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Sample records for incident radiation conclusions

  1. Conclusion

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Conclusion. Problems of an Under-developed Economy. Geographical Location. Terrain. Change in attitude of mainstream India required. Using Technology to overcome problems.

  2. Conclusions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Conclusions. Be it 2G or 4G, networks are vulnerable to unwanted access and thus should be protected. 4G networks would be more sensitive as its core network will be TCP/IP based. Accordingly, resource and security management schemes with seamless ...

  3. Conclusions:

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Conclusions: Extended objects – “D-branes” – appear naturally in theories of strings. They manifest themselves as new types of physical particles in string models. They provide a powerful handle on the symmetries and dynamics of strings. Branes will play a key role ...

  4. Conclusions :

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Conclusions : No dramatic difference in the dynamics of anion-water and water-water hydrogen bonds are found for Cl- and Br- ions. Solvation shells of these ions are not rigid. For OH- in water, HB dynamics in the hydration shell determines the rate of proton transfer.

  5. Conclusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandøy, Helge; Kristiansen, Tore

    2010-01-01

    1. Comparing empirical findings with the “mountain peak model” In the introduction to this volume, we presented a “mountain peak model” of Nordic purism based on evidence showing that language scholars and lay people are very much in agreement as to where we find the more purist languages......-speaking Finland to Finnish-speaking Finland. In this conclusion to the volume, we will summarize the empirical findings presented in the volume, findings for use and attitudes alike, and compare them with the mountain peak model. That way, we may be able to estimate the nature of the cross-national ideological...

  6. Radiation incidents in dentistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lovelock, D.J.

    1996-01-01

    Most dental practitioners act as their own radiographer and radiologist, unlike their medical colleagues. Virtually all dental surgeons have a dental X-ray machine for intraoral radiography available to them and 40% of dental practices have equipment for dental panoramic tomography. Because of the low energy of X-ray equipment used in dentistry, radiation incidents tend to be less serious than those associated with other aspects of patient care. Details of 47 known incidents are given. The advent of the 1985 and 1988 Ionising Radiation Regulations has made dental surgeons more aware of the hazards of radiation. These regulations, and general health and safety legislation, have led to a few dental surgeons facing legal action. Because of the publicity associated with these court cases, it is expected that there will be a decrease in radiation incidents arising from the practice of dentistry. (author)

  7. Incidents with hazardous radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoenhacker, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Incidents with hazardous radiation sources can occur in any country, even those without nuclear facilities. Preparedness for such incidents is supposed to fulfill globally agreed minimum standards. Incidents are categorized in incidents with licensed handling of radiation sources as for material testing, transport accidents of hazardous radiation sources, incidents with radionuclide batteries, incidents with satellites containing radioactive inventory, incidents wit not licensed handling of illegally acquired hazardous radiation sources. The emergency planning in Austria includes a differentiation according to the consequences: incidents with release of radioactive materials resulting in restricted contamination, incidents with release of radioactive materials resulting in local contamination, and incidents with the hazard of e@nhanced exposure due to the radiation source.

  8. Prenatal radiation exposure. Conclusions in the light of radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leppin, W.

    1987-01-01

    Within 6 years of the appearance of the guideline for action to be taken by doctors in the event of prenatal exposure to radiation, intended as a proposal for discussion, the following has turned out: in no case has termination of pregnancy become necessary following prenatal radiation exposure, prenatal radiation exposure was always low (about 20 mSv), there is no risk below respective threshold doses, teratogenesis is a non-stochastic process, which is why risk assessment was modified, the sensitivity of the human fetus to radiation is highest during the period of neuroblast development (9th to 16th week p.c.), and knowledge about an existing pregnancy can be taken for granted by that time, so radiation exposure is calculable and can be restricted to negligible quantities. (TRV) [de

  9. Conclusions from some unusual events in the field of ionizing radiation in the German Democratic Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuettmann, W.; Koenig, W.

    1977-01-01

    In the GDR all unusual events in the field of ionizing radiation have been recorded and analysed since 1963. This is done by a central governmental institution, the National Board of Nuclear Safety and Radiation Protection established in 1962, and responsible for all relevant measures throughout the country. An unusual event is defined by radiation protection legislation as an event which deviates from the planned operation programme whether the incident has caused injury or not. The obligation to report such events rests on all licensed users, from users of X-ray machines to operators of reactors in research and nuclear power production. The listed events are continually assessed by the Board. The results of the assessment are evaluated in summary. There has not been a single event with a fatal outcome arising from ionizing radiation. Over the same period there were only seventeen occurrences which resulted in permanent injury to persons, mainly effected by acute external irradiation of parts of the body, especially of hands and forearms. Among the detected causes of unusual events described in detail, human failure predominates by far. Finally, conclusions are drawn from these results. The measures suggested all aim to reduce the frequency of radiation accidents and to minimize their consequences. The main measures concern ways of reducing human error in all fields of radiation protection. Among these, the education and training and the medical examination of radiation workers are discussed in somewhat more detail. (author)

  10. RADIATION CONTAMINATION INCIDENT AT ISOLDE

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    On 27 June 2000 three specialists were investigating a problem with the extraction electrode of the high-resolution separator (HRS) in Isolde. Whilst using an endoscope in order to have a closer look at the interior, they came into contact with radioactive dust and became contaminated. The level of contamination was low and the radiation dose received by the 3 persons was far below the effective dose limit given in the CERN Radiation Safety Manual and in the regulations of the Host States.According to the usual procedure, the Director General has set up a Fact-Finding Group and an Accident Board in order to advise him on the steps and decisions tobe taken following this incident and in particular to avoid a recurrence.

  11. The management of radiation treatment error through incident learning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, Brenda G.; Brown, Robert J.; Ploquin, Jodi L.; Kind, Anneke L.; Grimard, Laval

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To assess efficacy of an incident learning system in the management of error in radiation treatment. Materials and methods: We report an incident learning system implementation customized for radiation therapy where any 'unwanted or unexpected change from normal system behaviour that causes or has the potential to cause an adverse effect to persons or equipment' is reported, investigated and learned from. This system thus captures near-miss (potential) and actual events. Incidents are categorized according to severity, type and origin. Results: Our analysis spans a period of 3 years with an average accrual of 11.6 incidents per week. We found a significant reduction in actual incidents of 28% and 47% in the second and third year when compared to the first year (p < 0.001), which we attribute to the many interventions prompted by the analysis of incidents reported. We also saw a similar significant reduction in incidents generated at the treatment unit correlating with the introduction of direct treatment parameter transfer and electronic imaging (p < 0.001). Conclusions: Implementation of an incident learning system has helped us to establish a just environment where all staff members report deviations from normal system behaviour and thus generate evidence to initiate safety improvements.

  12. Natural background radiation and oncologic disease incidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burenin, P.I.

    1982-01-01

    Cause and effect relationships between oncologic disease incidence in human population and environmental factors are examined using investigation materials of Soviet and foreign authors. The data concerning US white population are adduced. The role and contribution of natural background radiation oncologic disease prevalence have been determined with the help of system information analysis. The probable damage of oncologic disease is shown to decrease as the background radiation level diminishes. The linear nature of dose-response relationspip has been established. The necessity to include the life history of the studied population along with environmental factors in epidemiological study under conditions of multiplicity of cancerogenesis causes is emphasized

  13. Incidents with hazardous radiation sources; Zwischenfaelle mit gefaehrlichen Strahlenquellen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoenhacker, Stefan [Bundesministerium fuer Inneres, Traiskirchen (Austria). Abt. 1/9 - Zivilschutzschule

    2016-07-01

    Incidents with hazardous radiation sources can occur in any country, even those without nuclear facilities. Preparedness for such incidents is supposed to fulfill globally agreed minimum standards. Incidents are categorized in incidents with licensed handling of radiation sources as for material testing, transport accidents of hazardous radiation sources, incidents with radionuclide batteries, incidents with satellites containing radioactive inventory, incidents wit not licensed handling of illegally acquired hazardous radiation sources. The emergency planning in Austria includes a differentiation according to the consequences: incidents with release of radioactive materials resulting in restricted contamination, incidents with release of radioactive materials resulting in local contamination, and incidents with the hazard of e@nhanced exposure due to the radiation source.

  14. Radiation incident in oil well logging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lozada, J.A.

    1998-01-01

    On June 4th 1997 equipment failure and violation of approved procedures by a crew of workers initiated a series of events that resulted in the unnecessary exposure to neutron and gamma radiation, from a 666 GBq Am 241 Be source, of forty two workers from a well logging company in Venezuela. Due to the presence of dry mud or drilling fluids inside the logging tool, the nosepiece was screwed off the rest of the source holder; this piece was mistaken for the entire source holder thus leaving the source inside the tool. The tool was labelled for maintenance and electronic laboratory personal worked near the source for seven hours before they identify its presence. As soon as the incident was detected a contingency plan was implemented and the source could be retrieved from the tool and placed in its shipping container. The TLD badges indicate doses well below the annual limit of 20 mSv, and none of the workers involved in the incident seem to show serious health consequences from it. After the incident, in order to avoid the occurrence of similar situations, a better source and tool maintenance program was implemented, all the workers were re-trained, and area monitors were installed in all operations bases. (author)

  15. General conclusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tubiana, M.

    1993-01-01

    In conclusion, a general consensus of a number of points which the author endeavours to summarize in this article: -doctors are an excellent channel for passing on information to the public -doctors feel that they do not know enough about the subject and a training on radiobiology and radiation protection is a necessity for them -communication between doctors and the general public is poor in this field -research should be encouraged in numerous areas such as: carcinogenic effect of low doses of radiation, pedagogy and risk perception

  16. Discriminating electromagnetic radiation based on angle of incidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamam, Rafif E.; Bermel, Peter; Celanovic, Ivan; Soljacic, Marin; Yeng, Adrian Y. X.; Ghebrebrhan, Michael; Joannopoulos, John D.

    2015-06-16

    The present invention provides systems, articles, and methods for discriminating electromagnetic radiation based upon the angle of incidence of the electromagnetic radiation. In some cases, the materials and systems described herein can be capable of inhibiting reflection of electromagnetic radiation (e.g., the materials and systems can be capable of transmitting and/or absorbing electromagnetic radiation) within a given range of angles of incidence at a first incident surface, while substantially reflecting electromagnetic radiation outside the range of angles of incidence at a second incident surface (which can be the same as or different from the first incident surface). A photonic material comprising a plurality of periodically occurring separate domains can be used, in some cases, to selectively transmit and/or selectively absorb one portion of incoming electromagnetic radiation while reflecting another portion of incoming electromagnetic radiation, based upon the angle of incidence. In some embodiments, one domain of the photonic material can include an isotropic dielectric function, while another domain of the photonic material can include an anisotropic dielectric function. In some instances, one domain of the photonic material can include an isotropic magnetic permeability, while another domain of the photonic material can include an anisotropic magnetic permeability. In some embodiments, non-photonic materials (e.g., materials with relatively large scale features) can be used to selectively absorb incoming electromagnetic radiation based on angle of incidence.

  17. Definition of loss-of-coolant accident radiation source: summary and conclusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonzon, L.L.; Lurie, N.A.; Houston, D.H.; Naber, J.A.

    1978-05-01

    The radiation energy release rates and spectra corresponding to those sources specified in USNRC Regulatory Guide 1.89 for the radiation qualification of Class 1E equipment were calculated. The effects of several parameters (some not specific in the Guide), such as reactor fuel composition, operating duration and power level, and treatment of progeny, are evaluated. The results are presented as time-dependent beta and gamma-ray energy release rates and spectra which are fundamental quantities that are not specific to a plant design but are generally applicable to any nuclear power station

  18. Investigations of aircrews exposure to cosmic radiation - results, conclusions and suggestions

    CERN Document Server

    Bilski, P; Horwacik, T; Marczewska, B; Ochab, E; Olko, P

    2002-01-01

    In frame of a research project undertaken in collaboration with Polish airlines LOT, analysis of aircrews exposure to cosmic radiation has been performed. The applied methods included measurements of radiation doses with thermoluminescent detectors (MTS-N, MCP-N) and track detectors (CR-39) and also calculations of route doses with the CARI computer code. The obtained results indicate that aircrews of nearly all airplanes, with exception of these flying only on ATR aircraft, exceed regularly or may exceed in some conditions, effective doses of 1 mSv. In case of Boeing-767 aircrews such exceeding occurs always, independently of solar activity. Investigations revealed, that during these periods of the solar cycle, when intensity of cosmic radiation is high, exceeding of 6 mSv level is also possible. These results indicate, that according to Polish and European regulations it is necessary for airlines to provide regular estimations of radiation exposure of aircrews. Basing on the obtained results a system for pe...

  19. Prostate cancer incidence in Australia correlates inversely with solar radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loke, Tim W; Seyfi, Doruk; Sevfi, Doruk; Khadra, Mohamed

    2011-11-01

    What's known on the subject? and What does the study add? Increased sun exposure and blood levels of vitamin D have been postulated to be protective against prostate cancer. This is controversial. We investigated the relationship between prostate cancer incidence and solar radiation in non-urban Australia, and found a lower incidence in regions receiving more sunlight. In landmark ecological studies, prostate cancer mortality rates have been shown to be inversely related to ultraviolet radiation exposure. Investigators have hypothesised that ultraviolet radiation acts by increasing production of vitamin D, which inhibits prostate cancer cells in vitro. However, analyses of serum levels of vitamin D in men with prostate cancer have failed to support this hypothesis. This study has found an inverse correlation between solar radiation and prostate cancer incidence in Australia. Our population (previously unstudied) represents the third group to exhibit this correlation. Significantly, the demographics and climate of Australia differ markedly from those of previous studies conducted on men in the United Kingdom and the United States. • To ascertain if prostate cancer incidence rates correlate with solar radiation among non-urban populations of men in Australia. • Local government areas from each state and territory were selected using explicit criteria. Urban areas were excluded from analysis. • For each local government area, prostate cancer incidence rates and averaged long-term solar radiation were obtained. • The strength of the association between prostate cancer incidence and solar radiation was determined. • Among 70 local government areas of Australia, age-standardized prostate cancer incidence rates for the period 1998-2007 correlated inversely with daily solar radiation averaged over the last two decades. •  There exists an association between less solar radiation and higher prostate cancer incidence in Australia. © 2011 THE AUTHORS. BJU

  20. Initial knowledge at radiation protection courses from 2005-2013 (3): tendencies and conclusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haverkamp, U F; Pruemer, B A; Fahrmer, A

    2013-11-01

    The necessity of refresher courses is controversial and is frequently questioned. The present study examines whether the courses have a lasting effect and whether improvements are indicated. With the help of a questionnaire (9 questions) to be answered before the course, a self-assessment was performed and questions about the knowledge and structure of radiation protection were asked. 1361 participants were surveyed (55 % physicians, 31 % doctor's assistants, 13 % technicians, 1 % medical physicists) in the period of 2005 - 2013 (3) and 39 courses were evaluated. The assessment entailed the comparison of 3 subgroups: 2005 - 2007, 2008 - 2010, 2011 - 2013. The self-assessment is about 3.0 (1 - very good, 5 - very poor) with fluctuations regarding time course and occupation. For all questions, there was an increase in correct answers from the period 2005 - 2007 to the period 2008 - 2010 (+ 15 %), while the rate fell again for the period 2011 - 2013 (3) (- 8 %). The questions were answered significantly better for organization-related topics than knowledge-based topics. Overall 53 % of the answers were correct. This study shows an increase in knowledge since starting refresher courses. However, recently the effect has decreased again. In order to maintain the knowledge, the yearly instruction must be held on time, which according to participants' statements actually occurs in only 60 % of cases. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  1. Radiation produced by electrons incident on molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moehlman, G.R.

    1977-01-01

    The work described in this thesis deals with light intensity measurements of emission spectra (1850-9000 A) produced by a continuous or pulsed beam of monoenergetic electrons (0 - 2000 eV) incident on a variety of molecular gases like H 2 , D 2 , H 2 O, HCl, NH 3 and several hydrocarbons. The emission spectra are dominated by fluorescence from excited fragments produced via dissociative excitation, besides fluorescence from excited parent molecules themselves. The experimental results thus obtained are expressed in terms of emission cross sections and lifetimes

  2. IRID: specifications for the Ionising Radiations Incident Database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, G.O.; Croft, J.R.; Williams, M.K.; McHugh, J.O.

    1996-01-01

    Technologies that make use of ionising radiations are widespread. They provide many benefits but, as with other technologies, the use of ionising radiations carries with it the potential for incidents and accidents. Their severity can vary from the trivial to the fatal and may involve substantial economic penalties. In order to minimise the number of incidents and their consequences it is important that there is a mechanism to learn the lessons from those that do occur. To help pursue this objective the National Radiological Protection Board, the Health and Safety Executive and the Environment Agency have established a national Ionising Radiations Incident Database (IRID) to cover radiation incidents in industry, medicine, research and teaching. This publication details the specifications for IRID and its methods of operation. All information in the database will be unattributable and names of persons or organisations will not be included. It is a personal computer based system with 24 fields to categorise an incident, including a text field that will provide a description of the incident giving the causes, consequences, follow-up actions and lessons to be learned. These descriptions will be used in subsequent publications to provide feedback to the users. (UK)

  3. Radiation protection aspects of the incident recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tibor, Bujtas; Arpad, Nenyei

    2006-01-01

    On the 10. April 2003 a serious accident occurred at PAKS nuclear power plant. The cleaning of fuel assemblies unloaded from the reactor of unit 2 was commencing under water in the fuel-cleaning equipment in the maintenance shaft number 1. There was no chain reaction in the cleaning tank but the fission products, accumulated in the previous operational time still produced a significant heat. Due to the inadequate cooling of the cleaning tank the assemblies overheated within a few hours. After opening the lid of the tank the entering cold water caused thermal shock and significant damage to the fuel assemblies. cladding of the fuel elements opened up and the uranium dioxide pellets got also damaged. The removal of the damaged fuel assemblies and the released debris must be managed. There are technical difficulties and radiation protection problems to reduce the radiation exposure of the workers as well as the minimization of the radioactive materials released into the environment. The description of the situation and the different actions are detailed. (N.C.)

  4. Ascertaining directionality information from incident nuclear radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Archambault, Brian C. [Purdue University (United States); Lapinskas, Joseph R. [QSA Global, Inc. (United States); Wang Jing; Webster, Jeffrey A. [Purdue University (United States); McDeavitt, Sean [Texas A and M University (United States); Taleyarkhan, Rusi P., E-mail: rusi@purdue.edu [Purdue University (United States)

    2011-10-15

    Highlights: > Use of tensioned metastable fluids for detection of fast neutron radiation. > Monitored neutrons with 100% gamma photon blindness capability. > Monitored direction of incoming neutron radiation from special nuclear material emissions. > Ascertained directionality of neutron source to within 30 deg. and with 80% confidence with 2000 detection events at rate of 30-40 per second. > Conducted successful blind test for determining source of neutrons from a hidden neutron emitting source. > Compared results with MCNP5-COMSOL based multi-physics model. - Abstract: Unprecedented capabilities for the detection of nuclear particles via tailored resonant acoustic systems such as the acoustic tensioned metastable fluid detection (ATMFD) systems were assessed for determining directionality of incoming fast neutrons. This paper presents advancements that expand on these accomplishments, thereby increasing the accuracy and precision of ascertaining directionality information utilizing enhanced signal processing-cum-signal analysis, refined computational algorithms, and on demand enlargement of the detector sensitive volume. Advances in the development of ATMFD systems were accomplished utilizing a combination of experimentation and theoretical modeling. Modeling methodologies include Monte-Carlo based nuclear particle transport using MCNP5 and multi-physics based assessments accounting for acoustic, structural, and electromagnetic coupling of the ATMFD system via COMSOL's multi-physics simulation platform. Benchmarking and qualification studies have been conducted with a 1 Ci Pu-Be neutron-gamma source. These results show that the specific ATMFD system used for this study can enable detection of directionality of incoming fast neutrons from the neutron source to within 30{sup o} with 80% confidence; this required {approx}2000 detection events which could be collected within {approx}50 s at a detection rate of {approx}30-40 per second. Blind testing was

  5. Ascertaining directionality information from incident nuclear radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Archambault, Brian C.; Lapinskas, Joseph R.; Wang Jing; Webster, Jeffrey A.; McDeavitt, Sean; Taleyarkhan, Rusi P.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Use of tensioned metastable fluids for detection of fast neutron radiation. → Monitored neutrons with 100% gamma photon blindness capability. → Monitored direction of incoming neutron radiation from special nuclear material emissions. → Ascertained directionality of neutron source to within 30 deg. and with 80% confidence with 2000 detection events at rate of 30-40 per second. → Conducted successful blind test for determining source of neutrons from a hidden neutron emitting source. → Compared results with MCNP5-COMSOL based multi-physics model. - Abstract: Unprecedented capabilities for the detection of nuclear particles via tailored resonant acoustic systems such as the acoustic tensioned metastable fluid detection (ATMFD) systems were assessed for determining directionality of incoming fast neutrons. This paper presents advancements that expand on these accomplishments, thereby increasing the accuracy and precision of ascertaining directionality information utilizing enhanced signal processing-cum-signal analysis, refined computational algorithms, and on demand enlargement of the detector sensitive volume. Advances in the development of ATMFD systems were accomplished utilizing a combination of experimentation and theoretical modeling. Modeling methodologies include Monte-Carlo based nuclear particle transport using MCNP5 and multi-physics based assessments accounting for acoustic, structural, and electromagnetic coupling of the ATMFD system via COMSOL's multi-physics simulation platform. Benchmarking and qualification studies have been conducted with a 1 Ci Pu-Be neutron-gamma source. These results show that the specific ATMFD system used for this study can enable detection of directionality of incoming fast neutrons from the neutron source to within 30 o with 80% confidence; this required ∼2000 detection events which could be collected within ∼50 s at a detection rate of ∼30-40 per second. Blind testing was successfully

  6. Analysis of a radiation incident with intraoral dental radiological equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malone, J.F.

    1996-01-01

    A case is described involving a serious incident with dental radiological equipment, containing many lessons that may be applied to the preparation of other cases. The description includes an account of the incident, the circumstances surrounding it, the dosimetry, risk estimates and the medical consequences of the incident. In addition, some aspects of the associated legal proceedings are reviewed and assessed. As a result of the incident described, a number of conclusions are drawn with respect to important practices in ensuring the safety of installations and the value of evidence brought forward by expert witnesses. (author)

  7. Are passive smoking, air pollution and obesity a greater mortality risk than major radiation incidents?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Jim T

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Following a nuclear incident, the communication and perception of radiation risk becomes a (perhaps the major public health issue. In response to such incidents it is therefore crucial to communicate radiation health risks in the context of other more common environmental and lifestyle risk factors. This study compares the risk of mortality from past radiation exposures (to people who survived the Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bombs and those exposed after the Chernobyl accident with risks arising from air pollution, obesity and passive and active smoking. Methods A comparative assessment of mortality risks from ionising radiation was carried out by estimating radiation risks for realistic exposure scenarios and assessing those risks in comparison with risks from air pollution, obesity and passive and active smoking. Results The mortality risk to populations exposed to radiation from the Chernobyl accident may be no higher than that for other more common risk factors such as air pollution or passive smoking. Radiation exposures experienced by the most exposed group of survivors of Hiroshima and Nagasaki led to an average loss of life expectancy significantly lower than that caused by severe obesity or active smoking. Conclusion Population-averaged risks from exposures following major radiation incidents are clearly significant, but may be no greater than those from other much more common environmental and lifestyle factors. This comparative analysis, whilst highlighting inevitable uncertainties in risk quantification and comparison, helps place the potential consequences of radiation exposures in the context of other public health risks.

  8. Sweet Conclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirley, Britt M.; Wooldridge, Barbara Ross; Camp, Kerri M.

    2012-01-01

    Jen Harrington is the owner and pastry chef of Sweet Conclusion, a bakery in Tampa, Florida. Most of Harrington's business comes from baking wedding cakes, but she has been attempting to attract customers to her retail bakery, where she sells cupcakes, pies, ice cream, and coffee. Nearly four years she opened Sweet Conclusion, the retail part of…

  9. Evaluation of individual dosimetry in mixed neutron and photon radiation fields (EVIDOS). Part II: conclusions and recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuhmacher, H.; Luszik-Bhadra, M.; Reginatto, M.; Bartlett, D.; Tanner, R.; Bolognese-Milsztajn, T.; Lacoste, V.; Boschung, M.; Fiechtner, A.; Coeck, M.; Vanhavere, F.; Curzio, G.; Errico d', F.; Kylloenen, J.-E.; Lindborg, L.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: The EVIDOS project, supported by the European Commission within the 5th Framework Programme, aims at evaluating state of the art dosimetry techniques in representative work-places of the nuclear industry. Seven European institutes with recognized expertise in radiation protection instruments and methods joined efforts with end users at nuclear power plants, at fuel processing and reprocessing plants, and at transport and storage facilities. A particular task of the project was to develop methods to characterize the neutron component of mixed radiation fields at workplaces and to derive reference values of radiation protection quantities from energy and direction distributions of the neutron fluence. While other presentations at this workshop describe the methods developed and the instruments used, this presentation will summarize the main results, draw conclusions and discuss recommendations relevant to routine monitoring. The final results from the project include a catalogue with spectra and dosimetric data for 14 different workplace fields (boiling water reactor, pressurized water reactor, research reactor, fuel processing, storage of spent fuel), instruments and procedures to derive reference values for personal dose equivalent and other radiation protection quantities, and novel personal dosemeters for mixed radiation and results on their dosimetric and technical performance. A number of questions will be addressed in the presentation, including: which methods allow to determine H*(10) and H p (10) in complex mixed n/γ radiation fields with acceptable uncertainty?; what is the influence of the energy and direction distributions of neutrons on the ratios between H*(10), H p (10) and E?; how much do the readings of area monitors deviate from H*(10) and do they give conservative estimates of H p (10) and E?; how much do the readings of personal dosemeters deviate from H p (10) and do they give conservative estimates of E?; do new active (electronic

  10. Identifying Predictive Factors for Incident Reports in Patients Receiving Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elnahal, Shereef M., E-mail: selnaha1@jhmi.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Blackford, Amanda [Department of Oncology Biostatistics, Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Smith, Koren; Souranis, Annette N.; Briner, Valerie; McNutt, Todd R.; DeWeese, Theodore L.; Wright, Jean L.; Terezakis, Stephanie A. [Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States)

    2016-04-01

    Purpose: To describe radiation therapy cases during which voluntary incident reporting occurred; and identify patient- or treatment-specific factors that place patients at higher risk for incidents. Methods and Materials: We used our institution's incident learning system to build a database of patients with incident reports filed between January 2011 and December 2013. Patient- and treatment-specific data were reviewed for all patients with reported incidents, which were classified by step in the process and root cause. A control group of patients without events was generated for comparison. Summary statistics, likelihood ratios, and mixed-effect logistic regression models were used for group comparisons. Results: The incident and control groups comprised 794 and 499 patients, respectively. Common root causes included documentation errors (26.5%), communication (22.5%), technical treatment planning (37.5%), and technical treatment delivery (13.5%). Incidents were more frequently reported in minors (age <18 years) than in adult patients (37.7% vs 0.4%, P<.001). Patients with head and neck (16% vs 8%, P<.001) and breast (20% vs 15%, P=.03) primaries more frequently had incidents, whereas brain (18% vs 24%, P=.008) primaries were less frequent. Larger tumors (17% vs 10% had T4 lesions, P=.02), and cases on protocol (9% vs 5%, P=.005) or with intensity modulated radiation therapy/image guided intensity modulated radiation therapy (52% vs 43%, P=.001) were more likely to have incidents. Conclusions: We found several treatment- and patient-specific variables associated with incidents. These factors should be considered by treatment teams at the time of peer review to identify patients at higher risk. Larger datasets are required to recommend changes in care process standards, to minimize safety risks.

  11. Identifying Predictive Factors for Incident Reports in Patients Receiving Radiation Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elnahal, Shereef M.; Blackford, Amanda; Smith, Koren; Souranis, Annette N.; Briner, Valerie; McNutt, Todd R.; DeWeese, Theodore L.; Wright, Jean L.; Terezakis, Stephanie A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To describe radiation therapy cases during which voluntary incident reporting occurred; and identify patient- or treatment-specific factors that place patients at higher risk for incidents. Methods and Materials: We used our institution's incident learning system to build a database of patients with incident reports filed between January 2011 and December 2013. Patient- and treatment-specific data were reviewed for all patients with reported incidents, which were classified by step in the process and root cause. A control group of patients without events was generated for comparison. Summary statistics, likelihood ratios, and mixed-effect logistic regression models were used for group comparisons. Results: The incident and control groups comprised 794 and 499 patients, respectively. Common root causes included documentation errors (26.5%), communication (22.5%), technical treatment planning (37.5%), and technical treatment delivery (13.5%). Incidents were more frequently reported in minors (age <18 years) than in adult patients (37.7% vs 0.4%, P<.001). Patients with head and neck (16% vs 8%, P<.001) and breast (20% vs 15%, P=.03) primaries more frequently had incidents, whereas brain (18% vs 24%, P=.008) primaries were less frequent. Larger tumors (17% vs 10% had T4 lesions, P=.02), and cases on protocol (9% vs 5%, P=.005) or with intensity modulated radiation therapy/image guided intensity modulated radiation therapy (52% vs 43%, P=.001) were more likely to have incidents. Conclusions: We found several treatment- and patient-specific variables associated with incidents. These factors should be considered by treatment teams at the time of peer review to identify patients at higher risk. Larger datasets are required to recommend changes in care process standards, to minimize safety risks.

  12. Environmental exposure to ionizing radiation and childhood leukaemia incidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evrard, Anne-Sophie

    2006-01-01

    This thesis aimed at providing an epidemiological approach of the hypothesis of the existence of an association between environmental exposure to ionizing radiation and childhood leukaemia incidence. From 1990 to 2001, 5,330 cases of acute leukaemia were registered by the French National Registry of Childhood Leukemia and Lymphoma in children under 15 years of age and living in mainland France at the time of diagnosis. Indoor radon concentration was estimated using 13,240 measurements carried out by the Institute for Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN), and covering the whole country. Exposure to terrestrial gamma radiation was based on continuous measurements, using thermoluminescent dosimeters, at about 1,000 sites covering the whole of France, in order to monitor the level of environmental radioactivity in France. Analyses were conducted using Poisson regressions, including ecological co-variates, at the level of the 'Departments' (95 administrative geographical units in France). A significant positive ecological association between indoor radon concentration and the incidence of acute myeloid leukaemia was evidenced (SIR=1.19 per 100 Bq/m 3 - 95% confidence interval=[1.03-1.38]) and remained significant in multivariate regression analyses including exposure to terrestrial gamma radiation and/or some ecological co-variates. Conversely, there was no evidence of an ecological association between exposure to terrestrial gamma radiation and childhood leukaemia incidence. The epidemiological studies of the incidence of childhood leukaemia around nuclear sites analyzed incidence with respect to the distance from the plants, without considering any information on the levels or geographic distribution of the radiation dose due to discharges from the plants. The present study investigated for the first time the incidence of childhood leukaemia around French nuclear installations using a geographic zoning based on estimated doses due to gaseous

  13. Medical management of three workers following a radiation exposure incident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    House, R.A.; Sax, S.E.; Rumack, E.R.; Holness, D.L.

    1992-01-01

    The medical management of three individuals involved in an exposure incident to whole-body radiation at a nuclear generating plant of a Canadian electrical utility is described. The exposure incident resulted in the two highest whole-body radiation doses ever received in a single event by workers in a Canadian nuclear power plant. The individual whole-body doses (127.4 mSv, 92.0 mSv, 22.4 mSv) were below the threshold for acute radiation sickness but the exposures still presented medical management problems related to assessment and counseling. Serial blood counting and lymphocyte cytogenetic analysis to corroborate the physical dosimetry were performed. All three employees experienced somatic symptoms due to stress and one employee developed post-traumatic stress disorder. This incident indicates that there is a need in such radiation exposure accidents for early and continued counseling of exposed employees to minimize the risk of development of stress-related symptoms

  14. Medical management of three workers following a radiation exposure incident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    House, R.A.; Sax, S.E.; Rumack, E.R.; Holness, D.L. (Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, St. Michael' s Hospital, Toronto, Ontario (Canada))

    1992-01-01

    The medical management of three individuals involved in an exposure incident to whole-body radiation at a nuclear generating plant of a Canadian electrical utility is described. The exposure incident resulted in the two highest whole-body radiation doses ever received in a single event by workers in a Canadian nuclear power plant. The individual whole-body doses (127.4 mSv, 92.0 mSv, 22.4 mSv) were below the threshold for acute radiation sickness but the exposures still presented medical management problems related to assessment and counseling. Serial blood counting and lymphocyte cytogenetic analysis to corroborate the physical dosimetry were performed. All three employees experienced somatic symptoms due to stress and one employee developed post-traumatic stress disorder. This incident indicates that there is a need in such radiation exposure accidents for early and continued counseling of exposed employees to minimize the risk of development of stress-related symptoms.

  15. Phenomenological modelling of second cancer incidence for radiation treatment planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfaffenberger, Asja; Oelfke, Uwe; Schneider, Uwe; Poppe, Bjoern

    2009-01-01

    It is still an unanswered question whether a relatively low dose of radiation to a large volume or a higher dose to a small volume produces the higher cancer incidence. This is of interest in view of modalities like IMRT or rotation therapy where high conformity to the target volume is achieved at the cost of a large volume of normal tissue exposed to radiation. Knowledge of the shape of the dose response for radiation-induced cancer is essential to answer the question of what risk of second cancer incidence is implied by which treatment modality. This study therefore models the dose response for radiation-induced second cancer after radiation therapy of which the exact mechanisms are still unknown. A second cancer risk estimation tool for treatment planning is presented which has the potential to be used for comparison of different treatment modalities, and risk is estimated on a voxel basis for different organs in two case studies. The presented phenomenological model summarises the impact of microscopic biological processes into effective parameters of mutation and cell sterilisation. In contrast to other models, the effective radiosensitivities of mutated and non-mutated cells are allowed to differ. Based on the number of mutated cells present after irradiation, the model is then linked to macroscopic incidence by summarising model parameters and modifying factors into natural cancer incidence and the dose response in the lower-dose region. It was found that all principal dose-response functions discussed in the literature can be derived from the model. However, from the investigation and due to scarcity of adequate data, rather vague statements about likelihood of dose-response functions can be made than a definite decision for one response. Based on the predicted model parameters, the linear response can probably be rejected using the dynamics described, but both a flattening response and a decrease appear likely, depending strongly on the effective cell

  16. Simulating Space Radiation-Induced Breast Tumor Incidence Using Automata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuskin, A C; Osseiran, A I; Tang, J; Costes, S V

    2016-07-01

    Estimating cancer risk from space radiation has been an ongoing challenge for decades primarily because most of the reported epidemiological data on radiation-induced risks are derived from studies of atomic bomb survivors who were exposed to an acute dose of gamma rays instead of chronic high-LET cosmic radiation. In this study, we introduce a formalism using cellular automata to model the long-term effects of ionizing radiation in human breast for different radiation qualities. We first validated and tuned parameters for an automata-based two-stage clonal expansion model simulating the age dependence of spontaneous breast cancer incidence in an unexposed U.S. We then tested the impact of radiation perturbation in the model by modifying parameters to reflect both targeted and nontargeted radiation effects. Targeted effects (TE) reflect the immediate impact of radiation on a cell's DNA with classic end points being gene mutations and cell death. They are well known and are directly derived from experimental data. In contrast, nontargeted effects (NTE) are persistent and affect both damaged and undamaged cells, are nonlinear with dose and are not well characterized in the literature. In this study, we introduced TE in our model and compared predictions against epidemiologic data of the atomic bomb survivor cohort. TE alone are not sufficient for inducing enough cancer. NTE independent of dose and lasting ∼100 days postirradiation need to be added to accurately predict dose dependence of breast cancer induced by gamma rays. Finally, by integrating experimental relative biological effectiveness (RBE) for TE and keeping NTE (i.e., radiation-induced genomic instability) constant with dose and LET, the model predicts that RBE for breast cancer induced by cosmic radiation would be maximum at 220 keV/μm. This approach lays the groundwork for further investigation into the impact of chronic low-dose exposure, inter-individual variation and more complex space radiation

  17. Learning from radiation incidents: the new OTHEA website

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, P V; Ely, S Y; Croueail, P; Bataille, C

    2010-01-01

    OTHEA is the name of a new website (www.othea.net), created by the Health Protection Agency (UK) and the Centre d'etude sur l'evaluation de la protection dans le domaine nucleaire (CEPN, France), and supported by several other stakeholders including national societies and associations. The website is bi-lingual (French and English) and the purpose is to share the lessons learnt from radiological incidents that have occurred in the industrial, medical, research and teaching, and other non-nuclear sectors. OTHEA contains a collection of incident reports, categorised according to the sector and the type of application, and a search facility. The reports can be freely downloaded and printed, for example for use in radiation protection training activities. To encourage dissemination, the incident reports have been made anonymous, i.e. any information that could identify a particular individual, organisation or site has been removed. Each report contains a brief summary of the incident, the radiological consequences, and the lessons learnt. The aim is not to capture every single incident, but to provide a range of reports selected according to the value of the lessons learnt. For OTHEA to be a long-term success, it needs to be sustained with new reports. Therefore users are encouraged to submit incident reports that can be considered for inclusion in OTHEA. This note summarises the background to OTHEA, and provides a description of the operating features and content at its launch in summer 2010. (note)

  18. Conclusion; Zaklyuchenie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikitin, V I

    1961-07-01

    In this chapter of book are present conclusions about work done by author, in particular that he found comparatively simple and available ways of synthesis of glycerin of acetylene line and glycerin of ethylen line which before was unknown or almost unknown in the chemical literature.

  19. Radiation incidents with a cobalt-60 teletherapy unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lane, R G; Tolbert, D D; Pailwal, B R; Radtke, R R [Wisconsin Univ., Madison (USA). Dept. of Radiology

    1976-08-01

    Three radiation incidents associated with source drive failures on one particular /sup 60/Co teletherapy unit, which took place during a single year's operation, are discussed. In each case the extra treatment time of the patient, the exposure to the technician, the cause of the breakdown and the subsequent action taken are detailed. Recommendations for users of /sup 60/Co teletherapy units to minimise the results of the malfunctioning of such a system are given.

  20. Radiation incidents with a cobalt-60 teletherapy unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lane, R.G.; Tolbert, D.D.; Pailwal, B.R.; Radtke, R.R.

    1976-01-01

    Three radiation incidents associated with source drive failures on one particular 60 Co teletherapy unit, which took place during a single year's operation, are discussed. In each case the extra treatment time of the patient, the exposure to the technician, the cause of the breakdown and the subsequent action taken are detailed. Recommendations for users of 60 Co teletherapy units to minimise the results of the malfunctioning of such a system are given. (U.K.)

  1. SU-E-T-524: Web-Based Radiation Oncology Incident Reporting and Learning System (ROIRLS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapoor, R; Palta, J; Hagan, M; Grover, S; Malik, G

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Describe a Web-based Radiation Oncology Incident Reporting and Learning system that has the potential to improve quality of care for radiation therapy patients. This system is an important facet of continuing effort by our community to maintain and improve safety of radiotherapy.Material and Methods: The VA National Radiation Oncology Program office has embarked on a program to electronically collect adverse events and near miss data of radiation treatment of over 25,000 veterans treated with radiotherapy annually. Software used for this program is deployed on the VAs intranet as a Website. All data entry forms (adverse event or near miss reports, work product reports) utilize standard causal, RT process step taxonomies and data dictionaries defined in AAPM and ASTRO reports on error reporting (AAPM Work Group Report on Prevention of Errors and ASTROs safety is no accident report). All reported incidents are investigated by the radiation oncology domain experts. This system encompasses the entire feedback loop of reporting an incident, analyzing it for salient details, and developing interventions to prevent it from happening again. The operational workflow is similar to that of the Aviation Safety Reporting System. This system is also synergistic with ROSIS and SAFRON. Results: The ROIRLS facilitates the collection of data that help in tracking adverse events and near misses and develop new interventions to prevent such incidents. The ROIRLS electronic infrastructure is fully integrated with each registered facility profile data thus minimizing key strokes and multiple entries by the event reporters. Conclusions: OIRLS is expected to improve the quality and safety of a broad spectrum of radiation therapy patients treated in the VA and fulfills our goal of Effecting Quality While Treating Safely The Radiation Oncology Incident Reporting and Learning System software used for this program has been developed, conceptualized and maintained by TSG Innovations

  2. SU-E-T-524: Web-Based Radiation Oncology Incident Reporting and Learning System (ROIRLS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kapoor, R; Palta, J; Hagan, M [Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA (United States); National Radiation Oncology Program (10P4H), Richmond, VA (United States); Grover, S; Malik, G [TSG Innovations Inc., Richmond, VA (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Describe a Web-based Radiation Oncology Incident Reporting and Learning system that has the potential to improve quality of care for radiation therapy patients. This system is an important facet of continuing effort by our community to maintain and improve safety of radiotherapy.Material and Methods: The VA National Radiation Oncology Program office has embarked on a program to electronically collect adverse events and near miss data of radiation treatment of over 25,000 veterans treated with radiotherapy annually. Software used for this program is deployed on the VAs intranet as a Website. All data entry forms (adverse event or near miss reports, work product reports) utilize standard causal, RT process step taxonomies and data dictionaries defined in AAPM and ASTRO reports on error reporting (AAPM Work Group Report on Prevention of Errors and ASTROs safety is no accident report). All reported incidents are investigated by the radiation oncology domain experts. This system encompasses the entire feedback loop of reporting an incident, analyzing it for salient details, and developing interventions to prevent it from happening again. The operational workflow is similar to that of the Aviation Safety Reporting System. This system is also synergistic with ROSIS and SAFRON. Results: The ROIRLS facilitates the collection of data that help in tracking adverse events and near misses and develop new interventions to prevent such incidents. The ROIRLS electronic infrastructure is fully integrated with each registered facility profile data thus minimizing key strokes and multiple entries by the event reporters. Conclusions: OIRLS is expected to improve the quality and safety of a broad spectrum of radiation therapy patients treated in the VA and fulfills our goal of Effecting Quality While Treating Safely The Radiation Oncology Incident Reporting and Learning System software used for this program has been developed, conceptualized and maintained by TSG Innovations

  3. Ionizing radiation as a source of both occupational and public exposure. Is there any difference between them? Conclusions for radiation protection practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vassilev, G.

