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Sample records for incident technique cit

  1. Evaluating internal public relations using the critical incident technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, K.H.; de Jong, Menno D.T.; van Vuuren, Hubrecht A.

    2015-01-01

    Although the critical incident technique (CIT) is one of the current methods in communication audits, little is known about the way it works. The validity of the CIT in the context of internal public relations depends on 3 assumptions: that participants can describe discrete communication events,

  2. The critical incident technique reappraised: using critical incidents to illuminate organizational practices and build theory

    OpenAIRE

    Bott, Gregory; Tourish, Dennis

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to offer a reconceptualization of the critical incident technique (CIT) and affirm its utility in management and organization studies.\\ud \\ud Design/methodology/approach: Utilizing a case study from a leadership context, the paper applies the CIT to explore various leadership behaviours in the context of nonprofit boards in Canada. Semi-structured critical incident interviews were used to collect behavioural data from 53 participants – board chairs, board...

  3. Entrepreneurial behavior : New perspectives gained through the critical incident technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nandram, S.S.; Samsom, K.J.

    2007-01-01

    Responding to criticism of the trait approach in studying entrepreneurship, a process and context oriented methodology was applied using the Critical Incident Technique (CIT) in predicting success and failure. The actions of entrepreneurs were subsequently translated into (1) dynamic traits with a

  4. The Critical Incident Technique in Library and Information Management Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Shelagh; Oulton, Tony

    1999-01-01

    Focuses on the application of the Critical Incident Technique (CIT) in three studies at the Department of Information and Communications, Manchester Metropolitan University, United Kingdom. Examines staff-development needs as a key element in change in higher education; decision-making practices in small- to medium-size libraries; and development…

  5. [Patient satisfaction in hospital: critical incident technique or standardised questionnaire?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckhardt-Abdulla, R; Bock, M; Bauer, M

    2008-03-01

    Questionnaires are usually used for the measurement of patient satisfaction, however, it is increasingly being recognized that the critical incident technique (CIT) also provides valuable insight. Questionnaires of the "Hamburger questionnaire on hospital stay" were distributed to 650 consecutive patients before discharge. Additionally 103 interviews were conducted in which the patients were asked to describe positive and negative incidents during their hospital stay. The results of both methods were then compared. A total of 369 patients returned the questionnaire and 103 patients participated in the interviews. The duration of a single interview was between 5 and 45 min with a mean of 12.7 min+/-10.1 min standard deviation (SD). Cronbach's alpha of the questionnaire was 0.9. A total of 424 incidents were reported, 301 of them were negative compared to 123 positive events. The questionnaires and interviews yielded partly similar and partly different results at category and subcategory levels concerning the areas of weaknesses and strengths in quality performance. The CIT was more concrete but did not give results for all aspects of quality. The CIT, but not the questionnaire, was able to detect 40/56 (71%) of the positive and 33/75 (44%) of the negative reports regarding medical performance and 25/42 (60%) of the positive and 15/51 (29.4%) of the negative reports of the performance of the nurses were revealed by the CIT and not by the questionnaires. The CIT gives valuable insights into the patient's perspective of strengths and weaknesses in hospital care, which might be overlooked by the questionnaire alone. However, the CIT is probably not suited for routine use because it is very time-consuming.

  6. Quality of the Critical Incident Technique in practice: Interrater reliability and users' acceptance under real conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANNA KOCH

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The Critical Incident Technique (CIT is a widely used task analysis method in personnel psychology. While studies on psychometric properties of the CIT so far primarily took into account relevance ratings of task-lists or attributes, and hence, only a smaller or adapted part of the CIT, little is known about the psychometric properties of the complete CIT in its most meaningful and fruitful way. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to assess interrater reliability and the participants’ view of the CIT under real conditions and especially to provide data for the key step of the CIT: the classification of behavior descriptions into requirements. Additionally, the cost-benefit-ratio and practicability were rated from the participants’ views as an important indicator for the acceptance of the task analysis approach in practice. Instructors of German Institutions for Statutory Accidents Insurance and Prevention as well as their supervisors took part in a job analysis with the CIT. Moderate interrater reliability for the relevance rating was found while the classification step yielded unexpectedly low coefficients for interrater reliability. The cost-benefit-ratio and practicability of the complete CIT were rated very positive. The results are discussed in relation to determinants that facilitate or impede the application of task analysis procedures.

  7. The critical incident technique in dental research: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binu Santha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Research is a scientific quest to find answers to certain questions. It makes us think with curiosity and wonderment about how to make something better. Research contributes in a major way to the development and maintenance of health and health care systems. Qualitative research is concerned with qualitative phenomena and includes subjective assessment of attitudes, opinions, and behavior. It is especially important in the behavioral sciences where the aim is to discover the underlying motives of human behavior. The critical incident technique (CIT is a well-established qualitative research tool used in many areas of health sciences including nursing, medicine, dentistry, and their respective education systems. This technique is described as consisting of “a set of procedures for collecting direct observations of human behavior in such a way as to facilitate their potential usefulness in solving practical problems.” This review gives a gist of CIT and its application in different aspects of dental research.

  8. Using the critical incident technique in community-based participatory research: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belkora, Jeffrey; Stupar, Lauren; O'Donnell, Sara

    2011-01-01

    Successful community-based participatory research involves the community partner in every step of the research process. The primary study for this paper took place in rural, Northern California. Collaborative partners included an academic researcher and two community based resource centers that provide supportive services to people diagnosed with cancer. This paper describes our use of the Critical Incident Technique (CIT) to conduct Community-based Participatory Research. We ask: Did the CIT facilitate or impede the active engagement of the community in all steps of the study process? We identified factors about the Critical Incident Technique that were either barriers or facilitators to involving the community partner in every step of the research process. Facilitators included the CIT's ability to accommodate involvement from a large spectrum of the community, its flexible design, and its personal approach. Barriers to community engagement included training required to conduct interviews, depth of interview probes, and time required. Overall, our academic-community partners felt that our use of the CIT facilitated community involvement in our Community-Based Participatory Research Project, where we used it to formally document the forces promoting and inhibiting successful achievement of community aims.

  9. Evaluation of undergraduate clinical learning experiences in the subject of pediatric dentistry using critical incident technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Vyawahare

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In pediatric dentistry, the experiences of dental students may help dental educators better prepare graduates to treat the children. Research suggests that student′s perceptions should be considered in any discussion of their education, but there has been no systematic examination of India′s undergraduate dental students learning experiences. Aim: This qualitative investigation aimed to gather and analyze information about experiences in pediatric dentistry from the students′ viewpoint using critical incident technique (CIT. Study Design: The sample group for this investigation came from all 240 3 rd and 4 th year dental students from all the four dental colleges in Indore. Using CIT, participants were asked to describe at least one positive and one negative experience in detail. Results: They described 308 positive and 359 negative experiences related to the pediatric dentistry clinic. Analysis of the data resulted in the identification of four key factors related to their experiences: 1 The instructor; 2 the patient; 3 the learning process; and 4 the learning environment. Conclusion: The CIT is a useful data collection and analysis technique that provides rich, useful data and has many potential uses in dental education.

  10. Evaluation of undergraduate clinical learning experiences in the subject of pediatric dentistry using critical incident technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyawahare, S; Banda, N R; Choubey, S; Parvekar, P; Barodiya, A; Dutta, S

    2013-01-01

    In pediatric dentistry, the experiences of dental students may help dental educators better prepare graduates to treat the children. Research suggests that student's perceptions should be considered in any discussion of their education, but there has been no systematic examination of India's undergraduate dental students learning experiences. This qualitative investigation aimed to gather and analyze information about experiences in pediatric dentistry from the students' viewpoint using critical incident technique (CIT). The sample group for this investigation came from all 240 3rd and 4th year dental students from all the four dental colleges in Indore. Using CIT, participants were asked to describe at least one positive and one negative experience in detail. They described 308 positive and 359 negative experiences related to the pediatric dentistry clinic. Analysis of the data resulted in the identification of four key factors related to their experiences: 1) The instructor; 2) the patient; 3) the learning process; and 4) the learning environment. The CIT is a useful data collection and analysis technique that provides rich, useful data and has many potential uses in dental education.

  11. Auditing organizational communication: evaluating the methodological strengths and weaknesses of the critical incident technique, network analysis, and the communication satisfaction questionnaire

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, K.H.

    2016-01-01

    This dissertation focuses on the methodology of communication audits. In the context of three Dutch high schools, we evaluated several audit instruments. The first study in this dissertation focuses on the question whether the rationale of the critical incident technique (CIT) still applies when it

  12. Developing Flanagan's critical incident technique to elicit indicators of high and low quality nursing care from patients and their nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, I J; Redfern, S J; Tomalin, D A; Oliver, S

    1992-05-01

    This paper discusses a development of Flanagan's critical incident technique (CIT) to elicit indicators of high and low quality nursing from patients and their nurses on medical, surgical and elderly care wards. Stages in undertaking the CIT are identified and presuppositions held by most researchers about the nature of the technique are identified. The paper describes how the authors moved to a different set of presuppositions during the course of the study. Preliminary analysis of interview transcripts revealed that critical incidents need not always be demarcated scenes with a clear beginning and end, but may arise from respondents summarizing their overall experience within their description of one incident. Characteristically respondents were unable to give a detailed account of such incidents but validity may be established by the fact that respondents appear to recount what actually happened as they saw it, and what they said was clearly important to them. The researchers found that the most appropriate basic unit of analysis was not the incident itself but 'happenings' revealed by incidents that are 'critical' by virtue of being important to respondents with respect to the quality of nursing care. The importance of CIT researchers achieving an understanding of the 'meaning' of critical happenings to respondents is emphasized. Analysis of the interview transcripts is facilitated by the use of INGRES, a relational database computer program which should enable a 'personal theory' of quality nursing for each respondent, both patients and nurses, to be described. The study suggests that the CIT is a flexible technique which may be adapted to meet the demands of nursing research. If carefully applied, the CIT seems capable of capitalizing on respondents' own stories and avoids the loss of information which occurs when complex narratives are reduced to simple descriptive categories. Patients and nurses have unique perspectives on nursing and their views are of

  13. Health professionals' beliefs about domestic abuse and the issue of disclosure: a critical incident technique study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Julie; Bradbury-Jones, Caroline; Kroll, Thilo; Duncan, Fiona

    2013-09-01

    Domestic abuse is increasingly recognised as a serious, worldwide public health concern. There is a significant body of literature regarding domestic abuse, but little is known about health professionals' beliefs about domestic abuse disclosure. In addition, the intersection between health professionals' beliefs and abused women's views remains uninvestigated. We report on a two-phase, qualitative study using Critical Incident Technique (CIT) that aimed to explore community health professionals' beliefs about domestic abuse and the issue of disclosure. We investigated this from the perspectives of both health professionals and abused women. The study took place in Scotland during 2011. The study was informed theoretically by the Common Sense Model of Self-Regulation of Health and Illness (CSM). This model is typically used in disease-orientated research. In our innovative use, however, CSM was used to study the social phenomenon, domestic abuse. The study involved semi-structured, individual CIT interviews with health professionals and focus groups with women who had experienced domestic abuse. Twenty-nine health professionals (Midwives, Health Visitors and General Practitioners) participated in the first phase of the study. In the second phase, three focus groups were conducted with a total of 14 women. Data were analysed using a combination of an inductive classification and framework analysis. Findings highlight the points of convergence and divergence between abused women's and health professionals' beliefs about abuse. Although there was some agreement, they do not always share the same views. For example, women want to be asked about abuse, but many health professionals do not feel confident or comfortable discussing the issue. Overall, the study shows the dynamic interaction between women's and health professionals' beliefs about domestic abuse and readiness to discuss and respond to it. Understanding these complex dynamics assists in the employment of

  14. CIT divertor conceptual design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wesley, J.C.; Sevier, D.L.

    1988-06-01

    A conceptual design of the divertor target assembly for the 1.75-m CIT baseline device has been developed. The divertor target assembly consists of four toroidal arrays of pyrolytic graphite plates that cover the inside surface of the ends of the vacuum vessel in the locations where the magnetic separatrices of the plasma intersect the vessel wall. During the course of the plasma discharge, the currents on the poloidal field coils that establish the plasma equilibrium are varied to sweep the separatrix strike locations across the divertor targets. This spreads the plasma heat loading over sufficient area to keep the peak target surface temperature within allowable limits. The required magnetic sweep (/+-/5 cm for the inside strike location and /+-/12 cm for the outside strike location) can be affected by programming either the external poloidal strike location) can be effected by programming either the external poloidal field (PF) coils or the internal PF control coils plus the external PF solenoid coils (PF1 and PF2). The ensuing variations in the elongation and triangularity of the plasma are modest, and fall within the ranges of plasma elongation and triangularity specified in the CIT General Requirements Document. 17 figs., 13 tabs

  15. Metabolism of 123I-FP-CIT in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Akihiro; Okano, Kyoko; Tamagami, Hiroshi

    1999-01-01

    The metabolism of N-(3-fluoropropyl)-2β-carbomethoxy-3β-(4-iodophenyl)nortropane ( 123 I) ( 123 I-FP-CIT) in healthy humans was studied. Plasma and urine samples, obtained after i.v. administration of 123 I-FP-CIT, were analyzed using the two-dimensional thin-layer chromatography technique. Eleven radiochemical components were detected in both plasma and urine, and four of them were the parent 123 I-FP-CIT and its metabolites, N-(3-fluoropropyl)-2β-carboxy-3β-(4-iodophenyl)nortropane ( 123 I) ( 123 I-acid), 2β-carboxy-3β-(4-iodophenyl)nortropane ( 123 I) ( 123 I-nor-acid) and 2β-carbomethoxy-3β-(4-iodophenyl)nortropane ( 123 I) ( 123 I-nor-CIT). These four identified radiochemical components occupied about 80% or more in ratio of the radiochemical components in the plasma and urine. In the metabolites of 123 I-FP-CIT, the high polar metabolites- 123 I-acid and 123 I-nor-acid-were found to be the major components, while lipophilic 123 I-nor-CIT was a minor component. Free iodide ( 123 I - ) was not found in the plasma or urine. Thus, the main metabolic reactions which 123 I-FP-CIT undergoes in humans seem to be hydrolysis of the ester bond and N-dealkylation. In vivo deiodination of 123 I-FP-CIT was found to be minimum. Current results suggest that the metabolites of 123 I-FP-CIT hardly influence evaluation of the dopamine transporter in the human brain. (author)

  16. Consequences attributed to kidney transplantation: critical incident technique

    OpenAIRE

    Santos,Bianca Pozza dos; Schwartz,Eda; Beuter,Margrid; Muniz,Rosani Manfrin; Echevarría-Guanilo,Maria Elena; Viegas,Aline da Costa

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to describe the consequences experienced in the life of a person with kidney transplantation. This is a descriptive and qualitative approach, using the Critical Incident Technique, in which the interview content was analyzed, in an attempt to isolate the consequences of the kidney transplantation, showing positive and/or negative references. When confronted with what kidney transplantation provided to people's life, the independence from the hemodialysis machine, the existenc...

  17. Palliative care nurses' recognition and assessment of patients with delirium symptoms: a qualitative study using critical incident technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosie, Annmarie; Agar, Meera; Lobb, Elizabeth; Davidson, Patricia M; Phillips, Jane

    2014-10-01

    Delirium is prevalent in palliative care inpatient settings and management is often challenging. Despite nurses' integral patient care role, little is known about palliative care nurses' capacity to recognise, assess and respond to patients' delirium symptoms. To explore the experiences, views and practices of inpatient palliative care nurses in delirium recognition and assessment. 30 nurses from nine Australian specialist palliative care inpatient services. Critical incident technique (CIT) guided a series of semi-structured interviews. Prior to interviews participants were given a vignette of a palliative care inpatient with an unrecognised hypoactive delirium, to prompt their recollection and recounting of a similar clinical incident. Clearly recalled and described incidents were analysed using thematic content analysis. 20 of 30 participants recalled and described 28 relevant delirium incidents. Two themes and six sub-themes provide a general description of participants' experiences, views and practice in delirium recognition and assessment. Participants experience distress related to caring for patients with delirium and express compassion and empathy for delirious patients. Enhancing their delirium knowledge, strengthening collaborative multidisciplinary team relationships and better communication are important supports. Some participants, usually those in advance practice roles, describe more comprehensive assessment capabilities that incorporate clinical expertise with whole person awareness, yet systematic and structured delirium screening and assessment processes and application of the delirium diagnosis criteria are largely missing. Use of ambiguous terminology to describe delirium symptoms contributes to ineffective practice. The findings of this study expands our understanding of how palliative care nurses' capacity to recognise and assess patients' delirium symptoms in the inpatient setting could be strengthened. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All

  18. CIT diagnostic computer interface studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rauch, W.; Hayes, S.; Lowrance, J.; Oliaro, G.; Sauthoff, N.; Sichta, P.; Stark, W.

    1987-01-01

    This paper presents the on-going work performed in proposing instrumentation equipment and communications networks for the Diagnostic Data Acquisition and Diagnostic Instrumentation and Control System for the Compact Ignition Torus (CIT), which will begin operation in 1993. Consideration is given to the system criteria and requirements and their influence on the appropriate application of instrumentation and communication technologies to the system. This paper concentrates on the investigation of the bus communication technologies as they apply to the CIT data acquisition system. It compares CAMAC, VME, and FASTBUS as standards for data acquisition. The paper describes the connectivity between VAX equipment and CAMAC and VME instrumentation systems. Instrumentation and communication functionality and performance levels are presented as factors important to the overall data acquisition system performance

  19. Metabolism and autoradiographic evaluation of [{sup 18}F]FE-CIT: a Comparison with [{sup 123}I]{beta}-CIT and [{sup 123}I]FP-CIT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ettlinger, Dagmar E. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Medical University of Vienna, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Haeusler, Daniela; Wadsak, Wolfgang [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Medical University of Vienna, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Department of Nuclear Medicine, Medical University of Vienna, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Girschele, Friedrich; Sindelar, Karoline M. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Medical University of Vienna, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Mien, Leonhard-Key [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Medical University of Vienna, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Department of Nuclear Medicine, Medical University of Vienna, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Department of Nuclear Medicine, Medical University of Vienna, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Ungersboeck, Johanna [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Medical University of Vienna, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Department of Nuclear Medicine, Medical University of Vienna, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Viernstein, Helmut; Kletter, Kurt; Dudczak, Robert [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Medical University of Vienna, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Mitterhauser, Markus [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Medical University of Vienna, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Department of Nuclear Medicine, Medical University of Vienna, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Department of Nuclear Medicine, Medical University of Vienna, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)], E-mail: markus.mitterhauser@meduniwien.ac.at

    2008-05-15

    Purpose: Since the late 1980s, cocaine analogues based on the phenyltropane structure, such as [{sup 11}C]CFT and [{sup 123}I]{beta}-CIT have been used for the imaging of the dopamine transporter. FE-CIT (fluoropropyl ester) and FP-CIT (N-fluoropropyl derivative) are further analogues. The aim of this study was to (1) evaluate and compare the metabolic stability of {beta}-CIT, FP-CIT and FE-CIT against carboxyl esterases and (2) evaluate selectivity of [{sup 18}F]FE-CIT compared to [{sup 123}I]{beta}-CIT and [{sup 123}I]FP-CIT using autoradiography. Methods: In vitro enzymatic hydrolysis assays were performed using different concentrations of {beta}-CIT, FE-CIT and FP-CIT with constant concentrations of carboxyl esterase. Autoradiography was performed on coronal 20-{mu}m rat brain sections incubated with different radioactivity concentrations of [{sup 123}I]{beta}-CIT, [{sup 123}I]FP-CIT or [{sup 18}F]FE-CIT and, additionally, with 3-amino-4-(2-dimethylaminomethyl-phenylsulfanyl)-benzonitrile [serotonin transporter (SERT)] and nisoxetine [norepinephrine transporter (NET)] for blocking experiments. Results: In vitro assays showed Michaelis-Menten constants of 175 {mu}mol ({beta}-CIT), 183 {mu}mol (FE-CIT) and 521 {mu}mol (FP-CIT). Limiting velocities were 0.1005 {mu}mol/min ({beta}-CIT), 0.1418 {mu}mol/min (FE-CIT) and 0.1308 {mu}mol/min (FP-CIT). This indicates a significantly increased stability of FP-CIT, whereas carboxyl esterase stability of {beta}-CIT and FE-CIT showed no significant difference. Autoradiographic analyses revealed a good correlation between dopamine transporter (DAT)-rich regions and the uptake pattern of FE-CIT. Blocking experiments showed a higher DAT selectivity for [{sup 18}F]FE-CIT than for the other two tracers. Conclusion: We found that (1) the metabolic stability of FE-CIT was comparable to that of {beta}-CIT, whereas FP-CIT showed higher resistance to enzymatic hydrolysis; and (2) the overall uptake pattern of [{sup 18}F]FE-CIT on

  20. Health-Related Quality of Life in Children with Celiac Disease: A Study Based on the Critical Incident Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Catassi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Celiac Disease (CD is a chronic autoimmune disease triggered by dietary gluten. Gluten avoidance, which is the only available treatment for CD, could impact on quality of life of children with CD. We present the results of a qualitative study on the emotional impact of gluten free diet (GFD on the everyday life of children affected with CD. We investigated 76 celiac patients aged 2–18 years (average age: 9.5 years. By using the Critical Incident Technique (CIT, we defined emotions related to difficulties and awkward situations experienced by the patients. Written answers to open-ended questions from either children (older than 8 years and parents (children younger than 8 years were analyzed qualitatively. We found 80 dilemmas experienced in three different arenas (food situations at school, meals at home, meals outside and characterized lived experiences of children with CD in everyday life (specific emotions, difficulties in relationships and in management of daily life. Children with CD experience strong emotions related to the GFD, permeating several aspects of everyday life. These dilemmas may be missed by a conventional, questionnaire-based approach to the psycho-social consequences of CD treatment.

  1. Le « bassin des carènes » et le service technique des constructions navales à Balard : un exemple de cité scientifique à Paris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valérie Gaudard

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Le « bassin des carènes » à Balard abrite un ensemble cohérent d’édifices techniques, scientifiques et administratifs destinés à l’étude du comportement des navires et de leur propulsion en toutes situations. Créé à l’initiative de l’ingénieur Bertin et inauguré en 1906, le premier bassin, en béton, comptait alors parmi les quatre plus grands bassins du monde. À partir de 1932, Perret frères édifient une véritable cité scientifique : bâtiment administratif (IMH 1965, laboratoires, plusieurs bassins sont élevés en béton armé, avec un même soin accordé à l’ensemble.The ‘bassin des carènes’, the ship testing tank situated at Balard, in Paris, comprises a coherent ensemble of technical , scientific and administrative buildings devoted to the study of ships and their propulsion in different situations. The facility was first created in 1906 at the instigation of the engineer Bertin. At this date, the towing tank, constructed in reinforced concrete, was one of the four largest in the world. From 1932, the Perret brothers were commissioned to provide other constructions, completing an authentic scientific complex or ‘city’. This included the administrative building (given historic monument protection in 1932 and several other tanks, all constructed in reinforced concrete and with the same attention to detail.

  2. Citrus CitNAC62 cooperates with CitWRKY1 to participate in citric acid degradation via up-regulation of CitAco3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shao-Jia; Yin, Xue-Ren; Wang, Wen-Li; Liu, Xiao-Fen; Zhang, Bo; Chen, Kun-Song

    2017-06-15

    Citric acid is the predominant organic acid of citrus fruit. Degradation of citric acid occurs during fruit development, influencing fruit acidity. Associations of CitAco3 transcripts and citric acid degradation have been reported for citrus fruit. Here, transient overexpression of CitAco3 significantly reduced the citric acid content of citrus leaves and fruits. Using dual luciferase assays, it was shown that CitNAC62 and CitWRKY1 could transactivate the promoter of CitAco3. Subcellular localization results showed that CitWRKY1 was located in the nucleus and CitNAC62 was not. Yeast two-hybrid analysis and bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) assays indicated that the two differently located transcription factors could interact with each other. Furthermore, BiFC showed that the protein-protein interaction occurred only in the nucleus, indicating the potential mobility of CitNAC62 in plant cells. A synergistic effect on citrate content was observed between CitNAC62 and CitWRKY1. Transient overexpression of CitNAC62 or CitWRKY1 led to significantly lower citrate content in citrus fruit. The combined expression of CitNAC62 and CitWRKY1 resulted in lower citrate content compared with the expression of CitNAC62 or CitWRKY1 alone. The transcript abundance of CitAco3 was consistent with the citrate content. Thus, we propose that a complex of CitWRKY1 and CitNAC62 contributes to citric acid degradation in citrus fruit, potentially via modulation of CitAco3. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  3. An isodose shift technique for obliquely incident electron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulin, K.; Sternick, E.S.

    1989-01-01

    It is well known that when an electron beam is incident obliquely on the surface of a phantom, the depth dose curve measured normal to the surface is shifted toward the surface. Based on geometrical arguments alone, the depth of the nth isodose line for an electron beam incident at an angle θ should be equal to the product of cos θ and the depth of the nth isodose line at normal incidence. This method, however, ignores the effects of scatter and can lead to significant errors in isodose placement for beams at large angles of incidence. A semi-empirical functional relationship and a table of isodose shift factors have been developed with which one may easily calculate the depth of any isodose line for beams at incident angles of 0 degree to 60 degree. The isodose shift factors are tabulated in terms of beam energy (6--22 MeV) and isodose line (10%--90%) and are shown to be relatively independent of beam size and incident angle for angles <60 degree. Extensive measurements have been made on a Varian Clinac 2500 linear accelerator with a parallel-plate chamber and polystyrene phantom. The dependence of the chamber response on beam angulation has been checked, and the scaling factor of the polystyrene phantom has been determined to be equal to 1.00

  4. Study on preparation and brain distribution of 125I-β-CIT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xingdang; Lin Xiangtong

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To develop a relatively simpler and faster method for the routine preparation of 125 I-β-CIT and animal brain distribution of 125 I-β-CIT. Methods: Peracetic acid or Iodogen as an oxidant was used to prepare 125 I-β-CIT and comparison was made between them. The HPLC purification technique was used to identify the labeled tracer. Stability and safety of the radioiodinated β-CIT were also studied. Groups of mice (n=5) were injected i.v. into the tail vein with 125 I-β-CIT . Animals were killed at 5, 15, 30 and 45 minutes, and 1, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 24 hours. Autoradiography was performed on brains of mice at 4 hours after injection. Results: Two kinds of labeling methods using Iodogen or peracetic acid produced 125 I-β-CIT of radiochemical yields 91.10% ± 8.09%, 54.70 ± 9.81% respectively, with high radiochemical purity (RCP) 99.33% ± 0.15%, 18-25 degree C and pH 1 or 2 is the best for Iodogen preparation. The labeled product was stable for at least 23 days when kept in room temperature, and stable for at least 10 weeks when kept in -4 degree C refrigerator. The peak time of uptake of 125 I-β-CIT in striatum was at four hours after injection and the highest value was 22.93% ± 3.11% ID/g. It's highest uptake rate is 20.09 ± 2.11. Conclusions: The Iodogen preparation method is simpler and has a higher labeling yield than peracetic acid labeling method and the labeling yield is higher than which ever reported abroad. The labeled radiopharmaceutical is stable. 125 I-β-CIT showed the highest accumulation in striatum with high densities of dopamine transporters in brain

  5. Structure and elevator mechanism of the Na(+)-citrate transporter CitS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lolkema, Juke S; Slotboom, Dirk Jan

    2016-01-01

    The recently determined crystal structure of the bacterial Na(+)-citrate symporter CitS provides unexpected structural and mechanistic insights. The protein has a fold that has not been seen in other proteins, but the oligomeric state, domain organization and proposed transport mechanism strongly

  6. Assessment of affinities of beta-CIT, beta-CIT-FE, and beta-CIT-FP for monoamine transporters permanently expressed in cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okada, Tomoya; Fujita, Masahiro; Shimada, Shoichi; Sato, Kohji; Schloss, Patrick; Watanabe, Yoshiyuki; Itoh, Yasushi; Tohyama, Masaya; Nishimura, Tsunehiko

    1998-01-01

    We investigated the effects of three cocaine analogs, beta-CIT (2-beta-carbomethoxy-3-beta-(4-iodophenyl)-tropane), beta-CIT-FE (2-beta-carbomethoxy-3-beta-(4-iodophenyl)-N-(2-fluoroethyl)-nortropane), and beta-CIT-FP (2-beta-carbomethoxy-3-beta-(4-iodophenyl)-N-(3-fluoropropyl)-nortropane), on the uptake of [ 3 H]dopamine(DA), serotonin(5-HT), and 1-norepinephrine (NE) using cell lines permanently expressing DA, 5-HT, and NE transporters, respectively, to determine their affinities for these three transporters. We generated cell lines stably expressing DA, 5-HT, and NE transporters, respectively, by the Chen-Okayama method, and then tested the abilities of (-)cocaine, beta-CIT, beta-CIT-FE, beta-CIT-FP, and clomipramine to inhibit the uptake of [ 3 H]DA, 5-HT, and 1-NE. Ki values of beta-CIT, beta-CIT-FE, and beta-CIT-FP for [ 3 H]DA, 5-HT, 1-NE uptake were 6, 29, and 33 nM, 91, 133, and 130 nM, and 28, 113 and 70 nM, respectively, whereas those of cocaine and clomipramine were 316, 581, and 176 nM and > 10,000, 437, and 851 nM, respectively. Beta-CIT, beta-CIT-FE, and beta-CIT-FP were shown to be potent DA, 5-HT, and NE uptake inhibitors. Beta-CIT and beta-CIT-FP were highly potent and selective dopamine uptake inhibitors, and therefore might be useful for imaging of DA transporter with single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) or positron emission tomography (PET)

  7. Determinants of Peritoneal Dialysis Technique Failure in Incident US Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Shen, Jenny I.; Mitani, Aya A.; Saxena, Anjali B.; Goldstein, Benjamin A.; Winkelmayer, Wolfgang C.

    2013-01-01

    ♦ Objectives: Switching from peritoneal dialysis (PD) to hemodialysis (HD) is undesirable, because of complications from temporary vascular access, disruption of daily routine, and higher costs. Little is known about the role that social factors play in technique failure.

  8. Structure and elevator mechanism of the Na+-citrate transporter CitS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lolkema, Juke S; Slotboom, Dirk Jan

    2017-08-01

    The recently determined crystal structure of the bacterial Na + -citrate symporter CitS provides unexpected structural and mechanistic insights. The protein has a fold that has not been seen in other proteins, but the oligomeric state, domain organization and proposed transport mechanism strongly resemble those of the sodium-dicarboxylate symporter vcINDY, and the putative exporters YdaH and MtrF, thus hinting at convergence in structure and function. CitS and the related proteins are predicted to translocate their substrates by an elevator-like mechanism, in which a compact transport domain slides up and down through the membrane while the dimerization domain is stably anchored. Here we review the large body of available biochemical data on CitS in the light of the new crystal structure. We show that the biochemical data are fully consistent with the proposed elevator mechanism, but also demonstrate that the current structural data cannot explain how strict coupling of citrate and Na + transport is achieved. We propose a testable model for the coupling mechanism. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Using the Critical Incident Technique for Triangulation and Elaboration of Communication Management Competencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunton, Margaret Ann; Jeffrey, Lynn Maud

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the findings from research using the critical incident technique to identify the use of key competencies for communication management practitioners. Qualitative data was generated from 202 critical incidents reported by 710 respondents. We also present a brief summary of the quantitative data, which identified two superordinate…

  10. The Development of a Differential Deposition Technique for Figure Correction in Grazing Incidence Optics

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose the development of a physical-vapor-deposition coating technique to correct residual figure errors in grazing-incidence optics. The process involves...

  11. Clinical features and 123I-FP-CIT SPECT imaging in drug-induced parkinsonism and Parkinson's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz-Corrales, Francisco J.; Escobar-Delgado, Teresa; Sanz-Viedma, Salome; Garcia-Solis, David; Mir, Pablo

    2010-01-01

    To determine clinical predictors and accuracy of 123 I-FP-CIT SPECT imaging in the differentiation of drug-induced parkinsonism (DIP) and Parkinson's disease (PD). Several clinical features and 123 I-FP-CIT SPECT images in 32 patients with DIP, 25 patients with PD unmasked by antidopaminergic drugs (PDu) and 22 patients with PD without a previous history of antidopaminergic treatment (PDc) were retrospectively evaluated. DIP and PD shared all clinical features except symmetry of parkinsonian signs which was more frequently observed in patients with DIP (46.9%) than in patients with PDu (16.0%, p 123 I-FP-CIT SPECT images were normal in 29 patients with DIP (90.6%) and abnormal in all patients with PD, and this imaging technique showed high levels of accuracy. DIP and PD are difficult to differentiate based on clinical signs. The precision of clinical diagnosis could be reliably enhanced by 123 I-FP-CIT SPECT imaging. (orig.)

  12. Dopamine transporter imaging with [{sup 123}I]FP-CIT SPECT: potential effects of drugs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Booij, Jan [University of Amsterdam, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Kemp, Paul [Southampton University Hospitals Trust, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Southampton (United Kingdom)

    2008-02-15

    [{sup 123}I]N-{omega}-fluoropropyl-2{beta}-carbomethoxy-3{beta}-{l_brace}4-iodophenyl{r_brace}nortropane ([{sup 123}I]FP-CIT) single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) is a frequently and routinely used technique to detect or exclude dopaminergic degeneration by imaging the dopamine transporter (DAT) in parkinsonian and demented patients. This technique is also used in scientific studies in humans, as well as in preclinical studies to assess the availability of DAT binding in the striatum. In routine clinical studies, but also in scientific studies, patients are frequently on medication and sometimes even use drugs of abuse. Moreover, in preclinical studies, animals will be anesthetized. Prescribed drugs, drugs of abuse, and anesthetics may influence the visual interpretation and/or quantification of [{sup 123}I]FP-CIT SPECT scans. Here, we discuss the basic principle of how drugs and anesthetics might influence the visual interpretation and/or quantification of [{sup 123}I]FP-CIT SPECT scans. We also review drugs which are likely to have a significant influence on the visual interpretation and/or quantification of [{sup 123}I]FP-CIT SPECT scans. Additionally, we discuss the evidence as to whether frequently prescribed drugs in parkinsonian and demented patients may have an influence on the visual interpretation and/or quantification of [{sup 123}I]FP-CIT SPECT scans. Finally, we discuss our recommendations as to which drugs should be ideally withdrawn before performing a [{sup 123}I]FP-CIT SPECT scan for routine clinical purposes. The decision to withdraw any medication must always be made by the specialist in charge of the patient's care and taking into account the pros and cons of doing so. (orig.)

  13. Dopamine transporter imaging with [123I]FP-CIT SPECT: potential effects of drugs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Booij, Jan; Kemp, Paul

    2008-01-01

    [ 123 I]N-ω-fluoropropyl-2β-carbomethoxy-3β-{4-iodophenyl}nortropane ([ 123 I]FP-CIT) single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) is a frequently and routinely used technique to detect or exclude dopaminergic degeneration by imaging the dopamine transporter (DAT) in parkinsonian and demented patients. This technique is also used in scientific studies in humans, as well as in preclinical studies to assess the availability of DAT binding in the striatum. In routine clinical studies, but also in scientific studies, patients are frequently on medication and sometimes even use drugs of abuse. Moreover, in preclinical studies, animals will be anesthetized. Prescribed drugs, drugs of abuse, and anesthetics may influence the visual interpretation and/or quantification of [ 123 I]FP-CIT SPECT scans. Here, we discuss the basic principle of how drugs and anesthetics might influence the visual interpretation and/or quantification of [ 123 I]FP-CIT SPECT scans. We also review drugs which are likely to have a significant influence on the visual interpretation and/or quantification of [ 123 I]FP-CIT SPECT scans. Additionally, we discuss the evidence as to whether frequently prescribed drugs in parkinsonian and demented patients may have an influence on the visual interpretation and/or quantification of [ 123 I]FP-CIT SPECT scans. Finally, we discuss our recommendations as to which drugs should be ideally withdrawn before performing a [ 123 I]FP-CIT SPECT scan for routine clinical purposes. The decision to withdraw any medication must always be made by the specialist in charge of the patient's care and taking into account the pros and cons of doing so. (orig.)

  14. Improved synthesis of β-CIT and [11C]β-CIT labeled at nitrogen or oxygen positions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Qihuang; Mulholland, G. Keith

    1996-01-01

    The important radiotracer precursor 2β-carbomethoxy-3β-(4-idophenyl)-tropane (β-CIT, RTI-55) was made in 52% overall yield from cocaine. Key steps were improved conjugate Grignard addition to anhydroecgonine methyl ester with > 3.5:1 2β: 2α-isomer selectivity, and a mild new direct aromatic iodination with I 2 and silver triflate in CH 2 Cl 2 . The [ 11 C]β-CIT was labeled at either the N or O positions with [ 11 C]methyl triflate; and efficient reversed-phase HPLC was used to preparatively separate [N- 11 C]β-CIT from N-nor-β-CIT for the first time, and a fast solid-phase extraction (SPE) method was applied to preparatively separate [O- 11 C]β-CIT from β-CIT-acid precursor

  15. Keyboarding Instruction at NABTE Institutions: Are We Teaching Techniques to Reduce CTD Incidence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaszczynski, Carol; Joyce, Marguerite Shane

    1996-01-01

    Responses from 157 of 193 business teachers who teach keyboarding indicated that 78.7% were aware of cumulative trauma disorder and 22% had experienced it. Only 13% of classrooms were equipped with wrist rests. About 53% teach techniques to reduce incidence, but 20% did not know whether they taught preventive measures. (SK)

  16. A prospective study to select and evaluate anesthesiology residents: phase I, the critical incident technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altmaier, E M; From, R P; Pearson, K S; Gorbatenko-Roth, K G; Ugolini, K A

    1997-12-01

    To develop categories of behavior that define an applicant's aptitude for anesthesia, and to attempt to determine the relative importance of these behaviors to successful residency performance. Prospective open study. Anesthesia residencies at three midwest university teaching hospitals. Using a structured interview format known as the critical incident technique, faculty anesthesiologists were asked to describe examples of effective and ineffective behaviors observed among anesthesia residents during the twelve months prior to the interview. Interviews initially held with 34 anesthesiologists generated 172 incidents. These incidents formed the basis for a categorization analysis performed by two anesthesiologists. Six categories were developed: preparedness, interpersonal skills, response to teaching, data monitoring, technical skills, and emergency situations. Validation of these categories was confirmed with three subsequent interviews, in which 92 anesthesiologists generated 475 incidents. Most incidents were found to conform to the previously defined categories using a reallocation index with a range of 0.70 to 0.80. The category "technical skills" fell below the defined range. Over 60 percent of the incidents involved noncognitive personal attributes: preparedness, interpersonal skills, and response to teaching. Effective behavior in six categories identifies an applicant's aptitude for anesthesia. Selection of residents may be enhanced by routinely assessing noncognitive characteristics.

  17. Recent progress on the Compact Ignition Tokamak (CIT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ignat, D.W.

    1987-01-01

    This report describes work done on the Compact Ignition Tokamak (CIT), both at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) and at other fusion laboratories in the United States. The goal of CIT is to reach ignition in a tokamak fusion device in the mid-1990's. Scientific and engineering features of the design are described, as well as projected cost and schedule

  18. Direct comparison of FP-CIT SPECT and F-DOPA PET in patients with Parkinson's disease and healthy controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eshuis, S.A.; Maguire, R.P.; Leenders, K.L.; Jager, P.L.; Jonkman, S.; Dierckx, R.A.

    2009-01-01

    Diagnosing Parkinson's disease (PD) on clinical grounds may be difficult, especially in the early stages of the disease. F-DOPA PET and FP-CIT SPECT scans are able to determine presynaptic dopaminergic activity in different ways. The aim of this study was to determine and compare the sensitivity and specificity of the two methods in the detection of striatal dopaminergic deficits in the same cohort of PD patients and healthy controls. Movement disorder specialists recruited 11 patients with early-stage PD and 17 patients with advanced PD. The patients underwent both an FP-CIT SPECT scan and an F-DOPA PET scan. In addition, 10 FP-CIT SPECT scans or 10 F-DOPA PET scans were performed in 20 healthy controls. A template with regions of interest was used to sample tracer activity of the caudate, putamen and a reference region in the brain. The outcome parameter was the striatooccipital ratio (SOR). Normal SOR values were determined in the controls. The sensitivity and specificity of both scanning methods were calculated. FP-CIT SPECT and F-DOPA PET scans were both able to discriminate PD patients from healthy controls. For the early phases of the disease, sensitivity and specificity of the contralateral striatal and putaminal uptake of FP-CIT and F-DOPA was 100%. When only caudate uptake was considered, the specificities were 100% and 90% for FP-CIT and F-DOPA, respectively, while the sensitivity was 91% for both scanning techniques. FP-CIT SPECT and F-DOPA PET scans are both able to diagnose presynaptic dopaminergic deficits in early phases of PD with excellent sensitivity and specificity. (orig.)

  19. Factors influencing patient compliance with therapeutic regimens in chronic heart failure: A critical incident technique analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strömberg, A; Broström, A; Dahlström, U; Fridlund, B

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify factors influencing compliance with prescribed treatment in patients with chronic heart failure. A qualitative design with a critical incident technique was used. Incidents were collected through interviews with 25 patients with heart failure strategically selected from a primary health care clinic, a medical ward, and a specialist clinic. Two hundred sixty critical incidents were identified in the interviews and 2 main areas emerged in the analysis: inward factors and outward factors. The inward factors described how compliance was influenced by the personality of the patient, the disease, and the treatment. The outward factors described how compliance was influenced by social activities, social relationships, and health care professionals. By identifying the inward and outward factors influencing patients with chronic heart failure, health care professionals can assess whether intervention is needed to increase compliance.

  20. [{sup 125}I]{beta}-CIT-FE and [{sup 125}I]{beta}-CIT-FP are superior to [{sup 125}I]{beta}-CIT for dopamine transporter visualization: Autoradiographic evaluation in the human brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guenther, Ilonka; Hall, Haakan; Halldin, Christer; Swahn, Carl-Gunnar; Farde, Lars; Sedvall, Goeran

    1997-10-01

    The binding of the three dopamine transporter radioligands ([{sup 125}I]{beta}-CIT, [{sup 125}I]{beta}-CIT-FE, and [{sup 125}I]{beta}-CIT-FP) was studied using whole-hemisphere autoradiography on postmortem human brains. The autoradiograms revealed an intense and homogeneous labeling of the nucleus caudatus and putamen but also to varying extent to serotonergic and noradrenergic transporters of neocortex and thalamus. The order of specificity estimated (striatum over neocortex ratios) was {beta}-CIT-FP > {beta}-CIT-FE >> {beta}-CIT, suggesting that {beta}-CIT-FE and {beta}-CIT-FP should be preferred for in vivo studies of the dopamine transporter in the human brain.

  1. Ion Bernstein wave heating on the Compact Ignition Tokamak (CIT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ignat, D.W.; Ono, M.

    1989-02-01

    In the present plan, CIT is to be heated by power in the ion cyclotron range of frequencies (ICRF), and electron cyclotron heating (ECH) may be used if suitable rf sources can be developed. We consider the option of ion Bernstein wave heating (IBWH). The key points are that a simple vacuum waveguide launcher can be well- removed from high fluxes of heat and particles and that the development of a suitable source is straightforward. A practical point is that an IBWH waveguide launcher, including transition from coaxial power feeds, fits inside the shield wall surrounding CIT. To confirm IBWH as an option for CIT, experiments are needed on a shaped, H-mode plasma at high power. Successful experiments should be followed by a tube development program to allow CIT heating at 200 - 275 MHz. 2 refs., 3 figs

  2. Ion-induced nanopatterns on semiconductor surfaces investigated by grazing incidence x-ray scattering techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carbone, D; Metzger, T H [ID01, ESRF, 6 rue Jules Horowitz, F-38043 Grenoble Cedex (France); Biermanns, A; Pietsch, U [Festkoerperphysik, Universitaet Siegen, D-57068 Siegen (Germany); Ziberi, B; Frost, F [Leibniz-Institut fuer Oberflaechenmodifizierung e.V., D-04318 Leipzig (Germany); Plantevin, O [Universite Paris-Sud, Centre de Spectrometrie Nucleaire et de Spectrometrie de Masse, UMR 8609, F-91405 Orsay (France)], E-mail: gcarbone@esrf.fr

    2009-06-03

    In this review we cover and describe the application of grazing incidence x-ray scattering techniques to study and characterize nanopattern formation on semiconductor surfaces by ion beam erosion under various conditions. It is demonstrated that x-rays under grazing incidence are especially well suited to characterize (sub)surface structures on the nanoscale with high spatial and statistical accuracy. The corresponding theory and data evaluation is described in the distorted wave Born approximation. Both ex situ and in situ studies are presented, performed with the use of a specially designed sputtering chamber which allows us to follow the temporal evolution of the nanostructure formation. Corresponding results show a general stabilization of the ordering wavelength and the extension of the ordering as a function of the ion energy and fluence as predicted by theory. The in situ measurements are especially suited to study the early stages of pattern formation, which in some cases reveal a transition from dot to ripple formation. For the case of medium energy ions crystalline ripples are formed buried under a semi-amorphous thick layer with a ripple structure at the surface being conformal with the crystalline/amorphous interface. Here, the x-ray techniques are especially advantageous since they are non-destructive and bulk-sensitive by their very nature. In addition, the GI x-ray techniques described in this review are a unique tool to study the evolving strain, a topic which remains to be explored both experimentally and theoretically.

  3. Electron cyclotron heating studies of the Compact Ignition Tokamak (CIT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porkolab, M.; Bonoli, P.T.; Englade, R.; Myer, R.; Smith, G.R.; Kritz, A.H.

    1989-01-01

    The Compact Ignition Tokamak (CIT) operating scenario calls for ramping the toroidal magnetic field from B/sub T/ = 7.0 (8.0) to 10.0 Tesla in a few seconds, followed by a burn cycle and a ramp-down cycle. Simultaneously, the plasma must be heated from an initial low beta equilibrium (/bar /beta// ≅ 0.44% at 7.0 to 8.0 Tesla) to a final burn equilibrium (/bar /beta// = 2.8%) having 10.0 Tesla on the magnetic axis. Since the toroidal plasma current will be ramped at the same time and since the available time for flat-top magnetic field must be reserved for the burn cycle, it is imperative that densification and heating be carried out as the magnetic field is ramped. Here we examine an approach which is applicable to ECR heating. The frequency remains constant, while the angle of injection is varied by simply rotating a reflecting mirror placed in the path of the incident microwave beam. The rotating mirror permits one to launch waves with sufficiently high N/sub /parallel// so that the Doppler broadened resonance of particles on the magnetic axis with f = 280 GHz and B/sub T/ = 7.0--8.0 Tesla can provide adequate absorption. As the resonance layer moves toward the magnetic axis the beam is swept toward perpendicular to reduce the Doppler width and avoid heating the plasma edge. At B/sub T/ = 10.0 Tesla the beam will be at normal incidence with strong absorption immediately on the high field side of the resonance (relativistic regime). We envisage using the ordinary mode (O-mode, /rvec E//sub RF/ /parallel/ /rvec B/) of polarization which is accessible from the outside (low-field side) of the torus provided the density is such that ω/sub pe/ ≤ ω ∼ ω/sub ce/ (max). 8 refs., 3 figs

  4. Effective classroom teaching methods: a critical incident technique from millennial nursing students' perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robb, Meigan

    2014-01-11

    Engaging nursing students in the classroom environment positively influences their ability to learn and apply course content to clinical practice. Students are motivated to engage in learning if their learning preferences are being met. The methods nurse educators have used with previous students in the classroom may not address the educational needs of Millennials. This manuscript presents the findings of a pilot study that used the Critical Incident Technique. The purpose of this study was to gain insight into the teaching methods that help the Millennial generation of nursing students feel engaged in the learning process. Students' perceptions of effective instructional approaches are presented in three themes. Implications for nurse educators are discussed.

  5. Evaluation of the incidence on insufficient cytology results comparing different ultrasound-guided aspiration techniques for thyroid nodules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seong Hyng; Park, Jun Hyun; Park, Ji Kang [Dept. of Radiology, Jeju National University Hospital, Jeju National University School of Medicine, Jeju (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-07-15

    We compared the incidence of insufficient thyroid cytology due to blood-stained materials or low cellularity in terms of aspiration technique, especially focusing on the degree of suction pressure and needle size. Three experienced radiologists performed ultrasound-guided aspiration for thyroid nodules in 1174 thyroid nodules consecutively. Three different techniques were used; (A) using a 25 gauge needle with mainly capillary technique in 269 nodules; (B) using a 25 gauge needle with 3 cc syringe and minimal suction pressure in 303 nodules; (C) using a 22-23 gauge needle with 10 cc syringe and aspirator in 602 nodules. The differences of the incidence of the insufficient cytology among the three aspiration techniques and relationships of the incidence and needle size/degree of suction pressure was statistically analyzed using the Mann-Whitney U test and the chi-square test with linear-by-linear association. Overall, the difference in insufficient cytology was significant across the three aspiration technique (p = 0.004), and the incidence tended to increase significantly with increase of needle size and degree of suction pressure (p < 0.001). A pairwise comparison of aspiration techniques found significant differences (p = 0.003) between techniques (A) and (C), and no differences between technique (B) and (C) (p 0.07) and between techniques (A) and (B) (p = 0.10). The incidence of insufficient cytology was significantly low in the capillary technique, and it increased significantly with the increase of needle size and degree of suction pressure.

  6. Evaluation of the incidence on insufficient cytology results comparing different ultrasound-guided aspiration techniques for thyroid nodules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seong Hyng; Park, Jun Hyun; Park, Ji Kang

    2013-01-01

    We compared the incidence of insufficient thyroid cytology due to blood-stained materials or low cellularity in terms of aspiration technique, especially focusing on the degree of suction pressure and needle size. Three experienced radiologists performed ultrasound-guided aspiration for thyroid nodules in 1174 thyroid nodules consecutively. Three different techniques were used; (A) using a 25 gauge needle with mainly capillary technique in 269 nodules; (B) using a 25 gauge needle with 3 cc syringe and minimal suction pressure in 303 nodules; (C) using a 22-23 gauge needle with 10 cc syringe and aspirator in 602 nodules. The differences of the incidence of the insufficient cytology among the three aspiration techniques and relationships of the incidence and needle size/degree of suction pressure was statistically analyzed using the Mann-Whitney U test and the chi-square test with linear-by-linear association. Overall, the difference in insufficient cytology was significant across the three aspiration technique (p = 0.004), and the incidence tended to increase significantly with increase of needle size and degree of suction pressure (p < 0.001). A pairwise comparison of aspiration techniques found significant differences (p = 0.003) between techniques (A) and (C), and no differences between technique (B) and (C) (p 0.07) and between techniques (A) and (B) (p = 0.10). The incidence of insufficient cytology was significantly low in the capillary technique, and it increased significantly with the increase of needle size and degree of suction pressure.

  7. Structural insights into the elevator-like mechanism of the sodium/citrate symporter CitS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji Won; Kim, Subin; Kim, Songwon; Lee, Haerim; Lee, Jie-Oh; Jin, Mi Sun

    2017-05-31

    The sodium-dependent citrate transporter of Klebsiella pneumoniae (KpCitS) belongs to the 2-hydroxycarboxylate transporter (2-HCT) family and allows the cell to use citrate as sole carbon and energy source in anaerobic conditions. Here we present crystal structures of KpCitS in citrate-bound outward-facing, citrate-bound asymmetric, and citrate-free inward-facing state. The structures reveal that the KpCitS dimerization domain remains stationary throughout the transport cycle due to a hydrogen bond network as well as extensive hydrophobic interactions. In contrast, its transport domain undergoes a ~35° rigid-body rotation and a ~17 Å translocation perpendicular to the membrane to expose the substrate-binding site alternately to either side of the membrane. Furthermore, homology models of two other 2-HCT proteins based on the KpCitS structure offer structural insights into their differences in substrate specificity at a molecular level. On the basis of our results and previous biochemical data, we propose that the activity of the 2-HCT CitS involves an elevator-like movement in which the transport domain itself traverses the lipid bilayer, carrying the substrate into the cell in a sodium-dependent manner.

  8. 125I-β-CIT imaging study of striatal dopamine transporters in mice model of parkinsonism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Zhenguo; Sun Wenshan; Weng Zhongfang; Chen Shengdi; Shen Minghua; Zhu Chengmo

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To detect the activity of striatal dopamine transporters (DAT) in lesions of different order of severity of MPTP-induced mice model of parkinsonism by autoradiography with 125 I-β-CIT and to evaluate the clinical use of the β-CIT imaging for DAT detection. Methods: With regard to the different duration (days) of MPTP treatment, the C57BL mice were randomly divided into 5 groups, that is MPTP 1, 3, 5 and 7 day groups and control group treated with normal saline instead of MPTP. Two hours after intravenous administration with 125 I-β-CIT of 148 kBq, the brain tissue sections were imaged by autoradiography. The levels of dopamine (DA) and its metabolites were measured by high performance liquid chromatography and electrochemical detection (HPLC-ECD). The tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-positive cells and fibres in the substantia nigra and striatum of the mice were observed by means of immunohistochemical technique. Results: As compared with control group, the radioactivity ratios of striatum to cortex (ST/CX) in 4 MPTP-treated groups were significantly reduced, by 20%, 42%, 45% and 52%, respectively. The concentrations of DA in the striatum of 4 MPTP-treated groups were remarkably decreased, by 47%, 75%, 95% and 95%, respectively. The gradual loss of DA neurons and fibres in the substantia nigra and striatum in 4 MPTP-treated groups was observed under microscopy. Conclusions: The functional abnormality of DAT paralleled the changes observed in neurochemistry and neuropathology studies in the lesions of different order of injury of the MPTP-treated mice. The β-CIT scanning for the activity of DAT may be useful for diagnosing PD at earlier phase and for monitoring the progression of the disease

  9. Cooperating internationally. US/Japan Civil Industrial Technologies (CIT) Arrangement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    The Civil Industrial Technologies (CIT) Arrangement was signed in July 1994 between governments of the US and Japan. Areas of research range from scientific and technical databases and bioprocessing to precompetitive processing of functionally-gradient materials and ceramics. Papers presented in this symposium include studies on thin polymer films generated by vapor deposition polymerization, development of manufacturing technique of fusing 3D C/C composite materials, measurement and analysis for high performance computing systems, low-cost fabrication of ceramic components, bioprocessing, data exchange for mass spectral databases, development of high performance aluminum nitride ceramics, precompetitive processing of functionally-gradient materials, purity determination of organic reference materials, definitive methods traceable to SI unit, development of biocompatible artificial hard tissue materials, development of photoassisted catalysis technologies, surface analysis for catalysts by electron spectroscopy, development of ultra-solid lubricant with cluster diamond, precise determination of impurities in high-purity rare-earth metals, and highly accurate acceleration measurement system. 22 refs., 86 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. The astrosphere of the asymptotic giant branch star CIT 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahai, Raghvendra [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, MS 183-900, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Mack-Crane, Galen P., E-mail: sahai@jpl.nasa.gov [Department of Physics, Occidental College, Los Angeles, CA 90041 (United States)

    2014-10-01

    We have discovered two extended half-ring structures in a far-ultraviolet image taken with the GALEX satellite of the well-known mass-losing carbon star CIT 6 (RW LMi). The northern (southern) ring is brighter (fainter) with a diameter of ∼15' (∼18'). These structures most likely represent the astrosphere resulting from the shock interaction of CIT 6's molecular wind with the warm interstellar medium (ISM), as it moves through the latter. These data provide a direct estimate of the size of CIT 6's circumstellar envelope that is a factor ∼20 larger than previous estimates based on CO millimeter-wave line data. We find that CIT 6 has been undergoing heavy mass-loss for at least 93,000 yr and the total envelope mass is 0.29 M {sub ☉} or larger, assuming a constant mass-loss rate of 3.2 × 10{sup –6} M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}. Assuming that the shock front has reached a steady state and CIT 6's motion relative to the ISM is in the sky plane, we measure the termination-shock standoff distance directly from the image and find that CIT 6 is moving at a speed of about ≳39 (0.17 cm{sup –3}/n {sub ISM}){sup 1/2} km s{sup –1} through the ISM around it. However, comparisons with published numerical simulations and analytical modeling shows that CIT 6's forward shock (the northern ring) departs from the parabolic shape expected in steady state. We discuss several possible explanations for this departureþ.

  11. 125I-β-CIT biodistribution study in animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Ping

    2000-01-01

    The purpose is to study the preparation and biodistribution in animal of dopamine transporter imaging agent 125 I-β-CIT. β-CIT was 125 I radioiodinated with Iodogen method, the dynamic distribution of 125 I-β-CIT in brain and critical organs were studied with SD rat (autoradiography) and NIH mice respectively. The radiolabelling yield of 125 I-β-CIT was 84%, the radiochemical purity was better than 98%. Blood clearance could be explained by two-compartment model with a duration of 12h, (α = 3.87, T 1/2α = 0.179, β = 0.162, T 1/2β = 4.276) and three-compartment model in 24 h, (Pi = 5.28, T 1/2Pi = 0.131, α = 0.403, T 1/2α = 1.719, β 0.040, T 1/2β = 17.298). The maxim uptake rate of brain (9.1% +- 1.0%) was reaches at 1h, while at 24h, the target/noise ratio was higher . Critical organs liver, lung, spleen and kidney had high uptake rate [(9.88 +- 1.43) - (16.29 +- 1.72)], except liver, other organs showed quick clearance (T 1/2 125 I-β-CIT has a high striatum uptake and good stability in vivo, can provide good SPECT images, the best acquisition time of SPECT may be about 20h after i.v

  12. Simulation of the Compact Ignition Tokamak (CIT) conceptual design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, K.E.; Wareing, T.L.

    1988-01-01

    Calculations have been made using the Advanced Thermal Hydraulic Energy Network Analysis (ATHENA) code that simulate the cool down of the cryostat and the performance of the condensing heat exchanger. The purpose of this simulation was to confirm the estimated 30 minute cool down time and to size a condensing heat exchanger for the CIT liquid nitrogen cooling system. This report includes a brief description of the ATHENA code, descriptions of proposed CIT cryostat and condenser designs, and the associated ATHENA models representing these design. This is followed by the ATHENA calculated results and conclusions concerning the results. 6 refs., 17 figs

  13. Breast Cancer-Related Arm Lymphedema: Incidence Rates, Diagnostic Techniques, Optimal Management and Risk Reduction Strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shah, Chirag [Department of Radiation Oncology, William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, MI (United States); Vicini, Frank A., E-mail: fvicini@beaumont.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, MI (United States)

    2011-11-15

    As more women survive breast cancer, long-term toxicities affecting their quality of life, such as lymphedema (LE) of the arm, gain importance. Although numerous studies have attempted to determine incidence rates, identify optimal diagnostic tests, enumerate efficacious treatment strategies and outline risk reduction guidelines for breast cancer-related lymphedema (BCRL), few groups have consistently agreed on any of these issues. As a result, standardized recommendations are still lacking. This review will summarize the latest data addressing all of these concerns in order to provide patients and health care providers with optimal, contemporary recommendations. Published incidence rates for BCRL vary substantially with a range of 2-65% based on surgical technique, axillary sampling method, radiation therapy fields treated, and the use of chemotherapy. Newer clinical assessment tools can potentially identify BCRL in patients with subclinical disease with prospective data suggesting that early diagnosis and management with noninvasive therapy can lead to excellent outcomes. Multiple therapies exist with treatments defined by the severity of BCRL present. Currently, the standard of care for BCRL in patients with significant LE is complex decongestive physiotherapy (CDP). Contemporary data also suggest that a multidisciplinary approach to the management of BCRL should begin prior to definitive treatment for breast cancer employing patient-specific surgical, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy paradigms that limit risks. Further, prospective clinical assessments before and after treatment should be employed to diagnose subclinical disease. In those patients who require aggressive locoregional management, prophylactic therapies and the use of CDP can help reduce the long-term sequelae of BCRL.

  14. Breast Cancer-Related Arm Lymphedema: Incidence Rates, Diagnostic Techniques, Optimal Management and Risk Reduction Strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, Chirag; Vicini, Frank A.

    2011-01-01

    As more women survive breast cancer, long-term toxicities affecting their quality of life, such as lymphedema (LE) of the arm, gain importance. Although numerous studies have attempted to determine incidence rates, identify optimal diagnostic tests, enumerate efficacious treatment strategies and outline risk reduction guidelines for breast cancer–related lymphedema (BCRL), few groups have consistently agreed on any of these issues. As a result, standardized recommendations are still lacking. This review will summarize the latest data addressing all of these concerns in order to provide patients and health care providers with optimal, contemporary recommendations. Published incidence rates for BCRL vary substantially with a range of 2–65% based on surgical technique, axillary sampling method, radiation therapy fields treated, and the use of chemotherapy. Newer clinical assessment tools can potentially identify BCRL in patients with subclinical disease with prospective data suggesting that early diagnosis and management with noninvasive therapy can lead to excellent outcomes. Multiple therapies exist with treatments defined by the severity of BCRL present. Currently, the standard of care for BCRL in patients with significant LE is complex decongestive physiotherapy (CDP). Contemporary data also suggest that a multidisciplinary approach to the management of BCRL should begin prior to definitive treatment for breast cancer employing patient-specific surgical, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy paradigms that limit risks. Further, prospective clinical assessments before and after treatment should be employed to diagnose subclinical disease. In those patients who require aggressive locoregional management, prophylactic therapies and the use of CDP can help reduce the long-term sequelae of BCRL.

  15. Congestive heart failure, spouses' support and the couple's sleep situation: a critical incident technique analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broström, Anders; Strömberg, Anna; Dahlström, Ulf; Fridlund, Bengt

    2003-03-01

    Sleep related breathing disorders are common as well as a poor prognostic sign associated with higher mortality in patients with congestive heart failure (CHF). These patients often have a shorter total duration of sleep, disturbed sleep structure and increased daytime sleepiness, which can negatively affect all dimensions of the life situation. The spouse has an important role in supporting the patient in relation to sleep disorders, but this role may be adversely affected by the sleep situation of the couple. The aim of this study was to describe decisive situations that influence spouses' support to patients with CHF in relation to the couple's sleep situation. A qualitative descriptive design using critical incident technique was employed. Incidents were collected by means of interviews with 25 spouses of patients with CHF, strategically selected from two hospital-based specialist clinics in southern Sweden. Two main areas emerged in the analysis: support stimulating situations and support inhibiting situations. Support stimulating situations described how spouses' support was positively affected by their own adaptation in psychosocial or practical situations, and receiving help from others. Support inhibiting situations described how the spouses' support was negatively affected by sleep disturbances as a result of the patient's symptoms, anxiety in relation to the disease, limitations as a result of the sleeping habits, dissatisfaction with care related to the sleep situation, and being left to cope alone with the problems. An increased understanding of the stimulating and inhibiting situations influencing spouses' support for patients with CHF can guide health care personnel in deciding if an intervention is needed to improve the sleep situation for patient and spouse.

  16. Patients' experiences and actions when describing pain after surgery--a critical incident technique analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, Kerstin; Wikström, Lotta; Fridlund, Bengt; Årestedt, Kristofer; Broström, Anders

    2016-04-01

    Postoperative pain assessment remains a significant problem in clinical care despite patients wanting to describe their pain and be treated as unique individuals. Deeper knowledge about variations in patients' experiences and actions could help healthcare professionals to improve pain management and could increase patients' participation in pain assessments. The aim of this study was, through an examination of critical incidents, to describe patients' experiences and actions when needing to describe pain after surgery. An explorative design involving the critical incident technique was used. Patients from one university and three county hospitals in both urban and rural areas were included. To ensure variation of patients a strategic sampling was made according to age, gender, education and surgery. A total of 25 patients who had undergone orthopaedic or general surgery was asked to participate in an interview, of whom three declined. Pain experiences were described according to two main areas: "Patients' resources when in need of pain assessment" and "Ward resources for performing pain assessments". Patients were affected by their expectations and tolerance for pain. Ability to describe pain could be limited by a fear of coming into conflict with healthcare professionals or being perceived as whining. Furthermore, attitudes from healthcare professionals and their lack of adherence to procedures affected patients' ability to describe pain. Two main areas regarding actions emerged: "Patients used active strategies when needing to describe pain" and "Patients used passive strategies when needing to describe pain". Patients informed healthcare professionals about their pain and asked questions in order to make decisions about their pain situation. Selfcare was performed by distraction and avoiding pain or treating pain by themselves, while others were passive and endured pain or refrained from contact with healthcare professionals due to healthcare professionals

  17. Unplanned extubations in an intensive care unit: Findings from a critical incident technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielis, Matteo; Chiaruttini, Simona; Palese, Alvisa

    2018-05-15

    Patients on mechanical ventilation are at risk of experiencing a potentially life-threatening unplanned extubation in the intensive care unit, which can lead to arrhythmias, bronchial aspiration, difficulty in reintubation or even sudden cardiac arrest. Although incidence and outcomes of the phenomenon have been documented in several quantitative studies, no studies have investigated the antecedents as experienced by critical care nurses. To gain a greater understanding of the antecedents of unplanned extubations. A qualitative study design involving the critical-incident technique. A total of 10 registered nurses who reported one or more episodes of unplanned extubations were involved in an in-depth interview. According to the nurses' experience, episodes of unplanned extubations are determined by predisposing, precipitating and mediating factors. The predisposing factors have been recognised in the (a) weaning programme (expected/unexpected decreased sedation) and in the (b) patient factors (increased needs due to discomfort, restlessness and desire to communicate). The precipitating factors have been divided into (a) organisational (failures in multi-professional communication), (b) environmental (excessive environmental chaos and barriers preventing direct surveillance) and (c) nursing care factors (ensuring privacy by creating barriers, avoiding disturbing other patients and poor nurse-to-patient ratio). Among the mediating factors, which are affected by the precipitating factors, decreased surveillance and mechanical restraints' use have been identified. Identifying risk factors of unplanned extubation, specifically those that are modifiable, such as increasing interprofessional communication, reducing excessive environment chaos, implementing strategies aimed at overcoming barriers threatening direct surveillance and ensuring appropriate nurse-to-patient ratio, can prevent the occurrence of these events. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. [{sup 18}F]{beta}-CIT-FP is superior to [{sup 11}C]{beta}-CIT-FP for quantitation of the dopamine transporter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundkvist, Camilla; Halldin, Christer; Ginovart, Nathalie; Swahn, Carl-Gunnar; Farde, Lars

    1997-10-01

    {beta}-CIT-FP [N-(3-fluoropropyl)-2{beta}-carbomethoxy-3{beta}-(4-iodophenyl)nortropane] is a cocaine analogue with high affinity for the dopamine transporter. Positron emission tomography (PET) studies with [O-methyl-{sup 11}C]{beta}-CIT-FP ([{sup 11}C]{beta}-CIT-FP) has shown that equilibrium conditions were approached but, however, not reached at the end of measurement. Moreover, metabolite studies of [{sup 11}C]{beta}-CIT-FP in monkey plasma demonstrated a lipophilic-labelled metabolite that may enter the brain. We therefore labelled {beta}-CIT-FP with fluorine-18 in a position that may avoid the formation of labelled lipophilic metabolites. The more long-lived radionuclide ({sup 18}F) was used to allow for measurements over longer time. [N-fluoropropyl-{sup 18}F]{beta}-CIT-FP ([{sup 18}F]{beta}-CIT-FP) was prepared by N-alkylation of nor-{beta}-CIT with [{sup 18}F]fluoropropyl bromide. PET studies were performed in cynomolgus monkeys. [{sup 18}F]{beta}-CIT-FP entered the brain rapidly. There was a high concentration of radioactivity in the striatum and much lower in the thalamus, neocortex, and cerebellum. The striatum-to-cerebellum ratio was about 5 at time of transient equilibrium, which occurred after 60 to 100 min. After pretreatment with GBR 12909, radioactivity in the striatum was markedly reduced, thus indicating specific [{sup 18}F]{beta}-CIT-FP binding to the dopamine transporter. The fraction of unchanged [{sup 18}F]{beta}-CIT-FP determined by HPLC was 10-15% after 140 min. No lipophilic labelled metabolites were detected. The absence of measurable lipophilic labelled metabolites and the occurrence of transient equilibrium within the time of the PET measurement indicate that [{sup 18}F]{beta}-CIT-FP is superior to [{sup 11}C]{beta}-CIT-FP as a PET radioligand for quantification of the dopamine transporter in the human brain.

  19. CIT2016: 12. Congress of Transport Engineering, 7-9 June 2016, Valencia (Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2016-07-01

    The 12 Conference on Transport Engineering (CIT 2016) will be held in Valencia (Spain), from 7-9 June 2016. The CIT2016 will take place in the School of Civil Engineers, Universitat Politècnica de València. As in previous editions, CIT 2016 aims to foster the national and international exchange of scientific and professional works in different transport areas. The theme of the CIT 2016 is: “Efficient, Safe and Intelligent Transport”.

  20. Synthesis of unlabelled, 3H- and 125I-labelled β-CIT and its ω-fluoroalkyl analogues β-CIT-FE and β-CIT-FP, including synthesis of precursors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swahn, C.-G.; Halldin, Christer; Guenther, Ilonka; Patt, Joerg; Ametamey, Simon

    1996-01-01

    The full synthesis of the cocaine congener 2β-carbomethoxy-3β-(4-iodophenyl)tropane β-CIT) and its N-fluoroalkyl analogues, fluoroethyl- and fluoropropyl-nor-β-CIT (β-CIT-FE and β-CIT-FP) starting from cocaine is described. The synthetic routes include the preparation of precursors for labelling with radionuclides such as 11 C, 18 F, 76 Br, 123 I, 125 I and 3 H. Here we also report the labelling with 125 I or 3 H for use in autoradiographic examination of human brain sections. (author)

  1. How Three Special Teenagers with Disabilities Became CITs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Jennifer M.

    1996-01-01

    A cooperative camp program trained three teenagers with developmental delays to be counselors-in-training (CITs) for a children's day camp. Trainees learned about the basic chain of command at camp, first aid and emergency care, child development, and behavior management. The program was deemed successful in increasing job opportunities for…

  2. Interactive test tool for interoperable C-ITS development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voronov, A.; Englund, C.; Bengtsson, H.H.; Chen, L.; Ploeg, J.; Jongh, J.F.C.M. de; Sluis, H.J.D. van de

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the architecture of an Interactive Test Tool (ITT) for interoperability testing of Cooperative Intelligent Transport Systems (C-ITS). Cooperative systems are developed by different manufacturers at different locations, which makes interoperability testing a tedious task. Up until

  3. Alternative labelling of the cocaine analogue isomers α-CIT and β-CIT by direct iodination with no-carrier-added Na125I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, L.; Foged, C.; Halldin, C.; Swahn, C.-G.

    1994-01-01

    An alternative labelling of the cocaine analogue isomers α-CIT and β-CIT with no-carrier-added 125 I by direct iodination of 2α- and 2β-carbomethoxy-3β-phenyltropane with Na 125 I/sulfuric acid/nitric acid/acetic acid and peracetic acid under different reaction conditions, is described. The maximum radiolabelling yield obtained with the two isomers was 48% for [ 125 I]α-CIT and 28% for [ 125 I]β-CIT. (author)

  4. Using Pareto Analysis with Trend Analysis: Statistical Techniques to Investigate Incident Reports within a Housing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna, Andrew L.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine trends and difficulties concerning student incident reports within the residence halls as they relate to the incident reporting system from the Department of Housing and Residential Life at a Southeastern Doctoral I Granting Institution. This study used the frequency distributions of each classified…

  5. What Helps and Hinders Indigenous Student Success in Higher Education Health Programmes: A Qualitative Study Using the Critical Incident Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Elana; Wikaire, Erena; Kool, Bridget; Honey, Michelle; Kelly, Fiona; Poole, Phillippa; Barrow, Mark; Airini; Ewen, Shaun; Reid, Papaarangi

    2015-01-01

    Tertiary institutions aim to provide high quality teaching and learning that meet the academic needs for an increasingly diverse student body including indigenous students. "Tatou Tatou" is a qualitative research project utilising Kaupapa "Maori" research methodology and the Critical Incident Technique interview method to…

  6. Incidence of vascular complications during lateral lumbar interbody fusion: an examination of the mini-open access technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kueper, Janina; Fantini, Gary A; Walker, Brendon R; Aichmair, Alexander; Hughes, Alexander P

    2015-04-01

    This article examines the incidence and management of vascular injury during Lateral Lumbar Interbody Fusion (LLIF). The details of the mini-open access technique are presented. A total of 900 patients who underwent a LLIF at an average 1.94 levels (range: 1-5 levels) by one of six fellowship trained surgeons on 1,754 levels from 2006 to 2013 were identified. The incidence of intraoperative vascular injury was retrospectively determined from the Operative Records. The management of vascular injury was evaluated. The mini-open access adapted by our institution for LLIF is described. The incidence of major vascular complication in our series was 1/900. The incidence of minor vascular injury was 4/900. The overall incidence of vascular injury was calculated to be 0.056 % per case and 0.029 % per level. All minor vascular injuries were identified to be segmental vessel lacerations, which were readily ligated under direct visualization without further extension of the incision with no clinical sequelae. The laceration of the abdominal aorta, the major vascular complication of this series, was emergently repaired through an exploratory laparotomy. None of the patients suffered long-term sequelae from their intraoperative vascular injuries. The mini-open lateral access technique for LLIF provides for minimal risk of vascular injury to the lumbar spine. In the rare event of minor vascular injury, the mini-open access approach allows for immediate visualization, confirmation and repair of the vessel with no long-term sequelae.

  7. Patients' Perceptions of Nurses' Behaviour That Influence Patient Participation in Nursing Care: A Critical Incident Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inga E. Larsson

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Patient participation is an important basis for nursing care and medical treatment and is a legal right in many Western countries. Studies have established that patients consider participation to be both obvious and important, but there are also findings showing the opposite and patients often prefer a passive recipient role. Knowledge of what may influence patients' participation is thus of great importance. The aim was to identify incidents and nurses' behaviours that influence patients' participation in nursing care based on patients' experiences from inpatient somatic care. The Critical Incident Technique (CIT was employed. Interviews were performed with patients (=17, recruited from somatic inpatient care at an internal medical clinic in West Sweden. This study provided a picture of incidents, nurses' behaviours that stimulate or inhibit patients' participation, and patient reactions on nurses' behaviours. Incidents took place during medical ward round, nursing ward round, information session, nursing documentation, drug administration, and meal.

