J.

    2015-01-01

    The chemical and physical alterations of cadmium yellow (CdS) paints in Henri Matisse's The Joy of Life (1905-1906, The Barnes Foundation) have been recognized since 2006, when a survey by portable X-ray fluorescence identified this pigment in all altered regions of the monumental painting. This alteration is visible as fading, discoloration, chalking, flaking, and spalling of several regions of light to medium yellow paint. Since that time, synchrotron radiation-based techniques including elemental and spectroscopic imaging, as well as X-ray scattering have been employed to locate and identify the alteration products observed in this and related works by Henri Matisse. This information is necessary to formulate one or multiple mechanisms for degradation of Matisse's paints from this period, and thus ensure proper environmental conditions for the storage and the display of his works. This paper focuses on 2D full-field X-ray Near Edge Structure imaging, 2D micro-X-ray Diffraction, X-ray Fluorescence, and Fourier Transform Infra-red imaging of the altered paint layers to address one of the long-standing questions about cadmium yellow alteration - the roles of cadmium carbonates and cadmium sulphates found in the altered paint layers. These compounds have often been assumed to be photo-oxidation products, but could also be residual starting reagents from an indirect wet process synthesis of CdS. The data presented here allow identifying and mapping the location of cadmium carbonates, cadmium chlorides, cadmium oxalates, cadmium sulphates, and cadmium sulphides in thin sections of altered cadmium yellow paints from The Joy of Life and Matisse's Flower Piece (1906, The Barnes Foundation). Distribution of various cadmium compounds confirms that cadmium carbonates and sulphates are photo-degradation products in The Joy of Life, whereas in Flower Piece, cadmium carbonates appear to have been a [(partially) unreacted] starting reagent for the yellow paint, a

  17. 2D X-ray and FTIR micro-analysis of the degradation of cadmium yellow pigment in paintings of Henri Matisse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pouyet, E. [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Grenoble (France); ARC-Nucleart - CEA/Grenoble, Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Cotte, M. [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Grenoble (France); LAMS (Laboratoire d' Archeologie Moleculaire et Structurale) UMR-8220, Ivry-sur-Seine (France); Fayard, B.; Salome, M.; Kieffer, J.; Burghammer, M.; Sette, F. [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Grenoble (France); Meirer, F. [Utrecht University, Inorganic Chemistry and Catalysis, Debye Institute for Nanomaterials Science, Utrecht (Netherlands); Mehta, A. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford Synchrotron radiation Lightsource, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Uffelman, E.S. [Washington and Lee University, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Lexington, VA (United States); Hull, A. [University of Delaware, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Newark, DE (United States); Vanmeert, F.; Janssens, K. [University of Antwerp, AXES Research Group, Department of Chemistry, Antwerp (Belgium); Mass, J. [Winterthur Museum, Scientific Research and Analysis Laboratory, Conservation Department, Winterthur, DE (United States)

    2015-11-15

    The chemical and physical alterations of cadmium yellow (CdS) paints in Henri Matisse's The Joy of Life (1905-1906, The Barnes Foundation) have been recognized since 2006, when a survey by portable X-ray fluorescence identified this pigment in all altered regions of the monumental painting. This alteration is visible as fading, discoloration, chalking, flaking, and spalling of several regions of light to medium yellow paint. Since that time, synchrotron radiation-based techniques including elemental and spectroscopic imaging, as well as X-ray scattering have been employed to locate and identify the alteration products observed in this and related works by Henri Matisse. This information is necessary to formulate one or multiple mechanisms for degradation of Matisse's paints from this period, and thus ensure proper environmental conditions for the storage and the display of his works. This paper focuses on 2D full-field X-ray Near Edge Structure imaging, 2D micro-X-ray Diffraction, X-ray Fluorescence, and Fourier Transform Infra-red imaging of the altered paint layers to address one of the long-standing questions about cadmium yellow alteration - the roles of cadmium carbonates and cadmium sulphates found in the altered paint layers. These compounds have often been assumed to be photo-oxidation products, but could also be residual starting reagents from an indirect wet process synthesis of CdS. The data presented here allow identifying and mapping the location of cadmium carbonates, cadmium chlorides, cadmium oxalates, cadmium sulphates, and cadmium sulphides in thin sections of altered cadmium yellow paints from The Joy of Life and Matisse's Flower Piece (1906, The Barnes Foundation). Distribution of various cadmium compounds confirms that cadmium carbonates and sulphates are photo-degradation products in The Joy of Life, whereas in Flower Piece, cadmium carbonates appear to have been a [(partially) unreacted] starting reagent for the yellow paint, a

  18. X-ray tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayo, B.J.

    1980-01-01

    An x-ray tube in which the x-ray origin is scanned on a circle around the patient, comprises a ring-shaped anode, an electron beam travelling along a circular path being deflected onto the anode at the desired positions. The electron beam path may be in a plane parallel to the anode and perhaps at the same radius. It may be in the same plane as a transmission target/anode and at a greater radius. The anode should extend over at least 180 0 although it may extend to 360 0 . Electrostatic means may be provided to constrain the beam to the circular path and further electrostatic means deflect it to the anode of the beam and ensure it is focused at the point of incidence. Collimators provide a planar fan-shaped beam and the anode may be shaped to attenuate side lobes of the radiation. Electrode collects electrons not deflected. The focal regions may be adjacent or otherwise. Coils may provide periodic focusing to overcome space charge dispersion and dynamic adjustment of the focusing before deflection ensures focusing at target incidence. Focusing may be absent near the deflection region, and current in the coil section near the focal region should be zero. (author)

  19. Evaluation of aggregate microstructures following natural regeneration in bauxite residue as characterized by synchrotron-based X-ray micro-computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Feng; Liao, Jiaxin; Xue, Shengguo; Hartley, William; Zou, Qi; Wu, Hao

    2016-12-15

    Bauxite residue often has poor physical conditions which impede plant growth. Native plant encroachment on a bauxite residue disposal area in Central China reveals that natural regeneration may improve its physicochemical properties. Residue samples collected from three different disposal ages were assessed to evaluate residue micromorphology and three-dimensional (3D) aggregate microstructure under natural regeneration. The residue aggregates in different disposal ages were divided in two sections: macro-aggregate (2-1mm) and micro-aggregate (0.25-0.05mm). Residue aggregate micromorphology was determined by scanning electron microscope and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and the residue aggregate microstructure was determined by synchrotron-based X-ray micro-computed tomography (SR-μCT) and image analysis techniques. Natural regeneration may improve residue aggregate stability and form a stable aggregate structure. Calcium content increased whilst sodium content decreased significantly on the surface of residue aggregates. Under natural soil-forming processes bauxite residue porosity, specific surface area, average length of paths, and average tortuosity of paths all significantly increased. This demonstrated that natural regeneration may stimulate the formation of stable aggregate structure in residues. Further understanding should focus on particle interaction forces and agglomeration mechanisms with the addition of external ameliorations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Characterisation of corrosion deposits induced by carbon dioxide on mild steel using grazing incidence x-ray and synchrotron radiation diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sembiring, S.; O'Connor, B; Li, D.; Buckley, C.; Van Riessen, A.; De Marco, R.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: Grazing incidence diffraction, using x-rays (GIXRD) and synchrotron radiation (GISRD), is being applied for near-surface characterisation of corrosion deposits formed on the internal surfaces of mild steel pipelines which are used to deliver natural gas from offshore deposits in Western Australia. These techniques are being employed to construct phase composition depth-profiles of corrosion product phases. The GIXRD data are being measured with CuKα radiation using a Siemens D5000 x-ray diffractometer, fitted with a primary beam slit system for incidence angle control and also with a diffracted beam monochromator; and the GISRD data have been acquired with the BIGDIFF instrument on the ANBF beamline in Tsukuba, Japan. The mild steel test samples are prepared with a laboratory reactor in which the corrosion conditions are simulated in a controlled manner. Results obtained to date have shown that two phases are readily observed in addition to the a-Fe phase from the mild steel substrate: (1) FeCO 3 (siderite) induced by CO 2 dissolved in the water flowing through the pipeline, and (2) CaCO 3 (calcite) deposited on the mild steel surface by reaction between the CO 2 and calcium ions which are also present in the water flowing through the pipeline. Supporting measurements from SEM imaging and associated EDS analysis will also be presented

  1. Investigating Polymer–Metal Interfaces by Grazing Incidence Small-Angle X-Ray Scattering from Gradients to Real-Time Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Schwartzkopf

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Tailoring the polymer–metal interface is crucial for advanced material design. Vacuum deposition methods for metal layer coating are widely used in industry and research. They allow for installing a variety of nanostructures, often making use of the selective interaction of the metal atoms with the underlying polymer thin film. The polymer thin film may eventually be nanostructured, too, in order to create a hierarchy in length scales. Grazing incidence X-ray scattering is an advanced method to characterize and investigate polymer–metal interfaces. Being non-destructive and yielding statistically relevant results, it allows for deducing the detailed polymer–metal interaction. We review the use of grazing incidence X-ray scattering to elucidate the polymer–metal interface, making use of the modern synchrotron radiation facilities, allowing for very local studies via in situ (so-called “stop-sputter” experiments as well as studies observing the nanostructured metal nanoparticle layer growth in real time.

  2. Time-resolved X-ray PIV technique for diagnosing opaque biofluid flow with insufficient X-ray fluxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Sung Yong; Park, Han Wook; Kim, Bo Heum; Lee, Sang Joon

    2013-05-01

    X-ray imaging is used to visualize the biofluid flow phenomena in a nondestructive manner. A technique currently used for quantitative visualization is X-ray particle image velocimetry (PIV). Although this technique provides a high spatial resolution (less than 10 µm), significant hemodynamic parameters are difficult to obtain under actual physiological conditions because of the limited temporal resolution of the technique, which in turn is due to the relatively long exposure time (~10 ms) involved in X-ray imaging. This study combines an image intensifier with a high-speed camera to reduce exposure time, thereby improving temporal resolution. The image intensifier amplifies light flux by emitting secondary electrons in the micro-channel plate. The increased incident light flux greatly reduces the exposure time (below 200 µs). The proposed X-ray PIV system was applied to high-speed blood flows in a tube, and the velocity field information was successfully obtained. The time-resolved X-ray PIV system can be employed to investigate blood flows at beamlines with insufficient X-ray fluxes under specific physiological conditions. This method facilitates understanding of the basic hemodynamic characteristics and pathological mechanism of cardiovascular diseases.

  3. Microfocussing of synchrotron X-rays using X-ray refractive lens ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-07-02

    Jul 2, 2014 ... ring (black) is fixed from polyimide side and (g) finally the metal substrate is etched to prepare the X-ray mask. standardized for the present X-ray lithography beamline. X-ray exposures are carried out in 3–10 keV region selected using two X-ray mirrors kept at grazing incidence angles. The total power ...

  4. Flow measurements in a blood-perfused collagen vessel using x-ray micro-particle image velocimetry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Antoine

    Full Text Available Blood-perfused tissue models are joining the emerging field of tumor engineering because they provide new avenues for modulation of the tumor microenvironment and preclinical evaluation of the therapeutic potential of new treatments. The characterization of fluid flow parameters in such in-vitro perfused tissue models is a critical step towards better understanding and manipulating the tumor microenvironment. However, traditional optical flow measurement methods are inapplicable because of the opacity of blood and the thickness of the tissue sample. In order to overcome the limitations of optical method we demonstrate the feasibility of using phase-contrast x-ray imaging to perform microscale particle image velocimetry (PIV measurements of flow in blood perfused hydrated tissue-representative microvessels. However, phase contrast x-ray images significantly depart from the traditional PIV image paradigm, as they have high intensity background, very low signal-to-noise ratio, and volume integration effects. Hence, in order to achieve accurate measurements special attention must be paid to the image processing and PIV cross-correlation methodologies. Therefore we develop and demonstrate a methodology that incorporates image preprocessing as well as advanced PIV cross-correlation methods to result in measured velocities within experimental uncertainty.

  5. X ray imaging microscope for cancer research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, Richard B.; Shealy, David L.; Brinkley, B. R.; Baker, Phillip C.; Barbee, Troy W., Jr.; Walker, Arthur B. C., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    The NASA technology employed during the Stanford MSFC LLNL Rocket X Ray Spectroheliograph flight established that doubly reflecting, normal incidence multilayer optics can be designed, fabricated, and used for high resolution x ray imaging of the Sun. Technology developed as part of the MSFC X Ray Microscope program, showed that high quality, high resolution multilayer x ray imaging microscopes are feasible. Using technology developed at Stanford University and at the DOE Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Troy W. Barbee, Jr. has fabricated multilayer coatings with near theoretical reflectivities and perfect bandpass matching for a new rocket borne solar observatory, the Multi-Spectral Solar Telescope Array (MSSTA). Advanced Flow Polishing has provided multilayer mirror substrates with sub-angstrom (rms) smoothnesss for the astronomical x ray telescopes and x ray microscopes. The combination of these important technological advancements has paved the way for the development of a Water Window Imaging X Ray Microscope for cancer research.

  6. X-ray apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sell, L.J.

    1981-01-01

    A diagnostic x-ray device, readily convertible between conventional radiographic and tomographic operating modes, is described. An improved drive system interconnects and drives the x-ray source and the imaging device through coordinated movements for tomography

  7. X-ray - skeleton

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003381.htm X-ray - skeleton To use the sharing features on this ... Degenerative bone conditions Osteomyelitis Risks There is low radiation exposure. X-rays machines are set to provide the smallest ...

  8. Dental x-rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    X-ray - teeth; Radiograph - dental; Bitewings; Periapical film; Panoramic film; Digital image ... dentist's office. There are many types of dental x-rays. Some of them are: Bitewing. Shows the crown ...

  9. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... some concerns about chest x-rays. However, it’s important to consider the likelihood of benefit to your health. While a chest x-ray use a ... posted: How to Obtain and Share ...

  10. X-ray (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    X-rays are a form of ionizing radiation that can penetrate the body to form an image on ... will be shades of gray depending on density. X-rays can provide information about obstructions, tumors, and other ...

  11. A versatile three/four crystal X-ray diffractometer for X-ray optical elements: Performance and applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Finn Erland; Hornstrup, Allan; Jacobsen, E.

    1987-01-01

    A versatile X-ray diffractometer for the study of X-ray optical elements such as grazing incidence mirrors, crystals and X-ray gratings has been built and put into operation at the Danish Space Research Institute. The diffractrometer is built on a 1.5 m long granite bench with the X-ray source...

  12. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... by Image/Video Gallery Your Radiologist Explains Chest X-ray Transcript Welcome to Radiology Info dot org! Hello, ... you about chest radiography also known as chest x-rays. Chest x-rays are the most commonly performed ...

  13. Characterization of morphology and hydration products of high-volume fly ash paste by monochromatic scanning x-ray micro-diffraction (μ-SXRD)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bae, Sungchul; Meral, Cagla; Oh, Jae-eun; Moon, Juhyuk; Kunz, Martin; Monteiro, Paulo J.M.

    2014-01-01

    The present study focuses on identification and micro-structural characterization of the hydration products formed in high-volume fly ash (HVFA)/portland cement (PC) systems using monochromatic scanning x-ray micro-diffraction (μ-SXRD) and SEM-EDS. Pastes with up to 80% fly ash replacement were studied. Phase maps for HVFA samples using μ-SXRD patterns prove that μ-SXRD is an effective method to identify and visualize the distribution of phases in the matrix. μ-SXRD and SEM-EDS analysis shows that the C-S-H formed in HVFA system containing 50% or more of fly ash has a similar structure as C-S-H(I) with comparatively lower Ca/Si ratio than the one produced in PC system. Moreover, coexistence of C-S-H(I) and strätlingite is observed in the system containing 80% of fly ash, confirming that the amount of alumina and silicate phases provided by the fly ash is a major factor for the formation of C-S-H(I) and strätlingite in HVFA system. - Highlights: • High-volume fly ash (HVFA) paste was studied by scanning x-ray micro-diffraction. • Coexistence of C-S-H(I) and strätlingite in the HVFA system is clearly shown. • The distribution of minor phases in the HVFA system is shown. • Differences between inner and outer products of fly ash are observed by SEM-EDS

  14. Characterization of morphology and hydration products of high-volume fly ash paste by monochromatic scanning x-ray micro-diffraction (μ-SXRD)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Sungchul [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Meral, Cagla [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Department of Civil Engineering, Middle East Technical University, 06800 Ankara (Turkey); Oh, Jae-eun [School of Urban and Environmental Engineering, Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology, Ulsan 689-798 (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Juhyuk [Civil Engineering Program, Department of Mechanical Engineering, State University of New York at Stony Brook, NY 11794 (United States); Kunz, Martin [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Monteiro, Paulo J.M., E-mail: monteiro@ce.berkeley.edu [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2014-05-01

    The present study focuses on identification and micro-structural characterization of the hydration products formed in high-volume fly ash (HVFA)/portland cement (PC) systems using monochromatic scanning x-ray micro-diffraction (μ-SXRD) and SEM-EDS. Pastes with up to 80% fly ash replacement were studied. Phase maps for HVFA samples using μ-SXRD patterns prove that μ-SXRD is an effective method to identify and visualize the distribution of phases in the matrix. μ-SXRD and SEM-EDS analysis shows that the C-S-H formed in HVFA system containing 50% or more of fly ash has a similar structure as C-S-H(I) with comparatively lower Ca/Si ratio than the one produced in PC system. Moreover, coexistence of C-S-H(I) and strätlingite is observed in the system containing 80% of fly ash, confirming that the amount of alumina and silicate phases provided by the fly ash is a major factor for the formation of C-S-H(I) and strätlingite in HVFA system. - Highlights: • High-volume fly ash (HVFA) paste was studied by scanning x-ray micro-diffraction. • Coexistence of C-S-H(I) and strätlingite in the HVFA system is clearly shown. • The distribution of minor phases in the HVFA system is shown. • Differences between inner and outer products of fly ash are observed by SEM-EDS.

  15. Investigation of the Distribution of Elements in Snail Shell With the use of Synchrotron-Based, Micro-Beam X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, D.; Swapna, M; Cesareo, R; Brunetti, A; Akatsuka, T; Yuasa, T; Takeda, T; Tromba, G; Gigante, G

    2009-01-01

    In this study, synchrotron-based micro-beam was utilized for elemental mapping of a small animal shell. A thin X-ray spot of the order of {approx}10 em was focused on the sample. With this spatial resolution and high flux throughput, the X-ray fluorescent intensities for Ca, Mn, Fe, Ni, Zn, Cr and Cu were measured using a liquid-nitrogen-cooled 13-element energy-dispersive HpGe detector. The sample is scanned in a estep-and-repeat' mode for fast elemental mapping and generated elemental maps at 8, 10 and 12 keV. All images are of 10 em resolution and the measurement time was 1 s per point. The accumulation of trace elements was investigated from the soft-tissue in small areas. Analysis of the small areas will be better suited to establish the physiology of metals in specific structures like small animal shell and the distribution of other trace elements.

  16. Polycapillary Optics Based Confocal Micro X-ray Fluorescence and X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy Setup at The European Synchrotron Radiation Facility Collaborative Research Group Dutch-Belgian Beamline, BM26A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauters, Stephen; Tack, Pieter; Rudloff-Grund, Jennifer Helen; Banerjee, Dipanjan; Longo, Alessandro; Vekemans, Bart; Bras, Wim; Brenker, Frank E; van Silfhout, Roelof; Vincze, Laszlo

    2018-02-06

    A novel plug-and-play setup based on polycapillary X-ray optics enables three-dimensional (3D) confocal X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and X-ray absorption spectroscopy down to 8 × 8 × 11 μm 3 (17 keV) at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility Collaborative Research Group Dutch-Belgian Beamline, BM26A. A complete description and analytical characterization is presented, together with two recently performed experimental cases. In Deep Earth diamond São Luiz-Frankfurt am Main 16, an olivine-rich inclusion was mapped with full 3D XRF elemental imaging. The preliminary tests on Iron Gall ink contained in an historical document, a letter from the court of King Philip II of Spain, reveal both the delicate nature of Iron Gall ink and the lack of Fe-Ni chemical bonding.