    2000-01-01

    The assessment of the radiation risk both from natural and occupational exposure is discussed, taking into account the values for the end of 20th century for Bulgaria. The natural background exposure in the country is in average of 2.3 mSv/a. The eternal exposure in different regions varies within the range of ±25%. The radon concentration in dwellings vary in wide range: from 2.5 to 250 Bq/m 3 at a geometrical mean of 22 Bq/m 3 (equilibrium equivalent concentration). Thus the natural exposure vary from 1.0 to 5 mSv/a. The occupational exposure in different fields is as follows: medicine - 1.0 mSv/a; science, education - 0.9 mSv/a; NPP workers - 2.0 mSv/a. Taking into account that this way the risk equalizes for each population group the following conclusions are made: necessity for rendering an account of the individual natural background exposure when occupational risk is assessed; building of an adequate national system for record and limitation of exposure my medical use of ionizing radiation; improvement of the system for limitation of the radon exposure; re-examination of dosimetry control for occupational exposure; reconsidering of the social compensation for radiation risk

  4. Incidence of Second Malignancies Among Patients Treated With Proton Versus Photon Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Christine S., E-mail: chungc1@sutterhealth.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Alta Bates Summit Medical Center, Berkeley, California (United States); Yock, Torunn I. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Nelson, Kerrie [Department of Biostatistics, Boston University School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Xu, Yang [Department of Health Care Policy, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Keating, Nancy L. [Department of Health Care Policy, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Department of General Internal Medicine, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Tarbell, Nancy J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Office of the Executive Dean, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)

    2013-09-01

    Purpose: Proton radiation, when compared with photon radiation, allows delivery of increased radiation dose to the tumor while decreasing dose to adjacent critical structures. Given the recent expansion of proton facilities in the United States, the long-term sequelae of proton therapy should be carefully assessed. The objective of this study was to compare the incidence of second cancers in patients treated with proton radiation with a population-based cohort of matched patients treated with photon radiation. Methods and Materials: We performed a retrospective cohort study of 558 patients treated with proton radiation from 1973 to 2001 at the Harvard Cyclotron in Cambridge, MA and 558 matched patients treated with photon therapy in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program cancer registry. Patients were matched by age at radiation treatment, sex, year of treatment, cancer histology, and site. The main outcome measure was the incidence of second malignancies after radiation. Results: We matched 558 proton patients with 558 photon patients from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results registry. The median duration of follow-up was 6.7 years (interquartile range, 7.4) and 6.0 years (interquartile range, 9.3) in the proton and photon cohorts, respectively. The median age at treatment was 59 years in each cohort. Second malignancies occurred in 29 proton patients (5.2%) and 42 photon patients (7.5%). After we adjusted for sex, age at treatment, primary site, and year of diagnosis, proton therapy was not associated with an increased risk of second malignancy (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.52 [95% confidence interval, 0.32-0.85]; P=.009). Conclusions: The use of proton radiation therapy was not associated with a significantly increased risk of secondary malignancies compared with photon therapy. Longer follow-up of these patients is needed to determine if there is a significant decrease in second malignancies. Given the limitations of the study

  5. Incidence of Second Malignancies Among Patients Treated With Proton Versus Photon Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Christine S.; Yock, Torunn I.; Nelson, Kerrie; Xu, Yang; Keating, Nancy L.; Tarbell, Nancy J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Proton radiation, when compared with photon radiation, allows delivery of increased radiation dose to the tumor while decreasing dose to adjacent critical structures. Given the recent expansion of proton facilities in the United States, the long-term sequelae of proton therapy should be carefully assessed. The objective of this study was to compare the incidence of second cancers in patients treated with proton radiation with a population-based cohort of matched patients treated with photon radiation. Methods and Materials: We performed a retrospective cohort study of 558 patients treated with proton radiation from 1973 to 2001 at the Harvard Cyclotron in Cambridge, MA and 558 matched patients treated with photon therapy in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program cancer registry. Patients were matched by age at radiation treatment, sex, year of treatment, cancer histology, and site. The main outcome measure was the incidence of second malignancies after radiation. Results: We matched 558 proton patients with 558 photon patients from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results registry. The median duration of follow-up was 6.7 years (interquartile range, 7.4) and 6.0 years (interquartile range, 9.3) in the proton and photon cohorts, respectively. The median age at treatment was 59 years in each cohort. Second malignancies occurred in 29 proton patients (5.2%) and 42 photon patients (7.5%). After we adjusted for sex, age at treatment, primary site, and year of diagnosis, proton therapy was not associated with an increased risk of second malignancy (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.52 [95% confidence interval, 0.32-0.85]; P=.009). Conclusions: The use of proton radiation therapy was not associated with a significantly increased risk of secondary malignancies compared with photon therapy. Longer follow-up of these patients is needed to determine if there is a significant decrease in second malignancies. Given the limitations of the study

  6. Influence of radiation and non-radiation factors on pancreatic cancer incidence among Mayak PA workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhuntova, G.V.; Tokarskaya, Z.B.; Belyaeva, Z.D. [Southern Ural Biophysics Institute (SUBI), Ozyorsk (Russian Federation); Syrchikov, V.A.; Grigoryeva, E.S. [Mayak Production Association (Mayak PA), Ozyorsk (Russian Federation)

    2006-07-01

    The finding of this nested case-control study suggests that high levels of 239 Pu incorporation (239 Pu body burden > 3.7), alcohol abuse and smoking were associated with increasing the risk of pancreatic cancer among Mayak PA workers chronically exposed to ionizing radiation. The contribution of non radiation factors (alcohol abuse and smoking) to pancreatic tumor incidence is greater (AR=51%) than 239 Pu incorporation kBq; AR = 7%). No significant effect of external gamma rays ({<=} 6.8 Gy), prior exposure to chemical agents, or chronic digestive diseases was found on the incidence of pancreatic tumor. Evaluation of the absorbed alpha-radiation pancreatic dose will permit to make more exact the 239 Pu risk estimation in the further extended study.

  7. Influence of radiation and non-radiation factors on pancreatic cancer incidence among Mayak PA workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhuntova, G.V.; Tokarskaya, Z.B.; Belyaeva, Z.D.; Syrchikov, V.A.; Grigoryeva, E.S.

    2006-01-01

    The finding of this nested case-control study suggests that high levels of 239 Pu incorporation (239 Pu body burden > 3.7), alcohol abuse and smoking were associated with increasing the risk of pancreatic cancer among Mayak PA workers chronically exposed to ionizing radiation. The contribution of non radiation factors (alcohol abuse and smoking) to pancreatic tumor incidence is greater (AR=51%) than 239 Pu incorporation kBq; AR = 7%). No significant effect of external gamma rays (≤ 6.8 Gy), prior exposure to chemical agents, or chronic digestive diseases was found on the incidence of pancreatic tumor. Evaluation of the absorbed alpha-radiation pancreatic dose will permit to make more exact the 239 Pu risk estimation in the further extended study

  8. Lessons Learnt from Past Incidents and Accidents in Radiation Oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knöös, T

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this report is to review and compile what have been and can be learnt from incidents and accidents in radiation oncology, especially in external beam and brachytherapy. Some major accidents from the last 20 years will be discussed. The relationship between major events and minor or so-called near misses is mentioned, leading to the next topic of exploring the knowledge hidden among them. The main lessons learnt from the discussion here and elsewhere are that a well-functioning and safe radiotherapy department should help staff to work with awareness and alertness and that documentation and procedures should be in place and known by everyone. It also requires that trained and educated staff with the required competences are in place and, finally, functions and responsibilities are defined and well known. Copyright © 2017 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Using mortality data to estimate radiation effects on breast cancer incidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoel, D.G.; Dinse, G.E.

    1990-01-01

    In this paper we combine Japanese data on radiation exposure and cancer mortality with U.S. data on cancer incidence and lethality to estimate the effects of ionizing radiation on cancer incidence. The analysis is based on the mathematical relationship between the mortality rate and the incidence and lethality rates, as well as on statistical models that relate Japanese incidence rates to U.S. incidence rates and radiation risk factors. Our approach assumes that the risk of death from causes other than the cancer does not depend on whether or not the cancer is present, and among individuals with the cancer, the risk of death attributable to the cancer is the same in Japan and the U.S. and is not affected by radiation exposure. In particular, we focus on the incidence of breast cancer in Japanese women and how this incidence is affected by radiation risk factors. The analysis uses Japanese exposure and mortality data from the Radiation Effects Research Foundation study of atomic bomb survivors and U.S. incidence and lethality data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Registry. Even without Japanese incidence data, we obtain reasonable estimates of the incidence of breast cancer in unexposed Japanese women and identify the radiation risk factors that affect this incidence. Our analysis demonstrates that the age at exposure is an important risk factor, but that the incidence of breast cancer is not affected by the city of residence (Nagasaki versus Hiroshima) or the time since exposure

  10. Radiation risk factors in incidence anortality among exposed individuals of East Kazakhstand m

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazbek Apsalikov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Lengthy clinical and epidemiological studies at the Research Institute of Radiation Medicine and Ecology have discovered basic patterns of long-term effects from ionizing radiation in population groups exposed to radiation risk. Methodology for calculating injury from radiation risk factors has been developed and implemented to minimize the effects of the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site (SNTS. Material and methods: We analyzed materials from the database of the Scientific Medical Register that were exposed to radiation as a result of SNTS. We analyzed both male and female populations of the Abay, Beskaragai and Zhanasemei, Kokpekti (control areas of East-Kazakhstan region (EKR from 2008-2012. These populations were split into three groups allocated by the generation. The first group represented persons born from the period of 01/01/1930 -08/01/1949 and their children born from the period of 10/09/1949-12/31/1962. The second group were persons born after 01/01/1963. The third group served as the control and were persons who immigrated to these areas after 1990. Results: There was an increased incidence of cancer (21.5%, p < 0.000734, cardiovascular diseases (10.2%; respiratory problems (9.6%, gastrointestinal issues (9.1%, p < 0.00371-0.00679 in the first group. The effect of the radiation dose has not been fully stuided among the subjects in the second group.The major causes of excess mortality in the first group were neoplams (30.6%, hypertension (23.8%, and myocardial infarction (22.6%. The effects of radiation influenced mortality in the second group were 2-2.5 times lower than the first group.Conclusion: There is a correlation between the size of the radiation dose, the risk profile, and age at the moment of radiation exposure with trends of morbidity and mortality in the radiation exposed areas.

  11. An Evaluation of Departmental Radiation Oncology Incident Reports: Anticipating a National Reporting System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terezakis, Stephanie A.; Harris, Kendra M.; Ford, Eric; Michalski, Jeff; DeWeese, Theodore; Santanam, Lakshmi; Mutic, Sasa; Gay, Hiram

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Systems to ensure patient safety are of critical importance. The electronic incident reporting systems (IRS) of 2 large academic radiation oncology departments were evaluated for events that may be suitable for submission to a national reporting system (NRS). Methods and Materials: All events recorded in the combined IRS were evaluated from 2007 through 2010. Incidents were graded for potential severity using the validated French Nuclear Safety Authority (ASN) 5-point scale. These incidents were categorized into 7 groups: (1) human error, (2) software error, (3) hardware error, (4) error in communication between 2 humans, (5) error at the human-software interface, (6) error at the software-hardware interface, and (7) error at the human-hardware interface. Results: Between the 2 systems, 4407 incidents were reported. Of these events, 1507 (34%) were considered to have the potential for clinical consequences. Of these 1507 events, 149 (10%) were rated as having a potential severity of ≥2. Of these 149 events, the committee determined that 79 (53%) of these events would be submittable to a NRS of which the majority was related to human error or to the human-software interface. Conclusions: A significant number of incidents were identified in this analysis. The majority of events in this study were related to human error and to the human-software interface, further supporting the need for a NRS to facilitate field-wide learning and system improvement

  12. An Evaluation of Departmental Radiation Oncology Incident Reports: Anticipating a National Reporting System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terezakis, Stephanie A., E-mail: stereza1@jhmi.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Harris, Kendra M. [Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Ford, Eric [Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington (United States); Michalski, Jeff [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); DeWeese, Theodore [Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Santanam, Lakshmi; Mutic, Sasa; Gay, Hiram [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri (United States)

    2013-03-15

    Purpose: Systems to ensure patient safety are of critical importance. The electronic incident reporting systems (IRS) of 2 large academic radiation oncology departments were evaluated for events that may be suitable for submission to a national reporting system (NRS). Methods and Materials: All events recorded in the combined IRS were evaluated from 2007 through 2010. Incidents were graded for potential severity using the validated French Nuclear Safety Authority (ASN) 5-point scale. These incidents were categorized into 7 groups: (1) human error, (2) software error, (3) hardware error, (4) error in communication between 2 humans, (5) error at the human-software interface, (6) error at the software-hardware interface, and (7) error at the human-hardware interface. Results: Between the 2 systems, 4407 incidents were reported. Of these events, 1507 (34%) were considered to have the potential for clinical consequences. Of these 1507 events, 149 (10%) were rated as having a potential severity of ≥2. Of these 149 events, the committee determined that 79 (53%) of these events would be submittable to a NRS of which the majority was related to human error or to the human-software interface. Conclusions: A significant number of incidents were identified in this analysis. The majority of events in this study were related to human error and to the human-software interface, further supporting the need for a NRS to facilitate field-wide learning and system improvement.

  13. A Study of Radiation Incidence Angle in Anteroposterior Cervical Vertebra Examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeung, Seung Woon; Lim, Cheong Hwan; Jung, Hong Ryang; Joo, Yeong Cheol; Park, Mi Ja; Han, Beon Hee

    2012-01-01

    cervical vertebra, OID, axis angle, and FID, all of them were shown to have correlations with the incidence angle (p<.01). Conclusively, it was shown that the incidence angle was measured differently from average length of cervical vertebra, OID, FID, and axis slope, as well as from age and sex. Therefore, it can be suggested that the anteroposterior radiation test for cervical vertebra should be conducted by different incidence angles based on age and sex. The data of this study may be used as reference in determining the incidence angle of cervical vertebra tests for the future.

  14. A Study of Radiation Incidence Angle in Anteroposterior Cervical Vertebra Examination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeung, Seung Woon; Lim, Cheong Hwan; Jung, Hong Ryang; Joo, Yeong Cheol; Park, Mi Ja [Dept. of Radiological Science, Hanseo University, Seosan (Korea, Republic of); Han, Beon Hee [Dept. of Radiological Science, Seonam University, Namwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-06-15

    of cervical vertebra, OID, axis angle, and FID, all of them were shown to have correlations with the incidence angle (p<.01). Conclusively, it was shown that the incidence angle was measured differently from average length of cervical vertebra, OID, FID, and axis slope, as well as from age and sex. Therefore, it can be suggested that the anteroposterior radiation test for cervical vertebra should be conducted by different incidence angles based on age and sex. The data of this study may be used as reference in determining the incidence angle of cervical vertebra tests for the future.

  15. Modification of radiation-induced murine thymic lymphoma incidence by curcumin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dange, P.S.; Yadav, H.D.; Kumar, Vimalesh; Bhilwade, H.N.; Pandey, B.N.; Sarma, H.D.

    2017-01-01

    Curcumin is a known antioxidant, preventing radiation damage including carcinogenesis. However, concentration and feeding schedule of curcumin in modification of radiation induced thymic lymphoma incidence in vivo model has not been studied. We report here modification of incidence of γ-radiation-induced thymic lymphoma in mice fed with different doses of curcumin (0.05 to 1 %) in diet. Results: Female Swiss mice (6-8 weeks) fed with normal diet and exposed to 3 Gy whole body "6"0Co γ-irradiation (WBI) showed 85 % incidence of thymic lymphoma (TL) at 120 days post-irradiation. A concentration of 1 % curcumin was found the most effective in TL incidence prevention than other fed concentrations. The TL incidence was remarkably reduced when curcumin was fed to the mice before than after the radiation exposure. These results suggest modification of TL incidence by curcumin in irradiated mice involving DNA damage and apoptotic death mechanisms

  16. Association of UV radiation with Parkinson disease incidence: A nationwide French ecologic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kravietz, Adam; Kab, Sofiane; Wald, Lucien; Dugravot, Aline; Singh-Manoux, Archana; Moisan, Frédéric; Elbaz, Alexis

    2017-01-01

    Background: Vitamin D is thought to contribute to brain health, but it is unclear whether low vitamin D levels are associated with increased incidence of Parkinson's disease (PD). Using ultraviolet B (UV-B) as a surrogate for vitamin D levels, we conducted a nationwide ecologic study in France in order to examine the association of UV-B with PD incidence. Methods: We used French national drug claims databases to identify PD cases using a validated algorithm. UV-B data from the solar radiation database were derived from satellite images. We estimated PD incidence (2010–2012) at the canton level (small administrative French unit) and used multilevel Poisson regression to examine its association with UV-B (2005 annual average), after adjustment for age, sex, deprivation index, density of neurologists, smoking, proportion of agricultural land, and vitamin D supplementation. Results: Analyses are based on 69,010 incident PD patients. The association between UV-B and PD incidence was quadratic (P<0.001) and modified by age (P<0.001). Below 70y, incidence was higher in the bottom quintile (relative risk, RR Q1:45-49y =1.18, 95% CI=1.08–1.29) compared with the middle UV-B quintile, and lower in the top quintile (RR Q5:45-49y =0.85 [0.77–0.94]). An opposite pattern was observed in older subjects (RR Q1:85-89y =0.92 [0.89–0.96]; RR Q5:85-89y =1.06 [1.02–1.11]). Analysis based on continuous UV-B yielded similar conclusions. Conclusions: In this nationwide study, there was an age-dependent quadratic association between UV-B and PD incidence. This study suggests that reasonable UV-B exposure is associated with lower PD risk in younger persons and that future studies should examine dose-response relations and take age into account. - Highlights: • There is an age-dependent quadratic association between UV-B and PD incidence. • Reasonable UV-B exposure is beneficial in younger persons for the risk of PD. • Our findings are consistent with a role of vitamin D

  17. Association of UV radiation with Parkinson disease incidence: A nationwide French ecologic study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kravietz, Adam [University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, Florida (United States); Kab, Sofiane [Santé publique France, Direction santé travail, F-94415 Saint-Maurice (France); CESP, Fac. de médecine - Univ. Paris-Sud, Fac. de médecine - UVSQ, INSERM, Université Paris-Saclay, 94805 Villejuif (France); Wald, Lucien [MINES ParisTech, PSL Research University, Sophia Antipolis (France); Dugravot, Aline [CESP, Fac. de médecine - Univ. Paris-Sud, Fac. de médecine - UVSQ, INSERM, Université Paris-Saclay, 94805 Villejuif (France); Singh-Manoux, Archana [CESP, Fac. de médecine - Univ. Paris-Sud, Fac. de médecine - UVSQ, INSERM, Université Paris-Saclay, 94805 Villejuif (France); Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University College London, London (United Kingdom); Moisan, Frédéric [Santé publique France, Direction santé travail, F-94415 Saint-Maurice (France); Elbaz, Alexis, E-mail: alexis.elbaz@inserm.fr [Santé publique France, Direction santé travail, F-94415 Saint-Maurice (France); CESP, Fac. de médecine - Univ. Paris-Sud, Fac. de médecine - UVSQ, INSERM, Université Paris-Saclay, 94805 Villejuif (France)

    2017-04-15

    Background: Vitamin D is thought to contribute to brain health, but it is unclear whether low vitamin D levels are associated with increased incidence of Parkinson's disease (PD). Using ultraviolet B (UV-B) as a surrogate for vitamin D levels, we conducted a nationwide ecologic study in France in order to examine the association of UV-B with PD incidence. Methods: We used French national drug claims databases to identify PD cases using a validated algorithm. UV-B data from the solar radiation database were derived from satellite images. We estimated PD incidence (2010–2012) at the canton level (small administrative French unit) and used multilevel Poisson regression to examine its association with UV-B (2005 annual average), after adjustment for age, sex, deprivation index, density of neurologists, smoking, proportion of agricultural land, and vitamin D supplementation. Results: Analyses are based on 69,010 incident PD patients. The association between UV-B and PD incidence was quadratic (P<0.001) and modified by age (P<0.001). Below 70y, incidence was higher in the bottom quintile (relative risk, RR{sub Q1:45-49y}=1.18, 95% CI=1.08–1.29) compared with the middle UV-B quintile, and lower in the top quintile (RR{sub Q5:45-49y}=0.85 [0.77–0.94]). An opposite pattern was observed in older subjects (RR{sub Q1:85-89y}=0.92 [0.89–0.96]; RR{sub Q5:85-89y}=1.06 [1.02–1.11]). Analysis based on continuous UV-B yielded similar conclusions. Conclusions: In this nationwide study, there was an age-dependent quadratic association between UV-B and PD incidence. This study suggests that reasonable UV-B exposure is associated with lower PD risk in younger persons and that future studies should examine dose-response relations and take age into account. - Highlights: • There is an age-dependent quadratic association between UV-B and PD incidence. • Reasonable UV-B exposure is beneficial in younger persons for the risk of PD. • Our findings are consistent with a

  18. Infant Brain Tumors: Incidence, Survival, and the Role of Radiation Based on Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bishop, Andrew J.; McDonald, Mark W.; Chang, Andrew L.; Esiashvili, Natia

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the incidence of infant brain tumors and survival outcomes by disease and treatment variables. Methods and Materials: The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program November 2008 submission database provided age-adjusted incidence rates and individual case information for primary brain tumors diagnosed between 1973 and 2006 in infants less than 12 months of age. Results: Between 1973 and 1986, the incidence of infant brain tumors increased from 16 to 40 cases per million (CPM), and from 1986 to 2006, the annual incidence rate averaged 35 CPM. Leading histologies by annual incidence in CPM were gliomas (13.8), medulloblastoma and primitive neuroectodermal tumors (6.6), and ependymomas (3.6). The annual incidence was higher in whites than in blacks (35.0 vs. 21.3 CPM). Infants with low-grade gliomas had the highest observed survival, and those with atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumors (ATRTs) or primary rhabdoid tumors of the brain had the lowest. Between 1979 and 1993, the annual rate of cases treated with radiation within the first 4 months from diagnosis declined from 20.5 CPM to <2 CPM. For infants with medulloblastoma, desmoplastic histology and treatment with both surgery and upfront radiation were associated with improved survival, but on multivariate regression, only combined surgery and radiation remained associated with improved survival, with a hazard ratio for death of 0.17 compared with surgery alone (p = 0.005). For ATRTs, those treated with surgery and upfront radiation had a 12-month survival of 100% compared with 24.4% for those treated with surgery alone (p = 0.016). For ependymomas survival was higher in patients treated in more recent decades (p = 0.001). Conclusion: The incidence of infant brain tumors has been stable since 1986. Survival outcomes varied markedly by histology. For infants with medulloblastoma and ATRTs, improved survival was observed in patients treated with both surgery and early radiation

  19. SU-E-T-208: Incidence Cancer Risk From the Radiation Treatment for Acoustic Neuroma Patient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, D [Kyung Hee University International Med. Serv., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chung, W [Kyung Hee University Hospital at Gangdong, Seoul, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Shin, D [Kyung Hee University Hospital, Seoul, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, M [Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: The present study aimed to compare the incidence risk of a secondary cancer from therapeutic doses in patients receiving intensitymodulated radiotherapy (IMRT), volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT), and stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS). Methods: Four acoustic neuroma patients were treated with IMRT, VMAT, or SRS. Their incidnece excess relative risk (ERR), excess absolute risk (EAR), and lifetime attributable risk (LAR) were estimated using the corresponding therapeutic doses measured at various organs by radio-photoluminescence glass dosimeters (RPLGD) placed inside a humanoid phantom. Results: When a prescription dose was delivered in the planning target volume of the 4 patients, the average organ equivalent doses (OED) at the thyroid, lung, normal liver, colon, bladder, prostate (or ovary), and rectum were measured. The OED decreased as the distance from the primary beam increased. The thyroid received the highest OED compared to other organs. A LAR were estimated that more than 0.03% of AN patients would get radiation-induced cancer. Conclusion: The tyroid was highest radiation-induced cancer risk after radiation treatment for AN. We found that LAR can be increased by the transmitted dose from the primary beam. No modality-specific difference in radiation-induced cancer risk was observed in our study.

  20. A management plan for hospitals and medical centers facing radiation incidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fereshteh Davari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nowadays, application of nuclear technology in different industries has largely expanded worldwide. Proportionately, the risk of nuclear incidents and the resulting injuries have, therefore, increased in recent years. Preparedness is an important part of the crisis management cycle; therefore efficient preplanning seems crucial to any crisis management plan. Equipped with facilities and experienced personnel, hospitals naturally engage with the response to disasters. The main purpose of our study was to present a practical management pattern for hospitals and medical centers in case they encounter a nuclear emergency. Materials and Methods: In this descriptive qualitative study, data were collected through experimental observations, sources like Safety manuals released by the International Atomic Energy Agency and interviews with experts to gather their ideas along with Delphi method for polling, and brainstorming. In addition, the 45 experts were interviewed on three targeted using brainstorming and Delphi method. Results: We finally proposed a management plan along with a set of practicality standards for hospitals and medical centers to optimally respond to nuclear medical emergencies when a radiation incident happens nearby. Conclusion: With respect to the great importance of preparedness against nuclear incidents adoption and regular practice of nuclear crisis management codes for hospitals and medical centers seems quite necessary.

  1. Simulation of Solar Radiation Incident on Horizontal and Inclined Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MA Basunia

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A computer model was developed to simulate the hourly, daily and monthly average of daily solar radiation on horizontal and inclined surfaces. The measured hourly and daily solar radiation was compared with simulated radiation, and favourable agreement was observed for the measured and predicted values on clear days. The measured and simulated monthly averages of total (diffuse and beam daily solar radiation were compared and a reasonable agreement was observed for a number of stations in Japan. The simulation showed that during the rice harvesting season, September to October, there is a daily average of 14.7 MJ/m2 of solar irradiation on a horizontal surface in Matsuyama, Japan. There is a similar amount of solar radiation on a horizontal surface during the major rice harvesting season, November to December, in Bangladesh. This radiation can be effectively utilized for drying rough rice and other farm crops.

  2. The Equivalent Uniform Dose as a severity metric for radiation treatment incidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunscombe, Peter B.; Iftody, Sandra; Ploquin, Nicolas; Ekaette, Edidiong U.; Lee, Robert C.

    2007-01-01

    In allocating resources within a risk management program, ideally we would like to know both the probabilities and consequences of potential incidents. We simulate, on a treatment planning computer, several commonly reported incidents in radiation treatment and explore their consequences for the EUDs of targets and organs at risk

  3. Radiation effects in silicon and gallium arsenide solar cells using isotropic and normally incident radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anspaugh, B. E.; Downing, R. G.

    1984-01-01

    Several types of silicon and gallium arsenide solar cells were irradiated with protons with energies between 50 keV and 10 MeV at both normal and isotropic incidence. Damage coefficients for maximum power relative to 10 MeV were derived for these cells for both cases of omni-directional and normal incidence. The damage coefficients for the silicon cells were found to be somewhat lower than those quoted in the Solar Cell Radiation Handbook. These values were used to compute omni-directional damage coefficients suitable for solar cells protected by coverglasses of practical thickness, which in turn were used to compute solar cell degradation in two proton-dominated orbits. In spite of the difference in the low energy proton damage coefficients, the difference between the handbook prediction and the prediction using the newly derived values was negligible. Damage coefficients for GaAs solar cells for short circuit current, open circuit voltage, and maximum power were also computed relative to 10 MeV protons. They were used to predict cell degradation in the same two orbits and in a 5600 nmi orbit. Results show the performance of the GaAs solar cells in these orbits to be superior to that of the Si cells.

  4. Gamma radiation influences postharvest disease incidence of pineapple fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damayanti, M.; Sharma, G.J.; Kundu, S.C.

    1992-01-01

    The application of gamma radiation for improving the storage of pineapple fruits [Ananas comosus (L.) Merr. cv. Queen] has been studied in an attempt to reduce decay caused by fungal pathogens such as Ceratocystis paradoxa (Dade)-Moreau and Penicillium purpurogenum Stoll. Gamma radiation at 50, 75, 100, 150, and 250 Gy improved shelf life. The maximum tolerable dose was approximately 250 Gy. Fruits irradiated with up to 150 Gy and then stored at 25 to 28C maintained their texture better than did the controls. Radiation, particularly at doses 250 Gy, caused browning of the skin and softening of tissues. Browning increased with increasing radiation dose and storage duration. Excessively high doses promoted spoilage. Doses in the range of 50 to 250 Gy, in combination with storage at 11 to 13C, can be used to reduce postharvest losses in pineapple due to fungal diseases and senescence, thereby extending shelf life

  5. An evaluation of the effect of natural background radiation on cancer incidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, Jerry J.

    1978-01-01

    Previous studies on the relationship between levels of natural background radiation and cancer incidence indicate no significant correlation. This observation is shown to be consistent with certain predicted effect levels of ionizing radiation on malignancy production (BEIR, ICRP). Other theoretical predictions on the effects of ionizing radiation indicate induction rates to be as high as 8 x 10 -3 cancers/person-rem. Assuming this factor were correct, then roughly one-half of the cancer incidence in the USA could be attributed to exposure to natural background radiation. By statistically testing various hypothetically assigned cancer induction rates against observed data, it is possible to develop a probabilistic perspective on the cause-effect relationship. Tests have been performed using normalized (by age, death rate, etc.) cancer incidence by state against levels of background radiation. This evaluation allows for the determination of the probability of observing the actual data given that the hypotheses were correct. Graphic relationships between hypothetically assigned radiation induced cancer rates vs. the probability of observing the actual incidence are developed and presented. It is shown that if the cancer induction rate were in excess of ∼10 -3 cancers/person-rem, it would be highly improbable that there would, in fact, be a lack of correlation between the rates of natural background radiation and cancer incidence. (author)

  6. Can Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors Reduce the Incidence, Severity, and Duration of Radiation Proctitis?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alashkham, Abduelmenem; Paterson, Catherine; Rauchhaus, Petra; Nabi, Ghulam

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether participants taking angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) and treated with radical radiation therapy with neoadjuvant/adjuvant hormone therapy have less incidence, severity, and duration of radiation proctitis. Methods and Materials: A propensity score analysis of 817 patients who underwent radical radiation therapy with neoadjuvant or adjuvant hormone therapy as primary line management in a cohort study during 2009 to 2013 was conducted. Patients were stratified as follows: group 1, hypertensive patients taking ACEIs (as a study group); group 2, nonhypertensive patients not taking ACEIs; and group 3, hypertensive patients not taking ACEIs (both as control groups). The incidence, severity, and duration of proctitis were the main outcome. χ"2 tests, Mann-Whitney U tests, analysis of variance, risk ratio (RR), confidence interval (CI), Kaplan-Meier plots, and log-rank tests were used. Results: The mean age of the participants was 68.91 years, with a follow-up time of 3.38 years. Based on disease and age-matched comparison, there was a statistically significant difference of proctitis grading between the 3 groups: χ"2 (8, n=308) = 72.52, P<.001. The Mann-Whitney U test indicated that grades of proctitis were significantly lower in hypertensive patients taking ACEIs than in nonhypertensive patients not taking ACEIs and hypertensive patients not taking ACEIs (P<.001). The risk ratio (RR) of proctitis in hypertensive patients taking ACEIs was significantly lower than in hypertensive patients not taking ACEIs (RR 0.40, 95% CI 0.30-0.53, P<.001) and in nonhypertensive patients not taking ACEIs (RR 0.58, 95% CI 0.44-0.77, P<.001). Time to event analysis revealed that hypertensive patients taking ACEIs were significantly different from the control groups (P<.0001). Furthermore, hypertensive patients taking ACEIs had significantly faster resolution of proctitis (P<.0001). Conclusion: Patients who were taking ACEIs were

  7. Can Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors Reduce the Incidence, Severity, and Duration of Radiation Proctitis?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alashkham, Abduelmenem, E-mail: alashkham@yahoo.com [Academic Section of Urology, Division of Cancer Research, School of Medicine, University of Dundee, Scotland (United Kingdom); Paterson, Catherine [Academic Section of Urology, Division of Cancer Research, School of Medicine, University of Dundee, Scotland (United Kingdom); Rauchhaus, Petra [Tayside Clinical Trials Unit, School of Medicine, University of Dundee, Scotland (United Kingdom); Nabi, Ghulam [Academic Section of Urology, Division of Cancer Research, School of Medicine, University of Dundee, Scotland (United Kingdom)

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether participants taking angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) and treated with radical radiation therapy with neoadjuvant/adjuvant hormone therapy have less incidence, severity, and duration of radiation proctitis. Methods and Materials: A propensity score analysis of 817 patients who underwent radical radiation therapy with neoadjuvant or adjuvant hormone therapy as primary line management in a cohort study during 2009 to 2013 was conducted. Patients were stratified as follows: group 1, hypertensive patients taking ACEIs (as a study group); group 2, nonhypertensive patients not taking ACEIs; and group 3, hypertensive patients not taking ACEIs (both as control groups). The incidence, severity, and duration of proctitis were the main outcome. χ{sup 2} tests, Mann-Whitney U tests, analysis of variance, risk ratio (RR), confidence interval (CI), Kaplan-Meier plots, and log-rank tests were used. Results: The mean age of the participants was 68.91 years, with a follow-up time of 3.38 years. Based on disease and age-matched comparison, there was a statistically significant difference of proctitis grading between the 3 groups: χ{sup 2} (8, n=308) = 72.52, P<.001. The Mann-Whitney U test indicated that grades of proctitis were significantly lower in hypertensive patients taking ACEIs than in nonhypertensive patients not taking ACEIs and hypertensive patients not taking ACEIs (P<.001). The risk ratio (RR) of proctitis in hypertensive patients taking ACEIs was significantly lower than in hypertensive patients not taking ACEIs (RR 0.40, 95% CI 0.30-0.53, P<.001) and in nonhypertensive patients not taking ACEIs (RR 0.58, 95% CI 0.44-0.77, P<.001). Time to event analysis revealed that hypertensive patients taking ACEIs were significantly different from the control groups (P<.0001). Furthermore, hypertensive patients taking ACEIs had significantly faster resolution of proctitis (P<.0001). Conclusion: Patients who were taking ACEIs were

  8. Incidence, Causative Mechanisms, and Anatomic Localization of Stroke in Pituitary Adenoma Patients Treated With Postoperative Radiation Therapy Versus Surgery Alone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sattler, Margriet G.A., E-mail: g.a.sattler@umcg.nl [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Department of Radiation Oncology, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada); Vroomen, Patrick C. [Department of Neurology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Sluiter, Wim J. [Department of Endocrinology and Metabolic Diseases, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Schers, Henk J. [Department of Primary and Community Care, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre (Netherlands); Berg, Gerrit van den [Department of Endocrinology and Metabolic Diseases, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Langendijk, Johannes A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H.R. [Department of Endocrinology and Metabolic Diseases, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Bergh, Alphons C.M. van den [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Beek, André P. van [Department of Endocrinology and Metabolic Diseases, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands)

    2013-09-01

    Purpose: To assess and compare the incidence of stroke and stroke subtype in pituitary adenoma patients treated with postoperative radiation therapy (RT) and surgery alone. Methods and Materials: A cohort of 462 pituitary adenoma patients treated between 1959 and 2008 at the University Medical Center Groningen in The Netherlands was studied. Radiation therapy was administered in 236 patients. The TOAST (Trial of ORG 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment) and the Oxfordshire Community Stroke Project classification methods were used to determine causative mechanism and anatomic localization of stroke. Stroke incidences in patients treated with RT were compared with that observed after surgery alone. Risk factors for stroke incidence were studied by log–rank test, without and with stratification for other significant risk factors. In addition, the stroke incidence was compared with the incidence rate in the general Dutch population. Results: Thirteen RT patients were diagnosed with stroke, compared with 12 surgery-alone patients. The relative risk (RR) for stroke in patients treated with postoperative RT was not significantly different compared with surgery-alone patients (univariate RR 0.62, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.28-1.35, P=.23). Stroke risk factors were coronary or peripheral artery disease (univariate and multivariate RR 10.4, 95% CI 4.7-22.8, P<.001) and hypertension (univariate RR 3.9, 95% CI 1.6-9.8, P=.002). There was no difference in TOAST and Oxfordshire classification of stroke. In this pituitary adenoma cohort 25 strokes were observed, compared with 16.91 expected (standard incidence ratio 1.48, 95% CI 1.00-1.96, P=.049). Conclusions: In pituitary adenoma patients, an increased incidence of stroke was observed compared with the general population. However, postoperative RT was not associated with an increased incidence of stroke or differences in causative mechanism or anatomic localization of stroke compared with surgery alone. The primary stroke risk

  9. Incidence, Causative Mechanisms, and Anatomic Localization of Stroke in Pituitary Adenoma Patients Treated With Postoperative Radiation Therapy Versus Surgery Alone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sattler, Margriet G.A.; Vroomen, Patrick C.; Sluiter, Wim J.; Schers, Henk J.; Berg, Gerrit van den; Langendijk, Johannes A.; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H.R.; Bergh, Alphons C.M. van den; Beek, André P. van

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To assess and compare the incidence of stroke and stroke subtype in pituitary adenoma patients treated with postoperative radiation therapy (RT) and surgery alone. Methods and Materials: A cohort of 462 pituitary adenoma patients treated between 1959 and 2008 at the University Medical Center Groningen in The Netherlands was studied. Radiation therapy was administered in 236 patients. The TOAST (Trial of ORG 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment) and the Oxfordshire Community Stroke Project classification methods were used to determine causative mechanism and anatomic localization of stroke. Stroke incidences in patients treated with RT were compared with that observed after surgery alone. Risk factors for stroke incidence were studied by log–rank test, without and with stratification for other significant risk factors. In addition, the stroke incidence was compared with the incidence rate in the general Dutch population. Results: Thirteen RT patients were diagnosed with stroke, compared with 12 surgery-alone patients. The relative risk (RR) for stroke in patients treated with postoperative RT was not significantly different compared with surgery-alone patients (univariate RR 0.62, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.28-1.35, P=.23). Stroke risk factors were coronary or peripheral artery disease (univariate and multivariate RR 10.4, 95% CI 4.7-22.8, P<.001) and hypertension (univariate RR 3.9, 95% CI 1.6-9.8, P=.002). There was no difference in TOAST and Oxfordshire classification of stroke. In this pituitary adenoma cohort 25 strokes were observed, compared with 16.91 expected (standard incidence ratio 1.48, 95% CI 1.00-1.96, P=.049). Conclusions: In pituitary adenoma patients, an increased incidence of stroke was observed compared with the general population. However, postoperative RT was not associated with an increased incidence of stroke or differences in causative mechanism or anatomic localization of stroke compared with surgery alone. The primary stroke risk

  10. Recovery from Iridium-192 flakes of a radioactive source for industrial use after a radiation incident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruz, W.H.; Zapata, L.A.

    2013-01-01

    The Iridium-192 ( 192 Ir) is the most used and ideal for industrial radiography applications, especially in petrochemical plants and pipelines and provides better contrast sensitivity for thick (25.4 mm). This source has constructive sealed double encapsulation, the internal capsule containing stainless steel to radioactive material in the form of flakes and welded with TIG process. The radiological incident happened at a gas station fuel sales in circumstances in which there was a homogeneity test welds a tank, the flakes or Ir-192 fell off his ponytail and left scattered over an area of 2 m 2 , some fell flat areas and other land so collected in lead shielding and metal container and ground source. Full recovery of the leaflets was performed at the Division of radioactive waste management (GRRA) gaining a total of 22 flakes with no radiation risk to staff performance and installation and the conclusion was reached that the misapplicaion of TIG welding was the main cause the incident. (author)

  11. Calorie restriction reduces the incidence of radiation-induced myeloid leukemia and spontaneous tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Kazuko

    1999-01-01

    The host-defense mechanisms against cancers are known to be modulated by changing the environmental factor(s). The spontaneous incidence of myeloid leukemia is about 1% in C3H/He mice, and the incidence increases up to 23.3% when a single dose of radiation, 3 Gy X-ray, is exposed to a whole-body. Since calorie restriction was known to reduce the incidence of spontaneous tumors, a question as to whether such radiation induced-increase of myeloid leukemia would be also decreased by calorie restriction, was aimed to answer to elucidate possible mechanism of radiation-induced myeloid leukemia. By the calorie restriction, the incidence of myeloid leukemia was significantly decreased; it was reduced to 7.9% and 10.7% when restriction was started before (6 weeks old) and after (10 weeks old) irradiation, respectively. In addition, the latent period of the myeloid leukemia in the groups for calorie restriction was significantly extended at a greater extent as compared with the control diet groups. Number of hematopoietic stem cells, the possible target cells for radiation-induced leukemias, in the groups for the calorie restriction demonstrated a significant decrease, especially in the spleen, as compared with that in the control, when the evaluation was made at the time of radiation exposure. Then, we examined whether the decreased number of target cells at the time of exposure is caused by the reduction of radiation-induced myeloid leukemia with caloric restriction. The third restricted groups were fed 65 kcal diet (restricted diet) for the first 4 weeks i.e. from 6 weeks to 10 weeks old, then, the mice were fed with control diet after radiation. The incidence of myeloid leukemia in this group was slightly decreased but did not show statistically significance. Therefore, the caloric restriction seems to be more effective in the promotion stage than the initiation stage on radiation-induced leukemogenesis. It is well known that C3H/He mice develop hepatoma spontaneously

  12. MO-G-BRE-09: Validating FMEA Against Incident Learning Data: A Study in Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, F; Cao, N; Young, L; Howard, J; Sponseller, P; Logan, W; Arbuckle, T; Korssjoen, T; Meyer, J; Ford, E

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Though FMEA (Failure Mode and Effects Analysis) is becoming more widely adopted for risk assessment in radiation therapy, to our knowledge it has never been validated against actual incident learning data. The objective of this study was to perform an FMEA analysis of an SBRT (Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy) treatment planning process and validate this against data recorded within an incident learning system. Methods: FMEA on the SBRT treatment planning process was carried out by a multidisciplinary group including radiation oncologists, medical physicists, and dosimetrists. Potential failure modes were identified through a systematic review of the workflow process. Failure modes were rated for severity, occurrence, and detectability on a scale of 1 to 10 and RPN (Risk Priority Number) was computed. Failure modes were then compared with historical reports identified as relevant to SBRT planning within a departmental incident learning system that had been active for two years. Differences were identified. Results: FMEA identified 63 failure modes. RPN values for the top 25% of failure modes ranged from 60 to 336. Analysis of the incident learning database identified 33 reported near-miss events related to SBRT planning. FMEA failed to anticipate 13 of these events, among which 3 were registered with severity ratings of severe or critical in the incident learning system. Combining both methods yielded a total of 76 failure modes, and when scored for RPN the 13 events missed by FMEA ranked within the middle half of all failure modes. Conclusion: FMEA, though valuable, is subject to certain limitations, among them the limited ability to anticipate all potential errors for a given process. This FMEA exercise failed to identify a significant number of possible errors (17%). Integration of FMEA with retrospective incident data may be able to render an improved overview of risks within a process

  13. Incidence of Leukoencephalopathy After Whole-Brain Radiation Therapy for Brain Metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebi, Junko; Sato, Hisashi; Nakajima, Masaru; Shishido, Fumio

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the incidence of leukoencephalopathy after whole-brain radiation therapy (WBRT) in patients with brain metastases. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively reviewed 111 patients who underwent WBRT for brain metastases from April 2001 through March 2008 and had evaluable computed tomography (CT) and/or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at least 1 month after completion of WBRT. We evaluated the leukoencephalopathy according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 3.0. The patients who had brain tumor recurrence after WBRT were censored at the last follow-up CT or MRI without recurrence. To evaluate the risk factors for leukoencephalopathy, bivariate analysis was performed using a logistic regression analysis adjusted for follow-up time. Factors included in the analysis were age, gender, dose fractionation, 5-fluorouracil, methotrexate, cisplatin, and other chemotherapeutic agents. Results: The median age of the 111 patients was 60.0 years (range, 23-89 years). The median follow-up was 3.8 months (range, 1.0-38.1 months). Leukoencephalopathy developed in 23 of the 111 patients. Grades 1, 2, and 3 were observed in 8, 7, and 8 patients, respectively. The incidence was 34.4% (11 of 32), 42.9% (6 of 14), 66.7% (2 of 3), and 100% (2 of 2) of the patients who were followed up for ≥6, ≥12, ≥24, and ≥36 months, respectively. In the bivariate analysis, older age (≥65 years) was significantly correlated with higher risk of leukoencephalopathy (odds ratio 3.31; 95% confidence interval 1.15-9.50; P=.03). Conclusions: The incidence of leukoencephalopathy after WBRT was 34.4% with ≥6 months follow-up, and increased with longer follow-up. Older age was a significant risk factor. The schedule of WBRT for patients with brain metastases should be carefully determined, especially for favorable patients

  14. An analysis of the incidence and related factors for radiation dermatitis in breast cancer patients who receive radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sun Young; Kwon, Hyoung Cheol; Kim, Jung Soo; Lee, Heui Kwan

    2010-01-01

    We analyzed the incidence and related factors of radiation dermatitis; at first, to recognize whether a decrease in radiation dermatitis is possible or not in breast cancer patients who received radiation therapy. Of 338 patients, 284 with invasive breast cancer who received breast conservation surgery with radiotherapy at Chonbuk National University Hospital from January 2007 to June 2009 were evaluated. Patients who also underwent bolus, previous contralateral breast irradiation and irradiation on both breasts were excluded. For patients who appeared to have greater than moderate radiation dermatitis, the incidence and relating factors for radiation dermatitis were analyzed retrospectively. A total of 207 and 77 patients appeared to have RTOG grade 0/1 or above RTOG grade 2 radiation dermatitis, respectively. The factors found to be statistically significant for the 77 patients who appeared to have greater than moderate radiation dermatitis include the presence of lymphocele due to the stasis of lymph and lymph edema which affect the healing disturbance of radiation dermatitis (p=0.003, p=0.001). Moreover, an allergic reaction to plaster due to the immune cells of skin and the activation of cytokine and concomitant hormonal therapy were also statistically significant factors (p=0.001, p=0.025). Most of the breast cancer patients who received radiation therapy appeared to have a greater than mild case of radiation dermatitis. Lymphocele, lymphedema, an allergy to plaster and concomitant hormonal therapy which affect radiation dermatitis were found to be significant factors. Consequently, we should eliminate lymphocele prior to radiation treatment for patients who appear to have an allergic reaction to plaster. We should also instruct patients of methods to maintain skin moisture if they appear to have a greater than moderate case of radiation dermatitis.

  15. Relationship of cancer incidence to terrestrial radiation and population density in Connecticut, 1935-1974

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walter, S.D.; Meigs, J.W.; Heston, J.F.

