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Sample records for incident suicide attempts

  1. Incidence and risk factors for suicide attempts in a general population of young people

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Erik; Juul Larsen, Kim; Agerbo, Esben

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate the Danish epidemiological long-term incidence rates for suicide attempts in the general population of children and adolescents, and to analyze the impact from single and multiple risk factors on the risk of suicide attempts. METHOD: We used longitudinal register data from ...... on the increase in the period studied. Individuals exposed to multiple risk factors are at the highest risk for suicide attempts, and when spotted or in contact with authorities they should be given proper care and treatment to prevent suicide attempts and death.......OBJECTIVE: To estimate the Danish epidemiological long-term incidence rates for suicide attempts in the general population of children and adolescents, and to analyze the impact from single and multiple risk factors on the risk of suicide attempts. METHOD: We used longitudinal register data from...... a total cohort of all individuals born between 1983 and 1989 and living in Denmark to calculate incidence rates. From the cohort, we identified all who have attempted suicide, and matched 50 controls to each case. A nested case-control design was used to estimate the impact from risk factors on the risk...

  2. Intimate Partner Violence and Incident Depressive Symptoms and Suicide Attempts: A Systematic Review of Longitudinal Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devries, Karen M.; Mak, Joelle Y.; Bacchus, Loraine J.; Child, Jennifer C.; Falder, Gail; Petzold, Max; Astbury, Jill; Watts, Charlotte H.

    2013-01-01

    Background Depression and suicide are responsible for a substantial burden of disease globally. Evidence suggests that intimate partner violence (IPV) experience is associated with increased risk of depression, but also that people with mental disorders are at increased risk of violence. We aimed to investigate the extent to which IPV experience is associated with incident depression and suicide attempts, and vice versa, in both women and men. Methods and Findings We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of longitudinal studies published before February 1, 2013. More than 22,000 records from 20 databases were searched for studies examining physical and/or sexual intimate partner or dating violence and symptoms of depression, diagnosed major depressive disorder, dysthymia, mild depression, or suicide attempts. Random effects meta-analyses were used to generate pooled odds ratios (ORs). Sixteen studies with 36,163 participants met our inclusion criteria. All studies included female participants; four studies also included male participants. Few controlled for key potential confounders other than demographics. All but one depression study measured only depressive symptoms. For women, there was clear evidence of an association between IPV and incident depressive symptoms, with 12 of 13 studies showing a positive direction of association and 11 reaching statistical significance; pooled OR from six studies = 1.97 (95% CI 1.56–2.48, I 2 = 50.4%, p heterogeneity = 0.073). There was also evidence of an association in the reverse direction between depressive symptoms and incident IPV (pooled OR from four studies = 1.93, 95% CI 1.51–2.48, I 2 = 0%, p = 0.481). IPV was also associated with incident suicide attempts. For men, evidence suggested that IPV was associated with incident depressive symptoms, but there was no clear evidence of an association between IPV and suicide attempts or depression and incident IPV. Conclusions In women, IPV

  3. Intimate partner violence and incident depressive symptoms and suicide attempts: a systematic review of longitudinal studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen M Devries

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Depression and suicide are responsible for a substantial burden of disease globally. Evidence suggests that intimate partner violence (IPV experience is associated with increased risk of depression, but also that people with mental disorders are at increased risk of violence. We aimed to investigate the extent to which IPV experience is associated with incident depression and suicide attempts, and vice versa, in both women and men. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of longitudinal studies published before February 1, 2013. More than 22,000 records from 20 databases were searched for studies examining physical and/or sexual intimate partner or dating violence and symptoms of depression, diagnosed major depressive disorder, dysthymia, mild depression, or suicide attempts. Random effects meta-analyses were used to generate pooled odds ratios (ORs. Sixteen studies with 36,163 participants met our inclusion criteria. All studies included female participants; four studies also included male participants. Few controlled for key potential confounders other than demographics. All but one depression study measured only depressive symptoms. For women, there was clear evidence of an association between IPV and incident depressive symptoms, with 12 of 13 studies showing a positive direction of association and 11 reaching statistical significance; pooled OR from six studies = 1.97 (95% CI 1.56-2.48, I²  =  50.4%, p(heterogeneity = 0.073. There was also evidence of an association in the reverse direction between depressive symptoms and incident IPV (pooled OR from four studies = 1.93, 95% CI 1.51-2.48, I²  =  0%, p = 0.481. IPV was also associated with incident suicide attempts. For men, evidence suggested that IPV was associated with incident depressive symptoms, but there was no clear evidence of an association between IPV and suicide attempts or depression and incident IPV

  4. Core features of repeated suicidal behaviour: a long-term follow-up after suicide attempts in a low-suicide-incidence population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, August G; Mortensen, Gudrun

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of this article was to study repeated suicidal behaviour in a low-incidence population to elucidate robust risk factors. METHODS: A cohort of first-ever suicide attempters from 1960 to 1982 on the Faroe Islands was followed up for a minimum of 20 years. The cohort was initially...

  5. Differences in incidence of suicide attempts between bipolar I and II disorders and major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holma, K Mikael; Haukka, Jari; Suominen, Kirsi; Valtonen, Hanna M; Mantere, Outi; Melartin, Tarja K; Sokero, T Petteri; Oquendo, Maria A; Isometsä, Erkki T

    2014-09-01

    Whether risk of suicide attempts (SAs) differs between patients with bipolar disorder (BD) and patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) is unclear. We investigated whether cumulative risk differences are due to dissimilarities in time spent in high-risk states, incidence per unit time in high-risk states, or both. Incidence rates for SAs during various illness phases, based on prospective life charts, were compared between patients from the Jorvi Bipolar Study (n = 176; 18 months) and the Vantaa Depression Study (n = 249; five years). Risk factors and their interactions with diagnosis were investigated with Cox proportional hazards models. By 18 months, 19.9% of patients with BD versus 9.5% of patients with MDD had attempted suicide. However, patients with BD spent 4.6% of the time in mixed episodes, and more time in major depressive episodes (MDEs) (35% versus 21%, respectively) and in subthreshold depression (39% versus 31%, respectively) than those with MDD. Compared with full remission, the combined incidence rates of SAs were 5-, 25-, and 65-fold in subthreshold depression, MDEs, and BD mixed states, respectively. Between cohorts, incidence of attempts was not different during comparable symptom states. In Cox models, hazard was elevated during MDEs and subthreshold depression, and among patients with preceding SAs, female patients, those with poor social support, and those aged < 40 years, but was unrelated to BD diagnosis. The observed higher cumulative incidence of SAs among patients with BD than among those with MDD is mostly due to patients with BD spending more time in high-risk illness phases, not to differences in incidence during these phases, or to bipolarity itself. BD mixed phases contribute to differences involving very high incidence, but short duration. Diminishing the time spent in high-risk phases is crucial for prevention. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Core features of repeated suicidal behaviour: a long-term follow-up after suicide attempts in a low-suicide-incidence population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, August G; Mortensen, Gudrun

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of this article was to study repeated suicidal behaviour in a low-incidence population to elucidate robust risk factors. METHODS: A cohort of first-ever suicide attempters from 1960 to 1982 on the Faroe Islands was followed up for a minimum of 20 years. The cohort was initiall...... and the level of determination behind the suicide attempt emerge as targets for prevention. Alcohol intoxication at the initial episode seems to be a strong long-term as well as short-term risk factor.......BACKGROUND: The aim of this article was to study repeated suicidal behaviour in a low-incidence population to elucidate robust risk factors. METHODS: A cohort of first-ever suicide attempters from 1960 to 1982 on the Faroe Islands was followed up for a minimum of 20 years. The cohort was initially...... characterized in psychiatric and social terms. RESULTS: The incidence of suicidal behaviour for the cohort years (age 15 years and older) was 37.9 per 100,000 per year (95% confidence interval 31.5-45.1). It was associated, as expected, with gender, age, residence, marital status, occupation, diagnosis...

  7. Incidence and predictors of suicide attempts among primary-care patients with depressive disorders: a 5-year prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riihimäki, K; Vuorilehto, M; Melartin, T; Haukka, J; Isometsä, E

    2014-01-01

    No previous study has prospectively investigated incidence and risk factors for suicide attempts among primary care patients with depression. In the Vantaa Primary Care Depression Study, a stratified random sample of 1119 patients was screened for depression, and Structured Clinical Interviews for DSM-IV used to diagnose Axis I and II disorders. A total of 137 patients were diagnosed with a DSM-IV depressive disorder. Altogether, 82% of patients completed the 5-year follow-up. Information on timing of suicide attempts, plus major depressive episodes (MDEs) and partial or full remission, or periods of substance abuse were examined with life charts. Incidence of suicide attempts and their stable and time-varying risk factors (phases of depression/substance abuse) were investigated using Cox proportional hazard and Poisson regression models. During the follow-up there were 22 discrete suicide attempts by 14/134 (10.4%) patients. The incidence rates were 0, 5.8 and 107 during full or partial remission or MDEs, or 22.2 and 142 per 1000 patient-years during no or active substance abuse, respectively. In Cox models, current MDE (hazard ratio 33.5, 95% confidence interval 3.6-309.7) was the only significant independent risk factor. Primary care doctors were rarely aware of the suicide attempts. Of the primary care patients with depressive disorders, one-tenth attempted suicide in 5 years. However, risk of suicidal acts was almost exclusively confined to MDEs, with or without concurrent active substance abuse. Suicide prevention among primary care patients with depression should focus on active treatment of major depressive disorder and co-morbid substance use, and awareness of suicide risk.

  8. Register for Suicide Attempts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Erik; Jensen, Børge Frank

    2004-01-01

    The Register for Suicide Attempts (RSA) is a product of the WHO research project "WHO/Euro Multicentre Study on Parasuicide", which, among other things, had the purpose of collecting data on suicide attempts from 13 European countries. Data is collected in order to calculate trends and identify...

  9. Gabapentin and suicide attempts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, Robert D; Hur, Kwan; Brown, C Hendricks; Mann, J John

    2010-12-01

    On 16 December 2008, FDA issued a class warning for antiepileptic drugs and suicidal thoughts and behavior. The purpose of this study was to determine if the antiepileptic drug gabapentin increases risk of suicide attempt in patients to which it was prescribed for various indications. We conducted a pharmacoepidemiologic study in which suicide attempt rates were compared before and after gabapentin was prescribed. We used the PharMetrics medical claims database to study the relationship between gabapentin and suicide attempts in a cohort of 131,178 patients with a 1-year window of information before and after initial prescription. Patients had diagnoses of epilepsy, pain disorders, bipolar illness, major depressive disorder, schizophrenia, and other psychiatric disorders. Overall, there was no significant difference in suicide attempt rates before (3.48/1000 patient years--PY) versus after (3.45/1000 PY) gabapentin prescription. Pre-prescription suicide attempt rates were five times higher in psychiatric populations compared with non-psychiatric populations leading us to analyze the two groups separately. No drug effect was detected in the non-psychiatric populations. Significant reductions in suicide attempt rates were seen for bipolar disorder (47.85/1000 PY versus 31.46/1000 PY), major depressive disorder (17.30/1000 PY versus 12.66/1000 PY), and other psychiatric disorders (12.84/1000 PY versus 10.14/1000 PY). Person-time analysis revealed an overall significant reduction in suicide attempt rates (2.01/1000 PY on drug versus 2.30/1000 PY off drug). This study finds that gabapentin does not increase risk of suicide attempts in non-psychiatric populations and is associated with a reduction in suicide attempt risk in patients with psychiatric disorders. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Risk of repetition of suicide attempt, suicide or all deaths after an episode of attempted suicide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Erik; Jensen, Børge Frank

    2007-01-01

    This study was undertaken in order to estimate the incidence of repetition of suicide attempt, suicide and all deaths, and to analyse the influence of psychiatric illness and socio-demographic factors on these.......This study was undertaken in order to estimate the incidence of repetition of suicide attempt, suicide and all deaths, and to analyse the influence of psychiatric illness and socio-demographic factors on these....

  11. Incidence and predictors of suicide attempts in DSM-IV major depressive disorder: a five-year prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holma, K Mikael; Melartin, Tarja K; Haukka, Jari; Holma, Irina A K; Sokero, T Petteri; Isometsä, Erkki T

    2010-07-01

    Prospective long-term studies of risk factors for suicide attempts among patients with major depressive disorder have not investigated the course of illness and state at the time of the act. Therefore, the importance of state factors, particularly time spent in risk states, for overall risk remains unknown. In the Vantaa Depression Study, a longitudinal 5-year evaluation of psychiatric patients with major depressive disorder, prospective information on 249 patients (92.6%) was available. Time spent in depressive states and the timing of suicide attempts were investigated with life charts. During the follow-up assessment period, there were 106 suicide attempts per 1,018 patient-years. The incidence rate per 1,000 patient-years during major depressive episodes was 21-fold (N=332 [95% confidence interval [CI]=258.6-419.2]), and it was fourfold during partial remission (N=62 [95% CI=34.6-92.4]) compared with full remission (N=16 [95% CI=11.2-40.2]). In the Cox proportional hazards model, suicide attempts were predicted by the months spent in a major depressive episode (hazard ratio=7.74 [95% CI=3.40-17.6]) or in partial remission (hazard ratio=4.20 [95% CI=1.71-10.3]), history of suicide attempts (hazard ratio=4.39 [95% CI=1.78-10.8]), age (hazard ratio=0.94 [95% CI=0.91-0.98]), lack of a partner (hazard ratio=2.33 [95% CI=0.97-5.56]), and low perceived social support (hazard ratio=3.57 [95% CI=1.09-11.1]). The adjusted population attributable fraction of the time spent depressed for suicide attempts was 78%. Among patients with major depressive disorder, incidence of suicide attempts varies markedly depending on the level of depression, being highest during major depressive episodes. Although previous attempts and poor social support also indicate risk, the time spent depressed is likely the major factor determining overall long-term risk.

  12. Cognitive Distortions and Suicide Attempts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jager-Hyman, Shari; Cunningham, Amy; Wenzel, Amy; Mattei, Stephanie; Brown, Gregory K; Beck, Aaron T

    2014-08-01

    Although theorists have posited that suicidal individuals are more likely than non-suicidal individuals to experience cognitive distortions, little empirical work has examined whether those who recently attempted suicide are more likely to engage in cognitive distortions than those who have not recently attempted suicide. In the present study, 111 participants who attempted suicide in the 30 days prior to participation and 57 psychiatric control participants completed measures of cognitive distortions, depression, and hopelessness. Findings support the hypothesis that individuals who recently attempted suicide are more likely than psychiatric controls to experience cognitive distortions, even when controlling for depression and hopelessness. Fortune telling was the only cognitive distortion uniquely associated with suicide attempt status. However, fortune telling was no longer significantly associated with suicide attempt status when controlling for hopelessness. Findings underscore the importance of directly targeting cognitive distortions when treating individuals at risk for suicide.

  13. Suicide attempts in multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenager, Elsebeth Nylev; Jensen, Børge; Stenager, Maria

    2011-01-01

    The purposes of the study were (1) to estimate the risk of suicide attempts in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients in Denmark and compare the risk to the background population in the County of Funen, Denmark; (2) to estimate the risk of suicide attempts in MS patients receiving immunomodulating...... therapy compared with untreated patients. The Danish MS Registry, the Danish MS Treatment Registry and the Suicide Attempt Registry are linked and merged together using a person identification number given to all persons residing in Denmark. Among 404 MS patients, 15 patients had attempted suicide......, although no increased risk for suicide attempts was found in MS patients. No difference in number of suicide attempts in treated and untreated patients was found....

  14. Incidence and predictors of suicide attempts in bipolar I and II disorders: A 5-year follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallaskorpi, Sanna; Suominen, Kirsi; Ketokivi, Mikko; Valtonen, Hanna; Arvilommi, Petri; Mantere, Outi; Leppämäki, Sami; Isometsä, Erkki

    2017-02-01

    Few long-term studies on bipolar disorder (BD) have investigated the incidence and risk factors of suicide attempts (SAs) specifically related to illness phases. We examined the incidence of SAs during different phases of BD in a long-term prospective cohort of bipolar I (BD-I) and bipolar II (BD-II) patients, and risk factors specifically for SAs during major depressive episodes (MDEs). In the Jorvi Bipolar Study (JoBS), 191 BD-I and BD-II patients were followed using life-chart methodology. Prospective information on SAs of 177 patients (92.7%) during different illness phases was available up to 5 years. The incidence of SAs and their predictors were investigated using logistic and Poisson regression models. Analyses of risk factors for SAs occurring during MDEs were conducted using two-level random-intercept logistic regression models. During the 5 years of follow-up, 90 SAs per 718 patient-years occurred. The incidence was highest, over 120-fold higher than in euthymia, during mixed states (765/1000 person-years; 95% confidence interval [CI] 461-1269 person-years), and also very high in MDEs, almost 60-fold higher than in euthymia (354/1000 person-years; 95% CI 277-451 person-years). For risk of SAs during MDEs, the duration of MDEs, severity of depression, and cluster C personality disorders were significant predictors. We confirmed in this long-term study that the highest incidences of SAs occur in mixed and major depressive illness phases. The variations in incidence rates between euthymia and illness phases were remarkably large, suggesting that the question "when" rather than "who" may be more relevant for suicide risk in BD. However, risk during MDEs is likely also influenced by personality factors. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. The influence of air-suspended particulate concentration on the incidence of suicide attempts and exacerbation of schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yackerson, Naomy S.; Zilberman, Arkadi; Todder, Doron; Kaplan, Zeev

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to evaluate the role of the concentration of solid air-suspended particles (SSP) in the incidence of mental disorders. The study is based on 1,871 cases, registered in the Beer-Sheva Mental Health Center (BS-MHC) at Ben-Gurion University (Israel) during a 16-month period from 2001 to 2002; 1,445 persons were hospitalized due to exacerbation of schizophrenia (ICD-10: F20-F29) and 426 after committing a suicide attempt using a variety of means as coded in the ICD-10 (ICD-10: X60-X84). Pearson and Spearman test correlations were used; the statistical significance was tested at p suicide attempts, N SU , was found ( ρ > 0.3, p 0.2). A trend towards positive correlation ( ρ > 0.2, p schizophrenia as manifested in psychotic attack ( N PS ) in periods with dominant eastern winds (4-9 am, local time) has been observed, while in the afternoon and evening hours (1-8 pm local time) with dominant western winds, N C and N PS are not correlated (p > 0.1). Obviously, concentration of SSP is not the one and only parameter of air pollution state determining meteorological-biological impact, involving incidence of mental disorders, although its role can scarcely be overstated. However, since it is one of the simplest measured parameters, it could be widely used and helpful in the daily struggle for human life comfort in semi-arid areas as well as urban and industrial surroundings, where air pollution reaches crucial values. This study may permit determination of the limits for different external factors, which do not overcome threshold values (without provoking avalanche situations), to single out the group of people at increased risk (with according degree of statistic probability), whose reactions to the weather violations can involve the outbreak of frustration points and prevent or alleviate detrimental mental effects.

  16. Defense Styles in Suicide Attempters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, James A.

    1973-01-01

    Thirty-five serious suicide attempters, paired to neuropsychiatric controls on relevant variables, were tested within two weeks of their attempt with the Defense Mechanisms Inventory. Attempters revealed more turning-against-self defenses as hypothesized but showed no differences from controls in use of fantasized hostility. Implications for…

  17. Suicidal ideation and suicide attempts in children and adolescents with bipolar disorder: a systematic review of prevalence and incidence rates, correlates, and targeted interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauser, Marta; Galling, Britta; Correll, Christoph U

    2013-08-01

    Pediatric bipolar disorder (PBD) is associated with poor outcomes, including suicidal ideation (SI) and suicide attempt (SA). However, frequencies and risk factors of SI/SA and targeted intervention trials for SI/SA in PBD have not been reviewed systematically. We conducted a systematic PubMed review, searching for articles reporting on prevalences/incidences, correlates and intervention studies targeting SI/SA in PBD. Weighted means were calculated, followed by an exploratory meta-regression of SI and SA correlates. Fourteen studies (n = 1595), in which 52.1% of patients were male and the mean age was 14.4 years, reported data on SI/SA prevalence (N = 13, n = 1508) and/or correlates (N = 10, n = 1348) in PBD. Weighted mean prevalences were: past SI = 57.4%, past SA = 21.3%, current SI = 50.4%, and current SA = 25.5%; incidences (mean 42 months of follow-up) were: SI = 14.6% and SA = 14.7%. Regarding significant correlates, SI (N = 3) was associated with a higher percentage of Caucasian race, narrow (as opposed to broad) PBD phenotype, younger age, and higher quality of life than SA. Significant correlates of SA (N = 10) included female sex, older age, earlier illness onset, more severe/episodic PBD, mixed episodes, comorbid disorders, past self-injurious behavior/SI/SA, physical/sexual abuse, parental depression, family history of suicidality, and poor family functioning. Race, socioeconomic status, living situation, and life events were not clearly associated with SA. In a meta-regression analysis, bipolar I disorder and comorbid attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder were significantly associated with SA. Only one open label study targeting the reduction of SI/SA in PBD was identified. SI and SA are very common but under-investigated in PBD. Exploration of predictors and protective factors is imperative for the establishment of effective preventive and intervention strategies, which are urgently needed. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley

  18. Attempted suicide predicts suicide risk in schizophrenia spectrum psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlborg, Andreas; Jokinen, Jussi; Nordström, Anna-Lena; Jönsson, Erik G; Nordström, Peter

    2010-01-01

    People with schizophrenia have an increased risk of suicide and attempted suicide is suggested to be an important risk factor. Our objective was to assess the cumulative survival, predictive values and odds ratios of attempted suicide for suicide in a long-term cohort of patients with schizophrenia spectrum psychosis with and without previous attempted suicide. Inpatients (n=224) hospitalized with schizophrenia spectrum psychosis were followed for a mean of 25 years. All patients were followed up for causes of death. Information on suicide attempt before the end of the observation period was retrieved from medical records. Eight percent died by suicide during the follow-up. Eighteen percent of suicide attempters died by suicide. Two percent of non-attempters died by suicide. There was a strong association between previous suicide attempt and suicide in men and women. Odds ratio for attempters vs. non-attempters was 10. Suicide risk was almost three times higher in male than female suicide attempters. Previous attempted suicide is an important risk factor for suicide in both men and women with schizophrenia spectrum psychosis, particularly in male suicide attempters. The suicide risk remains high over a long period. Continuous assessment of risk factors and appropriate treatment are crucial for this patient group to prevent suicide.

  19. Risk Factors for Attempting Suicide in Prisoners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarchiapone, Marco; Carli, Vladimir; Di Giannantonio, Massimo; Roy, Alec

    2009-01-01

    We wished to examine determinants of suicidal behavior in prisoners. 903 male prisoners had a psychiatric interview which included various psychometric tests. Suicide attempters were compared with prisoners who had never attempted suicide. Significantly more of the attempters had a history of psychiatric disorder, substance abuse, a family history…

  20. STUDY OF SUICIDE ATTEMPTS IN SCHIZOPHRENIA

    OpenAIRE

    Jagadeesan Madras Sundararajan; Saravana Jothi Ramalingam; Gajalakshmi Thulasibai Panneerselvam

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Schizophrenia is a major mental illness whose sufferers have been found to have lesser longevity than general population. The most common cause for premature death in schizophrenia is suicide. There are very few Indian studies on suicide in persons suffering from schizophrenia. OBJECTIVES The objectives were to study the frequency of suicide attempt in schizophrenia to compare and study the clinical and sociodemographic profile of suicide attempters and non-attempt...

  1. Depressed suicide attempters with posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramberg, Maria; Stanley, Barbara; Ystgaard, Mette; Mehlum, Lars

    2015-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder and major depressive disorder are well-established risk factors for suicidal behavior. This study compared depressed suicide attempters with and without comorbid posttraumatic stress disorder with respect to additional diagnoses, global functioning, depressive symptoms, substance abuse, history of traumatic exposure, and suicidal behavior. Adult patients consecutively admitted to a general hospital after a suicide attempt were interviewed and assessed for DSM-IV diagnosis and clinical correlates. Sixty-four patients (71%) were diagnosed with depression; of them, 21 patients (32%) had posttraumatic stress disorder. There were no group differences in social adjustment, depressive symptoms, or suicidal intent. However, the group with comorbid depression and posttraumatic stress disorder had more additional Axis I diagnoses, a higher degree of childhood trauma exposure, and more often reported previous suicide attempts, non-suicidal self-harm, and vengeful suicidal motives. These findings underline the clinical importance of diagnosis and treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder in suicide attempters.

  2. Impaired Decision Making in Adolescent Suicide Attempters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridge, Jeffrey A.; McBee-Strayer, Sandra M.; Cannon, Elizabeth A.; Sheftall, Arielle H.; Reynolds, Brady; Campo, John V.; Pajer, Kathleen A.; Barbe, Remy P.; Brent, David A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Decision-making deficits have been linked to suicidal behavior in adults. However, it remains unclear whether impaired decision making plays a role in the etiopathogenesis of youth suicidal behavior. The purpose of this study was to examine decision-making processes in adolescent suicide attempters and never-suicidal comparison…

  3. (De- criminalization of attempted suicide in India: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeev Ranjan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Attempted suicide is a serious problem requiring mental health interventions, but it continues to be treated as a criminal offence under the section 309 of Indian Penal Code. The article reviews the international legal perspective across various regions of the world, discusses the unintended consequences of section 309 IPC and highlights the need for decriminalization of attempted suicide in India. The Mental Health Care Bill, 2013, still under consideration in the Rajya Sabha (upper house, has proposed that attempted suicide should not be criminally prosecuted. Decriminalization of suicidal attempt will serve to cut down the undue stigma and avoid punishment in the aftermath of incident, and lead to a more accurate collection of suicide-related statistics. From a policy perspective, it will further emphasize the urgent need to develop a framework to deliver mental health services to all those who attempt suicide.

  4. Shame-proneness in attempted suicide patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background It has been suggested that shame may be an important feature in suicidal behaviors. The disposition to react with shame, “shame-proneness”, has previously not been investigated in groups of attempted suicide patients. We examined shame-proneness in two groups of attempted suicide patients, one group of non-suicidal patients and one group of healthy controls. We hypothesized that the attempted suicide patients would be more shame-prone than non-suicidal patients and healthy controls. Methods The Test of Self-Conscious Affect (TOSCA), which is the most used measure of shame-proneness, was completed by attempted suicide patients (n = 175: 105 women and 3 men with borderline personality disorder [BPD], 45 women and 22 men without BPD), non-suicidal psychiatric patients (n = 162), and healthy controls (n = 161). The participants were convenience samples, with patients from three clinical research projects and healthy controls from a fourth research project. The relationship between shame-proneness and attempted suicide was studied with group comparisons and multiple regressions. Men and women were analyzed separately. Results Women were generally more shame-prone than men of the same participant group. Female suicide attempters with BPD were significantly more shame-prone than both female suicide attempters without BPD and female non-suicidal patients and controls. Male suicide attempters without BPD were significantly less shame-prone than non-suicidal male patients. In multiple regressions, shame-proneness was predicted by level of depression and BPD (but not by attempted suicide) in female patients, and level of depression and non-suicidality in male patients. Conclusions Contrary to our hypothesis and related previous research, there was no general relationship between shame-proneness and attempted suicide. Shame-proneness was differentially related to attempted suicide in different groups of suicide attempters, with significantly high

  5. Repeated suicide attempts and suicide among individuals with a first emergency department contact for attempted suicide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fedyszyn, Izabela E.; Erlangsen, Annette; Hjorthoj, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Emergency departments are important, albeit underutilized, sites for suicide prevention. Preventive strategies and interventions could benefit from a greater understanding of factors influencing the course of suicide risk after emergency department contact due to attempted suicide...... = 1.74; 95% CI, 1.22-2.49). The cumulative rates of repeated attempts and suicide deaths in the total sample were particularly high within the first week of the index attempt, reaching 3.6% and 0.1%, respectively. Conclusions: Preventive efforts need to target the period close to discharge from....... The aim of our study was 2-fold: to identify predictors of repeated suicide attempts and suicide and to investigate the timing of these events. Methods: Data from Danish nationwide, longitudinal registers were used in this prospective, population-based study of all individuals first presenting...

  6. Association of Hormonal Contraception With Suicide Attempts and Suicides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovlund, Charlotte Wessel; Mørch, Lina Steinrud; Kessing, Lars Vedel

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to assess the relative risk of suicide attempt and suicide in users of hormonal contraception. METHOD: The authors assessed associations between hormonal contraceptive use and suicide attempt and suicide in a nationwide prospective cohort study of all women...... in Denmark who had no psychiatric diagnoses, antidepressant use, or hormonal contraceptive use before age 15 and who turned 15 during the study period, which extended from 1996 through 2013. Nationwide registers provided individually updated information about use of hormonal contraception, suicide attempt......, suicide, and potential confounding variables. Psychiatric diagnoses or antidepressant use during the study period were considered potential mediators between hormonal contraceptive use and risk of suicide attempt. Adjusted hazard ratios for suicide attempt and suicide were estimated for users of hormonal...

  7. Suicide attempts, platelet monoamine oxidase and the average evoked response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchsbaum, M.S.; Haier, R.J.; Murphy, D.L.

    1977-01-01

    The relationship between suicides and suicide attempts and two biological measures, platelet monoamine oxidase levels (MAO) and average evoked response (AER) augmenting was examined in 79 off-medication psychiatric patients and in 68 college student volunteers chosen from the upper and lower deciles of MAO activity levels. In the patient sample, male individuals with low MAO and AER augmenting, a pattern previously associated with bipolar affective disorders, showed a significantly increased incidence of suicide attempts in comparison with either non-augmenting low MAO or high MAO patients. Within the normal volunteer group, all male low MAO probands with a family history of suicide or suicide attempts were AER augmenters themselves. Four completed suicides were found among relatives of low MAO probands whereas no high MAO proband had a relative who committed suicide. These findings suggest that the combination of low platelet MAO activity and AER augmenting may be associated with a possible genetic vulnerability to psychiatric disorders. (author)

  8. Association of Hormonal Contraception With Suicide Attempts and Suicides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skovlund, Charlotte Wessel; Mørch, Lina Steinrud; Kessing, Lars Vedel; Lange, Theis; Lidegaard, Øjvind

    2018-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the relative risk of suicide attempt and suicide in users of hormonal contraception. The authors assessed associations between hormonal contraceptive use and suicide attempt and suicide in a nationwide prospective cohort study of all women in Denmark who had no psychiatric diagnoses, antidepressant use, or hormonal contraceptive use before age 15 and who turned 15 during the study period, which extended from 1996 through 2013. Nationwide registers provided individually updated information about use of hormonal contraception, suicide attempt, suicide, and potential confounding variables. Psychiatric diagnoses or antidepressant use during the study period were considered potential mediators between hormonal contraceptive use and risk of suicide attempt. Adjusted hazard ratios for suicide attempt and suicide were estimated for users of hormonal contraception as compared with those who never used hormonal contraception. Among nearly half a million women followed on average for 8.3 years (3.9 million person-years) with a mean age of 21 years, 6,999 first suicide attempts and 71 suicides were identified. Compared with women who never used hormonal contraceptives, the relative risk among current and recent users was 1.97 (95% CI=1.85-2.10) for suicide attempt and 3.08 (95% CI=1.34-7.08) for suicide. Risk estimates for suicide attempt were 1.91 (95% CI=1.79-2.03) for oral combined products, 2.29 (95% CI=1.77-2.95) for oral progestin-only products, 2.58 (95% CI=2.06-3.22) for vaginal ring, and 3.28 (95% CI=2.08-5.16) for patch. The association between hormonal contraceptive use and a first suicide attempt peaked after 2 months of use. Use of hormonal contraception was positively associated with subsequent suicide attempt and suicide. Adolescent women experienced the highest relative risk.

  9. Epidemiology, neurobiology and pharmacological interventions related to suicide deaths and suicide attempts in bipolar disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaffer, Ayal; Isometsä, Erkki T; Tondo, Leonardo

    2015-01-01

    and pharmacotherapy studies specific to bipolar disorder. We conducted pooled, weighted analyses of suicide rates. RESULTS: The pooled suicide rate in bipolar disorder is 164 per 100,000 person-years (95% confidence interval = [5, 324]). Sex-specific data on suicide rates identified a 1.7:1 ratio in men compared......OBJECTIVES: Bipolar disorder is associated with elevated risk of suicide attempts and deaths. Key aims of the International Society for Bipolar Disorders Task Force on Suicide included examining the extant literature on epidemiology, neurobiology and pharmacotherapy related to suicide attempts...... and deaths in bipolar disorder. METHODS: Systematic review of studies from 1 January 1980 to 30 May 2014 examining suicide attempts or deaths in bipolar disorder, with a specific focus on the incidence and characterization of suicide attempts and deaths, genetic and non-genetic biological studies...

  10. Childhood suicide attempts with acetaminophen in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedeland, Rikke; Jørgensen, Marianne H; Teilmann, Grete

    2013-01-01

    Aims: To explore: (1) The relationship between children admitted to our paediatric department as a result of suicide attempts with acetaminophen and their parents and friends. (2) The extent to which the children had attempted to speak to their parents about their problems before their suicide...... attempts. (3) The frequency of self-mutilation among children with suicidal behaviour. (4) The purposes and reasons for childhood suicide attempts. Methods: A retrospective case-control study based on medical records and in-hospital child psychiatric assessments at the Paediatric Department, Hillerød....... There was a significant association between a dissociated parental relationship and 'the feeling of not being heard' (p = 0.004), the discovery of the suicide attempt (p = 0.008), the reasons for the suicide attempt (p = 0.006), academic school problems (p = 0.03), and the child's relationships with friends (p = 0...

  11. Preventing repetition of attempted suicide-III

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lahoz, Titia; Hvid, Marianne; Wang, August G

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Amager Project was initiated as a quasi-experimental study in 2005, based on an active outreach suicide preventive intervention inspired by the Norwegian Baerum Model. A 1-year follow-up study was conducted as a randomized controlled trial showing that this kind of active outreach...... to suicide attempters had a significant preventive effect on the prevalence of suicide attempts and significantly reduced the number of patients repeating a suicide attempt. AIMS: In this 5-year RCT follow-up the aim was to investigate the sustainability of the suicide preventive effect shown in a 1-year...... follow-up study. METHOD: One hundred and thirty-three suicide attempters were included at this 5-year follow-up RCT study at Copenhagen University Hospital, Amager, and randomized to a rapid outreach suicide preventive intervention (OPAC) or TAU. RESULTS: Offering OPAC intervention to patients after...

  12. STUDY OF SUICIDE ATTEMPTS IN SCHIZOPHRENIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagadeesan Madras Sundararajan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Schizophrenia is a major mental illness whose sufferers have been found to have lesser longevity than general population. The most common cause for premature death in schizophrenia is suicide. There are very few Indian studies on suicide in persons suffering from schizophrenia. OBJECTIVES The objectives were to study the frequency of suicide attempt in schizophrenia to compare and study the clinical and sociodemographic profile of suicide attempters and non-attempters in schizophrenia and to analyse and study the various risk factors of suicide attempts in persons suffering from schizophrenia. METHODS A sample of 100 consecutive patients attending review OPD of a government tertiary care hospital in Chennai were selected. Those who had a diagnosis of schizophrenia were screened for past suicide attempts. They were divided into two groups as suicide attempters and non-attempters and analysed using the SAPS (Scale for Assessment of Positive Symptoms, SANS (Scale for Assessment of Negative Symptoms, Calgary depression scale, and Beck’s suicide intent scale. RESULTS People suffering from schizophrenia are at a high risk for making suicidal attempts (27% especially when the illness is acute and severe in early stages when accompanied by depressive symptoms. Demographic profile such as age, sex, education, occupation, socio-economic status, marital status, and family type were not significantly related to suicide attempts. Family history of suicide was a significant factor in patients with suicide attempts. Majority of the attempts were of medium-to-high intent, hanging being the commonest method, and were attributed to most commonly delusions and depressive symptoms.

  13. Gender differences in characteristics of suicide attempts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljušić Dragana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Suicide attempt denotes activities directed towards one's own death which do not end in death. The ratio between attempted and realized suicides is expressed by the index called hazard ratio. Risk factors which contribute to suicidal behavior are: various emotional conditions, personality traits, stressful life events, substance misuse etc. The purpose of the study was to explore the frequencies and epidemiological and demographic characteristics of suicide attempts separately in men and women. The study sample involved 56 patients with the diagnosis suicide attempt (Tentamen suicidii treated on the Psychiatric department of the Clinical Center Priština, Gračanica. The data have been analyzed in respect to gender, age, profession/employment, mental disorder diagnosis, motivation (reason and the way of performing a suicide attempt. Results: suicide has been attempted by 42 women (75% and 14 men (25% of the sample. The prevalent age group of our sample (26.8% represents the patients below 20. The most prevalent are also unemployed patients, 33.3% of women and 50% of men. The most prevalent diagnosis is anxiety disorder (61.9% of women and 57.1% of men. The prevailing reason for attempting suicide in women was couple conflict (54.8% and existential problems in men (50%. Fifty one patients of the sample (91.1% have attempted suicide by intoxication with sedative drugs (anxiolytics. The majority of suicide attempts happened during afternoon and evening hours, i.e. in the period 12-24h. Conclusion: women have attempted suicide more frequently than men (ratio 3:1. Unemployment has been the prevailing professional characteristic in both genders. The most prevailing diagnosis is anxiety disorder. The chief motive in women is couple conflict and in men existential difficulties. In both genders the most frequent way of attempting suicide is poisoning, mostly in the period 12-24h.

  14. Clusters of suicides and suicide attempts: detection, proximity and correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Too, L S; Pirkis, J; Milner, A; Spittal, M J

    2017-10-01

    A suicide cluster is defined as a higher number of observed cases occurring in space and/or time than would typically be expected. Previous research has largely focused on identifying clusters of suicides, while there has been comparatively limited research on clusters of suicide attempts. We sought to identify clusters of both types of behaviour, and having done that, identify the factors that distinguish suicide attempts inside a cluster from those that were outside a cluster. We used data from Western Australia from 2000 to 2011. We defined suicide attempts as admissions to hospital for deliberate self-harm and suicides as deaths due to deliberate self-harm. Using an analytic strategy that accounted for the repetition of attempted suicide within a cluster, we performed spatial-temporal analysis using Poisson discrete scan statistics to detect clusters of suicide attempts and clusters of suicides. Logistic regression was then used to compare clustered attempts with non-clustered attempts to identify risk factors for an attempt being in a cluster. We detected 350 (1%) suicide attempts occurring within seven spatial-temporal clusters and 12 (0.6%) suicides occurring within two spatial-temporal clusters. Both of the suicide clusters were located within a larger but later suicide attempt cluster. In multivariate analysis, suicide attempts by individuals who lived in areas of low socioeconomic status had higher odds of being in a cluster than those living in areas of high socioeconomic status [odds ratio (OR) = 29.1, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 6.3-135.5]. A one percentage-point increase in the proportion of people who had changed address in the last year was associated with a 60% increase in the odds of the attempt being within a cluster (OR = 1.60, 95% CI = 1.29-1.98) and a one percentage-point increase in the proportion of Indigenous people in the area was associated with a 7% increase in the suicide being within a cluster (OR = 1.07, 95% CI = 1.00-1.13). Age

  15. DST non-suppression predicts suicide after attempted suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokinen, Jussi; Carlborg, Andreas; Mårtensson, Björn; Forslund, Kaj; Nordström, Anna-Lena; Nordström, Peter

    2007-04-15

    Most prospective studies of HPA axis have found that non-suppressors in the dexamethasone suppression test (DST) are more likely to commit suicide during the follow-up. Attempted suicide is a strong clinical predictor of suicide. The aim of this study was to assess the predictive value of DST for suicide in a group of depressed inpatients with and without an index suicide attempt. Historical cohort of 382 psychiatric inpatients with mood disorder admitted to the department of Psychiatry at the Karolinska University Hospital between 1980 and 2000 were submitted to the DST and followed up for causes of death. During the follow-up (mean 18 years), 36 suicides (9.4%) occurred, 20 of these were non-suppressors and 16 were suppressors. There was no statistically significant difference in suicide risk between the suppressors and non-suppressors for the sample as a whole. An index suicide attempt predicted suicide. In suicide attempters with mood disorder, the non-suppressor status was significantly associated with suicide indicating that HPA axis hyperactivity is a risk factor for suicide in this group. The dexamethasone suppression test may be a useful predictor within this population.

  16. Attempted suicide in patients with eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portzky, Gwendolyn; van Heeringen, Kees; Vervaet, Myriam

    2014-01-01

    Suicide is a major cause of mortality for patients with eating disorders (ED), especially for patients with anorexia nervosa. Attempted suicide is also relatively common in patients with anorexia or bulimia nervosa. This study aimed at examining associations between attempted suicide and trait- and state-dependent characteristics in a large clinical population of ED patients. The sample consisted of 1,436 in- and outpatients of the Centre for Eating Disorders of the Ghent University Hospital. Measures of ED symptoms, psychopathology, and personality traits were compared between ED patients with and ED patients without a history of attempted suicide. A history of attempted suicide was found in 11.8% of the ED patients and lifetime suicidal ideation was reported by 43.3%. Multivariate analyses showed that a history of attempted suicide was associated with higher scores on depression, purging symptomatology, early-developed cognitive schemes (impaired autonomy and increased inhibition), and social insecurity. These findings support the increased risk of suicidal behavior in ED. The presence of particular personality traits, of cognitive schemes, and of purging and depressive symptoms should increase vigilance for suicidal behavior.

  17. Attempted suicide in Denmark. III. Assessment of repeated suicidal behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, A G; Nielsen, B; Bille-Brahe, U

    1985-01-01

    Ninety-nine patients, randomly chosen among hospital admitted suicide attempters, were initially interviewed at the Department of Psychiatry, Odense University Hospital, Denmark, and then followed up for a period of about 3 years. Half of the patients repeated the attempt in the follow-up period......, mostly in the first year. Ten patients committed suicide, half of them in the first 3 months after the interview, shortly after discharge from hospital. The majority of the repeaters were living alone, while those that committed suicide were mostly married women aged 50-60 years. Other characteristic...... features for the repeaters were previous suicidal behaviour and suicidal behaviour among relatives. Many had a psychiatric record and expressed chronic somatic complaints. Around the time of the attempt, many expressed hopelessness, isolation and suicidal ideation. Pierce's Suicide Intent Scale performed...

  18. [Suicide attempt with aluminum phosphide poisoning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyna-Medina, Mauricio; Vázquez-de Anda, Gilberto Felipe; García-Monroy, Jesús; Valdespino-Salinas, Eduardo Alfredo; Vicente-Cruz, Dante Carlos

    2013-01-01

    suicide attempt with aluminum phosphide fumigant has high mortality conditions. The aim was to investigate the frequency of aluminum phosphide consumption in suicide attempt. a retrospective case series study at the Hospital General de Tejupilco during the period 2009-2011 was done. Thirty-two patients had attempted suicide; we included 18 whose suicide attempt was with aluminum phosphide. The risk of rescue according Weisman's scale was measured. from 18 suicidal patients, 83 % were women (n = 15); the average age was 17.7 ± 4.4 years; 89 % (n = 16) were = 23 years old; and 89 % (n = 16) had depression. The motive for the suicide attempt was being abandoned by a partner in 56 % (10). Mortality rate was 78 % (n = 14) and death ocurred in 4 ± 2 hours. aluminum phosphide is the most commonly used toxic substance in rural areas for suicide attempts. Among suicides, the most common cause among women was abandonment by her partner and was also related to depression and emotional security to dying.

  19. Suicide attempts in women with eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisetsky, Emily M; Thornton, Laura M; Lichtenstein, Paul; Pedersen, Nancy L; Bulik, Cynthia M

    2013-11-01

    We evaluated whether the prevalence of lifetime suicide attempts/completions was higher in women with a lifetime history of an eating disorder than in women with no eating disorder and assessed whether eating disorder features, comorbid psychopathology, and personality characteristics were associated with suicide attempts in women with anorexia nervosa, restricting subtype (ANR), anorexia nervosa, binge-purge subtype (ANBP), lifetime history of both anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa (ANBN), bulimia nervosa (BN), binge eating disorder (BED), and purging disorder (PD). Participants were part of the Swedish Twin study of Adults: Genes and Environment (N = 13,035) cohort. Lifetime suicide attempts were identified using diagnoses from the Swedish National Patient and Cause of Death Registers. General linear models were applied to evaluate whether eating disorder category (ANR, ANBP, ANBN, BN, BED, PD, or no eating disorder [no ED]) was associated with suicide attempts and to identify factors associated with suicide attempts. Relative to women with no ED, lifetime suicide attempts were significantly more common in women with all types of eating disorder. None of the eating disorder features or personality variables was significantly associated with suicide attempts. In the ANBP and ANBN groups, the prevalence of comorbid psychiatric conditions was higher in individuals with than without a lifetime suicide attempt. The odds of suicide were highest in presentations that included purging behavior (ANBN, ANBN, BN, and PD), but were elevated in all eating disorders. To improve outcomes and decrease mortality, it is critical to be vigilant for suicide and identify indices for those who are at greatest risk. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  20. Risk of self-harm and nonfatal suicide attempts, and completed suicide in patients with psoriasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egeberg, A; Hansen, P. R.; Gislason, G. H.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Psoriasis is a common inflammatory skin disease, and inflammation may affect suicidal behaviour. Current data on the incidence and risk of suicidal behaviour in patients with psoriasis are scarce. Objectives: We investigated the association between psoriasis and the risk of self......-harm and suicide attempts and suicides. Methods: All Danish patients aged ≥ 18 years with mild or severe psoriasis (cases) from 1 January 1997 to 31 December 2011 were matched on age, sex and calendar time 1 : 5 with healthy controls. The outcome was a diagnosis of self-harm or a nonfatal suicide attempt......, or completed suicide. Incidence rates per 10 000 person-years were calculated, and incidence rate ratios (IRRs) and confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated by Poisson regression models. Results: The study cohort comprised 408 663 individuals, including 57 502 and 11 009 patients with mild and severe...

  1. Predictors of Multiple Suicide Attempts among Suicidal Black Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merchant, Christopher; Kramer, Anne; Joe, Sean; Venkataraman, Sanjeev; King, Cheryl A.

    2009-01-01

    Psychopathology, social support, and interpersonal orientation were studied in relation to suicide attempt status in acutely suicidal, psychiatrically hospitalized Black adolescents and a matched sample of White adolescents. In the total sample, multiple attempters were differentiated by lower perceived support. Within the Black youth subsample,…

  2. Teen experiences following a suicide attempt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holliday, Carrie; Vandermause, Roxanne

    2015-06-01

    Teen suicide is the third leading cause of death for 15-24year olds. A clear understanding of what the experience of being suicidal means to adolescents living the phenomenon has not been clearly addressed in the literature. The aim of this research was to generate a comprehensive interpretation of the experiences of six adolescents who visited the ED following a suicide attempt, using hermeneutic phenomenological methodology. Participants ranged in age from 15 to 19years old, and all had been hospitalized for their attempt. Two patterns emerged: attempting as communicating and attempting as transforming. Underlying themes are described in detail. The findings have implications for nursing practice including how to assess and intervene with adolescent suicide attempters. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Predictors of Suicide Attempts in Clinically Depressed Korean Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Ahye; Song, Jungeun; Yook, Ki-Hwan; Jon, Duk-In; Jung, Myung Hun; Hong, Narei; Hong, Hyun Ju

    2016-01-01

    We examined predictors of suicide attempts in clinically depressed adolescents in Korea and gender differences in suicidal behavior. In total, 106 adolescents diagnosed with depressive disorder were recruited in South Korea. We assessed various variables that might affect suicide attempts, and used a structured interview for the diagnosis of depression and comorbidities and to evaluate suicidality. Demographic and clinical characteristics of the subjects were compared between suicide attempt and non-suicide attempt groups and we examined significant predictors of suicide attempts. Gender differences in suicidal ideation and suicidal behavior were also analyzed. Among 106 depressed participants, 50 (47.2%) adolescents were classified in the suicide attempt group. Generally, the suicide attempt and non-suicide attempt group shared similar clinical characteristics. The suicide attempt group had more females, more major depressive disorder diagnoses, more depressive episodes, and higher suicidal ideation than the non-suicide attempt group. Suicidal ideation was the only significant predictor of suicidal attempt, regardless of gender. Higher suicidal ideation frequency scores and more non-suicidal self-injurious behaviors were shown in the female suicide attempt group than the male suicide attempt group. It is recommended that suicidal ideation be assessed regularly and managed rigorously to decrease suicide risks in depressive adolescents. PMID:27776392

  4. Attempted suicide, depression and physical diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenager, E N; Stenager, Egon; Jensen, Knud

    1994-01-01

    on analgesics for pain. Patients that suffered from a somatic disease differed from other suicide attempters in depression score, age, pain and the presence of psychosis. Fewer of the somatically ill suicide attempters had a psychosis. Patients complaining of pain were more often depressed and abused medicine....... Statistically, the risk of repetition of parasuicide for patients with a somatic disease but without depression was significantly less. The 7 patients committing suicide were older and a tendency was found towards painful somatic diseases and depression as risk factors for suicide.......In the period January 1, 1990 to March 31, 1991 a sample of suicide attempters admitted to the Department of Psychiatry, Odense University Hospital, underwent a structured interview. In the study 52% of the patients interviewed were found to suffer from a somatic disease, and 21% were daily...

  5. Attempted suicide, depression and physical diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenager, E N; Stenager, Egon; Jensen, Knud

    1994-01-01

    In the period January 1, 1990 to March 31, 1991 a sample of suicide attempters admitted to the Department of Psychiatry, Odense University Hospital, underwent a structured interview. In the study 52% of the patients interviewed were found to suffer from a somatic disease, and 21% were daily...... on analgesics for pain. Patients that suffered from a somatic disease differed from other suicide attempters in depression score, age, pain and the presence of psychosis. Fewer of the somatically ill suicide attempters had a psychosis. Patients complaining of pain were more often depressed and abused medicine....... Statistically, the risk of repetition of parasuicide for patients with a somatic disease but without depression was significantly less. The 7 patients committing suicide were older and a tendency was found towards painful somatic diseases and depression as risk factors for suicide....

  6. Autobiographical Memory and Suicide Attempts in Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettersen, Kenneth; Rydningen, Nora Nord; Christensen, Tore Buer; Walby, Fredrik A.

    2010-01-01

    According to the cry of pain model of suicidal behavior, an over-general autobiographical memory function is often found in suicide attempters. The model has received empirical support in several studies, mainly of depressed patients. The present study investigated whether deficits in autobiographical memory may be associated with an increased…

  7. Risk factors for adolescents' attempted suicide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Mogens; Poulsen, Henrik Day; Nielsen, Anne

    This paper has been submitted to a journal for consideration, so please do not quote without permission. Adolescents' first-time suicide attempt tends to be characterized by parental psychiatric disorder or suicidal behaviour, family violence, especially child abuse and neglect. An increased risk...... of the adolescent and their families, combined with mental disorders....

  8. Intrapersonal positive future thinking predicts repeat suicide attempts in hospital-treated suicide attempters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Rory C; Smyth, Roger; Williams, J Mark G

    2015-02-01

    Although there is clear evidence that low levels of positive future thinking (anticipation of positive experiences in the future) and hopelessness are associated with suicide risk, the relationship between the content of positive future thinking and suicidal behavior has yet to be investigated. This is the first study to determine whether the positive future thinking-suicide attempt relationship varies as a function of the content of the thoughts and whether positive future thinking predicts suicide attempts over time. A total of 388 patients hospitalized following a suicide attempt completed a range of clinical and psychological measures (depression, hopelessness, suicidal ideation, suicidal intent and positive future thinking). Fifteen months later, a nationally linked database was used to determine who had been hospitalized again after a suicide attempt. During follow-up, 25.6% of linked participants were readmitted to hospital following a suicide attempt. In univariate logistic regression analyses, previous suicide attempts, suicidal ideation, hopelessness, and depression-as well as low levels of achievement, low levels of financial positive future thoughts, and high levels of intrapersonal (thoughts about the individual and no one else) positive future thoughts predicted repeat suicide attempts. However, only previous suicide attempts, suicidal ideation, and high levels of intrapersonal positive future thinking were significant predictors in multivariate analyses. Positive future thinking has predictive utility over time; however, the content of the thinking affects the direction and strength of the positive future thinking-suicidal behavior relationship. Future research is required to understand the mechanisms that link high levels of intrapersonal positive future thinking to suicide risk and how intrapersonal thinking should be targeted in treatment interventions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Adolescent suicide attempts and adult adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brière, Frédéric N; Rohde, Paul; Seeley, John R; Klein, Daniel; Lewinsohn, Peter M

    2015-04-01

    Adolescent suicide attempts are disproportionally prevalent and frequently of low severity, raising questions regarding their long-term prognostic implications. In this study, we examined whether adolescent attempts were associated with impairments related to suicidality, psychopathology, and psychosocial functioning in adulthood (objective 1) and whether these impairments were better accounted for by concurrent adolescent confounders (objective 2). Eight hundred and sixteen adolescents were assessed using interviews and questionnaires at four time points from adolescence to adulthood. We examined whether lifetime suicide attempts in adolescence (by T2, mean age 17) predicted adult outcomes (by T4, mean age 30) using linear and logistic regressions in unadjusted models (objective 1) and adjusting for sociodemographic background, adolescent psychopathology, and family risk factors (objective 2). In unadjusted analyses, adolescent suicide attempts predicted poorer adjustment on all outcomes, except those related to social role status. After adjustment, adolescent attempts remained predictive of axis I and II psychopathology (anxiety disorder, antisocial and borderline personality disorder symptoms), global and social adjustment, risky sex, and psychiatric treatment utilization. However, adolescent attempts no longer predicted most adult outcomes, notably suicide attempts and major depressive disorder. Secondary analyses indicated that associations did not differ by sex and attempt characteristics (intent, lethality, recurrence). Adolescent suicide attempters are at high risk of protracted and wide-ranging impairments, regardless of the characteristics of their attempt. Although attempts specifically predict (and possibly influence) several outcomes, results suggest that most impairments reflect the confounding contributions of other individual and family problems or vulnerabilites in adolescent attempters. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Pediatric Emergency Department Suicidal Patients: Two-Site Evaluation of Suicide Ideators, Single Attempters, and Repeat Attempters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asarnow, Joan Rosenbaum; Baraff, Larry J.; Berk, Michele; Grob, Charles; Devich-Navarro, Mona; Suddath, Robert; Piacentini, John; Tang, Lingqi

    2008-01-01

    The study examines ideators, single attempters, and repeats attempters of suicide to clarify optimal strategies for emergency department management and risk assessment to help them in reducing youth suicide and suicide attempts. Depression was found to be a strong predictor of suicide/suicide attempts along with substance use, externalizing…

  11. Suicide Attempts in the United States Army

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ursano, Robert J.; Kessler, Ronald C.; Stein, Murray B.; Naifeh, James A.; Aliaga, Pablo A.; Fullerton, Carol S.; Sampson, Nancy A.; Kao, Tzu-Cheg; Colpe, Lisa J.; Schoenbaum, Michael; Cox, Kenneth L.; Heeringa, Steven G.

    2015-01-01

    Importance The U.S. Army suicide attempt rate increased sharply during the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq. Comprehensive research on this important health outcome has been hampered by a lack of integration among Army administrative data systems. Objective To identify risk factors for Regular Army suicide attempts during the years 2004–2009 using data from the Army Study to Assess Risk and Resilience in Servicemembers (Army STARRS). Design, Setting, and Participants There were 9,791 medically documented suicide attempts among Regular Army soldiers during the study period. Individual-level person-month records from Army and Department of Defense administrative data systems were analyzed to identify socio-demographic, service-related, and mental health risk factors distinguishing suicide attempt cases from an equal-probability control sample of 183,826 person-months. Main Outcome and Measures Suicide attempts were identified using Department of Defense Suicide Event Report records and ICD-9 E95x diagnostic codes. Predictor variables were constructed from Army personnel and medical records. Results Enlisted soldiers accounted for 98.6% of all suicide attempts, with an overall rate of 377/100,000 person-years, versus 27.9/100,000 person-years for officers. Significant multivariate predictors among enlisted soldiers included socio-demographic characteristics (female gender, older age at Army entry, younger current age, low education, non-hispanic white), short length of service, never or previously deployed, and the presence and recency of mental health diagnoses. Among officers, only socio-demographic characteristics (female gender, older age at Army entry, younger current age, and low education) and the presence and recency of mental health diagnoses were significant. Conclusions and Relevance Results represent the most comprehensive accounting of U.S. Army suicide attempts to date and reveal unique risk profiles for enlisted soldiers and officers, and highlighting the

  12. Psychosocial Risk Factors for Future Adolescent Suicide Attempts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewinsohn, Peter M.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Examined psychosocial risk factors for attempting suicide in 1,508 high school students, 26 of whom attempted suicide during year following entry into study. Strongest predictors of future suicide attempt were history of past attempt, current suicidal ideation and depression, recent attempt by friend, low self-esteem, and having been born to…

  13. Suicide attempts and suicides in Bolivia from 2007 to 2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørs, Erik; Christoffersen, Mette; Veirum, Nikoline Høgsgaard

    2014-01-01

    adults aged 20-29 years, and older adults aged above 29 years. Data from the hospital wards and Crime Statistics were pooled to compare characteristics of suicide attempts with suicides concerning age and gender. Data on age, gender, methods used, and reasons were analyzed using IBM SPSS version 21...

  14. [Risk factors found in suicide attempters].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa-Manzano, Alberto Iram; Robles-Romero, Miguel Angel; Gutiérrez-Román, Elsa Armida; Martínez-Arriaga, María Guadalupe; Valadez-Toscano, Francisco Javier; Cabrera-Pivaral, Carlos E

    2009-01-01

    A better understanding of risk factors for suicide in general population is crucial for the design of suicide prevention programs. Our objective was to identify personal and family risk factors in suicide attempters. Case-control design. We searched in patients with an acute intoxication, those subjects with and intoxication attributable to suicide attempt. These patients were matched with controls by gender and the date of intoxication. We use a structured questionnaire to identify personal characteristics, family features and network support. Odds ratio (OR) and 95 % confidence interval were obtained. 25 cases and 25 controls were evaluated. The risk factors associated with suicide attempt adjusted by age, were being a student and smoking habits. Family violence background showed OR = 3.8 (IC 95 % = 1.1-13), family disintegration a OR = 8.5 (IC 95 % = 2.1-35), critical events background OR = 8.8 (IC 95 % = 2.1-36), poor self-esteem OR = 8.2 (IC 95 % 2-35), depression OR = 22 (IC 95 % = 3-190), anxiety OR = 9 (IC 95 % = 2-47), family dysfunction OR = 25 (IC 95 % = 4-151). The principal risk factor for suicide attempt was family dysfunction and psychological traits.

  15. [Risk index for attempted suicide in Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Guilherme; Orozco, Ricardo; Medina Mora, María Elena

    2012-01-01

    To develop a risk index of suicide attempts in the last 12 months among people with suicide ideation. Cross-sectional study. Data came from the National Addictions Survey 2008. The risk index was made up by age, marital status, religion, occupation, area of the country in which they live, immigrant to the United States, alcohol and drug consumption, depression symptoms, behavioral problems and a history of sexual abuse. We found a monotonic relationship between the increase in risk factors and the existence of a plan and the risk, with an odds ratio over 2.07 up to 152.19. The area under the curve is quite high, with a value of 0.844, very close to 1. The use of this index may help prevent patients from further developing their suicide ideation process and may prevent a suicide attempt of uncertain consequences, including death.

  16. Attempted suicides in India: a comprehensive look.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saddichha, Sahoo; Prasad, M N V; Saxena, Mukul Kumar

    2010-01-01

    Suicide continues to be one of the biggest killers in the world, with suicide rates varying between 8.1 and 58.3/100,000 population for different parts of India. Andhra Pradesh, the fourth largest state in India, is responsible for more than 11% of these. Unfortunately, most suicides are under-reported and there is scant data on attempted suicides. This study aimed to comprehensively study the characteristics of attempted suicides in Andhra Pradesh and using the primary data, make secondary projections for the forthcoming years. Using Patient Care Record (PCR) forms of all emergencies serviced by 108, the first comprehensive emergency service in India, an analysis of all cases was done to detect possible suicides during the period January-December 2007. A follow up 48 hours later was then done to confirm status and diagnosis. A total of 1007 cases were recorded as confirmed suicides. Hanging and insecticide poisoning (72%) were the most common methods used. Males preferred hanging and insecticide poisoning while females preferred self-immolation and hanging as common methods. Self-immolation and insecticide poisoning had the highest mortality (41.6%). Estimates of attempted suicides for the year 2008 revealed a mean of 3.2-3.8 per 1000 population for males, 3.3-3.7 per 1000 population for females and 6.4-7.6 per 1000 population combined. A serious epidemic of suicides seems to be in store in the coming years unless preventive steps in the form of policy changes are undertaken. Restricting access to poisonous substances or prescription drugs and taking into consideration the prevailing social, economic and cultural factors could help in reducing numbers. Starting tele-help services or offering brief interventions during hospital stays are other programs which may be considered.