  8. [(123)I]FP-CIT ENC-DAT normal database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tossici-Bolt, Livia; Dickson, John C; Sera, Terez

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: [(123)I]FP-CIT is a well-established radiotracer for the diagnosis of dopaminergic degenerative disorders. The European Normal Control Database of DaTSCAN (ENC-DAT) of healthy controls has provided age and gender-specific reference values for the [(123)I]FP-CIT specific binding ratio...... quantifications methods, BRASS and Southampton, and explores the performance of the striatal phantom calibration in their harmonisation. RESULTS: BRASS and Southampton databases comprising 123 ENC-DAT subjects, from gamma cameras with parallel collimators, were reconstructed using filtered back projection (FBP......) and iterative reconstruction OSEM without corrections (IRNC) and compared against the recommended OSEM with corrections for attenuation and scatter and septal penetration (ACSC), before and after applying phantom calibration. Differences between databases were quantified using the percentage difference...

  9. The Citrus transcription factor, CitERF13, regulates citric acid accumulation via a protein-protein interaction with the vacuolar proton pump, CitVHA-c4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shao-jia; Yin, Xue-ren; Xie, Xiu-lan; Allan, Andrew C; Ge, Hang; Shen, Shu-ling; Chen, Kun-song

    2016-02-03

    Organic acids are essential to fruit flavor. The vacuolar H(+) transporting adenosine triphosphatase (V-ATPase) plays an important role in organic acid transport and accumulation. However, less is known of V-ATPase interacting proteins and their relationship with organic acid accumulation. The relationship between V-ATPase and citric acid was investigated, using the citrus tangerine varieties 'Ordinary Ponkan (OPK)' and an early maturing mutant 'Zaoshu Ponkan (ZPK)'. Five V-ATPase genes (CitVHA) were predicted as important to citric acid accumulation. Among the genes, CitVHA-c4 was observed, using a yeast two-hybrid screen, to interact at the protein level with an ethylene response factor, CitERF13. This was verified using bimolecular fluorescence complementation assays. A similar interaction was also observed between Arabidopsis AtERF017 (a CitERF13 homolog) and AtVHA-c4 (a CitVHA-c4 homolog). A synergistic effect on citric acid levels was observed between V-ATPase proteins and interacting ERFs when analyzed using transient over-expression in tobacco and Arabidopsis mutants. Furthermore, the transcript abundance of CitERF13 was concomitant with CitVHA-c4. CitERF13 or AtERF017 over-expression leads to significant citric acid accumulation. This accumulation was abolished in an AtVHA-c4 mutant background. ERF-VHA interactions appear to be involved in citric acid accumulation, which was observed in both citrus and Arabidopsis.

  10. IBZM- and CIT-SPECT of the dopaminergic system in Parkinsonism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tissingh, G.; Winogradzka, A.; Wolters, E.C.; Booij, J.; Royen, E.A. van

    1997-01-01

    Parkinsonism is most of the time caused by idiopathic Parkinson's disease (IPD). Considering the differences in therapeutic response and prognosis. in viva discrimination between IPD and 'Parkinsonism-plus' syndromes is important. Recently, ligands have become available for imaging the pre- and postsynaptic dopaminergic system by Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT). Visualization of postsynaptic D 2 dopamine receptors using 123 I-iodobenzamide ( 123 I-IBZM) may contribute to the differential diagnosis between IPD and 'Parkinsonism-plus' syndromes as IPD is a pure presynaptic disease. Imaging of the presynaptic dopamine transporters using [ 123 I]β-CIT (2β-carbomethoxy-3β-(4-iodophenyl)tropane) may be used as a diagnostic technique. Early disease detection in subjects suspected to be at risk for developing IPD has become possible using [ 123 I]β-CIT or other ligands for the dopamine transporter. Furthermore, with SPECT one is probably able to monitor in an objective way the efficacy of new pharmacological therapies. (author)

  11. Dopamine transporter imaging in the aged rat: a [123I]FP-CIT SPECT study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niñerola-Baizán, Aida; Rojas, Santiago; Roé-Vellvé, Núria; Lomeña, Francisco; Ros, Domènec

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Rodent models are extensively used to assess the biochemical and physiological changes associated with aging. They play a major role in the development of therapies for age-related pathologies such as Parkinson's disease. To validate the usefulness of these animal models in aging or age-related disease research, the consistency of cerebral aging processes across species must be evaluated. The dopaminergic system seems particularly susceptible to the aging process. One of the results of this susceptibility is a decline in striatal dopamine transporter (DAT) availability. Methods: We sought to ascertain whether similar age changes could be detected in-vivo in rats, using molecular imaging techniques such as single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with [ 123 I]FP-CIT. Results: A significant decrease of 17.21% in the striatal specific uptake ratio was observed in the aged rats with respect to the young control group. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that age-related degeneration in the nigrostriatal track is similar in humans and rats, which supports the use of this animal in models to evaluate the effect of aging on the dopaminergic system. Advances in Knowledge and Implications for patient Care: Our findings indicate that age-related degeneration in the nigrostriatal track is similar in humans and rats and that these changes can be monitored in vivo using small animal SPECT with [ 123 I]FP-CIT, which could facilitate the translational research in rat models of age related disorders of dopaminergic system

  12. Adaptation and validation into Portuguese language of the six-item cognitive impairment test (6CIT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apóstolo, João Luís Alves; Paiva, Diana Dos Santos; Silva, Rosa Carla Gomes da; Santos, Eduardo José Ferreira Dos; Schultz, Timothy John

    2017-07-25

    The six-item cognitive impairment test (6CIT) is a brief cognitive screening tool that can be administered to older people in 2-3 min. To adapt the 6CIT for the European Portuguese and determine its psychometric properties based on a sample recruited from several contexts (nursing homes; universities for older people; day centres; primary health care units). The original 6CIT was translated into Portuguese and the draft Portuguese version (6CIT-P) was back-translated and piloted. The accuracy of the 6CIT-P was assessed by comparison with the Portuguese Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). A convenience sample of 550 older people from various geographical locations in the north and centre of the country was used. The test-retest reliability coefficient was high (r = 0.95). The 6CIT-P also showed good internal consistency (α = 0.88) and corrected item-total correlations ranged between 0.32 and 0.90. Total 6CIT-P and MMSE scores were strongly correlated. The proposed 6CIT-P threshold for cognitive impairment is ≥10 in the Portuguese population, which gives sensitivity of 82.78% and specificity of 84.84%. The accuracy of 6CIT-P, as measured by area under the ROC curve, was 0.91. The 6CIT-P has high reliability and validity and is accurate when used to screen for cognitive impairment.

  13. Les dynamiques de partager un récit: Auteur, autorité et auto-récit ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    chez Maryse Condé et Tituba, dans Moi, Tituba, Sorcière…noire de Salem. Ceci est un récit fictif de la vie de Tituba, Indienne, une esclave accusée de la sorcellerie en 1692. L'article adopte l' idée de la poétique de la relation par Édouard ...

  14. Increased brain temserotoneric transporter availability in adult migraineurs: ([18F]FP-CIT PET imaging pilot study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Eun Kyung; Hwang, Yu Mi; Chu, Min Kyung; Jung, Ki Young

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have proposed central serotonergic dysfunction as a major pathophysiology of migraine. We investigated serotonin transporter (SERT) availability in migraineurs using F-18-N-(3-fluoropropyl)-2β-carbomethoxy-3β-(4-iodophenyl) nortropane ([18F]FP-CIT) positron emission tomography (PET). Brain [18F]FP-CIT PET images were obtained in eight women with migraine during headache free phase and 12 healthy adult women, 120 min after injection of 185 MBq. Non-displaceable binding potential (BP ND) of [18F]FP-CIT, which is an estimate of SERT availability, was calculated at the brainstem and compared with clinical parameters. BP ND at the brainstem was significantly higher in adult migraineurs (n = 6, 1.15 ± 0.17) than healthy subjects (0.95 ± 0.14) (p = 0.04). Healthy subjects demonstrated negative correlation between brainstem BP ND and age (r = −0.64, p = 0.02), whereas this age-related decline pattern was not found in the migraineurs. Severity of migraine attack was significantly correlated with brainstem BP ND (r = 0.66, p = 0.02), when age and duration of illness were corrected. Increased SERT availability in the brainstem of adult migraineurs indicates low serotonin neurotransmission during headache-free phase. Patients who experience more painful headaches have lower serotonin neurotransmission. [18F]FP-CIT PET is a useful in vivo imaging technique for evaluating brainstem SERT availability in migraineurs

  15. Increased brain temserotoneric transporter availability in adult migraineurs: ([18F]FP-CIT PET imaging pilot study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Eun Kyung [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Korea University Anam Hospital, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Yu Mi [Center for Research Information, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chu, Min Kyung [Dept. of Neurology, Sacred Heart Hospital, Hallym University College of Medicine, Anyang (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Ki Young [Dept. of Neurology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-03-15

    Recent studies have proposed central serotonergic dysfunction as a major pathophysiology of migraine. We investigated serotonin transporter (SERT) availability in migraineurs using F-18-N-(3-fluoropropyl)-2β-carbomethoxy-3β-(4-iodophenyl) nortropane ([18F]FP-CIT) positron emission tomography (PET). Brain [18F]FP-CIT PET images were obtained in eight women with migraine during headache free phase and 12 healthy adult women, 120 min after injection of 185 MBq. Non-displaceable binding potential (BP ND) of [18F]FP-CIT, which is an estimate of SERT availability, was calculated at the brainstem and compared with clinical parameters. BP ND at the brainstem was significantly higher in adult migraineurs (n = 6, 1.15 ± 0.17) than healthy subjects (0.95 ± 0.14) (p = 0.04). Healthy subjects demonstrated negative correlation between brainstem BP ND and age (r = −0.64, p = 0.02), whereas this age-related decline pattern was not found in the migraineurs. Severity of migraine attack was significantly correlated with brainstem BP ND (r = 0.66, p = 0.02), when age and duration of illness were corrected. Increased SERT availability in the brainstem of adult migraineurs indicates low serotonin neurotransmission during headache-free phase. Patients who experience more painful headaches have lower serotonin neurotransmission. [18F]FP-CIT PET is a useful in vivo imaging technique for evaluating brainstem SERT availability in migraineurs.

  16. C-ITS as Multidisciplinary Area with High Demand on Telecommunications Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Zelinka

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Cooperative Intelligent Transport Systems (C-ITS are concentrated on transportation systems with goal to improve usability, efficiency and safety of the existing as well as newly constructed transportation infrastructure. These concepts are associated with high society expectations that C-ITS will principally participate in resolving of continuously growing transportation challenges. C-ITS represents typical multidisciplinary area where effective cooperation of wide range of different disciplines is the key condition of the success. Possible approach to treatment of requirements on telecommunication services in C-ITS applications is presented.

  17. Decreased striatal dopamine transporter binding assessed with [123I] FP-CIT in first-episode schizophrenic patients with and without short-term antipsychotic-induced parkinsonism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateos, Jose J; Lomeña, Francisco; Parellada, Eduardo; Font, Mireia; Fernandez, Emili; Pavia, Javier; Prats, Alberto; Pons, Francisca; Bernardo, Miquel

    2005-09-01

    Drug-induced parkinsonism (DIP) is one of the main causes of treatment drop-out in schizophrenic patients causing a high incidence of relapse that leads patients to a bad clinical prognosis. The dopaminergic nigrostriatal pathway is involved in the movement control, so the study of the dopamine transporter (DAT) could be of great value to determine its implication in the appearance of DIP. The goal of the study is to determine the striatal DAT binding assessed with [(123)I] FP-CIT SPECT in first-episode neuroleptic-naive schizophrenic in-patients with DIP after short-term antipsychotic treatment. The [(123)I] FP-CIT binding ratios of ten schizophrenic in-patients who developed DIP during the first 4-week period of risperidone treatment (6+/-2 mg/day) were compared with ten schizophrenic in-patients treated with the same doses of risperidone and who do not developed DIP and with ten age-matched healthy subjects. Quantitative analyses of SPECTs were performed using regions of interest located in caudate, putamen and occipital cortex. Parkinsonism was assessed by the Simpson-Angus Scale and the psychopathological status by the Clinical General Impression and Positive and Negative Syndrome Scales. Whole striatal [(123)I] FP-CIT binding ratios were significantly lower in patients with and without DIP than in healthy subjects (p<0.001). This was also observed in whole putamen (p<0.001) and caudate nucleus (p<0.001). Females showed higher whole striatal [(123)I] FP-CIT binding ratios than males (p<0.05). No differences in psychopathological scales were observed between patients with and without DIP. Our first-episode schizophrenic patients with and without DIP after short-term risperidone treatment have a decreased striatal DAT binding assessed with [(123)I] FP-CIT. This alteration could be related to the schizophrenic disease or may be secondary to the antipsychotic treatment.

  18. Clinical features and {sup 123}I-FP-CIT SPECT imaging in drug-induced parkinsonism and Parkinson's disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz-Corrales, Francisco J.; Escobar-Delgado, Teresa [Hospital Universitario Virgen del Rocio/CSIC/Universidad de Sevilla, Unidad de Trastornos del Movimiento, Servicio de Neurologia, Instituto de Biomedicina de Sevilla, Seville (Spain); Sanz-Viedma, Salome [Hospital Universitario Virgen del Rocio, Unidad Diagnostica de Medicina Nuclear, Seville (Spain); Garcia-Solis, David [Hospital Universitario Virgen del Rocio, Unidad Diagnostica de Medicina Nuclear, Seville (Spain); Centro de Investigacion Biomedica en Red sobre Enfermedades Neurodegenerativas (CIBERNED), Seville (Spain); Mir, Pablo [Hospital Universitario Virgen del Rocio/CSIC/Universidad de Sevilla, Unidad de Trastornos del Movimiento, Servicio de Neurologia, Instituto de Biomedicina de Sevilla, Seville (Spain); Centro de Investigacion Biomedica en Red sobre Enfermedades Neurodegenerativas (CIBERNED), Seville (Spain); Hospital Universitario Virgen del Rocio, Unidad de Trastornos del Movimiento. Servicio de Neurologia, Seville (Spain)

    2010-03-15

    To determine clinical predictors and accuracy of {sup 123}I-FP-CIT SPECT imaging in the differentiation of drug-induced parkinsonism (DIP) and Parkinson's disease (PD). Several clinical features and {sup 123}I-FP-CIT SPECT images in 32 patients with DIP, 25 patients with PD unmasked by antidopaminergic drugs (PDu) and 22 patients with PD without a previous history of antidopaminergic treatment (PDc) were retrospectively evaluated. DIP and PD shared all clinical features except symmetry of parkinsonian signs which was more frequently observed in patients with DIP (46.9%) than in patients with PDu (16.0%, p<0.05) or PDc (4.5%, p<0.01). Qualitatively {sup 123}I-FP-CIT SPECT images were normal in 29 patients with DIP (90.6%) and abnormal in all patients with PD, and this imaging technique showed high levels of accuracy. DIP and PD are difficult to differentiate based on clinical signs. The precision of clinical diagnosis could be reliably enhanced by {sup 123}I-FP-CIT SPECT imaging. (orig.)

  19. Increased situation awareness in major incidents-radio frequency identification (RFID) technique: a promising tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokela, Jorma; Rådestad, Monica; Gryth, Dan; Nilsson, Helené; Rüter, Anders; Svensson, Leif; Harkke, Ville; Luoto, Markku; Castrén, Maaret

    2012-02-01

    In mass-casualty situations, communications and information management to improve situational awareness is a major challenge for responders. In this study, the feasibility of a prototype system that utilizes commercially available, low-cost components, including Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) and mobile phone technology, was tested in two simulated mass-casualty incidents. The feasibility and the direct benefits of the system were evaluated in two simulated mass-casualty situations: one in Finland involving a passenger ship accident resulting in multiple drowning/hypothermia patients, and another at a major airport in Sweden using an aircraft crash scenario. Both simulations involved multiple agencies and functioned as test settings for comparing the disaster management's situational awareness with and without using the RFID-based system. Triage documentation was done using both an RFID-based system, which automatically sent the data to the Medical Command, and a traditional method using paper triage tags. The situational awareness was measured by comparing the availability of up-to date information at different points in the care chain using both systems. Information regarding the numbers and status or triage classification of the casualties was available approximately one hour earlier using the RFID system compared to the data obtained using the traditional method. The tested prototype system was quick, stable, and easy to use, and proved to work seamlessly even in harsh field conditions. It surpassed the paper-based system in all respects except simplicity of use. It also improved the general view of the mass-casualty situations, and enhanced medical emergency readiness in a multi-organizational medical setting. The tested technology is feasible in a mass-casualty incident; further development and testing should take place.

  20. SPECT quantification of 123I - and - CIT in Parkinsonism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larcos, G.; Shaffi, M.; Hutton, B.F.; Hatton, R.; Kyme, A.; Fung, V.S.C.; Morris, J.G.L.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Evaluation of presynaptic dopaminergic function using 2B-carboxymethoxy-3B-(4-[ 123 I] iodophenyl) tropane ( 123 I-and-CIT) SPECT has employed subjective or semi-quantitative methods. Our hypothesis is that disease classification in Parkinsonism may be improved by partial volume correction and co-registration with MRI. We studied seven patients (pts) with IPD (four men, three women, mean age=54.5+/-10.9 yrs; Hoehn and Yahr stage range 1-3; Schwab and England scale range: 30-100 [mean=67.1+/-26.9]) and two controls with 123 I- - CIT using 110-150 MBq and a dual-head camera equipped with fan-beam collimation. SPECT was registered to MRI and then aligned to a reference template. Specific to non-specific dopaminergic binding (UR) was calculated for the putamen and caudate nucleus, as well as the fractional volume (FV; fraction of the Structure affected) and residual uptake ratio (RUR; count density in area/remnant apparently unaffected by disease). Parameters that were statistically significant were the putamen (p; but not caudate) UR, FV and RUR. We conclude that: (a) it is possible to distinguish dopaminergic activity within the putamen from caudate using MRI image co-registration and (b) parameters other than UR may discriminate IPD from normal subjects and other entities. Copyright (2002) The Australian and New Zealand Society of Nuclear Medicine Inc

  1. β-CIT labelled with 131I and its preliminary clinical practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye Bin; Kuang Anren; Ding Hao; Zheng Hongbo; Yuan Qiang; He Li

    2002-01-01

    β-CIT is labelled with 131 I by the peracetic acid method. 4 normal controls, 8 patients with PD and 3 patients with PS are studied by 131 I-β-CIT SPECT imaging. Striatal specific uptake of 131 I-β-CIT is calculated by the radioactivity ratio of striatal to cerebellar. The results shows that the radiochemical purity of 131 I-β-CIT is (97.6 +- 0.3)%. 131 I-β-CIT remains stable for at least 4 h after incubated with waters and serum respectively. The striatal specific uptake of 131 I-β-CIT in normal controls, PD and PS patients are (4.39 +- 0.14)%, (2.95 +- 0.68)% and (3.96 +- 0.52)% at 4h and (6.60 +- 0.06)%, (3.85 +- 0.71)% and (6.14 +- 0.08)% at 20 h after administration. There is a significant reduction of striatal tracer uptake in PD patients compared to the controls and PS patients. Striatal specific uptake in contralateral to the clinical symptom side is more pronounced reduced than the ipsilateral side in PD patients. 131 I-β-CIT uptake in PD patients is correlated with disease severity. These results suggest that 131 I-β-CIT can be used for the diagnosis of Parkinsion's disease

  2. Comparative study on biodistribution of domestic and imported 125I-β-CIT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xingdang; Lin Xiangtong; Fang Ping; Chen Zhengping; Zhou Xiang; Wang Bocheng; Zhang Manda

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To characterize the kinetics and biodistribution of a domestically synthesized 125 I-2β-carbomethoxy-3β-4-iodopheny1tropane (β-CIT ) and to compare it with that of 125 I-β-CIT imported from RBI company. Methods: 1)The biodistribution of domestic and RBI company produced 125 I-β-CIT in KM mice. Twenty groups of mice (group of 5) were injected into the tail vein with either one of 125 I-β-CIT products. Each group of both products was killed at 5,15,30 and 45 min, and 1, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 24 h. 2)Autoradiography was performed on the brain of SD rats at 2 h after injection. Results: Domestic 125 I-β-CIT was primarily uptaked in the striatum, also in areas rich in 5-HTT such as the brain stem, frontal cortex, parietal cortex, temporal cortex, occipital cortex and hippocampus. Striatal uptake peaked at 2 h postinjection of 125 I-β-CIT. The ratio of specific to nonspecific binding in striatum peaked at 6 h. The highest radioactivity was in the lungs and the less radioactivity was in the liver, kidney, spleen and intestine. Autoradiography confirmed that 125 I-β-CIT primarily bound to striatum and lower room temperature significantly reduced the binding of the agent. Conclusion: The domestic 125 I-β-CIT binds primarily to dopamine transporters in the striatum in mice and rats and the maximum uptake is in the lungs

  3. Tissue printing technique in nitrocelullose membranes: a rapid detection technique for estimating incidence of PVX, PVY, PVS and PLRV viruses infecting potato (Solanum spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Guzmán

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available The ELISA serological technique has been used since the 1970s as a quantative technique for the detection of many groups of virus which infect plants. The immune-impression (IMI in nitrocelullose membrane qualitative technique has been implemented more recently for the detection of different viral groups. In this work, the IMI technique has been adapted for the detection of PVX, PVY PVS and PLRV viruses which attack different species and varieties of potato crop (Solanum spp., such as Egg yolk, Capiro, Morita, Pastusa, Monserrate, Tuquerreña, ICA Puracé and ICA Nariño, all from the Nariño department. The four viruses mentioned above can cause 30% and 60% losses in production, be they acting alone or synergistically. This means that they can easily reduce the economic benefits of a country like Colombia, characterised as being a great potato producer (i.e. more than 2.8 million tons per year. The IMI technique was compared with the ELISA technique (Enzymne Linked Immunosorbent Assay using the same samples, leading to confirmation of the test's sensitivity for detecting the virus. From a total of 800 samples analyzed by IMI from different areas in the Nariño department, 72% incidence for PVY, 38.7% for PVX, 85.6% for PVS and 91.1% for PLRV was found; these estimates were similar or greater than those obtained using ELISA. These results are new for Colombia in terms of imple-menting the easy and sensitive IMI technique for detecting these four viral groups infecting the potato as well as estimating their incidence in Nariño, one of Colombia's most important potato-producing departments. The opportune and flexible detection of virus leads to an effective response to eradicating contaminated material, both material in the field as well as that from in vitro culture. Results lead to it being suggested that implementing IMI could bringing wide benefits for potato seed certification programmes, as they maintain sensitivity and specificity, they

  4. The clinical benefit of imaging striatal dopamine transporters with [123I]FP-CIT SPET in differentiating patients with presynaptic parkinsonism from those with other forms of parkinsonism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Booij, J.; Speelman, J.DE.; Horstink, M. W.I.M.; Wolters, E.C.

    2001-01-01

    [ 123 I]FP-CIT (N-ω-fluoropropyl-2β-carbomethoxy-3β-(4-iodophenyl)nortropane) has been developed successfully as a radioligand for single-photon emission tomography (SPET) imaging of dopamine transporters, which are situated in the membrane of dopaminergic neurons. Imaging of these transporters has shown promise as a clinical tool to detect degeneration of the dopaminergic nigrostriatal pathway. Several ''presynaptic parkinsonian'' syndromes, such as Parkinson's disease or multiple system atrophy, are characterised by degeneration of the nigrostriatal pathway. [ 123 I]FP-CIT SPET imaging studies have shown the ability to detect loss of striatal dopamine transporters in such syndromes. However, in clinical practice it is sometimes difficult, but important, to discriminate patients with ''presynaptic parkinsonism'' from those with other forms of parkinsonism not characterised by loss of presynaptic dopaminergic cells (e.g. psychogenic parkinsonism or drug-induced postsynaptic parkinsonism). In these inconclusive cases, it may be of value to confirm or exclude the existence of degeneration of nigrostriatal dopaminergic cells by using imaging techniques such as [ 123 I]FP-CIT SPET. Using [ 123 I]FP-CIT SPET, we have imaged the striatal dopamine transporters in a group of patients with inconclusive forms of parkinsonism, and, moreover, have been able to perform clinical follow-up of these patients 2-4 years after imaging. In 33 inconclusive cases, ratios of specific to non-specific binding were calculated for the caudate nucleus and putamen following [ 123 I]FP-CIT SPET imaging and compared with ratios obtained in healthy controls. In nine of the patients, degeneration of the nigrostriatal pathway was found scintigraphically and in all these cases, presynaptic parkinsonism was confirmed by clinical follow-up. In the other 24 subjects no degeneration was found scintigraphically. Forms of parkinsonism other than the presynaptic were confirmed at follow-up in 19 cases

  5. Yeast Cells Lacking the CIT1-encoded Mitochondrial Citrate Synthase Are Hypersusceptible to Heat- or Aging-induced Apoptosis

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Yong Joo; Hoe, Kwang Lae; Maeng, Pil Jae

    2007-01-01

    In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the initial reaction of the tricarboxylic acid cycle is catalyzed by the mitochondrial citrate synthase Cit1. The function of Cit1 has previously been studied mainly in terms of acetate utilization and metabolon construction. Here, we report the relationship between the function of Cit1 and apoptosis. Yeast cells with cit1 deletion showed a temperature-sensitive growth phenotype, and they displayed a rapid loss in viability associated with typical apoptotic hallma...

  6. Students' perceptions of effective learning experiences in dental school: a qualitative study using a critical incident technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victoroff, Kristin Zakariasen; Hogan, Sarah

    2006-02-01

    Students' views of their educational experience can be an important source of information for curriculum assessment. Although quantitative methods, particularly surveys, are frequently used to gather such data, fewer studies have employed qualitative methods to examine students' dental education experiences. The purpose of this study is to explore characteristics of effective learning experiences in dental school using a qualitative method. All third-year (seventy) and fourth-year (seventy) dental students enrolled in one midwestern dental school were invited to participate. Fifty-three dental students (thirty-five male and eighteen female; thirty-two third-year and twenty-one fourth-year) were interviewed using a critical incident interview technique. Each student was asked to describe a specific, particularly effective learning incident that he or she had experienced in dental school and a specific, particularly ineffective learning incident, for comparison. Each interview was audiotaped. Students were assured that only the interviewer and one additional researcher would have access to the tapes. Data analysis resulted in identification of key themes in the data describing characteristics of effective learning experiences. The following characteristics of effective learning experiences were identified: 1) instructor characteristics (personal qualities, "checking-in" with students, and an interactive style); 2) characteristics of the learning process (focus on the "big picture," modeling and demonstrations, opportunities to apply new knowledge, high-quality feedback, focus, specificity and relevance, and peer interactions); and 3) learning environment (culture of the learning environment, technology). Common themes emerged across a wide variety of learning incidents. Although additional research is needed, the characteristics of effective learning experiences identified in this study may have implications for individual course design and for the dental school

  7. Automated Analysis of 123I-beta-CIT SPECT Images with Statistical Probabilistic Anatomical Mapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eo, Jae Seon; Lee, Hoyoung; Lee, Jae Sung; Kim, Yu Kyung; Jeon, Bumseok; Lee, Dong Soo

    2014-01-01

    Population-based statistical probabilistic anatomical maps have been used to generate probabilistic volumes of interest for analyzing perfusion and metabolic brain imaging. We investigated the feasibility of automated analysis for dopamine transporter images using this technique and evaluated striatal binding potentials in Parkinson's disease and Wilson's disease. We analyzed 2β-Carbomethoxy-3β-(4- 123 I-iodophenyl)tropane ( 123 I-beta-CIT) SPECT images acquired from 26 people with Parkinson's disease (M:F=11:15,mean age=49±12 years), 9 people with Wilson's disease (M: F=6:3, mean age=26±11 years) and 17 normal controls (M:F=5:12, mean age=39±16 years). A SPECT template was created using striatal statistical probabilistic map images. All images were spatially normalized onto the template, and probability-weighted regional counts in striatal structures were estimated. The binding potential was calculated using the ratio of specific and nonspecific binding activities at equilibrium. Voxel-based comparisons between groups were also performed using statistical parametric mapping. Qualitative assessment showed that spatial normalizations of the SPECT images were successful for all images. The striatal binding potentials of participants with Parkinson's disease and Wilson's disease were significantly lower than those of normal controls. Statistical parametric mapping analysis found statistically significant differences only in striatal regions in both disease groups compared to controls. We successfully evaluated the regional 123 I-beta-CIT distribution using the SPECT template and probabilistic map data automatically. This procedure allows an objective and quantitative comparison of the binding potential, which in this case showed a significantly decreased binding potential in the striata of patients with Parkinson's disease or Wilson's disease

  8. A dynamic plasmonic manipulation technique assisted by phase modulation of an incident optical vortex beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, G H; Wang, Q; Tan, P S; Lin, J; Yuan, X-C

    2012-01-01

    A novel phase modulation method for dynamic manipulation of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) with a phase engineered optical vortex (OV) beam illuminating on nanoslits is experimentally demonstrated. Because of the unique helical phase carried by an OV beam, dynamic control of SPP multiple focusing and standing wave generation is realized by changing the OV beam’s topological charge constituent with the help of a liquid-crystal spatial light modulator. Measurement of SPP distributions with near-field scanning optical microscopy showed an excellent agreement with numerical predictions. The proposed phase modulation technique for manipulating SPPs features has seemingly dynamic and reconfigurable advantages, with profound potential for development of SPP coupling, routing, multiplexing and high-resolution imaging devices on plasmonic chips. (paper)

  9. ICRF sawtooth stabilization: Application on TFTR and CIT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosea, J.C.; Phillips, C.K.; Stevens, J.E.; Wilson, J.R.; Bell, M.; Boivin, R.; Cavallo, A.; Colestock, P.; Fredrickson, E.; Hammett, G.; Hsuan, H.; Janos, A.; Jassby, D.; Jobes, F.; McGuire, K.; Mueller, D.; Nagayama, Y.; Owens, K.; Park, H.; Schmidt, G.; Stratton, B.; Taylor, G.; Wong, K.L.; Zweben, S.

    1991-03-01

    The use of ICRF heating to stabilize the core plasma sawtooth relaxations has been extended to TFTR where such stabilization has been produced at relatively low power in the L Mode regime at moderate density (P RF = 4 MW, 2.6 MW in helium and deuterium discharges, respectively, for the minority hydrogen ICRF heating regime with bar n e ∼2.5 x 10 13 cm -3 ). These results, as in the case of those obtained on JET, are qualitatively consistent with energetic ion stabilization of the m = 1, n = 1 ideal/resistive kink mode. The relevance of sawtooth stabilization to the primary regimes of interest on TFTR -- the high-Q supershot regime and the high density pellet injection regimes -- and on CIT -- the high density ICRF heated regime -- is considered in the context of the present theory and the projected ICRF power deposition characteristics. 35 refs., 11 figs

  10. La Cité Universitaire Internationale de Paris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Bureau

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available La Cité Internationale Universitaire de Paris est le lieu où se concentrent le plus de résidences universitaires en Île-de-France avec une vocation affichée d’accueillir les étudiants et chercheurs du monde entier, et ce depuis 1925. Elle leur offre un ensemble de services centralisés et un cadre privilégié mais se considère avant tout comme un creuset pour la rencontre des cultures et la diffusion de la culture française parmi les élites intellectuelles internationales. Au-delà des intentions, nous avons cherché, par la rencontre de ses dirigeants et des résidents, à saisir d’une part, la réalité actuelle des échanges culturels promus par une politique du « brassage » et d’autre part, la dynamique de « l’espace vécu » des résidents.The Cité Internationale of Paris is the place where concentrate most university halls of residence in the French capital with a displayed vocation to welcome the students and the researchers of the whole world since 1925. It offers to them a set of centralized services and a privileged living environment but considers itself above all as a melting pot for the meeting of cultures and the spreading of French culture among international intellectual elites. Beyond intentions, we tried, by the meeting of managements and residents, to grasp the current reality of cultural exchanges thanks to the policy of the "mixing" and the dynamic of "the space lived" on residents.

  11. Responding to Terrorist Incidents in Your Community: Flammable-Liquid Fire Fighting Techniques for Municipal and Rural Firefighters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denise Baclawski

    2010-03-08

    The University of Nevada, Reno Fire Science Academy (FSA) applied for grant funding to develop and deliver programs for municipal, rural, and volunteer firefighters. The FSA specializes in preparing responders for a variety of emergency events, including flammable liquid fires resulting from accidents, intentional acts, or natural disasters. Live fire training on full scale burnable props is the hallmark of FSA training, allowing responders to practice critical skills in a realistic, yet safe environment. Unfortunately, flammable liquid live fire training is often not accessible to municipal, rural, or volunteer firefighters due to limited department training budgets, even though most department personnel will be exposed to flammable liquid fire incidents during the course of their careers. In response to this training need, the FSA developed a course during the first year of the grant (Year One), Responding to Terrorist Incidents in Your Community: Flammable-Liquid Fire Fighting Techniques for Municipal and Rural Firefighters. During the three years of the grant, a total of 2,029 emergency responders received this training. In Year Three, two new courses, a train-the-trainer for Responding to Terrorist Incidents in Your Community and Management of Large-Scale Disasters for Public Officials were developed and pilot tested during the Real-World Disaster Management Conference held at the FSA in June of 2007. Two research projects were conducted during Years Two and Three. The first, conducted over a two year period, evaluated student surveys regarding the value of the flammable liquids training received. The second was a needs assessment conducted for rural Nevada. Both projects provided important feedback and a basis for curricula development and improvements.

  12. The preparation of 125I-β-CIT and its biological distribution in animal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Wenshan; Liu Zhenguo; Shen Minghua; Qian Juan; Li Peiyong; Zhu Chengmo; Chen Shengdi

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To prepare and label the 125 I-β-CIT and study its biological distribution in animal. Methods: 125 I-β-CIT was prepared by the peracetic acid method and the chloramine-T method, and dopamine transporter (DAT) binding properties of 125 I-β-CIT were examined by in vivo biodistribution and inhibition studies in mice and whole body autoradiography in rats. Results: The radiolabelling yields of the peracetic acid and the chloramine-T methods were (53.4 +- 7.9)% and (88.4 +- 3.49)%, respectively. Following intravenous injection in mice, 125 I-β-CIT showed high accumulation in striatum, time to peak level uptake was 2 h after injection. GBR12909 significantly inhibited 125 I-β-CIT binding in striatum, while clomipramine significantly inhibited 125 I-β-CIT binding in hippocampus and cerebral cortex. The rat whole body autoradiography showed that the clearance of the tracer occurred through the hepatobiliary route. Conclusions: The results indicate β-CIT is an agent suitable for DAT imaging and can be used for the study of Parkinson's disease

  13. [11C]β-CIT, a cocaine analogue. Preparation, autoradiography and preliminary PET investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, Lars; Halldin, Christer; Farde, Lars; Karlsson, Per; Hall, Haakan; Swahn, C.-G.

    1993-01-01

    β-CIT (2β-carbomethoxy-3β-(4-iodophenyl)tropane) is a cocaine analogue with a high affinity for the dopamine transporter. [ 11 C]β-CIT was prepared by N-methylation of nor-β-CIT with [ 11 C]methyl iodide. The total radiochemical yield of [ 11 C]β-CIT was 40-50% with an overall synthesis time of 35-40 min. The radiochemical purity was > 99% and the specific radioactivity at the time of injection was about 1000 Ci/mmol (37 GBq/μmol). Autoradiographic examination of [ 11 C]β-CIT binding in human brains post-mortem demonstrated a high level of specific binding in the striatum. PET examination of [ 11 C]β-CIT in a Cynomolgus monkey showed a marked accumulation of radioactivity in the striatum. The ratio of radioactivity in the striatum-to-cerebellum approached 5 after 87 min. In a displacement experiment, radioactivity in the striatum but not in the cerebellum, was markedly reduced after injection of unlabelled cocaine. [ 11 C]β-CIT has a potential as ligand for PET examination of cocaine effects in man. (author)

  14. Quality of nursing care perceived by patients and their nurses: an application of the critical incident technique. Part 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redfern, S; Norman, I

    1999-07-01

    The aims of the study were to identify indicators of quality of nursing care from the perceptions of patients and nurses, and to determine the congruence between patients' and nurses' perceptions. The paper is presented in two parts. Part 1 includes the background and methods to the study and the findings from the comparison of patients' and nurses' perceptions. Part 2 describes the perceptions of patients and nurses, and the conclusions drawn from the study as a whole. Patients and nurses in hospital wards were interviewed using the critical incident technique. We grouped 4546 indicators of high and low quality nursing care generated from the interview transcripts into 316 subcategories, 68 categories and 31 themes. Congruence between patients' and nurses' perceptions of quality was high and significant, although there was some difference of emphasis.

  15. The cost effectiveness of 123I-FP-CIT SPECT imaging in patients with an uncertain clinical diagnosis of parkinsonism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laere, Koen van; Everaert, Ludwig; Annemans, Lieven; Gonce, Michel; Vandenberghe, Wim; Vander Borght, Thierry

    2008-01-01

    123 I-N-ω-fluoropropyl-2-β-carboxymethoxy-3β-(4-iodophenyl )nortropane ( 123 I-FP-CIT) Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) has been suggested to be a useful diagnostic adjunct in patients with clinically uncertain parkinsonism. We developed a pharmaco-economic (PE) model, evaluating the cost effectiveness of adding 123 I-FP-CIT SPECT to the diagnostic workup. As the model was developed before application of the diagnostic technique in real practice, a predictive validity assessment was performed based on data from a large nationwide patient registry in these patients. A PE model, using a Markov state transition model, was created, based on literature-derived and clinical expert panel data. Effects were expressed as adequately treated years (ATY). Key input data were compared to the real-life patterns in a nationwide multi-centre clinical setting, based on a complete national registry of 1,701 consecutive patients. The change in initial diagnosis and alteration of management of the patient after SPECT were registered. In the PE model, it was calculated that management would change in 48.5% of patients by SPECT and that, over a 5-year period, 1.2 ATYs could be gained at a yearly additional cost of EUR72. From the studied 1,701 patients, nigrostriatal degeneration was observed in 59.8%, the initial diagnosis was changed in 51.5%, management was altered in 49%, and cost effectiveness was increased to EUR358 per ATY. Good correspondence between assumed and observed changes in patient management was found, indicating that 123 I-FP-CIT SPECT is influential in diagnosis and management of patients with uncertain clinical diagnosis of parkinsonism. This can be achieved at a marginal added cost to the health insurance and leads to a significant gain in ATY. (orig.)

  16. Surgery resident selection and evaluation. A critical incident study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, J C; Currie, M L; Wade, T P; Kaminski, D L

    1993-03-01

    This article reports a study of the process of selecting and evaluating general surgery residents. In personnel psychology terms, a job analysis of general surgery was conducted using the Critical Incident Technique (CIT). The researchers collected 235 critical incidents through structured interviews with 10 general surgery faculty members and four senior residents. The researchers then directed the surgeons in a two-step process of sorting the incidents into categories and naming the categories. The final essential categories of behavior to define surgical competence were derived through discussion among the surgeons until a consensus was formed. Those categories are knowledge/self-education, clinical performance, diagnostic skills, surgical skills, communication skills, reliability, integrity, compassion, organization skills, motivation, emotional control, and personal appearance. These categories were then used to develop an interview evaluation form for selection purposes and a performance evaluation form to be used throughout residency training. Thus a continuum of evaluation was established. The categories and critical incidents were also used to structure the interview process, which has demonstrated increased interview validity and reliability in many other studies. A handbook for structuring the interviews faculty members conduct with applicants was written, and an interview training session was held with the faculty. The process of implementation of the structured selection interviews is being documented currently through qualitative research.

  17. Why the EU-15 Maintains Higher CIT Rates than the New Member States?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karpowicz Andrzej

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The European Union is not a homogenous area. This lack of homogeneity extends to taxes, which vary across jurisdictions. On average, Western Europe imposes significantly higher taxes on capital than New Member States, which joined the Community in 2004 and 2007. Often this fact is simply taken for granted. However, there are several arguments that can explain this variance. Although several of these arguments are well known and have been researched, they have not been assessed in combination, or used in a comparative analysis of corporate income tax (CIT rates between EU member states. Because of interest in harmonizing CIT throughout the EU, the roots of divergent CIT is of particular and timely value. Therefore, this article we attempts to demonstrate the differences in CIT rates in the EU-15 and New Member States. In so doing the general characteristics of these country grouping is identified, and then discussed in the context of the taxation theory.

  18. The incidence of breast cancer following mantle field radiation therapy as a function of dose and technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tinger, Alfred; Wasserman, Todd H.; Klein, Eric E.; Miller, Elizabeth A.; Roberts, Tracy; Piephoff, James V.; Kucik, Nancy A.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: There is an increased incidence of breast cancer following mantle field radiation therapy for Hodgkin's disease (HD). We reviewed the experience at the Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology (MIR) for radiation factors related to the development of breast cancer after mantle field radiation therapy for HD. Methods: The radiation therapy records of 152 women treated with mantle field irradiation for HD at MIR between 1966-1985 were reviewed for the development of breast cancer and treatment-related factors. All patients had a minimum of 5 years of follow-up. The treatment era (1966-1974 vs. 1975-1985), stage of HD, mediastinal dose, axillary dose, maximum dose from the anterior field (anterior d max dose), the anterior-posterior:posterior-anterior (AP:PA) ratio, age at the time of treatment, length of follow-up, and history of splenectomy were analyzed as possible contributing factors for the development of breast cancer. The observed number of breast cancers was compared to the expected number based on age-adjusted incidences from the Connecticut Tumor Registry. Results: Ten breast cancers occurred in the population. Eight involved an upper outer quadrant. In a multivariate analysis, the development of breast cancer was significantly associated with axillary dose. Patients in the early treatment era were at an increased risk for the development of breast cancer due to high anterior d max and breast doses from weighting the fields anteriorly on a low energy linear accelerator. The use of current radiation therapy techniques was not related to an increased risk of breast cancer with a median follow-up of 13 years. Conclusions: A high dose to the axilla and the anterior d max point is significantly associated with the development of breast cancer after mantle field irradiation for HD. Efforts to protect the breast from high doses will likely lessen the increased risk of breast cancer in women treated with radiation therapy for HD

  19. Factors precipitating the risk of aspiration in hospitalized patients: findings from a multicentre critical incident technique study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palese, Alvisa; Lesa, Lucia; Stroppolo, Giulia; Lupieri, Giulia; Tardivo, Stefano; Brusaferro, Silvio

    2017-04-01

    To elucidate factors, other than those clinical, precipitating the risk of aspiration in hospitalized patients. The Critical Incident Technique was adopted for this study in 2015. Three departments located in two academic hospitals in the northeast of Italy, equipped with 800 and 1500 beds, respectively. A purposeful sample of 12 registered nurses (RN), all of whom (i) had reported one or more episodes of aspiration during the longitudinal survey, (ii) had worked ≥3 years in the department, and (iii) were willing to participate, were included. Antecedent factors involved in episodes of aspiration as experienced by RNs were collected through an open-ended interview, and qualitatively analysed. In addition to clinical factors, other factors interacting with each other may precipitate the risk of aspiration episodes during hospitalization: at the nursing care level (misclassifying patients, transferring tasks to other healthcare professionals and standardizing processes to remove potential threats); at the family level (misclassifying patients, dealing with the cultural relevance of eating) and at the environmental level (positioning the patient, managing time pressures, distracting patient while eating, dealing with food consistency and irritating oral medication). At the hospital level, an adequate nursing workforce and models of care delivery, as well as time for initial and continuing patient and family assessment are required. At the unit level, patient-centred models of care aimed at reducing care standardization are also recommended; in addition, nursing, family and environmental factors should be recorded in the incident reports documenting episodes of aspiration. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press in association with the International Society for Quality in Health Care. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  20. Effect of fentanyl on 125I-β-CIT uptake in mice brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xingdang; Lin Xiangtong

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of fentanyl on 125 I-2β-carbomethoxy-3β-(4-iodophenyl) tropane ( 125 I-β-CIT) uptake in mice brain. Methods: 1) KM mice groups of five were given different doses of fentanyl, and 10 min or 1 h later were given a dose of 125 I-β-CIT. 2)Two groups of animals were killed at 2 h after injection of 125 I-β-CIT. 3)One group of animals were killed at 1 h after injection of 125 I-β-CIT. Results: 1)In the striatum, frontal cortex, hippocampus, brain stem, cerebellum and whole brain, a dose-dependent increase in uptake (%ID/g or %ID) of 125 I-β-CIT was detected at the fentanyl doses ranging from 125 to 300 μg/kg, and the uptakes of hippocampus and cerebellum were higher than that of the controls. There was a great difference in the value of %ID/g or %ID between the group treated with 250 μg/kg fentanyl and the control group; while at the doses from 12.5 to 100 μg/kg, a dose-dependent decrease in uptake in the same regions was observed and all the uptake levels were lower (hippocampus: except 62.5 and 12.5 μg/kg groups; brain stem: except 62.5 μg/kg group) than that of the controls. 2)The uptakes of 125 I-β-CIT in the striatum, frontal cortex, hippocampus, brain stem, cerebellum and whole brain in the groups injected with 125 I-β-CIT 10 min after fentanyl treatment were higher than that in the groups injected with 125 I-β-CIT 1 h after fentanyl treatment. 3)The binding of 125 I-β-CIT in the striatum, frontal cortex, hippocampus, brain stem, cerebellum and whole brain in the groups killed at 1 h after injection of 125 I-β-CIT was higher than that in the control group, but without significant difference. Conclusion: Fentanyl may have different effects on 125 I-β-CIT at various time points and doses

  1. Putative resistance genes in the CitEST database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Guidetti-Gonzalez

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Disease resistance in plants is usually associated with the activation of a wide variety of defense responses to prevent pathogen replication and/or movement. The ability of the host plant to recognize the pathogen and to activate defense responses is regulated by direct or indirect interaction between the products of plant resistance (R and pathogen avirulence (Avr genes. Attempted infection of plants by avirulent pathogens elicits a battery of defenses often followed by the collapse of the challenged host cells. Localized host cell death may help to prevent the pathogen from spreading to uninfected tissues, known as hypersensitive response (HR. When either the plant or the pathogen lacks its cognate gene, activation of the plant’s defense responses fails to occur or is delayed and does not prevent pathogen colonization. In the CitEST database, we identified 1,300 reads related to R genes in Citrus which have been reported in other plant species. These reads were translated in silico, and alignments of their amino acid sequences revealed the presence of characteristic domains and motifs that are specific to R gene classes. The description of the reads identified suggests that they function as resistance genes in citrus.

  2. The Effects of Different Breastfeeding Training Techniques Given for Primiparous Mothers Before Discharge on the Incidence of Cracked Nipples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eksioglu, Aysun; Yesil, Yesim; Demir Gungor, Dilek; Ceber Turfan, Esin

    2017-06-01

    This research investigated the effects of different breastfeeding training techniques for primiparous mothers before discharge on the incidence of cracked nipples. This was a controlled intervention study that was carried out between 2015 and 2016 on 90 mothers living in İzmir. The mothers were divided into three groups: the demonstration-based training group, brochure group, and routine care-receiving group. The mothers in the "brochure group" were provided with breastfeeding training brochures. Mothers in the demonstration-based training group received one-to-one training using designed doll and puppet tools. The rate of cracked nipples at age 2 weeks was 63.3% in the routine care-receiving group, 56.7% in the brochure group, and 20% in the demonstration-based training group. At the end of the fourth week, the rate was 30% in the routine care-receiving group and less than 10% in the other two groups (p raining group than in the other two groups (p roups in the percentage of exclusive breastfeeding. The results documented that breastfeeding training based on one-to-one demonstration utilizing specially designed audiovisual tools was more effective than the other two methods in the prevention of nipple cracks.

  3. Quality of nursing care perceived by patients and their nurses: an application of the critical incident technique. Part 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redfern, S; Norman, I

    1999-07-01

    The aims of the study were to identify indicators of quality of nursing care from the perceptions of patients and nurses, and to determine the congruence between patients' and nurses' perceptions. The paper is presented in two parts. Part 1 included the background and methods to the study and the findings from the comparison of patients' and nurses' perceptions. Part 2 describes the perceptions of patients and nurses, and draws conclusions drawn from the study as a whole. Patients and nurses in hospital wards were interviewed using the critical incident technique. We grouped 4546 indicators of high and low quality nursing care generated from the interview transcripts into 316 subcategories, 68 categories and 31 themes. The themes were grouped into eight clusters: therapeutic context for care, attitudes and sensitivity, teaching and leadership, motivation to nurse, monitoring and informing, high-dependency care, efficiency and thoroughness, reflection and anticipation. As shown in Part 1 of the paper, congruence between patients' and nurses' perceptions of quality was high and significant, although there was some difference of emphasis. The findings support an emerging theory of interpersonal competence and quality in nursing care.

  4. [Use of the critical incident technique in the development of a measurement tool for satisfaction in psychiatry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourin, C; Daucourt, V; Barberger-Gateau, P

    2001-06-01

    Health care centers will have to set up a regular survey of their patients' satisfaction, in addition to the discharge questionnaire. Few instruments for measuring satisfaction are at present available. A working group associating 10 psychiatric hospitals in Aquitaine conducted a study on the specificity of this measure in psychiatry. To record the patient's perception on the stay in order to identify areas of satisfaction and dissatisfaction as perceived and reported by himself, using a qualitative approach. The critical incident technique was used in 3 volunteer hospitals, in patients hospitalised in psychiatric wards selected by their doctor. Interview using a semi-structured questionnaire were conducted by an investigator external to the departments. Data were analysed in a qualitative way. 32 interviews could be analysed, and 215 events were extracted. These events were classified in 12 themes. The events identified from these interviews have allowed identification of new areas of patient satisfaction, which could be used to build additional items centered on patients' preoccupations.

  5. Clinical correlation of the binding potential with {sup 123}I-FP-CIT in de novo idiopathic Parkinson's disease patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berti, Valentina; Pupi, Alberto; Vanzi, Eleonora; Cristofaro, Maria Teresa de; Pellicano, Giannantonio; Mungai, Francesco [University of Florence, Clinical Pathophysiology, Florence (Italy); Ramat, Silvia; Marini, Paolo; Sorbi, Sandro [University of Florence, Neurological and Psychiatric Sciences, Florence (Italy)

    2008-12-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of different single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) reconstruction techniques in measuring striatal N-{omega}-fluoropropyl-2{beta}-carbomethoxy-3{beta}-4-[{sup 123}I]iodophenyl-nortropane ({sup 123}I-FP-CIT) binding in de novo Parkinson's disease (PD) patients, in order to find a correlation with clinical scales of disease severity in the initial phases of disease. Thirty-six de novo PD patients underwent {sup 123}I-FP-CIT SPECT and MRI scan. SPECT data were reconstructed with filtered back projection (FBP), with an iterative algorithm (ordered subset expected maximization, OSEM) and with a method previously developed in our institution, called least-squares (LS) method. The ratio of specific to non-specific striatal {sup 123}I-FP-CIT binding (binding potential, BP) was used as the outcome measure with all the reconstruction methods (BP{sub FBP}, BP{sub OSEM}, BP{sub LS}). The range of values of striatal BP{sub LS} was significantly greater than BP{sub FBP} and BP{sub OSEM}. For all striatal regions, estimates of BP{sub FBP} correlated well with BP{sub OSEM} (r=0.84) and with BP{sub LS} (r=0.64); BP{sub OSEM} correlated significantly with BP{sub LS} (r=0.76). A good correlation was found between putaminal BP{sub LS} and Hoen and Yahr, Unified PD Rating Scale (UPDRS) and lateralized UPDRS motor scores (r=-0.46, r=-0.42, r=-0.39, respectively). Neither putaminal BP{sub FBP} nor putaminal BP{sub OSEM} correlated with any of these motor scores. In de novo PD patients, {sup 123}I-FP-CIT BP values derived from FBP and OSEM reconstruction techniques do not permit to differentiate PD severity. The LS method instead finds a correlation between striatal BP and disease severity scores. The results of this study support the use of {sup 123}I-FP-CIT BP values estimated with the LS method as a biomarker of PD severity. (orig.)

  6. 123I-β-CIT SPECT imaging study in early Parkinson's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Peiyong

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the loss of dopamine transporters in hemi-Parkinson's disease (PD) using 123 I-β-CIT/SPECT. Methods: Seven patients with hemi-Parkinson's disease and 7 age- and sex- matched healthy subjects were studied by 123 I-β-CIT/SPECT. Striatal specific uptake of 123 I-β-CIT was calculated in the ratio of striatal uptake to cerebellar uptake. Results: Mean striatal specific uptake of 123 I-β-CIT in healthy subjects was 3.0 +- 0.5 and 5.5 +- 0.6 at 3h and 18h after injection. Striatal specific uptake in contralateral to the clinical symptom side was 2.0 +- 0.8 and 3.1 +- 0.4; in ipsilateral striatum was 2.3 +- 0.4 and 4.0 +- 0.5. There was a significant reduction of striatal tracer uptake in PD patients compared to the controls. Patient age correlated with the reduction in contralateral striatum but did not correlate with that in ipsilateral striatum. Conclusions: Striatal dopamine transporters bilaterally lost in early PD patients. 123 I-β-CIT uptake in contralateral striatum was reduced more severely than in ipsilateral striatum

  7. Practical benefit of [123I[FP-CIT SPET in the demonstration of the dopaminergic deficit in Parkinson's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Booij, J.; Tissingh, G.; Winogrodzka, A.; Boer, G.J.; Wolters, E.C.; Royen, E.A. van

    1997-01-01

    Loss of striatal dopamine (DA) transporters in Parkinson's disease (PD) has been accurately assessed in vivo by single-photon emission tomography (SPET) studies using [ 123 I[β-CIT. However, these studies have also shown that adequate imaging of the striatal DA transporter content can be performed only 20-30 h following the injection of [ 123 I[β-CIT, which is not convenient for routine out-patient evaluations. Recently, a new ligand, N-ω-fluoropropyl-2β-carbomethoxy-3β-(4-iodophenyl)tropane (FP-CIT), became available for in vivo imaging of the DA transporter. The faster kinetics of [ 123 I[FP-CIT have been shown to allow adequate acquisition as early as 3 h following injection. In the present study, loss of striatal DA transporters in five non-medicated PD patients was assessed on two consecutive SPET scans, one with [ 123 I[β-CIT (24 h following injection) and one with [ 123 I[FP-CIT (3 h following injection). The ratios of specific to non-specific [ 123 I[FP-CIT uptake in the caudate nucleus and putamen were consistently 2.5-fold lower than those of [ 123 I[β-CIT. However, when the uptake ratio of both ligands in these brain regions of patients was expressed as a percentage of the uptake ratio found in healthy controls, both the decrease and the variation of the data were similar. It is concluded on the basis of these findings that [ 123 I[FP-CIT seems as good as [ 123 I[β-CIT for the assessment of the dopaminergic deficit in PD. The faster kinetics of [ 123 I[FP-CIT are a clear advantage. (orig.). With 3 figs

  8. Police Responses to Persons With Mental Illness: Going Beyond CIT Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steadman, Henry J; Morrissette, David

    2016-10-01

    Since 1988, a major development to reduce lethal encounters between police and persons displaying signs of mental illness has been the adoption by many police departments of crisis intervention teams (CITs). Created in Memphis, Tennessee, CIT programs incorporate deescalation training, police-friendly drop-off centers, and linkage to community treatment programs. The authors summarize issues discussed at a recent Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration workshop at which participants highlighted the importance of going beyond CIT training to most effectively include police in a crisis care continuum model. Such an approach focuses on how police can be engaged as partners with behavioral health providers who are designing and implementing services in the crisis care continuum. Reframing the approach to police responses to persons in mental health crises offers the prospect of improving both public health and public safety goals.

  9. Striatal FP-CIT uptake differs in the subtypes of early Parkinson's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spiegel, J.; Fassbender, K.; Dillmann, U.; Hellwig, D.; Samnick, S.; Moellers, M.-O.; Kirsch, C.-M.; Jost, W.

    2007-01-01

    In idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD), a tremor-dominant type (TDT), an akinetic-rigid type (ART), and a mixed type (MT) are distinguished. We compared cerebral [I- 123 ]FP-CIT SPECT in the PD subtypes (67 patients Hoehn and Yahr stage 1:26 with ART, 19 with MT, 22 with TDT). We measured the ratios putamen/occipital lobe binding and caudate nucleus/occipital lobe binding. Parkinsonian motor symptoms were quantified by UPDRS motor scale. In both putamen and caudate nucleus contralateral to the clinically affected body side TDT patients showed a significantly higher FP-CIT uptake than ART or MT patients (ANOVA; p 0.05). The missing correlation between striatal FP-CIT uptake and tremor suggests, that further systems besides the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system may contribute to generation of parkinsonian tremor. (author)

  10. MOLECULAR LINE OBSERVATIONS OF THE CARBON-RICH CIRCUMSTELLAR ENVELOPE CIT 6 AT 7 mm WAVELENGTHS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chau, Wayne; Zhang Yong; Nakashima, Jun-ichi; Kwok, Sun [Department of Physics, University of Hong Kong (Hong Kong); Deguchi, Shuji [Nobeyama Radio Observatory, National Astronomical Observatory, Minamimaki, Minamisaku, Nagano 384-1305 (Japan)

    2012-11-20

    We present a {lambda}7 mm spectral line survey of the carbon-rich circumstellar envelope (CSE) CIT 6 using the 45 m telescope at the Nobeyama Radio Observatory. A total of 25 spectral features belonging to five molecular species (HC{sub 3}N, HC{sub 5}N, HC{sub 7}N, SiO, and CS) are detected, enabling us to investigate the chemistry of cyanopolyyne chains. The line strengths are compared with those of the proto-typical carbon-rich CSE IRC+10216. The results show that the cyanopolyyne molecules are enhanced in CIT 6, suggesting that it is more evolved than IRC+10216. In order to investigate the structure of CIT 6, we have constructed a three-dimensional spatiokinematic model. By comparing the observed line profiles with the models, we conclude that this envelope is asymmetric and is composed of several incomplete shells.

  11. Study of molecule-metal interfaces by means of the normal incidence X-ray standing wave technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mercurio, Giuseppe

    2012-01-01

    Functional surfaces based on monolayers of organic molecules are currently subject of an intense research effort due to their applications in molecular electronics, sensing and catalysis. Because of the strong dependence of organic based devices on the local properties of the molecule-metal interface, a direct investigation of the interface chemistry is of paramount importance. In this context, the bonding distance, measured by means of the normal incidence X-ray standing wave technique (NIXSW), provides a direct access to the molecule-metal interactions. At the same time, NIXSW adsorption heights are used to benchmark different density functional theory (DFT) schemes and determine the ones with predictive power for similar systems. This work investigates the geometric and chemical properties of different molecule/metal interfaces, relevant to molecular electronics and functional surfaces applications, primarily by means of the NIXSW technique. All NIXSW data are analyzed with the newly developed open source program Torricelli, which is thoroughly documented in the thesis. In order to elucidate the role played by the substrate within molecule/metal interfaces, the prototype organic molecule 3,4,9,10-perylene-tetracarboxylic-dianhydride (PTCDA) is explored on the Ag(110) surface. The molecule results more distorted and at smaller bonding distances on the more reactive Ag(110) surface, in comparison with the Ag(100), the Ag(111) and Au(111) substrates. This conclusion follows from the detailed molecular adsorption geometry obtained from the differential analysis of nonequivalent carbon and oxygen species (including a careful error analysis). Subsequently, the chemisorptive PTCDA/Ag(110) interaction is tuned by the co-deposition of an external alkali metal, namely K. As a consequence, the functional groups of PTCDA unbind from the surface, which, in turn, undergoes major reconstruction. In fact, the resulting nanopatterned surface consists of alternated up and down

  12. Moderate financial incentive does not appear to influence the P300 Concealed Information Test (CIT) effect in the Complex Trial Protocol (CTP) version of the CIT in a forensic scenario, while affecting P300 peak latencies and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfeld, J Peter; Sitar, Evan; Wasserman, Joshua; Ward, Anne

    2018-03-01

    Previous research indicated that the skin conductance response (SCR) of the Autonomic Nervous System (ANS) in the Concealed Information Test (CIT) is typically increased in subjects who are financially and otherwise incentivized to defeat the CIT (the paradoxical "motivational impairment" effect). This is not the case for RT-based CITs, nor for P300 tests based on the 3-stimulus protocol or Complex Trial Protocol for detection of cognitive malingering (although these are not the same as forensic CITs). The present report extends earlier studies of malingerers by running five groups of subjects (15-16 per group yielding 78 total) in a mock crime (forensic) scenario: paid (to beat the test) and unpaid, instructed and uninstructed, and simply guilty. There was no evidence that the "CIT effect" (probe-minus-irrelevant P300 differences) differed among groups, although behavioral differences among groups were seen. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. A second generation climate index for tourism (CIT): specification and verification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Freitas, C R; Scott, Daniel; McBoyle, Geoff

    2008-05-01

    Climate is a key resource for many types of tourism and as such can be measured and evaluated. An index approach is required for this task because of the multifaceted nature of weather and the complex ways that weather variables come together to give meaning to climate for tourism. Here we address the deficiencies of past indices by devising a theoretically sound and empirically tested method that integrates the various facets of climate and weather into a single index called the Climate Index for Tourism (CIT). CIT rates the climate resource for activities that are highly climate/weather sensitive, specifically, beach "sun, sea and sand" (3S) holidays. CIT integrates thermal (T), aesthetic (A) and physical (P) facets of weather, which are combined in a weather typology matrix to determine a climate satisfaction rating that ranges from very poor (1=unacceptable) to very good (7=optimal). Parameter A refers to sky condition and P to rain or high wind. T is the body-atmosphere energy balance that integrates the environmental and physiological thermal variables, such as solar heat load, heat loss by convection (wind) and by evaporation (sweating), longwave radiation exchange and metabolic heat (activity level). Rather than use T as a net energy (calorific) value, CIT requires that it be expressed as thermal sensation using the standard nine-point ASHRAE scale ("very hot" to "very cold"). In this way, any of the several body-atmosphere energy balance schemes available may be used, maximizing the flexibility of the index. A survey (N=331) was used to validate the initial CIT. Respondents were asked to rate nine thermal states (T) with different sky conditions (A). They were also asked to assess the impact of high winds or prolonged rain on the perceived quality of the overall weather condition. The data was analysed statistically to complete the weather typology matrix, which covered every possible combination of T, A and P. Conditions considered to be optimal (CIT

  14. To enlarge the travel markets from Shanghai to Turku (Shanghai CITS, Ltd.)

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Chunyang

    2010-01-01

    This paper is made in order to make thorough analysis in current Chinese travel markets and travel agencies, as well as the analysis on Turku’s travel markets, with which it can know the feasibility in enlarge the travel markets for CITS into Turku. In details, as the background information, the brief overview of history of China’s domestic travel agencies and a brief description of Shanghai CITS in terms of its business and management status are posed with the aim of getting enough suppo...

  15. CitSci.org: A New Model for Managing, Documenting, and Sharing Citizen Science Data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiwei Wang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Citizen science projects have the potential to advance science by increasing the volume and variety of data, as well as innovation. Yet this potential has not been fully realized, in part because citizen science data are typically not widely shared and reused. To address this and related challenges, we built CitSci.org (see www.citsci.org, a customizable platform that allows users to collect and generate diverse datasets. We hope that CitSci.org will ultimately increase discoverability and confidence in citizen science observations, encouraging scientists to use such data in their own scientific research.

  16. A second generation climate index for tourism (CIT): specification and verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Freitas, C. R.; Scott, Daniel; McBoyle, Geoff

    2008-05-01

    Climate is a key resource for many types of tourism and as such can be measured and evaluated. An index approach is required for this task because of the multifaceted nature of weather and the complex ways that weather variables come together to give meaning to climate for tourism. Here we address the deficiencies of past indices by devising a theoretically sound and empirically tested method that integrates the various facets of climate and weather into a single index called the Climate Index for Tourism (CIT). CIT rates the climate resource for activities that are highly climate/weather sensitive, specifically, beach “sun, sea and sand” (3S) holidays. CIT integrates thermal (T), aesthetic (A) and physical (P) facets of weather, which are combined in a weather typology matrix to determine a climate satisfaction rating that ranges from very poor (1 = unacceptable) to very good (7 = optimal). Parameter A refers to sky condition and P to rain or high wind. T is the body-atmosphere energy balance that integrates the environmental and physiological thermal variables, such as solar heat load, heat loss by convection (wind) and by evaporation (sweating), longwave radiation exchange and metabolic heat (activity level). Rather than use T as a net energy (calorific) value, CIT requires that it be expressed as thermal sensation using the standard nine-point ASHRAE scale (“very hot” to “very cold”). In this way, any of the several body-atmosphere energy balance schemes available may be used, maximizing the flexibility of the index. A survey ( N = 331) was used to validate the initial CIT. Respondents were asked to rate nine thermal states (T) with different sky conditions (A). They were also asked to assess the impact of high winds or prolonged rain on the perceived quality of the overall weather condition. The data was analysed statistically to complete the weather typology matrix, which covered every possible combination of T, A and P. Conditions considered to

  17. Autopsy validation of 123I-FP-CIT dopaminergic neuroimaging for the diagnosis of DLB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Alan J; Attems, Johannes; Colloby, Sean J; O'Brien, John T; McKeith, Ian; Walker, Rodney; Lee, Lean; Burn, David; Lett, Debra J; Walker, Zuzana

    2017-01-17

    To conduct a validation study of 123 I-N-fluoropropyl-2b-carbomethoxy-3b-(4-iodophenyl) nortropane ( 123 I-FP-CIT) SPECT dopaminergic imaging in the clinical diagnosis of dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) with autopsy as the gold standard. Patients >60 years of age with dementia who had undergone 123 I-FP-CIT imaging in research studies and who had donated their brain tissue to the Newcastle Brain Tissue Resource were included. All had structured clinical research assessments, and clinical diagnoses were applied by consensus panels using international diagnostic criteria. All underwent 123 I-FP-CIT imaging at baseline, and scans were rated as normal or abnormal by blinded raters. Patients were reviewed in prospective studies and after death underwent detailed autopsy assessment, and neuropathologic diagnoses were applied with the use of standard international criteria. Fifty-five patients (33 with DLB and 22 with Alzheimer disease) were included. Against autopsy diagnosis, 123 I-FP-CIT had a balanced diagnostic accuracy of 86% (sensitivity 80%, specificity 92%) compared with clinical diagnosis, which had an accuracy of 79% (sensitivity 87%, specificity 72%). Among patients with DLB, 10% (3 patients) met pathologic criteria for Lewy body disease but had normal 123 I-FP-CIT imaging. This large autopsy analysis of 123 I-FP-CIT imaging in dementia demonstrates that it is a valid and accurate biomarker for DLB, and the high specificity compared with clinical diagnosis (20% higher) is clinically important. The results need to be replicated with patients recruited from a wider range of settings, including movement disorder clinics and general practice. While an abnormal 123 I-FP-CIT scan strongly supports Lewy body disease, a normal scan does not exclude DLB with minimal brainstem involvement. This study provides Class I evidence that 123 I-FP-CIT dopaminergic neuroimaging accurately identifies patients with DLB. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Wolters Kluwer

  18. CitSci.org: A New Model for Managing, Documenting, and Sharing Citizen Science Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yiwei; Kaplan, Nicole; Newman, Greg; Scarpino, Russell

    2015-10-01

    Citizen science projects have the potential to advance science by increasing the volume and variety of data, as well as innovation. Yet this potential has not been fully realized, in part because citizen science data are typically not widely shared and reused. To address this and related challenges, we built CitSci.org (see www.citsci.org), a customizable platform that allows users to collect and generate diverse datasets. We hope that CitSci.org will ultimately increase discoverability and confidence in citizen science observations, encouraging scientists to use such data in their own scientific research.

  19. Striatal [123I]β-CIT SPECT and prefrontal cognitive functions in Parkinson's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, U.; Waechter, T.; Barthel, H.; Reuter, M.; Cramon, D.Y. von

    2000-01-01

    Twenty non-demented patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD) underwent single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with [ 123 I]β-CIT to further investigate the contribution of nigrostriatal dysfunction to cognitive and motor deficits. Compared to matched controls PD patients showed normal verbal intelligence, short-term memory and phasic alertness. There were significant (p 123 I]β-CIT SPECT. These results support the view that the striatum is part of a neuronal network that is mediating prefrontal cognitive functions. (author)

  20. [123I]FP-CIT binding in rat brain after acute and sub-chronic administration of dopaminergic medication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavalaye, J.; Knol, R.J.J.; Bruin, K. de; Reneman, L.; Booij, J.; Janssen, A.G.M.

    2000-01-01

    The recently developed radioligand [ 123 I]FP-CIT is suitable for clinical single-photon emission tomography (SPET) imaging of the dopamine (DA) transporter in vivo. To date it has remained unclear whether dopaminergic medication influences the striatal [ 123 I]FP-CIT binding. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of this medication on [ 123 I]FP-CIT binding in the brain. We used an animal model in which we administered dopaminomimetics, antipsychotics and an antidepressant. In vivo [ 123 I]FP-CIT binding to the DA and serotonin transporters was evaluated after sub-chronic and acute administration of the drugs. The administered medication induced small changes in striatal [ 123 I]FP-CIT binding which were not statistically significant. As expected, the DA reuptake blocker GBR 12,909 induced a significant decrease in [ 123 I]FP-CIT binding. [ 123 I]FP-CIT binding in the serotonin-rich hypothalamus was decreased only after acute administration of fluvoxamine. The results of this study suggest that dopaminergic medication will not affect the results of DA transporter SPET imaging with [ 123 I]FP-CIT. (orig.)

  1. Acute administration of haloperidol does not influence 123I-FP-CIT binding to the dopamine transporter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Booij, Jan; van Loon, Guus; de Bruin, Kora; Voorn, Pieter

    2014-01-01

    A recent (123)I-FP-CIT ((123)-I-N-ω-fluoropropyl-2β-carbomethoxy-3β-(4-iodophenyl)nortropane) SPECT study on rats suggested that a single 1 mg/kg dose of the antipsychotic haloperidol induces enough dopamine release to compete with (123)I-FP-CIT for binding to the dopamine transporter. Taking into

  2. Using remote sensing and modeling techniques to investigate the annual parasite incidence of malaria in Loreto, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousam, Aneela; Maggioni, Viviana; Delamater, Paul L.; Quispe, Antonio M.

    2017-10-01

    Between 2001 and 2010 significant progress was made towards reducing the number of malaria cases in Peru; however, the country saw an increase between 2011 and 2015. This work attempts to uncover the associations among various climatic and environmental variables and the annual malaria parasite incidence in the Peruvian region of Loreto. A Multilevel Mixed-effects Poisson Regression model is employed, focusing on the 2009-2013 period, when trends in malaria incidence shifted from decreasing to increasing. The results indicate that variations in elevation (β = 0.78; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.75-0.81), soil moisture (β = 0.0021; 95% CI, 0.0019-0.0022), rainfall (β = 0.59; 95% CI, 0.56-0.61), and normalized difference vegetation index (β = 2.13; 95% CI, 1.83-2.43) is associated with higher annual parasite incidence, whereas an increase in temperature (β = -0.0043; 95% CI, - 0.0044- 0.0041) is associated with a lower annual parasite incidence. The results from this study are particularly useful for healthcare workers in Loreto and have the potential of being integrated within malaria elimination plans.

  3. CitRec 2017 : International Workshop on Recommender Systems for Citizens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, J.; Sun, Zhu; Bozzon, A.; Zhang, J.; Larson, M.A.

    2017-01-01

    The "International Workshop on Recommender Systems for Citizens" (CitRec) is focused on a novel type of recommender systems both in terms of ownership and purpose: recommender systems run by citizens and serving society as a whole.

  4. European multicentre database of healthy controls for [(123)I]FP-CIT SPECT (ENC-DAT)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varrone, Andrea; Dickson, John C; Tossici-Bolt, Livia

    2013-01-01

    of quantification is the availability of normative data, considering possible age and gender effects on DAT availability. The aim of the European Normal Control Database of DaTSCAN (ENC-DAT) study was to generate a large database of [(123)I]FP-CIT SPECT scans in healthy controls....

  5. A pedagogical framework for embedding C&IT into the curriculum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grainne Conole

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available A wide variety of communication and information technologies (C&IT is now available, offering education a broad range of potential benefits, be they educational (Mapp, 1994; Lewis and Merton, 1996; HEFCE, 1997a, economic (HEFCE, 1997a, or in terms of competitiveness with other universities in an increasingly global market (Maier et al, 1997. The uptake and use of these resources is patchy at best (Laurillard et al, 1993; Lewis and Merton, 1996. This mismatch between potential and use has been seen as increasingly important, and incentives and recommendations are leading to an increasing use of C&IT, as illustrated by the recommendations of the recent Dealing report (Dearing et al, 1997 and the priorities of the TLT programme (HEFCE, 1997b. Concerns have been voiced, however, that the push towards a wider embedding of C&IT in education may ignore issues of the appropriate uses of these resources. What is needed is a convincing and practical pedagogically-driven (as opposed to technology-driven methodology for integrating C&IT into courses.

  6. Influences of Gravity Waves on Convectively Induced Turbulence (CIT): A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharman, Robert D.; Trier, S. B.

    2018-03-01

    Thunderstorms are known to produce turbulence. Such turbulence is commonly referred to as convectively induced turbulence or CIT, and can be hazardous to aviation. Although this turbulence can occur both within and outside the convection, out-of-cloud CIT is particularly hazardous, since it occurs in clear air and cannot be seen by eye or onboard radar. Furthermore, due to its small scale and its ties to the underlying convection, it is very difficult to forecast. Guidelines for out-of-cloud CIT avoidance are available, but they are oversimplified and can be misleading. In the search for more appropriate and physically based avoidance guidelines, considerable research has been conducted in recent years on the nature of the phenomenon, and in particular, its connection to gravity waves generated by the convection. This paper reviews the advances in our understanding of out-of-cloud CIT and its relation to convective gravity waves, and provides several detailed examples of observed cases to elucidate some of the underlying dynamics.

  7. On the survivability of diagnostic windows in the CIT [Compact Ignition Tokamak] reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, A.