    1986-01-01

    The relationship of cancer incidence to terrestrial radiation and population density was investigated. Cancer incidence was obtained using 40 years of age-standardized data from the Connecticut Tumor Registry, and environmental radiation was estimated using data from an airborne gamma radiation survey of the entire state. These variables were examined ecologically, using the 169 towns of the state as the analytic units in a weighted regression analysis. The study design involves a large population base in a state having relatively high terrestrial radiation exposure levels overall and reasonable variation in exposure between towns. For all cancer combined, only one of the eight sex-specific analyses by decade yielded a significant radiation regression coefficient, and this was negative. In the sex- and site-specific analyses, almost all the coefficients for radiation were not significantly different from zero. In contrast, significant positive relationships of cancer incidence with population density were found for all cancer, for cancer of the lung for both sexes, for stomach, colonic, and prostatic cancer for males, and for lymphomas, thyroid, breast, and ovarian cancer for females. Both the radiation and population density relationships were adjusted for socioeconomic status. Socioeconomic status was significantly negatively associated with stomach and lung cancer in males and with cervical cancer in females; it was also positively associated with lymphomas and breast cancer in females. A power calculation revealed that, despite the relatively large size of this study, there was only a small probability of detecting a radiation effect of the strength anticipated from previous estimates

  16. Incidence of primary hypothyroidism in patients exposed to therapeutic external beam radiation, where radiation portals include a part or whole of the thyroid gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B A Laway

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Hypothyroidism is a known consequence of external-beam radiotherapy to the neck encompassing a part or whole of the thyroid gland. In this non-randomized prospective study, we have tried to evaluate the response of the thyroid gland to radiation by assessing thyroid function before irradiation and at regular intervals after irradiation. Aims and Objectives: The aim of this study were to assess in the cancer patients, who were exposed to the therapeutic external beam radiation, where radiation portals include a part or whole of the thyroid gland: the incidence of primary hypothyroidism, the time required to become hypothyroid, any relation between the total dose for the development of hypothyroidism, and whether there are any patient or treatment-related factors that are predictive for the development of hypothyroidism, including the use of concurrent chemotherapy. Materials and Methods: This non-randomized, prospective study was conducted for a period of 2 years in which thyroid function was assessed in 59 patients (cases of head and neck cancer, breast cancer, lymphoma patients and other malignancies, who had received radiotherapy to the neck region. 59 euthyroid healthy patients (controls were also taken, who had not received the neck irradiation. These patients/controls were assessed periodically for 2 years. Results: The incidence of hypothyroidism after external beam radiation therapy (EBRT to neck where radiation portals include part or whole of the thyroid gland was 16.94%, seven cases had subclinical hypothyroidism (11.86% and three cases had clinical hypothyroidism (5.08%. Mean time for development of hypothyroidism was 4.5 months. There was no effect of age, gender, primary tumor site, radiation dose and chemotherapy, whether neoadjuvant or concurrent with the development of hypothyroidism. Conclusion: In summary, we found that thyroid dysfunction is a prevalent, yet easily treatable source of morbidity in patients

  17. TU-D-201-04: Veracity of Data Elements in Radiation Oncology Incident Learning Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapur, A; Evans, S; Brown, D; Ezzell, G; Hoopes, D; Dieterich, S; Kapetanovic, K; Tomlinson, C

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Incident learning systems encompass volumes, varieties, values, and velocities of underlying data elements consistent with the V’s of big data. Veracity, the 5th V however exists only if there is high inter-rater reliability (IRR) within the data elements. The purpose of this work was to assess IRR in the nationally deployed RO-ILS: Radiation Oncology-Incident Learning System (R) sponsored by the American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) and the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM). Methods: Ten incident reports covering a wide range of scenarios were created in standardized narrative and video formats and disseminated to 67 volunteers of multiple disciplines from 26 institutions along with two published narratives from the International Commission of Radiological Protection to assess IRR on a nationally representative level. The volunteers were instructed to independently enter the associated data elements in a test version of RO-ILS over a 3-week period. All responses were aggregated into a spreadsheet to assess IRR using free-marginal kappa metrics. Results: 48 volunteers from 21 institutions completed all reports in the study period. The average kappa score for all raters across all critical data elements was 0.659 [range 0.326–1.000]. Statistically significant differences (p <0.05) were noted between reporters of different disciplines and raters with varying levels of experience. Kappa scores were high for event classification (0.781) and contributory factors (0.777) and low for likelihood-of-harm (0.326). IRR was highest among AAPM-ASTRO members (0.672) and lowest among trainees (0.463). Conclusion: A moderate-to-substantial level of IRR in RO-ILS was noted in this study. Although the number of events reviewed in this study was small, opportunities for improving the taxonomy for the lower scoring data elements as well as specific educational targets for training were identified by assessing data veracity quantitatively

  18. TU-D-201-04: Veracity of Data Elements in Radiation Oncology Incident Learning Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kapur, A [Northwell Health System, New Hyde Park, NY (United States); Evans, S [Yale University New Haven, CT (United States); Brown, D [University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States); Ezzell, G [Mayo Clinic Arizona, Phoenix, AZ (United States); Hoopes, D [The University of California San Diego, San Diego, CA (United States); Dieterich, S [UC Davis Medical Center, Sacramento, CA (United States); Kapetanovic, K; Tomlinson, C [American Society for Radiation Oncology, Fairfax, VA (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Incident learning systems encompass volumes, varieties, values, and velocities of underlying data elements consistent with the V’s of big data. Veracity, the 5th V however exists only if there is high inter-rater reliability (IRR) within the data elements. The purpose of this work was to assess IRR in the nationally deployed RO-ILS: Radiation Oncology-Incident Learning System (R) sponsored by the American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) and the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM). Methods: Ten incident reports covering a wide range of scenarios were created in standardized narrative and video formats and disseminated to 67 volunteers of multiple disciplines from 26 institutions along with two published narratives from the International Commission of Radiological Protection to assess IRR on a nationally representative level. The volunteers were instructed to independently enter the associated data elements in a test version of RO-ILS over a 3-week period. All responses were aggregated into a spreadsheet to assess IRR using free-marginal kappa metrics. Results: 48 volunteers from 21 institutions completed all reports in the study period. The average kappa score for all raters across all critical data elements was 0.659 [range 0.326–1.000]. Statistically significant differences (p <0.05) were noted between reporters of different disciplines and raters with varying levels of experience. Kappa scores were high for event classification (0.781) and contributory factors (0.777) and low for likelihood-of-harm (0.326). IRR was highest among AAPM-ASTRO members (0.672) and lowest among trainees (0.463). Conclusion: A moderate-to-substantial level of IRR in RO-ILS was noted in this study. Although the number of events reviewed in this study was small, opportunities for improving the taxonomy for the lower scoring data elements as well as specific educational targets for training were identified by assessing data veracity quantitatively

  19. Medical treatment of radiation damages and medical emergency planning in case of nuclear power plant incidents and accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohlenschlaeger, L.

    1981-03-01

    Medical measures in case of radiation damages are discussed on the basis of five potential categories of radiation incidents and accidents, respectively, viz. contaminations, incorporations, external local and general radiation over-exposures, contaminated wounds, and combinations of radiation damages and conventional injuries. Considerations are made for diagnostic and therapeutic initial measures especially in case of minor and moderate radiation accidents. The medical emergency planning is reviewed by means of definations used in the practical handling of incidents or accidents. The parameters are: extent of the incident or accident, number of persons involved, severity of radiation damage. Based on guiding symptoms the criteria for the classification into minor, moderate or severe radiation accidents are discussed. Reference is made to the Medical Radiation Protection Centers existing in the Federal Republic of Germany and the possibility of getting advices in case of radiation incidents and accidents. (orig.) [de

  20. Leakage of an irradiator source: The June 1988 Georgia RSI [Radiation Sterilizers, Inc.] incident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-02-01

    On June 6, 1988, operators of a pool irradiator in Decatur, Georgia, were prevented by a safety system from raising sources from the pool. Radiation levels of 60 millirem per hour at the surface of the pool water were found, indicative of a leak of one or more of the 252 Cs-137 source capsules used at the irradiator. A summary of the Incident Evaluation Task Force's First Interim Report has been prepared for person's needing an overview of the incident and lessons learned to date. This report provides a summary of Agreement States' views and recommendations on some of the issues raised by the incident

  1. Conclusions and recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrette, M.

    1997-01-01

    The paper presents conclusions and recommendations at the closing session of the NEA/OECD Workshop held at Fontenay-aux-Roses on 12-14 June 1995. The conclusions refer to issues like: public reaction to foodstuffs containing radioisotope concentrations under the danger standards, possible non-adherence of manufacturers, processors, distributors, et al, to the instructions and guidance from radiation protection specialists, integration of all the food chain factors in the elaboration of the emergency intervention programs, etc. Among the most significant recommendations the following may be mentioned: 1. Differences between different intervention levels and the maximum admissible levels agreed upon by national, regional or international nutrition authorities should be further studied; 2. Problems created by the Chernobyl accident (as for instance, the methods of treatment of food chain products containing unacceptable radioactivity concentrations) are still present and must be solved; 3. Further studies should be done on the socio-cultural aspects of the communication, particularly on the information in rural environment; 4. The preventive measures in agriculture should be implemented as rapidly as possible; 5. In elaborating programmes of agriculture countermeasures, the management of contaminated media, particularly, of forests and their effect on agriculture

  2. Radiation-Induced Breast Cancer Incidence and Mortality From Digital Mammography Screening: A Modeling Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miglioretti, Diana L; Lange, Jane; van den Broek, Jeroen J; Lee, Christoph I; van Ravesteyn, Nicolien T; Ritley, Dominique; Kerlikowske, Karla; Fenton, Joshua J; Melnikow, Joy; de Koning, Harry J; Hubbard, Rebecca A

    2016-02-16

    Estimates of risk for radiation-induced breast cancer from mammography screening have not considered variation in dose exposure or diagnostic work-up after abnormal screening results. To estimate distributions of radiation-induced breast cancer incidence and mortality from digital mammography screening while considering exposure from screening and diagnostic mammography and dose variation among women. 2 simulation-modeling approaches. U.S. population. Women aged 40 to 74 years. Annual or biennial digital mammography screening from age 40, 45, or 50 years until age 74 years. Lifetime breast cancer deaths averted (benefits) and radiation-induced breast cancer incidence and mortality (harms) per 100,000 women screened. Annual screening of 100,000 women aged 40 to 74 years was projected to induce 125 breast cancer cases (95% CI, 88 to 178) leading to 16 deaths (CI, 11 to 23), relative to 968 breast cancer deaths averted by early detection from screening. Women exposed at the 95th percentile were projected to develop 246 cases of radiation-induced breast cancer leading to 32 deaths per 100,000 women. Women with large breasts requiring extra views for complete examination (8% of population) were projected to have greater radiation-induced breast cancer risk (266 cancer cases and 35 deaths per 100,000 women) than other women (113 cancer cases and 15 deaths per 100,000 women). Biennial screening starting at age 50 years reduced risk for radiation-induced cancer 5-fold. Life-years lost from radiation-induced breast cancer could not be estimated. Radiation-induced breast cancer incidence and mortality from digital mammography screening are affected by dose variability from screening, resultant diagnostic work-up, initiation age, and screening frequency. Women with large breasts may have a greater risk for radiation-induced breast cancer. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, U.S. Preventive Services Task Force, National Cancer Institute.

  3. Incidence of radiation pneumonitis after thoracic irradiation: Dose-volume correlates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schallenkamp, John M.; Miller, Robert C.; Brinkmann, Debra H.; Foote, Tyler; Garces, Yolanda I.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To define clinical and dosimetric parameters correlated with the risk of clinically relevant radiation pneumonitis (RP) after thoracic radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: Records of consecutive patients treated with definitive thoracic radiotherapy were retrospectively reviewed for the incidence of RP of Grade 2 or greater by the Common Toxicity Criteria. Dose-volume histograms using total lung volume (TL) and TL minus gross tumor volume (TL-G) were created with and without heterogeneity corrections. Mean lung dose (MLD), effective lung volume (V eff ), and percentage of TL or TL-G receiving greater than or equal to 10, 13, 15, 20, and 30 Gy (V10-V30, respectively) were analyzed by logistic regression. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were generated to estimate RP predictive values. Results: Twelve cases of RP were identified in 92 eligible patients. Mean lung dose, V10, V13, V15, V20, and V eff were significantly correlated to RP. Combinations of MLD, V eff , V20, and V30 lost significance using TL-G and heterogeneity corrections. Receiver operating characteristic analysis determined V10 and V13 as the best predictors of RP risk, with a decrease in predictive value above those volumes. Conclusions: Intrathoracic radiotherapy should be planned with caution when using radiotherapy techniques delivering doses of 10 to 15 Gy to large lung volumes

  4. Adverse radiation effect after stereotactic radiosurgery for brain metastases : incidence, time course, and risk factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sneed, Penny K.; Mendez, Joe; Vemer-van den Hoek, Johanna; Seymour, Zachary A.; Ma, Lijun; Molinaro, Annette M.; Fogh, Shannon E.; Nakamura, Jean L.; McDermott, Michael W.

    OBJECT The authors sought to determine the incidence, time course, and risk factors for overall adverse radiation effect (ARE) and symptomatic ARE after stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) for brain metastases. METHODS All cases of brain metastases treated from 1998 through 2009 with Gamma Knife SRS at

  5. Emergency reception of accidents and incidents in working with ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abrahamse, J.C.; Gispen, J.G.W.

    1989-01-01

    This manual is intended to be a general manual for the responsible expert regarding radiation hygienics in order to assist him in establishing an organization for combat of accidents and incidents. First attention is paid considerations underlying emergency measures and aid, subsequently the demands and desirabilities in the practical organization are discussed. (author). 3 figs

  6. The incidence of breast cancer following mantle field radiation therapy as a function of dose and technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tinger, Alfred; Wasserman, Todd H.; Klein, Eric E.; Miller, Elizabeth A.; Roberts, Tracy; Piephoff, James V.; Kucik, Nancy A.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: There is an increased incidence of breast cancer following mantle field radiation therapy for Hodgkin's disease (HD). We reviewed the experience at the Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology (MIR) for radiation factors related to the development of breast cancer after mantle field radiation therapy for HD. Methods: The radiation therapy records of 152 women treated with mantle field irradiation for HD at MIR between 1966-1985 were reviewed for the development of breast cancer and treatment-related factors. All patients had a minimum of 5 years of follow-up. The treatment era (1966-1974 vs. 1975-1985), stage of HD, mediastinal dose, axillary dose, maximum dose from the anterior field (anterior d max dose), the anterior-posterior:posterior-anterior (AP:PA) ratio, age at the time of treatment, length of follow-up, and history of splenectomy were analyzed as possible contributing factors for the development of breast cancer. The observed number of breast cancers was compared to the expected number based on age-adjusted incidences from the Connecticut Tumor Registry. Results: Ten breast cancers occurred in the population. Eight involved an upper outer quadrant. In a multivariate analysis, the development of breast cancer was significantly associated with axillary dose. Patients in the early treatment era were at an increased risk for the development of breast cancer due to high anterior d max and breast doses from weighting the fields anteriorly on a low energy linear accelerator. The use of current radiation therapy techniques was not related to an increased risk of breast cancer with a median follow-up of 13 years. Conclusions: A high dose to the axilla and the anterior d max point is significantly associated with the development of breast cancer after mantle field irradiation for HD. Efforts to protect the breast from high doses will likely lessen the increased risk of breast cancer in women treated with radiation therapy for HD

  7. Incidence of and factors related to late complications in conformal and conventional radiation treatment of cancer of the prostate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schultheiss, Timothy E; Hanks, Gerald E; Hunt, Margie A; Lee, W Robert

    1995-06-15

    Purpose: The fundament hypothesis of conformal radiation therapy is that tumor control can be increased by using conformal treatment techniques that allow a higher tumor dose while maintaining an acceptable level of complications. To test this hypothesis, it is necessary first to estimate the incidence of morbidity for both standard and conformal fields. In this study, we examine factors that influence the incidence of late Grade 3 and 4 morbidity in patients treated with conformal and standard radiation treatment for prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: Six hundred sixteen consecutive patients treated with conformal or standard techniques between 1986 and 1994 to doses greater than 65 Gy and with more than 3 months follow-up were analyzed. No patients treated with prostatectomies were included in the analysis. The conformal technique includes special immobilization by a cast, careful identification of the target volume in three dimensions, localization of the inferior border of the prostate using a retrograde urethrogram, and individually shaped portals that conform to the Planning Target Volume (PTV). Multivariate analysis using a proportional hazards model compares differences in the incidence of Radiation Therapy Oncology Group/European Organization for Research and Center Treatment (RTOG/EORTC) Grade 3 and 4 late gastrointestinal (GI) and genitourinary (GU) morbidity by technique, T-stage, grade, age, hormonal treatment, irradiated volume, dose, and comorbid conditions. Grade 3 rectal bleeding was defined as requiring three or more cautery procedures. Results: The overall actuarial incidence of genitourinary (GU) toxicities at 5 years was 3.4%, with the crude incidence being six cases in 616 patients satisfying the selection criteria; for gastrointestinal (GI) toxicities, the overall actuarial incidence was 2.7%, with the crude incidence being 13 cases out of 616 patients. The average time to complication for our patients was 12.8 months for GI toxicity and

  8. The Response of the Ocean Thermal Skin Layer to Variations in Incident Infrared Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Elizabeth W.; Minnett, Peter J.

    2018-04-01

    Ocean warming trends are observed and coincide with the increase in concentrations of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere resulting from human activities. At the ocean surface, most of the incoming infrared (IR) radiation is absorbed within the top micrometers of the ocean's surface where the thermal skin layer (TSL) exists. Thus, the incident IR radiation does not directly heat the upper few meters of the ocean. This paper investigates the physical mechanism between the absorption of IR radiation and its effect on heat transfer at the air-sea boundary. The hypothesis is that given the heat lost through the air-sea interface is controlled by the TSL, the TSL adjusts in response to variations in incident IR radiation to maintain the surface heat loss. This modulates the flow of heat from below and hence controls upper ocean heat content. This hypothesis is tested using the increase in incoming longwave radiation from clouds and analyzing vertical temperature profiles in the TSL retrieved from sea-surface emission spectra. The additional energy from the absorption of increasing IR radiation adjusts the curvature of the TSL such that the upward conduction of heat from the bulk of the ocean into the TSL is reduced. The additional energy absorbed within the TSL supports more of the surface heat loss. Thus, more heat beneath the TSL is retained leading to the observed increase in upper ocean heat content.

  9. Female all cancer incidence in medical radiation workers in Latvia 1982-2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matisane, L.; Carpenter, L.; Venables, K.

    2005-01-01

    Medical radiation workers belong to one of the oldest occupational groups exposed to external radiation. Since the various radiological protection recommendations have been introduced, now ths process has resulted in low-dose exposure, regular monitoring of exposure and establishment of national dose registration bodies. In order to provide additional information to studies on cancer incidence among medical radiation workers (specially female workers) and in order to assess all cancer incidence in female medical radiation workers in Latvia, a retrospective cohort study based on the National Dose Register was set up in Latvia. The study cohort consisted of all workers employed in health care, occupationally exposed to ionising radiation for more than one year in any of the public health care establishments in Latvia, except military ones, between 1 January 1972 and 1 January 2002 and who were registered in the National Dose Register of Latvia. The cohort consisted of 1416 female medical radiation workers either in hospitals or outpatient departments, or both. The cohort included diagnostic and therapeutic radiologists with predominantly medical qualification, it also included radiotechnologits, nurses, junior nurses, but it did not include academic, physicists and dentists. In all cases the calculated SIR was over than expected or close to expected. Several major differences in study design makes ir difficult to compare the results of this study with the results of the studies carried out in other countries

  10. Estimating photosynthetic radiation use efficiency using incident light and photosynthesis of individual leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosati, A; Dejong, T M

    2003-06-01

    It has been theorized that photosynthetic radiation use efficiency (PhRUE) over the course of a day is constant for leaves throughout a canopy if leaf nitrogen content and photosynthetic properties are adapted to local light so that canopy photosynthesis over a day is optimized. To test this hypothesis, 'daily' photosynthesis of individual leaves of Solanum melongena plants was calculated from instantaneous rates of photosynthesis integrated over the daylight hours. Instantaneous photosynthesis was estimated from the photosynthetic responses to photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) and from the incident PAR measured on individual leaves during clear and overcast days. Plants were grown with either abundant or scarce N fertilization. Both net and gross daily photosynthesis of leaves were linearly related to daily incident PAR exposure of individual leaves, which implies constant PhRUE over a day throughout the canopy. The slope of these relationships (i.e. PhRUE) increased with N fertilization. When the relationship was calculated for hourly instead of daily periods, the regressions were curvilinear, implying that PhRUE changed with time of the day and incident radiation. Thus, linearity (i.e. constant PhRUE) was achieved only when data were integrated over the entire day. Using average PAR in place of instantaneous incident PAR increased the slope of the relationship between daily photosynthesis and incident PAR of individual leaves, and the regression became curvilinear. The slope of the relationship between daily gross photosynthesis and incident PAR of individual leaves increased for an overcast compared with a clear day, but the slope remained constant for net photosynthesis. This suggests that net PhRUE of all leaves (and thus of the whole canopy) may be constant when integrated over a day, not only when the incident PAR changes with depth in the canopy, but also when it varies on the same leaf owing to changes in daily incident PAR above the canopy. The

  11. Factors influencing incidence of acute grade 2 morbidity in conformal and standard radiation treatment of prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanks, Gerald E.; Schultheiss, Timothy E.; Hunt, Margie A.; Epstein, Barry

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: The fundament hypothesis of conformal radiation therapy is that tumor control can be increased by using conformal treatment techniques that allow a higher tumor dose while maintaining an acceptable level of complications. To test this hypothesis, it is necessary first to estimate the incidence of morbidity for both standard and conformal fields. In this study, we examine factors that influence the incidence of acute grade 2 morbidity in patients treated with conformal and standard radiation treatment for prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: Two hundred and forty-seven consecutive patients treated with conformal technique are combined with and compared to 162 consecutive patients treated with standard techniques. The conformal technique includes special immobilization by a cast, careful identification of the target volume in three dimensions, localization of the inferior border of the prostate using the retrograde urethrogram, and individually shaped portals that conform to the Planning Target Volume (PTV). Univariate analysis compares differences in the incidence of RTOG-EORTC grade two acute morbidity by technique, T stage, age, irradiated volume, and dose. Multivariate logistic regression includes these same variables. Results: In nearly all categories, the conformal treatment group experienced significantly fewer acute grade 2 complications than the standard treatment group. Only volume (prostate ± whole pelvis) and technique (conformal vs. standard) were significantly related to incidence of morbidity on multivariate analysis. When dose is treated as a continuous variable (rather than being dichotomized into two levels), a trend is observed on multivariate analysis, but it does not reach significant levels. The incidence of acute grade 2 morbidity in patients 65 years or older is significantly reduced by use of the conformal technique. Conclusion: The conformal technique is associated with fewer grade 2 acute toxicities for all patients. This

  12. Validating FMEA output against incident learning data: A study in stereotactic body radiation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, F; Cao, N; Young, L; Howard, J; Logan, W; Arbuckle, T; Sponseller, P; Korssjoen, T; Meyer, J; Ford, E

    2015-06-01

    Though failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA) is becoming more widely adopted for risk assessment in radiation therapy, to our knowledge, its output has never been validated against data on errors that actually occur. The objective of this study was to perform FMEA of a stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) treatment planning process and validate the results against data recorded within an incident learning system. FMEA on the SBRT treatment planning process was carried out by a multidisciplinary group including radiation oncologists, medical physicists, dosimetrists, and IT technologists. Potential failure modes were identified through a systematic review of the process map. Failure modes were rated for severity, occurrence, and detectability on a scale of one to ten and risk priority number (RPN) was computed. Failure modes were then compared with historical reports identified as relevant to SBRT planning within a departmental incident learning system that has been active for two and a half years. Differences between FMEA anticipated failure modes and existing incidents were identified. FMEA identified 63 failure modes. RPN values for the top 25% of failure modes ranged from 60 to 336. Analysis of the incident learning database identified 33 reported near-miss events related to SBRT planning. Combining both methods yielded a total of 76 possible process failures, of which 13 (17%) were missed by FMEA while 43 (57%) identified by FMEA only. When scored for RPN, the 13 events missed by FMEA ranked within the lower half of all failure modes and exhibited significantly lower severity relative to those identified by FMEA (p = 0.02). FMEA, though valuable, is subject to certain limitations. In this study, FMEA failed to identify 17% of actual failure modes, though these were of lower risk. Similarly, an incident learning system alone fails to identify a large number of potentially high-severity process errors. Using FMEA in combination with incident learning may

  13. Immune responsiveness and incidence of reticulum cell sarcoma in long-term syngeneic radiation chimeras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adorini, L.; Gorini, G.; Covelli, V.; Ballardin, E.; di Michele, A.; Bassani, B.; Metalli, P.; Doria, G.

    1976-01-01

    Long-term syngeneic radiation chimeras displayed a very low incidence of reticulum cell sarcoma as compared with control mice. Immune reactivity of these animals was studied in vivo by anti-dinitrophenyl antibody titer and affinity and in vitro by mitotic responsiveness to phytohemagglutinin, concanavalin A and lipopolysaccharide. Antibody titer and affinity as well as the response to T lectins were found to be increased in chimeras. These results were attributed to increased function of mature T2 cells, which could explain the reduced incidence of reticulum cell sarcoma in chimeras

  14. Radiation protection measures in the case of incidents and radiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herzberg, B.

    1976-01-01

    Measures to be taken in the case of radiation accidents connected with an unusually high radiation exposure to persons, the amounts of which exceed the limiting values, with depend on whether there has been an external or an internal exposure. In order to give further treatment in the case of whole-body or partial-body irradiation, it is necessary to estimate the exposure dose. In nuclear medicine the accident doses are generally low, i.e. acute radiation damage does not occur here, and immediate measures are not necessary. Therapeutic measures in the case of incorporation accidents are only necessary when the maximum amounts for the nuclide in question recommended by the ICRP has been reached or exceeded in the organism. However, decorporation measures ought to be carried out only by qualified radiation protection physicians. The type of radiation accident which occurs most frequently in nuclear medicine is radiation exposure as a result of contamination. If in the case of contamination of a person the measurement exceeds the radioactivity limit, the decontamination measures are necessary. In the present contribution, these measures for cases without injuries are described in detail. (orig./HP) [de

  15. Radiating low back pain in general practice : Incidence, prevalence, diagnosis, and long-term clinical course of illness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spijker-Huiges, Antje; Groenhof, Feikje; Winters, Jan C.; van Wijhe, Marten; Groenier, Klaas H.; van der Meer, Klaas

    Objective. The aim of this study was to calculate the incidence and prevalence of radiating low back pain, to explore the long-term clinical course of radiating low back pain including the influence of radiculopathy (in a subsample of the study population) and non-radiating low back pain thereon,

  16. Has the incidence of radiation-induced bowel damage following treatment of uterine carcinoma changed in the last 20 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen-Mersh, T.C.; Wilson, E.J.; Hope-Stone, H.F.; Mann, C.V.

    1986-01-01

    Radiation-induced bowel damage occurred in 4.3% of patients treated primarily by irradiation for uterine carcinoma during the period 1962-1982. There has been a progressive rise in the incidence of radiation damage and radiation-induced rectovaginal fistula during this 20-year period. Radiation from intracavitary sources was a contributory factor in 92% of injured cases. The rising incidence of bowel damage in our patients may be due to an increase in the number of patients receiving a high rectal dose from the intracavitary source. There was a significantly (P<0.01) higher incidence of radiation injury in cases of cervical carcinoma compared to endometrical carcinoma. This was because cervical carcinoma tended to present at a more advanced stage than endometrial carcinoma and was more frequently treated with combined external and intracavitary irradiation. There was no significant increase in the incidence of complications among patients undergoing hysterectomy. (author)

  17. Medical and policy considerations for nuclear and radiation accidents, incidents and terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, Robert Peter

    2017-11-01

    The purpose of this review is to address the increasing medical and public concern regarding the health consequences of radiation exposure, a concern shaped not only by fear of another Chernobyl or Fukushima nuclear power facility accident but also by the intentional use of a nuclear weapon, a radiological dispersion device, a radiological exposure device, or an improved nuclear device by rogue states such as North Korea and terrorist organizations such as Al Qaeda and ISIS. The United States has the medical capacity to respond to a limited nuclear or radiation accident or incident but an effective medical response to a catastrophic nuclear event is impossible. Dealing effectively with nuclear and radiation accidents or incidents requires diverse strategies, including policy decisions, public education, and medical preparedness. I review medical consequences of exposures to ionizing radiations, likely concomitant injuries and potential medical intervention. These data should help haematologists and other healthcare professionals understand the principles of medical consequences of nuclear terrorism. However, the best strategy is prevention.

  18. Application of an incident taxonomy for radiation therapy: Analysis of five years of data from three integrated cancer centres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenham, Stuart; Manley, Stephen; Turnbull, Kirsty; Hoffmann, Matthew; Fonseca, Amara; Westhuyzen, Justin; Last, Andrew; Aherne, Noel J; Shakespeare, Thomas P

    2018-01-01

    To develop and apply a clinical incident taxonomy for radiation therapy. Capturing clinical incident information that focuses on near-miss events is critical for achieving higher levels of safety and reliability. A clinical incident taxonomy for radiation therapy was established; coding categories were prescription, consent, simulation, voluming, dosimetry, treatment, bolus, shielding, imaging, quality assurance and coordination of care. The taxonomy was applied to all clinical incidents occurring at three integrated cancer centres for the years 2011-2015. Incidents were managed locally, audited and feedback disseminated to all centres. Across the five years the total incident rate (per 100 courses) was 8.54; the radiotherapy-specific coded rate was 6.71. The rate of true adverse events (unintended treatment and potential patient harm) was 1.06. Adverse events, where no harm was identified, occurred at a rate of 2.76 per 100 courses. Despite workload increases, overall and actual rates both exhibited downward trends over the 5-year period. The taxonomy captured previously unidentified quality assurance failures; centre-specific issues that contributed to variations in incident trends were also identified. The application of a taxonomy developed for radiation therapy enhances incident investigation and facilitates strategic interventions. The practice appears to be effective in our institution and contributes to the safety culture. The ratio of near miss to actual incidents could serve as a possible measure of incident reporting culture and could be incorporated into large scale incident reporting systems.

  19. Effect of incident beam and diffuse radiation on par absorption, photosynthesis and transpiration of sitka spruce - a simulation study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Y.P.; Jarvis, P.G.

    1990-01-01

    A simulation model, Maestro, is used to study the influence of beam fraction in the incident radiation and the radiance distribution of the sky diffuse radiation on PAR absorption, photosynthesis and transpiration of a Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis (Bong.) Carr) tree crown. It is concluded that inaccurate separation of beam and diffuse radiation leads to significant errors in estimating the amounts of PAR absorbed, photosynthesis and transpiration by a tree in the stand. Much more attention should be paid to adequate descriptions of the radiance distribution of the sky diffuse radiation under different sky conditions. A useful approach is proposed for simulating the incident global radiaiton in a physiological, process-based model

  20. Conclusion. Chapter 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    Beginning 1992, January 1 Semipalatinsk test site was transforming into large research scientific center. The National Nuclear Center (NNC) was formed on the base of site's research enterprises. The principal problems of NNC are as follows: liquidation of nuclear tests consequences; liquidation of technological infrastructure for preparation and conducting of nuclear tests, creation of technology for radioactive wastes store; implementation of atomic energy development conception in Kazakhstan, etc. Program of site conversion constantly is expanding. In this chapter measures by rehabilitation of injured population are revealed. Taking into account radioecological situation, dose loadings, demographic indexes, sick rate and mortality of population on territories exposed to site's influence Government of Kazakhstan adopted Decree on declaration of these lands of zone of ecological catastrophe. Measures on improvement of radioecological situation are reduce to following ones: determination of irradiation doses received by population during testing period; study of existing radiation contamination; study of all possible sources for dose increasing and taking into account other ones; information of population about radioecological situation and about all consequences of nuclear tests. In 1992 Supreme Soviet of Republic of Kazakhstan worked out and adopted law On social defence of citizens suffered from consequences of nuclear tests on Semipalatinsk test site. It was distinguished four zones of radiation risk. The first zone is zone of extreme risk. It is part of territory subjected to radiation contamination with dose of influence on population above 100 rem during of total period of tests conducting. To this zone belong following inhabited settlements: Budene, Dolon', Cheremushki, Mostik, Sarzhal, Isa, Sarpan, Karakoryk, Zagotskot-2. Second zone is zone of maximal radiation risk. To this zone belong inhabited settlements of following districts: Abaj, Abraly, Beskargaj

  1. Review of reconstruction of radiation incident air kerma by measurement of absorbed dose in tooth enamel with EPR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieser, A

    2012-03-01

    Electron paramagnetic resonance dosimetry with tooth enamel has been proved to be a reliable method to determine retrospectively exposures from photon fields with minimal detectable doses of 100 mGy or lower, which is lower than achievable with cytogenetic dose reconstruction methods. For risk assessment or validating dosimetry systems for specific radiation incidents, the relevant dose from the incident has to be calculated from the total absorbed dose in enamel by subtracting additional dose contributions from the radionuclide content in teeth, natural external background radiation and medical exposures. For calculating organ doses or evaluating dosimetry systems the absorbed dose in enamel from a radiation incident has to be converted to air kerma using dose conversion factors depending on the photon energy spectrum and geometry of the exposure scenario. This paper outlines the approach to assess individual dose contributions to absorbed dose in enamel and calculate individual air kerma of a radiation incident from the absorbed dose in tooth enamel.

  2. Review of reconstruction of radiation incident air kerma by measurement of absorbed dose in tooth enamel with EPR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wieser, A.

    2012-01-01

    Electron paramagnetic resonance dosimetry with tooth enamel has been proved to be a reliable method to determine retrospectively exposures from photon fields with minimal detectable doses of 100 mGy or lower, which is lower than achievable with cytogenetic dose reconstruction methods. For risk assessment or validating dosimetry systems for specific radiation incidents, the relevant dose from the incident has to be calculated from the total absorbed dose in enamel by subtracting additional dose contributions from the radionuclide content in teeth, natural external background radiation and medical exposures. For calculating organ doses or evaluating dosimetry systems the absorbed dose in enamel from a radiation incident has to be converted to air kerma using dose conversion factors depending on the photon energy spectrum and geometry of the exposure scenario. This paper outlines the approach to assess individual dose contributions to absorbed dose in enamel and calculate individual air kerma of a radiation incident from the absorbed dose in tooth enamel. (author)

  3. Incidence and predictors of Lhermitte’s sign among patients receiving mediastinal radiation for lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youssef, Bassem; Shank, JoAnn; Reddy, Jay P.; Pinnix, Chelsea C.; Farha, George; Akhtari, Mani; Allen, Pamela K.; Fanale, Michelle A.; Garcia, John A.; Horace, Patricia H.; Milgrom, Sarah; Smith, Grace Li; Nieto, Yago; Arzu, Isadora; Wang, He; Fowler, Nathan; Rodriguez, Maria Alma; Dabaja, Bouthaina

    2015-01-01

    To prospectively examine the risk of developing Lhermitte’s sign (LS) in patients with lymphoma treated with modern-era chemotherapy followed by consolidation intensity-modulated radiation therapy. We prospectively interviewed all patients with lymphoma who received irradiation to the mediastinum from July 2011 through April 2014. We extracted patient, disease, and treatment-related variables from the medical records of those patients and dosimetric variables from treatment-planning systems and analyzed these factors to identify potential predictors of LS with Pearson chi-square tests. During the study period 106 patients received mediastinal radiation for lymphoma, and 31 (29 %) developed LS. No correlations were found between LS and any of the variables examined, including total radiation dose, maximum point dose to the spinal cord, volume receiving 105 % of the dose, and volumes receiving 5 or 15 Gy. In this group of patients, treatment with chemotherapy followed by intensity-modulated radiation therapy led to 29 % developing LS; this symptom was independent of radiation dose and seemed to be an idiosyncratic reaction. This relatively high incidence could have resulted from prospective use of a structured interview

  4. Incidence of neural tube defects in the natural radiation coastal areas of Kerala

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaikrishan, G.; Sudheer, K.R.; Andrews, V.J.; Koya, P.K.M.; Cheriyan, V.D.; Seshadri, M.

    2010-01-01

    All consecutive births in selected government hospitals in and around the high level natural background radiation areas (HLNRA) of Kerala were monitored for congenital malformations observable at birth since 1995. The HLNR area, a coastal strip of land about 55 km in length and 0.5 km in breadth from Purakkad in the north in Alleppey district to Sakthikulangara in the south of Quilon district, stands out among the most prominent background radiation areas of the world. Natural deposit of monazite sand, containing Thorium (8-10%), Uranium (0.3%) and corresponding decay products, is the source of elevated background radiation, ranging from < 1 to 45 mGy/year. Wide variation in dose, due to the patchy and non-uniform distribution of Monazite sand, enables in built controls. High population density, limited migration, ethnic diversity, good literacy, health awareness, institutionalized births and acceptance of small family norm are some of the key features of the population. Areas with a mean radiation dose of more than 1.5 mGy/year were treated as HLNR areas and areas with a dose level of 1.5 mGy/year or less were treated as normal level radiation (NLNR) areas. The study carried out since 1995 does not seem to implicate HLNR in the incidence of neural tube defects among newborns

  5. Incident solar radiation and coronary heart disease mortality rates in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, Alfred

    2008-01-01

    The reported low mortality rate from coronary heart disease in Portugal, Spain, Italy, Greece, and France, to a lesser extent, has been attributed in numerous nutritional studies to the consumption of a Mediterranean-type diet. There are still many unresolved issues about the direct causal effect of the Mediterranean dietary regime on low incidence of coronary heart disease. An analysis of coronary heart disease mortality rates in Europe from a latitudinal gradient perspective has shown to have a close correlation to incident solar radiation. It is surmised that the resulting increased in situ biosynthesis of Vitamin D 3 could be the critical missing confounder in the analysis of the beneficial health outcome of the Mediterranean diet

  6. Relation between cancer incidence or mortality and external natural background radiation in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ujeno, Y.

    1983-01-01

    Analysis was performed on the relationships between the organ dose-equivalent rate due to natural background radiation (mSv/a) and three parameters of cancer risk: the age-adjusted cancer incidence (patients x 10 5 persons x a -1 ) in 13 large areas, the standardized mortality ratio of cancers in 46 large areas, and the cancer mortality in the population aged more than 40 years old (cancer deaths x 10 5 persons x a -1 ) in 649 small areas. The age-adjusted liver cancer incidence in males fitted the exponential model significantly (p<0.01) and the relationship of stomach cancer mortality of aged males in small areas fitted the linear model significantly (p<0.05). No relationship was observed with regard to female cancer in either case. The relationships between the three parameters and various other cancers of both sexes were not statistically significant. (author)

  7. Causality of relationship between paternal radiation exposure and leukaemia incidence in the children of Sellafield workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wheldon, T.E.; Mairs, R.J.; Barrett, A.

    1992-01-01

    In this letter the author comments on K.E. Baverstock's case (1991) against the likelihood of a causal relationship between reported leukemia incidence and paternal radiation dose in the children of Sellafield workers, and emphasizes the desirability of devising experimental tests of the germ-cell line damage hypothesis as well as the evaluation of its plausibility. Particular reference is made to the role played by dose-rates and by the two-hit model for childhood acute leukemia. (Letter to the Editor)

  8. General conclusions on workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rustand, H.

    2006-01-01

    The author proposes a general conclusion on the second workshop on the indemnification of damage in the event of a nuclear accident, organized in Bratislava, the 18-20 May 2005. He pointed out the most important discussions and the results revealed during these two days. (A.L.B.)

  9. Conclusions and recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    The FAO/IAEA/GSF/SIDA Co-ordinated Research Programme on Cereal Grain Protein Improvement by Nuclear Techniques was a follow-up to the FAO/IAEA/GSF Co-ordinated Research Programme on the Use of Nuclear Techniques for Seed Protein Improvement. It was initiated in 1969 and ended in 1981. The objectives of the meeting were to review and evaluate the achievements of the current and previous programmes in order to draw conclusions on the possibility of genetic improvement of cereal grain protein using nuclear techniques, to identify unsolved problems and to discuss and propose possible approaches for their solution. Through reviews and discussions, conclusions and recommendations were made by the participants

  10. Molecular dynamics study of radiation damage and microstructure evolution of zigzag single-walled carbon nanotubes under carbon ion incidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huan; Tang, Xiaobin; Chen, Feida; Huang, Hai; Liu, Jian; Chen, Da

    2016-07-01

    The radiation damage and microstructure evolution of different zigzag single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) were investigated under incident carbon ion by molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The radiation damage of SWCNTs under incident carbon ion with energy ranging from 25 eV to 1 keV at 300 K showed many differences at different incident sites, and the defect production increased to the maximum value with the increase in incident ion energy, and slightly decreased but stayed fairly stable within the majority of the energy range. The maximum damage of SWCNTs appeared when the incident ion energy reached 200 eV and the level of damage was directly proportional to incident ion fluence. The radiation damage was also studied at 100 K and 700 K and the defect production decreased distinctly with rising temperature because radiation-induced defects would anneal and recombine by saturating dangling bonds and reconstructing carbon network at the higher temperature. Furthermore, the stability of a large-diameter tube surpassed that of a thin one under the same radiation environments.

  11. Spatial variation of natural radiation and childhood leukaemia incidence in Great Britain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richardson, Sylvia; Monfort, Christine; Green, Martyn; Muirhead, Colin; Draper, Gerald

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes an analysis of the geographical variation of childhood leukaemia incidence in Great Britain over a 15 year period in relation to natural radiation (gamma and radon). Data at the level of the 459 district level local authorities in England, Wales and regional districts in Scotland are analysed in two complementary ways: first, by Poisson regressions with the inclusion of environmental covariates and a smooth spatial structure; secondly, by a hierarchical Bayesian model in which extra-Poisson variability is modelled explicitly in terms of spatial and non-spatial components. From this analysis, we deduce a strong indication that a main part of the variability is accounted for by a local neighbourhood 'clustering' structure. This structure is furthermore relatively stable over the 15 year period for the lymphocytic leukaemias which make up the majority of observed cases. We found no evidence of a positive association of childhood leukaemia incidence with outdoor or indoor gamma radiation levels. There is no consistent evidence of any association with radon levels. Indeed, in the Poisson regressions, a significant positive association was only observed for one 5-year period, a result which is not compatible with a stable environmental effect. Moreover, this positive association became clearly non-significant when over-dispersion relative to the Poisson distribution was taken into account. (author)

  12. 7. Conclusions and reflections

    OpenAIRE

    Nettle, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    But now your eyes sing the sad, sad song,Of how you lived so fast and died so young. Introduction We’ve now finished the data chapters of this book, and some conclusions are in order. In this chapter, I summarise what strike me as the main things we have learned, and suggest what their implications might be. I then devote a more extended discussion to the issue of causes of patterns of social behaviour, and how our data might bear on it. From this follows a brief consideration of what kinds o...

  13. Unusual reflection of electromagnetic radiation from a stack of graphene layers at oblique incidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bludov, Yu V; Peres, N M R; Vasilevskiy, M I

    2013-01-01

    We study the interaction of electromagnetic (EM) radiation with single-layer graphene and a stack of parallel graphene sheets at arbitrary angles of incidence. It is found that the behavior is qualitatively different for transverse magnetic (or p-polarized) and transverse electric (or s-polarized) waves. In particular, the absorbance of single-layer graphene attains a minimum (maximum) for the p (s)-polarization at the angle of total internal reflection when the light comes from a medium with a higher dielectric constant. In the case of equal dielectric constants of the media above and beneath graphene, for grazing incidence graphene is almost 100% transparent to p-polarized waves and acts as a tunable mirror for the s-polarization. These effects are enhanced for a stack of graphene sheets, so the system can work as a broad band polarizer. It is shown further that a periodic stack of graphene layers has the properties of a one-dimensional photonic crystal, with gaps (or stop bands) at certain frequencies. When an incident EM wave is reflected from this photonic crystal, the tunability of the graphene conductivity renders the possibility of controlling the gaps, and the structure can operate as a tunable spectral-selective mirror. (paper)

  14. A management plan for hospitals and medical centers facing radiation incidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davari, Fereshteh; Zahed, Arash

    2015-09-01

    Nowadays, application of nuclear technology in different industries has largely expanded worldwide. Proportionately, the risk of nuclear incidents and the resulting injuries have, therefore, increased in recent years. Preparedness is an important part of the crisis management cycle; therefore efficient preplanning seems crucial to any crisis management plan. Equipped with facilities and experienced personnel, hospitals naturally engage with the response to disasters. The main purpose of our study was to present a practical management pattern for hospitals and medical centers in case they encounter a nuclear emergency. In this descriptive qualitative study, data were collected through experimental observations, sources like Safety manuals released by the International Atomic Energy Agency and interviews with experts to gather their ideas along with Delphi method for polling, and brainstorming. In addition, the 45 experts were interviewed on three targeted using brainstorming and Delphi method. We finally proposed a management plan along with a set of practicality standards for hospitals and medical centers to optimally respond to nuclear medical emergencies when a radiation incident happens nearby. With respect to the great importance of preparedness against nuclear incidents adoption and regular practice of nuclear crisis management codes for hospitals and medical centers seems quite necessary.