  17. [Attempted suicide during the financial crisis in Athens].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavrianakos, K; Kontaxakis, V; Moussas, G; Paplos, K; Papaslanis, T; Havaki-Kontaxaki, B; Papadimitriou, Gn

    2014-01-01

    Suicidal behavior is considered as the result of complex cognitive and emotional processes and it is a timeless, global and multifactorial phenomenon. Periods of financial crises in the past, such as the Great Depression in the USA in 1929 and the economic crises of Asia, Russia and Argentina in the late 1990s, have been associated with impairment of mental health of the economically affected. Unemployment, job insecurity, debts, poverty and social exclusion seems to lead to higher incidence of anxiety and depressive symptoms and increased suicidality. Alcohol and substance use and the reduction of the state budget for health services reinforce the negative effects of the economic recession on mental health. The financial crisis which currently affects many European countries began in 2008 and its impact on the mental health of European citizens is in progress. Greece is probably the most affected country by the European financial crisis. The aim of this study is to investigate the potential impact of the crisis' consequences on the attempted suicide rates in the Athens population and the differentiation of suicide attempters on social, demographic and clinical-psychopathological parameters during the crisis. A retrospective study was conducted. The semi-structured records of 165 attempters who were hospitalized in the Internal Medicine Clinics of the "Sotiria" General Hospital in Athens, after attempted suicide in the years 2007 and 2011, before and during the financial crisis respectively, were studied. Among suicide attempters 95(57.6%) were suffering from mental disorders. Most often diagnoses were these of mood disorders (n=60, 63.2%). Demographic data, current psychiatric disorder, previous suicide attempt and severity of psychopathology at the time of suicide attempt were recorded for each patient. Furthermore, the severity of each suicide attempt was estimated. Suicide attempts were 70 in 2007, before the financial crisis (mean age 36.9 years, 71% women

  18. Risk of Suicide Attempt Among Soldiers in Army Units With a History of Suicide Attempts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ursano, Robert J; Kessler, Ronald C; Naifeh, James A; Herberman Mash, Holly; Fullerton, Carol S; Bliese, Paul D; Zaslavsky, Alan M; Ng, Tsz Hin Hinz; Aliaga, Pablo A; Wynn, Gary H; Dinh, Hieu M; McCarroll, James E; Sampson, Nancy A; Kao, Tzu-Cheg; Schoenbaum, Michael; Heeringa, Steven G; Stein, Murray B

    2017-09-01

    Mental health of soldiers is adversely affected by the death and injury of other unit members, but whether risk of suicide attempt is influenced by previous suicide attempts in a soldier's unit is unknown. To examine whether a soldier's risk of suicide attempt is influenced by previous suicide attempts in that soldier's unit. Using administrative data from the Army Study to Assess Risk and Resilience in Servicemembers (STARRS), this study identified person-month records for all active-duty, regular US Army, enlisted soldiers who attempted suicide from January 1, 2004, through December 31, 2009 (n = 9650), and an equal-probability sample of control person-months (n = 153 528). Data analysis was performed from August 8, 2016, to April 10, 2017. Logistic regression analyses examined the number of past-year suicide attempts in a soldier's unit as a predictor of subsequent suicide attempt, controlling for sociodemographic features, service-related characteristics, prior mental health diagnosis, and other unit variables, including suicide-, combat-, and unintentional injury-related unit deaths. The study also examined whether the influence of previous unit suicide attempts varied by military occupational specialty (MOS) and unit size. Of the final analytic sample of 9512 enlisted soldiers who attempted suicide and 151 526 control person-months, most were male (86.4%), 29 years or younger (68.4%), younger than 21 years when entering the army (62.2%), white (59.8%), high school educated (76.6%), and currently married (54.8%). In adjusted models, soldiers were more likely to attempt suicide if 1 or more suicide attempts occurred in their unit during the past year (odds ratios [ORs], 1.4-2.3; P < .001), with odds increasing as the number of unit attempts increased. The odds of suicide attempt among soldiers in a unit with 5 or more past-year attempts was more than twice that of soldiers in a unit with no previous attempts (OR, 2.3; 95% CI, 2.1-2.6). The

  19. Suicide attempts in schizophrenic patients: clinical variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauri, M C; Paletta, S; Maffini, M; Moliterno, D; Altamura, A C

    2013-10-01

    Schizophrenia is associated with a significant risk of suicide: 40-50% of schizophrenic patients report suicidal ideation at some point in their lives, and 4-13% eventually commit suicide. In order to be able to predict and prevent suicide in schizophrenic patients, it is necessary to investigate and characterise suicide victims who meet the criteria for psychotic disorders and risk factors. The aim of this retrospective study was to verify the associations between suicide attempts (SAs) and the demographic and clinical variables of 106 patients who met the DSM-IV-TR criteria for schizophrenia. The patients were divided into two groups on the basis of the presence/absence of lifetime suicide attempts, and their main demographic and clinical characteristics were analysed and compared. The patients with a history of SAs frequently had a duration of untreated psychosis (DUP) of ≥1 year (chi-squared test=9.984, df=1, p=0.0016). They also showed significant associations with the presence of a depressive dimension (chi-squared test=4.439, df=1, p=0.0351), hospitalisations before SAs (chi-squared test=25.515, df=1, p suicidal behaviours (chi-squared test=18.241, df=2, p=0.0001). Finally, they were more frequently prescribed typical antipsychotic agents. The severity of psychiatric symptoms indicates a high risk of suicide in schizophrenic patients. Further prospective studies of larger samples should investigate the role of early interventions and atypical antipsychotic treatment in reducing the risk. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Attempted suicide and completed suicide among young people

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Mogens

    The study explore risk factors associated with the onset of suicidal behavior in young people aged 15 to 24. The study survey possible risk factors and protective factors in order to evaluate if altering the conditions of children’s upbringing, structural factors, geographical segregation......, or individual resource deficits could reduce their suicidal behavior (first time suicide attempts and completed suicides). These issues are being examined using data gathered during a 10-year longitudinal study of two births cohorts of more than 145,000 young people born in 1966 or 1980. In the Nordic welfare...... model it is an ambition to level-out inequalities and give children the same opportunities despite parental income or educational resources. The paper focuses on suicidal behavior as an extreme indicator of individual disadvantage and social disintegration in order to disentangle groups of risk factors...

  1. Suicide Attempts among Depressed Adolescents in Primary Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fordwood, Samantha R.; Asarnow, Joan R.; Huizar, Diana P.; Reise, Steven P.

    2007-01-01

    Although depression is strongly associated with suicide attempts and suicide deaths, most depressed youth do not make an attempt, indicating the need to identify additional risk factors. We examined suicide attempts among 451 depressed primary care patients, 13 to 21 years of age. In bivariate analyses, youth classified as suicide attempters…

  2. Association between Terror Attacks and Suicide Attempts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weizman, Tal; Yagil, Yaron; Schreiber, Shaul

    2009-01-01

    Based on Durkheim's "Control theory," we explored the association between frequency of terror attacks in Israel and the frequency of suicide attempts admitted to the Emergency Room of a major general hospital in Tel-Aviv (1999-2004). Analysis of the six-year study period as a whole revealed no significant correlation between the…

  3. Intrapersonal Positive Future Thinking Predicts Repeat Suicide Attempts in Hospital-Treated Suicide Attempters

    OpenAIRE

    O?Connor, Rory C.; Smyth, Roger; Williams, J. Mark G.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Although there is clear evidence that low levels of positive future thinking (anticipation of positive experiences in the future) and hopelessness are associated with suicide risk, the relationship between the content of positive future thinking and suicidal behavior has yet to be investigated. This is the first study to determine whether the positive future thinking–suicide attempt relationship varies as a function of the content of the thoughts and whether positive future thinkin...

  4. Nurses' experiences of patient suicide and suicide attempts in an acute unit

    OpenAIRE

    DOYLE, LOUISE; DOYLE, LOUISE

    2008-01-01

    PUBLISHED Suicide and suicide attempts in Ireland have increased dramatically in the last twenty years. Many of the presentations of suicide attempts to Emergency Departments are recommended an admission to an acute mental health unit. A psychiatric staff nurse working in an acute mental health setting has a high chance of experiencing a patient suicide or suicide attempt during their career. The occurrence of an inpatient suicide or suicide attempt is unquestionably an overwhelmingly stre...

  5. Suicide attempts in 107 adolescents and adults with kleptomania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odlaug, Brian Lawrence; Grant, Jon E; Kim, Suck Won

    2012-01-01

    Suicide attempts in kleptomania have received little investigation. This study examined rates, correlates, and predictors of suicide attempts in kleptomania. A total of 107 adolescent and adult subjects (n = 32 [29.9%] males) with DSM-IV kleptomania were assessed with standard measures of symptom...... severity, psychiatric comorbidity, and functional impairment. Subjects had high rates of suicide attempts (24.3%). The suicide attempt in 92.3% of those who attempted suicide was attributed specifically to kleptomania. Suicide attempts were associated with current and life-time bipolar disorder (p = .047......) and lifetime personality disorder (p = .049). Individuals with kleptomania have high rates of suicide attempts. Bipolar disorder is associated with suicide attempts in individuals with kleptomania and underscores the importance of carefully assessing and monitoring suicidality in patients with kleptomania....

  6. Suicide attempts in 107 adolescents and adults with kleptomania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odlaug, Brian L; Grant, Jon E; Kim, Suck Won

    2012-01-01

    Suicide attempts in kleptomania have received little investigation. This study examined rates, correlates, and predictors of suicide attempts in kleptomania. A total of 107 adolescent and adult subjects (n = 32 [29.9%] males) with DSM-IV kleptomania were assessed with standard measures of symptom severity, psychiatric comorbidity, and functional impairment. Subjects had high rates of suicide attempts (24.3%). The suicide attempt in 92.3% of those who attempted suicide was attributed specifically to kleptomania. Suicide attempts were associated with current and life-time bipolar disorder (p = .047) and lifetime personality disorder (p = .049). Individuals with kleptomania have high rates of suicide attempts. Bipolar disorder is associated with suicide attempts in individuals with kleptomania and underscores the importance of carefully assessing and monitoring suicidality in patients with kleptomania.

  7. Declines in the lethality of suicide attempts explain the decline in suicide deaths in Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J Spittal

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To investigate the epidemiology of a steep decrease in the incidence of suicide deaths in Australia. METHODS: National data on suicide deaths and deliberate self-harm for the period 1994-2007 were obtained from the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. We calculated attempt and death rates for five major methods and the lethality of these methods. Negative binomial regression was used to estimate the size and significance of method-specific time-trends in attempts and lethality. RESULTS: Hanging, motor vehicle exhaust and firearms were the most lethal methods, and together accounted for 72% of all deaths. The lethality of motor vehicle exhaust attempts decreased sharply (RR = 0.94 per year, 95% CI 0.93-0.95 while the motor vehicle exhaust attempt rate changed little; this combination of motor vehicle exhaust trends explained nearly half of the overall decline in suicide deaths. Hanging lethality also decreased sharply (RR = 0.96 per year, 95% CI 0.956-0.965 but large increases in hanging attempts negated the effect on death rates. Firearm lethality changed little while attempts decreased. CONCLUSION: Declines in the lethality of suicide attempts-especially attempts by motor vehicle exhaust and hanging-explain the remarkable decline in deaths by suicide in Australia since 1997.

  8. [When a Suicide Attempt is Kid's Stuff].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vásquez-Rojas, Rafael; Quijano-Serrano, Margarita

    2013-01-01

    Attempted suicide in children and adolescents is a disturbing and painful issue for patients, their families and physicians. Current medical literature provides little information about minors who attempt suicide, possibly because there is under-reporting of this condition as a diagnosis, or maybe because it is sometimes considered as a way for the child to draw attention. To present the experience of the Department of Psychiatry (Universidad Nacional de Colombia) at the Hospital Infantil de La Misericordia, from 2003 to 2013. An observational retrospective study was conducted by reviewing 213 cases of children and adolescents treated for attempted suicide at the Hospital Infantil de La Misericordia from January 1, 2003 to October 31, 2013, and who received hospital or outpatient care in Child Psychiatry. A review was performed of the diagnosis, the number of suicide attempts, the peak months of consultation for this reason, and the methods selected, as well as a detailed description of the group of patients under 12 years old, and those managed with outpatient follow-up. The average patient is a female teenager who becomes intoxicated with drugs. Most often, patients do not return to outpatient follow-up. Those with follow-up have multiple psychopathologies and a high level of suffering. The most common methods, other than poisoning by drugs, are hanging and jumping from heights. Patients under 12 years old generally have their first attempt by drug poisoning. There is a predominance of anxiety disorder and depression, with a strong association with cognitive dysfunction, as a vulnerability factor. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  9. Predictors of Suicide Attempts in Clinically Depressed Korean Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Kwon, Ahye; Song, Jungeun; Yook, Ki-Hwan; Jon, Duk-In; Jung, Myung Hun; Hong, Narei; Hong, Hyun Ju

    2016-01-01

    We examined predictors of suicide attempts in clinically depressed adolescents in Korea and gender differences in suicidal behavior. In total, 106 adolescents diagnosed with depressive disorder were recruited in South Korea. We assessed various variables that might affect suicide attempts, and used a structured interview for the diagnosis of depression and comorbidities and to evaluate suicidality. Demographic and clinical characteristics of the subjects were compared between suicide attempt ...

  10. Attempted suicide and contact with the primary health authorities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenager, E N; Jensen, Knud

    1994-01-01

    In a study describing suicide attempters' approach to the health and social welfare authorities prior to a suicide attempt, it was found that one-fourth of the patients seeking help requested therapeutic consultations and only a few asked for medicinal treatment. Forty-four percent had taken newly...... with their general practitioner prior to the suicide attempt. Postgraduate courses for practitioners on depression diagnostics and suicidal behaviour are proposed as a measure in suicide prevention....

  11. The profile analysis of attempted-suicide patients referred to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Suicide is an increasing phenomenon worldwide. A suicide occurs every 40 seconds, and there is 1 attempt every 1 to 3 seconds. By 2020, these figures may have doubled. No accurate statistics regarding the occurrence of attempted suicide (or non-fatal suicidal behaviour) in South Africa exist, because there ...

  12. SUICIDAL ATTEMPTS AMONG YOUNG RURAL INHABITANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdzisław Brzeski

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years changes have been noted in the motivations for acute suicidal poisonings among young people from various environments, which are due to psychosocial changes both in the urban and rural environments. Suicidal attempts are accompanied – especially in the rural environment – by low social status, difficulties with adapting to a free market economy, emotional tension within the family, at school, in the environment of young people, addiction to alcohol, drug overuse, including psychotropes. Based on clinical material concerning rural inhabitants hospitalized due to suicidal poisonings, the authors performed the analysis of attitudes, motivations and causes of acute poisonings among the young rural population. Among rural adolescents who continued school or university education the dominant causes of undertaking a suicidal attempt were: adolescent period problems, conflicts within the family, conflicts with mates, and disappointment in love. Among young adults the motivations were as follows: difficulties with finding employment in the place of residence, conflicts within the family, overuse of stimulants, and sometimes states of depression during the period of aggravation of a disease.

  13. Investigating Correlates of Suicide Among Male Youth: Questioning the Close Affinity Between Suicide Attempts and Deaths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feigelman, William; Joiner, Thomas; Rosen, Zohn; Silva, Caroline

    2016-04-01

    This study was based on a sample of male high school students who completed National Longitudinal Adolescent Health Surveys in 1994, 1995, and 2001. We studied these students prospectively, comparing those who later died by suicide (n = 21) with those who were still living (n = 10,101). We employed chi-square and analysis of variance tests for statistical significance between suicide decedents and living respondents. Results showed suicide decedents were more likely to have experienced the suicide loss of another family member, to have been expelled from school, to have engaged in more delinquent actions including fighting, and to have greater involvement with the criminal justice system. Although one might have expected suicide casualties to have exhibited a greater amount of suicidal thoughts, attempts, and higher incidences of suicidality among their friends, our analyses did not find that these factors were associated with actual suicides. Should these findings be replicated, this would point to a need to refine youth suicide risk assessments. Collecting life histories, as well as identifying patterns of delinquency and fighting, may serve as more potentially fruitful means for assessing genuine suicide risk than some traditional risk assessment methods.z. © 2015 The American Association of Suicidology.

  14. Suicide Attempt in a Recently Diagnosed HIV Positive Subject: Is ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Suicide Attempt in a Recently Diagnosed HIV Positive Subject: Is Pre and Post Counseling Still Being Adequately Practiced? ... A case of attempted suicide in a recently diagnosed HIV positive subject without adequate counseling is reported. Subject ... Key Words: Suicide Attempt, HIV/AIDS, Pre and Post test Counseling.

  15. Characteristics of Spirituality and Religion Among Suicide Attempters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandhouj, Olfa; Perroud, Nader; Hasler, Roland; Younes, Nadia; Huguelet, Philippe

    2016-11-01

    Spirituality and religiousness are associated with a lower risk of suicide. A detailed assessment of spirituality among 88 suicide attempters hospitalized after a suicide attempt was performed. Factors associated with the recurrence of suicide attempts over 18 months were looked into. Spirituality was low among most suicide attempters in comparison with the general population. Two groups were identified: those with a high score of depression who featured "low" in spirituality and those with a more heterogeneous profile, for example, involving personality disorders, characterized by a "high" spirituality. At the follow-up, the "meaning in life" score appeared to correlate with recurrence of suicide. Clinical implications are discussed herein.

  16. SSRIs and risk of suicide attempts in young people

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Erik; Agerbo, Esben; Bilenberg, Niels

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: SSRIs are widely used in the treatment of mental illness for both children and adults. Studies have found a slightly increased risk of suicidal thoughts and suicide attempts in young people using SSRIs but SSRIs' impact on risk for suicides in youth is not well-established. AIM......: Is there indication that SSRIs might raise risk for suicide attempts in young people? METHODS: We used an observational register-based historical cohort design, a large cohort of all Danish individuals born in 1983-1989 (n = 392,458) and a propensity score approach to analyse the impact from SSRIs on risk for suicide...... attempts. Every suicide attempt and redeemed prescription of SSRIs was analysed by Cox regression. RESULTS: We found a significant overlap between redeeming a prescription on SSRIs and subsequent suicide attempt. The risk for suicide attempt was highest in the first 3 months after redeeming the first...

  17. Sociodemographic profile of suicide attempters among the rural agrarian community of central India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Kshirod Kumar; Gupta, Neha; Bhabulkar, Sneha

    2015-01-01

    Suicides, attempted suicides and different form of suicidal behaviors are on the rise in most part of the world. It is generally assumed that official suicidal rate are underestimated from the true rate by 20-100 % due to prevailing socio-cultural issues, religious attitude, stigma attached, and legal process involved. Attempted suicides occur 8-20 times more frequently than complete suicide. Statistics on attempted suicide or deliberate self harm are not usually available officially. All the cases of attempted suicide who were admitted and referred for psychiatric evaluation and management to a rural medical college of central India during a period of one Year (April 13-March-14), following initial recovery they were evaluated on a semi-structured performa on socio demographic profile, mode of attempt and reason for attempt. Data collected was analyzed using suitable statistical methods. Total 68 cases were evaluated during the study period. 43% of the cases were involved in farming. Among 85% of the study population pesticide consumption was the common mode of attempt, which is easily available among the agrarian community of rural India. Interpersonal conflict in the family due to indebtedness, financial loss due to crop failure was the commonest reason for attempt. Though there is reduced reporting in the incidents of suicide cases in media from this region, still quite a number of people attempt suicide due to financial constraint from crop failure, ongoing indebtedness, and poor socioeconomic condition culminating into poor mental health among the rural agrarian community of central Maharashtra.

  18. Risk of Suicide Attempt in Adopted and Nonadopted Offspring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, Stephen M.; Sharma, Anu; Iacono, William G.; McGue, Matt

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We asked whether adoption status represented a risk of suicide attempt for adopted and nonadopted offspring living in the United States. We also examined whether factors known to be associated with suicidal behavior would mediate the relationship between adoption status and suicide attempt. METHODS: Participants were drawn from the Sibling Interaction and Behavior Study, which included 692 adopted and 540 nonadopted offspring and was conducted at the University of Minnesota from 1998 to 2008. Adoptees were systematically ascertained from records of 3 large Minnesota adoption agencies; nonadoptees were ascertained from Minnesota birth records. Outcome measures were attempted suicide, reported by parent or offspring, and factors known to be associated with suicidal behavior including psychiatric disorder symptoms, personality traits, family environment, and academic disengagement. RESULTS: The odds of a reported suicide attempt were ∼4 times greater in adoptees compared with nonadoptees (odds ratio: 4.23). After adjustment for factors associated with suicidal behavior, the odds of reporting a suicide attempt were reduced but remained significantly elevated (odds ratio: 3.70). CONCLUSIONS: The odds for reported suicide attempt are elevated in individuals who are adopted relative to those who are not adopted. The relationship between adoption status and suicide attempt is partially mediated by factors known to be associated with suicidal behavior. Continued study of the risk of suicide attempt in adopted offspring may inform the larger investigation of suicidality in all adolescents and young adults. PMID:24019414

  19. An examination of suicide attempts among incarcerated sex offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeglic, Elizabeth L; Spada, Ashley; Mercado, Cynthia Calkins

    2013-02-01

    Little is known about suicide attempts among sex offenders. This study examines the rates of nonfatal suicide attempts among a sample (N = 3,030) of incarcerated male sex offenders. Overall, the authors found that 14% of sex offenders in the study sample had made a suicide attempt at some point in their lives. Of those, 11% had reported a suicide attempt prior to incarceration, 0.5% had made a suicide attempt while incarcerated, and 2.5% made suicide attempts both prior to and during incarceration. Sex offenders who made suicide attempts were significantly more likely than those who did not make suicide attempts to have had an abusive childhood, a history of psychiatric problems, intellectual impairment, male victims, and related victims. Suicide attempters also scored higher on actuarial risk measures than nonattempters. No differences were found in attempter status between sex offenders who committed sex offenses against children and those who committed sex offenses against adults. A history of psychiatric problems and treatment as well as childhood abuse/neglect and perpetration against male victims predicted suicide attempter status. These findings are discussed as they pertain to suicide prevention, risk assessment, and the collateral consequences of sex offender legislation.

  20. Risk Factors of Attempted Suicide in Bipolar Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy, Frederick

    2011-01-01

    Suicide rates of bipolar patients are among the highest of any psychiatric disorder, and improved identification of risk factors for attempted and completed suicide translates into improved clinical outcome. Factors that may be predictive of suicidality in an exclusively bipolar population are examined. White race, family suicide history, and…

  1. Cognitive Control Deficits Differentiate Adolescent Suicide Ideators From Attempters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Jeremy G; Glenn, Catherine R; Esposito, Erika C; Cha, Christine B; Nock, Matthew K; Auerbach, Randy P

    2017-06-01

    Mental illness and suicidal ideation are among the strongest correlates of suicidal behaviors, but few adolescents with these risk factors make a suicide attempt. Therefore, it is critical to identify factors associated with the transition from suicide ideation to attempts. The present study tested whether deficits in cognitive control in the context of suicide-relevant stimuli (ie, suicide interference) reliably differentiated adolescent ideators and attempters. Adolescents (n = 99; 71 girls) aged 13-18 years (mean = 15.53, SD = 1.34) with recent suicide ideation (n = 60) or a recent suicide attempt (n = 39) were recruited from an acute residential treatment facility between August 2012 and December 2013. We measured interference to suicide-related, negative, and positive words using the Suicide Stroop Task (SST). When stimuli were analyzed separately, suicide attempters showed greater interference for suicide (t₉₇ = 2.04, P = .044, d = 0.41) and positive (t₉₇ = 2.63, P = .010, d = 0.53) stimuli compared to suicide ideators. An additional omnibus interference (suicide, negative, positive) x group (suicide ideator, suicide attempter) analysis of variance revealed a main effect of group (F₁,₉₇ = 4.31, P = .041, ηp² = 0.04) but no interaction (P = .166), indicating that attempters showed greater interference for emotional stimuli, regardless of valence. Multiple attempters drove this effect; single attempters and ideators did not differ in SST performance (P = .608). General deficits in cognitive control in the context of emotional stimuli may be a marker of adolescent suicide risk. © Copyright 2017 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  2. Risk Factors for Attempting Suicide in Heroin Addicts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Alec

    2010-01-01

    In order to examine risk factors for attempting suicide in heroin dependent patients, a group of 527 abstinent opiate dependent patients had a psychiatric interview and completed the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. Patients who had or had never attempted suicide were compared on putative suicide risk factors. It was found that 207 of the 527…

  3. Genetic and familial environmental effects on suicide attempts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Liselotte; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Andersen, Per Kragh

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Genetic factors have been found to influence the risk of suicide. It is less clear if this also applies to attempted suicide. We have investigated genetic and familial environmental factors by studying the occurrence of suicide attempts in biological and adoptive siblings of adoptees...... who attempted suicide compared to siblings of adoptees with no suicide attempts. METHOD: We used a random sample of 1933 adoptees from the Danish Adoption Register, a register of non-familial adoptions of Danish children, i.e. the adoptive parents are biologically unrelated to the adoptee. Analyses...

  4. The Association between Inappropriate Weight Control Behaviors and Suicide Ideation and Attempt among Korean Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Ah; Jang, Suk Yong; Shin, Jaeyong; Ju, Yeong Jun; Nam, Jin Young; Park, Eun Cheol

    2016-10-01

    Suicide is a leading cause of death among adolescents globally, and body weight is also a recognized reason for adolescent suicide. Therefore, we investigated the association between weight control behaviors (WCB) and suicide ideation and attempt, focusing on inappropriate weight control measures. We used data from the 2014 Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey, representing a total of 35,224 boys and 34,361 girls aged 12 to 18 years. Adolescents were classified into groups based on WCB: appropriate WCB, inappropriate WCB, and no WCB. We performed logistic regression models to examine associations between WCB and suicide ideation and attempt, controlling for covariates. Both boys and girls with inappropriate WCB were more likely to report suicide ideation and attempt. Underweight and normal weight boys with inappropriate WCB were more likely to think or attempt suicide, and underweight girls with inappropriate WCB were also more likely to attempt suicide. Among five common WCB combinations, the combination of "regular exercise, fasting, eating less" was highly associated with suicide ideation and attempt. We confirmed that inappropriate WCB is associated with suicide ideation and attempt among Korean adolescents. Given the high incidence rate of suicide among adolescents and the adverse effect of inappropriate WCB, encouraging adolescents to control their weight in healthy ways is imperative.

  5. Distinguishing the relevant features of frequent suicide attempters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Castroman, Jorge; Perez-Rodriguez, Maria de las Mercedes; Jaussent, Isabelle; Alegria, Analucia A; Artes-Rodriguez, Antonio; Freed, Peter; Guillaume, Sébastien; Jollant, Fabrice; Leiva-Murillo, Jose Miguel; Malafosse, Alain; Oquendo, Maria A; de Prado-Cumplido, Mario; Saiz-Ruiz, Jeronimo; Baca-Garcia, Enrique; Courtet, Philippe

    2011-05-01

    In spite of the high prevalence of suicide behaviours and the magnitude of the resultant burden, little is known about why individuals reattempt. We aim to investigate the relationships between clinical risk factors and the repetition of suicidal attempts. 1349 suicide attempters were consecutively recruited in the Emergency Room (ER) of two academic hospitals in France and Spain. Patients were extensively assessed and demographic and clinical data obtained. Data mining was used to determine the minimal number of variables that blinded the rest in relation to the number of suicide attempts. Using this set, a probabilistic graph ranking relationships with the target variable was constructed. The most common diagnoses among suicide attempters were affective disorders, followed by anxiety disorders. Risk of frequent suicide attempt was highest among middle-aged subjects, and diminished progressively with advancing age of onset at first attempt. Anxiety disorders significantly increased the risk of presenting frequent suicide attempts. Pathway analysis also indicated that frequent suicide attempts were linked to greater odds for alcohol and substance abuse disorders and more intensive treatment. Novel statistical methods found several clinical features that were associated with a history of frequent suicide attempts. The identified pathways may promote new hypothesis-driven studies of suicide attempts and preventive strategies. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. A population-based longitudinal study of risk factors for suicide attempts in major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolton, James M; Pagura, Jina; Enns, Murray W; Grant, Bridget; Sareen, Jitender

    2010-10-01

    No longitudinal study has examined risk factors for future suicide attempts in major depressive disorder in a nationally representative sample. The objective of this study was to investigate baseline sociodemographic characteristics, comorbid mental disorders, specific depressive symptoms, and previous suicidal behavior as potential risk factors for suicide attempts at 3 years follow-up. Data came from the national epidemiologic survey on alcohol and related conditions (NESARC), a large nationally representative longitudinal survey of mental illness in adults [Wave 1 (2001-2002); Wave 2 (2004-2005) n=34,653]. Logistic regression examined associations between risk factors present at Wave 1 and suicide attempts at Wave 2 (n=169) among individuals with major depressive disorder at baseline assessment (n=6004). Risk factors for incident suicide attempts at Wave 2 (n=63) were identified among those with major depressive disorder at Wave 1 and no lifetime history of suicide attempts (n=5170). Results revealed specific comorbid anxiety, personality, and substance use disorders to be associated with incident suicide attempts at Wave 2. Comorbid borderline personality disorder was strongly associated with suicide attempts in all models. Several comorbid disorders were strongly associated with suicide attempts at Wave 2 even after adjusting for previous suicidal behavior, notably posttraumatic stress disorder (adjusted odds ratio (AOR)=2.20; 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.27-3.83) and dependent personality disorder (AOR=4.43; 95% CI 1.93-10.18). These findings suggest that mental illness comorbidity confers an increased risk of future suicide attempts in major depressive disorder that is not solely accounted for by past suicidal behavior.

  7. STUDY OF FACTORS AFFECTING SUICIDE ATTEMPTS IN PERSONS WITH SCHIZOPHRENIA

    OpenAIRE

    Ottilingam Somasundaram Ravindran; Madras Sundararajan Jagadeesan; Pannerselvam Thulasibai Gajalakshmi; Ramasamy Balakrishnan

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Schizophrenia has been called a ‘Life-shortening disease’, because many sufferers die early than general population and suicide accounts for a significant proportion of those dying prematurely. Suicide attempts in schizophrenia has been an intriguing area of research work for mental health professionals. Indian research on suicide attempts in schizophrenia have been few. OBJECTIVES The objectives were to study the suicidal behaviour in schizophrenia, to compare and s...

  8. STUDY OF FACTORS AFFECTING SUICIDE ATTEMPTS IN PERSONS WITH SCHIZOPHRENIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ottilingam Somasundaram Ravindran

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Schizophrenia has been called a ‘Life-shortening disease’, because many sufferers die early than general population and suicide accounts for a significant proportion of those dying prematurely. Suicide attempts in schizophrenia has been an intriguing area of research work for mental health professionals. Indian research on suicide attempts in schizophrenia have been few. OBJECTIVES The objectives were to study the suicidal behaviour in schizophrenia, to compare and study the positive and negative symptoms, depressive symptoms, hopelessness and suicide intent in schizophrenic population with suicide attempt compared to nonattempters, along with socio-demographic parameters. METHODS A sample of 60 consecutive patients attending OPD of a Private tertiary care Hospital in Chennai were selected. Those who had a diagnosis of schizophrenia were screened for the presence of past suicide attempts. They were divided into two groups as suicide attempters and non-attempters, and analysed using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS, Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia (CDSS, Beck’s hopelessness scale (BHS, and Suicide intent scale (SIS. RESULTS Among the disorders schizophrenia is rated the second most common reason for suicide attempts (53.3%, especially when associated with positive symptoms, depressive features and significant hopelessness. Demographic parameters like age, sex, educational status, occupation, economic status, and marital status were not found to be significant factors linked to the suicide attempts, however family history of suicide had a significant association in schizophrenic suicide attempts. Suicidal intent severity was medium to high among most of the attempters; poisoning was the commonest method; and were found to be due to positive symptoms and depressive symptoms in the schizophrenic illness course.

  9. Gratitude and Suicidal Ideation and Suicide Attempts among Chinese Adolescents: Direct, Mediated, and Moderated Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dongping; Zhang, Wei; Li, Xian; Li, Nini; Ye, Baojuan

    2012-01-01

    In a sample of 1252 Chinese adolescents (mean age = 15.00 years), this study examined the direct relations between gratitude and adolescents' suicidal ideation and suicide attempts. This study also examined indirect relations between gratitude and suicidal ideation and suicide attempts via two self-system beliefs--coping efficacy and self-esteem.…

  10. Suicide attempts in Malaysia from the year 1969 to 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinniah, Aishvarya; Maniam, T; Oei, Tian Po; Subramaniam, Ponnusamy

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to review the literature on suicide attempts in Malaysia. PsycINFO, PubMed, and Medline databases from 1845 to 2012 and detailed manual search of local official reports from the Ministry of Health and the Malaysian Psychiatric Association and unpublished dissertations from 3 local universities providing postgraduate psychiatric training were included in the current review. A total of 38 studies on suicide attempts in Malaysia were found and reviewed. Twenty-seven (76%) of the studies on suicide attempts were descriptive studies looking at sociodemographic data, psychiatric illnesses, and methods and reasons for suicide attempts. No study has been conducted on treatment and interventions for suicide attempts and the impact of culture was rarely considered. The review showed that in order for researchers, clinicians, and public health policy makers to obtain a better understanding of suicide attempts in Malaysia, more systematic and empirically stringent methodologies and research frameworks need to be used.

  11. Suicide Attempts in Malaysia from the Year 1969 to 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maniam, T.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to review the literature on suicide attempts in Malaysia. PsycINFO, PubMed, and Medline databases from 1845 to 2012 and detailed manual search of local official reports from the Ministry of Health and the Malaysian Psychiatric Association and unpublished dissertations from 3 local universities providing postgraduate psychiatric training were included in the current review. A total of 38 studies on suicide attempts in Malaysia were found and reviewed. Twenty-seven (76%) of the studies on suicide attempts were descriptive studies looking at sociodemographic data, psychiatric illnesses, and methods and reasons for suicide attempts. No study has been conducted on treatment and interventions for suicide attempts and the impact of culture was rarely considered. The review showed that in order for researchers, clinicians, and public health policy makers to obtain a better understanding of suicide attempts in Malaysia, more systematic and empirically stringent methodologies and research frameworks need to be used. PMID:24672358

  12. Suicide Attempts in Malaysia from the Year 1969 to 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aishvarya Sinniah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to review the literature on suicide attempts in Malaysia. PsycINFO, PubMed, and Medline databases from 1845 to 2012 and detailed manual search of local official reports from the Ministry of Health and the Malaysian Psychiatric Association and unpublished dissertations from 3 local universities providing postgraduate psychiatric training were included in the current review. A total of 38 studies on suicide attempts in Malaysia were found and reviewed. Twenty-seven (76% of the studies on suicide attempts were descriptive studies looking at sociodemographic data, psychiatric illnesses, and methods and reasons for suicide attempts. No study has been conducted on treatment and interventions for suicide attempts and the impact of culture was rarely considered. The review showed that in order for researchers, clinicians, and public health policy makers to obtain a better understanding of suicide attempts in Malaysia, more systematic and empirically stringent methodologies and research frameworks need to be used.

  13. HPT axis, CSF monoamine metabolites, suicide intent and depression severity in male suicide attempters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokinen, Jussi; Samuelsson, Mats; Nordström, Anna-Lena; Nordström, Peter

    2008-11-01

    A lower thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) response to thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) in depressed women has been associated with violent suicide attempts, suicidal intent, higher lethality and suicide risk. The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) and homovanillic acid (HVA) levels are related to suicidal behaviour. We studied the HPT axis function in twelve male suicide attempters and eight healthy volunteers submitted to lumbar puncture and to TRH test. Suicidal behaviour and depression severity were assessed. There was no association between deltamaxTSH and violent suicidality or subsequent suicide. The deltamaxTSH correlated with CSF HVA in suicide attempters. The plasma T3 showed a negative correlation with the Beck Suicide Intent Scale and the Montgomery Asberg Depression rating scale. Dopaminergic regulatory mechanisms on the thyroid hormone activity may be altered in male suicide attempters.

  14. Mother’s filicide with suicide attempt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Božić Ksenija

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Filicide is the killing of a son or daughter by a parent. The paper examines interaction between stress and maternal psychopathology that led to the killing. Case Outline. After prolonged conflict with her ex-husband and father of her only child, the respondent committed filicide. Two years before committing filicide, after she had divorced the father of the child, the respondent attempted suicide and had to be hospitalized. On that occasion, she was diagnosed with depressive disorder, which was not treated after hospitalization. Having killed her daughter by cutting her throat, she tried to commit suicide in the same manner, by slitting her throat. During further observation, the respondent was found to suffer from acute psychotic disorder, depressive disorder and histrionic personality disorder. These disorders in interaction with stress do not provide us with an explanation for an unusual and psychopathological motivation analysis of killing the child. Conclusion. Filicide is a violent act, most frequently multifactorial in its nature. Histrionic personality disorder in mother cannot explain the filicide act. Only interactive and dynamic evaluation of this psychiatric disorder in its longitudinal, development aspects and its potentiality to enable the expression of some other psychiatric disorders, especially dissociative states, as well as the importance of prolonged and acute stress and its subjective importance for the individual can shed some more light on the mental state of the mother at the time of filicide.

  15. Suicide attempts and associated factors in older adults with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Carl I; Abdallah, Chadi G; Diwan, Shilpa

    2010-06-01

    Although there have been numerous studies of suicidality in younger populations with schizophrenia, there have been no studies focused on community-dwelling older adults with schizophrenia. This study provides data on the prevalence of suicidality and factors associated with previous suicide attempts among a mixed racial sample of older persons with schizophrenia living in New York City. The schizophrenia group consisted of 198 persons aged >or=55 years who developed schizophrenia before age 45. A community comparison group (n=113) was recruited using randomly selected block groups. Fifteen predictor variables of lifetime suicide attempts based on a risk model of suicide in schizophrenia were identified. Persons in the schizophrenia group had a significantly higher prevalence of current and lifetime "suicidality" (i.e., wants to be dead, suicidal thoughts, or suicide attempts) when compared to the community group (current: 10% versus 2%; lifetime: 56% versus 7%) as well as past suicidal attempts (30% versus 4%). Within the schizophrenia group, in logistic regression analysis, 2 variables were significantly associated with lifetime suicidal attempts: current syndromal depression and higher scores on the Traumatic and Victimization Scale. The data confirmed that in later life, persons with schizophrenia continue to have a higher prevalence of suicidality than their age peers in the community. Our findings underscore the importance of monitoring for suicidality in this age group. The relative paucity of risk factors means that practitioners can more easily focus their therapeutic efforts on at-risk individuals. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Potassium permanganate ingestion as a suicide attempt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuba Cimilli Ozturk

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Potassium permanganate is a highly corrosive, water-soluble oxidizing antiseptic. A 68- year-old female patient was admitted to our Emergency Department after ingestion of 3 tablets of 250 mg potassium permanganate as a suicide attempt. The physical exam revealed brown stained lesions in the oropharynx. Emergency endoscopy was performed by the gastroenterologist after the third hour of ingestion. Emergency endoscopy revealed multiple superficial (Grade I-II lesions on the esophagus and cardia, which were considered secondary to the caustic substance. The mainstay in the treatment of potassium permanganate is supportive and the immediate priority is to secure the airway. Emergency endoscopy is an important tool used to evaluate the location and severity of injury to the esophagus, stomach and duodenum after caustic ingestion. Patients with signs and symptoms of intentional ingestion should undergo endoscopy within 12 to 24 h to define the extent of the disease.

  17. The relation of parental alcoholism to the prevalence of suicide attempts among hospitalized psychiatric adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Krajewska

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Suicide is the third cause of death at the age group 10–19 in the world. There are inter multiple risk factors of suicidal behaviours. In the case of children of alcoholics the increased number of suicide attempts is explained by genetic predisposition and accumulation of environmental risk factors. The aim of this study is to check whether parental alcoholism is associated with the number and repetition of suicide attempts and the age at which the first suicide attempt occurred among hospitalized psychiatric adolescents. Material and methods: A retrospective analysis – based on medical documentation – of 119 patients aged 13–18, treated during 2013–2014 at the Department of Adolescent Psychiatry in Łódź for: schizophrenia, schizotypal and delusional disorders, mood disorders, neurotic, stress-related and somatoform disorders, behavioural and emotional disorders according to ICD-10. The exclusion criteria were other psychiatric diagnoses, incomplete family history and lack of information about intended self-harm behaviours. The patients were selected at random. The number and repetition of suicide attempts, the age at which the first suicide attempt occurred, parental alcoholism and family history of suicidal behaviours were examined. Analyses were carried out using Statistica 9.1. Results: Parental alcoholism did not statistically significantly affect (p > 0.05the prevalence or repetition of suicide attempts among psychiatrically treated adolescents. The first suicide attempts were not made by adolescents – also considering the gender, diagnosis, and familial suicidal behaviours. Conclusions: In almost half of the examined psychiatrically hospitalized adolescents at least one parent met the parental alcoholism criteria. Suicide attempts occurred in over 50% of the examined patients, with somewhat higher incidence in girls whose parents met the parental alcoholism criteria, as compared to those without parental alcoholism

  18. Attempted suicide in Denmark. I. Some basic social characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille-Brahe, U; Hansen, W; Kolmos, L

    1985-01-01

    and the validity of the sample and also with some basic social characteristics of the suicide attempters. The majority of the suicide attempters were found to be single and many of them were living alone or alone with children. The sample could also be characterized by a low level of vocational education...... and by lack of association with the labour market. The suicide attempters could not, however, be unequivocally described as being in bad financial circumstances, neither were they solely from the lower social classes; the social status profile of the suicide attempters was closer to the status profile...

  19. Peer relationships and suicide ideation and attempts among Chinese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, S; Cheng, Y; Xu, Z; Chen, D; Wang, Y

    2011-09-01

    Suicide is a global health concern. Therefore, studying suicide behaviour and identifying the early roots of suicide are critical. To address these issues, the present study examined (i) the association between peer relationships and suicide ideation and attempts among Chinese adolescents; and (ii) whether such associations were moderated or mediated by feeling of loneliness. We hypothesized that problems in peer relationships were positively associated with suicide ideation and attempts, and that feeling of loneliness would moderate and mediate such associations. The sample included 8778 Chinese adolescents from a large survey. Measures of peer relationships, suicide ideation and attempts, and feeling of loneliness were obtained through adolescents' self-reports. Results from multivariate logistic regressions suggested that specific problems in peer relationships, such as lack of peer association and being victimized by bullying, were significantly related to suicide ideation and attempts. In addition, the moderating effects of feeling of loneliness on the association between peer relationships and suicide ideation and attempts were found. Finally, some gender effects were also found. The present study provided strong evidence that suicide ideation and attempts were serious problems among adolescents in China, to which peer relationships played an important role. Further, feeling of loneliness acted as a moderator affecting the association between peer relationships and suicide ideation and attempts. Finally, there were some gender differences that have important implications. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  20. Family history of suicide and exposure to interpersonal violence in childhood predict suicide in male suicide attempters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajalin, Mia; Hirvikoski, Tatja; Jokinen, Jussi

    2013-05-15

    Family studies, including twin and adoption designs, have shown familial transmission of suicidal behaviors. Early environmental risk factors have an important role in the etiology of suicidal behavior. The aim of the present study was to assess the impact of family history of suicide and childhood trauma on suicide risk and on severity of suicide attempt in suicide attempters. A total of 181 suicide attempters were included. Family history of suicide was assessed with the Karolinska Suicide History Interview or through patient records. Childhood trauma was assessed with the Karolinska Interpersonal Violence Scale (KIVS) measuring exposure to violence and expressed violent behavior in childhood (between 6 and 14 years of age) and during adult life (15 years or older). Suicide intent was measured with the Freeman scale. Male suicide attempters with a positive family history of suicide made more serious and well planned suicide attempts and had a significantly higher suicide risk. In logistic regression, family history of suicide and exposure to interpersonal violence as a child were independent predictors of suicide in male suicide attempters. The information about family history of suicide and exposure to interpersonal violence as a child derives from the patients only. In the first part of the inclusion period the information was collected from patient records. The results of this study imply that suicides among those at biological risk might be prevented with the early recognition of environmental risks. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Suicide Mortality of Suicide Attempt Patients Discharged from Emergency Room, Nonsuicidal Psychiatric Patients Discharged from Emergency Room, Admitted Suicide Attempt Patients, and Admitted Nonsuicidal Psychiatric Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jae W.; Park, Subin; Yi, Ki K.; Hong, Jin P.

    2012-01-01

    The suicide mortality rate and risk factors for suicide completion of patients who presented to an emergency room (ER) for suicide attempt and were discharged without psychiatric admission, patients who presented to an ER for psychiatric problems other than suicide attempt and were discharged without psychiatric admission, psychiatric inpatients…

  2. Prevalence and predictors of suicidal ideations and attempts among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The multivariate logistic regression showed that smoking, past and present use of alcohol, use of marijuana, and engagement in prostitution, were associated with suicidal ideations and suicide attempts. Suicidal ideations were associated with having been physically beaten, robbed, and assaulted with a weapon; while a ...

  3. Predicting frequency of suicide attempts of adolescent outpatients at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The prevention of suicide, particularly adolescent suicide, remains one of the biggest challenges in psychiatry. Objectives. To ascertain: (i) clinical and demographic characteristics; and (ii) possible associations between these characteristics and suicide attempt frequency in a selected patient group at Weskoppies Hospital ...

  4. Suicidal ideations, plans and attempts in primary care: cross ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: the aim of the study is to estimate the prevalence of suicidal ideation among Moroccan consultants in primary health care system. Methods: we conducted a cross sectional survey in three health care centers in two cities of Morocco to estimate the prevalence of suicidal ideation, plan and suicide attempts among ...

  5. Identifying Differences between Depressed Adolescent Suicide Ideators and Attempters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auerbach, Randy P.; Millner, Alexander J.; Stewart, Jeremy G.; Esposito, Erika

    2015-01-01

    Background Adolescent depression and suicide are pressing public health concerns, and identifying key differences among suicide ideators and attempters is critical. The goal of the current study is to test whether depressed adolescent suicide attempters report greater anhedonia severity and exhibit aberrant effort-cost computations in the face of uncertainty. Methods Depressed adolescents (n = 101) ages 13–19 years were administered structured clinical interviews to assess current mental health disorders and a history of suicidality (suicide ideators = 55, suicide attempters = 46). Then, participants completed self-report instruments assessing symptoms of suicidal ideation, depression, anhedonia, and anxiety as well as a computerized effort-cost computation task. Results Compared with depressed adolescent suicide ideators, attempters report greater anhedonia severity, even after concurrently controlling for symptoms of suicidal ideation, depression, and anxiety. Additionally, when completing the effort-cost computation task, suicide attempters are less likely to pursue the difficult, high value option when outcomes are uncertain. Follow-up, trial-level analyses of effort-cost computations suggest that receipt of reward does not influence future decision-making among suicide attempters, however, suicide ideators exhibit a win-stay approach when receiving rewards on previous trials. Limitations Findings should be considered in light of limitations including a modest sample size, which limits generalizability, and the cross-sectional design. Conclusions Depressed adolescent suicide attempters are characterized by greater anhedonia severity, which may impair the ability to integrate previous rewarding experiences to inform future decisions. Taken together, this may generate a feeling of powerlessness that contributes to increased suicidality and a needless loss of life. PMID:26233323

  6. Identifying differences between depressed adolescent suicide ideators and attempters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auerbach, Randy P; Millner, Alexander J; Stewart, Jeremy G; Esposito, Erika C

    2015-11-01

    Adolescent depression and suicide are pressing public health concerns, and identifying key differences among suicide ideators and attempters is critical. The goal of the current study is to test whether depressed adolescent suicide attempters report greater anhedonia severity and exhibit aberrant effort-cost computations in the face of uncertainty. Depressed adolescents (n=101) ages 13-19 years were administered structured clinical interviews to assess current mental health disorders and a history of suicidality (suicide ideators=55, suicide attempters=46). Then, participants completed self-report instruments assessing symptoms of suicidal ideation, depression, anhedonia, and anxiety as well as a computerized effort-cost computation task. Compared with depressed adolescent suicide ideators, attempters report greater anhedonia severity, even after concurrently controlling for symptoms of suicidal ideation, depression, and anxiety. Additionally, when completing the effort-cost computation task, suicide attempters are less likely to pursue the difficult, high value option when outcomes are uncertain. Follow-up, trial-level analyses of effort-cost computations suggest that receipt of reward does not influence future decision-making among suicide attempters, however, suicide ideators exhibit a win-stay approach when receiving rewards on previous trials. Findings should be considered in light of limitations including a modest sample size, which limits generalizability, and the cross-sectional design. Depressed adolescent suicide attempters are characterized by greater anhedonia severity, which may impair the ability to integrate previous rewarding experiences to inform future decisions. Taken together, this may generate a feeling of powerlessness that contributes to increased suicidality and a needless loss of life. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Preserved cognitive function is associated with suicidal ideation and single suicide attempts in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaney, C; McGrane, J; Cummings, E; Morris, D W; Tropea, D; Gill, M; Corvin, A; Donohoe, G

    2012-09-01

    Suicide is the leading cause of death in schizophrenia. An association between suicidal behavior and both higher and lower cognitive ability in schizophrenia has been reported. To clarify this relationship, we investigated whether the relationship between suicidality and neurocognition varied according to differences in suicidal ideation and behavior. Three hundred and ten patients with DSM-IV diagnoses of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder were categorized based on patient and staff interviews as either non-suicide attempters, non-attempters expressing suicidal ideation, single suicide attempters, or multiple suicide attempters. These groups were compared on a neuropsychological battery examining current general cognitive ability, episodic and working memory, and attentional control. Neuropsychological performance in those with a history of suicidal ideation (n=63), and those who had made one suicide attempt (n=48) was comparable. Together, these groups outperformed patients with no history of either suicidal behavior or ideation (n=172) on measures of IQ, episodic memory and working memory. Only differences in global cognition remained significant after controlling for between-group differences in depressive symptoms. Those who had either expressed suicidal ideation and/or made a single suicide attempt demonstrated trend level advantages in neuropsychological tests over those that had made multiple suicide attempts. These findings support earlier evidence of an association between suicidality and neurocognitive ability in schizophrenia. Specifically, these data suggest that patients who have contemplated suicide or made a single suicide attempt have better cognitive functioning than those who have not. Suicidality in multiple attempters, who do not perform better in neurocognitive tests than those who have neither contemplated nor attempted suicide, is likely to be influenced by factors other than neurocognitive ability. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All

  8. Suicide risk factors and mediators between childhood sexual abuse and suicide ideation among male and female suicide attempters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spokas, Megan; Wenzel, Amy; Stirman, Shannon Wiltsey; Brown, Gregory K; Beck, Aaron T

    2009-10-01

    The current study examined the manner in which childhood sexual abuse (CSA) history relates to risk factors for suicidal behavior among recent suicide attempters (n = 166). Men who recently attempted suicide and endorsed a CSA history had higher scores on measures of hopelessness and suicide ideation than men without a CSA history. Men with a CSA history were also more likely to have made multiple suicide attempts and meet diagnostic criteria for posttraumatic stress disorder and borderline personality disorder. In contrast, there were fewer group differences as a function of CSA history among the female suicide attempters. Hopelessness was a significant mediator between CSA history and suicide ideation in both men and women.

  9. Atmospheric pressure and suicide attempts in Helsinki, Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiltunen, Laura; Ruuhela, Reija; Ostamo, Aini; Lönnqvist, Jouko; Suominen, Kirsi; Partonen, Timo

    2012-11-01

    The influence of weather on mood and mental health is commonly debated. Furthermore, studies concerning weather and suicidal behavior have given inconsistent results. Our aim was to see if daily weather changes associate with the number of suicide attempts in Finland. All suicide attempts treated in the hospitals in Helsinki, Finland, during two separate periods, 8 years apart, were included. Altogether, 3,945 suicide attempts were compared with daily weather parameters and analyzed with a Poisson regression. We found that daily atmospheric pressure correlated statistically significantly with the number of suicide attempts, and for men the correlation was negative. Taking into account the seasonal normal value during the period 1971-2000, daily temperature, global solar radiation and precipitation did not associate with the number of suicide attempts on a statistically significant level in our study. We concluded that daily atmospheric pressure may have an impact on suicidal behavior, especially on suicide attempts of men by violent methods ( P pressure and women under high atmospheric pressure. We show only statistical correlations, which leaves the exact mechanisms of interaction between weather and suicidal behavior open. However, suicidal behavior should be assessed from the point of view of weather in addition to psychiatric and social aspects.

  10. Suicide attempts among the elderly in East Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Guk-Hee; Gega, Lina

    2017-05-01

    Among the one million suicide deaths worldwide each year, as many as 60% occur in Asia. The World Health Organization (WHO) found higher suicide rates among the elderly in rapidly industrialized Asian countries such as China, Hong Kong, Japan, South Korea, Malaysia, and Singapore, compared to the corresponding rates of recently industrializing Asian countries like Vietnam and Sri Lanka (WHO, 2014). As a case in point, suicide rates in South Korea have been the highest in the world since 2003 and are rising especially among older people (Hong and Knapp, 2014). Suicide attempts and older age are strong predictors of completed suicide (Szanto et al., 2002; Simon et al., 2013) and, as such, are important in guiding our efforts for suicide prevention; however, most epidemiological studies focus on completed suicides across all ages rather than understanding the reasons behind suicide attempts in older populations.

  11. Suicide Risk Factors and Mediators between Childhood Sexual Abuse and Suicide Ideation Among Male and Female Suicide Attempters

    OpenAIRE

    Spokas, Megan; Wenzel, Amy; Stirman, Shannon Wiltsey; Brown, Gregory K.; Beck, Aaron T.

    2009-01-01

    The current study examined the manner in which childhood sexual abuse (CSA) history relates to risk factors for suicidal behavior among recent suicide attempters (n = 166). Men who recently attempted suicide and endorsed a CSA history had higher scores on measures of hopelessness and suicide ideation than men without a CSA history. Men with a CSA history were also more likely to have made multiple suicide attempts and meet diagnostic criteria for posttraumatic stress disorder and borderline p...

  12. Substance Use Disorders and Suicide Attempts in Bipolar Subtypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sublette, M. Elizabeth; Carballo, Juan J.; Moreno, Carmen; Galfalvy, Hanga C.; Brent, David A.; Birmaher, Boris; Mann, J. John; Oquendo, Maria A.

    2009-01-01

    1. Abstract Bipolar disorder (BD) is associated with high rates of suicide attempt and completion. Substance use disorders (SUD) have been identified as potent risk factors for suicidal behavior in BD. However, little is known concerning differences between BD subtypes with regard to SUD as a risk factor for suicidal behavior. We studied previous suicidal behavior in adults with a major depressive episode in context of BD type I (BD-I; N=96) or BD type II (BD-II; N=42), with and without history of SUD. Logistic regressions assessed the association between SUD and suicide attempt history by BD type, and exploratory analyses examined the effects of other clinical characteristics on these relationships. SUD were associated with suicide attempt in BD-I but not BD-II, an effect not attributable to sample size differences. The higher suicide attempt rate associated with alcoholism in BD-I was mostly explained by higher aggression scores, and earlier age of BD onset increased the likelihood that alcohol use disorder would be associated with suicide attempt(s). The higher suicide attempt rate associated with other drug use disorders in BD-I was collectively explained by higher impulsivity, hostility, and aggression scores. The presence of both alcohol and drug use disorders increased odds of a history of suicide attempt in a multiplicative fashion: 97% of BD-I who had both comorbid drug and alcohol use disorders had made a suicide attempt. A critical next question is how to target SUD and aggressive traits for prevention of suicidal behavior in BD-I. PMID:18590916

  13. Railway suicide attempts are associated with amount of sunlight in recent days.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadotani, Hiroshi; Nagai, Yumiko; Sozu, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    To assess the relationship between hours of sunlight and railway suicide attempts, 3-7 days before these attempts. All railway suicide attempts causing railway suspensions or delays of 30 min or more between 2002 and 2006. We used a linear probability model to assess this relationship. This study was conducted at Tokyo, Kanagawa, and Osaka prefectures in Japan. Data were collected from the railway delay incident database of the Japanese Railway Technical Research Institute and public weather database of the Japan Meteorological Agency. About 971 railway suicides attempts occurred between 2002 and 2006 in Tokyo, Kanagawa, and Osaka. Less sunlight in the 7 days leading up to the railway suicide attempts was associated with a higher proportion of attempts (p=0.0243). Sunlight over the 3 days before an attempt had a similar trend (p=0.0888). No difference was found in sunlight hours between the days with (median: 5.6 [IQR: 1.1-8.8]) and without (median: 5.7 [IQR: 1.0-8.9]) railway suicide attempts in the evening. Finally, there was no apparent correlation between the railway suicide attempts and the monthly average sunlight hours of the attempted month or those of a month before. Railway suicides were not the main suicidal methods in Japan, We observed an increased proportion of railway suicide attempts after several days without sunlight. Light exposure (blue light or bright white light) in trains may be useful in reducing railway suicides, especially when consecutive days without sunshine are forecasted. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. The patient suicide attempt – An ethical dilemma case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Jie

    2015-12-01

    Results: In Mr Green's case, the nurse chose to share the information of Mr Green's suicide attempt with other health care professionals. The nursing team followed the self-harm and suicide protocol of the hospital strictly, they maintained the effective communication with Mr Green, identified the factors which cause patient's suicide attempt, provided the appropriate nursing intervention to deal will these risk factors and collaborated with other health care professionals to prefect the further care. The patient transferred to a palliative care service with no sign of suicide attempt and other self-harm behaviors and passed away peacefully 76 days after discharged with his relatives and pastors accompany.

  15. Suicide attempts in a prospective cohort of patients with schizophrenia treated with sertindole or risperidone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crocq, M A; Naber, D; Lader, M H; Thibaut, F; Drici, M; Everitt, B; Hall, G C; Le Jeunne, C; Mittoux, A; Peuskens, J; Priori, S; Sturkenboom, M; Thomas, S H L; Tanghøj, P; Toumi, M; Mann, R; Moore, N D

    2010-12-01

    The incidence of suicide attempts (fatal and non-fatal) was analysed in a prospective cohort of patients with schizophrenia randomly assigned to sertindole (4905 patients) or risperidone (4904 patients) in a parallel-group open-label study with blinded classification of outcomes (the sertindole cohort prospective study--SCoP). The total exposure was 6978 and 7975 patient-years in the sertindole and risperidone groups, respectively. Suicide mortality in the study was low (0.21 and 0.28 per 100 patients per year with sertindole and risperidone, respectively). The majority (84%) of suicide attempts occurred within the first year of treatment. Cox's proportional hazards model analysis of the time to the first suicide attempt, reported by treating psychiatrists and blindly reviewed by an independent expert group according to the Columbia Classification Algorithm of Suicide Assessment (both defining suicide attempts by association of suicidal act and intent to die), showed a lower risk of suicide attempt for sertindole-treated patients than for risperidone-treated patients. The effect was statistically significant with both evaluation methods during the first year of randomized treatment (hazard ratios [95% CI]: 0.5 [0.31-0.82], p=0.006; and 0.57 [0.35-0.92], p=0.02, respectively). With classification by an independent safety committee using a broader definition including all incidences of intentional self-harm, also those without clear suicidal intent, the results were not significant. A history of previous suicide attempts was significantly associated with attempted suicides in both treatment groups. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Suicidal ideation and lifetime attempts in substance and gambling disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Victoria; Koh, Puay Kee; Yang, Yi; Ng, Andrew; Guo, Song; Kandasami, Gomathinayagam; Wong, Kim Eng

    2015-02-28

    Suicidality is more commonly reported among individuals with addictions relative to the general population, though data from Asian countries remain scarce. The medical records of 2187 Singaporean patients with drug (n=879), alcohol (n=754) or gambling (n=554) disorders entering an outpatient treatment service were examined to explore differences in suicidal ideation and lifetime attempts between substance and gambling addictions. The relationship between suicidality, co-morbidity and addiction severity were also examined. 25.0% reported thoughts of suicide in the past month, 11.8% had a suicide plan and 12.2% reported lifetime attempts. Rates of suicidal ideation (thoughts, and plan) but not lifetime attempts were significantly higher among gambling than substance use patients. Co-morbid (DSM-IV axis-1) disorders were found among 32.5%, 38% and 40% of those reporting thoughts, plan and lifetime attempts respectively. Addiction severity was higher and quality of life lower among those reporting suicidal behaviors. Logistic regression revealed co-morbidity, debt, gender (being female) and being a gambling patient as significant predictors of suicidal behaviors. The findings highlight the importance of screening for suicidality, even in the absence of co-morbidity, particularly among gambling disorder patients with debts. Suicide risk should be assessed periodically and referral to suicidal prevention interventions routinely offered to this vulnerable population. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. What are the characteristics of adolescent hospitalized suicide attempters?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagès, F; Arvers, P; Hassler, C; Choquet, M

    2004-06-01

    To study the specificity of hospitalized adolescent suicide attempters. Among a national sample of students (n = 11,718, mean age = 16.6 years) studied in 1999, 9.2% (n = 1078) made at least one suicide attempt during their life (SA); 21.9% (n = 234) of them were hospitalized (HSA). We identified the risk factors (family, school, behavioral and psychological) of SA and HSA by comparing (by gender) a) suicide attempters to non-suicide attempters and b) hospitalized suicide attempters to non-hospitalized suicide attempters. Both for girls and boys, the risk factors for SA varied. However, certain risk factors, particularly depressive mood, low self-esteem and poor parent-child relationships, were not associated with hospitalization. Hospitalized suicide attempters had more personal and social problems. But there is an important difference according to gender: in boys, hospitalization is related to physical fighting (OR = 2.2) and offences (OR = 3.4), in girls to running away (OR = 1.7), consumption of illegal drugs other than cannabis (OR = 2.0), having a living standard outside average (OR = 2.0) and going to a private school (OR = 1.7). Suicide attempters with problem behavior are more at risk of being hospitalized than others. However, the difference between hospitalized and non-hospitalized subjects was smaller than expected.

  18. Suicide Ideation and Attempts in Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayes, Susan Dickerson; Gorman, Angela A.; Hillwig-Garcia, Jolene; Syed, Ehsan

    2013-01-01

    Frequency of suicide ideation and attempts in 791 children with autism (1-16 years), 35 nonautistic depressed children, and 186 typical children and risk factors in autism were determined. Percent of children with autism for whom suicide ideation or attempts was rated as sometimes to very often a problem by mothers (14%) was 28 times greater than…

  19. Attempted suicide in Denmark. I. Some basic social characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille-Brahe, U; Hansen, W; Kolmos, L

    1985-01-01

    and by lack of association with the labour market. The suicide attempters could not, however, be unequivocally described as being in bad financial circumstances, neither were they solely from the lower social classes; the social status profile of the suicide attempters was closer to the status profile...

  20. Suicidal ideation and attempt among South African medical students ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    International data reveal that medical students are at higher risk of attempting suicide than the general population. We aimed to determine the prevalence of suicidal ideation and attempt among South African medical students from three universities and identify key predisposing risk factors. Data were collected via a ...

  1. Prevalence of suicidal ideation and attempt: associations with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Research on the prevalence of suicidal ideation, attempt, and cormorbid psychiatric disorders in post-conflict areas is still limited. Aim: We explored the prevalence of suicidal ideation, attempt, associated psychiatric disorders and HIV/AIDS in post-conflict Northern Uganda, an area that experienced civil strife ...