  17. Effect of toroidal mirror on spatial coherence of synchrotron hard X-ray beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Hua; Yan Shuai; Yan Fen; Mao Chengwen; Liang Dongxun; He Yan; Jiang Sheng; Li Aiguo; Yu Xiaohan

    2012-01-01

    The Gaussian Schell-model source theory is used to describe the hard X-ray micro focusing beamline with an undulator of the Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility. Based on the model and general Huygens-Fresnel principle, propagation of cross-spectral density function in free space is studied. Equivalent source hypothesis is proposed and the effect of toroidal mirror on spatial coherence of the hard X-ray beams is studied. The theoretical results are consistent with the experimental results. Only divergence angles of the incident and outgoing X-rays are considered in the equivalent source hypothesis, hence an easy extension of the hypothesis to other beamline optical elements. (authors)

  18. Flash X-ray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Eiichi

    2003-01-01

    Generation of quasi-monochromatic X-ray by production of weakly ionized line plasma (flash X-ray), high-speed imaging by the X-ray and high-contrast imaging by the characteristic X-ray absorption are described. The equipment for the X-ray is consisted from the high-voltage power supply and condenser, turbo molecular pump, and plasma X-ray tube. The tube has a long linear anticathode to produce the line plasma and flash X-ray at 20 kA current at maximum. X-ray spectrum is measured by the imaging plate equipped in the computed radiography system after diffracted by a LiF single crystal bender. Cu anticathode generates sharp peaks of K X-ray series. The tissue images are presented for vertebra, rabbit ear and heart, and dog heart by X-ray fluoroscopy with Ce anticathode. Generation of K-orbit characteristic X-ray with extremely low bremsstrahung is to be attempted for medical use. (N.I.)

  19. High-contrast X-ray micro-radiography and micro-CT of ex-vivo soft tissue murine organs utilizing ethanol fixation and large area photon-counting detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudak, Jan; Zemlicka, Jan; Karch, Jakub; Patzelt, Matej; Mrzilkova, Jana; Zach, Petr; Hermanova, Zuzana; Kvacek, Jiri; Krejci, Frantisek

    2016-07-27

    Using dedicated contrast agents high-quality X-ray imaging of soft tissue structures with isotropic micrometre resolution has become feasible. This technique is frequently titled as virtual histology as it allows production of slices of tissue without destroying the sample. The use of contrast agents is, however, often an irreversible time-consuming procedure and despite the non-destructive principle of X-ray imaging, the sample is usually no longer usable for other research methods. In this work we present the application of recently developed large-area photon counting detector for high resolution X-ray micro-radiography and micro-tomography of whole ex-vivo ethanol-preserved mouse organs. The photon counting detectors provide dark-current-free quantum-counting operation enabling acquisition of data with virtually unlimited contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR). Thanks to the very high CNR even ethanol-only preserved soft-tissue samples without addition of any contrast agent can be visualized in great detail. As ethanol preservation is one of the standard steps of tissue fixation for histology, the presented method can open a way for widespread use of micro-CT with all its advantages for routine 3D non-destructive soft-tissue visualisation.

  20. Quantification of soil heterogeneity induced by corroding metal objects, using X-ray computed micro tomography (CMT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afanasyev, Michael; Heimovaara, Timo; van Paassen, Leon

    2014-05-01

    Metal objects in soil, such as pipelines and sheet pile walls are subject to corrosion, that causes extensive economic damage - the annual direct costs of metal corrosion are estimated as 3-4% of the gross domestic product (GDP) of both developed and developing countries. Corrosion of the metal object results in the diffusion of corrosion products away from the original metal surface, where the corrosion products combine with dissolved species and precipitate, altering the properties of the porous medium. The result is a system composed of the uncorroded metal, the Dense Product Layer (DPL) composed of iron corrosion products, the Transformed Medium (TM) which is a mix of the corrosion products and compounds coming from the surrounding soil and the unaltered soil. Naturally occurring DPL's were reported to reduce the corrosion rate of metal objects in soil and studies of metal archaeological artifacts show that it is possible that microbiota plays a role in the process, controlling the rate and location of reprecipitation of corrosion products. However, the dynamics of such complex processes in soil are not yet fully understood and experimental results that can be used to calibrate and verify numerical models of corrosion processes in porous media are scarce. In this study, we explore the potential of X-ray computed microtomography (CMT) in quantifying the changes occurring in soil around corroding metal objects. Metal coupons were incubated in sand and scanned using a Phoenix Nanotom® s nanofocus computed tomography system. Using objects of known density in the samples, the measurements were density-calibrated and the increase in density and accompanying reduction in porosity due to reprecipitation of corrosion products were quantified. Our results demonstrate the potential of X-ray tomography in non-destructive quantification of corrosion processes in porous media. We suggest using smaller samples to increase resolution of the measurements and to use

  1. Adaptation Measurement of CAD/CAM Dental Crowns with X-Ray Micro-CT: Metrological Chain Standardization and 3D Gap Size Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Tapie

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Computer-Aided Design and Manufacturing systems are increasingly used to produce dental prostheses, but the parts produced suffer from a lack of evaluation, especially concerning the internal gap of the final assembly, that is, the space between the prepared tooth and the prosthesis. X-ray micro-Computed Tomography (micro-CT is a noninvasive imaging technique enabling the internal inspection of the assembly. It has proved to be an efficient tool for measuring the gap. In this study, a critical review of the protocols using micro-CT to quantify the gap is proposed as an introduction to a new protocol aimed at minimizing errors and enabling comparison between CAD/CAM systems. To compare different systems, a standardized protocol is proposed including two reference geometries. Micro-CT is used to acquire the reference geometries. A new 3D method is then proposed and a new indicator is defined (Gap Size Distribution (GSD. In addition, the usual 2D measurements are described and discussed. The 3D gap measurement method proposed can be used in clinical case geometries and has the considerable advantage of minimizing the data processing steps before performing the measurements.

  2. Depth dependence of the structural phase transition of SrTiO3 studied with β-NMR and grazing incidence x-ray diffraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salman, Z.; Smadella, M.; Macfarlane, W. A.; Patterson, B. D.; Willmott, P. R.; Chow, K. H.; Hossain, M. D.; Saadaoui, H.; Wang, D.; Kiefl, R. F.

    2011-06-01

    We present an investigation of the near-surface tetragonal phase transition in SrTiO3, using the complementary techniques of beta-detected nuclear magnetic resonance and grazing-incidence X-ray diffraction. The results show a clear depth dependence of the phase transition on scales of a few microns. The measurements support a model in which there are tetragonal domains forming in the sample at temperatures much higher than the bulk phase transition temperature. Moreover, we find that these domains tend to form at higher temperatures preferentially near the free surface of the crystal. The details of the tetragonal domain formation and their depth/lateral dependencies are discussed.

  3. Phase and Texture of Solution-Processed Copper Phthalocyanine Thin Films Investigated by Two-Dimensional Grazing Incidence X-Ray Diffraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lulu Deng

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The phase and texture of a newly developed solution-processed copper phthalocyanine (CuPc thin film have been investigated by two-dimensional grazing incidence X-ray diffraction. The results show that it has β phase crystalline structure, with crystallinity greater than 80%. The average size of the crystallites is found to be about 24 nm. There are two different arrangements of crystallites, with one dominating the diffraction pattern. Both of them have preferred orientation along the thin film normal. Based on the similarities to the vacuum deposited CuPc thin films, the new solution processing method is verified to offer a good alternative to vacuum process, for the fabrication of low cost small molecule based organic photovoltaics.

  4. Probing Defects in a Small Pixellated CdTe Sensor Using an Inclined Mono Energetic X-Ray Micro Beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fröjdh, Erik; Fröjdh, C.; Gimenez, E. N.; Krapohl, D.; Maneuski, D.; Norlin, B.; O'Shea, V.; Wilhelm, H.; Tartoni, N.; Thungström, G.; Zain, R. M.

    2013-08-01

    High quantum efficiency is important in X-ray imaging applications. This means using high-Z sensor materials. Unfortunately many of these materials suffer from defects that cause non-ideal charge transport. In order to increase the understanding of these defects, we have mapped the 3D response of a number of defects in two 1 mm thick CdTe sensors with different pixel sizes (55 μm and 110 μm) using a monoenergetic microbeam at 79 keV. The sensors were bump bonded to Timepix read out chips. Data was collected in photon counting as well as time-over-threshold mode. The time-over-threshold mode is a very powerful tool to investigate charge transport properties and fluorescence in pixellated detectors since the signal from the charge that each photon deposits in each pixel can be analyzed. Results show distorted electrical field around the defects, indications of excess leakage current and large differences in behavior between electron collection and hole collection mode. The experiments were carried out on the Extreme Conditions Beamline I15 at Diamond Light Source.

  5. Characterization of selenium in UO2 spent nuclear fuel by micro X-ray absorption spectroscopy and its thermodynamic stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curti, E; Puranen, A; Grolimund, D; Jädernas, D; Sheptyakov, D; Mesbah, A

    2015-10-01

    Direct disposal of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) in deep geological formations is the preferred option for the final storage of nuclear waste in many countries. In order to assess to which extent radionuclides could be released to the environment, it is of great importance to understand how they are chemically bound in the waste matrix. This is particularly important for long-lived radionuclides such as (79)Se, (129)I, (14)C or (36)Cl, which form poorly sorbing anionic species in water and therefore migrate without significant retardation through argillaceous repository materials and host rocks. We present here X-ray absorption spectroscopic data providing evidence that in the investigated SNF samples selenium is directly bound to U atoms as Se(-II) (selenide) ion, probably replacing oxygen in the cubic UO2 lattice. This result is corroborated by a simple thermodynamic analysis, showing that selenide is the stable form of Se under reactor operation conditions. Because selenide is almost insoluble in water, our data indirectly explain the unexpectedly low release of Se in short-term aqueous leaching experiments, compared to iodine or cesium. These results have a direct impact on safety analyses for potential nuclear waste repository sites, as they justify assuming a small fractional release of selenium in performance assessment calculations.

  6. Analysis of Dental Enamel Surface Submitted to Fruit Juice Plus Soymilk by Micro X-Ray Fluorescence: In Vitro Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaína Salmos Brito

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This paper aimed to analyze the in vitro industrialized fruit juices effect plus soy to establish the erosive potential of these solutions. Materials and Methods. Seventy bovine incisors were selected after being evaluated under stereomicroscope. Their crowns were prepared and randomly divided into 7 groups, using microhardness with allocation criteria. The crowns were submitted to the fruit juice plus soy during 15 days, twice a day. The pH values, acid titration, and Knoop microhardness were recorded and the specimens were evaluated using X-ray microfluorescence (µXRF. Results. The pH average for all juices and after 3 days was significantly below the critical value for dental erosion. In average, the pH value decreases 14% comparing initial time and pH after 3 days. Comparing before and after, there was a 49% microhardness decrease measured in groups (p<0.05. Groups G1, G2, G5, and G6 are above this average. The analysis by μXRF showed a decrease of approximately 7% Ca and 4% P on bovine crowns surface. Florida (FL statistical analysis showed a statistically significant 1 difference between groups. Thus, a tooth chance to suffer demineralization due to industrialized fruit juices plus soy is real.

  7. Micro-X-Ray Fluorescence and the Old Masters . Non-destructive in situ characterisation of the varnish of historical Low Countries stringed musical instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruso, Francesco; Saverwyns, Steven; Van Bos, Marina; Chillura Martino, Delia Francesca; Ceulemans, Anne-Emmanuelle; de Valck, Joris; Caponetti, Eugenio

    2012-04-01

    In recent years, a growing attention has been addressed to the study of the varnish from early musical instruments. The surfaces of nine historical Low Countries stringed musical instruments from the collection of the "Musical Instruments Museum" in Brussels were non-destructively analysed by in situ micro-X-Ray Fluorescence spectroscopy in dispersive mode. It was found that the main pigments dispersed in the varnish were iron- and manganese-based earths. The presence of a chromium-based pigment in one of the analysed instruments makes it appreciably different from the others. Other findings were discussed and compared with previously published results. The collection of such information plays a relevant role in the recovery of the applied formulations that is an interesting issue for conservators, luthiers and art historians.

  8. The characterization of canvas painting by the Serbian artist Milo Milunović using X-ray fluorescence, micro-Raman and FTIR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damjanović, Lj.; Gajić-Kvaščev, M.; Đurđević, J.; Andrić, V.; Marić-Stojanović, M.; Lazić, T.; Nikolić, S.

    2015-10-01

    A canvas painting by Milo Milunović "The Inspiration of the poet" was studied by energy dispersive X-Ray fluorescence (EDXRF), micro-Raman and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy in order to identify materials used by the artist and his painting technique. Study is perfomed combining in situ non-destructive method with the preparation and study of cross-section samples and raw fragments of the samples. Milo Milunović, an eminent painter from Balkan region, made a copy of the Nicolas Poussin's original painting in Louvre in 1926/27. Obtained results revealed following pigments on the investigated canvas painting: vermilion, minium, cobalt blue, ultramarine, lead white, zinc white, cadmium yellow, chrome-based green pigment and several earth pigments - red and yellow ocher, green earth and umber. Ground layer was made of lead white mixed with calcium carbonate.

  9. Mapping the metal uptake in plants from Jasper Ridge Biological Preserve using synchrotron micro-focused X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lo, Allison [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)

    2015-08-20

    Serpentine soil originates in the Earth’s mantle and contains high concentrations of potentially toxic transition metals. Although serpentine soil limits plant growth, endemic and adapted plants at Jasper Ridge Biological Preserve, located behind SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, can tolerate these conditions. Serpentine soil and seeds belonging to native California and invasive plants were collected at Jasper Ridge. The seeds were grown hydroponically and on serpentine and potting soil to examine the uptake and distribution of ions in the roots and shoots using synchrotron micro-focused X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy. The results were used to determine differences between serpentine-tolerant plants. Rye grown on potting soil was enriched in Ni, Fe, Mn, and Cr compared to purple needlegrass grown on serpentine soil. Serpentine vegetation equally suppressed the uptake of Mn, Ni, and Fe in the roots and shoots. The uptake of Ca and Mg affected the uptake of other elements such as K, S, and P.

  10. Use of total reflection X-ray fluorescence to determine micro- and macroelements in the plasma of animals parasitized by Tripanossoma cruzi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zucchi, Orgheda L.A. Domingues [Universidade de Sao Paulo, Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas. Dept. de Fisica e Quimica]. E-mail: Batista, Fernanda Ap. H.; Albuquerque, Sergio de [Universidade de Sao Paulo, Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas. Dept. de Analises Clinicas, Bromatologica e Toxicologica]. E-mail: fer_usp@yahoo.com.br; sdalbuque@fcfrp.usp.br; Nascimento Filho, Virgilio F. [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura CENA, Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Instrumentacao Nuclear]. E-mail: virgilio@cena.usp.br

    2007-07-01

    The mineral levels of S, Cl, K, Ca, Cr, Fe, Cu, and Zn in the plasma of mice (line BALB/c) infected with strains Bolivia and Y of Trypanosoma cruzi were determined by Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence technique (TXRF), with concentration raging from 0.2 (Cu) to 2650 (S) {mu}g/g. Three experimental groups were used: a control group, a group of infected females, and a group of infected males. The plasma of the animals was obtained before, during, and after the parasitemic peak for each of the three groups and for each strain used. Sample excitation was performed using an X-ray tube with a Mo target and Zr filter, operating at 40 kV and 30 mA, at an incidence angle of 6.4 min. In general, the elements evaluated showed small variations between the different groups, without statistical difference. Significant alterations were observed in the Bolivia strain, demonstrating that a relation between this strain and changes in the levels determined for the elements might exist. (author)

  11. Milli X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometer

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Eagle III Micro XRF unit is similar to a traditional XRF unit, with the primary difference being that the X-rays are focused by a polycapillary optic into a spot...

  12. Some simple ideas on x-ray reflection and grazing-incidence diffraction from thin surfactant films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, K.

    1994-01-01

    For Langmuir films of long linear amphiphilic molecules at the air-water interface, grazing-incidence diffraction data resolved in terms of both the horizontal and vertical components of the scattering angle can be evaluated to a fair level of detail by means of a slide rule. Specular reflection...

  13. Measured and Monte Carlo simulated surface dose reduction for superficial X-rays incident on tissue with underlying air or bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baines, John; Zawlodzka, Sylwia; Markwell, Tim; Chan, Millicent

    2018-02-01

    Measurement of surface dose reduction effects for superficial x-rays incident on tissue with underlying air or bone and comparison with Monte Carlo simulations of such effects. Further to investigate the correlation between surface dose reduction and changes in Compton backscatter spectra with tissue-bone separation. An Advanced Markus chamber with entrance window facing downstream on the surface of a solid water phantom was used to investigate changes in surface dose with an underlying air or bone interface located at various depths below the surface. Chamber readings were obtained for interface depths ranging from 1 to 100 mm using the 50 kV, 100 kV and 150 kV beams of an Xstrahl 150 x-ray unit, with field diameters (ϕ) = 2.5 cm and 5 cm. For each beam quality and field size the dose correction factor, DCF(t), namely the ratio of measured dose (t) to dose (t = 100 mm) was determined. Monte Carlo simulations of DCF(t) for air and bone interfaces in tissue are used to validate corresponding measured data. For a given beam and field size, the difference between simulated spectra with an air or bone interface at t = 3 mm was used to determine the Compton backscatter from bone at the surface. For air, DCF(t tube potentials corresponding factors, ϕ = 2.5 cm, for air(bone) are 0.94(0.96) and 0.92(0.99). Calculated DCF(t) based on Monte Carlo simulations are consistent with experimental observations to within 2%. Monte Carlo simulations of x-ray spectra demonstrate the presence of Compton backscatter from underlying bone in tissue. With bone at 3 mm depth calculated backscatter spectra at the tissue surface suggest that surface dose is influenced by the proximity of bone and that this effect depends on beam quality. This work demonstrates the feasibility of using an Advanced Markus chamber with entrance window facing downstream to investigate surface dose reduction with underlying air or bone in tissue. As the field size decreases and beam quality increases surface

  14. X-ray holography

    CERN Document Server

    Faigel, G; Belakhovsky, M; Marchesini, S; Bortel, G

    2003-01-01

    In the last decade holographic methods using hard X-rays were developed. They are able to resolve atomic distances, and can give the 3D arrangement of atoms around a selected element. Therefore, hard X-ray holography has potential applications in chemistry, biology and physics. In this article we give a general description of these methods and discuss the developments in the experimental technique. The capabilities of hard X-ray holography are demonstrated by examples.

  15. X-ray holography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faigel, G.; Tegze, M.; Belakhovsky, M.; Marchesini, S.; Bortel, G.

    2003-01-01

    In the last decade holographic methods using hard X-rays were developed. They are able to resolve atomic distances, and can give the 3D arrangement of atoms around a selected element. Therefore, hard X-ray holography has potential applications in chemistry, biology and physics. In this article we give a general description of these methods and discuss the developments in the experimental technique. The capabilities of hard X-ray holography are demonstrated by examples

  16. The X-ray Astronomy Recovery Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tashiro, M.; Kelley, R.

    2017-10-01

    On 25 March 2016, the Japanese 6th X-ray astronomical satellite ASTRO-H (Hitomi), launched on February 17, lost communication after a series of mishap in its attitude control system. In response to the mishap the X-ray astronomy community and JAXA analyzed the direct and root cause of the mishap and investigated possibility of a recovery mission with the international collaborator NASA and ESA. Thanks to great effort of scientists, agencies, and governments, the X-ray Astronomy Recovery Mission (XARM) are proposed. The recovery mission is planned to resume high resolution X-ray spectroscopy with imaging realized by Hitomi under the international collaboration in the shortest time possible, simply by focusing one of the main science goals of Hitomi Resolving astrophysical problems by precise high-resolution X-ray spectroscopy'. XARM will carry a 6 x 6 pixelized X-ray micro-calorimeter on the focal plane of an X-ray mirror assembly, and an aligned X-ray CCD camera covering the same energy band and wider field of view, but no hard X-ray or soft gamma-ray instruments are onboard. In this paper, we introduce the science objectives, mission concept, and schedule of XARM.

  17. Mapping Analyte Distributions in Surrogate Nuclear Melt Glass Using Laser-induced Breakdown Spectroscopy and Micro X-Ray Fluorescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shattan, Michael [Y-12 National Security Complex, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Stowe, Ashley [Y-12 National Security Complex, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); McIntosh, Kathryn [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Auxier II, John [Y-12 National Security Complex, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Parigger, Christian [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Hall, Howard [Y-12 National Security Complex, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    2017-10-10

    Explore feasibility of portable LIBS and micro-XRF systems as methods of field screening for real debris; Develop a LIBS Capability to rapidly screen beads for production quality control; Complete 3D elemental mapping of surrogate debris to determine uranium and other elemental migration patterns during debris formation

  18. Quantitative Analysis of Micro-Structure in Meat Emulsions from Grating-Based Multimodal X-Ray Tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Einarsdottir, Hildur; Nielsen, Mikkel Schou; Miklos, Rikke

    2013-01-01

    samples were imaged both in a raw and cooked state. Additionally, different fat types were used in the emulsions in order to compare micro-structural differences when either pork fat or sunflower oil was used. From the reconstructed tomograms the different ingredients in the emulsions were segmented using...