  15. Survival of rats bearing advanced intracerebral F 98 tumors after glutathione depletion and microbeam radiation therapy: conclusions from a pilot project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schültke, E; Bräuer-Krisch, E; Blattmann, H; Requardt, H; Laissue, J A; Hildebrandt, G

    2018-05-10

    Resistance to radiotherapy is frequently encountered in patients with glioblastoma multiforme. It is caused at least partially by the high glutathione content in the tumour tissue. Therefore, the administration of the glutathione synthesis inhibitor Buthionine-SR-Sulfoximine (BSO) should increase survival time. BSO was tested in combination with an experimental synchrotron-based treatment, microbeam radiation therapy (MRT), characterized by spatially and periodically alternating microscopic dose distribution. One hundred thousand F98 glioma cells were injected into the right cerebral hemisphere of adult male Fischer rats to generate an orthotopic small animal model of a highly malignant brain tumour in a very advanced stage. Therapy was scheduled for day 13 after tumour cell implantation. At this time, 12.5% of the animals had already died from their disease. The surviving 24 tumour-bearing animals were randomly distributed in three experimental groups: subjected to MRT alone (Group A), to MRT plus BSO (Group B) and tumour-bearing untreated controls (Group C). Thus, half of the irradiated animals received an injection of 100 μM BSO into the tumour two hours before radiotherapy. Additional tumour-free animals, mirroring the treatment of the tumour-bearing animals, were included in the experiment. MRT was administered in bi-directional mode with arrays of quasi-parallel beams crossing at the tumour location. The width of the microbeams was ≈28 μm with a center-to-center distance of ≈400 μm, a peak dose of 350 Gy, and a valley dose of 9 Gy in the normal tissue and 18 Gy at the tumour location; thus, the peak to valley dose ratio (PVDR) was 31. After tumour-cell implantation, otherwise untreated rats had a mean survival time of 15 days. Twenty days after implantation, 62.5% of the animals receiving MRT alone (group A) and 75% of the rats given MRT + BSO (group B) were still alive. Thirty days after implantation, survival was 12.5% in Group A and 62

  16. Sci-Fri AM: Quality, Safety, and Professional Issues 06: An Evaluation of Incident Reporting and Learning using the Canadian National System for Incident Reporting – Radiation Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montgomery, Logan; Kildea, John [McGill University Health Centre (Canada)

    2016-08-15

    We report on the development and clinical deployment of an in-house incident reporting and learning system that implements the taxonomy of the Canadian National System for Incident Reporting – Radiation Treatment (NSIR-RT). In producing our new system, we aimed to: Analyze actual incidents, as well as potentially dangerous latent conditions. Produce recommendations on the NSIR-RT taxonomy. Incorporate features to divide reporting responsibility among clinical staff and expedite incident categorization within the NSIR-RT framework. Share anonymized incident data with the national database. Our multistep incident reporting workflow is focused around an initial report and a detailed follow-up investigation. An investigator, chosen at the time of reporting, is tasked with performing the investigation. The investigation feature is connected to our electronic medical records database to allow automatic field population and quick reference of patient and treatment information. Additional features include a robust visualization suite, as well as the ability to flag incidents for discussion at monthly Risk Management meetings and task ameliorating actions to staff. Our system was deployed into clinical use in January 2016. Over the first three months of use, 45 valid incidents were reported; 31 of which were reported as actual incidents as opposed to near-misses or reportable circumstances. However, we suspect there is ambiguity within our centre in determining the appropriate event type, which may be arising from the taxonomy itself. Preliminary trending analysis aided in revealing workflow issues pertaining to storage of treatment accessories and treatment planning delays. Extensive analysis will be undertaken as more data are accrued.

  17. Sci-Fri AM: Quality, Safety, and Professional Issues 06: An Evaluation of Incident Reporting and Learning using the Canadian National System for Incident Reporting – Radiation Treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montgomery, Logan; Kildea, John

    2016-01-01

    We report on the development and clinical deployment of an in-house incident reporting and learning system that implements the taxonomy of the Canadian National System for Incident Reporting – Radiation Treatment (NSIR-RT). In producing our new system, we aimed to: Analyze actual incidents, as well as potentially dangerous latent conditions. Produce recommendations on the NSIR-RT taxonomy. Incorporate features to divide reporting responsibility among clinical staff and expedite incident categorization within the NSIR-RT framework. Share anonymized incident data with the national database. Our multistep incident reporting workflow is focused around an initial report and a detailed follow-up investigation. An investigator, chosen at the time of reporting, is tasked with performing the investigation. The investigation feature is connected to our electronic medical records database to allow automatic field population and quick reference of patient and treatment information. Additional features include a robust visualization suite, as well as the ability to flag incidents for discussion at monthly Risk Management meetings and task ameliorating actions to staff. Our system was deployed into clinical use in January 2016. Over the first three months of use, 45 valid incidents were reported; 31 of which were reported as actual incidents as opposed to near-misses or reportable circumstances. However, we suspect there is ambiguity within our centre in determining the appropriate event type, which may be arising from the taxonomy itself. Preliminary trending analysis aided in revealing workflow issues pertaining to storage of treatment accessories and treatment planning delays. Extensive analysis will be undertaken as more data are accrued.

  18. Role of radiation therapy in the management of plasma cell tumors. [Incidence of complications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mill, W.B.; Griffith, R.

    1980-02-15

    A retrospective review is reported of 128 patients presenting with multiple myeloma and 16 patients presenting with solitary plasmacytoma. Ninety-one percent of 116 evaluable patients treated for palliation of painful bone disease received some degree of subjective pain relief. The radiation dose most frequently prescribed was between 1500 and 2000 rad. Of the 278 ports treated, only 17 (6.1%) were re-treated to the same area at a later date. There was no increase in incidence of re-treatment with lower radiation doses. Ten of the 13 patients treated for a solitary plasmacytoma with a minimum follow-up period of three years have local tumor control. The median survival in the solitary plasmacytomas is five and one-half years. Data from the literature on 27 additional solitary plasmacytomas combined with our data suggest an improved local control and a decrease in dissemination with doses greater than 5000 rad. It is concluded that low doses of radiation are usually adequate to treat painful bone lesions of multiple myeloma and doses of 5000 to 6500 rad in six to seven weeks are recommended for solitary plasmacytomas.

  19. X-ray radiation damage of organic semiconductor thin films during grazing incidence diffraction experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neuhold, A., E-mail: alfred.neuhold@tugraz.at [Institute of Solid State Physics, Graz University of Technology, Graz (Austria); Novak, J.; Flesch, H.-G.; Moser, A.; Djuric, T. [Institute of Solid State Physics, Graz University of Technology, Graz (Austria); Grodd, L.; Grigorian, S.; Pietsch, U. [Institute of Physics, University Siegen (Germany); Resel, R. [Institute of Solid State Physics, Graz University of Technology, Graz (Austria)

    2012-08-01

    Since modern synchrotrons with highly intense X-ray beams are in use to investigate organic materials, the stability of soft matter materials during beam exposure is a crucial issue. Grazing incidence X-ray diffraction and specular X-ray reflectivity measurements were performed on thin films of organic semiconducting materials, like poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT), sexithiophene and pentacene. These films were irradiated with an average flux density between 10{sup 15} and 10{sup 16} photons/(s mm{sup 2}) and evidenced a different stability in synchrotron X-ray radiation. The semi-crystalline P3HT showed a clear intensity decrease of the 1 0 0 Bragg peak and 0 2 0 Bragg peak compared to the rather stable diffraction features of the molecular crystals sexithiophene and pentacene. The difference in synchrotron X-ray radiation stability is explained by the interaction of the X-ray beam with the individual chemical components in the molecules as well as by the different crystallinities of the materials. Furthermore, the semi-crystalline P3HT film exhibited an increase of film thickness after irradiation and the surface roughness slightly decreased. To summarize, this study shows a strong influence of synchrotron X-ray radiation to specific organic thin films like e.g. P3HT, while others like pentacene and sexithiophene are observed as quite stable.

  20. Assessment of ionizing radiation as a risk factor for breast cancer incidence in Goiania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lage, Leonardo Bastos

    2016-01-01

    This research aims to evaluate whether exposure to ionizing radiation to which women are subjected can be associated with the incidence of breast cancer in Goiania. The defined study area is the central region of Goiania, or the Sanitary Districts of Campinas-Centro and Sul, in which are the seven major accident sources of contamination with Cesium 137, and also, as shown by previous study, the majority of new cases of breast cancer (60,43 %). We used the geographical division of the city in census tracts and health districts. The data collection was divided in two stages: the first, for the survey of radiometric measurements, and the second, for identifying the addresses of women diagnosed with breast cancer. The radiometric survey occurred between 2010 and 2014, in which was used an environmental gamma radiation mobile measuring system. This system was composed by a high-sensitivity detector coupled to a Global Positioning System (GPS) and a microcomputer. The assembly was installed on a motor vehicle so that the height of the detector is found at one meter from the ground, and programmed to obtain a measurement of the doses absorbed in the air rate each second. The data collected were: doses absorbed in the air rate, geographical coordinates, altitude, date and time of acquisition. From Mobisys software, files were generated and from ArcGIS 10.0 platform, geospatial assessment survey through the elaboration of thematic maps and geospatial analysis statistics. The annual averages of effective doses and collective effective doses were estimated from the rate of doses absorbed in air collected by the system and the resident population in the census tracts. The second stage begun from the data collection at the Registry of Goiania's Population Based Cancer (RCBPGO), in which were identified addresses of women diagnosed with breast cancer between 2001 and 2010. Part of the data was geographically referenced and using census data were estimated and compared the

  1. Summary and Conclusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    This section summarizes the presentations and Panel discussions of the 4 technical sessions of the workshop: 1 - Regulatory cooperation on generic and design specific issues, MDEP working groups (EPR, AP1000), vendor inspection co-operation, digital I and C, and codes and standards (7 presentations); 2 - Regulatory positions on siting practices and enhancements as a result of lessons learned from Fukushima accident (5 presentations); 3 - Construction experience and regulatory oversight of new reactor construction activities (6 presentations); 4 - Lessons learned from regulatory licensing reviews of new reactor designs (6 presentations). The main workshop conclusions are listed as follows: - Harmonization is a long term goal and significant progress has been made. However, this long term objective needs to be associated with short term measurable steps; - MDEP approach to tackle on one side with specific technical subjects, and to strive harmonisation on generic topics was considered appropriate; - Convergence on technical requirements is more realistic than harmonization of codes and standard; - Beneficial early engagement of different stakeholders specially at the siting stage has been acknowledged; - Need to characterise the hazards and to keep updated the safety assessment (PSR); - Land use issues are important particularly after Fukushima; - Commissioning aspects (e.g. training aspects for inspectors) should be addressed by WGRNR taking into account MDEP interaction; - Importance of WGRNR ConEx Programme: construction experience sharing is a leverage for quality and so for a future safe operation of NPPs; - Capability of licensee to follow the responsibility of design changes (could be an issue for small utilities); - Importance of Periodic Safety Reviews to review and account for the design. Finally, the WGRNR has convened that a third conference should be held in about two years time (2014- 2015)

  2. Survey on risk perception of radiation following an incident involving a stuck 60Co source in Henan Province, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lei, C.; Sun, Q.; Cheng, X.; Zhang, Q.; Fu, Y.; Chu, C.; Zhao, Y.; Qin, W.; Su, X.

    2012-01-01

    In July 2009, an incident involving a stuck Co-60 source led hundreds of thousands of people to escape Qi County, Henan Province, China, although no medical or environmental consequences were related to the incident. To investigate knowledge about radiation, public risk-perception of radiation, and evaluation of the official response, a survey was conducted in Qi and Hui County (control). Face-to-face questionnaire interviews were conducted among three groups with different educational backgrounds. In total, 1340 valid questionnaires were collected from people interviewed. Knowledge about radiation was low in all groups in both counties, although knowledge in Qi County was higher than that in Hui County (control). More than 40 % respondents supported construction of nuclear power plants (NPPs) in China, while only a few supported constructing NPPs in their vicinity. The main reasons for the mass escape following the incident were assumed to be lack of knowledge about radiation, misinformation, the government's failure to disclose information in time and imitation of group behaviour. Over 60 % in Group I and II trusted the local government. About 64 % disapproved the response of the Qi County government. After the incident, the population in Qi County still knows little about radiation. Although people trust the government, they are dissatisfied with the response of the local government regarding the incident. (authors)

  3. Assessment of radiation doses due to normal operation, incidents and accidents of the final disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossi, J.; Raiko, H.; Suolanen, V.; Ilvonen, M.

    1999-03-01

    Radiation doses for workers of the encapsulation and disposal facility and for inhabitants in the environment caused by the facility during its operation were considered. The study covers both the normal operation of the plant and some hypothetical incidents and accidents. Occupational radiation doses inside the plant during normal operation are based on the design basis, assuming that highest permitted dose levels are prevailing in control rooms during fuel transfer and encapsulation processes. Release through the ventilation stack is assumed to be filtered both in normal operation and in hypothetical incident and accident cases. Calculation of the offsite doses from normal operation is based on the hypothesis that one fuel pin per 100 fuel bundles for all batches of spent fuel transported to the encapsulation facility is leaking. The release magnitude in incidents and accidents is based on the event chains, which lead to loss of fuel pin tightness followed by a discharge of radionuclides into the handling chamber and to some degree through the ventilation stack into atmosphere. The weather data measured at the Olkiluoto meteorological mast was employed for calculating of offsite doses. Therefore doses could be calculated in a large amount of different dispersion conditions, the statistical frequencies of which have, been measured. Finally doses were combined into cumulative distributions, from which a dose value representing the 99.5 % confidence level, is presented. The dose values represent the exposure of a critical group, which is assumed to live at the distance of 200 meters from the encapsulation and disposal plant and thus it will receive the largest doses in most dispersion conditions. Exposure pathways considered were: cloudsnine, inhalation, groundshine and nutrition (milk of cow, meat of cow, green vegetables, grain and root vegetables). Nordic seasonal variation is included in ingestion dose models. The results obtained indicate that offsite doses

  4. Summary and conclusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    authorities, reactor designers, and operators/ licensees perspectives on the various practices used in the regulation of nuclear power plant siting (selection, evaluation and site preparation). This session was also aimed to address issues on sites where a mixture of activities are taking place (e.g., operating units, new construction, decommissioning, etc.) including organisation of the regulators and licensee/engineering organisation, methods, systems, etc. Conclusions: In general workshop participants agreed on the need to regularly have these kind of forums to discuss relevant regulatory issues for new builds. One important aspect of this workshop was the participation of 'New Entrants'. The interaction between NEA member countries with mature nuclear power plants and newcomers was quite important since it gave newcomers the possibility to benefit of mature international practices in order to focus their regulatory oversight and control. NEA members could also benefit from insights the New Entrants discover as they develop or enhance their regulatory controls. In addition technical exchanges associated with construction experience of New Entrants as they begin to license, build and operate NPP could benefit NEA members

  5. High-flux normal incidence monochromator for circularly polarized synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaefers, F.; Peatman, W.; Eyers, A.; Heckenkamp, C.; Schoenhense, G.; Heinzmann, U.

    1986-01-01

    A 6.5-m normal incidence monochromator installed at the storage ring BESSY, which is optimized for a high throughput of circularly polarized off-plane radiation at moderate resolution is described. The monochromator employs two exit slits and is specially designed and used for low-signal experiments such as spin- and angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy on solids, adsorbates, free atoms, and molecules. The Monk--Gillieson mounting (plane grating in a convergent light beam) allows for large apertures with relatively little astigmatism. With two gratings, a flux of more than 10 11 photons s -1 bandwidth -1 (0.2--0.5 nm) with a circular polarization of more than 90% in the wavelength range from 35 to 675 nm is achieved

  6. Mirror and grating surface figure requirements for grazing incidence synchrotron radiation beamlines: Power loading effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hulbert, S.L.; Sharma, S.

    1987-01-01

    At present, grazing incidence mirrors are used almost exclusively as the first optical element in VUV and soft x-ray synchrotron radiation beamlines. The performance of these mirrors is determined by thermal and mechanical stress-induced figure errors as well as by figure errors remaining from the grinding and polishing process. With the advent of VUV and soft x-ray undulators and wigglers has come a new set of thermal stress problems related to both the magnitude and the spatial distribution of power from these devices. In many cases the power load on the entrance slits and gratings in these beamlines is no longer negligible. The dependence of thermally-induced front-end mirror figure errors on various storage ring and insertion device parameters (especially those at the National Synchrotron Light Source) and the effects of these figure errors on two classes of soft x-ray beamlines are presented.

  7. The incidence of other primary cancers in patients with an oral cancer treated with radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizutani, Kiminari; Koseki, Yonoshin; Ikeda, Hiroshi

    1992-01-01

    From January 1980 through April 1990, a total of 317 patients with an oral cancer were treated with radiation therapy at Department of Radiology, Osaka University Hospital. Twenty-seven (8.5%) of these 317 patients had other primary cancers. For statistical purposes, the expected number of other primary cancers was estimated by multiplying the age-sex specific incidence rates among Osaka residents with the Person-year at risk figures, based on the Osaka Prefectural Cancer Registry. The observed/expected [0/E] ratios were 16.00 (p<0.01) for the esophagus and 28.42 (p<0.01) for the oropharynx. The present study suggested the necessity of following up oral cancer patients, especially those who have had carcinoma of the mouth floor, in order to enable the early diagnosis of upper digestive tract cancer. (author)

  8. Mark IV 'Grasshopper' grazing incidence mono-chromator for the Canadian Synchrotron Radiation Facility (CSRF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, K.H.; Bancroft, G.M.; Coatsworth, L.L.; Yates, B.W.

    1982-01-01

    The vacuum, mechanical, and optical characteristics of a 'Grasshopper' grazing incidence monochromator for use with a synchrotron radiation source in the 30-300 eV range is described. The monochromator is compatible with ultrahigh vacuum ( -10 Torr throughout), and the motor driven scan mechanism is linear and reliable. The monchromator has been calibrated using several known absorption edges between 36 and 102 eV and a nonlinear least squares fit to the scan equation. These same absorption edges, plus a scan over zero order, show that the present resolution of the monochromator (with 10 and 16 μm exit and entrance slits respectively) is 0.16 A (0.06 eV at the AlLsub(2,3) edge). With 10 μm entrance and exit slits the resolution will be very close to the theoretical Δlambda = 0.083 A

  9. Solar ultraviolet radiation in Syria measurements and relationship with skin cancer incidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Othman, I; Baydon, S.A.; Dawood, S.

    1994-11-01

    Seasonal variations of solar UVB (285-320) and UVA (320-400) were measured in three sites in Syria (33-37 N sup O) for two years: 1992-1993. UVB measurements were performed using polysulphone films and Robertson-Berger meter, while UVA measurements were done by NVA intensity meter. Two sets of measurements were carried out : - Maximal daily doses three times a week (every other day) - Diurnal variations from sun-rise to sun-set every two hours twice a month (every fortnight). The biological consequences of ultraviolet radiation withreference to some epidemiological data of skin cancer incidence in Syria since 1980 were discussed .(author). 36 refs., 21 figs., 11 tabs

  10. Determination, through of thermoluminescence dosimetry, of the incident radiation in critical organs, during cephalometric radiographies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hipolito Junior, O. di; Goncalves, N.; Boscolo, F.N.; Montebelo Filho, A.

    1985-01-01

    The object of this paper was to value and to compare the doses of X-ray incident in critical orgas of patient and operator, during cephalometric radiography. Each patient was submited for two radiographics expositions. First of all, they use the followings factors: 85 kVp, 15 mA and 4/10 s of exposition; while of the second radiography the conditions were of 70 kVp, 15 mA and 1.2 s of exposition. The dosimetric method was the thermoluminescent through the LiF-700. Although the cephalometric radiographies showed similars qualities, in bot conditions where the equipment functioned, the situation of high voltage was noted small doses of radiation. (author) [pt

  11. Relationship between incident radiation, leaf area and dry-matter yield in wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saini, A.D.; Nanda, R.

    1986-01-01

    Light-utilization efficiency was evaluated between 20 and 50 days of crop growth period in 'Kalyansona', 'Sonalika' (semi-dwarf), 'Hindi 62' (tall) varieties of bread-wheat (Triticum aestivum Linn. emend., Fiori and Paol.) and semi-dwarf 'HD 4502' variety of macaroni wheat (T. durum Desf.). In the first model, the relationship between absorbed photosynthetic radiation and crop growth rates showed above-ground dry matter of 2.9 g in 'Sonalika', 2.5 g each in 'Kalyansona' and 'HD 4502' and 1.8 g in 'Hindi 62' were produced for each megajoule of absorbed photosynthetic radiation corresponding to the growth efficiency of 5.1, 4.4 and 3.1% respectively. In the second model of partial regression analysis, the rate of change in dry matter due to mean green area index as well as photosynthetic radiation was low in 'Hindi 62'. However, the dry matter changes due to mean green area index were similar in 'Kalyansona', 'HD4502' and 'Sonalika', but was high due to photosynthetic radiation in 'Sonalika' only. Both models gave similar conclusion

  12. A parameter quantifying radiation damping of bay oscillations excited by incident tsunamis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endoh, Takahiro; Inazu, Daisuke; Waseda, Takuji; Hibiya, Toshiyuki

    2018-04-01

    The transient response of a bay with a narrow mouth to incident tsunamis is interpreted as the convolution of the input signal with the impulse response obtained by an inverse Fourier transform of the response curve of the oscillatory system with one degree of freedom. The rate of radiation damping associated with energy escaping seaward through the bay mouth is expressed in terms of the quality factor Q, which determines the decaying envelope of the impulse response. The value of Q of the resonant peak is approximated by the ratio of the resonant frequency ω0 to the bandwidth between frequencies at which the power spectral density of sea level within the bay drops to half of the peak value. Since the shape of the frequency power spectrum during the tsunami event is almost similar to that in the normal state in the neighborhood of ω0, Q can be estimated from sea level datasets in the normal state. Although the amplitude and phase of the impulse response need to be adjusted using the first crest or trough of the observed leading wave, this approach proves to work well in examining the transient responses of Miyako Bay and Kushimoto Bay on the Japanese Pacific coast to incident tsunamis.

  13. An evaluation of early countermeasures to reduce the risk of internal radiation exposure after the Fukushima nuclear incident in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Shuhei; Tsubokura, Masaharu; Gilmour, Stuart; Hayano, Ryugo S; Watanabe, Yuni N; Kami, Masahiro; Kanazawa, Yukio; Oikawa, Tomoyoshi

    2016-05-01

    After a radiation-release incident, intake of radionuclides in the initial stage immediately following the incident may be the major contributor to total internal radiation exposure for individuals in affected areas. However, evaluation of early internal contamination risk is greatly lacking. This study assessed the relationship between initial stage evacuation/indoor sheltering and internal radiation contamination levels 4 months after the 2011 Fukushima nuclear incident in Japan and estimated potential pathways of the contamination. The study population comprised 525 participants in the internal radiation screening program at Minamisoma Municipal General Hospital, 23 km north of the Fukushima nuclear plant. The analysed dataset included the results of a screening performed in July 2011, 4 months after the incident, and of a questionnaire on early-incident response behaviours, such as sheltering indoors and evacuations, completed by participants. Association between such early countermeasures and internal contamination levels of cesium-134 were assessed using Tobit multiple regression analyses. Our study shows that individuals who evacuated to areas outside Fukushima Prefecture had similar contamination levels of cesium-134 to individuals who stayed in Fukushima (relative risk: 0.86; 95% confidence interval: 0.74-0.99). Time spent outdoors had no significant relationship with contamination levels. The effects of inhalation from radiological plumes released from the nuclear plant on total internal radiation contamination might be so low as to be undetectable by the whole-body counting unit used to examine participants. Given the apparent limited effectiveness of evacuation and indoor sheltering on internal contamination, the decision to implement such early responses to a radiation-release incident should be made by carefully balancing their potential benefits and health risks. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For

  14. Effects of radiation on the incidence of prostate cancer among Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Hisayoshi; Soda, Midori; Mine, Mariko; Yokota, Kenichi

    2013-10-01

    Atomic bomb survivors have been reported to have an increased risk of some cancers, especially leukemia. However, the risk of prostate cancer in atomic bomb survivors is not known to have been examined previously. This study examined the association between atomic bomb radiation and the incidence of prostate cancer among male Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors. The subjects were classified by distance from the hypocenter into a proximal group (bomb survivors who were alive in 1996. The Cox proportional hazard model was used to estimate the risk of prostate cancer development, with adjustment for age at atomic bomb explosion, attained age, smoking status, and alcohol consumption. Compared with the distal group, the proximal group had significant increased risks of total, localized, and high-grade prostate cancer (relative risk and 95% confidence interval: 1.51 [1.21-1.89]; 1.80 [1.26-2.57]; and 1.88 [1.20-2.94], respectively). This report is the first known to reveal a significant relationship between atomic bomb radiation and prostate cancer. © 2013 Japanese Cancer Association.

  15. Conclusions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In long-term better adapted varieties are needed to adapt to multiple stresses linked with climate change. ... and water management are available which can help minimize negative impacts. ... Adaptation practices take time to become effective.

  16. Conclusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grignon, F.; Mazrui, A.; Rutten, M.M.E.M.; Rutten, M.M.E.M.; Mazrui, A.; Grignon, F.

    2001-01-01

    The outcome of a three-day conference held at the African Studies Centre, Leiden, The Netherlands, in September 1998, this book on the 1997 Kenya general elections is organized in four parts: the direct pre-electoral background; technical and national analysis of the general elections, including the

  17. Conclusion

    OpenAIRE

    Rainhorn, Jean-Daniel; Boudamoussi, Samira El

    2017-01-01

    “Science without conscience is but the ruin of the soul.”—François Rabelais, 1542 A special feature of this book is to bring together the work of researchers coming from different disciplines and having various themes of reflection or practices in the field of biomedicine. While the general trend of science goes towards increasing specialization, the project of this book is to look at the use of medical advances in a transversal perspective. In other words, it intends to highlight what unregu...

  18. Conclusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandil, C.

    1994-01-01

    The renewable energies and the nuclear one are complementary. They belong to the french energy policy, which has three aims: strategic, economic and environmental. They contribute to the diversification of the energy balance and to the energy competitiveness. Energy savings might be achieved and renewable energies might be developed for the future

  19. Conclusions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Confounding effect of obesity and associated co-morbidities (especially on metabolic abnormalities, cardiovascular and cerebrovascular morbidity) should be clearly dissected out in future studies ...

  20. Conclusion

    OpenAIRE

    Houmed Soulé, Aramis

    2018-01-01

    Au cours de son règne qui a duré plus d’une quarantaine d’années, en une période cruciale de l’histoire de la Corne de l’Afrique, Maḥammad Ḥanfaré parvient à préserver son sultanat, à défaut de l’ensemble du pays ‘Afar, des visées impérialistes d’où qu’elles viennent. Malheureusement, l’indépendance de cette entité politique ‘Afar ne lui survit pas, du moins sur le plan international. Des luttes fratricides pour sa succession qui opposent ses nombreux héritiers et dont les prémices apparaisse...

  1. Conclusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fahnøe, Kristian Relsted; Warming, Hanne

    2017-01-01

    analysis approach reveal how clients’ struggles in intimate and societal life, and in public and private spaces, are intertwined with geo-politics and global flows of governance strategies, e.g. neoliberalism and managerialism, which also condition social work practices. Indeed, social work constitutes......Fahnøe and Warming provide a cogent overview of how a lived citizenship approach enables critical analyses of social work and social policies by addressing challenges related to rights, recognition, participation, belonging and identity. The sub-concept of intimate citizenship and a spatial...... a kind of sociological magnifying glass through which broader social changes can be studied, including dynamics of inclusion and exclusion, new conflicts and modes of resistance, and new social pathologies....

  2. Conclusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warming, Hanne; Fahnøe, Kristian

    2017-01-01

    analysis approach reveal how clients’ struggles in intimate and societal life, and in public and private spaces, are intertwined with geo-politics and global flows of governance strategies, e.g. neoliberalism and managerialism, which also condition social work practices. Indeed, social work constitutes......Warming and Fahnøe provide a cogent overview of how a lived citizenship approach enables critical analyses of social work and social policies by addressing challenges related to rights, recognition, participation, belonging and identity. The sub-concept of intimate citizenship and a spatial...... a kind of sociological magnifying glass through which broader social changes can be studied, including dynamics of inclusion and exclusion, new conflicts and modes of resistance, and new social pathologies....

  3. Conclusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Vreese, Claes; Reinemann, Carsten; Esser, Frank

    2017-01-01

    At the outset, we asked if there is any good news about the news and, if so, where the good news is. In academic research and public discussions about news and democracy, one fi nds different interpretations of the state of current news provision. A tendency towards pessimism about current news...... is seen as having a negative impact on the quality of political life and democracy. Set against the pessimism and caution in the public debate and literature on news quality and the performance of political journalism, we were not optimistic that we would fi nd good-quality news or that we would be able...... to offer some good news as a positive antidote, so to speak, to the pervasive pessimism in the literature....

  4. Conclusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brookes, L.G.; Motamen, H.

    1984-01-01

    The paper covers the following: economics of nuclear power; nuclear or fossil-fuel plants; power systems; methods of capital investment appraisal; size factor; nuclear industry; uranium demand; fuel cycle; fast reactors; choice of reactors; case studies from France; power plants in USA and West Germany; electricity tariffs; nuclear energy in Middle Eastern states; energy growth and economic growth; nuclear energy as macroeconomic influence; future energy options. (U.K.)

  5. Conclusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Christian Helms; Wallo, Andreas; Toiviainen, Hanna

    2015-01-01

    Work in times of globalisation and uncertainty is undergoing considerable changes, which has strengthened the importance of work as a site of learning. New trends in production, such as digitalisation, challenge traditional modes of producing goods and services. Emerging forms of flexible...... production and knowledge-work offer growing learning opportunities to people throughout their active working life. In contrast to the stable and standardised modes of Fordist production, modern working life is characterised by rapid changes and employees interacting across globally distributed professional...... explores the challenges of working and learning on the boundaries between education and working life. Globalisation affects the transition patterns from vocational education to the labour market in many ways (Schoon & Silbereisen, 2009), even though the specific challenges to national-level policies vary...

  6. Conclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahonen, Pasi; Alahuhta, Petteri; Daskala, Barbara; Delaitre, Sabine; Hert, Paul De; Lindner, Ralf; Maghiros, Ioannis; Moscibroda, Anna; Schreurs, Wim; Verlinden, Michiel

    Some say that an increase in security does not necessarily mean a further encroachment on privacy - indeed, security is necessary to protect personal data and our privacy. Networks must be secure, our personal devices, reliable, dependable and trustworthy. But security is a multifaceted term, with many dimensions. We are of the view that an increase in security most likely will encroach upon our privacy in an ambient intelligence world. Surveillance cameras will continue to proliferate. We assume that, whatever the law is, whatever privacy protections government and business say they honour, our telecommunications, e-mails and Internet usage will be monitored to an increasing degree. The same will be true of our interfaces with the world of ambient intelligence.

  7. Conclusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ainul Hayati Daud; Hazmimi Kasim

    2010-01-01

    In Asia, Japan and the Republic of Korea have conducted similar studies but relying on statistical data and used inputs and outputs (I-O) methodology, utilizing on general macro-level data. In contrast, this study captures data directly through surveys using questionnaires, face-to-face interviews, case studies and focus group discussions. The impact of nuclear technology applications in Malaysia were evaluated both quantitatively and qualitatively. These impacts are then linked to a broader objective associated with technological development, namely wealth generation, knowledge generation and societal well-being. In the process of the study, users and practitioners of the technology highlighted issues and challenges faced by them. To cap the study, the level of activities of nuclear technology in Malaysia was benchmarked against those in Japan and the Republic of Korea. This chapter highlights the results of the study, the outcome of the study, followed by recommendations as response to issues and challenges raised by respondents, and finally the way forward for monitoring and charting further progress of nuclear technology in the country. (author)

  8. Conclusions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. First study on fHSC. First study on fHSC. fHSC exhibit embryonic stem cell like properties. fHSC therapy results in myocardial regeneration in rat model of MI. fHSC may be a novel stem cell type for cardiovascular regeneration.

  9. Conclusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    In the monograph peculiarities of radioinduced sexual dysfunctions of Chernobyl accident liquidators are described. It is shown, that ones of principal clinical manifestations of stochastic radio-genetic effects are sexual dysfunctions. Assessment in point of view of stages and components of copulative cycle is carried out. Authors made attempt to take in account all involved in sexual dysfunctions systems for examined contingent. It is noted, that genesis of radioinduced sexual dysfunctions is complex and it includes both the influence of vegetative nervous system damage and the direct damage of gonads. During clinical examination with patients it is revealed that both vegetative-vascular dysfunctions and asteno-neurotic dysfunctions are dominating. Authors noting that mentioned sexual dysfunctions are caused by low dose irradiation, and they have certain distinctions. Measures for comprehensive rehabilitation of suffered contingent in late period after irradiation are developed

  10. Conclusions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Microbial organisms play a major role in assimilation of P from the water column and also from the interstitial waters. Mineralisation of microbial bodies is a very rapid process and autophosphatization may occur within few hours or days after death. Geo-microbiology is an important subject and needs to be developed.

  11. Conclusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timofeev, Yu.M.; Zikiryakhodjaev, D.Z.

    1997-01-01

    In this chapter of book authors made following summary: the cancerous growths of anal canal is rare form of growths; extension of anal canal depends from sex, age, weight and growth of patient; the developed schemes of classification and staging of cancerous growths of anal canal have important role for growths systematization; typical symptoms are blood in excrement, pains in anus, presence of swelling in anus, the treatment of the cancerous growths of anal canal must be varied

  12. Infant brain tumors: incidence, survival, and the role of radiation based on Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Andrew J; McDonald, Mark W; Chang, Andrew L; Esiashvili, Natia

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the incidence of infant brain tumors and survival outcomes by disease and treatment variables. The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program November 2008 submission database provided age-adjusted incidence rates and individual case information for primary brain tumors diagnosed between 1973 and 2006 in infants less than 12 months of age. Between 1973 and 1986, the incidence of infant brain tumors increased from 16 to 40 cases per million (CPM), and from 1986 to 2006, the annual incidence rate averaged 35 CPM. Leading histologies by annual incidence in CPM were gliomas (13.8), medulloblastoma and primitive neuroectodermal tumors (6.6), and ependymomas (3.6). The annual incidence was higher in whites than in blacks (35.0 vs. 21.3 CPM). Infants with low-grade gliomas had the highest observed survival, and those with atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumors (ATRTs) or primary rhabdoid tumors of the brain had the lowest. Between 1979 and 1993, the annual rate of cases treated with radiation within the first 4 months from diagnosis declined from 20.5 CPM to incidence of infant brain tumors has been stable since 1986. Survival outcomes varied markedly by histology. For infants with medulloblastoma and ATRTs, improved survival was observed in patients treated with both surgery and early radiation compared with those treated with surgery alone. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Low Incidence of Fatigue after Hypofractionated Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy (SBRT for Localized Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiranjeev eDash

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fatigue is a common side-effect of conventional prostate cancer radiation therapy. The increased delivery precision necessitated by the high dose per fraction of stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT offers the potential of reduce target volumes and hence the exposure of normal tissues to high radiation doses. Herein, we examine the level of fatigue associated with SBRT treatment.Methods: Forty patients with localized prostate cancer treated with hypofractionated SBRT, and a minimum of 12 months follow-up were included in this analysis. Self-reported fatigue and other quality of life measures were assessed at baseline and at 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months post-SBRT.Results: Mean levels of fatigue were elevated at 1 month post-SBRT compared to baseline values (p=0.02. Fatigue at the 3-month follow-up and later were higher but not statistically significantly different compared to baseline. African-American patients reported higher fatigue post-SBRT than Caucasian patients. Fatigue was correlated with hormonal symptoms as measured by the Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite (EPIC quality of life questionnaire, but not with urinary, bowel, or sexual symptoms. Age, co-morbidities, smoking, prostate specific antigen (PSA levels, testosterone levels, and tumor stage were not associated with fatigue. Conclusion: This is the first study to investigate fatigue as a side-effect of SBRT. In contrast to standard radiation therapy, results suggest SBRT-related fatigue is short-term rather than a long-term side effect of SBRT. These results also suggest post-SBRT fatigue to be a more frequent complication in African-Americans than Caucasians.

  14. Veterinary applications of ionising radiation HERCA Task Force on Veterinary Applications. Main results of the Questionnaire 'National regulatory requirements with regard to veterinary medical applications of ionising radiation' and conclusions of the TF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Bladel, Lodewijk; Berlamont, Jolien; Michalczak, Herbert; Balogh, Lajos; Peremans, Kathelijne

    2013-11-01

    In the fall of 2012, the subject of radiation protection in veterinary medicine was raised during the meeting of the HERCA Board. Issues with regard to this subject had been brought to the attention of HERCA by the European College of Veterinary Diagnostic Imaging (ECVDI). In October 2012, the Board decided to charge a small Task Force (TF) to further explore the issues in this field. This TF drew up a questionnaire which looked at the general radiation protection regulatory requirements in veterinary medicine applications of ionizing radiation. The results of this study showed large differences in the requirements applicable in the HERCA member countries. The TF also noticed the increasing use of more complex imaging procedures and of different radio-therapeutic modalities, which may imply greater risks of exposure of humans to ionising radiation. These results were presented during the HERCA Board meeting in Berlin, Germany and on which the Board decided to establish a Working Group on veterinary applications of ionising radiations (WG Vet). The main results of the Questionnaire 'National regulatory requirements with regard to veterinary medicine applications of ionising radiation' is attached in Appendix

  15. Ambient ultraviolet radiation exposure and hepatocellular carcinoma incidence in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VoPham, Trang; Bertrand, Kimberly A; Yuan, Jian-Min; Tamimi, Rulla M; Hart, Jaime E; Laden, Francine

    2017-08-18

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), the most commonly occurring type of primary liver cancer, has been increasing in incidence worldwide. Vitamin D, acquired from sunlight exposure, diet, and dietary supplements, has been hypothesized to impact hepatocarcinogenesis. However, previous epidemiologic studies examining the associations between dietary and serum vitamin D reported mixed results. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between ambient ultraviolet (UV) radiation exposure and HCC risk in the U.S. The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database provided information on HCC cases diagnosed between 2000 and 2014 from 16 population-based cancer registries across the U.S. Ambient UV exposure was estimated by linking the SEER county with a spatiotemporal UV exposure model using a geographic information system. Poisson regression with robust variance estimation was used to calculate incidence rate ratios (IRRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association between ambient UV exposure per interquartile range (IQR) increase (32.4 mW/m 2 ) and HCC risk adjusting for age at diagnosis, sex, race, year of diagnosis, SEER registry, and county-level information on prevalence of health conditions, lifestyle, socioeconomic, and environmental factors. Higher levels of ambient UV exposure were associated with statistically significant lower HCC risk (n = 56,245 cases; adjusted IRR per IQR increase: 0.83, 95% CI 0.77, 0.90; p ambient UV and HCC risk was observed among males (p for interaction = 0.01) and whites (p for interaction = 0.01). Higher ambient UV exposure was associated with a decreased risk of HCC in the U.S. UV exposure may be a potential modifiable risk factor for HCC that should be explored in future research.

  16. Incidence, causative mechanisms, and anatomic localization of stroke in pituitary adenoma patients treated with postoperative radiation therapy versus surgery alone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sattler, Margriet; Vroomen, Patrick; Sluiter, Wim J.; Schers, Henk J.; van den Berg, Gerrit; Langendijk, Johannes A.; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H. R.; van den Bergh, Alphons C. M.; van Beek, Andre P.

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: To assess and compare the incidence of stroke and stroke subtype in pituitary adenoma patients treated with postoperative radiation therapy (RT) and surgery alone. METHODS AND MATERIALS: A cohort of 462 pituitary adenoma patients treated between 1959 and 2008 at the University Medical

  17. Variations with time and age in the relative risks of solid cancer incidence after radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Little, M.P.; Muirhead, C.R.; de Vathaire, F.; Charles, M.W.

    1997-01-01

    The Japanese atomic bomb survivor cancer incidence dataset and data on five groups exposed to radiation for medical reasons in childhood are analysed and evidence found for a reduction in the radiation-induced relative risk of cancers other than leukaemia with increasing time since exposure and age at exposure. The rate of the reductions in relative risk with time since exposure are not significantly different for those exposed in childhood and for those exposed in adulthood, if adjustment is made for the effects on the relative risk of age at exposure. For those irradiated in childhood, there is a statistically significant annual reduction of 5.8% (95% Cl 2.8, 8.9) in excess relative risk, and there are no strong indications of inter-cohort heterogeniety in the speed of reduction of relative risk. After adjustment for the effects of age at exposure, there is a significant annual reduction of 3.6% (95% Cl 1.6, 5.6) in excess relative risk in all age-at-exposure groups. There are significant reductions of 5.2% (95% Cl 3.7, 6.8) in excess relative risk per year of age at exposure. There are statistically significant (P = 0.04) interactions between the exponential adjustments to the excess relative risk for age at exposure and time since exposure in the Japanese data, but no indications (P = 0.38) of such interactions when powers of time since exposure and attained age are used to adjust the excess relative risk, so that the fit of the model with power adjustments is to be preferred to that of the model with exponential adjustments. (author)

  18. Development of highly polished, grazing incidence mirrors for synchrotron radiation beam lines at SSRL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tirsell, K.G.; Berglin, E.J.; Fuchs, B.A.; Holdener, F.R.; Humpal, H.H.; Karpenko, V.P.; Kulkarni, S.; Fantone, S.D.

    1987-08-01

    New platinum-coated grazing incidence mirrors with low surface roughnesses have been developed to focus bending magnet radiation from the SSRL/SLAC SPEAR storage ring on the entrance slits of two Beam Line VIII grating monochromators. The first mirror in the toroidal grating monochromator (TGM) branch is a cooled SiC cylinder capable of absorbing synchrotron radiation power levels of up to 260 watts without excessive distortion. This mirror deflects the beam vertically through a 12/degree/ angle and focuses it sagitally on the TGM entrance slit plane. The second TGM optical element is a fused-silica spherical mirror with a large radius of curvature that deflects the beam vertically through an additional 12/degree/ and focuses it tangentially with 3/1 demagnification. The first mirror in our spherical grating branch is a 5/degree/-vertically deflecting, cooled SiC toroid designed to focus tangentially on the monochromator entrance slits and sagitally in the exit slits. A 4/degree/-deflecting fused silica mirror is used after the exit sites in each beam line to refocus on to the sample. For this application a thin cylinder is bent to approximate an ellipsoid. The mirrors are now installed at SSRL and performance measurements are planned. Qualitatively the focus of the TGM optics at the entrance slit plane appears very good. In this paper we discuss considerations leading to the choice of SiC for each of the two first mirrors. We present highlights of the development of these mirrors with some emphasis on SiC polishing techniques. In addition, the specialized metrology developed to produce the more difficult figure of the toroid will be described. Measured surface roughness and figure results will be presented. 19 refs., 11 figs.

  19. Development of highly polished, grazing incidence mirrors for synchrotron radiation beam lines at SSRL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tirsell, K.G.; Berglin, E.J.; Fuchs, B.A.; Holdener, F.R.; Humpal, H.H.; Karpenko, V.P.; Kulkarni, S.; Fantone, S.D.

    1987-08-01

    New platinum-coated grazing incidence mirrors with low surface roughnesses have been developed to focus bending magnet radiation from the SSRL/SLAC SPEAR storage ring on the entrance slits of two Beam Line VIII grating monochromators. The first mirror in the toroidal grating monochromator (TGM) branch is a cooled SiC cylinder capable of absorbing synchrotron radiation power levels of up to 260 watts without excessive distortion. This mirror deflects the beam vertically through a 12/degree/ angle and focuses it sagitally on the TGM entrance slit plane. The second TGM optical element is a fused-silica spherical mirror with a large radius of curvature that deflects the beam vertically through an additional 12/degree/ and focuses it tangentially with 3/1 demagnification. The first mirror in our spherical grating branch is a 5/degree/-vertically deflecting, cooled SiC toroid designed to focus tangentially on the monochromator entrance slits and sagitally in the exit slits. A 4/degree/-deflecting fused silica mirror is used after the exit sites in each beam line to refocus on to the sample. For this application a thin cylinder is bent to approximate an ellipsoid. The mirrors are now installed at SSRL and performance measurements are planned. Qualitatively the focus of the TGM optics at the entrance slit plane appears very good. In this paper we discuss considerations leading to the choice of SiC for each of the two first mirrors. We present highlights of the development of these mirrors with some emphasis on SiC polishing techniques. In addition, the specialized metrology developed to produce the more difficult figure of the toroid will be described. Measured surface roughness and figure results will be presented. 19 refs., 11 figs

  20. Local Adaptive Calibration of the GLASS Surface Incident Shortwave Radiation Product Using Smoothing Spline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X.; Liang, S.; Wang, G.

    2015-12-01

    Incident solar radiation (ISR) over the Earth's surface plays an important role in determining the Earth's climate and environment. Generally, can be obtained from direct measurements, remotely sensed data, or reanalysis and general circulation models (GCMs) data. Each type of product has advantages and limitations: the surface direct measurements provide accurate but sparse spatial coverage, whereas other global products may have large uncertainties. Ground measurements have been normally used for validation and occasionally calibration, but transforming their "true values" spatially to improve the satellite products is still a new and challenging topic. In this study, an improved thin-plate smoothing spline approach is presented to locally "calibrate" the Global LAnd Surface Satellite (GLASS) ISR product using the reconstructed ISR data from surface meteorological measurements. The influences of surface elevation on ISR estimation was also considered in the proposed method. The point-based surface reconstructed ISR was used as the response variable, and the GLASS ISR product and the surface elevation data at the corresponding locations as explanatory variables to train the thin plate spline model. We evaluated the performance of the approach using the cross-validation method at both daily and monthly time scales over China. We also evaluated estimated ISR based on the thin-plate spline method using independent ground measurements at 10 sites from the Coordinated Enhanced Observation Network (CEON). These validation results indicated that the thin plate smoothing spline method can be effectively used for calibrating satellite derived ISR products using ground measurements to achieve better accuracy.