  2. Personality traits, brie' recurrent depression and attempted suicide ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the relationship between attempted suicide, personality factors and brief recurrent depression. Over a period of 1 year, the demographic and psychiatric factors of 307 patients who had attempted suicide and subsequently been hospitalised at H. F. Verwoerd Hospital and referred to its Department of ...

  3. Memory impairment in those who attempted suicide by benzodiazepine overdose

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verwey, B.; Eling, P.A.T.M.; Wientjes, H.J.F.M.; Zitman, F.G.

    2000-01-01

    Backgroud: a prospective study was done to investigate the presence of anterograde amnesia in suicide attempters who took benzodiazepines (BZ) and to study the correlation with sedation. Method: in 43 patients, who attempted suicide by taking benzodiazepines, memory perfomrance was tested on a

  4. [Attempted suicide by firearms: a retrospective study of 161 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humeau, M; Senon, J-L

    2008-10-01

    To determine the specific clinical aspects of patients with suicidal behaviour by firearm and investigate the specificities of the suicide method. Suicidal behaviour represents a major public health problem throughout the world. Attempted suicide and completed suicide by firearms rates are very high both in Europe and in the United States. Preventive aspects presently preoccupy the physicians and the politicians. However, methods of suicide are understudied in Europe for the benefit of psychopathological and epidemiological aspects of suicide. Only a minority of studies enquire into the clinical aspects according to the method of suicide. Nevertheless, most of the international studies have already demonstrated the efficacy of reducing the accessibility of weapons. A retrospective study including suicide attempters by firearm hospitalized in the general hospital of Poitiers between 1992 and 2005. We included 161 patients with self-inflicted gunshot wounds, among which 88% of patients were males. Most of them did not live alone and had children. Some of them had a past history of attempted suicide, some of them using a violent method. The acting out has mostly been committed at home and the firearm used was frequently a hunting gun. Interpersonal conflicts have been mostly reported by the patient with self-inflicted gunshot wounds. The prevalence of alcoholic behaviour and major depression is very important. Personality disorders are overrepresented in the study, notably paranoiac and borderline disorders. Our sample is one of the largest compared to the other studies that often did not exceed 30 patients. Some results are contrary to those of populations of suicide attempters, whereas there are some similarities within the completed suicide population. Finally, paranoiac personality disorder is significantly associated with suicidal behaviour by firearm. Some clinical characteristics have been reported as far as suicide attempters by firearm are concerned. Actually

  5. Cognitive behavioural therapy halves the risk of repeated suicide attempts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gøtzsche, Peter C; Gøtzsche, Pernille K

    2017-01-01

    is excluded, the risk ratio becomes 0.61 (0.46-0.80) and the heterogeneity in the results disappears (I(2 )= 0%). Conclusions Cognitive behavioural therapy reduces not only repeated self-harm but also repeated suicide attempts. It should be the preferred treatment for all patients with depression.......Objective To study whether cognitive behavioural therapy decreases suicide attempts in people with previous suicide attempts. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis. Setting Randomised trials that compare cognitive behavioural therapy with treatment as usual. Participants Patients who had...... engaged in any type of suicide attempt in the six months prior to trial entry resulting in presentation to clinical services. Main outcome measure Suicide attempt. Results We included ten trials, eight from Cochrane reviews and two from our updated searches (1241 patients, 219 of whom had at least one new...

  6. Attempted suicide in Denmark. I. Some basic social characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille-Brahe, U; Hansen, W; Kolmos, L

    1985-01-01

    During a 6 months' period, 99 persons, randomly chosen among patients admitted for attempted suicide to the Department of Psychiatry, Odense University Hospital, were interviewed. This paper, which is the first in a series, deals with the theoretical and methodological background of the survey...... and the validity of the sample and also with some basic social characteristics of the suicide attempters. The majority of the suicide attempters were found to be single and many of them were living alone or alone with children. The sample could also be characterized by a low level of vocational education...... and by lack of association with the labour market. The suicide attempters could not, however, be unequivocally described as being in bad financial circumstances, neither were they solely from the lower social classes; the social status profile of the suicide attempters was closer to the status profile...

  7. Atypical depression is associated with suicide attempt in bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Gistau, V; Colom, F; Mané, A; Romero, S; Sugranyes, G; Vieta, E

    2009-07-01

    There is a dearth of research focusing on factors associated with suicide attempts. High rates of atypical depression have been reported in studies including unipolar and bipolar II patients. In this study, the association between suicide attempt and atypical depression, in addition to other major risk factors, was evaluated in 390 bipolar I and II out-patients. Variables were defined according to DSM-IV criteria, and assessed with a Structured Interview for DSM-IV (axis I and II). History of suicide attempt was obtained through interviews with patients and relatives. Attempters and non-attempters were compared using univariate and multivariate analysis. Attempters showed significantly higher rates of atypical depression, family history of completed suicide, depression at index episode and cluster B personality disorder. Our results highlight the relevance of atypical depression in bipolar disorder. A more accurate identification of potential attempters may contribute to the development of effective preventive treatment strategies.

  8. Family history of suicide and high motor impulsivity distinguish suicide attempters from suicide ideators among college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yong-Guang; Chen, Shen; Xu, Zhi-Ming; Shen, Zhi-Hua; Wang, Yi-Quan; He, Xiao-Yan; Cao, Ri-Fang; Roberts, David L; Shi, Jian-Fei; Wang, Yi-Qiang

    2017-07-01

    Suicide in college students has become an important public health issue in China. The aim of this study was to identify the differences between suicide attempters and suicide ideators based on a cross-sectional survey. Our results indicate that although female gender, positive screening for psychiatric illness, positive family history of suicide, elevated overall impulsivity, and elevated motor impulsivity were correlated with suicidal ideation, only positive family history of suicide and high motor impulsivity could differentiate suicide attempters from suicidal ideators. Future research with a longitudinal and prospective study design should be conducted to confirm these findings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Temperaments in completed suicides: Are they different from those in suicide attempters and controls?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pompili, Maurizio; Innamorati, Marco; Milelli, Mariantonietta; Battuello, Michele; Erbuto, Denise; Lester, David; Gonda, Xenia; Rihmer, Zoltan; Amore, Mario; Girardi, Paolo

    2016-02-01

    Temperaments in completed suicides have never been assessed whereas there is substantial research on temperaments in attempted suicides and psychiatric patients. The significant others of 18 completed suicides participated in this study in order to provide an assessment of temperaments, hopelessness, depression and the suicide risk of their loved ones. The data were compared with data from 244 psychiatric patients of whom 83 had attempted suicide in the previous month. The following instruments were used: the Temperament Evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, Paris and San Diego-auto questionnaire (TEMPS-A), the Beck Hopelessness Scale (BHS), the Gotland Scale for Male Depression (GSMD), and the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) module for assessing suicide risk. Individuals who died by suicide more frequently had scores of 9 or higher on the BHS and higher MINI suicide risk scores compared with patients with mood disorders who had not attempted suicide in the previous month. Completed suicides also had lower scores on the TEMPS-A Cyclothymia and Anxiety scales and on the MINI suicide risk scale than mood disorder patients with a recent suicide attempt. Proxy assessment of variables through survivors can result in underestimation of psychiatric morbidity and other parameters investigated, and limits the generalization of our results Our study adds information about temperamental subtypes and other variables in completed suicides and points to their difference from attempted suicides and non-suicidal psychiatric patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Suicides and Suicide Attempts in the U.S. Military, 2008-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, Nigel E.; Reger, Mark A.; Luxton, David D.; Skopp, Nancy A.; Kinn, Julie; Smolenski, Derek; Gahm, Gregory A.

    2013-01-01

    The Department of Defense Suicide Event Report Program collects extensive information on suicides and suicide attempts from the U.S. Air Force, Army, Marine Corps, and Navy. Data are compiled on demographics, suicide event details, behavioral health treatment history, military history, and information about other potential risk factors such as…

  11. LPG Dependence after a Suicide Attempt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldemir, Ebru; Akyel, Betül; Altıntoprak, A Ender; Aydın, Rezzan; Coşkunol, Hakan

    2015-01-01

    Inhalant abuse is a problem that is getting more common all around the world. The increase in prevalence of inhalant abuse escalates morbidity and mortality rates. About 22% of people using inhalant have died at their first attempt. Particularly propane, butane, or propane-butane mixture has highest mortality rates. Sudden sniffing death syndrome, cardiomyopathy, central nervous system toxicity, hematological abnormalities, kidney toxicity, and hepatocellular toxicities are the major complications of inhalant abuse. Herein we present a patient with inhalant use disorder. At the age of 19, after a stressful life event he had unsuccessfully tried to suicide by inhaling LPG (liquefied petroleum gas, a mixture of butane and propane gases). After he realized that he had hallucinations and felt better during the inhalation, he started to abuse it. He was addicted to LPG for 10 years at the time of admission. Besides being dangerous for the society security, this intense level of LPG inhalation (12 liters a day) not giving any physical harm makes this case interesting.

  12. LPG Dependence after a Suicide Attempt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebru Aldemir

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Inhalant abuse is a problem that is getting more common all around the world. The increase in prevalence of inhalant abuse escalates morbidity and mortality rates. About 22% of people using inhalant have died at their first attempt. Particularly propane, butane, or propane-butane mixture has highest mortality rates. Sudden sniffing death syndrome, cardiomyopathy, central nervous system toxicity, hematological abnormalities, kidney toxicity, and hepatocellular toxicities are the major complications of inhalant abuse. Herein we present a patient with inhalant use disorder. At the age of 19, after a stressful life event he had unsuccessfully tried to suicide by inhaling LPG (liquefied petroleum gas, a mixture of butane and propane gases. After he realized that he had hallucinations and felt better during the inhalation, he started to abuse it. He was addicted to LPG for 10 years at the time of admission. Besides being dangerous for the society security, this intense level of LPG inhalation (12 liters a day not giving any physical harm makes this case interesting.

  13. Childhood maltreatment increases the risk of suicide attempt in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Ahmed N; Stuart, Elizabeth A; De Luca, Vincenzo

    2016-10-01

    In this study, we evaluated the effect of several types of childhood trauma on lifetime suicide attempt in patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders. We interviewed 361 participants with schizophrenia. Childhood trauma was collected using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ). Suicidal attempts were confirmed using subjective and objective validated scales. We applied an observational study design using propensity scores to match individuals with history of childhood trauma to those without past history of trauma. We used logistic regression models to estimate the effect of each type of childhood maltreatment on suicidal attempts controlling for demographics and known suicidal risk factors. In our sample, 39.1% of the subjects had lifetime suicide attempt. After matching the two groups and controlling for demographics and clinical confounders, total trauma score and the majority of childhood maltreatment subtypes predicted suicide attempt (odds ratios ranged from 1.74 to 2.49 with p-values ranging from 0.001 to 0.02). Physical neglect was not significantly associated with suicide attempt in our sample (p=0.94). Childhood maltreatment is confirmed to be a strong independent risk factor for suicidal attempts in schizophrenia. The risk is probably aggravated by the development of depressive symptoms and feeling of hopelessness in the adult life. Early screening and modified psychosocial treatment are recommended for psychotic individuals with trauma history. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Repetition of Attempted Suicide Among Immigrants in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipsicas, Cendrine Bursztein; Mäkinen, Ilkka Henrik; Wasserman, Danuta; Apter, Alan; Kerkhof, Ad; Michel, Konrad; Renberg, Ellinor Salander; van Heeringen, Kees; Värnik, Airi; Schmidtke, Armin

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To compare frequencies of suicide attempt repetition in immigrants and local European populations, and the timing of repetition in these groups. Method: Data from 7 European countries, comprising 10 574 local and 3032 immigrant subjects, were taken from the World Health Organization European Multicentre Study on Suicidal Behaviour and the ensuing Monitoring Suicidal Behaviour in Europe (commonly referred to as MONSUE) project. The relation between immigrant status and repetition of suicide attempt within 12-months following first registered attempt was analyzed with binary logistic regression, controlling for sex, age, and method of attempt. Timing of repetition was controlled for sex, age, and the recommended type of aftercare. Results: Lower odds of repeating a suicide attempt were found in Eastern European (OR 0.50; 95% CI 0.41 to 0.61, P Europe stands in contrast to their markedly higher tendency to attempt suicide in general, possibly pointing to situational stress factors related to their suicidal crisis that are less persistent over time. Our findings also raise the possibility that suicide attempters and repeaters constitute only partially overlapping populations. PMID:25565687

  15. Suicide attempts in schizophrenia: the role of command auditory hallucinations for suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harkavy-Friedman, Jill M; Kimhy, David; Nelson, Elizabeth A; Venarde, David F; Malaspina, Dolores; Mann, J John

    2003-08-01

    We examined the presence of command auditory hallucinations for suicide (CAHS) in a sample of individuals with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. We examined the relationship between CAHS and demographic and clinical variables. We also investigated the relationship between CAHS and suicide attempts. 100 individuals with DSM-IV schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder hospitalized on an inpatient research unit participated. Information was gathered using the Diagnostic Interview for Genetic Studies and the Harkavy Asnis Suicide Scale. Data were gathered from 1995 to 2001. CAHS were frequent in this sample (22%), as were suicide attempts (33%). Eight percent of the entire sample (36% of those who experienced CAHS) made at least 1 suicide attempt in response to the hallucinations. The presence of CAHS was not related to demographic or clinical measures assessed. The frequency of CAHS was not statistically different for suicide attempters (30%) and nonattempters (18%). However, 80% (8/10) of attempters with CAHS reported at least 1 attempt in response to CAHS. Three of 6 repeat attempters who made at least 1 suicide attempt in response to CAHS also made other attempts that were not in response to CAHS. The presence of CAHS was not associated with a history of depression or substance abuse/dependence. The presence of CAHS does not directly predict suicide attempts. However, individuals who are already at risk for suicidal behavior (e.g., past attempters) may be at increased risk for a suicide attempt when experiencing CAHS.

  16. The influence of media coverage of a celebrity suicide on subsequent suicide attempts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Andrew T A; Hawton, Keith; Chen, Tony H H; Yen, Amy M F; Chen, Chung-Ying; Chen, Lin-Chen; Teng, Po-Ren

    2007-06-01

    To investigate the impact of media reporting of a celebrity suicide on subsequent suicide attempts. A Poisson time series autoregression analysis was conducted to examine whether there was a significant increase in suicide attempts during the 3-week period after the start of extensive media reporting of a celebrity suicide. The reporting began on May 2, 2005, and lasted about 17 days. To investigate the influence of media reporting on suicide attempts, a structured interview was conducted with 124 suicide attempters identified from 2 counties in Mid Taiwan who had exposure to the media reporting. After controlling for seasonal variation, calendar year, temperature, and humidity, there was a marked increase in the number of suicide attempts during the 3-week period after media reporting began (adjusted relative risk = 1.55, 95% CI = 1.26 to 1.91). Among 124 suicide attempters exposed to the media reports, 23.4% reported an influence from them. There was no relationship between the attempters' ages and the age of the celebrity or the method, but male attempters had a significantly higher risk for such influence. A considerably higher risk for such influence was found among subjects with a history of suicide attempt(s) in the previous year (odds ratio = 52.3, 95% CI = 5.96 to 459.1). The extensive media reporting of the suicide of a celebrity was followed by an increase in suicide attempts. The effect was particularly marked in individuals with a recent history of a suicide attempt. The results provide further support for the need for more restrained reporting of suicides as part of suicide prevention strategies and for special vigilance for contagious effects of such reporting on people who have carried out recent suicidal acts.

  17. Dysfunctional personality disorder beliefs and lifetime suicide attempts among psychiatrically hospitalized military personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghahramanlou-Holloway, Marjan; Lee-Tauler, Su Yeon; LaCroix, Jessica M; Kauten, Rebecca; Perera, Kanchana; Chen, Rusan; Weaver, Jennifer; Soumoff, Alyssa

    2018-04-01

    Personality disorders (PDs) are associated with an increased risk for suicide. However, the association between PDs and suicide risk has not been examined among military personnel. This study evaluated whether endorsement of different PD dysfunctional beliefs was associated with lifetime suicide attempt status. Cross-sectional data were collected during the baseline phase of a randomized controlled trial, evaluating the efficacy of an inpatient cognitive behavior therapy protocol for the prevention of suicide. Participants (N = 185) were military service members admitted for inpatient psychiatric care following a suicide-related event. MANOVA and Poisson regression evaluated the association between each type of PD dysfunctional belief and the number of suicide attempts. Service members' PBQ subscale scores for borderline (p = 0.049) and histrionic PD dysfunctional beliefs (p = 0.034) significantly differed across those with suicide ideation only, single attempt, and multiple attempts. Upon further analysis, histrionic PD dysfunctional beliefs scores were significantly higher among those with multiple suicide attempts than those with single attempts. One point increase of dependent (Incidence Risk Ratio = 1.04, p = 0.009), narcissistic (IRR = 1.07, p histrionic beliefs as part of a psychosocial intervention will be useful. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Comparison of characteristics of suicide attempters with schizophrenia spectrum disorders and those with mood disorders in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Makiko; Kawanishi, Chiaki; Yamada, Tomoki; Sugiura, Kanna; Iwamoto, Yoko; Sato, Ryoko; Morita, Satoshi; Odawara, Toshinari; Hirayasu, Yoshio

    2011-06-30

    Suicidality in patients with schizophrenia is high. To clarify the characteristics of suicidal behavior in patients with schizophrenia, we investigated suicide attempters with schizophrenia spectrum disorders in comparison with patients with mood disorders. One hundred patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders and 155 patients with mood disorders admitted to an emergency department after a suicide attempt were interviewed in detail on items concerning 1) demographic characteristics, 2) previous suicidal behavior, and 3) index suicidal behavior. Differences between the two groups were subsequently analyzed. Patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders showed a lower incidence of previous deliberate self-harm, and a higher incidence of a subsequent suicide attempt more than 1 year after the previous suicide attempt as well as a higher lethality of index suicide attempt compared to patients with mood disorders. Furthermore, the most common motive for making a suicide attempt in patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders was having a mental problem. This study revealed the factors associated with suicide attempts among Japanese patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders, and the nature of these factors makes it difficult to predict future attempts. This makes clear the importance of continuous long-term follow-up with careful attention to the mental symptoms and psychological burden for such patients. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Sociodemographic profile of suicide attempters among the rural agrarian community of central India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kshirod Kumar Mishra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Suicides, attempted suicides and different form of suicidal behaviors are on the rise in most part of the world. It is generally assumed that official suicidal rate are underestimated from the true rate by 20-100 % due to prevailing socio-cultural issues, religious attitude, stigma attached, and legal process involved. Attempted suicides occur 8-20 times more frequently than complete suicide. Statistics on attempted suicide or deliberate self harm are not usually available officially. Materials and Methods: All the cases of attempted suicide who were admitted and referred for psychiatric evaluation and management to a rural medical college of central India during a period of one Year (April 13-March-14, following initial recovery they were evaluated on a semi-structured performa on socio demographic profile, mode of attempt and reason for attempt. Data collected was analyzed using suitable statistical methods. Results: Total 68 cases were evaluated during the study period. 43% of the cases were involved in farming. Among 85% of the study population pesticide consumption was the common mode of attempt, which is easily available among the agrarian community of rural India. Interpersonal conflict in the family due to indebtedness, financial loss due to crop failure was the commonest reason for attempt. Conclusion: Though there is reduced reporting in the incidents of suicide cases in media from this region, still quite a number of people attempt suicide due to financial constraint from crop failure, ongoing indebtedness, and poor socioeconomic condition culminating into poor mental health among the rural agrarian community of central Maharashtra.

  20. History of suicide attempts in adults with Asperger syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paquette-Smith, Melissa; Weiss, Jonathan; Lunsky, Yona

    2014-01-01

    Individuals with Asperger syndrome (AS) may be at higher risk for attempting suicide compared to the general population. This study examines the issue of suicidality in adults with AS. An online survey was completed by 50 adults from across Ontario. The sample was dichotomized into individuals who had attempted suicide (n = 18) and those who had not (n = 32). We examined the relationship between predictor variables and previous attempts, and compared the services that both groups are currently receiving. Over 35% of individuals with AS reported that they had attempted suicide in the past. Individuals who attempted suicide were more likely to have a history of depression and self-reported more severe autism symptomatology. Those with and without a suicidal history did not differ in terms of the services they were currently receiving. This study looks at predictors retrospectively and cannot ascertain how long ago the attempt was made. Although efforts were made to obtain a representative sample, there is the possibility that the individuals surveyed may be more or less distressed than the general population with AS. The suicide attempt rate in our sample is much higher than the 4.6% lifetime prevalence seen in the general population. These findings highlight a need for more specialized services to help prevent future attempts and to support this vulnerable group.

  1. Last Suicide Attempt before Completed Suicide in Severe Depression: An Extended Suicidal Process May Be Found in Men Rather Than Women.

    OpenAIRE

    Brådvik, Louise

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the time from last suicide attempt to suicide in men and women with major depressive disorder with melancholic and/or psychotic features. The case records of 100 suicide victims with severe depression were evaluated. All suicide attempts during the course of depression were noted. The time from last suicide attempt to suicide was compared as well as the occurrence of suicide attempt during the last depressive episode, by gender. Male suicide attempte...

  2. [Suicidal behaviour and attempted suicide occurring during assessment by the outreach psychiatric emergency service].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Winter, R F P; de Groot, M H; van Dassen, M; Deen, M L; de Beurs, D P

    The outreach emergency psychiatric service plays an important role in recognising, arranging interventions and preventing suicide and suicidal behaviour. However, little is known about the assessments that members of the emergency team make when faced with patients showing suicidal behaviour. AIM: To describe the relationships that are revealed between patient characteristics, suicidal thoughts and attempted suicide during assessments made by the emergency psychiatric service in The Hague. METHOD: The emergency service kept a detailed record of 14,705 consultations. We compared the characteristics of patients who had suicidal thoughts with those of patients who had no such thoughts and we also compared the characteristics of patients who had attempted to commit suicide with those of patients who had not. We drew these comparisons by using logistic regression models, adjusting for clustering. RESULTS: 32.2% of the patients showed signs of suicidal behaviour and 9.2 % appeared likely to attempt suicide. Suicidal behaviour occurred most often in patients with depression. Suicidal patients were more often admitted to hospital than were non-suicidal patients and they were more likely to have been referred by a general practitioner or a general hospital. Medication was the most frequent means employed in attempts to commit suicide. CONCLUSION: In about one third of the consultations of the outreach emergency psychiatric service, the patient showed suicidal behaviour. The actions and the policy of the emergency psychiatric service with regard to suicidal behaviour were diverse and dependent on factors that could change over the course of time.

  3. Gender differences in suicide and suicide attempts among US Army soldiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maguen, Shira; Skopp, Nancy A; Zhang, Ying; Smolenski, Derek J

    2015-02-28

    In order to best tailor suicide prevention initiatives and programs, it is critical to gain an understanding of how service members׳ suicide risk factors may differ by gender. We aimed to better understand gender differences in suicide and suicide attempts among soldiers, including demographic, military, mental health, and other risk factors. We also examined risk factors uniquely associated with suicide and suicide attempts. We conducted a retrospective study of 1857 US Army soldiers who died by suicide or attempted suicide between 2008 and 2010 and had a Department of Defense Suicide Event Report. Female and male soldiers had more similarities than differences when examining risk factors associated with suicide. The only gender difference approaching significance was workplace difficulties, which was more strongly associated with suicide for female soldiers, compared to their male counterparts. Among suicide decedents, the most common risk factor was having a failed intimate relationship in the 90 days prior to suicide. Among those who attempted suicide, the most common risk factor was a major psychiatric diagnosis. Better understanding both gender differences and risk factors uniquely associated with suicide has critical prevention and public health implications as we work to better understand preventable mortality in our youngest generation of service members. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  4. The impact of newspaper reporting of hydrogen sulfide suicide on imitative suicide attempts in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagihara, Akihito; Abe, Takeru; Omagari, Megumi; Motoi, Midori; Nabeshima, Yoshihiro

    2014-02-01

    An analysis model based on monthly or fortnight data is inadequate to precisely evaluate the impact of media reporting of suicide on suicide rates as well as the time lag from exposure to the report of a suicide. Thus, we used daily time-series data and examined the association between newspaper articles on suicide and suicide attempts in Japan. The Box-Jenkins transfer function model was applied to daily time-series data for the period March 27-May 21, 2008. Newspaper articles on suicide using hydrogen sulfide at (t - 1) were related to suicide attempts at (t) (ps Newspaper articles on suicides using hydrogen sulfide on the front page at (t - 1) were related to suicide attempts at (t) (p newspaper articles about suicide at (t - 1) or (t - 3) on "copy-cat" suicide attempts became greater as the number of news articles violating the media suicide recommendations increased. The time lag between exposure to newspaper reports of suicide and attempts was 1 or 3 days, and the magnitude of the impact of front page articles was about four times as great as that of suicide articles in general.

  5. Attempted suicide in Ghana: motivation, stigma, and coping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osafo, Joseph; Akotia, Charity Sylvia; Andoh-Arthur, Johnny; Quarshie, Emmanuel Nii-Boye

    2015-01-01

    To understand the experiences of suicidal persons in Ghana, 10 persons were interviewed after they attempted suicide. Thematic analysis of data showed that motivation for suicidal behavior included social taunting, hopelessness, and partner's infidelity. Suicidal persons reported stigma expressed through physical molestation and social ostracism, which left them traumatized. However, they coped through social support from relations, religious faith, and use of avoidance. Community-wide sensitive education should target reducing stigma and also increase mental health education on suicidal behavior in Ghanaian communities.

  6. Trends in suicide attempts at an emergency department

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verônica M. Alves

    Full Text Available Objective: To characterize the profile of suicide attempts treated at an emergency department in the municipality of Arapiraca, state of Alagoas, Brazil, from 2009 to 2012. Methods: We analyzed all emergency department records containing a diagnosis of suicide attempt. Data were evaluated using Student’s t test and Pearson’s chi-square test. Significance was accepted at p<0.05. Results: We identified 2,142 cases. Suicide attempts were more frequent among women and young adults, but deaths were more frequent among men. Suicide attempts were most frequent among patients aged 10 to 39 years (81.1%. Drug intoxication (65.0% and non-drug poisoning (16.2% were significantly more prevalent than other methods of suicide. The month of April (10.6% accounted for the greatest number of cases, and July had the smallest number (5.5%. Suicide attempts were most prevalent in spring (28.3%, on Sundays (18.4% and Saturdays (16.8%, and from 12:00 p.m. to 5:59 p.m. Conclusion: Suicide prevention measures should focus on young women. Further research into the care provided to suicide attempters and better monitoring of the sale and use of medicines and poisons could be useful.

  7. Reward/Punishment reversal learning in older suicide attempters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dombrovski, Alexandre Y; Clark, Luke; Siegle, Greg J; Butters, Meryl A; Ichikawa, Naho; Sahakian, Barbara J; Szanto, Katalin

    2010-06-01

    Suicide rates are high in old age, and the contribution of cognitive risk factors remains poorly understood. Suicide may be viewed as an outcome of an altered decision process. The authors hypothesized that impairment in reward/punishment-based learning, a component of affective decision making, is associated with attempted suicide in late-life depression. They expected that suicide attempters would discount past reward/punishment history, focusing excessively on the most recent rewards and punishments. The authors further hypothesized that this impairment could be dissociated from executive abilities, such as forward planning. The authors assessed reward/punishment-based learning using the probabilistic reversal learning task in 65 individuals age 60 and older: suicide attempters, suicide ideators, nonsuicidal depressed elderly, and nondepressed comparison subjects. The authors used a reinforcement learning computational model to decompose reward/punishment processing over time. The Stockings of Cambridge test served as a control measure of executive function. Suicide attempters but not suicide ideators showed impaired probabilistic reversal learning compared to both nonsuicidal depressed elderly and nondepressed comparison subjects, after controlling for effects of education, global cognitive function, and substance use. Model-based analyses revealed that suicide attempters discounted previous history to a higher degree relative to comparison subjects, basing their choice largely on reward/punishment received on the last trial. Groups did not differ in their performance on the Stockings of Cambridge test. Older suicide attempters display impaired reward/punishment-based learning. The authors propose a hypothesis that older suicide attempters make overly present-focused decisions, ignoring past experiences. Modification of this "myopia for the past" may have therapeutic potential.

  8. Suicide Attempts with Sodium Hipochlorid Injection: Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cemil Kavalci

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available A suicide attempt is a health problem affecting all age groups. Suicides are usually by medicine overdose, gun-shot injury and hanging. 35 year old male patient was brought to our emergency department by 112 EMS due to suicidal attempt. Approximately two hours before the story of both arms, by iv injection of sodium hipochlorid was learned that he wants to commit suicide. On physical examination, his right arm 3,5 cm in diameter and his left arm 3 cm diameter red color ecchymosis and edema was present. There was no evidence of sistemical pathological finding. The patient was discharged after 24 hours of observation.

  9. [Teenagers' suicides and suicide attempts: finding one's way in epidemiologic data].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Tournemire, R

    2010-08-01

    This paper engages into a global assessment of statistics and their potential uses, ranging from 19th century accounts of "suicidal acts" by the central services of criminal justice in France, to European comparative data on suicide in the years 2000. The most recent facts and figures about teenagers' suicides in France are taken into account, thanks to the Inserm records on deaths by suicide and to public polls on suicidal attempts. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Domestic Violence as a Risk Factor for Attempted Suicide in Married Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indu, Pankajakshan Vijayanthi; Remadevi, Sivaraman; Vidhukumar, Karunakaran; Shah Navas, Peer Mohammed; Anilkumar, Thekkethayyil Viswanathan; Subha, Nanoo

    2017-08-01

    High rates of suicide attempts and domestic violence (DV) in women of reproductive age group have been reported from South India, but the association between them was not studied. Hence, this study was undertaken to assess whether DV is a risk factor for attempted suicide in married women of reproductive age group. A hospital-based case-control study with 77 incident cases of attempted suicide in married women of the age group of 18 to 45 years and 153 controls belonging to the same age group, without history of suicide attempt, was undertaken over a period of 6 months. Univariate and multivariate analyses were done. The crude odds ratio (cOR) for DV was found to be 6.15 (95% confidence interval [95% CI] = [2.95, 12.82], p value = .0001). Other statistically significant risk factors included younger age group (below 30 years); gross family income > Rs. 5,000; higher occupational status of spouse; having poor social support; having a family history of psychiatric disorders, substance use disorders, and suicide/suicide attempt; higher impulsiveness scores; having higher scores of stressful life events over the past 12 months, and alcohol use disorder in husband. Islamic faith was found to be a significant protective factor. On logistic regression, DV was found to be an independent risk factor for attempted suicide in this study population (adjusted OR = 3.79, 95% CI = [1.35, 10.62], p value = .011). Age groups, stressful life events, impulsiveness, and alcohol use disorder in husband were the confounders adjusted for in logistic regression along with other significant risk and protective factors. Significant dose-response relationship was also observed between DV and attempted suicide. In accordance with the stress-diathesis model for suicidal behavior, DV is found to be a stressor which precipitates suicide attempt in those with diathesis like family history of psychiatric disorders. Clinical, research, and policy implications of the findings are discussed.

  11. Cognitive therapy for the prevention of suicide attempts: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Gregory K; Ten Have, Thomas; Henriques, Gregg R; Xie, Sharon X; Hollander, Judd E; Beck, Aaron T

    2005-08-03

    Suicide attempts constitute a major risk factor for completed suicide, yet few interventions specifically designed to prevent suicide attempts have been evaluated. To determine the effectiveness of a 10-session cognitive therapy intervention designed to prevent repeat suicide attempts in adults who recently attempted suicide. Randomized controlled trial of adults (N = 120) who attempted suicide and were evaluated at a hospital emergency department within 48 hours of the attempt. Potential participants (N = 350) were consecutively recruited from October 1999 to September 2002; 66 refused to participate and 164 were ineligible. Participants were followed up for 18 months. Cognitive therapy or enhanced usual care with tracking and referral services. Incidence of repeat suicide attempts and number of days until a repeat suicide attempt. Suicide ideation (dichotomized), hopelessness, and depression severity at 1, 3, 6, 12, and 18 months. From baseline to the 18-month assessment, 13 participants (24.1%) in the cognitive therapy group and 23 participants (41.6%) in the usual care group made at least 1 subsequent suicide attempt (asymptotic z score, 1.97; P = .049). Using the Kaplan-Meier method, the estimated 18-month reattempt-free probability in the cognitive therapy group was 0.76 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.62-0.85) and in the usual care group was 0.58 (95% CI, 0.44-0.70). Participants in the cognitive therapy group had a significantly lower reattempt rate (Wald chi2(1) = 3.9; P = .049) and were 50% less likely to reattempt suicide than participants in the usual care group (hazard ratio, 0.51; 95% CI, 0.26-0.997). The severity of self-reported depression was significantly lower for the cognitive therapy group than for the usual care group at 6 months (P= .02), 12 months (P = .009), and 18 months (P = .046). The cognitive therapy group reported significantly less hopelessness than the usual care group at 6 months (P = .045). There were no significant differences

  12. A Novel Therapy for People Who Attempt Suicide and Why We Need New Models of Suicide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konrad Michel

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a model of suicidal behaviour based on suicide as a goal-directed action, and its implications. An action theoretical model has guided the authors in the development of a brief therapy for individuals who attempt suicide (ASSIP—Attempted Suicide Short Intervention Program. Key elements are an early therapeutic alliance, narrative interviewing, psychoeducation, a joint case conceptualization, safety planning, and regular letters over 24 months. In a randomized controlled trial, ASSIP was highly effective in reducing the risk of suicide reattempts. The therapeutic elements in this treatment are described and possible implications for future directions in clinical suicide prevention discussed.

  13. Psychiatric Morbidity Among Suicide Attempters Who Needed ICU Intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MMA Shalahuddin Qusar

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Suicide is a tragic and serious but preventable public health problem all over the world including Bangladesh. Committing suicide has become a burning issue and mortality rate increases especially in young females. Psychiatric evaluation is needed in suicide attempted patients for better management plan to reduce such unnatural mortality, as well as the impairment related to suicidal thought and psychiatric disorders. Objectives: To assess the psychiatric disorders and conditions that needed sufficient clinical attention among the suicide attempters who needed ICU intervention. Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out in an Intensive Care Unit (ICU of a private hospital of Dhaka City from July 2008 to December 2008. Total forty four subjects of attempted suicide were included in the study and psychiatric diagnosis was made by using Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV by psychiatrists after initial physical problems subsided. Results: The most common psychiatric diagnosis was Major Depressive Disorder. Female suffered more and among them attention-seeking behaviors were frequent. Thirty-four patients (77.3% had previous history of psychiatric disorder. Chemicals (like; organophosphorous, kerosene, harpic and other medicine overdose ingestion was the most frequently used method by the suicide attempters. Conclusion: This study may be helpful for further research regarding suicide attempters and its' association with mental problems. In primary health care setting, the physicians may get a clue to design a system for preventing, early recognition and managing suicidal ideas, thoughts and attempts. Psychiatric consultation should be made mandatory for all patients admitted following attempted suicide. DOI: 10.3329/bsmmuj.v2i2.4761 BSMMU J 2009; 2(2: 73-77

  14. Panic symptom clusters differentially predict suicide ideation and attempt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rappaport, Lance M; Moskowitz, D S; Galynker, Igor; Yaseen, Zimri S

    2014-05-01

    Increasingly strong evidence links anxiety disorders in general and panic attacks in particular to suicidality. The underlying causes and specifics of this relation, however, remain unclear. The present article sought to begin addressing this question by clarifying the association between panic symptoms and suicidality. Data were sampled from the NESARC epidemiological data set from the US and analyzed as four independently, randomly selected subsets of 1000 individuals using structural equation modeling analyses and replicating results across samples. Evidence is presented for four symptom clusters (cognitive symptoms, respiratory distress, symptoms of alpha and beta adrenergic activation) and the differential association of each with suicidal ideation and attempts. Symptoms of alpha adrenergic activation predicted prior suicide attempt whereas cognitive symptoms predicted prior suicidal ideation. These findings were independent of comorbid major depressive disorder. It is suggested that assessment of suicide risk in the community includes the presentation of cognitive symptoms and symptoms related to alpha adrenergic activation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Suicide ideators and attempters with schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Božina, Nada; Podlesek, Anja

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To examine the role of 5-HTTLPR, rs25531 and 5-HTT VNTR Intron 2 variants in subjects with psychotic disorders manifesting suicide ideation and behaviour. Methods: The study included 519 subsequently hospitalized subjects who were genotyped for 5-HTTLPR, rs25531 and 5-HTT VNTR In2 variants. Clinical assessments included structured psychiatric interview, sociodemographic characteristics, suicide ideation and behaviour (SIBQ), severity of psychopathology (PANSS) and depression (CDSS). Resu...

  16. Long-term outcomes of young people who attempted suicide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grisham, Jessica R; Williams, Alishia D

    2014-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Suicidal behavior has increased since the onset of the global recession, a trend that may have long-term health and social implications. OBJECTIVE To test whether suicide attempts among young people signal increased risk for later poor health and social functioning above and beyond a

  17. Intolerance to Delayed Reward in Girls with Multiple Suicide Attempts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathias, Charles W.; Dougherty, Donald M.; James, Lisa M.; Richard, Dawn M.; Dawes, Michael A.; Acheson, Ashley; Hill-Kapturczak, Nathalie

    2011-01-01

    Impulsivity has been conceptualized as influencing the expression of suicidal behavior. Adolescence is a developmental period characterized both by a relatively high rate of suicide attempts and a high level of impulsivity. The current study examined two behavioral measures (delay reward and disinhibition) and one self-report measure of…

  18. [A phenomenological study of suicide attempts in elders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Mi Young; Kim, Yun Jeong

    2011-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the meaning and essence of suicide for elderly people who had previously attempted suicide as an older person. Giorgi's descriptive phenomenology was used for analysis. The researchers carried out in-depth interviews, recordings and memos individually with four elders. The elders were individuals who had attempted suicide sometime in the past 5 yr. They were interviewed from 5 to 10 times using open-ended questions and a semi-structural format. Demographic data were also collected. The meaning of suicide before a suicide attempt in older people had four core components: conflict with family, powerlessness and despair in their life with a drop in self-esteem, using internal and external resources to resolve their troubles and awareness of imminent crisis. These results of this study will increase understanding of suicide in older people by defining their subjective experience of suicide attempts and applying grounded data in the development of programs that provide concrete intervention strategies to prevent suicide in elderly people.

  19. The prevalence of suicidal ideation and attempts among individuals ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background:Suicide is a common problem worldwide and the magnitude is high especially in countries where mental illnesses are prevalent and psychiatric services are poor. Objective: To determine the prevalence of suicidal ideation and attempts among patients who attended the Psychiatry clinic of Gondar University ...

  20. Association of Risk of Suicide Attempts With Methylphenidate Treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Man, K.K.C.; Coghill, D.; Chan, E.W.; Lau, W.C.Y.; Hollis, C.; Liddle, E.; Banaschewski, T.; McCarthy, S.; Neubert, A.; Sayal, K.; Ip, P.; Schuemie, M.J.; Sturkenboom, M.; Sonuga-Barke, E.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Carucci, S.; Zuddas, A.; Kovshoff, H.; Garas, P.; Nagy, P.; Inglis, S.K.; Konrad, K.; Hage, A; Rosenthal, E.; Wong, I.C.K.

    2017-01-01

    Importance: Patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are at an increased risk of attempting suicide. Stimulants, such as methylphenidate hydrochloride, are the most common treatment for ADHD, but the association between their therapeutic use and suicide is unclear. Objective: To

  1. Social Skills and Depression in Adolescent Suicide Attempters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spirito, Anthony; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Explored relationship among depression, social skills, and suicidal behavior in 41 adolescents hospitalized in general medical setting following suicide attempt, comparing subjects to 40 nonsuicidal psychiatrically hospitalized adolescents. Two groups did not differ on Children's Depression Inventory or Matson Evaluation of Social Skills with…

  2. Risk of Suicide Attempt in Poststroke Patients: A Population-Based Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harnod, Tomor; Lin, Cheng-Li; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2018-01-10

    This nationwide population-based cohort study evaluated the risk of and risk factors for suicide attempt in poststroke patients in Taiwan. The poststroke and nonstroke cohorts consisted of 713 690 patients and 1 426 009 controls, respectively. Adults (aged >18 years) who received new stroke diagnoses according to the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM ; codes 430-438) between 2000 and 2011 were included in the poststroke cohort. We calculated the adjusted hazard ratio for suicide attempt ( ICD-9-CM codes E950-E959) after adjustment for age, sex, monthly income, urbanization level, occupation category, and various comorbidities. Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to measure the cumulative incidence of suicide attempt, and the Fine and Gray method was used as a competing event when estimating death subhazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals between groups. The cumulative incidence of suicide attempt was higher in the poststroke cohort, and the adjusted hazard ratio of suicide attempt was 2.20 (95% confidence interval, 2.04-2.37) compared with that of the controls. The leading risk factors for poststroke suicide attempt were earning low monthly income (US dollars), living in less urbanized regions, doing manual labor, and having a stroke before age 50 years. The attempted suicide risk did not differ significantly between male and female patients in this study. These results convey crucial information to clinicians and governments for preventing suicide attempt in poststroke patients in Taiwan and other Asian countries. © 2018 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  3. Risk factors and characteristics of suicide attempts among 381 suicidal adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedeland, Rikke Lindgaard; Teilmann, Grete; Jørgensen, Marianne Hørby

    2016-01-01

    AIM: This study explored the relationships between suicidal adolescents and their parents, siblings and friends. It examined how much adolescents talked to their parents before suicide attempts, the frequency of self-mutilation, the extent of suicidal ideation, previous suicide attempts and suicide...... attempts in the adolescent's surroundings. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional case-control study that focused on 381 adolescents aged 10-17 years who were admitted to hospitals across Denmark after suicide attempts with acetaminophen and 296 age- and gender-matched controls recruited from schools...... (p suicidal adolescents who tried to talk to their parents about their problems felt unheard, and there was a significant relationship between...

  4. Attempted suicide and contact with the primary health authorities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenager, E N; Jensen, Knud

    1994-01-01

    In a study describing suicide attempters' approach to the health and social welfare authorities prior to a suicide attempt, it was found that one-fourth of the patients seeking help requested therapeutic consultations and only a few asked for medicinal treatment. Forty-four percent had taken newl...... with their general practitioner prior to the suicide attempt. Postgraduate courses for practitioners on depression diagnostics and suicidal behaviour are proposed as a measure in suicide prevention.......In a study describing suicide attempters' approach to the health and social welfare authorities prior to a suicide attempt, it was found that one-fourth of the patients seeking help requested therapeutic consultations and only a few asked for medicinal treatment. Forty-four percent had taken newly...... prescribed medicine for the parasuicide. It is concluded that the availability of psychological support and a more restrictive prescription of medicine could have a preventive effect on parasuicidal behaviour. Patients suffering from depression and pain have more often than other patients been in contact...

  5. Factors related to Chinese older adults' suicidal thoughts and attempts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hong; Xu, Ling; Chi, Iris

    2016-07-01

    Guided by the biopsychosocial framework and empirical evidence, this study examined protective and risk factors of older adults' suicidal thoughts and attempts during the previous month, 12 months, and 5 years. The data used in this study were extracted from the Sample Survey on Aged Population in Urban/Rural China conducted in 2006, which included 15,957 older adults from mainland China. Multiple penalized logistic regressions were used to conduct the analyses. During the previous month, 12 months, and 5 years, 5.1‰, 10.0‰, and 17.7‰ of older adults indicated that they thought about suicide, whereas 2.2‰, 3.5‰, and 6.3‰ reported suicidal attempts, respectively. Older adults' age, financial strain, functional limitations, depression, children's filial piety, social network, loneliness, and urban residence were significantly related to suicidal thoughts during the different time periods. In addition, older adults' religious affiliation, depression, loneliness, and urban residence were significantly related to suicidal attempts during the different time periods. Older adults' suicidal thoughts and attempts need to be assessed by mental health care professionals and primary care doctors. Programs addressing these important protective and risk factors may help reduce older adults' suicidal thoughts and attempts.

  6. Maternal and paternal personality profiles of adolescent suicide attempters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolat, Nurullah; Kadak, Tayyib; Eliacik, Kayi; Sargin, Enis; Incekas, Secil; Gunes, Hatice

    2017-02-01

    Personality features have been correlated with suicidal behaviors in recent decades. Given its neurobiological background, Cloninger's model of personality, the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI), may help to identify the maternal and paternal personality dimensions associated with adolescent suicide attempts. The present study is the first that specifically compares the temperament and character profiles of both mothers and fathers of the adolescent suicide attempters with a control group, by considering the influence of demographic and clinical factors. The study group comprised 117 parents of 71 adolescent suicide attempters and 119 parents of 71 age- and gender-matched adolescents without a suicide attempt included as a control group. The TCI and Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI) were applied to the parents in both groups. Logistic regression analysis, which was performed to adjust confounding factors, demonstrated significantly higher scores for harm avoidance among the mothers and lower scores of self-directedness among the fathers of the adolescent suicide attempters. New psychotherapeutic modalities considering the high-risk parental personality traits would be beneficial to support parent-adolescent relationships and may have a preventative effect on adolescent suicide. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Ethnicity and suicide attempt: analysis in bipolar disorder and schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bani-Fatemi, Ali; Polsinelli, Gina; Kennedy, James L; De Luca, Vincenzo

    2013-10-08

    Evidence is mixed as to whether White Europeans are at a higher risk for suicide attempts or completions compared to other ethnic groups. The present analysis assessed whether risk for suicide attempt was associated with White European ethnicity in 907 subjects with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder. Subjects were diagnosed using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV, and ethnicity was determined by self-report. Subjects were recruited from psychiatric care centers in Toronto, Canada. Logistic regression correcting for clinical covariates like age, gender and diagnosis, was used in this study. We found no difference in suicide attempter status in white and non-white subjects who were diagnosed with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Our study does not support the evidence that White-European patients in North America are at higher risk for suicide attempt compared to non-European descent subjects. However, this result has to be replicated in larger studies in patients with these disorders.

  8. Youth, suicide attempts and low level of education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Erik; Agerbo, Esben; Larsen, Kim Juul

    2015-01-01

    that young people who have attempted suicide have a lower chance of finishing secondary education. METHODS: We used Danish historical population registers to perform a longitudinal cohort design and extended Cox regression modelling to estimate crude and adjusted estimates of the effect of suicide attempt......BACKGROUND: In Denmark, it is a political goal that 95% of all young people should complete an upper secondary education. For some young people, this goal can be difficult to achieve. An association has been established between suicidal behaviour and school performance. AIM: We hypothesise...... on secondary education. We used the birth cohorts 1983-1989, and all subjects were followed from birth until the end of 2011 (n = 355,725). RESULTS: For suicide attempters, the likelihood of completing secondary education was one-third of non-attempters (crude hazard ratio = 0.38). A part of the impact can...

  9. Suicide Attempts in Malaysia from the Year 1969 to 2011

    OpenAIRE

    Sinniah, Aishvarya; Maniam, T.; Oei, Tian Po; Subramaniam, Ponnusamy

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to review the literature on suicide attempts in Malaysia. PsycINFO, PubMed, and Medline databases from 1845 to 2012 and detailed manual search of local official reports from the Ministry of Health and the Malaysian Psychiatric Association and unpublished dissertations from 3 local universities providing postgraduate psychiatric training were included in the current review. A total of 38 studies on suicide attempts in Malaysia were found and reviewed. Twenty-seven (76%...

  10. Risk of Suicide Attempt in Adopted and Nonadopted Offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keyes, M. A.; Malone, S. M.; Sharma, A.

    2013-01-01

    attempt. METHODS: Participants were drawn from the Sibling Interaction and Behavior Study, which included 692 adopted and 540 nonadopted offspring and was conducted at the University of Minnesota from 1998 to 2008. Adoptees were systematically ascertained from records of 3 large Minnesota adoption...... agencies; nonadoptees were ascertained from Minnesota birth records. Outcome measures were attempted suicide, reported by parent or offspring, and factors known to be associated with suicidal behavior including psychiatric disorder symptoms, personality traits, family environment, and academic...

  11. Study of postintubation airway stenosis (PIAS following suicide attempts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    azizollah Abbasi

    2005-08-01

    Conclusions: In our patients, social problems like unemployment, illiteracy and singleness were more frequent cause of suicide than psychological disorders. Patients who underwent mechanical ventilation due to suicide and suffered PIAS could be treated by tracheal resection and reconstruction, although the incidence of post-surgical stenosis recurrence among them is more frequent than the other groups of patients.

  12. [Experiences of Individuals With Suicidal Ideation and Attempts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rendón-Quintero, Eduardo; Rodríguez-Gómez, Rodolfo

    2016-01-01

    Suicide is a major public health problem. It covers about half of violent deaths and results in approximately one million deaths annually. Although completed suicide rates in Colombia are relatively low when compared with other countries, suicidal behavior, represented not only by completed suicide, is a significant mental health problem. To understand life experiences of a group of subjects related to the phenomenon of ideation and suicide attempt. A qualitative study with a psychodynamic approach. In-depth interviews were conducted in order to explore thought processes, emotions, motivations and experiences that underlie and accompany the suicide attempt. Five women and 3 men were interviewed. The average age was 29 years. The exploration of subjective experiences in the present study showed that loneliness and psychic pain were linked to hopelessness, pessimism and discouragement. Also, the illusion of death represents an invitation to suicide attempt. It is important to consider the subjective assessment that patients with suicidal risk make of their depression and stressful life situations. Additionally, the concepts of loneliness and psychic pain have a leading role in the interaction between discourse and the experiences of the participants interviewed. Copyright © 2015 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  13. Risk Factors Related to Suicidal Ideation and Attempted Suicide: Comparative Study of Korean and American Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Sung Suk; Joung, Kyoung Hwa

    2012-01-01

    Suicidal trends and related characteristics such as sociodemographic factors, psychological factors, and health behaviors can differ between countries. This study investigated the predictors of suicidal ideation and attempted suicide including health behaviors among American and Korean youth from two national representative data sets. In both…

  14. Assessment of Depression and Suicidal Actions: Agreement between Suicide Attempters and Informant Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeJong, Timothy M.; Overholser, James C.

    2009-01-01

    Knowledgeable informants may be able to provide useful information about depressive symptoms and suicidal actions when a suicidal patient is uncooperative with a clinical interview or not available for a psychiatric evaluation. The present study was designed to examine information gathered from psychiatric inpatients who had attempted suicide as…

  15. Gender differences in suicidal intent and choice of method among suicide attempters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordentoft, Merete; Branner, Jacob

    2008-01-01

    The objective was to examine gender differences in choice of method and suicidal intent among persons referred to a suicide prevention center. A total of 351 consecutive patients who had attempted suicide were interviewed using the European Parasuicide Study Interview Schedule I (EPSIS I) while p...

  16. Suicide Attempts and Family History of Suicide in Three Psychiatric Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremeau, Fabien; Staner, Luc; Duval, Fabrice; Correa, Humberto; Crocq, Marc-Antoine; Darreye, Angelina; Czobor, Pal; Dessoubrais, Cecile; Macher, Jean-Paul

    2005-01-01

    The influence of a family history of suicide on suicide attempt rate and characteristics in depression, schizophrenia, and opioid dependence was examined. One hundred sixty inpatients with unipolar depression, 160 inpatients with schizophrenia, and 160 opioid-dependent patients were interviewed. Overall, a family history of suicide was associated…

  17. Factors Associated with Suicidal Ideation and Suicide Attempt among School-Going Urban Adolescents in Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bimala Sharma

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The study examines the prevalence of suicidal ideation and suicide attempt, and associated factors among school-going urban adolescents in Peru. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in a sample of 916 secondary school adolescents in 2014. A structured questionnaire adapted from Global School-based Student Health Survey was used to obtain information. Data were analyzed using logistic regression models at 5% level of significance. Overall, 26.3% reported having suicidal ideation, and 17.5% reported having attempted suicide during the past 12 months. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that female sex, being in a fight, being insulted, being attacked, perceived unhappiness, smoking and sexual intercourse initiation were significantly associated with increased risk of suicidal ideation, while female sex, being in a fight, being insulted, being attacked, perceived unhappiness, alcohol and illicit drug use were related to suicide attempt. The prevalence of suicidal ideation and suicide attempts observed in the survey area is relatively high. Female adolescents are particularly vulnerable to report suicidal ideation and suicide attempt. Interventions that address the issue of violence against adolescents, fighting with peers, health risk behaviors particularly initiation of smoking, alcohol and illicit drug use and encourage supportive role of parents may reduce the risk of suicidal behaviors.

  18. Military veteran mortality following a survived suicide attempt

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    Conigliaro Joseph

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Suicide is a global public health problem. Recently in the U.S., much attention has been given to preventing suicide and other premature mortality in veterans returning from Iraq and Afghanistan. A strong predictor of suicide is a past suicide attempt, and suicide attempters have multiple physical and mental comorbidities that put them at risk for additional causes of death. We examined mortality among U.S. military veterans after hospitalization for attempted suicide. Methods A retrospective cohort study was conducted with all military veterans receiving inpatient treatment during 1993-1998 at United States Veterans Affairs (VA medical facilities following a suicide attempt. Deaths occurring during 1993-2002, the most recent available year at the time, were identified through VA Beneficiary and Records Locator System data and National Death Index data. Mortality data for the general U.S. adult population were also obtained from the National Center for Health Statistics. Comparisons within the veteran cohort, between genders, and against the U.S. population were conducted with descriptive statistics and standardized mortality ratios. The actuarial method was used estimate the proportion of veterans in the cohort we expect would have survived through 2002 had they experienced the same rate of death that occurred over the study period in the U.S. population having the age and sex characteristics. Results During 1993-1998, 10,163 veterans were treated and discharged at a VA medical center after a suicide attempt (mean age = 44 years; 91% male. There was a high prevalence of diagnosed alcohol disorder or abuse (31.8%, drug dependence or abuse (21.8%, psychoses (21.2%, depression (18.5%, and hypertension (14.2%. A total of 1,836 (18.1% veterans died during follow up (2,941.4/100,000 person years. The cumulative survival probability after 10 years was 78.0% (95% CI = 72.9, 83.1. Hence the 10-year cumulative mortality risk was 22

  19. Cigarette smoking and suicide attempts in psychiatric outpatients in Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rihmer, Zoltán; Döme, Péter; Gonda, Xénia; Kiss, Huba G; Kovács, Dénes; Seregi, Krisztina; Teleki, Zsófia

    2007-06-01

    Epidemiological and clinical studies have found a significant association between smoking and suicidal behaviour. 334 outpatients with DSM-IV diagnosis of unipolar major depression, bipolar (I+II) disorder, schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder and pure panic disorder were interviewed regarding to their smoking habits and previous suicide attempts. With the exception of panic disorder patients, the rate of prior suicide attempt(s) was much higher among current and lifetime smokers than among never smokers in all diagnostic groups, but the difference was statistically significant only for lifetime smoker unipolar depressives and for current and lifetime smoker schizophrenics. Age, social class and alcohol/caffeine consumption was not controlled and dependent vs nondependent smokers were not distinguished. The findings support previous results on the strong relationship between smoking and suicidal behaviour in psychiatric (particularly major depressive and schizophrenic) patients.

  20. Risk factors of suicide attempts by poisoning: review

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    Maria Cláudia da Cruz Pires

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Suicide, a complex and universal human phenomenon, is a major public health problem. This study reviewed the literature about the major risk factors associated with suicide attempts by poisoning. Methods: An integrative review of the literature was performed in databases (LILACS, PubMed and MEDLINE to search for studies published between 2003 and 2013, using the following keywords: suicide, attempted; poisoning; risk factors. Inclusion criteria were: original study with abstract, sample of adults, and attempted suicide by poisoning in at least 50% of the study population. Results: Two hundred and nineteen studies were retrieved and read by two independent examiners, and 22 were included in the study. The main risk factors for suicide attempts by poisoning were female sex, age 15-40 years, single status, little education, unemployment, drug or alcohol abuse or addiction, psychiatric disorder and psychiatric treatment using antidepressants. Conclusion: Further prospective studies should be conducted to confirm these risk factors or identify others, and their findings should contribute to planning measures to prevent suicide attempts.

  1. Life satisfaction and suicidal attempts among persons with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponizovsky, Alexander M; Grinshpoon, Alexander; Levav, Itzhak; Ritsner, Michael S

    2003-01-01

    The relationship between subjective quality of life (QOL) and suicide attempts in patients with schizophrenia has been understudied. The current study tested the hypothesis that QOL is negatively associated with a history of suicidality of patients with schizophrenia. QOL, as measured by the Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire (Q-LES-Q), was investigated in 227 inpatients with DSM-IV diagnosis of schizophrenia with and without a lifetime history of suicide attempts. The statistical analysis included analysis of variance (ANOVA), t tests, and analysis of covariance (ANCOVA). The patients who had attempted suicide multiple times were less satisfied with regard to a larger number of life domains than the nonattempters and the single attempters. The differences in QOL remained significant after adjusting for psychiatric history and current psychopathology variables, e.g., age of onset of the disorder, number and length of hospitalizations, and positive, negative, and depressive symptoms. Dissatisfaction with QOL in general and with reference to four specific domains was associated with repeated suicide attempts. Clinicians should include QOL in the evaluation of patients with schizophrenia that are suspected to be suicidal.

  2. Predictive Factors of Suicide Attempt and Non-Suicidal Self-Harm in Emergency Department

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    Saad Salman

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Suicide is the third cause of mortality in America, second leading cause of death in developed countries, and one of the major health problems. Self-harm is self-inflicted damage to one’s self with or without suicidal intent. In the present study, the predictive factors of suicide attempt and non-suicidal self-harm were evaluated in patients referred to emergency department (ED with these problem. Methods: The total number of 45 patients with suicide attempt or self-harm admitted to ED were included. Clinical symptoms, thoughts and behaviors of suicidal, and non-suicidal self-harm in these patients were evaluated at baseline. Suicidality, suicidal intent and ideation, non-suicidal self-injury, social withdrawal, disruptive behavior, and poor family functions were evaluated at admission time. Brief clinical visits were scheduled for the twelfth weeks. In the twelfth week, patients returned for their final visit to determine their maintenance treatment. Finally data were analyzed using chi-squared and multiple logistic regression. Results: Forty five patients were included in the study (56.1% female. The mean age of patients was 23.3±10.2 years (range: 15-75; 33.3% married. Significant association of suicide and self-injury was presented at the baseline and in the month before attempting (p=0.001. The most important predictive factors of suicide and self-harm based on univariate analysis were depression (suicidal and non-suicidal items of Hamilton depression rating scale, anxiety, hopelessness, younger age, history of non-suicidal self-harm and female gender (p<0.05. The participants’ quality of life analysis showed a significant higher quality in physical component summary (p=0.002, mental component summary (p=0.001, and general health (p=0.001 at follow up period. Conclusion: At the time of admission in ED, suicide attempt and non-suicidal self-harm are subsequent clinical markers for the patient attempting suicide again. The

  3. Suicides and Suicide Attempts during Long-Term Treatment with Antidepressants: A Meta-Analysis of 29 Placebo-Controlled Studies Including 6,934 Patients with Major Depressive Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Cora; Bschor, Tom; Franklin, Jeremy; Baethge, Christopher

    It is unclear whether antidepressants can prevent suicides or suicide attempts, particularly during long-term use. We carried out a comprehensive review of long-term studies of antidepressants (relapse prevention). Sources were obtained from 5 review articles and by searches of MEDLINE, PubMed Central and a hand search of bibliographies. We meta-analyzed placebo-controlled antidepressant RCTs of at least 3 months' duration and calculated suicide and suicide attempt incidence rates, incidence rate ratios and Peto odds ratios (ORs). Out of 807 studies screened 29 were included, covering 6,934 patients (5,529 patient-years). In total, 1.45 suicides and 2.76 suicide attempts per 1,000 patient-years were reported. Seven out of 8 suicides and 13 out of 14 suicide attempts occurred in antidepressant arms, resulting in incidence rate ratios of 5.03 (0.78-114.1; p = 0.102) for suicides and of 9.02 (1.58-193.6; p = 0.007) for suicide attempts. Peto ORs were 2.6 (0.6-11.2; nonsignificant) and 3.4 (1.1-11.0; p = 0.04), respectively. Dropouts due to unknown reasons were similar in the antidepressant and placebo arms (9.6 vs. 9.9%). The majority of suicides and suicide attempts originated from 1 study, accounting for a fifth of all patient-years in this meta-analysis. Leaving out this study resulted in a nonsignificant incidence rate ratio for suicide attempts of 3.83 (0.53-91.01). Therapists should be aware of the lack of proof from RCTs that antidepressants prevent suicides and suicide attempts. We cannot conclude with certainty whether antidepressants increase the risk for suicide or suicide attempts. Researchers must report all suicides and suicide attempts in RCTs. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. What Interrupts Suicide Attempts in Men: A Qualitative Study.

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    Michael J Player

    Full Text Available Despite higher rates of suicide in men, there is a dearth of research examining the perspectives and experiences of males at risk of suicide, particularly in terms of understanding how interventions can be tailored to men's specific needs. The current study aimed to examine factors assisting, complicating or inhibiting interventions for men at risk, as well as outlining the roles of family, friends and others in male suicide prevention. Thirty-five male suicide survivors completed one-to-one interviews, and forty-seven family and friends of male suicide survivors participated in eight focus groups. Thematic analysis revealed five major themes: (1 development of suicidal behaviours tends to follow a common path associated with specific types of risk factors (disrupted mood, unhelpful stoic beliefs and values, avoidant coping strategies, stressors, (2 men at risk of suicide tend to systematically misinterpret changes in their behaviour and thinking, (3 understanding mood and behavioural changes in men enables identification of opportunities to interrupt suicide progression, (4 distraction, provision of practical and emotional supports, along with professional intervention may effectively interrupt acute risk of harm, and (5 suicidal ideation may be reduced through provision of practical help to manage crises, and helping men to focus on obligations and their role within families. Findings suggest that interventions for men at risk of suicidal behaviours need to be tailored to specific risk indicators, developmental factors, care needs and individuals' preferences. To our knowledge this is the first qualitative study to explore the experiences of both suicidal men and their family/friends after a suicide attempt, with the view to improve understanding of the processes which are effective in interrupting suicide and better inform interventions for men at risk.