  19. Providing x-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallozzi, P.J.; Epstein, H.M.

    1985-01-01

    This invention provides an apparatus for providing x-rays to an object that may be in an ordinary environment such as air at approximately atmospheric pressure. The apparatus comprises: means (typically a laser beam) for directing energy onto a target to produce x-rays of a selected spectrum and intensity at the target; a fluid-tight enclosure around the target; means for maintaining the pressure in the first enclosure substantially below atmospheric pressure; a fluid-tight second enclosure adjoining the first enclosure, the common wall portion having an opening large enough to permit x-rays to pass through but small enough to allow the pressure reducing means to evacuate gas from the first enclosure at least as fast as it enters through the opening; the second enclosure filled with a gas that is highly transparent to x-rays; the wall of the second enclosure to which the x-rays travel having a portion that is highly transparent to x-rays (usually a beryllium or plastic foil), so that the object to which the x-rays are to be provided may be located outside the second enclosure and adjacent thereto and thus receive the x-rays substantially unimpeded by air or other intervening matter. The apparatus is particularly suited to obtaining EXAFS (extended x-ray fine structure spectroscopy) data on a material

  20. A rapid total reflection X-ray fluorescence protocol for micro analyses of ion profiles in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höhner, Ricarda; Tabatabaei, Samaneh; Kunz, Hans-Henning; Fittschen, Ursula

    2016-11-01

    The ion homeostasis of macro and micronutrients in plant cells and tissues is a fundamental requirement for vital biochemical pathways including photosynthesis. In nature, ion homeostasis is affected mainly by three processes: 1. Environmental stress factors, 2. Developmental effects, and 3. Loss or gain-of-function mutations in the plant genome. Here we present a rapid total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) protocol that allows for simultaneous quantification of several elements such as potassium (K), calcium (Ca), sulfur (S), manganese (Mn) and strontium (Sr) in Arabidopsis thaliana leaf specimens. Our procedure is cost-efficient and enables precise, robust and highly reproducible measurements on tissue samples as small as 0.3 mg dry weight. As shown here, we apply the TXRF procedure to detect accurately the early replacement of K by Na ions in leaves of plants exposed to soil salinity, a globally increasing abiotic stress factor. Furthermore, we were able to prove the existence of a leaf development-dependent ion gradient for K, Ca, and other divalent ions in A. thaliana; i.e. old leaves contain significantly lower K but higher Ca than young leaves. Lastly, we show that our procedure can be readily applied to reveal subtle differences in tissue-specific ion contents of plant mutants. We employed independent A. thaliana kea1kea2 loss-of-function mutants that lack KEA1 and KEA2, two highly active chloroplast K exchange proteins. We found significantly increased K levels specifically in kea1kea2 mutants, i.e. 55 mg ∗ g- 1 dry weight, compared to 40 mg ∗ g- 1 dry weight in wild type plants. The TXRF procedure can be supplemented with Flame atomic absorption (FAAS) and emission spectrometry (FAES) to expand the detection range to sodium (Na) and magnesium (Mg). Because of the small sample amounts required, this method is especially suited to probe individual leaves in single plants or even specific leaf areas. Therefore, TXRF represents a powerful method to

  1. Analysis of InGaN nanodots grown by droplet heteroepitaxy using grazing incidence small-angle X-ray scattering and electron microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, J. M.; Nikiforov, A. Yu.; Ludwig, K. F.; Moustakas, T. D.

    2017-08-01

    We present a detailed structural investigation of self-assembled indium gallium nitride nanodots grown on c-plane aluminum nitride templates by the droplet heteroepitaxy technique in a plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy reactor. Various growth parameters, including the total coverage of the metal species, relative and total metal effusion fluxes, and nitridation temperature were investigated. Analyses of in situ reflection high-energy electron diffraction patterns and comparison with simulations showed that the resulting crystal structure was a mixture of wurtzite and twinned zinc blende phases, with the zinc blende phase increasingly dominant for lower metal coverages and lower nitridation temperatures, and the wurtzite phase increasingly dominant for higher nitridation temperature. Studies by field emission scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy revealed that the nanodots exhibit trimodal size distributions, with the dot morphologies of the intermediate size mode often resembling aggregations of distinct clusters. Nanodots grown at higher nitridation temperatures had larger inter-dot spacings, with hexagonal in-plane ordering observable at a sufficiently high temperature. Using grazing incidence small angle X-ray scattering, we determined the nanodots to be approximately truncated cone shaped, and extracted the mean radius, height, and inter-dot distance for each distribution. Microstructural investigations of the nanodots by cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy indicated that the majority of the dots were formed in dislocation-free regions, and confirmed that the intermediate size dots were approximately truncated cone shaped and consisted of both zinc blende and wurtzite regions. Mapping of the elemental distributions by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy in scanning transmission electron microscopy mode indicated highly nonuniform indium distributions within both small and intermediate size dots which are potentially

  2. Diffractive X-ray Telescopes

    OpenAIRE

    Skinner, Gerald K.

    2010-01-01

    Diffractive X-ray telescopes using zone plates, phase Fresnel lenses, or related optical elements have the potential to provide astronomers with true imaging capability with resolution several orders of magnitude better than available in any other waveband. Lenses that would be relatively easy to fabricate could have an angular resolution of the order of micro-arc-seconds or even better, that would allow, for example, imaging of the distorted space- time in the immediate vicinity of the super...

  3. Search for Fluid Inclusions in a Carbonaceous Chondrite Using a New X-Ray Micro-Tomography Technique Combined with FIB Sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchiyama, A.; Miyake, A.; Zolensky, M. E.; Uesugi, K.; Nakano, T.; Takeuchi, A.; Suzuki, Y.; Yoshida, K.

    2014-01-01

    Early solar system aqueous fluids are preserved in some H chondrites as aqueous fluid inclusions in halite (e.g., [1]). Although potential fluid inclusions are also expected in carbonaceous chondrites [2], they have not been surely confirmed. In order to search for these fluid inclusions, we have developped a new X-ray micro-tomography technique combined with FIB sampling and applied this techniqu to a carbanaceous chondrite. Experimental: A polished thin section of Sutter's Mill meteorite (CM) was observed with an optical microscope and FE-SEM (JEOL 7001F) for chosing mineral grains of carbonates (mainly calcite) and sulfides (FeS and ZnS) 20-50 microns in typical size, which may have aqueous fluid inclusions. Then, a "house" similar to a cube with a roof (20-30 microns in size) is sampled from the mineral grain by using FIB (FEI Quanta 200 3DS). Then, the house was atached to a thin W-needle by FIB and imaged by a SR-based imaging microtomography system with a Fresnel zone plate at beamline BL47XU, SPring-8, Japan. One sample was imaged at two X-ray energies, 7 and 8 keV, to identify mineral phases (dual-enegy microtomography: [3]). The size of voxel (pixel in 3D) was 50-80 nm, which gave the effective spatial resolution of approx. 200 nm. A terrestrial quartz sample with an aqueous fluid inclusion with a bubble was also examined as a test sample by the same method. Results and discussion: A fluid inclusion of 5-8 microns in quartz was clearly identified in a CT image. A bubble of approx. 4 microns was also identified as refraction contrast although the X-ray absorption difference between fluid and bubble is small. Volumes of the fluid and bubble were obtained from the 3D CT images. Fourteen grains of calcite, two grains of iron sulfide and one grain of (Zn,Fe)S were examined. Ten calcite, one iron sulfide and one (Zn,Fe)S grains have inclusions >1 micron in size (the maximum: approx. 5 microns). The shapes are spherical or irregular. Tiny inclusions (tiny solid

  4. Illustration of compositional variations over time of Chinese porcelain glazes combining micro-X-ray Fluorescence spectrometry, multivariate data analysis and Seger formulas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Pevenage, J., E-mail: Raman@UGent.be [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Raman Spectroscopy Research Group, Ghent University, Krijgslaan 281, S12, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); Verhaeven, E. [Department of Conservation and Restoration, University College Antwerp, Blindestraat 9, B-2000 Antwerp (Belgium); Vekemans, B. [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Ghent University, Krijgslaan 281, S12, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); Lauwers, D., E-mail: Raman@UGent.be [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Raman Spectroscopy Research Group, Ghent University, Krijgslaan 281, S12, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); Herremans, D.; De Clercq, W. [Department of Archaeology, Ghent University, Sint-Pietersnieuwstraat 35, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); Vincze, L. [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Ghent University, Krijgslaan 281, S12, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); Moens, L., E-mail: Raman@UGent.be [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Raman Spectroscopy Research Group, Ghent University, Krijgslaan 281, S12, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); Vandenabeele, P. [Department of Archaeology, Ghent University, Sint-Pietersnieuwstraat 35, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium)

    2015-01-01

    In this research, the transparent glaze layers of Chinese porcelain samples were investigated. Depending on the production period, these samples can be divided into two groups: the samples of group A dating from the Kangxi period (1661–1722), and the samples of group B produced under emperor Qianlong (1735–1795). Due to the specific sample preparation method and the small spot size of the X-ray beam, investigation of the transparent glaze layers is enabled. Despite the many existing research papers about glaze investigations of ceramics and/or porcelain ware, this research reveals new insights into the glaze composition and structure of Chinese porcelain samples. In this paper it is demonstrated, using micro-X-ray Fluorescence (μ-XRF) spectrometry, multivariate data analysis and statistical analysis (Hotelling's T-Square test) that the transparent glaze layers of the samples of groups A and B are significantly different (95% confidence level). Calculation of the Seger formulas, enabled classification of the glazes. Combining all the information, the difference in composition of the Chinese porcelain glazes of the Kangxi period and the Qianlong period can be demonstrated. - Highlights: • Fully described methodology for the analysis of silicate glazes of Chinese porcelain samples • The combination of a semi-quantitative analysis of silicate glazes, multi-variate data and statistical analysis. • The use of Seger formula to understand better the composition of the glazes. • New insights into the glaze composition and structure of Chinese porcelain glazes of different time periods.

  5. Study of deformation and fracture micro mechanisms of titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V using electron microscopy and and X-ray diffraction techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morcelli, Aparecido Edilson

    2009-01-01

    This present work allowed the study of deformation and fracture micro mechanisms of titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V, used commercially for the manufacture of metallic biomaterials. The techniques employed for the analysis of the material under study were: scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The study of the influence and behavior of the phases present in titanium alloys is important to evaluate the behavior of cracks in titanium alloys with high mechanical strength, which have fine alpha (α), beta (β) and (α±β) microstructure, linking the presence of the phases with the strength of the material. The evaluation in situ of deformation and fracture micro mechanisms were performed by TEM and was also a study of phase transformations during cooling in titanium alloys, using the techniques of bright field, dark field and diffraction of electrons in the selected area. After heat treatment differences were observed between the amount of in relation to the original microstructure of the β and α phases material for different conditions used in heat treatment applied to the alloy. The presence of lamellar microstructure formed during cooling in the β field was observed, promoting the conversion of part of the secondary alpha structure in β phase, which was trapped between the lamellar of alpha. (author)

  6. Automatic method for estimation of in situ effective contact angle from X-ray micro tomography images of two-phase flow in porous media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanziani, Alessio; Singh, Kamaljit; Blunt, Martin J; Guadagnini, Alberto

    2017-06-15

    Multiphase flow in porous media is strongly influenced by the wettability of the system, which affects the arrangement of the interfaces of different phases residing in the pores. We present a method for estimating the effective contact angle, which quantifies the wettability and controls the local capillary pressure within the complex pore space of natural rock samples, based on the physical constraint of constant curvature of the interface between two fluids. This algorithm is able to extract a large number of measurements from a single rock core, resulting in a characteristic distribution of effective in situ contact angle for the system, that is modelled as a truncated Gaussian probability density distribution. The method is first validated on synthetic images, where the exact angle is known analytically; then the results obtained from measurements within the pore space of rock samples imaged at a resolution of a few microns are compared to direct manual assessment. Finally the method is applied to X-ray micro computed tomography (micro-CT) scans of two Ketton cores after waterflooding, that display water-wet and mixed-wet behaviour. The resulting distribution of in situ contact angles is characterized in terms of a mixture of truncated Gaussian densities. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The characterization of canvas painting by the Serbian artist Milo Milunović using X-ray fluorescence, micro-Raman and FTIR spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damjanović, Lj.; Gajić-Kvaščev, M.; Đurđević, J.; Andrić, V.; Marić-Stojanović, M.; Lazić, T.; Nikolić, S.

    2015-01-01

    A canvas painting by Milo Milunović “The Inspiration of the poet” was studied by energy dispersive X-Ray fluorescence (EDXRF), micro-Raman and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy in order to identify materials used by the artist and his painting technique. Study is perfomed combining in situ non-destructive method with the preparation and study of cross-section samples and raw fragments of the samples. Milo Milunović, an eminent painter from Balkan region, made a copy of the Nicolas Poussin's original painting in Louvre in 1926/27. Obtained results revealed following pigments on the investigated canvas painting: vermilion, minium, cobalt blue, ultramarine, lead white, zinc white, cadmium yellow, chrome-based green pigment and several earth pigments – red and yellow ocher, green earth and umber. Ground layer was made of lead white mixed with calcium carbonate. - Highlights: • In situ EDXRF, micro-Raman and FTIR spectroscopy were employed. • Pallete of painting “The Inspiration of the poet” by Milunović has been determined. • Obtained results allowed evaluation of the painter’s technique. • Milo Milunović worked on the clay ground imitating Nicoals Poussin’s technique

  8. Digital 3D Microstructure Analysis of Concrete using X-Ray Micro Computed Tomography SkyScan 1173: A Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latief, F. D. E.; Mohammad, I. H.; Rarasati, A. D.

    2017-11-01

    Digital imaging of a concrete sample using high resolution tomographic imaging by means of X-Ray Micro Computed Tomography (μ-CT) has been conducted to assess the characteristic of the sample’s structure. A standard procedure of image acquisition, reconstruction, image processing of the method using a particular scanning device i.e., the Bruker SkyScan 1173 High Energy Micro-CT are elaborated. A qualitative and a quantitative analysis were briefly performed on the sample to deliver some basic ideas of the capability of the system and the bundled software package. Calculation of total VOI volume, object volume, percent of object volume, total VOI surface, object surface, object surface/volume ratio, object surface density, structure thickness, structure separation, total porosity were conducted and analysed. This paper should serve as a brief description of how the device can produce the preferred image quality as well as the ability of the bundled software packages to help in performing qualitative and quantitative analysis.

  9. Post-mortem interval estimation of human skeletal remains by micro-computed tomography, mid-infrared microscopic imaging and energy dispersive X-ray mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longato, S; Wöss, C; Hatzer-Grubwieser, P; Bauer, C; Parson, W; Unterberger, S H; Kuhn, V; Pemberger, N; Pallua, Anton K; Recheis, W; Lackner, R; Stalder, R; Pallua, J D

    2015-04-07

    In this study different state-of-the-art visualization methods such as micro-computed tomography (micro-CT), mid-infrared (MIR) microscopic imaging and energy dispersive X-ray (EDS) mapping were evaluated to study human skeletal remains for the determination of the post-mortem interval (PMI). PMI specific features were identified and visualized by overlaying molecular imaging data and morphological tissue structures generated by radiological techniques and microscopic images gained from confocal microscopy (Infinite Focus (IFM)). In this way, a more distinct picture concerning processes during the PMI as well as a more realistic approximation of the PMI were achieved. It could be demonstrated that the gained result in combination with multivariate data analysis can be used to predict the Ca/C ratio and bone volume (BV) over total volume (TV) for PMI estimation. Statistical limitation of this study is the small sample size, and future work will be based on more specimens to develop a screening tool for PMI based on the outcome of this multidimensional approach.

  10. Extremity x-ray

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003461.htm Extremity x-ray To use the sharing features on this page, ... in the body Risks There is low-level radiation exposure. X-rays are monitored and regulated to provide the ...

  11. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... loose, comfortable clothing. You may be asked to change into a gown. You may have some concerns about chest x-rays. However, it’s important to consider the likelihood of benefit to your health. While a chest x-ray use a tiny ...

  12. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... by Image/Video Gallery Your Radiologist Explains Chest X-ray Transcript Welcome to Radiology Info dot org! Hello, ... d like to talk with you about chest radiography also known as chest x-rays. Chest x- ...

  13. Indus-2 X-ray lithography beamline for X-ray optics and material science applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhamgaye, V. P.; Lodha, G. S.

    2014-04-01

    X-ray lithography is an ideal technique by which high aspect ratio and high spatial resolution micro/nano structures are fabricated using X-rays from synchrotron radiation source. The technique has been used for fabricating optics (X-ray, visible and infrared), sensors and actuators, fluidics and photonics. A beamline for X-ray lithography is operational on Indus-2. The beamline offers wide lithographic window from 1-40keV photon energy and wide beam for producing microstructures in polymers upto size ˜100mm × 100mm. X-ray exposures are possible in air, vacuum and He gas environment. The air based exposures enables the X-ray irradiation of resist for lithography and also irradiation of biological and liquid samples.

  14. X-ray generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dawson, J.M.

    1976-01-01

    An apparatus and a method are described for producing coherent secondary x-rays that are controlled as to direction by illuminating a mixture of high z and low z gases with an intense burst of primary x-rays. The primary x-rays are produced with a laser activated plasma, and these x-rays strip off the electrons of the high z atoms in the lasing medium, while the low z atoms retain their electrons. The neutral atoms transfer electrons to highly excited states of the highly stripped high z ions giving an inverted population which produces the desired coherent x-rays. In one embodiment, a laser, light beam provides a laser spark that produces the intense burst of coherent x-rays that illuminates the mixture of high z and low z gases, whereby the high z atoms are stripped while the low z ones are not, giving the desired mixture of highly ionized and neutral atoms. Means for magnetically confining and stabilizing the plasma are disclosed for controlling the direction of the x-rays

  15. X-ray crystallography

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    X-rays diffracted from a well-ordered protein crystal create sharp patterns of scattered light on film. A computer can use these patterns to generate a model of a protein molecule. To analyze the selected crystal, an X-ray crystallographer shines X-rays through the crystal. Unlike a single dental X-ray, which produces a shadow image of a tooth, these X-rays have to be taken many times from different angles to produce a pattern from the scattered light, a map of the intensity of the X-rays after they diffract through the crystal. The X-rays bounce off the electron clouds that form the outer structure of each atom. A flawed crystal will yield a blurry pattern; a well-ordered protein crystal yields a series of sharp diffraction patterns. From these patterns, researchers build an electron density map. With powerful computers and a lot of calculations, scientists can use the electron density patterns to determine the structure of the protein and make a computer-generated model of the structure. The models let researchers improve their understanding of how the protein functions. They also allow scientists to look for receptor sites and active areas that control a protein's function and role in the progress of diseases. From there, pharmaceutical researchers can design molecules that fit the active site, much like a key and lock, so that the protein is locked without affecting the rest of the body. This is called structure-based drug design.

  16. X-ray apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernstein, S.; Stagg, L.; Lambert, T.W.; Griswa, P.J.

    1976-01-01

    A patient support system for X-ray equipment in arteriographic studies of the heart is described in detail. The support system has been designed to overcome many of the practical problems encountered in using previous types of arteriographic X-ray equipment. The support system is capable of horizontal movement and, by a series of shafts attached to the main support system, the X-ray source and image intensifier or detector may be rotated through the same angle. The system is highly flexible and details are given of several possible operational modes. (U.K.)

  17. X-ray detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whetten, N.R.; Houston, J.M.

    1977-01-01

    An ionization chamber for use in determining the spatial distribution of x-ray photons in tomography systems comprises a plurality of substantially parallel, planar anodes separated by parallel, planar cathodes and enclosed in a gas of high atomic weight at a pressure from approximately 10 atmospheres to approximately 50 atmospheres. The cathode and anode structures comprise metals which are substantially opaque to x-ray radiation and thereby tend to reduce the resolution limiting effects of x-ray fluoresence in the gas. In another embodiment of the invention the anodes comprise parallel conductive bars disposed between two planar cathodes. Guard rings eliminate surface leakage currents between adjacent electrodes. 8 figures

  18. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Resources Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Bone Bone x-ray uses a very small ... X-ray (Radiography)? What is Bone X-ray (Radiography)? An x-ray (radiograph) is a noninvasive medical ...