  1. Adverse radiation effect after stereotactic radiosurgery for brain metastases: incidence, time course, and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sneed, Penny K; Mendez, Joe; Vemer-van den Hoek, Johanna G M; Seymour, Zachary A; Ma, Lijun; Molinaro, Annette M; Fogh, Shannon E; Nakamura, Jean L; McDermott, Michael W

    2015-08-01

    The authors sought to determine the incidence, time course, and risk factors for overall adverse radiation effect (ARE) and symptomatic ARE after stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) for brain metastases. All cases of brain metastases treated from 1998 through 2009 with Gamma Knife SRS at UCSF were considered. Cases with less than 3 months of follow-up imaging, a gap of more than 8 months in imaging during the 1st year, or inadequate imaging availability were excluded. Brain scans and pathology reports were reviewed to ensure consistent scoring of dates of ARE, treatment failure, or both; in case of uncertainty, the cause of lesion worsening was scored as indeterminate. Cumulative incidence of ARE and failure were estimated with the Kaplan-Meier method with censoring at last imaging. Univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazards analyses were performed. Among 435 patients and 2200 brain metastases evaluable, the median patient survival time was 17.4 months and the median lesion imaging follow-up was 9.9 months. Calculated on the basis of 2200 evaluable lesions, the rates of treatment failure, ARE, concurrent failure and ARE, and lesion worsening with indeterminate cause were 9.2%, 5.4%, 1.4%, and 4.1%, respectively. Among 118 cases of ARE, approximately 60% were symptomatic and 85% occurred 3-18 months after SRS (median 7.2 months). For 99 ARE cases managed without surgery or bevacizumab, the probabilities of improvement observed on imaging were 40%, 57%, and 76% at 6, 12, and 18 months after onset of ARE. The most important risk factors for ARE included prior SRS to the same lesion (with 20% 1-year risk of symptomatic ARE vs 3%, 4%, and 8% for no prior treatment, prior whole brain radiotherapy [WBRT], or concurrent WBRT) and any of these volume parameters: target, prescription isodose, 12-Gy, or 10-Gy volume. Excluding lesions treated with repeat SRS, the 1-year probabilities of ARE were 2.1 cm, target volume > 1.2 cm(3), prescription isodose volume > 1.8 cm(3

  2. Stress measurements by multi-reflection grazing-incidence X-ray diffraction method (MGIXD) using different radiation wavelengths and different incident angles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marciszko, Marianna; Baczmański, Andrzej; Braham, Chedly; Wróbel, Mirosław; Wroński, Sebastian; Cios, Grzegorz

    2017-01-01

    The presented study introduces the development of the multi-reflection grazing-incidence X-ray diffraction method (MGIXD) for residual stress determination. The proposed new methodology is aimed at obtaining more reliable experimental data and increasing the depth of non-destructive stress determination below the sample surface. To verify proposed method measurements were performed on a classical X-ray diffractometer (Cu Kα radiation) and using synchrotron radiation (three different wavelengths: λ = 1.2527 Å, λ = 1.5419 Å and λ = 1.7512 Å). The Al2017 alloy subjected to three different surface treatments was investigated in this study. The obtained results showed that the proposed development of MGIXD method, in which not only different incident angles but also different wavelengths of X-ray are used, can be successfully applied for residual stress determination, especially when stress gradients are present in the sample.

  3. Poster - 27: Incident Learning Practices in Ontario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angers, Crystal; Medlam, Gaylene; Liszewski, Brian; Simniceanu, Carina [The Ottawa Hospital Cancer Centre, Mississauga Halton/Central West Regional Cancer Center, Odette Cancer Centre, Cancer Care Ontario (Canada)

    2016-08-15

    Purpose: The Radiation Incident and Safety Committee (RISC), established and supported by Cancer Care Ontario (CCO), is responsible for advising the Provincial Head of the Radiation Treatment program on matters relating to provincial reporting of radiation incidents with the goal of improved risk mitigation. Methods: The committee is made up of Radiation Incident Leads (RILs) with representation from each of the 14 radiation medicine programs in the province. RISC routinely meets to review recent critical incidents and to discuss provincial reporting processes and future directions of the committee. Regular face to face meetings have provided an excellent venue for sharing incident learning practices. A summary of the incident learning practices across Ontario has been compiled. Results: Almost all programs in Ontario employ an incident learning committee to review incidents and identify corrective actions or process improvements. Tools used for incident reporting include: paper based reporting, a number of different commercial products and software solutions developed in-house. A wide range of classification schema (data taxonomies) are employed, although most have been influenced by national guidance documents. The majority of clinics perform root cause analyses but utilized methodologies vary significantly. Conclusions: Most programs in Ontario employ a committee approach to incident learning. However, the reporting tools and taxonomies in use vary greatly which represents a significant challenge to provincial reporting. RISC is preparing to adopt the National System for Incident Reporting – Radiation Therapy (NSIR-RT) which will standardize incident reporting and facilitate data analyses aimed at identifying targeted improvement initiatives.

  4. Poster - 27: Incident Learning Practices in Ontario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angers, Crystal; Medlam, Gaylene; Liszewski, Brian; Simniceanu, Carina

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The Radiation Incident and Safety Committee (RISC), established and supported by Cancer Care Ontario (CCO), is responsible for advising the Provincial Head of the Radiation Treatment program on matters relating to provincial reporting of radiation incidents with the goal of improved risk mitigation. Methods: The committee is made up of Radiation Incident Leads (RILs) with representation from each of the 14 radiation medicine programs in the province. RISC routinely meets to review recent critical incidents and to discuss provincial reporting processes and future directions of the committee. Regular face to face meetings have provided an excellent venue for sharing incident learning practices. A summary of the incident learning practices across Ontario has been compiled. Results: Almost all programs in Ontario employ an incident learning committee to review incidents and identify corrective actions or process improvements. Tools used for incident reporting include: paper based reporting, a number of different commercial products and software solutions developed in-house. A wide range of classification schema (data taxonomies) are employed, although most have been influenced by national guidance documents. The majority of clinics perform root cause analyses but utilized methodologies vary significantly. Conclusions: Most programs in Ontario employ a committee approach to incident learning. However, the reporting tools and taxonomies in use vary greatly which represents a significant challenge to provincial reporting. RISC is preparing to adopt the National System for Incident Reporting – Radiation Therapy (NSIR-RT) which will standardize incident reporting and facilitate data analyses aimed at identifying targeted improvement initiatives.

  5. Pilot Study for the Creation of a European Union Radiation Accident and Incident Data Exchange System (EURAIDE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, J.E.; Lefaure, C; Czarwinski, R.

    2004-01-01

    This study has had the objective of evaluating the feasibility of: (i) facilitating the establishment of national radiation accident and incident databases where there are none and to encourage the compatibility of such databases, (ii) establishing a European network to exchange radiological protection feedback from accidents and incidents, (iii) establishing summary reports of relevant accidents and incidents with the aim of identifying lessons to be learned, so that they can be used in radiation protection training programs, and (iv) upgrading the radiological safety in the countries applying to join the EU, by integrating them into the above efficient feedback exchange system. This report details the first stage of the project, which was to review the status of existing (or proposed) national mechanisms for collating data on radiation incidents. The objectives of this initial review were to: i) obtain detailed information regarding the means of capturing and collating data, the format of established or proposed data systems and accessibility of the final data, ii) to use this information to consider how a European platform to gather relevant data/accident reports might be established., and iii) to consider how the various elements of national data systems might be harmonised in order to facilitate the presentation and distribution of lessons learned. It was considered that the key aspects that would need to be addressed in order to determine the feasibility of a European wide data exchange mechanism were: - the criteria used for the classification and categorisation of incidents, - criteria for the selection of incidents from national data systems for inclusion in a European-wide system, - the implication of possible language problems. In order to illicit the required information a detailed questionnaire was sent to a total of 31 countries, being existing European Member States, applicant or associated countries. A full list of the countries and institutions

  6. Vegetative and reproductive plasticity of broccoli at three levels of incident photosynthetically active radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francescangeli, N.; Martí, H.R.; Sangiacomo, M.A.

    2007-01-01

    To study the effects of shading on the growth, development, dry matter partitioning, and plant architecture of broccoli, ‘Legacy’ hybrid plants were grown in pots in a greenhouse under black shading meshes to generate different levels of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR). The average incident PAR was 23 mol PPF m –2 d –1 under control conditions, 15.2 under a 35% mesh, and 6.7 under a 70% mesh. The air temperature was within the range 15-22°C. As shading increased so did the duration of the growth cycle and the leaf area (LA). Shading did not affect the number of leaves, although the upper ones were more erect. The stem length and the accumulated intercepted PAR (IPAR) were negatively related. Inflorescence diameter and commercial fresh weight decreased only with the 70% mesh. Shading did not affect stem dry weight (DW) but altered dry matter allocation in the root and spear. The DW of the leaves maintained an average 45.7% of the total DW despite the greater LA developed under shade. The net assimilation rate diminished with the reduction of IPAR, and the LA increased; the plant relative growth rate was therefore practically constant. With increased shading, the leaves and the stem became the dominant photosynthate sinks. The commercial fresh weight achieved with 15.2 mol photosynthetic photon flux (PPF) m –2 d –1 was equivalent to that obtained with 23 mol PPF m –2 d –1 , but the cycle was extended for 4.5 days. With 6.7 mol PPF m –2 d –1 , yield diminished because of the lower DW produced in a cycle extended by 15 days, and because more dry matter was allocated to the stem than to the spear. Based on these results, broccoli could be considered a shade-tolerant plant. (author) [es

  7. Isolated lung events following radiation for early stage breast cancer: incidence and predictors for primary lung vs metastatic breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Buren, Teresa A; Harris, Jay R; Sugarbaker, David J; Schneider, Lindsey; Healey, Elizabeth A

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: 1) To define the incidence of isolated lung events in a cohort of women treated with conservative surgery (CS) and radiation therapy (RT) for early stage breast cancer. 2) Among such patients, to define the relative distribution of primary lung cancer, metastatic breast cancer, and indeterminate lesions; and to identify any predictors for a diagnosis of lung vs metastatic breast cancer. 3) To examine the cohort with respect to whether a higher than expected incidence of lung cancer is seen following breast irradiation. Materials and Methods: Between 1968 and 1986, 1865 patients with clinical stage I-II breast cancer were treated with CS and RT; the median follow-up for surviving patients is 129 months. The study population was limited to patients who developed a subsequent isolated lung event as the first site of distant disease. Isolated lung event was defined as disease limited to the thoracic cavity, without evidence of either uncontrolled local breast disease or metastatic disease elsewhere. Diagnosis of the lung event as a primary lung cancer, a metastatic breast lesion, or an indeterminate lesion was documented from the viewpoint of 1) the pathologic analysis and 2) the clinical impression at the time of the lung event. Results: Sixty six of the 1865 patients (3.5%) developed an isolated lung event. The relative distribution of the pathologic and clinical diagnoses is shown below: The 66 lung events were characterized either as a solitary pulmonary nodule (27), multiple nodules (23), pleural effusion alone (10), unknown (2), or miscellaneous other findings (4). Among the 47 patients for whom pathology was available, the diagnosis remained indeterminate for 24 (51%). For patients with a definitive pathologic diagnosis, 69% ((9(13))) of smokers had a new lung cancer compared to 20% ((2(10))) of non-smokers (p=0.036), and 67% ((10(15))) of patients with a solitary pulmonary nodule had lung cancer compared to 14% ((1(7))) for other lung presentations (p

  8. Suppressing effect of low-dose ionizing radiation on incidence of type I diabetes of NOD mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nomura, T.; Makino, N.; Oda, T.; Sakai, K.

    2002-01-01

    In the present study we examined the effects of 0.5 Gy of ionizing radiation, given acutely or chronically, on the incidence of type I diabetes in non-obese diabetic mice was examined. NOD mice are characterized by a progressive loss of insulin-producing cells in the pancreas by autoimmune mechanisms. The results suggest that the suppressive effects on the onset of he diabetes by the low dose irradiation are explain by the induction of the antioxidative activity

  9. Radiation tolerance of the cervical spinal cord: incidence and dose-volume relationship of symptomatic and asymptomatic late effects following high dose irradiation of paraspinal tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Mitchell C.C.; Munzenrider, John E.; Finkelstein, Dianne; Liebsch, Norbert; Adams, Judy; Hug, Eugen B.

    1997-01-01

    changes was between 2 and 8.5 months after radiation therapy. Two risk factors appeared to have significant impact when all incidences were considered: proton portion of tumor dose > 55 CGE (p=.023), and spinal cord surface dose ≥ 60 CGE (p=.045). For patients receiving 55 CGE to >1.5cc of spinal cord, the risk of developing imaging changes was significantly higher (p=.0074). Age < 40 years was found to be correlated with higher incidence of Lhermitt's syndrome (p=.002). No variable was significant for predicting incidence of sensory or motor deficits. Conclusions: For chordomas and chondrosarcomas of the cervical spine, requiring high radiation doses, the guidelines of limiting maximum spinal cord surface dose to ≤ 64 CGE and maximum spinal cord center dose to ≤ 53 CGE appears safe. For the patients who had been treated within the above tolerance dose, none of them had developed motor deficits. Both a significant dose response relationship as well as volume effect for symptomatic or asymptomatic spinal cord changes were observed. The incidence of 1 patient, who developed motor damage after higher radiation doses to the spinal cord than generally allowed, emphasizes the importance of strict guidelines for critical, normal tissues in high dose, conformal radiation treatment

  10. Observed linkages between the northern annular mode/North Atlantic Oscillation, cloud incidence, and cloud radiative forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ying; Thompson, David W. J.; Huang, Yi; Zhang, Minghong

    2014-03-01

    The signature of the northern annular mode/North Atlantic Oscillation (NAM/NAO) in the vertical and horizontal distribution of tropospheric cloudiness is investigated in CloudSat and CALIPSO data from June 2006 to April 2011. During the Northern Hemisphere winter, the positive polarity of the NAM/NAO is marked by increases in zonally averaged cloud incidence north of ~60°N, decreases between ~25 and 50°N, and increases in the subtropics. The tripolar-like anomalies in cloud incidence associated with the NAM/NAO are largest over the North Atlantic Ocean basin/Middle East and are physically consistent with the NAM/NAO-related anomalies in vertical motion. Importantly, the NAM/NAO-related anomalies in tropospheric cloud incidence lead to significant top of atmosphere cloud radiative forcing anomalies that are comparable in amplitude to those associated with the NAM/NAO-related temperature anomalies. The results provide observational evidence that the most prominent pattern of Northern Hemisphere climate variability is significantly linked to variations in cloud radiative forcing. Implications for two-way feedback between extratropical dynamics and cloud radiative forcing are discussed.

  11. The Use of Categorized Time-Trend Reporting of Radiation Oncology Incidents: A Proactive Analytical Approach to Improving Quality and Safety Over Time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, Anthony; Delaney, Geoff P.; Cassapi, Lynette; Barton, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Radiotherapy is a common treatment for cancer patients. Although incidence of error is low, errors can be severe or affect significant numbers of patients. In addition, errors will often not manifest until long periods after treatment. This study describes the development of an incident reporting tool that allows categorical analysis and time trend reporting, covering first 3 years of use. Methods and Materials: A radiotherapy-specific incident analysis system was established. Staff members were encouraged to report actual errors and near-miss events detected at prescription, simulation, planning, or treatment phases of radiotherapy delivery. Trend reporting was reviewed monthly. Results: Reports were analyzed for the first 3 years of operation (May 2004-2007). A total of 688 reports was received during the study period. The actual error rate was 0.2% per treatment episode. During the study period, the actual error rates reduced significantly from 1% per year to 0.3% per year (p < 0.001), as did the total event report rates (p < 0.0001). There were 3.5 times as many near misses reported compared with actual errors. Conclusions: This system has allowed real-time analysis of events within a radiation oncology department to a reduced error rate through focus on learning and prevention from the near-miss reports. Plans are underway to develop this reporting tool for Australia and New Zealand.

  12. Ultraviolet Radiation Exposure and the Incidence of Oral, Pharyngeal and Cervical Cancer and Melanoma: An Analysis of the SEER Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Spencer; Lin, Jie; Brown, Derek; Shriver, Craig D; Zhu, Kangmin

    2016-01-01

    Based on the hypothesis that ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposure can cause DNA damage that may activate dormant viruses such as human papilloma virus, a recent ecological study, which estimated state-level UVR exposure, reported positive correlations between annual UVR exposure and the incidence of oral, pharyngeal, and cervical cancer in 16 U.S. states using the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) data. The purpose of the current study was to further investigate whether the annual UVR level, estimated on a county level, is associated with incidence rates of such cancers using the National Cancer Institute's Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) 18 data. If UVR exposure is associated with incidence of these cancer types, we would expect to see a similar or stronger association with melanoma because UVR exposure is a well-demonstrated risk factor for this disease. Thus, we also included melanoma in the study. The study subjects were White and Black individuals with oral, pharyngeal, cervical cancer or melanoma diagnosed between 1973 and 2011 from the SEER 18 data. UVR was estimated at the county level and grouped into high-, medium- and low-exposure levels. Age-adjusted incidence rates of cancer were calculated and compared among the UVR exposure groups. The comparisons were also stratified by sex and race. There was an inverse association between UVR exposure and incidence of oral, pharyngeal, and cervical cancer. The inverse association was also observed for melanoma. When stratified by race and sex, the inverse associations remained except for melanoma among Blacks. In contrast to a previous study, our study found that there were inverse associations between UVR exposure and the incidence of oral, pharyngeal, and cervical cancer, as well as of melanoma. Our findings are in agreement with several other published studies reporting no positive correlation between UVR exposure and the incidence rates of oral, pharyngeal, and cervical

  13. Pathophysiological effects of radiation on atherosclerosis development and progression, and the incidence of cardiovascular complications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basavaraju, Sekhara Rao; Easterly, Clay E.

    2002-01-01

    Radiation therapy while important in the management of several diseases, is implicated in the causation of atherosclerosis and other cardiovascular complications. Cancer and atherosclerosis go through the same stages of initiation, promotion, and complication, beginning with a mutation in a single cell. Clinical observations before the 1960s lead to the belief that the heart is relatively resistant to the doses of radiation used in radiotherapy. Subsequently, it was discovered that the heart is sensitive to radiation and many cardiac structures may be damaged by radiation exposure. A significantly higher risk of death due to ischemic heart disease has been reported for patients treated with radiation for Hodgkin's disease and breast cancer. Certain cytokines and growth factors, such as TGF-β1 and IL-1 β, may stimulate radiation-induced endothelial proliferation, fibroblast proliferation, collagen deposition, and fibrosis leading to advanced lesions of atherosclerosis. The treatment for radiation-induced ischemic heart disease includes conventional pharmacological therapy, balloon angioplasty, and bypass surgery. Endovascular irradiation has been shown to be effective in reducing restenosis-like response to balloon-catheter injury in animal models. Caution must be exercised when radiation therapy is combined with doxorubicin because there appears to be a synergistic toxic effect on the myocardium. Damage to endothelial cells is a central event in the pathogenesis of damage to the coronary arteries. Certain growth factors that interfere with the apoptotic pathway may provide new therapeutic strategies for reducing the risk of radiation-induced damage to the heart. Exposure to low level occupational or environmental radiation appears to pose no undue risk of atherosclerosis development or cardiovascular mortality. But, other radiation-induced processes such as the bystander effects, abscopal effects, hormesis, and individual variations in radiosensitivity may be

  14. Thermal radiation heat transfer in participating media by finite volume discretization using collimated beam incidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harijishnu, R.; Jayakumar, J. S.

    2017-09-01

    The main objective of this paper is to study the heat transfer rate of thermal radiation in participating media. For that, a generated collimated beam has been passed through a two dimensional slab model of flint glass with a refractive index 2. Both Polar and azimuthal angle have been varied to generate such a beam. The Temperature of the slab and Snells law has been validated by Radiation Transfer Equation (RTE) in OpenFOAM (Open Field Operation and Manipulation), a CFD software which is the major computational tool used in Industry and research applications where the source code is modified in which radiation heat transfer equation is added to the case and different radiation heat transfer models are utilized. This work concentrates on the numerical strategies involving both transparent and participating media. Since Radiation Transfer Equation (RTE) is difficult to solve, the purpose of this paper is to use existing solver buoyantSimlpeFoam to solve radiation model in the participating media by compiling the source code to obtain the heat transfer rate inside the slab by varying the Intensity of radiation. The Finite Volume Method (FVM) is applied to solve the Radiation Transfer Equation (RTE) governing the above said physical phenomena.

  15. Combined effects of radiation and other agents on the stomach cancer incidence among Mayak Atomic Plant workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhuntova, G.V.; Tokarskaya, Z.B.; Belyaeva, Z.D. [Branch No 1 of State Research Center of Public Health Ministry of the Russian Federation, Ozyorsk (Russian Federation). Biophysics Inst.; Rovny, S.I.; Sirchikov, V.A.

    2000-05-01

    The gravity of a problem of the combined action of radiation and other factors again was confirmed sessions UNSCEAR in May, 1998. It especially is important at study of cancer diseases in connection with the polyetiology and multistage of them development. The estimation of radiation, medico-biological factors and condition of life in occurrence of a stomach cancer among Mayak personnel was specified by case-cohort research. For a quota 503 men (157 cases of a stomach cancer, 346 men of the healthy personnel) attributive risk of the radiation factors was 8.8%, medico-biological - 57,2% (from them by greatest was influence chronic gastritis with secreting insufficiency - 35.4%), tobacco consumption - 31,6%. At an estimation of risk of a stomach cancer depending on external {gamma}-irradiation best fitting was received at use of square-law model. The excess relative risk was 0,27 Gr{sup -2} (F=44,5; P=0,007). For {sup 239}Pu incorporation was not revealed of distinct connection with stomach cancer incidences. Interaction of the radiation and non-radiation factors also was appreciated. The interaction of gastritis with external {gamma}-irradiation or {sup 239}Pu was multiplicate. The interaction of smoking with {gamma}-irradiation or {sup 239}Pu incorporation was multiplicate also. The distribution histological types of a stomach cancer among the workers of Mayak plant differed in comparison with not working. Among the workers the increase poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma was observed. (author)

  16. Combined effects of radiation and other agents on the stomach cancer incidence among Mayak Atomic Plant workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhuntova, G.V.; Tokarskaya, Z.B.; Belyaeva, Z.D.; Rovny, S.I.; Sirchikov, V.A.

    2000-01-01

    The gravity of a problem of the combined action of radiation and other factors again was confirmed sessions UNSCEAR in May, 1998. It especially is important at study of cancer diseases in connection with the polyetiology and multistage of them development. The estimation of radiation, medico-biological factors and condition of life in occurrence of a stomach cancer among Mayak personnel was specified by case-cohort research. For a quota 503 men (157 cases of a stomach cancer, 346 men of the healthy personnel) attributive risk of the radiation factors was 8.8%, medico-biological - 57,2% (from them by greatest was influence chronic gastritis with secreting insufficiency - 35.4%), tobacco consumption - 31,6%. At an estimation of risk of a stomach cancer depending on external γ-irradiation best fitting was received at use of square-law model. The excess relative risk was 0,27 Gr -2 (F=44,5; P=0,007). For 239 Pu incorporation was not revealed of distinct connection with stomach cancer incidences. Interaction of the radiation and non-radiation factors also was appreciated. The interaction of gastritis with external γ-irradiation or 239 Pu was multiplicate. The interaction of smoking with γ-irradiation or 239 Pu incorporation was multiplicate also. The distribution histological types of a stomach cancer among the workers of Mayak plant differed in comparison with not working. Among the workers the increase poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma was observed. (author)

  17. Incidence of radiation-induced Graves' disease in patients treated with radioiodine for thyroid autonomy before and after introduction of a high-sensitivity TSH receptor antibody assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunkelmann, Simone; Wolf, Ricarda; Koch, Annedore; Kittner, Christian; Groth, Peter; Schuemichen, Carl

    2004-01-01

    Autoimmune hyperthyroidism may occur several months after radioiodine therapy (RIT) for functional thyroid autonomy. Exacerbation of pre-existing subclinical Graves' disease (GD) has been held responsible for this phenomenon. Determination of TSH receptor antibody using solubilised porcine epithelial cell membranes is insensitive and may have failed to diagnose GD in these patients before RIT. Following the introduction of a more sensitive assay, using the human TSH receptor as an antigen, it has been expected that the incidence of radiation-induced GD after RIT for functional thyroid autonomy will be reduced. In a first group of 1,428 patients treated between November 1993 and March 1997 (group I) we used the porcine TRAb assay to exclude GD, while in a second group comprising 1,408 patients treated between January 2000 and December 2001 (group II), GD was excluded using the human TRAb assay. A matched control group of 231 patients was derived from group II. In group I a total of 15 (1.05%) patients developed obvious or suspected radiation-induced GD, while in group II 17 (1.2%) did so; the interval until development of GD was 8.4 and 8.8 months, respectively, after RIT. Serum anti-thyroid peroxidase levels before RIT were elevated in 36.4% of group I patients and 47.1% of group II patients, but in only 5.6% of the control group. Other non-specific signs of mild immunopathy of the thyroid were seen retrospectively in 73.3%, 64.7% and 16.0% of the patients in these three groups, respectively. In conclusion, the introduction of a high-sensitivity TRAb assay did not reduce the incidence of autoimmune hyperthyroidism occurring late after RIT for functional thyroid autonomy, but mild immunopathy of the thyroid is seen more frequently in these patients and seems to be a predisposing factor in the development of radiation-induced GD. (orig.)

  18. Monte Carlo mixture model of lifetime cancer incidence risk from radiation exposure on shuttle and international space station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, L.E.; Cucinotta, F.A.

    1999-01-01

    Estimating uncertainty in lifetime cancer risk for human exposure to space radiation is a unique challenge. Conventional risk assessment with low-linear-energy-transfer (LET)-based risk from Japanese atomic bomb survivor studies may be inappropriate for relativistic protons and nuclei in space due to track structure effects. This paper develops a Monte Carlo mixture model (MCMM) for transferring additive, National Institutes of Health multiplicative, and multiplicative excess cancer incidence risks based on Japanese atomic bomb survivor data to determine excess incidence risk for various US astronaut exposure profiles. The MCMM serves as an anchor point for future risk projection methods involving biophysical models of DNA damage from space radiation. Lifetime incidence risks of radiation-induced cancer for the MCMM based on low-LET Japanese data for nonleukemia (all cancers except leukemia) were 2.77 (90% confidence limit, 0.75-11.34) for males exposed to 1 Sv at age 45 and 2.20 (90% confidence limit, 0.59-10.12) for males exposed at age 55. For females, mixture model risks for nonleukemia exposed separately to 1 Sv at ages of 45 and 55 were 2.98 (90% confidence limit, 0.90-11.70) and 2.44 (90% confidence limit, 0.70-10.30), respectively. Risks for high-LET 200 MeV protons (LET=0.45 keV/μm), 1 MeV α-particles (LET=100 keV/μm), and 600 MeV iron particles (LET=180 keV/μm) were scored on a per particle basis by determining the particle fluence required for an average of one particle per cell nucleus of area 100 μm 2 . Lifetime risk per proton was 2.68x10 -2 % (90% confidence limit, 0.79x10 -3 %-0.514x10 -2 %). For α-particles, lifetime risk was 14.2% (90% confidence limit, 2.5%-31.2%). Conversely, lifetime risk per iron particle was 23.7% (90% confidence limit, 4.5%-53.0%). Uncertainty in the DDREF for high-LET particles may be less than that for low-LET radiation because typically there is very little dose-rate dependence. Probability density functions for

  19. A wavelet-coupled support vector machine model for forecasting global incident solar radiation using limited meteorological dataset

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deo, Ravinesh C.; Wen, Xiaohu; Qi, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A forecasting model for short- and long-term global incident solar radiation (R_n) has been developed. • The support vector machine and discrete wavelet transformation algorithm has been integrated. • The precision of the wavelet-coupled hybrid model is assessed using several prediction score metrics. • The proposed model is an appealing tool for forecasting R_n in the present study region. - Abstract: A solar radiation forecasting model can be utilized is a scientific contrivance for investigating future viability of solar energy potentials. In this paper, a wavelet-coupled support vector machine (W-SVM) model was adopted to forecast global incident solar radiation based on the sunshine hours (S_t), minimum temperature (T_m_a_x), maximum temperature (T_m_a_x), windspeed (U), evaporation (E) and precipitation (P) as the predictor variables. To ascertain conclusive results, the merit of the W-SVM was benchmarked with the classical SVM model. For daily forecasting, sixteen months of data (01-March-2014 to 30-June-2015) partitioned into the train (65%) and test (35%) set for the three metropolitan stations (Brisbane City, Cairns Aero and Townsville Aero) were utilized. Data were decomposed into their wavelet sub-series by discrete wavelet transformation algorithm and summed up to create new series with one approximation and four levels of detail using Daubechies-2 mother wavelet. For daily forecasting, six model scenarios were formulated where the number of input was increased and the forecast was assessed by statistical metrics (correlation coefficient r; Willmott’s index d; Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient E_N_S; peak deviation P_d_v), distribution statistics and prediction errors (mean absolute error MAE; root mean square error RMSE; mean absolute percentage error MAPE; relative root mean square error RMSE). Results for daily forecasts showed that the W-SVM model outperformed the classical SVM model for optimum input combinations. A sensitivity

  20. New optical scheme for differential measurements of diffraction reflection intensity on X-radiation sliding incidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golovin, A.L.; Mas', E.T.

    1989-01-01

    An X-ray optical scheme for differential measurements of X-ray diffraction under sliding incidence conditions is proposed and an attachment design realizng this scheme, using standard equipment, is described. The main feature of the scheme is the following: collimation according to the Bragg angle is carried out for the reflected beam rather than the incident one. Goniometers can be used from DRON, TRS, GS-5 and other spectrometers. The goniometer head carrying the sample is standard, it is a part of the DRON, TRS and DTS. The crystal analyzer is fixed on the attachment. The angular position of the crystal monochromator is controlled by an inductive sensor. The experimental differential curves of X-ray diffraction under conditions of sliding incidence, taken for a silicon crystal having the 111 orientation, are given as well

  1. Effect of γ-radiation on the incidence of plant tumors (to the problem of carcinogenesis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuzin, A.M.; Yurov, S.S.; Vagabova, M.Eh.; Shchelkaeva, N.V.

    1986-01-01

    In experiments on two plant species: of Kalanchoe diagremontiana and potato (Solanum tuberosum) it was shown that γ-irradiation of the plant tissues, before infecting with Ti-plasmide Agrobacterium tumefaciens C-58, with doses stimulating the development of the plants markedly increases the incidence of tumors, promotes their growth, and increases the probability of inverse differentiation of tumor cells

  2. Tables extracted from Messel and Crawford for electrons incident on 1 radiation length Pb plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loos, J.

    1977-01-01

    Tables were extracted from the extensive tables of Messel and Crawford. The numbers given should be good for 1 r.1. Ta plates and may be helpful when looking at showers in these plates. The tables should be largely self-explanatory. An example is given of how to use these tables given a 1000-MeV incident electron

  3. CONCLUSIONS Urban Children and Adolescents

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    CONCLUSIONS Urban Children and Adolescents. Increasing prevalence of overweight and obesity and measures of regional (central) adiposity. High prevalence of markers of dysmetabolic state in urban adolescents. ~10% prevalence of dysglycemia in overweight / obese school children.

  4. Chapter 6: Conclusions and recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This chapter provides a brief summary of conclusions with respect to project implementation issues. Furthermore, the chapter contains recommendations on future applications of the modelling system and on water resources management in the project area

  5. Summary and conclusions [Chapter 11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel G. Neary; John N. Rinne; Alvin L.. Medina

    2012-01-01

    Summaries and conclusions of each chapter are compiled here to provide a “Quick Reference” guide of major results and recommendations for the UVR. More detail can be obtained from individual chapters.

  6. Emergency preparedness incident response and radiation monitoring in Finland. Annual report 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ristonmaa, S.

    2000-04-01

    The Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) publishes annually a report about STUK's preparedness measures. The report describes notifications received by STUK's on duty system and further measures carried out after receiving a message. In addition, the emergence exercises STUK participated in during the year are described. The radiation situation in Finland is continuously monitored. STUK is the authority who carries out a wide range of environmental measurements, sampling and sensitive laboratory analyses. The measurement results are presented in the form of tables and graphically. (editor)

  7. Emergency preparedness incident response and radiation monitoring in Finland. Annual report 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ristonmaa, S.

    1999-03-01

    The Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) publishes annually a report about STUK's preparedness measures. The report describes notifications received by STUK's on duty system and further measures carried out after receiving a message. In addition, the emergence exercises STUK participated in during the year are described. The radiation situation in Finland is continuously monitored. STUK is the authority who carries out a wide range of environmental measurements, sampling and sensitive laboratory analyses. The measurement results are presented in the form of tables and graphically. (editor)

  8. Radiation factors and smoking interaction at lung cancer incidence for workers at a nuclear enterprise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokarskaya, Z.B.; Khokhryakov, V.F.; Okladnikova, N.D.; Belyaeva, Z.D.; Zhuntova, G.V.

    1997-01-01

    It was shown on the basis of retrospective investigation of 500 workers at a nuclear enterprise (162 cases of lung cancer, 338 persons as matching control) that the interaction of external gamma-irradiation (> 2.0 Gy) and the body - burden of 239 Pu (> 9.3 kBq) at lung cancer is characterized as the multiplicative effect. Combined influence of smoking and radiation factors dependent on smoking index (SI): it changed from additive up to multiplicative and than to antagonistic with the increase of the smoking effect. The received results could be explained on the basis of a two - mutation model of radiation carcinogenesis

  9. Thyroid cancer incidence in iodine deficient areas exposed to radiation after Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szybinski, Z.; Mazurek-Przybylik, E.

    1996-01-01

    In two districts of Southern Poland; Krakow and Nowy Sacz (2 million people), standardized thyroid cancer incidence rate IR was evaluated from 1976 to 1992. This area was classified as a moderate iodine deficiency endemic goiter region and belonged to the most contaminated areas in Poland after Chernobyl accident. Recalculated - in terms of real iodine intake-thyroid commitment equivalent dose in the youngest age groups reached 100 mSv. The aim of the study was to evaluate, 6 years after Chernobyl accident, thyroid cancer incidence rate and histotype. Age and sex specific incidence rate in Krakow for male was 0.827 and for female 3.093 and 0.93 and 2.164 for Nowy Sacz respectively. There was no increase of IR in the group of age 0-19 yrs, however in the group over 44 yrs in females in the period of time 1989-1992 significant increase of follicular cancer was observed. In the histotype, the follicular cancerpredominated over the papillary one: 42,9% against 33,6%. Predominance of the follicular cancer is typical for iodine deficient area. Significant increase of the follicular cancer may be due to the increase of iodine deficiency. (author). 14 refs, 1 fig., 5 tabs

  10. Thyroid cancer incidence in iodine deficient areas exposed to radiation after Chernobyl accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szybinski, Z; Mazurek-Przybylik, E [Jagiellonian Univ., Cracow (Poland). Dept. of Endocrinology; Pawlega, J [Institute of Oncology, Cracow (Poland)

    1996-08-01

    In two districts of Southern Poland; Krakow and Nowy Sacz (2 million people), standardized thyroid cancer incidence rate IR was evaluated from 1976 to 1992. This area was classified as a moderate iodine deficiency endemic goiter region and belonged to the most contaminated areas in Poland after Chernobyl accident. Recalculated - in terms of real iodine intake-thyroid commitment equivalent dose in the youngest age groups reached 100 mSv. The aim of the study was to evaluate, 6 years after Chernobyl accident, thyroid cancer incidence rate and histotype. Age and sex specific incidence rate in Krakow for male was 0.827 and for female 3.093 and 0.93 and 2.164 for Nowy Sacz respectively. There was no increase of IR in the group of age 0-19 yrs, however in the group over 44 yrs in females in the period of time 1989-1992 significant increase of follicular cancer was observed. In the histotype, the follicular cancerpredominated over the papillary one: 42,9% against 33,6%. Predominance of the follicular cancer is typical for iodine deficient area. Significant increase of the follicular cancer may be due to the increase of iodine deficiency. (author). 14 refs, 1 fig., 5 tabs.

  11. Radiation safety education reduces the incidence of adult fingers on neonatal chest radiographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahota, N; Burbridge, B E; Duncan, M D

    2014-01-01

    A previous audit revealed a high frequency of adult fingers visualised on neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) chest radiographs—representing an example of inappropriate occupational radiation exposure. Radiation safety education was provided to staff and we hypothesised that the education would reduce the frequency of adult fingers visualised on NICU chest radiographs. Two cross-sectional samples taken before and after the administration of the education were compared. We examined fingers visualised directly in the beam, fingers in the direct beam but eliminated by technologists editing the image, and fingers under the cones of the portable x-ray machine. There was a 46.2% reduction in fingers directly in the beam, 50.0% reduction in fingers directly in the beam but cropped out, and 68.4% reduction in fingers in the coned area. There was a 57.1% overall reduction in adult fingers visualised, which was statistically significant (Z value − 7.48, P < 0.0001). This study supports radiation safety education in minimising inappropriate occupational radiation exposure. (paper)

  12. Ionizing radiation increases primary cilia incidence and induces multiciliation in C2C12 myoblasts

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Filipová, A.; Diaz-Garcia, D.; Bezrouk, A.; Čížková, D.; Havelek, R.; Vávrová, J.; Dayanithi, Govindan; Řezáčová, M.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 39, č. 8 (2015), s. 943-953 ISSN 1065-6995 Institutional support: RVO:68378041 Keywords : cell line * ionizing radiation * multiple cilia * myoblast * primary cilium * serum starvation stress Subject RIV: FP - Other Medical Disciplines Impact factor: 1.663, year: 2015

  13. Measuring Solar Radiation Incident on Earth: Solar Constant-3 (SOLCON-3)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crommelynck, Dominique; Joukoff, Alexandre; Dewitte, Steven

    2002-01-01

    Life on Earth is possible because the climate conditions on Earth are relatively mild. One element of the climate on Earth, the temperature, is determined by the heat exchanges between the Earth and its surroundings, outer space. The heat exchanges take place in the form of electromagnetic radiation. The Earth gains energy because it absorbs solar radiation, and it loses energy because it emits thermal infrared radiation to cold space. The heat exchanges are in balance: the heat gained by the Earth through solar radiation equals the heat lost through thermal radiation. When the balance is perturbed, a temperature change and hence a climate change of the Earth will occur. One possible perturbation of the balance is the CO2 greenhouse effect: when the amount of CO2 in the atmosphere increases, this will reduce the loss of thermal infrared radiation to cold space. Earth will gain more heat and hence the temperature will rise. Another perturbation of the balance can occur through variation of the amount of energy emitted by the sun. When the sun emits more energy, this will directly cause a rise of temperature on Earth. For a long time scientists believed that the energy emitted by the sun was constant. The 'solar constant' is defined as the amount of solar energy received per unit surface at a distance of one astronomical unit (the average distance of Earth's orbit) from the sun. Accurate measurements of the variations of the solar constant have been made since 1978. From these we know that the solar constant varies approximately with the 11-year solar cycle observed in other solar phenomena, such as the occurrence of sunspots, dark spots that are sometimes visible on the solar surface. When a sunspot occurs on the sun, since the spot is dark, the radiation (light) emitted by the sun drops instantaneously. Oddly, periods of high solar activity, when a lot of sunspot numbers increase, correspond to periods when the average solar constant is high. This indicates that

  14. Contribution of Topography and Incident Solar Radiation to Variation of Soil and Plant Litter at an Area with Heterogeneous Terrain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Cito Nettesheim

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Natural processes that determine soil and plant litter properties are controlled by multiple factors. However, little attention has been given to distinguishing the effects of environmental factors from the effects of spatial structure of the area on the distribution of soil and litter properties in tropical ecosystems covering heterogeneous topographies. The aim of this study was to assess patterns of soil and litter variation in a tropical area that intercepts different levels of solar radiation throughout the year since its topography has slopes predominantly facing opposing geographic directions. Soil data (pH, C, N, P, H+Al, Ca, Mg, K, Al, Na, sand, and silt and plant litter data (N, K, Ca, P, and Mg were gathered together with the geographic coordinates (to model the spatial structure of 40 sampling units established at two sites composed of slopes predominantly facing northwest and southeast (20 units each. Soil and litter chemical properties varied more among slopes within similar geographic orientations than between the slopes facing opposing directions. Both the incident solar radiation and the spatial structure of the area were relevant in explaining the patterns detected in variation of soil and plant litter. Individual contributions of incident solar radiation to explain the variation in the properties evaluated suggested that this and other environmental factors may play a particularly relevant role in determining soil and plant litter distribution in tropical areas with heterogeneous topography. Furthermore, this study corroborates that the spatial structure of the area also plays an important role in the distribution of soil and litter within this type of landscape, which appears to be consistent with the action of water movement mechanisms in such areas.

  15. CONCLUSIONS New Delhi Birth Cohort

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    CONCLUSIONS New Delhi Birth Cohort. Crossing BMI centiles and early adiposity rebound associated with adult metabolic syndrome. BMI gain in infancy and early childhood – associated more with adult lean mass. BMI gain in later childhood / adolescence – associated more with adult fat mass and constituents of ...

  16. Accidents and incidents with external and/or internal radiation-exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    An individual radiation exposure accident is an unexpected and unintended event which gives rise to an overexposure (external or internal). By overexposure one means all external or internal exposure which could lead to the exceeding of the regulatory norms. Going beyond these limits does not always produce pathological manifestations. The term radiological accident is, in practice, used only when there is an occurrence of some biological or clinical response, or when some therapeutic action is required. A radio-exposure accident can occur: within or from a nuclear power plant or from a center employing ionizing radiation. These are the most frequent; and during the transport of radioactive materials. These are exceptional events. The tanks and containers used in the transport of highly radioactive substances are exhaustively studied for their resistance to accidents, and the conditions of transport determined by very strict national and international regulations. The transport of substances of low radioactivity (labelled molecules, radiopharmaceuticals...) carries only minor risks

  17. Preliminary studies into profiling DNA recovered from a radiation or radioactivity incident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodgson, A.; Baxter, A.

    2013-01-01

    The examination and profiling of human DNA recovered from a scene of crime is an essential aspect of criminal investigations. However, it is currently not known whether DNA recovered from a scene where an ionising radiation source or radioactive contamination is present can be successfully profiled. The direct examination and analysis of radioactively contaminated DNA has not been widely explored using the current procedures employed by forensic service providers. As a result, AWE is putting in place an extensive research and development programme to better understand the effects that radiation has on the ability to profile human DNA, and assess the associated retention of different radioactive contaminants within each step of the profiling procedure. A summary will be provided on the aims of this project and progress that has been made to date; together with a discussion of the lessons that have been learnt during the course of the programme's development. (author)

  18. Acoustic radiation force due to arbitrary incident fields on spherical particles in soft tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Treweek, Benjamin C., E-mail: btreweek@utexas.edu; Ilinskii, Yurii A.; Zabolotskaya, Evgenia A.; Hamilton, Mark F. [Applied Research Laboratories, The University of Texas at Austin, P.O. Box 8029, Austin, TX 78713-8029 (United States)

    2015-10-28

    Acoustic radiation force is of interest in a wide variety of biomedical applications ranging from tissue characterization (e.g. elastography) to tissue treatment (e.g. high intensity focused ultrasound, kidney stone fragment removal). As tissue mechanical properties are reliable indicators of tissue health, the former is the focus of the present contribution. This is accomplished through an investigation of the acoustic radiation force on a spherical scatterer embedded in tissue. Properties of both the scatterer and the surrounding tissue are important in determining the magnitude and the direction of the force. As these properties vary, the force computation shows changes in magnitude and direction, which may enable more accurate noninvasive determination of tissue properties.

  19. Estimating Photosynthetic Radiation Use Efficiency Using Incident Light and Photosynthesis of Individual Leaves

    OpenAIRE

    ROSATI, A.; DEJONG, T. M.

    2003-01-01

    It has been theorized that photosynthetic radiation use efficiency (PhRUE) over the course of a day is constant for leaves throughout a canopy if leaf nitrogen content and photosynthetic properties are adapted to local light so that canopy photosynthesis over a day is optimized. To test this hypothesis, ‘daily’ photosynthesis of individual leaves of Solanum melongena plants was calculated from instantaneous rates of photosynthesis integrated over the daylight hours. Instantaneous photosynthes...

  20. Calculation of radiation and pair production probabilities at arbitrary incidence angles to crystal planes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tikhonirov, V.V.

    1993-01-01

    The results of calculations of the intensity and polarization of radiation from channeled and unchanneled e +- are presented. The Fourier transformation (FT) is used to calculate numerous matrix elements. The calculations for channeled e + showed fast approach of spectral intensity to its value calculated in the approximation of self-consistent field (ASCF) with growing photon energy. In the case of 150 GeV unchanneled e - in Ge at T=293 K the ASCF gives a significantly higher value as compared to the FT. 4 refs., 3 figs

  1. Radiation factors and smoking interaction at lung cancer incidence for workers at a nuclear enterprise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokarskaya, Z.B.; Khokhryakov, V.T.; Okladnikova, N.D.; Belyaeva, Z.D.; Zhuntova, G.V.; Fleck, C.M.; Schollnberger, H.; Drozhko, E.G.

    1998-01-01

    A study is reported which is a continuation of a previous investigation of lung cancer incidence in workers at a nuclear enterprise and its relation to three basic etiological factors: the body burden due to 239 Pu, chronic external gamma irradiation, and smoking. Whereas previously each of the factors was assessed separately, in the present study the attempt was made to assess the interaction of the factors. A statistical analysis of the data revealed that for the following pairs of factors a superposition effect could be seen: external gamma irradiation and 239 Pu body burden; external gamma irradiation and a medium level of smoking; and 239 Pu body burden and a medium level of smoking. (A.K.)