  5. What Interrupts Suicide Attempts in Men: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Player, Michael J.; Proudfoot, Judy; Fogarty, Andrea; Whittle, Erin; Spurrier, Michael; Shand, Fiona; Christensen, Helen; Hadzi-Pavlovic, Dusan; Wilhelm, Kay

    2015-01-01

    Despite higher rates of suicide in men, there is a dearth of research examining the perspectives and experiences of males at risk of suicide, particularly in terms of understanding how interventions can be tailored to men’s specific needs. The current study aimed to examine factors assisting, complicating or inhibiting interventions for men at risk, as well as outlining the roles of family, friends and others in male suicide prevention. Thirty-five male suicide survivors completed one-to-one interviews, and forty-seven family and friends of male suicide survivors participated in eight focus groups. Thematic analysis revealed five major themes: (1) development of suicidal behaviours tends to follow a common path associated with specific types of risk factors (disrupted mood, unhelpful stoic beliefs and values, avoidant coping strategies, stressors), (2) men at risk of suicide tend to systematically misinterpret changes in their behaviour and thinking, (3) understanding mood and behavioural changes in men enables identification of opportunities to interrupt suicide progression, (4) distraction, provision of practical and emotional supports, along with professional intervention may effectively interrupt acute risk of harm, and (5) suicidal ideation may be reduced through provision of practical help to manage crises, and helping men to focus on obligations and their role within families. Findings suggest that interventions for men at risk of suicidal behaviours need to be tailored to specific risk indicators, developmental factors, care needs and individuals’ preferences. To our knowledge this is the first qualitative study to explore the experiences of both suicidal men and their family/friends after a suicide attempt, with the view to improve understanding of the processes which are effective in interrupting suicide and better inform interventions for men at risk. PMID:26090794

  6. Adolescent self-injurers: Comparing non-ideators, suicide ideators, and suicide attempters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Jeremy G; Esposito, Erika C; Glenn, Catherine R; Gilman, Stephen E; Pridgen, Bryan; Gold, Joseph; Auerbach, Randy P

    2017-01-01

    Adolescent non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) and suicidality are serious health concerns; however, factors that contribute to the transition from NSSI to suicide ideation and suicide attempts are unclear. To address this gap, we investigated whether demographic characteristics, child maltreatment, and psychiatric factors are associated with the level suicidality among adolescents with a history of self-injury. Participants were three groups of adolescent inpatient self-injurers (n = 397, 317 female), aged 13-18 years (M = 15.44, SD = 1.36): (a) non-ideators (n = 96; no current suicide ideation and no lifetime suicide attempts), (b) suicide ideators (n = 149; current ideation and no lifetime attempts), and (c) suicide attempters (n = 152; current ideation and at least one lifetime attempt). Participants completed interviews assessing psychiatric diagnoses, suicidality, and NSSI characteristics, as well as questionnaires on childhood trauma, psychiatric symptoms, and risky behavior engagement. Depression severity was associated with greater odds being a suicide ideator (p Suicide attempters used more NSSI methods and reported greater risky behavior engagement than non-ideators (p = 0.03, OR = 1.29 and p = 0.03, OR = 1.06, respectively) and ideators (p = 0.015, OR = 1.25 and p = 0.04, OR = 1.05, respectively); attempters used more severe NSSI methods (e.g., burning). Our results identify a wide range of risk markers for increasing lethality in a sample at high risk for suicide mortality; future research is needed to refine risk assessments for adolescent self-injurers and determine the clinical utility of using risk markers for screening and intervention. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Insomnia as a predictor of high-lethality suicide attempts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pompili, M; Innamorati, M; Forte, A; Longo, L; Mazzetta, C; Erbuto, D; Ricci, F; Palermo, M; Stefani, H; Seretti, M E; Lamis, D A; Perna, G; Serafini, G; Amore, M; Girardi, P

    2013-12-01

    Research has demonstrated that patients with insomnia are at an increased risk of experiencing suicidal ideation and/or making a suicide attempt. To evaluate the relation between insomnia and suicidal behaviour. To examine factors associated with a diagnosis of insomnia in patients admitted to an Emergency Department (ED) and assessed by the psychiatrist in charge. Participants were 843 patients consecutively admitted to the ED of Sant'Andrea Hospital in Rome, between January 2010 and December 2011. All patients admitted were referred to a psychiatrist. A clinical interview based on the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) and a semi-structured interview was conducted. Patients were asked about 'ongoing' suicidal ideation or plans for suicide. Forty-eight percent of patients received a diagnosis of bipolar disorder (BD), major depressive disorder (MDD) or an anxiety disorder; whereas, 17.1% were diagnosed with Schizophrenia or other non-affective psychosis. Patients with insomnia (compared to patients without insomnia) more frequently had a diagnosis of BD (23.9% vs. 12.4%) or MDD (13.3% vs. 9.5%; p suicide in the past 24 h (5.3% vs. 9.5%; p suicide more frequently used a violent method (64.3% vs. 23.6%; p suicide attempters. Our results do not support an association between insomnia and suicidal behaviour. However, suicide attempters with insomnia more frequently used violent methods, and this phenomenon should be taken into serious consideration by clinicians. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Child abuse and the prevalence of suicide attempts among those reporting suicide ideation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Michael S; Dykxhoorn, Jennifer; Afifi, Tracie O; Colman, Ian

    2016-11-01

    Victims of child abuse may be at increased risk of acting on suicide ideation, although this has not been empirically tested. We estimated the risk of suicide attempts associated with child abuse among individuals who reported suicide ideation. Secondary analysis of data from the population-based Canadian Community Health Survey Mental Health (n = 828). This population-based survey included various structured questionnaires, including the Composite International Diagnostic Interview to assess mental illness and suicidal thoughts and behaviours. Approximately 80 % of those who attempted suicide had a history of child abuse. Poor mental health, financial difficulties, poor coping skills, and reporting a suicide plan were also associated with an increased prevalence of attempting suicide; adjusted for these factors, child abuse was associated with a 1.77-fold increased prevalence (95 % CI 0.93, 3.36) of suicide attempts. Most individuals who attempt suicide experience child abuse, and worse health and social functioning. Adopting a life-course perspective to understand trajectories of suicide risk factors may inform prevention and treatment.

  9. Factors Related in Suicide Attempts in Admitted Poisoned Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bita Dadpour

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Suicide is considered as a public health problem. Approximately 0.9% of all deaths worldwide are due to suicide. This study was performed to identify risk factors of suicide attempts among patients who admitted in a medical toxicology centre during three months. Materials and Methods: A cross sectional study was carried out; all admitted patients in our medical toxicology centre due to suicidal attempt who completed consent form were included from December to March 2013. A researcher designed questionnaire was prepared and its validity and reliability was confirmed; it was fulfilled by a psychologist via clinical interview. Data were analyzed by SPSS software 11.5 and results were discussed. Results:198 participants included; of whom 67.2% were female and 94.9% were less than 45 year old. Among the patients, approximately 48% of the patients were married; 27.77% were employed. More than 96% suffered from severe depression, 3.53% of the patients had psychotic symptoms. Personality disorders, previous suicidal attempt, unemployment, full stressed family, family history of suicidal attempt, moderate to severe depression and a history of dependence on antipsychotic drugs and lack of family support were identified as risk factors for suicide. Conclusion: Attention to personality trait  and family environment can be mainly effective in long-term prevention of suicide, treatment of physical illness in patients with chronic health conditions, evaluation and treatment of psychiatric issues in addition to family and social problems, and organizing educational courses  to families with suicide history can be helpful.

  10. Predisposing and Precipitating Risk Factors for Suicide Ideations and Suicide Attempts In Young and Adolescent Girls

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    K.S KHUSHABI

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Background:To investigate the predisposing and precipitating risk factors for suicide ideations and suicide attempts in young and adolescent females,we tried to introduce a holistic model of suicidal behavior in young and adolescent girls. Methods: This study is based on the survey studies and was cross-sectional. Considering high rates of suicide attempts in provinces of Iran,three provinces (Kermanshah, Hamedan,Ilam which had the highest rates of completed suicide were selected. Then among female high school students (aged 14 to 21 years, in two stages a representative sample was selected by a multi-clusteral and simple randomized sampling methods. The research data were gathered by administering (1 The inventory of predisposing and precipitating factors of suicide, demographic and family characteristics (based on the literature review (2 Symptom Check List (SCL 90-R (3Suicidality Subscale of the Depressive Symptom Index (DSI-SS (4 Center for Epidemiological Studies (CED- SSI (5 Beck Hopelessness Scale (BHS and (6 Child Abuse Self Report Scale (CASRS.Then,subjects were characterized by dividing them in to two categories: at risk,and low risk. The scores of 2 categories were analyzed and discussed. Results: Relationships were found between suicide ideations and psychological problems and disorders (especially depression.Also,the students who reported suicide ideation and suicide attempt had a history of being abused. Based on the results,predisposing and precipitating risk factors and also some protective factors of suicide ideations and suicide attempts were found and a theoretical model was presented.Conclusion: Some predisposing,precipitating and protective factors can predict suicide ideation and suicide attempts significantly.

  11. Familism, Family Environment, and Suicide Attempts among Latina Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pena, Juan B.; Kuhlberg, Jill A.; Zayas, Luis H.; Baumann, Ana A.; Gulbas, Lauren; Hausmann-Stabile, Carolina; Nolle, Allyson P.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we examined the relationship between familism and family environment type as well as the relationship between family environment type and suicide attempts among Latina youth. Latina teen attempters (n = 109) and nonattempters (n = 107) were recruited from the New York City area. Latent class analysis revealed three family…

  12. Family Conflict – The Major Underlying Influence in Suicide Attempts in Northern Bihar, India.

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    Sangeeta Nair

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Suicide attempts in North India are generally underreported but have been considered to be rising. The number of admissions due to attempted suicide at Duncan Hospital, North Bihar, rose from 82 in 2007 to 419 in 2011.A structured interview and the WHO (World Health Organization Major (ICD-10 Depression Inventory were completed by 157 suicide-attempt survivors. Immediate relatives were also interviewed. Only 23% of patients came from India; 77% of patients came from Nepal. The highest incidence was in the age group 16-20 years. Females have higher rates in the 21-30 year age group (p=0.012, but after 30 years of age, the number of males becomes higher than the females (p=0.048; 81.5% of the respondents were below the age of 30 years.Pesticide poisoning was the major mode of attempted suicide (94.3%. Using the WHO Major (ICD-10 Depression Inventory, 28 of the participants suffered from depression (17.7%. Ninety people (56.9% admitted to previous thoughts of suicide, and nine (5.7% people had attempted suicide previously.Hindus made up 84.0% of the respondents. Almost 50% of respondents only carried out their religious rituals on an occasional basis or not at all. 70.2% had not completed education beyond primary school, and 49.7% earned less than Rs10,000 per month (US$200. Eighty percent of the participants stated conflicts with family members led to the attempted suicide. Relatives did not expect the attempted suicide in 97.4% of cases. Knowledge of the suicide of a neighbour, friends, or relative influenced 77.0% of the participants to attempt suicide.Efforts to prevent suicide attempts and deaths need to be multifaceted. Banning the most poisonous pesticides and improving poison storage in the community must be encouraged. Prevention, early intervention and treatment all are required in a suicide prevention plan. The lack of psychiatrists necessitates that other professionals and trained non-professionals be utilised in the mental health team

  13. Sociodemographic profile of suicide attempters among the rural agrarian community of central India

    OpenAIRE

    Mishra, Kshirod Kumar; Gupta, Neha; Bhabulkar, Sneha

    2015-01-01

    Background: Suicides, attempted suicides and different form of suicidal behaviors are on the rise in most part of the world. It is generally assumed that official suicidal rate are underestimated from the true rate by 20-100 % due to prevailing socio-cultural issues, religious attitude, stigma attached, and legal process involved. Attempted suicides occur 8-20 times more frequently than complete suicide. Statistics on attempted suicide or deliberate self harm are not usually available officia...

  14. Epidemiology, neurobiology and pharmacological interventions related to suicide deaths and suicide attempts in bipolar disorder: Part I of a report of the International Society for Bipolar Disorders Task Force on Suicide in Bipolar Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffer, Ayal; Isometsä, Erkki T; Tondo, Leonardo; Moreno, Doris H; Sinyor, Mark; Kessing, Lars Vedel; Turecki, Gustavo; Weizman, Abraham; Azorin, Jean-Michel; Ha, Kyooseob; Reis, Catherine; Cassidy, Frederick; Goldstein, Tina; Rihmer, Zoltán; Beautrais, Annette; Chou, Yuan-Hwa; Diazgranados, Nancy; Levitt, Anthony J; Zarate, Carlos A; Yatham, Lakshmi

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Bipolar disorder is associated with elevated risk of suicide attempts and deaths. Key aims of the International Society for Bipolar Disorders Task Force on Suicide included examining the extant literature on epidemiology, neurobiology and pharmacotherapy related to suicide attempts and deaths in bipolar disorder. Methods Systematic review of studies from 1 January 1980 to 30 May 2014 examining suicide attempts or deaths in bipolar disorder, with a specific focus on the incidence and characterization of suicide attempts and deaths, genetic and non-genetic biological studies and pharmacotherapy studies specific to bipolar disorder. We conducted pooled, weighted analyses of suicide rates. Results The pooled suicide rate in bipolar disorder is 164 per 100,000 person-years (95% confidence interval = [5, 324]). Sex-specific data on suicide rates identified a 1.7:1 ratio in men compared to women. People with bipolar disorder account for 3.4–14% of all suicide deaths, with self-poisoning and hanging being the most common methods. Epidemiological studies report that 23–26% of people with bipolar disorder attempt suicide, with higher rates in clinical samples. There are numerous genetic associations with suicide attempts and deaths in bipolar disorder, but few replication studies. Data on treatment with lithium or anticonvulsants are strongly suggestive for prevention of suicide attempts and deaths, but additional data are required before relative anti-suicide effects can be confirmed. There were limited data on potential anti-suicide effects of treatment with antipsychotics or antidepressants. Conclusion This analysis identified a lower estimated suicide rate in bipolar disorder than what was previously published. Understanding the overall risk of suicide deaths and attempts, and the most common methods, are important building blocks to greater awareness and improved interventions for suicide prevention in bipolar disorder. Replication of genetic findings and

  15. Can we predict agitation in patients with suicide attempts in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ED) after suicide attempts is common and an important problem. Objective: To establish whether we can predict agitated patients among suicide attempt patients in ED. Methods: This is a cross-sectional observational study of adult suicide ...

  16. A genome-wide association study of attempted suicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willour, Virginia L.; Seifuddin, Fayaz; Mahon, Pamela B.; Jancic, Dubravka; Pirooznia, Mehdi; Steele, Jo; Schweizer, Barbara; Goes, Fernando S.; Mondimore, Francis M.; MacKinnon, Dean F.; Perlis, Roy H.; Lee, Phil Hyoun; Huang, Jie; Kelsoe, John R.; Shilling, Paul D.; Rietschel, Marcella; Nöthen, Markus; Cichon, Sven; Gurling, Hugh; Purcell, Shaun; Smoller, Jordan W.; Craddock, Nicholas; DePaulo, J. Raymond; Schulze, Thomas G.; McMahon, Francis J.; Zandi, Peter P.; Potash, James B.

    2011-01-01

    The heritable component to attempted and completed suicide is partly related to psychiatric disorders and also partly independent of them. While attempted suicide linkage regions have been identified on 2p11–12 and 6q25–26, there are likely many more such loci, the discovery of which will require a much higher resolution approach, such as the genome-wide association study (GWAS). With this in mind, we conducted an attempted suicide GWAS that compared the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotypes of 1,201 bipolar (BP) subjects with a history of suicide attempts to the genotypes of 1,497 BP subjects without a history of suicide attempts. 2,507 SNPs with evidence for association at p<0.001 were identified. These associated SNPs were subsequently tested for association in a large and independent BP sample set. None of these SNPs were significantly associated in the replication sample after correcting for multiple testing, but the combined analysis of the two sample sets produced an association signal on 2p25 (rs300774) at the threshold of genome-wide significance (p= 5.07 × 10−8). The associated SNPs on 2p25 fall in a large linkage disequilibrium block containing the ACP1 gene, a gene whose expression is significantly elevated in BP subjects who have completed suicide. Furthermore, the ACP1 protein is a tyrosine phosphatase that influences Wnt signaling, a pathway regulated by lithium, making ACP1 a functional candidate for involvement in the phenotype. Larger GWAS sample sets will be required to confirm the signal on 2p25 and to identify additional genetic risk factors increasing susceptibility for attempted suicide. PMID:21423239

  17. Inmate-to-inmate violence as a marker of suicide attempt risk during imprisonment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Encrenaz, Gaëlle; Miras, Alain; Contrand, Benjamin; Galera, Cédric; Pujos, Stéphane; Michel, Grégory; Lagarde, Emmanuel

    2014-02-01

    To estimate the incidence of suicide attempts during imprisonment in a French prison and to determine factors associated with them. All male inmates of a prison for prisoners awaiting trial or serving a short sentence (Bordeaux, France) were eligible for this cross-sectional study. They were face-to-face interviewed by an experienced psychologist (n = 369; mean age = 36 years). Socio-demographic data, imprisonment conditions, health status, healthcare utilization, mental health, impulsiveness, inmate-to-inmate violence (victim and perpetrator status) and suicidal behaviours were documented. The incidence of suicidal attempts during imprisonment was 13.4 per 100 person-years. Having made at least one suicide attempt during imprisonment was associated with: being a victim of physical or sexual violence without perpetrating it (adjusted OR = 5.4; 95%CI [2.4-12]), suffering from depressive and anxious symptoms (adjusted OR = 3.3; 95%CI [1.5-7.7]), having children (adjusted OR = 3.0; 95%CI [1.2-7.7]) and having a poor perceived health status (OR = 2.5; 95%CI [1.1-5.4]). A history of suicide attempt before imprisonment was not associated with the risk of suicide attempts while imprisoned. Our results suggest that violence plays a major role in the suicidal process in prison. The inclusion of inmate-to-inmate violence in the screening checklists of inmate suicide risk should be explored. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  18. EVALUATION OF SUICIDE ATTEMPT CASES ADMITTED TO EMERGENCY DEPARTMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamit Sirri Keten

    2015-06-01

    Material and Methods: A total of 70 attempted suicide cases admitted to Emergency Department of Kahramanmaras Sutcu imam University Medical Faculty Hospital between 01.03.2012 and 01.03.2013 examined retrospectively. Results: Among the 70 patients included in the study, 26 (37.1% were male and 44 (62.9% were female with a mean age of 26.3+/-11.2 years. Of all, 10 (14.3% cases were reported to have one or more previous suicide attempts. Investigation of methods of suicide revealed that 64 (91.4% used medication or toxic substance ingestion, 5 (7.1% stabbing, and 1 (1.4% preferred hanging as suicide method. All of those of preferred stabbing as a means of suicide were males. Conclusion: In order to tackle suicidal attempts author suggests that collective preventive policies should be developed by local governments, non-governmental organizations and health care providers. [J Contemp Med 2015; 5(2.000: 102-105

  19. Clarifying the role of neuroticism in suicidal ideation and suicide attempt among women with major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rappaport, L M; Flint, J; Kendler, K S

    2017-10-01

    Prior research consistently demonstrates that neuroticism increases risk for suicidal ideation, but the association between neuroticism and suicidal behavior has been inconsistent. Whereas neuroticism is recommended as an endophenotype for suicidality, the association of neuroticism with attempted suicide warrants clarification. In particular, prior research has not distinguished between correlates of attempted suicide, correlates of suicidal ideation, and correlates of comorbid psychopathology. The present study used the CONVERGE study, a sample of 5864 women with major depressive disorder (MD) and 5783 women without MD throughout China. Diagnoses, suicidal ideation, and attempted suicide were assessed with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). Neuroticism was assessed with the neuroticism portion of the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire. Results replicate prior findings on the correlates of suicidal ideation, particularly elevated neuroticism among individuals who report prior suicidal ideation. Moreover, as compared with individuals who reported having experienced only suicidal ideation, neuroticism was associated with decreased likelihood of having attempted suicide. The association of neuroticism with suicidality is more complicated than has been previously described. Whereas neuroticism increases risk for suicidal ideation, neuroticism may decrease risk for a suicide attempt among individuals with suicidal ideation. These results have implications for the assessment of risk for a suicide attempt among individuals who report suicidal ideation and addresses prior discordant findings by clarifying the association between neuroticism and attempted suicide.

  20. Blunted HPA axis activity prior to suicide attempt and increased inflammation in attempters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melhem, Nadine M; Munroe, Sara; Marsland, Anna; Gray, Katarina; Brent, David; Porta, Giovanna; Douaihy, Antoine; Laudenslager, Mark L; DePietro, Frank; Diler, Rasim; Driscoll, Henry; Gopalan, Priya

    2017-03-01

    Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal (HPA) axis dysregulation is associated with increased risk for suicidal behavior. However, it is not clear whether such dysregulation exists prior to or is a consequence of attempt. Studies also show an activation of inflammatory responses in suicidal behavior but often combine attempters with those with ideation. The sample consisted of psychiatric inpatients, aged 15-30 years, admitted for suicide attempt (SA, n=38), inpatients admitted for suicidal ideation with no prior history of attempts (SI, n=40), and healthy controls (n=37). We compared SA, SI, and controls on hair cortisol concentrations (HCC), which provides retrospective levels of cortisol and thus prior to the attempt in SA. We also compared them on the expression of genes in the HPA axis and inflammatory pathways previously implicated in suicidal behavior (GR or NR3C1, SKA2, FKBP5, IL-1β, TNF-α); plasma C-Reactive Protein (CRP); and cellular measures of glucocorticoid receptor (GR) sensitivity and stimulated production of IL-6. We found lower HCC [β=-0.55, 95% CI (-0.96, -0.13), p=0.01, ES=-0.54] in first-time SA compared to SI and controls. In addition, SA showed lower GR or NR3C1 (α isoform) mRNA [β=-5.11, 95% CI (-10.9, 0.73), p=0.09, ES=-0.46], higher CRP [β=0.94, 95% CI (-0.004, 1.9), p=0.05, ES=0.60], and higher TNF-α mRNA [β=26.4, 95% CI (7.7, 45.2), p=0.006, ES=0.73]. This is the first study to differentiate youth who attempt suicide from those with suicidal ideation on HCC and to show that low HCC precedes suicide attempt. Suicide attempters also showed a distinct biological profile on several markers in both the HPA axis and inflammatory pathways. Future longitudinal studies are needed to examine the ability of these biomarkers to predict suicidal behavior. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Suicide attempts in Spain according to prehospital healthcare emergency records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejías-Martín, Yolanda; Martí-García, Celia; Rodríguez-Mejías, Candela; Valencia-Quintero, Juan Pablo; García-Caro, M Paz; Luna, Juan de Dios

    2018-01-01

    To analyze the number and characteristics of suicide attempts by reviewing records of the public emergency healthcare service information system. A retrospective observational study was conducted of emergency telephone calls received between January 1 2007 and December 31 2013 throughout the Andalusia region (Southern Spain). Cases were selected based on phone operator or healthcare team labeling. Data were analyzed on the characteristics of the individuals, the timing and severity of attempts, their prioritization, and their outcome. Between January 1 2007 and December 31 2013, 20.942 calls related to suicide attempts were recorded, a rate of 34.7 attempts per 100,000 inhabitants. Most cases were classified by the public emergency healthcare service (Empresa Pública de Emergencias Sanitarias, EPES) as code X84 (The International Statistical Classification of Diseases, tenth revision, ICD-10) or 305(The International Statistical Classification of Diseases, ninth revision, ICD-9). Attempts were more frequent in the 35-49-year age group and there were similar proportions of males and females. The lowest number of calls for suicide attempts were in 2007 and the highest in 2013. Calls were more frequent during the summer months, at weekends, and between 16:00 and 23:00 h. The likelihood of evacuation to the hospital emergency department was almost two-fold lower in over 65-yr-olds than in younger individuals. Significant (ƿ = 0.001) gender differences were found in call outcome and prioritization. The most influential factor for evacuation to a hospital emergency department was the code assigned by the attending healthcare team. Information obtained from extra-hospital emergency services provides valuable data on the characteristics and timing of calls related to suicide attempts, complementing information from hospital emergency departments or population surveys. There is a need to standardize the definition and recording of a suicide attempt.

  2. Longitudinal trajectories and predictors of adolescent suicidal ideation and attempts following inpatient hospitalization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prinstein, M.J.; Nock, M.K.; Simon, V.A.; Aikins, J.W.; Cheah, C.S.L.; Spirito, A.

    2008-01-01

    Remarkably little is known regarding the temporal course of adolescent suicidal ideation and behavior, the prediction of suicidal attempts from changes in suicidal ideation, or the prediction of suicidal attempts after accounting for suicidal ideation as a predictor. A sample of 143 adolescents

  3. Attempted suicide in the elderly: characteristics of suicide attempters 70 years and older and a general population comparison group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiktorsson, Stefan; Runeson, Bo; Skoog, Ingmar; Ostling, Svante; Waern, Margda

    2010-01-01

    To identify factors associated with attempted suicide in the elderly. Social, psychological, and psychiatric characteristics were compared in suicide attempters (70 years and older) and a representative population sample. Emergency departments at five hospitals in western Sweden and a representative sample of the elderly population. Persons with Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) score age 80 years). Comparison subjects matched for gender and age group (N = 408) were randomly selected among participants in our general population studies. Symptoms were rated with identical instruments in cases and comparison subjects. The examination included the MMSE and tests of short- and long-term memory, abstract thinking, aphasia, apraxia, and agnosia. Depressive symptomatology was measured using the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale, and major and minor depressions were diagnosed according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, using symptom algorithms. Factors associated with attempted suicide included being unmarried, living alone, low education level, history of psychiatric treatment, and previous suicide attempt. There was no association with dementia. Odds ratios were increased for both major (odds ratio [OR]: 47.4, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 19.1-117.7) and minor (OR: 2.6, 95% CI: 1.5-4.7) depressions. An association was observed between perceived loneliness and attempted suicide; this relationship was independent of depression (OR: 2.8, 95% CI: 1.3-6.1). Observed associations mirrored those previously shown for completed suicide. Results may help to inform clinical decisions regarding suicide risk evaluation in this vulnerable and growing age group.

  4. Factors associated with suicide attempts in 648 patients with bipolar disorder in the Stanley Foundation Bipolar Network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leverich, GS; Altshuler, LL; Frye, MA; Suppes, T; Keck, PE; McElroy, SL; Denicoff, KD; Obrocea, G; Nolen, WA; Kupka, R; Walden, J; Grunze, H; Perez, S; Luckenbaugh, DA; Post, RM

    Background: Clinical factors related to suicide and suicide attempts have been studied much more extensively in unipolar depression compared with bipolar disorder. We investigated demographic and course-of-illness variables to better understand the incidence and potential clinical correlates of

  5. Child abuse and the prevalence of suicide attempts among those reporting suicide ideation

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Michael S.; Dykxhoorn, Jennifer; Afifi, Tracie O.; Colman, Ian

    2016-01-01

    Objective Victims of child abuse may be at increased risk of acting on suicide ideation, although this has not been empirically tested. We estimated the risk of suicide attempts associated with child abuse among individuals who reported suicide ideation. Methods Secondary analysis of data from the population-based Canadian Community Health Survey Mental Health (n?=?828). This population-based survey included various structured questionnaires, including the Composite International Diagnostic I...

  6. The effects of celebrity suicide on copycat suicide attempt: a multi-center observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Joo; Shin, Sang Do; Kim, Ho; Hong, Yun Chul; Hwang, Seung Sik; Lee, Eui Jung

    2012-06-01

    The effect of celebrity suicides on copycat suicide attempts is not well known. Our objective was to determine the association between celebrity suicide and copycat suicide attempts. We conducted a retrospective multicenter observational time series analysis. Celebrity suicides were selected by an operational definition via three nationwide television news internet sites from January 2005 to December 2008. The reference week was defined as the week preceding date of suicide notification to the public. Then two pre-event weeks and four post-event weeks were analyzed for suicide attempts. We derived a prediction model for suicide attempt visits for each ED for these seven observational weeks using a General Additive Model with data from the National Emergency Department Information System (NEDIS) database. We calculated the mean excess visit (EV = observed visit - expected visit) and mean excess visit ratio (EVR = EV/expected visit). We tested the mean EV and EVR between reference weeks versus the observational weeks using independent t test and repeated measures ANOVA. Five celebrity suicides occurred during the study period. Total number of ED visits was 5,453,441 in the 85 EDs over the 4-year period, and suicide attempt or self-injury occurred in 27,605. The mean excess visit for each observational interval per ED was less than 0.1 during pre-event periods but increased to 0.695 in the second post-event week. EVs were significantly higher in the first to the third post-event weeks (p = 0.02, p celebrity suicides.

  7. Suicide attempt by jumping: a study of gonadal axis hormones in male suicide attempters versus men who fell by accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markianos, Manolis; Tripodianakis, John; Istikoglou, Christos; Rouvali, Olga; Christopoulos, Markos; Papageorgopoulos, Pavlos; Seretis, Andreas

    2009-11-30

    Low plasma total testosterone (T) levels may influence the sense of well-being and produce depressive symptomatology, increasing the risk of suicide. In a previous study, we reported reduced serum T levels in male psychiatric patients after a suicide attempt. The reduction was more pronounced in subjects who used violent attempt methods, and we discussed the possible influence of stress of hospitalization, serious medical condition and treatment. In order to minimize the influence of such factors, we compared in this study the levels of plasma sex hormones of 15 psychiatric patients (10 suffering from schizophrenia and 5 from depression) who had attempted suicide by jumping with those of a group of 18 male subjects who were hospitalized after accidentally falling from a high height. Compared with a healthy control group of 40 males, both accident and attempt groups had lower T levels. The attempt group showed a trend toward lower T levels compared with levels in the accident group. In the accident group, luteinizing hormone (LH) levels were elevated compared with levels in healthy controls, indicating a normal function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis. This was not the case for the attempt group, where low T levels were not accompanied by increases in LH. Cortisol and prolactin were similarly elevated in both patient groups, but were not related to the low T levels. The results indicate that male psychiatric patients who attempt suicide by violent methods may have low total plasma T levels, possibly due to a dysfunction of the HPG axis at the hypothalamic-pituitary level. Monitoring HPG axis function in future studies could prove to be a predictor of suicide at least for male psychiatric attempters, and could lead to preventive strategies.

  8. Psychosocial Determinants of Suicide Attempts among Black South African Adolescents: A Qualitative Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shilubane, Hilda N.; Ruiter, Robert A. C.; Bos, Arjan E. R..; van den Borne, Bart; James, Shamagonam; Reddy, Priscilla S.

    2012-01-01

    In South Africa, one in five adolescents attempt suicide. Suicide attempts continue to rise. We aimed to identify psychosocial target points for future educational interventions. One-to-one semi-structured interviews were conducted to explore psychosocial factors associated with past suicide attempts among suicide survivors in Limpopo province,…

  9. Self-Injurious Behavior and Suicide Attempts among Indonesian College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tresno, Fiona; Ito, Yoshimi; Mearns, Jack

    2012-01-01

    This study reports the prevalence of self-injurious behavior and suicide attempts among college students in Indonesia and examines risk factors distinguishing between 3 groups: self-injury with suicide attempt, non-suicidal self-injury, and non-self-injury. Self-report questionnaires measuring self-injury and suicide attempts, negative mood…

  10. Childhood bullying behaviors as a risk for suicide attempts and completed suicides: a population-based birth cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klomek, Anat Brunstein; Sourander, Andre; Niemelä, Solja; Kumpulainen, Kirsti; Piha, Jorma; Tamminen, Tuula; Almqvist, Fredrik; Gould, Madelyn S

    2009-03-01

    There are no previous studies about the association of childhood bullying behavior with later suicide attempts and completed suicides among both sexes. The aim was to study associations between childhood bullying behaviors at age 8 years and suicide attempts and completed suicides up to age 25 years in a large representative population-based birth cohort. The sample includes 5,302 Finnish children born in 1981. Information about bullying was gathered at age 8 years from self-report, as well as parent and teacher reports. Information about suicide attempts requiring hospital admission and completed suicides was gathered from three different Finnish registries until the study participants were 25 years old. Regression analyses were conducted to determine whether children who experience childhood bullying behaviors are at risk for later suicide attempts and completed suicides after controlling for baseline conduct and depression symptoms. The association between bullying behavior at age 8 years and later suicide attempts and completed suicides varies by sex. Among boys, frequent bullying and victimization are associated with later suicide attempts and completed suicides but not after controlling for conduct and depression symptoms; frequent victimization among girls is associated with later suicide attempts and completed suicides, even after controlling for conduct and depression symptoms. When examining childhood bullying behavior as a risk factor for later suicide attempts and completed suicides, each sex has a different risk profile.

  11. Differences in Non-Suicidal Self-Injury and Suicide Attempts in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brausch, Amy M.; Gutierrez, Peter M.

    2010-01-01

    As suicide attempts and self-injury remain predominant health risks among adolescents, it is increasingly important to be able to distinguish features of self-harming adolescents from those who are at risk for suicidal behaviors. The current study examined differences between groups of adolescents with varying levels of self-harmful behavior in a…

  12. Gender differences in suicidal intent and choice of method among suicide attempters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordentoft, Merete; Branner, Jacob

    2008-01-01

    participating in a 2-week inpatient treatment program. They were invited to a 1-year follow-up interview, and followed in the National Patient Register. Compared to women, men who had attempted suicide were older, had better self-esteem, fewer depressive symptoms, and higher total suicidal intention scores...

  13. The epidemiology of suicide and attempted suicide in Dutch general practice 1983-2003.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marquet, R.L.; Bartelds, A.I.M.; Kerkhof, A.J.F.M.; Schellevis, F.G.; Zee, J. van der

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Many patients attempting or committing suicide consult their general practitioner (GP) in the preceding period, indicating that GPs might play an important role in prevention. The aim of the present study was to analyse the epidemiology of suicidal behaviour in Dutch general practice in

  14. Poststroke suicide attempts and completed suicides: a socioeconomic and nationwide perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, Marie; Glader, Eva-Lotta; Norrving, Bo; Asplund, Kjell

    2015-04-28

    We examined attempted and completed suicides after stroke to determine whether they were associated with socioeconomic status, other patient characteristics, or time after stroke. This nationwide cohort study included stroke patients from Riksstroke (the Swedish Stroke Register) from 2001 to 2012. We used personal identification numbers to link the Riksstroke data with other national registers. Suicide attempts were identified by a record of hospital admission for intentional self-harm (ICD-10: X60-X84), and completed suicides were identified in the national Cause of Death Register. We used multiple Cox regression to analyze time from stroke onset to first suicide attempt. We observed 220,336 stroke patients with a total follow-up time of 860,713 person-years. During follow-up, there were 1,217 suicide attempts, of which 260 were fatal. This was approximately double the rate of the general Swedish population. Patients with lower education or income (hazard ratio [HR] 1.37, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.11-1.68) for primary vs university and patients living alone (HR 1.73, 95% CI 1.52-1.97) had an increased risk of attempted suicide, and patients born outside of Europe had a lower risk compared to patients of European origin. Male sex, young age, severe stroke, and poststroke depression were other factors associated with an increased risk of attempted suicide after stroke. The risk was highest during the first 2 years after stroke. Both clinical and socioeconomic factors increase the risk of poststroke suicide attempts. This suggests a need for psychosocial support and suicide preventive interventions in high-risk groups of stroke patients. © 2015 American Academy of Neurology.

  15. Comparing characteristics of suicide attempters with suicidal ideation and those without suicidal ideation treated in the emergency departments of general hospitals in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Shengnan; Li, Haiyan; Hou, Jinglin; Chen, Wei; Tan, Shanyong; Chen, Xu; Qin, Xiaoxia

    2018-02-03

    Suicide attempts are more frequent than suicides, and suicidal ideation has been identified as an important precursor of both attempted and completed suicide. In this study, we compare the characteristics of suicide attempters with suicidal ideation and suicide attempters without suicidal ideation who were treated in the emergency departments of general hospitals in China. We identified 166 people as having suicidal ideation and 73 people who did not have suicidal ideation. The suicide attempters with suicidal ideation were more likely to be more depressed, older, have a lower score on life quality, female, divorced and unemployed, report having religious beliefs, have a suicide attempt history and a psychiatric diagnosis, and intend to reduce pain as motives. However, the suicide attempters without suicidal ideation were more likely to have a more self-rescue ideation and were more impulsive, and to threaten or intend revenge on others as motives. Multivariate logistic regression analysis identified the following independent predictors of suicidal ideation in the suicide attempters: a higher score on Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, religious beliefs, non-impulsive suicide attempts, and a psychiatric diagnosis. The results indicate the importance of developing different interventions for the two groups to prevent future suicide in China. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Heroin Addicts Reporting Previous Heroin Overdoses Also Report Suicide Attempts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradvik, Louise; Frank, Arne; Hulenvik, Per; Medvedeo, Alvaro; Berglund, Mats

    2007-01-01

    Nonfatal heroin overdoses and suicide attempts are both common among heroin addicts, but there is limited knowledge about the association between them. The sample in the present study consisted of 149 regular heroin users in Malmo, Sweden. Out of these 98 had taken an unintentional heroin overdose at some time and 51 had made at least one attempt…

  17. Attempted suicide in Denmark. I. Some basic social characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille-Brahe, U; Hansen, W; Kolmos, L

    1985-01-01

    During a 6 months' period, 99 persons, randomly chosen among patients admitted for attempted suicide to the Department of Psychiatry, Odense University Hospital, were interviewed. This paper, which is the first in a series, deals with the theoretical and methodological background of the survey an...

  18. Suicide attempts in a Nigerian military setting | Okulate | East African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Suicide attempts in a Nigerian military setting. G. T. Okulate. Abstract. (East African Medical Journal 2001 78 (9): 493-496). Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/eamj.v78i9.8983 · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO ...

  19. Neighborhood Predictors of Hopelessness among Adolescent Suicide Attempters: Preliminary Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Smith, Alina; Spirito, Anthony; Boergers, Julie

    2002-01-01

    Adolescents (N=48) who attempted suicide were administered measures of hopelessness and depression. Those living in neighborhoods with weak social networks reported higher levels of hopelessness, even after controlling for socioeconomic backgrounds and depression. Findings suggest that the environmental context may play a role in the emotional…

  20. Intoxication, criminal offences and suicide attempts in a group of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Male gender, younger age at initiation of drinking, and earlier onset of problem drinking were significantly associated with criminal behaviour. Violent crime was associated with earlier onset of initial, regular and problem drinking, and maternal alcohol abuse. Suicide attempts (24% of subjects) were associated with female ...

  1. Sensation seeking as risk factor for suicidal ideation and suicide attempts in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortin, Ana; Lake, Alison M; Kleinman, Marjorie; Gould, Madelyn S

    2012-12-20

    High sensation seeking in adolescence is associated with engagement in risk-taking behaviors, especially substance use. Although depressed adolescents are prone to increased risk-taking, and suicidal behavior can be considered within the spectrum of risk-taking behaviors, the relationships between sensation seeking, depression, and suicidal behavior have not been explored. A self-report questionnaire assessing sensation seeking, depression, substance use problems, and suicidal ideation and suicide attempts was completed by 9th- through 12th-grade students (n=2189) in six New York State high-schools from 2002 through 2004. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine main and interaction effects between sensation seeking and the four clinical variables. High sensation seeking was positively associated with depressive symptoms and substance use problems. The main effects of sensation seeking on suicidal ideation and suicide attempts remained significant after controlling for depression and substance use. The association between sensation seeking and suicide attempts was moderated by substance use problems. The schools were suburban and predominantly white, limiting the generalizability of the results. Other mental disorders with potential implications for sensation seeking and for suicidal behavior, such as bipolar disorders, were not assessed. The finding that sensation seeking makes an independent contribution to the risk of suicidal ideation and attempts is consistent with findings in literature on novelty seeking and impulsivity. The associations between sensation seeking, depressive symptoms and suicidal behavior may be compatible with the presence of an underlying temperamental dysregulation. Screening for sensation seeking may contribute to the reduction of adolescent suicide risk. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Sensation Seeking as Risk Factor for Suicidal Ideation and Suicide Attempts in Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortin, Ana; Lake, Alison M.; Kleinman, Marjorie; Gould, Madelyn S.

    2012-01-01

    Background High sensation seeking in adolescence is associated with engagement in risk-taking behaviors, especially substance use. Although depressed adolescents are prone to increased risk-taking, and suicidal behavior can be considered within the spectrum of risk-taking behaviors, the relationships between sensation seeking, depression, and suicidal behavior have not been explored. Methods A self-report questionnaire assessing sensation seeking, depression, substance use problems, and suicidal ideation and suicide attempts was completed by 9th- through 12th-grade students (n=2189) in six New York State high-schools from 2002 through 2004. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine main and interaction effects between sensation seeking and the four clinical variables. Results High sensation seeking was positively associated with depressive symptoms and substance use problems. The main effects of sensation seeking on suicidal ideation and suicide attempts remained significant after controlling for depression and substance use. The association between sensation seeking and suicide attempts was moderated by substance use problems. Limitations The schools were suburban and predominantly white, limiting the generalizability of the results. Other mental disorders with potential implications for sensation seeking and for suicidal behavior, such as bipolar disorders, were not assessed. Conclusions The finding that sensation seeking makes an independent contribution to the risk of suicidal ideation and attempts is consistent with findings in literature on novelty seeking and impulsivity. The associations between sensation seeking, depressive symptoms and suicidal behavior may be compatible with the presence of an underlying temperamental dysregulation. Screening for sensation seeking may contribute to the reduction of adolescent suicide risk. PMID:22921521

  3. Adoption as a risk factor for attempted suicide during adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slap, G; Goodman, E; Huang, B

    2001-08-01

    Depression, impulsivity, and aggression during adolescence have been associated with both adoption and suicidal behavior. Studies of adopted adults suggest that impulsivity, even more than depression, may be an inherited factor that mediates suicidal behavior. However, the association between adoption and adolescent suicide attempts and the mechanisms that might explain it remain unknown. The objective of this study was to determine the following: 1) whether suicide attempts are more common among adolescents who live with adoptive parents rather than biological parents; 2) whether the association is mediated by impulsivity, and 3) whether family connectedness decreases the risk of suicide attempt regardless of adoptive or biological status. A secondary analysis of Wave I data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health was conducted, which used a school-based, clustered sampling design to identify a nationally representative sample of 7th- to 12th-grade students, with oversampling of underrepresented groups. Of the 90 118 adolescents who completed the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health in-school survey, 17 125 completed the in-home interview and had parents of identified gender who completed separate in-home questionnaire. The subset of adolescents for this study was drawn from the in-home sampling according to the following criteria: 1) adolescent living with adoptive or biological mother at the time of the interview, 2) adolescent had never been separated from mother for more than 6 months, 3) mother was in first marriage at the time of the interview, and 4) the adoptive mother had never been married to the adolescent's biological father. Of the 6577 adolescents in the final study sample, 214 (3.3%) were living with adoptive mothers and 6363 (96.7%) were living with biological mothers. Variables. The primary outcome measured was adolescent report of suicide attempt(s) in the past year. Other variables included in the analyses were

  4. Characteristics of Living and Deceased Suicidal Military Personnel Based on Single Versus Multiple Suicide Attempt Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-27

    Osváth, et al., 2003), including dysthymia (Rudd, et al., 1996), anxiety disorders (Miranda, et al., 2008), social and specific phobia , and panic...disorder (Rudd, et al., 1996) have all been correlated with more than one suicide attempt. Moreover, genetic vulnerability may also impact an...frequency of documented phobias in our sample. Rudd and colleagues (1996) found that individuals with multiple attempted suicides were more likely to

  5. Serum lipids, recent suicide attempt and recent suicide status in patients with major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Ji Hyun; Kang, Eun-Suk; Fava, Maurizio; Mischoulon, David; Nierenberg, Andrew A; Yu, Bum-Hee; Lee, Dongsoo; Jeon, Hong Jin

    2014-06-03

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is associated with suicide. Although several studies have reported its association with low serum lipid, few studies have investigated relationships between current suicidality and lipid profiles, comparing with other blood measures in MDD patients. The study population consisted of 555 subjects with MDD who were ≥ 18 years old, evaluated by the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) with the suicidality module. At the evaluation visit, we measured serum lipid profiles including total cholesterol, triglycerides (TG), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), and very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL), and blood measures such as fasting glucose, total protein, albumin, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, thyroid hormones, red and white blood cells, platelet count, hemoglobin, and hematocrit. Recent attempters who had attempted suicide within the past month showed significantly lower TG and higher HDL levels than lifetime and never attempters, using Tukey's post-hoc analysis. Recent attempters exhibited lower TG and higher HDL than those with recent suicide ideation and wish to self-harm and those without previous attempt. Linear regression analysis revealed that TG was negatively associated with current suicidality scores (β = -0.187, p = 0.039), whereas VLDL was positively associated with the recent suicide status (β = 0.198, p = 0.032) after controlling for age and sex. There were no significant differences between the groups in terms of other serum lipid profiles and blood measures. Low serum TG, high HDL and VLDL levels are associated with recent suicide attempt or recent suicide status in patients with MDD. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The Treatment of Adolescent Suicide Attempters Study (TASA): Predictors of Suicidal Events in an Open Treatment Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brent, David A.; Greenhill, Laurence L.; Compton, Scott; Emslie, Graham; Wells, Karen; Walkup, John T.; Vitiello, Benedetto; Bukstein, Oscar; Stanley, Barbara; Posner, Kelly; Kennard, Betsy D.; Cwik, Mary F.; Wagner, Ann; Coffey, Barbara; March, John S.; Riddle, Mark; Goldstein, Tina; Curry, John; Barnett, Shannon; Capasso, Lisa; Zelazny, Jamie; Hughes, Jennifer; Shen, Sa; Gugga, S. Sonia; Turner, J. Blake

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To identify the predictors of suicidal events and attempts in adolescent suicide attempters with depression treated in an open treatment trial. Method: Adolescents who had made a recent suicide attempt and had unipolar depression (n =124) were either randomized (n = 22) or given a choice (n = 102) among three conditions. Two…

  7. Clarifying the Relationship of Parental Bonding to Suicide Ideation and Attempts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saffer, Boaz Y; Glenn, Catherine R; David Klonsky, E

    2015-08-01

    Suicide and suicidal behavior are major public health problems, especially among adolescents and young adults. Previous research has established links between parental bonding and suicidality; however, it remains unclear whether parental bonding is associated with suicide ideation, the progression from suicide ideation to suicide attempts, or both. This study examined the relation of parental bonding to suicide ideation and suicide attempts in adolescents from two settings: (1) acute psychiatric care (n = 172) and (2) high school (n = 426). All participants were administered validated measures of parental bonding, suicide ideation, and suicide attempts, as well as emotion dysregulation, loneliness, and self-worth. In the psychiatric sample, lower parental care significantly differentiated adolescents with a history of suicide attempts from those with suicide ideation only or without histories of suicidality. This pattern remained even after controlling for other known correlates of suicidality (i.e., emotional dysregulation, loneliness, and low self-worth). Similar effects were found in the community sample, although these findings failed to reach statistical significance. In both samples, parental overprotection was not associated with suicide ideation or suicide attempts. Results suggest that parental care may be an important risk factor for youth suicidal behavior and may help differentiate suicide attempters from suicide ideators. © 2014 The American Association of Suicidology.

  8. Prevalence of Suicide Ideation and Suicide Attempts among the Filipino Youth and Its Relationship with the Family Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Anthony Mujer Quintos

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The increasing threat of suicide amongst the youth serves as the motivation of this study. This study was done to add to the understanding of suicide in terms of ideation and actual attempts among the youth in the Philippines. In particular, this study attempted to accomplish the following objectives: (1 determine the prevalence of suicide ideation and suicide attempt among the Filipino youth, (2 determine the prevalent methods of suicide among the Filipino youth, (3 determine the prevalent reasons for suicide among the Filipino youth, and (4 determine if there is a significant correlation between the family and suicide ideation and suicide attempts among the Filipino youth. Results showed that roughly one in every ten Filipino youth aged 15 to 27 have thought of ending their life through suicide before, though only around one in every twenty pushes through with an actual attempt. When they do attempt to commit suicide, this is most frequently because of problems in the family and they utilize a violent method of suicide in the form of slashing of wrist(s or the non-violent method of ingesting poisonous substances. However, overall, the use of violent methods is more prevalent. When it comes to the factors correlated with suicide ideation and suicide attempts, this study found significant relationships between integration in the family and suicide. The study emphasizes the importance of a strong relationship between the youth and the other members of the family to curb the probability of suicide.

  9. Suicide Disclosure in Suicide Attempt Survivors: Does Family Reaction Moderate or Mediate Disclosure's Effect on Depression?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, Laura M; Hans, Jason D; Cerel, Julie

    2016-02-01

    Existing literature has found a link between disclosure of a stigmatized identity and improved mental health; however, research on the impact of suicide disclosure to family members is scarce. Suicide attempt survivors (n = 74) in the United States were examined to assess whether family reaction moderates or mediates the relationship between suicide disclosure and subsequent depression symptoms. Family reaction did not moderate but did mediate the relationship between disclosure and depression symptoms while controlling for time since most recent attempt. Higher rates of disclosure predicted more positive family reactions, which in turn predicted less severe depression symptoms. Findings indicate that family members can play an essential role in the recovery process after an attempt occurs, which has important implications for both researchers and clinicians who seek to decrease stigma for attempt survivors while simultaneously decreasing the likelihood of future attempts. © 2015 The American Association of Suicidology.

  10. Prevention of suicide and attempted suicide in Denmark. Epidemiological studies of suicide and intervention studies in selected risk groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordentoft, Merete

    2007-11-01

    The suicide rates in Denmark have been declining during the last two decades. The decline was relatively larger among women than among men. All age groups experienced a decline except the very young with stable rates and the very old with increasing rates. The Universal, Selective, Indicated (USI) model recommended by Institute of Medicine was used as a framework for the thesis. Universal preventive interventions are directed toward the entire population; selective interventions are directed toward individuals who are at greater risk for suicidal behaviour; and indicated preventions are targeted at individuals who have already begun self-destructive behaviour. At the universal level, a review was carried out to highlight the association between availability of methods for suicide and suicide rate. There were mostly studies of firearms, and the conclusion of the review was that there was clear indication of restricted access to lethal means was associated with decline in suicide with that specific method, and in many cases also with overall suicide mortality. Restricting access is especially important for methods with high case fatality rate. Our own study indicated a beneficial effect on suicide rates of restrictions in access to barbiturates, dextropropoxyphen, domestic gas and car exhaust with high content of carbon monoxide. Although a range of other factors in the society might also be of importance, it was concluded that restrictions in access to dangerous means for suicide were likely to play an important role in reducing suicide rates in Denmark, especially for women. At the selective level, there are several important risk groups such as psychiatric patients, persons with alcohol and drug abuse, persons with newly diagnosed severe physical illness, all who previously attempted suicide, and groups of homeless, institutionalized, prisoners and other socially excluded persons. The thesis focused on homeless persons and psychiatric patients, especially patients

  11. Suicide and attempted suicide: epidemiological surveillance as a crucial means of a local suicide prevention project in Trento's Province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Napoli, Wilma Angela; Della Rosa, Alberto

    2015-09-01

    The World Health Organization identifies suicide among the top 10 causes of death in many countries with an overall mortality rate of 16 per 100,000 inhabitants. Furthermore suicide attempts present a frequency 4-10 times greater than the suicidal events, representing also one of the main risk factors to lead to recurrent attempts of suicide. In 2008 the Autonomous Province of Trento launched a suicide prevention pogram called "Invitation to Life" which includes various interventions intended to counter the phenomenon of suicide in the region. Actually the epidemiological research upon the phenomenon of suicide in Trentino region is one of the main pillars of the project: it represents a fundamental requirement to identify risk and protective factors in the population in order to adopt more specific and effective preventive strategies. This article aims to present methods and instruments for epidemiological monitoring of suicide and attempted suicide which are applied in Trentino and to describe results after seven years from the beginning of the local prevention program "Invitation to life".

  12. Suicides and medically serious attempters are of the same population in Chinese rural young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; Sun, Long; Conwell, Yeates; Qin, Ping; Jia, Cun-Xian; Xiao, Shuiyuan; Tu, Xin-Ming

    2015-05-01

    Suicide rates in China are among the highest in the world, although there has been a decreasing trend in the past few years. One practical approach to study the characteristics and risk factors of suicide is to interview the suicide attempters. It was to compare completed suicides with serious attempters that may shed lights on suicide prevention strategies. This is a combination of two case control studies for suicide completers and suicide attempters respectively. After a sample of suicides (n=392) and community living controls (n=416) were obtained and studied in rural China, we collected in the same rural areas data of suicide attempt and studied 507 medically serious attempters and 503 community counterparts. Characteristics and previously observed risk factors were compared between the suicides and the attempters, and we found that the demographic characteristics and risk factors for the suicides were also for the medically serious attempters but at some lesser degrees for the attempters than for the suicides. It was especially true of suicide intent, deficient coping, negative life events, and impulsivity. While most of the demographic characteristics were not significantly different between the suicides and the attempters, most of the clinical variables could distinguish the two groups. The suicide victims and the serious attempters could be of the same group of people who were at the edge of fatal self-injury, and the same clinical risk factors but of different degrees have divided them into the life and death groups. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Suicides and Medically Serious Attempters Are of the Same Population in Chinese Rural Young Adults1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; Sun, Long; Conwell, Yeates; Qin, Ping; Jia, Cun-Xian; Xiao, Shuiyuan; Tu, Xin-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Background Suicide rates in China are among the highest in the world, although there has been a decreasing trend in the past few years. One practical approach to study the characteristics and risk factors of suicide is to interview the suicide attempters. Aims It was to compare completed suicides with serious attempters that may shed lights on suicide prevention strategies. Method This is a combination of two case control studies for suicide completers and suicide attempters respectively. After a sample of suicides (n=392) and community living controls (n=416) were obtained and studied in rural China, we collected in the same rural areas data of suicide attempt and studied 507 medically serious attempters and 503 community counterparts. Results Characteristics and previously observed risk factors were compared between the suicides and the attempters, and we found that the demographic characteristics and risk factors for the suicides were also for the medically serious attempters but at some lesser degrees for the attempters than for the suicides. It was especially true of suicide intent, deficient coping, negative life events, and impulsivity. While most of the demographic characteristics were not significantly different between the suicides and the attempters, most of the clinical variables could distinguish the two groups. Conclusions The suicide victims and the serious attempters could be of the same group of people who were at the edge of fatal self-injury, and the same clinical risk factors but of different degrees have divided them into the life and death groups. PMID:25723561

  14. Prevention of suicide and attempted suicide in Denmark. Epidemiological studies of suicide and intervention studies in selected risk groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordentoft, Merete

    2007-01-01

    of young persons who had severe suicidal thoughts or who had attempted suicide showed that risk of repetition was reduced in the intervention group, and that the intervention group obtained a significantly greater improvement in Beck's Depression Inventory, Hopelessness Scale, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale...

  15. Completed and attempted suicides among 18,154 subjects with schizophrenia included in a large simple trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleischhacker, W Wolfgang; Kane, John M; Geier, Jamie; Karayal, Onur; Kolluri, Sheela; Eng, Sybil M; Reynolds, Robert F; Strom, Brian L

    2014-03-01

    To characterize subgroups of subjects with schizophrenia from the Ziprasidone Observational Study of Cardiac Outcomes (ZODIAC) trial who either completed or attempted suicide and those who did not. The ZODIAC, conducted between February 2002 and March 2007, was an open-label, randomized, large simple trial of patients with schizophrenia (N = 18,154) followed up for 1 year by unblinded investigators providing usual care in 18 countries; the primary outcome measure was nonsuicide mortality. Every report on a completed or attempted suicide was independently adjudicated using a predefined algorithm. Primary analysis for the current report examined the association between completed or attempted suicides and the baseline variables using descriptive statistics and multivariate logistic regression models. Usage of "hard" or "soft" methods for attempted or completed suicide and distribution of suicide-related events by geographical region were also summarized. Overall incidences of subjects who either completed (35/18,154) or attempted (108/18,154) suicide were low, as were rates per person-time on assigned treatment analysis (0.24 for completed and 0.74 for attempted suicides per 100 person-years of exposure). The highest suicide-related mortality was seen among subjects recently diagnosed with schizophrenia. Among all potential baseline risk factors for completed suicide examined, the variables most associated with completed suicide were history of suicide attempts (OR = 2.6; 95% CI, 1.33-5.12) and usage of antidepressant medication (OR = 3.5; 95% CI, 0.84-14.85). History of > 5 hospitalizations in the past (OR = 2.1; 95% CI, 1.35-3.31) and history of suicide attempts (OR = 5.0; 95% CI, 3.21-7.76) were the variables most associated with attempted suicide among potential baseline risk factors for suicide attempts. Our results, obtained in a large prospective randomized study, confirm current clinical understanding regarding completed or attempted suicide in schizophrenia

  16. The Relationship between Thyroid Function and Recent History of Suicide Attempt in Patients with Major Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Eshraghi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Todays, evaluation of the relationship between thyroid function and some psychiatric diseases have been identified. However, studies on the relationship between thyroid function and suicide attempt are limited. The present study was carried out with the aim of evaluating thyroid function in patients attempting suicide. Methods: In this descriptive analytical study during the years 2011 and 2012, 88 patients with major depression and recent history of suicide attemp and 89 patients with major depression without history of recent suicide, who were hospitalized in the psychiatric ward of Hazrat Rasoul Akram Hospital in Tehran, were included in the study. The studied variables in this research included demographic variables, such as age, gender as well as clinical findings, such as thyroid function tests, including TSH, T3, T4. thyroid function tests were requested for patients when hospitalized with a diagnosis of major depression during the years 2011 and 2012, that these values were extracted from the patients’ medical records. Results: The two groups were matched in terms of age and gender. In patients with recent suicide attempt, 5 (5.6% cases of clinical hypothyroidism and 6 (6.8% cases of subclinical hypothyroidism, were reported. In the major depression patients without recent suicide attempt, there were 3 (3.3% cases of clinical hypothyroidism and 6 (6.7% cases of subclinical hypothyroidism, and the two groups had no significant difference in terms of the incidence of thyroid disease (p=0.75. Conclusion: According to the results of the present study, lower levels of T3 and T3 to T4 ratio can be one of the factors related to the recent history of suicide in patients with major depression.

  17. Alcohol Use Disorders and Risk Factor Interactions for Adolescent Suicidal Ideation and Attempts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Thomas M.; Lynch, Kevin G.; Donovan, John E.; Clark, Duncan B.

    2001-01-01

    Adolescents diagnosed with at least one mental disorder were studied to determine predictors of suicidal ideation and suicide attempts. Major depression was predictive of suicidal ideation and attempts for both genders. Chronic stress was found predictive of male suicidal ideations, while low self esteem and family dysfunction were predictive in…

  18. Current suicidality and previous suicidal attempts in patients with schizophrenia are associated with different dimensions of temperament and character.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aukst Margetić, Branka; Jakovljević, Miro; Ivanec, Dragutin; Marčinko, Darko; Margetić, Branimir; Jakšić, Nenad

    2012-12-30

    Suicide is a major public health problem and the leading cause of premature death in patients with schizophrenia. Information about the patient's personality is helpful for assessing the risk of suicide attempts and suicidal ideation. The sample consisted of 120 outpatients with a diagnosis of schizophrenia, 29 of whom had previously attempted suicide. We used the Temperament and Character Inventory to assess personality differences between patients who had previously attempted and had not previously attempted suicide and between patients who had and did not have current suicidal ideation. Current suicidal ideation was assessed using the four-point severity scale, which is item nine from the Beck Depression Inventory. The character dimension Self-transcendence was shown by logistic regression to be a predictor of lifetime suicide attempts. Low Self-directedness was shown to be a predictor of current suicidal ideation. To prevent suicidal behaviour, it is important to better understand the personality traits associated with suicidal ideation and suicide attempts. Suicide attempts and suicidal ideation in schizophrenia may not represent the same phenomenon ranging on a single continuum. The importance of these results suggests that further study is needed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Attempted suicide in a Xhosa schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lückhoff, Marlize; Koen, Liezl; Jordaan, Esme; Niehaus, Daniel

    2014-04-01

    Suicide risk behavior is a significant contributor to the mortality and morbidity of schizophrenia. We previously reported affected sibship status in a Xhosa schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder sample to be protective in nature; given the counterintuitive nature of this finding, we expanded the sample size to seek further clarification. Subjects were assessed with the Diagnostic Interview for Genetic Studies and then stratified into two groups: with (n = 137) or without (n = 837) a previous suicide attempt. The presence of lifetime bizarre behavior (OR 1.5; 95% CI 1.12-1.87) or cannabis use or abuse (OR 1.2; 95% CI 10.01-1.47) was a significant predictor of suicide attempts, while a higher global alogia score (OR 0.84; 95% CI 0.74-0.96) was a protective factor. Our data seem to support that in this population, encouraging family members to report bizarre behavior and implementing dual diagnosis interventions for cannabis use or abuse could be an appropriate starting point toward developing a targeted suicide prevention program for further research. © 2013 The American Association of Suicidology.