    1988-11-01

    The problem of radiation induced stresses in CIT diagnostic windows is discussed. Existing data indicate windows of existing design will probably survive if placed on the periphery of the reactor. There is a lack of adequate engineering data upon which the design and survivability of windows can be based. 22 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs

  8. Synthesis and catalytic properties of titanium containing extra-large pore zeolite CIT-5

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Přech, Jan; Kubů, Martin; Čejka, Jiří

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 227, MAY 2014 (2014), s. 80-86 ISSN 0920-5861 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP106/12/G015 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : zeolite CIT-5 * titanosilicate * epoxidation Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 3.893, year: 2014

  9. Effects of age and sex on 125I-β-CIT binding to DAT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xingdang; Lin Xiangtong

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To investigate effects of age and sex on 125 I-β-CIT binding to dopamine transporter (DAT). Methods: Detection of the differences in 125 I-β-CIT binding kinetics in vivo between 6 week and 6 month old KM mice, and the differences of in vivo binding between female and male, and between 3 month and 12 month old SD rats.The animals were sacrificed 2 h after injection. Results: Uptake of 125 I-β-CIT in the striatum, frontal cortex, parietal cortex, temporal cortex, occipital cortex, hippocampus, brain stem and whole brain in 6 week old mice was higher than that in 6 month old mice, and similar uptake pattern happened in between 3 month old and in 12 month old SD rats. In 12 months old SD rats, female rats had higher uptake in the striatum than male rats did. Conclusions: Young mice and rats have a higher uptake of 125 I-β-CIT in the striatum than aged ones and female rats have a higher uptake than male ones do. This result indicates that the density of DAT in rat or mouse striatum may be reduced with aging

  10. Determination of x-ray spectra incident on and transmitted through whole excised breast for improved mammographic exposing technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haus, A.G.; Metz, C.E.; Doi, K.; Bernstein, J.

    1976-01-01

    Measurements were made of x-ray spectra incident on and transmitted through whole excised fresh breast tissue. The spectra and corresponding radiographs show that hardening of the x-ray beam from a molybdenum anode x-ray tube by a 0.5 mm Al filter instead of the conventional 0.03 mm Mo filter allows shorter exposure times and reduces patient radiation exposure. With the Al filter, acceptable image contrast is preserved in mammography of thick or dense breasts

  11. Global scaling for semi-quantitative analysis in FP-CIT SPECT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupitz, D; Apostolova, I; Lange, C; Ulrich, G; Amthauer, H; Brenner, W; Buchert, R

    2014-01-01

    Semi-quantitative characterization of dopamine transporter availability from single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with 123I-ioflupane (FP-CIT) is based on uptake ratios relative to a reference region. The aim of this study was to evaluate the whole brain as reference region for semi-quantitative analysis of FP-CIT SPECT. The rationale was that this might reduce statistical noise associated with the estimation of non-displaceable FP-CIT uptake. 150 FP-CIT SPECTs were categorized as neurodegenerative or non-neurodegenerative by an expert. Semi-quantitative analysis of specific binding ratios (SBR) was performed with a custom-made tool based on the Statistical Parametric Mapping software package using predefined regions of interest (ROIs) in the anatomical space of the Montreal Neurological Institute. The following reference regions were compared: predefined ROIs for frontal and occipital lobe and whole brain (without striata, thalamus and brainstem). Tracer uptake in the reference region was characterized by the mean, median or 75th percentile of its voxel intensities. The area (AUC) under the receiver operating characteristic curve was used as performance measure. The highest AUC of 0.973 was achieved by the SBR of the putamen with the 75th percentile in the whole brain as reference. The lowest AUC for the putamen SBR of 0.937 was obtained with the mean in the frontal lobe as reference. We recommend the 75th percentile in the whole brain as reference for semi-quantitative analysis in FP-CIT SPECT. This combination provided the best agreement of the semi-quantitative analysis with visual evaluation of the SPECT images by an expert and, therefore, is appropriate to support less experienced physicians.

  12. Evaluation of CIT for Over-the-Horizon Radar Enhancement

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Na, Helen

    2000-01-01

    .... Several techniques were used including neural network based approaches for imaging localized time varying events, an iterative volumetric approach for three dimensional imaging that enables localized...

  13. Synthesis and quality control of 18F-β-FP-CIT as a dopamine transporter imaging agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Ganghua; Tang Xiaolan; Wang Mingfang; Huang Zuhan

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To develop 18 F-N-3-fluoropropyl-2-β-carbomethoxy-3-β-(4-iodophenyl) nortropane ( 18 F-β-FP-CIT) as dopamine transporter imaging agent. Methods: The labelling of 18 F-β-FP-CIT was performed via a two-step synthesis. The 18 F-fluoropropyl bromide was prepared through a nucleophilic substitution by the use of the aminopolyether potassium complex (K/K222) +18 F - as a phase-transfer reagent, and then by N-fluoroalkylation of 2-β-carbomethoxy-3-β-(4-iodophenyl) nortropane (nor-β-CIT) with 18 F-fluoropropyl bromide the 18 F-β-FP-CIT was formed. Contents and analytical methods of quality control for 18 F-β-FP-CIT were investigated and the main quality criteria were achieved through strict control of the determining parameters by standard procedures. Results: The mean overall radiochemical yield from starting 18 F-fluoride was about 8%, the total radiochemical synthesis time was about 90-110 min, and the radiochemical purity was better than 99% by HPLC and TLC. Tests on sterility and apyrogenicity of 18 F-β-FP-CIT obtained by standard procedures were negative, and tests on other main quality criteria met the requirements of the local pharmacopoeia. Conclusion: 18 F-β-FP-CIT injection can be used in the animal and human PET study

  14. Socioeconomic information, Plainsboro area, New Jersey: Supplementary documentation for an environmental assessment for the CIT [Compact Ignition Tokamak] at PPPL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bentz, L.K.; Bender, D.S.

    1987-07-01

    This report contains socioeconomic information on the Plainsboro, New Jersey, area, the proposed location of the Compact Ignition Tokamak (CIT) facility. It was prepared as supplemental information for an environmental assessment for the CIT at Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL). The report contains descriptions of the demographic, economic, and community resource characteristics, and, based on information available in early 1987, considers the socioeconomic effect of the proposed facility. In all areas examined, the anticipated socioeconomic impacts of the proposed CIT facility at PPPL are negligible or minimal. 29 refs., 8 figs., 24 tabs

  15. Use of Mitomycin C to reduce the incidence of encapsulated cysts following ahmed glaucoma valve implantation in refractory glaucoma patients: a new technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Minwen; Wang, Wei; Huang, Wenbin; Zhang, Xiulan

    2014-09-06

    To evaluate the surgical outcome of Ahmed glaucoma valve (AGV) implantation with a new technique of mitomycin C (MMC) application. This is a retrospective study. All patients with refractory glaucoma underwent FP-7 AGV implantation. Two methods of MMC application were used. In the traditional technique, 6 × 4 mm cotton soaked with MMC (0.25-0.33 mg/ml) was placed in the implantation area for 2-5mins; in the new technique, the valve plate first was encompassed with a thin layer of cotton soaked with MMC, then inserted into the same area. A 200 ml balanced salt solution was applied for irrigation of MMC. The surgical success rate, intraocular pressure (IOP), number of anti-glaucoma medications used, and postoperative complications were analyzed between the groups. The surgical outcomes of two MMC applied techniques were compared. The new technique group had only one case (2.6%) of encapsulated cyst formation out of 38 eyes, while there were eight (19.5%) cases out of 41 eyes the in traditional group. The difference was statistically significant (P = 0.030). According to the definition of success rate, there was 89.5% in the new technique group and 70.7% in the traditional group at the follow-up end point. There was a significant difference between the two groups (P = 0.035). Mean IOP in the new technique group were significantly lower than those of the traditional group at 3 and 6 months (P < 0.05). By using a thin layer of cotton soaked with MMC to encompass the valve plate, the new MMC application technique could greatly decrease the incidence of encapsulated cyst and increase the success rate following AGV implantation.

  16. Mutation in the gene encoding 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase 4 (CitACS4) led to andromonoecy in watermelon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Gaojie; Zhang, Jie; Zhang, Haiying; Sun, Honghe; Gong, Guoyi; Shi, Jianting; Tian, Shouwei; Guo, Shaogui; Ren, Yi; Shen, Huolin; Gao, Junping; Xu, Yong

    2016-09-01

    Although it has been reported previously that ethylene plays a critical role in sex determination in cucurbit species, how the andromonoecy that carries both the male and hermaphroditic flowers is determined in watermelon is still unknown. Here we showed that the watermelon gene 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase 4 (CitACS4), expressed specifically in carpel primordia, determines the andromonoecy in watermelon. Among four single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs) and one InDel identified in the coding region of CitACS4, the C364W mutation located in the conserved box 6 was co-segregated with andromonoecy. Enzymatic analyses showed that the C364W mutation caused a reduced activity in CitACS4. We believe that the reduced CitACS4 activity may hamper the programmed cell death in stamen primordia, leading to the formation of hermaphroditic flowers. © 2016 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  17. A size upper limit and position for the HCN maser in CIT 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlstrom, J.E.; Welch, W.J.; Goldsmith, P.F.; Lis, D.C.

    1990-01-01

    A size upper limit and position for the HCN maser in CIT 6 were determined from interferometric observations with the Hat Creek millimeter array. The maser is located at alpha(1950) = 10 h 13 m 10.942 + or - 0.012 s and delta(1950) = + 30 deg 49 arcmin 16.75 arcsec + or - 0.15, coincident with the optical image taken from the Palomar plates, within the 3 arcsec uncertainty of the latter. The size of the maser emission region is less than 0.45 arcsec, approximately 180 AU at the distance estimated for CIT 6. The small size and strong emission (40 Jy) set a lower limit to the brightness temperature of 44,000 K, further strengthening the maser interpretation. 14 refs

  18. "Rencontres de Genève - Histoire et Cité": building peace

    CERN Multimedia

    Laurianne Trimoulla

    2015-01-01

    How did people conceive, picture or imagine peace in former times? How did they contribute to it in concrete terms? Why and how were they sometimes obliged to fight to promote or enforce it? Which material, symbolic, financial, political and economic means were used to foster cohesion between societies, peoples and communities? The Rencontres de Genève - Histoire et Cité festival invites us to learn about the past to better understand the present.   Events taking place at Geneva University (Uni Dufour and Uni Bastions) and elsewhere in the city from Wednesday, 13 May to Saturday, 16 May. Organised by Geneva University’s Maison de l'histoire in collaboration with the Geneva Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies and the University of Applied Sciences and Arts of Western Switzerland (HES-SO), this first festival of history in Switzerland features a comprehensive programme of events taking place at various locations. The cit...

  19. Plans for the CIT [Compact Ignition Tokamak] instrumentation and control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preckshot, G.G.

    1987-01-01

    Extensive experience with previous fusion experiments (TFTR, MFTF-B and others) is driving the design of the Instrumentation and Control System (I and C) for the Compact Ignition Tokamak (CIT) to be built at Princeton. The new design will reuse much equipment from TFTR and will be subdivided into six major parts: machine control, machine data acquisition, plasma diagnostic instrument control and instrument data acquisition, the database, shot sequencing and safety interlocks. In a major departure from previous fusion experiment control systems, the CIT machine control system will be a commercial process control system. Since the machine control system will be purchased as a completely functional product, we will be able to concentrate development manpower in plasma diagnostic instrument control, data acquisition, data processing and analysis, and database systems. We will discuss the issues driving the design, give a design overview and state the requirements upon any prospective commercial process control system

  20. CERN’s job diversity on display at the Cité des Métiers

    CERN Multimedia

    Corinne Pralavorio

    2015-01-01

    From 3 to 8 November, CERN took part in the Cité des Métiers careers fair in Geneva. Almost 10,000 people stopped by the Organization’s stand, where they were introduced to the wide range of professions practised at CERN.   Stefano Agosta, a telecommunications expert from the IT department, performs a geolocalisation demonstration with digital radio receivers for visitors to the CERN stand. Network engineering, computer graphics, geomatics, translation, video production, fire and rescue, law, computer-aided design… People often don’t realise how varied the job opportunities are at CERN. More than one hundred professions are present at the Laboratory. This was the message conveyed by representatives of various departments, including human resources and the visits service, at the CERN stand at the Cité des Métiers careers fair, from 3 to 8 November. CERN’s stand was part of the International Geneva section of the ...

  1. Electromagnetic loads and structural response of the CIT [Compact Ignition Tokamak] vacuum vessel to plasma disruptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salem, S.L.; Listvinsky, G.; Lee, M.Y.; Bailey, C.

    1987-01-01

    Studies of the electromagnetic loads produced by a variety of plasma disruptions, and the resulting structural effects on the compact Ignition Tokamak (CIT) vacuum vessel (VV), have been performed to help optimize the VV design. A series of stationary and moving plasmas, with disruption rates from 0.7--10.0 MA/ms, have been analyzed using the EMPRES code to compute eddy currents and electromagnetic pressures, and the NASTRAN code to evaluate the structural response of the vacuum vessel. Key factors contributing to the magnitude of EM forces and resulting stresses on the vessel have been found to include disruption rate, and direction and synchronization of plasma motion with the onset of plasma current decay. As a result of these analyses, a number of design changes have been made, and design margins for the present 1.75 meter design have been improved over the original CIT configuration. 1 ref., 10 figs., 4 tabs

  2. Penser et activer les relations entre cartes et récits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SÉBASTIEN CAQUARD

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available De prime abord, récit et carte semblent en opposition directe. Le récit offre un point de vue partiel et personnel, souvent chronologique et intimement associé à une trame narrative structurée autour d’évènements vécus, imaginés ou remémorés par un sujet concret engagé dans un cheminement. La carte s’ingénie à présenter de manière synthétique et abstraite des données quantifiables à partir d’un point distant, figé dans le temps, dépersonnalisé et aérien.

  3. Functional analysis of the citrate activator CitO from Enterococcus faecalis implicates a divalent metal in ligand binding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor S. Blancato

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The regulator of citrate metabolism, CitO, from Enterococcus faecalis belongs to the FCD family within the GntR superfamily. In the presence of citrate, CitO binds to cis-acting sequences located upstream of the cit promoters inducing the expression of genes involved in citrate utilization. The quantification of the molecular binding affinities, performed by isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC, indicated that CitO has a high affinity for citrate (KD= 1.2±0.2 µM, while it did not recognize other metabolic intermediates. Based on a structural model of CitO where a putative small molecule and a metal binding site were identified, it was hypothesized that the metal ion is required for citrate binding. In agreement with this model, citrate binding to CitO sharply decreased when the protein was incubated with EDTA. This effect was reverted by the addition of Ni2+, and Zn2+ to a lesser extent. Structure-based site-directed mutagenesis was conducted and it was found that changes to alanine in residues Arg97 and His191 resulted in decreased binding affinities for citrate, as determined by EMSA and ITC. Further assays using lacZ fusions confirmed that these residues in CitO are involved in sensing citrate in vivo. These results indicate that the molecular modifications induced by a ligand and a metal binding in the C-terminal domain of CitO are required for optimal DNA binding activity, and consequently, transcriptional activation.

  4. Differential diagnosis of Parkinsonism using dual phase F 18 FP CIT PET imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, So Young; Oh, Min Young; Ok, Seung Jun; Oh, Jung Su; Lee, Sang Ju; Chung, Sun Ju; Lee, Chong Sik; Kim, Jae Seung

    2012-01-01

    Dopamine transporter (DAT) imaging can demonstrate presynaptic dopaminergic neuronal loss in Parkinson's disease (PD). However, differentiating atypical parkinsonism (APD) from PD is often difficult. We investigated the usefulness of dual phase F 18 FP CIT positron emission tomography (PET) imaging in the differential diagnosis of parkinsonism. Ninety eight subjects [five normal, seven drug induced parkinsonism (DIP), five essential tremor (ET), 24 PD, 20 multiple system atrophy parkinson type (MSA-P), 13 multiple system atrophy cerebellar type (MSA-C), 13 progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), and 11 dementia with Lewy bodies(DLB)] underwent F 18 FP CIT PET. PET images were acquired at 5 min (early phase) and 3 h (late phase) after F 18 FP CIT administration (185MBq). Regional uptake pattern of cerebral and cerebellar hemispheres was assessed on early phase images, using visual, quantitative, and statistical parametric mapping (SPM) analyses. Striatal DAT binding was normal in normal, ET, DIP, and MSA C groups, but abnormal in PD, MSA P PSP, and DLB groups. No difference was found in regional uptake on early phase images among normal DAT binding groups, except in the MSA C group. Abnormal DAT binding groups showed different regional uptake pattern on early phase images compared with PD in SPM analysis (FDR<0.05). When discriminating APD from PD, visual interpretation of the early phase image showed high diagnostic sensitivity and specificity (75.4% and 100%, respectively). Regarding the ability to distinguish specific APD, sensitivities were 81% for MSA P, 77% for MSA C, 23% for PSP, and 54.5% for DLB. Dual phase F 18 FP CIT PET imaging is useful in demonstrating striatal DAT loss in neurodegenerative parkinsonism, and also in differentiating APD, particularly MSA, from PD

  5. Differential diagnosis of Parkinsonism using dual phase F 18 FP CIT PET imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, So Young; Oh, Min Young; Ok, Seung Jun; Oh, Jung Su; Lee, Sang Ju; Chung, Sun Ju; Lee, Chong Sik; Kim, Jae Seung [Univ. of Ulsan, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-03-15

    Dopamine transporter (DAT) imaging can demonstrate presynaptic dopaminergic neuronal loss in Parkinson's disease (PD). However, differentiating atypical parkinsonism (APD) from PD is often difficult. We investigated the usefulness of dual phase F 18 FP CIT positron emission tomography (PET) imaging in the differential diagnosis of parkinsonism. Ninety eight subjects [five normal, seven drug induced parkinsonism (DIP), five essential tremor (ET), 24 PD, 20 multiple system atrophy parkinson type (MSA-P), 13 multiple system atrophy cerebellar type (MSA-C), 13 progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), and 11 dementia with Lewy bodies(DLB)] underwent F 18 FP CIT PET. PET images were acquired at 5 min (early phase) and 3 h (late phase) after F 18 FP CIT administration (185MBq). Regional uptake pattern of cerebral and cerebellar hemispheres was assessed on early phase images, using visual, quantitative, and statistical parametric mapping (SPM) analyses. Striatal DAT binding was normal in normal, ET, DIP, and MSA C groups, but abnormal in PD, MSA P PSP, and DLB groups. No difference was found in regional uptake on early phase images among normal DAT binding groups, except in the MSA C group. Abnormal DAT binding groups showed different regional uptake pattern on early phase images compared with PD in SPM analysis (FDR<0.05). When discriminating APD from PD, visual interpretation of the early phase image showed high diagnostic sensitivity and specificity (75.4% and 100%, respectively). Regarding the ability to distinguish specific APD, sensitivities were 81% for MSA P, 77% for MSA C, 23% for PSP, and 54.5% for DLB. Dual phase F 18 FP CIT PET imaging is useful in demonstrating striatal DAT loss in neurodegenerative parkinsonism, and also in differentiating APD, particularly MSA, from PD.

  6. β-CIT SPECT demonstrates reduced availability of serotonin transporters in patients with fatal familial insomnia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kloeppel, S.; Kovacs, G.G.; Pirker, W.; Bruecke, T.; Almer, G.

    2002-01-01

    Fatal familial insomnia (FFI) is a rare hereditary human prion disease with unique clinical features including progressive sleep impairment and autonomic dysfunction. The serotonergic system is considered to be involved in the regulation of the sleep-wake cycle. In this study we demonstrate a reduced availability of serotonin transporters of 57 % and 73 % respectively in a thalamus-hypothalamus region of two FFI patients examined with β-CIT SPECT as compared to age-expected control values. (author)

  7. The Ethylene Biosynthesis Gene CitACS4 Regulates Monoecy/Andromonoecy in Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzano, Susana; Aguado, Encarnación; Martínez, Cecilia; Megías, Zoraida; García, Alicia; Jamilena, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Monoecious and andromonoecious cultivars of watermelon are characterised by the production of male and female flower or male and hermaphrodite flowers, respectively. The segregation analysis in the offspring of crosses between monoecious and andromonoecious lines has demonstrated that this trait is controlled by a single gene pair, being the monoecious allele M semi-dominant to the andromonoecious allele A. The two studied F1 hybrids (MA) had a predominantly monoecious phenotype since both produced not only female flowers, but also bisexual flowers with incomplete stamens, and hermaphrodite flowers with pollen. Given that in other cucurbit species andromonoecy is conferred by mutations in the ethylene biosynthesis genes CmACS7, CsACS2 and CpACS27A we have cloned and characterised CitACS4, the watermelon gene showing the highest similarity with the formers. CitACS4 encoded for a type ACS type III enzyme that is predominantly expressed in pistillate flowers of watermelon. In the andromonoecious line we have detected a missense mutation in a very conserved residue of CitACS4 (C364W) that cosegregates with the andromonoecious phenotype in two independent F2 populations, concomitantly with a reduction in ethylene production in the floral buds that will develop as hermaphrodite flowers. The gene does not however co-segregates with other sex expression traits regulated by ethylene in this species, including pistillate flowering transition and the number of pistillate flowers per plant. These data indicate that CitAC4 is likely to be involved in the biosynthesis of the ethylene required for stamen arrest during the development of female flowers. The C364W mutation would reduce the production of ethylene in pistillate floral buds, promoting the conversion of female into hermaphrodite flowers, and therefore of monoecy into andromonoecy.

  8. [Development of a Striatal and Skull Phantom for Quantitative 123I-FP-CIT SPECT].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishiguro, Masanobu; Uno, Masaki; Miyazaki, Takuma; Kataoka, Yumi; Toyama, Hiroshi; Ichihara, Takashi

    123 Iodine-labelled N-(3-fluoropropyl) -2β-carbomethoxy-3β-(4-iodophenyl) nortropane ( 123 I-FP-CIT) single photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT) images are used for differential diagnosis such as Parkinson's disease (PD). Specific binding ratio (SBR) is affected by scattering and attenuation in SPECT imaging, because gender and age lead to changes in skull density. It is necessary to clarify and correct the influence of the phantom simulating the the skull. The purpose of this study was to develop phantoms that can evaluate scattering and attenuation correction. Skull phantoms were prepared based on the measuring the results of the average computed tomography (CT) value, average skull thickness of 12 males and 16 females. 123 I-FP-CIT SPECT imaging of striatal phantom was performed with these skull phantoms, which reproduced normal and PD. SPECT images, were reconstructed with scattering and attenuation correction. SBR with partial volume effect corrected (SBR act ) and conventional SBR (SBR Bolt ) were measured and compared. The striatum and the skull phantoms along with 123 I-FP-CIT were able to reproduce the normal accumulation and disease state of PD and further those reproduced the influence of skull density on SPECT imaging. The error rate with the true SBR, SBR act was much smaller than SBR Bolt . The effect on SBR could be corrected by scattering and attenuation correction even if the skull density changes with 123 I-FP-CIT on SPECT imaging. The combination of triple energy window method and CT-attenuation correction method would be the best correction method for SBR act .

  9. Toxicity, mutagenicity, and behavioral effects of β-CIT, a ligand for dopamine transporter exploration by SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emond, P.; Farde, L.; Chalon, S.; Belzung, C.; Mauclaire, V.; Chiron, J. P.; Halldin, C.; Besnard, J.C.; Guilloteau, D.

    1998-01-01

    The cocaine analog β-CIT is one of the most used compounds for SPET examination of the dopamine transporter in drug abuse and Parkinson's disease. However, the toxicity of this agent has not yet been studied. We report here acute toxicity, mutagenicity, and effect on locomotor activity of β-CIT. Acute toxicity experiments were performed in mice and rats. The LD50 values were about 20 mg and 5 mg for mice and rats, respectively. There was no sex difference. The mutagenicity was evaluated using the Ames' test. No mutagenic effect was observed for β-CIT. Effects on locomotor activity were measured in mice using the open-field test. β-CIT increased locomotion (+65%) when injected at a dose of 0.312 mg/kg; the maximal increase (+205%) was observed at a dose of 1.25 mg/kg; at higher doses, the effect was decreased slightly. These pharmacological findings are in agreement with an inhibitory effect of β-CIT at the dopamine transporter. We conclude that with no mutagenic effects and LD50 more than 6 orders of magnitude higher than the routinely used doses in PET or SPET, it can be assumed that β-CIT can be safely used as a radioligand in humans

  10. Toxicity, mutagenicity, and behavioral effects of {beta}-CIT, a ligand for dopamine transporter exploration by SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emond, P.; Farde, L.; Chalon, S.; Belzung, C.; Mauclaire, V.; Chiron, J. P.; Halldin, C.; Besnard, J.C.; Guilloteau, D

    1998-05-01

    The cocaine analog {beta}-CIT is one of the most used compounds for SPET examination of the dopamine transporter in drug abuse and Parkinson's disease. However, the toxicity of this agent has not yet been studied. We report here acute toxicity, mutagenicity, and effect on locomotor activity of {beta}-CIT. Acute toxicity experiments were performed in mice and rats. The LD50 values were about 20 mg and 5 mg for mice and rats, respectively. There was no sex difference. The mutagenicity was evaluated using the Ames' test. No mutagenic effect was observed for {beta}-CIT. Effects on locomotor activity were measured in mice using the open-field test. {beta}-CIT increased locomotion (+65%) when injected at a dose of 0.312 mg/kg; the maximal increase (+205%) was observed at a dose of 1.25 mg/kg; at higher doses, the effect was decreased slightly. These pharmacological findings are in agreement with an inhibitory effect of {beta}-CIT at the dopamine transporter. We conclude that with no mutagenic effects and LD50 more than 6 orders of magnitude higher than the routinely used doses in PET or SPET, it can be assumed that {beta}-CIT can be safely used as a radioligand in humans.

  11. Citalopram for agitation in Alzheimer’s disease (CitAD): design and methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drye, Lea T.; Ismail, Zahinoor; Porsteinsson, Anton P.; Rosenberg, Paul B.; Weintraub, Daniel; Marano, Christopher; Pelton, Gregory; Frangakis, Constantine; Rabins, Peter V.; Munro, Cynthia A.; Meinert, Curtis L.; Devanand, D.P.; Yesavage, Jerome; Mintzer, Jacobo E.; Schneider, Lon S.; Pollock, Bruce G.; Lyketsos, Constantine G.

    2012-01-01

    Background Agitation is one of the most common neuropsychiatric symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease (AD), and is associated with serious adverse consequences for patients and caregivers. Evidence-supported treatment options for agitation are limited. The citalopram for agitation in Alzheimer’s disease (CitAD) study was designed to evaluate the potential of citalopram to ameliorate these symptoms. Methods CitAD is a randomized, double-masked, placebo-controlled multicenter clinical trial with two parallel treatment groups assigned in a 1:1 ratio and randomization stratified by clinical center. The study has eight recruiting clinical centers, a chair’s office and a coordinating center located in university settings in the United States and Canada. 200 people having probable Alzheimer’s disease with clinically significant agitation and without major depression are being recruited. Patients are randomized to receive citalopram (target dose of 30 mg/day) or matching placebo. Caregivers of patients in both treatment groups receive a structured psychosocial therapy. Agitation will be compared between treatment groups using the NeuroBehavioral Rating Scale and the AD Cooperative Study- Clinical Global Impression of Change which are the primary outcomes. Functional performance, cognition, caregiver distress and rates of adverse and serious adverse events will also be measured. Conclusion The authors believe the design elements in CitAD are important features to be included in trials assessing the safety and efficacy of psychotropic medications for clinically significant agitation in Alzheimer’s disease. PMID:22301195

  12. Clinical Significance of F 18 FP CIT Dual Time Point PET Imaging in Idiopathic Parkinson's Disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Jin Kyoung; Yoo, Ik Dong; Seo, Ye Young; Chung, Youg An; Yoo, Ie Ryung; Kim, Sung Hoon; Song, In Uk

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the diagnostic value of dual time point F 18 FP CIT PET imaging in idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD). Twenty four patients with PD (mean age 69.6) and 18 healthy people (mean age 70.26) underwent two sequential PET/CT scans (dual time point imaging) at 90 and 210 min after F 18 FP CIT injection. Tracer activity of region of interest was measured in the caudate, putamen and a reference region in the brain from both time points. The outcome parameter was the striatooccipital ratio (SOR). Normal SOR values were obtained in the control group. The percent change in tracer activity between 90 and 210 min images was calculated. The SOR values and the percent change in tracer activity were compared between the patients and healthy control group. The SOR values for the caudate, anterior and posterior putamen at both 90 and 210 min images were significantly reduced in the patients with PD. The lowest P value was obtained for the anterior and posterior putamen (p<0.001) at both time points. There were significant differences of the percent change in tracer activity for the anterior and posterior putamen in the two groups (p=0.01) F 18 FP CIT PET scans at 90 and 210 min after injection are both able to diagnose PD. Therefore, the 90 min image by itself in sufficient for diagnosing PD.

  13. Equipment-independent reference values for dopamine transporter imaging with 123I-FP-CIT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, W.; Hornung, J.; Poepperl, G.; Tatsch, K.; Hamann, C.

    2007-01-01

    Aim: Reliable reference values are helpful to interpret and compare the results of dopamine transporter imaging with SPECT. Since semi-quantitative reference values cannot be easily transferred between imaging equipments, this study aimed to establish equipment independent normal values for the true striatal binding of 123 I-FP-CIT. Patients, methods: Specific striatal FP-CIT binding of 6 healthy volunteers and 26 patients with essential tremor were used to generate a reference range by applying an equipment specific resolution dependent factor to compensate for recovery effects. This factor has been determined previously by a series of standardized phantom measurements of an anthropomorphic basal ganglia phantom. Herewith, the resulting DAT binding values represent the expected true specific binding in the striatum. Results: On average, true specific striatal binding was 5.83 ± 0.96 in healthy controls, 5.25 ± 0.67 in patients with essential tremor and 5.36 ± 0.75 in the entire study cohort. Conclusion: These preliminary results may serve as a basis for the generation of a generally accepted equipment independent reference range for dopamine transporter imaging with 123 I-FP-CIT. By a simple phantom measurement that can be accomplished within one day factors related to specific imaging equipment and processing can be corrected for, resulting in specific binding values which may enable a more standardized interpretation of dopamine transporter scans. (orig.)

  14. (123I)β-CIT and SPECT in essential tremor and Parkinson's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asenbaum, S.; Bruecke, T.; Pirker, W.; Bencsits, G.; Pruckmayer, M.; Angelberger, P.

    1997-01-01

    Resting and postural tremor may occur in essential tremor (ET) and Parkinson's disease (PD). The aim of the present study was to investigate the cocaine derivative [ 123 I] β-CIT, which labels striatal dopamine transporters, and SPECT in differentiating these diseases. Methods: 30 healthy volunteers, 32 patients with ET and 29 patients with idiopathic PD of Hoehn/Yahr stage I were investigated. Specific over nondisplaceable binding ratios (target/cerebellum-1) were calculated for the striatum, the caudate nucleus and the putamen separately as well as a ratio putamen/caudate and the percent deviation of each patient's ratio from ageexpected control values. Results: striatal ( 123 I]β-CIT binding ratios in ET were within normal ranges and showed only a discrete elevation to age-expected control values (+ 14.6 %). In PD significantly reduced specific binding was evident not only contralaterally to the clinically affected side (putamen: - 62 %, caudate nucleus: - 35 %), but also ipsilaterally (putamen: - 45 %, caudate nucleus: - 22 %). All investigated parameters differed significantly between PD and controls and ET respectively. Conclusion: imaging striatal dopamine transporters with ( 123 I)β-CIT and SPECT could clearly distinguish between ET and PD in an early stage of the disease. Findings do not suggest a subclinical involvement of dopaminergic nigrostriatal neurons in ET. (author)

  15. TSC [Tokamak Simulation Code] disruption scenarios and CIT [Compact Ignition Tokamak] vacuum vessel force evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sayer, R.O.; Peng, Y.K.M.; Strickler, D.J.; Jardin, S.C.

    1990-01-01

    The Tokamak Simulation Code and the TWIR postprocessor code have been used to develop credible plasma disruption scenarios for the Compact Ignition Tokamak (CIT) in order to predict the evolution of forces on CIT conducting structures and to provide results required for detailed structural design analysis. The extreme values of net radial and vertical vacuum vessel (VV) forces were found to be F R =-12.0 MN/rad and F Z =-3.0 MN/rad, respectively, for the CIT 2.1-m, 11-MA design. Net VV force evolution was found to be altered significantly by two mechanisms not noted previously. The first, due to poloidal VV currents arising from increased plasma paramagnetism during thermal quench, reduces the magnitude of the extreme F R by 15-50% and modifies the distribution of forces substantially. The second effect is that slower plasma current decay rates give more severe net vertical VV loads because the current decay occurs when the plasma has moved farther from midplane than is the case for faster decay rates. 7 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab

  16. Real-Time, Label-Free Detection of Biomolecular Interactions in Sandwich Assays by the Oblique-Incidence Reflectivity Difference Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung-Shin Sun

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important goals in proteomics is to detect the real-time kinetics of diverse biomolecular interactions. Fluorescence, which requires extrinsic tags, is a commonly and widely used method because of its high convenience and sensitivity. However, in order to maintain the conformational and functional integrality of biomolecules, label-free detection methods are highly under demand. We have developed the oblique-incidence reflectivity difference (OI-RD technique for label-free, kinetic measurements of protein-biomolecule interactions. Incorporating the total internal refection geometry into the OI-RD technique, we are able to detect as low as 0.1% of a protein monolayer, and this sensitivity is comparable with other label-free techniques such as surface plasmon resonance (SPR. The unique advantage of OI-RD over SPR is no need for dielectric layers. Moreover, using a photodiode array as the detector enables multi-channel detection and also eliminates the over-time signal drift. In this paper, we demonstrate the applicability and feasibility of the OI-RD technique by measuring the kinetics of protein-protein and protein-small molecule interactions in sandwich assays.

  17. Travel Behavior Change in Older Travelers: Understanding Critical Reactions to Incidents Encountered in Public Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Sundling

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Accessibility of travel may be better understood if psychological factors underlying change in travel behavior are known. This paper examines older (65+ travelers’ motives for changing their travel behavior. These changes are grounded in critical incidents earlier encountered in public-transport travel. A scientific framework is developed based on cognitive and behavioral theory. In 29 individual interviews, travelers’ critical reactions (i.e., cognitive, emotional, and/or behavioral to 77 critical incidents were examined. By applying critical incident technique (CIT, five reaction themes were identified that had generated travel-behavior change: firm restrictions, unpredictability, unfair treatment, complicated trips, and earlier adverse experiences. To improve older travelers’ access to public transport, key findings were: (a service must be designed so as to strengthen the feeling of being in control throughout the journey; (b extended personal service would increase predictability in the travel chain and decrease travel complexity; consequently, (c when designing new services and making effective accessibility interventions, policy makers should consider and utilize underlying psychological factors that could direct traveler behavior.

  18. Travel Behavior Change in Older Travelers: Understanding Critical Reactions to Incidents Encountered in Public Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundling, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Accessibility of travel may be better understood if psychological factors underlying change in travel behavior are known. This paper examines older (65+) travelers’ motives for changing their travel behavior. These changes are grounded in critical incidents earlier encountered in public-transport travel. A scientific framework is developed based on cognitive and behavioral theory. In 29 individual interviews, travelers’ critical reactions (i.e., cognitive, emotional, and/or behavioral) to 77 critical incidents were examined. By applying critical incident technique (CIT), five reaction themes were identified that had generated travel-behavior change: firm restrictions, unpredictability, unfair treatment, complicated trips, and earlier adverse experiences. To improve older travelers’ access to public transport, key findings were: (a) service must be designed so as to strengthen the feeling of being in control throughout the journey; (b) extended personal service would increase predictability in the travel chain and decrease travel complexity; consequently, (c) when designing new services and making effective accessibility interventions, policy makers should consider and utilize underlying psychological factors that could direct traveler behavior. PMID:26593935

  19. Travel Behavior Change in Older Travelers: Understanding Critical Reactions to Incidents Encountered in Public Transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundling, Catherine

    2015-11-18

    Accessibility of travel may be better understood if psychological factors underlying change in travel behavior are known. This paper examines older (65+) travelers' motives for changing their travel behavior. These changes are grounded in critical incidents earlier encountered in public-transport travel. A scientific framework is developed based on cognitive and behavioral theory. In 29 individual interviews, travelers' critical reactions (i.e., cognitive, emotional, and/or behavioral) to 77 critical incidents were examined. By applying critical incident technique (CIT), five reaction themes were identified that had generated travel-behavior change: firm restrictions, unpredictability, unfair treatment, complicated trips, and earlier adverse experiences. To improve older travelers' access to public transport, key findings were: (a) service must be designed so as to strengthen the feeling of being in control throughout the journey; (b) extended personal service would increase predictability in the travel chain and decrease travel complexity; consequently, (c) when designing new services and making effective accessibility interventions, policy makers should consider and utilize underlying psychological factors that could direct traveler behavior.

  20. The Incidence of the Corporate Income Tax on Wages: Evidence from Canadian Provinces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth J. McKenzie

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Corporate income tax (CIT incidence is an important and contentious issue in tax policy discussions. Much of the focus in the recent literature and in policy discussions concerns the allocation of the burden of the CIT between owners of capital and labour. Since income from capital tends to be concentrated with wealthier individuals, if the burden of the CIT falls largely on capital it increases the tax system’s progressivity. On the other hand, if the tax is borne mostly by labour through lower wages, the CIT is less progressive. Despite the importance of this issue in policy discussions, empirical evidence is quite limited and the results are mixed; there is a particular dearth of empirical research on the incidence of corporate taxes in a Canadian setting. According to theoretical open economy general equilibrium models, the burden of the CIT may partly, and possibly largely, fall on labour. In these models, an increase in the CIT reduces the return to capital, causing capital to leave the jurisdiction, which lowers the marginal product of labour and ultimately wages. Thus, the CIT can have a negative indirect effect on wages through its impact on labour productivity by way of its impact on capital. However, the magnitude of this effect depends critically on several modelling assumptions and parameter values related to the size of the country, the degree of capital mobility, the nature of competition in the output market, etc. An emerging empirical literature investigates the effects of CIT on wages by way of this indirect transmission mechanism. Empirical studies in this vein include Hassett and Mathur (2006, 2015 for a cross-section of countries; Desai, Foley and Hines (2007 and Felix (2007, 2009 for the U.S. They all find evidence in support of the relevance of the indirect channel using national aggregate data. Other studies, such as Carroll (2009 and Felix (2009 for the U.S., examine corporate tax incidence at the subnational level

  1. SPECT 123-I-[FP-CIT] diagnostic in the presynaptic parkinsonism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piperkova, E.; Georgiev, R.; Dimitrova, M.; Daskalov, M.; Orosova, M.; Milanova, M.; Danon, S.

    2005-01-01

    Detection of loss off functional dopaminergic neurone terminals in the striatum of patients with clinically uncertain Parkinsonian Syndromes will help to differentiate the Essential Tremor (ET) from the Parkinson Syndromes related to idiopathic Parkinson's Disease (PD), Multiple System Atrophy (MSA) or Progressive Supranuclear Palsy (PSP). In these cases dopaminic medication should be avoided for patients not suffering from true parkinsonism.Objective of the study is to determine the utility of [ 123 I] FP-CIT SPECT in clinically uncertain Parkinsonian syndromes and their differentiation from ET. Materials and Methods: This prospective study involved 9 patients (4 males and 5 females, aged between 38 - 81 years) with clinically uncertain Parkinsonism. The main symptoms were tremor (n=8), gait alteration (n=6), bradykinesia (n=3) and Negro phenomena positive (n=2), or a combination of these symptoms (n=9), with subsequent follow-up of 7-8 months. Dopamine agonists and antagonists acting on the postsynaptic dopamine receptors were not accepted to interfere with 123 I-Ioflupane. All patients underwent appropriate thyroid blocking by oral administration of 120 mg potassium iodide before and after [ 123 ] I FP-CIT application. All patents underwent SPECT scans 3-4 hours after i.v. injection of 185 MBq [ 123 ] FP-CIT (DaTSCAN - Amersham) on a Diacam Gamma-Camera System (Siemens). To estimate [ 123 ] FP-CIT biodistribution whole-body scans were performed, 15 minutes and 2-3 hrs after the i.v. application of the tracer. The SPECT results were evaluated visually and semi quantitatively. The [ 123 ] FP-CIT uptake of the striatum (nucleus caudatus and putamen) was referenced to the occipital cortex and to the symmetrical ROI. The scanning procedure was completed according to strict conditions for symmetry and geometry. The filtering and reconstructing procedures if the images were performed individually for each patient to avoid artifacts and errors. In all patients CT scans

  2. Incidence of Neonatal Hyperphenylalaninemia Based on High-performance Liquid Chromatography Confirmatory Technique in Mazandaran Province, Northern Iran (2007–2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Abbaskhanian

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Classic phenylketonuria (PKU is a metabolic disorder. The purpose of this study was to assess epidemiological factors of PKU phenotypes in a neonatal screening program for Mazandaran, Iran. Methods: In this descriptive-retrospective study from 2007 to 2015, neonates PKU level was conducted by phenylalanine level based on a biochemical technique by ELISA and then by confirmatory methods high performance liquid chromatography. Results: Of the 407,244 screened newborns (48.7% girls and 51.3% boys, 14 girls and 13 boys were diagnosed definitely from 465 suspicious cases of PKU. The incidence of PKU was 0.66 in 10,000, which was noted in different severity (severe PKU - 1:67,874, mild PKU - 1:45,249, and HPA - 1:33,937. In addition, we did not detect any cases of nonclassic PKU. Conclusions: Although the consanguineous marriage pattern is a major cause of hyperphenylalaninemia (HPA particularly in Iranian, there was no significant difference between groups in this study. Now, screening should be executed for all of the family that they have the familial history of PKU in Iran. According to varies actual of prevalence and incidence rate of PKU reported a real patient and taking PKU with mild PKU and HPA, it is recommended, the will provide the PKU reports based on the severity of the disease.

  3. Incidence of Neonatal Hyperphenylalaninemia Based on High-performance Liquid Chromatography Confirmatory Technique in Mazandaran Province, Northern Iran (2007–2015)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbaskhanian, Ali; Zamanfar, Daniel; Afshar, Parvaneh; Asadpoor, Einollah; Rouhanizadeh, Hamed; Jafarnia, Ali; Shokzadeh, Mohammad

    2017-01-01

    Background: Classic phenylketonuria (PKU) is a metabolic disorder. The purpose of this study was to assess epidemiological factors of PKU phenotypes in a neonatal screening program for Mazandaran, Iran. Methods: In this descriptive-retrospective study from 2007 to 2015, neonates PKU level was conducted by phenylalanine level based on a biochemical technique by ELISA and then by confirmatory methods high performance liquid chromatography. Results: Of the 407,244 screened newborns (48.7% girls and 51.3% boys), 14 girls and 13 boys were diagnosed definitely from 465 suspicious cases of PKU. The incidence of PKU was 0.66 in 10,000, which was noted in different severity (severe PKU - 1:67,874, mild PKU - 1:45,249, and HPA - 1:33,937). In addition, we did not detect any cases of nonclassic PKU. Conclusions: Although the consanguineous marriage pattern is a major cause of hyperphenylalaninemia (HPA) particularly in Iranian, there was no significant difference between groups in this study. Now, screening should be executed for all of the family that they have the familial history of PKU in Iran. According to varies actual of prevalence and incidence rate of PKU reported a real patient and taking PKU with mild PKU and HPA, it is recommended, the will provide the PKU reports based on the severity of the disease. PMID:29184644

  4. Effect of age and gender on dopamine transporter imaging with [123I]FP-CIT SPET in healthy volunteers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavalaye, J.; Booij, J.; Reneman, L.; Habraken, J.B.A.; Royen, E.A. van

    2000-01-01

    Dopamine transporter imaging is a valuable tool to investigate the integrity of the dopaminergic neurons. To date, several reports have shown an age-associated decline in dopamine transporters in healthy volunteers. Although animal studies suggest an effect of gender on dopamine transporter density, this gender effect has not yet been confirmed in human studies. To study the influence of age and gender on dopamine transporter imaging in healthy volunteers, we performed single-photon emission tomography imaging with [ 123 I]FP-CIT to quantify dopamine transporters. Forty-five healthy volunteers (23 males and 22 females) were included, ranging in age from 18 to 83 years. SPET imaging was performed 3 h after injection of ±110 MBq [ 123 I]FP-CIT. An operator-independent volume of interest analysis was used for quantification of [ 123 I]FP-CIT binding in the striatum. The ratio of specific striatal to non-specific [ 123 I]FP-CIT binding was found to decrease significantly with age. Moreover, we found a high variance in [ 123 I]FP-CIT binding in young adults. Finally, females were found to have significantly higher [ 123 I]FP-CIT binding ratios than males. This effect of gender on [ 123 I]FP-CIT binding ratios was not related to age. The results of this study are consistent with findings from previous studies, which showed that dopamine transporter density declines with age. The intriguing finding of a higher dopamine transporter density in females than in males is in line with findings from animal studies. (orig.)

  5. Discrimination and quantification of implanted solar wind in Genesis collector shards using grazing incidence synchrotron x-ray techniques: New detector initial results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitts, K.; Choi, Y.; Sutton, S.R.; Ghose, S.; Burnett, D.; Eng, P.

    2008-01-01

    Accurate knowledge of the composition of the Sun provides a baseline, which allows an understanding of how the solar system has evolved over time and how solar processes and solar wind mechanics behave. Unfortunately, the errors in photospheric abundances are too large for many planetary science problems and this hampers our understanding of these different processes. Analyses of solar wind implanted in meteorites or lunar soils have provided more precise data [e.g. 1 and references therein] but the extent to which alteration processes on these bodies complicate such information is only now being determined. Therefore, in order to obtain pristine solar wind samples, NASA developed and launched the Genesis Discovery Mission. Unfortunately, the probe crash-landed shattering the 300 collector plates into 15,000+ pieces complicating the analysis and necessitating the development of new analytical techniques and equipment. Thus, shards from the Genesis collector array and their appropriate flight spares are currently being characterized via grazing-incidence synchrotron x-ray techniques at the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory. The goals are (1) determine solar wind fluences of the elements Ca-Ge by grazing-incidence angle-resolved x-ray fluorescence (XRF) and x-ray reflectivity, (2) improve data reduction via the development of XRF spectral deconvolution routines and develop modeling algorithms for reflectivity and fluorescence yield analysis in order to determine element specific depth profiles from which absolute concentration may be extracted and (3) designing and developing a new multi-element silicon multi-channel (SMCD) detector system. These improvements will increase our sensitivity by a factor of three or more, reduce measurement time at a given sensitivity to one-eighth and the minimum detection limit would be reduced by a factor of 3 to ∼3 x 10 8 atoms/cm 2 .

  6. Discrimination and quantification of contamination and implanted solar wind in Genesis collector shards using grazing incidence synchrotron x-ray techniques: Initial results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitts, K.; Sutton, S.; Eng, P.; Ghose, S.; Burnett, D.

    2006-01-01

    Grazing incidence X-ray fluorescence is a non-destructive technique that can differentiate the embedded solar wind component from surface contamination and collector background in the Genesis shards. Initial solar Fe abundance in D30554 is 8 x 10 12 /cm 2 . Accurate knowledge of the composition of the Sun provides a baseline, which allows an understanding of how the solar system has evolved over time and how solar processes and solar wind mechanics behave. Unfortunately, the errors in photospheric abundances are too large for many planetary science problems and this hampers our understanding of these different processes. Analyses of solar wind implanted in meteorites or lunar soils have provided more precise data but alteration processes on these bodies may complicate such information. In response to this need for pristine solar wind samples, NASA developed and launched the Genesis Probe. Unfortunately, the probe smashed into the Utah desert shattering the 300 collector plates into 15,000+ pieces all of which are now coated in a both a fine terrestrial dust and Si and Ge powder from the disrupted collectors themselves. The solar wind penetration depth is 100-200 nm and the superposed contamination layers are typically 40-50 nm. Stringent cleaning regimes have the potential of removing the solar wind itself. The best solution is to have sufficient spatial resolution to separately analyze the surface contamination and penetrated solar wind. To that end, three Genesis collector array shards and their appropriate flight spares were characterized via grazing incidence x-ray fluorescence and x-ray reflectivity. The goals were (1) to evaluate the various cleaning methods used to eliminate contamination, (2) to identify the collector substrates most suited for this technique, (3) to determine whether the solar wind signature could be deconvolved from the collector background signature, and (4) to measure the relative abundances of Ca to Ge in the embedded solar wind.

  7. Preparation of a dopamine transporter imaging agent 18F-FP-β-CIT and its biodistribution in rat brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Zhengping; Wu Chunying; Li Xiaomin; Zhang Tongxing; Wang Songpei; Lu Chunxiong; Fu Ronggeng; Zhang Zhengwei; Guan Yihui

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To develop a simple and easy protocol of preparing 18 F-N-3-fluoropropyl-2β-carbomethoxy-3β-(4-iodophenyl) nortropane (FP-β-CIT) as a dopamine transporter imaging agent, and to study the distribution of this agent in rat brain. Methods: 18 F-FP-β-CIT was prepared by direct reaction in CH 3 CN between K 18 F and the labeling precursor, N-(3-(mesyloxy) propyl )-2β-carbomethoxy-3β-(4-iodophenyl) nortropane (MsOP-CIT), in which Kryptofix 222 was used as phase transfer catalyst. 18 F-FP-β-CIT was purified through a Sep-Pak SiO 2 cartridge and eluted with ethyl ether. The purified 18 F-FP-β-CIT was injected into the rat's tail vein. These rats were sacrificed by cervical dislocation at different time points (5, 30, 60, 120, 180 min) after injection. The brain tissue of interest was removed, weighed, and radiocounted. Results: The radiochemical purity of 18 F-FP-β-CIT was over 95%, and the radiochemical yield from starting 18 F-fluoride was about 10%. 18 F-FP-β-CIT was absorbed rapidly in rat brain and was cleaned gradually (1.49, 0.59, 0.31, 0.21, 0.17%ID at 5, 30, 60, 120, 180 min, respectively). Radiouptake of striatum was more than that of other tissues and was cleaned slower than in other tissues at 60 min. Ratios of radiouptake of striatum /cerebellum were 1.75, 3.38, 3.73, 3.71 and 3.20 at 5, 30, 60, 120, 180 min, respectively. Conclusions: 18 F-FP-β-CIT is synthesized by a one-step protocol in which the preparative high performance liquid chromatography is not necessary in purifying procedure. The dominant distribution of 18 F-FP-β-CIT in rat striatum indicates that it is a potential dopamine transporter imaging agent

  8. Story Maps & Co. État de l’art de la cartographie des récits sur Internet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Caquard

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Cet article propose une analyse comparative de six applications dédiées à la cartographie des récits sur Internet. À travers la mise en carte du récit de vie d’un réfugié rwandais, trois grandes familles d’applications cartographiques ont été identifiées : les applications simples permettant de représenter cartographiquement des histoires de manière uniformisée (par exemple, Tripline et Google Tour Builder ; les applications plus sophistiquées et plus directement liées au monde des SIG permettant non seulement de raconter des histoires variées à l’aide de cartes, mais aussi d’utiliser la carte comme outil d’analyse spatiotemporelle des récits (par exemple, ESRI Story Maps et MapStory ; enfin les applications plus orientées vers la recherche qui abordent les récits comme autant de bases de données dont l’analyse peut nous aider à mieux comprendre les lieux, leurs géographies intimes et personnelles, ainsi que la structure des récits qui s’y réfèrent (par exemple, Atlascine et Neatline.

  9. Incidence of tracheobronchomalacia associated with pulmonary emphysema. Detection with paired inspiratory-expiratory multidetector computed tomography using a low-dose technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Masanori; Hasegawa, Ichiro; Nakano, Keiko; Yamaguchi, Kazuhiro; Kuribayashi, Sachio

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the frequency of tracheobronchomalacia (TBM) associated with pulmonary emphysema with paired inspiratory-expiratory multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) using a low-dose technique. This study included 56 consecutive patients (55 men, 1 woman; mean age 68.9 years) with pulmonary emphysema who had undergone paired inspiratory-expiratory CT scanning with a low-dose technique (40 mA). All images were retrospectively examined by two thoracic radiologists in a blinded fashion. The diagnosis of TBM was based on the standard criterion of >50% reduction in the cross-sectional area of the tracheobronchial lumen at the end-expiratory phase. A mild TBM criterion of >30% reduction was also reviewed. All patients underwent pulmonary function tests. The relation between the forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV 1.0% ) and TBM was statistically analyzed. Four (7.1%) and eight (14.3%) patients were diagnosed as TBM based on the standard and mild criteria, respectively. In four patients, the percentages of luminal narrowing were 63.4% and 51.2%, respectively for tracheomalacia and 59.2% and 62.0%, respectively, for bronchomalacia. The FEV 1.0% values between patients with and without TBM showed no statistical difference. The incidence of TBM associated with pulmonary emphysema was 7.1% with the standard criterion. It is possible that TBM has been underdiagnosed in a number of patients with pulmonary emphysema. (author)

  10. Real-time detection of dielectric anisotropy or isotropy in unconventional oil-gas reservoir rocks supported by the oblique-incidence reflectivity difference technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Honglei; Wang, Jin; Zhao, Kun; Lű, Huibin; Jin, Kuijuan; He, Liping; Yang, Guozhen; Xiao, Lizhi

    2016-12-15

    Current geological extraction theory and techniques are very limited to adequately characterize the unconventional oil-gas reservoirs because of the considerable complexity of the geological structures. Optical measurement has the advantages of non-interference with the earth magnetic fields, and is often useful in detecting various physical properties. One key parameter that can be detected using optical methods is the dielectric permittivity, which reflects the mineral and organic properties. Here we reported an oblique-incidence reflectivity difference (OIRD) technique that is sensitive to the dielectric and surface properties and can be applied to characterization of reservoir rocks, such as shale and sandstone core samples extracted from subsurface. The layered distribution of the dielectric properties in shales and the uniform distribution in sandstones are clearly identified using the OIRD signals. In shales, the micro-cracks and particle orientation result in directional changes of the dielectric and surface properties, and thus, the isotropy and anisotropy of the rock can be characterized by OIRD. As the dielectric and surface properties are closely related to the hydrocarbon-bearing features in oil-gas reservoirs, we believe that the precise measurement carried with OIRD can help in improving the recovery efficiency in well-drilling process.

  11. Comparison of the incidence of intracranial hemorrhage in two different planning techniques for stereotactic electrode placement in the deep brain stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piacentino, M; Zambon, G; Pilleri, M; Bartolomei, L

    2013-03-01

    Intracranial hemorrhage is an infrequent but potentially devastating complication associated with the placement of electrodes for deep brain stimulation (DBS). The objective of this retrospective review is to compare the risk of hemorrhage before and after the introduction of image-guided neuronavigation for the implant of electrodes for DBS. We reviewed all DBS implant performed at our Institute between 1998 and 2010. In 63 of the 106 patients, the targeting was based on ventriculography and merge of CT/MRI. After 2006, in the latter 43 procedures, we introduced targeting based on the merging of angio CT and MRI.. In both implant techniques, microelectrode recording (MER) was used to better define the target. All DBS procedures were performed by a single surgeon (M.P.). Patients had postoperative imaging (MRI or CT) 4-24 h following surgery. In the group of patients implanted with the first targeting technique, 3 hematomas occurred and all of them solved with sequelae (one residual weakness and two hemiplegias.) After the introduction of neuronavigator, 2 hemorrhages occurred, one solved without sequelae while the second resulted in epileptic seizures. Although the incidence of hemorrhage occurred before and after the use of neuronavigation is the same, the severity is lower in the neuronavigated procedures. Targeting based on the merging of CT angiography and MRI T1/T2 seemed to increase the safety of the lead placement reducing the risk of sequelae related to bleeding. The use of MER was not found to be correlated with an increased hemorrhage rate.

  12. In situ electrochemical impedance spectroscopy/synchrotron radiation grazing incidence X-ray diffraction-A powerful new technique for the characterization of electrochemical surfaces and interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Marco, Roland [Nanochemistry Research Institute, Department of Applied Chemistry, Curtin University of Technology, GPO Box U 1987, Perth, WA 6845 (Australia)]. E-mail: r.demarco@exchange.curtin.edu.au; Jiang, Z.-T. [Nanochemistry Research Institute, Department of Applied Chemistry, Curtin University of Technology, GPO Box U 1987, Perth, WA 6845 (Australia); Martizano, Jay [Nanochemistry Research Institute, Department of Applied Chemistry, Curtin University of Technology, GPO Box U 1987, Perth, WA 6845 (Australia); Lowe, Alex [Nanochemistry Research Institute, Department of Applied Chemistry, Curtin University of Technology, GPO Box U 1987, Perth, WA 6845 (Australia); Pejcic, Bobby [Nanochemistry Research Institute, Department of Applied Chemistry, Curtin University of Technology, GPO Box U 1987, Perth, WA 6845 (Australia); Riessen, Arie van [Materials Research Group, Department of Applied Physics, Curtin University of Technology, GPO Box U 1987, Perth, WA 6845 (Australia)

    2006-08-15

    A marriage of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and in situ synchrotron radiation grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (SR-GIXRD) has provided a powerful new technique for the elucidation of the mechanistic chemistry of electrochemical systems. In this study, EIS/SR-GIXRD has been used to investigate the influence of metal ion buffer calibration ligands, along with natural organic ligands in seawater, on the behaviour of the iron chalcogenide glass ion-selective electrode (ISE). The SR-GIXRD data demonstrated that citrate - a previously reported poor iron calibration ligand for the analysis of seawater - induced an instantaneous and total dissolution of crystalline GeSe and Sb{sub 2}Se{sub 3} in the modified surface layer (MSL) of the ISE, while natural organic ligands in seawater and a mixture of ligands in a mimetic seawater ligand system protected the MSL's crystalline inclusions of GeSe and Sb{sub 2}Se{sub 3} from oxidative attack. Expectedly, the EIS data showed that citrate induced a loss in the medium frequency time constant for the MSL of the ISE, while seawater's natural organic ligands and the mimetic ligand system preserved the medium frequency EIS response characteristics of the ISE's MSL. The new EIS/SR-GIXRD technique has provided insights into the suitability of iron calibration ligands for the analysis of iron in seawater.

  13. Quantification of Iodine-123-FP-CIT SPECT with a resolution-independent method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobbeleir, A.A.; Ham, H.R.; Hambye, A.E.; Vervaet, A.M.

    2005-01-01

    Accurate quantification of small-sized objects by SPECT is hampered by the partial volume effect. The present work evaluates the magnitude of this phenomenon with Iodine- 123 in phantom studies, and presents a resolution- independent method to quantify striatal I-123 FP-CIT uptake in patients. At first five syringes with internal diameters varying between 9 and 29mm and an anthropomorphic striatal phantom were filled with known concentrations of Iodine-123 and imaged by SPECT using different collimators and radii of rotation. Data were processed with and without scatter correction. From the measured activities, calibration factors were calculated for each specific collimator. Then a resolution-independent method for FP-CIT quantification using large regions of interest was developed and validated in 34 human studies (controls and patients) acquired in 2 different hospitals, by comparing its results to those obtained by a semi- quantitative striatal-to-occipital analysis. Taking the injected activity and decay into account, the measured counts/volume could be converted into absolute tracer concentrations. For the fan-beam, high resolution and medium energy collimators, the measured maximum activity in comparison to the 29 mm-diameter syringe was respectively 38%, 16% and 9% for the 9 mm-diameter syringe and 82%, 80% and 30% for the 16 mm syringe, and not significantly modified after scatter correction. For the anthropomorphic phantom, the error in measurement in % of the true concentration ranged between 0.3-9.5% and was collimator dependent. Medium energy collimators yielded the most homogeneous results. In the human studies, inter- observer variability was 11.4% for the striatal-to-occipital ratio and 3.1% for the resolution-independent method, with correlation coefficients >0.8 between both. The resolution- independent method was 89%-sensitive and 100%-specific to separate the patients without and with abnormal FP-CIT uptake (accuracy: 94%). Also the

  14. Direct imaging of extra-solar planetary systems with the Circumstellar Imaging Telescope (CIT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terrile, R.J.

    1988-01-01

    In a joint study conducted by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and the Perkin-Elmer Corporation it was found that an earth orbital, 1.5 meter diameter low scattered light coronagraphic telescope can achieve a broad range of scientific objectives including the direct detection of Jupiter-sized planets around the nearby stars. Recent major advances in the understanding of coronagraphic performance and in the field of super smooth mirror fabrication allow such an instrument to be designed and built within current technology. Such a project, called the Circumstellar Imaging Telescope (CIT), is currently being proposed. 10 references

  15. Une combinatoire du récit médiéval

    OpenAIRE

    Demartini, Dominique

    2010-01-01

    Dans le Château des destins croisés d’Italo Calvino, des chevaliers se retrouvent à une table d’hôtes et au moment de conter leur aventure, la parole leur fait défaut. Ils ont alors recours à un jeu de tarot pour figurer leur récit, et de carte en carte, chacun donne à deviner, à lire, sa propre histoire. Le tarot fonctionne ainsi, selon l’expression de Calvino, comme une « machine narrative combinatoire ». Si le tarot Visconti, avec ses enluminures du Quattrocento, sert de base à ce premier ...

  16. Narrativer i den franske debat om verdslighed, la laïcité

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Degn, Inge Merete Egedal

    2005-01-01

    Artiklen analyserer debatten om la laïcité i Frankrig 2003-2004 med hovedvægt på udsendelsen Bibliothèque Médicis: La laicité en questions?. I analysen inddrages sociologiske teorier (Simmel, Tabboni), Ricoeurs overvejelser over narrativ identitet og interkulturel forståelse samt diskursanalyse....... Der lægges særlig vægt på narrativer og story lines, og der afdækkes en 'lidelsesdiskurs' som speciel for denne tv-debat....

  17. Striatal uptake of I-123-β-CIT and I-123-IBZM in patients with extrapyramidal symptoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bettin, S.; Kaempfer, I.; Seese, A.; Schaefer, A.; Reuter, M.; Loessner, J.; Dietrich, J.; Wagner, A.; Knapp, W.H.

    1997-01-01

    Aim: This pilot study deals with the question whether characteristic changes in local cerebral dopamine transporter function and D 2 -receptor binding capacity can be shown with SPET, in idiopathic Parkinson syndrome (IPS) and secondary Parkinson syndrome (SPS). Methods: In 16 patients (6 with IPS, 6 with SPS except Wilsons's disease, and 4 with Wilson's disease) SPET studies were performed using I-123-β-CIT and I-123-IBZM and a dual-head gamma camera. Images were obtained 20-24 h and 2 h post injection, respectively. For semiquantitative analysis count density ratios of basal ganglia (BG) and cerebellum (CER) were determined for I-123-β-CIT and ratios between BG and medial frontal cortex (MFC) for I-123-IBZM. Results: The BG/CER ratio in the I-123-β-CIT studies averaged 3.04±0.83 in IPS and 7.73±3.28 in SPS (p [de

  18. Machine learning models for the differential diagnosis of vascular parkinsonism and Parkinson's disease using [123I]FP-CIT SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huertas-Fernandez, I.; Benitez-Rivero, S.; Jesus, S.; Caceres-Redondo, M.T.; Martin-Rodriguez, J.F.; Carrillo, F.; Garcia-Gomez, F.J.; Marin-Oyaga, V.A.; Lojo, J.A.; Garcia-Solis, D.; Mir, P.

    2015-01-01

    The study's objective was to develop diagnostic predictive models using data from two commonly used [ 123 I]FP-CIT SPECT assessment methods: region-of-interest (ROI) analysis and whole-brain voxel-based analysis. We included retrospectively 80 patients with vascular parkinsonism (VP) and 164 patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) who underwent [ 123 I]FP-CIT SPECT. Nuclear-medicine specialists evaluated the scans and calculated bilateral caudate and putamen [ 123 I]FP-CIT uptake and asymmetry indices using BRASS software. Statistical parametric mapping (SPM) was used to compare the radioligand uptake between the two diseases at the voxel level. Quantitative data from these two methods, together with potential confounding factors for dopamine transporter availability (sex, age, disease duration and severity), were used to build predictive models following a tenfold cross-validation scheme. The performance of logistic regression (LR), linear discriminant analysis and support vector machine (SVM) algorithms for ROI data, and their penalized versions for SPM data (penalized LR, penalized discriminant analysis and SVM), were assessed. Significant differences were found in the ROI analysis after covariate correction between VP and PD patients in [ 123 I]FP-CIT uptake in the more affected side of the putamen and the ipsilateral caudate. Age, disease duration and severity were also found to be informative in feeding the statistical model. SPM localized significant reductions in [ 123 I]FP-CIT uptake in PD with respect to VP in two specular clusters comprising areas corresponding to the left and right striatum. The diagnostic predictive accuracy of the LR model using ROI data was 90.3 % and of the SVM model using SPM data was 90.4 %. The predictive models built with ROI data and SPM data from [ 123 I]FP-CIT SPECT provide great discrimination accuracy between VP and PD. External validation of these methods is necessary to confirm their applicability across centres. (orig.)

  19. Preliminary power supply design for the TF coil system of CIT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neumeyer, C.; Bronner, G.; Huttar, D.

    1989-01-01

    Initial operation of the Compact Ignition Tokamak (CIT) is planned with a Toroidal Field (TF) of 8 Tesla and a flat top duration of 5 seconds. Ultimately, operation will be extended beyond 8 Tesla. The power supply to be used for the initial phase of operation has been modeled using the parameters of the thyristor rectifier power supplies which are now in service for the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR). A subset of these existing units, or perhaps new units with similar ratings, are envisioned to be connected to the existing 138kV transmission line serving PPPL so as to take advantage of this power source for CIT. For the extended operation phase the equipment used for the initial phase of TF operation will be augmented with new equipment to permit operation up to 11 Tesla. This paper describes the preliminary design for the 8 Tesla power supply and presents results from simulation studies. In addition, issues concerning transient behavior and fault modes are discussed. 4 refs., 12 figs

  20. CERN apprenticeships honoured at the Cité des Métiers

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Florian Métral, an electronics apprentice at CERN, accepting his prize at the award ceremony.CERN's exhibition stand at the Cité des Métiers et des Formations. CERN has just taken part in the Cité des Métiers et des Formations for the first time. This job and training fair, designed to assist both young people and adults in their choice of profession, training or career change, was held at Palexpo, Geneva's main exhibition centre, from 13 to 19 November. CERN had its own stand, where the Laboratory's activities and its many different trades and training opportunities were on display. Throughout the week and the weekend, a series of guides and members of the HR Department took it in turns to present CERN and the wide range of training it offers students and apprentices. Apprentices came into the spotlight on 13 November, when the Union Industrielle Genevoise awarded prizes to the eight most meritorious apprentices in the field of mecatronics (mechanical and electronics engineering) in the Canton of Gene...

  1. "Jeunes de cités": Délinquance, émeutes et radicalisation islamiste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gérard Mauger

    Full Text Available Résumé Pour rendre compte sociologiquement de l'ancrage de la délinquance, des violences urbaines et de la radicalisation islamiste dans une fraction des jeunes de cités, on étudie d'abord la crise de reproduction des classes populaires associée aux transformations du marché du travail, du système scolaire, de l'espace résidentiel, de l'encadrement des jeunes de cités, puis, en resserrant la focale de l'observation, la sociogenèse de la culture de rue (des héritages du pauvre à l'échec scolaire, l'investissement dans la culture de rue et l'inemployabilité, pour se focaliser enfin sur le monde des bandes et le milieu de la délinquance professionnelle, les pratiques émeutières et le revival des pratiques religieuses.

  2. Synthesis and labelling of 125/131I-FP-β-CIT as a dopamine transporter imaging agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang Ping; Chen Zhengping; Zhou Xiang

    2002-01-01

    The ligand of N-(3-fluoro propyl)-2β-carbomethoxy-3β-(4'-iodo phenyl) nortropane (FP-β-CIT) and its tributylstannyl precursor were synthesized by hydrolysis of cocaine, and then dehydration, esterification, Grignard reaction, n-demethylation, iodination, n-alkylation and tributylstannylation. 125/131 I-FP-β-CIT were prepared by oxidation radioiododestannylation, using peroxy acetic acid as oxidant, of its tributylstannyl precursor. The stable labelled compound was synthesized with high radiochemical purity at pH 4-7

  3. Critical Incidents of Growth in Nordic eHealth Service Start-Ups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martti Saarela

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Digitalisation can revolutionise healthcare delivery and provide new business opportunities for innovative start-ups. Start-up businesses in the healthcare service sector are a promising source of new employment and innovations. The start-up stage is the most critical period for the survival of a business, as decisions made during the early stages have a definitive influence on success. This study seeks to clarify the early development of eHealth service start-ups. To summarise the research problem, the authors ask the following question: What are the critical incidents related to the early development of eHealth service start-ups? The units of analysis in this study are 14 Nordic eHealth service start-ups located in Sweden and Finland. The Critical Incident Technique (CIT and semi-structured interviews were applied for data collection. The results are of interest to the public sector, which plays an essential role in healthcare as a service producer, but also as a creator of the business conditions of and opportunities for small businesses.

  4. Iodine-123 labelled nor-beta-CIT binds to the serotonin transporter in vivo as assessed by biodistribution studies in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Booij, J.; Knol, R. J.; Reneman, L.; de Bruin, K.; Janssen, A. G.; van Royen, E. A.

    1998-01-01

    Iodine-123 labelled 2beta-carbomethoxy-3beta-4-iodophenylnortropane (nor-beta-CIT), a radioiodinated cocaine analogue, was evaluated as an agent for the in vivo labelling of serotonin transporters by biodistribution studies in rats. Intravenous injection of [123I]nor-beta-CIT resulted in high

  5. SU-C-BRD-05: Implementation of Incident Learning in the Safety and Quality Management of Radiotherapy: The Primary Experience in a New Established Program with Advanced Techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, R; Wang, J [Peking University Third Hospital, Beijing, Beijing (China)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To explore the implementation and effectiveness of incident learning for the safety and quality of radiotherapy in a new established radiotherapy program with advanced technology. Methods: Reference to the consensus recommendations by American Association of Physicist in Medicine, an incident learning system was specifically designed for reporting, investigating, and learning of individual radiotherapy incidents in a new established radiotherapy program, with 4D CBCT, Ultrasound guided radiotherapy, VMAT, gated treatment delivered on two new installed linacs. The incidents occurring in external beam radiotherapy from February, 2012 to January, 2014 were reported. Results: A total of 33 reports were analyzed, including 28 near misses and 5 incidents. Among them, 5 originated in imaging for planning, 25 in planning, 1 in plan transfer, 1 in commissioning and 1 in treatment delivery. Among them, three near misses originated in the safety barrier of the radiotherapy process. In terms of error type, 1 incident was classified as wrong patient, 7 near misses/incidents as wrong site, 6 as wrong laterality, 5 as wrong dose, 7 as wrong prescription, and 7 as suboptimal plan quality. 5 incidents were all classified as grade 1/2 of dosimetric severity, 1 as grade 0, and the other 4 as grade 1 of medical severity. For the causes/contributory factors, negligence, policy not followed, inadequate training, failure to develop an effective plan, and communication contributed to 19, 15, 12, 5 and 3 near misses/incidents, respectively. The average incident rate per 100 patients treated was 0.4; this rate fell to 0.28% in the second year from 0.56% in the first year. The rate of near miss fell to 1.24% from 2.22%. Conclusion: Effective incident learning can reduce the occurrence of near miss/incidents, enhance the culture of safety. Incident learning is an effective proactive method for improving the quality and safety of radiotherapy.

  6. SU-C-BRD-05: Implementation of Incident Learning in the Safety and Quality Management of Radiotherapy: The Primary Experience in a New Established Program with Advanced Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, R; Wang, J

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To explore the implementation and effectiveness of incident learning for the safety and quality of radiotherapy in a new established radiotherapy program with advanced technology. Methods: Reference to the consensus recommendations by American Association of Physicist in Medicine, an incident learning system was specifically designed for reporting, investigating, and learning of individual radiotherapy incidents in a new established radiotherapy program, with 4D CBCT, Ultrasound guided radiotherapy, VMAT, gated treatment delivered on two new installed linacs. The incidents occurring in external beam radiotherapy from February, 2012 to January, 2014 were reported. Results: A total of 33 reports were analyzed, including 28 near misses and 5 incidents. Among them, 5 originated in imaging for planning, 25 in planning, 1 in plan transfer, 1 in commissioning and 1 in treatment delivery. Among them, three near misses originated in the safety barrier of the radiotherapy process. In terms of error type, 1 incident was classified as wrong patient, 7 near misses/incidents as wrong site, 6 as wrong laterality, 5 as wrong dose, 7 as wrong prescription, and 7 as suboptimal plan quality. 5 incidents were all classified as grade 1/2 of dosimetric severity, 1 as grade 0, and the other 4 as grade 1 of medical severity. For the causes/contributory factors, negligence, policy not followed, inadequate training, failure to develop an effective plan, and communication contributed to 19, 15, 12, 5 and 3 near misses/incidents, respectively. The average incident rate per 100 patients treated was 0.4; this rate fell to 0.28% in the second year from 0.56% in the first year. The rate of near miss fell to 1.24% from 2.22%. Conclusion: Effective incident learning can reduce the occurrence of near miss/incidents, enhance the culture of safety. Incident learning is an effective proactive method for improving the quality and safety of radiotherapy

  7. [O-methyl-{sup 11}C]{beta}-CIT-FP, a potential radioligand for quantitation of the dopamine transporter: Preparation, autoradiography, metabolite studies, and positron emission tomography examinations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundkvist, Camilla; Halldin, Christer; Swahn, Carl-Gunnar; Hall, Haakan; Karlsson, Per; Nakashima, Yoshifumi; Wang, Shaoyin; Milius, Richard A.; Neumeyer, John L.; Farde, Lars

    1995-10-01

    {beta}-CIT-FP [N-(3-fluoropropyl)-2{beta}-carbomethoxy-3{beta}-(4-iodophenyl)nortropane] is a cocaine analogue with a high affinity for the dopamine transporter. [O-methyl-{sup 11}C]{beta}-CIT-FP ([{sup 11}C]{beta}-CIT-FP) was prepared byO -alkylation of the free acid with [{sup 11}C]methyl iodide. The total radiochemical yield of [{sup 11}C]{beta}-CIT-FP was 50 to 60% with an overall synthesis time of 30 min. The radiochemical purity was >99%, and the specific radioactivity at time of injection was about 37 GBq/{mu}mol (1000 Ci/mmol). Autoradiographic examination of [{sup 11}C]{beta}-CIT-FP binding in human brain postmortem demonstrated specific binding in the caudate nucleus and putamen. Positron emission tomography (PET) examination of [{sup 11}C]{beta}-CIT-FP in a Cynomolgus monkey demonstrated accumulation in the striatum with a striatum-to-cerebellum ratio of about 8 after 60 min. Equilibrium in the striatum was attained within 70 to 90 min. The radioactivity ratios of thalamus/cerebellum and neocortex/cerebellum were about 2 and 1.5, respectively. In a displacement experiment, radioactivity in the striatum but not in the cerebellum was reduced after injection of {beta}-CIT, indicating that striatal radioactivity following injection of [{sup 11}C]{beta}-CIT-FP is associated with dopamine transporter sites and that the binding is reversible. The fraction of the total radioactivity in plasma representing [{sup 11}C]{beta}-CIT-FP determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was 84% at 15 min and 50% at 95 min. [{sup 11}C]{beta}-CIT-FP should be a useful PET radioligand for the quantitation of dopamine transporters in the human brain in vivo.