  2. Incident report and estimates of personnel exposure for a staff present in maze corridor of linac room while radiation beam on

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravichandran, R.; Davis, C.A.; Ghamrawy, Kamal El; Arunkumar, L.S.

    2007-01-01

    The radiation safety features of high energy linear accelerator installations include primary and secondary barriers made of concrete (radiation bunkers), provision of maze wall for eliminating first scatter reaching the entrance door, locating room entrance perpendicular to maze corridor to reduce neutron dose. In addition, special motorized doors with lead lining and paraffin blocks, electrically interlocked to beam on-off system is provided for radiation safety. A radiation incident took place involving presence of a staff inside the Clinac 2300 CD room in September 2006 has been described

  3. Correlation between the time-series of air temperature and incident solar radiation at Port Harcourt, Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adjepong, S.K.; Okujagu, C.

    1987-12-01

    We present the preliminary results of an investigation of the correlation between the temporal variations of the time-series of ground air temperature and incident solar radiation recorded at Port Harcourt (lat. 4 deg. 51' N, long. 7 deg. 01' E), Nigeria, during a five-year period (1981 through 1985). Computed cross-correlation functions of the daily time-series reveal correlation at time lags which are approximate harmonics of the 27-day solar rotation cycle. The cross-correlation function of the mean monthly series shows correlation at a time lag of 12 months implying a dominant annual-cycle component in the variation of either series. (author). 12 refs, 2 figs

  4. Use of risk projection models to estimate mortality and incidence from radiation-induced breast cancer in screening programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos, M; Ferrer, S; Villaescusa, J I; Verdu, G; Salas, M D; Cuevas, M D

    2005-01-01

    The authors report on a method to calculate radiological risks, applicable to breast screening programs and other controlled medical exposures to ionizing radiation. In particular, it has been applied to make a risk assessment in the Valencian Breast Cancer Early Detection Program (VBCEDP) in Spain. This method is based on a parametric approach, through Markov processes, of hazard functions for radio-induced breast cancer incidence and mortality, with mean glandular breast dose, attained age and age-at-exposure as covariates. Excess relative risk functions of breast cancer mortality have been obtained from two different case-control studies exposed to ionizing radiation, with different follow-up time: the Canadian Fluoroscopy Cohort Study (1950-1987) and the Life Span Study (1950-1985 and 1950-1990), whereas relative risk functions for incidence have been obtained from the Life Span Study (1958-1993), the Massachusetts tuberculosis cohorts (1926-1985 and 1970-1985), the New York post-partum mastitis patients (1930-1981) and the Swedish benign breast disease cohort (1958-1987). Relative risks from these cohorts have been transported to the target population undergoing screening in the Valencian Community, a region in Spain with about four and a half million inhabitants. The SCREENRISK software has been developed to estimate radiological detriments in breast screening. Some hypotheses corresponding to different screening conditions have been considered in order to estimate the total risk associated with a woman who takes part in all screening rounds. In the case of the VBCEDP, the total radio-induced risk probability for fatal breast cancer is in a range between [5 x 10 -6 , 6 x 10 -4 ] versus the natural rate of dying from breast cancer in the Valencian Community which is 9.2 x 10 -3 . The results show that these indicators could be included in quality control tests and could be adequate for making comparisons between several screening programs

  5. Epidemiological studies on disturbances of human fetal development in areas with various doses of natural background radiation. I. Relationship between incidences of Down's syndrome or visible malformation and gonad dose equivalent rate of natural background radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ujeno, Y.

    1985-01-01

    The relationship between environmental radiation to the gonads and incidences of Down's syndrome and visible malformation was analyzed using Kendall's rank correlation method. The subjects, studied during a 3-yr period (1979-1981), were inhabitants of 46 prefectures in Japan that had various dose rates of natural background ionizing radiation. Results showed that the natural background very low-dose radiation rate was not a predominant factor responsible for inducing Down's syndrome or other visible malformations

  6. The incidence of radiation necrosis following stereotactic radiotherapy for melanoma brain metastases: the potential impact of immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaidar-Person, Orit; Zagar, Timothy M; Deal, Allison; Moschos, Stergios J; Ewend, Matthew G; Sasaki-Adams, Deanna; Lee, Carrie B; Collichio, Frances A; Fried, David; Marks, Lawrence B; Chera, Bhishamjit S

    2017-07-01

    Stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT) is the standard treatment for patients with limited number of brain metastases. In the past few years, newer immunotherapies (immune checkpoint inhibitors) have been proven to prolong survival in patients with metastatic melanoma. The safety of the combination of SRT and immunotherapy for brain metastases is unknown. We retrospectively identified patients with melanoma brain metastases treated with SRT between 2007 and 2015. Patients who did not have at least 3 months of follow-up with imaging after SRT were excluded from the analysis. Outcomes were compared between patients who were treated with or without immunotherapy. A total of 58 patients were included; of these, 29 were treated with SRT and immunotherapy. MAPK inhibitors (BRAF, MEK inhibitors) were used more often in the immunotherapy group (nine vs. two patients). There was a higher incidence of intracranial complications in patients treated with immunotherapy and SRT. Eight patients had radiation necrosis; all occurred in patients who were treated with immunotherapy. Nine patients had hemorrhage, of which seven occurred in patients who were treated with immunotherapy (P=0.08). However, patients treated with immunotherapy and SRT had a significant overall survival advantage compared with SRT without immunotherapy (15 vs. 6 months, P=0.0013). Patients treated with SRT and immunotherapy have a higher incidence/risk of intracranial complications, but a longer overall survival.

  7. Atmospheric turbidity parameters affecting the incident solar solar radiation for two different areas in (Eg))

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tadros, M.T.Y.; Mosalam, M.A.; El-metwally, M.

    1999-01-01

    Atmospheric turbidity parameters such as Linke turbidity (L-0) and true Angstrom parameters (Bita o , Alpha 0 ) have been determined from the measurements of direct solar radiation for entire spectrum and for specified spectral bands during one year starting from june 1992 to may 1993. Comparison between the industrial area in Helwan (south Cairo) with that of the agricultural area in Mansoura, in (Eg), was done. Analysis of data revealed that the atmospheric turbidity parameters (L Beta) in Helwan is higher than that in Mansoura, except for hot wet months. The increase of L in Mansoura, in summer, is due to the increase of water vapor content. The wavelength exponent Alpha shows that the size the size of particles in Helwan is larger than that in Mansoura

  8. Earth Reflected Solar Radiation Incident upon an Arbitrarily Oriented Spinning Flat Plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Fred G.

    1963-01-01

    A general derivation is given for the earth reflected solar radiation input to a flat plate--a solar cell paddle, for example--which is spinning about an axis coincident with the axis of symmetry of the satellite to which it is affixed. The resulting equations are written for the general case so that arbitrary orientations of the spin axis with respect to the earth-satellite line and arbitrary orientations of the normal to the plate with respect to the spin axis can be treated. No attempt is made to perform the resulting integrations because of the complexity of the equations; nor is there any attempt to delineate the integration limits for the general case. However, the equations governing these limits are given. The appendixes contain: the results, in graphical form, of two representative examples; the general computer program for the calculation is given in Fortran notation; and the results of a calculation of the distribution of albedo energy on the proposed Echo II satellite. The value of the mean solar constant used is 1.395 times 10 (sup 4) ergs per centimeters-squared per second; the mean albedo of the earth is assumed to be 0.34; and the earth is assumed to be a diffuse reflector.

  9. Late effects of selected immunosuppressants on immunocompetence, disease incidence, and mean life-span. III. Disease incidence and life expectancy. [Mice, x radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter, C P; Perkins, E H; Peterson, W J; Walburg, H E; Makinodan, T

    1975-01-01

    The effect of various immunosuppressive treatments on mean life-span and disease incidence have been studied. Significant life shortening was seen only in mice which received X-irradiation early in life and can be ascribed primarily to an increased incidence of certain malignancies. Marginal life shortening was seen in cyclophosphamide-treated animals, however, survival patterns between those and control animals did not differ until 30 months of age and the magnitude of life-shortening never approached that seen in X-irradiated animals. Thymectomy, splenectomy or cortisone treatment did not alter survival. All immunosuppressive treatments enhanced mortality due to non-neoplastic diseases, however, only a small percentage of animals die with these disease entities. With the exception of cortisone all immunosuppressive treatments increased the incidence of neoplastic disease. However, their effects on various neoplastic processes were variable and unpredictable. Four primary patterns in terms of relative immune competence, disease incidence and life expectancy were seen. Thus, immunodepression may or may not correlate with increased disease incidence, which in turn may or may not have a life-shortening effect. These findings are discussed in terms of the marked reduction of both humoral and cell-mediated immunity normally seen in aged mice and the significance of postulated immune surveillance mechanisms to survival.

  10. Modeling Photosynthetically Active Radiation in Water of Tampa Bay, Florida, with Emphasis on the Geometry of Incident Irradiance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Ronald L.; McPherson, Benjamin F.

    1995-04-01

    Field studies that compare the spatial and temporal variation in light attenuation often neglect effects of solar elevation angle, yet these effects can be significant. To approximately correct for these angular effects, we developed a model that uses a simplified geometric description of incident direct solar beam and diffuse skylight. The model incorporates effects of solar elevation angle and cloudiness on the amount of in-air photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) that passes through the air-water interface and on K0in waters of relatively low turbidity. The model was calibrated with 3266 5-min averages of scalar PAR measured in air and at two depths in water and permits the value of K0to be adjusted approximately for the effects of time of day, season and cloudiness. The model was then used with 255 days of in-air PAR data (15-min averages) to evaluate irradiance that entered the water and attenuation in the water. On an annual basis, 49% of the incident scalar irradiance, or 380 μmol m -2s -1, was estimated to enter the water of Tampa Bay. The value of K0was estimated to vary as much as 41% on a clear summer day due to changes in solar elevation angle. The model was used to make estimates of the depth to which sea-grasses might receive adequate light for survival for a range of values of K0. This approach should be useful for projecting the effect of changes in water clarity on the depth of sea-grass survival and for comparing values of K0collected at different times of day and in different seasons.

  11. Training of an incidence of radiation on surfaces by vectorial representation; Didactica del analisis de la incidencia de radiacion solar mediante una representacion vectorial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luis, F. J. de; Perez-Garcia, M.; Barbero, F. J.; Batlles, F. J.

    2004-07-01

    This work gathers and it exposes a set of educational contents extracted from the general bibliography and from the own experience in Engineering studies and courses on the application of a vector representation to the description of the apparent movement of the sun, the shading evaluation and the incidence of radiation on surfaces. (Author)

  12. Measurement of the radiation incident on ALS NdFeB permanent magnet insertion device structures and a determination of their lifetime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krebs, G.F.; Holmes, M.

    1997-05-01

    Measurements of the radiation incident on ALS insertion device NdFeB permanent magnet structures were carried out using thermoluminescence dosimeters. A plastic scintillator gamma telescope was utilized to unravel the various contributions to the integrated dose. Magnet lifetimes were calculated for various operational conditions

  13. Error sources in the real-time NLDAS incident surface solar radiation and an evaluation against field observations and the NARR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, G.; Gao, X.; Sorooshian, S.

    2005-12-01

    The atmospheric model is sensitive to the land surface interactions and its coupling with Land surface Models (LSMs) leads to a better ability to forecast weather under extreme climate conditions, such as droughts and floods (Atlas et al. 1993; Beljaars et al. 1996). However, it is still questionable how accurately the surface exchanges can be simulated using LSMs, since terrestrial properties and processes have high variability and heterogeneity. Examinations with long-term and multi-site surface observations including both remotely sensed and ground observations are highly needed to make an objective evaluation on the effectiveness and uncertainty of LSMs at different circumstances. Among several atmospheric forcing required for the offline simulation of LSMs, incident surface solar radiation is one of the most significant components, since it plays a major role in total incoming energy into the land surface. The North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS) and North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR) are two important data sources providing high-resolution surface solar radiation data for the use of research communities. In this study, these data are evaluated against field observations (AmeriFlux) to identify their advantages, deficiencies and sources of errors. The NLDAS incident solar radiation shows a pretty good agreement in monthly mean prior to the summer of 2001, while it overestimates after the summer of 2001 and its bias is pretty close to the EDAS. Two main error sources are identified: 1) GOES solar radiation was not used in the NLDAS for several months in 2001 and 2003, and 2) GOES incident solar radiation when available, was positively biased in year 2002. The known snow detection problem is sometimes identified in the NLDAS, since it is inherited from GOES incident solar radiation. The NARR consistently overestimates incident surface solar radiation, which might produce erroneous outputs if used in the LSMs. Further attention is given to

  14. Evaluation of the Reanalysis Surface Incident Shortwave Radiation Products from NCEP, ECMWF, GSFC, and JMA Using Satellite and Surface Observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaotong Zhang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Solar radiation incident at the Earth’s surface (Rs is an essential component of the total energy exchange between the atmosphere and the surface. Reanalysis data have been widely used, but a comprehensive validation using surface measurements is still highly needed. In this study, we evaluated the Rs estimates from six current representative global reanalyses (NCEP–NCAR, NCEP-DOE; CFSR; ERA-Interim; MERRA; and JRA-55 using surface measurements from different observation networks [GEBA; BSRN; GC-NET; Buoy; and CMA] (674 sites in total and the Earth’s Radiant Energy System (CERES EBAF product from 2001 to 2009. The global mean biases between the reanalysis Rs and surface measurements at all sites ranged from 11.25 W/m2 to 49.80 W/m2. Comparing with the CERES-EBAF Rs product, all the reanalyses overestimate Rs, except for ERA-Interim, with the biases ranging from −2.98 W/m2 to 21.97 W/m2 over the globe. It was also found that the biases of cloud fraction (CF in the reanalyses caused the overestimation of Rs. After removing the averaged bias of CERES-EBAF, weighted by the area of the latitudinal band, a global annual mean Rs values of 184.6 W/m2, 180.0 W/m2, and 182.9 W/m2 were obtained over land, ocean, and the globe, respectively.

  15. Comparison of incidences of normal tissue complications with tumor response in a phase III trial comparing heat plus radiation to radiation alone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dewhirst, M.W.; Sim, D.A.; Grochowski, K.J.

    1984-01-01

    The success of hyperthermia (/sup Δ/) as an adjuvant to radiation (XRT) will depend on whether the increase in tumor control is greater than that for normal tissue reactions. One hundred and thirty dogs and cats were stratified by histology and randomized to receive XRT (460 rads per fraction, two fractions per week, for eight fractions) or /sup Δ/ + XRT (30 min. at 44 +-2 0 C; one fraction per week, four fractions; immediately prior to XRT). Heat induced changes in tumor and normal tissue responses were made by comparing ratios of incidence for /sup Δ/ + XRT and XRT alone (TRR; Thermal Relative Risk). Change in tumor response duration was calculated from statistical analysis of response duration curves (RRR; Relative Relapse Rate). Heat increased early normal tissue reactions (moist desquamation and mucositis by a factor of 1.08. Tumor complete response, by comparison, was significantly improved (TRR = 2.12, p < .001). Late skin fibrosis was also increased (TRR = 1.51), but the prolongation in tumor response was greater (RRR 1.85). The degree of thermal enhancement for all tissues was dependent on the minimum temperature achieved on the first treatment, but the values for tumor were consistently greater than those achieved for normal tissues

  16. WE-G-BRA-03: Developing a Culture of Patient Safety Utilizing the National Radiation Oncology Incident Learning System (ROILS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasson, B; Workie, D; Geraghty, C [Anne Arundel Medical Center, Annapolis, MD (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To transition from an in-house incident reporting system to a ROILS standards system with the intent to develop a safety focused culture in the Department and enroll in ROILS. Methods: Since the AAPM Safety Summit (2010) several safety and reporting systems have been implemented within the Department. Specific checklists and SBAR reporting systems were introduced. However, the active learning component was lost due to reporting being viewed with distrust and possible retribution.To Facilitate introducing ROILS each leader in the Department received a copy of the ROILS participation guide. Four specific tasks were assigned to each leader: develop a reporting tree, begin the ROILS based system, facilitate adopting ROILS Terminology, and educate the staff on expectations of safety culture. Next, the ROILS questions were broken down into area specific questions (10–15) per departmental area. Excel spreadsheets were developed for each area and setup for error reporting entries. The Role of the Process Improvement Committee (PI) has been modified to review and make recommendations based on the ROILS entries. Results: The ROILS based Reporting has been in place for 4 months. To date 64 reports have been entered. Since the adoption of ROILS the reporting of incidents has increased from 2/month to 18/month on average. Three reports had a dosimetric effect on the patient (<5%) dose variance. The large majority of entries have been Characterized as Processes not followed or not sure how to Characterize, and Human Behavior. Conclusion: The majority of errors are typo’s that create confusion. The introduction of the ROILS standards has provided a platform for making changes to policies that increase patient safety. The goal is to develop a culture that sees reporting at a national level as a safe and effective way to improve our safety, and to dynamically learn from other institutions reporting.

  17. WE-G-BRA-03: Developing a Culture of Patient Safety Utilizing the National Radiation Oncology Incident Learning System (ROILS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasson, B; Workie, D; Geraghty, C

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To transition from an in-house incident reporting system to a ROILS standards system with the intent to develop a safety focused culture in the Department and enroll in ROILS. Methods: Since the AAPM Safety Summit (2010) several safety and reporting systems have been implemented within the Department. Specific checklists and SBAR reporting systems were introduced. However, the active learning component was lost due to reporting being viewed with distrust and possible retribution.To Facilitate introducing ROILS each leader in the Department received a copy of the ROILS participation guide. Four specific tasks were assigned to each leader: develop a reporting tree, begin the ROILS based system, facilitate adopting ROILS Terminology, and educate the staff on expectations of safety culture. Next, the ROILS questions were broken down into area specific questions (10–15) per departmental area. Excel spreadsheets were developed for each area and setup for error reporting entries. The Role of the Process Improvement Committee (PI) has been modified to review and make recommendations based on the ROILS entries. Results: The ROILS based Reporting has been in place for 4 months. To date 64 reports have been entered. Since the adoption of ROILS the reporting of incidents has increased from 2/month to 18/month on average. Three reports had a dosimetric effect on the patient (<5%) dose variance. The large majority of entries have been Characterized as Processes not followed or not sure how to Characterize, and Human Behavior. Conclusion: The majority of errors are typo’s that create confusion. The introduction of the ROILS standards has provided a platform for making changes to policies that increase patient safety. The goal is to develop a culture that sees reporting at a national level as a safe and effective way to improve our safety, and to dynamically learn from other institutions reporting

  18. Properties of light transition radiation of 660 MeV proton inclined incidence (γ=1.7) on a thick nickel plate. II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zrelov, V.P.; Pavlovic, P.; Ruzicka, J.

    1975-01-01

    The basic properties of transition radiation in the visible fraction of the spectrum have been calculated for 660 MeV protons (γ=1.7) obliquely incident on a thick nickel plate in vacuum. The angular distributions of the summary radiation (i.e. the sums of radiations of various polarizations) both 'forward' and 'backward' for different azimuthal planes are presented in tables and diagrams for different particle inclination angles to the separation boundary. The examples of angular distributions of radiation having various polarizations (at the inclination angle of 45 0 ) show that they differ considerably. The spectra of summary radiation are of a monotonous character. The calculations have shown that in a relativistic case the forward radiation is concentrated near the direction of particle motion and backward radiation moves in an opposite direction with respect to that of the particle inclination. The dependence of the total yield of forward and backward transition radiations upon the particle inclination angle is approximately cos 2 psi. (Auth.)

  19. Calibration of photographic dosemeters to evaluate the personal equivalent dose, Hp (10), irradiated by different radiation qualities and angles of incidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santoro, Christiana; Antonio Filho, Joao

    2013-01-01

    To use radiation detectors, should periodically perform tests and calibrations on instruments in order to verify its good functionality. One way to ascertain the quality of the instrument is to conduct a study of the angular dependence of the response of the radiation detectors. The photographic dosimetry has been used widely to quantify the radiation doses and to estimate levels of doses received by workers involved with X-and gamma radiation. Photographic dosimeters are used because provide wide range of exposure and good accuracy. One of the sources of error have been introduced by different irradiation geometries between calibration and measurement in radiation fields used in x-ray and gamma ray sources, therefore, there is a need for an evaluation of the sensitivity of dosimeters with variation of the angle of the incident beam. In this study were tested 190 photographic dosemeters in the Metrology Laboratory of the Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-NE) using the phantom H p (10), where the dosimeters are evaluated on the basis of the new operational magnitude for individual monitoring, the equivalent personal dose, H p (10). Angular dependence of these radiation detectors was studied in X radiation fields (in the range of 45 keV energy to 164 keV) and gamma radiation ( 137 Cs-662 keV e 60 Co - 1250 keV)

  20. Maximum dose angle for oblique incidence on primary beam protective barriers in the design of medical radiation therapy facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fondevila, Damian; Arbiser, Silvio; Sansogne, Rosana; Brunetto, Monica; Dosoretz, Bernardo

    2008-01-01

    Primary barrier determinations for the shielding of medical radiation therapy facilities are generally made assuming normal beam incidence on the barrier, since this is geometrically the most unfavorable condition for that shielding barrier whenever the occupation line is allowed to run along the barrier. However, when the occupation line (for example, the wall of an adjacent building) runs perpendicular to the barrier (especially roof barrier), then two opposing factors come in to play: increasing obliquity angle with respect to the barrier increases the attenuation, while the distance to the calculation point decreases, hence, increasing the dose. As a result, there exists an angle (α max ) for which the equivalent dose results in a maximum, constituting the most unfavorable geometric condition for that shielding barrier. Based on the usual NCRP Report No. 151 model, this article presents a simple formula for obtaining α max , which is a function of the thickness of the barrier (t E ) and the equilibrium tenth-value layer (TVL e ) of the shielding material for the nominal energy of the beam. It can be seen that α max increases for increasing TVL e (hence, beam energy) and decreases for increasing t E , with a range of variation that goes from 13 to 40 deg for concrete barriers thicknesses in the range of 50-300 cm and most commercially available teletherapy machines. This parameter has not been calculated in the existing literature for radiotherapy facilities design and has practical applications, as in calculating the required unoccupied roof shielding for the protection of a nearby building located in the plane of the primary beam rotation

  1. Maximum dose angle for oblique incidence on primary beam protective barriers in the design of medical radiation therapy facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fondevila, Damián; Arbiser, Silvio; Sansogne, Rosana; Brunetto, Mónica; Dosoretz, Bernardo

    2008-05-01

    Primary barrier determinations for the shielding of medical radiation therapy facilities are generally made assuming normal beam incidence on the barrier, since this is geometrically the most unfavorable condition for that shielding barrier whenever the occupation line is allowed to run along the barrier. However, when the occupation line (for example, the wall of an adjacent building) runs perpendicular to the barrier (especially roof barrier), then two opposing factors come in to play: increasing obliquity angle with respect to the barrier increases the attenuation, while the distance to the calculation point decreases, hence, increasing the dose. As a result, there exists an angle (alpha(max)) for which the equivalent dose results in a maximum, constituting the most unfavorable geometric condition for that shielding barrier. Based on the usual NCRP Report No. 151 model, this article presents a simple formula for obtaining alpha(max), which is a function of the thickness of the barrier (t(E)) and the equilibrium tenth-value layer (TVL(e)) of the shielding material for the nominal energy of the beam. It can be seen that alpha(max) increases for increasing TVL(e) (hence, beam energy) and decreases for increasing t(E), with a range of variation that goes from 13 to 40 deg for concrete barriers thicknesses in the range of 50-300 cm and most commercially available teletherapy machines. This parameter has not been calculated in the existing literature for radiotherapy facilities design and has practical applications, as in calculating the required unoccupied roof shielding for the protection of a nearby building located in the plane of the primary beam rotation.

  2. The measurement and analysis of normal incidence solar UVB radiation and its application to the photoclimatherapy protocol for psoriasis at the Dead Sea, Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudish, Avraham I; Harari, Marco; Evseev, Efim G

    2011-01-01

    The broad-band normal incidence UVB beam radiation has been measured at Neve Zohar, Dead Sea basin, using a prototype tracking instrument composed of a Model 501A UV-Biometer mounted on an Eppley Solar Tracker Model St-1. The diffuse and beam fraction of the solar global UVB radiation have been determined using the concurrently measured solar global UVB radiation. The diffuse fraction was observed to exceed 80% throughout the year. The application of the results of these measurements to the possible revision of the photoclimatherapy protocol for psoriasis patients at the Dead Sea medical spas is now under investigation. The suggested revision would enable the sun-exposure treatment protocol to take advantage of the very high diffuse fraction by allowing the patient to receive the daily dose of UVB radiation without direct exposure to the sun, viz. receive the diffuse UVB radiation under a sunshade. This would require an increase in sun-exposure time intervals, as the UVB radiation intensity beneath a sunshade is less than that on an exposed surface. © 2010 The Authors. Photochemistry and Photobiology © 2010 The American Society of Photobiology.

  3. Increased incidence of myelodysplastic syndrome and acute myeloid leukemia following breast cancer treatment with radiation alone or combined with chemotherapy: a registry cohort analysis 1990-2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaplan, Henry G; Malmgren, Judith A; Atwood, Mary K

    2011-01-01

    Our objective was to measure myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) and acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) risk associated with radiation and/or chemotherapy breast cancer (BC) treatment. Our study cohort was composed of BC patients diagnosed from 1990 to 2005 and followed up for blood disorders, mean length of follow up = 7.17 years, range 2-18 years. 5790 TNM stage 0-III patients treated with surgery alone, radiation and/or chemotherapy were included. Patients without surgery (n = 111), with stem cell transplantation (n = 98), unknown or non-standard chemotherapy regimens (n = 94), lost to follow up (n = 66) or 'cancer status unknown' (n = 67) were excluded. Rates observed at our community based cancer care institution were compared to SEER incidence data for rate ratio (RR) calculations. 17 cases of MDS/AML (10 MDS/7 AML) occurred during the follow up period, crude rate .29% (95% CI = .17, .47), SEER comparison RR = 3.94 (95% CI = 2.34, 6.15). The RR of MDS in patients age < 65 comparing our cohort incidence to SEER incidence data was 10.88 (95% CI = 3.84, 24.03) and the RR of AML in patients age < 65 was 5.32 (95% CI = 1.31, 14.04). No significant increased risk of MDS or AML was observed in women ≥ 65 or the surgery/chemotherapy-only group. A RR of 3.32 (95% CI = 1.42, 6.45) was observed in the surgery/radiation-only group and a RR of 6.32 (95% CI = 3.03, 11.45) in the surgery/radiation/chemotherapy group. 3 out of 10 MDS cases died of disease at an average 3.8 months post diagnosis and five of seven AML cases died at an average 9 months post diagnosis. An elevated rate of MDS and AML was observed among breast cancer patients < 65, those treated with radiation and those treated with radiation and chemotherapy compared to available population incidence data. Although a small number of patients are affected, leukemia risk associated with treatment and younger age is significant

  4. The influence of incident beam's angle offset of Fourier transform infrared spectrometer on the spectrum measurement explored with synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Wenhao; Chen Min; Xiao Tiqiao

    2011-01-01

    Effects of the incident angle offset on FT-IR spectra are investigated in this paper. The simulated FT-IR spectra are obtained by Fourier inverse transform. The results show that this frequency shift varies with the angle offset of the incident beam in FT-IR. As an example,the factors that affect the angle of incident IR light at SSRF are analyzed. According to performance specifications of the IR beamline, requirements of the optical component installation precision and position drift of the light source are given. (authors)

  5. Review of incidents to be reported under the Radiation Protection Ordinance for the years 1987 and 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The total of 80 incidents were caused by human failure, intentional disruption, theft, fire, violation of rules, transport losses, accidents, equipment deficiencies. 15 ionization smoke detectors were reported lost or stolen. (HP) [de

  6. The Semipalatinsk nuclear test site: a first analysis of solid cancer incidence (selected sites) due to test-related radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusev, B I; Rosenson, R I; Abylkassimova, Z N

    1998-10-01

    Since 1956, cancer incidences have been analysed in several rayons of the Semipalatinsk oblast, with cross-sectional analyses being conducted every 5 years. Data on different tumor localizations were recorded within a heavily contaminated so-called main area of nine villages (estimated average effective equivalent dose about 2000 mSv) and a so-called control area (estimated average effective equivalent dose about 70 mSv), each including approximately 10000 persons. Up to 1970, the excess cancer incidence in the exposed villages was observed to have increased; after 1970, a decrease was noted, followed by a second increase in the late 1980s. The main sites of excess cancer included the esophagus, stomach, and liver. Up to 1970, the esophagus cancer incidence was predominant, but it decreased thereafter, while the incidence of stomach and liver cancers increased. The second peak of excess cancer rates was mainly due to lung, breast, and thyroid carcinomas.

  7. The electronics in fluorescent bulbs and light emitting diodes (LED), rather than ultraviolet radiation, cause increased malignant melanoma incidence in indoor office workers and tanning bed users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milham, Samuel; Stetzer, Dave

    2018-07-01

    The epidemiology of cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM) has a number of facets that do not fit with sunlight and ultraviolet light as the primary etiologic agents. Indoor workers have higher incidence and mortality rates of CMM than outdoor workers; CMM occurs in body locations never exposed to sunlight; CMM incidence is increasing in spite of use of UV blocking agents and small changes in solar radiation. Installation of two new fluorescent lights in the milking parlor holding area of a Minnesota dairy farm in 2015 caused an immediate drop in milk production. This lead to measurement of body amperage in humans exposed to modern non-incandescent lighting. People exposed to old and new fluorescent lights, light emitting diodes (LED) and compact fluorescent lights (CFL) had body amperage levels above those considered carcinogenic. We hypothesize that modern electric lighting is a significant health hazard, a carcinogen, and is causing increasing CMM incidence in indoor office workers and tanning bed users. These lights generate dirty electricity (high frequency voltage transients), radio frequency (RF) radiation, and increase body amperage, all of which have been shown to be carcinogenic. This could explain the failure of ultraviolet blockers to stem the malignant melanoma pandemic. Tanning beds and non-incandescent lighting could be made safe by incorporating a grounded Faraday cage which allows passage of ultraviolet and visible light frequencies and blocks other frequencies. Modern electric lighting should be fabricated to be electrically clean. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Incidence and mortality of solid cancer among emergency workers of the Chernobyl accident: assessment of radiation risks for the follow-up period of 1992-2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kashcheev, V.V.; Chekin, S.Yu.; Maksioutov, M.A.; Tumanov, K.A.; Kochergina, E.V.; Kashcheeva, P.V.; Shchukina, N.V.; Ivanov, V.K. [Russian Ministry of Health, Federal State Institution, Medical Radiological Research Center, Obninsk, Kaluga Region (Russian Federation)

    2015-03-15

    This paper presents the results of a retrospective cohort study of cancer incidence and mortality among emergency workers of the Chernobyl accident, for the follow-up period 1992-2009. The cohort selected for analysis consists of 67,568 emergency workers who worked in the Chernobyl exclusion zone in 1986-1987. External radiation whole-body absorbed dose varied from 0.0001 gray (Gy) to 1.24 Gy, with a median of 0.102 Gy. Over the follow-up period 1992-2009, a total of 4,002 solid cancers of different sites were identified as the result of annual compulsory health examination, and a total of 2,442 deaths from all solid cancers in the study cohort were reported. Poisson regression was applied for the analysis of cancer incidence and mortality. The analysis of the standardized incidence ratio (SIR) has shown a statistically significant increase in cancer incidence in the cohort as compared with baseline cancer incidence among males of Russia. The average excess over the entire follow-up period is 18 % [SIR = 1.18, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.15; 1.22]. In contrast, however, no increase in the mortality from all cancers among the emergency workers as compared to the baseline mortality in Russian men was found. Values of excess relative risk of cancer incidence and mortality per 1 Gy (ERR Gy{sup -1}) are 0.47 (95 % CI 0.03; 0.96, p value = 0.034) and 0.58 (95 % CI 0.002; 1.25, p value = 0.049), respectively. These values are statistically significant. (orig.)

  9. Updated estimates of the proportion of childhood leukaemia incidence in Great Britain that may be caused by natural background ionising radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Little, Mark P; Wakeford, Richard; Kendall, Gerald M

    2009-01-01

    The aetiology of childhood leukaemia remains generally unknown, although exposure to moderate and high levels of ionising radiation, such as was experienced during the atomic bombings of Japan or from radiotherapy, is an established cause. Risk models based primarily upon studies of the Japanese A-bomb survivors imply that low-level exposure to ionising radiation, including to ubiquitous natural background radiation, also raises the risk of childhood leukaemia. In a recent paper (Wakeford et al 2009 Leukaemia 23 770-6) we estimated the proportion of childhood leukaemia incidence in Great Britain attributable to natural background radiation to be about 20%. In this paper we employ the two sets of published leukaemia risk models used previously, but use recently published revised estimates of natural background radiation doses received by the red bone marrow of British children to update the previous results. Using the newer dosimetry we calculate that the best estimate of the proportion of cases of childhood leukaemia in Great Britain predicted to be attributable to this source of exposure is 15-20%, although the uncertainty associated with certain stages in the calculation (e.g. the nature of the transfer of risk between populations and the pertinent dose received from naturally occurring alpha-particle-emitting radionuclides) is significant. The slightly lower attributable proportions compared with those previously derived by Wakeford et al (Leukaemia 2009 23 770-6) are largely due to the lower doses (and in particular lower high LET doses) for the first year of life.

  10. Incidence of radiation-induced Graves' disease in patients treated with radioiodine for thyroid autonomy before and after introduction of a high-sensitivity TSH receptor antibody assay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunkelmann, Simone; Wolf, Ricarda; Koch, Annedore; Kittner, Christian; Groth, Peter; Schuemichen, Carl [University of Rostock, Clinic of Nuclear Medicine, Rostock (Germany)

    2004-10-01

    Autoimmune hyperthyroidism may occur several months after radioiodine therapy (RIT) for functional thyroid autonomy. Exacerbation of pre-existing subclinical Graves' disease (GD) has been held responsible for this phenomenon. Determination of TSH receptor antibody using solubilised porcine epithelial cell membranes is insensitive and may have failed to diagnose GD in these patients before RIT. Following the introduction of a more sensitive assay, using the human TSH receptor as an antigen, it has been expected that the incidence of radiation-induced GD after RIT for functional thyroid autonomy will be reduced. In a first group of 1,428 patients treated between November 1993 and March 1997 (group I) we used the porcine TRAb assay to exclude GD, while in a second group comprising 1,408 patients treated between January 2000 and December 2001 (group II), GD was excluded using the human TRAb assay. A matched control group of 231 patients was derived from group II. In group I a total of 15 (1.05%) patients developed obvious or suspected radiation-induced GD, while in group II 17 (1.2%) did so; the interval until development of GD was 8.4 and 8.8 months, respectively, after RIT. Serum anti-thyroid peroxidase levels before RIT were elevated in 36.4% of group I patients and 47.1% of group II patients, but in only 5.6% of the control group. Other non-specific signs of mild immunopathy of the thyroid were seen retrospectively in 73.3%, 64.7% and 16.0% of the patients in these three groups, respectively. In conclusion, the introduction of a high-sensitivity TRAb assay did not reduce the incidence of autoimmune hyperthyroidism occurring late after RIT for functional thyroid autonomy, but mild immunopathy of the thyroid is seen more frequently in these patients and seems to be a predisposing factor in the development of radiation-induced GD. (orig.)

  11. Perceived Incidence and Importance of Lay-Ideas on Ionizing Radiation: Results of a Delphi-Study among Radiation-Experts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eijkelhof, H. M. C.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Described are lay-ideas which may exist about ionizing radiation, the importance of these ideas for risk management, and the relationships between various lay-ideas. Lay-ideas were used to gain a better insight into the problems of learning about ionizing radiation and to construct appropriate teaching materials and strategies. (KR)

  12. Biodosimetry: Medicine, Science, and Systems to Support the Medical Decision-Maker Following a Large Scale Nuclear or Radiation Incident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coleman, C. Norman; Koerner, John F.

    2016-01-01

    The public health and medical response to a radiological or nuclear incident requires the capability to sort, assess, treat, triage and to ultimately discharge, refer or transport people to their next step in medical care. The size of the incident and scarcity of resources at the location of each medical decision point will determine how patients are triaged and treated. This will be a rapidly evolving situation impacting medical responders at regional, national and international levels. As capabilities, diagnostics and medical countermeasures improve, a dynamic system-based approach is needed to plan for and manage the incident, and to adapt effectively in real time. In that the concepts and terms can be unfamiliar and possibly confusing, resources and a concept of operations must be considered well in advance. An essential underlying tenet is that medical evaluation and care will be managed by health-care professionals with biodosimetry assays providing critical supporting data. (authors)

  13. Estimation of incident solar radiation on the roof of the cultural and sports university centre of the Foundation University Los Libertadores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiménez, S A; Carrillo, V M; Rátiva, L C

    2016-01-01

    This document shows the estimate of the total solar irradiance incident for the set of solar collectors to be located on the roof of cultural and sports university centre (CSUC) of the Foundation University Los Libertadores (FULL) in Bogotá, Colombia, and they will be part of the climate control system of the pool built inside. The calculation was based on experimental data of global solar radiation on the horizontal surface on March, July, October, November and December, through the three most commonly models used to determine the total solar radiation on tilted surfaces: isotropic sky, HDKR and Perez. The results show differences of less than 5% between the values calculated by the three models for December, the month with lower irradiance. For this month, reductions up to 15% and 19% were observed in the estimated irradiance, relative to those obtained on a horizontal surface on a surface under ideal orientation and inclination, respectively. (paper)

  14. Estimation of incident solar radiation on the roof of the cultural and sports university centre of the Foundation University Los Libertadores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, S. A.; Carrillo, V. M.; Rátiva, L. C.

    2016-02-01

    This document shows the estimate of the total solar irradiance incident for the set of solar collectors to be located on the roof of cultural and sports university centre (CSUC) of the Foundation University Los Libertadores (FULL) in Bogotá, Colombia, and they will be part of the climate control system of the pool built inside. The calculation was based on experimental data of global solar radiation on the horizontal surface on March, July, October, November and December, through the three most commonly models used to determine the total solar radiation on tilted surfaces: isotropic sky, HDKR and Perez. The results show differences of less than 5% between the values calculated by the three models for December, the month with lower irradiance. For this month, reductions up to 15% and 19% were observed in the estimated irradiance, relative to those obtained on a horizontal surface on a surface under ideal orientation and inclination, respectively.

  15. Radiation background and the incidence of cataracta among the population groups of the Far North. [Radioisotopes: sup(210)Pb; sup(210)Po; sup(137)Cs; sup(90)Sr

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nizhnikov, A I; Miretskij, G I; Ramzaev, P V; Troitskaya, M N [Nauchno-Issledovatel' skij Inst. Radiatsionnoj Gigieny, Leningrad (USSR)

    1984-07-01

    The incidence of senile cataracta in the residents of the Far North regions and the newcomers differing in the effective equivalent dose due to all types of radiation (except radon decay products for lungs) approximately by 2 times, is studied. The data on the age and sex composition of population with initially established diagnosis of senile cataracta are presented. Lens injury is found to occur earlier in men than in women (the difference is about 5 years). Cataracta frequency increases with age. In the native population of the Far North at 65 and older, cataracta takes place by 2-3 times oftener. Investigations are continued to specify the role of the radiation factor in the integrated effect of the environment on the formation of cataracta in population.

  16. Association between competing interests and authors' conclusions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaergard, Lise L; Als-Nielsen, Bodil

    2002-01-01

    To assess the association between competing interests and authors' conclusions in randomised clinical trials.......To assess the association between competing interests and authors' conclusions in randomised clinical trials....

  17. Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The chapter one presents the composition of matter and atomic theory; matter structure; transitions; origin of radiation; radioactivity; nuclear radiation; interactions in decay processes; radiation produced by the interaction of radiation with matter

  18. 2011 Japanese Nuclear Incident

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA’s RadNet system monitored the environmental radiation levels in the United States and parts of the Pacific following the Japanese Nuclear Incident. Learn about EPA’s response and view historical laboratory data and news releases.

  19. Recovery from Iridium-192 flakes of a radioactive source for industrial use after a radiation incident; Recuperacion de hojuelas de Iridio-192 provenientes de una fuente radiactivas de uso industrial despues de un incidente radiologico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruz, W.H.; Zapata, L.A., E-mail: wcruz@ipen.gob.pe, E-mail: lzapata@ipen.gob.pe [Instituto Peruano de Energia Nuclear (GRRA/IPEN), Lima (Peru). Division de Gestion de Residuos Radiactivos

    2013-07-01

    The Iridium-192 ({sup 192}Ir) is the most used and ideal for industrial radiography applications, especially in petrochemical plants and pipelines and provides better contrast sensitivity for thick (25.4 mm). This source has constructive sealed double encapsulation, the internal capsule containing stainless steel to radioactive material in the form of flakes and welded with TIG process. The radiological incident happened at a gas station fuel sales in circumstances in which there was a homogeneity test welds a tank, the flakes or Ir-192 fell off his ponytail and left scattered over an area of 2 m{sup 2}, some fell flat areas and other land so collected in lead shielding and metal container and ground source. Full recovery of the leaflets was performed at the Division of radioactive waste management (GRRA) gaining a total of 22 flakes with no radiation risk to staff performance and installation and the conclusion was reached that the misapplicaion of TIG welding was the main cause the incident. (author)

  20. Emergency preparedness incident response and radiation monitoring in Finland. Annual report 1998; Valmiustapahtumat ja valtakunnallinen saeteilyvalvonta. Vuosiraportti 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ristonmaa, S. [ed.

    1999-03-01

    The Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) publishes annually a report about STUK's preparedness measures. The report describes notifications received by STUK's on duty system and further measures carried out after receiving a message. In addition, the emergence exercises STUK participated in during the year are described. The radiation situation in Finland is continuously monitored. STUK is the authority who carries out a wide range of environmental measurements, sampling and sensitive laboratory analyses. The measurement results are presented in the form of tables and graphically. (editor)

  1. Emergency preparedness incident response and radiation monitoring in Finland. Annual report 1999; Valmiustapahtumat ja saeteilyvalvonta. Vuosiraportti 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ristonmaa, S. [ed.

    2000-04-01

    The Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) publishes annually a report about STUK's preparedness measures. The report describes notifications received by STUK's on duty system and further measures carried out after receiving a message. In addition, the emergence exercises STUK participated in during the year are described. The radiation situation in Finland is continuously monitored. STUK is the authority who carries out a wide range of environmental measurements, sampling and sensitive laboratory analyses. The measurement results are presented in the form of tables and graphically. (editor)

  2. Cancer incidence among a cohort of subjects exposed to low-dose rate chronic radiation exposure in utero and after birth in the techa riverbank villages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostroumova, E.V.; Akleyev, A.V.; Akleyev, A.V.; Hall, P.

    2003-01-01

    As a result of releases of liquid radioactive waste by the Mayak Production Association (PA) into the Techa River since 1949 till 1956 the population of the Riverside villages was exposed to a protracted effect of combined (external and internal) radiation. The 1-st-generation offspring of exposed residents born on 01.01.1950 and later were exposed both in utero and after birth. In all, 46 cancer cases, including 4 cases of leukemia, were registered among the study cohort members numbering 7,890 subjects born in the Techa Riverside villages in the Chelyabinsk province over the period since 1950 till 1998. No significant differences were noted in cancer incidence rates between men and women. Cancer incidence in the offspring's cohort was by 30-35% higher compared with the unexposed population of the USSR and Russia, the differences, however, are statistically insignificant. No influence of the parents total gonadal dose on cancer development in offspring was observed. The positive dose-effect dependence of cancer incidence on both antenatal and postnatal exposure was traced

  3. Spectral backward radiation profile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Sung Duck; Lee, Keun Hyun; Kim, Bo Ra; Yoon, Suk Soo

    2004-01-01

    Ultrasonic backward radiation profile is frequency-dependent when incident region has deptional gradient of acoustical properties or multi-layers. Until now, we have measured the profiles of principal frequencies of used transducers so that it was not easy to understand the change of the frequency component and spectrum of backward radiation from the profile. We tried to measure the spectral backward radiation profiles using DFP(digital filer package) Lecroy DSO. The very big changes in the shape and pattern of spectral backward radiation profiles leads to the conclusion that this new try could be very effective tool to evaluate frequency dependent surface area.

  4. The effects of low-level ionizing radiation and copper exposure on the incidence of antibiotic resistance in lentic biofilm bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McArthur, J Vaun; Dicks, Christian A; Bryan, A Lawrence; Tuckfield, R Cary

    2017-09-01

    Environmental reservoirs of antibiotic resistant bacteria are poorly understood. Understanding how the environment selects for resistance traits in the absence of antibiotics is critical in developing strategies to mitigate this growing menace. Indirect or co-selection of resistance by environmental pollution has been shown to increase antibiotic resistance. However no attention has been given to the effects of low-level ionizing radiation or the interactions between radiation and heavy metals on the maintenance or selection for antibiotic resistance (AR) traits. Here we explore the effect of radiation and copper on antibiotic resistance. Bacteria were collected from biofilms in two ponds - one impacted by low-level radiocesium and the other an abandoned farm pond. Through laboratory controlled experiments we examined the effects of increasing concentrations of copper on the incidence of antibiotic resistance. Differences were detected in the resistance profiles of the controls from each pond. Low levels (0.01 mM) of copper sulfate increased resistance but 0.5 mM concentrations of copper sulfate depressed the AR response in both ponds. A similar pattern was observed for levels of multiple antibiotic resistance per isolate. The first principal component response of isolate exposure to multiple antibiotics showed significant differences among the six isolate treatment combinations. These differences were clearly visualized through a discriminant function analysis, which showed distinct antibiotic resistance response patterns based on the six treatment groups. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Incidence of thyroid cancer in women in relation to previous exposure to radiation therapy and history of thyroid disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McTiernan, A.M.; Weiss, N.S.; Daling, J.R.