  20. Risk of Suicide Attempt among Adolescents with Conduct Disorder: A Longitudinal Follow-up Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Han-Ting; Lan, Wen-Hsuan; Hsu, Ju-Wei; Bai, Ya-Mei; Huang, Kai-Lin; Su, Tung-Ping; Li, Cheng-Ta; Lin, Wei-Chen; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Chen, Mu-Hong

    2016-10-01

    To assess the independent or comorbid effect of conduct and mood disorders on the risk of suicide. The Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database was used to derive data for 3711 adolescents aged 12-17 years with conduct disorder and 14 844 age- and sex-matched controls between 2001 and 2009. The participants were followed up to the end of 2011, and those who attempted suicide during the follow-up period were identified. Adolescents with conduct disorder had a higher incidence of suicide (0.9% vs 0.1%; P conduct disorder was an independent risk factor for subsequent suicide attempts (hazard ratio, 5.17; 95% CI, 2.29-11.70). The sensitivity after those with other psychiatric comorbidities were excluded revealed a consistent finding (hazard ratio, 10.32; 95% CI, 3.71-28.71). Adolescents with conduct disorder had an increased risk of suicide attempts over the next decade. Future studies are required to clarify the underlying pathophysiology and elucidate whether prompt intervention for conduct disorder could reduce this risk. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Suicide and suicide attempts in children and adolescents in the child welfare system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Laurence Y; Au, Wendy; Singal, Deepa; Brownell, Marni; Roos, Noralou; Martens, Patricia J; Chateau, Dan; Enns, Murray W; Kozyrskyj, Anita L; Sareen, Jitender

    2011-11-22

    Few population studies have examined the psychiatric outcomes of children and adolescents in the child welfare system, and no studies have compared outcomes before and after entry into care. Our objective was to assess the relative rate (RR) of suicide, attempted suicide, admission to hospital and visits to physicians' offices among children and adolescents in care compared with those not in care. We also examined these outcomes within the child welfare population before and after entry into care. We used population-level data to identify children and adolescents 5 to 17 years of age who were in care in Manitoba for the first time between Apr. 1, 1997, and Mar. 31, 2006, and a comparison cohort not in care. We compared the two cohorts to obtain RRs for the specified outcomes. We also determined RRs within the child welfare population relative to the same population two years before entry into care. We identified 8279 children and adolescents in care for the first time and a comparison cohort of 353 050 children and adolescents not in care. Outcome rates were higher among those in care than in the comparison cohort for suicide (adjusted RR 3.54, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.11-5.95), attempted suicide (adjusted RR 2.11, 95% CI 1.84-2.43) and all other outcomes. However, adjusted RRs for attempted suicide (RR 0.27, 95% CI 0.21-0.34), admissions to hospital and physician visits decreased after entry into care. Children and adolescents in care were at greater risk of suicide and attempting suicide than those who were not in care. Rates of suicide attempts and hospital admissions within this population were highest before entry into care and decreased thereafter.

  2. Suicide attempts among children and adolescents: partial or total injury?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Alexandra Gomes Alves

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study sought to verify the records on file and the number of cases of attempted suicide among children and adolescents who were attended by Emergency Care health professionals in the municipality of Matozinhos, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Documentary and descriptive research was conducted, the data for which was collected by means of an investigation of Outpatient Records from 2008 to 2010. Of the 73,000 files evaluated, those dealing with cases of attempted suicide among children and adolescents between the age of 3 and 18 years were selected. It was revealed that the health professionals, particularly physicians and nurses, fail to register the cases appropriately, invalidating information about the problem and potential prevention measures. The conclusion reached was that underreporting and the discrepancy of the diagnoses which were not duly referred to the competent agencies require rethinking and reviewing medical practices, and taking a systematic and careful look to address the individual as a complex whole.

  3. Depressive episodes with suicide attempts in severe depression: suicides and controls differ only in the later episodes of unipolar depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brådvik, Louise; Berglund, Mats

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the distribution of suicide attempts across the depressive episodes in suicides and controls with a severe depression. A blind record evaluation was performed of 100 suicide victims and matched controls admitted to the Department of Psychiatry between 1956 and 1969 and monitored to 2006. There was a similar number of episodes in suicides and controls and in the early episodes a similar number of suicide attempts in both groups. However, in the later episodes future suicides showed more suicide attempts as compared to controls. This was found for unipolar depression only. This difference was found despite previously shown similar rates of adequate treatment and improvement. In conclusion, more depressive episodes including suicide attempts appeared to be related to suicide.

  4. The risk of depression, suicidal ideation and suicide attempt in patients with psoriasis, psoriatic arthritis or ankylosing spondylitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, J J; Penfold, R B; Primatesta, P

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Sparse information is available concerning mental health issues in psoriasis, psoriatic arthritis (PsA) and ankylosing spondylitis (AS) patients. OBJECTIVE: To estimate risk of depression, suicidal ideation and suicide attempt in patients with psoriasis, PsA and AS, respectively...... among psoriasis, PsA or AS patients. LIMITATIONS: Patients were not excluded if previously diagnosed with depression, suicidal ideation or suicide attempt. Suicide attempt and completed suicide analyses were not adjusted for presence of depression. Use of systemic psoriasis treatment to measure severe...

  5. Perceived School Climate and Chinese Adolescents' Suicidal Ideation and Suicide Attempts: The Mediating Role of Sleep Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dongping; Bao, Zhenzhou; Li, Xian; Wang, Yanhui

    2016-01-01

    Background: School factors play important roles in adolescent suicide. However, little is known about how school climate is associated with adolescent suicide. This study examined the relationship between perceived school climate and adolescent suicidal ideation and suicide attempts, and whether these relations were explained by adolescent sleep…

  6. Effect of Exposure to Suicidal Behavior on Suicide Attempt in a High-Risk Sample of Offspring of Depressed Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Ainsley K.; Galfalvy, Hanga; Everett, Benjamin; Currier, Dianne; Zelazny, Jamie; Oquendo, Maria A.; Melhem, Nadine M.; Kolko, David; Harkavy-Friedman, Jill M.; Birmaher, Boris; Stanley, Barbara; Mann, J. John; Brent, David A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Exposure to suicidal behavior in peers and relatives is thought to increase risk for suicidal behavior in vulnerable individuals, possibly as a result of imitation or modeling. This study examines exposure to suicidal behavior and likelihood of suicide attempt in a high-risk cohort of offspring of a depressed parent. Method: A total of…

  7. Suicidal Ideation of Psychiatrically Hospitalized Adolescents has One-Year Predictive Validity for Suicide Attempts in Girls Only

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Qingmei; Czyz, Ewa K.; Kerr, David C. R.

    2016-01-01

    Clinicians commonly incorporate adolescents’ self-reported suicidal ideation into formulations regarding adolescents’ risk for suicide. Data are limited, however, regarding the extent to which adolescent boys’ and girls’ reports of suicidal ideation have clinically significant predictive validity in terms of subsequent suicidal behavior. This study examined psychiatrically hospitalized adolescent boys’ and girls’ self-reported suicidal ideation as a predictor of suicide attempts during the first year following hospitalization. A total of 354 adolescents (97 boys; 257 girls; ages 13–17 years) hospitalized for acute suicide risk were evaluated at the time of hospitalization as well as 3, 6, and 12 months later. Study measures included the Suicidal Ideation Questionnaire-Junior, Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children, Children’s Depression Rating Scale-Revised, Beck Hopelessness Scale, Youth Self-Report, and Personal Experiences Screen Questionnaire. The main study outcome was presence and number of suicide attempt(s) in the year after hospitalization, measured by the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children. Results indicated a significant interaction between suicidal ideation, assessed during first week of hospitalization, and gender for the prediction of subsequent suicide attempts. Suicidal ideation was a significant predictor of subsequent suicide attempts for girls, but not boys. Baseline history of multiple suicide attempts was a significant predictor of subsequent suicide attempts across genders. Results support the importance of empirically validating suicide risk assessment strategies separately for adolescent boys and girls. Among adolescent boys who have been hospitalized due to acute suicide risk, low levels of self-reported suicidal ideation may not be indicative of low risk for suicidal behavior following hospitalization. PMID:23996157

  8. Lack of Association between Toxocara Exposure and Suicide Attempts in Psychiatric Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Hernández-Tinoco, Jesús; Sánchez-Anguiano, Luis Francisco

    2015-01-01

    Infection with Toxocara may affect the central nervous system. A high seroprevalence of Toxocara infection has been reported in psychiatric patients. To the best of our knowledge, there is no previous report about an association of Toxocara infection with suicide attempts. Therefore, we sought to determine whether Toxocara exposure is associated with suicide attempts in psychiatric patients. We studied 282 psychiatric outpatients (156 with suicide attempts and 126 without suicide attempts). S...

  9. Suicidal ideation and suicide attempts among middle-aged and older patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders and concurrent subsyndromal depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montross, Lori P; Kasckow, John; Golshan, Shahrokh; Solorzano, Ellen; Lehman, David; Zisook, Sidney

    2008-12-01

    This study examines the prevalence and correlates of current suicidal ideation and past suicide attempts among patients aged 40 and older with schizophrenia spectrum disorders and concurrent depressive symptoms. Nearly half the sample (n = 132) reported having attempted suicide once or more in their lifetime; those who had attempted, exhibited greater depression and psychopathology. A regression analysis revealed that only past suicide attempts and hopelessness significantly accounted for the presence of current suicidal ideation. Surprisingly, current suicidal ideation did not differ by diagnosis, race/ethnicity, marital status, living situation, age, education, or severity of medical illness. Overall, suicidal ideation and the presence of past suicide attempts were remarkably prevalent, highlighting the need for continued clinical vigilance with this patient population. The impact of hopelessness and general psychopathology, as well as the insignificance of demographic characteristics and medical illness severity warrant further investigation.

  10. Longitudinal Trajectories of Suicidal Ideation and Subsequent Suicide Attempts among Adolescent Inpatients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czyz, E.K.; King, C.A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective A period of particularly high risk for suicide attempts among adolescent inpatients is within 12 months after discharge. However, little is known about longitudinal trajectories of suicidal ideation in this high-risk group and how these relate to post-hospitalization suicide attempts and rehospitalizations. Our objectives were to identify these trajectories and examine their relationships with post-hospitalization psychiatric crises. We also examined predictors of trajectory group membership. Method Participants (N=376; ages 13-17; 72% females) were assessed at hospitalization and 3, 6, and 12 months later. Trajectory groups, and their predictors, were identified with latent class growth modeling. We used logistic regression to examine associations between trajectory groups and likelihood of suicide attempts and rehospitalization, controlling for attempt history. Results Three trajectory groups were identified: (1) subclinical ideators (31.6%); (2) elevated ideators with rapidly declining ideation (57.4%); and (3) chronically elevated ideators (10.9%). Adolescents in the chronically elevated ideation group had 2.29[(CI=1.08,4.85), p=0.03] and 4.15[(CI=1.65,10.44), psuicide and 3.23[(CI=1.37,7.69), p=0.01] and 11.20[(CI=4.33,29.01), psuicidal ideation. Conclusions Results suggest that suicidal ideation severity at hospitalization may not be an adequate marker for subsequent suicidal crises. It is important to identify adolescents vulnerable to persisting suicidal ideation, as they are at highest risk of psychiatric crises. Addressing hopelessness may facilitate faster declines in ideation after hospitalization. Results also highlight a need for consistent monitoring of these adolescents' suicidal ideation after discharge. PMID:24079705

  11. Social Class Status and Suicide Characteristics: A Survey among Patients Who Attempted Suicide in Isfahan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyvanara, Mahmoud; Mousavi, Seyed Ghafour; Karami, Zahra

    2013-01-01

    Suicide is one of the most prominent problems in health care system in current Iran. It could be impacted by various factors such as social, economic, individual and so on. Researchers show that socio-economic factors and suicide has significantly related. The people in low social class may more engage with social problems than higher social class. They may confront to problems such as crime, violence, unemployment, financial hardship, population density, disorder personality, etc. However, these difficulties could be resulted from relationship of inequality socio-economic and mental or physical health. This research attempted to examine social class status and its relationship with parts of suicide characteristics. This study applied a descriptive approach. In the cross-sectional research 179 patients who attempted suicide and admitted to the toxicology ward of Nour hospital and to the burning ward of Imam Mousa Kazem hospital, in Isfahan, during a period of 6 months in 2010 were recruited. The randomize sampling for patients admitted to toxicology ward and census for burning ward are applied. Data collected through a questionnaire which Chronbagh coefficient's alpha was calculated (r= 0/72). Data was analyzed in SPSS software. The data showed that the majority of patients who attempted suicide were young married women who had diploma and under diploma of level education. They were housewife, engaged in education and unemployment. Finding showed that there are no significant relationships between sex, age, marital status, frequency of attempted suicide and their social class. But there is significant relationship between methods of suicide and social class. Similarly, there are significant relationship between social factors (i.e. family friction, betrothal, unemployment, financial problems and so on) effected on suicide and their social classes. Parts of findings were supported by previous studies.

  12. Characteristics of Adolescent Suicide Attempters Admitted to an Acute Psychiatric Ward in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Ning Chiou

    2006-09-01

    Conclusion: Our study confirms some previous Western reports that adolescents with depressive disorders commonly manifest suicide attempts. There are, however, some cultural differences in risk factors. School-related problems play an important role in Taiwan among the adolescent suicides, and prior suicide attempts predict future suicidal behavior. Enhancing school-based screening for adolescents with suicide risk and transferring them to psychiatric professionals for intervention is important. We should focus suicide prevention resources mainly on the adolescent population with psychiatric illness, prior suicide attempts, and with high risk factors.

  13. Religion as a Risk Factor for Suicide Attempt and Suicide Ideation Among Depressed Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Ryan E; Brent, David; Mann, J John; Burke, Ainsley K; Grunebaum, Michael F; Galfalvy, Hanga C; Oquendo, Maria A

    2016-11-01

    We aimed to examine the relationship between religion and suicide attempt and ideation. Three hundred twenty-one depressed patients were recruited from mood-disorder research studies at the New York State Psychiatric Institute. Participants were interviewed using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM Disorders, Columbia University Suicide History form, Scale for Suicide Ideation, and Reasons for Living Inventory. Participants were asked about their religious affiliation, importance of religion, and religious service attendance. We found that past suicide attempts were more common among depressed patients with a religious affiliation (odds ratio, 2.25; p = 0.007). Suicide ideation was greater among depressed patients who considered religion more important (coefficient, 1.18; p = 0.026) and those who attended services more frequently (coefficient, 1.99; p = 0.001). We conclude that the relationship between religion and suicide risk factors is complex and can vary among different patient populations. Physicians should seek deeper understanding of the role of religion in an individual patient's life in order to understand the person's suicide risk factors more fully.

  14. Alcohol, cannabis and other drugs and subsequent suicide ideation and attempt among young Mexicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Guilherme; Benjet, Corina; Orozco, Ricardo; Medina-Mora, Maria-Elena; Menendez, David

    2017-08-01

    To report results from a follow-up study of alcohol, cannabis and other drugs on suicidal behavior. We estimated prospective associations of substance use as a risk factor for incident suicide ideation and attempt, from a follow-up conducted in 2013 (n = 1071) of the original Mexican Adolescent Mental Health Survey conducted in 2005. Cannabis use before age 15 (ideation risk ratio (RR) = 3.97; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.43-11.03; attempt RR = 5.23; 95% CI = 1.17-23.32), early onset of DSM-IV drug use disorder (DUD) among cannabis users (ideation RR = 3.30; 95% CI = 1.11-9.84; attempt RR = 4.14; 95% CI = 1.28-13.36), high frequency of cannabis use (RR for attempts = 4.60; 1.03-20.60) and recent DSM-IV-DUD among cannabis users (RR for attempts = 4.74; 1.09-20.57) increased the RR. For "other drug use", significant results were found among those with high frequency use of other drugs such that they had a higher RR of suicide attempt (5.04; 1.03-24.64). For alcohol, only those who initiated alcohol before age 15 had higher RRs of suicide attempt (1.79; 1.00-3.20). Those who used cannabis at an early age, early onset of DSM-IV-DUD, and those with heavy cannabis use and recent DSM-IV-DUD among cannabis users in the last 12-months had increased risk of suicide ideation and attempt. Drugs other than cannabis showed some of these associations, but to a lesser degree. Prevention of substance use and treatment of those already engaged in drug use, by decreasing suicide ideation and attempt, may help to prevent suicide in Mexico. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Gender differences in suicide attempters: a retrospective study of precipitating factors for suicide attempts at a critical emergency unit in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narishige, Ryuichiro; Kawashima, Yoshitaka; Otaka, Yasushi; Saito, Takuya; Okubo, Yoshiro

    2014-05-19

    There is a shortage of empirical data concerning precipitating factors for suicides in Japan. The purpose of the present study was to clarify gender differences of precipitating factors for suicide attempts in Japan. The subjects were high-lethality suicide attempters who were admitted to the Nippon Medical School Hospital Critical Care Medical Center between March 1, 2010 and March 31, 2012. Precipitating factors for suicide attempt, method of suicide attempt, psychiatric diagnoses and other sociodemographic data were collected from the patients' medical records retrospectively, and statistical analyses were performed for categorical variables of male/female. The total number of subjects was 193 (88 males and 105 females). The rate of subjects attempting suicide by poisonous gas was significantly higher in males while that of subjects attempting suicide by drug overdose was significantly higher in females. The rate of subjects diagnosed with "major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder" was significantly higher in males while that of subjects diagnosed with "personality disorders" or "dysthymic disorder" was significantly higher in females. Subjects with "health problems", "financial problems", "work problems", "debts (others)" or "unwanted transfer" were significantly more numerous among males; subjects with "family problems", "parent-child relations" or "loneliness" were significantly more frequently found among females. Mental disorders were the most common precipitating factor for suicide attempts regardless of gender. Significant gender differences were observed in psychiatric diagnoses, methods of suicide attempt and psychosocial problems. This indicates the necessity of suicide prevention measures corresponding to these gender differences.

  16. Recommended care for young people (15-19 years) after suicide attempts in certain European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerkhof, A.J.F.M.; Hulten, A.; Wasserman, D.; Hawton, K.

    2000-01-01

    Abstract Data on recommended care for young people aged 15±19 years after attempted suicide from nine European research centres dur- ing the period 1989±1992 were ana- lysed in terms of gender, history of previous suicide attempt and meth- ods used. Altogether 438 suicide attempts made by 353 boys

  17. Suicide notes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, I; Farmer, R; Catalan, J

    1993-07-01

    Detailed case reports of incidents of suicide and attempted suicide on the London Underground railway system between 1985 and 1989 were examined for the presence of suicide notes. The incidence of note-leaving was 15%. Notes provided little insight into the causes of suicide as subjectively perceived, or strategies for suicide prevention.

  18. Comparison of suicide attempts in schizophrenia and major depressive disorder: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banwari, Girish H; Vankar, Ganpat K; Parikh, Minakshi N

    2013-12-01

    Schizophrenia and major depressive disorder (MDD) are among the most common psychiatric diagnoses associated with suicide. There is a dearth of published research systematically comparing suicidal behavior in schizophrenia and MDD. The present study aimed to compare suicide attempts in schizophrenia and MDD. In this hospital-based, cross-sectional study, 50 outpatients each of schizophrenia and MDD were evaluated for their sociodemographic characteristics. In subjects with a history of suicide attempt(s), additional information related to the attempt(s) was obtained. Suicide Intent Scale (SIS) was used to assess the suicidal intent and Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) was used to measure the current suicidal risk. Thirty-four percent and 44% of patients with schizophrenia and MDD, respectively, attempted suicide. The attempters in schizophrenia compared to those in MDD were younger and more likely to be single (unmarried, separated or divorced). Suicidal intent was stronger in schizophrenia, while the attempters with MDD were more often preoccupied with a death wish and reported that stressful life events influenced the attempt. There were no differences in the attempt methods of the two groups. Current suicidal risk was higher in attempters compared to the non-attempters in schizophrenia as well as MDD. Suicide attempts in schizophrenia and MDD have similar features, with quite a few notable differences, which have been discussed at length in the present paper. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  19. Gender differences in the association of agitation and suicide attempts among psychiatric inpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, Craig J; Hitschfeld, Mario J; Palmer, Brian A; Schak, Kathryn M; Roberge, Erika M; Lineberry, Timothy W

    2014-01-01

    To determine if the relationship of agitation with suicide ideation and suicide attempts differed between men and women. Self-reported severity of agitation and other suicide risk factors was obtained from 7698 consecutive patients during admission for inpatient psychiatric treatment during a 5-year period. Agitation was highest among men with a history of suicide attempts. Agitation was significantly associated with frequency of suicide ideation and history of suicide attempt, but the gender-by-suicide interaction was only significant as a predictor of suicide attempt history. For men, agitation was associated with significantly increased risk for suicide attempt, but for women, agitation was not associated with risk for suicide attempt history. Results were unchanged when analyses were repeated among the subgroup of patients with suicide ideation. Agitation is associated with history of suicide attempt among male but not female psychiatric inpatients. Agitation differentiates between those men who have only thought about suicide and those who have made suicide attempts. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Predictors of attempted suicide among Swiss patients with alcohol-use disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buri, Caroline; von Bonin, Beatrice; Strik, Werner; Moggi, Franz

    2009-09-01

    Suicide attempts are common in patients being treated for alcohol-use disorders (AUDs). However, clinical assessment of suicide risk is difficult. In this Swiss multisite study, we propose a decision tree to facilitate identification of profiles of AUD patients at high risk for suicidal behavior. In this retrospective study, we used a sample of 700 patients (243 female), attending 1 of 12 treatment programs for AUDs in the German-speaking part of Switzerland. Sixty-nine patients who reported a suicide attempt in the 3 months before the index treatment were compared using risk factors with 631 patients without a suicide attempt. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses were used to identify patients at risk of having had a suicide attempt in the previous 3 months. Consistent with previous empirical findings in AUD patients, a prior history of attempted suicide and severe symptoms of depression and aggression considerably increased the risk of a suicide attempt and, in combination, raised the likelihood of a prior suicide attempt to 52%. In addition, one third of AUD patients who had a history of suicide attempts and previous inpatient psychiatric treatment, or who were male and had previous inpatient psychiatric treatment, also reported a suicide attempt. The empirically supported decision tree helps to identify profiles of suicidal AUD patients in Switzerland and supplements clinicians' judgments in making triage decisions for suicide management.

  1. A review of factors associated with greater likelihood of suicide attempts and suicide deaths in bipolar disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaffer, Ayal; Isometsä, Erkki T; Azorin, Jean-Michel

    2015-01-01

    of current/recent episode, predominant polarity, mood episode characteristics, psychosis, psychiatric comorbidity, personality characteristics, sexual dysfunction, first-degree family history of suicide or mood disorders, past suicide attempts, early life trauma, and psychosocial precipitants. CONCLUSION......OBJECTIVES: Many factors influence the likelihood of suicide attempts or deaths in persons with bipolar disorder. One key aim of the International Society for Bipolar Disorders Task Force on Suicide was to summarize the available literature on the presence and magnitude of effect of these factors....... METHODS: A systematic review of studies published from 1 January 1980 to 30 May 2014 identified using keywords 'bipolar disorder' and 'suicide attempts or suicide'. This specific paper examined all reports on factors putatively associated with suicide attempts or suicide deaths in bipolar disorder samples...

  2. Ante- and perinatal circumstances and risk of attempted suicides and suicides in offspring: the Northern Finland birth cohort 1966 study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaräisänen, Antti; Miettunen, Jouko; Pouta, Anneli; Isohanni, Matti; Räsänen, Pirkko; Mäki, Pirjo

    2012-11-01

    To investigate those ante- and perinatal circumstances preceding suicide attempts and suicides, which have so far not been studied intensively. Examination of the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966 (n = 10,742), originally based on antenatal questionnaire data and now followed up from mid-pregnancy to age 39, to ascertain psychiatric disorders in the parents and offspring and suicides or attempted suicides in the offspring using nationwide registers. A total of 121 suicide attempts (57 males) and 69 suicides (56 males) had occurred. Previously unstudied antenatal factors (maternal depressed mood and smoking, unwanted pregnancy) were not related to these after adjustment. Psychiatric disorders in the parents and offspring were the risk factors in both genders. When adjusted for these, the statistically significant risk factors among males were a single-parent family for suicide attempts (OR 3.71, 95% CI 1.62-8.50) and grand multiparity for suicides (OR 2.67, 95% CI 1.15-6.18). When a psychiatric disorder in females was included among possible risk factors for suicide attempts, it alone remained significant (OR 15.55, 8.78-27.53). A single-parent family was a risk factor for attempted suicides and grand multiparity for suicides in male offspring even after adjusting for other ante- and perinatal circumstances and mental disorders in the parents and offspring. Mothers' antenatal depressed mood and smoking and unwanted pregnancy did not increase the risk of suicide, which is a novel finding.

  3. Epidemiological aspects of suicide attempts among Moroccan children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekaoui, Nour; Karboubi, Lamiae; Ouadghiri, Fatima Zahra; Dakhama, Badr Sououd Benjelloun

    2016-01-01

    Suicidal behavior among children has significantly increased in Morocco. We conducted a study on the epidemiological aspect to propose a treatment strategy. Descriptive retrospective study over a period of 3 years (April 2012-April 2015) involving children who visited pediatric medical emergencies of the Children Hospital of Rabat after an autolysis attempt. We observed epidemiological parameters, history, social and family context, the means used, the presumed cause, clinical manifestation, and the management. 66 patients were identified. A female predominance was found (sex =15). The average age was 13 years old. This was a first episode in 97% of cases. Psychiatric history was found in 6 patients. The causes of suicide attempt were unidentified in 65%. The most frequent cause was family conflict (35%). The most frequent method was pharmaceutical drug ingestion (54.4%). Children were asymptomatic (57.6%). Neurological manifestations (30%) were most frequent. Digestive symptoms (12%) and hemodynamic (3%) were also discovered. Patients were hospitalized in a general pediatric service 92.4% of the times, admitted to intensive care 4.5% of the times, and two patients refused to be hospitalized. The treatment consisted of gastric lavage (18%) supplemented by symptomatic measures. The outcome was favorable in 95.4% of cases. We recorded 2 deaths by rat poison poisoning. All patients were advised in writing after leaving to follow up with a psychological treatment. Suicide attempts are the result of an ill being, mostly among children living in a family with conflict. Upstream treatment is essential to identify children at risk. Additionally, a psychiatric care in hospital is essential to avoid recurrences.

  4. A Mixed Methods Approach to Identify Cognitive Warning Signs for Suicide Attempts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Abby; Bush, Ashley; Barg, Frances K; Weissinger, Guy; Beck, Aaron T; Brown, Gregory K

    2016-01-01

    This study used a mixed methods approach to examine pathways to suicidal behavior by identifying cognitive warning signs that occurred within 1 day of a suicide attempt. Transcripts of cognitive therapy sessions from 35 patients who attempted suicide were analyzed using a modified grounded theory approach. Cognitive themes emerging from these transcripts included: state hopelessness, focus on escape, suicide as a solution, fixation on suicide, and aloneness. Differences in demographic and baseline diagnostic and symptom data were explored in relation to each cognitive theme. We propose a potential conceptual model of cognitive warning signs for suicide attempts that requires further testing.

  5. Early Maladaptive Schemas in Bipolar Disorder Patients With and Without Suicide Attempts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Kristine Kahr

    2016-03-01

    Patients with bipolar disorder (BD) are at an increased risk of attempted and completed suicide. To elucidate the beliefs and assumptions associated with suicidality in BD, the present study compared BD patients with and without a history of suicide attempt in terms of early maladaptive schemas (EMSs). The sample consisted of 49 remitted BD patients who completed the Young Schema Questionnaire-Short Version. Information on suicide attempts was obtained through interviews combined with medical records. Compared with BD patients without suicide attempts, the BD patients with suicide attempts scored significantly higher on 3 EMSs: social isolation, practical incompetence, and entitlement. The findings suggest that specific EMSs may be implicated in suicidal behaviors in BD. These results have implications for the assessment and treatment of suicidality in BD.

  6. Experiences of parents whose sons or daughters have (had) attempted suicide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buus, Niels; Caspersen, Jimmy; Hansen, Rasmus

    2014-01-01

    problem and relatives are understood as playing an important role in suicide prevention; however, suicide and suicidal behaviour affect the relatives' lives profoundly, both emotionally and socially, and the psychosocial impact on families is underresearched. DESIGN: Focus groups with parents of sons......AIM: The aim of this exploratory study was to gain further insights into the experiences of parents of sons or daughters who have attempted suicide and how these parents respond to the increased psychosocial burden following the suicide attempt(s). BACKGROUND: Suicide is a major public health...... or daughters who have attempted suicide. METHODS: In January and February 2012, we interviewed two groups of parents recruited at a counselling programme for relatives of persons who have attempted suicide. The analysis combined a thematic analysis with a subsequent analysis of how the themes were negotiated...

  7. African American Children's Reports of Depressed Mood, Hopelessness, and Suicidal Ideation and Later Suicide Attempts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ialongo, Nicholas S.; Koenig-McNaught, Amy L.; Wagner, Barry M.; Pearson, Jane L.; McCreary, Beth K.; Poduska, Jeanne; Kellam, Sheppard

    2004-01-01

    This study attempted to assess whether family demographic characteristics and child aggressive behavior are equal to or better than child self-reported depressive symptoms in predicting suicidal behavior. Participants were a community population of African Americans first recruited at age 6 and followed periodically through age 19?20. Measures…

  8. The effect of seasonal changes and climatic factors on suicide attempts of young people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkaya-Kalayci, Türkan; Vyssoki, Benjamin; Winkler, Dietmar; Willeit, Matthaeus; Kapusta, Nestor D; Dorffner, Georg; Özlü-Erkilic, Zeliha

    2017-11-15

    Seasonal changes and climatic factors like ambient temperature, sunlight duration and rainfall can influence suicidal behavior. This study analyses the relationship between seasonal changes and climatic variations and suicide attempts in 2131 young patients in Istanbul, Turkey. In our study sample, there was an association between suicide attempts in youths and seasonal changes, as suicide attempts occurred most frequently during summer in females as well as in males. Furthermore, there was a positive correlation between the mean temperature over the past 10 days and temperature at the index day and suicide attempts in females. After seasonality effects were mathematically removed, the mean temperature 10 days before a suicide attempt remained significant in males only, indicating a possible short-term influence of temperature on suicide attempts. This study shows an association between suicide attempts of young people and climatic changes, in particular temperature changes as well as seasonal changes. Therefore, the influence of seasonal changes and climatic factors on young suicide attempters should get more attention in research to understand the biopsychosocial mechanisms playing a role in suicide attempts of young people. As suicide attempts most frequently occur in young people, further research is of considerable clinical importance.

  9. Clinical characteristics in schizophrenia patients with or without suicide attempts and non-suicidal self-harm--a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mork, Erlend; Walby, Fredrik A; Harkavy-Friedman, Jill M; Barrett, Elizabeth A; Steen, Nils E; Lorentzen, Steinar; Andreassen, Ole A; Melle, Ingrid; Mehlum, Lars

    2013-10-09

    To investigate whether schizophrenia patients with both suicide attempts and non-suicidal self-harm have earlier age of onset of psychotic and depressive symptoms and higher levels of clinical symptoms compared to patients with only suicide attempts or without suicide attempt. Using a cross-sectional design, 251 patients (18-61 years old, 58% men) with schizophrenia treated at hospitals in Oslo and Innlandet Hospital Trust, Norway, were assessed with a comprehensive clinical research protocol and divided into three groups based on their history of suicide attempts and non-suicidal self-harm. Suicide attempts were present in 88 patients (35%); 52 had suicide attempts only (29%) and 36 had both suicide attempts and non-suicidal self-harm (14%). When compared with nonattempters and those with suicide attempts without non-suicidal self-harm, patients with both suicide attempts and non-suicidal self-harm were more frequently women, younger at the onset of psychotic symptoms, had longer duration of untreated psychosis, and had higher levels of current impulsivity/aggression and depression. Patients with both suicide attempts and non-suicidal self-harm were more likely to repeat suicide attempts than patients with suicide attempts only. Patients with both suicide attempts and non-suicidal self-harm had different illness history and clinical characteristics compared to patients with only suicide attempts or patients without suicidal behavior. Our study suggests that patients with both suicide attempts and non-suicidal self-harm represent a distinct subgroup among patients with schizophrenia and suicidal behavior with their early onset of psychotic symptoms, high rate of repeated suicidal behavior and significant treatment delay.

  10. Clinical characteristics in schizophrenia patients with or without suicide attempts and non-suicidal self-harm - a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background To investigate whether schizophrenia patients with both suicide attempts and non-suicidal self-harm have earlier age of onset of psychotic and depressive symptoms and higher levels of clinical symptoms compared to patients with only suicide attempts or without suicide attempt. Methods Using a cross-sectional design, 251 patients (18–61 years old, 58% men) with schizophrenia treated at hospitals in Oslo and Innlandet Hospital Trust, Norway, were assessed with a comprehensive clinical research protocol and divided into three groups based on their history of suicide attempts and non-suicidal self-harm. Results Suicide attempts were present in 88 patients (35%); 52 had suicide attempts only (29%) and 36 had both suicide attempts and non-suicidal self-harm (14%). When compared with nonattempters and those with suicide attempts without non-suicidal self-harm, patients with both suicide attempts and non-suicidal self-harm were more frequently women, younger at the onset of psychotic symptoms, had longer duration of untreated psychosis, and had higher levels of current impulsivity/aggression and depression. Patients with both suicide attempts and non-suicidal self-harm were more likely to repeat suicide attempts than patients with suicide attempts only. Conclusions Patients with both suicide attempts and non-suicidal self-harm had different illness history and clinical characteristics compared to patients with only suicide attempts or patients without suicidal behavior. Our study suggests that patients with both suicide attempts and non-suicidal self-harm represent a distinct subgroup among patients with schizophrenia and suicidal behavior with their early onset of psychotic symptoms, high rate of repeated suicidal behavior and significant treatment delay. PMID:24106884

  11. Suicide Attempts among Individuals with Specific Learning Disorders: An Underrecognized Issue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller-Thomson, Esme; Carroll, Samara Z.; Yang, Wook

    2018-01-01

    Several studies have linked specific learning disorders (SLDs) with suicidal ideation, but less is known about the disorders' association with suicide attempts. This gap in the literature is addressed via the 2012 nationally representative Canadian Community Health Survey (n = 21,744). The prevalence of lifetime suicide attempts among those with…

  12. Prevalence and correlates of suicidal ideation and attempts among children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampasa-Kanyinga, Hugues; Dupuis, Lorette C; Ray, Robin

    2017-04-01

    Suicide is a potentially preventable public health issue. It is therefore important to examine its immediate precursors, including suicidal ideation and attempts, to help in the development of future public health interventions. The present study reports the prevalence of suicidal ideation and attempts in the past 12 months in children and adolescents and identifies correlates of such behaviors in a large and diverse sample of middle and high school students. Data were drawn from a representative sample of Ottawa students (n=1922) aged 11-20 years (14.4±1.9 years) from three cycles (2009, 2011 and 2013) of the Ontario Student Drug Use and Health Survey (OSDUHS), a cross-sectional school-based appraisal of students in grades 7-12 across Ontario, Canada. Overall, 10.8% of students exhibited suicidal ideation and 3.0% reported suicide attempts in the past 12 months. The conditional probability of making an attempt was 25.5% among suicide ideators. Multivariable analyses indicated that being a girl and using alcohol and cannabis were positively associated with suicidal ideation, while tobacco was positively associated with suicide attempts. Being a victim of school bullying was significantly associated with reports of suicidal ideation and attempts, whereas school connectedness had protective effects against both suicidal ideation and attempts. These results indicate that suicidal ideation and attempts are related to other risky behaviors. Suicide-prevention efforts should be integrated within broader health-promoting initiatives.

  13. The Relation of Mood and Behavior to Alcohol Use in Adolescent Suicide Attempters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spirito, Anthony; Mehlenbeck, Robyn; Barnett, Nancy; Lewander, William; Voss, Alexis

    2003-01-01

    Substance use is an important risk factor for suicidal behavior in adolescence. In this study, rates of substance use in a sample of adolescents who had attempted suicide were examined as were the relationships of mood state and behavior problems to substance use. Results suggest that alcohol use among suicide attempters is more strongly related…

  14. Characteristics of suicide attempts in anorexia and bulimia nervosa: a case-control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Guillaume

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Compared to other eating disorders, anorexia nervosa (AN has the highest rates of completed suicide whereas suicide attempt rates are similar or lower than in bulimia nervosa (BN. Attempted suicide is a key predictor of suicide, thus this mismatch is intriguing. We sought to explore whether the clinical characteristics of suicidal acts differ between suicide attempters with AN, BN or without an eating disorders (ED. METHOD: Case-control study in a cohort of suicide attempters (n = 1563. Forty-four patients with AN and 71 with BN were compared with 235 non-ED attempters matched for sex, age and education, using interview measures of suicidal intent and severity. RESULTS: AN patients were more likely to have made a serious attempt (OR = 3.4, 95% CI 1.4-7.9, with a higher expectation of dying (OR = 3.7,95% CI 1.1-13.5, and an increased risk of severity (OR = 3.4,95% CI 1.2-9.6. BN patients did not differ from the control group. Clinical markers of the severity of ED were associated with the seriousness of the attempt. CONCLUSION: There are distinct features of suicide attempts in AN. This may explain the higher suicide rates in AN. Higher completed suicide rates in AN may be partially explained by AN patients' higher desire to die and their more severe and lethal attempts.

  15. Increased fear-potentiated startle in major depressive disorder patients with lifetime history of suicide attempt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, Elizabeth D; Ionescu, Dawn F; Vande Voort, Jennifer L; Slonena, Elizabeth E; Franco-Chaves, Jose A; Zarate, Carlos A; Grillon, Christian

    2014-06-01

    Suicide is a common reason for psychiatric emergency and morbidity, with few effective treatments. Anxiety symptoms have emerged as potential modifiable risk factors in the time before a suicide attempt, but few studies have been conducted using laboratory measures of fear and anxiety. We operationally defined fear and anxiety as increased startle reactivity during anticipation of predictable (fear-potentiated startle) and unpredictable (anxiety-potentiated startle) shock. We hypothesized that a lifetime history of suicide attempt (as compared to history of no suicide attempt) would be associated with increased fear-potentiated startle. A post-hoc analysis of fear- and anxiety-potentiated startle was conducted in 28 medication-free patients with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) divided according to suicide attempt history. The magnitude of fear-potentiated startle was increased in depressed patients with lifetime suicide attempts compared to those without a lifetime history of suicide attempt (F(1,26)=5.629, p=.025). There was no difference in anxiety-potentiated startle by suicide attempt history. This is a post-hoc analysis of previously analyzed patient data from a study of depressed inpatients. Further replication of the finding with a larger patient sample is indicated. Increased fear-potentiated startle in suicide attempters suggests the role of amygdala in depressed patients with a suicide attempt history. Findings highlight the importance of anxiety symptoms in the treatment of patients at increased suicide risk. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. A STUDY OF PSYCHOSOCIAL AND CLINICAL FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH ADOLESCENT SUICIDE ATTEMPTS

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, C.T. Sudir; Chandrasekaran, R.

    2000-01-01

    There is a good deal of research showing that suicide attempts increase markedly during adolescence. This study aims at studying the demographic and clinical variables of adolescent suicide attempters and comparing certain potential risk factors between adolescent and adult suicide attempters. It was found that adolescents in our study sample differ significantly from adults in the levels of depression, hopelessness, lethality of attempt and stressful life events. These findings are important...

  17. Risk for attempted suicide in children and youths after contact with somatic hospitals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Erik; Stenager, E

    2012-01-01

    A range of studies have found an association between some somatic diseases and increased risk of suicide and attempted suicide. These studies are mostly analyses of adult populations and illnesses related to adulthood....

  18. Suicide Attempt Risk in Youths: Utility of the Harkavy-Asnis Suicide Scale for Monitoring Risk Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asarnow, Joan; McArthur, David; Hughes, Jennifer; Barbery, Veronica; Berk, Michele

    2012-01-01

    The Harkavy-Asnis Suicide Scale (HASS), one of the few self-report scales assessing suicidal behavior was evaluated and ideation, was evaluated and predictors of suicide attempts (SAs) were identified with the goal of developing a model that clinicians can use for monitoring SA risk. Participants were 131 pediatric emergency department (ED)…

  19. Suicidal ideation, suicide attempt, and occupations among employed adults aged 18–64 years in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Beth; Crosby, Alex E.; Ortega, LaVonne A.G.; Parks, Sharyn E.; Compton, Wilson M.; Gfroerer, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Objective Approximately 70% of all US suicides are among working-age adults. This study was to determine whether and how 12-month suicidal ideation and suicide attempt were associated with specific occupations among currently employed adults aged 18–64 in the U.S. Methods Data were from 184,300 currently employed adults who participated in the 2008–2013 National Surveys on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH). NSDUH provides nationally representative data on suicidal ideation and suicide attempt. Descriptive analyses and multivariable logistic regressions were conducted. Results Among currently employed adults aged 18–64 in the U.S., 3.5% had suicidal ideation in the past 12 months (3.1% had suicidal ideation only, and 0.4% had suicidal ideation and attempted suicide). Compared with adults in farming, fishing, and forestry occupations (model adjusted prevalence (MAP) = 1.6%), adults in the following occupations were 3.0–3.6 times more likely to have suicidal ideation in the past year (model adjusted relative risks (MARRs) = 3.0–3.6): lawyers, judges, and legal support workers (MAP = 4.8%), social scientists and related workers (MAP = 5.4%), and media and communication workers (MAP = 5.8%). Conclusions Among employed adults aged 18–64 in the U.S., the 12-month prevalence of suicidal ideation varies by occupations. Adults in occupations that are at elevated risk for suicidal ideation may warrant focused suicide prevention. PMID:26995251

  20. [Adolescence, substance abuse and suicide attempt by jumping from a window].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Pourtalès, Marie-Atéa; Hazen, Constance; Cottencin, Olivier; Consoli, Silla M

    2010-02-01

    Suicide represents, in France, the second cause of death in youth aged 15 to 24. Sixteen per cent of juvenile mortality is attributable to suicide. The annual incidence of suicide attempts in this age group is estimated at about 40 000 cases. Jumping from high represents 6% of deaths from suicide: girls resort to this method twice as often as boys. The severity of somatic consequences and the frequency of sequels following a jumping from a window can hold center stage for a long time, at the risk of trivializing the psychopathology underlying such a violent acting-out. These clinical situations particularly involve a multidisciplinary follow up including an early and active participation of psychiatric consultation-liaison teams. Jumping from a window can occur even apart from established mental disorders, such as psychotic or mood disorders. Our four case-reports draw attention to risk factors represented by: substance abuse (alcohol, cannabis, but also cocaine, ecstasy...), the notion of previous suicide attempts and various drive disorders having a self-harm value or displaying an underlying impulsiveness (eating disorders, scarifications, shoplifting, running away...), the precipitating role of a recent loss of a parent or an important removal from family environment, the potential influence, especially in this age group, of spectacular cases of suicide amplified by the Medias ("Werther effect"). Paradoxically, to belong to a well-off milieu can also contribute to the risk of such acting-out, when parents replace affection and availability by an easy access to various consumer goods and a permissive education, thus opening the way to the encounter with different substances. Copyright 2009. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  1. Religiosity/spirituality: Relationships with non-suicidal self-harm behaviors and attempted suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansone, Randy A; Wiederman, Michael W

    2015-12-01

    The relationships between religiosity/spirituality (RS) and self-harm behavior, including non-suicidal self-harm behavior (NS-SHB) and suicide attempts/completions, remain of keen interest. Whereas the majority of studies strongly suggest that RS protects against suicide attempts/completions, relationships between RS and NS-SHB have been rarely studied. In this study, we examined RS in relationship to both NS-SHB (six explicit behaviors) and past history of suicide attempts. In a cross-sectional sample of 306 consecutive primary care outpatients, we administered four self-report assessments for RS (extent participant considered self a religious person, extent participant considered self a spiritual person, extent religion is involved in understanding/dealing with stressful situations, Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Spiritual Well-Being Scale (FACIT-Sp-12)) as well as examined seven items on the Self-Harm Inventory: six items reflecting NS-SHB and one item reflecting a past suicide attempt. While two RS items yielded no significant findings (extent participant considered self a spiritual person, extent religion is involved in understanding/dealing with stressful situations), the remaining two items were associated with a lowered risk of self-harm behavior, particularly the FACIT-Sp-12. Some but not all aspects of RS are associated with lowered risk for self-harm. In this study, considering oneself a religious person and reporting a general sense of RS well-being offered the most protective effect to participants, particularly the latter. © The Author(s) 2015.

  2. Sociodemographic profile, clinical factors, and mode of attempt in suicide attempters in consultation liaison psychiatry in a tertiary care center

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    Santosh Ramdurg

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The objective was to study the sociodemographic data, psychiatric disorder, precipitating events, and mode of attempt in suicide attempted patients referred to consultation liaison psychiatric services. Settings and Design: A prospective study of 6-month duration was done in a tertiary care center in India. Materials and Methods: During the 6-month period all referrals were screened for the presence of suicide attempters in consultation liaison services. Those who fulfilled the criteria for suicide attempters were evaluated by using semistructured pro forma containing sociodemographic data, precipitating events, mode of attempt, and psychiatric diagnosis by using ICD-10. Results: The male-to-female ratio was similar. Adult age, urban background, employed, matriculation educated were more represented in this study. More than 80% of all attempters had psychiatric disorder. Majority had a precipitating event prior to suicide attempt. The most common method of attempt was by use of corrosive. Conclusions: Majority of suicide attempter patients had mental illness. Early identification and treatment of these disorders would have prevented morbidity and mortality associated with this. There is a need of proper education of relatives about keeping corrosive and other poisonous material away from patients as it was being commonest mode of attempt.

  3. Children at Risk for Suicide Attempt and Attempt-related Injuries: Findings from the 2007 Youth Risk Behavior Survey

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    West, Bethany A

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The current study examines the associations between a range of risk factors and reports of suicide attempts, and attempts requiring medical care in a nationally representative study of high school students. The goal is to examine sex differences in the risk factors that are associated with suicide attempts and attempt-related injuries requiring treatment by a health-care provider. Methods: Data from the 2007 Youth Risk Behavior Survey for students in grades 9-12 were used to assess the prevalence and risk factors for suicidal behavior as well as differences in these for boys and girls. Cross-sectional multivariate logistic regression analyses were computed to determine the most important risk factors for suicide attempts and for suicide attempts requiring medical care for the sample overall and also stratified for boys and for girls. Results: Overall, 6.9% of adolescents attempted suicide (9.3% of girls versus 4.6% of boys. Girls were more likely than boys to report a suicide attempt in the past year (Adj.OR=2.89. Among girls, sadness (Adj.OR=5.74, weapon carrying (Adj.OR=1.48, dating violence (Adj.OR=1.60, forced sex (Adj.OR=1.72, and huffing glue (Adj.OR=2.04 were significantly associated with suicide attempts. Among boys, sadness (Adj.OR=10.96, weapon carrying (Adj.OR=1.66, forced sex (Adj.OR=2.60, huffing glue (OR=1.63, hard drug use (Adj.OR=2.18, and sports involvement (Adj.OR=1.52 were significantly associated with suicide attempts. Conclusions: These findings demonstrate similarities and differences in terms of the modifiable risk factors that increase risk for suicide attempts among boys and girls. In terms of the differences between boys and girls, hard drug use and sports involvement may be important factors for suicide prevention strategies that are directed specifically towards boys, while dating violence victimization may be an important risk factor to address for girls. Overall, these findings can help guide prevention

  4. Extreme obesity is associated with suicidal behavior and suicide attempts in adults: results of a population-based representative sample.

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    Wagner, Birgit; Klinitzke, Grit; Brähler, Elmar; Kersting, Anette

    2013-10-01

    A number of studies have revealed that the number of completed suicides decreases with increasing body mass index (BMI). However, only few studies have evaluated the association between suicidal behavior, suicide attempts, and the various BMI categories. The aim of this study was to determine whether obesity is positively associated with increased suicide attempts and suicidal behavior with consideration of gender differences. In a representative German population-based sample (N = 2436), interviews were conducted in 2011 to examine the prevalence of suicide attempts and suicidal behavior in participants in the different BMI categories. Logistic regression analyses were conducted for suicidal behavior and suicide attempts to examine the association between obesity status and suicidality, controlling for confounding variables. Suicidal behavior was assessed by the Suicidal Behaviors Questionnaire-Revised (SBQ-R), which is a four-item self-report measure of suicidal thoughts and past attempts. BMI was calculated from participants' self-reported height and weight. Analyses revealed that extremely obese participants (BMI ≥ 40.0) had a prevalence rate of suicidal behavior of 33% for female respondents and 13% for male respondents and rates for suicide attempts of 27% for female and 13% for male respondents. No significant gender differences could be found for any of the weight categories. Furthermore, adjusted odd ratios (AOR) showed a significant difference in suicidal behavior in class I obesity (OR, 3.02 [1.50-6.08] and class III obesity (OR, 21.22 [6.51-69.20]. AORs for suicide attempts showed significantly greater odds for class I obesity (OR, 3.49 [1.76-6.90] and class III obesity (OR, 12.43 [3.87-39.86] compared to the normal weight group. These results support a positive relationship between suicidal behavior, suicide attempts, and obesity. However contrary to previous findings, no gender differences were found. The findings support the introduction of

  5. Predicting the likelihood of suicide attempts for rural outpatients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jwo-Leun; Ma, Wei-Fen; Yen, Wen-Jiuan; Huang, Xuan-Yi; Chiang, Li-Chi

    2012-10-01

    To explore suicide predictors in rural outpatients with schizophrenia. Background.  Suicide is a major cause of mortality in patients with schizophrenia. Evidence indicates that patients in rural areas are at high risk for inadequate health care services. However, information is limited on suicide risk in outpatients with schizophrenia in rural areas. Cross-sectional survey. Data were collected on individuals enrolled in the 2007 Taiwan National Health Insurance program as diagnosed with schizophrenia, ≥ 18 years, and living in a rural county. Eligible individuals (n=1655) were assessed by 12 community-based nurses at 12 public health centres. Participants' personal information was retrieved from National Health Insurance records using a personal data sheet, and treatment experiences were obtained by interviewing patients with a 10-item risk-assessment inventory. Data were collected over 18 months (2007-2008) and analysed by descriptive statistics and regression analyses. Risk of suicide attempt in the previous year had four significant predictors: number of self-harm incidents during the previous year, violent incidents towards others during the previous year, number of follow-ups by mental health clinics and number of involuntary hospitalisations during the previous year (R(2) = 0.337, adjusted R(2) = 0.334, F=133.19, p=0.000). Health care providers should assess rural outpatients with schizophrenia for suicidal thoughts by asking simple questions to evaluate for a history of self-harm and violence and by comparing this information with health system data on follow-ups by mental health clinics and involuntary hospitalisations. Community-based health providers may use these results to prioritise assessments when they have a high case load of patients with schizophrenia. Community-based nurses need to be trained to recognise these four predictors to increase their sensitivity to suicidality among patients with schizophrenia. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. Methods of suicide predict the risks and method-switching of subsequent suicide attempts: a community cohort study in Taiwan

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    Huang YC

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Yu-Chi Huang,1 Ya-Wen Wu,2 Chih-Ken Chen,3 Liang-Jen Wang41Department of Psychiatry, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Kaohsiung, Taiwan; 2Department of Psychiatry, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Keelung, Taiwan; 3Department of Psychiatry, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Keelung and Chang Gung University School of Medicine, Taoyuan, Taiwan; 4Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Kaohsiung, TaiwanObjective: Suicide is a major public health concern. This study aimed to determine the predictors of repeated suicide attempts, focusing on whether lethality level of the suicidal method predicts the risk of subsequent suicide attempts.Methods: All consecutive individuals (N=2,070 with an episode of nonfatal self-harm registered in a surveillance database provided by the Department of Health of Keelung City Government in Taiwan from January 1, 2006 to December 31, 2010 were enrolled and followed up until the end of 2011. The earliest attempt recorded in the database was defined as the index attempt. Subjects were classified according to suicide method into low-lethal and high-lethal groups. Data on time of and methods chosen for subsequent suicide attempts during the follow-up period were analyzed.Results: Of the total people screened for the study, 18.1% made a repeated suicide attempt. Subjects in the high-lethal group were more likely to be male; aged 35–64 years; and single, divorced, or widowed. Compared to other time intervals, most subsequent suicide attempts occurred within 6 months from the index attempt. The independent predictors for repeated suicide attempts were the use of low-lethal methods in the index attempt and being 35–49 years old. Using high-lethal methods and being older than 50 years were associated with changing suicide method for the second attempt.Conclusion: Lethality level of

  7. A Novel Brief Therapy for Patients Who Attempt Suicide: A 24-months Follow-Up Randomized Controlled Study of the Attempted Suicide Short Intervention Program (ASSIP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gysin-Maillart, Anja; Schwab, Simon; Soravia, Leila; Megert, Millie; Michel, Konrad

    2016-03-01

    Attempted suicide is the main risk factor for suicide and repeated suicide attempts. However, the evidence for follow-up treatments reducing suicidal behavior in these patients is limited. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of the Attempted Suicide Short Intervention Program (ASSIP) in reducing suicidal behavior. ASSIP is a novel brief therapy based on a patient-centered model of suicidal behavior, with an emphasis on early therapeutic alliance. Patients who had recently attempted suicide were randomly allocated to treatment as usual (n = 60) or treatment as usual plus ASSIP (n = 60). ASSIP participants received three therapy sessions followed by regular contact through personalized letters over 24 months. Participants considered to be at high risk of suicide were included, 63% were diagnosed with an affective disorder, and 50% had a history of prior suicide attempts. Clinical exclusion criteria were habitual self-harm, serious cognitive impairment, and psychotic disorder. Study participants completed a set of psychosocial and clinical questionnaires every 6 months over a 24-month follow-up period. The study represents a real-world clinical setting at an outpatient clinic of a university hospital of psychiatry. The primary outcome measure was repeat suicide attempts during the 24-month follow-up period. Secondary outcome measures were suicidal ideation, depression, and health-care utilization. Furthermore, effects of prior suicide attempts, depression at baseline, diagnosis, and therapeutic alliance on outcome were investigated. During the 24-month follow-up period, five repeat suicide attempts were recorded in the ASSIP group and 41 attempts in the control group. The rates of participants reattempting suicide at least once were 8.3% (n = 5) and 26.7% (n = 16). ASSIP was associated with an approximately 80% reduced risk of participants making at least one repeat suicide attempt (Wald χ21 = 13.1, 95% CI 12.4-13.7, p rated therapeutic

  8. A Novel Brief Therapy for Patients Who Attempt Suicide: A 24-months Follow-Up Randomized Controlled Study of the Attempted Suicide Short Intervention Program (ASSIP.

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    Anja Gysin-Maillart

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Attempted suicide is the main risk factor for suicide and repeated suicide attempts. However, the evidence for follow-up treatments reducing suicidal behavior in these patients is limited. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of the Attempted Suicide Short Intervention Program (ASSIP in reducing suicidal behavior. ASSIP is a novel brief therapy based on a patient-centered model of suicidal behavior, with an emphasis on early therapeutic alliance.Patients who had recently attempted suicide were randomly allocated to treatment as usual (n = 60 or treatment as usual plus ASSIP (n = 60. ASSIP participants received three therapy sessions followed by regular contact through personalized letters over 24 months. Participants considered to be at high risk of suicide were included, 63% were diagnosed with an affective disorder, and 50% had a history of prior suicide attempts. Clinical exclusion criteria were habitual self-harm, serious cognitive impairment, and psychotic disorder. Study participants completed a set of psychosocial and clinical questionnaires every 6 months over a 24-month follow-up period. The study represents a real-world clinical setting at an outpatient clinic of a university hospital of psychiatry. The primary outcome measure was repeat suicide attempts during the 24-month follow-up period. Secondary outcome measures were suicidal ideation, depression, and health-care utilization. Furthermore, effects of prior suicide attempts, depression at baseline, diagnosis, and therapeutic alliance on outcome were investigated. During the 24-month follow-up period, five repeat suicide attempts were recorded in the ASSIP group and 41 attempts in the control group. The rates of participants reattempting suicide at least once were 8.3% (n = 5 and 26.7% (n = 16. ASSIP was associated with an approximately 80% reduced risk of participants making at least one repeat suicide attempt (Wald χ21 = 13.1, 95% CI 12.4-13.7, p < 0

  9. Outcome of patients with major depressive disorder after serious suicide attempt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suominen, Kirsi; Haukka, Jari; Valtonen, Hanna M; Lönnqvist, Jouko

    2009-10-01

    To investigate the outcome of subjects with major depressive disorder after serious suicide attempt and to examine the effect of psychotic symptoms on their outcome. The study population included all individuals aged 16 years or older in Finland who were hospitalized with ICD-10 diagnoses of major depressive disorder and attempted suicide from 1996 to 2003 (N = 1,820). The main outcome measures were completed suicides, overall mortality, and repeated suicide attempts during drug treatment versus no treatment. During the 4-year follow-up period, 13% of patients died, 6% completed suicide, and 31% made a repeat suicide attempt. Subjects with major depression with psychotic features completed suicide more often than subjects without psychotic features during the follow-up (hazard ratio [HR] 3.32; 95% CI, 1.95 - 5.67). Antidepressant treatment reduced all-cause mortality by 24% (HR 0.74; 95% CI, 0.56 - 0.97) but did not reduce suicide mortality (HR 1.06; 95% CI, 0.71 - 1.58). Psychotic symptoms during major depressive episode increase the risk of completed suicide after serious suicide attempt. The quality of treatment for major depression with psychotic features after attempted suicide should be improved to prevent suicide. Copyright 2009 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  10. Risk factors of suicide attempt among people with suicidal ideation in South Korea: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Soo Beom; Lee, Wanhyung; Yoon, Jin-Ha; Won, Jong-Uk; Kim, Deok Won

    2017-06-15

    Suicide is a serious public health concern worldwide, and the fourth leading cause of death in Korea. Few studies have focused on risk factors for suicide attempt among people with suicidal ideation. The aim of the present study was to investigate the risk factors and develop prediction models for suicide attempt among people with suicidal ideation in the Korean population. This study included 1567 men and 3726 women aged 20 years and older who had suicidal ideation from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2007 to 2012. Among them, 106 men and 188 women attempted suicide. Multivariate logistic regression analysis with backward stepwise elimination was performed to find risk factors for suicide attempt. Sub-group analysis, dividing participants into under 50 and at least 50 years old was also performed. Among people with suicidal ideation, age, education, cancer, and depressive disorder were selected as risk factors for suicide attempt in men. Age, education, national basic livelihood security, daily activity limitation, depressive disorder, stress, smoking, and regular exercise were selected in women. Area under curves of our prediction models in men and women were 0.728 and 0.716, respectively. It is important to pay attention to populations with suicidal ideation and the risk factors mentioned above. Prediction models using the determined risk factors could be useful to detect high-risk groups early for suicide attempt among people with suicidal ideation. It is necessary to develop specific action plans for these high-risk groups to prevent suicide.

  11. Risk factors of suicide attempt among people with suicidal ideation in South Korea: a cross-sectional study

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    Soo Beom Choi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Suicide is a serious public health concern worldwide, and the fourth leading cause of death in Korea. Few studies have focused on risk factors for suicide attempt among people with suicidal ideation. The aim of the present study was to investigate the risk factors and develop prediction models for suicide attempt among people with suicidal ideation in the Korean population. Method This study included 1567 men and 3726 women aged 20 years and older who had suicidal ideation from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2007 to 2012. Among them, 106 men and 188 women attempted suicide. Multivariate logistic regression analysis with backward stepwise elimination was performed to find risk factors for suicide attempt. Sub-group analysis, dividing participants into under 50 and at least 50 years old was also performed. Results Among people with suicidal ideation, age, education, cancer, and depressive disorder were selected as risk factors for suicide attempt in men. Age, education, national basic livelihood security, daily activity limitation, depressive disorder, stress, smoking, and regular exercise were selected in women. Area under curves of our prediction models in men and women were 0.728 and 0.716, respectively. Conclusions It is important to pay attention to populations with suicidal ideation and the risk factors mentioned above. Prediction models using the determined risk factors could be useful to detect high-risk groups early for suicide attempt among people with suicidal ideation. It is necessary to develop specific action plans for these high-risk groups to prevent suicide.

  12. Clinical variables associated with suicide attempts in schizophrenia before and after the first episode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Togay, Bilge; Noyan, Handan; Tasdelen, Rumeysa; Ucok, Alp

    2015-09-30

    The aim of this study was to investigate variables associated with suicide attempts in schizophrenia before and after the first episode. We evaluated history of past sucide attempts, clinical symptoms, level of functioning and cognitive performances of 172 patients with first-episode schizophrenia at first admission. Information was collected regarding clinical symptom severity, treatment compliance, and suicide attempts during the follow-up. We found that 16.5% of the patients attempted suicide before admission, and 6.2% of them attempted suicide during the follow-up. The patients who had attempted suicide before admission were mostly women, and more likely to be hospitalized in first year of follow up. BPRS-depression subscale score at admission and alcohol/substance use appeared as independent variables that found associated with suicide attempts prior to admission in logistic regression analysis. The patients who attempted suicide during the follow-up had significantly higher BPRS-depression subcale scores at sixth months of follow-up. Treatment compliance during the first 6 months and duration of remission was lower in this group. Our findings suggest that longer duration of first hospital treatment, the presence of depressive symptoms, and nonadherence to treatment in early phases of follow up after FES are predictors of suicide attempts. On the other hand, keeping remission during the follow-up protects against suicide attempts. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Systematic review of risk factors for suicide and suicide attempt among psychiatric patients in Latin America and Caribbean

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    Germán L. Teti

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To analyze published evidence from the Latin America and Caribbean (LAC region pertaining to risk factors for completed suicide and suicide attempts among psychiatric populations. METHODS: Potential studies were identified through systematic electronic searches in MEDLINE and LILACS. Included studies were cohort, case-control, and cross-sectional designed investigations of psychiatric samples in which suicide or a suicide attempt was reported as an outcome and evaluated with some measure of impact (odds ratio, risk ratio, or hazard ratio. Methodological quality was assessed using the Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE recommendations. RESULTS: Of the 2 987 identified studies, a total of 17 studies were reviewed to determine potential suicidal risk factors. Eleven studies used a case-control design, five used a cross-sectional design, and only one study used a prospective-cohort design. The main risk factors for suicide attempts in LAC included major depressive disorder (MDD, family dysfunction, and prior suicide attempt, while the main risk factors for completed suicide were male gender and MDD. The methodological quality of most of the studies was low. CONCLUSIONS: This review provides evidence that the majority of relevant risk factors for suicide and suicide attempts in the LAC region are similar to those observed in Western societies but different from those reported in Eastern societies. Studies of higher methodological quality from the region are needed to support these results.