  8. Dopaminergic dysfunction and psychiatric symptoms in movement disorders: a 123I-FP-CIT SPECT study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Giuda, Daniela; Cocciolillo, Fabrizio; Bruno, Isabella; Giordano, Alessandro; Camardese, Giovanni; Pucci, Lorella; Janiri, Luigi; Bentivoglio, Anna Rita; Guidubaldi, Arianna; Fasano, Alfonso

    2012-01-01

    Psychiatric symptoms frequently occur in patients with movement disorders. They are not a mere reaction to chronic disability, but most likely due to a combination of psychosocial factors and biochemical dysfunction underlying the movement disorder. We assessed dopamine transporter (DAT) availability by means of 123 I-FP-CIT SPECT, and motor and psychiatric features in patients with Parkinson's disease, primary dystonia and essential tremor, exploring the association between SPECT findings and symptom severity. Enrolled in the study were 21 patients with Parkinson's disease, 14 patients with primary dystonia and 15 patients with essential tremor. The severity of depression symptoms was assessed using the Hamilton depression rating scale, anxiety levels using the Hamilton anxiety rating scale and hedonic tone impairment using the Snaith-Hamilton pleasure scale. Specific 123 I-FP-CIT binding in the caudate and putamen was calculated based on ROI analysis. The control group included 17 healthy subjects. As expected, DAT availability was significantly decreased in patients with Parkinson's disease, whereas in essential tremor and dystonia patients it did not differ from that observed in the control group. In Parkinson's disease patients, an inverse correlation between severity of depression symptoms and DAT availability in the left caudate was found (r = -0.63, p = 0.002). In essential tremor patients, levels of anxiety symptoms were inversely correlated with DAT availability in the left caudate (r = -0.69, p = 0.004). In dystonia patients, the severities of both anxiety and depression symptoms were inversely associated with DAT availability in the left putamen (r = -0.71, p = 0.004, and r = -0.75, p = 0.002, respectively). There were no correlations between psychometric scores and 123 I-FP-CIT uptake ratios in healthy subjects. We found association between presynaptic dopaminergic function and affective symptoms in different movement disorders. Interestingly, the

  9. Measuring the progression of idiopathic Parkinson's disease with [123I] β-CIT SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staffen, W.; Mair, A.; Unterrainer, J.; Trinka, E.; Ladurner, G.

    2000-01-01

    Idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD) is the most common neuro degenerative disorder. An important step in diagnosing the disease has been achieved with the development of the cocaine derivative [ 123 I] β-CIT for single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). The aim of this study was to demonstrate the disease progression by repeated measuring presynaptic dopamine transporter density and relating it to clinical data. The presynaptic dopamine, transporter density of 15 PD patients was measured two times with a mean interval of 15 months. All patients were clinically assessed at the time of the experiments according to the classification scheme of Hoehn and Yahr. 11 healthy volunteers were used as a control group. [ 123 I] β-CIT was injected intravenously and measured with a triple-headed camera twenty hours later. The pictures were evaluated semi quantitatively by using the ratio of specific to non-displaceable binding. Presynaptic dopamine transporter density differed significantly between controls and PD patients. A significant correlation between imaging data and clinical stages (H/Y I 27 %, H/Y II -40 %, H/Y III 58 %) was observed for the patient group in the initial experiment. The subsequent decrease of dopamine transporter binding depended on the initial clinical stage (H/Y I -6.81 %; H/Y II -6.05 %; H/Y III -1.25 %) of the patients, and regression analysis revealed that. 91.4 % of the variance of the second measurement were predicted by the initial measurement. No correlations were found for age, gender and disease progression. All patients were treated with L-DOPA and those given a higher dose showed a more rapid decrease of dopamine transporter density. This result could be interpreted as an indication for in vivo neurotoxicity of high concentrations of L-DOPA. We conclude that combining [ 123 I] β-CIT with SPECT imaging is not only a powerful tool for diagnosing PD patients, but may also be used to demonstrate neuro degeneration in vivo. (author)

  10. Trajets quotidiens et récits délinquants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Sheringham

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Dossier/Issue: 1 - Raconter le quotidien aujourd'hui - Si l’expérience de la quotidienneté, qui préoccupe un philosophe comme Henri Lefebvre ou un écrivain comme Georges Perec, semble résister à l’emprise du roman, Michel de Certeau a pu mettre une réflexion sur le récit au cœur de son essai fondamental, L’invention du quotidien. En effet, les notions de « récits délinquants » ou d’« énonciations piétonnières », chez Certeau, fournissent des outils précieux pour l’élucidation du rôle du récit dans des textes qui interrogent le monde quotidien à partir de pérégrinations et de méditations urbaines, dont certains exemples majeurs sont traités ici : Un ethnologue dans le métro (Marc Augé, Journal du dehors (Annie Ernaux, Les passagers du Roissy-Express (François Maspero, La liberté des rues (Jacques Réda.If the experience of everydayness, which preoccupied a philosopher like Henri Lefebvre and a writer like Georges Perec, seem to resist the sway of the novel, Michel de Certeau nonetheless placed a consideration of narrative at the heart of his seminal essay Practices of Everyday Life. And indeed such notions as "delinquent narratives" and "pedestrian speech acts", elaborated by Certeau, provide precious tools for identifying the role of narrative in texts which interrogate the everyday world on the basis of urban peregrinations and meditations, of which some major examples are examined here : An Ethnologist in the Metro (Marc Augé, Exteriors (Annie Ernaux, Roissy-Express : A Journey Through the Paris Suburbs (François Maspero, The Freedom of the Streets (Jacques Réda.

  11. Neutron monitoring measurements for the CIT [Compact Ignition Tokamak] materials irradiations in the ATR I1 position

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, J.W.; Anderl, R.A.

    1989-12-01

    Measurements were performed to help characterize the neutron environments in which the Compact Ignition Tokamak (CIT) materials were irradiated. These materials were irradiated in a lead shield plug assembly at the ATR I1 position. Neutron monitor materials were placed in the capsules in proximity with the CIT specimens. The neutron monitors sensed the neutrons through reactions that have different neutron energy region responses. By measuring the radioactivity of the neutron monitors it was possible to determine the neutron fluence rates (n/cm 2 /sec) and fluences (n/cm 2 ) at the locations of the monitors. It was also possible to determine the axial and radial gradients of the neutron environments near the specimens. This report presents the results obtained from these measurements for both the CIT number-sign 1 (ORNL 64-2) and CIT number-sign 2 (ORNL 64-1) capsules. In general, ASTM methods and procedures were used in all neutron monitoring associated activities. 7 refs., 9 figs., 10 tabs

  12. Validity of in vivo [123I]beta-CIT SPECT in detecting MDMA-induced neurotoxicity in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Win, Maartje M. L.; de Jeu, Rogier A. M.; de Bruin, Kora; Habraken, Jan B. A.; Reneman, Liesbeth; Booij, Jan; den Heeten, Gerard J.

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated the ability of a high-resolution pinhole single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) system, with [(123)I]beta-CIT as a radiotracer, to detect 3,4-methelenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, 'Ecstasy')-induced loss of serotonin transporters (SERTs) in the living rat brain. In

  13. Calibration of gamma camera systems for a multicentre European ¹²³I-FP-CIT SPECT normal database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tossici-Bolt, Livia; Dickson, John C; Sera, Terez

    2011-01-01

    A joint initiative of the European Association of Nuclear Medicine (EANM) Neuroimaging Committee and EANM Research Ltd. aimed to generate a European database of [(123)I]FP-CIT single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) scans of healthy controls. This study describes the characterization...

  14. The CIT [compact ignition tokamak] pellet injection system: Description and supporting research and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gouge, M.J.; Combs, S.K.; Fisher, P.W.; Milora, S.L.

    1989-01-01

    The Compact Ignition Tokamak (CIT) will use an advance, high-velocity pellet injection system to achieve and maintain ignited plasmas. Two pellet injectors are provided: a moderate-velocity (1-to 1.5-km/s), single-stage pneumatic injector with high reliability and a high-velocity (4- to 5-km/s), two-stage pellet injector that uses frozen hydrogenic pellets encased in sabots. Both pellet injectors are qualified for operation with tritium feed gas. Issues such as performance, neutron activation of injector components, maintenance, design of the pellet injection vacuum line, gas loads to the reprocessing system, and equipment layout are discussed. Results and plans for supporting research and development (R and D) in the areas of tritium pellet fabrication and high-velocity, repetitive two-stage pneumatic injectors are presented. 7 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  15. cits de vie d’adolescents. Humeur dépressive et figures parentales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poudat Céline

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available La présente étude se propose d’explorer d’explorer les liens entre l’humeur dépressive et le langage sur la base d’un corpus de récits de vie oraux spontanés produits par 206 adolescents âgés de 12 à 18 ans. On se concentrera plus spécifiquement sur les représentations des figures d’attachement parentales dans les discours, premiers paramètres à jouer un rôle déterminant pour spécifier les différences d’humeur de l’adolescent, en mobilisant des méthodes issues de l’analyse de données textuelles et de la linguistique de corpus.

  16. Surface erosion and tritium inventory analysis for CIT [Compact Ignition Tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooks, J.N.; Dylla, H.F.

    1990-09-01

    The expected buildup of co-deposited tritium on the CIT carbon divertor and first wall surfaces and operational methods of minimizing the inventory have been examined. The analysis uses impurity transport computer codes, and associated plasma and tritium retention models, to compute the thickness of redeposited sputtered carbon and the resulting co-deposited tritium inventory on the divertor plates and first wall. Predicted erosion/growth rates are dominated by the effect of gaps between carbon tiles. The overall results appear favorable, showing stable operation (finite self-sputtering) and acceptably low (∼25 Ci/pulse) co-deposited tritium rates, at high surface temperature (1700 degree C) design conditions. These results, however, are highly speculative due to serious model inadequacies at the high sputtering rates predicted. If stable operation is obtainable, the prospects appear good for adequate tritium inventory control via helium-oxygen glow discharge cleaning. 25 refs

  17. Snowball Vs. House-to-House Technique for Measuring Annual Incidence of Kala-azar in the Higher Endemic Blocks of Bihar, India: A Comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Niyamat A; Rabidas, Vidya N; Sinha, Sanjay K; Verma, Rakesh B; Pandey, Krishna; Singh, Vijay P; Ranjan, Alok; Topno, Roshan K; Lal, Chandra S; Kumar, Vijay; Sahoo, Ganesh C; Sridhar, Srikantaih; Pandey, Arvind; Das, Pradeep

    2016-09-01

    Visceral Leishmaniasis, commonly known as kala-azar, is widely prevalent in Bihar. The National Kala-azar Control Program has applied house-to-house survey approach several times for estimating Kala-azar incidence in the past. However, this approach includes huge logistics and operational cost, as occurrence of kala-azar is clustered in nature. The present study aims to compare efficiency, cost and feasibility of snowball sampling approach to house-to-house survey approach in capturing kala-azar cases in two endemic districts of Bihar, India. A community based cross-sectional study was conducted in two highly endemic Primary Health Centre (PHC) areas, each from two endemic districts of Bihar, India. Snowball technique (used to locate potential subjects with help of key informants where subjects are hard to locate) and house-to-house survey technique were applied to detect all the new cases of Kala-azar during a defined reference period of one year i.e. June, 2010 to May, 2011. The study covered a total of 105,035 households with 537,153 populations. Out of total 561 cases and 17 deaths probably due to kala-azar, identified by the study, snowball sampling approach captured only 221 cases and 13 deaths, whereas 489 cases and 17 deaths were detected by house-to-house survey approach. Higher value of McNemar's χ² statistics (64; phouse-to-house survey approach than snowball sampling and relative difference (>1) indicates that most of the kala-azar cases missed by snowball sampling were captured by house-to-house approach with 13% of omission. Snowball sampling was not found sensitive enough as it captured only about 50% of VL cases. However, it captured about 77% of the deaths probably due to kala-azar and was found more cost-effective than house-to-house approach. Standardization of snowball approach with improved procedure, training and logistics may enhance the sensitivity of snowball sampling and its application in national Kala-azar elimination programme as cost

  18. New semiquantitative assessment of 123I-FP-CIT by an anatomical standardization method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takada, Seiko; Yoshimura, Mana; Shindo, Hiroaki; Saito, Kazuhiro; Koizumi, Kiyoshi; Utsumi, Hiroya; Abe, Kimihiko

    2006-01-01

    We evaluated a new semiquantitative procedure to more easily and objectively estimate the striatal uptake of 123 I-FP-CIT in patients with Parkinsonian syndrome (PS) and essential tremor (ET), using an anatomical standardization method, the Neurostat. Eleven patients with PS and 8 with ET were examined by clinical assessment and 123 I-FP-CIT SPECT imaging. The modified Hoehn and Yahr Staging Scale and Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) were used to assess the stage and severity of the disease. The co-registered MR and SPECT images were created with fusion software included in Neurostat. On the cross section, which shows the largest area of striate, irregular shaped regions of interest corresponding to the striate and occipital cortex were drawn. Then the ratio of specific striatal uptake to non-specific occipital cortex, V3''(F), was calculated. Another calculation was done by VOIClassic, which is a software included in Neurostat to estimate the counts per voxel of anatomically defined regions such as caudate nucleus, putamen, occipital cortex, and total cortex. Using these count data, the ratio of specific striatal uptake to non-specific occipital cortex, V3''(OC), and total cortex, V3''(TC), was calculated. A fair linear correlation was observed between V3''(OC) and V3''(F) (y=1.53x+1.40; r=0.756; p s =-0.816). However, V3''(OC) and V3''(TC) correlated less with UPDRS (r s =-0.667 and -0.645, respectively). Semiquantitative parameters, V3''(OC) and V3''(TC), calculated by VOIClassic including the Neurostat system are useful and easily calculable parameters as well as V3''(F) for the differential diagnosis of PS from ET. (author)

  19. Pharmacological studies of dopamine transporter imaging agent 125/131I-β-CIT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding Shiyu; Zhou Xiang; Chen Zhengping; Wu Chunying; Lin Yansong; Ji Shuren; Lu Chunxiong; Fang Ping; Tang Jun; Wang Feng

    2001-01-01

    To prepare 125/131 I-β-CIT (2β-carbomethoxy-3β-(4-iodophenyl) tropane) as an imaging agent for dopamine transporter (DAT), the labelling method from tributylstannyl precursor with peracetic acid has been reported. The radiochemical purity (RCP) of the labelled compound was over 95% determined by HPLC and TLC. The stability, partition coefficients were also determined. The pharmacological studies of the imaging agent were performed in rats, mice, rabbits and normal monkey. The ligand showed preferable uptake in brain (1.9% ID/organ in rats and 4.5% ID/organ in mice at 5 min). The ratios of striatum/cerebellum, hippocampus/cerebellum and cortex/cerebellum were 28.9, 3.97 and 4.75 at 6 h in rats, and 8.52, 2.99 and 3.06 at 6 h in mice, respectively. In monkey brain imaging the ratios of striatum/frontal cortex (ST/FC) and striatum/occipital cortex (ST/OC) were 5.14 and 5.97 at 4h, respectively. All of above showed the high affinity of the ligand to DAT. The compound was primarily metabolized in liver because the hepatic uptake was much higher than other organs (75.4% ID/organ at 18h). The half-life of blood elimination was 5 min. The dose received by mice was 2500 times as high as that received by human in the test of undue toxicity, which evaluated the safety of the agent. All the results suggest that β-CIT can be used as a potential DAT imaging agent

  20. Effect of Animal Condition and Fluvoxamine on the Result of [18F]N 3 Fluoropropyl-2β carbomethoxy-3β (4-iodophenyl) Nortropane ([18F]FP-CIT) PET Study in Mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Kwang Ho; Lee Sang Ju; Oh, Seung Jun; Kim, Jae Seung; Park, Su A; Kim, Seog Young

    2012-01-01

    PET (positron emission tomography) is a noninvasive imaging technique, visualizing biological aspects in vivo. In animal models, the result of PET study can be affected more prominently than in humans by the animal conditions or drug pretreatment. We assessed the effects of anesthesia, body temperature, and pretreatment with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor on the results of [ 18F ]N 3 fluoropropyl 2β carbomethoxy 3β (4-iodophenyl) nortropane ([ 18F ]FP CIT) PET in mice. [ 18F ]FP CIT PET of C57BL/6 mice was performed in three different conditions: (1) anesthesia (isoflurane) with active warming (38.deg.C) as a reference; (2) no anesthesia or warming; (3) anesthesia without warming at room temperature. Additional groups of mine pretreated with escalating doses of fluvoxamine (5, 20, 40, 80 mg/kg) were imaged in condition (1). The time activity curve and standardized uptake value of the striatum, cerebral cortex, and bone were compared among these conditions. In all conditions, radioactivities of the striatum and cortex tended to form a plateau after rapid uptake and washout, but that of bone tended to increase gradually. When anesthetized without any warming, all the mice developed hypothermia and showed reduced bone uptake compared to the reference condition. In conditions without anesthesia, striatal and cortical uptakes compared to the reference condition. In conditions without anesthesia, striatal and cortical uptakes were reduced, whereas the bone uptake showed no change. Pretreatment with fluvoxamine increased the striatal uptake and striatal specific to cortical non specific uptake ratio, whereas the bone uptake was reduced. Anesthesia, body temperature, and fluvoxamine affect the result of [ 18F ]FP CIT PET in mice by altering striatal and bone uptakes

  1. Effect of Animal Condition and Fluvoxamine on the Result of [{sup 18F}]N 3 Fluoropropyl-2{beta} carbomethoxy-3{beta} (4-iodophenyl) Nortropane ([{sup 18F}]FP-CIT) PET Study in Mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Kwang Ho; Lee Sang Ju; Oh, Seung Jun; Kim, Jae Seung [Asan Medical Center, Univ. of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Su A [Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Seog Young [Univ. of Pittsburgh, Pittaburg (United States)

    2012-03-15

    PET (positron emission tomography) is a noninvasive imaging technique, visualizing biological aspects in vivo. In animal models, the result of PET study can be affected more prominently than in humans by the animal conditions or drug pretreatment. We assessed the effects of anesthesia, body temperature, and pretreatment with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor on the results of [{sup 18F}]N 3 fluoropropyl 2{beta} carbomethoxy 3{beta} (4-iodophenyl) nortropane ([{sup 18F}]FP CIT) PET in mice. [{sup 18F}]FP CIT PET of C57BL/6 mice was performed in three different conditions: (1) anesthesia (isoflurane) with active warming (38.deg.C) as a reference; (2) no anesthesia or warming; (3) anesthesia without warming at room temperature. Additional groups of mine pretreated with escalating doses of fluvoxamine (5, 20, 40, 80 mg/kg) were imaged in condition (1). The time activity curve and standardized uptake value of the striatum, cerebral cortex, and bone were compared among these conditions. In all conditions, radioactivities of the striatum and cortex tended to form a plateau after rapid uptake and washout, but that of bone tended to increase gradually. When anesthetized without any warming, all the mice developed hypothermia and showed reduced bone uptake compared to the reference condition. In conditions without anesthesia, striatal and cortical uptakes compared to the reference condition. In conditions without anesthesia, striatal and cortical uptakes were reduced, whereas the bone uptake showed no change. Pretreatment with fluvoxamine increased the striatal uptake and striatal specific to cortical non specific uptake ratio, whereas the bone uptake was reduced. Anesthesia, body temperature, and fluvoxamine affect the result of [{sup 18F}]FP CIT PET in mice by altering striatal and bone uptakes.

  2. « Constituer un sérieux dossier d’archives de la Cité » : le fonds d’archives de la Cité internationale universitaire de Paris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damien Richard

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Versées aux Archives nationales en 2009, après un important travail de tri et d’inventaire, les archives de la Cité internationale universitaire de Paris restituent dans toutes ses dimensions l’histoire, depuis sa création en 1920, de cette institution hors du commun. Le patrimoine architectural en représente un pan majeur, eu égard au panorama architectural du XXe siècle que constitue la Cité et aux grands noms qui se sont succédé à la signature des constructions. Mais le fonds met également en avant la vie quotidienne de la Cité, dans ses dimensions les plus joyeuses, par exemple les activités culturelles, comme les plus tragiques, tels les affrontements en factions politiques rivales à la Maison de l’Iran après la révolution khomeiniste. À travers trois exemples, le Collège franco-britannique (1937, la Maison du Brésil (1959 et celle de l’Iran (1969, cet article souhaite montrer la richesse de cette source nouvellement offerte à la recherche.Given to the National Archives in 2005, after an important effort of classifying and listing, the archives of the Cité internationale universitaire de Paris offer a complete account of the history of this most remarkable institution since its creation in 1920. The architectural patrimony is one of its most important aspects, given the architectural roundup of the 20th century displayed by the Cité and the famous architects successively responsible for the construction of its buildings. However the collection also shows everyday life in the Cité in its most joyful aspects, for example the cultural activities, but also its most tragic ones, such as the confrontations between rival political factions at the Iran House after the Khomeinist Revolution. Using three examples, the French-British College (1937, the Brazil House (1959 and the Iran House (1969, this article aims at showing the interest of this source recently open to research.

  3. Australian, Irish and Swedish women’s perceptions of what assisted them to breastfeed for six months: exploratory design using critical incident technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvonne L. Hauck

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breastfeeding initiation rates in some developed countries are high (98 % in Sweden and 96 % in Australia whereas in others, they are not as favourable (46 % to 55 % in Ireland. Although the World Health Organization recommends exclusively breastfeeding for six months, 15 % of Australian women, 11 % of Swedish women and less than 7 % of Irish women achieve this goal. Awareness of what women in different countries perceive as essential breastfeeding support is a gap in our knowledge. Methods Our aim was to explore Australian, Irish and Swedish women’s perceptions of what assisted them to continue breastfeeding for six months. An exploratory design using critical incident techniques was used. Recruitment occurred through advertisements in local newspapers and on social networking platforms. Initial sampling was purposive, followed by snowball sampling. Telephone interviews were conducted with 64 Irish, 139 Swedish and 153 Australian women who responded to one question “what has assisted you to continue breastfeeding for at least six months?” Content analysis was conducted and common categories determined to allow comparison of frequencies and priority ranking. Results Categories reflected the individual mother, her inner social network, her outer social network (informal support either face to face or online, and societal support (health professionals, work environment and breastfeeding being regarded as the cultural norm. Categories ranked in the top five across the three countries were ‘informal face to face support’ and ‘maternal determination’. Swedish and Australian women ranked “health professional support” higher (first and third respectively than Irish women who ranked ‘informal online support’ as second compared to ninth and tenth for Swedish and Australian women. Conclusions The support required to assist breastfeeding women is complex and multi-faceted. Although common international

  4. Regard noir sur la Cité des Anges : James Ellroy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédéric SOUNAC

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Le mythe de Los Angeles, largement associé à l’immensité de la ville et à la présence en son sein d’Hollywood, est en grande partie une création du roman noir : cité sismique, Sodome moderne, la « Cité des anges » est souvent décrite comme un lieu violent, pulsionnel, où toute tentative de rachat individuel est rendue impossible par l’omniprésence de la corruption. La décadence de la ville-monde, telle qu’elle est analysée de manière résolument pessimiste par le géographe Mike Davis dans Au-delà de Blade Runner, trouve dans les romans de Michael Connelly et de James Ellroy une puissante représentation fictionnelle. Le premier, à travers les errances de son détective Harry Bosch, tient un discours de type élégiaque, tandis que le deuxième, en élaborant une sorte de « réalisme tragique », élève la ville au rang d’allégorie de la Faute et du Mal. L’œuvre d’Ellroy, en particulier, repose sur un arpentage minutieux et obsessionnel des quartiers de Los Angeles, une observation cruelle de sa sociologie et de son histoire, un rapport de haine-amour avec son architecture : le schéma d’enquête, chez lui, relève d’une quête souvent fatale de la mémoire dans une cité que sa rage autodestructrice et ses mutations incessantes vouent à l’amnésie.The myth of Los Angeles, tightly linked to the city’s hugeness and its heart of hearts Hollywood, is to a great extent a creation of the « dark » novel, or « noir ». A sismic territory and modern Sodoma, the so-called « City of Angels » is often depicted as a violent and all impulse driven place, in which the individual yearning for redemption is always destroyed by endemic corruption. The decadent city analyzed in a rather pessimistic way by Mike Davis in his essay Beyond Blade Runner finds in Michael Connelly’s and James Ellroy’s crime fiction a powerful representation. Connelly’s world, with its whimsical main character detective

  5. Synthesis of [18F]-N-3-fluoro-propyl-2β-carbomethoxy-3β-(4-iodophenyl) nortropane ([18F]-FP-β-CIT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang Ping; Chen Zhengping; Lin Yansong; Zhou Xian; Du Yikui

    2001-01-01

    The ligand of N-(3-fluoro-propyl)-2β-carbomethoxy-3β-(4'-iodophenyl) nortropane (FP-β-CIT) and mesylate precursor were synthesized by hydrolysis of cocaine, followed by dehydration, esterification, Grignard reaction, N-demethylation, iodination, N-alkylation with 3-bromo-propanol and methyl-sulfonyl. Finally, 18 F-FP-β-CIT was prepared by nucleophilic fluorination of the mesylate with K 18 F/K 2.2.2 (Kryptofix). The labelling yield of 18 F-FP-β-CIT is 25%-30%. The total radiochemical yield of this compound, calculated from the end of bombardment (EOB) with decay correction, is 10%-12% with a synthesis time of 100-110 min. The radiochemical purity of 18 F-FP-β-CIT is greater than 90%, and this compound in aqueous solution is also stable for more than 4 hours at room temperature. It is stable enough for clinical study

  6. Wheelchair incidents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drongelen AW van; Roszek B; Hilbers-Modderman ESM; Kallewaard M; Wassenaar C; LGM

    2002-01-01

    This RIVM study was performed to gain insight into wheelchair-related incidents with powered and manual wheelchairs reported to the USA FDA, the British MDA and the Dutch Center for Quality and Usability Research of Technical Aids (KBOH). The data in the databases do not indicate that incidents with

  7. La découverte de l'amour par Hidi Xinu. Récit caxinaua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available La littérature concernant la cosmologie caxinaua est assez connue, on propose néanmoins un récit jubilatoire qui raconte la découverte de l’amour par le personnage Xidi Xinu. Ce récit évoque le désespoir des Caxinaua qui prenaient le ‘vagin’ pour une méchante plaie. Malgré la connaissance de leur pharmacopée, ils n’arrivaient pas à la guérir. Cependant, un jour, l’un des Caxinaua, Hidi Xinu, a vu un couple de singes copuler et a compris la fonction du vagin : le réceptacle de l’amour, cutati. EL DESCUBRIMIENTO DEL AMOR POR HIDI SHINU. UNA NARRACIÓN CASHINAHUA. Aunque la literatura sobre la cosmología cashinahua es bastante conocida, proponemos aquí una alegre narración que cuenta el descubrimiento del amor por parte del personage Hidi Shinu. Esta narración evoca el desespero de los Cashinahua, quienes tomaban la vagina por una mala herida. A pesar de sus conocimientos farmacológicos, no lograban sanarla. Sin embargo, un día, uno de los Cashinahua vio copular a una pareja de micos y comprendió la función de la vagina: el receptáculo del amor, chutati. THE DISCOVERY OF LOVE BY HIDI SHINU. A CASHINAHUA TALE. The literature of the Cashinahua mythology is quite well known, thus I present an amusing tale about the discovery of love by the character Hidi Xinu. This tale reminds us of the despair of the Cashinahua who thought the vagina to be a very severe flesh wound. Regardless of their knowledge of pharmacopoeia, they could not heal her. However, one day, Hidi Xinu saw a couple of monkeys copulate and only then did he understand the function of the vagina: the chamber of love, chutati.

  8. In vitro and in vivo characterisation of nor-{beta}-CIT: a potential radioligand for visualisation of the serotonin transporter in the brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergstroem, K.A. [Karolinska Institutet, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Psychiatry Section, Karolinska Hospital, S-17176 Stockholm (Sweden)]|[Kuopio University Hospital, Clinical Physiology, FIN-70210 Kuopio (Finland); Halldin, C. [Karolinska Institutet, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Psychiatry Section, Karolinska Hospital, S-17176 Stockholm (Sweden); Hall, H. [Karolinska Institutet, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Psychiatry Section, Karolinska Hospital, S-17176 Stockholm (Sweden); Lundkvist, C. [Karolinska Institutet, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Psychiatry Section, Karolinska Hospital, S-17176 Stockholm (Sweden); Ginovart, N. [Karolinska Institutet, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Psychiatry Section, Karolinska Hospital, S-17176 Stockholm (Sweden); Swahn, C.G. [Karolinska Institutet, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Psychiatry Section, Karolinska Hospital, S-17176 Stockholm (Sweden); Farde, L. [Karolinska Institutet, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Psychiatry Section, Karolinska Hospital, S-17176 Stockholm (Sweden)

    1997-06-10

    Radiolabelled 2{beta}-carbomethoxy-3{beta}-(4-iodophenyl)tropane ({beta}-CIT) has been used in clinical studies for the imaging of dopamine and serotonin transporters with single-photon emission tomography (SPET). 2{beta}-Carbomethoxy-3{beta}-(4-iodophenyl)nortropane (nor-{beta}-CIT) is a des-methyl analogue of {beta}-CIT, which in vitro has tenfold higher affinity (IC{sub 50}=0.36 nM) to the serotonin transporter than {beta}-CIT (IC{sub 50}=4.2 nM). Nor-{beta}-CIT may thus be a useful radioligand for imaging of the serotonin transporter. In the present study iodine-125 and carbon-11 labelled nor-{beta}-CIT were prepared for in vitro autoradiographic studies on post-mortem human brain cryosections and for in vivo positron emission tomography (PET) studies in Cynomolgus monkeys. Whole hemisphere autoradiography with [{sup 125}I]nor-{beta}-CIT demonstrated high binding in the striatum, the thalamus and cortical regions of the human brain. Addition of a high concentration (1 {mu}M) of citalopram inhibited binding in the thalamus and the neocortex, but not in the striatum. In PET studies with [{sup 11}C]nor-{beta}-CIT there was rapid uptake of radioactivity in the monkey brain (6% of injected dose at 15 min) and high accumulation of radioactivity in the striatum, thalamus and neocortex. Thalamus to cerebellum and cortex to cerebellum ratios were 2.5 and 1.8 at 60 min, respectively. The ratios obtained with [{sup 11}C]nor-{beta}-CIT were 20%-40% higher than those previously obtained with [{sup 11}C]{beta}-CIT. Radioactivity in the thalamus and the neocortex but not in the striatum was displaceable with citalopram (5 mg/kg). In conclusion, nor-{beta}-CIT binds to the serotonin transporter in the primate brain in vitro and in vivo and has potential for PET and SPET imaging of the serotonin transporter in human brain. (orig.). With 4 figs.

  9. In vitro and in vivo characterisation of nor-β-CIT: a potential radioligand for visualisation of the serotonin transporter in the brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergstroem, K.A.; Halldin, C.; Hall, H.; Lundkvist, C.; Ginovart, N.; Swahn, C.G.; Farde, L.

    1997-01-01

    Radiolabelled 2β-carbomethoxy-3β-(4-iodophenyl)tropane (β-CIT) has been used in clinical studies for the imaging of dopamine and serotonin transporters with single-photon emission tomography (SPET). 2β-Carbomethoxy-3β-(4-iodophenyl)nortropane (nor-β-CIT) is a des-methyl analogue of β-CIT, which in vitro has tenfold higher affinity (IC 50 =0.36 nM) to the serotonin transporter than β-CIT (IC 50 =4.2 nM). Nor-β-CIT may thus be a useful radioligand for imaging of the serotonin transporter. In the present study iodine-125 and carbon-11 labelled nor-β-CIT were prepared for in vitro autoradiographic studies on post-mortem human brain cryosections and for in vivo positron emission tomography (PET) studies in Cynomolgus monkeys. Whole hemisphere autoradiography with [ 125 I[nor-β-CIT demonstrated high binding in the striatum, the thalamus and cortical regions of the human brain. Addition of a high concentration (1 μM) of citalopram inhibited binding in the thalamus and the neocortex, but not in the striatum. In PET studies with [ 11 C[nor-β-CIT there was rapid uptake of radioactivity in the monkey brain (6% of injected dose at 15 min) and high accumulation of radioactivity in the striatum, thalamus and neocortex. Thalamus to cerebellum and cortex to cerebellum ratios were 2.5 and 1.8 at 60 min, respectively. The ratios obtained with [ 11 C[nor-β-CIT were 20%-40% higher than those previously obtained with [ 11 C[β-CIT. Radioactivity in the thalamus and the neocortex but not in the striatum was displaceable with citalopram (5 mg/kg). In conclusion, nor-β-CIT binds to the serotonin transporter in the primate brain in vitro and in vivo and has potential for PET and SPET imaging of the serotonin transporter in human brain. (orig.). With 4 figs

  10. Prepulse inhibition is associated with attention, processing speed, and 123I-FP-CIT SPECT in Parkinson's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zoetmulder, Marielle; Biernat, Heidi B; Nikolic, Miki

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Prepulse inhibition is a measure of sensorimotor gating, which reflects the ability to filter or 'gate' irrelevant information. Prepulse inhibition is dramatically altered in basal ganglia disorders associated with dysfunction in the midbrain dopaminergic system, and corresponding......'s disease have been extensively studied in relation to motor function, less is known about the potential role of sensorimotor processes in cognitive function. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the relationship between prepulse inhibition, cognition and nigrostriatal dysfunction, as measured with 123I......-FP-CIT-SPECT scanning, in patients with Parkinson's disease. METHODS: 38 Parkinson patients were assessed with prepulse inhibition, neuropsychological tests, and neurological investigation. A subset of these patients underwent 123I-FP-CIT-SPECT scanning. RESULTS: Patients with a higher level of prepulse inhibition...

  11. Physics study of the application of an IFEL [Induction Free-Electron Laser] to CIT [Compact Ignition Tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hooper, E.B.

    1990-01-01

    The ECH system requirements on CIT might be met by microwaves generated by an induction free-electron laser (IFEL). Design studies have assumed that the system is windowless, thus eliminating one of the most highly stressed components of the ECH system. The trade-off for this advantage is that the IFEL is exposed to tritium diffusing from CIT. As reported in the attached appendix, we have investigated the use of cryopumping to control the tritium diffusion to the IFEL. With one to three pumping stations (depending on size) we can reduce the level of tritium in the IFEL to a level that may not pose a breathing hazard after one year of operation. In addition, adding pumping may allow hands-on maintenance after one year. Preliminary indications are that likely accident scenarios will occur slowly enough to permit valves to be closed before the IFEL is significantly contaminated

  12. Quality of Life in Mothers of Children With Duchenne Muscular Dystrophia and Attention Defi cit Hyperactivity Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Çakaloz, Burcu; Ünlü, Gülşen; Çardak, Gonca Tatlı; Kurul, Semra

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze the quality of life of mothers of children with Duchenne muscular dystrophy(DMD) and attention defi cit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Participants of this study were; 16 mothers ofchildren with DMD, 19 mothers of children with ADHD, and 28 mothers of healthy children. WHOQOL-BREFScale and demographic information questionnaire were given to all mothers. The physical and psychologicalhealth subscale scores of WHOQOL-BREF Scale were signifi cantly lower in mo...

  13. Radiation analysis of the CIT [Compact Ignition Tokamak] pellet injector system and its impact on personnel access

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selcow, E.C.; Stevens, P.N.; Gomes, I.C.; Gomes, L.M.

    1988-08-01

    The conceptual design of the Compact Ignition Tokamak (CIT) is nearing completion. The CIT is a short-pulse ignition experiment, which is planned to follow the operations of the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL). The high neutron wall loadings, 4--5 MW/m 2 , associated with the operation of this device require that neutronics-related issues be considered in the overall system design. Radiation shielding is required for the protection of device components as well as personnel. A close-in igloo shield has been designed around the periphery of the tokamak structure, and the entire experiment is housed in a circular test cell facility that has a radius of 12 m. The most critical radiation concerns in the CIT design process relate to the numerous penetrations in the device. This report discusses the impact of a major penetration on the design and operation of the pellet injection system in the CIT. The pellet injector is a major component, and it has a line-of-sight penetration through the igloo and test cell wall. All current options for maintenance of the injector require hands-on-access. A nuclear analysis has been performed to establish the feasibility of hands-on-access. A coupled Monte Carlo/discrete-ordinates methodology was used to perform the analysis. This problem is characterized by deep penetration and streaming with very large length-to-diameter ratios. Results from this study indicate that personnel access to the pellet injector glovebox is possible. 14 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs

  14. Radiation analysis of the CIT (Compact Ignition Tokamak) pellet injector system and its impact on personnel access

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selcow, E.C.; Stevens, P.N.; Gomes, I.C.; Gomes, L.M.

    1987-01-01

    Conceptual design of the Compact Ignition Tokamak (CIT) is near completion. This short-pulse ignition experiment is planned to follow the operations of the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory. The high neutron wall loadings, /approximately/4-5 MW/m/sup 2/, associated with the operation of this device require that neutronics-related issues be considered in the overall system design. Radiation shielding is required for the protection of device components and personnel. A close-in igloo shield has been designed around the periphery of the tokamak structure, and the entire experiment is housed in a circular test cell facility with a radius of /approximately/12 m. The most critical radiation concern in the CIT design process relates to the numerous penetrations in the device. This paper discusses the impact of a major penetration on the design and operations of the CIT pellet injection system. The pellet injector is a major component, which has a line-of-sight penetration through the igloo and test cell wall. All current options for maintenance of the injector require personnel access. A nuclear analysis has been performed to determine the feasibility of hands-on access. Results indicate that personnel access to the pellet injector glovebox is possible. 10 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  15. Relationship between striatal [123I]β-CIT binding and four major clinical signs in Parkinson's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinotoh, Hitoshi; Uchida, Yoshitaka; Ito, Hisao; Hattori, Takamichi

    2000-01-01

    We investigated the correlation between clinical severity and striatal [ 123 I]β-CIT binding in 12 patients with Parkinson's Disease (PD: 6 men and 6 women, age: 65±7 years, Hoehn-Yahr stage: 1 to 3). The clinical severity of PD patients was measured with the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) after withdrawal of antiparkinsonian medication at least 12 hours before assessment. [ 123 I]β-CIT binding in the caudate and putamen was measured at 3 hours [V'' 3 (day 1)], and at 24 hours [V'' 3 (day 2)] after tracer injection with small square ROIs. The specific striatal uptake index (day 2) was calculated with large square ROIs that encompassed the whole striatum. The best correlation (r=-0.82, p 3 (day 2) and the motor UPDRS scores. When the motor UPDRS scores were divided into four subscales, bradykinesia was the only sign that correlated significantly with putamenal V'' 3 (day 2) (r=-0.81, p 123 I]β-CIT SPECT is a useful marker of disease severity in PD with potential utility in the serial monitoring of disease progression. (author)

  16. SPECT imaging of dopamine and serotonin transporters with [[sup 123]I][beta]-CIT. Binding kinetics in the human brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruecke, T; Asenbaum, S; Frassine, H; Podreka, I [Vienna Univ. (Austria). Neurologische Klinik; Kornhuber, J [Wuerzburg Univ. (Germany); Angelberger, P [Oesterreichisches Forschungszentrum Seibersdorf GmbH (Austria)

    1993-01-01

    Single photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT) studies in non-human primates have previously shown that the cocaine derivative [[sup 123]I]-2-[beta]-carbomethoxy-3-[beta]-(4-iodophenyl)-tropane ([[sup 123]I][beta]-CIT) labels dopamine transporters in the striatum and serotonin transporters in the hypothalamus-midbrain area. Here, we report on the regional kinetic uptake of [[sup 123]I][beta]-CIT in the brain of 4 normal volunteers and 2 patients with Parkinson's disease. In healthy subjects striatal activity increased slowly to reach peak values at about 20 hours post injection. In the hypothalamus-midbrain area peak activities were observed at about 4 hours with a slow decrease thereafter. Low activity was observed in cortical and cerebellar areas. The striatal to cerebellar ratio was about 4 after 5 hours and 9 after 20 hours. In 2 patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease striatal activity was markedly decreased while the activity in hypothalamus-midbrain areas was only diminished. Uptake into cortical and cerebellar areas appeared to be unchanged in Parkinson's disease. Consequently, in Parkinson's disease the striatal to cerebellar ratio was decreased to values around 2.5 after 20 hours. These preliminary methodological studies suggest that [[sup 123]I][beta]-CIT is a useful SPECT ligand for studying dopamine and possibly also serotonin transporters in the living human brain.

  17. O papel do CITS1 na política de desenvolvimento tecnológico no Paraná The role of CITS on the policy on technological development in Paraná state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Tadahiro Shimajv

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Analisam-se as implicações da produção de software no Paraná. Como produção de bem intangível, há contribuições para a expansão do Sistema Setorial de Inovação. O foco da análise é o Centro Internacional de Tecnologia de Software e sua trajetória natural em direção à capacitação para a inovação radical de forma híbrida. Discute-se a integração entre os conceitos de Sistema Nacional de Inovação e Triple Helix (TH e apresenta-se sua evolução no Brasil e no Paraná (Sistema Local. O software é a pura expressão do atual paradigma tecnológico. É necessária uma forte política de desenvolvimento centrada nas tecnologias de informação, em função do papel revolucionário exercido nas economias centrais. O CITS se encaixa perfeitamente nessa nova dinâmica, estabelecendo uma estratégia clara de aquisição de competências e construindo uma rede de conhecimento nos níveis micro, meso e macroeconômico. A evolução da fase atual do CITS implicará uma forte ação da TH.This article analyses the implications of the software production in Paraná state, which strongly contributes to the expansion of the Sectoral Innovation System. The focus is on CITS - Centro Internacional de Tecnologia de Software (International Centre of Software Technology and its natural trajectory towards the capability for a radical innovation in a hybrid way. It discusses the integration between the concepts of the National System of Innovation and the Triple Helix (TH and presents its evolution in Brazil, more specifically in Paraná State (Local System. As a pure expression of the current technological paradigm, the software implies a strong policy on development centred on the generic information technologies because of the revolutionary role that such technologies have exercised on central economies. CITS perfectly fits this new dynamics, establishing a clear strategy for acquisition of competencies and building a network of knowledge

  18. Cristine de Pizan e le emozioni per la Cità des Dames

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Giallongo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available L’interesse storico per le emozioni spinge ad interrogarsi sul loro ruolo nelle utopie femminili alla fine del medioevo. Una fonte centrale su questo tema è l’opera illustrata la Cité des Dames (1405 di C. de Pizan (1365-1430. Gli studi di B.H. Rosenwein, W. Reddie e K.Oatley forniscono categorie interpretative psico-sociali (comunità emotive e regime emotivo utili per connettere l’idea di utopia, valori emotivi e rapporti interpersonali fra i sessi. La problematicizzazione, suggerita da Rosenwein, della comunità immaginata come comunità emotiva aiuta a identificare i modi di sentire rifiutati e quelli privilegiati per l’espressione del senso di sé e per la costruzione della città ideale, offerta alle donne di tutte le classi sociali.In conclusione, l’analisi qualitativa dell’opera della de Pizan focalizza l’uso formativo delle immagini mitiche, l’esperienza dell’autrice, contestualizzata nel periodo, e i significati culturali attribuiti alle “emozioni”.

  19. Extrastriatal binding of [¹²³I]FP-CIT in the thalamus and pons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Walter; Unterrainer, Marcus; Xiong, Guoming

    2014-01-01

    extrastriatal binding (predominantly due to SERT) and its age and gender dependencies in a large cohort of healthy controls. METHODS: SPECT data from 103 healthy controls with well-defined criteria of normality acquired at 13 different imaging centres were analysed for extrastriatal binding using volumes...... error) of 8.2 ± 1.3 % for the thalamus and 6.8 ± 2.9 % for the pons was shown. CONCLUSION: The potential to evaluate extrastriatal predominant SERT binding in addition to the striatal DAT in a single imaging session was shown using a large database of [(123)I]FP-CIT scans in healthy controls. For both...... the thalamus and the pons, an age-related decline in radiotracer binding was observed. Gender effects were demonstrated for binding in the thalamus only. As a potential clinical application, the data could be used as a reference to estimate SERT occupancy in addition to nigrostriatal integrity when using [(123...

  20. Swiss Science Festival - Science et Cité Science - It's magic!

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    CERN's new antimatter factory, the Antiproton Decelerator (AD), will allow precision studies of antihydrogen. From Saturday 5 May for a week in ten Swiss towns, the 'Science et Cité' Festival will be bringing science to the public. The festival aims to be a bridge between the concerns of the public at large and those of scientists, so naturally CERN is involved. The Laboratory is organising special visits on the theme of antimatter. Following a presentation by Rolf Landua, spokesman of the ATHENA collaboration, visitors will discover two machines indispensable for the study of antimatter - LEIR, which as LEAR was where the first atoms of antihydrogen were created, and the new antimatter factory, the Antiproton Decelerator, AD. As well as these visits, CERN guides will become show people on the stand 'Magicians? Physicists!' at the old SIP building, where the majority of the Geneva events will take place. Disguised as magicians, our guides will amaze and astound their audience with a series of rema...

  1. Incidents analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francois, P.

    1996-01-01

    We undertook a study programme at the end of 1991. To start with, we performed some exploratory studies aimed at learning some preliminary lessons on this type of analysis: Assessment of the interest of probabilistic incident analysis; possibility of using PSA scenarios; skills and resources required. At the same time, EPN created a working group whose assignment was to define a new approach for analysis of incidents on NPPs. This working group gave thought to both aspects of Operating Feedback that EPN wished to improve: Analysis of significant incidents; analysis of potential consequences. We took part in the work of this group, and for the second aspects, we proposed a method based on an adaptation of the event-tree method in order to establish a link between existing PSA models and actual incidents. Since PSA provides an exhaustive database of accident scenarios applicable to the two most common types of units in France, they are obviously of interest for this sort of analysis. With this method we performed some incident analyses, and at the same time explores some methods employed abroad, particularly ASP (Accident Sequence Precursor, a method used by the NRC). Early in 1994 EDF began a systematic analysis programme. The first, transient phase will set up methods and an organizational structure. 7 figs

  2. Incidents analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francois, P

    1997-12-31

    We undertook a study programme at the end of 1991. To start with, we performed some exploratory studies aimed at learning some preliminary lessons on this type of analysis: Assessment of the interest of probabilistic incident analysis; possibility of using PSA scenarios; skills and resources required. At the same time, EPN created a working group whose assignment was to define a new approach for analysis of incidents on NPPs. This working group gave thought to both aspects of Operating Feedback that EPN wished to improve: Analysis of significant incidents; analysis of potential consequences. We took part in the work of this group, and for the second aspects, we proposed a method based on an adaptation of the event-tree method in order to establish a link between existing PSA models and actual incidents. Since PSA provides an exhaustive database of accident scenarios applicable to the two most common types of units in France, they are obviously of interest for this sort of analysis. With this method we performed some incident analyses, and at the same time explores some methods employed abroad, particularly ASP (Accident Sequence Precursor, a method used by the NRC). Early in 1994 EDF began a systematic analysis programme. The first, transient phase will set up methods and an organizational structure. 7 figs.

  3. Chronic motor cortex stimulation in patients with advanced Parkinson's disease and effects on striatal dopaminergic transmission as assessed by 123I-FP-CIT SPECT: a preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Giuda, Daniela; Calcagni, Maria L; Totaro, Manuela; Cocciolillo, Fabrizio; Piano, Carla; Soleti, Francesco; Fasano, Alfonso; Cioni, Beatrice; Bentivoglio, Anna R; Giordano, Alessandro

    2012-09-01

    The objective of this study was to assess striatal dopamine transporter availability in patients with advanced Parkinson's disease (PD) before and after 13 months of unilateral extradural motor cortex stimulation (EMCS) with [123I]N-ω-fluoropropyl-2-β-carbo-methoxy-3-β-(4-iodophenyl)nortropane single photon emission computed tomography (123I-FP-CIT SPECT). Six PD patients (five women and one man, aged 63.2 ± 5.6 years) underwent 123I-FP-CIT SPECT and clinical evaluation [Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) and Parkinson's Disease Quality of Life Scale (PDQL)] preoperatively, 8 and 13 months after EMCS. Striatum-to-occipital cortex, caudate-to-occipital cortex and putamen-to-occipital cortex 123I-FP-CIT uptake ratios were calculated using the region of interest method. Total and part III UPDRS scores significantly decreased at 8 and 13 months after stimulation (P=0.02 and 0.04, respectively); UPDRS part II and PDQL scores improved after 13 months (P=0.02 and 0.04, respectively). No significant differences in 123I-FP-CIT uptake ratios between baseline and follow-up were found in the examined regions. However, a progressive reduction in 123I-FP-CIT uptake ratios in the striatum contralateral to the implant was found. In contrast, no further decrease in 123I-FP-CIT uptake ratios was detected in the striatum ipsilateral to the implant. There were no correlations between changes in 123I-FP-CIT uptake ratios with disease duration, changes in medication dosage and motor UPDRS scores. Despite a small but highly selected sample of advanced PD patients, our results showed that no further dopamine transporter reduction occurred in the striatum ipsilateral to the implant side. This finding could lead to the hypothesis that EMCS might elicit a 'neuroprotective' effect, as suggested by significant clinical benefits.

  4. Police officers' volunteering for (rather than being assigned to) Crisis Intervention Team (CIT) training: Evidence for a beneficial self-selection effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    T Compton, Michael; Bakeman, Roger; Broussard, Beth; D'Orio, Barbara; C Watson, Amy

    2017-09-01

    Officers' volunteering for Crisis Intervention Team (CIT) training-rather than being assigned-is assumed to be an important, beneficial self-selection bias. This bias remains poorly characterized, though CIT officers are more likely to be female and to have had exposure to the mental health field. We determined whether or not self-selection is beneficial with regard to knowledge, attitudes, and skills, as well as level of force used (i.e., no or low force versus any form of physical force) and disposition of subjects, in actual encounters. We compared CIT-trained officers who had volunteered with those who had been assigned using data from two prior, linked studies that compared CIT-trained and non-CIT officers on knowledge, attitudes, and skills (251 CIT-trained officers; 68% had volunteered), as well as behaviors (517 actual encounters provided by 91 CIT-trained officers; 70% had volunteered). Of 28 scores on knowledge, attitudes, and skills compared, six were statistically significantly different (p force as we had defined it (which included the use of handcuffs), when they did so they were more likely to refer to treatment services and less likely to make an arrest. These effects were apparent even when taking into account effects of gender, having had exposure to the mental health field, empathy, and other covariates. In conclusion, we found evidence for benefits of self-selection/volunteering that should be further characterized, as it appears to be associated with better outcomes with regard to key attitudes, skills, and behaviors. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Le récit dans l’image : séquence, intrigue et configuration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphaël Baroni

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Résumé: Dans cet article sera interrogée la manière dont l’image fixe est capable de représenter le flux temporel, ce qui représente, on le sait, un trait définitoire essentiel de la narrativité. A cette question, qui nous obligera à invoquer la collaboration d’un interprète construisant un parcours de lecture dans, entre ou au-delà des images fixes, s’ajoutera celle, plus complexe, de savoir quel type de temporalité sera produite par le récit en image. On commencera donc par rappeler que le récit est, par définition, non seulement la représentation séquentielle d’une séquence d’événements, mais que cette transformation est susceptible s’insérer dans une intrigue. Ici encore, l’intrigue peut être prise dans deux sens opposés suivant que l’on considère cette dernière comme une représentation intrigante orientant la réception en direction d’un dénouement incertain, ou alors comme une configuration narrative conférant sens et unité à l’événement représenté. Différents exemples tirés du roman graphique Watchmen serviront à illustrer ces différentes modalités de la narrativité iconique, qui fonctionnent souvent de manière conjointe.

     

  6. Effect of Ar9+ irradiation on Zr-1Nb-1Sn-0.1Fe alloy characterized by Grazing Incidence X-ray diffraction technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Argha; Das, Kalipada; Gayathri, N.; Menon, Ranjini; Nabhiraj, P. Y.; Mukherjee, Paramita

    2018-03-01

    The microstructural parameters such as domain size and microstrain have been estimated from Grazing Incidence X-ray Diffraction (GIXRD) data for Ar9+ irradiated Zr-1Nb-1Sn-0.1Fe sample as a function of dpa (dose). Detail studies using X-ray Diffraction Line Profile Analysis (XRDLPA) from GIXRD data has been carried out to characterize the microstructural parameters like domain size and microstrain. The reorientation of the grains due to effect of irradiation at high dpa (dose) has been qualitatively assessed by the texture parameter P(hkl).

  7. Modeling cross-field drifts and current with the B2 code for the CIT divertor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rognlien, T.D.; Milovich, J.L.; Rensink, M.E.

    1990-01-01

    We have modified the B2 edge-plasma code to include the effects of classical fluid drifts across the magnetic field lines and plasma currents. This report presents preliminary results of these effects for the CIT parameter regime. The basic plasma model described by Braams involves solving the continuity equation, the parallel momentum balance equation, and separate energy balance equations for the ions and the electrons. If multiple ion species are present, they are all assumed to have a common temperature, but their densities and parallel velocities are solved for using additional continuity and parallel momentum balance equations for each species. Momentum and heat transport parallel to the magnetic field, B, are given by the classical collisional theory. On the other hand, transport perpendicular to B is represented by anomalous diffusion coefficients which are adjusted to agree with experimental measurements. These transport coefficients are generally taken to be constant in radius and poloidal angle, although this is not necessary. The goal of our work has been to include both the classical cross-field drift terms and the effects of parallel currents in the equations used in the B2 code. The motivation for including the cross-field terms comes from simple model calculations which indicate that the classical flows can contribute an important asymmetry which may help explain the transition from L-mode to H-mode confinement. Radial electric fields which arise near the separatrix cause E x B poloidal rotation which may also be related to the L-to-H mode transition through its effect on edge turbulence. Including the parallel currents is done to provide a tool for understanding the biased divertor experiments on DIII-D at General Atomics. Such biasing may provide an effective means of controlling the asymmetry of the power flow to different divertor plates

  8. Optimization of the reconstruction parameters in [123I]FP-CIT SPECT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niñerola-Baizán, Aida; Gallego, Judith; Cot, Albert; Aguiar, Pablo; Lomeña, Francisco; Pavía, Javier; Ros, Domènec

    2018-04-01

    The aim of this work was to obtain a set of parameters to be applied in [123I]FP-CIT SPECT reconstruction in order to minimize the error between standardized and true values of the specific uptake ratio (SUR) in dopaminergic neurotransmission SPECT studies. To this end, Monte Carlo simulation was used to generate a database of 1380 projection data-sets from 23 subjects, including normal cases and a variety of pathologies. Studies were reconstructed using filtered back projection (FBP) with attenuation correction and ordered subset expectation maximization (OSEM) with correction for different degradations (attenuation, scatter and PSF). Reconstruction parameters to be optimized were the cut-off frequency of a 2D Butterworth pre-filter in FBP, and the number of iterations and the full width at Half maximum of a 3D Gaussian post-filter in OSEM. Reconstructed images were quantified using regions of interest (ROIs) derived from Magnetic Resonance scans and from the Automated Anatomical Labeling map. Results were standardized by applying a simple linear regression line obtained from the entire patient dataset. Our findings show that we can obtain a set of optimal parameters for each reconstruction strategy. The accuracy of the standardized SUR increases when the reconstruction method includes more corrections. The use of generic ROIs instead of subject-specific ROIs adds significant inaccuracies. Thus, after reconstruction with OSEM and correction for all degradations, subject-specific ROIs led to errors between standardized and true SUR values in the range [‑0.5, +0.5] in 87% and 92% of the cases for caudate and putamen, respectively. These percentages dropped to 75% and 88% when the generic ROIs were used.

  9. Localised estimates and spatial mapping of poverty incidence in the state of Bihar in India-An application of small area estimation techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Hukum; Aditya, Kaustav; Sud, U C

    2018-01-01

    Poverty affects many people, but the ramifications and impacts affect all aspects of society. Information about the incidence of poverty is therefore an important parameter of the population for policy analysis and decision making. In order to provide specific, targeted solutions when addressing poverty disadvantage small area statistics are needed. Surveys are typically designed and planned to produce reliable estimates of population characteristics of interest mainly at higher geographic area such as national and state level. Sample sizes are usually not large enough to provide reliable estimates for disaggregated analysis. In many instances estimates are required for areas of the population for which the survey providing the data was unplanned. Then, for areas with small sample sizes, direct survey estimation of population characteristics based only on the data available from the particular area tends to be unreliable. This paper describes an application of small area estimation (SAE) approach to improve the precision of estimates of poverty incidence at district level in the State of Bihar in India by linking data from the Household Consumer Expenditure Survey 2011-12 of NSSO and the Population Census 2011. The results show that the district level estimates generated by SAE method are more precise and representative. In contrast, the direct survey estimates based on survey data alone are less stable.

  10. Localised estimates and spatial mapping of poverty incidence in the state of Bihar in India—An application of small area estimation techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aditya, Kaustav; Sud, U. C.

    2018-01-01

    Poverty affects many people, but the ramifications and impacts affect all aspects of society. Information about the incidence of poverty is therefore an important parameter of the population for policy analysis and decision making. In order to provide specific, targeted solutions when addressing poverty disadvantage small area statistics are needed. Surveys are typically designed and planned to produce reliable estimates of population characteristics of interest mainly at higher geographic area such as national and state level. Sample sizes are usually not large enough to provide reliable estimates for disaggregated analysis. In many instances estimates are required for areas of the population for which the survey providing the data was unplanned. Then, for areas with small sample sizes, direct survey estimation of population characteristics based only on the data available from the particular area tends to be unreliable. This paper describes an application of small area estimation (SAE) approach to improve the precision of estimates of poverty incidence at district level in the State of Bihar in India by linking data from the Household Consumer Expenditure Survey 2011–12 of NSSO and the Population Census 2011. The results show that the district level estimates generated by SAE method are more precise and representative. In contrast, the direct survey estimates based on survey data alone are less stable. PMID:29879202

  11. Detecting Terrorism Incidence Type from News Summary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nizamani, Sarwat; Memon, Nasrullah

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents the experiments to detect terrorism incidence type from news summary data. We have applied classification techniques on news summary data to analyze the incidence and detect the type of incidence. A number of experiments are conducted using various classification algorithms...... and results show that a simple decision tree classifier can learn incidence type with satisfactory results from news data....

  12. Iodine-123 labelled nor-{beta}-CIT binds to the serotonin transporter in vivo as assessed by biodistribution studies in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Booij, J.; Knol, R.J.J.; Reneman, L.; De Bruin, K.; Van Royen, E.A. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Univ. of Amsterdam (Netherlands); Janssen, A.G.M. [Amersham Cygne and Eindhoven University of Technology (Netherlands)

    1998-12-01

    Iodine-123 labelled 2{beta}-carbomethoxy-3{beta}-(4-iodophenyl)nortropane (nor-{beta}-CIT), a radioiodinated cocaine analogue, was evaluated as an agent for the in vivo labelling of serotonin transporters by biodistribution studies in rats. Intravenous injection of [{sup 123}I]nor-{beta}-CIT resulted in high accumulation of radioactivity in brain areas with high densities of serotonin (hypothalamus) and dopamine transporters (striatum), although the binding was less pronounced in the hypothalamus. While binding of [{sup 123}I]nor-{beta}-CIT in the hypothalamus was blocked significantly by fluvoxamine (a selective serotonin transporter blocker) but not by GBR12,909 (a selective dopamine transporter blocker), the opposite was observed in the striatum. The results of this study indicate that [{sup 123}I]nor-{beta}-CIT, although not being a selective radioligand, binds specifically to serotonin transporters in the hypothalamus in vivo and thus suggest that [{sup 123}I]nor-{beta}-CIT promises to be a suitable radioligand for single-photon emission tomography imaging of serotonin transporters in humans. (orig.) With 1 fig., 2 tabs., 15 refs.

  13. Iodine-123 labelled nor-β-CIT binds to the serotonin transporter in vivo as assessed by biodistribution studies in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Booij, J.; Knol, R.J.J.; Reneman, L.; De Bruin, K.; Van Royen, E.A.; Janssen, A.G.M.

    1998-01-01

    Iodine-123 labelled 2β-carbomethoxy-3β-(4-iodophenyl)nortropane (nor-β-CIT), a radioiodinated cocaine analogue, was evaluated as an agent for the in vivo labelling of serotonin transporters by biodistribution studies in rats. Intravenous injection of [ 123 I]nor-β-CIT resulted in high accumulation of radioactivity in brain areas with high densities of serotonin (hypothalamus) and dopamine transporters (striatum), although the binding was less pronounced in the hypothalamus. While binding of [ 123 I]nor-β-CIT in the hypothalamus was blocked significantly by fluvoxamine (a selective serotonin transporter blocker) but not by GBR12,909 (a selective dopamine transporter blocker), the opposite was observed in the striatum. The results of this study indicate that [ 123 I]nor-β-CIT, although not being a selective radioligand, binds specifically to serotonin transporters in the hypothalamus in vivo and thus suggest that [ 123 I]nor-β-CIT promises to be a suitable radioligand for single-photon emission tomography imaging of serotonin transporters in humans. (orig.)

  14. Differential Diagnosis of Patients with Inconclusive Parkinsonian Features Using [{sup 18}F]FP-CIT PET/CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Eunkyung; Hwang, Yu Mi; Lee, Channyoung; Oh, Sun Young; Kim, Young Chul; Choe, Jae Gol; Park, Kun Woo [Korea Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sujin [Seoul National Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-06-15

    It is often difficult to differentiate parkinsonism, especially when patients show uncertain parkinsonian features. We investigated the usefulness of dopamine transporter (DAT) imaging for the differential diagnosis of inconclusive parkinsonism using [{sup 18}F]FP-CIT PET. Twenty-four patients with inconclusive parkinsonian features at initial clinical evaluation and nine healthy controls were studied. Patients consisted of three subgroups: nine patients whose diagnoses were unclear concerning whether they had idiopathic Parkinson's disease or drug-induced parkinsonism ('PD/DIP'), nine patients who fulfilled neither the diagnostic criteria of PD nor of essential tremor ('PD/ET'), and six patients who were alleged to have either PD or atypical parkinsonian syndrome ('PD/APS'). Brain PET images were obtained 120 min after injection of 185 MBq [{sup 18}F]FP-CIT. Imaging results were quantified and compared with follow-up clinical diagnoses. Overall, 11 of 24 patients demonstrated abnormally decreased DAT availability on the PET scans, whereas 13 were normal. PET results could diagnose PD/DIP and PD/ET patients as having PD in six patients, DIP in seven, and ET in five; however, the diagnoses of all six PD/APS patients remained inconclusive. Among 15 patients who obtained a final follow-up diagnosis, the image-based diagnosis was congruent with the follow-up diagnosis in 11 patients. Four unsolved cases had normal DAT availability, but clinically progressed to PD during the follow-up period. [{sup 18}F]FP-CIT PET imaging is useful in the differential diagnosis of patients with inconclusive parkinsonian features, except in patients who show atypical features or who eventually progress to PD.

  15. "1"2"3I-FP-CIT SPECT findings and its clinical relevance in prodromal dementia with Lewy bodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasanuki, Koji; Iseki, Eizo; Ota, Kazumi; Kondo, Daizo; Sato, Kiyoshi; Ichimiya, Yosuke; Arai, Heii

    2017-01-01

    Evidence for the prodromal stage of dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) is very limited. To address this issue, we investigate the "1"2"3I-FP-CIT SPECT measure of dopamine transporter binding finding and its clinical relevance. We enrolled subjects into a prodromal DLB group (PRD-DLB) (n = 20) and clinical DLB group (CLIN-DLB) (n = 18) and compared these groups with an Alzheimer's disease control group (AD) (n = 10). PRD-DLB was defined as patients having the non-motor symptoms associated with Lewy body disease (LBD) [i.e. REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD), olfactory dysfunction, autonomic dysfunction, and depression] and showing characteristic diffuse occipital hypometabolism in "1"8F-FDG PET. CLIN-DLB was defined as patients fulfilling the established criteria of probable DLB. Striatal specific binding ratio (SBR) of "1"2"3I-FP-CIT SPECT was used for objective group comparisons. The correlations between SBR and cognitive function (MMSE), motor symptoms (UPDRS3), and duration of LBD-associated non-motor symptoms were compared between the two DLB groups. Mean SBR scores of both PRD-DLB and CLIN-DLB were significantly lower than those of AD. No correlation was found between SBR and MMSE scores. Both in the CLIN-DLB and total DLB groups, SBR scores were negatively correlated with UPDRS3 scores, whereas no correlation was found in PRD-DLB. Among the LBD-related non-motor symptoms, duration of olfactory dysfunction, and RBD demonstrated negative correlation with SBR scores in PRD-DLB. "1"2"3I-FP-CIT SPECT may play a role for detecting DLB among the subjects in prodromal stage. During this stage, long-term olfactory dysfunction and/or RBD may indicate more severe degeneration of the nigro-striatal dopaminergic pathway. (orig.)

  16. {sup 123}I-FP-CIT SPECT findings and its clinical relevance in prodromal dementia with Lewy bodies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasanuki, Koji [Juntendo University School of Medicine, PET/CT Dementia Research Center, Juntendo Tokyo Koto Geriatric Medical Center, Tokyo (Japan); Juntendo University School of Medicine, Department of Psychiatry, Tokyo (Japan); Mayo Clinic, Department of Neuroscience, Jacksonville, FL (United States); Iseki, Eizo; Ota, Kazumi [Juntendo University School of Medicine, PET/CT Dementia Research Center, Juntendo Tokyo Koto Geriatric Medical Center, Tokyo (Japan); Juntendo University School of Medicine, Department of Psychiatry, Tokyo (Japan); Kondo, Daizo; Sato, Kiyoshi [Juntendo University School of Medicine, PET/CT Dementia Research Center, Juntendo Tokyo Koto Geriatric Medical Center, Tokyo (Japan); Ichimiya, Yosuke; Arai, Heii [Juntendo University School of Medicine, Department of Psychiatry, Tokyo (Japan)

    2017-03-15

    Evidence for the prodromal stage of dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) is very limited. To address this issue, we investigate the {sup 123}I-FP-CIT SPECT measure of dopamine transporter binding finding and its clinical relevance. We enrolled subjects into a prodromal DLB group (PRD-DLB) (n = 20) and clinical DLB group (CLIN-DLB) (n = 18) and compared these groups with an Alzheimer's disease control group (AD) (n = 10). PRD-DLB was defined as patients having the non-motor symptoms associated with Lewy body disease (LBD) [i.e. REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD), olfactory dysfunction, autonomic dysfunction, and depression] and showing characteristic diffuse occipital hypometabolism in {sup 18}F-FDG PET. CLIN-DLB was defined as patients fulfilling the established criteria of probable DLB. Striatal specific binding ratio (SBR) of {sup 123}I-FP-CIT SPECT was used for objective group comparisons. The correlations between SBR and cognitive function (MMSE), motor symptoms (UPDRS3), and duration of LBD-associated non-motor symptoms were compared between the two DLB groups. Mean SBR scores of both PRD-DLB and CLIN-DLB were significantly lower than those of AD. No correlation was found between SBR and MMSE scores. Both in the CLIN-DLB and total DLB groups, SBR scores were negatively correlated with UPDRS3 scores, whereas no correlation was found in PRD-DLB. Among the LBD-related non-motor symptoms, duration of olfactory dysfunction, and RBD demonstrated negative correlation with SBR scores in PRD-DLB. {sup 123}I-FP-CIT SPECT may play a role for detecting DLB among the subjects in prodromal stage. During this stage, long-term olfactory dysfunction and/or RBD may indicate more severe degeneration of the nigro-striatal dopaminergic pathway. (orig.)

  17. [123I]FP-CIT (DaTSCAN) and SPET in the diagnostics of Parkinson's disease and Parkinsonian syndromes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chmielowski, K.; Szalus, B.; Pietrzykowski, J.; Brodacki, B.; Kotowicz, J.; Skrobowska, E.

    2003-01-01

    The aim of study was to verify the diagnostic value of the radiopharmaceutic [ 123I ]FP-CIT (DaTSCAN) in functional imaging of the presynaptical dopaminergic system in patients with Parkison's disease and parkinsonian syndromes: multiple system atrophy, orthostatic hypotonia Shy-Drager, essential tremor. That pilot study group consisted of 8 patients in which either preliminary diagnosis or suspicion of Parkinson's disease, parkinsonian syndrome or multiple system atrophy was set. Imaging of the brain with SPET (dual head detector Varicam Elscint) and MRI were performed. The radiopharmaceutic [ 123I ] FP-CIT (DaTSCAN) was administered intravenously in the dose 145 -148 MBq. SPET images were reconstructed by filtered backprojection with the use of Butterworth filter. The images were inspected visually. Images from SPET and MRI were superimposed by means of the workstation Hermes (Nucklear Diagnostic) with designatad regions interest (ROI) in the striatum and occipital cortex in order to assess semiquantitatively the binding of dopamine transporter. In the group of 8 patients evaluated with the use of [ 123I ]FP-CIT DaTSCAN four had normal results, and four - abnormal. The preliminary diagnosis was sustained in 3/8 of patients (including Parkinson's disease in two patients and multiple system atrophy in one patient). In the remainig 5 patients the preliminary diagnosis was changed, namely: in 2 cases the essential tremor was diagnosed, in 1 case - Parkinson's disease, in 1 case - orthostaic Sky-Drager, and in 1 case - despite the tremor of the upper limbs - results were normal. In all 8 patients the tracer proved to be useful in the confirmation of clinical diagnosis, especially in the differentiation between the essential tremor and Parkinson's disease. In the case of multiple system atrophy the imaging revealed significant loss of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons. Such loss was observed also in the cases of Parkinson's disease affecting the posterior parts of the

  18. Differentiation of dementia with lewy bodies from Alzheimer's disease using FDG PET and I-123-fluoropropyl-β-CIT SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Eun Kyung; Cho, Sang Soo; Lee, Jae Sung; Kim, Jung Eun; Kim, Sang Yun; Lee, Won Woo; Lee, Dong Soo; Chung, June Key; Lee, Myung Chul; Kim, Sang Eun

    2004-01-01

    Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) shares clinical and pathological features with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease. The differentiation of DLB from these disorders poses difficulties. We compared regional cerebral metabolic impairment and dopaminergic neuronal integrity between patients with DLB and AD using FDG PET and I-123-fluoropropyl-β-CIT (FP-CIT) SPECT, respectively, as measures for differential diagnosis. Fourteen clinically diagnosed DLB patients, 15 probable AD patients, and 12 age- and gender-matched healthy controls were studied with FDG PET and FP-CIT SPECT. A voxel-wise comparison of PET images was performed using SPM99. A dopamine transporter (DAT) parameter V3 was calculated in striatal regions as (striatal VOIcerebellar VOI)/cerebellar VOI activity on SPECT images obtained 3 h after injection of 185 MBq FP-CIT. SPM analysis of PET images of DLB revealed hypometabolism bilaterally in the occipital cortices, lateral occipitotemporal gyri, cunei, caudate, and Thalami compared with controls, most pronounced in the occipital cortex compared with AD. In DLB, V3 in the caudate (1.07±0.55) and putamen (1.01±0.34) was significantly (P < 0.001) lower than in AD (2.73±0.75 and 3.17±0.88, respectively) and controls (3.00±0.45 and 3.11±0.31, respectively). There was no significant difference in striatal V3 between AD and controls. The ratio of putamen-to-caudate V3 was not significantly different between DLB (1.04±0.32) and controls (1.05±0.12), indicating that DATs in the caudate and putamen are evenly affected in DLB. In DLB, there was a significant correlation between striatal V3 and MMSE score (rho=0.97, P<0.01). These data demonstrate different biochemical features between DLB and AD, in terms of regional brain metabolism and dopaminergic neuronal integrity. Measures of the glucose metabolism in the occipital cortex and the striatal DAT density may be informative diagnostic aids to distinguish DLB from AD

  19. Effect of Citalopram on Agitation in Alzheimer's Disease – The CitAD Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porsteinsson, Anton P.; Drye, Lea T.; Pollock, Bruce G.; Devanand, D.P.; Frangakis, Constantine; Ismail, Zahinoor; Marano, Christopher; Meinert, Curtis L.; Mintzer, Jacobo E.; Munro, Cynthia A.; Pelton, Gregory; Rabins, Peter V.; Rosenberg, Paul B.; Schneider, Lon S.; Shade, David M.; Weintraub, Daniel; Yesavage, Jerome; Lyketsos, Constantine G.