    1984-01-01

    Female residents of 13 counties of Western Washington, in whom papillary, follicular, or mixed papillary-follicular thyroid carcinomas had been diagnosed between 1974 and 1979 were interviewed regarding their medical and reproductive histories and past exposure to radiation treatments. For comparison, a random sample of women from the same population was interviewed. Women who had received radiation treatments to the head or neck prior to 5 years before interview were 16.5 times (95% confidence interval . 8.1-33.5) more likely than unexposed women to develop cancer. The relative risk (RR) was highest for papillary cancer (19.4) but also was elevated substantially for follicular and mixed papillary-follicular tumors. Women first irradiated at age 19 years or younger had a much higher RR than did women irradiated at age 20 or older. Regardless of prior radiation exposure, women who ever had had a goiter were at increased risk of developing thyroid cancer. Women who had ever developed a goiter had 17 times the risk of developing follicular cancer and almost 7 times the risk of developing papillary cancer as compared with women who never had had a goiter. Risk of thyroid cancer was elevated even among women who had had a history of goiter many years prior to diagnosis. A history of thyroid nodules was also a risk factor for papillary and mixed thyroid cancer. Neither a history of hypothyroidism nor hyperthyroidism was found to increase the risk of thyroid cancer

  6. Elevated UV-B radiation incident on Quercus robur leaf canopies enhances decomposition of resulting leaf litter in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newsham, K.K.; Greenslade, P.D.; Kennedy, V.H.; McLeod, A.R.

    1999-01-01

    We examined whether the exposure of Quercus robur L. to elevated UV-B radiation (280–315 nm) during growth would influence leaf decomposition rate through effects on litter quality. Saplings were exposed for eight months at an outdoor facility in the UK to a 30% elevation above the ambient level of erythemally weighted UV-B radiation under UV-B treatment arrays of fluorescent lamps filtered with cellulose diacetate, which transmitted both UV-B and UV-A (315–400 nm) radiation. Saplings were exposed to elevated UV-A alone under control arrays of lamps filtered with polyester and to ambient radiation under unenergised arrays of lamps. Abscised leaves from saplings were enclosed in 1 mm2 mesh nylon bags, placed in a Quercus–Fraxinus woodland and were sampled at 0.11, 0.53, 1.10 and 1.33 years for dry weight loss, chemical composition and saprotrophic fungal colonization. At abscission, litters from UV-A control arrays had ≈ 7.5% higher lignin/nitrogen ratios than those from UV-B treatment and ambient arrays (P < 0.06). Dry weight loss of leaves treated with elevated UV-B radiation during growth was 2.5% and 5% greater than that of leaves from UV-A control arrays at 0.53 and 1.33 years, respectively. Litter samples from UV-B treatment arrays lost more nitrogen and phosphorus than samples from ambient arrays and more carbon than samples from UV-A control arrays. The annual fractional weight loss of litter from UV-B treatment arrays was 8% and 6% greater than that of litter from UV-A control and ambient arrays, respectively. Regression analyses indicated that the increased decomposition rate of UV-B treated litters was associated with enhanced colonization of leaves by basidiomycete fungi, the most active members of the soil fungal community, and that the frequency of these fungi was negatively associated with the initial lignin/nitrogen ratio of leaves. (author)

  7. Evaluation of moving-coil loudspeaker and passive radiator parameters using normal-incidence sound transmission measurements: theoretical developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leishman, Timothy W; Anderson, Brian E

    2013-07-01

    The parameters of moving-coil loudspeaker drivers are typically determined using direct electrical excitation and measurement. However, as electro-mechano-acoustical devices, their parameters should also follow from suitable mechanical or acoustical evaluations. This paper presents the theory of an acoustical method of excitation and measurement using normal-incidence sound transmission through a baffled driver as a plane-wave tube partition. Analogous circuits enable key parameters to be extracted from measurement results in terms of open and closed-circuit driver conditions. Associated tools are presented that facilitate adjacent field decompositions and derivations of sound transmission coefficients (in terms of driver parameters) directly from the circuits. The paper also clarifies the impact of nonanechoic receiving tube terminations and the specific benefits of downstream field decompositions.

  8. Gamma-H2AX biodosimetry for use in large scale radiation incidents: comparison of a rapid ‘96 well lyse/fix’ protocol with a routine method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayne Moquet

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Following a radiation incident, preliminary dose estimates made by γ-H2AX foci analysis can supplement the early triage of casualties based on clinical symptoms. Sample processing time is important when many individuals need to be rapidly assessed. A protocol was therefore developed for high sample throughput that requires less than 0.1 ml blood, thus potentially enabling finger prick sampling. The technique combines red blood cell lysis and leukocyte fixation in one step on a 96 well plate, in contrast to the routine protocol, where lymphocytes in larger blood volumes are typically separated by Ficoll density gradient centrifugation with subsequent washing and fixation steps. The rapid ‘96 well lyse/fix’ method reduced the estimated sample processing time for 96 samples to about 4 h compared to 15 h using the routine protocol. However, scoring 20 cells in 96 samples prepared by the rapid protocol took longer than for the routine method (3.1 versus 1.5 h at zero dose; 7.0 versus 6.1 h for irradiated samples. Similar foci yields were scored for both protocols and consistent dose estimates were obtained for samples exposed to 0, 0.2, 0.6, 1.1, 1.2, 2.1 and 4.3 Gy of 250 kVp X-rays at 0.5 Gy/min and incubated for 2 h. Linear regression coefficients were 0.87 ± 0.06 (R2 = 97.6% and 0.85 ± 0.05 (R2 = 98.3% for estimated versus actual doses for the routine and lyse/fix method, respectively. The lyse/fix protocol can therefore facilitate high throughput processing for γ-H2AX biodosimetry for use in large scale radiation incidents, at the cost of somewhat longer foci scoring times.

  9. Population exposure to ultraviolet radiation in Finland 1920-1995: Exposure trends and a time-series analysis of exposure and cutaneous melanoma incidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kojo, Katja; Jansen, Christer T.; Nybom, Pia; Huurto, Laura; Laihia, Jarmo; Ilus, Taina; Auvinen, Anssi

    2006-01-01

    Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) is the principal cause of cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM). However, the relation between CMM and UVR exposure is not clear. We present the trends of population exposure to UVR and conduct a time-series analysis of the relation between UVR exposure and incidence of CMM. Data on CMM incidence were obtained from the Finnish Cancer Registry. Clothing coverage of the body was scored from archival photographs and the proportion of uncovered skin was used as a measure of solar exposure. Information on the number of sunny resort holidays, duration of annual holidays, and sunscreen sales were obtained from various sources. Exposed skin area doubled from 1920 to 1985. The average duration of annual holidays increased 30-fold. The number of sunny resort holidays and the sales of sunscreens increased rapidly from 1980. CMM was most strongly associated with solar exposure of 5-19 years earlier. There is a considerable decrease in clothing coverage during the 20th century. UVR exposure preceding CMM occurrence 4 years or less does not appear relevant, whereas the period 5-19 years prior to CMM occurrence might be the most relevant period. However, findings of ecological studies may not be applicable at the individual level

  10. Data, Model, Conclusions, Doing It Again.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molenaar, Ivo W.

    1998-01-01

    Explores the robustness of conclusions from a statistical model against variations in model choice with an illustration from G. Box and G. Tiao (1973). Suggests that simultaneous consideration of a class of models for the same data is sometimes superior to analyzing the data under one model and demonstrates advantages to Adaptive Bayesian…

  11. Premature conclusions about psychotherapy for dysthymia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cuijpers, P.

    2009-01-01

    Dr Cuijpers and Colleagues Reply To the Editor: We thank Dr Gaudiano and colleagues for their contribution to the discussion about psychotherapy for dysthymia. We agree very much with Gaudiano et al that we should be careful about drawing definite conclusions about the comparative efficacy of

  12. Data, model, conclusion, doing it again

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molenaar, W.

    1998-01-01

    This paper explores the robustness of conclusions from a statistical model against variations in model choice (rather than variations in random sampling and random assignment to treatments, which are the usual variations covered by inferential statistics). After the problem formulation in section 1,

  13. Results and conclusion; Resultados e conclusoes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-10-15

    This chapter shows the results and conclusions of the ordered studies by the Science and Technology Ministry from Brazil to the Center of Management and Strategic Studies (CGEE), executed by a multidisciplinary team, most of UNICAMP - State University of Campinas, SP - for evaluation of Brazilian capacity and potential in the production of fuel bioethanol.

  14. Power and Democracy in Denmark. Conclusions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jørgen Goul; Christiansen, Peter Munk; Beck Jørgensen, Torben

    In 1997, the Danish Parliament decided to launch a power study, officially An Analysis of Democracy and Power in Denmark. A steering committee consisting of five independent researchers was assigned responsibility for the project. The Steering Committee has gathered the overall conclusions from...... the numerous projects under the Power Study, and this book is a short presentation of these conclusions.The main focus of the book is the state of democracy in Denmark at the dawn of the 21st century. How has democracy fared, has the development made things better or worse, and to which extent does......, and the political institutions show considerable democratic robustness. However, not everything has gone or is going well. There are still pronounced social divisions in Danish society, although their nature has changed somewhat. The ideal of an informed public debate does not always enjoy the best conditions...

  15. Studying the effect of spectral variations intensity of the incident solar radiation on the Si solar cells performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Elsayed Ghitas

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Solar spectral variation is important in characterization of photovoltaic devices. We present results of an experimental investigation of the effects of the daily spectral variation on the device performance of multicrystalline silicon photovoltaic module. The investigation concentrate on the analysis of outdoor solar spectral measurements carried out at 1 min intervals on clear sky days. Short circuit current and open circuit voltage have been measured to describe the module electrical performance. We have shown that the shift in the solar spectrum towards infrared has a negative impact on the device performance of the module. The spectral bands in the visible region contribute more to the short circuit current than the bands in the infrared region while the ultraviolet region contributes least. The quantitative effect of the spectral variation on the performance of the photovoltaic module is reflected on their respective device performance parameters. The decrease in the visible and the increase in infrared of the radiation spectra account for the decreased current collection and hence power of the module.

  16. Comparison of the incidence and time patterns of radiation-induced skin cancer in humans and rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albert, R.E.; Burns, F.J.; Shore, R.

    1978-01-01

    Cancer induction in rat skin and human skin are compared following exposure to X-rays. The human data were obtained by follow-up of 2213 children irradiated between 1940 and 1959 for tinea capitis (ringworm) of the scalp. The scalp was irradiated at one session using five fields of 100 kVp X-rays. The scalp dose ranged from 500-800 rads. The rats were irradiated on their dorsal skin with a 1100-rad dose of 30 kVp X-rays. The tumours were predominantly basal cell carcinomas in both species. The proportion of people with tumours as a function of elapsed time since exposure was consistent with a power function with an exponent of 5.4, and had reached 3% or 0.08 tumours per person in most recent survey (35 years after exposure). Of the 64 tumours observed in human skin, a substantial proportion was on the directly irradiated skin just outside the hair-covered regions of the scalp. So far there are no tumours among the 530 irradiated nonwhites in the study when about eight cases would be expected in a comparable group of irradiated whites. Only four skin tumours have been observed in 1396 control patients. The temporal curve of radiation-induced tumours for human skin could be approximately superimposed on that for rats by contracting the time scale by a factor of 37.1. The temporal response of the two species is approximately proportional to their median life spans. (author)

  17. Superiority in value and the repugnant conclusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karsten Klint

    2007-01-01

    superiority does not amount to a radical value difference at all. I then spell out the consequences of these results for different interpretations of Griffin's suggestion regarding population ethics. None of them comes out very successful, but perhaps they nevertheless retain some interest.......James Griffin has considered a weak form of superiority in value a possible remedy to the Repugnant Conclusion. In this paper, I demonstrate that, in a context where value is additive, this weaker form collapses into a stronger form of superiority. And in a context where value is non-additive, weak...

  18. Clinical observation of radiation urinary bladder disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin Yuke; Liu Libo; Zhang Haiying; Liang Shuo; Chen Dawei; Wu Zhenfeng; Dong Lihua; Lu Xuejun

    2004-01-01

    Objective: Clinical characteristic, diagnosis and treatment of radiation urinary bladder disease induced by radiation therapy for cancers in the pelvis were inquired into for providing diagnostic basis. Methods: Statistical analysis for the clinical cases was carried out. Results: The incidence of radiation bladder diseases induced by radiation therapy of cervix cancer are about 0.8%-2.96%, with an average of 2.14%. Radiation bladder disease is divided into acute radiation cystitis, chronic radiation cystitis and radiation vesical fistula. Chronic radiation cystitis is seen most often in the clinic and its main clinical symptom is painless macroscopic hematuria, which is again subdivided into slight and severe degrees. Diagnosis should include history of exposure to radiation, which dose exceed the dose threshold, and typical clinical characteristics. Conclusion: The characteristics, types and diagnostic basis of radiation urinary bladder disease analyzed in this study can provide the reference for drawing up diagnostic standard

  19. Incidence of fruit flies on coffee and citrus and quarantine treatment of citrus fruits by gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raga, Adalton

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the fruit fly infestation on coffee and citrus, and also to determine gamma radiation doses for immature stages of Ceratitis capitata and Anastrepha fraterculus, in order to satisfy quarantine regulations. Coffee arabica varieties Icatu Vermelho, Catuai Amarelo, Mundo Novo and Sarchimor showed the highest infestation indices (pupa/berry): 0.53; 0,41; 0.33 and 0.36. respectively Icatu Vermelho and Catuai Vermelho showed the highest values of pupa/berry weight (0.49 and 0.39, respectively), and Robusta (Coffea canephora) presented the lowest index (0.01). The following fruit flies were found in coffee berries: C. capitata (76.6%) Anastrepha spp. (7.4%) and Lonchaeidae (17.0%). In area near coffee plantation, fruit fly infestation indices in sweet oranges were of 4.77 larvae/kg and 0.55 larva/fruit. The infestation indices for sweet orange, collected from five regions of the State of Sao Paulo ranged from 0.73 to 7.60 pupa/kg and 0.12 to 1.27 pupa/fruit. The same species of fruit flies were found in oranges. In the case of C. capitata eggs with 24-48 hours old, 20 Gy prevented completely adult emergence (artificial diet and orange). No emergence of adult occurred when C. capitata larvae of third instar were irradiated at 20 Gy in their rearing medium. But at 25 Gy, the number of adults was reduced by 54% and 97% from larval infestation in oranges and grapefruit, respectively. A dose of 30 Gy was required to prevent medfly emergence from third instar larvae in grapefruit. A dose of 15 Gy was required for third instar, to prevent adult emergence of A. fraterculus. No adult emerged from C third instar, to prevent adult emergence of A. fraterculus. No adult emerged from C capitata pre-pupa irradiated at 30 Gy. One medfly adult emerged from pupa (3-4 days after pupating) irradiated at 120 Gy. At the same dose, sixteen A. fraterculus adults emergency from irradiated pupa with 5-6 days old. (author)

  20. Only one simple conclusion about the climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaremko, G.

    2000-07-24

    Findings concerning climate change, by a three-man team of scientists from the North Dakota Geological Survey, which were presented in a paper read at the Eight International Williston Basin Horizontal Well Workshop, are discussed. The survey by the three scientists covered more than 6,000 scholarly publications. It reported that while the rise in the Earth's temperature is beyond argument, there is anything but agreement as to the causes, or whether the trend is unusual enough to justify concerted and costly actions to change lifestyles. It is shown by direct instrumental measurements that the average temperature at the Earth's surface increased about 0.8 degree Celsius between 1866 and 1998. During that time the concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere increased from 280 to 353 parts per million. While it is generally assumed that the global warming was caused by human activities, new techniques of measurement such as glacier ice coring, dendrochronology (tree-growth rings), lichenometry (measuring the diameter of lichens) and counting concentrations of oxygen 18 and 16 (isotopes whose presence in marine fossils varies depending on temperature) suggest that most of the global warming took place before the increase in carbon dioxide concentration occurred, raising the possibility that the increase in average temperature had causes other than the increase in greenhouse gases. Some of the studies reviewed by the group show that in Europe between ice ages during the Eemian period, some 135,000 to 110,000 years ago, temperature variations of seven degrees Celsius took place; they dropped from two degree Celsius warmer than today to five degree Celsius colder than today. Based on these findings the group's only firm conclusion was that climate is in a continual flux.

  1. Circadian rhythms in the incidence of apoptotic cells and number of clonogenic cells in intestinal crypts after radiation using normal and reversed light conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ijiri, K.; Potten, C.S.

    1988-01-01

    Variations in the number of radiation-induced morphologically dead or dying cells (apoptotic cells) in the crypts in the small intestine of the mouse have been studied throughout a 24-h period under a normal light regimen. A clear circadian rhythm was displayed in the apoptotic incidence 3 or 6 h after irradiation for each gamma-ray dose studied (range 0.14-9.0 Gy). The most prominent circadian rhythm was obtained after 0.5 Gy. Peak time of day for inducing apoptosis was 06.00-09.00 h, and the trough occurred at 18.00-21.00 h. Some mice were also transferred to a reversed light cycle, and irradiated on different days after transfer. Apoptosis induced by 0.5 Gy or 9.0 Gy, or number of surviving crypts (microcolonies) after 11.0 Gy or 13.0 Gy was examined. The transition point for reversal of circadian rhythm in apoptosis (after 0.5 Gy) occurred 7 days after transfer and the rhythm was reversed by 14 days. The rhythm for crypt survival (i.e. for clonogenic cell radiosensitivity) was disturbed on 1 day and transition point for reversal occurred 3 days after transfer. The rhythm became reversed by 7 days. (author)

  2. In situ electrochemical impedance spectroscopy/synchrotron radiation grazing incidence X-ray diffraction-A powerful new technique for the characterization of electrochemical surfaces and interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Marco, Roland [Nanochemistry Research Institute, Department of Applied Chemistry, Curtin University of Technology, GPO Box U 1987, Perth, WA 6845 (Australia)]. E-mail: r.demarco@exchange.curtin.edu.au; Jiang, Z.-T. [Nanochemistry Research Institute, Department of Applied Chemistry, Curtin University of Technology, GPO Box U 1987, Perth, WA 6845 (Australia); Martizano, Jay [Nanochemistry Research Institute, Department of Applied Chemistry, Curtin University of Technology, GPO Box U 1987, Perth, WA 6845 (Australia); Lowe, Alex [Nanochemistry Research Institute, Department of Applied Chemistry, Curtin University of Technology, GPO Box U 1987, Perth, WA 6845 (Australia); Pejcic, Bobby [Nanochemistry Research Institute, Department of Applied Chemistry, Curtin University of Technology, GPO Box U 1987, Perth, WA 6845 (Australia); Riessen, Arie van [Materials Research Group, Department of Applied Physics, Curtin University of Technology, GPO Box U 1987, Perth, WA 6845 (Australia)

    2006-08-15

    A marriage of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and in situ synchrotron radiation grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (SR-GIXRD) has provided a powerful new technique for the elucidation of the mechanistic chemistry of electrochemical systems. In this study, EIS/SR-GIXRD has been used to investigate the influence of metal ion buffer calibration ligands, along with natural organic ligands in seawater, on the behaviour of the iron chalcogenide glass ion-selective electrode (ISE). The SR-GIXRD data demonstrated that citrate - a previously reported poor iron calibration ligand for the analysis of seawater - induced an instantaneous and total dissolution of crystalline GeSe and Sb{sub 2}Se{sub 3} in the modified surface layer (MSL) of the ISE, while natural organic ligands in seawater and a mixture of ligands in a mimetic seawater ligand system protected the MSL's crystalline inclusions of GeSe and Sb{sub 2}Se{sub 3} from oxidative attack. Expectedly, the EIS data showed that citrate induced a loss in the medium frequency time constant for the MSL of the ISE, while seawater's natural organic ligands and the mimetic ligand system preserved the medium frequency EIS response characteristics of the ISE's MSL. The new EIS/SR-GIXRD technique has provided insights into the suitability of iron calibration ligands for the analysis of iron in seawater.

  3. Global Advisory Group: conclusions and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-02-01

    The conclusions and recommendations formulated for the global program by the 8th meeting of the Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) Global Advisory Group, which took place during November 1985, are summarized. The Global Advisory Group recommends that, in furtherance of the Five-Point Action Program endorsed by the World Health Assembly in 1983, 3 general and 4 specific actions be taken by national immunization programs with the support of the World Health Organization (WHO) to accelerate EPI progress. These recommendations reflect optimism that the 1990 goal of reducing morbidity and mortality by providing immunization for all children of the world can be realized but also acknowledge that many fundamental problems of national program management remain to be resolved. The general actions are: to promote the achievement of the 1990 immunization goal at national and international levels through collaboration among ministries, organizations, and individuals in both the public and private sectors; to adopt a mix of complementary strategies for program acceleration; and to ensure that rapid increases in coverage can be sustained through mechanisms which strengthen th delivery of other primary health care interventions. The specific actions are as follows: to provide immunization at every contact point; to reduce dropout rates between 1st and last immunizations; to improve immunization services to the disadvantaged in urban areas; and to increase priority for the control of measles, poliomyelitis, and neonatal tetanus. The WHO and the UN International Children's Emergency Fund (UNICEF) have collaborated in support of the EPI since the early days of the program. The acceleration of national efforts heightens the importance of this collaboration, particularly at the national level. It may be further facilitated by the provision of policy guidance from global and regional levels, by WHO and UNICEF collaborative agreements at the regional level, and by country agreements

  4. Radiological incidents in radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hobzova, L.; Novotny, J.

    2008-01-01

    In many countries a reporting system of radiological incidents to national regulatory body exists and providers of radiotherapy treatment are obliged to report all major and/or in some countries all incidents occurring in institution. State Office for Nuclear Safety (SONS) is providing a systematic guidance for radiotherapy departments from 1997 by requiring inclusion of radiation safety problems into Quality assurance manual, which is the basic document for obtaining a license of SONS for handling with sources of ionizing radiation. For that purpose SONS also issued the recommendation 'Introduction of QA system for important sources in radiotherapy-radiological incidents' in which the radiological incidents are defined and the basic guidance for their classification (category A, B, C, D), investigation and reporting are given. At regular periods the SONS in co-operation with radiotherapy centers is making a survey of all radiological incidents occurring in institutions and it is presenting obtained information in synoptic communication (2003 Motolske dny, 2005 Novy Jicin). This presentation is another summary report of radiological incidents that occurred in our radiotherapy institutions during last 3 years. Emphasis is given not only to survey and statistics, but also to analysis of reasons of the radiological incidents and to their detection and prevention. Analyses of incidents in radiotherapy have led to a much broader understanding of incident causation. Information about the error should be shared as early as possible during or after investigation by all radiotherapy centers. Learning from incidents, errors and near misses should be a part of improvement of the QA system in institutions. Generally, it is recommended that all radiotherapy facilities should participate in the reporting, analyzing and learning system to facilitate the dissemination of knowledge throughout the whole country to prevent errors in radiotherapy.(authors)

  5. Incidence and Predictive Factors of Pain Flare After Spine Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy: Secondary Analysis of Phase 1/2 Trials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan, Hubert Y.; Allen, Pamela K.; Wang, Xin S.; Chang, Eric L.; Rhines, Laurence D.; Tatsui, Claudio E.; Amini, Behrang; Wang, Xin A.; Tannir, Nizar M.; Brown, Paul D.; Ghia, Amol J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose/Objective(s): To perform a secondary analysis of institutional prospective spine stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) trials to investigate posttreatment acute pain flare. Methods and Materials: Medical records for enrolled patients were reviewed. Study protocol included baseline and follow-up surveys with pain assessment by Brief Pain Inventory and documentation of pain medications. Patients were considered evaluable for pain flare if clinical note or follow-up survey was completed within 2 weeks of SBRT. Pain flare was defined as a clinical note indicating increased pain at the treated site or survey showing a 2-point increase in worst pain score, a 25% increase in analgesic intake, or the initiation of steroids. Binary logistic regression was used to determine predictive factors for pain flare occurrence. Results: Of the 210 enrolled patients, 195 (93%) were evaluable for pain flare, including 172 (88%) clinically, 135 (69%) by survey, and 112 (57%) by both methods. Of evaluable patients, 61 (31%) had undergone prior surgery, 57 (29%) had received prior radiation, and 34 (17%) took steroids during treatment, mostly for prior conditions. Pain flare was observed in 44 patients (23%). Median time to pain flare was 5 days (range, 0-20 days) after the start of treatment. On multivariate analysis, the only independent factor associated with pain flare was the number of treatment fractions (odds ratio = 0.66, P=.004). Age, sex, performance status, spine location, number of treated vertebrae, prior radiation, prior surgery, primary tumor histology, baseline pain score, and steroid use were not significant. Conclusions: Acute pain flare after spine SBRT is a relatively common event, for which patients should be counseled. Additional study is needed to determine whether prophylactic or symptomatic intervention is preferred

  6. Incidence and Predictive Factors of Pain Flare After Spine Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy: Secondary Analysis of Phase 1/2 Trials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Hubert Y.; Allen, Pamela K. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer, Houston, Texas (United States); Wang, Xin S. [Department of Symptom Research, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer, Houston, Texas (United States); Chang, Eric L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer, Houston, Texas (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, USC Norris Cancer Center, Los Angeles, California (United States); Rhines, Laurence D.; Tatsui, Claudio E. [Department of Neurosurgery, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer, Houston, Texas (United States); Amini, Behrang [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer, Houston, Texas (United States); Wang, Xin A. [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer, Houston, Texas (United States); Tannir, Nizar M. [Department of Genitourinary Medical Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer, Houston, Texas (United States); Brown, Paul D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer, Houston, Texas (United States); Ghia, Amol J., E-mail: AJGhia@mdanderson.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer, Houston, Texas (United States)

    2014-11-15

    Purpose/Objective(s): To perform a secondary analysis of institutional prospective spine stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) trials to investigate posttreatment acute pain flare. Methods and Materials: Medical records for enrolled patients were reviewed. Study protocol included baseline and follow-up surveys with pain assessment by Brief Pain Inventory and documentation of pain medications. Patients were considered evaluable for pain flare if clinical note or follow-up survey was completed within 2 weeks of SBRT. Pain flare was defined as a clinical note indicating increased pain at the treated site or survey showing a 2-point increase in worst pain score, a 25% increase in analgesic intake, or the initiation of steroids. Binary logistic regression was used to determine predictive factors for pain flare occurrence. Results: Of the 210 enrolled patients, 195 (93%) were evaluable for pain flare, including 172 (88%) clinically, 135 (69%) by survey, and 112 (57%) by both methods. Of evaluable patients, 61 (31%) had undergone prior surgery, 57 (29%) had received prior radiation, and 34 (17%) took steroids during treatment, mostly for prior conditions. Pain flare was observed in 44 patients (23%). Median time to pain flare was 5 days (range, 0-20 days) after the start of treatment. On multivariate analysis, the only independent factor associated with pain flare was the number of treatment fractions (odds ratio = 0.66, P=.004). Age, sex, performance status, spine location, number of treated vertebrae, prior radiation, prior surgery, primary tumor histology, baseline pain score, and steroid use were not significant. Conclusions: Acute pain flare after spine SBRT is a relatively common event, for which patients should be counseled. Additional study is needed to determine whether prophylactic or symptomatic intervention is preferred.

  7. Analysis of operating incidents, conclusions to be drawn - modifications as a result of information feedback

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leckner, J.-M.

    1987-01-01

    The statistics currently available (year 1986) show that 40% of the declared events have a human component. The desire to reduce the number and importance of such events which, in varying degrees, affect the safety and availability of the nuclear installations has lead the Nuclear and Fossil Generation Division (SPT) of EDF to set up a system for gathering data concerning human errors. How does SPT approach this problem? 1. - By gathering data. 2. - By having improvements made. 3. - By making allowance for human factors in new designs. All three stages are described separately, and the first two of them are then analysed in detail. The case studies mentioned in the second part are either completed, in the process of validation or being carried out and integrated, in which case the information available at the present time is not sufficiently complete to enable assessment of information feedback. Nevertheless, insofar as possible, each case is described in terms of methods, results and proposed action. In certain instances, a simplified synopsis is given. 25 refs. (author)

  8. Cancer incidence in atomic bomb survivors. Part IV: Comparison of cancer incidence and mortality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ron, E.; Preston, D.L.; Mabuchi, Kiyohiko; Thompson, D.E.; Soda, Midori

    1994-01-01

    This report compares cancer incidence and mortality among atomic bomb survivors in the Radiation Effects Research Foundation Life Span Study (LSS) cohort. Because the incidence data are derived from the Hiroshima and Nagasaki tumor registries, case ascertainment is limited to the time (1958-1987) and geographic restrictions (Hiroshima and Nagasaki) of the registries, whereas mortality data are available from 1950-1987 anywhere in Japan. With these conditions, there were 9,014 first primary incident cancer cases identified among LSS cohort members compared with 7,308 deaths for which cancer was listed as the underlying cause of death on death certificates. When deaths were limited to those occurring between 1958-1987 in Hiroshima or Nagasaki, there were 3,155 more incident cancer cases overall, and 1,262 more cancers of the digestive system. For cancers of the oral cavity and pharynx, skin, breast, female and male genital organs, urinary system and thyroid, the incidence series was at least twice as large as the comparable mortality series. Although the incidence and mortality data are dissimilar in many ways, the overall conclusions regarding which solid cancers provide evidence of a significant dose response generally confirm the mortality findings. When either incidence or mortality data are evaluated, significant excess risks are observed for all solid cancers, stomach, colon, liver (when it is defined as primary liver cancer or liver cancer not otherwise specified on the death certificate), lung, breast, ovary and urinary bladder. No significant radiation effect is seen for cancers of the pharynx, rectum, gallbladder, pancreas, nose, larynx, uterus, prostate or kidney in either series. There is evidence of a significant excess of nonmelanoma skin cancer in the incidence data, but not in the mortality series. 19 refs., 2 figs., 10 tabs

  9. Analysis of the Relation Between Exposure to Ionising Radiation from Computed Tomography Scans in Childhood and Cancer Incidence within the 'Cohorte Enfant Scanner' Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Journy, Neige

    2014-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) is a powerful imaging technique that provides great benefits for diagnosis and medical management of patients. Nonetheless, the widespread use of this procedure raises many concerns about the potential adverse effects induced by X-rays exposure, both in clinical practice and in terms of public health. First epidemiological studies have suggested an increased risk of cancer associated with CT scan exposures in childhood or adolescence. The interpretation of these results is, however, controversial, and evidence about radiation-induced risks of cancer is still limited at this level of exposure and during childhood. In France, the 'Enfant Scanner' cohort was set up by IRSN to study the incidence of cancer among more than 100,000 children who received CT scans before the age of 10 in 21 university hospitals. This study is part of the European Epi-CT project - coordinated by the International Agency for Research on Cancer - which includes nine national cohorts set up on the basis of a common protocol. The current thesis, based on the French cohort, focuses on characterizing the exposure of children receiving diagnostic CT scans and quantifying the risk of cancer associated with these exposures. Dosimetric assessment was performed from the radiological protocols used in paediatrics between 2000 and 2011 in the participating hospitals. This study presents the evolution of the exposures during the period and the variability of practices in the radiology departments. The results show that there is a leeway for optimizing the procedures and limiting the exposure of patients, especially for scans of the head that account for most of the examinations in paediatrics. A quantitative assessment of cancer risk potentially induced by CT scans in paediatrics was performed - on the basis of estimates of risk in other contexts of ionizing radiation exposure. The results show that each CT scan could be associated with an excess risk of tumours of the

  10. Radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pujol Mora, J.

    1999-01-01

    The exposition to ionizing radiations is a constant fact in the life of the human being and its utilization as diagnostic and therapeutic method is generalized. However, it is notorious how as years go on, the fear to the ionizing radiation seems to persist too, and this fact is not limited to the common individual, but to the technical personnel and professional personnel that labors with them same. (S. Grainger) [es

  11. Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidson, J.H.

    1986-01-01

    The basic facts about radiation are explained, along with some simple and natural ways of combating its ill-effects, based on ancient healing wisdom as well as the latest biochemical and technological research. Details are also given of the diet that saved thousands of lives in Nagasaki after the Atomic bomb attack. Special comment is made on the use of radiation for food processing. (U.K.)

  12. Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winther, J.F.; Ulbak, K.; Dreyer, L.; Pukkala, E.; Oesterlind, A.

    1997-01-01

    Exposure to solar and ionizing radiation increases the risk for cancer in humans. Some 5% of solar radiation is within the ultraviolet spectrum and may cause both malignant melanoma and non-melanocytic skin cancer; the latter is regarded as a benign disease and is accordingly not included in our estimation of avoidable cancers. Under the assumption that the rate of occurrence of malignant melanoma of the buttocks of both men and women and of the scalp of women would apply to all parts of the body in people completely unexposed to solar radiation, it was estimated that approximately 95% of all malignant melanomas arising in the Nordic populations around the year 2000 will be due to exposure to natural ultraviolet radiation, equivalent to an annual number of about 4700 cases, with 2100 in men and 2600 in women, or some 4% of all cancers notified. Exposure to ionizing radiation in the Nordic countries occurs at an average effective dose per capita per year of about 3 mSv (Iceland, 1.1 mSv) from natural sources, and about 1 mSv from man-made sources. While the natural sources are primarily radon in indoor air, natural radionuclides in food, cosmic radiation and gamma radiation from soil and building materials, the man-made sources are dominated by the diagnostic and therapeutic use of ionizing radiation. On the basis of measured levels of radon in Nordic dwellings and associated risk estimates for lung cancer derived from well-conducted epidemiological studies, we estimated that about 180 cases of lung cancer (1% of all lung cancer cases) per year could be avoided in the Nordic countries around the year 2000 if indoor exposure to radon were eliminated, and that an additional 720 cases (6%) could be avoided annually if either radon or tobacco smoking were eliminated. Similarly, it was estimated that the exposure of the Nordic populations to natural sources of ionizing radiation other than radon and to medical sources will each give rise to an annual total of 2120

  13. Wheelchair incidents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drongelen AW van; Roszek B; Hilbers-Modderman ESM; Kallewaard M; Wassenaar C; LGM

    2002-01-01

    This RIVM study was performed to gain insight into wheelchair-related incidents with powered and manual wheelchairs reported to the USA FDA, the British MDA and the Dutch Center for Quality and Usability Research of Technical Aids (KBOH). The data in the databases do not indicate that incidents with

  14. Ionizing radiation, radiation sources, radiation exposure, radiation effects. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultz, E.

    1985-01-01

    Part 2 deals with radiation exposure due to artificial radiation sources. The article describes X-ray diagnosis complete with an analysis of major methods, nuclear-medical diagnosis, percutaneous radiation therapy, isotope therapy, radiation from industrial generation of nucler energy and other sources of ionizing radiation. In conclusion, the authors attempt to asses total dose, genetically significant dose and various hazards of total radiation exposure by means of a summation of all radiation impacts. (orig./WU) [de

  15. The accident at the Harrisburg nuclear reactor - Interim conclusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yiftah, S.

    1979-07-01

    This work describes the first minutes, first day and first week following the Three Mile Island accident. It shows the failures that occurred and the lessons which should be derived. It is pointed out that the doses of radiation that escaped from the TMI plant were at no time large enough to have had any effect on the 2 million people living on a radius of 80 km from the plant. Although no casualties occurred the Harrisburg accident will create an impulse for a new study and understanding of the nuclear plant safety and might serve as a live safety laboratory. After the TMI accident nuclear plants are already safer, one of the conclusions being that a new planning of the operation room is required, with the operators acquiring a better understanding of what is going on during a nuclear reactor accident. (B.G.)

  16. Contaminated Mexican steel incident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    This report documents the circumstances contributing to the inadvertent melting of cobalt 60 (Co-60) contaminated scrap metal in two Mexican steel foundries and the subsequent distribution of contaminated steel products into the United States. The report addresses mainly those actions taken by US Federal and state agencies to protect the US population from radiation risks associated with the incident. Mexico had much more serious radiation exposure and contamination problems to manage. The United States Government maintained a standing offer to provide technical and medical assistance to the Mexican Government. The report covers the tracing of the source to its origin, response actions to recover radioactive steel in the United States, and return of the contaminated materials to Mexico. The incident resulted in significant radiation exposures within Mexico, but no known significant exposure within the United States. Response to the incident required the combined efforts of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Department of Energy, Department of Transportation, Department of State, and US Customs Service (Department of Treasury) personnel at the Federal level and representatives of all 50 State Radiation Control Programs and, in some instances, local and county government personnel. The response also required a diplomatic interface with the Mexican Government and cooperation of numerous commercial establishments and members of the general public. The report describes the factual information associated with the event and may serve as information for subsequent recommendations and actions by the NRC. 8 figures

  17. Low incidence of chest wall pain with a risk-adapted lung stereotactic body radiation therapy approach using three or five fractions based on chest wall dosimetry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thibaud P Coroller

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To examine the frequency and potential of dose-volume predictors for chest wall (CW toxicity (pain and/or rib fracture for patients receiving lung stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT using treatment planning methods to minimize CW dose and a risk-adapted fractionation scheme. METHODS: We reviewed data from 72 treatment plans, from 69 lung SBRT patients with at least one year of follow-up or CW toxicity, who were treated at our center between 2010 and 2013. Treatment plans were optimized to reduce CW dose and patients received a risk-adapted fractionation of 18 Gy×3 fractions (54 Gy total if the CW V30 was less than 30 mL or 10-12 Gy×5 fractions (50-60 Gy total otherwise. The association between CW toxicity and patient characteristics, treatment parameters and dose metrics, including biologically equivalent dose, were analyzed using logistic regression. RESULTS: With a median follow-up of 20 months, 6 (8.3% patients developed CW pain including three (4.2% grade 1, two (2.8% grade 2 and one (1.4% grade 3. Five (6.9% patients developed rib fractures, one of which was symptomatic. No significant associations between CW toxicity and patient and dosimetric variables were identified on univariate nor multivariate analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Optimization of treatment plans to reduce CW dose and a risk-adapted fractionation strategy of three or five fractions based on the CW V30 resulted in a low incidence of CW toxicity. Under these conditions, none of the patient characteristics or dose metrics we examined appeared to be predictive of CW pain.

  18. Incidents analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francois, P.

    1996-01-01

    We undertook a study programme at the end of 1991. To start with, we performed some exploratory studies aimed at learning some preliminary lessons on this type of analysis: Assessment of the interest of probabilistic incident analysis; possibility of using PSA scenarios; skills and resources required. At the same time, EPN created a working group whose assignment was to define a new approach for analysis of incidents on NPPs. This working group gave thought to both aspects of Operating Feedback that EPN wished to improve: Analysis of significant incidents; analysis of potential consequences. We took part in the work of this group, and for the second aspects, we proposed a method based on an adaptation of the event-tree method in order to establish a link between existing PSA models and actual incidents. Since PSA provides an exhaustive database of accident scenarios applicable to the two most common types of units in France, they are obviously of interest for this sort of analysis. With this method we performed some incident analyses, and at the same time explores some methods employed abroad, particularly ASP (Accident Sequence Precursor, a method used by the NRC). Early in 1994 EDF began a systematic analysis programme. The first, transient phase will set up methods and an organizational structure. 7 figs

  19. Incidents analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francois, P

    1997-12-31

    We undertook a study programme at the end of 1991. To start with, we performed some exploratory studies aimed at learning some preliminary lessons on this type of analysis: Assessment of the interest of probabilistic incident analysis; possibility of using PSA scenarios; skills and resources required. At the same time, EPN created a working group whose assignment was to define a new approach for analysis of incidents on NPPs. This working group gave thought to both aspects of Operating Feedback that EPN wished to improve: Analysis of significant incidents; analysis of potential consequences. We took part in the work of this group, and for the second aspects, we proposed a method based on an adaptation of the event-tree method in order to establish a link between existing PSA models and actual incidents. Since PSA provides an exhaustive database of accident scenarios applicable to the two most common types of units in France, they are obviously of interest for this sort of analysis. With this method we performed some incident analyses, and at the same time explores some methods employed abroad, particularly ASP (Accident Sequence Precursor, a method used by the NRC). Early in 1994 EDF began a systematic analysis programme. The first, transient phase will set up methods and an organizational structure. 7 figs.

  20. Medical irradiation of children. Beware of too fast conclusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brisse, H.; Sirinelli, D.; Adamsbaum, C.; Chateil, J.F.; Claudon, M.; Geoffray, A.; Petit, P.; Rausin, L.; Panuel, M.

    2004-01-01

    The publication in january 2004 in the British medical journal of the article of P. Hall and coll. 'Effect of low doses of ionizing irradiation in infancy on cognitive function in adulthood: Swedish population based cohort study, has been noticed by the Radiation protection group of the French speaking society of pediatrics imaging. The authors evaluate the psycho-motor development of less eighteen months years old children and irradiated between 1930 and 1959 for a face angioma. They study for each dose of irradiation ( from 0 to 250 m Gy) the level of school attendance and their results to the psycho-motor tests made during conscription medical examination. They noticed a diminution of 50% of the access success rate to university for the children having received an irradiation dose of 250 mG. No effect is noticed under the irradiation dose of 100 mGy. In their conclusions the authors compare these irradiation doses to these ones delivered in brain scanner examination. These results seem overestimated compared with the work made on fetuses ( publication 84 of ICRP) then the fetus is considered as more sensitive to ionizing radiations than the infant. The dose of 120 mGy is found in the literature and now the dose delivered in pediatrics are in the area of 0 and 100 mGy where no effect has been revealed in the cohort of irradiated children. The article does not include the principle of justification that is used nowadays and the replacement by the trans fontanel echography has allowed to reduce the number of brain scanner, used only for limited cases where the benefit is superior the the risk of irradiation. (N.C.)

  1. Investigation of the possible increased incidence of cancer in West Cumbria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubery, E.D.

    1985-01-01

    The report of the Black Advisory Group on an investigation of the possible increased incidence of cancer in West Cumbria is briefly considered. The Advisory Group was unable to reach definite conclusions as to whether there is a link between discharges of radioactive material from BNFL Sellafield and the incidence of cancer due to uncertainties in the available epidemiological data and the radiation dose estimate data. The implementation of ten recommendations of the Black Advisory Group are briefly described covering epidemiological, radiation protection and organisational matters in an effort to clarify the situation and to enhance public safety. (U.K.)

  2. Medication incidents reported to an online incident reporting system.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Alrwisan, Adel

    2011-01-15

    AIMS: Approximately 20% of deaths from adverse events are related to medication incidents, costing the NHS an additional £500 million annually. Less than 5% of adverse events are reported. This study aims to assess the reporting rate of medication incidents in NHS facilities in the north east of Scotland, and to describe the types and outcomes of reported incidents among different services. Furthermore, we wished to quantify the proportion of reported incidents according to the reporters\\' profession. METHODS: A retrospective description was made of medication incidents reported to an online reporting system (DATIX) over a 46-month-period (July 2005 to April 2009). Reports originated from acute and community hospitals, mental health, and primary care facilities. RESULTS: Over the study period there were 2,666 incidents reported with a mean monthly reporting rate of 78.2\\/month (SD±16.9). 6.1% of all incidents resulted in harm, with insulin being the most commonly implicated medication. Nearly three-quarters (74.2%, n=1,978) of total incidents originated from acute hospitals. Administration incidents were implicated in the majority of the reported medication incidents (59%), followed by prescribing (10.8%) and dispensing (9.9%), while the nondescript "other medication incidents" accounted for 20.3% of total incidents. The majority of reports were made by nursing and midwifery staff (80%), with medical and dental professionals reporting the lowest number of incidents (n=56, 2%). CONCLUSIONS: The majority of medication incidents in this study were reported by nursing and midwifery staff, and were due to administration incidents. There is a clear need to elucidate the reasons for the limited contribution of the medical and dental professionals to reporting medication incidents.