  19. Panoramic Dental X-Ray

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Panoramic Dental X-ray Panoramic dental x-ray uses a very small ... limitations of Panoramic X-ray? What is Panoramic X-ray? Panoramic radiography , also called panoramic x-ray , is ...

  20. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Bone Bone x-ray uses a very ... of Bone X-ray (Radiography)? What is Bone X-ray (Radiography)? An x-ray (radiograph) is a noninvasive ...

  1. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Bone Bone x-ray uses a very ... of Bone X-ray (Radiography)? What is Bone X-ray (Radiography)? An x-ray (radiograph) is a noninvasive ...

  2. Abdomen X-Ray (Radiography)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Abdomen Abdominal x-ray uses a very ... of an abdominal x-ray? What is abdominal x-ray? An x-ray (radiograph) is a noninvasive medical ...

  3. X-Ray Exam: Hip

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español X-Ray Exam: Hip KidsHealth / For Parents / X-Ray Exam: ... darker. An X-ray technician takes the X-rays. An X-ray technician in the radiology department of a ...

  4. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Bone Bone x-ray uses a very small dose ... limitations of Bone X-ray (Radiography)? What is Bone X-ray (Radiography)? An x-ray (radiograph) is ...

  5. Lumbosacral spine x-ray

    Science.gov (United States)

    X-ray - lumbosacral spine; X-ray - lower spine ... The test is done in a hospital x-ray department or your health care provider's office by an x-ray technician. You will be asked to lie on the x-ray table ...

  6. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Bone Bone x-ray uses a very small ... of Bone X-ray (Radiography)? What is Bone X-ray (Radiography)? An x-ray (radiograph) is a noninvasive ...

  7. X-ray metrology for ULSI structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowen, D. K.; Matney, K. M.; Wormington, M.

    1998-01-01

    Non-destructive X-ray metrological methods are discussed for application to both process development and process control of ULSI structures. X-ray methods can (a) detect the unacceptable levels of internal defects generated by RTA processes in large wafers, (b) accurately measure the thickness and roughness of layers between 1 and 1000 nm thick and (c) can monitor parameters such as crystallographic texture and the roughness of buried interfaces. In this paper we review transmission X-ray topography, thin film texture measurement, grazing-incidence X-ray reflectivity and high-resolution X-ray diffraction. We discuss in particular their suitability as on-line sensors for process control

  8. Packing stress reduction in polymer-lipid monolayers at the air-water interface: An X-ray grazing-incidence diffraction and reflectivity study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhl, T.L.; Majewski, J.; Howes, P.B.; Kjaer, K.; Nahmen, A. von; Lee, K.Y.C.; Ocko, B.; Israelachvili, J.N.; Smith, G.S.

    1999-08-25

    Using synchrotron grazing-incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXD) and reflectivity (XR), the authors have determined the in-plane and out-of-plane structure of phospholipid monolayers at the air-water interface as a function of hydrophilic lipid headgroup size. Di-stearoyl-phosphatidyl-ethanolamine (DSPE) lipid monolayers were systematically modified by chemically grafting hydrophilic poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) chains of MW = 90 g/mol (2 ethylene oxide, EO, units), MW = 350 g/mol (8 EO units), and MW = 750 g/mol (17 EO units) to the lipid headgroups. The monolayers were studied in the solid phase at a surface pressure of 42 mN/m. At these high lipid packing densities, the PEG chains are submerged in the water subphase. The increased packing stresses from these bulky polymer headgroups distort the unit cell and the in-plane packing modes of the monolayers, leading to large out-of-plane alterations and staggering of the lipid molecules. Surprisingly, a change in the molecular packing of the monolayer toward higher packing densities (lower area per molecule) was observed on increasing the PEG MW to 750 g/mol (17 EO units). This rearrangement of the monolayer structure may be due to a conformational change in the PEG chains.

  9. Structure of ultrathin films of Co on Cu(111) from normal-incidence x-ray standing wave and medium-energy ion scattering measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butterfield, M.T.; Crapper, M.D.; Noakes, T.C.Q.; Bailey, P.; Jackson, G.J.; Woodruff, D.P.

    2000-01-01

    Applications of the techniques of normal-incidence x-ray standing wave (NIXSW) and medium-energy ion scattering (MEIS) to the elucidation of the structure of an ultrathin metallic film, Co on Cu(111), are reported. NIXSW and MEIS are shown to yield valuable and complementary information on the structure of such systems, yielding both the local stacking sequence and the global site distribution. For the thinnest films of nominally two layers, the first layer is of entirely fcc registry with respect to the substrate, but in the outermost layer there is significant occupation of hcp local sites. For films up to 8 monolayers (ML) thick, the interlayer spacing of the Co layers is 0.058±0.006 Aa smaller than the Cu substrate (111) layer spacing. With increasing coverage, the coherent fraction of the (1(bar sign)11) NIXSW decreases rapidly, indicating that the film does not grow in a fcc continuation beyond two layers. For films in this thickness range, hcp-type stacking dominates fcc twinning by a ratio of 2:1. The variation of the (1(bar sign)11) NIXSW coherent fraction with thickness shows that the twinning occurs close to the Co/Cu interface. For thicker films of around 20 ML deposited at room temperature, medium-energy ion scattering measurements reveal a largely disordered structure. Upon annealing to 300 deg. C the 20-ML films order into a hcp structure

  10. Three-Dimensional Morphology Control Yielding Enhanced Hole Mobility in Air-Processed Organic Photovoltaics: Demonstration with Grazing-Incidence Wide-Angle X-ray Scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, Levi M. J. [School of Polymers; Bhattacharya, Mithun [School of Polymers; Wu, Qi [School of Polymers; Youm, Sang Gil [Department of Chemistry, Louisiana State University, 232 Choppin Hall, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803, United States; Nesterov, Evgueni E. [Department of Chemistry, Louisiana State University, 232 Choppin Hall, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803, United States; Morgan, Sarah E. [School of Polymers

    2017-06-28

    Polymer organic photovoltaic (OPV) device performance is defined by the three-dimensional morphology of the phase-separated domains in the active layer. Here, we determine the evolution of morphology through different stages of tailored solvent vapor and thermal annealing techniques in air-processed poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl)/phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester-based OPV blends. A comparative evaluation of the effect of solvent type used for vapor annealing was performed using grazing-incidence wide-angle X-ray scattering, atomic force microscopy, and UV–vis spectroscopy to probe the active-layer morphology. A nonhalogenated orthogonal solvent was found to impart controlled morphological features within the exciton diffusion length scales, enhanced absorbance, greater crystallinity, increased paracrystalline disorder, and improved charge-carrier mobility. Low-boiling, fast-diffusing isopropanol allowed the greatest control over the nanoscale structure of the solvents evaluated and yielded a cocontinuous morphology with narrowed domains and enhanced paths for the charge carrier to reach the anode.

  11. In situ electrochemical impedance spectroscopy/synchrotron radiation grazing incidence X-ray diffraction-A powerful new technique for the characterization of electrochemical surfaces and interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Marco, Roland; Jiang, Z.-T.; Martizano, Jay; Lowe, Alex; Pejcic, Bobby; Riessen, Arie van

    2006-01-01

    A marriage of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and in situ synchrotron radiation grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (SR-GIXRD) has provided a powerful new technique for the elucidation of the mechanistic chemistry of electrochemical systems. In this study, EIS/SR-GIXRD has been used to investigate the influence of metal ion buffer calibration ligands, along with natural organic ligands in seawater, on the behaviour of the iron chalcogenide glass ion-selective electrode (ISE). The SR-GIXRD data demonstrated that citrate - a previously reported poor iron calibration ligand for the analysis of seawater - induced an instantaneous and total dissolution of crystalline GeSe and Sb 2 Se 3 in the modified surface layer (MSL) of the ISE, while natural organic ligands in seawater and a mixture of ligands in a mimetic seawater ligand system protected the MSL's crystalline inclusions of GeSe and Sb 2 Se 3 from oxidative attack. Expectedly, the EIS data showed that citrate induced a loss in the medium frequency time constant for the MSL of the ISE, while seawater's natural organic ligands and the mimetic ligand system preserved the medium frequency EIS response characteristics of the ISE's MSL. The new EIS/SR-GIXRD technique has provided insights into the suitability of iron calibration ligands for the analysis of iron in seawater

  12. Three-Dimensional Morphology Control Yielding Enhanced Hole Mobility in Air-Processed Organic Photovoltaics: Demonstration with Grazing-Incidence Wide-Angle X-ray Scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Levi M J; Bhattacharya, Mithun; Wu, Qi; Youm, Sang Gil; Nesterov, Evgueni E; Morgan, Sarah E

    2017-07-12

    Polymer organic photovoltaic (OPV) device performance is defined by the three-dimensional morphology of the phase-separated domains in the active layer. Here, we determine the evolution of morphology through different stages of tailored solvent vapor and thermal annealing techniques in air-processed poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl)/phenyl-C 61 -butyric acid methyl ester-based OPV blends. A comparative evaluation of the effect of solvent type used for vapor annealing was performed using grazing-incidence wide-angle X-ray scattering, atomic force microscopy, and UV-vis spectroscopy to probe the active-layer morphology. A nonhalogenated orthogonal solvent was found to impart controlled morphological features within the exciton diffusion length scales, enhanced absorbance, greater crystallinity, increased paracrystalline disorder, and improved charge-carrier mobility. Low-boiling, fast-diffusing isopropanol allowed the greatest control over the nanoscale structure of the solvents evaluated and yielded a cocontinuous morphology with narrowed domains and enhanced paths for the charge carrier to reach the anode.

  13. In-situ grazing incidence X-ray diffraction measurements of relaxation in Fe/MgO/Fe epitaxial magnetic tunnel junctions during annealing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eastwood, D.S. [Department of Physics, Durham University, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Ali, M.; Hickey, B.J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 1JT (United Kingdom); Tanner, B.K., E-mail: b.k.tanner@dur.ac.uk [Department of Physics, Durham University, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom)

    2013-12-15

    The relaxation of Fe/MgO/Fe tunnel junctions grown epitaxially on (001) MgO substrates has been measured by in-situ grazing incidence in-plane X-ray diffraction during the thermal annealing cycle. We find that the Fe layers are fully relaxed and that there are no irreversible changes during annealing. The MgO tunnel barrier is initially strained towards the Fe but on annealing, relaxes and expands towards the bulk MgO value. The strain dispersion is reduced in the MgO by about 40% above 480 K post-annealing. There is no significant change in the “twist” mosaic. Our results indicate that the final annealing stage of device fabrication, crucial to attainment of high TMR, induces substantial strain relaxation at the MgO barrier/lower Fe electrode interface. - Highlights: • Lattice relaxation of Fe/MgO/Fe epitaxial magnetic tunnel junctions measured. • In-plane lattice parameter of Fe equal to bulk value; totally relaxed. • MgO barrier initially strained towards the Fe but relaxes on annealing. • Reduction in strain dispersion in the MgO barrier by 40% above about 470 K. • No change in the in-plane “twist” mosaic throughout the annealing cycle.

  14. Structural analysis on a block copolymer thin film by in-situ neutron and x-ray grazing-incidence scattering techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torikai, Naoya; Yamada, Norifumi L.; Kawaguchi, Daisuke

    2011-01-01

    Structural change of a phase-separated block copolymer thin film with polystyrene (PS) and poly(2-vinylpyridine)(P2VP) in contact with different solvents was observed by in-situ neutron reflectometry using a conventional cell for a solid/liquid interface, and time evolution of phase-separated structure after a temperature jump to 200degC was observed for diblock and triblock copolymer thin films of PS and P2VP by grazing-incidence small-angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS). When PS-P2VP diblock copolymer thin film was contacted with methanol and water, the structural change was induced by penetration of small amount of the solvent into the film, and the original structure was almost recovered after drying it. Also, the diblock copolymer thin film was easily dissolved into toluene, and the original structure was never recovered after the solvent contact. After the temperature jump the lateral correlation spots were evolved with a time in the GISAXS pattern similarly for either block copolymer thin film with spherical structure, though their as-spun states were different. (author)

  15. The mirror module design for the cryogenic x-ray imaging spectrometer on-board ORIGIN

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barbera, Marco; Mineo, Teresa; Basso, Stefano

    2011-01-01

    environments, from the first population III stars at z > 7 to the present large scale structures. The main instrument on-board ORIGIN will be a large format array of TES X-ray micro-calorimeters covering a FOV of 30' at the focal plane of a grazing incidence optical module with a focal length of 2.5 m...

  16. Crystal structure analysis in solution-processed uniaxially oriented polycrystalline thin film of non-peripheral octahexyl phthalocyanine by grazing incidence wide-angle x-ray scattering techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohmori, Masashi; Uno, Takashi; Nakatani, Mitsuhiro; Nakano, Chika; Fujii, Akihiko; Ozaki, Masanori

    2016-10-01

    Uniaxially oriented thin films of metal-free non-peripherally octahexyl-substituted phthalocyanine (C6PcH2), which exhibits high carrier mobility, have been fabricated by the bar-coating technique, which is a simple solution process. The molecular orientation and molecular steps in the thin film were observed by the polarized spectroscopy and the atomic force microscopy, respectively. The three-dimensional molecular packing structure in the thin film was investigated by the grazing incidence wide-angle X-ray scattering technique with an in-plane sample rotation. The crystal orientation was clarified, and the three-dimensional molecular packing structure of the thin film was found to match the single crystal structure. Moreover, the X-ray diffraction patterns of the oriented thin films were simulated by using the lattice parameters of C6PcH2 single crystal to reproduce the observed X-ray diffraction patterns.

  17. Design and Tests of the Hard X-Ray Polarimeter X-Calibur

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beilicke, M.; Baring, M. G.; Barthelmy, S.; Binns, W. R.; Buckley, J.; Cowsik, R.; Dowkontt, P.; Garson, A.; Guo, Q.; Haba, Y.; hide

    2012-01-01

    X-ray polarimetry promises to give qualitatively new information about high-energy astrophysical sources, such as binary black hole systems, micro-quasars, active galactic nuclei, and gamma-ray bursts. We designed, built and tested a hard X-ray polarimeter X-Calibur to be used in the focal plane of the InFOC(mu)S grazing incidence hard X-ray telescope. X-Calibur combines a low-Z Compton scatterer with a CZT detector assembly to measure the polarization of 10 - 80 keY X-rays making use of the fact that polarized photons Compton scatter preferentially perpendicular to the electric field orientation. X-Calibur achieves a high detection efficiency of order unity.

  18. Design and Tests of the Hard X-ray Polarimeter X-Calibur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Beilicke

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available X-ray polarimetry promises to give qualitatively new information bout high-energy astrophysical sources, such as binary black hole  systems, micro-quasars, active galactic nuclei, and gamma-ray bursts. We designed, built and tested ahard X-ray polarimeter, X-Calibur, to be used in the focal plane of the InFOCuS grazing incidence hard X-ray telescope.X-Calibur combines a low-Z Compton scatterer with a CZT detector assembly to measure the polarization of 20−60 keV X-rays making use of the fact that polarized photons Compton scatter preferentially perpendicular to the electric field orientation; in principal, a similar space-borne experiment could be operated in the 5−100 keV regime. X-Calibur achieves a high detection efficiency of order unity.

  19. Structure from Motion Photogrammetry and Micro X-Ray Computed Tomography 3-D Reconstruction Data Fusion for Non-Destructive Conservation Documentation of Lunar Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaulieu, K. R.; Blumenfeld, E. H.; Liddle, D. A.; Oshel, E. R.; Evans, C. A.; Zeigler, R. A.; Righter, K.; Hanna, R. D.; Ketcham, R. A.

    2017-01-01

    Our team is developing a modern, cross-disciplinary approach to documentation and preservation of astromaterials, specifically lunar and meteorite samples stored at the Johnson Space Center (JSC) Lunar Sample Laboratory Facility. Apollo Lunar Sample 60639, collected as part of rake sample 60610 during the 3rd Extra-Vehicular Activity of the Apollo 16 mission in 1972, served as the first NASA-preserved lunar sample to be examined by our team in the development of a novel approach to internal and external sample visualization. Apollo Sample 60639 is classified as a breccia with a glass-coated side and pristine mare basalt and anorthosite clasts. The aim was to accurately register a 3-dimensional Micro X-Ray Computed Tomography (XCT)-derived internal composition data set and a Structure-From-Motion (SFM) Photogrammetry-derived high-fidelity, textured external polygonal model of Apollo Sample 60639. The developed process provided the means for accurate, comprehensive, non-destructive visualization of NASA's heritage lunar samples. The data products, to be ultimately served via an end-user web interface, will allow researchers and the public to interact with the unique heritage samples, providing a platform to "slice through" a photo-realistic rendering of a sample to analyze both its external visual and internal composition simultaneously.

  20. SEDIMENTARY FEATURES OF TSUNAMI BACKWASH DEPOSITS AS ASSESSED BY MICRO-BEAM SYNCHROTRON X-RAY FLUORESCENCE (μ-SXRF AT THE SIAM PHOTON LABORATORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siwatt Pongpiachan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past few years, several attempts have been performed to find alternative “chemical proxies” in order to discriminate “tsunami backwash deposits” from “typical marine sediments”. A wide range of statistical tools has been selected in order to investigate the sediments and/or terrestrial soils transportation mechanism during the tsunami inundation period by using several types of chemical tracers. To relate the physical and chemical characteristics of Typical Marine Sediments (TMS,Tsunami Backwash Deposits (TBD, Onshore Tsunami Deposits (OTD and Coastal Zone Soils (CZS with their synchrotron radiation based micro-X-ray Fluorescence (μ-SXRF spectra, the μ- SXRF spectra were built in the appropriate selected spectra range from 3,000 eV to 8,000 eV. Further challenges were considered by using the first-order derivative μ-SXRF spectra coupled with Probability Distribution Function (PDF, Hierarchical Cluster Analysis (HCA and Principal Component Analysis (PCA in order to investigate the elemental distribution characteristics in various types of terrestrial soils and marine sediments. Dendrographic classifications and multi-dimensional plots of principal components (i.e. bi-polar and three dimensional plots could indicate the impacts of terrestrial soils and/or marine sediments transport on onshore and/or offshore during the tsunami inundation period. Obviously, these advanced statistical analyses are quite useful and provide valuable information and thus shed new light on the study of paleotsunami.

  1. Characterisation of strip silicon detectors for the ATLAS Phase-II Upgrade with a micro-focused X-ray beam

    CERN Document Server

    INSPIRE-00407830; Blue, Andrew; Bates, Richard; Bloch, Ingo; Diez, Sergio; Fernandez-Tejero, Javier; Fleta, Celeste; Gallop, Bruce; Greenall, Ashley; Gregor, Ingrid-Maria; Hara, Kazuhiko; Ikegami, Yoichi; Lacasta, Carlos; Lohwasser, Kristin; Maneuski, Dzmitry; Nagorski, Sebastian; Pape, Ian; Phillips, Peter W.; Sperlich, Dennis; Sawhney, Kawal; Soldevila, Urmila; Ullan, Miguel; Unno, Yoshinobu; Warren, Matt

    2016-07-29

    The planned HL-LHC (High Luminosity LHC) in 2025 is being designed to maximise the physics potential through a sizable increase in the luminosity, totalling 1x10^35 cm^-2 s^-1 after 10 years of operation. A consequence of this increased luminosity is the expected radiation damage at 3000 fb^-1, requiring the tracking detectors to withstand hadron equivalences to over 1x10^16 1 MeV neutrons per cm^2. With the addition of increased readout rates, a complete re-design of the current ATLAS Inner Detector (ID) is being developed as the Inner Tracker (ITk). Two proposed detectors for the ATLAS strip tracker region of the ITk were characterized at the Diamond Light Source with a 3 micron FWHM 15 keV micro focused X-ray beam. The devices under test were a 320 micron thick silicon stereo (Barrel) ATLAS12 strip mini sensor wire bonded to a 130 nm CMOS binary readout chip (ABC130) and a 320 micron thick full size radial (Endcap) strip sensor - utilizing bi-metal readout layers - wire bonded to 250 nm CMOS binary readout...