    2014-01-01

    Importance Agitation is common, persistent, and associated with adverse consequences for patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Pharmacological treatment options, including antipsychotics are not satisfactory. Objective The primary objective was to evaluate the efficacy of citalopram for agitation in patients with AD. Key secondary objectives examined effects of citalopram on function, caregiver distress, safety, cognitive safety, and tolerability. Design, Setting and Participants The Citalopram for Agitation in Alzheimer's Disease Study (CitAD) was a multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, parallel group trial that enrolled 186 patients with probable AD and clinically significant agitation from eight academic centers in the US and Canada from August 2009 to January 2013. Interventions Participants (n=186) were randomized to receive a psychosocial intervention plus either citalopram (n=94) or placebo (n=92) for 9 weeks. Dose began at 10 mg/d with planned titration to 30 mg/d over 3 weeks based on response and tolerability. Main Outcomes and Measures Primary outcome measures were the Neurobehavioral Rating Scale, agitation subscale (NBRS-A) and the modified Alzheimer Disease Cooperative Study-Clinical Global Impression of Change (mADCS-CGIC) Other outcomes were the Cohen-Mansfield Agitation Inventory (CMAI), Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI), activities of daily living (ADLs), caregiver distress, cognitive safety (MMSE), and adverse events. Results Participants on citalopram showed significant improvement compared to placebo on both primary outcome measures. NBRS-A estimated treatment difference at week 9 (citalopram minus placebo) was −0.93 [95% CI: −1.80 to −0.06], p = 0.036. mADCS-CGIC results showed 40% of citalopram participants having moderate or marked improvement from baseline compared to 26% on placebo, with estimated treatment effect (odds ratio of being at or better than a given CGIC category) of 2.13 [95% CI 1.23 to 3.69], p = 0

  20. Entre guajiros et espagnols, les humains: récits Añun

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available L’article présente une série de textes tirés de la tradition orale añun, groupe arawak en voie d’extinction (côte nord-ouest du Lac de Maracaïbo, Venezuela. Sans prendre de position théorique, l’auteur se propose de montrer comment la tradition orale, à travers des récits allégoriques évoquant les dangers de l’intégration, reflète les relations que les Añun entretiennent avec les autres groupes humains de la région et qui dans les contes, se traduisent par des métaphores animales. ENTRE GUAJIROS Y ESPAÑOLES, LOS HUMANOS - RELATOS AÑÚN. Este artículo presenta una serie de relatos de la tradición oral añún, grupo arawak en vías de extinción, localizado en el litoral noroeste del Lago de Maracaibo, Venezuela. Sin tomar ninguna posición teórica, la autora se propone mostrar a través de unos relatos alegóricos que evocan los peligros de la integración, cómo la tradición oral refleja las relaciones experimentadas por los Añún con los demás grupos humanos de la región, traducidas en los cuentos por metáforas animales. BETWEEN GUAJIROS AND SPANIARDS, THE HUMANS - AÑUN TALES. This article presents a selection of tales belonging to the oral tradition of the Añun people, an Arawak group threatened with extinction (North West coast of Maracaibo Lake, Venezuela. Leaving aside all theoretical discussion, the author attempts to show how oral tradition, through allegorical tales illustrating the dangers of integration, reflects the relationships held by the Añun with the other human groups living in the area and which, in the narrative, find expression in animal metaphors.

  1. Ionospheric Oblique Incidence Soundings by Satellites

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The oblique incidence sweep-frequency ionospheric sounding technique uses the same principle of operation as the vertical incidence sounder. The primary difference...

  2. Evaluation of Poisson's ratio and Young's modulus of nitride films by combining grazing incidence X-ray diffraction and laser curvature techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, H.-Y.; Chen, J.-H.; Lu, F.-H.

    2007-01-01

    Measurements of Poisson's ratio and the Young's modulus of thin films have been problematic. In this work, evaluation of both Poisson's ratio and Young's modulus is conducted using grazing incidence X-ray diffraction combined with measurement of the induced stress. Poisson's ratio was evaluated from analysis of the X-ray diffraction data to obtain a strain-cos 2 α.sin 2 ψ plot. Moreover, the Young's modulus of the films could be also calculated from that plot as well as from the residual stress, which could be determined by a measurement of stress induced substrate curvature. The ternary nitride TiAlN is used as a model system for the evaluation. The films, prepared by cathodic arc plasma deposition, exhibited a strong (111) preferred orientation and a composition corresponding to Ti 0.6 Al 0.4 N. The measured Poisson's ratio and the Young's modulus of the films were 0.143 ± 0.003 and 310 ± 20 GPa, respectively, which are comparable to those reported in the literature

  3. Effects of cocaine on [11C]norepinephrine and [11C]β-CIT uptake in the primate peripheral organs measured by PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suhara, Tetsuya; Farde, L.; Halldin, C.; Karlsson, P.; Nagren, K.

    1996-01-01

    The toxic properties of cocaine are related to both the central and peripheral effects. To identify possible lethal mechanisms and the accumulation of cocaine in various organs, the effects of cocaine on [ 11 C] norepinephrine and cocaine congener [ 11 C]β-CIT uptake in Cynomolgus monkeys were measured by positron emission tomography (PET). Cocaine (5 mg/kg) noticeably inhibited [ 11 C] norepinephrine uptake in the heart. The uptake of [ 11 C]β-CIT in the heart and lung was reduced by pretreatment with cocaine. There was a significant uptake in the liver which was increased following cocaine pretreatment. The results of this study confirm that cocaine blocks the neuronal uptake of norepinephrine in sympathetic nerve terminals in the myocardium. The effect of cocaine on [ 11 C]β-CIT uptake indicates that the binding sites in the heart and lung are saturable, while the uptake mechanism in the liver is different from those of the heart and lung. (author)

  4. Machine learning models for the differential diagnosis of vascular parkinsonism and Parkinson's disease using [{sup 123}I]FP-CIT SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huertas-Fernandez, I.; Benitez-Rivero, S.; Jesus, S.; Caceres-Redondo, M.T.; Martin-Rodriguez, J.F.; Carrillo, F. [Instituto de Biomedicina de Sevilla (IBiS), Hospital Universitario Virgen del Rocio/CSIC/Universidad de Sevilla, Unidad de Trastornos del Movimiento, Servicio de Neurologia y Neurofisiologia Clinica, Seville (Spain); Garcia-Gomez, F.J.; Marin-Oyaga, V.A.; Lojo, J.A. [Hospital Universitario Virgen del Rocio, Servicio de Medicina Nuclear, UDIM, Seville (Spain); Garcia-Solis, D. [Hospital Universitario Virgen del Rocio, Servicio de Medicina Nuclear, UDIM, Seville (Spain); Centro de Investigacion Biomedica en Red sobre Enfermedades Neurodegenerativas (CIBERNED), Seville (Spain); Mir, P. [Instituto de Biomedicina de Sevilla (IBiS), Hospital Universitario Virgen del Rocio/CSIC/Universidad de Sevilla, Unidad de Trastornos del Movimiento, Servicio de Neurologia y Neurofisiologia Clinica, Seville (Spain); Centro de Investigacion Biomedica en Red sobre Enfermedades Neurodegenerativas (CIBERNED), Seville (Spain)

    2015-01-15

    The study's objective was to develop diagnostic predictive models using data from two commonly used [{sup 123}I]FP-CIT SPECT assessment methods: region-of-interest (ROI) analysis and whole-brain voxel-based analysis. We included retrospectively 80 patients with vascular parkinsonism (VP) and 164 patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) who underwent [{sup 123}I]FP-CIT SPECT. Nuclear-medicine specialists evaluated the scans and calculated bilateral caudate and putamen [{sup 123}I]FP-CIT uptake and asymmetry indices using BRASS software. Statistical parametric mapping (SPM) was used to compare the radioligand uptake between the two diseases at the voxel level. Quantitative data from these two methods, together with potential confounding factors for dopamine transporter availability (sex, age, disease duration and severity), were used to build predictive models following a tenfold cross-validation scheme. The performance of logistic regression (LR), linear discriminant analysis and support vector machine (SVM) algorithms for ROI data, and their penalized versions for SPM data (penalized LR, penalized discriminant analysis and SVM), were assessed. Significant differences were found in the ROI analysis after covariate correction between VP and PD patients in [{sup 123}I]FP-CIT uptake in the more affected side of the putamen and the ipsilateral caudate. Age, disease duration and severity were also found to be informative in feeding the statistical model. SPM localized significant reductions in [{sup 123}I]FP-CIT uptake in PD with respect to VP in two specular clusters comprising areas corresponding to the left and right striatum. The diagnostic predictive accuracy of the LR model using ROI data was 90.3 % and of the SVM model using SPM data was 90.4 %. The predictive models built with ROI data and SPM data from [{sup 123}I]FP-CIT SPECT provide great discrimination accuracy between VP and PD. External validation of these methods is necessary to confirm their

  5. A new model for separation between brain dopamine and serotonin transporters in {sup 123}I-{beta}-CIT SPECT measurements: normal values and sex and age dependence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryding, Erik; Rosen, Ingmar [Department of Clinical Neurophysiology, University Hospital, Lund (Sweden); Lindstroem, Mats; Bosson, Peter; Traeskman-Bendz, Lil [Department of Psychiatry, University Hospital, Lund (Sweden); Braadvik, Bjoern; Grabowski, Martin [Department of Neurology, University Hospital, Lund (Sweden)

    2004-08-01

    {sup 123}I-{beta}-CIT is a radioactive ligand for single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging of the pre-synaptic (transporter) re-uptake sites for dopamine (DAT) and serotonin (5HTT), and it is widely used to visualize monoamine turnover. Since {sup 123}I-{beta}-CIT uptake occurs at 5HTT and DAT sites in conjunction with the presence of freely soluble {sup 123}I-{beta}-CIT in brain tissue, adequate separation of these three components is necessary. However, only partial separation is possible with current methods. Two main strategies have previously been used for {sup 123}I-{beta}-CIT component separation, based on the following considerations: (1) the faster uptake rate for 5HTT compared with DAT enables temporal separation by performing 5HTT imaging at 1-2 h and DAT imaging at 20-24 h; (2) blocking the 5HTT re-uptake with citalopram renders {sup 123}I-{beta}-CIT imaging DAT (non-5HTT) specific. In a new analytical model, we combined these two approaches with methods to isolate the passively dissolved {sup 123}I-{beta}-CIT in brain tissue from the monoamine transporter uptake, and to correct the 5HTT and DAT values for concomitant uptake. The new analytical model was used to study brain 5HTT and DAT in 23 normal subjects, with the aim of clarifying the effect of age and sex. A significant correlation between 5HTT and DAT values was found only in the thalamus, indicating successful component separation. Negative correlations between age and DAT were found for basal ganglia, thalami, brain stem and temporal lobes, but not for the frontal, parietal or occipital regions. No correlation with age was found for 5HTT. We found no sex difference for 5HTT or DAT. (orig.)

  6. [{sup 123}]FP-CIT SPECT scans initially rated as normal became abnormal over time in patients with probable dementia with Lewy bodies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zande, J.J. van der; Scheltens, P.; Lemstra, A.W. [VU Medical Center Alzheimer Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Booij, J. [Academic Medical Center, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Raijmakers, P.G.H.M. [VU Medical Center, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2016-06-15

    Decreased striatal dopamine transporter (DAT) binding on SPECT imaging is a strong biomarker for the diagnosis of dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). There is still a lot of uncertainty about patients meeting the clinical criteria for probable DLB who have a normal DAT SPECT scan (DLB/S-). The aim of this study was to describe the clinical and imaging follow-up in these patients, and compare them to DLB patients with abnormal baseline scans (DLB/S+). DLB patients who underwent DAT imaging ([{sup 123}I]FP-CIT SPECT) were selected from the Amsterdam Dementia Cohort. All [{sup 123}I]FP-CIT SPECT scans were evaluated independently by two nuclear medicine physicians and in patients with normal scans follow-up imaging was obtained. We matched DLB/S- patients for age and disease duration to DLB/S+ patients and compared their clinical characteristics. Of 67 [{sup 123}I]FP-CIT SPECT scans, 7 (10.4 %) were rated as normal. In five DLB/S- patients, a second [{sup 123}I]FP-CIT SPECT was performed (after on average 1.5 years) and these scans were all abnormal. No significant differences in clinical characteristics were found at baseline. DLB/S- patients could be expected to have a better MMSE score after 1 year. This study was the first to investigate DLB patients with the initial [{sup 123}I]FP-CIT SPECT scan rated as normal and subsequent scans during disease progression rated as abnormal. We hypothesize that DLB/S- scans could represent a relatively rare DLB subtype with possibly a different severity or spread of alpha-synuclein pathology (''neocortical predominant subtype''). In clinical practice, if an alternative diagnosis is not imminent in a DLB/S- patient, repeating [{sup 123}I]FP-CIT SPECT should be considered. (orig.)

  7. Histoire d'une cité scientifique le campus du CNRS à Gif-sur-Yvette (1946-2016)

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    L'histoire du campus de Gif-sur-Yvette, cité scientifique de renommée internationale, commence en 1946, à l'heure de la reconstruction de la recherche française, ajuste après le deuxième conflit mondial. L'histoire du campus de Gif-sur-Yvette, cité scientifique de renommée internationale, commence en 1946, à l'heure de la reconstruction de la recherche française, ajuste après le deuxième conflit mondial. À cette époque, l'on cherche à favoriser l'émergence d'études nouvelles, à soutenir les travaux fondamentaux sans s'interdire de réfléchir à leurs applications, ou encore à stimuler l'interdisciplinarité. L'acquisition du domaine par le CNRS reflète alors l'ambition de son directeur, Frédéric Joliot-Curie, de refonder la Recherche scientifique et de restaurer son rayonnement. Depuis, le campus de Gif-sur-Yvette a connu une formidable aventure, aussi bien humaine que scientifique. Pionnier dans de nombreux domaines, en biologie, en chimie mais aussi en sciences du climat et de l'env...

  8. Valse avec Bachir, récit d’une mémoire effacée

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanny Lautissier

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Le long-métrage d’animation Valse avec Bachir (86’, 2008, du réalisateur israélien Ari Folman est un récit semi-biographique qui revient sur une expérience individuelle de la guerre du Liban et du massacre de Sabra et Chatila. Dans son inscription entre documentaire et fiction, Valse avec Bachir donne à voir un processus qui relie, à travers l’animation, une mémoire effacée, ne se résolvant pas par l’archive, à une histoire reconstruite et figurée. Les axes de réflexion mis en valeur pour mener cette étude sont la fusion des codes du documentaire et de la fiction, les modalités du récit d’un traumatisme et l’imbrication des contextes mémoriels et historiques liés à la guerre.

  9. Effect of citalopram on agitation in Alzheimer disease: the CitAD randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porsteinsson, Anton P; Drye, Lea T; Pollock, Bruce G; Devanand, D P; Frangakis, Constantine; Ismail, Zahinoor; Marano, Christopher; Meinert, Curtis L; Mintzer, Jacobo E; Munro, Cynthia A; Pelton, Gregory; Rabins, Peter V; Rosenberg, Paul B; Schneider, Lon S; Shade, David M; Weintraub, Daniel; Yesavage, Jerome; Lyketsos, Constantine G

    2014-02-19

    Agitation is common, persistent, and associated with adverse consequences for patients with Alzheimer disease. Pharmacological treatment options, including antipsychotics are not satisfactory. The primary objective was to evaluate the efficacy of citalopram for agitation in patients with Alzheimer disease. Key secondary objectives examined effects of citalopram on function, caregiver distress, safety, cognitive safety, and tolerability. The Citalopram for Agitation in Alzheimer Disease Study (CitAD) was a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, parallel group trial that enrolled 186 patients with probable Alzheimer disease and clinically significant agitation from 8 academic centers in the United States and Canada from August 2009 to January 2013. Participants (n = 186) were randomized to receive a psychosocial intervention plus either citalopram (n = 94) or placebo (n = 92) for 9 weeks. Dosage began at 10 mg per day with planned titration to 30 mg per day over 3 weeks based on response and tolerability. Primary outcome measures were based on scores from the 18-point Neurobehavioral Rating Scale agitation subscale (NBRS-A) and the modified Alzheimer Disease Cooperative Study-Clinical Global Impression of Change (mADCS-CGIC). Other outcomes were based on scores from the Cohen-Mansfield Agitation Inventory (CMAI) and the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI), ability to complete activities of daily living (ADLs), caregiver distress, cognitive safety (based on scores from the 30-point Mini Mental State Examination [MMSE]), and adverse events. Participants who received citalopram showed significant improvement compared with those who received placebo on both primary outcome measures. The NBRS-A estimated treatment difference at week 9 (citalopram minus placebo) was -0.93 (95% CI, -1.80 to -0.06), P = .04. Results from the mADCS-CGIC showed 40% of citalopram participants having moderate or marked improvement from baseline compared with 26% of placebo

  10. Age-related effects and gender differences in Japanese healthy controls for [123I] FP-CIT SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Hideo; Arimura Shinichi; Nakanishi, Atsushi; Shimo, Yasushi; Motoi, Yumiko; Ishiguro, Koichi; Murakami, Koji; Hattori, Nobutaka; Aoki, Shigeki

    2017-01-01

    Dopamine transporter (DAT) imaging with [ 123 I]FP-CIT (DaTSCAN) is a widely used diagnostic tool for Parkinsonism and dementia. Since it was approved by the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labor, and Welfare in 2013, there have been no articles focusing on a Japanese normal population. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of aging and gender on DAT availability in Japanese people. SPECT imaging of 30 healthy Japanese controls (17 males, 13 females; range 50-86 years, mean 70 years) was performed SPECT images were reconstructed using a three-dimensional order subset expectation maximization (OSEM) algorithm with correction of the point spread function and scatter correction, without attenuation correction. The specific binding ratio (SBR) was calculated by DAT view software. Statistical analyses were performed using linear regression analysis, analysis of variance, and multiple comparison analysis. A strong correlation between the SBR and age was observed. The correlation coefficient in males and females were -0.566 and -0.502, respectively. The analysis of variance revealed that aging led to a decline of the SBR, and a significant difference (p = 0.005) was observed among generations. Gender also affected the SBR, and there was a significant difference between males and females (p = 0.036). The SBR in females was higher than in males. Consequently, the multiple comparison revealed a significant difference between 50s and 70s (p = 0.015) and 50s and 80s (p = 0.006). This is the first [ 123 I]FP-CIT SPECT study on subjects with normal dopamine function in Asian countries. This study provides a database of [ 123 I]FP-CIT SPECT in Japanese healthy controls. Higher DAT availability was found in women than in men. An average age-related decline in DAT availability of 8.9% was found in both genders. The data collected in this study would be helpful for Japanese physicians to make a differential diagnosis in Parkinsonian syndrome. The registration identification

  11. Dopaminergic dysfunction and psychiatric symptoms in movement disorders: a {sup 123}I-FP-CIT SPECT study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Giuda, Daniela; Cocciolillo, Fabrizio; Bruno, Isabella; Giordano, Alessandro [Universita Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Istituto di Medicina Nucleare, Rome (Italy); Camardese, Giovanni; Pucci, Lorella; Janiri, Luigi [Universita Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Istituto di Psichiatria e Psicologia, Rome (Italy); Bentivoglio, Anna Rita; Guidubaldi, Arianna [Universita Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Istituto di Neurologia, Rome (Italy); Fasano, Alfonso [Universita Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Istituto di Neurologia, Rome (Italy); AFaR-Associazione Fatebenefratelli per la Ricerca, Rome (Italy)

    2012-12-15

    Psychiatric symptoms frequently occur in patients with movement disorders. They are not a mere reaction to chronic disability, but most likely due to a combination of psychosocial factors and biochemical dysfunction underlying the movement disorder. We assessed dopamine transporter (DAT) availability by means of {sup 123}I-FP-CIT SPECT, and motor and psychiatric features in patients with Parkinson's disease, primary dystonia and essential tremor, exploring the association between SPECT findings and symptom severity. Enrolled in the study were 21 patients with Parkinson's disease, 14 patients with primary dystonia and 15 patients with essential tremor. The severity of depression symptoms was assessed using the Hamilton depression rating scale, anxiety levels using the Hamilton anxiety rating scale and hedonic tone impairment using the Snaith-Hamilton pleasure scale. Specific {sup 123}I-FP-CIT binding in the caudate and putamen was calculated based on ROI analysis. The control group included 17 healthy subjects. As expected, DAT availability was significantly decreased in patients with Parkinson's disease, whereas in essential tremor and dystonia patients it did not differ from that observed in the control group. In Parkinson's disease patients, an inverse correlation between severity of depression symptoms and DAT availability in the left caudate was found (r = -0.63, p = 0.002). In essential tremor patients, levels of anxiety symptoms were inversely correlated with DAT availability in the left caudate (r = -0.69, p = 0.004). In dystonia patients, the severities of both anxiety and depression symptoms were inversely associated with DAT availability in the left putamen (r = -0.71, p = 0.004, and r = -0.75, p = 0.002, respectively). There were no correlations between psychometric scores and {sup 123}I-FP-CIT uptake ratios in healthy subjects. We found association between presynaptic dopaminergic function and affective symptoms in different movement

  12. Repeated administration of D-amphetamine induces loss of [{sup 123}I]FP-CIT binding to striatal dopamine transporters in rat brain: a validation study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Booij, Jan [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Academic Medical Center, 1105 AZ Amsterdam (Netherlands)]. E-mail: j.booij@amc.uva.nl; Bruin, Kora de [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Academic Medical Center, 1105 AZ Amsterdam (Netherlands); Gunning, W. Boudewijn [Department of Neurology, Epilepsy Centre Kempenhaeghe, 5590 AB Heeze (Netherlands)

    2006-04-15

    In recent years, several PET and SPECT studies have shown loss of striatal dopamine transporter (DAT) binding in amphetamine (AMPH) users. However, the use of DAT SPECT tracers to detect AMPH-induced changes in DAT binding has not been validated. We therefore examined if repeated administration of D-AMPH or methamphetamine (METH) may induce loss of binding to striatal DATs in rats by using an experimental biodistribution study design and a SPECT tracer for the DAT ([{sup 123}I]FP-CIT). Methods: Groups of male rats (n=10 per group) were treated with D-AMPH (10 mg/kg body weight), METH (10 mg/kg body weight), or saline, twice a day for 5 consecutive days. Five days later, [{sup 123}I]FP-CIT was injected intravenously, and 2 h later, the rats were sacrificed and radioactivity was assayed. Results: In D-AMPH but not METH-treated rats, striatal [{sup 123}I]FP-CIT uptake was significantly lower (approximately 17%) than in the control group. Conclusion: These data show that [{sup 123}I]FP-CIT can be used to detect AMPH-induced changes in DAT binding and may validate the use of DAT radiotracers to study AMPH-induced changes in striatal DAT binding in vivo.

  13. Repeated administration of D-amphetamine induces loss of [123I]FP-CIT binding to striatal dopamine transporters in rat brain: a validation study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Booij, Jan; Bruin, Kora de; Gunning, W. Boudewijn

    2006-01-01

    In recent years, several PET and SPECT studies have shown loss of striatal dopamine transporter (DAT) binding in amphetamine (AMPH) users. However, the use of DAT SPECT tracers to detect AMPH-induced changes in DAT binding has not been validated. We therefore examined if repeated administration of D-AMPH or methamphetamine (METH) may induce loss of binding to striatal DATs in rats by using an experimental biodistribution study design and a SPECT tracer for the DAT ([ 123 I]FP-CIT). Methods: Groups of male rats (n=10 per group) were treated with D-AMPH (10 mg/kg body weight), METH (10 mg/kg body weight), or saline, twice a day for 5 consecutive days. Five days later, [ 123 I]FP-CIT was injected intravenously, and 2 h later, the rats were sacrificed and radioactivity was assayed. Results: In D-AMPH but not METH-treated rats, striatal [ 123 I]FP-CIT uptake was significantly lower (approximately 17%) than in the control group. Conclusion: These data show that [ 123 I]FP-CIT can be used to detect AMPH-induced changes in DAT binding and may validate the use of DAT radiotracers to study AMPH-induced changes in striatal DAT binding in vivo

  14. Implementation of the European multicentre database of healthy controls for [(123)I]FP-CIT SPECT increases diagnostic accuracy in patients with clinically uncertain parkinsonian syndromes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albert, Nathalie L; Unterrainer, Marcus; Diemling, Markus

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: Even though [(123)I]FP-CIT SPECT provides high accuracy in detecting nigrostriatal cell loss in neurodegenerative parkinsonian syndromes (PS), some patients with an inconclusive diagnosis remain. We investigated whether the diagnostic accuracy in patients with clinically uncertain PS wit...

  15. Biography versus Fiction or the Value of Testimony in Jacobs’s and Stowe’s Narratives about Slavery (Autobiographie contre fiction ou la valeur du témoignage dans les récits d’esclavages de Jacobs et de Stowe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Garrait-Bourrier

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Cette étude comparée a pour projet de souligner les différences culturelles qui existent entre deux genres littéraires de la période antebellum : les récits d’esclaves et la fiction abolitionniste. Via l’approche d’extraits de textes tirés de l’autobiographie d’Harriet Jacobs Incidents in the Life of A Slave Girl, écrite sous le pseudonyme de Linda Brent et du roman de Harriet Beecher-Stowe Uncle Tom’s Cabin, nous soulignerons le témoignage historique commun qui ressort de ces deux textes. Bien que d’essence et de sources différentes, ces deux récits – celui de l’ancienne esclave et celui de l’intellectuelle blanche – offrent une image authentique de l’histoire américaine d’avant guerre civile essentielle et dénoncent le même fléau: l’esclavage.

  16. A carbon-carbon panel design concept for the inboard limiter of the Compact Ignition Tokamak (CIT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mantz, H.C.; Bowers, D.A.; Williams, F.R.; Witten, M.A.

    1989-01-01

    The inboard limiter of the Compact Ignition Tokamak (CIT) must protect the vacuum vessel from the plasma energy. This limiter region must withstand nominal heat fluxes in excess of 10 MW/m 2 and in addition it must be designed to be remotely maintained. Carbon-carbon composite material was selected over bulk graphite materials for the limiter design because of its ability to meet the thermal and structural requirements. The structural design concept consists of carbon-carbon composite panels attached to the vacuum vessel by a hinged rod/retainer concept. Results of the preliminary design study to define this inboard limiter are presented. The design concept is described along with the analyses of the thermal and structural response during nominal plasma operation and during plasma disruption events. 2 refs., 8 figs

  17. SPECT imaging using [{sup 123}I]{beta}-CIT and [{sup 123}I]IBF in extrapyramidal diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasaki, Takahiro; Amano, Takahiro; Hashimoto, Jun; Itoh, Yoshiaki; Muramatsu, Kazuhiro; Kubo, Atsushi; Fukuuchi, Yasuo [Keio Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine

    2003-01-01

    Imaging of dopaminergic function is useful in the investigation of patients with Parkinson disease (iPD) and other extrapyramidal diseases. Using agents that bind to dopamine transporters ([{sup 123}I]{beta}-CIT) and receptors ([{sup 123}I]IBF SPECT), we investigated SPECT in 9 healthy volunteers and 24 patients for dopamine transporters as well as 15 patients for dopamine receptors. In {beta}-CIT SPECT studies, we examined 17 iPD patients (63.3{+-}9.9 y/o), 3 multiple system atrophy (MSA) patients (olivopontocerebellar atrophy (OPCA) type) (64.0{+-}8.0 y/o), 2 vascular parkinsonism (VP) patients (71.0{+-}0.0 y/o), 1 progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) patient (69 y/o), 1 cortico-basal degeneration (CBD) patient (50 y/o) and nine healthy controls (39.1{+-}9.3 y/o). For IBF SPECT studies 11 iPD patients (60.6{+-}10.9 y/o), 3 MSA patients (2 OPCA type (50.5{+-}3.5 y/o) and 1 striatonigral degeneration (SND) type (65 y/o)) and 1 PSP patient (60 y/o) underwent SPECT scans after the injection of [{sup 123}I]IBF. The specific to nonspecific striatal ratio (St/Oc-1), ratio of putaminal uptake to caudatal uptake (Pu/Ca), and asymmetry indices (AI) were estimated. {beta}-CIT studies showed ST/Oc-1 as follows; iPD: 2.66{+-}1.09 (n=17), VP: 5.73 and 7.39, MSA: 1.84{+-}0.46 (n=3), PSP: 2.34, CBD: 2.16. In all extrapyramidal diseases except VP, St/Oc-1 ratios were significantly lower than those in normal volunteers (6.46{+-}1.08) (p<0.01). Also in early-phase iPD patients (Yahr I-II), St/Oc-1 (3.16{+-}1.49: n=4) was significantly lower than those in normal volunteers (p<0.01). In IBF studies, St/Oc-1 ratios were significantly higher in early-phase (Yahr I-II) iPD patients (1.82{+-}0.25: n=5) than those in late-phase (Yahr III-IV) iPD patients (1.38{+-}0.32: n=6) (p<0.05). The Pu/Ca ratios in iPD patients (1.12{+-}0.13) and MSA (OPCA type) patients (0.95{+-}0.05) were higher than that in MSA (SND type) patient (0.78) and were lower than that in PSP patient (1.55). In conclusion

  18. William Grossin, J’ai connu le Moyen-Âge. Récit de vie : enfance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Gadea

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available À côté de son œuvre scientifique, William Grossin a publié une série de livres relevant de divers genres : plusieurs romans, des poèmes satiriques et un récit de vie évoquant son enfance. Avec un peu d’attention, on pourra reconnaître dans chacun d’eux la « touche » d’un auteur tardif mais productif. Il y a d’abord  son style : travaillé, nerveux, vivant, sobre et même un peu austère mais sans excès, comme certains Vouvray secs. Les mots sont choisis avec soin, à tel point que les phrases com...

  19. Dependence of CIT [Compact Ignition Tokamak] PF [poloidal field] coil currents on profile and shape parameters using the Control Matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strickler, D.J.; Peng, Y-K.M.; Jardin, S.C.; Pomphrey, N.

    1990-01-01

    The plasma shaping flexibility of the Compact Ignition Tokamak (CIT) poloidal field (PF) coil set is demonstrated through MHD equilibrium calculations of optimal PF coil current distributions and their variation with poloidal beta, internal inductance, plasma 95% elongation, and 95% triangularity. Calculations of the magnetic stored energy are used to compare solutions associated with various plasma parameters. The Control Matrix (CM) equilibrium code, together with the nonlinear equation and numerical optimization software packages HYBRD, and VMCON, respectively, are used to find equilibrium coil current distributions for fixed divertor geometry, volt-seconds, and plasma profiles in order to isolate the dependence on individual parameters. A reference equilibrium and coil current distribution are chosen, and correction currents dI are determined using the CM equilibrium method to obtain other specified plasma shapes. The reference equilibrium is the κ = 2 divertor at beginning of flattop (BOFT) with a minimum stored energy solution for the coil current distribution. The pressure profile function is fixed

  20. An eigenexpansion technique for modelling plasma start-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pillsbury, R.D.

    1989-01-01

    An algorithm has been developed and implemented in a computer program that allows the estimation of PF coil voltages required to start-up an axisymmetric plasma in a tokamak in the presence of eddy currents in toroidally continuous conducting structures. The algorithm makes use of an eigen-expansion technique to solve the lumped parameter circuit loop voltage equations associated with the PF coils and passive (conducting) structures. An example of start-up for CIT (Compact Ignition Tokamak) is included

  1. Combined visual and semi-quantitative assessment of 123I-FP-CIT SPECT for the diagnosis of dopaminergic neurodegenerative diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Jun; Yoshimura, Hajime; Shimizu, Keiji; Hino, Megumu; Kohara, Nobuo

    2017-07-01

    Visual and semi-quantitative assessments of 123 I-FP-CIT single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) are useful for the diagnosis of dopaminergic neurodegenerative diseases (dNDD), including Parkinson's disease, dementia with Lewy bodies, progressive supranuclear palsy, multiple system atrophy, and corticobasal degeneration. However, the diagnostic value of combined visual and semi-quantitative assessment in dNDD remains unclear. Among 239 consecutive patients with a newly diagnosed possible parkinsonian syndrome who underwent 123 I-FP-CIT SPECT in our medical center, 114 patients with a disease duration less than 7 years were diagnosed as dNDD with the established criteria or as non-dNDD according to clinical judgment. We retrospectively examined their clinical characteristics and visual and semi-quantitative assessments of 123 I-FP-CIT SPECT. The striatal binding ratio (SBR) was used as a semi-quantitative measure of 123 I-FP-CIT SPECT. We calculated the sensitivity and specificity of visual assessment alone, semi-quantitative assessment alone, and combined visual and semi-quantitative assessment for the diagnosis of dNDD. SBR was correlated with visual assessment. Some dNDD patients with a normal visual assessment had an abnormal SBR, and vice versa. There was no statistically significant difference between sensitivity of the diagnosis with visual assessment alone and semi-quantitative assessment alone (91.2 vs. 86.8%, respectively, p = 0.29). Combined visual and semi-quantitative assessment demonstrated superior sensitivity (96.7%) to visual assessment (p = 0.03) or semi-quantitative assessment (p = 0.003) alone with equal specificity. Visual and semi-quantitative assessments of 123 I-FP-CIT SPECT are helpful for the diagnosis of dNDD, and combined visual and semi-quantitative assessment shows superior sensitivity with equal specificity.

  2. The significance of 18F-FP-β-CIT dopamine transporter PET imaging in early diagnosis of Parkinson's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jian; Jiang Yuping; Guo Liping; Yang Liqin; Wu Jianjun; Ding Zhengtong; Guan Yihui; Zhao Jun; Xiang Jingde; Chen Zhengping; Su Huilin

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the 18 F-N-3-fluoropropyl-2β-carbomethoxy-3β-(4-iodophenyl) nortropane ( 18 F-FP-β-CIT) dopamine transporter (DAT) PET imaging in diagnosing Parkinson's disease with early stage and assessing the severity of their disability. Methods: 4 healthy controls, 21 parkinsonian patients with early stage and 10 parkinsonian patients with advanced stage were studied, the ratio of [ region of interest (ROI)-cerebellum]/cerebellum was measured and compared. The correlation between DAT binding in striatum and unified Parkinson's disease rating scale (UPDRS) motor scores was also determined. Results: In patients with early stage (Hoehn and Yahr stage I-II) , the DAT binding uptake in the caudate, anterior putamen and posterior putamen was significantly reduced to 71.8%, 43.8% and 23.6% of the control value respectively, and more pronounced reduction of the uptake was found in the striatum contralateral to the predominant symptoms. Compared with age-matched controls, there was a significant reduction of DAT binding in the ipsilateral (preclinical) striatum of hemi-parkinsonian patients with Hoehn and Yahr stage 1 or 1.5. In the patients with advanced stage, the corresponding figure were further reduced to 51.9%, 31.8%, 15.8%. The DAT binding uptake in striatum of all parkinsonian patients showed significantly negative correlation with UPDRS motor scores, especially in the subregion of posterior putamen. Conclusion: 18 F-FP-β-CIT DAT PET imaging is helpful in diagnosing Parkinson's disease with early stage and assessing the severity of their disability

  3. Proposal for a holistic research approach to studying the implementation of IT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wit, Camilla Kølsen de

    The paper is a proposal to how we can study the work process of implementing IT in radical organizational innovation projects through the use of the Critical Incident Technique (CIT).......The paper is a proposal to how we can study the work process of implementing IT in radical organizational innovation projects through the use of the Critical Incident Technique (CIT)....

  4. Quantitation of dopamine transporter blockade by methylphenidate: first in vivo investigation using [123I]FP-CIT and a dedicated small animal SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikolaus, Susanne; Wirrwar, Andreas; Antke, Christina; Arkian, Shahram; Mueller, Hans-Wilhelm; Larisch, Rolf; Schramm, Nils

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of assessing dopamine transporter binding after treatment with methylphenidate in the rat using a recently developed high-resolution small animal single-photon emission computed tomograph (TierSPECT) and [ 123 I]FP-CIT. [ 123 I]FP-CIT was administered intravenously 1 h after intraperitoneal injection of methylphenidate (10 mg/kg) or vehicle. Animals underwent scanning 2 h after radioligand administration. The striatum was identified by superimposition of [ 123 I]FP-CIT scans with bone metabolism and perfusion scans obtained with 99m Tc-DPD and 99m Tc-tetrofosmin, respectively. As these tracers do not pass the blood-brain barrier, their distribution permits the identification of extracerebral anatomical landmarks such as the orbitae and the harderian glands. The cerebellum was identified by superimposing [ 123 I]FP-CIT scans with images of brain perfusion obtained with 99m Tc-HMPAO. Methylphenidate-treated animals and vehicle-treated animals yielded striatal equilibrium ratios (V '' 3 ) of 0.24±0.26 (mean ± SD) and 1.09±0.42, respectively (ttest, two-tailed, p '' 3 values amounted to 0.05±0.28 (methylphenidate) and 0.3±0.39 (saline, p=0.176). This first in vivo study of rat dopamine transporter binding after pre-treatment with methylphenidate showed a mean reduction of 78% in striatal [ 123 I]FP-CIT accumulation. The results can be interpreted in terms of a pharmacological blockade in the rat striatum and show that in vivo quantitation of dopamine transporter binding is feasible with [ 123 I]FP-CIT and the TierSPECT. This may be of future relevance for in vivo investigations on rat models of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Furthermore, our findings suggest that investigations in other animal models, e.g. of Parkinson's and Huntington's disease, may be feasible using SPECT radioligands and small animal imaging systems. (orig.)

  5. Encodage et décodage des récits historiques. Un cas : la série Le Canada, une histoire populaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Côté

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Fruit de l’investigation du fonds de la division documentaire de la CBC et du fonds Ramsay Cook, cet article étudie la circulation des récits historiques dans la société canadienne à travers l’analyse de la production de la série Le Canada, une histoire populaire (encodage du récit, de la dynamique radio-canadienne entre journalistes et historiens, et du décodage du récit de la série par les téléspectateurs qui ont envoyé des courriels à la CBC. Cette étude montre que, malgré l’articulation de récits minoritaires régionaux, culturels et professionnels, les récits du nation-building canadien et du pluralisme s’imposent à cause de la force persuasive des acteurs sociaux qui les portent et surtout parce qu’ils font davantage consonance avec l’imaginaire social des Canadiens, qu’ils soient producteurs de ce nouveau récit télévisuel ou téléspectateurs.This article, based on the investigation of the CBC documentary archives and of the fond Ramsay Cook , examines the circulation of historical narratives within Canadian society through the analysis of the context of production of the TV series Canada: A People’s History – what we call ‘narrative encoding’ –, the study of the dynamics between CBC’s journalists and historians, and the decoding of this ‘encoded’ historical narrative by TV viewers who sent their e-mails to the CBC. Despite the very presence of counter narratives within the production and reception contexts, may it be regional, cultural or professional, pluralism and ‘nation-building’ master narratives remain hegemonic because of the persuasive force of social actors who strongly support their diffusion, and especially because these narratives are closely related to the social imaginary of most Canadians, either producers of this historical narrative made for the television age or viewers.

  6. Quantitation of dopamine transporter blockade by methylphenidate: first in vivo investigation using [{sup 123}I]FP-CIT and a dedicated small animal SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikolaus, Susanne; Wirrwar, Andreas; Antke, Christina; Arkian, Shahram; Mueller, Hans-Wilhelm; Larisch, Rolf [Heinrich-Heine University, Clinic of Nuclear Medicine, Duesseldorf (Germany); Schramm, Nils [Research Center Juelich, Central Laboratory for Electronics, Juelich (Germany)

    2005-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of assessing dopamine transporter binding after treatment with methylphenidate in the rat using a recently developed high-resolution small animal single-photon emission computed tomograph (TierSPECT) and [{sup 123}I]FP-CIT. [{sup 123}I]FP-CIT was administered intravenously 1 h after intraperitoneal injection of methylphenidate (10 mg/kg) or vehicle. Animals underwent scanning 2 h after radioligand administration. The striatum was identified by superimposition of [{sup 123}I]FP-CIT scans with bone metabolism and perfusion scans obtained with {sup 99m}Tc-DPD and {sup 99m}Tc-tetrofosmin, respectively. As these tracers do not pass the blood-brain barrier, their distribution permits the identification of extracerebral anatomical landmarks such as the orbitae and the harderian glands. The cerebellum was identified by superimposing [{sup 123}I]FP-CIT scans with images of brain perfusion obtained with {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO. Methylphenidate-treated animals and vehicle-treated animals yielded striatal equilibrium ratios (V''{sub 3}) of 0.24{+-}0.26 (mean {+-} SD) and 1.09{+-}0.42, respectively (ttest, two-tailed, p<0.0001). Cortical V''{sub 3} values amounted to 0.05{+-}0.28 (methylphenidate) and 0.3{+-}0.39 (saline, p=0.176). This first in vivo study of rat dopamine transporter binding after pre-treatment with methylphenidate showed a mean reduction of 78% in striatal [{sup 123}I]FP-CIT accumulation. The results can be interpreted in terms of a pharmacological blockade in the rat striatum and show that in vivo quantitation of dopamine transporter binding is feasible with [{sup 123}I]FP-CIT and the TierSPECT. This may be of future relevance for in vivo investigations on rat models of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Furthermore, our findings suggest that investigations in other animal models, e.g. of Parkinson's and Huntington's disease, may be feasible using SPECT radioligands and

  7. Comment faire place à une multiplicité de petits récits dans la recherche sur les jeunes en situation de vulnérabilité?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lavaud, Manon Alice

    2017-01-01

    Comment enquêter sur les enfants et les adolescents en situation de vulnérabilité de manière à esquiver les représentations stéréotypées pour s'intéresser à la pluralité des cas individuels ? Le présent article tente de répondre à cette question en introduisant le concept de petits récits et la t...... une présentation du concept de petits récits et de la théorie du positionnement, et aux fins d'illustrer et de démontrer la pertinence et l'utilité de ces notions, un exemple d’analyse est proposé à partir du cas de « Lisa », une jeune adolescente placée en famille d’accueil....

  8. A novel computer-assisted image analysis of [{sup 123}I]{beta}-CIT SPECT images improves the diagnostic accuracy of parkinsonian disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goebel, Georg [Innsbruck Medical University, Department of Medical Statistics, Informatics and Health Economics, Innsbruck (Austria); Seppi, Klaus; Wenning, Gregor K.; Poewe, Werner; Scherfler, Christoph [Innsbruck Medical University, Department of Neurology, Innsbruck (Austria); Donnemiller, Eveline; Warwitz, Boris; Virgolini, Irene [Innsbruck Medical University, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Innsbruck (Austria)

    2011-04-15

    The purpose of this study was to develop an observer-independent algorithm for the correct classification of dopamine transporter SPECT images as Parkinson's disease (PD), multiple system atrophy parkinson variant (MSA-P), progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) or normal. A total of 60 subjects with clinically probable PD (n = 15), MSA-P (n = 15) and PSP (n = 15), and 15 age-matched healthy volunteers, were studied with the dopamine transporter ligand [{sup 123}I]{beta}-CIT. Parametric images of the specific-to-nondisplaceable equilibrium partition coefficient (BP{sub ND}) were generated. Following a voxel-wise ANOVA, cut-off values were calculated from the voxel values of the resulting six post-hoc t-test maps. The percentages of the volume of an individual BP{sub ND} image remaining below and above the cut-off values were determined. The higher percentage of image volume from all six cut-off matrices was used to classify an individual's image. For validation, the algorithm was compared to a conventional region of interest analysis. The predictive diagnostic accuracy of the algorithm in the correct assignment of a [{sup 123}I]{beta}-CIT SPECT image was 83.3% and increased to 93.3% on merging the MSA-P and PSP groups. In contrast the multinomial logistic regression of mean region of interest values of the caudate, putamen and midbrain revealed a diagnostic accuracy of 71.7%. In contrast to a rater-driven approach, this novel method was superior in classifying [{sup 123}I]{beta}-CIT-SPECT images as one of four diagnostic entities. In combination with the investigator-driven visual assessment of SPECT images, this clinical decision support tool would help to improve the diagnostic yield of [{sup 123}I]{beta}-CIT SPECT in patients presenting with parkinsonism at their initial visit. (orig.)

  9. A novel computer-assisted image analysis of [123I]β-CIT SPECT images improves the diagnostic accuracy of parkinsonian disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goebel, Georg; Seppi, Klaus; Wenning, Gregor K.; Poewe, Werner; Scherfler, Christoph; Donnemiller, Eveline; Warwitz, Boris; Virgolini, Irene

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop an observer-independent algorithm for the correct classification of dopamine transporter SPECT images as Parkinson's disease (PD), multiple system atrophy parkinson variant (MSA-P), progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) or normal. A total of 60 subjects with clinically probable PD (n = 15), MSA-P (n = 15) and PSP (n = 15), and 15 age-matched healthy volunteers, were studied with the dopamine transporter ligand [ 123 I]β-CIT. Parametric images of the specific-to-nondisplaceable equilibrium partition coefficient (BP ND ) were generated. Following a voxel-wise ANOVA, cut-off values were calculated from the voxel values of the resulting six post-hoc t-test maps. The percentages of the volume of an individual BP ND image remaining below and above the cut-off values were determined. The higher percentage of image volume from all six cut-off matrices was used to classify an individual's image. For validation, the algorithm was compared to a conventional region of interest analysis. The predictive diagnostic accuracy of the algorithm in the correct assignment of a [ 123 I]β-CIT SPECT image was 83.3% and increased to 93.3% on merging the MSA-P and PSP groups. In contrast the multinomial logistic regression of mean region of interest values of the caudate, putamen and midbrain revealed a diagnostic accuracy of 71.7%. In contrast to a rater-driven approach, this novel method was superior in classifying [ 123 I]β-CIT-SPECT images as one of four diagnostic entities. In combination with the investigator-driven visual assessment of SPECT images, this clinical decision support tool would help to improve the diagnostic yield of [ 123 I]β-CIT SPECT in patients presenting with parkinsonism at their initial visit. (orig.)

  10. A novel computer-assisted image analysis of [123I]β-CIT SPECT images improves the diagnostic accuracy of parkinsonian disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goebel, Georg; Seppi, Klaus; Donnemiller, Eveline; Warwitz, Boris; Wenning, Gregor K; Virgolini, Irene; Poewe, Werner; Scherfler, Christoph

    2011-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop an observer-independent algorithm for the correct classification of dopamine transporter SPECT images as Parkinson's disease (PD), multiple system atrophy parkinson variant (MSA-P), progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) or normal. A total of 60 subjects with clinically probable PD (n = 15), MSA-P (n = 15) and PSP (n = 15), and 15 age-matched healthy volunteers, were studied with the dopamine transporter ligand [(123)I]β-CIT. Parametric images of the specific-to-nondisplaceable equilibrium partition coefficient (BP(ND)) were generated. Following a voxel-wise ANOVA, cut-off values were calculated from the voxel values of the resulting six post-hoc t-test maps. The percentages of the volume of an individual BP(ND) image remaining below and above the cut-off values were determined. The higher percentage of image volume from all six cut-off matrices was used to classify an individual's image. For validation, the algorithm was compared to a conventional region of interest analysis. The predictive diagnostic accuracy of the algorithm in the correct assignment of a [(123)I]β-CIT SPECT image was 83.3% and increased to 93.3% on merging the MSA-P and PSP groups. In contrast the multinomial logistic regression of mean region of interest values of the caudate, putamen and midbrain revealed a diagnostic accuracy of 71.7%. In contrast to a rater-driven approach, this novel method was superior in classifying [(123)I]β-CIT-SPECT images as one of four diagnostic entities. In combination with the investigator-driven visual assessment of SPECT images, this clinical decision support tool would help to improve the diagnostic yield of [(123)I]β-CIT SPECT in patients presenting with parkinsonism at their initial visit.

  11. Loss of Substantia Nigra Hyperintensity at 3.0-T MR Imaging in Idiopathic REM Sleep Behavior Disorder: Comparison with 123I-FP-CIT SPECT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Yun Jung; Kim, Jong-Min; Kim, Kyeong Joon; Kim, Eunhee; Park, Hyun Soo; Kang, Seo Young; Yoon, In-Young; Lee, Jee-Young; Jeon, Beomseok; Kim, Sang Eun

    2018-04-01

    Purpose To examine whether the loss of nigral hyperintensity (NH) on 3.0-T susceptibility-weighted (SW) magnetic resonance (MR) images can help identify high synucleinopathy risk in patients with idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (iRBD). Materials and Methods Between March 2014 and April 2015, 18 consecutively recruited patients with iRBD were evaluated with 3.0-T SW imaging and iodine 123-2β-carbomethoxy-3β-(4-iodophenyl)-N-(3-fluoropropyl)-nortropane ( 123 I-FP-CIT) single photon emission computed tomography and compared with 18 healthy subjects and 18 patients with Parkinson disease (PD). Two readers blinded to clinical diagnosis independently assessed the images. 123 I-FP-CIT uptake ratios were compared by using the Kruskal-Wallis test, and intra- and interobserver agreements were assessed with the Cohen κ. The synucleinopathy conversion according to NH status was evaluated in patients with iRBD after follow-up. Results NH was intact in seven patients with iRBD and lost in 11. The 123 I-FP-CIT uptake ratios were comparable between those with intact NH (mean, 3.22 ± 0.47) and healthy subjects (mean, 3.37 ± 0.47) (P = .495). The 123 I-FP-CIT uptake ratios in the 11 patients with iRBD and NH loss (mean, 2.48 ± 0.44) were significantly lower than those in healthy subjects (mean, 3.37 ± 0.47; P 0.9). Five patients with iRBD and NH loss developed symptoms of parkinsonism or dementia 18 months after neuroimaging. Conclusion NH loss at 3.0-T SW imaging may be a promising marker for short-term synucleinopathy risk in iRBD. © RSNA, 2017 Online supplemental material is available for this article.

  12. The potential value of a pictorial atlas for aid in the visual diagnosis of 123I FP-CIT SPECT scans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goethals, I.; Ham, H.; Dobbeleir, A.; D'Asseler, Y.; Santens, P.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of our study was to evaluate the value of a pictorial atlas of 123 I FP-CIT SPECT images for aid in the visual diagnosis. Patients, materials, methods: Sixty patients, of whom 20 were clinically diagnosed as 'non-parkinsonian' and 40 as having Parkinson's disease or any related disorder, were included in the study. An atlas consisting of 12 123 I FP-CIT SPECT images was constructed first. Validity of the atlas was investigated by performing a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis with the clinical diagnosis as the gold standard. The remaining 48 SPECT images were visually assessed twice by 5 observers, first with and secondly without consulting the atlas, or vice versa. The added value of the atlas was investigated by comparing the diagnostic accuracy and the interobserver variability for both methods. Results: ROC analysis performed on the atlas yielded an area under the curve of 1 for a threshold discriminating between clinically non-parkinsonian and parkinsonian patients that was situated between image 4 and 5 of the atlas, For the diagnostic accuracy, we found that the area under the ROC curve was systematically higher if observers had access to the atlas compared to when they had not (Wilcoxon's test, p 123 I FP-CIT SPECT scans. (orig.)

  13. The effect of levodopa therapy on dopamine transporter SPECT imaging with{sup 123}I-FP-CIT in patients with Parkinson's disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schillaci, Orazio; Filippi, Luca; Manni, Carlo; Danieli, Roberta; Simonetti, Giovanni [University Tor Vergata, Department of Biopathology and Diagnostic Imaging, Rome (Italy); Pierantozzi, Mariangela; Brusa, Livia; Bernardi, Giorgio; Stanzione, Paolo [University Tor Vergata, Department of Neurological Sciences, Rome (Italy); Santa Lucia Foundation I.R.C.C.S., Rome (Italy)

    2005-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate, by means of {sup 123}I-FP-CIT SPECT, the effect of chronic treatment with levodopa on striatal dopamine transporter (DAT) in patients with Parkinson's disease. Fifteen patients under stable levodopa/carbidopa monotherapy were imaged twice: at baseline on medication and after at least 20 days of treatment wash-out. DAT levels were assessed from SPECT imaging for the entire striatum, the right and left striatum, the right and left putamen and the right and left caudate, as a ratio of regional brain activities using the formula: (striatal region of interest-occipital)/occipital. During levodopa wash-out, despite a worsening in patients' clinical disability (H and Y mean stage 2.53{+-}0.58 versus 1.73{+-}0.45 on therapy, p<0.001), striatal{sup 123}I-FP-CIT levels were not significantly different from those at baseline in any of the brain regions examined. The results of this study suggest that levodopa does not affect{sup 123}I-FP-CIT brain imaging and confirm that it is not necessary to withdraw this medication to measure DAT levels with SPECT. (orig.)

  14. Right putamen and age are the most discriminant features to diagnose Parkinson's disease by using 123I-FP-CIT brain SPET data by using an artificial neural network classifier, a classification tree (ClT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cascianelli, S; Tranfaglia, C; Fravolini, M L; Bianconi, F; Minestrini, M; Nuvoli, S; Tambasco, N; Dottorini, M E; Palumbo, B

    2017-01-01

    The differential diagnosis of Parkinson's disease (PD) and other conditions, such as essential tremor and drug-induced parkinsonian syndrome or normal aging brain, represents a diagnostic challenge. 123 I-FP-CIT brain SPET is able to contribute to the differential diagnosis. Semiquantitative analysis of radiopharmaceutical uptake in basal ganglia (caudate nuclei and putamina) is very useful to support the diagnostic process. An artificial neural network classifier using 123 I-FP-CIT brain SPET data, a classification tree (CIT), was applied. CIT is an automatic classifier composed of a set of logical rules, organized as a decision tree to produce an optimised threshold based classification of data to provide discriminative cut-off values. We applied a CIT to 123 I-FP-CIT brain SPET semiquantitave data, to obtain cut-off values of radiopharmaceutical uptake ratios in caudate nuclei and putamina with the aim to diagnose PD versus other conditions. We retrospectively investigated 187 patients undergoing 123 I-FP-CIT brain SPET (Millenium VG, G.E.M.S.) with semiquantitative analysis performed with Basal Ganglia (BasGan) V2 software according to EANM guidelines; among them 113 resulted affected by PD (PD group) and 74 (N group) by other non parkinsonian conditions, such as Essential Tremor and drug-induced PD. PD group included 113 subjects (60M and 53F of age: 60-81yrs) having Hoehn and Yahr score (HY): 0.5-1.5; Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) score: 6-38; N group included 74 subjects (36M and 38 F range of age 60-80 yrs). All subjects were clinically followed for at least 6-18 months to confirm the diagnosis. To examinate data obtained by using CIT, for each of the 1,000 experiments carried out, 10% of patients were randomly selected as the CIT training set, while the remaining 90% validated the trained CIT, and the percentage of the validation data correctly classified in the two groups of patients was computed. The expected performance of an "average

  15. Validation of simple quantification methods for 18F FP CIT PET Using Automatic Delineation of volumes of interest based on statistical probabilistic anatomical mapping and isocontour margin setting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yong Il; Im, Hyung Jun; Paeng, Jin Chul; Lee, Jae Sung; Eo, Jae Seon; Kim, Dong Hyun; Kim, Euishin E.; Kang, Keon Wook; Chung, June Key; Lee Dong Soo

    2012-01-01

    18 F FP CIT positron emission tomography (PET) is an effective imaging for dopamine transporters. In usual clinical practice, 18 F FP CIT PET is analyzed visually or quantified using manual delineation of a volume of interest (VOI) fir the stratum. in this study, we suggested and validated two simple quantitative methods based on automatic VOI delineation using statistical probabilistic anatomical mapping (SPAM) and isocontour margin setting. Seventy five 18 F FP CIT images acquired in routine clinical practice were used for this study. A study-specific image template was made and the subject images were normalized to the template. afterwards, uptakes in the striatal regions and cerebellum were quantified using probabilistic VOI based on SPAM. A quantitative parameter, Q SPAM, was calculated to simulate binding potential. additionally, the functional volume of each striatal region and its uptake were measured in automatically delineated VOI using isocontour margin setting. Uptake volume product(Q UVP) was calculated for each striatal region. Q SPAMa nd Q UVPw as calculated for each visual grading and the influence of cerebral atrophy on the measurements was tested. Image analyses were successful in all the cases. Both the Q SPAMa nd Q UVPw ere significantly different according to visual grading (0.001). The agreements of Q UVPa nd Q SPAMw ith visual grading were slight to fair for the caudate nucleus (K= 0.421 and 0.291, respectively) and good to prefect to the putamen (K=0.663 and 0.607, respectively). Also, Q SPAMa nd Q UVPh ad a significant correlation with each other (0.001). Cerebral atrophy made a significant difference in Q SPAMa nd Q UVPo f the caudate nuclei regions with decreased 18 F FP CIT uptake. Simple quantitative measurements of Q SPAMa nd Q UVPs howed acceptable agreement with visual grad-ing. although Q SPAMi n some group may be influenced by cerebral atrophy, these simple methods are expected to be effective in the quantitative analysis of F FP

  16. Clinical studies of 18F-FDG and 18F-FP-β-CIT PET imaging in hemi-Parkinson's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Jun; Lin Xiangtong; Guan Yihui; Zuo Chuantao; Zhang Zhengwei; Wang Jian; Sun Bomin; Chen Zhengping

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To study the characteristics of 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) and 18 F-N-3-fluoro-propyl-2β-carbomethoxy-3β-(4-iodophenyl) nortropane ( 18 F-FP-β-CIT) PET imaging in patients with hemi-Parkinson's disease (hemi-PD) and to assess their value in early diagnosis. Methods: 34 cases of hemi-PD (Hoehn and Yahr stage I-II) and 16 normal control subjects were selected for this study. 16 patients were performed with 18 F-FDG PET imaging, 18 patients with 18 F-FP-β-CIF, while 6 patients of them both 18 F-FDG and 18 F-FP-β-CIT. 30 min after injection of 185-259 MBq 18 F-FDG, 3D brain scans were acquired. Region of interest (ROI) analysis and statistical parametric mapping (SPM) were applied. 18 F-FP-β-CIT PET imaging was carried out 2-3 h post injection, and (ROI-cerebellum)/cerebellum ratio was calculated. Results: In right hemi-PD, reductions in 18 F-FDG metabolism were observed in the left basal ganglia compared with control group, but with no significant difference (P>0.05). The results of SPM analysis showed that a significant reduction in FDG uptake in the left superior frontal gyrus, middle frontal gyrus, inferior frontal gyrus and left middle temporal gyrus, whereas a significant increase in the bilateral precentral gyrus , superior parietal lobule, left middle occipital gyrus and left thalamus as compared with the control group. There was a significant reduction in 18 F-FP-β-CIT uptake in putamen, its reduction was found not only in the contralateral putamen, but also in the ipsilateral ones, and more pronounced in the contralateral posterior putamen. Conclusions: 18 F-FDG PET imaging is non-specific for the early diagnosis of PD. 18 F-FP-β-CIT PET imaging could find the changes of striatum dopamine transporter at early stage, therefore it was helpful for early diagnosis and differential diagnosis of PD. Combined with 18 F-FDG PET imaging, the changes of local cerebral glucose metabolism in PD could also be evaluated

  17. A influência das redes sociais na inovação: um estudo de caso em uma incubada do Centro Incubador Tecnológico – CIT/FUNDETEC [doi: 10.5329/RECADM.2013015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaiane Aparecida Pereira

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho tem como objetivo geral analisar como os processos de formação e evolução das redes sociais influenciaram a inovação de uma empresa incubada do Centro Incubador Tecnológico CIT/FUNDETEC, desde a fundação até o ano de 2011. Para alcançar o objetivo proposto, o referencial abordou discussões sobre redes sociais, condições iniciais de fundação, processos empreendedores de pós-fundação e inovação. Foi realizada uma pesquisa qualitativo-descritiva, utilizando-se do estudo de caso como desenho de pesquisa, com recorte longitudinal. A coleta de dados ocorreu por meio de entrevista semiestruturada com o fundador da empresa incubada. Para análise dos dados optou-se pela análise de conteúdo com auxílio do software Atlas.ti. Os resultados demonstram a importância das redes tanto na formação quanto na evolução da empresa, provendo recursos e informações que auxiliam na criação e no desenvolvimento da inovação. O estudo evidencia também a importância da reputação do fundador para adquirir legitimidade à empresa e os benefícios da incubadora no seu período inicial de incubação.   Palavras-chave: Inovação. Redes Sociais. Incubadas. SOCIAL NETWORK INFLUENCE ON INNOVATION: A CASE STUDY IN ONE OF THE INCUBATED COMPANY UNDER TECHNOLOGICAL INCUBATOR CENTER - CIT/FUNDETEC Abstract This study aims at analyzing how the formation and evolution processes of social networks influence the innovation in one of the incubated company under Technological Incubator Center CIT/FUNDETEC from foundation to the year of 2011.To achieve this propose, theoretical framework discussed social networks, initial foundation conditions, post-founding entrepreneurial processes and innovation. A qualitative descriptive study was conducted using the case study as research design, with longitudinal cutting. We constructed data collection using semi-structured interviews with founder incubated company. For data analysis we based

  18. Incidência e fatores predisponentes da migração da fundoplicatura pela técnica de Nissen-Rossetti no tratamento da doença do refluxo Gastroesofágico Incidence and predisponent factors for the migration of the fundoplication by Nissen-Rossetti technique in the surgical treatment of GERD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Afonso Nunes Nassif

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available RACIONAL: A doença do refluxo gastroesofágico é uma das enfermidades do trato gastrointestinal mais frequentes atualmente. A fundoplicatura de Nissen-Rossetti é técnica operatória muito empregada para o tratamento cirúrgico, sendo a migração intratorácica da válvula uma das principais complicações. OBJETIVO: Avaliar a incidência da migração da fundoplicatura e seus fatores de risco. MÉTODO: Analisou-se retrospectivamente 207 prontuários de pacientes submetidos à fundoplicatura videolaparoscópica pela técnica de Nissen-Rossetti para tratamento da doença do refluxo. As variáveis analisadas foram: sexo, idade, esofagite, grau de esofagite, tamanho da hérnia, alargamento da cárdia, encurtamento esofágico. Para as variáveis quantitativas, foi considerado o teste t de Student. Para as nominais, foi considerado o teste de Qui-quadrado ou o teste exato de Fisher. Valores de pBACKGROUND: Gastroesophageal reflux is the gastrointestinal tract disease most frequently find nowadays. The Nissen-Rossetti fundoplication is widely used for the surgical treatment, and intrathoracic migration of the valve is the most frequent complication. AIM: To assess the incidence of the fundoplication and its risk factors. METHODS: Were analyzed retrospectively medical records of 207 patients undergoing laparoscopic fundoplication by the Nissen-Rossetti technique for the treatment of reflux disease. The variables analyzed were: sex, age, esophagitis grade, size of the herniation, enlargement of the cardia and esophageal shortening. For quantitative variables, was considered the Student's t test. For the nominal, was considered the chi-square or Fisher's exact test. P values ​​<0.05 were considered statistically significant. RESULTS: Of the total, 135 were women (65.22% and 72 men (34.78% with mean age of 47.43 years. The size of the hernia varied between 2 and 6 cm. Two hundred patients had esophagitis (96.62% and 113 (56.50% grade I, 75 grade

  19. Linux Incident Response Volatile Data Analysis Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFadden, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    Cyber incident response is an emphasized subject area in cybersecurity in information technology with increased need for the protection of data. Due to ongoing threats, cybersecurity imposes many challenges and requires new investigative response techniques. In this study a Linux Incident Response Framework is designed for collecting volatile data…

  20. Correlation between neuromelanin-sensitive MR imaging and 123I-FP-CIT SPECT in patients with parkinsonism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuya, Keita; Shinohara, Yuki; Miyoshi, Fuminori; Fujii, Shinya; Tanabe, Yoshio; Ogawa, Toshihide

    2016-01-01

    Neuromelanin-sensitive MR imaging (MRI) can visualize neuromelanin-containing neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc), and its utility has been reported in the evaluation of parkinsonism. Conversely, dopamine transporter imaging by 123 I-N-v-fluoropropyl-2b-carbomethoxy-3b-(4-iodophenyl)nortropane (FP-CIT) SPECT (DaTSCAN) is now an established method for evaluating parkinsonism, detecting presynaptic dopamine neuronal dysfunction. Both methods can assist differentiating neurodegenerative and other forms of parkinsonism. However, to our knowledge, there have been no studies concerning a correlation between the two methods. The aim of this study was to assess the utility of neuromelanin-sensitive MRI for diagnosing parkinsonism by examining a correlation with DaTSCAN. Twenty-three patients with parkinsonism who underwent both neuromelanin-sensitive MRI and DaTSCAN were included. We measured the neuromelanin-positive SNc region volume by manually contouring the high signal intensity region of the SNc on neuromelanin-sensitive MRI and measured the specific binding ratio (SBR) on DaTSCAN. The asymmetry index of neuromelanin-positive SNc volume and the asymmetry index of SBR were also calculated. The volume of the neuromelanin-positive SNc region showed significant correlation with specific binding ratio (SBR) (right P <.001, ρ = 0.78, left P <.001, ρ = 0.86). The asymmetry index of neuromelanin-positive SNc volume also showed significant correlations with the asymmetry index of SBR (P <.001, ρ = 0.73). Decrease of the high signal intensity region of the SNc on neuromelanin-sensitive MRI would indicate damage to the nigrostriatal dopaminergic function as well as loss of dopaminergic neurons. We conclude that neuromelanin-sensitive MRI is a useful diagnostic biomarker for parkinsonism. (orig.)

  1. Dopamine transporter SPECT using fast kinetic ligands: 123I-FP-β-CIT versus 99mTc-TRODAT-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laere, K. van; Ceuninck, L. de; Eynden, J. van den; Dupont, P.; Mortelmans, L.; Dom, R.; Vanbilloen, H.; Cleynhens, J.; Bormans, G.; Verbruggen, A.

    2004-01-01

    A comparative study was carried out on two promising presynaptic dopamine transporter single-photon emission tomography (SPECT) radioligands with a fast pharmacokinetic profile, 123 I-FP-β-CIT (FP) and 99m Tc-TRODAT-1 (TR), in order to assess their differential diagnostic power in early parkinsonism and their sensitivity for detection of disease progression. This cross-sectional study was conducted on 96 patients with early-stage parkinsonism referred in a tertiary clinical setting. Mean disease duration was 2.0±1.3 years, and patients had a modified Hoehn and Yahr (H and Y) stage of 1-2 (average 1.2). Forty-seven patients received TR, and 49 received FP. In both groups, ten patients with normal presynaptic function were included as a control population; all other patients were clinically diagnosed as having idiopathic Parkinson's disease. Groups were matched for gender, age, disease duration and modified H and Y stage. Triple-head gamma camera SPECT was analysed using a semiquantitative index of transporter binding (BI). Discriminant analysis with cross-validation resulted in a maximal classification accuracy for FP of 93% (sensitivity 95% and specificity 86%) for the contralateral putamen BI. For TR, the corresponding values were 87% accuracy, 92% sensitivity and 70% specificity. For FP, disease duration was correlated with both the putamen BI (-8.8%/year, ρ=-0.41, P=0.025) and the putamen/caudate ratio (-7.4%/year, ρ=-0.51, P=0.004), but for TR no significant correlation was found (all P values >0.5). In conclusion, both FP and TR show high sensitivity in a clinically relevant setting, but FP has superior accuracy for early differential diagnosis of idiopathic parkinsonism and non-degenerative extrapyramidal disorders, as well as better sensitivity for disease follow-up. (orig.)

  2. Correlation between neuromelanin-sensitive MR imaging and {sup 123}I-FP-CIT SPECT in patients with parkinsonism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuya, Keita; Shinohara, Yuki; Miyoshi, Fuminori; Fujii, Shinya; Tanabe, Yoshio; Ogawa, Toshihide [Tottori University, Division of Radiology, Department of Pathophysiological Therapeutic Science, Faculty of Medicine, Yonago (Japan)

    2016-04-15

    Neuromelanin-sensitive MR imaging (MRI) can visualize neuromelanin-containing neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc), and its utility has been reported in the evaluation of parkinsonism. Conversely, dopamine transporter imaging by {sup 123}I-N-v-fluoropropyl-2b-carbomethoxy-3b-(4-iodophenyl)nortropane (FP-CIT) SPECT (DaTSCAN) is now an established method for evaluating parkinsonism, detecting presynaptic dopamine neuronal dysfunction. Both methods can assist differentiating neurodegenerative and other forms of parkinsonism. However, to our knowledge, there have been no studies concerning a correlation between the two methods. The aim of this study was to assess the utility of neuromelanin-sensitive MRI for diagnosing parkinsonism by examining a correlation with DaTSCAN. Twenty-three patients with parkinsonism who underwent both neuromelanin-sensitive MRI and DaTSCAN were included. We measured the neuromelanin-positive SNc region volume by manually contouring the high signal intensity region of the SNc on neuromelanin-sensitive MRI and measured the specific binding ratio (SBR) on DaTSCAN. The asymmetry index of neuromelanin-positive SNc volume and the asymmetry index of SBR were also calculated. The volume of the neuromelanin-positive SNc region showed significant correlation with specific binding ratio (SBR) (right P <.001, ρ = 0.78, left P <.001, ρ = 0.86). The asymmetry index of neuromelanin-positive SNc volume also showed significant correlations with the asymmetry index of SBR (P <.001, ρ = 0.73). Decrease of the high signal intensity region of the SNc on neuromelanin-sensitive MRI would indicate damage to the nigrostriatal dopaminergic function as well as loss of dopaminergic neurons. We conclude that neuromelanin-sensitive MRI is a useful diagnostic biomarker for parkinsonism. (orig.)

  3. Calibration of gamma camera systems for a multicentre European {sup 123}I-FP-CIT SPECT normal database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tossici-Bolt, Livia [Southampton Univ. Hospitals NHS Trust, Dept. of Medical Physics and Bioengineering, Southampton (United Kingdom); Dickson, John C. [UCLH NHS Foundation Trust and Univ. College London, Institute of Nuclear Medicine, London (United Kingdom); Sera, Terez [Univ. of Szeged, Dept. of Nuclear Medicine and Euromedic Szeged, Szeged (Hungary); Nijs, Robin de [Rigshospitalet and Univ. of Copenhagen, Neurobiology Research Unit, Copenhagen (Denmark); Bagnara, Maria Claudia [Az. Ospedaliera Universitaria S. Martino, Medical Physics Unit, Genoa (Italy); Jonsson, Cathrine [Karolinska Univ. Hospital, Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Medical Physics, Stockholm (Sweden); Scheepers, Egon [Univ. of Amsterdam, Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Academic Medical Centre, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Zito, Felicia [Fondazione IRCCS Granda, Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Milan (Italy); Seese, Anita [Univ. of Leipzig, Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Leipzig (Germany); Koulibaly, Pierre Malick [Univ. of Nice-Sophia Antipolis, Nuclear Medicine Dept., Centre Antoine Lacassagne, Nice (France); Kapucu, Ozlem L. [Gazi Univ., Faculty of Medicine, Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Ankara (Turkey); Koole, Michel [Univ. Hospital and K.U. Leuven, Nuclear Medicine, Leuven (Belgium); Raith, Maria [Medical Univ. of Vienna, Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Vienna (Austria); George, Jean [Univ. Catholique Louvain, Nuclear Medicine Division, Mont-Godinne Medical Center, Mont-Godinne (Belgium); Lonsdale, Markus Nowak [Bispebjerg Univ. Hospital, Dept. of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine, Copenhagen (Denmark); Muenzing, Wolfgang [Univ. of Munich, Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Munich (Germany); Tatsch, Klaus [Univ. of Munich, Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Munich (Germany); Municipal Hospital of Karlsruhe Inc., Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Karlsruhe (Germany); Varrone, Andrea [Center for Psychiatric Research, Karolinska Inst., Dept. of Clinical Neuroscience, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2011-08-15

    A joint initiative of the European Association of Nuclear Medicine (EANM) Neuroimaging Committee and EANM Research Ltd. aimed to generate a European database of [{sup 123}I]FP-CIT single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) scans of healthy controls. This study describes the characterization and harmonization of the imaging equipment of the institutions involved. {sup 123}I SPECT images of a striatal phantom filled with striatal to background ratios between 10:1 and 1:1 were acquired on all the gamma cameras with absolute ratios measured from aliquots. The images were reconstructed by a core lab using ordered subset expectation maximization (OSEM) without corrections (NC), with attenuation correction only (AC) and additional scatter and septal penetration correction (ACSC) using the triple energy window method. A quantitative parameter, the simulated specific binding ratio (sSBR), was measured using the ''Southampton'' methodology that accounts for the partial volume effect and compared against the actual values obtained from the aliquots. Camera-specific recovery coefficients were derived from linear regression and the error of the measurements was evaluated using the coefficient of variation (COV). The relationship between measured and actual sSBRs was linear across all systems. Variability was observed between different manufacturers and, to a lesser extent, between cameras of the same type. The NC and AC measurements were found to underestimate systematically the actual sSBRs, while the ACSC measurements resulted in recovery coefficients close to 100% for all cameras (AC range 69-89%, ACSC range 87-116%). The COV improved from 46% (NC) to 32% (AC) and to 14% (ACSC) (p < 0.001). A satisfactory linear response was observed across all cameras. Quantitative measurements depend upon the characteristics of the SPECT systems and their calibration is a necessary prerequisite for data pooling. Together with accounting for partial volume, the

  4. Differential alteration of the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system in Wilson's disease investigated with [123I]ss-CIT and high-resolution SPET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barthel, H.; Sorger, D.; Kluge, R.; Kuehn, H.-J.; Wagner, A.; Hermann, W.