  14. Resting-state functional connectivity of the amygdala in suicide attempters with major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Seung-Gul; Na, Kyoung-Sae; Choi, Jae-Won; Kim, Jeong-Hee; Son, Young-Don; Lee, Yu Jin

    2017-07-03

    In this study, we investigated the difference in resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) of the amygdala between suicide attempters and non-suicide attempters with major depressive disorder (MDD) using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). This study included 19 suicide attempters with MDD and 19 non-suicide attempters with MDD. RSFC was compared between the two groups and the regression analyses were conducted to identify the correlation between RSFC and Scale for Suicide Ideation (SSI) scores in the suicide attempt group. Statistical significance was set at p-value (uncorrected) suicide attempters, suicide attempters showed significantly increased RSFC of the left amygdala with the right insula and left superior orbitofrontal area, and increased RSFC of the right amygdala with the left middle temporal area. The regression analysis showed a significant correlation between the SSI total score and RSFC of the right amygdala with the right parahippocampal area in the suicide attempt group. The present RSFC findings provide evidence of a functional neural basis and will help reveal the pathophysiology underlying suicidality in subjects with MDD. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Feelings of worthlessness during a single complicated major depressive episode predict postremission suicide attempt.

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    Wakefield, J C; Schmitz, M F

    2016-04-01

    To establish which symptoms of major depressive episode (MDE) predict postremission suicide attempts in complicated single-episode cases. Using the nationally representative two-wave National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions data set, we identified wave 1 lifetime single-episode MDE cases in which the episode remitted by the beginning of the wave 2 three-year follow-up period (N = 2791). The analytic sample was further limited to 'complicated' cases (N = 1872) known to have elevated suicide attempt rates, defined as having two or more of the following: suicidal ideation, marked role impairment, feeling worthless, psychomotor retardation, and prolonged (>6 months) duration. Logistic regression analyses showed that, after controlling for wave 1 suicide attempt which significantly predicted postremission suicide attempt (OR = 10.0), the additional complicated symptom 'feelings of worthlessness' during the wave 1 index episode significantly and very substantially predicted postremission suicide attempt (OR = 6.96). Neither wave 1 psychomotor retardation nor wave 1 suicidal ideation nor any of the other wave 1 depressive symptoms were significant predictors of wave 2 suicide attempt. Among depressive symptoms during an MDE, feelings of worthlessness is the only significant indicator of elevated risk of suicide attempt after the episode has remitted, beyond previous suicide attempts. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Attempted suicide in Denmark. IV. A five-year follow-up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, B; Wang, A G; Brille-Brahe, U

    1990-01-01

    contact with the psychiatric ward. Predictors for future suicide were chronic somatic disease, depression, abuse of medicine, and chronic alcohol abuse. The authors emphasize the need for a thorough medical evaluation of patients attempting suicide, to be able to identify and eventually treat......From October 1, 1980 to April 20, 1981, 207 patients were admitted to the Department of Psychiatry, Odense University Hospital, after attempting suicide. Information on physical, mental and social conditions was collected. The patients were then followed for 5 years, to register subsequent suicidal...... behaviour and to try to identify relevant factors for evaluation of future suicide risk. During the follow-up period 11.6% of the attempters committed suicide, the majority within the first year after the index attempt. Seventy-five percent of the suicides were committed less than 6 months after the last...

  17. Attempted suicide in Denmark. IV. A five-year follow-up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, B; Wang, A G; Brille-Brahe, U

    1990-01-01

    From October 1, 1980 to April 20, 1981, 207 patients were admitted to the Department of Psychiatry, Odense University Hospital, after attempting suicide. Information on physical, mental and social conditions was collected. The patients were then followed for 5 years, to register subsequent suicidal...... behaviour and to try to identify relevant factors for evaluation of future suicide risk. During the follow-up period 11.6% of the attempters committed suicide, the majority within the first year after the index attempt. Seventy-five percent of the suicides were committed less than 6 months after the last...... contact with the psychiatric ward. Predictors for future suicide were chronic somatic disease, depression, abuse of medicine, and chronic alcohol abuse. The authors emphasize the need for a thorough medical evaluation of patients attempting suicide, to be able to identify and eventually treat...

  18. Parental Self-Efficacy to Support Teens During a Suicidal Crisis and Future Adolescent Emergency Department Visits and Suicide Attempts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czyz, Ewa K; Horwitz, Adam G; Yeguez, Carlos E; Ewell Foster, Cynthia J; King, Cheryl A

    2017-07-17

    This study of adolescents seeking emergency department (ED) services and their parents examined parents' self-efficacy beliefs to engage in suicide prevention activities, whether these beliefs varied based on teens' characteristics, and the extent to which they were associated with adolescents' suicide-related outcomes. Participants included 162 adolescents (57% female, 81.5% Caucasian), ages 13-17, and their parents. At index visit, parents rated their self-efficacy to engage in suicide prevention activities and their expectations regarding their teen's future suicide risk. Adolescents' ED visits for suicide-related concerns and suicide attempts were assessed 4 months later. Parents endorsed high self-efficacy to engage in most suicide prevention activities. At the same time, they endorsed considerable doubt in being able to keep their child safe if the teen has thoughts of suicide and in their child not attempting suicide in the future. Parents whose teens experienced follow-up suicide-related outcomes endorsed, at clinically meaningful effect sizes, lower self-efficacy for recognizing suicide warning signs, for obtaining the teen's commitment to refrain from suicide, and for encouraging their teen to cope, as well as lower confidence that their teen will not attempt suicide; self-efficacy to recognize warning signs was at trend level. Despite endorsing high self-efficacy for the majority of suicide prevention activities, parents of high-risk teens expressed less confidence in their capacity to influence their teen's suicidal behavior, which could undermine parents' effort to implement these strategies. The relationship between parental self-efficacy and youth suicide-related outcomes points to its potential value in guiding clinical decision making and interventions.

  19. The investigation of factors related to suicide attempts in Southeastern Turkey

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    Okan Ibiloglu A

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Aslihan Okan Ibiloglu, Abdullah Atli, Suleyman Demir, Mehmet Gunes, Mehmet Cemal Kaya, Mahmut Bulut, Aytekin Sir Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Dicle University, Diyarbakir, Turkey Background: Suicide is an important health problem in Turkey as it is in all regions of the world. Suicidal behavior has multiple causes, which are broadly divided into those related to proximal stressors and those due to predisposition. Suicide statistics may be associated with mental health disorders, which are among the foremost predictors of suicide attempts. More than 90% of patients who commit suicide have a diagnosable psychiatric disorder, usually a major depressive disorder. Other major risk factors for suicide attempts are history of suicide attempts in the family, stressful life events, sleep disturbances, poor income, unemployment, severity of symptoms of depression, and anxiety. Sleep is a complex phenomenon. Sleep disturbances can therefore be contributed to the emergence of suicidal behavior allowing for the possibility of predicting future suicides. Methods: We evaluated 106 patients who were admitted after suicide attempts to the Department of Psychiatry at Dicle University Faculty of Medicine. The recruited subjects were assessed by Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I disorders, and the intensity of symptoms was evaluated using the Beck Anxiety Inventory, Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. The mean values of the subjects attempting multiple and single suicides were compared using appropriate inferential statistical tests. Results: Most suicide attempts are believed to be preventable. Our results revealed that a great variety of risk factors are associated with an increased risk for multiple suicide attempts. Most of these attempts appeared to be spontaneous and impulsive rather than planned. In particular, this study highlights the importance of previous suicide attempts, history of

  20. Motor impulsivity differentiates between psychiatric inpatients with multiple versus single lifetime suicide attempts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colborn, Victoria A; LaCroix, Jessica M; Neely, Laura L; Tucker, Jennifer; Perera, Kanchana; Daruwala, Samantha E; Grammer, Geoffrey; Weaver, Jennifer; Ghahramanlou-Holloway, Marjan

    2017-07-01

    A history of multiple suicide attempts conveys greater risk for suicide than a single attempt. Impulsivity may partially explain the association between multiple attempts and increased risk. We examined trait impulsivity, ability to engage in goal-directed behaviors, and impulse control among psychiatrically hospitalized United States military personnel and their dependents. Individuals with a history of multiple versus single attempts had significantly higher motor impulsivity, indicating spur of the moment action. Providers are encouraged to directly assess and treat motor impulsivity among suicidal individuals. Further research should explore whether motor impulsivity is a mechanism of change in psychosocial suicide prevention interventions. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Victimization of Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual People in Childhood: Associations with Attempted Suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Anna B; Johnson, Renee M; Bolton, Shay-Lee; Mojtabai, Ramin

    2016-08-01

    Higher rates of attempted suicide have been documented among people who identify themselves as gay, lesbian, and bisexual (LGB) compared with heterosexuals. This study sought to ascertain the association between childhood abuse and neglect and attempted suicide, comparing LGBs and heterosexuals. Childhood sexual abuse among men and childhood sexual and physical abuse among women were found to mediate the association between LGB identity and attempted suicide. The experience of childhood abuse likely plays a significant role in the relationship between LGB identity and attempted suicide, but other factors such as experience of discrimination are also important. © 2016 The American Association of Suicidology.

  2. Recurrent Suicide Attempt With Amitriptyline in a Patient with Depressive Mood Disorder

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    Hizir Akdemir

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available High-dose drug intake is one of the most common attempts in suicide which is one of the first ten cause of death in many countries. There is an underlying psychiatric disorder in the majority of suicide attempts. Depressive disorder is seen most commonly in these patients. The identification of psychiatric disorders as well as personality disorders causing the suicidal attempt are extremely important. The intake of tricyclic antidepressant is a common reason of the admission to the emergency service. A case admitted to emergency service due to suicidal attempt with recurrent high-dose amitriptyline intake is presented in this article.

  3. [The frequency of suicide attempts depending on gender and the age structure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polewka, Andrzej; Groszek, Barbara; Targosz, Dorota; Szkolnicka, Beata; Chrostek Maj, Jan; Kroch, Stanisław; Pach, Janusz

    2004-01-01

    Sex and the age structure have been for decades the crucial factors determining the dimensions of suicide. In the literature of the subject, it is possible to find different interpretations concerning the widely known facts of larger effectiveness of suicide among males. Females, on the other hand, exhibit suicidal behaviour and suicide attempts several times bigger than the number of completed suicides. In comparison with wide literature dealing with the problematic of completed suicide, the number of publications concerning suicide attempts is, both in foreign and in Polish literature rather scarce. That is why the present authors have undertaken the analysis of suicide attempts by subjects hospitalized in the Department of Clinical Toxicology Jagiellonian University College of Medicine in Krakow in the years 2000-2002. On the basis of the medical documentation, 2757 cases of attempted suicide through self-intoxication by subjects undergoing treatment in the toxicological department. In the period concerned, the number of hospitalizations after suicide attempts increased from 856 cases in the year 2000 to 971 cases in 2001, and subsequently slightly decreased to 930 cases in 2002. The highest indicator of suicide attempts through self-intoxication has been observed among adolescents and young adults. In the absolute values, within the span of the years in question, there is a substantial predominance of suicide attempts undertaken by adults ranging in age from 20 and 50. On the contrary, in the oldest age group (over 60), the number of suicide attempts through self-intoxication was in the years concerned the lowest. In contrast with completed suicide, where the proportion of males to females is 4:1, in the group examined, females constituted 50% of subjects after suicide attempts. The number of females after suicide attempts in the consecutive years analysed was higher among adolescents and young women under 30. Despite drawbacks in data gathering, there is

  4. Risk-sensitive decision-making deficit in adolescent suicide attempters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, John P; McBee-Strayer, Sandy M; Mendoza, Kristen; Stevens, Jack; Sheftall, Arielle H; Campo, John V; Bridge, Jeffrey A

    2015-03-01

    Suicide among adolescents is a major public health problem. Decision-making deficits may play an important role in vulnerability to suicidal behavior, but few studies have examined decision-making performance in youth at risk for suicide. In this study, we seek to extend recent findings that adolescent suicide attempters process risk evaluations differently than adolescents who have not attempted suicide. We assessed decision-making in 14 adolescent suicide attempters and 14 non-attempter comparison subjects, ages 15-19, using the Cambridge Gambling Task (CGT). Each participant was also administered a diagnostic interview (Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview [MINI]), structured suicide severity measures, and a brief intelligence quotient (IQ) measure. After controlling for gender and IQ differences, suicide attempters displayed an elevated risk-taking propensity on the CGT relative to comparison subjects, such that they were more willing to take a large risk with their bank of points, a decision-making style that proves disadvantageous over time. No group differences in the latency or accuracy of decision-making were observed. Adolescents with a history of suicide attempt display increased risk-taking and greater difficulty predicting probable outcomes on the CGT. Such deficits have been associated with dysfunction in the orbitofrontal prefrontal cortex, which supports other studies implicating impaired decision-making among individuals with a history of suicide attempt.

  5. Sleep problems and suicide attempts among adolescents: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyawala, Neel; Stevens, Jack; McBee-Strayer, Sandra M; Cannon, Elizabeth A; Bridge, Jeffrey A

    2015-01-01

    This study used a case-control design to compare sleep disturbances in 40 adolescents who attempted suicide with 40 never-suicidal adolescents. Using hierarchical logistic regression analyses, we found that self-reported nighttime awakenings were significantly associated with attempted suicide, after controlling for antidepressant use, antipsychotic use, affective problems, and being bullied. In a separate regression analysis, the parent-reported total sleep problems score also predicted suicide attempt status, controlling for key covariates. No associations were found between suicide attempts and other distinct sleep problems, including falling asleep at bedtime, sleeping a lot during the day, trouble waking up in the morning, sleep duration, and parent-reported nightmares. Clinicians should be aware of sleep problems as potential risk factors for suicide attempts for adolescents.

  6. Prognosis after Adolescent Suicide Attempt: Mental Health, Psychiatric Treatment, and Suicide Attempts in a Nine-Year Follow-Up Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groholt, Berit; Ekeberg, Oivind

    2009-01-01

    The prevalence of mental health and suicidal behavior was examined 8 to 10 years after an adolescent suicide attempt. Of 71 persons, 79% had at least one psychiatric disorder (mean 1.7) at follow-up, most commonly depression (46%), personality disorder (46%), and anxiety disorder (42%). The stability of diagnoses was moderate. The suicide…

  7. Prevalence of suicide attempt and clinical characteristics of suicide attempters with obsessive-compulsive disorder: a report from the International College of Obsessive-Compulsive Spectrum Disorders (ICOCS)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    dell'Osso, Bernardo; Benatti, Beatrice; Arici, Chiara; Palazzo, Carlotta; Altamura, A. Carlo; Hollander, Eric; Fineberg, Naomi; Stein, Dan J.; Nicolini, Humberto; Lanzagorta, Nuria; Marazziti, Donatella; Pallanti, Stefano; van Ameringen, Michael; Lochner, Christine; Karamustafalioglu, Oguz; Hranov, Luchezar; Figee, Martijn; Drummond, Lynne; Rodriguez, Carolyn I.; Grant, John; Denys, Damiaan; Menchon, Jose M.; Zohar, Joseph

    2018-01-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is associated with variable risk of suicide and prevalence of suicide attempt (SA). The present study aimed to assess the prevalence of SA and associated sociodemographic and clinical features in a large international sample of OCD patients. A total of 425 OCD

  8. Longitudinal follow-up study of adolescents who report a suicide attempt: aspects of suicidal behavior that increase risk of a future attempt

    OpenAIRE

    Miranda, Regina; De Jaegere, Eva; Restifo, Kathleen; Shaffer, David

    2014-01-01

    Background: Previous studies have noted that a past suicide attempt (SA) predicts a future SA, but few studies have reported whether previous SAs that predict a future attempt differ from those that do not. Knowing which characteristics of previous SAs predict future attempts would assist in evaluating adolescents at risk of attempt repetition. This longitudinal study of an unreferred sample examined which characteristics of adolescent SAs increased risk for repeat attempts. Methods: Fifty...

  9. Risk factors for repeated suicidal attempts: a 6 –year retrospective ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background Among patients who have attempted suicide, the risk of later suicide is much increased and mortality due to suicide has continued to increase over the years both in developed and developing countries. Few studies in this environment have looked at the risk factors and psychiatric morbidity among patients with ...

  10. Attempted Suicide among Young Rural Women in the People's Republic of China: Possibilities for Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Veronica; Phillips, Michael R.; He, Fengsheng; Ji, Huiyu

    2002-01-01

    Reports on a sample of 147 young women living in rural areas in China who had attempted suicide. The women's suicidal behavior was characterized by high levels of impulsivity and low rates of mental illness, including depression. Detailed suggestions are made about ways to implement suicide prevention strategies within the particular social and…

  11. Personality Correlates of People Who Have Attempted Suicide and Those Who Have Seriously Considered It.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminsky, Sarah; Chrisler, Joan C.

    Depression and low self-esteem are commonly considered to be at the root of suicidal ideation. Previous research has examined the correlations between a lack of purpose in life and depression, low self-esteem, substance abuse and suicidal thoughts. This study investigated personality differences among student groups who have attempted suicide.…

  12. Prevalence, demographic and clinical correlates of suicide attempts in Chinese medicated chronic inpatients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiang Yang; Al Jurdi, Rayan K; Zoghbi, Anthony William; Chen, Da Chun; Xiu, Mei Hong; Tan, Yun Long; Yang, Fu De; Kosten, Thomas R

    2013-10-01

    The high prevalence of suicide in schizophrenia may be related to its demographic and clinical characteristics. Because suicide prevalence and its associations with clinical variables are less well characterized in Chinese than European patients with schizophrenia, we assessed the suicide attempts in 520 Chinese inpatients with schizophrenia. The suicide attempt data were collected from medical case notes and interviews with the patients and their family members. Patients were rated on the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), the Simpson and Angus Extrapyramidal Symptom Rating Scale (SAES), and the Abnormal Involuntary Movement Scale (AIMS). Smoking severity was evaluated using clinician-administered questionnaires and the Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND). We found a suicide attempt rate of 9.2% in these schizophrenic inpatients. The attempters were single, had a significantly younger age but more hospitalizations, had higher depressive symptoms, and began smoking at an earlier age, smoked more cigarettes each day and had higher FTND total scores than patients without suicide attempts. The logistic regression analysis also indicated that suicide attempts were associated with the number of hospitalizations, depressive symptoms and FTND total scores. These results suggest that Chinese inpatients with schizophrenia attempt suicide more often than the general population. Further, some demographic and clinical variables are risk factors for suicide attempts in schizophrenia. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The Impact of Negative Life Events on Attempted Suicide in Rural China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanzheng; Zhang, Jie

    2018-03-01

    This study aims to explore the impact of negative life events (NLEs) on attempted suicide in a Chinese cultural setting. The sample comprised 791 suicide attempters and an equal number of controls matched on age, sex, and location from selected rural counties in China. Conditional logistic regression model was used to examine the association between NLEs and suicide risk. The impact of NLEs on attempted suicide was further examined using regression-based method to explore its mediation effect. The types of NLEs that were most likely to precede a suicide attempt in rural sample included the events in marriage/love, family/home, and friend/relationship. Rural women were more likely to experience more interpersonal conflicts than rural men. Approximately 75.6% of suicide attempters had experienced at least one NLE, and NLEs were strongly associated with attempted suicide. Total effect (0.676), direct effect (0.501), and the total indirect effect (0.301) of NLEs on suicide attempts were significantly mediated by hopelessness and depression. NLEs play a crucial role in predicting suicidal attempt in rural China, and they are mediated by depression and hopelessness.

  14. The Risk of Repetition of Attempted Suicide Among Iranian Women with Psychiatric Disorders as Quantified by the Suicide Behaviors Questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalal Shakeri

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The factors associated with repetition of attempted suicide are poorly categorized in the Iranian population. In this study, the prevalence of different psychiatric disorders among women who attempted suicide and the risk of repetition were assessed. Methods: Participants were women admitted to the Poisoning Emergency Hospital, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences following failed suicide attempts. Psychiatric disorders were diagnosed based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV symptom checklist. Risk of repetition was evaluated using the Suicide Behaviors Questionnaire-Revised (SBQ-R. Results: About 72% of individuals had a SBQ-R score >8 and were considered to be at high risk for repeated attempted suicide. Adjustment disorders were the most common psychiatric disorders (40.8%. However, the type of psychiatric disorder was not associated with the risk of repetition (p=0.320. Marital status, educational level, employment, substance use, history of suicide among family members, and motivation were not determinant factors for repetition of suicide attempt (p=0.220, 0.880, 0.220, 0.290, 0.350 and 0.270, respectively. Younger women were associated with violent methods of attempted suicide, such as self-cutting, whereas older individuals preferred consumption of poison (p<0.001. Drug overdose was more common among single and married women whereas widows or divorcees preferred self-burning (p=0.004. Conclusion: About 72% of patients with failed suicide attempts were at high risk for repeated attempts. Age, marital status, and type of psychiatric disorder were the only determinants of suicide method. Adjustment disorders were the most common psychiatric disorders among Iranian women. However, this did not predict the risk of further attempts.

  15. Cognitive risk factors and suicide attempts among formerly hospitalized adolescents: a prospective naturalistic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldston, D B; Daniel, S S; Reboussin, B A; Reboussin, D M; Frazier, P H; Harris, A E

    2001-01-01

    To examine the relationship between cognitive variables and time until suicide attempts among 180 adolescents who were monitored for as much as 6.9 years after discharge from an inpatient psychiatry unit. In a prospective naturalistic study, adolescents were assessed at the time of their psychiatric hospitalization and semiannually thereafter. Suicidal behavior at index hospitalization and over the follow-up period was assessed with semistructured psychiatric diagnostic interviews. At hospitalization, cognitive risk factors were assessed with a problem-solving task and with questionnaires assessing hopelessness, expectations for posthospitalization suicidal behavior, reasons for living, and dysfunctional attitudes. Expectations about future suicidal behavior were related to posthospitalization suicide attempts. Among youths with previous suicide attempts, higher levels of hopelessness were associated with increased risk, and greater survival and coping beliefs were associated with decreased risk for posthospitalization suicide attempts. Hopelessness and survival and coping beliefs were not related to posthospitalization attempts among adolescents without prior suicidal behavior, and hopelessness was not predictive after controlling for overall severity of depression. Expectations for suicidal behavior, hopelessness, and survival and coping beliefs provide important prognostic information about later suicidal behavior and should be targeted in interventions with suicidal youths.

  16. Risk for Suicidal Ideation and Suicide Attempts Associated with Co-occurring Depression and Conduct Disorders in Early Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoep, Ann Vander; Adrian, Molly; McCauley, Elizabeth; Crowell, Sheila; Stone, Andrea; Flynn, Cynthia

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the early manifestation of co-occurring depression and conduct disorders as a predictor of heightened risk for later suicidal ideation and behavior in a community sample of 521 adolescents. Self-reported symptoms of depression and conduct disorder were evaluated in early 6th grade. Suicidal thoughts and behaviors were tracked through multiple assessments carried out over the middle school years. Compared to adolescents with depression symptoms only, conduct disorder symptoms only, or low psychopathology, those with co-occurring depression and conduct disorder symptoms had the highest risk for subsequent suicidal ideation, recurrent suicidal behaviors, and suicide attempts. PMID:21463356

  17. Suicidal ideation and attempts in patients with stroke: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Jae Ho; Kim, Jung Bin; Kim, Ji Hyun

    2016-10-01

    Stroke is known to be associated with an increase in the risk for suicide. However, there are very few population-based studies investigating the risk of suicidal ideation and attempts in patients with stroke. The purpose of this study was to compare the risk of suicidal ideation and attempts between patients with stroke and population without stroke using nationwide survey data. Individual-level data were obtained from 228,735 participants (4560 with stroke and 224,175 without stroke) of the 2013 Korean Community Health Survey. Demographic characteristics, socioeconomic status, physical health status, and mental health status were compared between patients with stroke and population without stroke. Multivariable logistic regression was performed to investigate the independent effects of the stroke on suicidal ideation and attempts. Stroke patients had more depressive mood (12.6 %) than population without stroke (5.7 %, p suicidal ideation (24.4 %) and attempts (1.3 %) than population without stroke (9.8 and 0.4 %, respectively; both p suicidal ideation (OR 1.65, 95 % CI 1.52-1.79) and suicidal attempts (OR 1.64, 95 % CI 1.21-2.22), adjusting for demographics, socioeconomic factors, and physical health and mental health factors. We found that stroke increased the risk for suicidal ideation and attempts, independent of other factors that are known to be associated with suicidality, suggesting that stroke per se may be an independent risk factor for suicidality.

  18. CSF 5-HIAA and DST non-suppression -independent biomarkers in suicide attempters?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokinen, Jussi; Mårtensson, Björn; Nordström, Anna-Lena; Nordström, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Two major biomarkers of suicidal behaviour; low 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and non-suppression in the dexamethasone suppression test (DST) have evidence for predictive power for suicide in mood disorders. Previous suicide attempt is the most robust clinical risk factor. To study the interrelationship of suicide risk factors: low CSF 5-HIAA and the DST non-suppression in mood disorder patients with and without an index suicide attempt. Fifty-eight hospitalised mood disorder patients (twenty-five with an index suicide attempt), who were not receiving any treatment with antidepressants, underwent lumbar puncture and DST. Plasma cortisol levels were determined from blood samples drawn the following day at 8:00 a.m., 4:00 p.m. and 11:00 p.m. and analysed in relation to CSF 5-HIAA. In the sample as a whole, the serum cortisol level at 4:00 p.m. showed a significant positive correlation to CSF 5-HIAA (r=0.3, pDST non-suppression are relatively independent biomarkers of suicide risk in suicide attempters. The interrelation of the two systems seems to be different in suicide attempters compared to depressed inpatients without suicide attempt.

  19. Acute Substance Use as a Warning Sign for Suicide Attempts: A Case-Crossover Examination of the 48 Hours Prior to a Recent Suicide Attempt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagge, Courtney L; Borges, Guilherme

    2017-06-01

    The extent to which specific categories of acute substance use are short-term risk factors, or warning signs, for suicide attempts is unknown. The aim of the current study was to quantify the near-term effects of sole use and co-use of substances on medically attended suicide attempts. The current study used a case-crossover design, comparing substance use within the 24 hours prior to a suicide attempt (case day) to the control day, the matched 24 hours the day prior to the case day. Participants were 363 recent suicide attempters presenting to a Level 1 trauma hospital between October 2008 and April 2014. A timeline follow-back methodology was used to assess acute exposures within the 48 hours before the suicide attempt. Conditional logistic regression was used to report odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results indicated that patients were at increased odds of attempting suicide after drinking alcohol within a 24-hour period (OR = 4.40; 95% CI, 2.31-8.40) and using a drug from another class of substances with central nervous system (CNS) depressant characteristics (sedatives/anxiolytics and opioids; OR = 2.82; 95% CI, 1.13-7.01), after adjustment for other acute substance use. The acute use of cannabis and CNS stimulants (stimulants/amphetamines and cocaine) was not uniquely associated with suicide attempt. Co-use of alcohol synergized effects of other CNS depressants (OR = 8.76; 95% CI, 1.02-75.44). Findings suggest the importance of considering acute alcohol use and use of CNS depressants, and the concurrent use of both substances, when evaluating short-term risk for suicide attempts in clinical settings. © Copyright 2017 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  20. A longitudinal study of predictors of suicide attempts among lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustanski, Brian; Liu, Richard T

    2013-04-01

    This short-term prospective study examined general and lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT)-specific risk and protective factors for suicide attempts in an ethnically diverse sample of LGBT youth (N = 237, 47.7 % male). A structured psychiatric interview assessed clinical depression and conduct disorder symptoms, as well as past and prospective suicide attempts over a 1-year follow-up period (91 % retention). Participants completed questionnaires measuring general risk factors for suicide attempts, including hopelessness, impulsiveness, and perceived social support. They also completed measures of LGBT-specific suicide risk factors, including gender nonconformity, age of first same-sex attraction, and LGBT victimization. Correlation and multivariate regression analyses were conducted to examine the relations between predictors and suicide attempt, and to identify mediators. Of nine variables examined, seven were related to lifetime history of attempted suicide: hopelessness, depression symptoms, conduct disorder symptoms, impulsivity, victimization, age of first same-sex attraction, and low family support. Depressive symptoms and hopelessness mediated the relation between multiple risk and resilience factors and suicide attempts. Suicide attempt history was the strongest predictor of prospective suicide attempts. Participants who previously attempted suicide (31.6 % of the sample) had more than 10 times greater odds of making another attempt in the 1-year follow-up period than were those who had made no previous attempt. These results highlight the need for suicide prevention programs for LGBT youth and suggest the importance of addressing depression and hopelessness as proximal determinants and family support and victimization, which have more distal effects.

  1. Significant relationship between lifetime alcohol use disorders and suicide attempts in an Australian schizophrenia sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, Duncan; Gladman, Beverley; Mowry, Bryan

    2012-02-01

    Suicide and attempted suicide are common in individuals with schizophrenia, and evidence exists for a link between substance use disorders and suicidality in this disorder. However, alcohol has not been consistently implicated. We examined the relationship between substance use disorders and suicide attempts in schizophrenia. We recruited a schizophrenia sample in Australia (n = 821) for genetic analyses. We analysed demographic and clinical variables, including substance use disorders, and their relationship to suicide attempts using generalised equation modelling. A significant association was identified between lifetime alcohol abuse/dependence and suicide attempts (OR = 1.66; 95% CI, 1.23 to 2.24; p = 0.001) after adjustment for potential confounders, but not between cannabis abuse/dependence and suicide attempts, nor between other illicit drug abuse/dependence and suicide attempts. Polysubstance abuse/dependence was also not implicated. These results suggest that the presence of alcohol abuse/dependence may be a risk factor for suicide attempts in individuals with schizophrenia, independent of comorbid substance abuse/dependence.

  2. The Use of Cannabis as a Predictor of Early Onset of Bipolar Disorder and Suicide Attempts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafaela Torres Portugal Leite

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Bipolar disorder (BD implies risk of suicide. The age at onset (AAO of BD carries prognostic significance. Substance abuse may precede the onset of BD and cannabis is the most common illicit drug used. The main goal of this study is to review the association of cannabis use as a risk factor for early onset of BD and for suicide attempts. Materials and Methods. PubMed database was searched for articles using key words “bipolar disorder,” “suicide attempts,” “cannabis,” “marijuana,” “early age at onset,” and “early onset.” Results. The following percentages in bipolar patients were found: suicide attempts 3.6–42%; suicide attempts and substance use 5–60%; suicide attempts and cannabis use 15–42%. An early AAO was associated with cannabis misuse. The mean age of the first manic episode in individuals with and without BD and cannabis use disorder (CUD was 19.5 and 25.1 years, respectively. The first depressive episode was at 18.5 and 24.4 years, respectively. Individuals misusing cannabis showed increased risk of suicide. Discussion. Cannabis use is associated with increased risk of suicide attempts and with early AAO. However, the effect of cannabis at the AAO and suicide attempts is not clear.

  3. The Use of Cannabis as a Predictor of Early Onset of Bipolar Disorder and Suicide Attempts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Rafaela Torres Portugal; Nogueira, Sarah de Oliveira; do Nascimento, João Paulo Rodrigues; de Lima, Laisa Soares; da Nóbrega, Taís Bastos; Virgínio, Mariana da Silva; Moreno, Lucas Monte da Costa; Sampaio, Bruno Henrique Barbosa; de Matos E Souza, Fábio Gomes

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Bipolar disorder (BD) implies risk of suicide. The age at onset (AAO) of BD carries prognostic significance. Substance abuse may precede the onset of BD and cannabis is the most common illicit drug used. The main goal of this study is to review the association of cannabis use as a risk factor for early onset of BD and for suicide attempts. Materials and Methods. PubMed database was searched for articles using key words "bipolar disorder," "suicide attempts," "cannabis," "marijuana," "early age at onset," and "early onset." Results. The following percentages in bipolar patients were found: suicide attempts 3.6-42%; suicide attempts and substance use 5-60%; suicide attempts and cannabis use 15-42%. An early AAO was associated with cannabis misuse. The mean age of the first manic episode in individuals with and without BD and cannabis use disorder (CUD) was 19.5 and 25.1 years, respectively. The first depressive episode was at 18.5 and 24.4 years, respectively. Individuals misusing cannabis showed increased risk of suicide. Discussion. Cannabis use is associated with increased risk of suicide attempts and with early AAO. However, the effect of cannabis at the AAO and suicide attempts is not clear.

  4. Prevalence and risk factors of attempted suicide in adult war-affected population of eastern Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinyanda, Eugene; Weiss, Helen A; Mungherera, Margaret; Onyango-Mangen, Patrick; Ngabirano, Emmanuel; Kajungu, Rehema; Kagugube, Johnson; Muhwezi, Winston; Muron, Julius; Patel, Vikram

    2013-01-01

    There is conflicting evidence on the relationship between war trauma and suicidal behavior. Some studies point to an increased risk of suicidal behavior while others do not, with a paucity of such data from sub-Saharan Africa. To investigate the prevalence and risk factors of attempted suicide in war-affected Eastern Uganda. A cross-sectional survey was carried out in two districts of Eastern Uganda where 1,560 respondents (15 years and older) were interviewed. Multivariable logistic regression was used to assess risk factors of attempted suicide in this population. Lifetime attempted suicide was 9.2% (n = 142; 95% CI, 7.8%-10.8%), and 12-month attempted suicide was 2.6% (n = 41; 95% CI, 1.9-3.5%). Lifetime attempted suicide was significantly higher among females 101 (11.1%) than among males 43 (6.5%; OR = 1.80, 95% CI 1.21-2.65). Factors independently associated with lifetime rate of attempted suicide among females were subcounty, being a victim of intimate partner violence, having reproductive health complaints, and having major depressive disorder. Among males these were belonging to a war-vulnerable group, having a surgical complaint, and having a major depressive disorder. In both sexes, the lifetime rate of attempted suicide was not independently directly related to experiences of war trauma. It was, however, indirectly related to war trauma through its association with psychological, somatic, and psychosocial sequelae of war.

  5. SELF-RATED EXPECTATIONS OF SUICIDAL BEHAVIOR PREDICT FUTURE SUICIDE ATTEMPTS AMONG ADOLESCENT AND YOUNG ADULT PSYCHIATRIC EMERGENCY PATIENTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czyz, Ewa K; Horwitz, Adam G; King, Cheryl A

    2016-06-01

    This study's purpose was to examine the predictive validity and clinical utility of a brief measure assessing youths' own expectations of their future risk of suicidal behavior, administered in a psychiatric emergency (PE) department; and determine if youths' ratings improve upon a clinician-administered assessment of suicidal ideation severity. The outcome was suicide attempts up to 18 months later. In this medical record review study, 340 consecutively presenting youths (ages 13-24) seeking PE services over a 7-month period were included. Subsequent PE visits and suicide attempts were retrospectively tracked for up to 18 months. The 3-item scale assessing patients' perception of their own suicidal behavior risk and the clinician-administered ideation severity scale were used routinely at the study site. Cox regression results showed that youths' expectations of suicidal behavior were independently associated with increased risk of suicide attempts, even after adjusting for key covariates. Results were not moderated by sex, suicide attempt history, or age. Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) analyses indicated that self-assessed expectations of risk improved the predictive accuracy of the clinician-administered suicidal ideation measure. Youths' ratings indicative of lower confidence in maintaining safety uniquely predicted follow-up attempts and provided incremental validity over and above the clinician-administered assessment and improved its accuracy, suggesting their potential for augmenting suicide risk formulation. Assessing youths' own perceptions of suicide risk appears to be clinically useful, feasible to implement in PE settings, and, if replicated, promising for improving identification of youth at risk for suicidal behavior. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Prediction by data mining, of suicide attempts in Korean adolescents: a national study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bae SM

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Sung Man Bae,1 Seung A Lee,2 Seung-Hwan Lee2,3 1Department of Counseling Psychology, The Cyber University of Korea, Seoul, South Korea; 2Clinical Emotion and Cognition Research Laboratory, Goyang, South Korea; 3Department of Psychiatry, Ilsan Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Goyang, South Korea Objective: This study aimed to develop a prediction model for suicide attempts in Korean adolescents.Methods: We conducted a decision tree analysis of 2,754 middle and high school students nationwide. We fixed suicide attempt as the dependent variable and eleven sociodemographic, intrapersonal, and extrapersonal variables as independent variables.Results: The rate of suicide attempts of the total sample was 9.5%, and severity of depression was the strongest variable to predict suicide attempt. The rates of suicide attempts in the depression and potential depression groups were 5.4 and 2.8 times higher than that of the non-depression group. In the depression group, the most powerful factor to predict a suicide attempt was delinquency, and the rate of suicide attempts in those in the depression group with higher delinquency was two times higher than in those in the depression group with lower delinquency. Of special note, the rate of suicide attempts in the depressed females with higher delinquency was the highest. Interestingly, in the potential depression group, the most impactful factor to predict a suicide attempt was intimacy with family, and the rate of suicide attempts of those in the potential depression group with lower intimacy with family was 2.4 times higher than that of those in the potential depression group with higher intimacy with family. And, among the potential depression group, middle school students with lower intimacy with family had a 2.5-times higher rate of suicide attempts than high school students with lower intimacy with family. Finally, in the non-depression group, stress level was the most powerful factor to

  7. Parental separation in childhood, social capital, and suicide thoughts and suicide attempts: A population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindström, Martin; Rosvall, Maria

    2015-09-30

    Studies of the association between parental separation in childhood and suicide thoughts and attempts are scarce. The aim of this study is to investigate associations between parental separation/divorce during childhood, and ever having had suicide thoughts and ever having made suicide attempt, adjusting for social capital and other covariates. In 2012 a cross-sectional public health survey was conducted in Scania, southern Sweden, with a postal questionnaire with 28,029 participants aged 18-80. Associations between parental separation/divorce during childhood and ever having considered suicide or having made suicide attempt were analysed by logistic regression. Overall, 12.1% of the men and 15.5% of the women had experienced suicide thoughts, and 3.2% of the men and 5.3% of the women had ever tried committing suicide. Among men, 20.4% had experienced parental separation during childhood until age 18, and among women 22.3%. Parental separation/divorce in childhood was with few exceptions significantly associated with ever having had suicide thoughts with the highest odds ratios for those who had experienced parental separation during ages 0-4 years. Parental separation/divorce in childhood was significantly associated with suicide attempts among men who had experienced parental separation/divorce at ages 0-4 and 15-18, and among women at any age 0-18. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Factors accounting for youth suicide attempt in Hong Kong: a model building.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Gloria W Y; Leung, Patrick W L

    2010-10-01

    This study aimed at proposing and testing a conceptual model of youth suicide attempt. We proposed a model that began with family factors such as a history of physical abuse and parental divorce/separation. Family relationship, presence of psychopathology, life stressors, and suicide ideation were postulated as mediators, leading to youth suicide attempt. The stepwise entry of the risk factors to a logistic regression model defined their proximity as related to suicide attempt. Path analysis further refined our proposed model of youth suicide attempt. Our originally proposed model was largely confirmed. The main revision was dropping parental divorce/separation as a risk factor in the model due to lack of significant contribution when examined alongside with other risk factors. This model was cross-validated by gender. This study moved research on youth suicide from identification of individual risk factors to model building, integrating separate findings of the past studies.

  9. Preventing repetition of attempted suicide-II. The Amager Project, a randomized controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvid, Marianne; Vangborg, Kerstin; Sørensen, Holger J

    2010-01-01

    Repetition after attempted suicide is high but only few effect studies have been carried out. The Baerum Model from Norway offers practical and affordable intervention for those not being offered psychiatric treatment. During a period from 2005-2007, all attempted suicide patients except those...... was 6 months. After this intervention period, all patients were followed passively for an extra 6 months. The design was an intent-to-treat one. The outcomes were: 1) repetition of attempted suicide or suicide, and 2) total number of suicidal acts. A total of 200 patients were offered participation, 67...... refused. Of the 133 participants, 69 were randomized to the OPAC programme and 64 to the (non-intervention) control group. Four in each group dropped out after initial participation. There was a significant lower proportion who repeated a suicide attempt the intervention group (proportion 8.7%) than...

  10. Attempted suicide among transgender persons: The influence of gender-based discrimination and victimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clements-Nolle, Kristen; Marx, Rani; Katz, Mitchell

    2006-01-01

    To determine the independent predictors of attempted suicide among transgender persons we interviewed 392 male-to-female (MTF) and 123 female-to-male (FTM) individuals. Participants were recruited through targeted sampling, respondent-driven sampling, and agency referrals in San Francisco. The prevalence of attempted suicide was 32% (95% CI = 28% to 36%). In multivariate logistic regression analysis younger age (history of substance abuse treatment, a history of forced sex, gender-based discrimination, and gender-based victimization were independently associated with attempted suicide. Suicide prevention interventions for transgender persons are urgently needed, particularly for young people. Medical, mental health, and social service providers should address depression, substance abuse, and forced sex in an attempt to reduce suicidal behaviors among transgender persons. In addition, increasing societal acceptance of the transgender community and decreasing gender-based prejudice may help prevent suicide in this highly stigmatized population.

  11. Acute risk factors for suicide attempts and death: prospective findings from the STEP-BD study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, Elizabeth D; Vande Voort, Jennifer L; Luckenbaugh, David A; Machado-Vieira, Rodrigo; Tohen, Mauricio; Zarate, Carlos A

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Suicide is unfortunately common in psychiatric practice, but difficult to predict. This study sought to assess which clinical symptoms increase in the months before suicidal behavior in a sample of psychiatric outpatients with bipolar disorder. Methods Data from the Systematic Treatment Enhancement Program for Bipolar Disorder (STEP-BD) trial were used. A total pf 103 participants who attempted suicide or died by suicide during the trial were included; a 15% random sample of the remaining participants (n = 427) was used as a comparison sample. Linear mixed models in the six months before suicidal behavior were conducted for each of five proposed acute risk factors for suicidal behavior. Participants were assessed using the Clinical Monitoring Form (CMF) at each visit for the following potential acute risk factors for suicidal behavior: suicidal ideation, loss of interest, anxiety, psychomotor agitation, and high-risk behavior. Results Each of the five symptoms was elevated overall in individuals who engaged in suicidal behavior (p suicidal ideation and loss of interest significantly increased in the months before suicidal behavior (p suicidal behavior. Conclusions Suicidal ideation, loss of interest and, to a lesser extent, anxiety may represent acute suicide risk factors up to four months before suicidal behavior in outpatients with bipolar disorder. Further investigation of these potential acute risk factors in prospective analyses is warranted. PMID:27233466

  12. Which Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms, Trauma Types, and Substances Correlate With Suicide Attempts in Trauma Survivors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guina, Jeffrey; Nahhas, Ramzi W; Mata, Nicholas; Farnsworth, Seth

    2017-10-26

    To examine among trauma survivors several potential suicide risk factors, some of which have never been studied in this population (eg, DSM-5 posttraumatic stress disorder [PTSD] symptoms, benzodiazepines). Using a cross-sectional self-report survey methodology in a consecutive sample of adult outpatients with trauma (N = 480), we examined relationships between suicide attempts and demographics, trauma types, PTSD symptoms, substance-related problems, and benzodiazepine prescriptions. The study was conducted from October 2014 to February 2015. PTSD diagnosis was significantly correlated with suicide attempt prevalence (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.6) and was the variable most strongly associated with the number of attempts among participants with at least 1 suicide attempt. PTSD symptom severities (total, cluster, and all but 3 individual symptoms) significantly correlated with attempted suicide; recklessness (AOR = 1.7), anhedonia (AOR = 1.7), and negative beliefs (AOR = 1.6) were most strongly correlated. Mood/cognitive alterations-a cluster new to the DSM-5-were particularly associated with suicide attempts (AOR = 3.2). Childhood maltreatment was strongly associated with attempted suicide; childhood physical abuse (AOR = 2.9) was the only trauma type significantly correlated with suicide attempts after adjustment for multiple testing. Attempted suicide was significantly correlated with substance-related problems in general (AOR = 2.6) and alcohol specifically (AOR = 2.9). As predicted, suicide attempts correlated with PTSD symptom severity, childhood maltreatment, and substance-related problems. Our hypothesized correlation between suicide and benzodiazepine prescriptions was in part explained by PTSD symptom severity. © Copyright 2017 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  13. Suicide attempts and suicides in Bolivia from 2007 to 2012: pesticides are the preferred method - females try but males commit suicide!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jørs, Erik; Christoffersen, Mette; Veirum, Nikoline Høgsgaard; Aquilar, Guido Condarco; Morant, Rafael Cervantes; Konradsen, Flemming

    2014-01-01

    Suicide attempts and suicides constitute a significant burden on communities and health systems, especially in low income countries. However, many low income countries lack epidemiological information on which to base future preventive strategies. This study reports on gender and age profiles as well as the likely background and means used for suicide attempts and suicides in Bolivia. This study presents 1124 cases from four different sources of information: (i) emergency ward data with suicide attempts by poisoning from the year 2007, (ii) psychiatric ward data including suicide attempts from July 2011 to July 2012, (iii) newspaper articles reporting attempted suicides and suicides from 2009 to 2011, and (iv) the National Statistics on Crime reporting suicides from the years 2010-2011. Data on age was stratified into three age groups: adolescents aged 10-19 years, young adults aged 20-29 years, and older adults aged above 29 years. Data from the hospital wards and Crime Statistics were pooled to compare characteristics of suicide attempts with suicides concerning age and gender. Data on age, gender, methods used, and reasons were analyzed using IBM SPSS version 21. Hospital data showed that more females (403/657, 61%) than males (254/657, 39%) attempted suicide, and females attempted suicide at a younger age than males (psuicide, and furthermore it was most prevalent among young adults aged 20-29 years of both genders, as observed from the Crime Statistics. The dominant method was pesticide poisoning varying from 400 out of 657 (70.5%) of the hospital poisoning cases to 65 out of 172 (37.8%) of the newspaper cases. Newspaper data showed a higher mortality rate (65/77, 85.1%) among those using violent methods such as hanging and jumping compared to non-violent methods (43/84, 50.9%) such as ingesting chemicals and drugs (psuicide seemed to be hidden due to cultural and religious reasons. More females attempted suicide, whereas more males realized suicide. Suicide

  14. Associations between substance use disorders and suicide or suicide attempts in people with mental illness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Marie L D; Nordentoft, Merete; Hjorthøj, Carsten

    2017-01-01

    : Denmark. PARTICIPANTS: People born in Denmark since 1955 with a diagnosis of schizophrenia (n = 35 625), bipolar disorder (n = 9279), depression (n = 72 530) or personality disorder (n = 63 958). MEASUREMENTS: Treated SUDs of alcohol and illicit substances identified in treatment registers; suicide.......95-3.27) to 3.38 (95% CI = 3.24-3.53) and 2.13 (95% CI = 2.03-2.24) to 2.27 (95% CI = 2.12-2.43), respectively. Cannabis was associated with suicide attempts only in people with schizophrenia (HR = 1.11, 95% CI = 1.03-1.19). CONCLUSION: Substance use disorders are associated strongly with risk of completed...

  15. Temperament and character personality profile in relation to suicide attempts in patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albayrak, Yakup; Ekinci, Okan; Cayköylü, Ali

    2012-11-01

    Schizophrenia is associated with a significant risk of suicide, and suicide still remains one of the main causes of death in schizophrenic patients. Beside classic risk factors for suicidality, temperament and character traits have been researched and considered as risk factors for suicidal behavior in recent years. Subjects were 94 patients with schizophrenia who were under treatment. All patients were in a stable phase of the illness. Patients with lifetime suicide attempt (n = 46) and without suicidal attempt (n = 48) were compared with each other in terms of temperament and character traits by using the Temperament and Character Inventory. Harm avoidance and persistence scores were higher in suicidal schizophrenic patients compared with nonsuicidal schizophrenic patients. The scores of self-directedness and cooperativeness were lower in suicidal schizophrenic patients compared with nonsuicidal schizophrenic patients. These 4 variables remained significant predictors of lifetime suicidal attempts in a logistic regression model. To the best of our knowledge, the present study is the first that specifically compares schizophrenic patients with and without suicidal behavior by the Cloninger temperament and character model. Our data indicate that schizophrenic patients will show a greater risk for suicide according to certain personality configurations. However, to establish causal relationships between personality and suicidality in schizophrenia, longitudinal studies are warranted within a multifactorial interactive framework of biologic and clinical variables. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Railway suicide in Belgium 1998-2009: incidence and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andriessen, Karl; Krysinska, Karolina

    2012-01-01

    Belgium is a country with a high suicide rate (19.1/100,000 in 2004), and railway suicide poses a substantial safety and public health problem. This problem was addressed by the Suicide Prevention Unit of Infrabel (Manager of the Belgian Railway Infrastructure), which collects relevant data and implements a prevention program. To present data on fatal and nonfatal suicidal behavior on the Belgian railway network, including monthly and regional distribution and identification of hotspots; and to present the Infrabel suicide prevention program. Analysis of Infrabel data on railway suicide (1998-2009) and comparison with data on suicide in Belgium. A total of 1,092 railway suicides (1998-2009) and 557 suicide attempts (2003-2009) in Belgium (fatality rate of 54%) were studied. Monthly fluctuations were observed, with the majority of suicides occurring in Flanders, followed by Wallonia and Brussels. We identified 34 hotspots accounting for 35% of cases, mostly in Flanders. In 2004 railway suicide accounted for 5.3% of all suicides in Belgium (railway suicide rate of 1.03/100,000). Such a major human and economic loss warrants implementation of prevention measures. Infrabel has initiated a comprehensive suicide prevention program which focuses mainly on safeguarding the suicide hotspots.

  17. How to Talk to a Preschool Child about a Suicide Attempt in Your Family

    Science.gov (United States)

    How to Talk to a Preschool Child about a Suicide Attempt in Your Family This information is intended to inform and guide adults when talking with a ... to go to the hospital.”) Talking to your preschool age child after a suicide attempt in the ...

  18. Characteristics of Suicide Attempters and Nonattempters with Schizophrenia in a Rural Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ran, Mao-Sheng; Xiang, Meng-Ze; Mao, Wen-Jun; Hou, Zai-Jin; Tang, Mu-Ni; Chen, Eric Yu-Hai; Chan, Cecilia Lai-Wan; Yip, Paul S. F.; Conwell, Yeates

    2006-01-01

    In this study, demographic and clinical characteristics of individuals with schizophrenia in a Chinese rural community who had attempted suicide at some time in their lives and those who had not made a suicide attempt were compared. Among individuals with schizophrenia, subjects with (n = 38) and without (n = 472) a lifetime history of suicide…

  19. Depressive Symptoms and Clinical Status during the Treatment of Adolescent Suicide Attempters (TASA) Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitiello, Benedetto; Brent, David A.; Greenhill, Laurence L.; Emslie, Graham; Wells, Karen; Walkup, John T.; Stanley, Barbara; Bukstein, Oscar; Kennard, Betsy D.; Compton, Scott; Coffey, Barbara; Cwik, Mary F.; Posner, Kelly; Wagner, Ann; March, John S.; Riddle, Mark; Goldstein, Tina; Curry, John; Capasso, Lisa; Mayes, Taryn; Shen, Sa; Gugga, S. Sonia; Turner, J. Blake; Barnett, Shannon; Zelazny, Jamie

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To examine the course of depression during the treatment of adolescents with depression who had recently attempted suicide. Method: Adolescents (N = 124), ages 12 to 18 years, with a 90-day history of suicide attempt, a current diagnosis of depressive disorder (96.0% had major depressive disorder), and a Children's Depression Rating…

  20. Post-Admission Cognitive Therapy: A Brief Intervention for Psychiatric Inpatients Admitted After a Suicide Attempt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghahramanlou-Holloway, Marjan; Cox, Daniel W.; Greene, Farrah N.

    2012-01-01

    To date, no empirically based inpatient intervention for individuals who have attempted suicide exists. We present an overview of a novel psychotherapeutic approach, Post-Admission Cognitive Therapy (PACT), currently under development and empirical testing for inpatients who have been admitted for a recent suicide attempt. PACT is adapted from an…

  1. Developmental Differences in Risk Factors for Suicide Attempts between Ninth and Eleventh Graders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacker, Karen A.; Suglia, Shakira F.; Fried, Lise E.; Rappaport, Nancy; Cabral, Howard

    2006-01-01

    In order to identify differences in risk factors for suicide attempts throughout adolescence, this study utilized a school-based survey of ninth (n = 1,192) and eleventh graders (N = 1,055). Suicide attempts were associated with cigarette and alcohol use, family violence, and depression for ninth graders and with illicit drug use, school violence,…

  2. The Rate and Characteristics of Suicide Attempters in the Native Hawaiian Adolescent Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuen, Noelle; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Surveyed native Hawaiian high school students (n=1,779) for symptoms of psychopathology and suicide attempts in the previous 6 months. Seventy-seven students reported making a suicide attempt. There were no significant differences in prevalence rates for males and females. Depression, anxiety, aggression, substance abuse symptoms, and low family…

  3. How to Talk to a Teenager about a Suicide Attempt in Your Family

    Science.gov (United States)

    How to Talk to a Teenager about a Suicide Attempt in Your Family This information is intended to help inform and guide adults when talking with a ... to the hospital for help.”) Talking to your teenager after a suicide attempt in your family It ...

  4. Gender distribution of suicide attempts among immigrants in European countries. An international perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bursztein Lipsicas, C.; Makinen, I.H.; Wasseman, D.; Apter, A.; De Leo, D.; Kerkhof, A.J.F.M.; Michel, K.; Renberg, S.; Schmidtke, A.; van Heeringen, K.; Vamik, A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Studies report high rates of suicide attempts for female immigrants. This study assesses variations in the distribution of suicide attempts across gender in immigrant and non-immigrant groups in Europe. Method: Data on 64 native and immigrant groups, including 17 662 local and 3755

  5. Suicide attempt predicted by academic performance and childhood IQ: a cohort study of 26 000 children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sörberg Wallin, A; Zeebari, Z; Lager, A; Gunnell, D; Allebeck, P; Falkstedt, D

    2018-04-01

    Academic performance in youth, measured by grade point average (GPA), predicts suicide attempt, but the mechanisms are not known. It has been suggested that general intelligence might underlie the association. We followed 26 315 Swedish girls and boys in population-representative cohorts, up to maximum 46 years of age, for the first suicide attempt in hospital records. Associations between GPA at age 16, IQ measured in school at age 13 and suicide attempt were investigated in Cox regressions and mediation analyses. There was a clear graded association between lower GPA and subsequent suicide attempt. With control for potential confounders, those in the lowest GPA quartile had a near five-fold risk (HR 4.9, 95% CI 3.7-6.7) compared to those in the highest quartile. In a mediation analysis, the association between GPA and suicide attempt was robust, while the association between IQ and suicide attempt was fully mediated by GPA. Poor academic performance in compulsory school, at age 16, was a robust predictor of suicide attempt past young adulthood and seemed to account for the association between lower childhood IQ and suicide attempt. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Suicide menace in North-Eastern India: a hospital-based study on the clinical aspects of suicide attempters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin Victor

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Context: Suicide is a rapidly evolving public health problem affecting people worldwide and is the second leading cause of death among 15-29 year olds globally in 2012. It is a multidimensional and multifactorial phenomenon in terms of the cause and the effect. Objectives: To find out sociodemographic profiles, modes of attempting suicide, and prevalence of depression among the subjects with suicide attempt, and to find any association between them. Methods: One hundred and eight cases of attempted suicide were selected consecutively who were attending the hospital irrespective of the department and were evaluated to find out various sociodemographic variables, methods of attempting suicide, and if they fulfilled ICD-10 criteria for depressive disorder. Results: Higher prevalence of suicide was seen in cases with age <35 years (77.6%, female gender (54.62%, from rural background (69.44%, living in nuclear family (64.81%, who were unmarried/single (60.18%, illiterate or having education up to class Xth (71.29%, occupationally dependent (68.51%, belonging to lower/lower middle socioeconomic class (51.85%. Organophosphorus poisoning (42.59% was the most common method of attempting suicide. 66.66% of cases suffered from depressive disorder at the time of attempting suicide. Poisoning was the more common method among cases with age less than 35 years (63.09% and while males opted for drug overdose (16.32% females used poisoning (64.40% as the most common method to attempt suicide. Conclusions: The data provides a range of information to identify vulnerable groups so that a multidimensional approach can be planned for formulation of suicide prevention strategies.

  7. Impulsive traits and unplanned suicide attempts predict exaggerated prefrontal response to angry faces in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanyukov, Polina M; Szanto, Katalin; Siegle, Greg J; Hallquist, Michael N; Reynolds, Charles F; Aizenstein, Howard J; Dombrovski, Alexandre Y

    2015-08-01

    Abnormal responses to social stimuli are seen in people vulnerable to suicidal behavior, indicating possible disruptions in the neural circuitry mediating the interpretation of socioemotional cues. These disruptions have not been empirically related to psychological and cognitive pathways to suicide. In the present study of older suicide attempters, we examined neural responses to emotional faces and their relationship to impulsivity, one of the components of the suicidal diathesis. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we recorded neurohemodynamic responses to angry faces in a carefully characterized sample of 18 depressed elderly with history of suicide attempts, 13 depressed nonsuicidal patients, and 18 healthy individuals, all aged 60+. Impulsivity was assessed with the Social Problem Solving Inventory Impulsivity/Carelessness Style subscale and Barratt Impulsiveness Scale. The Suicide Intent Scale planning subscale was used to describe the degree of planning associated with the most lethal attempt. Depression and history of attempted suicide were not associated with neural responses to angry faces, failing to replicate earlier studies. Higher impulsivity, however, predicted exaggerated responses to angry faces in fronto-opercular and dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (pcorr Impulsive traits and history of unplanned suicide attempts partly explain the heterogeneity in neural responses to angry faces in depressed elderly. Displays of social emotion command excessive cortical processing in impulsive suicide attempters. Copyright © 2015 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. [Factors on the suicidal attempt by gender of middle and high school student].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Sanggu; Yi, Yunjeong; Jung, Hye-Sun

    2011-10-01

    The suicide rate of adolescents in Korea is increasing annually. Therefore, this research was done to identify the suicide attempt rate of middle and high school students and to identify factors that influence suicidal attempts. The Korea Youth Health Risk Behavior Web-based Survey (2007) was used as data. Discriminant analysis and logistic regression were performed to analyze the data depending on gender to consider the gender difference in assessing the influence of each independent variable on suicidal attempts. Discriminant analysis according on gender showed that 13 factors correlated with suicidal attempts for boys, and 20 factors for girls. The most highly correlated factors were smoking, depression and inhalation experience. For inhalation experience, boys had 2.7 times higher possibility of suicide attempts (95% CI 1.8-3.0) and girls, a 2.4 times higher possibility (95% CI 1.7-3.5). The results of the study indicate a need to classify adolescents for expectation of suicide risk and high danger for suicidal attempts through, and introduce suicide prevention programs for these adolescents. In particular, it is necessary to start intervention with students who smoke, have sexual and inhalation experiences and high levels of depression.

  9. The Indirect Effect of Perceived Criticism on Suicide Ideation and Attempts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagan, Christopher R; Joiner, Thomas E

    2017-07-03

    The effect of perceived criticism from others is one potentially important risk factor for suicide that has received scant attention, despite decades of research on the role of criticism in the treatment and course of mental illnesses such as schizophrenia and mood disorders. This study analyzed the effect of perceived criticism's association with suicidal ideation and attempts as well as its connection with the suicide related constructs thwarted belongingness and perceived burdensomeness as described in the Interpersonal Theory of Suicide. Fifty participants (66% female, M Age  = 18.7), 18 of whom had previously made one or more suicide attempts, completed a battery of self-report assessments as well as two in-person, structured clinical interviews. Analyses demonstrated that perceived parental criticism is a significant indicator of suicide ideation (β = .297, p = .003) and attempts (β = .373, p suicide attempts (β = .297, p = .006). Perceived criticism has a strong indirect effect on suicide ideation and attempts through its effect on thwarted belongingness, but not perceived burdensomeness, while controlling for mental illnesses. Some limitations of this study include the cross-sectional design and the use of a relatively small, restricted age sample. Treatment designed to mitigate perceived criticism and thwarted belongingness may be an important component in combatting suicidal ideation and attempts, particularly among young adults.

  10. The independent effects of child sexual abuse and impulsivity on lifetime suicide attempts among female patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daray, Federico M; Rojas, Sasha M; Bridges, Ana J; Badour, Christal L; Grendas, Leandro; Rodante, Demián; Puppo, Soledad; Rebok, Federico

    2016-08-01

    Child sexual abuse (CSA) is a causal agent in many negative adulthood outcomes, including the risk for life-threatening behaviors such as suicide ideation and suicide attempts. Traumatic events such as CSA may pose risk in the healthy development of cognitive and emotional functioning during childhood. In fact, high impulsivity, a risk factor for suicidal behavior, is characteristic of CSA victims. The current study aims to understand the relations among CSA, impulsivity, and frequency of lifetime suicide attempts among a female patient sample admitted for suicidal behavior. Participants included 177 female patients between the ages of 18 and 63 years admitted at two hospitals in Buenos Aires, Argentina. Number of previous suicide attempts and CSA were assessed via structured interviews, while impulsivity was assessed with the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11). A model of structural equations was employed to evaluate the role of impulsivity in the relation between CSA and suicide attempts. CSA (β=.18, psuicide attempts. However, impulsivity was not significantly associated with CSA (β=.09, p>.05). CSA and impulsivity are independently associated with lifetime suicide attempts among female patients with recent suicidal behavior. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Schizophrenia and Suicide Attempts: Findings from a Representative Community-Based Canadian Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    This study examined factors associated with suicide attempts among those with schizophrenia (n = 101) versus those without (n = 21,643) in a representative sample of noninstitutionalized Canadians. The lifetime prevalence of suicide attempts among persons with schizophrenia was 39.2% versus 2.8% of nonafflicted individuals. After adjusting for sociodemographics, childhood adversities, substance abuse/dependence, depression/anxiety, and chronic pain, those with schizophrenia had 6 times the odds (OR = 6.47) of attempting suicide. Among persons with schizophrenia, suicide attempts were associated with female gender (OR = 4.59), substance abuse/dependence (OR = 6.31), depression (OR = 4.93), and childhood physical abuse (OR = 5.75). Community-dwelling persons with schizophrenia appear to be at high risk for suicide attempts. PMID:26977319

  12. Examining the impact of psychiatric diagnosis and comorbidity on the medical lethality of adolescent suicide attempts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McManama O'Brien, Kimberly H; Berzin, Stephanie C

    2012-08-01

    Specific psychiatric diagnoses and comorbidity patterns were examined to determine if they were related to the medical lethality of suicide attempts among adolescents presenting to an urban general hospital (N=375). Bivariate analysis showed that attempters with substance abuse disorders had higher levels of lethality than attempters without substance abuse. Regression results indicated having depression comorbid with any other diagnosis was not associated with medical lethality. However, having a substance abuse disorder was associated with higher suicide attempt lethality, highlighting the importance of substance abuse as a risk factor for lethal suicide attempts in adolescents. This finding stimulates critical thinking around the understanding of suicidal behavior in youth and the development and implementation of treatment strategies for suicidal adolescents with substance abuse disorders. © 2012 The American Association of Suicidology.