  2. Evaluation of micro-energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence and histochemical tests for aluminium detection in plants from High Altitude Rocky Complexes, Southeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NAIARA V. CAMPOS

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The soils developed under High Altitude Rocky Complexes in Brazil are generally of very low chemical fertility, with low base saturation and high exchangeable aluminium concentration. This stressful condition imposes evolutionary pressures that lead to ecological success of plant species that are able to tolerate or accumulate high amounts of aluminium. Several analytical methods are currently available for elemental mapping of biological structures, such as micro-X-ray fluorescence (μ-EDX and histochemical tests. The aim of this study was to combine μ-EDX analysis and histochemical tests to quantify aluminium in plants from High Altitude Rocky Complexes, identifying the main sites for Al-accumulation. Among the studied species, five showed total Al concentration higher than 1000 mg kg−1. The main Al-hyperaccumulator plants, Lavoisiera pectinata, Lycopodium clavatum and Trembleya parviflora presented positive reactions in the histochemical tests using Chrome Azurol and Aluminon. Strong positive correlations were observed between the total Al concentrations and data obtained by μ-EDX analysis. The μ-EDX analysis is a potential tool to map and quantify Al in hyperaccumulator species, and a valuable technique due to its non-destructive capacity. Histochemical tests can be helpful to indicate the accumulation pattern of samples before they are submitted for further μ-EDX scrutiny.

  3. Particle coagulation in molten metal based on three-dimensional analysis of cluster by x-ray micro-computer tomography (CT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Tao; Shimasaki, Shin-ichi; Taniguchi, Shoji; Narita, Shunsuke; Uesugi, Kentaro

    2013-01-01

    Particle coagulation plays a key role in steel refining process to remove inclusions. Many research works focus on the behaviors of particle coagulation. To reveal its mechanism water model experiments have been performed by some researchers including the authors' group. In this paper, experiments of particle coagulation were carried out with molten Al including SiC particles in a mechanically agitated crucible with two baffles. Particle coagulation and formation of clusters were observed on the microscopy images of as-polished samples. Three-dimensional (3D) analysis of the clusters in solidified Al was implemented by X-ray micro CT available at SPring-8. The methods to distinguish clusters on two-dimensional (2D) cross-sectional images were discussed, which were established in the previous works by the present authors' group. The characteristics of the 3D SiC clusters and their 2D cross-sections were analyzed. The statistical ranges of the parameters for 2D clusters were used as criterions to distinguish the clusters on 2D microscopy images from the as-polished samples. The kinetics of SiC particle coagulation was studied by the measured cluster number density and size using our program to distinguish cluster in 2D cross-sectional images according to 3D information (DC-2D-3D). The calculated and experimental results of the SiC particle coagulation in molten Al agree well with each other. (author)

  4. Evaluation of LED therapy at 945nm on bone repair by micro x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamantino, Alexandre G.; Nicolau, Renata A.; de Oliveira, Marco A.; Santo, Ana Maria E.

    2011-07-01

    Phototherapy is able to modulate cellular metabolism of bone tissue and consequently accelerate the repair. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of this therapy in repair of bone monocortical defects in femurs of thirty male Wistar rats. The animals were divided into six groups (five animals for group), including three controls and three irradiated groups with different experimental times (14, 21, and 28 days after surgery). LED was used for the irradiation, emitting non-coherent light in the spectral range of 945+/-20 nm and output power of 48 mW, on one point of irradiation for four minutes. Seven treatment sessions were performed with 48 hours between sessions. For analysis on the bone repair, qualitative and quantitative assessments of Ca and P contents were done by micro x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (μXRF) and the morphological structure was carried out using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The results showed the efficiency of infrared LED therapy, because the amount of mineral components analyzed by μXRF and the morphological features of cortical and trabecular bones, demonstrated by the SEM images, showed enhanced bone repair in the irradiated groups when compared to their corresponding control groups at all stages.

  5. Evaluation of micro-energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence and histochemical tests for aluminium detection in plants from High Altitude Rocky Complexes, Southeast Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Naiara V; Pereira, Tiago A R; Machado, Mariana F; Guerra, Marcelo B B; Tolentino, Gláucia S; Araújo, Josiane S; Rezende, Maíra Q; Silva, Maria Carolina N A da; Schaefer, Carlos E G R

    2014-03-01

    The soils developed under High Altitude Rocky Complexes in Brazil are generally of very low chemical fertility, with low base saturation and high exchangeable aluminium concentration. This stressful condition imposes evolutionary pressures that lead to ecological success of plant species that are able to tolerate or accumulate high amounts of aluminium. Several analytical methods are currently available for elemental mapping of biological structures, such as micro-X-ray fluorescence (μ-EDX) and histochemical tests. The aim of this study was to combine μ-EDX analysis and histochemical tests to quantify aluminium in plants from High Altitude Rocky Complexes, identifying the main sites for Al-accumulation. Among the studied species, five showed total Al concentration higher than 1000 mg kg-1. The main Al-hyperaccumulator plants, Lavoisiera pectinata, Lycopodium clavatum and Trembleya parviflora presented positive reactions in the histochemical tests using Chrome Azurol and Aluminon. Strong positive correlations were observed between the total Al concentrations and data obtained by μ-EDX analysis. The μ-EDX analysis is a potential tool to map and quantify Al in hyperaccumulator species, and a valuable technique due to its non-destructive capacity. Histochemical tests can be helpful to indicate the accumulation pattern of samples before they are submitted for further μ-EDX scrutiny.

  6. A Bone Sample Containing a Bone Graft Substitute Analyzed by Correlating Density Information Obtained by X-ray Micro Tomography with Compositional Information Obtained by Raman Microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johann Charwat-Pessler

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The ability of bone graft substitutes to promote new bone formation has been increasingly used in the medical field to repair skeletal defects or to replace missing bone in a broad range of applications in dentistry and orthopedics. A common way to assess such materials is via micro computed tomography (µ-CT, through the density information content provided by the absorption of X-rays. Information on the chemical composition of a material can be obtained via Raman spectroscopy. By investigating a bone sample from miniature pigs containing the bone graft substitute Bio Oss®, we pursued the target of assessing to what extent the density information gained by µ-CT imaging matches the chemical information content provided by Raman spectroscopic imaging. Raman images and Raman correlation maps of the investigated sample were used in order to generate a Raman based segmented image by means of an agglomerative, hierarchical cluster analysis. The resulting segments, showing chemically related areas, were subsequently compared with the µ-CT image by means of a one-way ANOVA. We found out that to a certain extent typical gray-level values (and the related histograms in the µ-CT image can be reliably related to specific segments within the image resulting from the cluster analysis.

  7. Fundamental efficiency of limited cone-beam X-ray CT (3DX Multi image micro CT) for practical use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arai, Yoshinori; Hashimoto, Koji; Iwai, Kazuo; Shinoda, Koji [Nihon Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Dentistry

    2000-06-01

    The limited cone-beam CT known as Ortho-CT has been used in clinical examination since 1997. On the basis of this experience, we developed a new style of limited cone-beam CT for practical use, called ''3DX Multi image micro CT'' (3DX). The purpose of this study was to introduce this new style of limited cone-beam X-CT by comparing it to the prototype (Ortho-CT). 3DX was compared with Ortho-CT regarding the fundamental efficiency. The skin doses of 3DX and Ortho-CT were measured using TLD on a Rando phantom. The resolutions of both systems were evaluated with MTF (modulation transfer function). The subjective image quality was evaluated on the following anatomical landmarks: the inner ear, temporomandibular joint (TMJ), maxillary first molar, mandibular first molar. Five dental radiologists and two otolaryngologists evaluated the quality of 3DX images comparing then with that of Ortho-CT images for the same observation point. The five-point scale ranged from one point (inferior) to five (superior). The skin doses were 1.07 mSv with 3DX and 1.19 mSv with Ortho-CT. The skin dose of ''3DX'' was almost the same as that of Ortho-CT. The resolutions of Ortho-CT were 0.6 line pair/mm (horizontal) and 0.9 line pair/mm (vertical) on the MTF (0.5). The resolution of 3DX was 1.1 line pair/mm (horizontal) and 1.3 line pair/mm (vertical). The subjective image quality of 3DX was better than that of Ortho-CT at every observation point. The minimum score was 3.46, and maximum score was 4.17. There were significant differences with every observation point (p<0.05). On the basis of the clinical experience of Ortho-CT, a new style of limited cone-beam X-CT called ''3DX'' was developed by us for practical use. The skin dose is almost the same as in the prototype system. The images show very high resolution compared to those of the prototype system. We think that this system is very useful for diagnosis of hard tissue for

  8. Chest X-Ray

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    Full Text Available ... Radiology and You Take our survey Sponsored by Image/Video Gallery Your Radiologist Explains Chest X-ray ... posted: How to Obtain and Share Your Medical Images Movement Disorders Video: The Basketball Game: An MRI ...

  9. X-ray tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, R.W.

    1979-01-01

    A form of x-ray tube is described which provides satisfactory focussing of the electron beam when the beam extends for several feet from gun to target. Such a tube can be used for computerised tomographic scanning. (UK)

  10. Chest X-Ray

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    Full Text Available ... Site Index A-Z Spotlight February is American Heart Month Recently posted: Carotid Intima-Media Thickness Test ... x-ray is used to evaluate the lungs, heart and chest wall and may be used to ...

  11. Chest X-Ray

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    Full Text Available ... Abdominal Ultrasound Video: Pelvic Ultrasound Medical Imaging Costs Radiology and You Take our survey Sponsored by Image/ ... Radiologist Explains Chest X-ray Transcript Welcome to Radiology Info dot org! Hello, I’m Dr. Geoffrey ...

  12. Chest X-Ray

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  13. Chest X-Ray

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  14. Chest X-Ray

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    Full Text Available ... and You Take our survey Sponsored by Image/Video Gallery Your Radiologist Explains Chest X-ray Transcript ... Carotid Intima-Media Thickness Test Medical Imaging Costs Video: Abdominal Ultrasound Video: Pelvic Ultrasound Radiology and You ...

  15. Chest X-Ray

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    Full Text Available ... However, it’s important to consider the likelihood of benefit to your health. While a chest x-ray use a tiny dose of ionizing radiation, the benefit of an accurate diagnosis far outweighs any risk. ...

  16. Chest X-Ray

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    Full Text Available ... chest x-ray is used to evaluate the lungs, heart and chest wall and may be used ... diagnose and monitor treatment for a variety of lung conditions such as pneumonia, emphysema and cancer. A ...

  17. Chest X-Ray

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    Full Text Available ... and use a very small dose of ionizing radiation to produce pictures of the inside of the ... x-ray use a tiny dose of ionizing radiation, the benefit of an accurate diagnosis far outweighs ...

  18. Chest X-Ray

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    Full Text Available ... Index A-Z Spotlight March is National Colorectal Cancer Awareness Month Recently posted: Carotid Intima-Media Thickness ... of lung conditions such as pneumonia, emphysema and cancer. A chest x-ray requires no special preparation. ...

  19. Chest X-Ray

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    Full Text Available ... Index A-Z Spotlight March is National Colorectal Cancer Awareness Month Recently posted: How to Obtain and ... of lung conditions such as pneumonia, emphysema and cancer. A chest x-ray requires no special preparation. ...

  20. Chest X-Ray

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    Full Text Available ... Index A-Z Spotlight March is National Colorectal Cancer Awareness Month Recently posted: Video: The Basketball Game: ... of lung conditions such as pneumonia, emphysema and cancer. A chest x-ray requires no special preparation. ...

  1. X-Ray Lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eder, David C.

    1998-05-01

    We provide an overview of the status of x-ray laser development worldwide with particular attention given to activities at LLNL. Since the demonstration of x-ray lasing 14 years ago there has been major progress in achieving shorter wavelengths, higher energies per pulse, higher efficiency, shorter pulse durations, etc. Original x-ray lasers used large kJ class lasers to achieve lasing in mid-Z materials with electron collisional pumping in the highly stripped ion being the most successful process for populating the upper-laser state. The two most common electron configurations for these collisional x-ray lasers are Ne-like and Ni-like ions. Through the use of prepulses and short picosecond driving pulses, transient collisional x-ray lasing schemes have been demonstrated using lasers with only a few Joules per pulse. An interesting aspect of these lasers is the time lag in reaching ionization equilibrium helps in obtaining high gain coefficients. A different approach to x-ray lasing is also being studied where lasing occurs in a singly ionized ion following innershell photoionization. The major requirement of the driving laser in this case is an ultrashort pulse duration (rise time to achieve lasing prior to collisional ionization of outershell electrons. In the area of applications, most of the work has been for single pulse experiments such as plasma and biological imaging. However, many of the new x-ray lasers achieve high average power by having a reasonable repetition rate of order 10 Hz and we briefly discuss relevant applications for these x-ray lasers. This work performed under the auspices of US DOE by LLNL under Contract No. W-7405-Eng-48.

  2. X-Ray Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    samples. Another exciting application of microbeam of x-rays is in that of high pressure x-ray diffraction from small samples. Along this line, Yan...will be presented by Jonathan in February at the Physics and Chemistry of Semiconductor Interfaces conference and in March at the American Physical...VUV9 conference this summer. Jeff has also worked on developing software that makes use of the scattering factor tables for both microvax and IBM PC

  3. Pore formation during dehydration of a polycrystalline gypsum sample observed and quantified in a time-series synchrotron X-ray micro-tomography experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusseis, F.; Schrank, C.; Liu, J.; Karrech, A.; Llana-Fúnez, S.; Xiao, X.; Regenauer-Lieb, K.

    2012-03-01

    We conducted an in-situ X-ray micro-computed tomography heating experiment at the Advanced Photon Source (USA) to dehydrate an unconfined 2.3 mm diameter cylinder of Volterra Gypsum. We used a purpose-built X-ray transparent furnace to heat the sample to 388 K for a total of 310 min to acquire a three-dimensional time-series tomography dataset comprising nine time steps. The voxel size of 2.2 μm3 proved sufficient to pinpoint reaction initiation and the organization of drainage architecture in space and time. We observed that dehydration commences across a narrow front, which propagates from the margins to the centre of the sample in more than four hours. The advance of this front can be fitted with a square-root function, implying that the initiation of the reaction in the sample can be described as a diffusion process. Novel parallelized computer codes allow quantifying the geometry of the porosity and the drainage architecture from the very large tomographic datasets (20483 voxels) in unprecedented detail. We determined position, volume, shape and orientation of each resolvable pore and tracked these properties over the duration of the experiment. We found that the pore-size distribution follows a power law. Pores tend to be anisotropic but rarely crack-shaped and have a preferred orientation, likely controlled by a pre-existing fabric in the sample. With on-going dehydration, pores coalesce into a single interconnected pore cluster that is connected to the surface of the sample cylinder and provides an effective drainage pathway. Our observations can be summarized in a model in which gypsum is stabilized by thermal expansion stresses and locally increased pore fluid pressures until the dehydration front approaches to within about 100 μm. Then, the internal stresses are released and dehydration happens efficiently, resulting in new pore space. Pressure release, the production of pores and the advance of the front are coupled in a feedback loop.

  4. Pore formation during dehydration of polycrystalline gypsum observed and quantified in a time-series synchrotron radiation based X-ray micro-tomography experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusseis, F.; Schrank, C.; Liu, J.; Karrech, A.; Llana-Fúnez, S.; Xiao, X.; Regenauer-Lieb, K.

    2011-10-01

    We conducted an in-situ X-ray micro-computed tomography heating experiment at the Advanced Photon Source (USA) to dehydrate an unconfined 2.3 mm diameter cylinder of Volterra Gypsum. We used a purpose-built X-ray transparent furnace to heat the sample to 388 K for a total of 310 min to acquire a three-dimensional time-series tomography dataset comprising nine time steps. The voxel size of 2.2 μm3 proved sufficient to pinpoint reaction initiation and the organization of drainage architecture in space and time. We observed that dehydration commences across a narrow front, which propagates from the margins to the centre of the sample in more than four hours. The advance of this front can be fitted with a square-root function, implying that the initiation of the reaction in the sample can be described as a diffusion process. Novel parallelized computer codes allow quantifying the geometry of the porosity and the drainage architecture from the very large tomographic datasets (6.4 × 109 voxel each) in unprecedented detail. We determined position, volume, shape and orientation of each resolvable pore and tracked these properties over the duration of the experiment. We found that the pore-size distribution follows a power law. Pores tend to be anisotropic but rarely crack-shaped and have a preferred orientation, likely controlled by a pre-existing fabric in the sample. With on-going dehydration, pores coalesce into a single interconnected pore cluster that is connected to the surface of the sample cylinder and provides an effective drainage pathway. Our observations can be summarized in a model in which gypsum is stabilized by thermal expansion stresses and locally increased pore fluid pressures until the dehydration front approaches to within about 100 μm. Then, the internal stresses are released and dehydration happens efficiently, resulting in new pore space. Pressure release, the production of pores and the advance of the front are coupled in a feedback loop. We

  5. Pore formation during dehydration of a polycrystalline gypsum sample observed and quantified in a time-series synchrotron X-ray micro-tomography experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Fusseis

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available We conducted an in-situ X-ray micro-computed tomography heating experiment at the Advanced Photon Source (USA to dehydrate an unconfined 2.3 mm diameter cylinder of Volterra Gypsum. We used a purpose-built X-ray transparent furnace to heat the sample to 388 K for a total of 310 min to acquire a three-dimensional time-series tomography dataset comprising nine time steps. The voxel size of 2.2 μm3 proved sufficient to pinpoint reaction initiation and the organization of drainage architecture in space and time.

    We observed that dehydration commences across a narrow front, which propagates from the margins to the centre of the sample in more than four hours. The advance of this front can be fitted with a square-root function, implying that the initiation of the reaction in the sample can be described as a diffusion process.

    Novel parallelized computer codes allow quantifying the geometry of the porosity and the drainage architecture from the very large tomographic datasets (20483 voxels in unprecedented detail. We determined position, volume, shape and orientation of each resolvable pore and tracked these properties over the duration of the experiment. We found that the pore-size distribution follows a power law. Pores tend to be anisotropic but rarely crack-shaped and have a preferred orientation, likely controlled by a pre-existing fabric in the sample. With on-going dehydration, pores coalesce into a single interconnected pore cluster that is connected to the surface of the sample cylinder and provides an effective drainage pathway.

    Our observations can be summarized in a model in which gypsum is stabilized by thermal expansion stresses and locally increased pore fluid pressures until the dehydration front approaches to within about 100 μm. Then, the internal stresses are released and dehydration happens efficiently, resulting in new pore space. Pressure release, the production of pores and the

  6. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... drawer under the table holds the x-ray film or image recording plate . Sometimes the x-ray ... extended over the patient while an x-ray film holder or image recording plate is placed beneath ...

  7. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of knee x-rays. A portable x-ray machine is a compact apparatus that can be taken ... of the body being examined, an x-ray machine produces a small burst of radiation that passes ...

  8. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... are the limitations of Bone X-ray (Radiography)? What is Bone X-ray (Radiography)? An x-ray ( ... leg (shin), ankle or foot. top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? A ...

  9. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... holds the x-ray film or image recording plate . Sometimes the x-ray is taken with the ... an x-ray film holder or image recording plate is placed beneath the patient. top of page ...

  10. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... standards used by radiology professionals. Modern x-ray systems have very controlled x-ray beams and dose ... Medicine Radiation Safety How to Read Your Radiology Report Images related to X-ray (Radiography) - Bone Sponsored ...

  11. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... that might interfere with the x-ray images. Women should always inform their physician and x-ray ... Safety page for more information about radiation dose. Women should always inform their physician or x-ray ...