    2001-01-01

    Wilson's disease (WD) is a copper deposition disorder which can result in a number of extrapyramidal motoric symptoms such as parkinsonism. Therefore, this study was carried out to investigate, for the first time, nigrostriatal dopaminergic function in WD in relation to different courses and severity of the disease. Using high-resolution single-photon emission tomography (SPET) after administration of 2ss-carbomethoxy-3ss-(4[ 123 I]iodophenyl)tropane ([ 123 I]ss-CIT), striatal dopamine transporters (DAT) were imaged in 43 WD patients and a control group of ten subjects. From the SPET images, specific [ 123 I]ss-CIT binding ratios were obtained for the caudate heads, putamina and entire corpus striatum. In addition, to evaluate a putative dissociation between the caudate and putaminal [ 123 I]ss-CIT binding ratios, the ratio between these binding ratios was calculated (CA/PU ratio). The SPET data were compared with clinical data on the course of the disease (CD), the severity of neurological symptoms and the degree of hepatic alteration. Whereas the specific regional [ 123 I]ss-CIT binding ratios in patients with asymptomatic/hepatic CD did not differ from those in the control group (e.g. striatal ratios: 13.4±3.0 vs 11.7±2.8), in patients with neurological CD the ratios were significantly reduced for all striatal substructures (P=0.003 after one-factor ANOVA). For the different subgroups a tendency was detected towards a stepwise decrease in the specific [ 123 I]ss-CIT binding ratios from pseudo-sclerosis CD (9.4±2.3), through pseudo-parkinsonian CD (9.1±2.1) to arrhythmic-hyperkinetic CD (8.5±1.6). However, these group differences reached significance only for the comparison with asymptomatic/hepatic CD (P=0.02). The CA/PU ratio was significantly higher in WD than in the control group (1.30±0.19 vs 1.11±0.08; P=0.003). Severity of neurological symptoms was significantly correlated with all specific regional [ 123 I]ss-CIT binding ratios (r=-0.49 to -0

  5. Improved dopamine transporter binding activity after bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation in a rat model of Parkinson's disease: small animal positron emission tomography study with F-18 FP-CIT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Bok-Nam; Lee, Kwanjae; An, Young-Sil [School of Medicine, Ajou University, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Woncheon-dong, Yeongtong-gu, Gyeonggi-do, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jang-Hee; Park, So Hyun [Ajou University School of Medicine, Department of Pathology, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-01

    We evaluated the effects of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) in a model of Parkinson's disease (PD) using serial F-18 fluoropropylcarbomethoxyiodophenylnortropane (FP-CIT) PET. Hemiparkinsonian rats were treated with intravenously injected BMSCs, and animals without stem cell therapy were used as the controls. Serial FP-CIT PET was performed after therapy. The ratio of FP-CIT uptake in the lesion side to uptake in the normal side was measured. The changes in FP-CIT uptake were also analyzed using SPM. Behavioural and histological changes were observed using the rotational test and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-reactive cells. FP-CIT uptake ratio was significantly different in the BMSCs treated group (n = 28) at each time point. In contrast, there was no difference in the ratio in control rats (n = 25) at any time point. SPM analysis also revealed that dopamine transporter binding activity was enhanced in the right basal ganglia area in only the BMSC therapy group. In addition, rats that received BMSC therapy also exhibited significantly improved rotational behaviour and preservation of TH-positive neurons compared to controls. The therapeutic effect of intravenously injected BMSCs in a rat model of PD was confirmed by dopamine transporter PET imaging, rotational functional studies, and histopathological evaluation. (orig.)

  6. Improved dopamine transporter binding activity after bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation in a rat model of Parkinson's disease: small animal positron emission tomography study with F-18 FP-CIT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Bok-Nam; Lee, Kwanjae; An, Young-Sil; Kim, Jang-Hee; Park, So Hyun

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) in a model of Parkinson's disease (PD) using serial F-18 fluoropropylcarbomethoxyiodophenylnortropane (FP-CIT) PET. Hemiparkinsonian rats were treated with intravenously injected BMSCs, and animals without stem cell therapy were used as the controls. Serial FP-CIT PET was performed after therapy. The ratio of FP-CIT uptake in the lesion side to uptake in the normal side was measured. The changes in FP-CIT uptake were also analyzed using SPM. Behavioural and histological changes were observed using the rotational test and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-reactive cells. FP-CIT uptake ratio was significantly different in the BMSCs treated group (n = 28) at each time point. In contrast, there was no difference in the ratio in control rats (n = 25) at any time point. SPM analysis also revealed that dopamine transporter binding activity was enhanced in the right basal ganglia area in only the BMSC therapy group. In addition, rats that received BMSC therapy also exhibited significantly improved rotational behaviour and preservation of TH-positive neurons compared to controls. The therapeutic effect of intravenously injected BMSCs in a rat model of PD was confirmed by dopamine transporter PET imaging, rotational functional studies, and histopathological evaluation. (orig.)

  7. The discriminating nature of dopamine transporter image in parkinsonism: the competency of dopaminergic transporter imaging in differential diagnosis of parkinsonism 123I-FP-CIT SPECT study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Bom Sahn; Jang, Sung June; Eo, Jae Seon; Park, Eun Kyung; Kim, Yu Kyeong; Kim, Jong Min; Lee, Won Woo; Kim, Sang Eun

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the discriminating nature of 123 I-FP-CIT SPECT in patients with parkinsonism. 123 I-FP-CIT SPECT images acquired from the 18 normal controls; NC (60.4 ± 10.0 yr) and 237 patients with parkinsonism (65.9 ± 9.2 yr) were analyzed. From spatially normalized images, regional counts of the caudate, putamen, and occipital lobe were obtained using region of interest method. Binding potential (BP) was calculated with the ratio of specific to nonspecific binding activity at equilibrium. Additionally, the BP ratio of putamen to caudate (PCR) and asymmetric index (ASI) were measured. BPs of NC (3.37 ± 0.57, 3.10± 0.41, 3.23 ± 0.48 for caudate, putamen, whole striatum, respectively) had no significant difference with those of essential tremor; ET (3.31 ± 0.64, 3.06 ± 0.61, 3.14 ± 0.63) and Alzheimer's disease; AD (3.33 ± 0.60, 3.29 ± 0.79, 3.31 ± 0.70), but were higher than those of Parkinson's disease; PD (1.92 ± 0.74, 1.39 ±0.68, 1.64 ± 0.68), multiple system atrophy; MSA (2.36 ± 1.07, 2.16 ± 0.91, 2.26 ± 0.96), and dementia with Lewy body; DLB (1.95± 0.72, 1.64 ± 0.65, 1.79 ± 0.66)(ρ 123 I-FP-CIT SPECT was a good value in differential diagnosis of parkinsonism

  8. Extrastriatal binding of [123I]FP-CIT in the thalamus and pons: gender and age dependencies assessed in a European multicentre database of healthy controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, Walter; Unterrainer, Marcus; Xiong, Guoming; Bartenstein, Peter; Diemling, Markus; Varrone, Andrea; Dickson, John C.; Tossici-Bolt, Livia; Sera, Terez; Asenbaum, Susanne; Booij, Jan; Kapucu, Ozlem L.; Kluge, Andreas; Ziebell, Morten; Darcourt, Jacques; Nobili, Flavio; Pagani, Marco; Hesse, Swen; Borght, Thierry Vander; Laere, Koen van; Tatsch, Klaus; La Fougere, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Apart from binding to the dopamine transporter (DAT), [ 123 I]FP-CIT shows moderate affinity for the serotonin transporter (SERT), allowing imaging of both monoamine transporters in a single imaging session in different brain areas. The aim of this study was to systematically evaluate extrastriatal binding (predominantly due to SERT) and its age and gender dependencies in a large cohort of healthy controls. SPECT data from 103 healthy controls with well-defined criteria of normality acquired at 13 different imaging centres were analysed for extrastriatal binding using volumes of interest analysis for the thalamus and the pons. Data were examined for gender and age effects as well as for potential influence of striatal DAT radiotracer binding. Thalamic binding was significantly higher than pons binding. Partial correlations showed an influence of putaminal DAT binding on measured binding in the thalamus but not on the pons. Data showed high interindividual variation in extrastriatal binding. Significant gender effects with 31 % higher binding in women than in men were observed in the thalamus, but not in the pons. An age dependency with a decline per decade (±standard error) of 8.2 ± 1.3 % for the thalamus and 6.8 ± 2.9 % for the pons was shown. The potential to evaluate extrastriatal predominant SERT binding in addition to the striatal DAT in a single imaging session was shown using a large database of [ 123 I]FP-CIT scans in healthy controls. For both the thalamus and the pons, an age-related decline in radiotracer binding was observed. Gender effects were demonstrated for binding in the thalamus only. As a potential clinical application, the data could be used as a reference to estimate SERT occupancy in addition to nigrostriatal integrity when using [ 123 I]FP-CIT for DAT imaging in patients treated with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. (orig.)

  9. Differential distribution of striatal [123I]β-CIT in Parkinson's disease and progressive supranuclear palsy, evaluated with single-photon emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Messa, C.; Volonte, M.A.; Fazio, F.; Zito, F.; Carpinelli, A.; D'Amico, A.; Rizzo, G.; Moresco, R.M.; Paulesu, E.; Franceschi, M.; Lucignani, G.

    1998-01-01

    Functional imaging of the presynaptic dopaminergic activity using single-photon emission tomography (SPET) and iodine-123 labelled 2-β-carboxymethoxy-3-β-(4-iodophenyl)tropane ([ 123 I]β-CIT) is important for the assessment of disease severity and progression in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). However, its capability to discriminate between different extrapyramidal disorders has not yet been assessed. The aim of this study was to evaluate the possibility of differentiating patients with PD and with progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) by means of this method. The distribution of [ 123 I]β-CIT in the basal ganglia was assessed in six normal subjects, 13 petients with PD and five patients with PSP in whom the disease was mild. SPET images were obtained 24±2 h after i.v. injection of the tracer using a brain-dedicated system (CERASPECT). MR and SPET images were co-registered in four normal subjects and used to define a standard set of 16 circular regions of interest (ROIs) on the slice showing the highest striatal activity. The basal ganglia ROIs corresponded to (1) the head of caudate, (2) a region of transition between the head of caudate and the anterior putamen, (3) the anterior putamen and (4) the posterior putamen. A ratio of specific to non-displaceable striatal uptake was calculated normalising the activity of the basal ganglia ROIs to that of the occipital cortex (V3''). ANOVA revealed a global reduction of V3'' in all ROIs of PD and PSP patients compared with normal controls (P 123 I]β-CIT distribution in discrete striatal areas provides information on the relative caudate-putamen damage, with different values being obtained in patients clinically diagnosed as having either PD or PSP. (orig.)

  10. A robust computational solution for automated quantification of a specific binding ratio based on [123I]FP-CIT SPECT images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, F. P. M.; Tavares, J. M. R. S.; Borges, Faria D.; Campos, Costa D.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the current paper is to present a computational solution to accurately quantify a specific to a non-specific uptake ratio in [ 123 I]fP-CIT single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) images and simultaneously measure the spatial dimensions of the basal ganglia, also known as basal nuclei. A statistical analysis based on a reference dataset selected by the user is also automatically performed. The quantification of the specific to non-specific uptake ratio here is based on regions of interest defined after the registration of the image under study with a template image. The computational solution was tested on a dataset of 38 [ 123 I]FP-CIT SPECT images: 28 images were from patients with Parkinson’s disease and the remainder from normal patients, and the results of the automated quantification were compared to the ones obtained by three well-known semi-automated quantification methods. The results revealed a high correlation coefficient between the developed automated method and the three semi-automated methods used for comparison (r ≥0.975). The solution also showed good robustness against different positions of the patient, as an almost perfect agreement between the specific to non-specific uptake ratio was found (ICC=1.000). The mean processing time was around 6 seconds per study using a common notebook PC. The solution developed can be useful for clinicians to evaluate [ 123 I]FP-CIT SPECT images due to its accuracy, robustness and speed. Also, the comparison between case studies and the follow-up of patients can be done more accurately and proficiently since the intra- and inter-observer variability of the semi-automated calculation does not exist in automated solutions. The dimensions of the basal ganglia and their automatic comparison with the values of the population selected as reference are also important for professionals in this area.

  11. Comparison between a dual-head and a brain-dedicated SPECT system in the measurement of the loss of dopamine transporters with [123I]FP-CIT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varrone, Andrea; Sansone, Valeria; Pappata, Sabina; Salvatore, Marco; Pellecchia, Maria T.; Salvatore, Elena; de Michele, Giuseppe; Filla, Alessandro; Barone, Paolo; Amboni, Marianna

    2008-01-01

    Dual-head SPECT systems are used by many clinical departments for [ 123 I]FP-CIT SPECT imaging, while triple-head or brain-dedicated systems with better imaging performance are more commonly used by research institutions. There are limited data comparing the capability of the two types of system to measure dopamine transporter (DAT) loss in vivo. The aim of this study was to compare the ability of a dual-head and a brain-dedicated SPECT system to estimate the degree of DAT loss in different movement disorders with variable nigrostriatal impairment, with [ 123 I]FP-CIT. Four patients with essential tremor, 24 with Parkinson's disease (PD), six with spinocerebellar ataxia type 2 and six controls were studied with [ 123 I]FP-CIT. SPECT scans were performed on a dual-head (E.CAM - Siemens) and subsequently on a brain-dedicated system (Ceraspect - DSI). Striatal DAT outcome measures on the E.CAM and the Ceraspect were strongly correlated and the putamen-to-caudate ratios were almost identical. Although the measured values were lower by 52 ± 25% in caudate and by 51 ± 31% in putamen on the E.CAM (p < 0.0001), the average striatal DAT decrease in each patient group compared with controls was similar for both systems. In PD patients, similar correlations (p < 0.05) were found between motor UPDRS or Hoehn and Yahr stage and striatal DAT density. Despite underestimation of striatal DAT outcome measures, the E.CAM showed similar capability as the Ceraspect in measuring the degree of nigrostriatal dopaminergic deficit and assessing the correlation between DAT outcome measures and clinical variables of PD severity and stage. (orig.)

  12. Extrastriatal binding of [{sup 123}I]FP-CIT in the thalamus and pons: gender and age dependencies assessed in a European multicentre database of healthy controls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, Walter; Unterrainer, Marcus; Xiong, Guoming; Bartenstein, Peter [University of Munich, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Munich (Germany); Diemling, Markus [Hermes Medical Solutions, Stockholm (Sweden); Varrone, Andrea [Karolinska University Hospital, Karolinska Institutet, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Centre for Psychiatry Research, Stockholm (Sweden); Dickson, John C. [UCLH NHS Foundation Trust and University College, Institute of Nuclear Medicine, London (United Kingdom); Tossici-Bolt, Livia [University Hospitals Southampton NHS Trust, Department of Medical Physics, Southampton (United Kingdom); Sera, Terez [University of Szeged, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Euromedic Szeged, Szeged (Hungary); Asenbaum, Susanne [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Neurology, Vienna (Austria); Booij, Jan [University of Amsterdam, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Academic Medical Centre, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Kapucu, Ozlem L. [Gazi University, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Ankara (Turkey); Kluge, Andreas [ABX-CRO, Dresden (Germany); Ziebell, Morten [Rigshospitalet and University of Copenhagen, Neurobiology Research Unit, Copenhagen (Denmark); Darcourt, Jacques [University of Nice-Sophia Antipolis, Nuclear Medicine Department, Centre Antoine Lacassagne, Nice (France); Nobili, Flavio [University of Genoa, Clinical Neurology Unit, Department of Neuroscience (DINOGMI), Genoa (Italy); Pagani, Marco [CNR, Institute of Cognitive Sciences and Technologies, Rome (Italy); Karolinska Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Stockholm (Sweden); Hesse, Swen [University of Leipzig, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Leipzig (Germany); Leipzig University Medical Centre, Molecular Neuroimaging IFB Adiposity Diseases, Leipzig (Germany); Borght, Thierry Vander [Universite Catholique de Louvain, Nuclear Medicine Division, CHU Dinant Godinne, Yvoir (Belgium); Laere, Koen van [University Hospital and K.U. Leuven, Nuclear Medicine, Leuven (Belgium); Tatsch, Klaus [Staedtisches Klinikum Karlsruhe, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Karlsruhe (Germany); La Fougere, Christian [University of Munich, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Munich (Germany); University of Tuebingen, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Tuebingen (Germany)

    2014-10-15

    Apart from binding to the dopamine transporter (DAT), [{sup 123}I]FP-CIT shows moderate affinity for the serotonin transporter (SERT), allowing imaging of both monoamine transporters in a single imaging session in different brain areas. The aim of this study was to systematically evaluate extrastriatal binding (predominantly due to SERT) and its age and gender dependencies in a large cohort of healthy controls. SPECT data from 103 healthy controls with well-defined criteria of normality acquired at 13 different imaging centres were analysed for extrastriatal binding using volumes of interest analysis for the thalamus and the pons. Data were examined for gender and age effects as well as for potential influence of striatal DAT radiotracer binding. Thalamic binding was significantly higher than pons binding. Partial correlations showed an influence of putaminal DAT binding on measured binding in the thalamus but not on the pons. Data showed high interindividual variation in extrastriatal binding. Significant gender effects with 31 % higher binding in women than in men were observed in the thalamus, but not in the pons. An age dependency with a decline per decade (±standard error) of 8.2 ± 1.3 % for the thalamus and 6.8 ± 2.9 % for the pons was shown. The potential to evaluate extrastriatal predominant SERT binding in addition to the striatal DAT in a single imaging session was shown using a large database of [{sup 123}I]FP-CIT scans in healthy controls. For both the thalamus and the pons, an age-related decline in radiotracer binding was observed. Gender effects were demonstrated for binding in the thalamus only. As a potential clinical application, the data could be used as a reference to estimate SERT occupancy in addition to nigrostriatal integrity when using [{sup 123}I]FP-CIT for DAT imaging in patients treated with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. (orig.)

  13. Early-stage [123I]β-CIT SPECT and long-term clinical follow-up in patients with an initial diagnosis of Parkinson's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoffers, Diederick; Booij, Jan; Bosscher, Lisette; Winogrodzka, Ania; Wolters, Erik C.; Berendse, Henk W.

    2005-01-01

    Previous studies using dopamine transporter single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) to try and distinguish between patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease (IPD) and patients with atypical parkinsonian syndromes (APS) have mainly focussed on patients with an already established clinical diagnosis of several years' duration. Differences in the pattern of striatal involvement between IPD and APS have been found in only few studies. We hypothesized that distinguishing SPECT features might be most pronounced at an early disease stage, and the purpose of the present study was to investigate this hypothesis. The study included 72 patients with an initial clinical diagnosis of IPD, supported by decreased striatal [ 123 I]β-CIT binding on baseline SPECT. In ten patients, the diagnosis was changed to APS over a mean follow-up period of 62 months. We retrospectively compared the patterns of striatal involvement on the baseline SPECT scans between the group of patients (re)diagnosed with APS and the remaining 62 patients in whom a diagnosis of IPD was maintained. In the group of patients with APS, baseline [ 123 I]β-CIT binding in both caudate nuclei was lower than in the group of patients with IPD. In addition, putamen to caudate binding ratios were higher in the group of APS patients. In spite of these differences, individual binding values showed considerable overlap between the groups. [ 123 I]β-CIT SPECT scanning in early-stage, untreated parkinsonian patients revealed a relative sparing of the caudate nucleus in patients with IPD as compared to patients later (re)diagnosed with APS. Nevertheless, the pattern of striatal involvement appears to have little predictive value for a later re-diagnosis of APS in individual cases. (orig.)

  14. Comparison of the performance of {sup 18}F-FP-CIT brain PET/MR and simultaneous PET/CT: A preliminary study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Sang Don; Chun, Kyung Ah [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Yeungnam University Hospital, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-09-15

    {sup 18}F-FP-CIT [{sup 1'}8F-fluorinated N-3-fluoropropyl-2-beta-carboxymethoxy-3-beta-(4-iodophenyl) nortropane] has been well established and used for the differential diagnosis of atypical parkinsonian disorders. Recently, combined positron emission tomography (PET)/magnetic resonance (MR) was proposed as a viable alternative to PET/computed tomography (CT). The aim of this study was to compare the performances of conventional {sup 18}F-FP-CIT brain PET/CT and simultaneous PET/MR by visual inspection and quantitative analysis. Fifteen consecutive patients clinically suspected of having Parkinson's disease were recruited for the study.{sup 18}F-FP-CIT PET was performed during PET/CT and PET/MR. PET/CT image acquisition was started 90 min after intravenous injection of {sup 18}F-FP-CIT and then PET/MR images were acquired. Dopamine transporter (DAT) density in bilateral striatal subregions was assessed visually. Quantitative analyses were performed on bilateral striatal volumes of interest (VOIs) using average standardized uptake values (SUVmeans). Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) and their 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) were assessed to compare PET/CT and PET/MR data. Bland-Altman plots were drawn to perform method-comparisons. All subjects showed a preferential decrease in DAT binding in the posterior putamen (PP), with relative sparing of the ventral putamen (VP). Bilateral striatal subregional binding ratio (BR) determined PET/CT and PET/MR demonstrated close interequipment correspondence (BRright caudate - ICC, 0.944; 95 % CI, 0.835-0.981, BRleft caudate - ICC, 0.917; 95 % CI, 0.753-0.972, BRright putamen - ICC, 0.976; 95 % CI, 0.929-0.992 and BRleft putamen - ICC, 0.970; 95 % CI, 0.911-0.990, respectively), and Bland-Altman plots showed interequipment agreement between the two modalities. It is known that MR provides more information about anatomical changes associated with brain diseases and to enable the anatomical allocations of

  15. Diagnostic accuracy of combined FP-CIT, IBZM, and MIBG scintigraphy in the differential diagnosis of degenerative parkinsonism: a multidimensional statistical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Südmeyer, Martin; Antke, Christina; Zizek, Tanja; Beu, Markus; Nikolaus, Susanne; Wojtecki, Lars; Schnitzler, Alfons; Müller, Hans-Wilhelm

    2011-05-01

    In vivo molecular imaging of pre- and postsynaptic nigrostriatal neuronal degeneration and sympathetic cardiac innervation with SPECT is used to distinguish idiopathic Parkinson disease (PD) from atypical parkinsonian disorder (APD). However, the diagnostic accuracy of these imaging approaches as stand-alone procedures is often unsatisfying. The aim of this study was therefore to evaluate to which extent diagnostic accuracy can be increased by their combined use together with a multidimensional statistical algorithm. The SPECT radiotracers (123)I-(S)-2-hydroxy-3-iodo-6-methoxy-N-[1-ethyl-2-pyrrodinyl)-methyl]benzamide (IBZM), (123)I-N-ω-fluoropropyl-2β-carbomethoxy-3β-(4-iodophenyl)nortropan (FP-CIT), and meta-(123)I-iodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) were used to assess striatal postsynaptic D(2) receptor binding, striatal presynaptic dopamine transporter binding, and myocardial adrenergic innervation, respectively. Thirty-one PD and 17 APD patients were prospectively investigated. PD and APD diagnoses were established using consensus criteria and reevaluated after 37.4 ± 12.4 and 26 ± 11.6 mo in PD and APD, respectively. Test accuracy (TA) for PD-APD differentiation was computed for all logical (Boolean) combinations of imaging modalities by receiver-operating-characteristic analysis--that is, after multidimensional optimization of cutoff values. Analysis showed moderate TA for PD-APD differentiation using each molecular approach alone (IBZM, 79%; MIBG, 73%; and FP-CIT, 73%). For combined use, the highest TA resulted under the assumption that at least 2 of the 3 biologic markers had to be positive for APD using the following cutoff values: 1.46 or less for IBZM, less than 2.10 for FP-CIT, and greater than 1.43 for MIBG. This algorithm distinguished APD from PD with a sensitivity of 94%, specificity of 94% (TA, 94%), positive predictive value of 89%, and negative predictive value of 97%. Results suggest that the multidimensional combination of FP-CIT, IBZM, and MIBG

  16. Implementation of the European multicentre database of healthy controls for [{sup 123}I]FP-CIT SPECT increases diagnostic accuracy in patients with clinically uncertain parkinsonian syndromes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albert, Nathalie L.; Unterrainer, Marcus; Xiong, Guoming; Bartenstein, Peter; Koch, Walter [University of Munich, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Munich (Germany); Diemling, Markus [Hermes Medical Solutions, Stockholm (Sweden); Varrone, Andrea [Karolinska University Hospital, Karolinska Institutet, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Centre for Psychiatry Research, Stockholm (Sweden); Dickson, John C. [UCLH NHS Foundation Trust and University College, Institute of Nuclear Medicine, London (United Kingdom); Tossici-Bolt, Livia [University Hospitals Southampton NHS Trust, Department of Medical Physics, Southampton (United Kingdom); Sera, Terez [University of Szeged, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Euromedic Szeged, Szeged (Hungary); Asenbaum, Susanne [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Neurology, Vienna (Austria); Booij, Jan [University of Amsterdam, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Academic Medical Centre, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Kapucu, L. Oezlem A. [Gazi University, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Ankara (Turkey); Kluge, Andreas [ABX-CRO, Dresden (Germany); Ziebell, Morten [Rigshospitalet and University of Copenhagen, Neurobiology Research Unit, Copenhagen (Denmark); Darcourt, Jacques [University of Nice-Sophia Antipolis, Nuclear Medicine Department, Centre Antoine Lacassagne, Nice (France); Nobili, Flavio [University of Genoa, Clinical Neurology Unit, Department of Neuroscience (DINOGMI), Genoa (Italy); Pagani, Marco [Institute of Cognitive Sciences and Technologies, CNR, Rome (Italy); Karolinska Hospital, Department of Nuclear medicine, Stockholm (Sweden); Sabri, Osama [University of Leipzig, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Leipzig (Germany); Hesse, Swen [University of Leipzig, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Leipzig (Germany); Leipzig University Medical Centre, Molecular Neuroimaging IFB Adiposity Diseases, Leipzig (Germany); Borght, Thierry vander [Universite Catholique de Louvain, Nuclear Medicine Division, Mont-Godinne Medical Center, Yvoir (Belgium); Laere, Koen van [University Hospital and K.U. Leuven, Nuclear Medicine, Leuven (Belgium); Tatsch, Klaus [Staedtisches Klinikum Karlsruhe, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Karlsruhe (Germany); La Fougere, Christian [University of Tuebingen, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Radiology, Tuebingen (Germany)

    2016-07-15

    Even though [{sup 123}I]FP-CIT SPECT provides high accuracy in detecting nigrostriatal cell loss in neurodegenerative parkinsonian syndromes (PS), some patients with an inconclusive diagnosis remain. We investigated whether the diagnostic accuracy in patients with clinically uncertain PS with previously inconclusive findings can be improved by the use of iterative reconstruction algorithms and an improved semiquantitative evaluation which additionally implemented a correction algorithm for patient age and gamma camera dependency (EARL-BRASS; Hermes Medical Solutions, Sweden). We identified 101 patients with inconclusive findings who underwent an [{sup 123}I]FP-CIT SPECT between 2003 and 2010 as part of the diagnostic process of suspected PS at the University of Munich, and re-evaluated these scans using iterative reconstruction algorithms and the new corrected EARL-BRASS. Clinical follow-up was obtained in 62 out of the 101 patients and constituted the gold standard for the re-evaluation to assess the possible improvement in diagnostic accuracy. Clinical follow-up confirmed the diagnosis of PS in 11 of the 62 patients. In patients in whom both visual and semiquantitative analysis showed concordant findings (48 patients), a high negative predictive value (93 %), positive predictive value (100 %) and accuracy (94 %) were found, and thus a correct diagnosis was obtained in 45 of the 48 patients. Among the 14 patients with discordant findings, the additional semiquantitative analysis correctly identified all five of nine patients patients without PS by nonpathological semiquantitative findings in visually pathological or inconclusive scans. In contrast, four of the remaining five patients with decreased semiquantitative values but visually normal scans did not show a PS during follow-up. The age-corrected and camera-corrected mode of evaluation using EARL-BRASS provided a notable improvement in the diagnostic accuracy of [{sup 123}I]FP-CIT SPECT in PS patients with

  17. Implementation of the European multicentre database of healthy controls for [123I]FP-CIT SPECT increases diagnostic accuracy in patients with clinically uncertain parkinsonian syndromes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albert, Nathalie L.; Unterrainer, Marcus; Xiong, Guoming; Bartenstein, Peter; Koch, Walter; Diemling, Markus; Varrone, Andrea; Dickson, John C.; Tossici-Bolt, Livia; Sera, Terez; Asenbaum, Susanne; Booij, Jan; Kapucu, L. Oezlem A.; Kluge, Andreas; Ziebell, Morten; Darcourt, Jacques; Nobili, Flavio; Pagani, Marco; Sabri, Osama; Hesse, Swen; Borght, Thierry vander; Laere, Koen van; Tatsch, Klaus; La Fougere, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Even though [ 123 I]FP-CIT SPECT provides high accuracy in detecting nigrostriatal cell loss in neurodegenerative parkinsonian syndromes (PS), some patients with an inconclusive diagnosis remain. We investigated whether the diagnostic accuracy in patients with clinically uncertain PS with previously inconclusive findings can be improved by the use of iterative reconstruction algorithms and an improved semiquantitative evaluation which additionally implemented a correction algorithm for patient age and gamma camera dependency (EARL-BRASS; Hermes Medical Solutions, Sweden). We identified 101 patients with inconclusive findings who underwent an [ 123 I]FP-CIT SPECT between 2003 and 2010 as part of the diagnostic process of suspected PS at the University of Munich, and re-evaluated these scans using iterative reconstruction algorithms and the new corrected EARL-BRASS. Clinical follow-up was obtained in 62 out of the 101 patients and constituted the gold standard for the re-evaluation to assess the possible improvement in diagnostic accuracy. Clinical follow-up confirmed the diagnosis of PS in 11 of the 62 patients. In patients in whom both visual and semiquantitative analysis showed concordant findings (48 patients), a high negative predictive value (93 %), positive predictive value (100 %) and accuracy (94 %) were found, and thus a correct diagnosis was obtained in 45 of the 48 patients. Among the 14 patients with discordant findings, the additional semiquantitative analysis correctly identified all five of nine patients patients without PS by nonpathological semiquantitative findings in visually pathological or inconclusive scans. In contrast, four of the remaining five patients with decreased semiquantitative values but visually normal scans did not show a PS during follow-up. The age-corrected and camera-corrected mode of evaluation using EARL-BRASS provided a notable improvement in the diagnostic accuracy of [ 123 I]FP-CIT SPECT in PS patients with previously

  18. Incident Information Management Tool

    CERN Document Server

    Pejovic, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    Flaws of\tcurrent incident information management at CMS and CERN\tare discussed. A new data\tmodel for future incident database is\tproposed and briefly described. Recently developed draft version of GIS-­‐based tool for incident tracking is presented.

  19. Ús il·lícit i falsificació de targetes bancàries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Ramón Ruiz

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available

    Les targetes bancàries, de crèdit i de dèbit, han constitu¨t tradicionalment l'objecte central dels atacs no violents a patrimonis de les entitats bancàries i dels seus clients, a partir de la utilització de tecnologies basades en el desenvolupament de la informàtica i de les telecomunicacions. Si bé altres fraus i atacs patrimonials s'han sumat a aquestes pràctiques, el frau de targetes continua constituint una realitat criminològica de primer ordre.

    La resposta del dret penal a aquestes pràctiques ha anat mantenint una notable falta de sistemàtica, que en certa manera ha estat substitu¨da per l'actuació dels tribunals, els quals han anat distribuint la variada fenomenologia delictiva en els diferents tipus penals en els quals han encaixat millor. L'absència d'un delicte de frau amb targetes, la possibilitat d'actuar il·lícitament amb targetes reals o de confecció falsa, l'ús d'aquestes en caixers automàtics, en comerços o la seva numeració per Internet dificulten notablement la qualificació jurídica de les conductes. Els tribunals han anat aplicant els delictes de robatori amb força, estafa i estafa informàtica segons l'execució concreta de la conducta delictiva derivada de l'ús il·lícit de la targeta, si bé la voluntat de reduir al màxim els espais d'impunitat ha portat en algunes resolucions judicials a forçar la interpretació dels tipus penals més enllà de l'exigible.

    A això cal sumar-hi el tractament incongruent que el legislador ha donat a la falsificació de targetes bancàries, assimilant-la de forma genèrica a la falsificació de moneda, provocant una interpretació novament extensiva del Tribunal Suprem i assignant-li una penalitat sens dubte desorbitada.

    El recurs al principi de legalitat i al de protecció exclusiva de béns jurídics s'imposa en una matèria normativament confusa i amb un tractament judicial erràtic.

  20. CitEST libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luísa P. Natividade Targon

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to obtain a better understanding of what is citrus, 33 cDNA libraries were constructed from different citrus species and genera. Total RNA was extracted from fruits, leaves, flowers, bark, seeds and roots, and subjected or not to different biotic and abiotic stresses (pathogens and drought and at several developmental stages. To identify putative promoter sequences, as well as molecular markers that could be useful for breeding programs, one shotgun library was prepared from sweet orange (Citrus sinensis var. Olimpia. In addition, EST libraries were also constructed for a citrus pathogen, the oomycete Phythophthora parasitica in either virulent or avirulent form. A total of 286,559 cDNA clones from citrus were sequenced from their 5’ end, generating 242,790 valid reads of citrus. A total of 9,504 sequences were produced in the shotgun library and the valid reads were assembled using CAP3. In this procedure, we obtained 1,131 contigs and 4,083 singletons. A total of 19,200 cDNA clones from P. parasitica were sequenced, resulting in 16,400 valid reads. The number of ESTs generated in this project is, to our knowledge, the largest citrus sequence database in the world.

  1. Impaired dopaminergic neurotransmission in patients with traumatic brain injury: a SPECT study using 123I-beta-CIT and 123I-IBZM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnemiller, E; Brenneis, C; Wissel, J; Scherfler, C; Poewe, W; Riccabona, G; Wenning, G K

    2000-09-01

    Structural imaging suggests that traumatic brain injury (TBI) may be associated with disruption of neuronal networks, including the nigrostriatal dopaminergic pathway. However, to date deficits in pre- and/or postsynaptic dopaminergic neurotransmission have not been demonstrated in TBI using functional imaging. We therefore assessed dopaminergic function in ten TBI patients using [123I]2-beta-carbomethoxy-3-beta-(4-iodophenyl)tropane (beta-CIT) and [123I]iodobenzamide (IBZM) single-photon emission tomography (SPET). Average Glasgow Coma Scale score (+/-SD) at the time of head trauma was 5.8+/-4.2. SPET was performed on average 141 days (SD +/-92) after TBI. The SPET images were compared with structural images using cranial computerised tomography (CCT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). SPET was performed with an ADAC Vertex dual-head camera. The activity ratios of striatal to cerebellar uptake were used as a semiquantitative parameter of striatal dopamine transporter (DAT) and D2 receptor (D2R) binding. Compared with age-matched controls, patients with TBI had significantly lower striatal/cerebellar beta-CIT and IBZM binding ratios (PTBI despite relative structural preservation of the striatum. Further investigations of possible clinical correlates and efficacy of dopaminergic therapy in patients with TBI seem justified.

  2. Swiss Life Sciences - a science communication project for both schools and the wider public led by the foundation Science et Cité.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röthlisberger, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The foundation Science et Cité was founded 1998 with the aim to inform the wider Swiss public about current scientific topics and to generate a dialogue between science and society. Initiated as an independent foundation by the former State Secretary for Science and Research, Dr. Charles Kleiber, Science et Cité is now attached to the Swiss Academies of Arts and Sciences as a competence center for dialogue with the public. Due to its branches in all language regions of the country, the foundation is ideally suited to initiate and implement communication projects on a nationwide scale. These projects are subdivided into three categories: i) science communication for children/adolescents, ii) establishing a dialogue between science and the wider public, and iii) conducting the role of a national center of competence and networking in science communication. Swiss Life Sciences is a project that fits into all of these categories: a year-round program for schools is complemented with an annual event for the wider public. With the involvement of most of the major Swiss universities, the Swiss National Science Foundation, the foundation Gen Suisse and many other partners, Swiss Life Sciences also sets an example of national networking within the science communication community.

  3. The Critical Incident Interview and Ethnoracial Identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montalvo, Frank F.

    1999-01-01

    Describes the critical-incident interview, a cross-cultural training technique that helps social work students assess clients' ethnic- and racial-identity development. Uses examples from student interviews to present the steps involved in teaching the technique. Includes guidelines for selecting and interviewing informants, and gives three scales…

  4. Sequelae of Endoscopic Inguinal Hernia Repair : Incidence, evaluation and management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burgmans, J.P.J.

    2015-01-01

    The endoscopic preperitoneal technique (TEP) is an appealing inguinal hernia repair technique, theoretically superior to other approaches. In practice some problems remain unsolved. Real incidences of chronic postoperative inguinal pain (CPIP) and other important sequelae of endoscopic hernia repair

  5. The discriminating nature of dopamine transporter image in parkinsonism: the competency of dopaminergic transporter imaging in differential diagnosis of parkinsonism {sup 123}I-FP-CIT SPECT study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Bom Sahn; Jang, Sung June; Eo, Jae Seon; Park, Eun Kyung; Kim, Yu Kyeong; Kim, Jong Min; Lee, Won Woo; Kim, Sang Eun [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-08-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the discriminating nature of {sup 123}I-FP-CIT SPECT in patients with parkinsonism. {sup 123}I-FP-CIT SPECT images acquired from the 18 normal controls; NC (60.4 {+-} 10.0 yr) and 237 patients with parkinsonism (65.9 {+-} 9.2 yr) were analyzed. From spatially normalized images, regional counts of the caudate, putamen, and occipital lobe were obtained using region of interest method. Binding potential (BP) was calculated with the ratio of specific to nonspecific binding activity at equilibrium. Additionally, the BP ratio of putamen to caudate (PCR) and asymmetric index (ASI) were measured. BPs of NC (3.37 {+-} 0.57, 3.10{+-} 0.41, 3.23 {+-} 0.48 for caudate, putamen, whole striatum, respectively) had no significant difference with those of essential tremor; ET (3.31 {+-} 0.64, 3.06 {+-} 0.61, 3.14 {+-} 0.63) and Alzheimer's disease; AD (3.33 {+-} 0.60, 3.29 {+-} 0.79, 3.31 {+-} 0.70), but were higher than those of Parkinson's disease; PD (1.92 {+-} 0.74, 1.39 {+-}0.68, 1.64 {+-} 0.68), multiple system atrophy; MSA (2.36 {+-} 1.07, 2.16 {+-} 0.91, 2.26 {+-} 0.96), and dementia with Lewy body; DLB (1.95{+-} 0.72, 1.64 {+-} 0.65, 1.79 {+-} 0.66)({rho} < 0.005). PD had statistically lower values of PCR and higher values of ASI than those of NC ({rho} < 0.005). And PD had significantly lower value of PCR, higher ASI and lower BP in the putamen and whole striatum than MSA ({rho} < 0.05). Dopamine transporter image of {sup 123}I-FP-CIT SPECT was a good value in differential diagnosis of parkinsonism.

  6. Cancer incidence among waiters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reijula, Jere; Kjaerheim, Kristina; Lynge, Elsebeth

    2015-01-01

    AIMS: To study cancer risk patterns among waiters in the Nordic countries. METHODS: We identified a cohort of 16,134 male and 81,838 female waiters from Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden. During the follow-up period from 1961 to 2005, we found that 19,388 incident cancer cases were...... diagnosed. Standardised incidence ratio (SIR) was defined as the observed number of cancer cases divided by the expected number, based on national age, time period and gender-specific cancer incidence rates in the general population. RESULTS: The SIR of all cancers in waiters, in the five countries combined...... INCIDENCE IN SOME CANCER SITES CAN LIKELY BE EXPLAINED BY HIGHER ALCOHOL CONSUMPTION, THE PREVALENCE OF SMOKING AND OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE TO TOBACCO SMOKE HOPEFULLY, THE INCIDENCE OF CANCER AMONG WAITERS WILL DECREASE IN THE FUTURE, DUE TO THE BANNING OF TOBACCO SMOKING IN RESTAURANTS AND BARS IN THE NORDIC...

  7. Financial incentive does not affect P300 (in response to certain episodic and semantic probe stimuli) in the Complex Trial Protocol (CTP) version of the Concealed Information Test (CIT) in detection of malingering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfeld, J Peter; Labkovsky, Elena; Davydova, Elena; Ward, Anne; Rosenfeld, Lauren

    2017-05-01

    Previous research indicated that the skin conductance response of the autonomic nervous system in the Concealed Information Test (CIT) is typically increased in subjects who are financially and otherwise incentivized to defeat the CIT (the paradoxical "motivational impairment" effect). This is not the case for RT-based CITs, nor P300 tests based on the three-stimulus protocol for detection of cognitive malingering (although these are not the same as CITs). The present report is the first attempt to study the effect of financial motivation on the P300-based Complex Trial Protocol using both episodic and semantic memory probe and irrelevant stimuli. The Test of Memory Malingering (TOMM) was used to validate behavioral differences between the two groups we created by offering one (paid) group but not another (unpaid) group a financial reward for beating our tests. Group behavioral differences on the TOMM did confirm group manipulations. Probe-minus-irrelevant P300 differences did not differ between groups, although as previously, semantic memory-evoked P300s were larger than episodic memory-evoked P300s. © 2017 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  8. Validation of Simple Quantification Methods for (18)F-FP-CIT PET Using Automatic Delineation of Volumes of Interest Based on Statistical Probabilistic Anatomical Mapping and Isocontour Margin Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yong-Il; Im, Hyung-Jun; Paeng, Jin Chul; Lee, Jae Sung; Eo, Jae Seon; Kim, Dong Hyun; Kim, Euishin E; Kang, Keon Wook; Chung, June-Key; Lee, Dong Soo

    2012-12-01

    (18)F-FP-CIT positron emission tomography (PET) is an effective imaging for dopamine transporters. In usual clinical practice, (18)F-FP-CIT PET is analyzed visually or quantified using manual delineation of a volume of interest (VOI) for the striatum. In this study, we suggested and validated two simple quantitative methods based on automatic VOI delineation using statistical probabilistic anatomical mapping (SPAM) and isocontour margin setting. Seventy-five (18)F-FP-CIT PET images acquired in routine clinical practice were used for this study. A study-specific image template was made and the subject images were normalized to the template. Afterwards, uptakes in the striatal regions and cerebellum were quantified using probabilistic VOI based on SPAM. A quantitative parameter, QSPAM, was calculated to simulate binding potential. Additionally, the functional volume of each striatal region and its uptake were measured in automatically delineated VOI using isocontour margin setting. Uptake-volume product (QUVP) was calculated for each striatal region. QSPAM and QUVP were compared with visual grading and the influence of cerebral atrophy on the measurements was tested. Image analyses were successful in all the cases. Both the QSPAM and QUVP were significantly different according to visual grading (P Simple quantitative measurements of QSPAM and QUVP showed acceptable agreement with visual grading. Although QSPAM in some group may be influenced by cerebral atrophy, these simple methods are expected to be effective in the quantitative analysis of (18)F-FP-CIT PET in usual clinical practice.

  9. Radiological incidents in radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hobzova, L.; Novotny, J.

    2008-01-01

    In many countries a reporting system of radiological incidents to national regulatory body exists and providers of radiotherapy treatment are obliged to report all major and/or in some countries all incidents occurring in institution. State Office for Nuclear Safety (SONS) is providing a systematic guidance for radiotherapy departments from 1997 by requiring inclusion of radiation safety problems into Quality assurance manual, which is the basic document for obtaining a license of SONS for handling with sources of ionizing radiation. For that purpose SONS also issued the recommendation 'Introduction of QA system for important sources in radiotherapy-radiological incidents' in which the radiological incidents are defined and the basic guidance for their classification (category A, B, C, D), investigation and reporting are given. At regular periods the SONS in co-operation with radiotherapy centers is making a survey of all radiological incidents occurring in institutions and it is presenting obtained information in synoptic communication (2003 Motolske dny, 2005 Novy Jicin). This presentation is another summary report of radiological incidents that occurred in our radiotherapy institutions during last 3 years. Emphasis is given not only to survey and statistics, but also to analysis of reasons of the radiological incidents and to their detection and prevention. Analyses of incidents in radiotherapy have led to a much broader understanding of incident causation. Information about the error should be shared as early as possible during or after investigation by all radiotherapy centers. Learning from incidents, errors and near misses should be a part of improvement of the QA system in institutions. Generally, it is recommended that all radiotherapy facilities should participate in the reporting, analyzing and learning system to facilitate the dissemination of knowledge throughout the whole country to prevent errors in radiotherapy.(authors)

  10. Grazing incidence diffraction : A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilles, B [LTPCM, ENSEEG. St. Martin d` Heres. (France)

    1996-09-01

    Different Grazing Incidence Diffraction (GID) methods for the analysis of thin films and multilayer structures are reviewed in three sections: the reflectivity is developed in the first one, which includes the non-specular diffuse scattering. The second one is devoted to the extremely asymmetric Bragg diffraction and the third one to the in-plane Bragg diffraction. Analytical formulations of the scattered intensities are developed for each geometry, in the framework of the kinetical analysis as well as the dynamical theory. Experimental examples are given to illustrate the quantitative possibility of the GID techniques.

  11. Automatic semi-quantification of [(123)I]FP-CIT SPECT scans in healthy volunteers using BasGan version 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nobili, Flavio; Naseri, Mehrdad; De Carli, Fabrizio

    2013-01-01

    with partial volume effect correction. Multicentre camera inhomogeneity was taken into account by calibrating values on basal ganglia phantom data. SBR in each caudate nucleus (C) and putamen (P) were the dependent variables in a repeated measures general linear model analysis; age, gender, handedness and body...... Medicine). Brain single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) was acquired by means of dual-head cameras 3 h after [(123)I]FP-CIT administration. Specific to nondisplaceable binding ratios (SBRs) in the basal ganglia were computed using the 'BasGan' software, allowing automatic value extraction...... mass index (BMI) were the independent variables. RESULTS: SBR values in C and P were significantly associated with age (mean rate decrease with age: 0.0306 per year, or 0.57 % of the general mean; p ...

  12. Evaluation of striatal dopamine transporter density using ({sup 123}I)-{beta}-CIT SPECT in schizophrenic patients treated with olanzapine: pilot study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chul Eung; Moon, Hey Won; Choe, Won Sick; Kim, Chang Ho; Chi, Dae Yoon [Inha Univ., Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-08-01

    This pilot study was performed to understand the pharmacological effect of olanzapine, an atypical antipsychotic agent, on dopamine transporter in schizophrenic patients. Six patients (3 male, 3 female) with schizophrenia, who had not taken any psychotropic drugs for at least four weeks, were studied. Nuclear imaging using ({sup 123}I)-{beta}-CIT SPECT was obtained before and after 4-week treatment with olanzapine. Analysis of ROI on the striatum, caudate nucleus, and putamen was performed. Post-treatment uptake was significantly increased in all the ROIs compared with pre-treatment uptake. This preliminary study with the small number of schizophrenic patients suggested an increase in uptake of dopamine transporter in the striatum, caudate nucleus, and putamen after 4-week treatment with olanzapine, which warrants a large-scaled controlled study to confirm the current findings.

  13. The impact of reconstruction and scanner characterisation on the diagnostic capability of a normal database for [(123)I]FP-CIT SPECT imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dickson, John C; Tossici-Bolt, Livia; Sera, Terez

    2017-01-01

    for scan normality using the ENC-DAT normal database obtained in well-documented healthy subjects. Patient and normal data were reconstructed with iterative reconstruction with correction for attenuation, scatter and septal penetration (ACSC), the same reconstruction without corrections (IRNC......), and filtered back-projection (FBP) with data quantified using small volume-of-interest (VOI) (BRASS) and large VOI (Southampton) analysis methods. Test performance was assessed with and without system characterisation, using receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis for age-independent data and using......BACKGROUND: The use of a normal database for [(123)I]FP-CIT SPECT imaging has been found to be helpful for cases which are difficult to interpret by visual assessment alone, and to improve reproducibility in scan interpretation. The aim of this study was to assess whether the use of different...

  14. No difference in striatal dopamine transporter availability between active smokers, ex-smokers and non-smokers using (123I)FP-CIT (DaTSCAN) and SPECT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, G; Knudsen, Gitte Moos; Jensen, PS

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Mesolimbic and nigrostriatal dopaminergic pathways play important roles in both the rewarding and conditioning effects of drugs. The dopamine transporter (DAT) is of central importance in regulating dopaminergic neurotransmission and in particular in activating the striatal D2-like...... receptors. Molecular imaging studies of the relationship between DAT availability/dopamine synthesis capacity and active cigarette smoking have shown conflicting results. Through the collaboration between 13 SPECT centres located in 10 different European countries, a database of FP-CIT-binding in healthy...... controls was established. We used the database to test the hypothesis that striatal DAT availability is changed in active smokers compared to non-smokers and ex-smokers. METHODS: A total of 129 healthy volunteers were included. Subjects were divided into three categories according to past and present...

  15. Diagnostic value of asymmetric striatal D2 receptor upregulation in Parkinson's disease: an [123I]IBZM and [123I]FP-CIT SPECT study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verstappen, C.C.P.; Bloem, B.R.; Haaxma, C.A.; Horstink, M.W.I.M.; Oyen, W.J.G.

    2007-01-01

    Striatal postsynaptic D 2 receptors in Parkinson's disease (PD) are thought to be upregulated in the first years of the disease, especially contralateral to the clinically most affected side. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the highest striatal D 2 binding is found contralateral to the most affected side in PD, and whether this upregulation can be used as a diagnostic tool. Cross-sectional survey was undertaken of 81 patients with clinically asymmetric PD, without antiparkinsonian drugs and with a disease duration of ≤5 years and 26 age-matched controls. Striatal D 2 binding was assessed with [ 123 I]IBZM SPECT, and severity of the presynaptic dopaminergic lesion with [ 123 I]FP-CIT SPECT. The mean striato-occipital ratio of [ 123 I]IBZM binding was significantly higher in PD patients (1.56 ±0.09) than in controls (1.53 ±0.06). In PD patients, higher values were found contralateral to the clinically most affected side (1.57 ±0.09 vs 1.55 ±0.10 ipsilaterally), suggesting D 2 receptor upregulation, and the reverse was seen using [ 123 I]FP-CIT SPECT. However, on an individual basis only 56% of PD patients showed this upregulation. Our study confirms asymmetric D 2 receptor upregulation in PD. However, the sensitivity of contralateral higher striatal [ 123 I]IBZM binding is only 56%. Therefore, the presence of contralateral higher striatal IBZM binding has insufficient diagnostic accuracy for PD, and PD cannot be excluded in patients with parkinsonism and no contralateral upregulation of D 2 receptors, assessed with [ 123 I]IBZM SPECT. (orig.)

  16. Critical incident monitoring in anaesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choy, Y C

    2006-12-01

    Critical incident monitoring in anaesthesia is an important tool for quality improvement and maintenance of high safety standards in anaesthetic services. It is now widely accepted as a useful quality improvement technique for reducing morbidity and mortality in anaesthesia and has become part of the many quality assurance programmes of many general hospitals under the Ministry of Health. Despite wide-spread reservations about its value, critical incident monitoring is a classical qualitative research technique which is particularly useful where problems are complex, contextual and influenced by the interaction of physical, psychological and social factors. Thus, it is well suited to be used in probing the complex factors behind human error and system failure. Human error has significant contributions to morbidities and mortalities in anaesthesia. Understanding the relationships between, errors, incidents and accidents is important for prevention and risk management to reduce harm to patients. Cardiac arrests in the operating theatre (OT) and prolonged stay in recovery, constituted the bulk of reported incidents. Cardiac arrests in OT resulted in significant mortality and involved mostly de-compensated patients and those with unstable cardiovascular functions, presenting for emergency operations. Prolonged-stay in the recovery extended period of observation for ill patients. Prolonged stay in recovery was justifiable in some cases, as these patients needed a longer period of post-operative observation until they were stable enough to return to the ward. The advantages of the relatively low cost, and the ability to provide a comprehensive body of detailed qualitative information, which can be used to develop strategies to prevent and manage existing problems and to plan further initiatives for patient safety makes critical incident monitoring a valuable tool in ensuring patient safety. The contribution of critical incident reporting to the issue of patient safety is

  17. An introduction to incidence geometry

    CERN Document Server

    De Bruyn, Bart

    2016-01-01

    This book gives an introduction to the field of Incidence Geometry by discussing the basic families of point-line geometries and introducing some of the mathematical techniques that are essential for their study. The families of geometries covered in this book include among others the generalized polygons, near polygons, polar spaces, dual polar spaces and designs. Also the various relationships between these geometries are investigated. Ovals and ovoids of projective spaces are studied and some applications to particular geometries will be given. A separate chapter introduces the necessary mathematical tools and techniques from graph theory. This chapter itself can be regarded as a self-contained introduction to strongly regular and distance-regular graphs. This book is essentially self-contained, only assuming the knowledge of basic notions from (linear) algebra and projective and affine geometry. Almost all theorems are accompanied with proofs and a list of exercises with full solutions is given at the end...

  18. Police Incident Blotter (Archive)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — The Police Blotter Archive contains crime incident data after it has been validated and processed to meet Uniform Crime Reporting (UCR) standards, published on a...

  19. 2011 Japanese Nuclear Incident

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA’s RadNet system monitored the environmental radiation levels in the United States and parts of the Pacific following the Japanese Nuclear Incident. Learn about EPA’s response and view historical laboratory data and news releases.

  20. Prediction of Safety Incidents

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Safety incidents, including injuries, property damage and mission failures, cost NASA and contractors thousands of dollars in direct and indirect costs. This project...

  1. Marine Animal Incident Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Large whale stranding, death, ship strike and entanglement incidents are all recorded to monitor the health of each population and track anthropogenic factors that...

  2. Acute incidents during anaesthesia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    management of acute incidents and the prevention of ... High or total (complete) spinal blocks in obstetric .... Pain and opioid analgesics lead to delayed ... Step up postoperative care and use ... recognise suprasternal and supraclavicular.

  3. A randomised comparison of Conventional versus Intentional straTegy in patients with high Risk prEdiction of Side branch OccLusion in coronary bifurcation interVEntion: rationale and design of the CIT-RESOLVE trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dong; Yin, Dong; Song, Chenxi; Zhu, Chengang; Kirtane, Ajay J; Xu, Bo; Dou, Kefei

    2017-06-12

    The intentional strategy (aggressive side branch (SB) protection strategy: elective two-stent strategy or jailed balloon technique) is thought to be associated with lower SB occlusion rate than conventional strategy (provisional two-stent strategy or jailed wire technique). However, most previous studies showed comparable outcomes between the two strategies, probably due to no risk classification of SB occlusion when enrolling patients. There is still no randomised trial compared the intentional and conventional strategy when treating bifurcation lesions with high risk of SB occlusion. We aim to investigate if intentional strategy is associated with significant reduction of SB occlusion rate compared with conventional strategy in high-risk patients. The Conventional versus Intentional straTegy in patients with high Risk prEdiction of Side branch OccLusion in coronary bifurcation interVEntion (CIT-RESOLVE) is a prospective, randomised, single-blind, multicentre clinical trial comparing the rate of SB occlusion between the intentional strategy group and the conventional strategy group (positive control group) in a consecutive cohort of patients with high risk of side branch occlusion defined by V-RESOLVE score, which is a validated angiographic scoring system to evaluate the risk of SB occlusion in bifurcation intervention and used as one of the inclusion criteria to select patients with high SB occlusion risk (V-RESOLVE score ≥12). A total of 21 hospitals from 10 provinces in China participated in the present study. 566 patients meeting all inclusion/exclusion criteria are randomised to either intentional strategy group or conventional strategy group. The primary endpoint is SB occlusion (defined as any decrease in thrombolysis in myocardial infarction flow grade or absence of flow in SB after main vessel stenting). All patients are followed up for 12-month postdischarge. The protocol has been approved by all local ethics committee. The ethics committee have

  4. Mastering French Cuisine, Espousing French Identity Epouser la cuisine et l'identité françaises: récits de transformation d'Américaines mariées à des Français

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christy Shields-Argelès

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper draws from a series of comprehensive and life story interviews with twelve middle and upper class Franco-American couples (six in each country. In it we recount and analyze the narratives of two American wives (Linda and Beth who tell, in very different ways, the story of their rencontre with France as one that profoundly changes their relationship to food and their own identity. Taken as ideal types, Linda’s narrative, like those of other women who return home, is one of reintegration, while Beth’s narrative, like those of other expatriate spouses, is one of exile. Despite the differences in their perspectives, French gastronomic discourse and American nutrition discourse delineate national boundaries and shape individual subjectivities in both narratives, allowing us, in a final analysis, to explore the interweaving of daily food practices, emotion and national identity.Cet article s’appuie sur des entretiens compréhensifs et des récits de vie menés auprès de douze couples franco-américain vivant en France et aux Etats-Unis (six par pays. Il relate et analyse les « récits de transformation » de deux Américaines mariées à des Français (Linda et Beth, qui racontent, de façon très différente, l’histoire de leur rencontre avec la France comme un processus ayant profondément changé leur relation à l’alimentation et leur propre identité. Vu comme idéal-type, le récit de Linda, à l’instar d’autres femmes rentrées dans leur pays, est un récit de réintégration, celui de Beth, à l’instar d’autres femmes expatriées, un récit d’exil. Malgré leurs perspectives différentes, le discours gastronomique français et le discours nutritionnel américain dessinent des frontières nationales et informent les subjectivités individuelles dans les deux récits, ce qui nous permet, en conclusion, d’explorer l’imbrication des pratiques alimentaires quotidiennes, l’émotion et l’identité nationale.

  5. Hazmat Yearly Incident Summary Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Series of Incident data and summary statistics reports produced which provide statistical information on incidents by type, year, geographical location, and others....

  6. Radiation incidents in dentistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lovelock, D.J.

    1996-01-01

    Most dental practitioners act as their own radiographer and radiologist, unlike their medical colleagues. Virtually all dental surgeons have a dental X-ray machine for intraoral radiography available to them and 40% of dental practices have equipment for dental panoramic tomography. Because of the low energy of X-ray equipment used in dentistry, radiation incidents tend to be less serious than those associated with other aspects of patient care. Details of 47 known incidents are given. The advent of the 1985 and 1988 Ionising Radiation Regulations has made dental surgeons more aware of the hazards of radiation. These regulations, and general health and safety legislation, have led to a few dental surgeons facing legal action. Because of the publicity associated with these court cases, it is expected that there will be a decrease in radiation incidents arising from the practice of dentistry. (author)

  7. Incident Management in Academic Information System using ITIL Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palilingan, V. R.; Batmetan, J. R.

    2018-02-01

    Incident management is very important in order to ensure the continuity of a system. Information systems require incident management to ensure information systems can provide maximum service according to the service provided. Many of the problems that arise in academic information systems come from incidents that are not properly handled. The objective of this study aims to find the appropriate way of incident management. The incident can be managed so it will not be a big problem. This research uses the ITIL framework to solve incident problems. The technique used in this study is a technique adopted and developed from the service operations section of the ITIL framework. The results of this research found that 84.5% of incidents appearing in academic information systems can be handled quickly and appropriately. 15.5% incidents can be escalated so as to not cause any new problems. The model of incident management applied to make academic information system can run quickly in providing academic service in a good and efficient. The incident management model implemented in this research is able to manage resources appropriately so as to quickly and easily manage incidents.

  8. Fuir la complétude ou Le métarécit intermédial des Faux-monnayeurs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Viselli

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Les Faux-monnayeurs d’André Gide est un (anti-roman qui fait appel à un autre médium artistique amimétique – en l’occurrence la musique – afin de mettre en question la représentation de l’authenticité, du réel et de la subjectivité de l’écrivain. Édouard, le protagoniste romancier qui souhaite lui-même rédiger un roman intitulé Les Faux-monnayeurs, se trouve plongé dans une mise-en-abîme où le récit linéaire contrapuntique déjà complexe se colore d’ambiguïté narrative grâce à une polyphonie verticale : et ce, par le biais de l’axe paradigmatique, des récits emboîtés et de l’usage du discours indirect libre. Gide réalise, au moins en partie, le rêve d’Édouard paralysé par la page blanche : terminer l’œuvre de Bach, L’Art de la fugue, en littérature. C’est-à-dire, que d’un point de vue intermédial, Gide emploie une poétique de la fugue – style musical théoriquement interminable – afin de subvertir le genre romanesque. L’intermédialité rejoint l’interdisciplinarité et, en appliquant le théorème mathématique et philosophique de Kurt Gödel – son théorème de l’incomplétude –, la verticalité textuelle, synonyme de métarécit chez Gide, se déploie dans toute son éloquence et renforce davantage la thématique du « faux » et de la « copie » dans un roman contrefait. Fleeing Completeness or The Intermedial Metanarrative of Les Faux-monnayeurs André Gide’s Les Faux-monnayeurs is a (anti-novel that calls upon another amimetic artistic medium – music – in order to question the representation of authenticity, of the real, and of the novelist’s subjectivity. The novel’s protagonist, Édouard, wishes to write a novel entitled Les Faux-monnayeurs, and finds himself at the bottom of a mise-en-abîme where the already complex contrapuntal narrative becomes further ambiguous alongside examples of vertical polyphony: such as the paradigmatic axis, framed

  9. Lightning incidents in Mongolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myagmar Doljinsuren

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This is one of the first studies that has been conducted in Mongolia on the distribution of lightning incidents. The study covers a 10-year period from 2004 to 2013. The country records a human death rate of 15.4 deaths per 10 million people per year, which is much higher than that of many countries with similar isokeraunic level. The reason may be the low-grown vegetation observed in most rural areas of Mongolia, a surface topography, typical to steppe climate. We suggest modifications to Gomes–Kadir equation for such countries, as it predicts a much lower annual death rate for Mongolia. The lightning incidents spread over the period from May to August with the peak of the number of incidents occurring in July. The worst lightning affected region in the country is the central part. Compared with impacts of other convective disasters such as squalls, thunderstorms and hail, lightning stands as the second highest in the number of incidents, human deaths and animal deaths. Economic losses due to lightning is only about 1% of the total losses due to the four extreme weather phenomena. However, unless precautionary measures are not promoted among the public, this figure of losses may significantly increase with time as the country is undergoing rapid industrialization at present.

  10. Incident users of antipsychotics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baandrup, Lone; Kruse, Marie

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: In Denmark, as well as in many other countries, consumption of antipsychotics is on the rise, partly due to increasing off-label use. The aim of this study was to analyze and quantify the extent of off-label use and polypharmacy in incident users of antipsychotic medication, and to examine...

  11. Intranasal dopamine reduces in vivo [123I]FP-CIT binding to striatal dopamine transporter: correlation with behavioral changes and evidence for Pavlovian conditioned dopamine response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria A de Souza Silva

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Dopamine (DA, which does not cross the blood-brain barrier, has central and behavioral effects when administered via the nasal route. Neither the mechanisms of central action of intranasal dopamine (IN-DA, nor its mechanisms of diffusion and transport into the brain are well understood. We here examined whether IN-DA application influences dopamine transporter (DAT binding in the dorsal striatum and assessed the extent of binding in relation to motor and exploratory behaviors. We hypothesized that, based on the finding of increased extracellular DA in the striatum induced by application of IN-DA, binding of [123I]FP-CIT to the DAT should be decreased due to competition at the receptor.Methods: Rats were administered intranasal application of 3 mg/kg IN-DA and vehicle (VEH, with IN-DA injection either preceding or following VEH. Then motor and exploratory behaviors (traveled distance, velocity, center time, sitting, rearing, head-shoulder motility, grooming were assessed for 30 min in an open field prior to administration of [123I]FP-CIT. DAT binding after IN-DA and VEH was measured with small animal SPECT two hours following administration of the radioligand. Results: 1 After IN-DA application, striatal DAT binding was significantly lower as compared to VEH, indicating that the nasally delivered dopamine had central action and increased DA levels comparable to that found previously with L-DOPA administration. 2 DAT binding in response to intranasal VEH was lower when IN-DA application preceded VEH treatment. This finding is suggestive of Pavlovian conditioning of DA at the level of the DAT, since the DA treatment modified (decreased the binding in response to the subsequent VEH treatment. VEH treatment also reduced motor and exploratory behaviors more when applied before, as compared to when it followed IN-DA application, also indicative of behavioral Pavlovian conditioning akin to that found upon application of various psychostimulant

  12. Comparison of two neural network classifiers in the differential diagnosis of essential tremor and Parkinson's disease by {sup 123}I-FP-CIT brain SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palumbo, Barbara [University of Perugia, Nuclear Medicine Section, Department of Surgical, Radiological and Odontostomatological Sciences, Ospedale S. Maria della Misericordia, Perugia (Italy); Fravolini, Mario Luca [University of Perugia, Department of Electronic and Information Engineering, Perugia (Italy); Nuvoli, Susanna; Spanu, Angela; Madeddu, Giuseppe [University of Sassari, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Sassari (Italy); Paulus, Kai Stephan [University of Sassari, Department of Neurology, Sassari (Italy); Schillaci, Orazio [University Tor Vergata, Department of Biopathology and Diagnostic Imaging, Rome (Italy); IRCSS Neuromed, Pozzilli (Italy)

    2010-11-15

    To contribute to the differentiation of Parkinson's disease (PD) and essential tremor (ET), we compared two different artificial neural network classifiers using {sup 123}I-FP-CIT SPECT data, a probabilistic neural network (PNN) and a classification tree (ClT). {sup 123}I-FP-CIT brain SPECT with semiquantitative analysis was performed in 216 patients: 89 with ET, 64 with PD with a Hoehn and Yahr (H and Y) score of {<=}2 (early PD), and 63 with PD with a H and Y score of {>=}2.5 (advanced PD). For each of the 1,000 experiments carried out, 108 patients were randomly selected as the PNN training set, while the remaining 108 validated the trained PNN, and the percentage of the validation data correctly classified in the three groups of patients was computed. The expected performance of an ''average performance PNN'' was evaluated. In analogy, for ClT 1,000 classification trees with similar structures were generated. For PNN, the probability of correct classification in patients with early PD was 81.9{+-}8.1% (mean{+-}SD), in patients with advanced PD 78.9{+-}8.1%, and in ET patients 96.6{+-}2.6%. For ClT, the first decision rule gave a mean value for the putamen of 5.99, which resulted in a probability of correct classification of 93.5{+-}3.4%. This means that patients with putamen values >5.99 were classified as having ET, while patients with putamen values <5.99 were classified as having PD. Furthermore, if the caudate nucleus value was higher than 6.97 patients were classified as having early PD (probability 69.8{+-}5.3%), and if the value was <6.97 patients were classified as having advanced PD (probability 88.1%{+-}8.8%). These results confirm that PNN achieved valid classification results. Furthermore, ClT provided reliable cut-off values able to differentiate ET and PD of different severities. (orig.)

  13. Comparison of two neural network classifiers in the differential diagnosis of essential tremor and Parkinson's disease by 123I-FP-CIT brain SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palumbo, Barbara; Fravolini, Mario Luca; Nuvoli, Susanna; Spanu, Angela; Madeddu, Giuseppe; Paulus, Kai Stephan; Schillaci, Orazio

    2010-01-01

    To contribute to the differentiation of Parkinson's disease (PD) and essential tremor (ET), we compared two different artificial neural network classifiers using 123 I-FP-CIT SPECT data, a probabilistic neural network (PNN) and a classification tree (ClT). 123 I-FP-CIT brain SPECT with semiquantitative analysis was performed in 216 patients: 89 with ET, 64 with PD with a Hoehn and Yahr (H and Y) score of ≤2 (early PD), and 63 with PD with a H and Y score of ≥2.5 (advanced PD). For each of the 1,000 experiments carried out, 108 patients were randomly selected as the PNN training set, while the remaining 108 validated the trained PNN, and the percentage of the validation data correctly classified in the three groups of patients was computed. The expected performance of an ''average performance PNN'' was evaluated. In analogy, for ClT 1,000 classification trees with similar structures were generated. For PNN, the probability of correct classification in patients with early PD was 81.9±8.1% (mean±SD), in patients with advanced PD 78.9±8.1%, and in ET patients 96.6±2.6%. For ClT, the first decision rule gave a mean value for the putamen of 5.99, which resulted in a probability of correct classification of 93.5±3.4%. This means that patients with putamen values >5.99 were classified as having ET, while patients with putamen values <5.99 were classified as having PD. Furthermore, if the caudate nucleus value was higher than 6.97 patients were classified as having early PD (probability 69.8±5.3%), and if the value was <6.97 patients were classified as having advanced PD (probability 88.1%±8.8%). These results confirm that PNN achieved valid classification results. Furthermore, ClT provided reliable cut-off values able to differentiate ET and PD of different severities. (orig.)

  14. Intranasal Dopamine Reduces In Vivo [(123)I]FP-CIT Binding to Striatal Dopamine Transporter: Correlation with Behavioral Changes and Evidence for Pavlovian Conditioned Dopamine Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza Silva, Maria A; Mattern, Claudia; Decheva, Cvetana; Huston, Joseph P; Sadile, Adolfo G; Beu, Markus; Müller, H-W; Nikolaus, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    Dopamine (DA), which does not cross the blood-brain barrier, has central and behavioral effects when administered via the nasal route. Neither the mechanisms of central action of intranasal dopamine (IN-DA), nor its mechanisms of diffusion and transport into the brain are well understood. We here examined whether IN-DA application influences dopamine transporter (DAT) binding in the dorsal striatum and assessed the extent of binding in relation to motor and exploratory behaviors. We hypothesized that, based on the finding of increased extracellular DA in the striatum induced by application of IN-DA, binding of [(123)I]FP-CIT to the DAT should be decreased due to competition at the receptor. Rats were administered 3 mg/kg IN-DA and vehicle (VEH), with IN-DA injection either preceding or following VEH. Then motor and exploratory behaviors (traveled distance, velocity, center time, sitting, rearing, head-shoulder motility, grooming) were assessed for 30 min in an open field prior to administration of [(123)I]FP-CIT. DAT binding after IN-DA and VEH was measured with small animal SPECT 2 h following administration of the radioligand. (1) After IN-DA application, striatal DAT binding was significantly lower as compared to VEH, indicating that the nasally delivered DA had central action and increased DA levels comparable to that found previously with L-DOPA administration; and (2) DAT binding in response to intranasal VEH was lower when IN-DA application preceded VEH treatment. This finding is suggestive of Pavlovian conditioning of DA at the level of the DAT, since the DA treatment modified (decreased) the binding in response to the subsequent VEH treatment. VEH treatment also reduced motor and exploratory behaviors more when applied before, as compared to when it followed IN-DA application, also indicative of behavioral Pavlovian conditioning akin to that found upon application of various psychostimulant drugs. (a) demonstrate a direct central action of intranasally

  15. La Técnica del Incidente Crítico y sus implicaciones en el desarrollo de la investigación en enfermería The critical incident technique and its implications in the development of the nursing research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lucía Noreña Peña

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo pretende describir, a manera introductoria, la aplicabilidad que tiene la técnica del incidente crítico, como herramienta de investigación cualitativa. A su vez explora el valor que desde sus inicios diversas disciplinas le han atribuido a la técnica para recolectar y analizar datos cualitativos. Su reconocimiento actual está basado en que la técnica permite comprender algunos componentes que pueden estar siendo valorados como "críticos" dentro de una actividad determinada. Se ha considerado que la técnica posee a nivel metodológico propiedades tales como practicidad, flexibilidad, versatilidad y efectividad en su aplicación. En esta breve disertación sobre la técnica, se describen las características generales de la técnica, sus atributos, aplicaciones y los aportes potenciales y reales que su utilización tiene en la investigación científica y el conocimento disciplinar de enfermería.This article describes, in an introductory way, the applicability that the critical incident technique has, as a qualitative research tool. It also explores the value that has been attributed to the technique by diverse disciplines to recollect and analyze qualitative data. Its current acknowledgment is based on the fact that the technique allows to understand some components that can been valued as "critical" among a given activity. It’s been considered that the technique has in the methodological level properties such as practicability, flexibility, versatility, and effectiveness in its application. In this brief dissertation about the technique, it’s described the general characteristics of the technique, its attributes, applications, and the potential and real contributions that its use has in the scientific research and the disciplinary knowledge of nursery.

  16. Evaluation of the monoamine uptake site ligand [123I]methyl 3β-(4-iodophenyl)-tropane-2β-carboxylate ([123I]β-CIT) in non-human primates: pharmacokinetics, biodistribution and SPECT brain imaging coregistered with MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldwin, R.M.; Zea-Ponce, Y.; Zoghbi, S.S.

    1993-01-01

    The in vivo properties of a new radioiodinated probe of the dopamine and serotonin transporter, [ 123 I]methyl 3β-(4-iodophenyl)tropane-2β-carboxylate ([ 123 I]β-CIT) were evaluated in baboons and vervet monkeys. The labeled product was prepared in 65.2 ± 2.8% yield (mean ± SEM; n = 8) by reaction of the tributylstannyl precursor with [ 123 I]NaI in the presence of peracetic acid followed by high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) purification to give a product with radiochemical purity of 97.5 ± 0.5% and specific activity of 500-1200 Ci/mmol. [ 123 I]β-CIT promises to be a useful marker for SPECT study of the monoamine uptake system in primate brain. (author)

  17. Incidents with hazardous radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoenhacker, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Incidents with hazardous radiation sources can occur in any country, even those without nuclear facilities. Preparedness for such incidents is supposed to fulfill globally agreed minimum standards. Incidents are categorized in incidents with licensed handling of radiation sources as for material testing, transport accidents of hazardous radiation sources, incidents with radionuclide batteries, incidents with satellites containing radioactive inventory, incidents wit not licensed handling of illegally acquired hazardous radiation sources. The emergency planning in Austria includes a differentiation according to the consequences: incidents with release of radioactive materials resulting in restricted contamination, incidents with release of radioactive materials resulting in local contamination, and incidents with the hazard of e@nhanced exposure due to the radiation source.

  18. Measurements of diamond-turned copper mirrors at glancing incidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, W.D.; Saito, T.T.

    1987-01-01

    The results of glancing incidence absorptance measurements performed on diamond-turned copper mirrors are presented. A photoacoustic calorimetry technique is used in which the output from a low power, chopped cw Nd:YAG laser (1.06 μm) is incident upon the mirror at angles of incidence from 0 to 87 0 , for both s and p-polarizations. Measurements are obtained as a function of the diamond turning groove orientation with respect to the plane of incidence. Minimum absorptance, at high angles of incidence, is achieved with s-polarized light and with the grooves aligned parallel to the plane of incidence. The affects on the absorptance of a large scratch at glancing incidence are also described

  19. Measurements of diamond turned copper mirrors at glancing incidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, W.D.; Saito, T.T.

    1987-01-01

    The results of glancing incidence absorptance measurements performed on diamond turned copper mirrors are presented. A photoacoustic calorimetry technique is used in which the output from a low power, chopped cw Nd:YAG laser (1.06 μm) is incident upon the mirror at angles of incidence from 0 to 87 0 , for both s and p-polarizations. Measurements are obtained as a function of the diamond turning groove orientation with respect to the plane of incidence. Minimum absorptance at high angles of incidence is achieved with s-polarized light and with the grooves aligned parallel to the plane of incidence. The effects on the absorptance of a large scratch at glancing incidence are also described

  20. Ethical Dilemmas of Turkish Counsellors: A Critical Incidents Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivis-Cetinkaya, Rahsan

    2015-01-01

    Ethical dilemmas from a national purposive sample of Turkish counsellors (N = 172) were collected using critical incidents technique. Content analysis was performed with open coding guided by the classification of American Counseling Association code of ethics. Incidents regarding confidentiality and privacy (56.4%), with 37.1% involving incidents…

  1. Melanoma in Organ Transplant Recipients: Incidence, Outcomes and Management Considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faisal R. Ali

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of melanoma continues to increase year on year. With better surgical techniques and medical management, greater numbers of organ transplants are being performed annually with much longer graft survival. The authors review our current understanding of the incidence of melanoma amongst organ transplant recipients, outcomes compared to the immunocompetent population, and management strategies in this burgeoning group.