  13. Comorbid bipolar disorder and borderline personality disorder and history of suicide attempts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Mark; Martinez, Jennifer; Young, Diane; Chelminski, Iwona; Morgan, Theresa A; Dalrymple, Kristy

    2014-06-01

    Both bipolar disorder and borderline personality disorder are associated with elevated rates of attempted suicide; however, no studies have examined whether there is an independent, additive risk for suicide attempts in patients diagnosed with both disorders. In the present study from the Rhode Island Methods to Improve Diagnostic Assessment and Services (MIDAS) project, 3,465 psychiatric outpatients were interviewed with semistructured interviews. Compared to the bipolar patients without borderline personality disorder, the patients diagnosed with both bipolar and borderline personality disorder were significantly more likely to have made a prior suicide attempt. The patients with borderline personality disorder and bipolar disorder were nonsignificantly more likely than the borderline patients without bipolar disorder to have made a prior suicide attempt. Bipolar disorder and borderline personality disorder were each associated with an increased rate of suicide attempts. The co-occurrence of these disorders conferred an additive risk, although the influence of borderline personality disorder was greater than that of bipolar disorder.

  14. Suicidal ideation and suicide attempts in homeless mentally ill persons: age-specific risks of substance abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prigerson, Holly G; Desai, Rani A; Liu-Mares, Wen; Rosenheck, Robert A

    2003-04-01

    Despite reports of high rates of suicidal behavior among mentally ill homeless persons, it remains unknown whether the well-established suicide risks of increased age and comorbid psychiatric and substance abuse disorders ("dual diagnosis") documented in the general population are also markers for increased suicide risk among homeless persons. Data from a multi-site outreach program (ACCESS) (N = 7,224) were used to investigate whether rates of serious suicidal ideation and recent suicide attempts varied with the age and substance abuse diagnosis(es) (drug abuse and/or alcohol abuse disorders) among homeless mentally ill clients. The prevalence of 30-day suicidal ideation and suicide attempts (37.5 % and 7.9 %, respectively) was extremely high. Although the risk of serious suicidal ideation and suicide attempts was greater among the younger compared with the older homeless mentally ill clients, risks were not significantly increased by co-morbid alcohol and/or drug abuse. However, a significant interaction between age and co-morbid substance abuse was observed showing that among older clients but not younger clients, those with drug and alcohol abuse were at significantly greater risk of suicidal ideation than those without substance use problems, controlling for confounding factors. Efforts to prevent suicide should recognize that among homeless people with mental illness, young-middle-aged (30- to 39-year-old) clients are at greatest risk of suicidal behavior. Among older clients the presence of both drug and alcohol abuse significantly increases suicide risk. These patterns are of special importance because they are quite different from those that are well documented in non-homeless populations.

  15. Major depressive disorder, suicidal ideation, and suicide attempt in twins discordant for cannabis dependence and early-onset cannabis use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynskey, Michael T; Glowinski, Anne L; Todorov, Alexandre A; Bucholz, Kathleen K; Madden, Pamela A F; Nelson, Elliot C; Statham, Dixie J; Martin, Nicholas G; Heath, Andrew C

    2004-10-01

    Previous research has reported both a moderate degree of comorbidity between cannabis dependence and major depressive disorder (MDD) and that early-onset cannabis use is associated with increased risks for MDD. To examine whether associations between both lifetime cannabis dependence and early cannabis use and measures of MDD, suicidal ideation, and suicide attempt persist after controlling for genetic and/or shared environmental influences. Cross-sectional survey of twin pairs discordant for lifetime cannabis dependence and those discordant for early cannabis use. General population sample of twins (median age, 30 years). Two hundred seventy-seven same-sex twin pairs discordant for cannabis dependence and 311 pairs discordant for early-onset cannabis use (before age 17 years). Self-report measures of DSM-IV-defined lifetime MDD, suicidal ideation, and suicide attempt. Individuals who were cannabis dependent had odds of suicidal ideation and suicide attempt that were 2.5 to 2.9 times higher than those of their non-cannabis-dependent co-twin. Additionally, cannabis dependence was associated with elevated risks of MDD in dizygotic but not in monozygotic twins. Those who initiated cannabis use before age 17 years had elevated rates of subsequent suicide attempt (odds ratio, 3.5 [95% confidence interval, 1.4-8.6]) but not of MDD or suicidal ideation. Early MDD and suicidal ideation were significantly associated with subsequent risks of cannabis dependence in discordant dizygotic pairs but not in discordant monozygotic pairs. Comorbidity between cannabis dependence and MDD likely arises through shared genetic and environmental vulnerabilities predisposing to both outcomes. In contrast, associations between cannabis dependence and suicidal behaviors cannot be entirely explained by common predisposing genetic and/or shared environmental predispositions. Previously reported associations between early-onset cannabis use and subsequent MDD likely reflect shared genetic and

  16. Penetrating Brain Injury after Suicide Attempt with Speargun

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Ross Williams

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Penetrating cranial injury by mechanisms other than are exceedingly rare, and so strategies and guidelines for the management of PBI are largely informed by data from higher-velocity penetrating injuries. Here we present a case of penetrating brain injury by the low velocity mechanism of a harpoon from an underwater fishing speargun in an attempted suicide by a 56-year-old Caucasian male. The case raised a number of interesting points in management of lower-velocity penetrating brain injury (LVPBI, including benefit in delaying foreign body removal to allow for tamponade; the importance of history taking in establishing the social/legal significance of the events surrounding the injury; the use of cerebral angiogram in all cases of PBI; advantages of using DECT to reduce artifact when available; and antibiotic prophylaxis in the context of idiosyncratic histories of usage of penetrating objects before coming in contact with the intracranial environment. We present here the management of the case in full along with an extended discussion and review of existing literature regarding key points in management of LVPBI vs. higher velocity forms of intracranial injury.

  17. Comorbid panic disorder as an independent risk factor for suicide attempts in depressed outpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Yoon-Young; Kim, Chan-Hyung; Roh, Daeyoung

    2016-05-01

    Although comorbid panic disorder is associated with more severe symptoms and poorer therapeutic response in depressive patients, the relationship between panic disorder and risk of suicide attempt has not been confirmed. This study aimed to examine the relationship between comorbid panic disorder and clinical characteristics associated with suicidal risk as well as the likelihood of suicide attempt. A total of 223 outpatients with current major depressive disorder participated in the study. Both subjects with panic disorder (33%) and those without panic disorder (67%) were compared based on history of suicide attempts, current psychopathologies, and traits of impulsivity and anger. Subjects with panic disorder had higher levels of impulsivity, depression, and hopelessness and were more likely to report a history of suicide attempts. Subjects with panic disorder were younger at the time of first suicide attempt than those without panic disorder. Logistic regression analyses indicated that comorbid panic disorder was significantly associated with a history of suicide attempts after adjusting for other clinical correlates (odds ratio = 2.8; p depressive disorder may be associated with a more severe burden of illness and may independently increase the likelihood of suicide attempt. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Suicide Attempts among the Elderly in East Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Suh, Guk-Hee; Gega, Lina

    2017-01-01

    Among the one million suicide deaths worldwide each year, as many as 60% occur in Asia. The World Health Organization (WHO) found higher suicide rates among the elderly in rapidly industrialized Asian countries such as China, Hong Kong, Japan, South Korea, Malaysia and Singapore, compared to the corresponding rates of recently industrializing Asian countries like Vietnam and Sri Lanka (WHO, 2014). As a case in point, suicide rates in South Korea have been the highest in the world since 2003 a...

  19. The incidence of eating disorders in a Danish register study: Associations with suicide risk and mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerwas, Stephanie; Larsen, Janne Tidselbak; Petersen, Liselotte; Thornton, Laura M; Mortensen, Preben Bo; Bulik, Cynthia M

    2015-06-01

    Our aim was to characterize the incidence rates and cumulative incidence of anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), and eating disorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS), and examine associations among eating disorder diagnoses, suicide attempts, and mortality. Individuals born in Denmark between 1989 and 2006 were included (N = 966,141, 51.3% male). Eating disorders diagnoses (AN, broad AN, BN, EDNOS) were drawn from the Danish Psychiatric Central Research Register (PCRR) and Danish National Patient Register (NPR). Suicide attempts and deaths were captured in the NPR, the PCRR, and the Danish Civil Registration System (CRS). In females, AN had a peak hazard at approximately age 15 years, BN at 22 years, and EDNOS had an extended peak that spanned 18 years-22 years. Eating disorder diagnoses predicted a significantly higher hazard for death and suicide attempt compared with the referent of individuals with no eating disorders. In males, peak hazard for diagnosis was earlier than in females. The present study represents one of the largest and longest studies of eating disorder incidence and suicide attempts and death in both females and males. Eating disorders are accompanied by increased hazard of suicide attempts and death even in young adults. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Childhood Bullying Behaviors as a Risk for Suicide Attempts and Completed Suicides: A Population-Based Birth Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klomek, Anat Brunstein; Sourander, Andre; Niemela, Solja; Kumpulainen, Kirsti; Piha, Jorma; Tamminen, Tuula; Almqvist, Fredrik; Gould, Madelyn S.

    2009-01-01

    The examination of the data from a sample of 5,302 Finnish children who were born in 1981 finds that bullying at age eight years and later is associated with later suicide attempts and completed suicide for boys but not after controlling for conduct and depression symptoms. For girls, the association is still seen even after controlling for…

  1. Perceived Stress and Intent to Die in Young Soldiers Who Attempt Suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelef, Leah; Brunstein Klomek, Anat; Yavnai, Nirit; Shahar, Golan

    2017-10-06

    Intent to die is an important component of suicide risk assessment. The authors compared the predictive effect of two forms of stress - military and perceived - in intent to die by suicide among young adult Israeli soldiers with a history of suicide attempts. Depression, suicide ideation, and habituation/acquired capacity for suicidality served as covariates. Participants were 60 young adult soldiers in the Israeli Defense Force (ISF; aged 18-21 years), who made a suicide attempt during their military service. Study variables were assessed using self-report measures. Intent to die by suicide correlated with suicide ideation, habituation/acquired capacity, depressive symptoms, and perceived stress. In a multiple regression analysis, perceived stress predicted intent to die (b = .44, p = .002) over and above the prediction by suicide ideation (b = .42, p = .013) and acquired capacity/habituation (b = .28, p = .023). The cross-sectional design restricts causal inference. In addition, an exclusive reliance on self-report measures might have inflated shared method variance. Perceived stress captures a unique dimension of intent to die by suicide among young suicide attempters.

  2. Unique associations between borderline personality disorder features and suicide ideation and attempts in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, Catherine R; Bagge, Courtney L; Osman, Augustine

    2013-10-01

    Suicide-related behaviors are a significant public health concern among adolescents, and research is greatly needed to identify risk factors for these behaviors in this age group. Borderline personality disorder (BPD) features are one such factor that may help predict suicide risk in adolescents. In adults, BPD features are related to negative outcomes, including suicidal behavior. However, much less is known about this association in adolescents. The current study examined which specific facets of BPD relate to suicidal ideation and attempts in an adolescent psychiatric inpatient sample. Results indicated that the affective instability facet of BPD was uniquely related to suicidal ideation and attempts, even when controlling for general negative emotionality. Moreover, greater affective instability significantly differentiated suicide ideators from attempters. These findings are consistent with adult BPD research and with Linehan's biosocial theory of BPD, suggesting that affective instability is a central BPD feature that leads to the behavioral dysregulation observed in the disorder.

  3. Analysis of CpG SNPs in 34 genes: association test with suicide attempt in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bani-Fatemi, Ali; Gonçalves, Vanessa F; Zai, Clement; de Souza, Renan; Le Foll, Bernard; Kennedy, James L; Wong, Albert H; De Luca, Vincenzo

    2013-07-01

    Suicide is the act of intentionally causing one's own death. The lifetime suicide risk in schizophrenia is 4.9% and 20% to 50% of patients with SCZ will attempt suicide during their life. The other risk factors for suicidal behavior in schizophrenia include prior history of suicide attempts, active psychosis, depression and substance abuse. To date, there are no robust genetic or epigenetic predictors of suicide or suicide attempt in this specific population. We collected detailed clinical information and DNA samples from 241 schizophrenia patients and performed the genetic analyses in suicide attempters and non-attempters, among these patients. Using the structured research interview, we determined the presence of suicide attempt lifetime and then we tested 384 DNA variants in candidate genes supposed to be involved in the neurobiology of schizophrenia. We applied a novel mapping analysis using a specific bioinformatic tool that analyzed only the polymorphic CpG sites in our SNP panel. This analysis looked at the presence or absence of methylation sites affected by the SNP allele. The SNPs in the candidate genes were studied under a different perspective considering their direct contribution to the availability of methylation sites within the gene of interest. The level of potential methylation was compared using a linear model in attempters and non-attempters. Among the 384 SNPs selected from the Illumina Bead Chip only the rs2661319 in the RGS4 gene was significantly associated with suicide attempt (p = 0.002). There were 119 CpG SNPs in the aforementioned panel. The gene-wise potential methylation level of RGS4 was 55% in the attempters and 65% in the non-attempters with a p-value of 0.005. The total level of potential metylation in the overall panel (119 SNPs combined) was not associated with suicide attempt. However, when considering the potential methylation at chromosome 1, we found that suicide attempt (p = 0.036) was associated with lower methylation. The

  4. Prevalence of suicide attempts among college students in China: a meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin-Sheng Yang

    Full Text Available Suicide is the leading cause of death among 15-34 year olds in China, but no national data are available on the suicide and suicide attempts rates of college students, a sub-group of youth with 23 million. Several studies have reported the prevalence of suicide attempts among college students, however, no meta-analysis pooling the prevalence of suicide attempts is found.This study aims to estimate the pooled prevalence of suicide attempts among college students in China. The relevant studies up to August 2014 were systematically searched via electronic databases (PubMed-Medline, Embase, Chinese Wanfang database, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure and Chinese VIP database. We only selected original articles that either reported the prevalence of suicide attempts or sufficient data for calculating the prevalence.A total of 29 eligible studies, with 88,225 college students, were finally included. The maximum and minimum reported prevalences of suicide attempts among college students in China were 0.4% and 10.5%, respectively. The pooled prevalence of suicide attempts was 2.8% (95%CI: 2.3%-3.3%. Subgroup analyses showed that the pooled estimate of prevalence of life time suicide attempts was 2.7% (95%CI: 2.1%-3.3%, and 12-month suicide attempts was 2.9% (95%CI: 2.0%-3.8%. The prevalence for males was 2.4% (95%CI: 1.8%-3.0%, and for females was 2.7% (95%CI: 1.9%-3.7%. The prevalences among college students in grade 1 through 4 were 2.8% (95%CI: 1.7%-3.8%, 1.8% (95%CI: 1.2%-2.3%, 2.0% (95%CI: 0.8%-3.1%, and 2.9% (95%CI: 0.1%-6.7%, respectively. The prevalences among college students from rural and urban areas were 5.1% (95%CI: 2.8%-7.5% and 3.7% (95%CI: 1.4%-5.9%, respectively.2.8% prevalence of suicide attempts and more than 600,000 suicide attempters among college students indicate that suicide attempt among college students is an important public health problem in China. More attention should be paid to the current situation.

  5. Prevalence of suicide attempts among college students in China: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lin-Sheng; Zhang, Zhi-Hua; Sun, Liang; Sun, Ye-Huan; Ye, Dong-Qing

    2015-01-01

    Suicide is the leading cause of death among 15-34 year olds in China, but no national data are available on the suicide and suicide attempts rates of college students, a sub-group of youth with 23 million. Several studies have reported the prevalence of suicide attempts among college students, however, no meta-analysis pooling the prevalence of suicide attempts is found. This study aims to estimate the pooled prevalence of suicide attempts among college students in China. The relevant studies up to August 2014 were systematically searched via electronic databases (PubMed-Medline, Embase, Chinese Wanfang database, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure and Chinese VIP database). We only selected original articles that either reported the prevalence of suicide attempts or sufficient data for calculating the prevalence. A total of 29 eligible studies, with 88,225 college students, were finally included. The maximum and minimum reported prevalences of suicide attempts among college students in China were 0.4% and 10.5%, respectively. The pooled prevalence of suicide attempts was 2.8% (95%CI: 2.3%-3.3%). Subgroup analyses showed that the pooled estimate of prevalence of life time suicide attempts was 2.7% (95%CI: 2.1%-3.3%), and 12-month suicide attempts was 2.9% (95%CI: 2.0%-3.8%). The prevalence for males was 2.4% (95%CI: 1.8%-3.0%), and for females was 2.7% (95%CI: 1.9%-3.7%). The prevalences among college students in grade 1 through 4 were 2.8% (95%CI: 1.7%-3.8%), 1.8% (95%CI: 1.2%-2.3%), 2.0% (95%CI: 0.8%-3.1%), and 2.9% (95%CI: 0.1%-6.7%), respectively. The prevalences among college students from rural and urban areas were 5.1% (95%CI: 2.8%-7.5%) and 3.7% (95%CI: 1.4%-5.9%), respectively. 2.8% prevalence of suicide attempts and more than 600,000 suicide attempters among college students indicate that suicide attempt among college students is an important public health problem in China. More attention should be paid to the current situation.

  6. Spirituality and Religion in Youth Suicide Attempters’ Trajectories of Mental Health Service Utilization: The Year before a Suicide Attempt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullock, Marie; Nadeau, Lucie; Renaud, Johanne

    2012-01-01

    Objective Youth suicide attempters are high-risk for suicide. Many have untreated mental disorders and are not receiving services. It is crucial to understand potential influences associated with service use. Spirituality/religion are one influence in youths’ mental health service trajectories. This study explored youths’ experiences of spirituality/religion as it relates to their help-seeking the year before their suicide attempt. Method: Fifteen youth (aged 14–18) who made a suicide attempt(s) one to two years prior were consecutively recruited through the Depressive Disorders Program of a psychiatric hospital and interviewed using a mixed-methods design, including an adapted psychological autopsy method. Results: Three themes emerged: religious community members acted as a bridge, step, or provider to mental health services; religious/spiritual discourses were encountered within services; and many youths reported changes in spirituality/religious beliefs the year before their suicide attempt. Conclusions: Spirituality/religion can have a role in these youths’ service trajectories. How this confers protection or challenges needs to be clarified. Our findings can inform policies supporting training religious leaders about suicide intervention to foster coordination with mental health services, and service-providers in judiciously approaching spiritual/religious themes in suicide prevention. PMID:22876264

  7. The role of tyrosine hydroxylase gene variants in suicide attempt in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jiayi; Chan, Lai Fong; Souza, Renan P; Tampakeras, Maria; Kennedy, James L; Zai, Clement; De Luca, Vincenzo

    2014-01-24

    Evidence has shown that attempted suicide in psychiatric disorders is a complex interplay of genes and environment. Noradrenergic dysfunction due to abnormalities in the tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) gene has been implicated in the pathogenesis of suicidal behavior in mood disorders. However, suicide is a leading cause of mortality in schizophrenia too. Recent evidence suggests that TH gene variants may also increase the risk of suicide attempts in schizophrenia patients, although the interaction with established clinical risk factors is unclear. This study aimed to identify TH gene variants conferring risk for suicide attempt in schizophrenia while accounting for the interaction between this gene and clinical risk factors. We performed analysis on four TH SNPs (rs11564717, rs11042950, rs2070762, rs689) and the common TCAT repeat (UniSTS:240639) for 234 schizophrenia patients (51 suicide attempters and 183 non-attempters). Clinical risk factors and ethnic stratification were included as covariates. Single marker analysis identified the SNP rs11564717 (p=0.042) and the TCAT(6) (p=0.004) as risk variants for suicide attempt. We also identified the haplotype A-A-A-G as a risk factor for suicide attempt (p=0.0025). In conclusion, our findings suggest that TH polymorphisms may contribute to the risk of attempted suicide in schizophrenia even after accounting for established clinical risk factors and ethnic stratification. Further larger scale studies are needed to confirm these findings and to understand the mechanisms underlying the role of TH gene variants in suicide attempt in schizophrenia. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. [Study on the school-related-factors of attempted suicide among rural middle school students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Xiu-Ya; Tao, Fang-Biao; Hao, Jia-Hu; Xu, Shao-Jun; Su, Pu-Yu; Huang, Zhao-Hui

    2009-01-01

    This study was undertaken to examine possible relationship between attempted suicide and underachievement, bullying, low life satisfaction and low self-concept at school. An anonymous self-report survey assessing demographic characteristics and the major risk factors of teenage attempted suicide was completed by students from 16 middle schools in grades seven to twelve in 4 counties of Anhui province (age 10 to 21 years). An anonymous questionnaire was used to rate attempted suicide, bullying involvement and learning performance. Attempted suicide was defined as: experiencing specific suicide actions at least one time during the 12 months preceding the survey. Multidimensional Students' Life Satisfaction Scale and Children' s Self-concept Scale were used to evaluate satisfaction and self-conscience on and at respectively. In total, 10 894 respondents substantially completed the survey. Multiple logistic-regression analyses, controlling for socio-demographic variables, was used to analyze if underachievement, bullying, low school life satisfaction and low children' s self-conscience at school had been risk factors. 629 participants (5.8%) reported having made at least one attempted suicide within the last 12 months. Students being underachieved were significantly having more attempted suicide events than those excellent students (chi2 = 11.39, P = 0.023). Students being both bully-victims and practiced bully were significantly more than those being only practiced bully (28.7% vs. 15.8% , P bullying, lower school life satisfaction and low self conscience were risk factors for attempted suicide. Data from this study confirmed that school bullying and children' s self-conscience at school were significantly associated with attempted suicide among rural middle school students in Anhui province. It is of importance to improve the school' s environments to reduce the risk of attempted suicide among this group.

  9. Classification of suicide attempters in schizophrenia using sociocultural and clinical features: A machine learning approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hettige, Nuwan C; Nguyen, Thai Binh; Yuan, Chen; Rajakulendran, Thanara; Baddour, Jermeen; Bhagwat, Nikhil; Bani-Fatemi, Ali; Voineskos, Aristotle N; Mallar Chakravarty, M; De Luca, Vincenzo

    2017-07-01

    Suicide is a major concern for those afflicted by schizophrenia. Identifying patients at the highest risk for future suicide attempts remains a complex problem for psychiatric interventions. Machine learning models allow for the integration of many risk factors in order to build an algorithm that predicts which patients are likely to attempt suicide. Currently it is unclear how to integrate previously identified risk factors into a clinically relevant predictive tool to estimate the probability of a patient with schizophrenia for attempting suicide. We conducted a cross-sectional assessment on a sample of 345 participants diagnosed with schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Suicide attempters and non-attempters were clearly identified using the Columbia Suicide Severity Rating Scale (C-SSRS) and the Beck Suicide Ideation Scale (BSS). We developed four classification algorithms using a regularized regression, random forest, elastic net and support vector machine models with sociocultural and clinical variables as features to train the models. All classification models performed similarly in identifying suicide attempters and non-attempters. Our regularized logistic regression model demonstrated an accuracy of 67% and an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.71, while the random forest model demonstrated 66% accuracy and an AUC of 0.67. Support vector classifier (SVC) model demonstrated an accuracy of 67% and an AUC of 0.70, and the elastic net model demonstrated and accuracy of 65% and an AUC of 0.71. Machine learning algorithms offer a relatively successful method for incorporating many clinical features to predict individuals at risk for future suicide attempts. Increased performance of these models using clinically relevant variables offers the potential to facilitate early treatment and intervention to prevent future suicide attempts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Classification of Suicide Attempts through a Machine Learning Algorithm Based on Multiple Systemic Psychiatric Scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jihoon Oh

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Classification and prediction of suicide attempts in high-risk groups is important for preventing suicide. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the information from multiple clinical scales has classification power for identifying actual suicide attempts. Patients with depression and anxiety disorders (N = 573 were included, and each participant completed 31 self-report psychiatric scales and questionnaires about their history of suicide attempts. We then trained an artificial neural network classifier with 41 variables (31 psychiatric scales and 10 sociodemographic elements and ranked the contribution of each variable for the classification of suicide attempts. To evaluate the clinical applicability of our model, we measured classification performance with top-ranked predictors. Our model had an overall accuracy of 93.7% in 1-month, 90.8% in 1-year, and 87.4% in lifetime suicide attempts detection. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC was the highest for 1-month suicide attempts detection (0.93, followed by lifetime (0.89, and 1-year detection (0.87. Among all variables, the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire had the highest contribution, and the positive and negative characteristics of the scales similarly contributed to classification performance. Performance on suicide attempts classification was largely maintained when we only used the top five ranked variables for training (AUROC; 1-month, 0.75, 1-year, 0.85, lifetime suicide attempts detection, 0.87. Our findings indicate that information from self-report clinical scales can be useful for the classification of suicide attempts. Based on the reliable performance of the top five predictors alone, this machine learning approach could help clinicians identify high-risk patients in clinical settings.

  11. Child and Adolescent Suicide Attempts, Suicidal Behavior, and Adverse Childhood Experiences in South Africa: A Prospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cluver, Lucie; Orkin, Mark; Boyes, Mark E; Sherr, Lorraine

    2015-07-01

    This is the first known prospective study of child suicidal behavior in sub-Saharan Africa. Aims were to determine whether (1) cumulative exposure to adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) predicts later suicidality and (2) heightened risks are mediated by mental health disorder and drug/alcohol misuse. Longitudinal repeated interviews were conducted 1 year apart (97% retention) with 3,515 adolescents aged 10-18 years in South Africa (56% female; areas from urban/rural sites within two provinces and door-to-door sampling included all homes with a resident adolescent. Measures included past-month suicide attempts, planning, and ideation, mental health disorders, drug/alcohol use, and ACE, for example, parental death by AIDS or homicide, abuse, and exposure to community violence. Analyses included multivariate logistic regression and multiple mediation tests. Past-month suicidality rates were 3.2% of adolescents attempting, 5.8% planning, and 7.2% reporting ideation. After controlling for baseline suicidality and sociodemographics, a strong, graded relationship was shown between cumulative ACE and all suicide behaviors 1 year later. Baseline mental health, but not drug/alcohol misuse, mediated relationships between ACE and subsequent suicidality. Suicide attempts rose from 1.9% among adolescents with no ACE to 6.3% among adolescents with >5 ACEs (cumulative odds ratio [OR], 2.46; confidence interval [CI], 1.00-6.05); for suicide planning, from 2.4% to 12.5% (cumulative OR, 4.40; CI, 2.08-9.29); and for suicide ideation, from 4.2% to 15.6% (cumulative OR, 2.99; CI, 1.68-5.53). Preventing and mitigating childhood adversities have the potential to reduce suicidality. Among adolescents already exposed to adversities, effective mental health services may buffer against future suicidality. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of assertive outreach after suicide attempt in the AID (assertive intervention for deliberate self harm) trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morthorst, Britt; Krogh, Jesper; Erlangsen, Annette

    2012-01-01

    To assess whether an assertive outreach intervention after suicide attempt could reduce the frequency of subsequent suicidal acts, compared with standard treatment.......To assess whether an assertive outreach intervention after suicide attempt could reduce the frequency of subsequent suicidal acts, compared with standard treatment....

  13. Suicide attempt, clinical correlates, and BDNF Val66Met polymorphism in chronic patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Haisen; Zhang, Guangya; Du, Xiangdong; Zhang, Yingyang; Yin, Guangzhong; Dai, Jing; He, Man-Xi; Soares, Jair C; Li, Xiaosi; Zhang, Xiang Yang

    2018-02-01

    Recent evidence suggests the role of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the pathophysiology of suicidal behavior. Because schizophrenia patients usually have high suicide rates and numerous studies have suggested that BDNF may contribute to the psychopathology of schizophrenia, we hypothesized that the functional polymorphism of BDNF (Val66Met) was associated with suicide attempts in patients with schizophrenia in a Chinese Han population. This polymorphism was genotyped in 825 chronic schizophrenia patients with (n = 123) and without (n = 702) suicide attempts and 445 healthy controls without a history of suicide attempts using a case-control design. The schizophrenia symptoms were assessed by the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale. There were no significant differences in BDNF Val66Met genotype and allele distributions between the patients and healthy controls. However, we found the Val allele (p = .023) and the Val/Val genotypes (p = .058) to be associated with a history of suicide attempts. Moreover, some clinical characteristics, including age and cigarettes smoked each day, interacted with the BDNF gene variant and appeared to play an important role in suicide attempts among schizophrenia patients. The BDNF Val66Met polymorphism itself and its interaction with some clinical variables may influence suicide attempts among schizophrenia patients. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Suicide ideation, plan, and attempt in the Mexican adolescent mental health survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Guilherme; Benjet, Corina; Medina-Mora, Maria Elena; Orozco, Ricardo; Nock, Matthew

    2008-01-01

    No representative data among adolescents in Mexico exist on the prevalence and risk factors for suicide ideation, plan, and attempt despite a recent increase in suicide deaths. Data are presented from the Mexican Adolescent Mental Health Survey, a representative household survey of 3,005 adolescents ages 12 to 17 in metropolitan Mexico City who were gathered in 2005, regarding lifetime prevalence and age-of-onset distributions of suicide ideation, plan, and attempt and demographic and psychiatric disorders risk factors. Lifetime ideation was reported by 11.5% of respondents, whereas 3.9% reported a lifetime plan and 3.1% a lifetime suicide attempt. Onset of suicidality started around age 10 and at age 15 showed the highest hazards. Suicide ideators were more likely to report a plan and attempt within the first year of onset of ideation. Suicidality was more likely to occur among females. The presence of one or more mental disorders was strongly related to suicide ideation, plan, and attempt. Among ideators only dysthymia was consistently related to a plan and attempt. Intervention efforts should focus on assessment and target adolescents with mental disorders, particularly mood disorders, to be effective in prevention.

  15. Toxoplasmosis Titers and past Suicide Attempts Among Older Adolescents Initiating SSRI Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coryell, William; Yolken, Robert; Butcher, Brandon; Burns, Trudy; Dindo, Lilian; Schlechte, Janet; Calarge, Chadi

    2016-01-01

    Latent infection with toxoplasmosis is a prevalent condition that has been linked in animal studies to high-risk behaviors, and in humans, to suicide and suicide attempts. This analysis investigated a relationship between suicide attempt history and toxoplasmosis titers in a group of older adolescents who had recently begun treatment with an SSRI. Of 108 participants, 17 (15.7 %) had a lifetime history of at least one suicide attempt. All were given structured and unstructured diagnostic interviews and provided blood samples. Two individuals (11.9%) with a past suicide attempt, and two (2.1%) without this history, had toxoplasmosis titers ≥ 10 IU/ml (p = 0.166). Those with a past suicide attempt had mean toxoplasmosis titers that were significantly different (p = 0.018) from those of patients who lacked this history. An ROC analysis suggested a lower optimal threshold for distinguishing patients with and without suicide attempts (3.6 IU/ml) than that customarily used to identify seropositivity. Toxoplasmosis titers may quantify a proneness to suicidal behavior in younger individuals being treated with antidepressants.

  16. GWAS analysis of suicide attempt in schizophrenia: Main genetic effect and interaction with early life trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bani-Fatemi, Ali; Graff, Ariel; Zai, Clement; Strauss, John; De Luca, Vincenzo

    2016-05-27

    Suicide attempt in schizophrenia is an important clinical issue. We performed a genome-wide association study to identify genetic markers, which increase the risk for suicide attempt in schizophrenia. Suicide attempt lifetime was assessed in 121 schizophrenia patients and defined by the means of the Columbia Suicide Severity Rating Scale and the Beck Scale for Suicidal Ideation. Genotype distribution of 1,205,383 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in patients with suicide attempt lifetime (n=53) was compared to that in patients without any suicide attempt lifetime (n=68). The same SNPs were analyzed in interaction with childhood trauma. None of the variants reached genome-wide significance after multiple test correction. However, the most nominally significant SNP in the in the main genetic model was rs12895203 (p=0.00001) and the top SNP interacting with Childhood Trauma Questionnaire was the marker rs7897059 (p=0.00005). The odds-ratio of the top SNP in the main-genetic effect model was 3.91 and in the gene-early trauma interaction model was 1.13. Although our data need to be interpreted carefully owing to the small numbers in this cohort and because the results reached just the nominal significance, they suggest that a combination of genetic markers and early life stress might indeed be used to identify patients at risk for suicide attempt. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Risk factors for fatal and nonfatal repetition of suicide attempts: a literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beghi M

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Massimiliano Beghi,1,2 Jerrold F Rosenbaum,3 Cesare Cerri,1,4 Cesare M Cornaggia1,51Psychiatry Clinic, University of Milano Bicocca, Milan, Italy; 2Department of Psychiatry, Salvini Hospital, Rho, Italy; 3Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA; 4Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Zucchi Clinical Institute, Carate Brianza, Italy; 5Forensic Psychiatric Hospital, Castiglione delle Stiviere, Mantua, ItalyObjectives: This review aimed to identify the evidence for predictors of repetition of suicide attempts, and more specifically for subsequent completed suicide.Methods: We conducted a literature search of PubMed and Embase between January 1, 1991 and December 31, 2009, and we excluded studies investigating only special populations (eg, male and female only, children and adolescents, elderly, a specific psychiatric disorder and studies with sample size fewer than 50 patients.Results: The strongest predictor of a repeated attempt is a previous attempt, followed by being a victim of sexual abuse, poor global functioning, having a psychiatric disorder, being on psychiatric treatment, depression, anxiety, and alcohol abuse or dependence. For other variables examined (Caucasian ethnicity, having a criminal record, having any mood disorders, bad family environment, and impulsivity there are indications for a putative correlation as well. For completed suicide, the strongest predictors are older age, suicide ideation, and history of suicide attempt. Living alone, male sex, and alcohol abuse are weakly predictive with a positive correlation (but sustained by very scarce data for poor impulsivity and a somatic diagnosis.Conclusion: It is difficult to find predictors for repetition of nonfatal suicide attempts, and even more difficult to identify predictors of completed suicide. Suicide ideation and alcohol or substance abuse/dependence, which are, along with depression, the most consistent predictors for initial nonfatal

  18. Should Colleges Withdraw Students Who Threaten or Attempt Suicide?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavela, Gary

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses the pros and cons of "involuntary withdrawals" in cases of students who are at risk of suicide. A June, 2005, Massachusetts Superior Court summary judgment ruling in the case of "Shin v. Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)" concluded that MIT administrators owed a duty of care to suicide victim,…

  19. Predictors of suicide attempts after violent offences in schizophrenia spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazdag, Gábor; Belán, Emese; Szabó, Ferenc A; Ungvari, Gabor S; Czobor, Pál; Baran, Brigitta

    2015-12-15

    The aim of this survey was to identify predictors of suicide attempts that immediately followed a violent crime in patients with schizophrenia. Documentations of patients diagnosed with schizophrenia and released in a 10 years period from the National Institute of Forensic Psychiatry were reviewed. Twenty-six out of 223 patients attempted suicide after the violent crime. The young age of the victim, and living in partnership were those factors differentiating suicidal violent offenders from their non-suicidal counterparts. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Suicide attempters in Abu Dhabi: Is criminal prosecution associated with patients' guardedness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahrour, Tarek M; Mohan, Sona; Siddiq, Muez; Hammasi, Khadija El; Alsaadi, Taoufik

    2018-01-24

    The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between legal status and guardedness in patients who attempted suicide in Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates. The consultation-liaison team assessed 355 patients admitted for suicidal/self-injurious behavior, recording their guardedness before knowing whether they were legally charged. Patients who were legally charged for the suicidal act (n = 139) were 1.6 times (p = .03) more guarded in volunteering information than patients who were not legally charged. Legally charging suicide attempters might have a negative impact on risk assessment and psychiatric care.

  1. Association between Non-Suicidal Self-Injuries and Suicide Attempts in Chinese Adolescents and College Students: A Cross-Section Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yu; Du, Yukai; Ma, Ying; Zhu, Huiping; Zhang, Ping; Liu, Zhuoya

    2011-01-01

    Purpose This study examined the association between non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) and suicide attempts among Chinese adolescents and college students. Methods A total sample of 2013 Chinese students were randomly selected from five schools in Wuhan, China, including 1101 boys and 912 girls with the age ranging between 10 and 24 years. NSSI, suicidal ideation, suicide attempts and depressive symptoms were measured by self-rated questionnaires. Self-reported suicide attempts were regressed on suicidal ideation and NSSI, controlling for participants' depressive symptoms, and demographic characteristics. Results The self-reported prevalence rates of NSSI, suicidal ideation, suicide attempts were 15.5%, 8.8%, and 3.5%, respectively. Logistic regression analyses indicated that NSSI was significantly associated with self-reported suicide attempts. Analyses examining the conditional association of NSSI and suicidal ideation with self-reported suicide attempts revealed that NSSI was significantly associated with greater risk of suicide attempts in those not reporting suicidal ideation than those reporting suicidal ideation in the past year. Conclusions These findings highlight the importance of NSSI as a potentially independent risk factor for suicide attempts among Chinese/Han adolescents and college students. PMID:21494656

  2. The incidence of eating disorders in a Danish register study: Associations with suicide risk and mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zerwas, Stephanie; Tidselbak Larsen, Janne; Petersen, Liselotte

    2015-01-01

    Our aim was to characterize the incidence rates and cumulative incidence of anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), and eating disorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS), and examine associations among eating disorder diagnoses, suicide attempts, and mortality. Individuals born in Denmark...... between 1989 and 2006 were included (N = 966,141, 51.3% male). Eating disorders diagnoses (AN, broad AN, BN, EDNOS) were drawn from the Danish Psychiatric Central Research Register (PCRR) and Danish National Patient Register (NPR). Suicide attempts and deaths were captured in the NPR, the PCRR......, and the Danish Civil Registration System (CRS). In females, AN had a peak hazard at approximately age 15 years, BN at 22 years, and EDNOS had an extended peak that spanned 18 years–22 years. Eating disorder diagnoses predicted a significantly higher hazard for death and suicide attempt compared with the referent...

  3. Suicide attempt in young people: a signal for long-term health care and social needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman-Mellor, Sidra J; Caspi, Avshalom; Harrington, Honalee; Hogan, Sean; Nada-Raja, Shyamala; Poulton, Richie; Moffitt, Terrie E

    2014-02-01

    Suicidal behavior has increased since the onset of the global recession, a trend that may have long-term health and social implications. To test whether suicide attempts among young people signal increased risk for later poor health and social functioning above and beyond a preexisting psychiatric disorder. We followed up a cohort of young people and assessed multiple aspects of their health and social functioning as they approached midlife. Outcomes among individuals who had self-reported a suicide attempt up through age 24 years (young suicide attempters) were compared with those who reported no attempt through age 24 years (nonattempters). Psychiatric history and social class were controlled for. The population-representative Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study, which involved 1037 birth cohort members comprising 91 young suicide attempters and 946 nonattempters, 95% of whom were followed up to age 38 years. Outcomes were selected to represent significant individual and societal costs: mental health, physical health, harm toward others, and need for support. As adults approaching midlife, young suicide attempters were significantly more likely to have persistent mental health problems (eg, depression, substance dependence, and additional suicide attempts) compared with nonattempters. They were also more likely to have physical health problems (eg, metabolic syndrome and elevated inflammation). They engaged in more violence (eg, violent crime and intimate partner abuse) and needed more social support (eg, long-term welfare receipt and unemployment). Furthermore, they reported being lonelier and less satisfied with their lives. These associations remained after adjustment for youth psychiatric diagnoses and social class. Many young suicide attempters remain vulnerable to costly health and social problems into midlife. As rates of suicidal behavior rise with the continuing global recession, additional suicide prevention efforts and long

  4. Is transition to disability pension in young people associated with changes in risk of attempted suicide?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittendorfer-Rutz, E; Alexanderson, K; Westerlund, H; Lange, T

    2014-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate trajectories of suicide attempt risks before and after granting of disability pension in young people. The analytic sample consisted of all persons 16-30 years old and living in Sweden who were granted a disability pension in the years 1995-1997; 2000-2002 as well as 2005-2006 (n = 26,624). Crude risks and adjusted odds ratios for suicide attempt were computed for the 9-year window around the year of disability pension receipt by repeated-measures logistic regressions. The risk of suicide attempt was found to increase continuously up to the year preceding the granting of disability pension in young people, after which the risk declined. These trajectories were similar for women and men and for disability pension due to mental and somatic diagnoses. Still, the multivariate odds ratios for suicide attempts for women and for disability pension due to mental disorders were 2.5- and 3.8-fold increased compared with the odds ratios for men and disability pension due to somatic disorders, respectively. Trajectories of suicide attempts differed for young individuals granted a disability pension during 2005-2006 compared with those granted during 1995-1997 and 2000-2002. We found an increasing risk of suicide attempt up until the granting of a disability pension in young individuals, after which the risk decreased. It is of clinical importance to monitor suicide attempt risk among young people waiting for the granting of a disability pension.

  5. Suicide attempts and mortality in eating disorders: a follow-up study of eating disorder patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suokas, Jaana T; Suvisaari, Jaana M; Grainger, Marjut; Raevuori, Anu; Gissler, Mika; Haukka, Jari

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to explore the prevalence of hospital-treated suicide attempts in a large clinical population of eating disorder patients. Follow-up study of adults (N=2462, 95% women, age 18-62 years) admitted to the Eating Disorder Clinic of Helsinki University Central Hospital in the period 1995-2010. For each patient, four controls were selected and matched for age, sex and place of residence. The end point events were modeled using Cox's proportional hazard model, taking matching into account. We identified 156 patients with eating disorder (6.3%) and 139 controls (1.4%) who had required hospital treatment for attempted suicide. Of them, 66 (42.3%) and 37 (26.6%) had more than one attempt. The rate ratio (RR) for suicide attempt in patients with eating disorder was 4.70 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.41-15.74]. In anorexia nervosa, RR was 8.01 (95% CI 5.40-11.87), and in bulimia nervosa, it was 5.08 (95% CI 3.46-7.42). In eating disorder patients with a history of suicide attempt, the risk of death from any cause was 12.8%, suicide being the main cause in 45% of the deaths. Suicide attempts and repeated attempts are common among patients with eating disorders. Suicidal ideation should be routinely assessed from patients with eating disorders. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Factors associated with suicide attempts in patients with bipolar disorder type I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mert, Derya Guliz; Kelleci, Meral; Mizrak, Ali; Semiz, Murat; Demir, Meral Oran

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study is to identify the risk factors that are associated with suicide attempts in patients with bipolar disorder type I. This cross-sectional study was conducted with inpatients and outpatients with BD type I. Patients who met the study inclusion criteria (n=91) were evaluated in terms of sociodemographic variables, history of childhood trauma, comorbidity of adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder, and the course of the disease. The patients were divided into two groups: those with a history of suicide attempts and those without a history of suicide attempts. The parameters of the study groups were compared with t and chi-square tests as appropriate. Logistic regression was used to identify the predictors of suicide attempt. Logistic regression analysis of the study parameters suggested that the number of major depressive episodes (odds ratio: 7.18; 95% confidence interval: 1.84-28) and history of emotional neglect (odds ratio: 1.83; 95% confidence interval: 1.15-2.90) were significant predictors of suicide attempt in patients with BD. In BD type I patients with a history of suicide attempts, the number of depressive episodes and emotional neglect, a subtype of childhood traumas, were the most remarkable risk factors. Considering the frequency of depressive episodes during the course of the disease and assessing traumas including those in childhood may help predict future suicide attempts in patients with BD.

  7. The role of impulsivity in self-mutilators, suicide ideators and suicide attempters - a study of 1265 male incarcerated individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carli, Vladimir; Jovanović, Nikolina; Podlesek, Anja; Roy, Alec; Rihmer, Zoltan; Maggi, Stefania; Marusic, Dragan; Cesaro, Caterina; Marusic, Andrej; Sarchiapone, Marco

    2010-06-01

    We explored differences between high and low-impulsive incarcerated individuals in the context of lifetime self-mutilation, suicide ideation and suicide attempt. A total of 1265 males detained in Italian penitentiary institutions were studied between January 2006 and December 2008. The study raters were specifically trained to discriminate between suicide attempters, ideators and self-mutilators. Participants completed the Barratt Impulsivity Scale, Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ), Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC), Brown-Goodwin Assessment for Lifetime History of Aggression (BGLHA) and Buss and Durkee Hostility Inventory (BDHI). Based on BIS 7 total score distribution, two extreme quarters - high-impulsive group (n=306) and low-impulsive group (n=285) - were compared. Over 42% of participants had lifetime suicide ideation, 13% attempted suicide and 17% were self-mutilators. High-impulsive subjects were younger, more often single and with more prominent psychoticism, extraversion, aggression, hostility and resilience capacity. They were more frequently diagnosed with substance use disorders and engaged in self-mutilating behaviour. There was no difference in the rate of suicide attempts between the two groups. Although high-impulsive subjects were more prone to suicidal behaviour, it was not predicted by higher impulsivity when other psychological variables were accounted for. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Personality traits and suicide attempts with and without psychiatric disorders: analysis of impulsivity and neuroticism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Bo; Liu, Wei; Zhou, Die; Fu, Xu; Qin, Xiaoxia; Wu, Jiali

    2017-08-15

    There is a critical need for empirical data concerning the association of personality traits and attempted suicide with and without psychiatric disorders in mainland China. The objective of the present study is to provide such data by determining the prevalence of psychiatric disorders and analyzing the levels of impulsivity and neuroticism among people who have attempted suicide, and to examine the association between these personality traits and suicide attempt in people with or without psychiatric disorders. We administered self-reported tests and clinical interviews to 196 people who have attempted suicide who were admitted to a hospital emergency room or our psychiatric settings after a suicide attempt. One hundred and fifty-six subjects (79.6%) met the criteria for Axis I disorders and eleven (6.6%) met the criteria Axis II personality disorders. Those who have attempted suicide who did not have psychiatric disorders exhibited a greater degree of background characteristics (e.g., high lethality, more interpersonal conflicts and more alcohol use), lower levels of suicidality (suicide risk, depressive symptoms) and differences of personality traits (e.g., more impulsive and less neuroticism) as compared to those who do have psychiatric disorders. Profile differences existed even after control for the stressful life event. Our findings suggest that some personality traits differ between people who have attempted suicide depending on whether or not they have psychiatric disorders. Based on these findings, investigating the impact of personality traits on suicidal behavior in therapeutic settings would provide critical data to improve patient treatment and outcomes.

  9. Is socioeconomic position associated with risk of attempted suicide in rural Sri Lanka?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knipe, D. W.; Gunnell, D.; Pieris, R.

    2017-01-01

    -sectional survey of 165 233 Sri Lankans. SEP data were collected at the household (assets, social standing (highest occupation of a household member), foreign employment and young (≤40 years) female-headed households) and individual level (education and occupation). Respondent-reported data on suicide attempts.......4) and having a daily wage labourer (ie, insecure/low-income job; OR 2.3, 95% CI 1.6 to 3.2) as the highest occupation increased the risk of an attempted suicide within households. At an individual level, daily wage labourers were at an increased risk of attempted suicide compared with farmers. The strongest...

  10. Emotional face recognition in adolescent suicide attempters and adolescents engaging in non-suicidal self-injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seymour, Karen E; Jones, Richard N; Cushman, Grace K; Galvan, Thania; Puzia, Megan E; Kim, Kerri L; Spirito, Anthony; Dickstein, Daniel P

    2016-03-01

    Little is known about the bio-behavioral mechanisms underlying and differentiating suicide attempts from non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) in adolescents. Adolescents who attempt suicide or engage in NSSI often report significant interpersonal and social difficulties. Emotional face recognition ability is a fundamental skill required for successful social interactions, and deficits in this ability may provide insight into the unique brain-behavior interactions underlying suicide attempts versus NSSI in adolescents. Therefore, we examined emotional face recognition ability among three mutually exclusive groups: (1) inpatient adolescents who attempted suicide (SA, n = 30); (2) inpatient adolescents engaged in NSSI (NSSI, n = 30); and (3) typically developing controls (TDC, n = 30) without psychiatric illness. Participants included adolescents aged 13-17 years, matched on age, gender and full-scale IQ. Emotional face recognition was evaluated using the diagnostic assessment of nonverbal accuracy (DANVA-2). Compared to TDC youth, adolescents with NSSI made more errors on child fearful and adult sad face recognition while controlling for psychopathology and medication status (ps Adolescent inpatients engaged in NSSI showed greater deficits in emotional face recognition than TDC, but not inpatient adolescents who attempted suicide. Further results suggest the importance of psychopathology in emotional face recognition. Replication of these preliminary results and examination of the role of context-dependent emotional processing are needed moving forward.

  11. [Prevalence of social distance and restriction among college students with suicide attempts in Chongqing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wo; Ai, Ming; Kuang, Li; Chen, Jian-Mei; Gan, Yao; Zeng, Yan; Lou, Dan-Dan; Liu, Wan-Ting; Niu, Ya-Juan; Phillips, Michael R

    2011-04-01

    To explore the attitude towards 10 different populations with different characteristics on their social distance and acceptance among those people with or without suicidal attempts among college students in Chongqing. 9808 college students were randomly selected from 11 universities in Chongqing and administered a self-constructed questionnaire "Suicide Attitude and Mental Health Status Questionnaire". A t-test was employed to analyze the social distance and degree of acceptance of college students with or without suicide attempts towards different groups as criminals, hypertensive, with suicide actions, homosexuals, depressive disorder, HIV infection, drug addiction, death of family members, hospitalization history in mental service and alcohol addiction. 169 college students had suicide attempts; the reporting rate of suicide attempts was 1.7%. Among college students, the scores higher than 50 on nine items related to social distance towards strangers with those 10 different characteristics and the top three were on those with HIV infection, drug addiction and hospitalization history in mental service. There were differences (P distance attitude towards strangers with drug addiction (with suicide attempts 83.38 ± 21.82, without suicide attempts 78.55 ± 21.55, t = 2.88), hospitalization history in mental service (79.27 ± 21.23, 75.67 ± 21.31, t = 2.17), homosexuality (66.87 ± 24.77, 74.14 ± 21.94, t = -4.25), alcohol addiction (66.72 ± 21.80, 61.00 ± 22.80, t = 3.23) and hypertension (56.65 ± 20.40, 53.36 ± 21.05, t = 2.01) between college students with or without suicide attempts. College students scored higher than 50 in 7 items of social rejective attitudes towards acquaintances, of those with hospitalization history in mental service, drug and alcohol addiction ranked the top three. It showed statistical significances in social rejection attitudes towards acquaintances with homosexuality (35.28 ± 30.38, 42.83 ± 30.76, t = -3.14), severe depression

  12. Improvement in cognitive and psychosocial functioning and self image among adolescent inpatient suicide attempters

    OpenAIRE

    Hintikka, Ulla; Marttunen, Mauri; Pelkonen, Mirjami; Laukkanen, Eila; Viinamäki, Heimo; Lehtonen, Johannes

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Psychiatric treatment of suicidal youths is often difficult and non-compliance in treatment is a significant problem. This prospective study compared characteristics and changes in cognitive functioning, self image and psychosocial functioning among 13 to 18 year-old adolescent psychiatric inpatients with suicide attempts (n = 16) and with no suicidality (n = 39) Methods The two-group pre-post test prospective study design included assessments by a psychiatrist, a psycholo...

  13. Does a history of suicide attempt predict higher antipsychotic dosage in schizophrenia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hettige, Nuwan C; Kennedy, James L; De Luca, Vincenzo

    2014-06-01

    Antipsychotic dosage is generally adjusted by physicians depending on the stability of the patient and the response to that particular drug. Our hypothesis is that patients with previous suicide attempt are prescribed higher doses of antipsychotics. We examined the dosage and patterns of antipsychotic use in regard to past suicidal behaviour. For this study, 304 subjects with schizophrenia spectrum disorders between the ages of 18 and 75 were recruited. A cross-sectional assessment was used for this study, in which data were collected from each patient through an interview and self-report questionnaires. The percentages of the Compendium of Pharmaceuticals and Specialties (CPS) maximum recommended daily dose were applied to standardize antipsychotic dosages across different treatments. We compared the standardized dosage of antipsychotics in schizophrenics with previous suicide attempts and those who have never attempted suicide. Applying the ANCOVA, our preliminary results show no significant difference (P = 0.467) in antipsychotic dosage in the attempters and non-attempters. The prescribed clozapine dosage fails to show a significant relationship with suicidal history (P >0.05). In summary, our analysis does not show antipsychotic dosage adjustment based on past suicide attempt, after controlling for the current suicidal ideation and hopelessness.

  14. Hopelessness as a Predictor of Attempted Suicide among First Admission Patients with Psychosis: A 10-Year Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klonsky, E. David; Kotov, Roman; Bakst, Shelly; Rabinowitz, Jonathan; Bromet, Evelyn J.

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about the longitudinal relationship of hopelessness to attempted suicide in psychotic disorders. This study addresses this gap by assessing hopelessness and attempted suicide at multiple time-points over 10 years in a first-admission cohort with psychosis (n = 414). Approximately one in five participants attempted suicide during…

  15. Preventing repetition of attempted suicide-II. The Amager Project, a randomized controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvid, Marianne; Vangborg, Kerstin; Sørensen, Holger J

    2010-01-01

    Repetition after attempted suicide is high but only few effect studies have been carried out. The Baerum Model from Norway offers practical and affordable intervention for those not being offered psychiatric treatment. During a period from 2005-2007, all attempted suicide patients except those...... with major psychiatric diagnoses (schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, severe/psychotic depression), were offered participation. The intervention group received the OPAC programme (outreach, problem solving, adherence, continuity) and the control group received treatment as usual (TAU). The intervention period...... was 6 months. After this intervention period, all patients were followed passively for an extra 6 months. The design was an intent-to-treat one. The outcomes were: 1) repetition of attempted suicide or suicide, and 2) total number of suicidal acts. A total of 200 patients were offered participation, 67...

  16. Relationship between lifetime suicide attempts and schizotypal traits in patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teraishi, Toshiya; Hori, Hiroaki; Sasayama, Daimei; Matsuo, Junko; Ogawa, Shintaro; Ishida, Ikki; Nagashima, Anna; Kinoshita, Yukiko; Ota, Miho; Hattori, Kotaro; Kunugi, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    Patients with schizophrenia are at increased risk for suicide. Various risk factors for suicide have been reported in schizophrenia; however, few studies have examined the association between personality traits and suicidal behavior. We administered the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ) to 87 Japanese patients with schizophrenia (49 males; mean age 38.1 ± 10.6 years) with and without a history of suicide attempts (SA and nSA groups, respectively), and 322 controls (158 males; mean age 40.8 ± 13.9 years). As expected, an analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) controlling for age and sex showed that all SPQ indices (total SPQ score and all three factors, i.e., cognitive-perceptual, interpersonal, and disorganized) were significantly higher in patients with schizophrenia (SA+nSA groups), than controls (psuicide attempts, and that the total SPQ score might be useful to assess the risk of suicide attempt in patients with schizophrenia.

  17. Suicidal ideation and attempts in adolescents: associations with depression and six domains of self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, Lauren G; Flisher, Alan J; Lombard, Carl

    2004-12-01

    This study aimed to disentangle the influence of depression and self-esteem on suicidal behaviour in adolescence. Grades 8 and 11 students in Cape Town, South Africa (n = 939) completed questionnaires assessing suicidal ideation and behaviour, depression, and self-esteem with respect to family, peers, school, sports/athletics, body image and global self-worth. Data were analysed using a series of multinomial logistic regression models adjusted for gender, grade, race and the sampling strategy. Results indicated that depression and low self-esteem in the family context were independently associated with suicide ideation and attempts. Moreover, low family self-esteem significantly differentiated suicide attempters from ideators. Screening for depression and low self-esteem in the family context is discussed as a possible strategy for helping to identify adolescents at risk for suicide attempts.

  18. Aggression-impulsivity, mental pain, and communication difficulties in medically serious and medically non-serious suicide attempters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gvion, Yari; Horresh, Netta; Levi-Belz, Yossi; Fischel, Tsvi; Treves, Ilan; Weiser, Mark; David, Haim Shem; Stein-Reizer, Orit; Apter, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Unbearable mental pain, depression, and hopelessness have been associated with suicidal behavior in general, while difficulties with social communication and loneliness have been associated with highly lethal suicide attempts in particular. The literature also links aggression and impulsivity with suicidal behavior but raises questions about their influence on the lethality and outcome of the suicide attempt. To evaluate the relative effects of aggression and impulsivity on the lethality of suicide attempts we hypothesized that impulsivity and aggression differentiate between suicide attempters and non-attempters and between medically serious and medically non-serious suicide attempters. The study group included 196 participants divided into four groups: 43 medically serious suicide attempters; 49 medically non-serious suicide attempters, 47 psychiatric patients who had never attempted suicide; and 57 healthy control subjects. Data on sociodemographic parameters, clinical history, and details of the suicide attempts were collected. Participants completed a battery of instruments for assessment of aggression-impulsivity, mental pain, and communication difficulties. The medically serious and medically non-serious suicide attempters scored significantly higher than both control groups on mental pain, depression, and hopelessness (pcommunication variables with suicide lethality yielded significant correlations for self-disclosure, schizoid tendency, and loneliness. The interaction between mental pain and schizoid traits explained some of the variance in suicide lethality, over and above the contribution of each component alone. Aggression-impulsivity and mental pain are risk factors for suicide attempts. However, only difficulties in communication differentiate medically serious from medically non-serious suicide attempters. The combination of unbearable mental pain and difficulties in communication has a magnifying effect on the risk of lethal suicidal behavior.

  19. Depression, Suicidal Ideation, and Suicidal Attempt Presenting to the Emergency Department: Differences Between These Cohorts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wirachin Hoonpongsimanont

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The World Health Organization estimates that one million people die by suicide every year. Few studies have looked at factors associated with disposition in patients with chief complaints of depression, suicidal ideation (SI and suicidal attempts (SA who present to the emergency department (ED. Our objective was to assess individual determinants associated with ED disposition of patients in depressed patients presenting to the ED. Methods: We conducted a retrospective study using the National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey from 2006 to 2008. We used logistic regression to identify factors associated with discharge, in SI, SA and depression patients. Independent variables included socio-demographic information, vital signs, mode of arrival, insurance status, place of residence and concomitant psychiatric diagnosis. Results: Of the 93,030 subjects, 2,314 met the inclusion criteria (1,362 depression, 353 SI and 599 SA. Patients who arrived by ambulance were less likely to be discharged (odds ratio [OR] 0.63, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.43-0.92. Hispanic patients and patients age 15 to 29 were likely to be discharged (OR 1.61, 95% CI 1.16-2.24 and OR 1.55, 95% CI 1.15-2.10 respectively. Insurance status and housing status were not significantly associated patient was being discharge from EDs. Conclusion: The Hispanic population had higher discharge rates, but the reasons are yet to be explored. Patients with SA and SI are discharged less frequently than those with depression, regardless of insurance type or housing status. [West J Emerg Med. 2014;15(2:211–216.

  20. Suicide attempts and physical fighting among high school students--United States, 2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-06-11

    Violence is a major cause of morbidity and mortality, particularly among youths. In the United States, homicide and suicide are the second and third leading causes of death, respectively, for persons aged 13-19 years. Although suicide commonly is associated with anxiety, depression, and social withdrawal, research suggests a link between violent behaviors directed at oneself (i.e., suicidal behaviors) and violent behaviors directed at others among adolescents. Certain students who engage in extreme forms of violence, such as school shootings, exhibit suicidal ideation or behavior before or during the attack. However, suicidal behavior also might be associated with involvement in less extreme forms of violent behaviors, such as physical fighting, which might be a risk factor for more severe forms of violence. To characterize any potential association between suicide attempts and fighting, CDC analyzed self-reported 2001 data from a nationally representative sample of high school students in the United States. The results of that analysis indicated that students who reported attempting suicide during the preceding 12 months were nearly four times more likely also to have reported fighting than those who reported not attempting suicide. Prevention programs that seek to reduce both suicidal and violent behaviors are needed. Because prevalence of this association was determined to be highest in the 9th grade, these efforts might be most effective if implemented before students reach high school.

  1. Psychosocial correlates of suicide attempts among junior and senior high school youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, B M; Cole, R E; Schwartzman, P

    1995-01-01

    Three groups of junior and senior high schools students (total N = 1050) recruited in rural counties of a mid-Atlantic state--those who had made a prior suicide attempt, those reporting high levels of depressed mood or suicidal ideation, and those who were not depressed or suicidal--were compared with regard to their reports of a number of potential risk factors for suicidal behavior. Adolescents with a history of a suicide attempt reported more frequent stresses related to parents, lack of adult supports outside of the home, police, and sexuality (i.e., concerns about pregnancy, pressure to have sex, getting sexually transmitted diseases), compared with both depressed/suicide ideators and nondepressed adolescents. Suicide attempters were also more likely than the other adolescents to report that they were physically hurt by a parent, that they ran away from home, that they lived apart from both parents, and that they knew someone who had completed suicide. Results are discussed in the context of prior studies of adolescent suicidal behavior in community and clinical samples.

  2. Suicide attempts and self-harm during a dramatic national economic transition: a population-based study in Iceland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ásgeirsdóttir, Hildur G; Ásgeirsdóttir, Tinna L; Nyberg, Ullakarin; Thorsteinsdottir, Thordis K; Mogensen, Brynjólfur; Matthíasson, Páll; Lund, Sigrún H; Valdimarsdóttir, Unnur A; Hauksdóttir, Arna

    2017-04-01

    Macroeconomic downturns have been associated with increased suicide rates. This study examined potential changes in suicide attempts and self-harm in Iceland during a period of major economic transition (2003-12). Data were retrieved from the National University Hospital in Reykjavik (population size: 204.725), containing all ICD-10 diagnoses connected to potential suicidal behaviour. Poisson regression models were used to compare attendance rates before and after the 2008 economic collapse. During the study period, a total of 4537 attendances of 2816 individuals were recorded due to suicide attempts or self-harm. We noted a significant change in total attendance rates among men, characterized by an annual increase in attendance rate pre-collapse of 1.83 per 100.000 inhabitants and a decrease of 3.06 per 100.000 inhabitants post-collapse ( P = 0.0067). Such pattern was not observed among women. When restricting to first attendances only, we found a reduced incidence post-crisis among both men (RR: 0.85; 0.76-0.96) and women (RR: 0.86; 0.79-0.92). We further found 1% increase in unemployment rate and balance of trade to be associated with reduced attendance rates among men (RR: 0.84; 0.76-0.93 and RR: 0.81; 0.75-0.88, respectively) but not among women. These data suggest no overall increase in attendance rates due to suicide attempts or self-harm following the 2008 Icelandic economic collapse. In fact, a high-point in self-harm and suicide attempts was observed among men at the height of the economic boom and a decrease in new attendances among both men and women after the economic collapse. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  3. The Relationship Between Seriously Considering, Planning, and Attempting Suicide in the Youth Risk Behavior Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Victor W.