  12. Mechanical behaviour and rupture in clayey rocks studied by x-ray micro tomography; Comportement mecanique et rupture dans les roches argileuses etudies par micro tomographie a rayons X

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lenoir, N

    2006-03-15

    Within the framework of feasibility studies of underground repositories for radioactive waste, the study of permeability evolution with damage of the host layer is crucial. The goals of this work were: (i) to characterize experimentally the damage of two clayey rocks (BEAUCAIRE MARL and EAST SHALE) with x-ray micro tomography, (ii) to develop a high pressure triaxial set-up adapted to permeability measurement on very low permeability rocks.A number of original triaxial devices have been realised to characterize damage of clayey rocks, under deviatoric loading, with x-ray micro tomography on a synchrotron beamline at the ESRF (Grenoble). Localized damage and its evolution have been characterized at a fine scale (of order of ten microns). Digital image correlation techniques, extended to 3d images, have been used to measure incremental strain fields from tomographic images. we demonstrated that these techniques are very useful in the study of the localized damage of geo-materials and especially for the initiation. A high pressure triaxial device has been realised to measure permeability evolution of the east shale as a function of applied stress (isotropic and deviatoric). The particularity of this set-up is the small size of the test specimen (cylinder of 10 mm in diameter and 20 mm in height) which allows significant reduction of test duration. (author)

  13. Theoretical concepts of X-ray nanoscale analysis theory and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Benediktovitch, Andrei; Ulyanenkov, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    This book provides a concise survey of modern theoretical concepts of X-ray materials analysis. The principle features of the book are: basics of X-ray scattering, interaction between X-rays and matter and new theoretical concepts of X-ray scattering. The various X-ray techniques are considered in detail: high-resolution X-ray diffraction, X-ray reflectivity, grazing-incidence small-angle X-ray scattering and X-ray residual stress analysis. All the theoretical methods presented use the unified physical approach. This makes the book especially useful for readers learning and performing data ana

  14. Uniformity of the soft-x-ray emissions from gold foils irradiated by OMEGA laser beams determined by a two-mirror normal-incidence microscope with multilayer coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seely, John F.; Boehly, Thomas; Pien, Gregory; Bradley, David

    1998-01-01

    A two-mirror normal-incidence microscope with multilayer coatings was used to image the soft-x-ray emissions from planar foils irradiated by OMEGA laser beams. The bandpass of the multilayer coatings was centered at a wavelength of 48.3 Angstrom (257-eV energy) and was 0.5 Angstrom wide. Five overlapping OMEGA beams, without beam smoothing, were typically incident on the gold foils. The total energy was 1500 J, and the focused intensity was 6x10 13 Wcm -2 . The 5.8x magnified images were recorded by a gated framing camera at various times during the 3-ns laser pulse. A pinhole camera imaged the x-ray emission in the energy range of >2 keV. On a spatial scale of 10 μm, it was found that the soft-x-ray images at 257 eV were quite uniform and featureless. In contrast, the hard-x-ray images in the energy range of >2 kev were highly nonuniform with numerous features of size 150 μm. copyright 1998 Optical Society of America

  15. Neutron and X-ray diffraction measurements on micro- and nano-sized precipitates embedded in a Ni-based superalloy and after their extraction from the alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilles, R.; Mukherji, D.; Hoelzel, M.; Strunz, P.; Toebbens, D.M.; Barbier, B.

    2006-01-01

    Neutron and X-ray diffraction are eminently suitable techniques to determine lattice misfit in nickel-based superalloys. Due to the different measuring techniques and sensitivities of the probes, sometimes one method is preferable to the other. This paper demonstrates how the use of neutrons allows a better determination of the misfit value in a bulk single-crystal tungsten-rich nickel superalloy with oriented precipitates than the use of X-rays, although the resolution in neutron diffraction is generally inferior to that in X-ray diffraction. It also yields more accurate results when the precipitates are at the nanoscale. The neutron measurements were carried out using a special technique to detect a larger number of reflections in single-crystal samples than observed in standard diffraction geometry. A comparison of the measurements by neutron and X-ray diffraction of precipitates separated from the bulk is also included in the investigation

  16. Constellation-X to Generation-X: evolution of large collecting area moderate resolution grazing incidence x-ray telescopes to larger area high-resolution adjustable optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Paul B.; Cameron, Robert A.; Cohen, Lester; Elvis, Martin; Gorenstein, Paul; Jerius, Diab; Petre, Robert; Podgorski, William A.; Schwartz, Daniel A.; Zhang, William W.

    2004-10-01

    Large collecting area x-ray telescopes are designed to study the early Universe, trace the evolution of black holes, stars and galaxies, study the chemical evolution of the Universe, and study matter in extreme environments. The Constellation-X mission (Con-X), planned for launch in 2016, will provide ~ 10^4 cm^2 collecting area with 15 arc-sec resolution, with a goal of 5 arc-sec. Future missions require larger collecting area and finer resolution. Generation-X (Gen-X), a NASA Visions Mission, will achieve 100 m^2 effective area at 1 keV and angular resolution of 0.1 arc-sec, half power diameter. We briefly describe the Con-X flowdown of imaging requirements to reflector figure error. To meet requirements beyond Con-X, Gen-X optics will be thinner and more accurately shaped than has ever been accomplished. To meet these challenging goals, we incorporate for the first time active figure control with grazing incidence optics. Piezoelectric material will be deposited in discrete cells directly on the back surface of the optical segments, with the strain directions oriented parallel to the surface. Differential strain between the two layers of the mirror causes localized bending in two directions, enabling local figure control. Adjusting figure on-orbit eases fabrication and metrology. The ability to make changes to mirror figure adds margin by mitigating risk due to launch-induced deformations and/or on-orbit degradation. We flowdown the Gen-X requirements to mirror figure and four telescope designs, and discuss various trades between the designs.

  17. X-Ray Absorption with Transmission X-Ray Microscopes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, F.M.F.

    2016-01-01

    In this section we focus on the use of transmission X-ray microscopy (TXM) to measure the XAS spectra. In the last decade a range of soft X-ray and hard X-ray TXM microscopes have been developed, allowing the measurement of XAS spectra with 10–100 nm resolution. In the hard X-ray range the TXM

  18. X-ray micro-CT and neutron CT as complementary imaging tools for non-destructive 3D imaging of rare silicified fossil plants

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Karch, J.; Dudák, J.; Žemlička, J.; Vavřík, Daniel; Kumpová, Ivana; Kvaček, J.; Heřmanová, Z.; Šoltés, J.; Viererbl, L.; Morgano, M.; Kaestner, A.; Trtík, P.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 12, December (2017), č. článku C12004. ISSN 1748-0221 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1219 Keywords : inspection with neutrons * X-ray detectors * X ray radiography Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy OBOR OECD: Paleontology Impact factor: 1.220, year: 2016 http://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1748-0221/12/12/C12004/pdf

  19. Particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Keizo

    2003-01-01

    The principle of particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) analysis and its medical application are described. Accelerated charged particles induce X-ray emission from the irradiated target atom due to the ionization of its inner orbital electron. Elemental analyses can be done by the characteristic X-rays, which differing from element to element. Particles such as protons are accelerated usually by the cyclotron or Van de Graaff accelerator. Emitted X-rays are measured by Si(Li) semiconductor detector which gives X-ray spectra of the target element atoms. PIXE analysis, highly sensitive to heavy elements, metals, P, S, K and Cl, is used for characterization of blood for aging and diseases and of rat tissues under normal and cancerous conditions. Micro-PIXE camera is a recent fruit, which gives the image of the distribution of intracellular elements by scanning with <1 μm particle beam. The micro-beam is produced by the static electric type accelerator, micro-slit system and quadrupolar magnets. Examples of the image of bovine endothelial cells (K, S, P and Br) and of Br kinetics given as Br-deoxyuridine are presented. The molecular imaging will be further developed from micro- to nano-PIXE. (N.I.)

  20. A comparison of laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, micro X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, and laser induced breakdown spectroscopy for the discrimination of automotive glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naes, Benjamin E.; Umpierrez, Sayuri; Ryland, Scott; Barnett, Cleon; Almirall, Jose R.

    2008-01-01

    Laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS), micro X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (μXRF), and laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) are compared in terms of discrimination power for a glass sample set consisting of 41 fragments. Excellent discrimination results (> 99% discrimination) were obtained for each of the methods. In addition, all three analytical methods produced very similar discrimination results in terms of the number of pairs found to be indistinguishable. The small number of indistinguishable pairs that were identified all originated from the same vehicle. The results also show a strong correlation between the data generated from the use of μXRF and LA-ICP-MS, when comparing μXRF strontium intensities to LA-ICP-MS strontium concentrations. A 266 nm laser was utilized for all LIBS analyses, which provided excellent precision (< 10% RSD for all elements and < 10% RSD for all ratios, N = 5). The paper also presents a thorough data analysis review for forensic glass examinations by LIBS and suggests several element ratios that provide accurate discrimination results related to the LIBS system used for this study. Different combinations of 10 ratios were used for discrimination, all of which assisted with eliminating Type I errors (false exclusions) and reducing Type II errors (false inclusions). The results demonstrate that the LIBS experimental setup described, when combined with a comprehensive data analysis protocol, provides comparable discrimination when compared to LA-ICP-MS and μXRF for the application of forensic glass examinations. Given the many advantages that LIBS offers, most notably reduced complexity and reduced cost of the instrumentation, LIBS is a viable alternative to LA-ICP-MS and μXRF for use in the forensic laboratory

  1. Characterisation of silicon microstrip detectors for the ATLAS Phase-II Upgrade with a micro-focused X-ray beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poley, Luise [DESY, Hamburg (Germany); Blue, Andrew; Bates, Richard [Glasgow Univ. (United Kingdom). SUPA School of Physics and Astronomy; and others

    2016-03-15

    The planned HL-LHC (High Luminosity LHC) in 2025 is being designed to maximise the physics potential through a sizable increase in the luminosity, totalling 1 x 10{sup 35} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1} after 10 years of operation. A consequence of this increased luminosity is the expected radiation damage at 3000 fb{sup -1}, requiring the tracking detectors to withstand hadron equivalences to over 1 x 10{sup 16} 1 MeV neutrons per cm{sup 2}. With the addition of increased readout rates, a complete re-design of the current ATLAS Inner Detector (ID) is being developed as the Inner Tracker (ITk). Two proposed detectors for the ATLAS strip tracker region of the ITk were characterized at the Diamond Light Source with a 3 μm FWHM 15 keV micro focused X-ray beam. The devices under test were a 320 μm thick silicon stereo (Barrel) ATLAS12 strip mini sensor wire bonded to a 130 nm CMOS binary readout chip (ABC130) and a 320 μm thick full size radial (Endcap) strip sensor - utilizing bi-metal readout layers - wire bonded to 250 nm CMOS binary readout chips (ABCN-25). Sub-strip resolution of the 74.5 μm strips was achieved for both detectors. Investigation of the p-stop diffusion layers between strips is shown in detail for the wire bond pad regions. Inter strip charge collection measurements indicate that the effective width of the strip on the silicon sensors is determined by p-stops regions between the strips rather than the strip pitch. The collected signal allowed for the identification of operating thresholds for both devices, making it possible to compare signal response between different versions of silicon strip detector modules.

  2. Characterisation of strip silicon detectors for the ATLAS Phase-II Upgrade with a micro-focused X-ray beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poley, L.; Blue, A.; Bates, R.; Bloch, I.; Díez, S.; Fernandez-Tejero, J.; Fleta, C.; Gallop, B.; Greenall, A.; Gregor, I.-M.; Hara, K.; Ikegami, Y.; Lacasta, C.; Lohwasser, K.; Maneuski, D.; Nagorski, S.; Pape, I.; Phillips, P. W.; Sperlich, D.; Sawhney, K.; Soldevila, U.; Ullan, M.; Unno, Y.; Warren, M.

    2016-07-01

    The planned HL-LHC (High Luminosity LHC) in 2025 is being designed to maximise the physics potential through a sizable increase in the luminosity up to 6·1034 cm-2s-1. A consequence of this increased luminosity is the expected radiation damage at 3000 fb-1 after ten years of operation, requiring the tracking detectors to withstand fluences to over 1·1016 1 MeV neq/cm2. In order to cope with the consequent increased readout rates, a complete re-design of the current ATLAS Inner Detector (ID) is being developed as the Inner Tracker (ITk). Two proposed detectors for the ATLAS strip tracker region of the ITk were characterized at the Diamond Light Source with a 3 μm FWHM 15 keV micro focused X-ray beam. The devices under test were a 320 μm thick silicon stereo (Barrel) ATLAS12 strip mini sensor wire bonded to a 130 nm CMOS binary readout chip (ABC130) and a 320 μm thick full size radial (end-cap) strip sensor - utilizing bi-metal readout layers - wire bonded to 250 nm CMOS binary readout chips (ABCN-25). A resolution better than the inter strip pitch of the 74.5 μm strips was achieved for both detectors. The effect of the p-stop diffusion layers between strips was investigated in detail for the wire bond pad regions. Inter strip charge collection measurements indicate that the effective width of the strip on the silicon sensors is determined by p-stop regions between the strips rather than the strip pitch.

  3. Quantifying the impact of soil compaction on root system architecture in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) by X-ray micro-computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracy, Saoirse R; Black, Colin R; Roberts, Jeremy A; Sturrock, Craig; Mairhofer, Stefan; Craigon, Jim; Mooney, Sacha J

    2012-07-01

    We sought to explore the interactions between roots and soil without disturbance and in four dimensions (i.e. 3-D plus time) using X-ray micro-computed tomography. The roots of tomato Solanum lycopersicum 'Ailsa Craig' plants were visualized in undisturbed soil columns for 10 consecutive days to measure the effect of soil compaction on selected root traits including elongation rate. Treatments included bulk density (1.2 vs. 1.6 g cm(-3)) and soil type (loamy sand vs. clay loam). Plants grown at the higher soil bulk density exploited smaller soil volumes (P < 0.05) and exhibited reductions in root surface area (P < 0.001), total root volume (P < 0.001) and total root length (P < 0.05), but had a greater mean root diameter (P < 0.05) than at low soil bulk density. Swelling of the root tip area was observed in compacted soil (P < 0.05) and the tortuosity of the root path was also greater (P < 0.01). Root elongation rates varied greatly during the 10-d observation period (P < 0.001), increasing to a maximum at day 2 before decreasing to a minimum at day 4. The emergence of lateral roots occurred later in plants grown in compacted soil (P < 0.01). Novel rooting characteristics (convex hull volume, centroid and maximum width), measured by image analysis, were successfully employed to discriminate treatment effects. The root systems of plants grown in compacted soil had smaller convex hull volumes (P < 0.05), a higher centre of mass (P < 0.05) and a smaller maximum width than roots grown in uncompacted soil. Soil compaction adversely affects root system architecture, influencing resource capture by limiting the volume of soil explored. Lateral roots formed later in plants grown in compacted soil and total root length and surface area were reduced. Root diameter was increased and swelling of the root tip occurred in compacted soil.

  4. Characterisation of silicon microstrip detectors for the ATLAS Phase-II Upgrade with a micro-focused X-ray beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poley, Luise; Blue, Andrew; Bates, Richard

    2016-03-01

    The planned HL-LHC (High Luminosity LHC) in 2025 is being designed to maximise the physics potential through a sizable increase in the luminosity, totalling 1 x 10 35 cm -2 s -1 after 10 years of operation. A consequence of this increased luminosity is the expected radiation damage at 3000 fb -1 , requiring the tracking detectors to withstand hadron equivalences to over 1 x 10 16 1 MeV neutrons per cm 2 . With the addition of increased readout rates, a complete re-design of the current ATLAS Inner Detector (ID) is being developed as the Inner Tracker (ITk). Two proposed detectors for the ATLAS strip tracker region of the ITk were characterized at the Diamond Light Source with a 3 μm FWHM 15 keV micro focused X-ray beam. The devices under test were a 320 μm thick silicon stereo (Barrel) ATLAS12 strip mini sensor wire bonded to a 130 nm CMOS binary readout chip (ABC130) and a 320 μm thick full size radial (Endcap) strip sensor - utilizing bi-metal readout layers - wire bonded to 250 nm CMOS binary readout chips (ABCN-25). Sub-strip resolution of the 74.5 μm strips was achieved for both detectors. Investigation of the p-stop diffusion layers between strips is shown in detail for the wire bond pad regions. Inter strip charge collection measurements indicate that the effective width of the strip on the silicon sensors is determined by p-stops regions between the strips rather than the strip pitch. The collected signal allowed for the identification of operating thresholds for both devices, making it possible to compare signal response between different versions of silicon strip detector modules.

  5. X-ray astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giacconi, R.; Setti, G.

    1980-01-01

    This book contains the lectures, and the most important seminars held at the NATO meeting on X-Ray astronomy in Erice, July 1979. The meeting was an opportune forum to discuss the results of the first 8-months of operation of the X-ray satellite, HEAO-2 (Einstein Observatory) which was launched at the end of 1978. Besides surveying these results, the meeting covered extragalactic astronomy, including the relevant observations obtained in other portions of the electromagnetic spectrum (ultra-violet, optical, infrared and radio). The discussion on galactic X-ray sources essentially covered classical binaries, globular clusters and bursters and its significance to extragalactic sources and to high energy astrophysics was borne in mind. (orig.)

  6. Toward Adaptive X-Ray Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dell, Stephen L.; Atkins, Carolyn; Button, Tim W.; Cotroneo, Vincenzo; Davis, William N.; Doel, Peer; Feldman, Charlotte H.; Freeman, Mark D.; Gubarev, Mikhail V.; Kolodziejczak, Jeffrey J.; hide

    2011-01-01

    Future x-ray observatories will require high-resolution (less than 1 inch) optics with very-large-aperture (greater than 25 square meter) areas. Even with the next generation of heavy-lift launch vehicles, launch-mass constraints and aperture-area requirements will limit the surface areal density of the grazing-incidence mirrors to about 1 kilogram per square meter or less. Achieving sub-arcsecond x-ray imaging with such lightweight mirrors will require excellent mirror surfaces, precise and stable alignment, and exceptional stiffness or deformation compensation. Attaining and maintaining alignment and figure control will likely involve adaptive (in-space adjustable) x-ray optics. In contrast with infrared and visible astronomy, adaptive optics for x-ray astronomy is in its infancy. In the middle of the past decade, two efforts began to advance technologies for adaptive x-ray telescopes: The Generation-X (Gen-X) concept studies in the United States, and the Smart X-ray Optics (SXO) Basic Technology project in the United Kingdom. This paper discusses relevant technological issues and summarizes progress toward adaptive x-ray telescopes.

  7. Friction behaviour of TiAlN films around cubic/hexagonal transition: A 2D grazing incidence X-ray diffraction and electron energy loss spectroscopy study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinot, Y. [Université de Haute Alsace, Laboratoire Physique et Mécanique Textiles (EA 4365), F-68093 Mulhouse (France); Pac, M.-J., E-mail: marie-jose.pac@uha.fr [Université de Haute Alsace, Laboratoire Physique et Mécanique Textiles (EA 4365), F-68093 Mulhouse (France); Henry, P. [Université de Haute Alsace, Laboratoire Physique et Mécanique Textiles (EA 4365), F-68093 Mulhouse (France); Rousselot, C. [Université de Franche-Comté, FEMTO-ST (UMR CNRS 6174), F-25211 Montbéliard (France); Odarchenko, Ya.I.; Ivanov, D.A. [Université de Haute Alsace, Institut de Science des Matériaux de Mulhouse (UMR 7361 CNRS), F-68093 Mulhouse (France); Ulhaq-Bouillet, C.; Ersen, O. [Université de Strasbourg, Institut de Physique et Chimie des Matériaux de Strasbourg (UMR CNRS 7504), F-67087 Strasbourg (France); Tuilier, M.-H. [Université de Haute Alsace, Laboratoire Physique et Mécanique Textiles (EA 4365), F-68093 Mulhouse (France)

    2015-02-27

    The properties at different scales of Ti{sub 1−x}Al{sub x}N films deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering from TiAl sintered (S) targets produced by powder metallurgy are compared with those of a set of films previously deposited in the same conditions from mosaic targets (M) made of pure Ti and Al metals. For compositions close to the hcp/fcc transition (around x = 0.6), the friction behaviour, growth directions and organization of crystallized domains are found to be sensitive to the type of target used. The resistance to crack creation is higher for Ti{sub 0.54}Al{sub 0.46}N (S) and Ti{sub 0.38}Al{sub 0.62}N (S) than for Ti{sub 0.50}Al{sub 0.50}N (M) and Ti{sub 0.32}Al{sub 0.68}N (M). From the measurement of mechanical properties, toughness, and wear volumes and from the observation of wear tracks, it is found that films prepared from sintered targets exhibit a better wear resistance. Grazing incidence X-ray diffraction and electron energy loss spectroscopy in Transmission Electronic Microscopy are used to investigate the long- and short-range orders within the films. The morphology of Ti{sub 0.54}Al{sub 0.46}N (S) film can be considered as an array of crystalline domains having reciprocal-space vectors 111 and 200 directed along the meridian but with random in-plane orientation. Ti{sub 0.38}Al{sub 0.62}N (S) Al-rich film presents a random orientation of the crystalline domains whereas Ti{sub 0.32}Al{sub 0.68}N (M) deposited from composite targets exhibits a well-oriented fibrillar structure. The N K-edge Electron Energy Loss Near Edge Spectra are discussed with previous results of Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure Spectroscopy, which has evidenced different values of Al–N and Ti–N bond lengths, either octahedral (cubic-like) or tetrahedral (hexagonal-like) within Ti{sub 0.50}Al{sub 0.50}N (M) and Ti{sub 0.32}Al{sub 0.68}N (M) films. For similar compositions, films deposited from sintered alloys contain more nitrogen atoms in octahedral cubic

  8. X-Ray Exam: Pelvis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español X-Ray Exam: Pelvis KidsHealth / For Parents / X-Ray Exam: ... Ray Exam: Hip Broken Bones Getting an X-ray (Video) X-Ray (Video) View more Partner Message About Us ...