  2. Distribution, incidence and severity of yam (Dioscorea spp

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    toualy

    2014-01-15

    Jan 15, 2014 ... incidence, severity of viral diseases, and viruses associated with the infected plants. Incidence and severity of the viral diseases were estimated based on symptoms. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. (ELISA) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based techniques were used for the detection of Yam.

  3. Progression of dopaminergic degeneration in dementia with Lewy bodies and Parkinson's disease with and without dementia assessed using 123I-FP-CIT SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colloby, Sean J.; McKeith, Ian G.; O'Brien, John T.; Williams, E. David; Burn, David J.; Lloyd, Jim J.

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the rate of progression of nigrostriatal dopaminergic loss in subjects with dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), Parkinson's disease (PD) and PD with dementia (PDD) using serial 123 I-FP-CIT SPECT imaging. We hypothesised that striatal rates of decline in patients would be greater than in controls, and that DLB and PDD would show similar rates, reflecting the similarity in neurobiological mechanisms of dopaminergic loss between the two disorders. We studied 20 patients with DLB, 20 with PD, 15 with PDD and 22 healthy age-matched controls. Semi-automated region of interest (ROI) analysis was performed on both baseline and repeat scans for each subject and mean striatal uptake ratios (caudate, anterior and posterior putamen) were calculated. Rates of decline in striatal binding between groups were assessed using ANCOVA. Significant differences between patients and controls were observed in caudate (DLB, PD, PDD, p≤0.01), anterior putamen (DLB, PDD, p≤0.05; PD, p=0.07) and posterior putamen (DLB, PD, PDD, p<0.006). Rates of decline were similar between DLB, PD and PDD. (orig.)

  4. Adapting the Crisis Intervention Team (CIT) Model of Police–Mental Health Collaboration in a Low-Income, Post-Conflict Country: Curriculum Development in Liberia, West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasingame, Elise; Compton, Michael T.; Dakana, Samuel F.; Dossen, Benedict; Lang, Frank; Strode, Patricia; Cooper, Janice

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We sought to develop a curriculum and collaboration model for law enforcement and mental health services in Liberia, West Africa. Methods. In 2013 we conducted key informant interviews with law enforcement officers, mental health clinicians, and mental health service users in Liberia, and facilitated a 3-day curriculum workshop. Results. Mental health service users reported prior violent interactions with officers. Officers and clinicians identified incarceration and lack of treatment of mental health service users as key problems, and they jointly drafted a curriculum based upon the Crisis Intervention Team (CIT) model adapted for Liberia. Officers’ mental health knowledge improved from 64% to 82% on workshop assessments (t = 5.52; P < .01). Clinicians’ attitudes improved (t = 2.42; P = .03). Six months after the workshop, 69% of clinicians reported improved engagement with law enforcement. Since the Ebola outbreak, law enforcement and clinicians have collaboratively addressed diverse public health needs. Conclusions. Collaborations between law enforcement and mental health clinicians can benefit multiple areas of public health, as demonstrated by partnerships to improve responses during the Ebola epidemic. Future research should evaluate training implementation and outcomes including stigma reduction, referrals, and use of force. PMID:25602903

  5. Adapting the Crisis Intervention Team (CIT) model of police-mental health collaboration in a low-income, post-conflict country: curriculum development in Liberia, West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohrt, Brandon A; Blasingame, Elise; Compton, Michael T; Dakana, Samuel F; Dossen, Benedict; Lang, Frank; Strode, Patricia; Cooper, Janice

    2015-03-01

    We sought to develop a curriculum and collaboration model for law enforcement and mental health services in Liberia, West Africa. In 2013 we conducted key informant interviews with law enforcement officers, mental health clinicians, and mental health service users in Liberia, and facilitated a 3-day curriculum workshop. Mental health service users reported prior violent interactions with officers. Officers and clinicians identified incarceration and lack of treatment of mental health service users as key problems, and they jointly drafted a curriculum based upon the Crisis Intervention Team (CIT) model adapted for Liberia. Officers' mental health knowledge improved from 64% to 82% on workshop assessments (t=5.52; P<.01). Clinicians' attitudes improved (t=2.42; P=.03). Six months after the workshop, 69% of clinicians reported improved engagement with law enforcement. Since the Ebola outbreak, law enforcement and clinicians have collaboratively addressed diverse public health needs. Collaborations between law enforcement and mental health clinicians can benefit multiple areas of public health, as demonstrated by partnerships to improve responses during the Ebola epidemic. Future research should evaluate training implementation and outcomes including stigma reduction, referrals, and use of force.

  6. Aux sources de la représentation des femmes autochtones dans trois récits de voyage français de la Renaissance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan Talbot

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available En analysant trois récits de voyage de la Renaissance ; l’Histoire d’un voyage faict en la terre du Brésil de Jean de Léry, Le grand voyage du pays des Hurons de Gabriel Sagard et des lettres de Marie de L’Incarnation, cet article cherche à analyser le portrait des femmes autochtones de la Nouvelle-France par une perspective européenne. Les auteurs avant tout font une comparaison entre la société européenne et la société autochtone pendant les premières explorations. Nous examinerons les thèmes communs des voyageurs comme les descriptions des femmes, y compris l’apparence physique, le comportement et les devoirs de la femme et dans le cas de Marie de L’Incarnation, l’héroïsme de différentes tribus. Les œuvres en question comparent les sociétés de leur temps, donnant l’occasion aux lecteurs modernes de retourner au passé pour comprendre la façon dont les femmes autochtones ont été représentées par les voyageurs au début de la colonisation.

  7. Le chagrin & la pitié : Chronique d’une cité française sous l’occupation allemande. Histoire et mémoire.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Christine Kok Escalle

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Documentaire dans lequel la caméra est au service d’une idée, Le chagrin et la pitié de Marcel Ophüls n’est certes pas un film historique. Il peut en revanche être considéré comme film d’histoire. Il fait œuvre d’histoire orale en écrivant le récit d’une période à partir de témoignages de personnes qui l’ont vécue ; il fait œuvre d’histoire en proposant des interprétations de cette période à partir de documents d’archives qui soutiennent la lecture que les acteurs font de leur vie d’alors ; enfin sa portée est historique car il incite les Français à ne plus occulter leur mémoire collective concernant la période de l’Occupation allemande pendant la Deuxième Guerre mondiale.

  8. Comparaison des conduites discursives de mères et d’enseignants dans la co-construction de récits avec des enfants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinel Elise

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Cette communication s’intéresse aux conduites discursives produites par des mères et des enseignants au cours de deux lectures conjointes d’album avec des enfants. Elle s’inscrit dans une approche dialogique et interactionniste du langage. Dans la suite des travaux de Florin (1991, Grossmann (1996, analysant les styles d’interaction des enseignants et de réception des enfants en cours de lecture, mais aussi de ceux de Vygotski (1984, Bruner (1994 ou encore Salazar Orvig et De Weck (2014, nous cherchons à comprendre de quelles manières les adultes racontent des histoires aux enfants et à quelles expériences spécifiques des récits ceux-ci sont confrontés. Dix enfants âgés de 3 à 5 ans ont été filmés au cours de ces séances de lectures d’albums, sans texte et avec texte, avec un de leur parent à leur domicile et avec des pairs et des enseignants à l’école.

  9. Expérience vécue de la souffrance dans les récits de la guerre de 1870 en Île-de-France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Berger

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Tous les récits sur la guerre de 1870 font état de la souffrance vécue dans l’occupation allemande. Ils n’ont jamais été analysés alors qu’ils présentent l’intérêt de montrer une mentalité française chez les civils. Entre sentiment de solitude, d’étrangeté, de dégoût, la souffrance est libérée sur le papier, des thèmes communs apparaissent; chacun raconte l’occupation de son point de vue, identique partout en région parisienne, mêmes brutalités, mêmes vexations. Traumatisés par la guerre, les auteurs trouvent le chemin de la reconstruction de soi par l’écriture de leurs souffrances. Ainsi le lecteur découvre un pan méconnu de l’histoire franco-allemande, une guerre plus violente que ce que la mémoire collective en a retenu.

  10. « Points de suture ». Panser l’interdépendance humaine dans quatre récits français contemporains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chloé Brendlé

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Comment rendre visibles les liens qui unissent les êtres humains d’un monde globalisé et médiatisé ? L’article aborde dans le domaine littéraire cette question posée par les théories du care. Il dégage des poétiques de l’interdépendance à partir de quatre récits d’auteurs français contemporains (Annie Ernaux, Laurent Mauvignier, Emmanuel Carrère, Maylis de Kerangal. Partant de l’analyse de la métaphore de l’« onde de choc », il met au jour une esthétique et une narratologie de la mise en relation, ainsi qu’un désir de communauté. How does one render visible the connections between human beings in a globalized and media-staged world? This article addresses such a line of questioning, which is central to theories of care, within the context of the literary field. It fleshes out a poetics of interdependence based on four narratives by contemporary French authors (Annie Ernaux, Laurent Mauvignier, Emmanuel Carrère, Maylis de Kerangal. With an analysis of the “shock-wave metaphor” as its starting point, it identifies an esthetics and a narratology of connection, as well as a yearning for community.

  11. Maximum Credible Incidents

    CERN Document Server

    Strait, J

    2009-01-01

    Following the incident in sector 34, considerable effort has been made to improve the systems for detecting similar faults and to improve the safety systems to limit the damage if a similar incident should occur. Nevertheless, even after the consolidation and repairs are completed, other faults may still occur in the superconducting magnet systems, which could result in damage to the LHC. Such faults include both direct failures of a particular component or system, or an incorrect response to a “normal” upset condition, for example a quench. I will review a range of faults which could be reasonably expected to occur in the superconducting magnet systems, and which could result in substantial damage and down-time to the LHC. I will evaluate the probability and the consequences of such faults, and suggest what mitigations, if any, are possible to protect against each.

  12. Contaminated Mexican steel incident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    This report documents the circumstances contributing to the inadvertent melting of cobalt 60 (Co-60) contaminated scrap metal in two Mexican steel foundries and the subsequent distribution of contaminated steel products into the United States. The report addresses mainly those actions taken by US Federal and state agencies to protect the US population from radiation risks associated with the incident. Mexico had much more serious radiation exposure and contamination problems to manage. The United States Government maintained a standing offer to provide technical and medical assistance to the Mexican Government. The report covers the tracing of the source to its origin, response actions to recover radioactive steel in the United States, and return of the contaminated materials to Mexico. The incident resulted in significant radiation exposures within Mexico, but no known significant exposure within the United States. Response to the incident required the combined efforts of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Department of Energy, Department of Transportation, Department of State, and US Customs Service (Department of Treasury) personnel at the Federal level and representatives of all 50 State Radiation Control Programs and, in some instances, local and county government personnel. The response also required a diplomatic interface with the Mexican Government and cooperation of numerous commercial establishments and members of the general public. The report describes the factual information associated with the event and may serve as information for subsequent recommendations and actions by the NRC. 8 figures

  13. Adjusting for the Incidence of Measurement Errors in Multilevel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the incidence of measurement errors using these techniques generally revealed coefficient estimates of ... physical, biological, social and medical science, measurement errors are found. The errors are ... (M) and Science and Technology (ST).

  14. Medication incidents reported to an online incident reporting system.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Alrwisan, Adel

    2011-01-15

    AIMS: Approximately 20% of deaths from adverse events are related to medication incidents, costing the NHS an additional £500 million annually. Less than 5% of adverse events are reported. This study aims to assess the reporting rate of medication incidents in NHS facilities in the north east of Scotland, and to describe the types and outcomes of reported incidents among different services. Furthermore, we wished to quantify the proportion of reported incidents according to the reporters\\' profession. METHODS: A retrospective description was made of medication incidents reported to an online reporting system (DATIX) over a 46-month-period (July 2005 to April 2009). Reports originated from acute and community hospitals, mental health, and primary care facilities. RESULTS: Over the study period there were 2,666 incidents reported with a mean monthly reporting rate of 78.2\\/month (SD±16.9). 6.1% of all incidents resulted in harm, with insulin being the most commonly implicated medication. Nearly three-quarters (74.2%, n=1,978) of total incidents originated from acute hospitals. Administration incidents were implicated in the majority of the reported medication incidents (59%), followed by prescribing (10.8%) and dispensing (9.9%), while the nondescript "other medication incidents" accounted for 20.3% of total incidents. The majority of reports were made by nursing and midwifery staff (80%), with medical and dental professionals reporting the lowest number of incidents (n=56, 2%). CONCLUSIONS: The majority of medication incidents in this study were reported by nursing and midwifery staff, and were due to administration incidents. There is a clear need to elucidate the reasons for the limited contribution of the medical and dental professionals to reporting medication incidents.

  15. Consumer Driven Computer Game Design

    OpenAIRE

    Trappey, Charles

    2005-01-01

    The Critical Incident Techniques (CIT) is widely used to study customer satisfaction and dissatisfaction in the service industry. CIT provides questionnaire respondents with an open format to describe in their own words incidents that create lasting impressions. The purpose of this research is to develop a methodology for computer game design with the goal and intent of creating games that increase the consumer’s satisfaction through play. Too often game designers, either with or without inte...

  16. Prevalence Incidence Mixture Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    The R package and webtool fits Prevalence Incidence Mixture models to left-censored and irregularly interval-censored time to event data that is commonly found in screening cohorts assembled from electronic health records. Absolute and relative risk can be estimated for simple random sampling, and stratified sampling (the two approaches of superpopulation and a finite population are supported for target populations). Non-parametric (absolute risks only), semi-parametric, weakly-parametric (using B-splines), and some fully parametric (such as the logistic-Weibull) models are supported.

  17. Improving freight crash incident management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the most effective way to mitigate the effect of freight : crash incidents on Louisiana freeways. Candidate incident management strategies were reviewed from : practice in other states and from those publi...

  18. Base documentaire sur les artisanats gallo-romains en Lyonnaise et dans les cités du nord et de l’est de l’Aquitaine : Corpus de données. Présentation Documentary base on the Gallo-Roman craft industries in the Lyonnaise region and the cities of North and East Aquitaine: Data base – presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alain Ferdière

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Un important corpus de tout type d’artisanat pour la période romaine a été constitué et est ici accessible en lien : il concerne l’ensemble de la province romaine de Lyonnaise (du Finistère au Lyonnais, ainsi que les cités du nord et de l’est de la grande Aquitaine, des Pictons à l’ouest au Gabales au sud-est. Ce corpus examine, par type d’artisanat, essentiellement les contextes (types de sites, chronologie, et non les aspects techniques ou typologiques concernant ces artisanats.An important body of all types of craft industries has been built up for the Roman period and is accessible here in context: it concerns the whole of the Lyonnaise Roman province (from Finistère to Lyonnais as well as the cities of the north and of greater Aquitaine, from the Pictons to the west to the Gabales to the south-east. This body essentially examines for each type of craft industry the contexts (type of site, chronology and not the technical aspects or typologies concerning the craft industries.

  19. Increasing incidence of pyogenic spondylodiscitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kehrer, Michala; Pedersen, Court; Jensen, Thøger G

    2014-01-01

    Smaller studies indicate that the incidence of pyogenic spondylodiscitis is increasing, possible related to a growing elderly population. Data supporting this is sparse, and we therefore studied patient characteristics and changes in spondylodiscitis incidence 1995-2008.......Smaller studies indicate that the incidence of pyogenic spondylodiscitis is increasing, possible related to a growing elderly population. Data supporting this is sparse, and we therefore studied patient characteristics and changes in spondylodiscitis incidence 1995-2008....

  20. Incident Management: Process into Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaac, Gayle; Moore, Brian

    2011-01-01

    Tornados, shootings, fires--these are emergencies that require fast action by school district personnel, but they are not the only incidents that require risk management. The authors have introduced the National Incident Management System (NIMS) and the Incident Command System (ICS) and assured that these systems can help educators plan for and…

  1. Représentations de l'Europe et discours national dans les récit de voyages colombiens (1850-1900

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available L’existence, à partir du milieu du XIXe siècle, d’un flux croissant de voyageurs Colombiens en Europe donne naissance à un genre jusque-là inconnu dans la littérature nationale : le récit de voyage, qui démontrera une certaine vigueur tout au long de la seconde moitié du siècle. Le fait que dans la plupart des cas, les récits de voyages soient écrits par des hommes publics, politiciens ou ecclésiastiques, contribue à leur donner une valeur programmatique. En décrivant l’Europe qu’ils parcourent, les voyageurs Colombiens lui attribuent une valeur exemplaire, et dessinent, selon leur tendance politique deux représentations conflictuelles : l’Europe libérale et l’Europe conservatrice, qui font écho aux luttes qui opposent, en Colombie, libéraux et conservateurs. L’apparition, dans les années 1880, d’un courant de critique du voyage révèle à son tour un conflit de légitimité politique qui fait une large part à l’utilisation des concepts de nationalisme et d’”extranjerismo”. REPRESENTACIONES DE EUROPA Y DISCURSO NACIONAL EN LOS RELATOS DE VIAJES COLOMBIANOS (1850-1900. La existencia, a partir de mediados del Siglo XIX, de un flujo creciente de viajeros colombianos en Europa engendra un género antes inexistente en la literatura nacional: el relato de viaje, que demostrará su vigor a lo largo de la segunda mitad del siglo. El hecho de que, en la mayoría de los casos, los autores de los relatos son hombres públicos, políticos o eclesiásticos, contribuye a dar a esos textos un valor programático. Así, al describir la Europa que recorren, los viajeros colombianos tienden a otorgarle un valor ejemplar y dibujan, en función de su opción política, dos representaciones conflictivas: la Europa liberal y la Europa conservadora, que reflejan las luchas que oponen, en Colombia, a liberales y conservadores. La aparición, en los años 1880, de una corriente de crítica del viaje revela a su vez un conflicto de

  2. Superiority of visual (verbal) vs. auditory test presentation modality in a P300-based CIT: The Complex Trial Protocol for concealed autobiographical memory detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Xiaohong; Rosenfeld, J Peter; Ward, Anne; Labkovsky, Elena

    2016-07-01

    This paper continues our efforts to determine which modality is best for presentation of stimuli in the P300-based concealed information test (CIT) called the Complex Trial Protocol (CTP). The first part of the CTP trial involves presentation of the key probe or irrelevant stimuli, and is followed by presentation of target (T) or non-target (NT). In Rosenfeld et al. (2015), probes and irrelevants regularly alternated modality over trials, but Ts and NTs were always visual. In the present study, (in both its experiments, EXP 1 and EXP 2), probes and irrelevants alternated modalities on successive trials, as before. In present EXP 1, Ts and NTs were always auditory, but in EXP 2, they were simultaneously auditory and visual. Probe P300 data were different in each study: In Rosenfeld et al. (2015) and EXP 2 here, the bootstrap-based detection rates based on probe-minus-irrelevant differences, significantly differed favoring visual probe and irrelevant presentation modality. In EXP 1 here, detection rates were the same for the two modalities. In Rosenfeld et al. (2015) there was no main effect of probe modality, visual vs. auditory on probe-minus-irrelevant P300 difference. There were such effects here in EXP 1 (pvisual modality. Probe P300 latencies were shorter for visual than for auditory stimuli in Rosenfeld et al. (2015), a trend specifically reversed in the present pair of studies. RT was faster for visual stimuli in the present studies. The T and NT modality appears to interact with probe/irrelevant modality, and the best protocol for detecting concealed information is with the 2015 study protocol or that of EXP 2, using visual stimulus presentation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Les dispositifs de fiction cinématographique au sein du documentaire Récits d’Ellis Island, de Georges Perec et Robert Bober (1980

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cécile Tourneur

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Traces et Mémoires, les titres des deux parties qui composent Récits d’Ellis Island réalisé par Georges Perec et Robert Bober entre 1978 et 1980, peuvent être perçus comme résumant les enjeux majeurs du film : la restitution, à partir de vestiges, de ce que fut ce lieu de passage de millions d’émigrants, devenu « lieu de mémoire » et une volonté de considérer ces destins dans leur singularité. Dans la première partie, Traces, le texte écrit et lu par Georges Perec relie Ellis Island à un questionnement personnel sur leurs propres origines et leur identité. Perec et Bober ne s’attachent pas à une reconstitution exacte du passé, projet voué à l’échec, mais vont créer un espace fictionnel au sein du projet documentaire à travers la mise en scène de photographies (la plupart sont de Lewis Hine et datent du début du XXe siècle dans les lieux même où furent réalisées les prises de vue. Photographie et cinéma ainsi confrontés leur permettent de mener à bien une réflexion sur l’exil, la transmission d’une histoire et d’y projeter leur propre questionnement autobiographique, de l’ordre du possible, du potentiel.

  4. Serotonin transporter binding with [{sup 123}I]{beta}-CIT SPECT in major depressive disorder versus controls: effect of season and gender

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruhe, Henricus G. [University of Amsterdam, Program for Mood Disorders, Department of Psychiatry, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Academic Medical Center, Department of Psychiatry, P.O. Box 22660, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Booij, Jan [University of Amsterdam, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Reitsma, Johannes B. [University of Amsterdam, Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Bioinformatics, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Schene, Aart H. [University of Amsterdam, Program for Mood Disorders, Department of Psychiatry, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2009-05-15

    The serotonin system is undoubtedly involved in the pathogenesis of major depressive disorder (MDD). More specifically the serotonin transporter (SERT) serves as a major target for antidepressant drugs. There are conflicting results about SERT availability in depressed patients versus healthy controls. We aimed to measure SERT availability and study the effects of age, gender and season of scanning in MDD patients in comparison to healthy controls. We included 49 depressed outpatients (mean{+-}SD 42.3 {+-} 8.3 years) with a Hamilton depression rating scale score above 18, who were drug-naive or drug-free for {>=}4 weeks, and 49 healthy controls matched for age ({+-}2 years) and sex. Subjects were scanned with single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) using [{sup 123}I]{beta}-CIT. SERT availability was expressed as specific to nonspecific binding ratios (BP{sub ND}) in the midbrain and diencephalon with cerebellar binding as a reference. In crude comparisons between patients and controls, we found no significant differences in midbrain or diencephalon SERT availability. In subgroup analyses, depressed males had numerically lower midbrain SERT availability than controls, whereas among women SERT availability was not different (significant diagnosis x gender interaction; p = 0.048). In the diencephalon we found a comparable diagnosis x gender interaction (p = 0.002) and an additional smoking x gender (p = 0.036) interaction. In the midbrain the season of scanning showed a significant main effect (p = 0.018) with higher SERT availability in winter. Differences in SERT availability in the midbrain and diencephalon in MDD patients compared with healthy subjects are affected by gender. The season of scanning is a covariate in the midbrain. The diagnosis x gender and gender x smoking interactions in SERT availability should be considered in future studies of the pathogenesis of MDD. (orig.)

  5. Serotonin transporter binding with [123I]β-CIT SPECT in major depressive disorder versus controls: effect of season and gender

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruhe, Henricus G.; Booij, Jan; Reitsma, Johannes B.; Schene, Aart H.

    2009-01-01

    The serotonin system is undoubtedly involved in the pathogenesis of major depressive disorder (MDD). More specifically the serotonin transporter (SERT) serves as a major target for antidepressant drugs. There are conflicting results about SERT availability in depressed patients versus healthy controls. We aimed to measure SERT availability and study the effects of age, gender and season of scanning in MDD patients in comparison to healthy controls. We included 49 depressed outpatients (mean±SD 42.3 ± 8.3 years) with a Hamilton depression rating scale score above 18, who were drug-naive or drug-free for ≥4 weeks, and 49 healthy controls matched for age (±2 years) and sex. Subjects were scanned with single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) using [ 123 I]β-CIT. SERT availability was expressed as specific to nonspecific binding ratios (BP ND ) in the midbrain and diencephalon with cerebellar binding as a reference. In crude comparisons between patients and controls, we found no significant differences in midbrain or diencephalon SERT availability. In subgroup analyses, depressed males had numerically lower midbrain SERT availability than controls, whereas among women SERT availability was not different (significant diagnosis x gender interaction; p = 0.048). In the diencephalon we found a comparable diagnosis x gender interaction (p = 0.002) and an additional smoking x gender (p = 0.036) interaction. In the midbrain the season of scanning showed a significant main effect (p = 0.018) with higher SERT availability in winter. Differences in SERT availability in the midbrain and diencephalon in MDD patients compared with healthy subjects are affected by gender. The season of scanning is a covariate in the midbrain. The diagnosis x gender and gender x smoking interactions in SERT availability should be considered in future studies of the pathogenesis of MDD. (orig.)

  6. Grazing incidence beam expander

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akkapeddi, P.R.; Glenn, P.; Fuschetto, A.; Appert, Q.; Viswanathan, V.K.

    1985-01-01

    A Grazing Incidence Beam Expander (GIBE) telescope is being designed and fabricated to be used as an equivalent end mirror in a long laser resonator cavity. The design requirements for this GIBE flow down from a generic Free Electron Laser (FEL) resonator. The nature of the FEL gain volume (a thin, pencil-like, on-axis region) dictates that the output beam be very small. Such a thin beam with the high power levels characteristic of FELs would have to travel perhaps hundreds of meters or more before expanding enough to allow reflection from cooled mirrors. A GIBE, on the other hand, would allow placing these optics closer to the gain region and thus reduces the cavity lengths substantially. Results are presented relating to optical and mechanical design, alignment sensitivity analysis, radius of curvature analysis, laser cavity stability analysis of a linear stable concentric laser cavity with a GIBE. Fabrication details of the GIBE are also given.

  7. Grazing Incidence Neutron Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubarev, Mikhail V. (Inventor); Ramsey, Brian D. (Inventor); Engelhaupt, Darell E. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    Neutron optics based on the two-reflection geometries are capable of controlling beams of long wavelength neutrons with low angular divergence. The preferred mirror fabrication technique is a replication process with electroform nickel replication process being preferable. In the preliminary demonstration test an electroform nickel optics gave the neutron current density gain at the focal spot of the mirror at least 8 for neutron wavelengths in the range from 6 to 20.ANG.. The replication techniques can be also be used to fabricate neutron beam controlling guides.

  8. Do CSF levels of t-Tau, p-Tau and β{sub 1-42} amyloid correlate with dopaminergic system impairment in patients with a clinical diagnosis of Parkinson disease? A {sup 123}I-FP-CIT study in the early stages of the disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiaravalloti, Agostino; Fiorentini, Alessandro; Lacanfora, Annamaria [University Tor Vergata, Department of Biomedicine and Prevention, Rome (Italy); Stefani, Alessandro [University Tor Vergata, Department of Neurosciences, Rome (Italy); IRCCS Santa Lucia, Rome (Italy); Stanzione, Paolo [University Tor Vergata, Department of Neurosciences, Rome (Italy); Schillaci, Orazio [University Tor Vergata, Department of Biomedicine and Prevention, Rome (Italy); IRCCS Neuromed, Pozzilli (Italy)

    2014-11-15

    To investigate the relationships among cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of t-Tau, p-Tau and Aβ{sub 1-42} amyloid peptide and {sup 123}I-FP-CIT uptake. The study included 58 subjects (31 men and 27 women, age 67 ± 9 years) with a clinical diagnosis of Parkinson disease diagnosed according to the United Kingdom Parkinson Disease Society Brain Bank criteria. All subjects underwent a CSF assay 28 ± 3 days before {sup 123}I-FP-CIT SPECT scanning. The relationships were evaluated by means of linear regression analysis and Pearson correlation. Striatal {sup 123}I-FP-CIT was positively related to both t-Tau and p-Tau CSF values with low levels of t-Tau and p-Tau being related to a low uptake of {sup 123}I-FP-CIT. In particular, differences with higher statistical significance were found for the striatum between the contralateral side and the side mainly affected on clinical examination (P < 0.001). No significant relationships were found between Aβ{sub 1-42} amyloid peptide and {sup 123}I-FP-CIT binding. The results of our study suggest that the presynaptic dopaminergic system is more involved in Parkinson disease patients with lower t-Tau and p-Tau CSF values while values of Aβ{sub 1-42} amyloid peptide seems not to be related to nigrostriatal degeneration in our series. (orig.)

  9. Do CSF levels of t-Tau, p-Tau and β1-42 amyloid correlate with dopaminergic system impairment in patients with a clinical diagnosis of Parkinson disease? A 123I-FP-CIT study in the early stages of the disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiaravalloti, Agostino; Fiorentini, Alessandro; Lacanfora, Annamaria; Stefani, Alessandro; Stanzione, Paolo; Schillaci, Orazio

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the relationships among cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of t-Tau, p-Tau and Aβ 1-42 amyloid peptide and 123 I-FP-CIT uptake. The study included 58 subjects (31 men and 27 women, age 67 ± 9 years) with a clinical diagnosis of Parkinson disease diagnosed according to the United Kingdom Parkinson Disease Society Brain Bank criteria. All subjects underwent a CSF assay 28 ± 3 days before 123 I-FP-CIT SPECT scanning. The relationships were evaluated by means of linear regression analysis and Pearson correlation. Striatal 123 I-FP-CIT was positively related to both t-Tau and p-Tau CSF values with low levels of t-Tau and p-Tau being related to a low uptake of 123 I-FP-CIT. In particular, differences with higher statistical significance were found for the striatum between the contralateral side and the side mainly affected on clinical examination (P 1-42 amyloid peptide and 123 I-FP-CIT binding. The results of our study suggest that the presynaptic dopaminergic system is more involved in Parkinson disease patients with lower t-Tau and p-Tau CSF values while values of Aβ 1-42 amyloid peptide seems not to be related to nigrostriatal degeneration in our series. (orig.)

  10. Do CSF levels of t-Tau, p-Tau and β₁₋₄₂ amyloid correlate with dopaminergic system impairment in patients with a clinical diagnosis of Parkinson disease? A ¹²³I-FP-CIT study in the early stages of the disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiaravalloti, Agostino; Stefani, Alessandro; Fiorentini, Alessandro; Lacanfora, Annamaria; Stanzione, Paolo; Schillaci, Orazio

    2014-11-01

    To investigate the relationships among cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of t-Tau, p-Tau and Aβ₁₋₄₂ amyloid peptide and (123)I-FP-CIT uptake. The study included 58 subjects (31 men and 27 women, age 67 ± 9 years) with a clinical diagnosis of Parkinson disease diagnosed according to the United Kingdom Parkinson Disease Society Brain Bank criteria. All subjects underwent a CSF assay 28 ± 3 days before (123)I-FP-CIT SPECT scanning. The relationships were evaluated by means of linear regression analysis and Pearson correlation. Striatal (123)I-FP-CIT was positively related to both t-Tau and p-Tau CSF values with low levels of t-Tau and p-Tau being related to a low uptake of (123)I-FP-CIT. In particular, differences with higher statistical significance were found for the striatum that is contralateral to theside mainly affected on clinical examination (P<0.001) [corrected].No significant relationships were found between Aβ₁₋₄₂ amyloid peptide and (123)I-FP-CIT binding. The results of our study suggest that the presynaptic dopaminergic system is more involved in Parkinson disease patients with lower t-Tau and p-Tau CSF values while values of Aβ₁₋₄₂ amyloid peptide seems not to be related to nigrostriatal degeneration in our series.

  11. Experimental techniques; Techniques experimentales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roussel-Chomaz, P. [GANIL CNRS/IN2P3, CEA/DSM, 14 - Caen (France)

    2007-07-01

    This lecture presents the experimental techniques, developed in the last 10 or 15 years, in order to perform a new class of experiments with exotic nuclei, where the reactions induced by these nuclei allow to get information on their structure. A brief review of the secondary beams production methods will be given, with some examples of facilities in operation or under project. The important developments performed recently on cryogenic targets will be presented. The different detection systems will be reviewed, both the beam detectors before the targets, and the many kind of detectors necessary to detect all outgoing particles after the reaction: magnetic spectrometer for the heavy fragment, detection systems for the target recoil nucleus, {gamma} detectors. Finally, several typical examples of experiments will be detailed, in order to illustrate the use of each detector either alone, or in coincidence with others. (author)

  12. Evaluation of the monoamine uptake site ligand [123I]methyl 3β-(4-iodophenyl)-tropane-2β-carboxylate ([123I]β-CIT) in non-human primates: pharmacokinetics, biodistribution and SPECT brain imaging coregistered with MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldwin, R.M.; Zea-Ponce, Yolanda; Zoghbi, S.S.

    1993-01-01

    The in vivo properties of a new radioiodinated probe of the dopamine and serotonin transporter, [ 123 )I] methyl 3β-(4-iodophenyl)tropane-2β - carboxylate ([ 123 I]β-CIT) were evaluated in baboons and vervet monkeys. The labeled product was prepared by reaction of the tributylstannyl precursor with [ 123 I] NaI in the presence of peracetic acid followed by high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) purification. After intravenous administration, whole brain activity peaked at 6-10% injected dose within 1 h post injection (p.i.) and washed out in a biphasic manner with clearance half-lives of 1-2 and 7-35 h for the rapid and slow components, respectively. Excretion occurred primarily through the hepatobiliary route, with about 30% of the injected dose appearing in the GI tract after 5 h. Estimates of radiation absorbed dose gave 0.01, 0.1, 0.2 and 0.03 mGy/MBq to the brain, gall bladder wall, lower large intestine wall and urinary bladder wall, respectively. High resolution SPECT imaging in a baboon demonstrated high uptake of tracer in the region of the striatum in the hypothalamus and in a midbrain region comprising raphe, substantia nigra and superior colliculus with regional brain uptakes measured at 210 min p.i. of [ 123 I]β-CIT. The anatomical locations of the regions on the SPECT image were confirmed by coregistration with MRI. Plasma metabolites and pharmacokinetics were analyzed in baboons and vervets by ethyl acetate extraction and HPLC. [ 123 I]β-CIT promises to be a useful marker for SPECT study of the monoamine uptake system in primate brain. (Author)

  13. Early-stage [{sup 123}I]{beta}-CIT SPECT and long-term clinical follow-up in patients with an initial diagnosis of Parkinson's disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoffers, Diederick [VU University Medical Center, Institute for Clinical and Experimental Neurosciences, P.O. Box 7057, MB, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Vrije Universiteit, Department of Clinical Neuropsychology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Booij, Jan [University of Amsterdam, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Academic Medical Center (Netherlands); Bosscher, Lisette; Winogrodzka, Ania; Wolters, Erik C.; Berendse, Henk W. [VU University Medical Center, Institute for Clinical and Experimental Neurosciences, P.O. Box 7057, MB, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2005-06-01

    Previous studies using dopamine transporter single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) to try and distinguish between patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease (IPD) and patients with atypical parkinsonian syndromes (APS) have mainly focussed on patients with an already established clinical diagnosis of several years' duration. Differences in the pattern of striatal involvement between IPD and APS have been found in only few studies. We hypothesized that distinguishing SPECT features might be most pronounced at an early disease stage, and the purpose of the present study was to investigate this hypothesis. The study included 72 patients with an initial clinical diagnosis of IPD, supported by decreased striatal [{sup 123}I]{beta}-CIT binding on baseline SPECT. In ten patients, the diagnosis was changed to APS over a mean follow-up period of 62 months. We retrospectively compared the patterns of striatal involvement on the baseline SPECT scans between the group of patients (re)diagnosed with APS and the remaining 62 patients in whom a diagnosis of IPD was maintained. In the group of patients with APS, baseline [{sup 123}I]{beta}-CIT binding in both caudate nuclei was lower than in the group of patients with IPD. In addition, putamen to caudate binding ratios were higher in the group of APS patients. In spite of these differences, individual binding values showed considerable overlap between the groups. [{sup 123}I]{beta}-CIT SPECT scanning in early-stage, untreated parkinsonian patients revealed a relative sparing of the caudate nucleus in patients with IPD as compared to patients later (re)diagnosed with APS. Nevertheless, the pattern of striatal involvement appears to have little predictive value for a later re-diagnosis of APS in individual cases. (orig.)

  14. The crystal structures of the tri-functional Chloroflexus aurantiacus and bi-functional Rhodobacter sphaeroides malyl-CoA lyases and comparison with CitE-like superfamily enzymes and malate synthases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarzycki, Jan; Kerfeld, Cheryl A

    2013-11-09

    Malyl-CoA lyase (MCL) is a promiscuous carbon-carbon bond lyase that catalyzes the reversible cleavage of structurally related Coenzyme A (CoA) thioesters. This enzyme plays a crucial, multifunctional role in the 3-hydroxypropionate bi-cycle for autotrophic CO2 fixation in Chloroflexus aurantiacus. A second, phylogenetically distinct MCL from Rhodobacter sphaeroides is involved in the ethylmalonyl-CoA pathway for acetate assimilation. Both MCLs belong to the large superfamily of CitE-like enzymes, which includes the name-giving β-subunit of citrate lyase (CitE), malyl-CoA thioesterases and other enzymes of unknown physiological function. The CitE-like enzyme superfamily also bears sequence and structural resemblance to the malate synthases. All of these different enzymes share highly conserved catalytic residues, although they catalyze distinctly different reactions: C-C bond formation and cleavage, thioester hydrolysis, or both (the malate synthases). Here we report the first crystal structures of MCLs from two different phylogenetic subgroups in apo- and substrate-bound forms. Both the C. aurantiacus and the R. sphaeroides MCL contain elaborations on the canonical β8/α8 TIM barrel fold and form hexameric assemblies. Upon ligand binding, changes in the C-terminal domains of the MCLs result in closing of the active site, with the C-terminal domain of one monomer forming a lid over and contributing side chains to the active site of the adjacent monomer. The distinctive features of the two MCL subgroups were compared to known structures of other CitE-like superfamily enzymes and to malate synthases, providing insight into the structural subtleties that underlie the functional versatility of these enzymes. Although the C. aurantiacus and the R. sphaeroides MCLs have divergent primary structures (~37% identical), their tertiary and quaternary structures are very similar. It can be assumed that the C-C bond formation catalyzed by the MCLs occurs as proposed for

  15. European multicentre database of healthy controls for [123I]FP-CIT SPECT (ENC-DAT): age-related effects, gender differences and evaluation of different methods of analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varrone, Andrea; Dickson, John C.; Tossici-Bolt, Livia; Sera, Terez; Asenbaum, Susanne; Booij, Jan; Kapucu, Ozlem L.; Kluge, Andreas; Knudsen, Gitte M.; Koulibaly, Pierre Malick; Nobili, Flavio; Pagani, Marco; Sabri, Osama; Borght, Thierry vander; Laere, Koen van; Tatsch, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    Dopamine transporter (DAT) imaging with [ 123 I]FP-CIT (DaTSCAN) is an established diagnostic tool in parkinsonism and dementia. Although qualitative assessment criteria are available, DAT quantification is important for research and for completion of a diagnostic evaluation. One critical aspect of quantification is the availability of normative data, considering possible age and gender effects on DAT availability. The aim of the European Normal Control Database of DaTSCAN (ENC-DAT) study was to generate a large database of [ 123 I]FP-CIT SPECT scans in healthy controls. SPECT data from 139 healthy controls (74 men, 65 women; age range 20 - 83 years, mean 53 years) acquired in 13 different centres were included. Images were reconstructed using the ordered-subset expectation-maximization algorithm without correction (NOACSC), with attenuation correction (AC), and with both attenuation and scatter correction using the triple-energy window method (ACSC). Region-of-interest analysis was performed using the BRASS software (caudate and putamen), and the Southampton method (striatum). The outcome measure was the specific binding ratio (SBR). A significant effect of age on SBR was found for all data. Gender had a significant effect on SBR in the caudate and putamen for the NOACSC and AC data, and only in the left caudate for the ACSC data (BRASS method). Significant effects of age and gender on striatal SBR were observed for all data analysed with the Southampton method. Overall, there was a significant age-related decline in SBR of between 4 % and 6.7 % per decade. This study provides a large database of [ 123 I]FP-CIT SPECT scans in healthy controls across a wide age range and with balanced gender representation. Higher DAT availability was found in women than in men. An average age-related decline in DAT availability of 5.5 % per decade was found for both genders, in agreement with previous reports. The data collected in this study may serve as a reference database for

  16. European multicentre database of healthy controls for [{sup 123}I]FP-CIT SPECT (ENC-DAT): age-related effects, gender differences and evaluation of different methods of analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varrone, Andrea [Karolinska University Hospital, R5:02, Karolinska Institutet, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Centre for Psychiatry Research, Stockholm (Sweden); Dickson, John C. [UCLH NHS Foundation Trust and University College, Institute of Nuclear Medicine, London (United Kingdom); Tossici-Bolt, Livia [University Hospitals Southampton NHS Trust, Department of Medical Physics, Southampton (United Kingdom); Sera, Terez [University of Szeged, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Euromedic Szeged, Szeged (Hungary); Asenbaum, Susanne [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Vienna (Austria); Booij, Jan [University of Amsterdam, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Academic Medical Centre, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Kapucu, Ozlem L. [Gazi University, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Ankara (Turkey); Kluge, Andreas [ABX-CRO, Dresden (Germany); Knudsen, Gitte M. [Rigshospitalet and University of Copenhagen, Neurobiology Research Unit, Copenhagen (Denmark); Koulibaly, Pierre Malick [University of Nice-Sophia Antipolis, Nuclear Medicine Department, Centre Antoine Lacassagne, Nice (France); Nobili, Flavio [University of Genoa, Clinical Neurophysiology Unit, Department of Neuroscience, Ophthalmology and Genetics, Genoa (Italy); Pagani, Marco [Institute of Cognitive Sciences and Technologies, CNR, Rome (Italy); Karolinska University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Stockholm (Sweden); Sabri, Osama [University of Leipzig, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Leipzig (Germany); Borght, Thierry vander [Universite Catholique de Louvain, Nuclear Medicine Division, Mont-Godinne Medical Center, Yvoir (Belgium); Laere, Koen van [University Hospital and K.U. Leuven, Nuclear Medicine, Leuven (Belgium); Tatsch, Klaus [Municipal Hospital of Karlsruhe Inc, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2013-02-15

    Dopamine transporter (DAT) imaging with [{sup 123}I]FP-CIT (DaTSCAN) is an established diagnostic tool in parkinsonism and dementia. Although qualitative assessment criteria are available, DAT quantification is important for research and for completion of a diagnostic evaluation. One critical aspect of quantification is the availability of normative data, considering possible age and gender effects on DAT availability. The aim of the European Normal Control Database of DaTSCAN (ENC-DAT) study was to generate a large database of [{sup 123}I]FP-CIT SPECT scans in healthy controls. SPECT data from 139 healthy controls (74 men, 65 women; age range 20 - 83 years, mean 53 years) acquired in 13 different centres were included. Images were reconstructed using the ordered-subset expectation-maximization algorithm without correction (NOACSC), with attenuation correction (AC), and with both attenuation and scatter correction using the triple-energy window method (ACSC). Region-of-interest analysis was performed using the BRASS software (caudate and putamen), and the Southampton method (striatum). The outcome measure was the specific binding ratio (SBR). A significant effect of age on SBR was found for all data. Gender had a significant effect on SBR in the caudate and putamen for the NOACSC and AC data, and only in the left caudate for the ACSC data (BRASS method). Significant effects of age and gender on striatal SBR were observed for all data analysed with the Southampton method. Overall, there was a significant age-related decline in SBR of between 4 % and 6.7 % per decade. This study provides a large database of [{sup 123}I]FP-CIT SPECT scans in healthy controls across a wide age range and with balanced gender representation. Higher DAT availability was found in women than in men. An average age-related decline in DAT availability of 5.5 % per decade was found for both genders, in agreement with previous reports. The data collected in this study may serve as a reference

  17. Cancer incidence among firefighters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pukkala, Eero; Martinsen, Jan Ivar; Weiderpass, Elisabete

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Firefighters are potentially exposed to a wide range of known and suspected carcinogens through their work. The objectives of this study were to examine the patterns of cancer among Nordic firefighters, and to compare them with the results from previous studies. METHODS: Data for this......OBJECTIVES: Firefighters are potentially exposed to a wide range of known and suspected carcinogens through their work. The objectives of this study were to examine the patterns of cancer among Nordic firefighters, and to compare them with the results from previous studies. METHODS: Data...... for this study were drawn from a linkage between the census data for 15 million people from the five Nordic countries and their cancer registries for the period 1961-2005. SIR analyses were conducted with the cancer incidence rates for the entire national study populations used as reference rates. RESULTS......: A total of 16 422 male firefighters were included in the final cohort. A moderate excess risk was seen for all cancer sites combined, (SIR=1.06, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.11). There were statistically significant excesses in the age category of 30-49 years in prostate cancer (SIR=2.59, 95% CI 1.34 to 4...

  18. Precursor incident program at EDF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fourest, B.; Maliverney, B.; Rozenholc, M.; Piovesan, C.

    1998-01-01

    The precursor program was started by EDF in 1994, after an investigation of the US NRC's Accident Sequence Precursor Program. Since then, reported operational events identified as Safety Outstanding Events have been analyzed whenever possible using probabilistic methods based on PSAs. Analysis provides an estimate of the remaining protection against core damage at the time the incident occurred. Measuring the incidents' severity enables to detect incidents important regarding safety. Moreover, the most efficient feedback actions can be derived from the main accident sequences identified through the analysis. Therefore, incident probabilistic analysis provides a way to assess priorities in terms of treatment and resource allocation, and so, to implement countermeasures preventing further occurrence and development of the most significant incidents. As some incidents cannot be analyzed using this method, probabilistic analysis can only be one among the methods used to assess the nuclear power plants' safety level. Nevertheless, it provides an interesting complement to classical methods of deterministic studies. (author)

  19. Two 238Pu inhalation incidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleming, R.R.; Hall, R.M.

    1978-06-01

    Two employees inhaled significant amounts of 238 Pu in separate unrelated contamination incidents in 1977. Both acute exposure incidents are described and the urine, feces, and in-vivo chest count data for each employee. Case B ( 238 PuNO 3 ) received 24 DTPA treatments beginning the day of the incident while, for medical reasons, Case A ( 238 PuO 2 ) received no therapy

  20. Automatic semi-quantification of [123I]FP-CIT SPECT scans in healthy volunteers using BasGan version 2: results from the ENC-DAT database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nobili, Flavio; Naseri, Mehrdad; Morbelli, Silvia; De Carli, Fabrizio; Asenbaum, Susan; Booij, Jan; Darcourt, Jacques; Ell, Peter; Kapucu, Oezlem; Kemp, Paul; Varer, Claus; Pagani, Marco; Sabri, Osama; Tatsch, Klaus; Tossici-Bolt, Livia; Sera, Terez; Borght, Thierry vander; Laere, Koen van; Varrone, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess striatal dopamine transporter (DAT) availability in a large group of normal subjects. The study included 122 healthy subjects, aged 18-83 years, recruited in the multicentre 'ENC-DAT' study (promoted by the European Association of Nuclear Medicine). Brain single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) was acquired by means of dual-head cameras 3 h after [ 123 I]FP-CIT administration. Specific to nondisplaceable binding ratios (SBRs) in the basal ganglia were computed using the 'BasGan' software, allowing automatic value extraction with partial volume effect correction. Multicentre camera inhomogeneity was taken into account by calibrating values on basal ganglia phantom data. SBR in each caudate nucleus (C) and putamen (P) were the dependent variables in a repeated measures general linear model analysis; age, gender, handedness and body mass index (BMI) were the independent variables. SBR values in C and P were significantly associated with age (mean rate decrease with age: 0.0306 per year, or 0.57 % of the general mean; p < 0.0001) and gender (women had higher values; p = 0.015), while no significant effect was found for handedness and BMI. A significant interaction was found between age and region (p < 0.0001) as the age-related decline was 0.028 for left C, 0.026 for right C and 0.034 for both P. P/C ratio analysis confirmed that age-related SBR decrease was stronger in P than in C (p < 0.0001). No significant effect was found for season or time of the day when the scan was acquired by analysing the residual of SBR values in C and P, after subtraction of age and gender effects. This study confirms the dependency of DAT on ageing and highlights the gender differences in a large sample of healthy subjects, while it does not support the dependency of DAT on BMI, handedness, circadian rhythm or season. (orig.)

  1. Goiania incident case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petterson, J.S.

    1988-06-01

    The reasons for wanting to document this case study and present the findings are simple. According to USDOE technical risk assessments (and our own initial work on the Hanford socioeconomic study), the likelihood of a major accident involving exposure to radioactive materials in the process of site characterization, construction, operation, and closure of a high-level waste repository is extremely remote. Most would agree, however, that there is a relatively high probability that a minor accident involving radiological contamination will occur sometime during the lifetime of the repository -- for example, during transport, at an MRS site or at the permanent site itself during repacking and deposition. Thus, one of the major concerns of the Yucca Mountain Socioeconomic Study is the potential impact of a relatively minor radiation-related accident. A large number of potential impact of a relatively minor radiation-related accident. A large number of potential accident scenarios have been under consideration (such as a transportation or other surface accident which results in a significant decline in tourism, the number of conventions, or the selection of Nevada as a retirement residence). The results of the work in Goiania make it clear, however, that such a significant shift in established social patterns and trends is not likely to occur as a direct outcome of a single nuclear-related accident (even, perhaps, a relatively major one), but rather, are likely to occur as a result of the enduring social interpretations of such an accident -- that is, as a result of the process of understanding, communicating, and socially sustaining a particular set of associations with respect to the initial incident

  2. Grazing Incidence Optics Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Brian; Smith, W. Scott; Gubarev, Mikhail; McCracken, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    This project is to demonstrate the capability to directly fabricate lightweight, high-resolution, grazing-incidence x-ray optics using a commercially available robotic polishing machine. Typical x-ray optics production at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) uses a replication process in which metal mirrors are electroformed on to figured and polished mandrels from which they are later removed. The attraction of this process is that multiple copies can be made from a single master. The drawback is that the replication process limits the angular resolution that can be attained. By directly fabricating each shell, errors inherent in the replication process are removed. The principal challenge now becomes how to support the mirror shell during all aspects of fabrication, including the necessary metrology to converge on the required mirror performance specifications. This program makes use of a Zeeko seven-axis computer-controlled polishing machine (see fig. 1) and supporting fabrication, metrology, and test equipment at MSFC. The overall development plan calls for proof-of-concept demonstration with relatively thick mirror shells (5-6 mm, fig. 2) which are straightforward to support and then a transition to much thinner shells (2-3 mm), which are an order of magnitude thinner than those used for Chandra. Both glass and metal substrates are being investigated. Currently, a thick glass shell is being figured. This has enabled experience to be gained with programming and operating the polishing machine without worrying about shell distortions or breakage. It has also allowed time for more complex support mechanisms for figuring/ polishing and metrology to be designed for the more challenging thinner shells. These are now in fabrication. Figure 1: Zeeko polishing machine.

  3. Real time freeway incident detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    The US Department of Transportation (US-DOT) estimates that over half of all congestion : events are caused by highway incidents rather than by rush-hour traffic in big cities. Real-time : incident detection on freeways is an important part of any mo...

  4. True incidence of vestibular schwannoma?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stangerup, Sven-Eric; Tos, Mirko; Thomsen, Jens

    2010-01-01

    The incidence of diagnosed sporadic unilateral vestibular schwannomas (VS) has increased, due primarily to more widespread access to magnetic resonance imaging.......The incidence of diagnosed sporadic unilateral vestibular schwannomas (VS) has increased, due primarily to more widespread access to magnetic resonance imaging....

  5. Spatial Distribution of Black Bear Incident Reports in Michigan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFadden-Hiller, Jamie E; Beyer, Dean E; Belant, Jerrold L

    2016-01-01

    Interactions between humans and carnivores have existed for centuries due to competition for food and space. American black bears are increasing in abundance and populations are expanding geographically in many portions of its range, including areas that are also increasing in human density, often resulting in associated increases in human-bear conflict (hereafter, bear incidents). We used public reports of bear incidents in Michigan, USA, from 2003-2011 to assess the relative contributions of ecological and anthropogenic variables in explaining the spatial distribution of bear incidents and estimated the potential risk of bear incidents. We used weighted Normalized Difference Vegetation Index mean as an index of primary productivity, region (i.e., Upper Peninsula or Lower Peninsula), primary and secondary road densities, and percentage land cover type within 6.5-km2 circular buffers around bear incidents and random points. We developed 22 a priori models and used generalized linear models and Akaike's Information Criterion (AIC) to rank models. The global model was the best compromise between model complexity and model fit (w = 0.99), with a ΔAIC 8.99 units from the second best performing model. We found that as deciduous forest cover increased, the probability of bear incident occurrence increased. Among the measured anthropogenic variables, cultivated crops and primary roads were the most important in our AIC-best model and were both positively related to the probability of bear incident occurrence. The spatial distribution of relative bear incident risk varied markedly throughout Michigan. Forest cover fragmented with agriculture and other anthropogenic activities presents an environment that likely facilitates bear incidents. Our map can help wildlife managers identify areas of bear incident occurrence, which in turn can be used to help develop strategies aimed at reducing incidents. Researchers and wildlife managers can use similar mapping techniques to

  6. Congenital Hypothyroidism: Increased Incidence in Yazd Province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Noori-Shadkam

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Congenital hypothyroidism (CH is one of the most common preventable causes of mental retardation. Its worldwide incidence is estimated to be one in 2500-5500 births. Assessment of thyroid gland in neonates is critical. The aims of this study were to demonstrate the incidence of CH in neonates born in Yazd province, Iran in 1389 (2010 and compare the results with other reported studies and investigate biochemical characteristics of affected infants. Materials & Methods: This is an analytical descriptive cross-sectional study. The study was conducted on all infants (13022 births born in 1389 (March 2010-March 2011. Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH was measured using ELISA technique. Results: Forty five infants suffered from congenital hypothyroidism with an overall incidence of one in 289 live births. Twenty five of the diagnosed infants were males (incidence 1:261 and twenty were females (incidence 1:325. The incidence of CH in boys was more than girls (P-value = 0.295. The highest incidence of CH was observed in spring followed by summer and the lowest incidence was in autumn followed by winter (P-value=0.000. Conclusion: The CH incidence was 10.3 to 13.8 times more than other countries. The highest CH incidence was in spring followed by summer and the lowest incidence was in autumn followed by winter. It is important that a larger size of cases need to be screened and more information on the aetiology of the affected infants to be obtained

  7. Spatial Distribution of Black Bear Incident Reports in Michigan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie E McFadden-Hiller

    Full Text Available Interactions between humans and carnivores have existed for centuries due to competition for food and space. American black bears are increasing in abundance and populations are expanding geographically in many portions of its range, including areas that are also increasing in human density, often resulting in associated increases in human-bear conflict (hereafter, bear incidents. We used public reports of bear incidents in Michigan, USA, from 2003-2011 to assess the relative contributions of ecological and anthropogenic variables in explaining the spatial distribution of bear incidents and estimated the potential risk of bear incidents. We used weighted Normalized Difference Vegetation Index mean as an index of primary productivity, region (i.e., Upper Peninsula or Lower Peninsula, primary and secondary road densities, and percentage land cover type within 6.5-km2 circular buffers around bear incidents and random points. We developed 22 a priori models and used generalized linear models and Akaike's Information Criterion (AIC to rank models. The global model was the best compromise between model complexity and model fit (w = 0.99, with a ΔAIC 8.99 units from the second best performing model. We found that as deciduous forest cover increased, the probability of bear incident occurrence increased. Among the measured anthropogenic variables, cultivated crops and primary roads were the most important in our AIC-best model and were both positively related to the probability of bear incident occurrence. The spatial distribution of relative bear incident risk varied markedly throughout Michigan. Forest cover fragmented with agriculture and other anthropogenic activities presents an environment that likely facilitates bear incidents. Our map can help wildlife managers identify areas of bear incident occurrence, which in turn can be used to help develop strategies aimed at reducing incidents. Researchers and wildlife managers can use similar mapping

  8. Estimating the global incidence of traumatic spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzharris, M; Cripps, R A; Lee, B B

    2014-02-01

    Population modelling--forecasting. To estimate the global incidence of traumatic spinal cord injury (TSCI). An initiative of the International Spinal Cord Society (ISCoS) Prevention Committee. Regression techniques were used to derive regional and global estimates of TSCI incidence. Using the findings of 31 published studies, a regression model was fitted using a known number of TSCI cases as the dependent variable and the population at risk as the single independent variable. In the process of deriving TSCI incidence, an alternative TSCI model was specified in an attempt to arrive at an optimal way of estimating the global incidence of TSCI. The global incidence of TSCI was estimated to be 23 cases per 1,000,000 persons in 2007 (179,312 cases per annum). World Health Organization's regional results are provided. Understanding the incidence of TSCI is important for health service planning and for the determination of injury prevention priorities. In the absence of high-quality epidemiological studies of TSCI in each country, the estimation of TSCI obtained through population modelling can be used to overcome known deficits in global spinal cord injury (SCI) data. The incidence of TSCI is context specific, and an alternative regression model demonstrated how TSCI incidence estimates could be improved with additional data. The results highlight the need for data standardisation and comprehensive reporting of national level TSCI data. A step-wise approach from the collation of conventional epidemiological data through to population modelling is suggested.

  9. Perfil das intoxicações na infância atendidas pelo Centro de Informação Toxicológica do Rio Grande do Sul (CIT/RS, Brasil Caseload of poisoning among children treated by the Rio Grande do Sul State Toxicology Information Center (CIT/RS, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Luiza Job Ramos

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Estudo transversal descritivo analítico para estabelecer perfil das intoxicações em crianças de 0 a 4 anos, registradas no Centro de Informação Toxicológica do Rio Grande do Sul (CIT/RS, Porto Alegre, Brasil, 2003. Selecionados 1.311 casos, extraíram-se dados de crianças que sofreram intoxicação acidental individual dentro de suas residências. Em uma amostra do tipo aleatória sistemática de 286 pacientes, foram realizadas 21 entrevistas com responsáveis legais das crianças, utilizando-se instrumento estruturado. O perfil da intoxicação apresentou faixa etária de um ano; gênero masculino; via de exposição oral; agente tóxico localizado no chão da sala de estar ou no quarto; altura do móvel inferior a 30cm; horário da intoxicação entre 18h01-22h; tempo entre o acidente e a busca por uma conduta médica menor que 30 minutos; medicamento analgésico como agente tóxico; avaliação da intoxicação como não tóxica, evoluindo para a cura. Os dados indicam características relevantes quanto ao horário da intoxicação e local em que se encontravam os agentes tóxicos. A definição do perfil permite orientar e incrementar campanhas de prevenção de acidentes tóxicos na infância promovidas pelos órgãos públicos de saúde.This was an analytical, descriptive, cross-sectional study to establish the profile of poisonings among children 0 to 4 years of age reported to the Rio Grande do Sul State Toxicology Information Center (CIT/RS in Porto Alegre, Brazil, 2003. A total of 1,311 cases were selected and data were extracted on children who had suffered individual accidental poisoning inside the home. From a systematic random sample of 286 patients, 21 interviews were held with the children's parents or guardians, using a structured instrument. The typical profile of poisoning featured: < 1 year age bracket; male gender; oral exposure; poisonous agent located on living room or bedroom floor; furniture height < 30cm; time

  10. Traffic incident management resource management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    The necessity of a multi-disciplinary approach involving law enforcement, fire and rescue, transportation, towing and recovery, and others has been well-recognized and integrated into incident management operations. This same multidisciplinar...

  11. Police Incident Blotter (30 Day)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — The 30 Day Police Blotter contains the most recent initial crime incident data, updated on a nightly basis. All data is reported at the block/intersection level,...

  12. Incidents Associated with Gas Operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szer J.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This article shows incidents associated with the use of gas as an energy carrier. It presents selected incidents which have occurred in Poland and around the world in recent decades. Based on this, consequences of gas and air mixture explosions were analysed as well. The article presents the main causes of gas incidents which have taken place, as per instances which are similar worldwide. Incidents associated with the use of gas are not frequent, but at the same time very tragic as they often lead to illness or even death. In Poland, in the last twenty years, construction area disasters caused by gas explosions account for only 5% of all which have occurred, but the number of fatalities resulting from these cases is approximately 14%. The number of individuals injured reached 39% of all construction disaster victims. Considering all these facts, it is necessary to undertake wide preventive measures in order to increase safety in the use of gaseous fuels.

  13. Regional comparison of cancer incidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obralic, N.; Gavrankapetanovic, F.; Dizdarevic, Z.; Duric, O.; Sisic, F.; Selak, I.; Balta, S.; Nakas, B.

    2004-01-01

    Background. Due to specific war and post-war situation in Balkan region, differences in the number, type, development, biological course, treatment of malignant tumours and its outcome are possible. In order to perceive the situation realistically, it is necessary to gather continuously exact data about malignant tumours and compare them with the data from other European and world countries.The aim of the study was to collect and analyse the data on cancer incidence in the region of Sarajevo city, which represents a symbol of difficult times in the recent past, and to compare it to the incidence in the neighbouring countries. Patients and methods. Data on all newly diagnosed cancer cases, permanent residents of Sarajevo Canton, in the years 1999 and 2000 were collected. Crude incidence rate has been calculated according to the years observed, gender and localizations of the disease The data were compared to the cancer registries of Slovenia and Croatia and were observed in the light of specific local situation. Results. The crude cancer incidence of all sites but skin was the highest in both years and by both genders in Croatia. The incidence of the most common tumours (lung and breast cancer) was similar in all three countries. The differences in the incidence between both genders in the Sarajevo canton were registered in laryngeal and urinary bladder cancer, as well as in bone and cartilage sarcoma. Cervical cancer had extremely high incidence and was high up on the incidence list in the Sarajevo canton, which correlates with the data in developing countries. The incidence of other tumours in the post-war period is reaching expected numbers. Conclusions. It is difficult to identify whether the war and post-war stress, irregular and insufficient nutrition during and after the siege of the city of Sarajevo or some other factor influenced the cancer incidence among exposed population. The prevalence of smoking in the whole region is extremely high, in Bosnia and

  14. Functional analysis of controbloc incidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gouffon, A.; Jorel, M.

    1992-11-01

    The subject of the present paper is the survey jointly carried out in 1989 by the IPSN Safety Analysis Department and the Firm BERTIN and Co. on significant incidents related to the Controbloc system equipping the EDF 1300 MWe PWR power plants in France. This survey consisted in a general review of Controbloc operating problems, together with analysis of the safety consequences of the incidents discussed. The survey enabled improvements to be recommended in this respect and provided a basis for safety analysis

  15. Cancer incidence in Spain, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galceran, J; Ameijide, A; Carulla, M; Mateos, A; Quirós, J R; Rojas, D; Alemán, A; Torrella, A; Chico, M; Vicente, M; Díaz, J M; Larrañaga, N; Marcos-Gragera, R; Sánchez, M J; Perucha, J; Franch, P; Navarro, C; Ardanaz, E; Bigorra, J; Rodrigo, P; Bonet, R Peris

    2017-07-01

    Periodic cancer incidence estimates of Spain from all existing population-based cancer registries at any given time are required. The objective of this study was to present the current situation of cancer incidence in Spain. The Spanish Network of Cancer Registries (REDECAN) estimated the numbers of new cancer cases occurred in Spain in 2015 by applying the incidence-mortality ratios method. In the calculus, incidence data from population-based cancer registries and mortality data of all Spain were used. In 2015, nearly a quarter of a million new invasive cancer cases were diagnosed in Spain, almost 149,000 in men (60.0%) and 99,000 in women. Globally, the five most common cancers were those of colon-rectum, prostate, lung, breast and urinary bladder. By gender, the four most common cancers in men were those of prostate (22.4%), colon-rectum (16.6%), lung (15.1%) and urinary bladder (11.7%). In women, the most common ones were those of breast (28.0%), colon-rectum (16.9%), corpus uteri (6.2%) and lung (6.0%). In recent years, cancer incidence in men seems to have stabilized due to the fact that the decrease in tobacco-related cancers compensates for the increase in other types of cancer like those of colon and prostate. In women, despite the stabilization of breast cancer incidence, increased incidence is due, above all, to the rise of colorectal and tobacco-related cancers. To reduce these incident cancer cases, improvement of smoking control policies and extension of colorectal cancer screening should be the two priorities in cancer prevention for the next years.

  16. Dismantling techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiese, E.

    1998-01-01

    Most of the dismantling techniques used in a Decontamination and Dismantlement (D and D) project are taken from conventional demolition practices. Some modifications to the techniques are made to limit exposure to the workers or to lessen the spread of contamination to the work area. When working on a D and D project, it is best to keep the dismantling techniques and tools as simple as possible. The workers will be more efficient and safer using techniques that are familiar to them. Prior experience with the technique or use of mock-ups is the best way to keep workers safe and to keep the project on schedule

  17. Dismantling techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiese, E.

    1998-03-13

    Most of the dismantling techniques used in a Decontamination and Dismantlement (D and D) project are taken from conventional demolition practices. Some modifications to the techniques are made to limit exposure to the workers or to lessen the spread of contamination to the work area. When working on a D and D project, it is best to keep the dismantling techniques and tools as simple as possible. The workers will be more efficient and safer using techniques that are familiar to them. Prior experience with the technique or use of mock-ups is the best way to keep workers safe and to keep the project on schedule.

  18. Critical incidents and near misses during anesthesia: A prospective audit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela Onorame Agbamu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: A critical incident is any preventable mishap associated with the administration of anesthesia and which leads to or could have led to an undesirable patients' outcome. Patients' safety can be improved by learning from reported critical incidents and near misses. Materials and Methods: All perioperative critical incidents (excluding obstetrics occurring over 5 months were voluntarily documented in a pro forma. Age of patient, urgency of surgery, grade of anesthetist, and patients' outcome was noted. Results: Seventy-three critical incidents were recorded in 42 patients (incidence 6.1% of 1188 procedures with complete recovery in 88.1% (n = 37 and mortality in 11.9% (n = 5. The highest incidents occurred during elective procedures (71.4%, which were all supervised by consultants, and in patients aged 0–10 years (40.1%. Critical incident categories documented were cardiovascular (41.1%, respiratory (23.25%, vascular access (15.1%, airway/intubation (6.85%, equipment errors (6.85%, difficult/failed regional technique (4.11%, and others (2.74%. The monitors available were: pulse oximetry (100%, precordial stethoscope (90.5%, sphygmomanometer (90.5%, capnography (54.8%, electrocardiogram (31%, and temperature (14.3%. The most probable cause of critical incident was patient factor (38.7% followed by human error (22.5%. Equipment error, pharmacological factor, and surgical factor accounted for 12.9%. Conclusion: Critical incidents can occur in the hands of the highly skilled and even in the presence of adequate monitoring. Protocols should be put in place to avoid errors. Critical incident reporting must be encouraged to improve patients' safety and reduce morbidity and mortality.

  19. Cyber Incidents Involving Control Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert J. Turk

    2005-10-01

    The Analysis Function of the US-CERT Control Systems Security Center (CSSC) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has prepared this report to document cyber security incidents for use by the CSSC. The description and analysis of incidents reported herein support three CSSC tasks: establishing a business case; increasing security awareness and private and corporate participation related to enhanced cyber security of control systems; and providing informational material to support model development and prioritize activities for CSSC. The stated mission of CSSC is to reduce vulnerability of critical infrastructure to cyber attack on control systems. As stated in the Incident Management Tool Requirements (August 2005) ''Vulnerability reduction is promoted by risk analysis that tracks actual risk, emphasizes high risk, determines risk reduction as a function of countermeasures, tracks increase of risk due to external influence, and measures success of the vulnerability reduction program''. Process control and Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems, with their reliance on proprietary networks and hardware, have long been considered immune to the network attacks that have wreaked so much havoc on corporate information systems. New research indicates this confidence is misplaced--the move to open standards such as Ethernet, Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol, and Web technologies is allowing hackers to take advantage of the control industry's unawareness. Much of the available information about cyber incidents represents a characterization as opposed to an analysis of events. The lack of good analyses reflects an overall weakness in reporting requirements as well as the fact that to date there have been very few serious cyber attacks on control systems. Most companies prefer not to share cyber attack incident data because of potential financial repercussions. Uniform reporting requirements will do much to make this

  20. Incidence of hyperthyroidism in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham-Nordling, Mirna; Byström, Kristina; Törring, Ove; Lantz, Mikael; Berg, Gertrud; Calissendorff, Jan; Nyström, Helena Filipsson; Jansson, Svante; Jörneskog, Gun; Karlsson, F Anders; Nyström, Ernst; Ohrling, Hans; Orn, Thomas; Hallengren, Bengt; Wallin, Göran

    2011-12-01

    The incidence of hyperthyroidism has been reported in various countries to be 23-93/100,000 inhabitants per year. This extended study has evaluated the incidence for ~40% of the Swedish population of 9 million inhabitants. Sweden is considered to be iodine sufficient country. All patients including children, who were newly diagnosed with overt hyperthyroidism in the years 2003-2005, were prospectively registered in a multicenter study. The inclusion criteria are as follows: clinical symptoms and/or signs of hyperthyroidism with plasma TSH concentration below 0.2 mIE/l and increased plasma levels of free/total triiodothyronine and/or free/total thyroxine. Patients with relapse of hyperthyroidism or thyroiditis were not included. The diagnosis of Graves' disease (GD), toxic multinodular goiter (TMNG) and solitary toxic adenoma (STA), smoking, initial treatment, occurrence of thyroid-associated eye symptoms/signs, and demographic data were registered. A total of 2916 patients were diagnosed with de novo hyperthyroidism showing the total incidence of 27.6/100,000 inhabitants per year. The incidence of GD was 21.0/100,000 and toxic nodular goiter (TNG=STA+TMNG) occurred in 692 patients, corresponding to an annual incidence of 6.5/100,000. The incidence was higher in women compared with men (4.2:1). Seventy-five percent of the patients were diagnosed with GD, in whom thyroid-associated eye symptoms/signs occurred during diagnosis in every fifth patient. Geographical differences were observed. The incidence of hyperthyroidism in Sweden is in a lower range compared with international reports. Seventy-five percent of patients with hyperthyroidism had GD and 20% of them had thyroid-associated eye symptoms/signs during diagnosis. The observed geographical differences require further studies.

  1. Information sharing for traffic incident management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Traffic incident management focuses on developing procedures, implementing policies, and deploying technologies to more quickly identify incidents, improve response times, and more effectively and efficiently manage the incident scene. Because so man...

  2. Translation Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Marcia Pinheiro

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss three translation techniques: literal, cultural, and artistic. Literal translation is a well-known technique, which means that it is quite easy to find sources on the topic. Cultural and artistic translation may be new terms. Whilst cultural translation focuses on matching contexts, artistic translation focuses on matching reactions. Because literal translation matches only words, it is not hard to find situations in which we should not use this technique.  Because a...

  3. Brain 18F-FDG, 18F-florbtaben PET/CT, 123I-FP-CIT SPECT and cardiac 123I-MBG imaging for diagnosis of a 'cerebral type' of Lewy Body disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gucht, Axel Van Der; Bélissant, Ophélie; Rabu, Corenti; Cottereau, Anne-Ségolène; Evangelista, Eva; Chalaye, Julia; Bonnot-Lours, Sophie; Fénelon, Gilles; Itti, Emmanuel; De Langavant, Laurent Cleret

    2016-01-01

    A 67-year-old man was referred for fluctuating neuropsychiatric symptoms, featuring depression, delirious episodes, recurrent visual hallucinations and catatonic syndrome associated with cognitive decline. No parkinsonism was found clinically even under neuroleptic treatment. 18 F-FDG PET/CT showed hypometabolism in the posterior associative cortex including the occipital cortex, suggesting Lewy body dementia, but 123 I-FP-CIT SPECT was normal and cardiac 123 I-MIBG imaging showed no signs of sympathetic denervation. Alzheimer's disease was excluded by a normal 18 F-florbetaben PET/CT. This report suggests a rare case of α-synucleinopathy without brainstem involvement, referred to as 'cerebral type' of Lewy body disease

  4. Avicenne et le récit visionnaire. Verdier, collection « Islam spirituel », Paris-Lagrasse, 1999, 468 p (texte français) + 88 p. (texte arabe et persan).

    OpenAIRE

    Amir-Moezzi, Mohammad Ali

    2010-01-01

    Grâce à Christian Jambet, directeur de cette collection chez l’éditeur Verdier, ce travail décisif de Henry Corbin, devenu progressivement d’accès difficile, est maintenant réédité dans les meilleures conditions (actualisation des références, translittérations des textes arabes et persans, harmonisation des notes, etc.). Rappelons simplement qu’il s’agit de la réédition, en un seul volume, de la Collection du Millénaire d’Avicenne : tome I, Le récit de Hayy ibn Yaqzan, Téhéran, 1952 ; tome II...