    2005-01-01

    The assumed ordinal relationship between seriously considering, planning, and attempting suicide in the 1999 Youth Risk Behavior Survey was examined by constructing a trajectory that identified all possible response patterns among the four questions measuring suicidal activity. Statistical analysis tested for differences in frequency of risk…

  4. Suicide attempts by deliberate self-poisoning in children and adolescents

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zakharov, S.; Navrátil, Tomáš; Pelclová, D.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 210, č. 1 (2013), s. 302-307 ISSN 0165-1781 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : Deliberate suicidal self-poisoning * Suicide attempts in children and adolescents * Czech Toxicological Information Centre Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.682, year: 2013

  5. A Cognitive Therapy Intervention for Suicide Attempters: An Overview of the Treatment and Case Examples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berk, Michele S.; Henriques, Gregg R.; Warman, Debbie M.; Brown, Gregory K.; Beck, Aaron T.

    2004-01-01

    Although suicidal behavior is a serious public health problem, few effective treatments exist to treat this population. This article describes a new cognitive therapy intervention that has been developed for treating recent suicide attempters. The intervention is based on general principles of cognitive therapy and targets the automatic thoughts…

  6. Attempted suicide in Denmark. IV. A five-year follow-up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, B; Wang, A G; Brille-Brahe, U

    1990-01-01

    contact with the psychiatric ward. Predictors for future suicide were chronic somatic disease, depression, abuse of medicine, and chronic alcohol abuse. The authors emphasize the need for a thorough medical evaluation of patients attempting suicide, to be able to identify and eventually treat...

  7. Exploring the risk factors contributing to suicide attempt among adolescents: A qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad-Rafi Bazrafshan

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: This study identified three major themes related to suicide attempt among adolescents in the context. As a result, suicide prevention and care provision should formulate a comprehensive method, considering the interaction of medical besides individual, familiar, and social factors in their assessment and care provision.

  8. HIV-infection as a self-reported risk factor for attempted suicide in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mainly alcohol-related) accounted for the most common psychiatric diagnoses. ... Based on estimated national suicidal behaviour prevalence rates, a descriptive HIV-related attempted suicide rate of 67.2 per 100 000 and an increased risk for ...

  9. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, Traumatic Brain Injury, and Suicide Attempt History among Veterans Receiving Mental Health Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, Lisa A.; Betthauser, Lisa M.; Homaifar, Beeta Y.; Villarreal, Edgar; Harwood, Jeri E. F.; Staves, Pamela J.; Huggins, Joseph A.

    2011-01-01

    History of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) or traumatic brain injury (TBI) has been found to increase risk of suicidal behavior. The association between suicide attempt history among veterans with PTSD and/or TBI was explored. Cases (N = 81) and 2:1 matched controls (N = 160) were randomly selected from a Veterans Affairs Medical Center…

  10. [Factors related to suicide attempts in a Tunisian sample of patients with schizophrenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouhlel, S; M'solly, M; Benhawala, S; Jones, Y; El-Hechmi, Z

    2013-02-01

    The mortality rate in schizophrenia is 4.5 times higher than in the general population. Suicide is one of the main causes of premature death in this affection. Life time prevalence of this behavior ranges from 10 to 15%, which represents a risk 20 to 50 times higher than in the general population. In addition, 40 to 93% of patients who committed suicide had attempted suicide previously. Thus, assessment of correlated variables with suicide attempts is a fundamental issue for developing preventive and therapeutic strategies in suicidal behavior. To the best of our knowledge, no systematic study has yet investigated suicide attempts in an Arabic Muslim population with schizophrenia, although many authors have demonstrated cultural differences in socio-demographic and clinical variables related to suicide attempts within many geographic areas around the world. The objectives of this study were to assess the frequency and characteristics of lifetime suicide attempts in Tunisian schizophrenic outpatients and to determine the correlated socio-demographic, clinical and therapeutic variables. A total of 134 patients with a DSM-IV diagnosis of schizophrenia who attended the outpatient department of the university psychiatric hospital of Tunis were included. The main demographic and lifetime clinical variables considered were: gender, marital status, family history of psychiatric disorders and suicide attempts, age at time of recruitment, age at onset of illness, duration of untreated psychosis defined as the interval between the onset of the illness and the first antipsychotic treatment, the type and dose of current treatment, dose of antipsychotic drugs converted to chlorpromazine equivalents, extrapyramidal side effects assessed with the Simpson Angus rating scale, number of hospitalizations, comorbid substance abuse, cigarette smoking, severity of psychopathology measured with the Positive And Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), and history of at least one suicide attempt

  11. Prevalence and Correlates of Lifetime Suicide Attempts Among Transgender Persons in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Brandon D L; Socías, María Eugenia; Kerr, Thomas; Zalazar, Virginia; Sued, Omar; Arístegui, Inés

    2016-07-01

    This study examined the lifetime prevalence and correlates of attempted suicide among transgender persons in Argentina. Data were derived from a nation-wide, cross-sectional survey conducted in 2013. We assessed individual, social, and structural correlates of reporting a history of attempting suicide using logistic regression. Among 482 participants, the median age was 30, 91% identified as transwomen, and 32% resided in the Buenos Aires metropolitan area. A lifetime suicide attempt was reported by 159 (33%), among whom the median age at first attempt was 17. In a multivariate model, internalized stigma was positively associated with a history of suicidal behavior, while participants with stable housing had reduced odds of prior suicide attempt(s). These findings suggest that reducing stigma and mitigating structural vulnerabilities (through, for example, the enactment and enforcement of laws that prohibit discrimination based on gender identity to ensure equitable access to housing) could be effective targets for intervention to reduce suicide attempts among transgender individuals in Argentina.

  12. Examining the Impact of Psychiatric Diagnosis and Comorbidity on the Medical Lethality of Adolescent "Suicide Attempts"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mc Manama O'Brien, Kimberly H.; Berzin, Stephanie C.

    2012-01-01

    Specific psychiatric diagnoses and comorbidity patterns were examined to determine if they were related to the medical lethality of "suicide attempts" among adolescents presenting to an urban general hospital (N = 375). Bivariate analysis showed that attempters with substance abuse disorders had higher levels of lethality than attempters without…

  13. Oxidative stress and lowered total antioxidant status are associated with a history of suicide attempts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Heber Odebrecht; Nunes, Sandra Odebrecht Vargas; Pizzo de Castro, Marcia; Bortolasci, Chiara Cristina; Sabbatini Barbosa, Décio; Kaminami Morimoto, Helena; Venugopal, Kamalesh; Dodd, Seetal; Maes, Michael; Berk, Michael

    2013-09-25

    There is evidence that depression is accompanied by inflammation, oxidative and nitrosative stress (O&NS) and metabolic disorders. However links between oxidative stress and suicide attempts in depressed patients are poorly understood. This study examines whether a history of suicide attempts is associated with inflammation, O&NS and metabolic disorders. Blood specimens were collected from study participants aged 18-60 (N=342) recruited at the State University of Londrina, Brazil, and measured for oxidative stress biomarkers: nitric oxide metabolites (NOx), lipid hydroperoxides, malondialdehyde, advanced oxidation protein products and plasma total antioxidant potential (TRAP); inflammatory biomarkers: fibrinogen, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α; and metabolic variables. Subjects were divided into those with (n=141) and without (n=201) a history of suicidal attempts. Individuals with a history of suicide attempts had significantly higher levels of NOx and lipid hydroperoxides and lowered TRAP as compared to individuals without suicide attempts. There were no significant associations between a history of suicide attempts and inflammatory and metabolic biomarkers and metabolic syndrome. Logistic regression showed that both unipolar and bipolar disorder, female gender, smoking behavior and lipid hydroperoxides were significantly associated with a history of suicide attempts. The combined effects of oxidative stress, smoking, depression, female gender were independent from classical risk factors, including marital status, years of education and anxiety. O&NS as well as lowered antioxidant levels may play a role in the pathophysiology of suicidal behavior independently from the effects of depression and smoking, both of which are associated with increased O&NS, and classical suicide predictors, such as years of education and marital status. © 2013 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Can Better Mother-Daughter Relations Reduce the Chance of a Suicide Attempt among Latinas?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis H. Zayas

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available National surveys and other research on adolescent Latinas show that adolescent females have higher rates of suicidal ideation, planning, and attempts than other ethnic and racial minority youth. Internalizing behaviors and family conflicts are commonly associated with suicidality in research on adolescents. In the case of Latinas, we explore the connection between adolescent Hispanic cultural involvement, mother-adolescent mutuality, internalizing behaviors, and suicidality. This paper presents data from a study of 232 Latinas, some with a recent history of suicide attempts (n=122. The results show that higher adolescent Hispanic cultural involvement was associated with greater mother-daughter mutuality and thus led to reduction in the likelihood of suicide attempts. The relationship between mother-daughter mutuality and suicide attempts among Latinas is mediated by specific internalizing behaviors (withdrawn depressive. Our findings highlight the positive effect that Latino cultural values have in the relationship between Latina adolescent and their mothers and confirm the importance that internalizing behaviors and the mother-daughter relationship have for suicide attempters.

  15. Parental divorce, parental depression, and gender differences in adult offspring suicide attempt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lizardi, Dana; Thompson, Ronald G; Keyes, Katherine; Hasin, Deborah

    2009-12-01

    Research suggests parental divorce during childhood increases risk of suicide attempt for male but not female offspring. The negative impact on offspring associated with parental divorce may be better explained by parental psychopathology, such as depression. We examined whether adult offspring of parental divorce experience elevated risk of suicide attempt, controlling for parental history of depression, and whether the risk varies by the gender of the offspring. Using the 2001 to 2002 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC), the sample consists of respondents who experienced parental divorce (N = 4895). Multivariable regressions controlled for age, race/ethnicity, income, marital status, and parental history of depression. Females living with their fathers were significantly more likely to report lifetime suicide attempts than females living with their mothers, even after controlling for parental depression. Findings suggest that childhood/adolescent parental divorce may have a stronger impact on suicide attempt risk in female offspring than previously recognized.

  16. How to Talk to a School Age Child about a Suicide Attempt in Your Family

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... suicide attempt, avoid details that would put your child in the middle, between parents or other family members. How should you talk to your child? • Pick a place that is private and comfortable, ...

  17. The effects of involuntary job loss on suicide and suicide attempts among young adults: evidence from a matched case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milner, Allison; Page, Andrew; Morrell, Stephen; Hobbs, Coletta; Carter, Greg; Dudley, Michael; Duflou, Johan; Taylor, Richard

    2014-04-01

    To assess the influence of involuntary job loss on suicide and attempted suicide in young adults. A population-based case-control study of young adults (18-34 years) was conducted in New South Wales, Australia. Cases included both suicides (n=84) and attempts (n=101). A structured interview was conducted with next of kin (for suicide cases) and suicide attempters admitted to hospital. Controls selected from the general population were matched to cases by age and sex. Job dismissal or redundancy (involuntary job loss) in the 12 months before suicide or attempt was the main study variable of interest. Suicide and attempts were modelled separately and in combination as outcomes using conditional logistic regression modelling. The analysis was also adjusted for marital status, socio-economic status and diagnosis of an affective or anxiety disorder. Following adjustment for other variables, involuntary job loss was associated with an odds ratio of 1.82 for suicide and attempted suicide (combined) (95% CI 0.98 to 3.37; p=0.058). Low socio-economic status was associated with an odds ratio of 3.80 for suicide and attempted suicide (95% CI 2.16 to 6.67; p<0.001) compared to high socio-economic status (after adjustment). Diagnosis of a mental disorder was associated with a 7.87 (95% CI 5.16 to 12.01; p<0.001) odds ratio of suicide and attempted suicide compared to no diagnosis (after adjustment). Involuntary job loss was associated with increased odds of suicide and attempts when these were modelled separately, but results did not reach statistical significance. Involuntary job loss was associated with increased odds of suicide and attempted suicide. The strength of this relationship was attenuated after adjustment for socio-economic status and mental disorders, which indicates that these may have a stronger influence on suicide than job loss.

  18. Predicting suicide attempts in depressed adolescents: Clarifying the role of disinhibition and childhood sexual abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Jeremy G; Kim, Judy C; Esposito, Erika C; Gold, Joseph; Nock, Matthew K; Auerbach, Randy P

    2015-11-15

    Suicide is the second leading cause of death among adolescents, and depressed youth are six times more likely to make suicide attempts as compared to non-depressed adolescents. The present study examined the unique and interactive effects of two well-established correlates of suicidality - childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and disinhibition - in predicting suicide attempts among depressed adolescents. Participants were 163 adolescents (125 females) aged 13-18 (M=15.60, SD=1.27) diagnosed with Major Depressive Disorder (n=95, 58.3%) and/or Dysthymia (n=69, 42.3%) recruited from an acute residential treatment service. Participants completed interviews assessing psychopathology and suicidality, self-report measures of depressive symptoms and CSA, and a computerized disinhibition task. Consistent with hypotheses, CSA moderated the association between disinhibition and adolescents' report of their past year and lifetime suicide attempts. Specifically, higher disinhibition was associated with a greater likelihood of having made a suicide attempt among adolescents with a history of CSA, but not among those without. The same pattern of results held in analyses of suicide attempt frequency. Primary findings were based on observational, cross-sectional data, and therefore, causal relationships cannot be inferred. The gender imbalance in the sample precluded stratifying our analyses by gender. CSA was ascertained by self-report; replication of the results with more objective measures is warranted. Our findings indicate that CSA and disinhibition may work together to predict elevated suicide risk, and these results have implications for early identification efforts in youth at high risk for suicide. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Suicide attempts and clinical severity of eating disorders : an exploratory study

    OpenAIRE

    Machado, Paulo P. P.; Gonçalves, Sónia; Machado, Bárbara César; Torres, António Roma; Brandão, Isabel

    2004-01-01

    The present study examines whether eating disorders patients with suicide attempts present differences in disordered eating and clinical traits compared to those without suicide attempts. Method: 144 patients with eating disorders (65 anorexia nervosa and 79 bulimia nervosa) completed the Eating Disorders Inventory (EDI; Garner, Omstead & Polivy, 1983), the Symptom Checklist - 90- Revised (SCL-90; Derrogatis, 1977), and a questionnaire to assess eating behaviors and attitudes, information reg...

  20. Suicide attempts in U.S. Army combat arms, special forces and combat medics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ursano, Robert J; Kessler, Ronald C; Naifeh, James A; Mash, Holly Herberman; Fullerton, Carol S; Ng, Tsz Hin Hinz; Aliaga, Pablo A; Wynn, Gary H; Dinh, Hieu M; McCarroll, James E; Sampson, Nancy A; Kao, Tzu-Cheg; Schoenbaum, Michael; Heeringa, Steven G; Stein, Murray B

    2017-05-25

    The U.S. Army suicide attempt rate increased sharply during the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan. Risk may vary according to occupation, which significantly influences the stressors that soldiers experience. Using administrative data from the Army Study to Assess Risk and Resilience in Servicemembers (Army STARRS), we identified person-month records for all active duty Regular Army enlisted soldiers who had a medically documented suicide attempt from 2004 through 2009 (n = 9650) and an equal-probability sample of control person-months (n = 153,528). Logistic regression analyses examined the association of combat occupation (combat arms [CA], special forces [SF], combat medic [CM]) with suicide attempt, adjusting for socio-demographics, service-related characteristics, and prior mental health diagnosis. In adjusted models, the odds of attempting suicide were higher in CA (OR = 1.2 [95% CI: 1.1-1.2]) and CM (OR = 1.4 [95% CI: 1.3-1.5]), but lower in SF (OR = 0.3 [95% CI: 0.2-0.5]) compared to all other occupations. CA and CM had higher odds of suicide attempt than other occupations if never deployed (ORs = 1.1-1.5) or previously deployed (ORs = 1.2-1.3), but not when currently deployed. Occupation was associated with suicide attempt in the first ten years of service, but not beyond. In the first year of service, primarily a time of training, CM had higher odds of suicide attempt than both CA (OR = 1.4 [95% CI: 1.2-1.6]) and other occupations (OR = 1.5 [95% CI: 1.3-1.7]). Discrete-time hazard functions revealed that these occupations had distinct patterns of monthly risk during the first year of service. Military occupation can inform the understanding suicide attempt risk among soldiers.

  1. Executive Functioning in Men with Schizophrenia and Substance Use Disorders. Influence of Lifetime Suicide Attempts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adan, Ana; Capella, Maria Del Mar; Prat, Gemma; Forero, Diego A; López-Vera, Silvia; Navarro, José Francisco

    2017-01-01

    Lifetime suicide attempts in patients with comorbidity between psychotic disorders and Substance Use Disorder (SUD), known as dual diagnosis, was associated with a worse clinical and cognitive state, poor prognosis and premature death. However, to date no previous study has examined the cognitive performance of these patients considering as independent the presence or absence of lifetime suicide attempts. We explore executive functioning differences between suicide attempters and non-attempters in dual schizophrenia (DS) patients and the possible related factors for both executive performance and current suicide risk. Fifty DS male patients in remission of SUD and clinically stables, 24 with and 26 without lifetime suicide attempts, were evaluated. We considered Z scores for all neuropsychological tests and a composite summary score for both premorbid IQ and executive functioning. DS patients showed low performance in set-shifting, planning and problem solving tasks. Those with suicide attempts presented lower composite summary scores, together with worse problem solving skills and decision-making, compared with non-attempters. However, after controlling for alcohol dependence, only differences in decision-making remained. Executive functioning was related to the premorbid intelligence quotient, and several clinical variables (duration, severity, months of abstinence and relapses of SUD, global functioning and negative symptoms). A relationship between current suicide risk, and first-degree relatives with SUD, insight and positive symptoms was also found. Our results suggest that problem solving and, especially, decision-making tasks might be sensitive to cognitive impairment of DS patients related to presence of lifetime suicide attempts. The assessment of these executive functions and cognitive remediation therapy when necessary could be beneficial for the effectiveness of treatment in patients with DS. However, further research is needed to expand our findings

  2. Schizophrenia and Suicide Attempts: Findings from a Representative Community-Based Canadian Sample

    OpenAIRE

    Fuller-Thomson, Esme; Hollister, Bailey

    2016-01-01

    This study examined factors associated with suicide attempts among those with schizophrenia (n = 101) versus those without (n = 21,643) in a representative sample of noninstitutionalized Canadians. The lifetime prevalence of suicide attempts among persons with schizophrenia was 39.2% versus 2.8% of nonafflicted individuals. After adjusting for sociodemographics, childhood adversities, substance abuse/dependence, depression/anxiety, and chronic pain, those with schizophrenia had 6 times the od...

  3. Executive Functioning in Men with Schizophrenia and Substance Use Disorders. Influence of Lifetime Suicide Attempts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Adan

    Full Text Available Lifetime suicide attempts in patients with comorbidity between psychotic disorders and Substance Use Disorder (SUD, known as dual diagnosis, was associated with a worse clinical and cognitive state, poor prognosis and premature death. However, to date no previous study has examined the cognitive performance of these patients considering as independent the presence or absence of lifetime suicide attempts.We explore executive functioning differences between suicide attempters and non-attempters in dual schizophrenia (DS patients and the possible related factors for both executive performance and current suicide risk. Fifty DS male patients in remission of SUD and clinically stables, 24 with and 26 without lifetime suicide attempts, were evaluated. We considered Z scores for all neuropsychological tests and a composite summary score for both premorbid IQ and executive functioning.DS patients showed low performance in set-shifting, planning and problem solving tasks. Those with suicide attempts presented lower composite summary scores, together with worse problem solving skills and decision-making, compared with non-attempters. However, after controlling for alcohol dependence, only differences in decision-making remained. Executive functioning was related to the premorbid intelligence quotient, and several clinical variables (duration, severity, months of abstinence and relapses of SUD, global functioning and negative symptoms. A relationship between current suicide risk, and first-degree relatives with SUD, insight and positive symptoms was also found.Our results suggest that problem solving and, especially, decision-making tasks might be sensitive to cognitive impairment of DS patients related to presence of lifetime suicide attempts. The assessment of these executive functions and cognitive remediation therapy when necessary could be beneficial for the effectiveness of treatment in patients with DS. However, further research is needed to expand

  4. [Factors associated with suicide attempts by sexual minorities: Results from the 2011 gay and lesbian survey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paget, L-M; Chan Chee, C; Sauvage, C; Saboni, L; Beltzer, N; Velter, A

    2016-06-01

    Since the 1990s, several studies have found higher rates of suicide attempts in homosexuals and bisexuals than in heterosexuals. The current challenge is to identify risk factors for targeting prevention. The aim of this paper was to determine, for the first time in France, the prevalence of suicide attempts over a 12-month period and associated factors in a population of men and women who self-identified as homosexuals or bisexuals. A convenience sample cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2011 using an anonymous self-administered questionnaire made available in the gay press, and Internet sites targeting the gay or lesbian community. Among the persons completing the questionnaire, 10,100 men and 2963 women residing in France answered the questions on suicide attempts. The factors associated with suicide attempts during the previous 12 months were identified by logistic regression. Lifetime prevalence for suicide attempts was 16% in men and 18% in women; 12-month prevalence was 1.6% in men and 1.9% in women. Factors independently associated with suicide attempts in the past 12 months in men and women were lack of occupational activity, victim of sexual abuse, termination of a long-term relationship, excessive alcohol consumption in the past 12 months, depression, and in addition, in men, living in a small locality, victim of verbal or physical aggression and use of anxiolytics. According to our results, the fight against homophobia is an important element for the prevention of suicide attempts among homosexual and bisexual men. Indeed, in addition to traditional risk factors for suicide attempt, a significant association was also found with homophobic aggression in the past year. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. How do repeat suicide attempters differ from first timers? An exploratory record based analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikas Menon

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Evidence indicates that repeat suicide attempters, as a group, may differ from 1st time attempters. The identification of repeat attempters is a powerful but underutilized clinical variable. Aims: In this research, we aimed to compare individuals with lifetime histories of multiple attempts with 1st time attempters to identify factors predictive of repeat attempts. Setting and Design: This was a retrospective record based study carried out at a teaching cum Tertiary Care Hospital in South India. Methods: Relevant data was extracted from the clinical records of 1st time attempters (n = 362 and repeat attempters (n = 61 presenting to a single Tertiary Care Center over a 4½ year period. They were compared on various sociodemographic and clinical parameters. The clinical measures included Presumptive Stressful Life Events Scale, Beck Hopelessness Scale, Coping Strategies Inventory – Short Form, and the Global Assessment of Functioning Scale. Statistical Analysis Used: First time attempters and repeaters were compared using appropriate inferential statistics. Logistic regression was used to identify independent predictors of repeat attempts. Results: The two groups did not significantly differ on sociodemographic characteristics. Repeat attempters were more likely to have given prior hints about their act (χ2 = 4.500, P = 0.034. In the final regression model, beck hopelessness score emerged as a significant predictor of repeat suicide attempts (odds ratio = 1.064, P = 0.020. Conclusion: Among suicide attempters presenting to the hospital, the presence of hopelessness is a predictor of repeat suicide attempts, independent of clinical depression. This highlights the importance of considering hopelessness in the assessment of suicidality with a view to minimize the risk of future attempts.

  6. Lack of Association between Toxocara Exposure and Suicide Attempts in Psychiatric Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cosme Alvarado-Esquivel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Infection with Toxocara may affect the central nervous system. A high seroprevalence of Toxocara infection has been reported in psychiatric patients. To the best of our knowledge, there is no previous report about an association of Toxocara infection with suicide attempts. Therefore, we sought to determine whether Toxocara exposure is associated with suicide attempts in psychiatric patients. We studied 282 psychiatric outpatients (156 with suicide attempts and 126 without suicide attempts. Sera of patients were analyzed for the presence of anti-Toxocara IgG antibodies by using a commercially available enzyme immunoassay. One of the 156 (0.6% suicide attempters and 1 (0.8% of the 126 controls were positive for anti-Toxocara IgG antibodies (OR = 0.80; 95% CI: 0.04–13.02; P=1.00. Toxocara seropositivity was significantly higher (P=0.01 in male patients with consumption of raw dried goat meat than male patients without this consumption. Results suggest that Toxocara exposure is not associated with suicide attempts in psychiatric outpatients in Durango City, Mexico. However, further studies with larger samples sizes to confirm our results should be conducted. Too few patients were seropositive to assess further associations of Toxocara exposure with sociodemographic, clinical, and behavioral characteristics of the psychiatric patients.

  7. Lack of Association between Toxocara Exposure and Suicide Attempts in Psychiatric Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Hernández-Tinoco, Jesús; Sánchez-Anguiano, Luis Francisco

    2015-01-01

    Infection with Toxocara may affect the central nervous system. A high seroprevalence of Toxocara infection has been reported in psychiatric patients. To the best of our knowledge, there is no previous report about an association of Toxocara infection with suicide attempts. Therefore, we sought to determine whether Toxocara exposure is associated with suicide attempts in psychiatric patients. We studied 282 psychiatric outpatients (156 with suicide attempts and 126 without suicide attempts). Sera of patients were analyzed for the presence of anti-Toxocara IgG antibodies by using a commercially available enzyme immunoassay. One of the 156 (0.6%) suicide attempters and 1 (0.8%) of the 126 controls were positive for anti-Toxocara IgG antibodies (OR = 0.80; 95% CI: 0.04-13.02; P = 1.00). Toxocara seropositivity was significantly higher (P = 0.01) in male patients with consumption of raw dried goat meat than male patients without this consumption. Results suggest that Toxocara exposure is not associated with suicide attempts in psychiatric outpatients in Durango City, Mexico. However, further studies with larger samples sizes to confirm our results should be conducted. Too few patients were seropositive to assess further associations of Toxocara exposure with sociodemographic, clinical, and behavioral characteristics of the psychiatric patients.

  8. Nucleotide variation in central nervous system genes among male suicide attempters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baca-Garcia, Enrique; Vaquero-Lorenzo, Concepción; Perez-Rodriguez, M Mercedes; Gratacòs, Mònica; Bayés, Mònica; Santiago-Mozos, Ricardo; Leiva-Murillo, Jose Miguel; de Prado-Cumplido, Mario; Artes-Rodriguez, Antonio; Ceverino, Antonio; Diaz-Sastre, Carmen; Fernandez-Navarro, Pablo; Costas, Javier; Fernandez-Piqueras, José; Diaz-Hernandez, Montserrat; de Leon, Jose; Baca-Baldomero, Enrique; Saiz-Ruiz, Jeronimo; Mann, J John; Parsey, Ramin V; Carracedo, Angel; Estivill, Xavier; Oquendo, Maria A

    2010-01-05

    Despite marked morbidity and mortality associated with suicidal behavior, accurate identification of individuals at risk remains elusive. The goal of this study is to identify a model based on single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that discriminates between suicide attempters and non-attempters using data mining strategies. We examined functional SNPs (n = 840) of 312 brain function and development genes using data mining techniques. Two hundred seventy-seven male psychiatric patients aged 18 years or older were recruited at a University hospital psychiatric emergency room or psychiatric short stay unit. The main outcome measure was history of suicide attempts. Three SNPs of three genes (rs10944288, HTR1E; hCV8953491, GABRP; and rs707216, ACTN2) correctly classified 67% of male suicide attempters and non-attempters (0.50 sensitivity, 0.82 specificity, positive likelihood ratio = 2.80, negative likelihood ratio = 1.64). The OR for the combined three SNPs was 4.60 (95% CI: 1.31-16.10). The model's accuracy suggests that in the future similar methodologies may generate simple genetic tests with diagnostic utility in identification of suicide attempters. This strategy may uncover new pathophysiological pathways regarding the neurobiology of suicidal acts. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  9. Association between binge drug use and suicide attempt among people who inject drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier, Charles; Ghabrash, Maykel Farag; Artenie, Adelina; Roy, Elise; Zang, Geng; Bruneau, Julie; Jutras-Aswad, Didier

    2017-10-09

    People who inject drugs (PWID) have an elevated risk of suicide attempt. Although different substances are associated with suicide attempt, the overall risk posed by binge behavior, a high-risk pattern of drug use, remains unclear. The objective of this study is to assess the association between binge drug use and suicide attempt in a prospective cohort of PWID in Montreal, Canada. Participants answered a biannual interviewer-administered questionnaire compiling information on sociodemographics, pattern of substance use (cocaine, amphetamine, opioids, sedative-hypnotics, alcohol, and cannabis), and psychosocial stressors and related markers. The relationship between suicide attempt and binge behavior was modeled using generalized estimating equations (GEEs), controlling for type and pattern of substance use, sociodemographic characteristics, and significant mental health markers. Among 1240 participants (mean age ± SD: 38.2 ± 9.8) at baseline, 222 (17.9%) reported binge during the past 6-months. PWID reporting binge were significantly younger (P cannabis and alcohol. Binge was independently associated with attempted suicide in the GEE multivariate model (adjusted odds ratio [aOR 95% CI] = 1.91 [1.38-2.65], P < .001). Among PWID at high risk of suicide attempt, those who binge represent a particularly vulnerable subgroup. Although the exact mechanisms underlying this finding remain unresolved, several hypothesis pertaining to the neurobiological and psychosocial consequences of binge, as well as common personality traits, warrant further investigations.

  10. Mental pain, communication difficulties, and medically serious suicide attempts: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levi-Belz, Yossi; Gvion, Yari; Horesh, Netta; Fischel, Tsvi; Treves, Ilan; Or, Evgenia; Stein-Reisner, Orit; Weiser, Mark; David, Haim Shem; Apter, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Medical severe suicide attempts (MSSA) are epidemiologically very similar to individuals who complete suicide. Thus the investigation of individuals who have made MSSAs may add to our understanding of the risk factors for completed suicide. The aim of this study was to assess the role of mental pain and communication difficulties in MSSA. A total of 336 subjects were divided into 4 groups: 78 meeting criteria for MSSA compared with116 subjects who made a medically non-serious suicide attempt (MNSSA), 47 psychiatric controls with no history of suicidal behavior, and 95 healthy controls. Mental pain variants (e.g., hopelessness), facets of communication difficulties (e.g., self-disclosure), as well as socio-demographic and clinical characteristics were assessed. The MSSA had significantly higher communication difficulties than the other 3 groups. Moreover, the interaction between mental pain and communication difficulties explained some of the variance in suicide lethality, above and beyond the contribution of each component alone. This report underlines the importance of mental pain for suicide attempts in general while difficulties in communication abilities play a critical role in differentiating MSSA from MNSSA. The co-existence of unbearable mental pain with difficulties in communication significantly enhances the risk for more lethal forms of suicidal behavior.

  11. Cross-National Prevalence and Risk Factors for Suicidal Ideation, Plans, and Attempts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nock, Matthew K.; Borges, Guilherme; Bromet, Evelyn J.; Alonso, Jordi; Angermeyer, Matthias; Beautrais, Annette; Bruffaerts, Ronny; Chiu, Wai Tat; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Gluzman, Semyon; de Graaf, Ron; Gureje, Oye; Haro, Josep Maria; Huang, Yueqin; Karam, Elie; Kessler, Ronald C.; Lepine, Jean Pierre; Levinson, Daphna; Medina-Mora, Maria Elena; Ono, Yutaka; Posada-Villa, José; Williams, David R.

    2008-01-01

    Background Suicide is a leading cause of death world-wide; however, the prevalence and risk factors for the immediate precursors to suicide: suicidal ideation, plans and attempts, are not well-known, especially in developing countries. Aims To report on the prevalence and risk factors for suicidal behaviors across 17 countries. Method 84,850 adults were interviewed regarding suicidal behaviors and socio-demographic and psychiatric risk factors. Results The cross-national lifetime prevalence (standard error) of suicidal ideation, plans, and attempts is 9.2% (0.1), 3.1% (0.1), and 2.7% (0.1). Across all countries, 60% of transitions from ideation to plan and attempt occur within the first year after ideation onset. Consistent cross-national risk factors included being: female, younger, less educated, unmarried, and having a mental disorder. Interestingly, the strongest diagnostic risk factors were mood disorders in developed countries but impulse-control disorders in developing countries. Conclusion Despite cross-national variability in prevalence, there is strong consistency in the characteristics of and risk factors for suicidal behaviors. These findings have significant implications for the prediction and prevention of suicidal behaviors. PMID:18245022

  12. A social study on effects of personal characteristics on suicide attempt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Iravani

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Suicide attempt has been one of serious social problems in todays’ modern society and many studies have been focused to detect different factors influencing this unfortunate issue. In this paper, we perform an empirical study among 897 people who had some experiences associated with suicide attempt. We have designed and distributed a questionnaire among them investigating the impact of four major issues including marital status, educational background, age and living status. The results of our survey indicate that married people tend to commit suicide more than single people do. The other observation indicates that more educated people are more likely to commit suicide, older people are more interested in ending their lives and finally, people who live in cities are more likely to commit suicide than other people.

  13. Contributing Factors and Mental Health Outcomes of First Suicide Attempt During Childhood and Adolescence: Results From a Nationally Representative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyre, Hugo; Hoertel, Nicolas; Stordeur, Coline; Lebeau, Gaële; Blanco, Carlos; McMahon, Kibby; Basmaci, Romain; Lemogne, Cédric; Limosin, Frédéric; Delorme, Richard

    2017-06-01

    To investigate whether risk factors for suicide attempts differ in children and adolescents and to categorize adulthood mental health outcomes of child and adolescent suicide attempters in the general population. Using a large (N = 34,653), nationally representative US adult sample, the 2004-2005 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions, we examined whether individuals who first attempted suicide during childhood (under the age of 13 years) differ from those who first attempted suicide during adolescence (13 through 17 years) in (1) contributing factors for first suicide attempt, including mental disorders and traumatic experiences that occurred before the first suicide attempt, parental history of mental disorders, and family poverty and (2) adulthood mental health outcomes, including lifetime and current prevalence of DSM-IV psychiatric disorders and quality of life measures. Suicide attempts during childhood (n = 104) were more strongly related to childhood maltreatment, while suicide attempts during adolescence (n = 415) were more strongly associated with major depressive episode. Compared to first suicide attempts during adolescence, first attempts during childhood were associated with increased risk for multiple suicide attempts (61.3% vs 32.6%), several psychiatric disorders (mania, hypomania, and panic disorder), and poorer social functioning during adulthood (all P values childhood maltreatment and early intervention for psychiatric disorders may have broad benefits to reduce not only the suffering of these children and adolescents, but also the burden of suicide. © Copyright 2017 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  14. Caregiver Strain and Youth Suicide Attempt: Are They Related?

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    Barksdale, Crystal L.; Walrath, Christine M.; Compton, Jill S.; Goldston, David B.

    2009-01-01

    There are scant data documenting the relationship between caregiver strain and suicidal behavior among youth. This study includes data from the caregivers of 1,854 youth who received services through the Comprehensive Community Mental Health Services for Children and Their Families Program. Caregiver strain, family functioning, and youth…

  15. Personality traits, brie' recurrent depression ~nd attempted suicide

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    antisocial traits. A clear relationship between suicidal behaviQYr a.nd the syndrome of brief recurrent depression was establh,h!!d. The latter was also found to be ..... 15. American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental. Disorders. 3rd ed, rev. Washington, DC: APA, 1987. Accepted 5 Nov 1993.

  16. Collective Efficacy, Family Attachment, and Urban Adolescent Suicide Attempts

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    Maimon, David; Browning, Christopher R.; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2010-01-01

    The suicide rate among American adolescents between the ages of 14-25 has dramatically increased during the last 50 years, and this fact has been the focus of extensive social-scientific investigation. To date, however, research focusing on the joint effects of mental health, family, and contextual-level predictors on adolescents' suicidal…

  17. RESEARCH Suicidal ideation and attempt among South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    it among the top three leading causes of death in men and women aged 15 - 44 years.1 The rate of suicide in ... disorder diagnosis: 'Have you ever been diagnosed with depression?',. 'Have you ever been diagnosed ... regarding symptoms of depression and burnout were included: 'Do you feel more tired than you used to?

  18. Suicide Precipitants Differ Across the Lifespan but Are Not Significant in Predicting Medically Severe Attempts

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    Carol C. Choo

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available An important risk factor for suicide assessment is the suicide precipitant. This study explores suicide attempt precipitants across the lifespan. Three years of medical records related to suicide attempters who were admitted to the emergency department of a large teaching hospital in Singapore were subjected to analysis. These cases were divided into three age groups: Adolescence, Early Adulthood, and Middle Adulthood. A total of 540 cases were examined (70.9% females; 63.7% Chinese, 13.7% Malays, 15.9% Indians, whose ages ranged from 12 to 62. There were eight cases above the age of 65 years which were excluded from the analysis. Significant differences were found in precipitants for suicide attempts across the lifespan. Middle adults had relatively fewer relationship problems, and adolescents had comparatively fewer financial and medical problems. The models to predict medically severe attempts across the age groups using suicide precipitants were not significant. The findings were discussed in regards to implications in suicide assessment and primary prevention in Singapore, as well as limitations and recommendations for future research.

  19. The impact of migration and culture on suicide attempts of children and adolescents living in Istanbul.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkaya-Kalayci, Türkan; Popow, Christian; Winkler, Dietmar; Bingöl, R Hülya; Demir, Türkay; Özlü, Zeliha

    2015-03-01

    Suicidal attempts are steadily increasing in societies with rapid urbanisation and dramatic social changes in places like Istanbul. Stress related to internal migration may increase suicidal behaviour. We investigated the impact of internal migration and culture on suicide attempts among youth in Istanbul. We retrospectively analysed the records of 210 children and adolescents, aged 6-18 years, who presented at the Emergency Outpatient Clinic of the Department of Pediatrics at Cerrahpaşa Medical School in Istanbul because of suicide attempts between January 2008 and December 2010. The majority of patients (78.95%, N = 165) had a background of internal migration, mostly (65%, N = 136) originating from regions with large cultural differences compared with that of Istanbul. Noticeably, more migrants than non-migrants (18.8% vs. 6.8%) and more patients originating from regions with large cultural differences chose high-risk methods for suicide attempts (20.7% vs. 8.1%). Internal migration can be considered a serious risk factor for suicidal behaviour. Furthermore, the degree of cultural differences between the area of origin and the new environment can be of vital importance. Healthcare measures should, therefore, focus on internal migration as a risk factor for youth suicidal behaviour and provide assistance for appropriate resettlement and integration in countries with increased mobility.

  20. Reduced left precentral regional responses in patients with major depressive disorder and history of suicide attempts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujii, Noa; Mikawa, Wakako; Tsujimoto, Emi; Adachi, Toru; Niwa, Atsushi; Ono, Hisae; Shirakawa, Osamu

    2017-01-01

    Previous neuroimaging studies have revealed frontal and temporal functional abnormalities in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) and a history of suicidal behavior. However, it is unknown whether multi-channel near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) signal changes among individuals with MDD are associated with a history of suicide attempts and a diathesis for suicidal behavior (impulsivity, hopelessness, and aggression). Therefore, we aimed to explore frontotemporal hemodynamic responses in depressed patients with a history of suicide attempts using 52-channel NIRS. We recruited 30 patients with MDD and a history of suicidal behavior (suicide attempters; SAs), 38 patient controls without suicidal behavior (non-attempters; NAs), and 40 healthy controls (HCs) matched by age, gender ratio, and estimated IQ. Regional hemodynamic responses during a verbal fluency task (VFT) were monitored using NIRS. Our results showed that severities of depression, impulsivity, aggression, and hopelessness were similar between SAs and NAs. Both patient groups had significantly reduced activation compared with HCs in the bilateral frontotemporal regions. Post hoc analyses revealed that SAs exhibited a smaller hemodynamic response in the left precentral gyrus than NAs and HCs. Furthermore, the reduced response in the left inferior frontal gyrus was negatively correlated with impulsivity level and hemodynamic responses in the right middle frontal gyrus were negatively associated with hopelessness and aggression in SAs but not in NAs and HCs. Our findings suggest that MDD patients with a history of suicide attempts demonstrate patterns of VFT-induced NIRS signal changes different from those demonstrated by individuals without a history of suicidal behaviors, even in cases where clinical symptoms are similar. NIRS has a relatively high time resolution, which may help visually differentiate SAs from NAs.

  1. Out of touch: Interoceptive deficits are elevated in suicide attempters with eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, April; Forrest, Lauren; Velkoff, Elizabeth

    2018-01-01

    People with eating disorders have elevated interoceptive deficits and risk for self-injurious behaviors (SIBs). Across two eating disorder samples, the relationship between interoceptive deficits (IDs) and SIBs was tested. Study 1 (n = 100) found that suicide attempters and those engaging in non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) had greater IDs than those with no self-injury history. Lack of access to emotion regulation strategies accounted for the link between IDs and SIBs. In Study 2 (n = 92) multiple suicide attempters had greater IDs than single attempters and those engaging in NSSI; however, the latter two groups did not differ from one another. Interoceptive deficits may differentiate those who engage in severe SIBs from those who do not, and thus be a useful determinant of suicide risk severity among patients with eating disorders. Lack of access to emotion regulation strategies appears to be one pathway linking interoceptive deficits and self-injury.

  2. Pathways to suicide attempts among male offenders: the role of agency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byng, Richard; Howerton, Amanda; Owens, Christabel V; Campbell, John

    2015-07-01

    Suicide is common among offenders, who are at increased risk of homelessness, unemployment and mental illness and are prone to impulsivity. Release from prison is a particularly vulnerable time. This qualitative study investigated the views of 35 offenders in South-West England prior to and after release from prison, enquiring into their previous suicide attempts and how they saw their future. Semi-structured interviews were analysed thematically, comparing individuals who had made one, more than one, and no suicide attempts. Multiple attempters were often in despair and enmeshed in substance misuse, with little control over their lives. Most of those with one-off or no previous attempts portrayed themselves as having more mastery. One-off attempters described using particularly violent means. The role of different types of agency in pathways to and from suicide is discussed. Iterational agency, the selective reactivation of past patterns of behaviour, appeared to dominate in individuals who were choosing between further suicide attempts and substance use. Projective agency, having a more future orientation, appeared more prominent in some single attempters and in those individuals with plans to escape crime and social exclusion. © 2015 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness.

  3. Time-related changes in suicide attempts after the nuclear accident in Fukushima.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Yuta; Okada, Megumi; Inokuchi, Ryota; Matsumoto, Akinori; Kumada, Yoshibumi; Yokoyama, Hideyuki; Ishida, Tokiya; Saito, Itaru; Ito, Humihito; Sato, Hajime; Tomio, Jun; Shinohara, Kazuaki; Thornicroft, Graham

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study is to assess whether the risk or types of suicide change in Fukushima in the aftermath of a series of disaster, including earthquake, tsunami and nuclear accident in March 2011. The clinical records of all patients visited to the medical centre near the nuclear plant from 1 year before to 1 year after the disaster were reviewed (n = 981). Patients with non-fatal suicide attempt were divided into two categories depending on their method of suicide attempt. Standardised mortality ratios were calculated to adjust for changes in demographic profiles. The risk of non-fatal suicide attempts using high-mortality methods was significantly higher for 4 months, by three to four times after the series of disasters, and then decreased. There was no significant increase of non-fatal suicide attempts using low-mortality methods after the disaster. After such a disaster, immediate psychiatric support may be required because of the increased risk of non-fatal suicide attempts in the immediate aftermath.

  4. Trauma history is associated with prior suicide attempt history in hospitalized patients with major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Lily A; Armey, Michael A; Sejourne, Corinne; Miller, Ivan W; Weinstock, Lauren M

    2016-09-30

    Although the relationships between PTSD, abuse history, and suicidal behaviors are well-established in military and outpatient samples, little data is available on this relationship in inpatient samples. This study examines the relationships between these variables and related demographic and clinical correlates in a sample of psychiatric inpatients with a diagnosis of major depressive disorder using electronic medical record (EMR) data. Controlling for relevant demographic and clinical variables, PTSD diagnosis and history of abuse were both significantly associated with history of suicide attempt, but in a combined model, only history of abuse remained as a significant predictor. Whereas history of abuse was associated with a history multiple suicide attempts, PTSD diagnosis was not. Both insurance status and gender acted as significant moderators of the relationship between history of abuse and history of suicide attempt, with males and those with public/no insurance having greater associations with history of suicide attempts when an abuse history was present. These data indicate the importance of documentation of PTSD, abuse history, and history of suicide attempts. The results also suggest that in the presence of an abuse history or PTSD diagnosis, additional time spent on safety and aftercare planning following hospital discharge may be indicated. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Copy number variation in subjects with major depressive disorder who attempted suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlis, Roy H; Ruderfer, Douglas; Hamilton, Steven P; Ernst, Carl

    2012-01-01

    Suicide is one of the top ten leading causes of death in North America and represents a major public health burden, particularly for people with Major Depressive disorder (MD). Many studies have suggested that suicidal behavior runs in families, however, identification of genomic loci that drive this efffect remain to be identified. Using subjects collected as part of STAR D, we genotyped 189 subjects with MD with history of a suicide attempt and 1073 subjects with Major Depressive disorder that had never attempted suicide. Copy Number Variants (CNVs) were called in Birdsuite and analyzed in PLINK. We found a set of CNVs present in the suicide attempter group that were not present in in the non-attempter group including in SNTG2 and MACROD2 - two brain expressed genes previously linked to psychopathology; however, these results failed to reach genome-wide signifigance. These data suggest potential CNVs to be investigated further in relation to suicide attempts in MD using large sample sizes.

  6. [Sociodemographic Traits and Comorbidities in Pathological Gamblers With a Suicide Attempt in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdura-Vizcaíno, Ernesto José; Fernández-Navarro, Pablo; Vian-Lains, Antonio; Ibañez, Ángela; Baca-García, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    Suicide is the first cause of non-natural death in Spain. Among addictive disorders, pathological gambling is one the most significant independent risk factors for suicidal behavior. The objective of this study is to describe and compare the sociodemographic traits, comorbidity and attempt characteristics, between suicide attempters who fulfill diagnostic criteria for pathological gambling and those who do not. A total of 345 patients admitted to the emergency department of a University Hospital in Madrid between 1999 and 2004 were interviewed for this study. To describe and compare the demographic characteristics, comorbidity and those related to attempted suicide, using logistic regression models adjusted for sex and age were used. Suicide attempters who fulfilled diagnostic criteria for pathological gambling were predominantly male, with a low education level, and had more offspring. Furthermore, these patients had more comorbidities, such as: global substance dependence, nicotine, cocaine and opioid dependence. The present study suggests that pathological gamblers represent a distinct subgroup among suicide attempters, with particular characteristics, similar to those found in pathological gamblers in the general population. Copyright © 2015 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  7. Predicting suicide attempts among treatment-seeking male alcoholics: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Galen Chin-Lun; Caine, Eric D; Fan, Hsiang-Fang; Huang, Ming-Chyi; Chen, Ying-Yeh

    2013-08-01

    Documented risk factors for suicide among alcohol-dependent patients are sensitive but insufficiently specific to effectively identify individuals who are prone to future suicide attempt. As a first step to assess factors not previously considered, this pilot study involved a group of male alcohol-dependent patients (N = 175) coming to detoxification to examine the potential utility of adverse childhood experiences (ACE) along with other documented events to discriminate individuals with a history of attempted suicide from their detoxifying peers. Family health history questionnaires were used to evaluate their ACEs. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was applied to examine the predictive power of ACEs, alone or in combination with documented risk factors, to lifetime history of attempted suicide. Among our participants, 48 (27.4%) had a history of a suicide attempt and 156 (89.1%) reported at least one out of the nine categories of ACEs. Modeling by ROC analysis, we found that a cutoff of four or more ACEs plus a history of personal violence achieved the best predictive power to a history of any suicide attempt, producing a sensitivity of 0.7, specificity of 0.81, and area under curve of 0.75. A prospective study to replicate and extend our findings is necessary. © 2013 The American Association of Suicidology.

  8. Familial Liability for Eating Disorders and Suicide Attempts: Evidence From a Population Registry in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Shuyang; Kuja-Halkola, Ralf; Thornton, Laura M; Runfola, Cristin D; D'Onofrio, Brian M; Almqvist, Catarina; Lichtenstein, Paul; Sjölander, Arvid; Larsson, Henrik; Bulik, Cynthia M

    2016-03-01

    Suicide attempts are common in individuals with eating disorders. More precise understanding of the mechanisms underlying their concomitant occurrence is needed. To examine the association between eating disorders and suicide attempts and whether familial risk factors contribute to the association. A Swedish birth cohort including individuals born in Sweden between January 1, 1979, and December 31, 2001, was followed up from age 6 years to December 31, 2009 (N = 2,268,786). Information was acquired from Swedish national registers. All individuals were linked to their biological full siblings, maternal half siblings, paternal half siblings, full cousins, and half cousins. Data analysis was conducted from October 5, 2014, to April 28, 2015. Eating disorders were captured by 3 variables (any eating disorder, anorexia nervosa, and bulimia nervosa) identified by any lifetime diagnoses recorded in the registers. Suicide attempts were defined as any suicide attempts, including death by suicide, recorded in the registers. We examined the association between eating disorders and death by suicide separately, but the study was underpowered to explore familial liability for this association. Of 2,268,786 individuals, 15,457 females (1.40% of all females) and 991 males (0.09% of all males) had any eating disorder, 7680 females (0.70%) and 453 males (0.04%) had anorexia nervosa, and 3349 females (0.30%), and 61 males (0.01%) had bulimia nervosa. Individuals with any eating disorder had an increased risk (reported as odds ratio [95% CI]) of suicide attempts (5.28 [5.04-5.54]) and death by suicide (5.39 [4.00-7.25]). The risks were attenuated but remained significant after adjusting for comorbid major depressive disorder, anxiety disorder, and substance use disorder (suicide attempts: 1.82 [1.72-1.93]; death by suicide: 2.04 [1.49-2.80]). Similar results were found for anorexia nervosa (suicide attempts: crude, 4.42 [4.12-4.74] vs adjusted, 1.70 [1.56-1.85]; death by suicide

  9. Labour market marginalisation subsequent to suicide attempt in young migrants and native Swedes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niederkrotenthaler, T; Wang, M; Helgesson, M; Wilcox, H; Gould, M; Mittendorfer-Rutz, E

    2017-05-01

    This study aimed to compare young individuals who differed in terms of birth region and history of suicide attempt regarding socio-demographic and healthcare factors, and with regard to their risks of subsequent unemployment, sickness absence and disability pension. Prospective cohort study based on register linkage of 2,801,558 Swedish residents, aged 16-40 years in 2004, without disability pension and with known birth country, followed up 2005-2011. Suicide attempters treated in inpatient care during 2002-2004 (N = 9149) were compared to the general population of the same age without attempt 1987-2011 (N = 2,792,409). Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for long-term unemployment (>180 days), sickness absence (>90 days), and disability pension were calculated with Cox regression, adjusted for several risk markers. Compared to Swedish natives with suicide attempt, migrants of non-Western origin with attempt received less specialised mental healthcare. Distinct differences between native Swedes and migrants were present for the three labour market outcomes, but differences between migrant subgroups were inconsistent. As compared to native Swedes without attempts, non-European migrants with suicide attempt had adjusted HRs and CIs for subsequent unemployment 2.8 (2.5-3.1), sickness absence 2.0 (1.7-2.3) and disability pension 2.2 (1.8-2.6). Respective estimates for natives with suicide attempt were 2.0 (1.9-2.1); 2.7 (2.6-2.9) and 3.4 (3.2-3.6), respectively. Migrant suicide attempters receive less specialised mental health care before their attempt than native Swedes, and their marginalzation patterns are different. Healthcare and policy makers need to take the differential risk profile for migrant and native populations into account.

  10. The characteristics of serious suicide attempters in Japanese adolescents- comparison study between adolescents and adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kawashima Yoshitaka

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Suicide is the leading cause of death among Japanese adolescents, and they may commit suicide differently from adults. However, there are few studies in medical-based data concerning adolescent patients seriously attempting suicide. We aimed to explore the characteristics of serious suicide attempts in Japanese adolescents, comparing them with those in adults. Methods We investigated adolescents who seriously attempted suicide and were treated at the Critical Care Medical Center (CCMC of Nippon Medical School Hospital between 2000 and 2010, and we compared them with adult suicide attempters treated during 2009. We retrospectively studied medical records and collected clinical data and socio-demographic factors, including age, sex, psychiatric symptoms or diagnosis, methods of suicide attempt, motives for suicide attempt, previous deliberate self-harm, previous psychiatric history, parent loss experience, and previous psychiatric history in the family. Results Adolescent attempters were 15 males and 44 females, 13 to 18 years old (mean 16.39. Adult attempters were 37 males and 65 females, 19 to 79 years old (mean 39.45. In comparison to adult attempters, adolescent attempters were more frequently diagnosed with Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD, had more school problems and parent loss experience, but they had less financial problems. Gender differences between adolescents and adults were examined, and male adolescent attempters were found to be more frequently diagnosed with schizophrenia and had less financial problems than their adult counterparts, while female adolescent attempters were more frequently diagnosed with BPD, had more school problems and parent loss, but they had less previous psychiatric history than their adult counterparts. Conclusions Our findings indicated that adolescent attempters were more frequently diagnosed with BPD and had more school problems and parent loss experience but had less financial

  11. Suicide ideation, plans, and attempts among general practice patients with chronic health conditions in Puerto Rico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Huertas

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Mildred Vera2,4, María L Reyes-Rabanillo1, Sarah Huertas3, Deborah Juarbe4, Coralee Pérez-Pedrogo4, Aracelis Huertas5, Marisol Peña61Veterans Affairs Caribbean Healthcare System, San Juan, Puerto Rico; 2Department of Health Services Administration, School of Public Health; 3Department of Psychiatry, School of Medicine; 4Center for Evaluation and Sociomedical Research, School of Public Health; 5School of Health Professions; 6Center for Preparedness in Public Health, School of Public Health, Medical Sciences Campus, University of Puerto Rico San Juan, Puerto Rico.Background: Little is known about suicidal ideation among general practice patients in Puerto Rico. In this study we examined the rates, severity, and correlates of suicidal ideation, plans, and attempts among general practice patients with chronic illnesses. This is important in targeting appropriate interventions and management approaches to minimize and prevent suicide.Methods: We screened patients with chronic physical conditions at general practices. Suicidal ideation was assessed with the suicidality module of the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview. Major depression was assessed with the Patient Health Questionnaire depression module. The relationship between sociodemographic factors, depression and suicidal ideation was examined with multiple logistic regression analysis. Among the subgroup that acknowledged suicidal ideation, we used multinomial logistic regression analysis to estimate simultaneously the multivariate associations of depression and sociodemographic factors with suicidality risk levels.Results: Of the 2068 patients screened, 15.4% acknowledged recent suicidal ideation. Among this group, 8.6% reported passive ideation, 3.7% active ideation without a plan, and 3.1% active ideation with a plan or attempt. According to multivariate logistic regression, suicidal ideation was higher among patients with moderately severe depression and severe depression than

  12. The prevalence and psychosocial correlates of suicide attempts among inpatient adolescent offspring of Croatian PTSD male war veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boričević Maršanić, Vlatka; Margetić, Branka Aukst; Zečević, Iva; Herceg, Miroslav

    2014-10-01

    Despite evidence that children of male war veterans with combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are at particularly high risk for behavior problems, very little is currently known about suicidal behaviors in this population of youth. This study aimed to examine the prevalence and psychosocial correlates of suicide attempts among psychiatrically hospitalized adolescent offspring of Croatian male PTSD veterans. Participants were psychiatric inpatients, ages 12-18 years. Self-report questionnaires assessed demographics, suicide attempts, psychopathology, parenting style, and family functioning. The prevalence of suicide attempts was 61.5% (65.2% for girls and 58.0% for boys). Internalizing symptoms, family dysfunction, lower levels of maternal and paternal care, and paternal overcontrol were significantly associated with suicide attempts. Our findings suggest that suicide attempts are common among inpatient adolescent offspring of male PTSD veterans and that interventions targeting both adolescent psychopathology and family relationships are needed for adolescents who have attempted suicide.

  13. Firearm ownership in veterans entering residential PTSD treatment: Associations with suicide ideation, attempts, and combat exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Phillip N; Currier, Joseph; Drescher, Kent

    2015-09-30

    This study aimed to describe the frequency of firearm ownership in veterans entering residential treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and examine the association of firearm ownership with suicide ideation and suicide attempt history, combat exposure, and PTSD symptom severity. Two samples of veterans entering residential PTSD treatment were assessed at intake using self-report measures. Approximately one third of participants endorsed firearm ownership across the two samples. Analyses with a sample predominantly comprised of Vietnam Veterans found that those who endorsed both suicide ideation and prior suicide attempts were less likely to own a firearm compared to suicide ideators and non-suicidal participants. In addition, more frequent combat exposure, but not PTSD symptom severity, was associated with firearm ownership in both samples and most participants endorsed using safe storage practices. These lower rates of firearm ownership generally, and in those with suicide ideation and prior attempts in particular, may reflect an increased focused on means restriction in treatment for combat-related PTSD. Means restriction counseling among PTSD treatment seeking veterans should target those with combat exposure. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Triggers for attempted suicide in Istanbul youth, with special reference to their socio-demographic background.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkaya-Kalayci, Türkan; Kapusta, Nestor D; Winkler, Dietmar; Kothgassner, Oswald D; Popow, Christian; Özlü-Erkilic, Zeliha

    2018-06-01

    Suicidal behavior of young people is a topic of utmost importance because suicide is irreversible, and should be prevented. Knowing about the psychosocial background and the triggering events could help in preventing suicidal behavior. We therefore aimed at identifying psychosocial factors that may trigger suicidal behavior in youth. We analyzed retrospectively the standardized records of 2232 youths aged ≤25 years, who were treated after a suicide attempt at emergency units of public hospitals in Istanbul, Turkey during a period of 1 year. We describe this population according to sex and socio-economic conditions, like educational, occupational, relationship status and link them with their reported reasons for suicide attempts. The majority of patients were female (81.6%, N = 1822 females, 18.4%, N = 410 males). Independent of their educational and occupational background, patients indicated most frequently intra-familial problems (females 45.8%, males 30.5%), intrapersonal problems (females 19.9%, males 18.5%), and relationship problems (females 11.3%, males 23.9%) as triggering reasons. Because intra-familial problems were the most frequently reported triggers of suicide attempts, preventive measures should focus on handling intra-familial conflicts. As sex differences were observed for the second-most common trigger-reasons, prevention should also focus on differentially handling intrapersonal and relationship conflicts better.

  15. Relationship between a history of a suicide attempt and treatment outcomes in patients with depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung-Wan; Stewart, Robert; Kim, Jae-Min; Shin, Il-Seon; Yoon, Jin-Sang; Jung, Sung-Won; Lee, Min-Soo; Yim, Hyeon-Woo; Jun, Tae-Youn

    2011-08-01

    This study aimed to investigate the sociodemographic and clinical correlates of a history of a suicide attempt in people with depression and their relationship with treatment outcomes and subsequent suicidal ideation and deliberate self-harm. Patients with depressive disorders according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, were recruited from 18 hospitals across South Korea. Data on sociodemographic and clinical characteristics were obtained, and scales assessing depression, anxiety, and general functioning were administered during the first 12 weeks of antidepressant treatment. Baseline characteristics, responses to treatment, and suicidal ideation/deliberate self-harm during the follow-up period were compared according to a reported history or not of a suicide attempt. In a total of 723 participants, 143 (19.8%) with a history of a suicide attempt had an earlier age of onset, longer duration of illness, and a greater number of depressive episodes. Levels of depression and anxiety were significantly higher at baseline in this group who also experienced significantly lower remission and response rates, as well as longer time to remission. The case group was more likely to experience new suicidal ideation and carry out a deliberate self-harm act during the 12-week treatment period. In conclusion, a history of a suicide attempt in a Korean population with depression was characterized by more severe psychopathology, poorer treatment outcomes, and higher subsequent suicidal ideation and self-harm. Therefore, more intensive and longer-term treatment with particular ongoing clinical attention to risk is indicated in patients with these distinct, chronic, and severe forms of depression and ongoing high suicide risk.

  16. Suicidal Ideation, Attempt, and Determining Factors among HIV/AIDS Patients, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huluagresh Bitew

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Suicide is a serious cause of mortality worldwide and is considered as a psychiatric emergency. Suicide is more frequent in peoples living with HIV/AIDS than in general population. Objective. To assess the proportion and determining factors of suicidal ideation and attempt among peoples living with HIV/AIDS in Ethiopia. Methods. Institutional based cross-sectional study was conducted from May to June 2015 by selecting 393 participants using systematic random sampling technique. Suicide manual of Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI was used to collect data. Logistic regression was carried out and odds ratio with 95% confidence intervals was computed. Results. The proportion of suicidal ideation and attempt was 33.6% and 20.1%, respectively. Female sex (AOR = 2.6, 95%CI: 1.27–5.22, marital status (AOR = 13.5, 95%CI: 4.69–39.13, depression (AOR = 17.0, 95%CI: 8.76–33.26, CD4 level (AOR = 2.57, 95%CI: 1.34–4.90, and presence of opportunistic infection (AOR = 5.23, 95%CI: 2.51–10.88 were associated with suicidal ideation, whereas marital status (AOR = 8.44, 95%CI: 3.117–22.84, perceived HIV stigma (AOR = 2.9, 95%CI: 1.45–5.99, opportunistic infection (AOR = 2.37, 95%CI: 1.18–4.76, and poor social support (AOR = 2.9, 95%CI: 1.58–5.41 were significantly associated with suicidal attempt. Conclusion. Suicidal ideation and attempt were high among HIV positive patients. Therefore early screening, treatment, and referral of suicidal patients are necessary in HIV clinics.

  17. Nursing students' attitude towards suicide attempters: A study from rural part of Northern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nebhinani, Mamta; Nebhinani,