  9. X-Ray Exam: Forearm

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español X-Ray Exam: Forearm KidsHealth / For Parents / X-Ray Exam: ... Muscles, and Joints Broken Bones Getting an X-ray (Video) X-Ray (Video) View more Partner Message About Us ...

  10. X-Ray Exam: Foot

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español X-Ray Exam: Foot KidsHealth / For Parents / X-Ray Exam: ... Muscles, and Joints Broken Bones Getting an X-ray (Video) X-Ray (Video) View more Partner Message About Us ...

  11. X-Ray Exam: Wrist

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español X-Ray Exam: Wrist KidsHealth / For Parents / X-Ray Exam: ... Muscles, and Joints Broken Bones Getting an X-ray (Video) X-Ray (Video) View more Partner Message About Us ...

  12. Thoracic spine x-ray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vertebral radiography; X-ray - spine; Thoracic x-ray; Spine x-ray; Thoracic spine films; Back films ... There is low radiation exposure. X-rays are monitored and regulated to provide the minimum amount of radiation exposure needed to produce the image. Most ...

  13. X-Ray Exam: Finger

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español X-Ray Exam: Finger KidsHealth / For Parents / X-Ray Exam: ... Muscles, and Joints Broken Bones Getting an X-ray (Video) X-Ray (Video) View more Partner Message About Us ...

  14. Subluminous X-ray binaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Armas Padilla, M.

    2013-01-01

    The discovery of the first X-ray binary, Scorpius X-1, by Giacconi et al. (1962), marked the birth of X-ray astronomy. Following that discovery, many additional X-ray sources where found with the first generation of X-ray rockets and observatories (e.g., UHURU and Einstein). The short-timescale

  15. X-ray detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houston, J.M.; Whetten, N.R.

    1981-01-01

    An ionization chamber for use in determining the spatial distribution of x-ray photons in tomography systems comprises a plurality of substantially parallel, planar anodes separated by parallel, planar cathodes and enclosed in a gas of high atomic weight at a pressure from approximately 10 atmospheres to approximately 50 atmospheres. The cathode and anode structures comprise metals which are substantially opaque to x-ray radiation and thereby tend to reduce the resolution limiting effects of xray fluoresence in the gas. In another embodiment of the invention the anodes comprise parallel conductive bars disposed between two planar cathodes. Guard rings eliminate surface leakage currents between adjacent electrodes

  16. X-ray masks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenwood, J.C.; Satchell, D.W.

    1984-01-01

    In semiconductor manufacture, where X-ray irradiation is used, a thin silicon membrane can be used as an X-ray mask. This membrane has areas on which are patterns to define the regions to be irradiated. These regions are of antireflection material. With the thin, in the order of 3 microns, membranes used, fragility is a problem. Hence a number of ribs of silicon are formed integral with the membrane, and which are relatively thick, 5 to 10 microns. The ribs may be formed by localised deeper boron deposition followed by a selective etch. (author)

  17. Flash x-ray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, Q.; Pellinen, D.

    1976-01-01

    The complementary techniques of flash x-ray radiography (FXR) and flash x-ray diffraction (FXD) provide access to a unique domain in nondestructive materials testing. FXR is useful in studies of macroscopic properties during extremely short time intervals, and FXD, the newer technique, is used in studies of microscopic properties. Although these techniques are similar in many respects, there are some substantial differences. FXD generally requires low-voltage, line-radiation sources and extremely accurate timing; FXR is usually less demanding. Phenomena which can be profitably studied by FXR often can also be studied by FXD to permit a complete materials characterization

  18. CRL X-ray tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolchevsky, N.N.; Petrov, P.V.

    2015-01-01

    A novel types of X-ray tubes with refractive lenses are proposed. CRL-R X-ray tube consists of Compound Refractive Lens- CRL and Reflection X-ray tube. CRL acts as X-ray window. CRL-T X-ray consists of CRL and Transmission X-ray tube. CRL acts as target for electron beam. CRL refractive lens acts as filter, collimator, waveguide and focusing lens. Properties and construction of the CRL X-ray tube are discussed. (authors)

  19. CRL X-RAY TUBE

    OpenAIRE

    Kolchevsky, N. N.; Petrov, P. V.

    2015-01-01

    A novel types of X-ray tubes with refractive lenses are proposed. CRL-R X-ray tube consists of Compound Refractive Lens- CRL and Reflection X-ray tube. CRL acts as X-ray window. CRL-T X-ray consists of CRL and Transmission X-ray tube. CRL acts as target for electron beam. CRL refractive lens acts as filter, collimator, waveguide and focusing lens. Properties and construction of the CRL X-ray tube are discussed.

  20. X rays and condensed matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daillant, J.

    1997-01-01

    After a historical review of the discovery and study of X rays, the various interaction processes between X rays and matter are described: Thomson scattering, Compton scattering, X-photon absorption through photoelectric effect, and magnetic scattering. X ray sources such as the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) are described. The various X-ray applications are presented: imagery such as X tomography, X microscopy, phase contrast; X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and X-ray absorption spectroscopy; X-ray scattering and diffraction techniques

  1. A compact soft x-ray (0.1–1.2 keV) calibration bench for radiometric measurements using an original versatile Rowland circle grazing incidence monochromator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hubert, S., E-mail: sebastien.hubert@cea.fr

    2017-05-21

    This paper describes an original Rowland circle grazing incidence spectrometer used as a monochromator for a soft x-ray Manson source in order to calibrate both the source and detectors over the 0.1–1.2 keV spectral range. The originality of the instrument lies on a patented vacuum manipulator which allows the simultaneous boarding of two detectors, one (reference) for measuring the monochromatic radiation and the second to be calibrated. In order to achieve this, the vacuum manipulator is able to interchange, in vacuum, one detector with the other in front of the exit slit of the monochromatizing stage. One purpose of this apparatus was to completely eliminate the intrinsic bremsstrahlung emission of the x-ray diode source and isolate each characteristic line for quantitative detector calibrations. Obtained spectral resolution (Δλ/λ<10{sup −2}) and spectral purity (>98%) fully meet this objective. Initially dimensioned to perform calibration of bulky x-ray cameras unfolded on the Laser MégaJoule Facility, other kinds of detector can be obviously calibrated using this instrument. A brief presentation of the first calibration of an x-ray CCD through its quantum efficiency (QE) measurement is included in this paper as example. Comparison with theoretical model for QE and previous measurements at higher energy are finally presented and discussed.

  2. X-ray beam generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koller, T.J.; Randmer, J.A.

    1977-01-01

    A method of minimizing the preferential angular absorption of the divergent beam from an X-ray generator is described. The generator consists of an X-ray shielded housing with an X-ray transmissive window symmetrically placed in radial alignment with a focal spot area on a sloped target surface of an X-ray tube in the housing. The X-ray tube may be of the stationary anode type or of the rotating anode type. (U.K.)

  3. Submicron X-ray diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacDowell, Alastair; Celestre, Richard; Tamura, Nobumichi; Spolenak, Ralph; Valek, Bryan; Brown, Walter; Bravman, John; Padmore, Howard; Batterman, Boris; Patel, Jamshed

    2000-01-01

    At the Advanced Light Source in Berkeley the authors have instrumented a beam line that is devoted exclusively to x-ray micro diffraction problems. By micro diffraction they mean those classes of problems in Physics and Materials Science that require x-ray beam sizes in the sub-micron range. The instrument is for instance, capable of probing a sub-micron size volume inside micron sized aluminum metal grains buried under a silicon dioxide insulating layer. The resulting Laue pattern is collected on a large area CCD detector and automatically indexed to yield the grain orientation and deviatoric (distortional) strain tensor of this sub-micron volume. A four-crystal monochromator is then inserted into the beam, which allows monochromatic light to illuminate the same part of the sample. Measurement of diffracted photon energy allows for the determination of d spacings. The combination of white and monochromatic beam measurements allow for the determination of the total strain/stress tensor (6 components) inside each sub-micron sized illuminated volume of the sample

  4. X-ray Optics Development at MSFC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Dharma P.

    2017-01-01

    Development of high resolution focusing telescopes has led to a tremendous leap in sensitivity, revolutionizing observational X-ray astronomy. High sensitivity and high spatial resolution X-ray observations have been possible due to use of grazing incidence optics (paraboloid/hyperboloid) coupled with high spatial resolution and high efficiency detectors/imagers. The best X-ray telescope flown so far is mounted onboard Chandra observatory launched on July 23,1999. The telescope has a spatial resolution of 0.5 arc seconds with compatible imaging instruments in the energy range of 0.1 to 10 keV. The Chandra observatory has been responsible for a large number of discoveries and has provided X-ray insights on a large number of celestial objects including stars, supernova remnants, pulsars, magnetars, black holes, active galactic nuclei, galaxies, clusters and our own solar system.

  5. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us ... to consider the likelihood of benefit to your health. While a chest x-ray use a tiny ...

  6. Fabrication techniques of X-ray spiral zone plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Nan; Zhu Xiaoli; Li Hailiang; Xie Changqing

    2010-01-01

    The techniques to make X-ray spiral zone plates using electron beam and X-ray lithography were studied. A master mask was fabricated on polyimide membrane by E-beam lithography and micro-electroplating. Spiral zone plates were efficiently replicated by X-ray lithography and micro-electroplating. By combining the techniques, spiral zone plates at 1 keV were successfully fabricate. With an outermost zone width of the 200 nm, and the gold absorbers thickness of 700 nm, the high quality zone plates can be used for X-ray phase contrast microscopy.(authors)

  7. Bone diagnosis by X-ray techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, I. [Nuclear Engineering Program/COPPE/UFRJ, P.O. Box 68509, Av. Horacio Macedo, 2030, Sala I-133, Cidade Universitaria, Zip Code: 21941-972 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], E-mail: inaya@lin.ufrj.br; Anjos, M.J. [Nuclear Engineering Program/COPPE/UFRJ, P.O. Box 68509, Av. Horacio Macedo, 2030, Sala I-133, Cidade Universitaria, Zip Code: 21941-972 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Physics Institute, UERJ (Brazil); Farias, M.L.F. [University Hospital, UFRJ (Brazil); Parcegoni, N.; Rosenthal, D. [Biophysics Institute, UFRJ (Brazil); Duarte, M.E.L. [Histologic and Embriology Department, UFRJ (Brazil); Lopes, R.T. [Nuclear Engineering Program/COPPE/UFRJ, P.O. Box 68509, Av. Horacio Macedo, 2030, Sala I-133, Cidade Universitaria, Zip Code: 21941-972 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-12-15

    In this work, two X-ray techniques used were 3D microcomputed tomography (micro-CT) and X-ray microfluorescence (micro-XRF) in order to investigate the internal structure of the bone samples. Those two techniques work together, e.g. as a complement to each other, to characterize bones structure and composition. Initially, the specimens were used to do the scan procedure in the microcomputer tomography system and the second step consists of doing the X-ray microfluorescence analysis. The results show that both techniques are powerful methods for analyzing, inspecting and characterizing bone samples: they are alternative procedures for examining bone structures and compositions and they are complementary.

  8. Feasibility of X-ray laser by Underwater Spark Discharges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumoto, Takaaki [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Hokkaido (Japan)

    2000-03-01

    The method of Underwater Spark Discharges(USD) is one of the most effective ways for generating extremely compressed atomic clusters (called itonic clusters or micro Ball Lightning(BL)). It is also associated with energetic X-rays, which are caused by the break up of the itonic electrons. Despite of low voltage discharges of about 50 V, the high energy X-rays up to 150 keV can be generated. This paper proposed two methods of generating X-ray laser by using micro BL: (1) micro BL on surfaces of regularly arrayed wire cathodes and (2) gas of micro BL generated by USD. (author)

  9. 2D X-ray and FTIR micro-analysis of the degradation of cadmium yellow pigment in paintings of Henri Matisse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pouyet, E.; Cotte, M.; Fayard, B.; Salomé, M.; Meirer, F.; Mehta, A.; Uffelman, E. S.; Hull, A.; Vanmeert, F.; Kieffer, J.; Burghammer, M.; Janssens, K.; Sette, F.; Mass, J.

    2015-01-01

    The chemical and physical alterations of cadmium yellow (CdS) paints in Henri Matisse’s The Joy of Life (1905–1906, The Barnes Foundation) have been recognized since 2006, when a survey by portable X-ray fluorescence identified this pigment in all altered regions of the monumental painting. This

  10. Neutron and high-contrast X-ray micro-radiography as complementary tools for monitoring organosilicon consolidants in natural building stones

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Slavíková, M.; Krejčí, F.; Kotlík, P.; Jakůbek, J.; Tomandl, Ivo; Vacík, Jiří

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 338, NOV (2014), s. 42-47 ISSN 0168-583X R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TA01010237; GA MŠk(XE) LM2011019 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : stone consolidation * neutron radiography * X-ray radiography * Organosilicon consolidants Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 1.124, year: 2014

  11. Ex-situ time-lapse x-ray CT study of 3D micro-structural fatigue damage evolution in uni-directional composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Kristine Munk; Wang, Ying; Zangenberg Hansen, Jens

    2016-01-01

    the fatigue test, and at two damage levels the test is stopped and the sample is examined by X-ray computed tomography. From the TWLI observations it is apparent that part of the measured initial stiffness drop might be caused by edge effects rather than off-axis cracking. Some of the off-axis cracks are seen...

  12. X-ray refractometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tur'yanskij, A.G.; Pirshin, I.V.

    2001-01-01

    Paper introduces a new circuit of X-ray refractometer to study angular and spectral features of refracted radiation within hard X-ray range. Refractometer incorporates two goniometers, two crystal-analyzers and three radiation detectors. The maximum distance between radiation source focal point and a receiving slit of the second goniometer is equal to 1.4 m. For the first time one obtained refraction patterns of fine-film specimens including C/Si stressed structure. Paper describes a new technique of refractometry via specimen oscillation at fixed position of a detecting device. Paper presents the measurement results of oscillation refraction patterns for specimens of melted quartz and ZnSe single crystal [ru

  13. X-ray microtomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunsmuir, J.H.; Ferguson, S.R.; D'Amico, K.L.; Stokes, J.P.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper the authors describe the application of a new high-resolution X-ray tomographic microscope to the study of porous media. The microscope was designed to exploit the properties of a synchrotron X-ray source to perform three dimensional tomography on millimeter sized objects with micron resolution and has been used in materials science studies with both synchrotron and conventional and synchrotron sources will be compared. In this work the authors have applied the microscope to measure the three dimensional structure of fused bead packs and berea sandstones with micron resolution and have performed preliminary studies of flow in these media with the microscope operated in a digital subtraction radiography mode. Computer graphics techniques have been applied to the data to visually display the structure of the pore body system. Tomographic imaging after flow experiments should detect the structure of the oil-water interface in the pore network and this work is ongoing

  14. X-ray Ordinance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramer, R.; Zerlett, G.

    1983-01-01

    This commentary, presented as volume 2 of the Deutsches Strahlenschutzrecht (German legislation on radiation protection) deals with the legal provisions of the ordinance on the protection against harmful effects of X-radiation (X-ray Ordinance - RoeV), of March 1, 1973 (announced in BGBl.I, page 173), as amended by the ordinance on the protection against harmful effects of ionizing radiation, of October 13, 1976 (announced in BGBl. I, page 2905). Thus volume 2 completes the task started with volume 1, namely to present a comprehensive view and account of the body of laws governing radiation protection, a task which was thought useful as developments in the FRG led to regulations being split up into the X-ray Ordinance, and the Radiation Protection Ordinance. In order to present a well-balanced commentary on the X-ray Ordinance, it was necessary to discuss the provisions both from the legal and the medical point of view. This edition takes into account the Fourth Public Notice of the BMA (Fed. Min. of Labour and Social Affairs) concerning the implementation of the X-ray Ordinance of January 4, 1982, as well as court decisions and literature published in this field, until September 1982. In addition, the judgment of the Federal Constitutional Court, dated October 19, 1982, concerning the voidness of the law on government liability, and two decisions by the Federal High Court, dated November 23, 1982, concerning the right to have insight into medical reports - of great significance in practice - have been considered. This commentary therefore is up to date with current developments. (orig.) [de

  15. X-ray diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Einstein, J.R.; Wei, C.H.

    1982-01-01

    We have been interested in structural elucidation by x-ray diffraction of compounds of biological interest. Understanding exactly how atoms are arranged in three-dimensional arrays as molecules can help explain the relationship between structure and functions. The species investigated may vary in size and shape; our recent studies included such diverse substances as antischistosomal drugs, a complex of cadmium with nucleic acid base, nitrate salts of adenine, and proteins

  16. X-ray apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomita, Chuji.

    1980-01-01

    A principal object of the present invention is to provide an X-ray apparatus which is such that the distance between the surface of the patient's table and the floor on which the apparatus is installed is sufficiently small in the horizontal position of the patient's table of the roentgenographical pedestal and that the rotation of the pedestal from the horizontal position to a tilted position and further to the vertical position of the table can be carried out smoothly. (auth)

  17. X-ray diffraction imaging of material microstructures

    KAUST Repository

    Varga, Laszlo

    2016-10-20

    Various examples are provided for x-ray imaging of the microstructure of materials. In one example, a system for non-destructive material testing includes an x-ray source configured to generate a beam spot on a test item; a grid detector configured to receive x- rays diffracted from the test object; and a computing device configured to determine a microstructure image based at least in part upon a diffraction pattern of the x-rays diffracted from the test object. In another example, a method for determining a microstructure of a material includes illuminating a beam spot on the material with a beam of incident x-rays; detecting, with a grid detector, x-rays diffracted from the material; and determining, by a computing device, a microstructure image based at least in part upon a diffraction pattern of the x-rays diffracted from the material.

  18. A Test Facility For Astronomical X-Ray Optics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lewis, R. A.; Bordas, J.; Christensen, Finn Erland

    1989-01-01

    Grazing incidence x-ray optics for x-ray astronomical applications are used outside the earths atmosphere. These devices require a large collection aperture and the imaging of an x-ray source which is essentially placed at infinity. The ideal testing system for these optical elements has...... to approximate that encountered under working conditions, however the testing of these optical elements is notoriously difficult with conventional x-ray generators. Synchrotron Radiation (SR) sources are sufficiently brilliant to produce a nearly perfect parallel beam over a large area whilst still retaining...... a flux considerably higher than that available from conventional x-ray generators. A facility designed for the testing of x-ray optics, particularly in connection with x-ray telescopes is described below. It is proposed that this facility will be accommodated at the Synchrotron Radiation Source...

  19. Producing x-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallozzi, P.J.; Epstein, H.M.; Jung, R.G.; Applebaum, D.C.; Fairand, B.P.; Gallagher, W.J.

    1977-01-01

    A method of producing x-rays by directing radiant energy from a laser onto a target is described. Conversion efficiency of at least about 3 percent is obtained by providing the radiant energy in a low-power precursor pulse of approximately uniform effective intensity focused onto the surface of the target for about 1 to 30 nanoseconds so as to generate an expanding unconfined coronal plasma having less than normal solid density throughout and comprising a low-density (underdense) region wherein the plasma frequency is less than the laser radiation frequency and a higher-density (overdense) region wherein the plasma frequency is greater than the laser radiation frequency and, about 1 to 30 nanoseconds after the precursor pulse strikes the target, a higher-power main pulse focused onto the plasma for about 10 -3 to 30 nanoseconds and having such power density and total energy that the radiant energy is absorbed in the underdense region and conducted into the overdense region to heat it and thus to produce x-rays therefrom with the plasma remaining substantially below normal solid density and thus facilitating the substantial emission of x-rays in the form of spectral lines arising from nonequilibrium ionization states

  20. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... current x-ray images for diagnosis and disease management. top of page How is the procedure performed? ... position possible that still ensures x-ray image quality. top of page Who interprets the results and ...