  5. Decreasing incidence rates of bacteremia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Stig Lønberg; Pedersen, C; Jensen, T G

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Numerous studies have shown that the incidence rate of bacteremia has been increasing over time. However, few studies have distinguished between community-acquired, healthcare-associated and nosocomial bacteremia. METHODS: We conducted a population-based study among adults with first......-time bacteremia in Funen County, Denmark, during 2000-2008 (N = 7786). We reported mean and annual incidence rates (per 100,000 person-years), overall and by place of acquisition. Trends were estimated using a Poisson regression model. RESULTS: The overall incidence rate was 215.7, including 99.0 for community......-acquired, 50.0 for healthcare-associated and 66.7 for nosocomial bacteremia. During 2000-2008, the overall incidence rate decreased by 23.3% from 254.1 to 198.8 (3.3% annually, p incidence rate of community-acquired bacteremia decreased by 25.6% from 119.0 to 93.8 (3.7% annually, p

  6. Reduction in camera-specific variability in [{sup 123}I]FP-CIT SPECT outcome measures by image reconstruction optimized for multisite settings: impact on age-dependence of the specific binding ratio in the ENC-DAT database of healthy controls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchert, Ralph; Lange, Catharina [Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Berlin (Germany); Kluge, Andreas; Bronzel, Marcus [ABX-CRO advanced pharmaceutical services Forschungsgesellschaft m.b.H., Dresden (Germany); Tossici-Bolt, Livia [University Hospital Southampton NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Medical Physics, Southampton (United Kingdom); Dickson, John [University College London Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Institute of Nuclear Medicine, London (United Kingdom); Asenbaum, Susanne [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Vienna (Austria); Booij, Jan [University of Amsterdam, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Academic Medical Centre, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Kapucu, L. Oezlem Atay [Gazi University, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Ankara (Turkey); Svarer, Claus [Rigshospitalet and University of Copenhagen, Neurobiology Research Unit, Copenhagen (Denmark); Koulibaly, Pierre-Malick [University of Nice-Sophia Antipolis, Nuclear Medicine Department, Centre Antoine Lacassagne, Nice (France); Nobili, Flavio [University of Genoa, Department of Neuroscience (DINOGMI), Clinical Neurology Unit, Genoa (Italy); Pagani, Marco [CNR, Institute of Cognitive Sciences and Technologies, Rome (Italy); Karolinska Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Stockholm (Sweden); Sabri, Osama [University of Leipzig, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Leipzig (Germany); Sera, Terez [University of Szeged, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Euromedic Szeged, Szeged (Hungary); Tatsch, Klaus [Municipal Hospital of Karlsruhe Inc, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Karlsruhe (Germany); Borght, Thierry vander [CHU Namur, IREC, Nuclear Medicine Division, Universite catholique de Louvain, Yvoir (Belgium); Laere, Koen van [University Hospital and K.U. Leuven, Nuclear Medicine, Leuven (Belgium); Varrone, Andrea [Karolinska University Hospital, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Centre for Psychiatry Research, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden); Iida, Hidehiro [National Cerebral and Cardiovascular Center - Research Institute, Osaka (Japan)

    2016-07-15

    Quantitative estimates of dopamine transporter availability, determined with [{sup 123}I]FP-CIT SPECT, depend on the SPECT equipment, including both hardware and (reconstruction) software, which limits their use in multicentre research and clinical routine. This study tested a dedicated reconstruction algorithm for its ability to reduce camera-specific intersubject variability in [{sup 123}I]FP-CIT SPECT. The secondary aim was to evaluate binding in whole brain (excluding striatum) as a reference for quantitative analysis. Of 73 healthy subjects from the European Normal Control Database of [{sup 123}I]FP-CIT recruited at six centres, 70 aged between 20 and 82 years were included. SPECT images were reconstructed using the QSPECT software package which provides fully automated detection of the outer contour of the head, camera-specific correction for scatter and septal penetration by transmission-dependent convolution subtraction, iterative OSEM reconstruction including attenuation correction, and camera-specific ''to kBq/ml'' calibration. LINK and HERMES reconstruction were used for head-to-head comparison. The specific striatal [{sup 123}I]FP-CIT binding ratio (SBR) was computed using the Southampton method with binding in the whole brain, occipital cortex or cerebellum as the reference. The correlation between SBR and age was used as the primary quality measure. The fraction of SBR variability explained by age was highest (1) with QSPECT, independently of the reference region, and (2) with whole brain as the reference, independently of the reconstruction algorithm. QSPECT reconstruction appears to be useful for reduction of camera-specific intersubject variability of [{sup 123}I]FP-CIT SPECT in multisite and single-site multicamera settings. Whole brain excluding striatal binding as the reference provides more stable quantitative estimates than occipital or cerebellar binding. (orig.)

  7. The Level of Fibula Osteotomy and Incidence of Peroneal Nerve ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-06-29

    Jun 29, 2010 ... Journal of Surgical Technique and Case Report | Jan-Jun 2010 | Vol-2 | Issue-1. 17. The Level of Fibula Osteotomy and Incidence of Peroneal. Nerve Palsy in Proximal Tibial Osteotomy. A. O. Ogbemudia, P. F. A. Umebese, A. Bafor, E. Igbinovia, P. E. Ogbemudia. INTRODUCTION. Osteotomy of the fibula is ...

  8. "Dealing" with Incidence, Prevalence, and Odds Concepts in Undergraduate Epidemiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senchina, David S.; Laurson, Kelly R.

    2009-01-01

    Concepts and associated statistical formulae of incidence, prevalence, and odds/odds ratios are core knowledge in epidemiology yet can be confusing for students. The purpose of this project was to develop, validate, and share one possible pedagogical technique using playing cards that could be employed to improve undergraduate understanding of…

  9. Adapting Cognitive Task Analysis to Investigate Clinical Decision Making and Medication Safety Incidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russ, Alissa L; Militello, Laura G; Glassman, Peter A; Arthur, Karen J; Zillich, Alan J; Weiner, Michael

    2017-05-03

    Cognitive task analysis (CTA) can yield valuable insights into healthcare professionals' cognition and inform system design to promote safe, quality care. Our objective was to adapt CTA-the critical decision method, specifically-to investigate patient safety incidents, overcome barriers to implementing this method, and facilitate more widespread use of cognitive task analysis in healthcare. We adapted CTA to facilitate recruitment of healthcare professionals and developed a data collection tool to capture incidents as they occurred. We also leveraged the electronic health record (EHR) to expand data capture and used EHR-stimulated recall to aid reconstruction of safety incidents. We investigated 3 categories of medication-related incidents: adverse drug reactions, drug-drug interactions, and drug-disease interactions. Healthcare professionals submitted incidents, and a subset of incidents was selected for CTA. We analyzed several outcomes to characterize incident capture and completed CTA interviews. We captured 101 incidents. Eighty incidents (79%) met eligibility criteria. We completed 60 CTA interviews, 20 for each incident category. Capturing incidents before interviews allowed us to shorten the interview duration and reduced reliance on healthcare professionals' recall. Incorporating the EHR into CTA enriched data collection. The adapted CTA technique was successful in capturing specific categories of safety incidents. Our approach may be especially useful for investigating safety incidents that healthcare professionals "fix and forget." Our innovations to CTA are expected to expand the application of this method in healthcare and inform a wide range of studies on clinical decision making and patient safety.

  10. Risk - hazardous incident - communication 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerling, R.; Obermeier, O.P.

    1995-01-01

    It is difficult to develop an objective approach to risks and effects of a hazardous incident that would be acceptable to the community at large. It is a matter of fact that there is great dissimilarity in the way various social groups perceive and define the risks of a particular technology, or the effects of hazardous incidents, sometimes they have even contrary opinions. Hence, open communication is seriously hampered, which in turn aggravates the problems encountered in this context. This second volume of the publication dealing with the problem area of 'risk - hazardous incident - communication' is intended to reveal patterns of the recurrent process which impedes communication, and to bridge the gaps between the various 'styles' of risk perception and definition. (orig./CB) [de

  11. Risk - hazardous incident - communication 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerling, R.; Obermeier, O.P.

    1994-01-01

    Terms such as 'risk', 'hazardous incident', and 'communication' have become major catchwords in discussions about present-day problems, and may be reduced to a common denominator: disaster. Such an association, however, is inappropriate, as the concept indicated by the term 'risk' for instance covers a wide scale of possible danger. Even the term 'hazardous incident' describes events or conditions that are very different in terms of possible danger, let alone disastrous effects. The discrepancy to be observed between the facts and the public perception usually is due to the fact that people have little insight into the complex of problems involved, and to insufficient communication between the world of experts and the general public. The contributions to this publication present information and discuss a variety of solution sets to improve the communication problems in the context of the problem area of 'risk - hazardous incident - communication'. (orig./CB) [de

  12. Cardiovascular disease incidence and survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byberg, Stine; Agyemang, Charles; Zwisler, Ann Dorthe

    2016-01-01

    Studies on cardiovascular disease (CVD) incidence and survival show varying results between different ethnic groups. Our aim was to add a new dimension by exploring the role of migrant status in combination with ethnic background on incidence of-and survival from-CVD and more specifically acute...... of some types of cardiovascular disease compared to Danish-born. Family-reunified migrants on the other hand had lower rates of CVD. All migrants had better survival than Danish-born indicating that migrants may not always be disadvantaged in health....

  13. Cancer incidence among merchant seafarers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ugelvig Petersen, Kajsa; Volk, Julie; Kaerlev, Linda

    2018-01-01

    on the incidence of specific cancers among both male and female seafarers. Methods: Using records from the Danish Seafarer Registry, all seafarers employed on Danish ships during 1986-1999 were identified, resulting in a cohort of 33 084 men and 11 209 women. Information on vital status and cancer was linked...... to each member of the cohort from the Danish Civil Registration System and the Danish Cancer Registry using the unique Danish personal identification number. SIRs were estimated for specific cancers using national rates. Results: The overall incidence of cancer was increased for both male and female...

  14. Incidence of sialolithiasis in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrøder, Stine Attrup; Andersson, Mikael; Wohlfahrt, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Sialolithiasis is a frequent disorder affecting the salivary glands. The incidence rate (IR) has been reported to be 2.9-5.5 per 100,000 person-years, but all previous studies have been based on selected hospital data. In this study, we conducted a population-based study evaluating the IR...

  15. The equivalent incidence angle for porous absorbers backed by a hard surface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeong, Cheol-Ho; Brunskog, Jonas

    2013-01-01

    experiment using a free-field absorption measurement technique with a source at the equivalent angle. This study investigates the equivalent angle for locally and extendedly reacting porous media mainly by a numerical approach: Numerical minimizations of a cost function that is the difference between...... coefficients by free-field techniques, a broad incidence angle range can be suggested: 20 hi65 for extended reaction and hi65 for locally reacting porous absorbers, if an average difference of 0.05 is allowed.......An equivalent incidence angle is defined as the incidence angle at which the oblique incidence absorption coefficient best approximates the random incidence absorption coefficient. Once the equivalent angle is known, the random incidence absorption coefficient can be estimated by a single...

  16. Industrial technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    A typical embodiment of the invention detects leaking fuel rods by means of a radiation detector that measures the concentration of xenon-133 (Xe 133 ) within each individual rod. A collimated detector that provides signals related to the energy of incident radiation is aligned with one of the ends of a fuel rod. A statistically significant sample of the gamma radiation (γ-rays) that characterize Xe 133 is accumulated through the detector. The data so accumulated indicates the presence of a concentration of Xe 133 appropriate to a sound fuel rod, or a significantly different concentration that reflects a leaking fuel rod

  17. Diagnostic techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berquist, T.H.; Bender, C.E.; James, E.M.; Brown, M.L.; McLeod, R.A.; Broderick, D.F.; Welch, T.J.

    1989-01-01

    Proper application of imaging procedures is essential to obtain needed information for diagnosis and therapy planning in patients with suspected foot and/or ankle pathology. This paper provides basic background data for the numerous imaging techniques

  18. Abortion Incidence and Unintended Pregnancy in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puri, Mahesh; Singh, Susheela; Sundaram, Aparna; Hussain, Rubina; Tamang, Anand; Crowell, Marjorie

    2016-12-01

    Although abortion has been legal under broad criteria in Nepal since 2002, a significant proportion of women continue to obtain illegal, unsafe abortions, and no national estimates exist of the incidence of safe and unsafe abortions. Data were collected in 2014 from a nationally representative sample of 386 facilities that provide legal abortions or postabortion care and a survey of 134 health professionals knowledgeable about abortion service provision. Facility caseloads and indirect estimation techniques were used to calculate the national and regional incidence of legal and illegal abortion. National and regional levels of abortion complications and unintended pregnancy were also estimated. In 2014, women in Nepal had 323,100 abortions, of which 137,000 were legal, and 63,200 women were treated for abortion complications. The abortion rate was 42 per 1,000 women aged 15-49, and the abortion ratio was 56 per 100 live births. The abortion rate in the Central region (59 per 1,000) was substantially higher than the national average. Overall, 50% of pregnancies were unintended, and the unintended pregnancy rate was 68 per 1,000 women of reproductive age. Despite legalization of abortion and expansion of services in Nepal, unsafe abortion is still common and exacts a heavy toll on women. Programs and policies to reduce rates of unintended pregnancy and unsafe abortion, increase access to high-quality contraceptive care and expand safe abortion services are warranted.

  19. Figure and finish of grazing incidence mirrors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takacs, P.Z.; Church, E.L.

    1989-08-01

    Great improvement has been made in the past several years in the quality of optical components used in synchrotron radiation (SR) beamlines. Most of this progress has been the result of vastly improved metrology techniques and instrumentation permitting rapid and accurate measurement of the surface finish and figure on grazing incidence optics. A significant theoretical effort has linked the actual performance of components used as x-ray wavelengths to their topological properties as measured by surface profiling instruments. Next-generation advanced light sources will require optical components and systems to have sub-arc second surface figure tolerances. This paper will explore the consequences of these requirements in terms of manufacturing tolerances to see if the present manufacturing state-of-the-art is capable of producing the required surfaces. 15 refs., 14 figs., 2 tabs

  20. X-ray grazing incidence diffraction from multilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tixier, S.; Boeni, P.; Swygenhoven, H. van; Horisberger, M. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-09-01

    Grazing incidence scattering geometries using synchrotron radiation have been applied in order to characterise the roughness profiles and the structural coherence of multilayers. The lateral correlation length of the roughness profiles was evaluated using diffuse reflectivity in the `out of plane` geometry. This type of measurement is the only diffuse reflectivity technique allowing large lateral momentum transfer. It is typically suitable for correlation lengths smaller than 1000 A. The lateral structural coherence length of Ni{sub 3}Al/Ni multilayers as a function of the layer thickness was obtained by grazing incidence diffraction (GID). 3 figs., 1 ref.

  1. Diabetes incidence and projections from prevalence surveys in Fiji.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrell, Stephen; Lin, Sophia; Tukana, Isimeli; Linhart, Christine; Taylor, Richard; Vatucawaqa, Penina; Magliano, Dianna J; Zimmet, Paul

    2016-11-25

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) incidence is traditionally derived from cohort studies that are not always feasible, representative, or available. The present study estimates T2DM incidence in Fijian adults from T2DM prevalence estimates assembled from surveys of 25-64 year old adults conducted over 30 years (n = 14,288). T2DM prevalence by five-year age group from five population-based risk factor surveys conducted over 1980-2011 were variously adjusted for urban-rural residency, ethnicity, and sex to previous censuses (1976, 1986, 1996, 2009) to improve representativeness. Prevalence estimates were then used to calculate T2DM incidence based on birth cohorts from the age-period (Lexis) matrix following the Styblo technique, first used to estimate annual risk of tuberculosis infection (incidence) from sequential Mantoux population surveys. Poisson regression of year, age, sex, and ethnicity strata (n = 160) was used to develop projections of T2DM prevalence and incidence to 2020 based on various scenarios of population weight measured by body mass index (BMI) change. T2DM prevalence and annual incidence increased in Fiji over 1980-2011. Prevalence was higher in Indians and men than i-Taukei and women. Incidence was higher in Indians and women. From regression analyses, absolute reductions of 2.6 to 5.1% in T2DM prevalence (13-26% lower), and 0.5-0.9 per 1000 person-years in incidence (8-14% lower), could be expected in 2020 in adults if mean population weight could be reduced by 1-4 kg, compared to the current period trend in weight gain. This is the first application of the Styblo technique to calculate T2DM incidence from population-based prevalence surveys over time. Reductions in population BMI are predicted to reduce T2DM incidence and prevalence in Fiji among adults aged 25-64 years.

  2. Decomposition techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, T.T.; Sanzolone, R.F.

    1992-01-01

    Sample decomposition is a fundamental and integral step in the procedure of geochemical analysis. It is often the limiting factor to sample throughput, especially with the recent application of the fast and modern multi-element measurement instrumentation. The complexity of geological materials makes it necessary to choose the sample decomposition technique that is compatible with the specific objective of the analysis. When selecting a decomposition technique, consideration should be given to the chemical and mineralogical characteristics of the sample, elements to be determined, precision and accuracy requirements, sample throughput, technical capability of personnel, and time constraints. This paper addresses these concerns and discusses the attributes and limitations of many techniques of sample decomposition along with examples of their application to geochemical analysis. The chemical properties of reagents as to their function as decomposition agents are also reviewed. The section on acid dissolution techniques addresses the various inorganic acids that are used individually or in combination in both open and closed systems. Fluxes used in sample fusion are discussed. The promising microwave-oven technology and the emerging field of automation are also examined. A section on applications highlights the use of decomposition techniques for the determination of Au, platinum group elements (PGEs), Hg, U, hydride-forming elements, rare earth elements (REEs), and multi-elements in geological materials. Partial dissolution techniques used for geochemical exploration which have been treated in detail elsewhere are not discussed here; nor are fire-assaying for noble metals and decomposition techniques for X-ray fluorescence or nuclear methods be discussed. ?? 1992.

  3. Sensing of subsurface faults based on an imaging technique for teleseismic waveform data. 2. Feasibility study for application to oblique incidence, multi-event and noise data; Enchi jishin hakei data wo mochiita chika kozo imaging ni yoru chichu danso kenshutsu no kokoromi. 2. Naname nyusha, multi event, noise wo fukumu hakei eno tekiyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murakoshi, T; Takenaka, H; Saita, T [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Science; Suetsugu, D [Building Research Institute, Tokyo (Japan); Furumura, T [Hokkaido University of Education, Sapporo (Japan)

    1996-05-01

    An examination was made on the method in which imaging of subsurface was carried out with teleseismic waveform data for sensing of faults. In the examination, an experiment was done on the sensing of faults with higher precision, by applying oblique incidence as well as perpendicular upward incidence of SH plane waves, and thereby stacking the imaging in plural events. In numerical experiments, 28 observation points were arranged at 500m spaces apart on the surface, and the incident waves were made the SH plane waves having a bell-shaped time function, with incidence made at an angle varied as 0{degree}, +15{degree} and -15{degree} from the lowest layer of a model. In the calculation of the wave motion field, a difference calculus with secondary accuracy was used for both time and space. In addition, data was prepared with a random noise added to a synthesized waveform to be used as observation data. The calculated waveform data were likened to the observation waveform, to which the method for imaging faults was applied. Consequently, it was noted that satisfactory results were obtained compared with the case where faults were sensed by one event alone. 5 refs., 4 figs.

  4. Partial scram incident in FBTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usha, S.; Pillai, C.P.; Muralikrishna, G.

    1989-01-01

    Evaluation of a partial scram incident occurred at the Fast Breeder Test Reactor at Kalpakkam was carried out. Based on the observations of the experiments it was ascertained that the nonpersistant order was due to superimposed noise component on the channel that was close to the threshold and had resulted in intermittent supply to electro-magnetic (EM) coils. Owing to a larger discharge time and a smaller charge time, the EM coils got progressively discharged. It was confirmed that during the incident, partial scram took place since the charging and discharging patterns of the EM coils are dissimilar and EM coils of rods A, E and F had discharged faster than others for noise component of a particular duty cycle. However, nonlatching of scram order was because of the fact that noise pulse duration was less than latching time. (author)

  5. Criticality incident detection assessment methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haley, Richard M.; Warburton, Simon J.; Bowden, Russell L.

    2003-01-01

    In the United Kingdom, all nuclear facilities that handle, treat or store fissile material require a Criticality Incident Detection and Alarm System (CIDAS) to be installed, unless a case is made for the omission of such a system. Where it is concluded that a CIDAS is required, the primary objective is the reliable detection of criticality and the initiation of prompt evacuation of plant workers from the vicinity of the incident. This paper will examine and compare various methods that can be used to demonstrate that a CIDAS will satisfy the detection criterion. The paper will focus on fit-for-purpose and cost-effective methods for the assessment of gamma-based systems. In the experience of the authors this is particularly useful in demonstrating the efficacy of existing systems in operational plant. (author)

  6. Dissociative Tendencies and Traffic Incidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valle, Virginia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the relationship between dissociative experiences and road traffic incidents (crashes and traffic tickets in drivers (n=295 from Mar del Plata (Argentina city. A self-report questionnaire was applied to assess traffic crash involvement and sociodemographic variables. Dissociative tendencies were assessed by a modified version of the DES scale. To examine differences in DES scores tests of the difference of means were applied. Drivers who reported to be previously involved in traffic incidents obtained higher puntuations in the dissociative experiences scale than drivers who did not report such events. This result is observed for the total scale and for the three sub-scales (absorption, amnesia and depersonalization. However, differences appeared mainly for minor damage collisions. Further studies are needed to evaluate the role of dissociative tendencies as a risk factor in road traffic safety.

  7. [Skin cancer incidence in Zacatecas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinedo-Vega, José Luis; Castañeda-López, Rosalba; Dávila-Rangel, J Ignacio; Mireles-García, Fernando; Ríos-Martínez, Carlos; López-Saucedo, Adrián

    2014-01-01

    Skin cancer is the most frequent cancer related to ultraviolet radiation. The aim was to estimate the incidence of skin cancer type, melanoma and non-melanoma in Zacatecas, Mexico. An epidemiological study was carried out during the period from 2008 to 2012. The data were obtained from the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS), Instituto de Seguridad y Servicios Sociales de los Trabajadores del Estado (ISSSTE), Secretaría de Salud de Zacatecas (SSZ) and a private source, the Centro Médico Alameda. The incidence and the global prevalence were estimated. We studied 958 skin cancer cases, histopathologically confirmed. The cases were distributed as: 63.6 % basal cell carcinomas, 25.8 % squamous cell carcinomas, and 10.6 % melanoma. Significantly higher proportions were observed in women in the basal cell carcinomas (60.4 %) and squamous cell carcinomas (53.4 %). However, in the case of melanoma, the major proportion was observed in men (55.9 %). The more frequent skin cancer location was the face and for basal cell carcinoma was the nose (53 %); for squamous cell carcinomas were the lips (36 %), and for melanoma it was also the nose (40 %). The skin cancer incidence was estimated in 20 cases for each 100 000 inhabitants. Linear regression analysis showed that the skin cancer is increasing at an annual rate of 10.5 %. The anatomical location indicates that solar UV radiation is a risk factor, since the face is the zone with major exposure to solar radiation.

  8. Development and testing of incident detection algorithms. Vol. 2, research methodology and detailed results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-04-01

    The development and testing of incident detection algorithms was based on Los Angeles and Minneapolis freeway surveillance data. Algorithms considered were based on times series and pattern recognition techniques. Attention was given to the effects o...

  9. La décoration de Pierre en relief entre le bas empire et les débuts de Byzancedans les vestiges de la cité de Duklja (Doclea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korać Vojislav

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available (francuski Les vestiges d’une cité antique se trouvant près de Podgorica au Monténégro attiraient l’attention par leur situation et leurs dimensions. Des connaissances historiques modestes évoluaient entre le fait incontestable qu’il s’agit d’une cité antique abandonnée au moment des grandes migrations des populations dans la région. Le matériel dans les vestiges de la cité, surtout du marbre et de la pierre, a été dilapidé selon les besoins de la population de la région plus ou moins proche. Des recherches sérieuses ont été amorcées selon le désir formel du roi Nicolas. Sur les vestiges de Doclea plusieurs groupes d’archéologues russes ou anglais ont travaillé. Des recherches plus approfondies ont été publiées par Piero Sticcoti, son livre a été traduit et la traduction suivie du texte de Olivera Velimirovic Zizic expliquant la valeur du livre. Le besoin de nouvelles recherches de fond se faisant sentir l’Institut de la conservation des monuments de culture de la république du Monténégro et l’Institut d’archéologie à Belgrade se sont mis d’accord sur la poursuite des recherches en trois campagnes - en 1954, en 1955 et en 1966. Les dernières recherches ont apporté de nouvelles informations en abondance sur ce site archéologique exceptionnel. L’examen des reliefs en pierre reposait surtout sur celui des chapiteaux. Tout en étant en mauvais état ils ont cependant donné l’information sur l’aspect initial de la décoration en relief. Une conception semblable des chapiteaux a incité des chercheurs renommés à leur accorder une attention particulière. Ceci est à l’origine de nombreuses études des chercheurs renommés couvrant des aires plus larges. C’est également le sujet de la partie principale de notre texte. Des modèles des chapiteaux antiques traditionnels étant trouvés en Italie, à Rome et en Italie méridionale. Nous désignons des conceptions plus tardives comme

  10. Critical incidents among women entrepreneurs: Personal and professional issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vânia Maria Jorge Nassif

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this paper is to analyze critical situations experienced by women entrepreneurs and understand how they have overcome such situations. The study contributes to the understanding of the issues related to the activities of women entrepreneurs and shows that the use of the critical incident technique is relevant to the development of research in the field of entrepreneurship. The data were collected using a specific form with 115 women participating in the study. The analysis of critical incidents showed that in addition to the practical issues regarding the management of their business, emotions are interconnected with their business development. Unlike international studies in the field, the critical incidents experienced by Brazilian women entrepreneurs overlap with personal aspects. The women involved in this study face emotional difficulties, but are also motivated by strong feelings of determination to overcome their problems.

  11. Critical incidents connected to nurses’ leadership in Intensive Care Units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Cantarella Lima

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: The goal of this study is to analyze nurses’ leadership in intensive care units at hospitals in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, in the face of positive and negative critical incidents. Method: Exploratory, descriptive study, conducted with 24 nurses by using the Critical Incident Technique as a methodological benchmark. Results: Results were grouped into 61 critical incidents distributed into categories. Researchers came to the conclusion that leadership-related situations interfere with IC nurses’ behaviors. Among these situations they found: difficulty in the communication process; conflicts in the daily exercise of nurses’ activities; people management; and the setting of high quality care targets. Final considerations: Researchers identified a mixed leadership model, leading them to the conclusion that nurses’ knowledge and practice of contemporary leadership theories/styles are crucial because they facilitate the communication process, focusing on behavioral aspects and beliefs, in addition to valuing flexibility. This positively impacts the organization’s results.

  12. Neutron techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charlton, J.S.

    1986-01-01

    The way in which neutrons interact with matter such as slowing-down, diffusion, neutron absorption and moderation are described. The use of neutron techniques in industry, in moisture gages, level and interface measurements, the detection of blockages, boron analysis in ore feedstock and industrial radiography are discussed. (author)

  13. The Tricastin incident; L'incident du Tricastin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nifenecker, H.

    2008-07-01

    The author comments the incident which occurred on the Tricastin site in July 2008: the release of 30 cubic meters of a uranium-containing solution. First, he recalls the international nuclear event scale, outlines that the Tricastin is not a nuclear power plant, that uranium is more a chemical toxic product than a radiological toxic product. After having briefly recalled some dose threshold values, he discusses the presence of uranium in the environment, and states that the event is actually a non-event which has been in fact magnified by the media

  14. The investigation of leukaemia incidence around sites of special interest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urquhart, J.

    1991-01-01

    The study of the incidence of leukaemia and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma around sites of special interest has created many methodological and philosophical problems. Not least of these is the construction of boundaries of space and time to delineate areas of study around a point source of interest. Studies such as those of the incidence of childhood leukaemia around Dounreay have made use of arbitrarily selected fixed geographic boundaries. The Poisson maximum method proposed by Stone and Bithell provides an alternative approach in which no prior selection of geographic boundaries is required. The application of an adaptation of this method to each of the Scottish nuclear sites confirmed the results found for Dounreay by other methods. No excess incidence was observed around the Hunterston Nuclear Installation and an observed excess incidence around Chapelcross was not statistically significant. The further development of statistical techniques which do not require the arbitrary selection of boundaries will facilitate the monitoring of the incidence of disease around sites of special interest and perhaps permit it to be carried out in a less combative climate than has hitherto been the case. (author)

  15. Les Nouvelles Traversées Alpines : la “cité-Europe” à l’épreuve de l’acceptabilité alpine ? The New alpine crossings : The “city-Europe” faces up to the alpine acceptability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Sutton

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available La pensée des traversées alpines est indissociable de celle des réseaux urbains alpins et, au-delà, européens. La nouvelle phase de percée des tunnels de base le réaffirme : les “Nouvelles Traversées Alpines” se retrouvent au coeur de l’enjeu de connexion des réseaux ferroviaires européens à grande vitesse. L’invention de la “cité-Europe” passe ainsi par la réinvention d’un pacte alpin autour du dessein de franchissement entre les villes de piedmonts et les communautés montagnardes traversées. Ces dernières ont, en effet, la capacité de bloquer un projet par leur refus. L’exemple du projet Lyon-Turin l’illustre, en contre-point de la réussite du tunnel de base du Lötschberg. La réussite suisse semble tenir à la capacité de conjuguer les inventions technique et sociale du tunnel, ne niant pas la dimension territoriale de cet objet réticulaire.It is impossible to think about the alpine crossings without thinking about the alpine and European urban nets. The construction of the basis tunnels recalls it: the “New Alpine Crossings” are the kernel of the connection issue between the European high-speed railways nets. The invention of a “city-Europe” needs a reinvented pact, between the cities of the plains and the alpine communities, based on the reaffirmation of a common crossing destiny. The alpine communities can thwart the project by refusing it, as the example of the Lyon-Turin project shows, in contrast to the successful Lötschberg basis tunnel. The Swiss success seems to come from the capacity to mix technical and social inventions, replacing the territorial dimension in the reticular fundament.

  16. Astrophysical techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Kitchin, CR

    2013-01-01

    DetectorsOptical DetectionRadio and Microwave DetectionX-Ray and Gamma-Ray DetectionCosmic Ray DetectorsNeutrino DetectorsGravitational Radiation Dark Matter and Dark Energy Detection ImagingThe Inverse ProblemPhotographyElectronic ImagingScanningInterferometrySpeckle InterferometryOccultationsRadarElectronic ImagesPhotometryPhotometryPhotometersSpectroscopySpectroscopy SpectroscopesOther TechniquesAstrometryPolarimetrySolar StudiesMagnetometryComputers and The Internet.

  17. Browns Ferry charcoal adsorber incident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mays, G.T.

    1979-01-01

    The article reviews the temperature excursion in the charcoal adsorber beds of the Browns Ferry Unit 3 off-gas system that occurred on July 17, 1977. Significant temperature increases were experienced in the charcoal adsorber beds when charcoal fines were ignited by the ignition of a combustible mixture of hydrogen and oxygen in the off-gas system. The Browns Ferry off-gas system is described, and events leading up to and surrounding the incident are discussed. The follow-up investigation by Tennessee Valley Authority and General Electric Company personnel and their recommendations for system and operational modifications are summarized

  18. Presentation Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Froejmark, M.

    1992-10-01

    The report presents a wide, easily understandable description of presentation technique and man-machine communication. General fundamentals for the man-machine interface are illustrated, and the factors that affect the interface are described. A model is presented for describing the operators work situation, based on three different levels in the operators behaviour. The operator reacts routinely in the face of simple, known problems, and reacts in accordance with predetermined plans in the face of more complex, recognizable problems. Deep fundamental knowledge is necessary for truly complex questions. Today's technical status and future development have been studied. In the future, the operator interface will be based on standard software. Functions such as zooming, integration of video pictures, and sound reproduction will become common. Video walls may be expected to come into use in situations in which several persons simultaneously need access to the same information. A summary of the fundamental rules for the design of good picture ergonomics and design requirements for control rooms are included in the report. In conclusion, the report describes a presentation technique within the Distribution Automation and Demand Side Management area and analyses the know-how requirements within Vattenfall. If different systems are integrated, such as geographical information systems and operation monitoring systems, strict demands are made on the expertise of the users for achieving a user-friendly technique which is matched to the needs of the human being. (3 figs.)

  19. USFA NFIRS 2013 Fire Incident & Cause Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The 2013 Fire Causes & Incident data was provided by the U.S. Fire Administration’s (USFA) National Fire Data Center’s (NFDC’s) National Fire Incident Reporting...

  20. Increasing incidence of diabetes after gestational diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauenborg, Jeannet; Hansen, Torben; Jensen, Dorte Møller

    2004-01-01

    To study the incidence of diabetes among women with previous diet-treated gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in the light of the general increasing incidence of overweight and diabetes and to identify risk factors for the development of diabetes.......To study the incidence of diabetes among women with previous diet-treated gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in the light of the general increasing incidence of overweight and diabetes and to identify risk factors for the development of diabetes....

  1. Poster - 27: Incident Learning Practices in Ontario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angers, Crystal; Medlam, Gaylene; Liszewski, Brian; Simniceanu, Carina [The Ottawa Hospital Cancer Centre, Mississauga Halton/Central West Regional Cancer Center, Odette Cancer Centre, Cancer Care Ontario (Canada)

    2016-08-15

    Purpose: The Radiation Incident and Safety Committee (RISC), established and supported by Cancer Care Ontario (CCO), is responsible for advising the Provincial Head of the Radiation Treatment program on matters relating to provincial reporting of radiation incidents with the goal of improved risk mitigation. Methods: The committee is made up of Radiation Incident Leads (RILs) with representation from each of the 14 radiation medicine programs in the province. RISC routinely meets to review recent critical incidents and to discuss provincial reporting processes and future directions of the committee. Regular face to face meetings have provided an excellent venue for sharing incident learning practices. A summary of the incident learning practices across Ontario has been compiled. Results: Almost all programs in Ontario employ an incident learning committee to review incidents and identify corrective actions or process improvements. Tools used for incident reporting include: paper based reporting, a number of different commercial products and software solutions developed in-house. A wide range of classification schema (data taxonomies) are employed, although most have been influenced by national guidance documents. The majority of clinics perform root cause analyses but utilized methodologies vary significantly. Conclusions: Most programs in Ontario employ a committee approach to incident learning. However, the reporting tools and taxonomies in use vary greatly which represents a significant challenge to provincial reporting. RISC is preparing to adopt the National System for Incident Reporting – Radiation Therapy (NSIR-RT) which will standardize incident reporting and facilitate data analyses aimed at identifying targeted improvement initiatives.

  2. Poster - 27: Incident Learning Practices in Ontario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angers, Crystal; Medlam, Gaylene; Liszewski, Brian; Simniceanu, Carina

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The Radiation Incident and Safety Committee (RISC), established and supported by Cancer Care Ontario (CCO), is responsible for advising the Provincial Head of the Radiation Treatment program on matters relating to provincial reporting of radiation incidents with the goal of improved risk mitigation. Methods: The committee is made up of Radiation Incident Leads (RILs) with representation from each of the 14 radiation medicine programs in the province. RISC routinely meets to review recent critical incidents and to discuss provincial reporting processes and future directions of the committee. Regular face to face meetings have provided an excellent venue for sharing incident learning practices. A summary of the incident learning practices across Ontario has been compiled. Results: Almost all programs in Ontario employ an incident learning committee to review incidents and identify corrective actions or process improvements. Tools used for incident reporting include: paper based reporting, a number of different commercial products and software solutions developed in-house. A wide range of classification schema (data taxonomies) are employed, although most have been influenced by national guidance documents. The majority of clinics perform root cause analyses but utilized methodologies vary significantly. Conclusions: Most programs in Ontario employ a committee approach to incident learning. However, the reporting tools and taxonomies in use vary greatly which represents a significant challenge to provincial reporting. RISC is preparing to adopt the National System for Incident Reporting – Radiation Therapy (NSIR-RT) which will standardize incident reporting and facilitate data analyses aimed at identifying targeted improvement initiatives.

  3. Les autres Irakiens : émigrés et exilés d’avant 2003 en Jordanie et leurs récits d’appartenance (Une recherche en cours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hala Fattah

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Cet article s’intéresse à une importante minorité de la communauté irakienne exilée à Amman (Jordanie, à savoir la génération des années 1950. Après une brève présentation de l’histoire de l’émigration irakienne en Jordanie, l’auteur évoque les quelques travaux sociologiques sur les Irakiens à Amman et dans les autres villes jordaniennes. La seconde section de l’article est consacrée à l’analyse de la manière dont cette génération formule l’identité ou les identités irakiennes, la question communautaire, celle des droits des femmes et la notion de gouvernance. Bien qu’il s’agisse d’une étude à ses débuts, l’exploration par l’auteur de cette histoire orale introduit des nuances passionnantes à notre connaissance de l’histoire irakienne, qu’elle s’efforce de relier (de façon encore impressionniste au récit plus large de la mémoire irakienne.

  4. Development of a multiplex real-time PCR for the rapid detection of the predominant beta-lactamase genes CTX-M, SHV, TEM and CIT-type AmpCs in Enterobacteriaceae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Roschanski

    Full Text Available Beta-lactamase resistant bacteria and especially ESBL producing Enterobacteriaceae are an increasing problem worldwide. For this reason a major interest in efficient and reliable methods for rapid screening of high sample numbers is recognizable. Therefore, a multiplex real-time PCR was developed to detect the predominant class A beta-lactamase genes blaCTX-M, blaSHV, blaTEM and CIT-type AmpCs in a one-step reaction. A set of 114 Enterobacteriaceae containing previously identified resistance gene subtypes and in addition 20 undefined animal and environmental isolates were used for the validation of this assay. To confirm the accessibility in variable settings, the real-time runs were performed analogous in two different laboratories using different real-time cyclers. The obtained results showed complete accordance between the real-time data and the predetermined genotypes. Even if sequence analyses are further necessary for a comprehensive characterization, this method was proofed to be reliable for rapid screening of high sample numbers and therefore could be an important tool for e. g. epidemiological purposes or support infection control measures.

  5. Astrophysical techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitchin, C R

    1984-01-01

    The subject is covered in chapters, entitled: detectors (optical and infrared detection; radio and microwave detection; X-ray and gamma-ray detection; cosmic ray detectors; neutrino detectors; gravitational radiation); imaging (photography; electronic imaging; scanning; interferometry; speckle interferometry; occultations; radar); photometry and photometers; spectroscopy and spectroscopes; other techniques (astrometry; polarimetry; solar studies; magnetometry). Appendices: magnitudes and spectral types of bright stars; north polar sequence; standard stars for the UBV photometric system; standard stars for the UVBY photometric system; standard stars for MK spectral types; standard stars for polarimetry; Julian date; catalogues; answers to the exercises.

  6. Llizarov technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shankman, S.; Rosenberg, Z.S.; Frankel, V.; Golyakhovsky, V.

    1990-01-01

    This paper illustrates the radiographic manifestations of the Ilizarov distraction technique for the correction of short and deformed limbs. The radiographs of 130 patients who underwent Ilizarov distraction at 160 sites since December 1986 were reviewed retrospectively. Reasons for correction included fracture nonunion and malunion idiopathic leg length discrepancy, achondroplasia, and neurofibromatosis with tibial pseudarthrosis. Ninety patients were adults, and 40 were children. In order to assess cortical bone development during the fixation phase, CT of the regenerate bone was performed in 17 patients. Conventional tomograms were obtained in 20 patients for the evaluation of delayed or hypoplastic union at the distraction site

  7. Experimental Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fournier, D.; Serin, L.

    1995-01-01

    Experimental techniques to be used in the new generation of high energy physics are presented. The emphasis is put on the new ATLAS and CMS detectors for the CERN LHC. For the most important elements of these detectors, a description of the underlying physics processes is given, sometimes with reference to comparable detectors used in the past. Some comparative global performances of the two detectors are also given, with reference to benchmark physics processes (detection of the Higgs boson in various mass regions, etc). (author)

  8. INCIDENCE OF AMPUTATION IN EMERGENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Rojaramani Kumbha

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Advanced Technology and early detection of disease by recent improvements in investigation modalities lead to decreased incidents of amputations while Road Traffic Accidents (RTA increase. Furthermore, it leads to variation and decreased morbidity, mortality and accidents (crush injuries, and better equipped and trained staff, specialist services, diabetic food, rehabilitation centres, and giving good support physically and psychologically for Amputated patients. OBJECTIVE To know incidence rates of Emergency Amputation who attended causality with advanced disease and severe Trauma. METHODOLOGY The study is done over a period of one year i.e. between June 2015 to June 2016 who attended causality with advanced and severe disease affecting the limbs either due to diabetes, trauma or vascular diseases. RESULTS During one-year period, total 6,371 patients attended for general surgery OP. In those, 187 patients needed emergency surgery which included both major and minor operations. Among those, 81 patients were amputated. CONCLUSION As per our available records and observation, even though there is increased literacy and access to advanced technology, there is still increased incidence of patients undergoing amputations due to diseases. Therefore, there is a need to improve awareness and importance of early detection of diabetes, hazards of smoking, and regular general health checkups for patients at root level. With that we can treat diabetes and/or any disease in time. So there must be awareness in peripheral health staff i.e. PHC, subcentres, and community health centres about early detection of disease which in turn improves the quality of life of the patient. Due to diabetes slight injury to the glucose laden tissue may cause chronic infection and ulcer formation.(1 The tumours are seen commonly in the age group of 20-40 years after bone fusion, bones affected commonly are those around the knee (lower end of knee, upper end of tibia. A lytic

  9. AKTIVITAS ANTIMALARIA (IN VIVO KOMBINASI BUAH SIRIH (Piper betle L, DAUN MIYANA (Plectranthus scutellarioides (L. R. BR. MADU DAN KUNING TELUR PADA MEN CIT YANG DIINFEKSI Plasmodium berghei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Astuti Nugroho

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Malaria is a major public health problem in the world and developing countries in particular, causing an estimated 1-2 million deaths per year, an annual incidence of 300-500 million clinical cases and more than 2 billion people were at risk of infection from it. But it is also becoming more difficult to treat malaria due to the increasing drug resistance. Therefore, the need for alternative drugs is acute. This study aims at investigating the in vivo antiplasmodial activity of Piper betle L., fruit (buah sirih, Plectranthus scutellarioides (L. R. BR., (daun miyana, honey and egg yolk combination. Methods: A rodent malaria parasite, Plasmodium berghei, was inoculated into Swiss albino mice. The mice were infected with Ixl05 parasites intraperitoneally. The Piper betle L., fruit (buah sirih, Plectranthus scutellarioides (L. R. BR., (daun miyana, honey and egg yolk combination were combined and administered by an intra gastric tube daily for seven days starting from the day of parasite inoculation. The control groups received the same amount of solvent (vehicle used to suspend each dose of the herbal drug. Chloroquine was used as a standard drug, administered through the same route. Results: Combination of Piper betle L., fruit (buah sirih, Plectranthus scutellarioides (L. R. BR., (daun miyana, honey and egg yolk were observed to inhibit Plasomodium berghei parasitaemia in the Swiss albino mice 100 % on the sixth day. Conclusion: The study could partly confirm the claim in East Sulawesi traditional medicine that the Piper betle L., fruit (buah sirih, Plectranthus scutellarioides (L. R. BR., (daun miyana, honey and egg yolk combination has therapeutic values in human malaria. There was, thus, the need to initiate further in-depth investigation by using different experimental models.

  10. RADIATION CONTAMINATION INCIDENT AT ISOLDE

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    On 27 June 2000 three specialists were investigating a problem with the extraction electrode of the high-resolution separator (HRS) in Isolde. Whilst using an endoscope in order to have a closer look at the interior, they came into contact with radioactive dust and became contaminated. The level of contamination was low and the radiation dose received by the 3 persons was far below the effective dose limit given in the CERN Radiation Safety Manual and in the regulations of the Host States.According to the usual procedure, the Director General has set up a Fact-Finding Group and an Accident Board in order to advise him on the steps and decisions tobe taken following this incident and in particular to avoid a recurrence.

  11. Reactor coolant pump transportation incident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noce, D.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports on an incident, which occurred on August 27, 1991, in which a Reactor Coolant Pump motor en route from Surry Power Station to Westinghouse repair facilities struck the overpass at the junction of Interstate 64 and Jefferson Avenue in Newport News, Virginia. The transport container that housed the reactor coolant pump motor failed to clear the overpass. The force of the impact dislodged the container and motor from the truck bed, and it landed on the acceleration land and road shoulder. Upon impact, the container broke open and exposed the reactor coolant pump motor. Incidental radioactively contaminated water that remained in the motor coolers drained onto the road, contaminating the aggregate as well as the underlying gravel

  12. The Jarvis gas release incident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manocha, J.

    1992-01-01

    On 26 September, 1991, large volumes of natural gas were observed to be leaking from two water wells in the Town of Jarvis. Gas and water were being ejected from a drilled water well, at which a subsequent gas explosion occurred. Measurements of gas concentrations indicated levels far in excess of the lower flammability limit at several locations. Electrical power and natural gas services were cut off, and residents were evacuated. A state of emergency was declared, and gas was found to be flowing from water wells, around building foundations, and through other fractures in the ground. By 27 September the volumes of gas had reduced substantially, and by 30 September all residents had returned to their homes and the state of emergency was cancelled. The emergency response, possible pathways of natural gas into the aquifer, and public relations are discussed. It is felt that the likelihood of a similar incident occurring in the future is high. 11 figs

  13. Scrutinizing incident reporting in anaesthesia: why is an incident perceived as critical?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maaløe, R; la Cour, M; Hansen, A

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to measure the incidence and type of incidents that occurred in relation to anaesthesia and surgery during a 1-year period in six Danish hospitals. Furthermore, we wanted to identify risk factors for incidents, as well as risk factors for incidents being deeme...... critical....

  14. Industrial technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, D.H.

    1975-01-01

    Techniques for selectively extracting and storing only krypton and xenon in the waste gases that are released from a pressurized water nuclear power reactor are described. The illustrative fluorocarbon absorption system has three separation stages: an initial gas-fluorocarbon absorber, a flash chamber and fractionator for segregating all of the absorbed gases from the loaded absorber stage fluorocarbon (save for the krypton and xenon), and a stripper that receives the partially loaded fluorocarbon liquid directly from the fractionator in order to separate only the krypton and xenon. A molecular sieve filter dries the input process gas, a cartridge type solvent filter is used to remove radiation degradation products from the loaded liquid that flows from the absorber, a cold trap gas drier is provided to remove residual solvent vapor from the separated krypton and xenon, and radiation detectors automatically activate valves to establish safe conditions in the event of an accident or plant failure. (U.S.)

  15. Experimental techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roussel-Chomaz, P.

    2007-01-01

    This lecture presents the experimental techniques, developed in the last 10 or 15 years, in order to perform a new class of experiments with exotic nuclei, where the reactions induced by these nuclei allow to get information on their structure. A brief review of the secondary beams production methods will be given, with some examples of facilities in operation or under project. The important developments performed recently on cryogenic targets will be presented. The different detection systems will be reviewed, both the beam detectors before the targets, and the many kind of detectors necessary to detect all outgoing particles after the reaction: magnetic spectrometer for the heavy fragment, detection systems for the target recoil nucleus, γ detectors. Finally, several typical examples of experiments will be detailed, in order to illustrate the use of each detector either alone, or in coincidence with others. (author)

  16. Combinatorial techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Sane, Sharad S

    2013-01-01

    This is a basic text on combinatorics that deals with all the three aspects of the discipline: tricks, techniques and theory, and attempts to blend them. The book has several distinctive features. Probability and random variables with their interconnections to permutations are discussed. The theme of parity has been specially included and it covers applications ranging from solving the Nim game to the quadratic reciprocity law. Chapters related to geometry include triangulations and Sperner's theorem, classification of regular polytopes, tilings and an introduction to the Eulcidean Ramsey theory. Material on group actions covers Sylow theory, automorphism groups and a classification of finite subgroups of orthogonal groups. All chapters have a large number of exercises with varying degrees of difficulty, ranging from material suitable for Mathematical Olympiads to research.

  17. Asymmetric diffusion model for oblique-incidence reflectometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yaqin Chen; Liji Cao; Liqun Sun

    2011-01-01

    A diffusion theory model induced by a line source distribution is presented for oblique-incidence reflectom-etry. By fitting to this asymmetric diffusion model, the absorption and reduced scattering coefficients μa and μ's of the turbid medium can both be determined with accuracy of 10% from the absolute profile of the diffuse reflectance in the incident plane at the negative position -1.5 transport mean free path (mfp') away from the incident point; particularly, μ's can be estimated from the data at positive positions within 0-1.0 mfp' with 10% accuracy. The method is verified by Monte Carlo simulations and experimentally tested on a phantom.%A diffusion theory model induced by a line source distribution is presented for oblique-incidence reflectometry.By fitting to this asymmetric diffusion model,the absorption and reduced scattering coefficients μa and μ's of the turbid medium can both be determined with accuracy of 10% from the absolute profile of the diffuse reflectance in the incident plane at the negative position -1.5 transport mean free path (mfp')away from the incident point;particularly,μ's can be estimated from the data at positive positions within 0-1.0 mfp' with 10% accuracy.The method is verified by Monte Carlo simulations and experimentally tested on a phantom.Knowledge about the optical properties,including the absorption coefficient (μa) and the reduced scattering coefficient (μ's =μs(1-g)),where μs is the scattering coefficient and g is the anisotropy factor of scattering,of biological tissues plays an important role for optical therapeutic and diagnostic techniques in medicine.

  18. On the sound absorption coefficient of porous asphalt pavements for oblique incident sound waves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bezemer-Krijnen, Marieke; Wijnant, Ysbrand H.; de Boer, Andries; Bekke, Dirk; Davy, J.; Don, Ch.; McMinn, T.; Dowsett, L.; Broner, N.; Burgess, M.

    2014-01-01

    A rolling tyre will radiate noise in all directions. However, conventional measurement techniques for the sound absorption of surfaces only give the absorption coefficient for normal incidence. In this paper, a measurement technique is described with which it is possible to perform in situ sound

  19. The Application of Critical Incident Procedures for an Initial Audit of Organizational Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutherford, R. Stanley

    This paper discusses the concept of the critical incidents technique, traces its early development in the training of airplane pilots during World War II, sketches the requirements of the typical steps, notes the few studies in communication using this technique, provides an evaluation, and briefly describes a study concerning department chairmen.…

  20. Incidence of retrorenal colon during percutaneous nephrolithotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Balasar

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective The aim of this study was to investigate retrorenal colon incidence in percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL interventions made in our clinic. Materials and Methods Clinical data of 804 PNL patients, accumulated over a 7 year period (2006-2012, was surveyed. The patient files were reviewed retrospectively, and only those who had abdominal computed tomography (CT images before PNL intervention were included in the study. In the CT images, the position of both the ascending and descending colon in relation to the right and left kidneys were evaluated. Results According to our hospital reports, 394 patients with CT images were included in the present study 27 patients (6.9% had retrorenal colon, of which 18 (4.6% were on the left side, 4 (1.0% on the right side and 5 (1.3% had bilateral retrorenal colons. Colonic perforation complication was seen only in two patients and the colonic perforation rate was 0.3%. These two cases had no CT images. Conclusions PNL, in the process of becoming the standard treatment modality, is a safe and reliable technique for renal stone treatment. Colonic injury should be taken into consideration during PNL interventions of the lower pole of the kidney (especially on the left side due to the location of retrorenal colon.

  1. Surface quality inspection of PbWO4 crystals by grazing incidence X-ray diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mengucci, P.; Di Cristoforo, A.; Lebeau, M.; Majni, G.; Paone, N.; Pietroni, P.; Rinaldi, D.

    2005-01-01

    High-quality scintillating crystals are required for applications in radiographic systems and high-energy physics detectors to achieve the specified optical properties. In order to study the state of the single crystals surface we propose the use of the grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GID) technique. This technique allows performing a depth profiling of the sample by changing the incidence angle of the X-ray beam with respect to the sample surface. In this work, two samples of a large PbWO 4 (PWO) single crystal exhibiting different surface roughness values have been studied. Results have shown that GID is a suitable technique for surface quality inspection

  2. Factors influencing recovery and restoration following a chemical incident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña-Fernández, A; Wyke, S; Brooke, N; Duarte-Davidson, R

    2014-11-01

    Chemicals are an important part of our society. A wide range of chemicals are discharged into the environment every day from residential, commercial and industrial sources. Many of these discharges do not pose a threat to public health or the environment. However, global events have shown that chemical incidents or accidents can have severe consequences on human health, the environment and society. It is important that appropriate tools and technical guidance are available to ensure that a robust and efficient approach to developing a remediation strategy is adopted. The purpose of remediation is to protect human health from future exposure and to return the affected area back to normal as soon as possible. There are a range of recovery options (techniques or methods for remediation) that are applicable to a broad range of chemicals and incidents. Recovery options should be evaluated according to their appropriateness and efficacy for removing contaminants from the environment; however economic drivers and social and political considerations often influence decision makers on which remedial actions are implemented during the recovery phase of a chemical incident. To date, there is limited information in the literature on remediation strategies and recovery options that have been implemented following a chemical incident, or how successful they have been. Additional factors that can affect the approach taken for recovery are not well assessed or understood by decision makers involved in the remediation and restoration of the environment following a chemical incident. The identification of this gap has led to the development of the UK Recovery Handbook for Chemical Incidents to provide a framework for choosing an effective recovery strategy. A compendium of practical evidence-based recovery options (techniques or methods for remediation) for inhabited areas, food production systems and water environments has also been developed and is included in the chemical

  3. Industrial technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jabsen, F.S.

    1975-01-01

    An illustrative embodiment of the invention discloses a technique for disassembling a nuclear reactor fuel element without destroying the individual fuel pins and other structural components from which the element is assembled. A traveling bridge and trolley that span a water-filled spent fuel storage pool support a strongback. The strongback is under water and provides a working surface on which the spent fuel element is placed for inspection and for the manipulation that is associated with disassembly and assembly. To remove, in a non-destructive manner, the grids that hold the fuel pins in the proper relative positions within the element, bars are inserted through apertures in the grids with the aid of special tools. These bars are rotated to flex the adjacent grid walls and, in this way relax the physical engagement between protruding portions of the grid walls and the associated fuel pins. With the grid structure so flexed to relax the physical grip on the individual fuel pins, these pins can be withdrawn for inspection or replacement as necessary without imposing a need to destroy fuel element components. (U.S.)

  4. Cancer incidence among Danish seafarers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kærlev, Linda; Hansen, Johnny; Lyngbeck Hansen, Hans

    2005-01-01

    ), and an excess of cancer of the lung, rectum, and cervix uteri among women. The differences in risk pattern for lung cancer between the different job categories among men ranged in terms of SIR from 1.2 (95% CI 0.9 to 1.7) (engine officers) to 2.3 (1.6 to 3.3) (engine room crew), and 4.1 (2.1 to 7.4) among...... extensively in ships. The aim of this study was to study cancer morbidity among Danish seafarers in relation to type of ship and job title. METHODS: A cohort of all Danish seafarers during 1986-1999 (33,340 men; 11,291 women) registered by the Danish Maritime Authority with an employment history was linked...... with the nationwide Danish Cancer Registry and followed up for cancer until the end of 2002. The number of person years at risk was 517,518. Standardised incidence ratios (SIR) were estimated by use of the corresponding national rates. RESULTS: The SIR of all cancers combined was higher than expected: 1.26 (95% CI 1...

  5. Le rôle du récit de vie dans le discours politique de Lula The role of Lula’s Life Story in his Political Speeches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Lucia Machado

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Cet article propose une réflexion sur le rôle du récit de vie dans les discours politiques, et plus précisément dans les discours d’investiture à la présidence du Brésil de Luis Ignacio Lula da Silva. Il analyse quelques fragments qui mêlent expressément des souvenirs de sa vie passée aux discours politiques d’actualité, mais aussi qui font allusion à sa vie de façon indirecte. Dans le premier discours, Lula se présente comme un personnage de l’histoire, un « il » qui veut travailler pour la collectivité ; néanmoins, les allusions à sa trajectoire de vie le légitiment comme celui qui peut promouvoir le changement requis par le peuple. Dans le second discours, Lula utilise depuis le début un « je » ancré dans sa propre histoire : sa « petite » histoire personnelle semble ainsi s’incorporer à la « grande » histoire d’une nation. En ce sens, le récit de vie comprend une dimension argumentative qui permet de construire un ethos présidentiel par le jeu qu’il instaure entre l’individuel et le collectif, créant ainsi un effet de pathos qui appelle à l’identification. On s’interroge dans ce cadre sur la question du populisme dans son rapport aux stratégies de captation propres au discours politique.This paper analyzes fragments of President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva’s inaugural speeches. Lula da Silva served as the President of Brazil for two consecutive terms in office. In his first inaugural speech, Lula da Silva refers to himself as a historical character, and uses the pronoun “he” (or “not-I”, a “he” at the service of the community. However, his path in life, mentioned in a single paragraph, legitimizes him as someone who is able to bring forward the changes demanded by the people. From the beginning of his second inaugural speech, Lula da Silva uses the pronoun “I”, which points to his own story: therefore, his “small, personal story” seems to be embedded into the

  6. cits d´insertion de jeunes et régimes de temporalité Time regimens and young people’s narratives about entering the working world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claude Dubar

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Le texte revient sur l’analyse récemment republiée (Analyser les entretiens biographiques, Presses de Laval, 2004 d’un corpus d’entretiens de jeunes racontant leur insertion, en France, au début des années 90. Il ré-interroge ces entretiens sous l’angle des temporalités mises en œuvre dans les quatre types de discours qui sous-tendent ces récits. S’appuyant sur le concept de formes d’historicité issu de l’épistémologie de l’histoire (Kosselleck, Hartog..., il distingue quatre régimes de temporalités selon les relations des jeunes au passé, au présent et à l’avenir. Le régime utopique est de type eschatologique chez les jeunes qui dissocient totalement leur passé de galère et leur espoir de salut grâce à un Autrui puissant. Le régime passéiste est celui des récits de rêve de la petite entreprise indépendante, du métier ou de l’artisanat caractéristique du travail masculin d’hier. Le régime futuriste est celui des jeunes les plus favorisés énonçant un projet et les étapes de sa réalisation. Le régime présentiste est celui des jeunes femmes enfermées dans leurs rôles de salariées non qualifiées et sans carrière et de mères assujetties aux tâches domestiques.The authors return to their recently republished analysis of a body of interviews with young people talking about their professional insertion in France in the early 1990s  (Analyser les entretiens biographiques, Presses de Laval, 2004. They question those interviews afresh from the point of view of the temporalities that intervene in the four types of discourse underlying the narratives. Taking off from the concept of historic forms found in the epistemology of history (Kosselleck, Hartog.., they distinguish four regimens of temporality according to the way the young people relate to the past, the present and the future. The utopian regimen is eschatological for those who dissociate themselves totally from a past of suffering and

  7. Critical incidents: exploring theory policy and practice

    OpenAIRE

    Beeke, Matthew A.

    2011-01-01

    Responding to critical incidents in school communities has become an established part of the practice of educational psychologists (EPs). Despite this the EP professional journal literature is sparse, the last major study being conducted by Houghton in 1996. Within a mixed methods design this study aimed to explore various aspects of EP practice in response to critical incidents. Firstly, critical incident policy and EP journal literature was examined to provide a definition...

  8. Techniques de combustion Combustin Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perthuis E.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available L'efficacité d'un processus de chauffage par flamme est étroitement liée à la maîtrise des techniques de combustion. Le brûleur, organe essentiel de l'équipement de chauffe, doit d'une part assurer une combustion complète pour utiliser au mieux l'énergie potentielle du combustible et, d'autre part, provoquer dans le foyer les conditions aérodynamiques les plus propices oux transferts de chaleur. En s'appuyant sur les études expérimentales effectuées à la Fondation de Recherches Internationales sur les Flammes (FRIF, au Groupe d'Étude des Flammes de Gaz Naturel (GEFGN et à l'Institut Français du Pétrole (IFP et sur des réalisations industrielles, on présente les propriétés essentielles des flammes de diffusion aux combustibles liquides et gazeux obtenues avec ou sans mise en rotation des fluides, et leurs répercussions sur les transferts thermiques. La recherche des températures de combustion élevées conduit à envisager la marche à excès d'air réduit, le réchauffage de l'air ou son enrichissement à l'oxygène. Par quelques exemples, on évoque l'influence de ces paramètres d'exploitation sur l'économie possible en combustible. The efficiency of a flame heating process is closely linked ta the mastery of, combustion techniques. The burner, an essential element in any heating equipment, must provide complete combustion sa as to make optimum use of the potential energy in the fuel while, at the same time, creating the most suitable conditions for heat transfers in the combustion chamber. On the basis of experimental research performed by FRIF, GEFGN and IFP and of industrial achievements, this article describesthe essential properties of diffusion flames fed by liquid and gaseous fuels and produced with or without fluid swirling, and the effects of such flames on heat transfers. The search for high combustion temperatures means that consideration must be given to operating with reduced excess air, heating the air or

  9. Images documentaires dans le récit décolonisateur. Le cinéma politique latino-américain des années 60 et 70

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Sel

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Cet article évalue l’apport au genre documentaire du Nouveau Cinéma Latino-américain des années soixante et soixante-dix. Dépassant l’opposition fiction-réalité, le Nouveau Cinéma Latino-américain promeut un cinéma de critique sociale grâce à des récits dont les formes varient, mais qui tous contestent la réalité de la domination impérialiste et plaident pour une réhabilitation des cultures et des identités réprimées. Ces nouveaux créateurs, engagés dans la lutte de libération de leurs peuples, sont à l’origine d’ « œuvres ouvertes », destinées à être poursuivies et achevées par l’action des nouveaux spectateurs latino-américains.El artículo aborda la incidencia del documental en el Nuevo Cine Latinoamericano de las décadas del ’60 y principios de los ’70. Superando la dicotomía ficción-realidad, y en una gran diversidad de discursos, el Nuevo Cine Latinoamericano impulsó un cine crítico, de sentido social, en relatos que niegan la realidad de la dominación imperialista y proponen recuperar culturas e identidades colectivas avasalladas. Estos nuevos enunciadores comprometidos con las luchas de liberación de sus pueblos, crearon “obras abiertas” que se completarían y articularían con la acción de nuevos espectadores latinoamericanos.

  10. Les demandes d'enfermement dans la généralité de Rouen au xviiie siècle : le récit de vie comme objet d'Histoire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Élise Chopin-Tufel

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Á travers quelques exemples normands de la seconde moitié du xviiie siècle, cet article analyse la construction des dossiers de demandes d’enfermement et les raisons qui poussent les familles à demander des ordres du roi pour enfermer l’un des leurs. Ces documents présentent des particularités (manque de spontanéité, fragmentation des récits narratifs qui doivent être prises en compte dans leur étude. Ils sont cependant d’une grande richesse pour aborder les réseaux sociaux, les normes et transgressions dans la société normande prérévolutionnaire. Le concept d’identité narrative développé par Paul Ricœur enrichit l’étude de ces sources. Á travers la narration, les justiciables normands mobilisent en effet différentes identités qui renseignent sur les rapports qu’ils entretiennent avec le politique.Through Norman examples from the second half of the 18th century, this article analyses the structure of confinement requests cases and the reasons why families used lettres de cachet to lock up one of their folks. Those documents show particularities (a lack of spontaneity, a fragmentation in the narrative that must be considered when studying them. However they are very useful to study social networks as well as the standards and contraventions of this prerevolutionary Norman society. This concept of a 'narrative identity' as developped by Paul Ricœur enriches the study of these sources. Through narration, Normans who are to be tried use different identities, which give information about their relations with politics.

  11. Le récit de la quête dans le roman américain postmoderne : entre version parodique et stéréotypie. L’exemple de John Barth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salwa Karoui-Elounelli

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Au cours de ses mutations, la fiction de John Barth a incarné la vision esthétique propre au roman postmoderne américain, mais elle a également mis en question l’option métafictionnelle qui anime cette même vision. En tant que mode littéraire consubstantiel à la poétique barthienne, la parodie consacre dans maints récits la subversion systématique du motif de la quête en incorporant cette subversion à la déconstruction du roman de voyage. Le texte barthien révèle en effet que, loin de se borner à inscrire simplement le paradigme de la quête dans une orientation métafictionnelle, le romancier expérimente, dans un esprit d’autocritique, le risque de stéréotypage qu’implique la répétition ironique du motif littéraire et des textes canoniques parodiés.In its incarnation of the self-critical, self-ironic spirit that informs the aesthetic vision of the postmodern novel, the fiction of John Barth has encompassed the inevitable questioning of the metafictional orientation itself. The mode of parody which is substantial to the Barthian poetics integrates the systematic subversion of the quest motif within a deliberate deconstruction of the traditional travel narrative. But, rather than confining the paradigm of the quest in a purely metafictional orientation, Barth’s narratives involve a self-critical confrontation of the risk of stereotyping that the ironic repetition of the literary motif and of the canonical travel narratives implicate.

  12. Quantitation of specific binding ratio in 123I-FP-CIT SPECT: accurate processing strategy for cerebral ventricular enlargement with use of 3D-striatal digital brain phantom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuta, Akihiro; Onishi, Hideo; Amijima, Hizuru

    2018-06-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of ventricular enlargement on the specific binding ratio (SBR) and to validate the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)-Mask algorithm for quantitative SBR assessment of 123 I-FP-CIT single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) images with the use of a 3D-striatum digital brain (SDB) phantom. Ventricular enlargement was simulated by three-dimensional extensions in a 3D-SDB phantom comprising segments representing the striatum, ventricle, brain parenchyma, and skull bone. The Evans Index (EI) was measured in 3D-SDB phantom images of an enlarged ventricle. Projection data sets were generated from the 3D-SDB phantoms with blurring, scatter, and attenuation. Images were reconstructed using the ordered subset expectation maximization (OSEM) algorithm and corrected for attenuation, scatter, and resolution recovery. We bundled DaTView (Southampton method) with the CSF-Mask processing software for SBR. We assessed SBR with the use of various coefficients (f factor) of the CSF-Mask. Specific binding ratios of 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 corresponded to SDB phantom simulations with true values. Measured SBRs > 50% that were underestimated with EI increased compared with the true SBR and this trend was outstanding at low SBR. The CSF-Mask improved 20% underestimates and brought the measured SBR closer to the true values at an f factor of 1.0 despite an increase in EI. We connected the linear regression function (y = - 3.53x + 1.95; r = 0.95) with the EI and f factor using root-mean-square error. Processing with CSF-Mask generates accurate quantitative SBR from dopamine transporter SPECT images of patients with ventricular enlargement.

  13. Métalepse et image de soi de l’auteur dans le récit de fiction Metalepsis and the author’s self-image in fictional narrative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michèle Bokobza Kahan

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available La perméabilité des frontières entre l’intérieur et l’extérieur du texte de fiction nécessite la conciliation des concepts narratologiques d’« auteur implicite » et de « narrateur non fiable » qui privilégient la fonction interne du texte avec la notion d’« ethos discursif » qui ouvre le texte en amont, versant auteur. Le concept clé de l’article - la « métalepse » - comprise ici comme l’intrusion d’un niveau narratif dans un autre, souligne dans le récit la spécificité de la relation causale qui unit l’auteur à son œuvre. La combinaison de ces outils méthodologiques vise à proposer une piste de travail permettant de dégager l’ethos  auctorial toujours fuyant dans un discours fictionnel.The permeability of the borders between the inside and the outside of fiction invites us to combine narratological concepts, as “implied author” and “unreliable narrator” concentrated on the internal mechanisms of the text, and the concept of “discursive ethos” opening the text toward its external source, the author. The key concept of this article - the “metalepsis” - defined here as the intrusion of one narrative level into another - emphasizes the special relationship between the author and his work in the narrative. The combination of these methodological tools offers an analytical approach facilitating the apprehension of the unstable auctorial ethos in the fictional text.

  14. Reactor incident status 1981 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiser, S.H.

    1982-01-01

    Reactor Incident followup action is summarized through periodic status reports. This annual report summarizes action taken or anticipated for Reactor Incidents through December 1981. Incidents for which action has been completed, have been deleted from the report. Quarterly addende will update the report by tabulating incidents for each three month period through the coming year. The report consists of a part for the P, K, and C Reactors. Each reactor part is divided into three sections: Further Technical Analysis or Followup Needed; Funding and/or Implementation Needed; and No Further Technical Analysis Anticipated

  15. When did HIV incidence peak in Harare, Zimbabwe? Back-calculation from mortality statistics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Lopman

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available HIV prevalence has recently begun to decline in Zimbabwe, a result of both high levels of AIDS mortality and a reduction in incident infections. An important component in understanding the dynamics in HIV prevalence is knowledge of past trends in incidence, such as when incidence peaked and at what level. However, empirical measurements of incidence over an extended time period are not available from Zimbabwe or elsewhere in sub-Saharan Africa. Using mortality data, we use a back-calculation technique to reconstruct historic trends in incidence. From AIDS mortality data, extracted from death registration in Harare, together with an estimate of survival post-infection, HIV incidence trends were reconstructed that would give rise to the observed patterns of AIDS mortality. Models were fitted assuming three parametric forms of the incidence curve and under nine different assumptions regarding combinations of trends in non-AIDS mortality and patterns of survival post-infection with HIV. HIV prevalence was forward-projected from the fitted incidence and mortality curves. Models that constrained the incidence pattern to a cubic spline function were flexible and produced well-fitting, realistic patterns of incidence. In models assuming constant levels of non-AIDS mortality, annual incidence peaked between 4 and 5% between 1988 and 1990. Under other assumptions the peak level ranged from 3 to 8% per annum. However, scenarios assuming increasing levels of non-AIDS mortality resulted in implausibly low estimates of peak prevalence (11%, whereas models with decreasing underlying crude mortality could be consistent with the prevalence and mortality data. HIV incidence is most likely to have peaked in Harare between 1988 and 1990, which may have preceded the peak elsewhere in Zimbabwe. This finding, considered alongside the timing and location of HIV prevention activities, will give insight into the decline of HIV prevalence in Zimbabwe.

  16. The incidence of abortion worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henshaw, S K; Singh, S; Haas, T

    1999-01-01

    Accurate measurement of induced abortion levels has proven difficult in many parts of the world. Health care workers and policymakers need information on the incidence of both legal and illegal induced abortion to provide the needed services and to reduce the negative impact of unsafe abortion on women's health. Numbers and rates of induced abortions were estimated from four sources: official statistics or other national data on legal abortions in 57 countries; estimates based on population surveys for two countries without official statistics; special studies for 10 countries where abortion is highly restricted; and worldwide and regional estimates of unsafe abortion from the World Health Organization. Approximately 26 million legal and 20 million illegal abortions were performed worldwide in 1995, resulting in a worldwide abortion rate of 35 per 1,000 women aged 15-44. Among the subregions of the world, Eastern Europe had the highest abortion rate (90 per 1,000) and Western Europe to the lowest rate (11 per 1,000). Among countries where abortion is legal without restriction as to reason, the highest abortion rate, 83 per 1,000, was reported for Vietnam and the lowest, seven per 1,000, for Belgium and the Netherlands. Abortion rates are no lower overall in areas where abortion is generally restricted by law (and where many abortions are performed under unsafe conditions) than in areas where abortion is legally permitted. Both developed and developing countries can have low abortion rates. Most countries, however, have moderate to high abortion rates, reflecting lower prevalence and effectiveness of contraceptive use. Stringent legal restrictions do not guarantee a low abortion rate.

  17. Mechanism of low GVHD incidence in umbilical cord blood transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zhanying; Zhu Xuezhen; Zhang Lansheng; Zhu Shoupeng

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To compare the immunological function between umbilical cord blood (UCB) and peripheral blood, and to explore the mechanism of low incidence of graft-versus host disease (GVHD) in UCB transplantation. Methods: The proliferation assay, NK cell killing activity assay and immunologic fluorescence double label technique were used to study four sear effect on T cell immunologic function. Results: UCB serum could reduce K 562 cell activity, compared to that of adult serum. Furthermore, adult serum will enhanced the percentage of HLA-DR expression of T cells on PHA-stimulated PBMC, whereas fetal serum has no such effect. Both adult and fetal serum enhanced mitogen-specific T cell proliferation, the peak proliferative response could be reached with adult serum but not with fetal serum. Conclusion: There must be some soluble factors secreted into serum, which play a role in T cell activation and associate with the incidence of GVHD

  18. Normal-incidence spectroscopic ellipsometry for critical dimension monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Hsu-Ting; Kong, Wei; Terry, Fred Lewis

    2001-01-01

    In this letter, we show that normal-incidence spectroscopic ellipsometry can be used for high-accuracy topography measurements on surface relief gratings. We present both experimental and theoretical results which show that spectroscopic ellipsometry or reflectance-difference spectroscopy at near-normal incidence coupled with vector diffraction theory for data analysis is capable of high-accuracy critical dimension (CD), feature height, and sidewall angle measurements in the extreme submicron regime. Quantitative comparisons of optical and cross-sectional scanning electron microscopy (SEM) topography measurements from a number of 350 nm line/space reactive-ion-etched Si gratings demonstrate the strong potential for in situ etching monitoring. This technique can be used for both ex situ and in situ applications and has the potential to replace the use of CD-SEM measurements in some applications. [copyright] 2001 American Institute of Physics

  19. Critical incidents during prehospital cardiopulmonary resuscitation: what are the problems nobody wants to talk about?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohenstein, Christian; Rupp, Peter; Fleischmann, Thomas

    2011-02-01

    We wanted to identify incidents that led or could have led to patient harm during prehospital cardiopulmonary resuscitation. A nationwide anonymous and Internet-based critical incident reporting system gave the data. During a 4-year period we received 548 reports of which 74 occurred during cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Human error was responsible for 85% of the incidents, whereas equipment failure contributed to 15% of the reports. Equipment failure was considered to be preventable in 61% of all the cases, whereas incidents because of human error could have been prevented in almost all the cases. In most cases, prevention can be accomplished by simple strategies with the Poka-Yoke technique. Insufficient training of emergency medical service physicians in Germany requires special attention. The critical incident reports raise concerns regarding the level of expertize provided by emergency medical service doctors.

  20. Spatial analysis on human brucellosis incidence in mainland China: 2004–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Junhui; Yin, Fei; Zhang, Tao; Yang, Chao; Zhang, Xingyu; Feng, Zijian; Li, Xiaosong

    2014-01-01

    Objectives China has experienced a sharply increasing rate of human brucellosis in recent years. Effective spatial monitoring of human brucellosis incidence is very important for successful implementation of control and prevention programmes. The purpose of this paper is to apply exploratory spatial data analysis (ESDA) methods and the empirical Bayes (EB) smoothing technique to monitor county-level incidence rates for human brucellosis in mainland China from 2004 to 2010 by examining spatial patterns. Methods ESDA methods were used to characterise spatial patterns of EB smoothed incidence rates for human brucellosis based on county-level data obtained from the China Information System for Disease Control and Prevention (CISDCP) in mainland China from 2004 to 2010. Results EB smoothed incidence rates for human brucellosis were spatially dependent during 2004–2010. The local Moran test identified significantly high-risk clusters of human brucellosis (all p values brucellosis incidence. PMID:24713215

  1. Thyroid Cancer Incidence in New Jersey: Time Trend, Birth Cohort and Socioeconomic Status Analysis (1979–2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa M. Roche

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The study's purpose was to investigate thyroid cancer incidence time trends, birth cohort effects, and association with socioeconomic status (SES in New Jersey (NJ, a high incidence state, using NJ State Cancer Registry data. Thyroid cancer incidence rates in each sex, nearly all age groups, two major histologies and all stages significantly increased between 1979 and 2006. For each sex, age-specific incidence rates began greatly increasing in the 1924 birth cohort and, generally, the highest thyroid cancer incidence rate for each five-year age group occurred in the latest birth cohort and diagnosis period. Thyroid cancer incidence rates were significantly higher in NJ Census tracts with higher SES and in counties with a higher percentage of insured residents. These results support further investigation into the relationship between rising thyroid cancer incidence and increasing population exposure to medical (including diagnostic radiation, as well as widespread use of more sensitive diagnostic techniques.

  2. Thyroid Cancer Incidence in New Jersey: Time Trend, Birth Cohort and Socioeconomic Status Analysis