  1. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... tissue shows up in shades of gray and air appears black. Until recently, x-ray images were ... position possible that still ensures x-ray image quality. top of page Who interprets the results and ...

  2. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Videos About Us News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Bone Bone x- ... x-ray machine is a compact apparatus that can be taken to the patient in a hospital ...

  3. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... shades of gray and air appears black. Until recently, x-ray images were maintained on large film ... assist you in finding the most comfortable position possible that still ensures x-ray image quality. top ...

  4. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... position possible that still ensures x-ray image quality. top of page Who interprets the results and ... ray examination. X-rays usually have no side effects in the typical diagnostic range for this exam. ...

  5. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the body. X-rays are the oldest and most frequently used form of medical imaging. A bone ... bones. top of page How should I prepare? Most bone x-rays require no special preparation. You ...

  6. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... can be taken to the patient in a hospital bed or the emergency room. The x-ray ... position possible that still ensures x-ray image quality. top of page Who interprets the results and ...

  7. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... wrist, arm, elbow, shoulder, spine, pelvis, hip, thigh, knee, leg (shin), ankle or foot. top of page ... the patient standing upright, as in cases of knee x-rays. A portable x-ray machine is ...

  8. X-ray detector array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houston, J.M.

    1980-01-01

    The object of the invention (an ionization chamber X-ray detector array for use with high speed computerised tomographic imaging apparatus) is to reduce the time required to produce a tomographic image. The detector array described determines the distribution of X-ray intensities in one or more flat, coplanar X-ray beams. It comprises three flat anode sheets parallel to the X-ray beam, a plurality of rod-like cathodes between the anodes, a detector gas between the electrodes and a means for applying a potential between the electrodes. Each of the X-ray sources is collimated to give a narrow, planar section of X-ray photons. Sets of X-ray sources in the array are pulsed simultaneously to obtain X-ray transmission data for tomographic image reconstruction. (U.K.)

  9. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... evaluation. National and international radiology protection organizations continually review and update the technique standards used by radiology professionals. Modern x-ray systems have very controlled x-ray beams and dose ...

  10. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... patient. top of page How does the procedure work? X-rays are a form of radiation like ... Safety page for more information about radiation dose. Women should always inform their physician or x-ray ...

  11. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... image on photographic film or a special detector. Different parts of the body absorb the x-rays ... process is repeated. Two or three images (from different angles) will typically be taken. An x-ray ...

  12. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... standards used by radiology professionals. Modern x-ray systems have very controlled x-ray beams and dose control methods to minimize stray (scatter) radiation. This ensures ...

  13. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... up in shades of gray and air appears black. Until recently, x-ray images were maintained on ... Safety page for more information about radiation dose. Women should always inform their physician or x-ray ...

  14. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... tissues around or in bones. top of page How should I prepare? Most bone x-rays require ... is placed beneath the patient. top of page How does the procedure work? X-rays are a ...

  15. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... radiology protection organizations continually review and update the technique standards used by radiology professionals. Modern x-ray systems have very controlled x-ray beams and ...

  16. Soft X-ray Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seely, John

    1999-05-20

    The contents of this report cover the following: (1) design of the soft x-ray telescope; (2) fabrication and characterization of the soft x-ray telescope; and (3) experimental implementation at the OMEGA laser facility.

  17. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... that might interfere with the x-ray images. Women should always inform their physician and x-ray technologist if there is any possibility that they are pregnant. Many imaging tests are not performed during pregnancy ...

  18. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of page What are some common uses of the procedure? A bone x-ray is used to: ... and x-rays. top of page What does the equipment look like? The equipment typically used for ...

  19. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... used for bone x-rays consists of an x-ray tube suspended over a table on which the patient ... a hospital bed or the emergency room. The x-ray tube is connected to a flexible arm that is ...

  20. X-ray Crystallography Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    Edward Snell, a National Research Council research fellow at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), prepares a protein crystal for analysis by x-ray crystallography as part of NASA's structural biology program. The small, individual crystals are bombarded with x-rays to produce diffraction patterns, a map of the intensity of the x-rays as they reflect through the crystal.

  1. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... x-rays. top of page What does the equipment look like? The equipment typically used for bone x-rays consists of ... and joint abnormalities, such as arthritis. X-ray equipment is relatively inexpensive and widely available in emergency ...

  2. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... X-rays are a form of radiation like light or radio waves. X-rays pass through most objects, including the body. Once it is carefully aimed at the part of the body being examined, an x-ray machine produces a small ...

  3. Tunable X-ray source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyce, James R [Williamsburg, VA

    2011-02-08

    A method for the production of X-ray bunches tunable in both time and energy level by generating multiple photon, X-ray, beams through the use of Thomson scattering. The method of the present invention simultaneously produces two X-ray pulses that are tunable in energy and/or time.

  4. X-Ray Exam: Ankle

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Educators Search English Español X-Ray Exam: Ankle KidsHealth / For Parents / X-Ray Exam: Ankle What's in this article? What It Is Why ... You Have Questions Print What It Is An ankle X-ray is a safe and painless test ...

  5. Diffractive X-Ray Telescopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skinner, G.K.; Skinner, G.K

    2010-01-01

    Diffractive X-ray telescopes using zone plates, phase Fresnel lenses, or related optical elements have the potential to provide astronomers with true imaging capability with resolution several orders of magnitude better than available in any other waveband. Lenses that would be relatively easy to fabricate could have an angular resolution of the order of micro arc seconds or even better, that would allow, for example, imaging of the distorted spacetime in the immediate vicinity of the supermassive black holes in the center of active galaxies What then is precluding their immediate adoption Extremely long focal lengths, very limited bandwidth, and difficulty stabilizing the image are the main problems. The history and status of the development of such lenses is reviewed here and the prospects for managing the challenges that they present are discussed atmospheric absorption

  6. Test facility for astronomical x-ray optics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Finn Erland; Lewis, Robert A.; Bordas, J.

    1990-01-01

    Grazing incidence x-ray optics for x-ray astronomical applications are used outside the earth's atmosphere. These devices require a large collection aperture and the imaging of an x-ray source that is essentially placed at infinity. The ideal testing system for these optical elements has to appro......Grazing incidence x-ray optics for x-ray astronomical applications are used outside the earth's atmosphere. These devices require a large collection aperture and the imaging of an x-ray source that is essentially placed at infinity. The ideal testing system for these optical elements has...... to approximate that encountered under working conditions; however, the testing of these optical elements is notoriously difficult with conventional x-ray generators. Synchrotron radiation (SR) sources are sufficiently brilliant to produce a nearly perfect parallel beam over a large area while still retaining...... a flux considerably higher than that available from conventional x-ray generators. A facility designed for the testing of x-ray optics, particularly in connection with x-ray telescopes, is described. It is proposed that this facility will be accommodated at the Synchrotron Radiation Source...

  7. X-Ray photoelectron spectroscopic investigation of phenosafranine ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The phenosafranine adsorbed onto the micro and mesoporous materials prepared by ion exchange method and interaction of the dye with host materials were studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy to elucidate the influence of the host matrix on the binding energy of N 1s orbital. Core level N 1s X-ray photoelectron ...

  8. Identification of strain fields in pure Al and hybrid Ni/Al metal foams using X-ray micro-tomography under loading

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fíla, T.; Jiroušek, O.; Jung, A.; Kumpová, Ivana

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 11, November (2016), č. článku C11017. ISSN 1748-0221. [International Workshop on Radiation Imaging Detectors /18./. Barcelona, 03.07.2016-07.07.2016] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1219 Keywords : computerized tomography (CT) * computed radiography (CR) * inspection with x- rays * X-ray radiography and digital radiography (DR) Subject RIV: JJ - Other Materials Impact factor: 1.220, year: 2016 http://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1748-0221/11/11/C11017/meta;jsessionid=00BAD2D2C17907F1AF4F90CAFAB2A5D2.c1.iopscience.cld.iop.org

  9. Time resolved X-ray micro-diffraction measurements of the dynamic local layer response to electric field in antiferroelectric liquid crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Takahashi, Y; Takanishi, Y; Ogasawara, T; Takezoe, H

    2001-01-01

    The time-resolved synchrotron X-ray microbeam diffraction experiment has been carried out to reveal the local layer response to the electric field in the antiferroelectric liquid crystal. The X-ray microbeam of a few mu m spatial resolution was obtained with Kirkpatrick-Baez optics. The time-resolved small angle diffraction experiment was performed with a time resolution ranging from 10 mu s to a few ms. The reversible local layer change between the horizontal chevron and the quasi-bookshelf structure was confirmed by the triangular wave form. The transient layer response for the step form electric field was observed. The layer response closely related with an electric field induced antiferroelectric to ferroelectric phase transition.

  10. Arcsecond and Sub-arcsedond Imaging with X-ray Multi-Image Interferometer and Imager for (very) small sattelites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashida, K.; Kawabata, T.; Nakajima, H.; Inoue, S.; Tsunemi, H.

    2017-10-01

    The best angular resolution of 0.5 arcsec is realized with the X-ray mirror onborad the Chandra satellite. Nevertheless, further better or comparable resolution is anticipated to be difficult in near future. In fact, the goal of ATHENA telescope is 5 arcsec in the angular resolution. We propose a new type of X-ray interferometer consisting simply of an X-ray absorption grating and an X-ray spectral imaging detector, such as X-ray CCDs or new generation CMOS detectors, by stacking the multi images created with the Talbot interferenece (Hayashida et al. 2016). This system, now we call Multi Image X-ray Interferometer Module (MIXIM) enables arcseconds resolution with very small satellites of 50cm size, and sub-arcseconds resolution with small sattellites. We have performed ground experiments, in which a micro-focus X-ray source, grating with pitch of 4.8μm, and 30 μm pixel detector placed about 1m from the source. We obtained the self-image (interferometirc fringe) of the grating for wide band pass around 10keV. This result corresponds to about 2 arcsec resolution for parrallel beam incidence. The MIXIM is usefull for high angular resolution imaging of relatively bright sources. Search for super massive black holes and resolving AGN torus would be the targets of this system.

  11. 3-D Imaging of Cleat and Micro-cleat Characteristics, South Walker Creek Coals, Bowen Basin, Australia: Microfocus X-ray Computed Tomography Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asep Kurnia Permana

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available DOI: 10.17014/ijog.v7i1.131The Permian coals of the South Walker Creek area have a moderately to highly developed cleat system. The cleat fractures are well developed in both bright and dull bands, and generally parallel, inclined or perpendicular to the bedding planes of the seam, with the spaces open or filled by mineral matter, such as clay and carbonate minerals. Microfocus X-ray computed tomography (CT technique was performed to identify cleat characteristics in the coal seams. This technique allows visualizing of microcleat distribution and mineralization in three dimensional images. Cleat mineralization in the coal seam occurs either as single mineral (monomineralic or intermixed mineral (polymineralic masses. The cross cutting relationship was shown by X-ray CT scan analysis. The timing of microcleat formation in the coal seam from early to late is carbonate minerals, clay minerals (kaolinite plus minor high density (rutile or anatase phases. Thus, a high resolution of microfocus X-ray CT does not only provides a better visualization, but also could identify microcleat orientation, cleat mineralization, and generation of microcleat.

  12. Growth rates and geochemical proxies in Late Campanian bivalves - New insights from micro-X-ray Fluorescence mapping and numerical growth modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Winter, Niels; Goderis, Steven; van Malderen, Stijn; Vanhaecke, Frank; Claeys, Philippe

    2017-04-01

    Understanding the Late Cretaceous greenhouse climate is of vital importance for understanding present and future climate change. While a lot of good work has been done to reconstruct climate in this interesting period, most paleoclimatic studies have focused on long-term climate change[1]. Alternatively, multi-proxy records from marine bivalves provide us with a unique opportunity to study past climate on a seasonal scale. However, previous fossil bivalve studies have reported ambiguous results with regard to the interpretation of trace element and stable isotope proxies in marine bivalve shells[2]. One major problem in the interpretation of such records is the bivalve's vital effect and the occurrence of disequilibrium fractionation during bivalve growth. Both these problems are linked to the annual growth cycle of marine bivalves, which introduces internal effects on the incorporation of isotopes and trace elements into the shell[3]. Understanding this growth cycle in extinct bivalves is therefore of great importance for the interpretation of seasonal proxy records in their shells. In this study, three different species of extinct Late Campanian bivalves (two rudist species and one oyster species) that were found in the same stratigraphic interval are studied. Micro-X-Ray Fluorescence line scanning and mapping of trace elements such as Mg, Sr, S and Zn, calibrated by LA-ICP-MS measurements, is combined with microdrilled stable carbon and oxygen isotope analysis on the well-preserved part of the shells. Data of this multi-proxy study is compared with results from a numerical growth model written in the open-source statistics package R[4] and based on annual growth increments observed in the shells and shell thickness. This growth model is used together with proxy data to reconstruct rates of trace element incorporation into the shell and to calculate the mass balance of stable oxygen and carbon isotopes. In order to achieve this goal, 2D mapping of bivalve shell

  13. X-ray diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vries, J.L. de.

    1976-01-01

    The seventh edition of Philips' Review of literature on X-ray diffraction begins with a list of conference proceedings on the subject, organised by the Philips' organisation at regular intervals in various European countries. This is followed by a list of bulletins. The bibliography is divided according to the equipment (cameras, diffractometers, monochromators) and its applications. The applications are subdivided into sections for high/low temperature and pressure, effects due to the equipment, small angle scattering and a part for stress, texture and phase analyses of metals and quantitative analysis of minerals

  14. Obstetric X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mwachi, M.K.

    2006-01-01

    Radiography of the pelvis should never be taken to diagnose early pregnancy, because of potential hazards of radiation damage to the growing foetus. the only indication occurs in the last week of pregnancy (37 weeks). Obstetric X-ray will help you answer like confirmation of malposition,multiple pregnancies; fetal abnormalities e.g. hydrocephalus, foetal disposition. The choice of radiographic projection will help give foetal presentation, disposition as well as foetal maturity. The search pattern helps you determine maternal and spine deformity, foetal spine and head , foetal presentation and any other anomalies

  15. In situ investigation of the surface silvering of late Roman coins by combined use of high energy broad-beam and low energy micro-beam X-ray fluorescence techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romano, F.P.; Garraffo, S.; Pappalardo, L.; Rizzo, F.

    2012-01-01

    The compositional analysis of archeological metals performed with the X-ray Fluorescence technique (XRF) provides information on the ancient technology. One of the most interesting case-study concerns the techniques used by Romans for silvering the surface of coins. Different metallurgical processes have been suggested in previous studies. Recently the investigation has been addressed to the mercury-silvering and to its possible use in the mass-production of coins minted during the late period (after 294 AD). In the present paper the non-destructive investigation of the silvering process used for manufacturing the Roman nummi – the important typology of coin introduced by Diocletian in his monetary reform – is approached by the combined use of the standard X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) and the low energy micro-X-Ray Fluorescence (LE-μXRF) portable methods. The research was focused on the systematic determination of the mercury presence in a large number of samples and on its correlation with silver in the surface of the coins. 1041 Roman nummi belonging to the Misurata Treasure were analyzed in situ, at the Leptis Magna Museum (Al Khums, Libya). The treasure, composed of about 108 thousand silvered coins, gives the unique opportunity to study the Roman coinage in a wide interval of time (about 40 years in the period 294–333 AD) and in almost all the imperial mints operating in the Roman world. - Highlights: ► Custom-building of a high energy broad-beam and a low energy micro-beam XRF ► In situ analysis of the silvering methods in late Roman nummi with plated surfaces ► The broad-beam XRF was applied for the detection of mercury traces in the coin alloy. ► The low energy micro-XRF was used to scan the surface patina of the coins. ► The correlation between mercury and silver at the coin surface was evidenced.

  16. Miniature X-Ray Tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bearman, Gregory H.

    1995-01-01

    Miniature x-ray tubes proposed for use in portable instruments used to analyze minerals. Electrons from field emitter (instead of thermionic emitter) accelerated to target to generate x-rays. Fabricated from silicon wafers, micromachined field emitters (MFEs) not subject to breakage or restrictions on lifetimes, and tolerate vacuums that filaments cannot. Miniature x-ray tubes very robust, immune to shock and vibration, and permanently sealed with getter for continued pumping. Combined with solid-state x-ray detectors for analysis of x-ray fluorescence.

  17. X-ray optics for axion helioscopes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Anders Clemen; Pivovaroff, Michael J.; Christensen, Finn Erland

    2013-01-01

    A method of optimizing grazing incidence x-ray coatings in ground based axion helioscopes is presented. Software has been been developed to find the optimum coating when taking both axion spectrum and Micromegas detector quantum efficiency into account. A comparison of the relative effective area...

  18. Soft x-ray lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthews, D.L.; Rosen, M.D.

    1988-01-01

    One of the elusive dreams of laser physicists has been the development of an x-ray laser. After 25 years of waiting, the x-ray laser has at last entered the scientific scene, although those now in operation are still laboratory prototypes. They produce soft x rays down to about five nanometers. X-ray lasers retain the usual characteristics of their optical counterparts: a very tight beam, spatial and temporal coherence, and extreme brightness. Present x-ray lasers are nearly 100 times brighter that the next most powerful x-ray source in the world: the electron synchrotron. Although Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is widely known for its hard-x-ray laser program which has potential applications in the Strategic Defense Initiative, the soft x-ray lasers have no direct military applications. These lasers, and the scientific tools that result from their development, may one day have a place in the design and diagnosis of both laser fusion and hard x-ray lasers. The soft x-ray lasers now in operation at the LLNL have shown great promise but are still in the primitive state. Once x-ray lasers become reliable, efficient, and economical, they will have several important applications. Chief among them might be the creation of holograms of microscopic biological structures too small to be investigated with visible light. 5 figs

  19. X-ray polarization capabilities of a small explorer mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahoda, Keith M.; Black, J. Kevin; Hill, Joanne E.; Kallman, Timothy R.; Kaaret, Philip E.; Markwardt, Craig B.; Okajima, Takashi; Petre, Robert; Soong, Yang; Strohmayer, Tod E.; Tamagawa, Toru; Tawara, Yuzuru

    2014-07-01

    X-ray polarization measurements hold great promise for studying the geometry and emission mechanisms in the strong gravitational and magnetic fields that surround black holes and neutron stars. In spite of this, the observational situation remains very limited; the last instrument dedicated to X-ray polarimetry flew decades ago on OSO-8, and the few recent measurements have been made by instruments optimized for other purposes. However, the technical capabilities to greatly advance the observational situation are in hand. Recent developments in micro-pattern gas detectors allow use of the polarization sensitivity of the photo-electric effect, which is the dominant interaction in the band above 2 keV. We present the scientific and technical requirements for an X-ray polarization observatory consistent with the scope of a NASA Small Explorer (SMEX) mission, along with a representative catalog of what the observational capabilities and expected sensitivities for the first year of operation could be. The mission is based on the technically robust design of the Gravity and Extreme Magnetism SMEX (GEMS) which completed a Phase B study and Preliminary Design Review in 2012. The GEMS mission is enabled by time projection detectors sensitive to the photo-electric effect. Prototype detectors have been designed, and provide engineering and performance data which support the mission design. The detectors are further characterized by low background, modest spectral resolution, and sub-millisecond timing resolution. The mission also incorporates high efficiency grazing incidence X-ray mirrors, design features that reduce systematic errors (identical telescopes at different azimuthal angles with respect to the look axis, and mounted on a rotating spacecraft platform), and a moderate capability to perform Target of Opportunity observations. The mission operates autonomously in a low earth, low inclination orbit with one to ten downlinks per day and one or more uplinks per week

  20. Picosecond chronography at x-ray wavelengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bird, P.R.; Bradley, D.J.; Roddie, A.G.; Sibbett, W.; Key, M.H.; Lamb, M.J.; Lewis, C.L.S.

    1975-01-01

    An ultrafast streak camera for vacuum U-V to X-ray radiation is described. Preliminary measurements on laser-produced plasmas are presented with time resolution down to 150 psecs and space resolution down to 40μm for 1keV X-ray emission from a plasma generated by 2GW laser pulses focussed on a Cu target. High sensitivity and wide spectral bandwidth is due to front surface photoemission at oblique incidence. Time resolution capability of 40 psec and simultaneous spatial resolution down to a few microns is theoretically possible with this system. (author)