  3. Medical irradiation of children. Beware of too fast conclusion; Irradiation medicale de l'enfant. Attention aux conclusions hatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brisse, H. [Institut Curie, Dept. d' Imagerie, 75 - Paris (France); Sirinelli, D. [Hopital Clocheville, Service de Radiologie et Echographie, 37 - Tours (France); Adamsbaum, C. [Hopital Saint-Vincent-de-Paul, Service de Radiologie, 75 - Paris (France); Chateil, J.F. [Hopital Pellegrin, Unite de Radiopediatrie, 33 - Bordeaux (France); Claudon, M. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Nancy-Hopital Brabois Enfants, Service de Radiologie, 54 - Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France); Geoffray, A. [Fondation Lenval, Service de Radiologie, 06 - Nice (France); Petit, P. [Hopital de la Timone, Service de Radiologie, 13 - Marseille (France); Rausin, L. [Centre Hospitalier Regional de la Citadelle, Service de Radiologie, Liege (Belgium); Panuel, M. [Hopital Nord, Service de Radiologie, 13 - Marseille (France)

    2004-10-01

    The publication in january 2004 in the British medical journal of the article of P. Hall and coll. 'Effect of low doses of ionizing irradiation in infancy on cognitive function in adulthood: Swedish population based cohort study, has been noticed by the Radiation protection group of the French speaking society of pediatrics imaging. The authors evaluate the psycho-motor development of less eighteen months years old children and irradiated between 1930 and 1959 for a face angioma. They study for each dose of irradiation ( from 0 to 250 m Gy) the level of school attendance and their results to the psycho-motor tests made during conscription medical examination. They noticed a diminution of 50% of the access success rate to university for the children having received an irradiation dose of 250 mG. No effect is noticed under the irradiation dose of 100 mGy. In their conclusions the authors compare these irradiation doses to these ones delivered in brain scanner examination. These results seem overestimated compared with the work made on fetuses ( publication 84 of ICRP) then the fetus is considered as more sensitive to ionizing radiations than the infant. The dose of 120 mGy is found in the literature and now the dose delivered in pediatrics are in the area of 0 and 100 mGy where no effect has been revealed in the cohort of irradiated children. The article does not include the principle of justification that is used nowadays and the replacement by the trans fontanel echography has allowed to reduce the number of brain scanner, used only for limited cases where the benefit is superior the the risk of irradiation. (N.C.)

  4. Long-term Results of Carbon Ion Radiation Therapy for Locally Advanced or Unfavorably Located Choroidal Melanoma: Usefulness of CT-based 2-Port Orthogonal Therapy for Reducing the Incidence of Neovascular Glaucoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toyama, Shingo; Tsuji, Hiroshi; Mizoguchi, Nobutaka; Nomiya, Takuma; Kamada, Tadashi; Tokumaru, Sunao; Mizota, Atsushi; Ohnishi, Yoshitaka; Tsujii, Hirohiko

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the long-term results of carbon ion radiation therapy (C-ion RT) in patients with choroidal melanoma, and to assess the usefulness of CT-based 2-port irradiation in reducing the risk of neovascular glaucoma (NVG). Methods and Materials: Between January 2001 and February 2012, a total of 116 patients with locally advanced or unfavorably located choroidal melanoma received CT-based C-ion RT. Of these patients, 114 were followed up for more than 6 months and their data analyzed. The numbers of T3 and T2 patients (International Union Against Cancer [UICC], 5th edition) were 106 and 8, respectively. The total dose of C-ion RT varied from 60 to 85 GyE, with each dose given in 5 fractions. Since October 2005, 2-port therapy (51 patients) has been used in an attempt to reduce the risk of NVG. A dose-volume histogram analysis was also performed in 106 patients. Results: The median follow-up was 4.6 years (range, 0.5-10.6 years). The 5-year overall survival, cause-specific survival, local control, distant metastasis-free survival, and eye retention rates were 80.4% (95% confidence interval 89.0%-71.8%), 82.2% (90.6%-73.8%), 92.8% (98.5%-87.1%), 72.1% (81.9%-62.3%), and 92.8% (98.1%-87.5%), respectively. The overall 5-year NVG incidence rate was 35.9% (25.9%-45.9%) and that of 1-port group and 2-port group were 41.6% (29.3%-54.0%) and 13.9% (3.2%-24.6%) with statistically significant difference (P<.001). The dose-volume histogram analysis showed that the average irradiated volume of the iris-ciliary body was significantly lower in the non-NVG group than in the NVG group at all dose levels, and significantly lower in the 2-port group than in the 1-port group at high dose levels. Conclusions: The long-term results of C-ion RT for choroidal melanoma are satisfactory. CT-based 2-port C-ion RT can be used to reduce the high-dose irradiated volume of the iris-ciliary body and the resulting risk of NVG

  5. Long-term Results of Carbon Ion Radiation Therapy for Locally Advanced or Unfavorably Located Choroidal Melanoma: Usefulness of CT-based 2-Port Orthogonal Therapy for Reducing the Incidence of Neovascular Glaucoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toyama, Shingo [Research Center for Charged Particle Therapy, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Department of Heavy Particle Therapy and Radiation Oncology, Faculty of Medicine, Saga University, Saga (Japan); Tsuji, Hiroshi, E-mail: h_tsuji@nirs.go.jp [Research Center for Charged Particle Therapy, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Mizoguchi, Nobutaka; Nomiya, Takuma; Kamada, Tadashi [Research Center for Charged Particle Therapy, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Tokumaru, Sunao [Department of Heavy Particle Therapy and Radiation Oncology, Faculty of Medicine, Saga University, Saga (Japan); Mizota, Atsushi [Department of Ophthalmology, Teikyo University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Ohnishi, Yoshitaka [Department of Ophthalmology, Wakayama Medical University, Wakayama (Japan); Tsujii, Hirohiko [Research Center for Charged Particle Therapy, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan)

    2013-06-01

    Purpose: To determine the long-term results of carbon ion radiation therapy (C-ion RT) in patients with choroidal melanoma, and to assess the usefulness of CT-based 2-port irradiation in reducing the risk of neovascular glaucoma (NVG). Methods and Materials: Between January 2001 and February 2012, a total of 116 patients with locally advanced or unfavorably located choroidal melanoma received CT-based C-ion RT. Of these patients, 114 were followed up for more than 6 months and their data analyzed. The numbers of T3 and T2 patients (International Union Against Cancer [UICC], 5th edition) were 106 and 8, respectively. The total dose of C-ion RT varied from 60 to 85 GyE, with each dose given in 5 fractions. Since October 2005, 2-port therapy (51 patients) has been used in an attempt to reduce the risk of NVG. A dose-volume histogram analysis was also performed in 106 patients. Results: The median follow-up was 4.6 years (range, 0.5-10.6 years). The 5-year overall survival, cause-specific survival, local control, distant metastasis-free survival, and eye retention rates were 80.4% (95% confidence interval 89.0%-71.8%), 82.2% (90.6%-73.8%), 92.8% (98.5%-87.1%), 72.1% (81.9%-62.3%), and 92.8% (98.1%-87.5%), respectively. The overall 5-year NVG incidence rate was 35.9% (25.9%-45.9%) and that of 1-port group and 2-port group were 41.6% (29.3%-54.0%) and 13.9% (3.2%-24.6%) with statistically significant difference (P<.001). The dose-volume histogram analysis showed that the average irradiated volume of the iris-ciliary body was significantly lower in the non-NVG group than in the NVG group at all dose levels, and significantly lower in the 2-port group than in the 1-port group at high dose levels. Conclusions: The long-term results of C-ion RT for choroidal melanoma are satisfactory. CT-based 2-port C-ion RT can be used to reduce the high-dose irradiated volume of the iris-ciliary body and the resulting risk of NVG.

  6. Meeting Report--NASA Radiation Biomarker Workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Straume, Tore; Amundson, Sally A,; Blakely, William F.; Burns, Frederic J.; Chen, Allen; Dainiak, Nicholas; Franklin, Stephen; Leary, Julie A.; Loftus, David J.; Morgan, William F.; Pellmar, Terry C.; Stolc, Viktor; Turteltaub, Kenneth W.; Vaughan, Andrew T.; Vijayakumar, Srinivasan; Wyrobek, Andrew J.

    2008-05-01

    A summary is provided of presentations and discussions from the NASA Radiation Biomarker Workshop held September 27-28, 2007, at NASA Ames Research Center in Mountain View, California. Invited speakers were distinguished scientists representing key sectors of the radiation research community. Speakers addressed recent developments in the biomarker and biotechnology fields that may provide new opportunities for health-related assessment of radiation-exposed individuals, including for long-duration space travel. Topics discussed include the space radiation environment, biomarkers of radiation sensitivity and individual susceptibility, molecular signatures of low-dose responses, multivariate analysis of gene expression, biomarkers in biodefense, biomarkers in radiation oncology, biomarkers and triage following large-scale radiological incidents, integrated and multiple biomarker approaches, advances in whole-genome tiling arrays, advances in mass-spectrometry proteomics, radiation biodosimetry for estimation of cancer risk in a rat skin model, and confounding factors. Summary conclusions are provided at the end of the report.

  7. A probabilistic safety analysis of incidents in nuclear research reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Valdir Maciel; Agostinho Angelo Sordi, Gian Maria; Moralles, Mauricio; Filho, Tufic Madi

    2012-06-01

    This work aims to evaluate the potential risks of incidents in nuclear research reactors. For its development, two databases of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) were used: the Research Reactor Data Base (RRDB) and the Incident Report System for Research Reactor (IRSRR). For this study, the probabilistic safety analysis (PSA) was used. To obtain the result of the probability calculations for PSA, the theory and equations in the paper IAEA TECDOC-636 were used. A specific program to analyse the probabilities was developed within the main program, Scilab 5.1.1. for two distributions, Fischer and chi-square, both with the confidence level of 90 %. Using Sordi equations, the maximum admissible doses to compare with the risk limits established by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) were obtained. All results achieved with this probability analysis led to the conclusion that the incidents which occurred had radiation doses within the stochastic effects reference interval established by the ICRP-64.

  8. A probabilistic safety analysis of incidents in nuclear research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopes, V. M.; Sordi, G. M. A. A.; Moralles, M.; Filho, T. M.

    2012-01-01

    This work aims to evaluate the potential risks of incidents in nuclear research reactors. For its development, two databases of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) were used: the Research Reactor Data Base (RRDB) and the Incident Report System for Research Reactor (IRSRR). For this study, the probabilistic safety analysis (PSA) was used. To obtain the result of the probability calculations for PSA, the theory and equations in the paper IAEA TECDOC-636 were used. A specific program to analyse the probabilities was developed within the main program, Scilab 5.1.1. for two distributions, Fischer and chi-square, both with the confidence level of 90 %. Using Sordi equations, the maximum admissible doses to compare with the risk limits established by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) were obtained. All results achieved with this probability analysis led to the conclusion that the incidents which occurred had radiation doses within the stochastic effects reference interval established by the ICRP-64. (authors)

  9. Biologically based analysis of lung cancer incidence in a large Canadian occupational cohort with low-LET low-dose radiation exposure, and comparison with Japanese atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazelton, W.D.; Curtis, S.B.; Moolgavkar, S.H.; Hutchinson, F.; Krewski, D.

    2003-01-01

    Lung cancer incidence is analyzed in a large Canadian National Dose Registry (CNDR) cohort with individual annual dosimetry for low-dose occupational exposure to gamma and tritium radiation using several types of multistage models. The primary analysis utilizes the two-stage clonal expansion model (TSCE), with sensitivity analyses using extensions of this model incorporating additional stages. Characteristic and distinct temporal patterns of risk are found for dose-response affecting early, middle, or late stages of carcinogenesis, e.g. initiation with one or more stages, clonal expansion, or malignant conversion. Fixed lag or lag distributions are used to model time from first malignant cell to incidence. Background rates are analyzed by gender, job classification and birth cohort. Lacking individual smoking data, surrogate doses based on US annual per capita cigarette consumption appear to account for much of the birth cohort effect. Males, with mean cumulative exposure for gamma and tritium of 11.5 mSv and 322 incident lung cancer cases have a significant dose-response with 33 cases attributable to radiation. Female dose-response, with mean cumulative exposure of 1.7 mSv and 78 incident cases, appears similar but is not statistically significant. Findings for males include an inverse-dose-rate effect (increased risk with protraction of a given dose) and dose-response effects on initiation, promotion and malignant conversion, although the effect on initiation is not statistically significant. The excess relative risk (ERR) and excess absolute risk (EAR) depend on age at exposure, duration, dose, and age at follow-up. The ERR increases with dose, tapering off at higher doses, making a plot of ERR against dose concave-downward, similar to apparent low-dose results seen below 1 Sv for solid tumor mortality of atomic bomb survivors. The concave-downward trend of ERR and the inverse-dose-rate effect are both counter to prevailing beliefs about effects of low

  10. Radiation injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubner, K.F.

    1988-01-01

    Radiation accidents and incidents continue to be of great interest and concern to the public. Issues such as the threat of nuclear war, the Chernobyl reactor accident, or reports of sporadic incidences of accidental radiation exposure keep this interest up and maintain a high level of fear among the public. In this climate of real concern and radiation phobia, physicians should not only be prepared to answer questions about acute or late effects of ionizing radiation, but also be able to participate in the initial assessment and management of individuals who have been exposed to ionizing radiation or contaminated with radioactive material. Some of the key facts about radiation injury and its medical treatment are discussed by the author

  11. Ionizing radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newton, W.

    1984-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to simplify some of the relevant points of legislation, biological effects and protection for the benefit of the occupational health nurse not familiar with the nuclear industries. The subject is dealt with under the following headings; Understanding atoms. What is meant by ionizing radiation. Types of ionizing radiation. Effects of radiation: long and short term somatic effects, genetic effects. Control of radiation: occupational exposure, women of reproductive age, medical aspects, principles of control. The occupational health nurse's role. Emergency arrangements: national arrangements for incidents involving radiation, action to be taken by the nurse. Decontamination procedures: external and internal contamination. (U.K.)

  12. Radiation imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redmayne, I.

    1986-05-21

    A detector for the detection of radiation such as X-ray radiation comprises an array of scintillation elements embedded in a sheet of radiation absorbing material. The scintillation elements are monitored individually, for example by a corresponding array of photodiodes, to build up a picture of the incident radiation. The front face of the sheet and the inner walls of the bores may be coated with a reflective material. The detector finds particular application in weld radiography. The detector may be stepped relative to the radiation source, the signals produced by the rows of the detector as they pass a predetermined point being summed.

  13. Radiation imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redmayne, Ian.

    1986-01-01

    A detector for the detection of radiation such as X-ray radiation comprises an array of scintillation elements embedded in a sheet of radiation absorbing material. The scintillation elements are monitored individually, for example by a corresponding array of photodiodes, to build up a picture of the incident radiation. The front face of the sheet and the inner walls of the bores may be coated with a reflective material. The detector finds particular application in weld radiography. The detector may be stepped relative to the radiation source, the signals produced by the rows of the detector as they pass a predetermined point being summed. (author)

  14. Chernobyl accident: causes and consequences (expert conclusion). Part 3. Chernobyl accident effect on Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nesterenko, V.B.

    1992-01-01

    Expert conclusion is presented on the Chernobyl accident effect on Belarus. Problems of ground and food contamination, medical and biological radiation effects on the population are considered. Attention is paid to the radiation monitoring and radiometric gages. Scale of the damage for forestry and agriculture is described and recommendations on the agriculture is described and recommendations on the agricultural production and forest utilization at contaminated areas are given. 24 refs.; 4 figs.; 24 tabs

  15. The protection of operating personnel in nuclear power plants against the risk of nuclear incidents and ionizing radiation arising from normal operation of the plant. Rules and problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortore, F.; Scalera, D.

    1980-03-01

    After an analysis of the nuclear third party liability insurance policy to be taken out in Italy in implementation of Act no. 1860 of 31 December 1962 and Decree No. 519 of 10 May 1979, the collective policy against radiation injuries taken out for operating personnel in nuclear installations is described. The author is in favour of further harmonization of the legal system presently in force in this respect. (NEA) [fr

  16. The incidence of unstable chromosome aberrations in peripheral blood lymphocytes from occupationally exposed people in Boris Kidric Institute of nuclear sciences (Radiation protection department)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zunic, Z; Markovic, S; Bajic, V; Milic, O; Radotic, N; Horvat, Dj; Nikolic, M; Lakoski, A [Institute of Nuclear Sciences Boris Kidric, Vinca, Beograd (Serbia and Montenegro)

    1989-07-01

    The results of the chromosome analysis of 17 employees of Radiation protection department of Boris Kidric Institute of Nuclear Sciences were related to the corresponding values of thermoluminescence dosimetry (TLD) measurements within the past eight years. The results obtained show the biological effects (structural chromosome aberrations) of chronic of fractionated exposures, low-level acute doses, even in the cases when the individual cumulative equivalent doses were 10 times lower than the order of maximum permissible occupational exposures (author)

  17. COMARE incidence of cancer and childhood leukaemia in the vicinity of the former Greenham Common Airbase, Newbury, Berkshire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamlet, R

    1998-06-01

    On 26 March 1998 the Committee on Medical Aspects of Radiation in the Environment (COMARE), under the Chairmanship of Professor Bryn Bridges, published its Fifth Report entitled 'Incidence of cancer and leukaemia in the area around the former Greenham Common Airbase. An investigation of a possible association with measured environmental radiation levels' (1998). The proceedings leading up to this report and its main conclusions are given in this short news item.

  18. COMARE incidence of cancer and childhood leukaemia in the vicinity of the former Greenham Common Airbase, Newbury, Berkshire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamlet, R.

    1998-01-01

    On 26 March 1998 the Committee on Medical Aspects of Radiation in the Environment (COMARE), under the Chairmanship of Professor Bryn Bridges, published its Fifth Report entitled 'Incidence of cancer and leukaemia in the area around the former Greenham Common Airbase. An investigation of a possible association with measured environmental radiation levels' (1998). The proceedings leading up to this report and its main conclusions are given in this short news item

  19. Assessment of ionizing radiation as a risk factor for breast cancer incidence in Goiania; Avaliacao da radiacao ionizante como fator de risco para a incidencia de cancer de mama em Goiania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lage, Leonardo Bastos

    2016-11-01

    This research aims to evaluate whether exposure to ionizing radiation to which women are subjected can be associated with the incidence of breast cancer in Goiania. The defined study area is the central region of Goiania, or the Sanitary Districts of Campinas-Centro and Sul, in which are the seven major accident sources of contamination with Cesium 137, and also, as shown by previous study, the majority of new cases of breast cancer (60,43 %). We used the geographical division of the city in census tracts and health districts. The data collection was divided in two stages: the first, for the survey of radiometric measurements, and the second, for identifying the addresses of women diagnosed with breast cancer. The radiometric survey occurred between 2010 and 2014, in which was used an environmental gamma radiation mobile measuring system. This system was composed by a high-sensitivity detector coupled to a Global Positioning System (GPS) and a microcomputer. The assembly was installed on a motor vehicle so that the height of the detector is found at one meter from the ground, and programmed to obtain a measurement of the doses absorbed in the air rate each second. The data collected were: doses absorbed in the air rate, geographical coordinates, altitude, date and time of acquisition. From Mobisys software, files were generated and from ArcGIS 10.0 platform, geospatial assessment survey through the elaboration of thematic maps and geospatial analysis statistics. The annual averages of effective doses and collective effective doses were estimated from the rate of doses absorbed in air collected by the system and the resident population in the census tracts. The second stage begun from the data collection at the Registry of Goiania's Population Based Cancer (RCBPGO), in which were identified addresses of women diagnosed with breast cancer between 2001 and 2010. Part of the data was geographically referenced and using census data were estimated and compared the

  20. Targeting safety improvements through identification of incident origination and detection in a near-miss incident learning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novak, Avrey; Nyflot, Matthew J.; Ermoian, Ralph P.; Jordan, Loucille E.; Sponseller, Patricia A.; Kane, Gabrielle M.; Ford, Eric C.; Zeng, Jing

    2016-01-01

    during the documentation of patient positioning and localization of the patient. Incidents were most frequently detected during treatment delivery (30%), and incidents identified at this point also had higher severity scores than other workflow areas (NMRI = 1.6). Incidents identified during on-treatment quality management were also more severe (NMRI = 1.7), and the specific process steps of reviewing portal and CBCT images tended to catch highest-severity incidents. On average, safety barriers caught 46% of all incidents, most frequently at physics chart review, therapist’s chart check, and the review of portal images; however, most of the incidents that pass through a particular safety barrier are not designed to be capable of being captured at that barrier. Conclusions: Incident learning systems can be used to assess the most common points of error origination and detection in radiation oncology. This can help tailor safety improvement efforts and target the highest impact portions of the workflow. The most severe near-miss events tend to originate during simulation, with the most severe near-miss events detected at the time of patient treatment. Safety barriers can be improved to allow earlier detection of near-miss events.

  1. Targeting safety improvements through identification of incident origination and detection in a near-miss incident learning system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novak, Avrey; Nyflot, Matthew J.; Ermoian, Ralph P.; Jordan, Loucille E.; Sponseller, Patricia A.; Kane, Gabrielle M.; Ford, Eric C.; Zeng, Jing, E-mail: jzeng13@uw.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Washington Medical Center, 1959 NE Pacific Street, Campus Box 356043, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States)

    2016-05-15

    during the documentation of patient positioning and localization of the patient. Incidents were most frequently detected during treatment delivery (30%), and incidents identified at this point also had higher severity scores than other workflow areas (NMRI = 1.6). Incidents identified during on-treatment quality management were also more severe (NMRI = 1.7), and the specific process steps of reviewing portal and CBCT images tended to catch highest-severity incidents. On average, safety barriers caught 46% of all incidents, most frequently at physics chart review, therapist’s chart check, and the review of portal images; however, most of the incidents that pass through a particular safety barrier are not designed to be capable of being captured at that barrier. Conclusions: Incident learning systems can be used to assess the most common points of error origination and detection in radiation oncology. This can help tailor safety improvement efforts and target the highest impact portions of the workflow. The most severe near-miss events tend to originate during simulation, with the most severe near-miss events detected at the time of patient treatment. Safety barriers can be improved to allow earlier detection of near-miss events.

  2. Debris impact on emergency coolant recirculation - summary and conclusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, Bhagwat; Hsia, Anthony; Armand, Yves; Mattei, Jean-Marie; Hyvaerinen, Juhani; Maqua, Michael; Puetter, Bernhard; Sandervaag, Oddbjoern; Vandewalle, Andre; Tombuyses, Beatrice; Pyy, Pekka; Royen, Jacques

    2004-01-01

    On 28 July 1992, a steam line safety relief valve inadvertently opened in the Barsebaeck-2 nuclear power plant in Sweden. The steam jet stripped fibrous insulation from adjacent piping system. Part of that insulation debris was transported to the wet-well pool and clogged the intake strainers for the drywell spray system after about one hour. Although the incident in itself was not very serious, it revealed a weakness in the defense-in-depth concept which under other circumstances could have led to the emergency core cooling system (ECCS) failing to provide recirculation water to the core. The Barsebaeck incident spurred immediate action on the part of regulators and utilities alike in several OECD countries. Research and development efforts of varying degrees of intensity were launched in many countries and in several cases resulted in findings that earlier strainer clogging data were incorrect because essential parameters and physical phenomena had not been recognized previously. Such efforts resulted in substantial back-fittings being carried out for BWRs and some PWRs in several OECD countries. An international workshop organised in Stockholm in 1994 under the auspices of CSNI revealed a rather confusing picture of the available knowledge base, examples of conflicting information and a wide range of interpretation of guidance for assessing BWR strainers and PWR sump screen performance contained in US NRC Regulatory Guide 1.82. An International Working Group was set up by the CSNI to establish an internationally agreed-upon knowledge base for assessing the reliability of ECC water recirculation systems. An initiative was taken by the CSNI in 1998 to revisit the subject. The general objective was to make an update of the knowledge base for strainer clogging, to review the latest phenomena for PWRs and to provide a survey of actions taken in member countries. New information contained in NUREG/CR-6771 indicated that the core damage frequency could increase by one

  3. Risk of cancer incidence before the age of 15 years after exposure to ionising radiation from computed tomography: results from a German cohort study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krille, L. [University Medical Center Mainz, Institute of Medical Biostatistics, Epidemiology and Informatics, Mainz (Germany); International Agency for Research on Cancer, Lyon (France); Dreger, S.; Zeeb, H. [University of Bremen, Leibniz - Institute for Prevention Research and Epidemiology - BIPS, Research Focus Health Sciences Bremen, Bremen (Germany); Schindel, R.; Blettner, M. [University Medical Center Mainz, Institute of Medical Biostatistics, Epidemiology and Informatics, Mainz (Germany); Albrecht, T. [Vivantes, Klinikum Neukoelln, Institut fuer Radiologie und Interventionelle Therapie, Berlin (Germany); Asmussen, M. [Zentralinstitut fuer Bildgebende Diagnostik, Staedtisches Klinikum Karlsruhe, Karlsruhe (Germany); Barkhausen, J. [Universitaetsklinikum Schleswig Holstein, Klinik fuer Radiologie und Nuklearmedizin, Campus Luebeck, Luebeck (Germany); Berthold, J.D. [Medizinische Hochschule Hannover, Institut fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie, Hannover (Germany); Chavan, A. [Klinikum Oldenburg GmbH, Institut fuer Diagnostische and Interventionelle Radiologie, Oldenburg (Germany); Claussen, C. [Universitaetsklinikum Tuebingen, Abt. fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie, Tuebingen (Germany); Forsting, M. [Universitaetsklinikum Essen, Institut fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie und Neuroradiologie, Essen (Germany); Gianicolo, E.A.L. [University Medical Center Mainz, Institute of Medical Biostatistics, Epidemiology and Informatics, Mainz (Germany); National Research Council, Institute of Clinical Physiology, Lecce (Italy); Jablonka, K. [Klinikum Bremen-Mitte, Klinik fuer Radiologische Diagnostik und Nuklearmedizin, Bremen (Germany); Jahnen, A. [Centre de Recherche Public Henri Tudor, Luxembourg (Luxembourg); Langer, M. [Universitaetsklinikum Freiburg, Klinik fuer Radiologie, Freiburg (Germany); Laniado, M. [Universitaetsklinikum Carl Gustav Carus Dresden, Institut und Poliklinik fuer Radiologische Diagnostik, Dresden (Germany); Lotz, J. [Universitaetsmedizin Goettingen, Institut fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie, Goettingen (Germany); Mentzel, H.J. [Universitaetsklinikum Jena, Institut fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie, Sektion Kinderradiologie, Jena (Germany); Queisser-Wahrendorf, A. [Universitaetsmedizin Mainz, Zentrum fuer Kinder- und Jugendmedizin, Mainz (Germany); Rompel, O. [Universitaetsklinikum Erlangen, Radiologisches Institut, Erlangen (Germany); Schlick, I. [Klinikum Nuernberg Sued, Institut fuer Radiologie und Neuroradiologie, Nuremberg (Germany); Schneider, K.; Seidenbusch, M. [Institut fuer Klinische Radiologie, Klinikum der Universitaet Muenchen, Dr. von Haunersches Kinderspital, Munich (Germany); Schumacher, M. [Universitaetsklinik Freiburg, Klinik fuer Neuroradiologie, Neurozentrum, Freiburg (Germany); Spix, C. [University Medical Center Mainz, German Childhood Cancer Registry, Mainz (Germany); Spors, B. [Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Kinderradiologie, Standort Campus Virchow Klinikum, Berlin (Germany); Staatz, G. [Universitaetsmedizin Mainz, Klinik und Poliklinik fuer diagnostische und interventionelle Radiologie, Sektion Kinderradiologie, Mainz (Germany); Vogl, T. [Klinikum der Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universitaet Frankfurt/Main, Institut fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie, Frankfurt (Germany); Wagner, J. [Vivantes, Klinikum im Friedrichshain, Institut fuer Radiologie und Interventionelle Therapie, Berlin (Germany); Weisser, G. [Universitaetsklinikum Mannheim, Institut fuer Klinische Radiologie und Nuklearmedizin, Mannheim (Germany)

    2015-03-15

    The aim of this cohort study was to assess the risk of developing cancer, specifically leukaemia, tumours of the central nervous system and lymphoma, before the age of 15 years in children previously exposed to computed tomography (CT) in Germany. Data for children with at least one CT between 1980 and 2010 were abstracted from 20 hospitals. Cancer cases occurring between 1980 and 2010 were identified by stochastic linkage with the German Childhood Cancer Registry (GCCR). For all cases and a sample of non-cases, radiology reports were reviewed to assess the underlying medical conditions at time of the CT. Cases were only included if diagnosis occurred at least 2 years after the first CT and no signs of cancer were recorded in the radiology reports. Standardised incidence ratios (SIR) using incidence rates from the general population were estimated. The cohort included information on 71,073 CT examinations in 44,584 children contributing 161,407 person-years at risk with 46 cases initially identified through linkage with the GCCR. Seven cases had to be excluded due to signs possibly suggestive of cancer at the time of first CT. Overall, more cancer cases were observed (O) than expected (E), but this was mainly driven by unexpected and possibly biased results for lymphomas. For leukaemia, the SIR (SIR = O/E) was 1.72 (95 % CI 0.89-3.01, O = 12), and for CNS tumours, the SIR was 1.35 (95 % CI 0.54-2.78, O = 7). Despite careful examination of the medical information, confounding by indication or reverse causation cannot be ruled out completely and may explain parts of the excess. Furthermore, the CT exposure may have been underestimated as only data from the participating clinics were available. This should be taken into account when interpreting risk estimates. (orig.)

  4. Risk of cancer incidence before the age of 15 years after exposure to ionising radiation from computed tomography: results from a German cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krille, L; Dreger, S; Schindel, R; Albrecht, T; Asmussen, M; Barkhausen, J; Berthold, J D; Chavan, A; Claussen, C; Forsting, M; Gianicolo, E A L; Jablonka, K; Jahnen, A; Langer, M; Laniado, M; Lotz, J; Mentzel, H J; Queißer-Wahrendorf, A; Rompel, O; Schlick, I; Schneider, K; Schumacher, M; Seidenbusch, M; Spix, C; Spors, B; Staatz, G; Vogl, T; Wagner, J; Weisser, G; Zeeb, H; Blettner, M

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this cohort study was to assess the risk of developing cancer, specifically leukaemia, tumours of the central nervous system and lymphoma, before the age of 15 years in children previously exposed to computed tomography (CT) in Germany. Data for children with at least one CT between 1980 and 2010 were abstracted from 20 hospitals. Cancer cases occurring between 1980 and 2010 were identified by stochastic linkage with the German Childhood Cancer Registry (GCCR). For all cases and a sample of non-cases, radiology reports were reviewed to assess the underlying medical conditions at time of the CT. Cases were only included if diagnosis occurred at least 2 years after the first CT and no signs of cancer were recorded in the radiology reports. Standardised incidence ratios (SIR) using incidence rates from the general population were estimated. The cohort included information on 71,073 CT examinations in 44,584 children contributing 161,407 person-years at risk with 46 cases initially identified through linkage with the GCCR. Seven cases had to be excluded due to signs possibly suggestive of cancer at the time of first CT. Overall, more cancer cases were observed (O) than expected (E), but this was mainly driven by unexpected and possibly biased results for lymphomas. For leukaemia, the SIR (SIR = O/E) was 1.72 (95 % CI 0.89-3.01, O = 12), and for CNS tumours, the SIR was 1.35 (95 % CI 0.54-2.78, O = 7). Despite careful examination of the medical information, confounding by indication or reverse causation cannot be ruled out completely and may explain parts of the excess. Furthermore, the CT exposure may have been underestimated as only data from the participating clinics were available. This should be taken into account when interpreting risk estimates.

  5. Incidence of thyroid carcinoma in patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis and solitary cold nodules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ott, R.A.; Calandra, D.B.; McCall, A.; Shah, K.H.; Lawrence, A.M.; Paloyan, E.

    1985-01-01

    The reported incidence of thyroid carcinoma in Hashimoto's thyroiditis varies widely. For this reason the specific subpopulation of patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis and a solitary cold nodule was analyzed. Between 1972 and 1984 we operated on 146 consecutive patients with solitary cold nodules and Hashimoto's thyroiditis. There were 47 carcinomas, for an incidence of 32%. The mean age of the 146 patients was 43 1/2 years (median 44 years), with 126 females and 20 males. There was a history of prior head and neck radiation exposure in 54 patients, with a 33% incidence of thyroid carcinoma. The 92 patients without a history of radiation exposure had a 31.5% incidence of carcinoma. The frequency of multicentricity (bilateralism) was 33% in the group that underwent radiation and 24% in the group that did not. To date, with a mean follow-up of 4.7 years, there have been no deaths and no evidence of recurrence. In conclusion, we report a 32% incidence of thyroid carcinoma in patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis and a solitary cold nodule, with no apparent difference between the patients with or without a history of radiation exposure, although there was a higher incidence of bilateralism (33% versus 24%) in the carcinomas of the patients with a history of head and neck irradiation. We suggest that the operative management of these patients is total thyroidectomy for those with a history of head and neck radiation and thyroid lobectomy for patients with no history of radiation, followed by contralateral lobectomy if a carcinoma is demonstrated

  6. Incidence of thyroid carcinoma in patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis and solitary cold nodules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ott, R.A.; Calandra, D.B.; McCall, A.; Shah, K.H.; Lawrence, A.M.; Paloyan, E.

    1985-12-01

    The reported incidence of thyroid carcinoma in Hashimoto's thyroiditis varies widely. For this reason the specific subpopulation of patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis and a solitary cold nodule was analyzed. Between 1972 and 1984 we operated on 146 consecutive patients with solitary cold nodules and Hashimoto's thyroiditis. There were 47 carcinomas, for an incidence of 32%. The mean age of the 146 patients was 43 1/2 years (median 44 years), with 126 females and 20 males. There was a history of prior head and neck radiation exposure in 54 patients, with a 33% incidence of thyroid carcinoma. The 92 patients without a history of radiation exposure had a 31.5% incidence of carcinoma. The frequency of multicentricity (bilateralism) was 33% in the group that underwent radiation and 24% in the group that did not. To date, with a mean follow-up of 4.7 years, there have been no deaths and no evidence of recurrence. In conclusion, we report a 32% incidence of thyroid carcinoma in patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis and a solitary cold nodule, with no apparent difference between the patients with or without a history of radiation exposure, although there was a higher incidence of bilateralism (33% versus 24%) in the carcinomas of the patients with a history of head and neck irradiation. We suggest that the operative management of these patients is total thyroidectomy for those with a history of head and neck radiation and thyroid lobectomy for patients with no history of radiation, followed by contralateral lobectomy if a carcinoma is demonstrated.

  7. Number of objectives and conclusions in dissertations and thesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liebano Richard Eloin

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To analyze the number of objectives and conclusions presented in dissertations and thesis defended at Federal University of São Paulo - Paulista School of Medicine (UNIFESP - EPM. METHODS: It was realized a search in the master degree dissertations and doctor degree thesis defended at Federal University of São Paulo - Paulista School of Medicine in the years 2002 and 2003 that were found available in the central library of this university. RESULTS: From 723 master dissertations analyzed, 62 (8,57% presented only one objective and one conclusion, 134 (18,53% presented one objective and more than one conclusion and 527 (72,89% had more than one objective and more than one conclusion. From 502 doctor thesis analyzed, 23 (4,58% presented only one objective and one conclusion, 123 (24,50% presented one objective and more than one conclusion and 376 (74,90% had more than one objective and more than one conclusion.. CONCLUSIONS: It wasn't found in researched literature the number of objectives and conclusions a scientific work must have. A highest number of thesis and dissertations presented more than one objective and more than one conclusion.

  8. Incidence of thyroid cancer surrounding Three Mile Island nuclear facility: the 30-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Roger J; De Simone, Nicole F; Slotkin, Jaime F; Henson, Baker L

    2013-08-01

    Original data reported a potential increased incidence of thyroid cancer surrounding the Three Mile Island (TMI) nuclear facility. A causal link to the accident, however, was indeterminate. Our objective was to determine if data 30 years later will change original conclusions, explore thyroid cancer incidence rates near nuclear power plants, and better understand effects of chronic low level radiation. Retrospective cross-sectional study. Retrospective data for specific Pennsylvania counties were provided by the Pennsylvania Cancer Registry Dataset for thyroid cancer using the Epidemiological Query and Mapping System search engine. Our study examines thyroid cancer incidence from 1985 through 2009 analyzed by year, county, and age. Thirty years after the TMI accident, an increased incidence of thyroid cancer is seen in counties south of TMI and in high-risk age groups. The average incidence rates from 1990 through 2009 were greater than expected in York, Lancaster, Adams, and Chester Counties. Thyroid cancer incidence since the TMI accident was greater than expected in the counties analyzed when compared to local and national population growth. This supports a link to chronic low level radiation exposure and thyroid cancer development. Despite these findings, a direct correlation to the accident remains uncertain as incidence rates may coincide with other factors, and original data were limited. © 2013 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  9. Nasopharyngeal carcinoma in a low incidence European area. A prospective observational analysis from the Head and Neck Study Group of the Italian Society of Radiation Oncology (AIRO)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonoli, S.; Bruschieri, L. [Brescia University, Istituto del Radio, Brescia (Italy); Alterio, D. [European Institute of Oncology, Milan (Italy); Caspiani, O. [Isola Tiberina Hospital, Rome (Italy); Bacigalupo, A. [IRCCS A.O.U. San Martino IST Genoa, Genoa (Italy); Bunkheila, F. [S. Orsola Hospital, Bologna (Italy); Cianciulli, M. [S. Camillo Hospital, Rome (Italy); Merlotti, A. [Busto Arsizio Hospital, Busto Arsizio (Italy); Podhradska, A. [Milan University - Monza S. Gerardo Hospital, Milan (Italy); Rampino, M. [Turin University, Turin (Italy); Cante, D. [Treviglio Hospital, Treviglio (Italy); Gatta, R. [Brescia University, Istituto del Radio, Brescia (Italy); Prato Hospital, Prato (Italy); Magrini, S.M.

    2016-12-15

    To evaluate the outcomes with respect to long-term survival and toxicity in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) treated in a European country with low incidence. A prospective observational study carried out by the AIRO Head and Neck group in 12 Italian institutions included 136 consecutive patients treated with radiotherapy (RT) ± chemotherapy (CHT) for NPC (without distant metastasis) between January 1, 2008 and December 31, 2010. The disease-specific survival (DSS), overall survival (OS), and disease-free survival (DFS) at 5 years were 92 (±2), 91 (±3), and 69 % (±5 %), respectively. Distant failure was the most frequent modality of relapse. The local, regional, and locoregional control at 5 years were 89 (±3), 93 (±3), and 84 % (±4 %), respectively. The incidence of acute and late toxicity and the correlations with different clinical/technical variables were analyzed. Neoadjuvant CHT prolongs radiotherapy overall treatment time (OTT) and decreases treatment adherence during concomitant chemoradiotherapy. An adequate minimum dose coverage to PTV(T) is a predictive variable well related to outcome. Our data do not substantially differ in terms of survival and toxicity outcomes from those reported in larger series of patients treated in countries with higher incidences of NPC. The T stage (TNM 2002 UICC classification) is predictive of DSS and OS. The GTV volume (T ± N) and an adequate minimum PTV(T) coverage dose (D95 %) were also identified as potential predictive variables. Sophisticated technologies of dose delivery (IMRT) with image-guided radiotherapy could help to obtain better minimum PTV(T) coverage dose with increased DFS; distant metastasis after treatment still remains an unresolved issue. (orig.) [German] Bewertung von langfristigem Ueberleben und Toxizitaet bei Patienten mit Nasopharynxkarzinom (NPC), die in einem europaeischen Land mit geringer Inzidenz behandelt wurden. Die prospektive Beobachtungsanalyse, durchgefuehrt von der

  10. Leukaemia incidence in Welsh children linked with low level radiation-making sense of some erroneous results published in the media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steward, John A; White, Ceri; Reynolds, Shelagh

    2008-01-01

    A series of self-published epidemiological reports purporting to show a major excess risk of leukaemia in pre-school children living near the Irish Sea coast of Wales have been presented in the media as evidence of the harmful effects of low level radiation arising from Sellafield. The Welsh Cancer Intelligence and Surveillance Unit (WCISU), the body responsible for population-based cancer information in Wales, can provide insights into the validity of these reports, which appear to be a consequence of various mistakes. This raises important questions about the research governance of such reports and the communication of scientific findings via the mass media. Without suitable safeguards the media are in danger of promulgating misinformation

  11. Adjustment of lifetime risks of space radiation-induced cancer by the healthy worker effect and cancer misclassification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leif E. Peterson

    2015-12-01

    Conclusions. The typical life table approach for projecting lifetime risk of radiation-induced cancer mortality and incidence for astronauts and radiation workers can be improved by adjusting for HWE while simulating the uncertainty of input rates, input excess risk coefficients, and bias correction factors during multiple Monte Carlo realizations of the life table.

  12. Interim report of the DOE [Department of Energy] Type B Investigation Group: Appendix C, Oral statements about the RSI [Radiation Sterilizers, Inc.] incident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hultgren, R.O.

    1990-07-01

    Sometime between April 28, 1988, and June 5, 1988, a 22-inch long by 2.625-inch diameter doubly encapsulated cesium-137 irradiation source began leaking in the RSI-Decatur, Georgia, irradiation facility. By November 1988 when the source was isolated, between 7 and 8 curies (0.4 grams) leaked. This source was one of 1576 produced at Hanford to isolate the highly radioactive elements of wastes stored in single-walled tanks there. The capsule was designed for long term storage in a benign controlled pool environment on the Hanford reservation. An investigation was conducted to evaluate the cause of the incident, the management and administrative matters including leasing and licensing, the capsule design and manufacture, and the capsule qualification process. This Appendix presents transcripts of oral testimony taken during this investigation and is include as an integral part of the factual data upon which the Findings of this report are based. The transcriptions in every case were made available to the individuals involved for correction of factual misstatements and to be cleaned of verbal idiosyncrasies that detract from the meaning of the text

  13. Repair kinetics of DNA double-strand breaks and incidence of apoptosis in mouse neural stem/progenitor cells and their differentiated neurons exposed to ionizing radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashiwagi, Hiroki; Shiraishi, Kazunori; Sakaguchi, Kenta; Nakahama, Tomoya; Kodama, Seiji

    2018-05-01

    Neuronal loss leads to neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and Huntington's disease. Because of their long lifespans, neurons are assumed to possess highly efficient DNA repair ability and to be able to protect themselves from deleterious DNA damage such as DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) produced by intrinsic and extrinsic sources. However, it remains largely unknown whether the DSB repair ability of neurons is more efficient compared with that of other cells. Here, we investigated the repair kinetics of X-ray-induced DSBs in mouse neural cells by scoring the number of phosphorylated 53BP1 foci post irradiation. We found that p53-independent apoptosis was induced time dependently during differentiation from neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs) into neurons in culture for 48 h. DSB repair in neurons differentiated from NSPCs in culture was faster than that in mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs), possibly due to the higher DNA-dependent protein kinase activity, but it was similar to that in NSPCs. Further, the incidence of p53-dependent apoptosis induced by X-irradiation in neurons was significantly higher than that in NSPCs. This difference in response of X-ray-induced apoptosis between neurons and NSPCs may reflect a difference in the fidelity of non-homologous end joining or a differential sensitivity to DNA damage other than DSBs.

  14. Investigation and analysis of etiology of down's syndrome in children of high background radiation area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zha Yongru

    1985-01-01

    In order to find out what caused the differences in incidences of Down's syndrome between the children in high background radiation area and those in control area, investigation and analysis were carried ou in 5 aspects based on the original data and the information from the previous survey. These are: the incidences of congenital malformations in normal areas, the age distribution of children examined, the maternal age, the dates of birth of afflicted children, and the radiation exposure of mothers. The results suggested that the higher incidence of Down's syndrome in high background area might be related to the materal age. Further studies are needed to arrive at a conclusion

  15. Hanford study: a review of its limitations and controversial conclusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, E.S.

    1984-10-01

    The Hanford data set has attracted attention primarily because of analyses conducted by Mancuso, Stewart, and Kneale (MSK). These investigators claim that the Hanford data provide evidence that our current estimates of cancer mortality resulting from radiation exposure are too low, and advocate replacing estimates based on populations exposed at relatively high doses (such as the Japanese atom bomb survivors) with estimates based on the Hanford data. In this paper, it is shown that the only evidence of association of radiation exposure and mortality provided by the Hanford data is a small excess of multiple myeloma, and that this data set is not adequate for reliable risk estimation. It is demonstrated that confidence limits for risk estimates are very wide, and that the data are not adequate to differentiate among models. The more recent MSK analyses, which claim to provide adequate models and risk estimates, are critiqued. 18 references, 1 table

  16. Recent investigations and conclusions on radiation exposure from radon and its daughters in rooms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willau, E.

    1984-04-01

    Radon and its daughters emanate from structural materials and are concentrated in closed rooms. Measurements were first made in Vienna in concrete and brick buildings. The difference between these two materials is explained by the effect of different window tightness this being lower in the older brick buildings. It is conjectured that plaster is more important than the bulk wall material. In order to test the influence of the geological ground these measurement in Vienna (rubble ground) were complemented by those in Wagrain (shale ground) and the difference again explained by different window tightness. With regard to height above the ground the radon and daughter concentration was found to 2-3 times higher in cellars and at ground flour than at higher levels. The variation of concentration during and after airing was also investigated. (G.Q.)

  17. Radiation carcinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fry, R.J.M.

    1976-01-01

    The risk of iatrogenic tumors with radiation therapy is so outweighed by the benefit of cure that estimates of risk have not been considered necessary. However, with the introduction of chemotherapy, combined therapy, and particle radiation therapy, the comparative risks should be examined. In the case of radiation, total dose, fractionation, dose rate, dose distribution, and radiation quality should be considered in the estimation of risk. The biological factors that must be considered include incidence of tumors, latent period, degree of malignancy, and multiplicity of tumors. The risk of radiation induction of tumors is influenced by the genotype, sex, and age of the patient, the tissues that will be exposed, and previous therapy. With chemotherapy the number of cells at risk is usually markedly higher than with radiation therapy. Clearly the problem of the estimation of comparative risks is complex. This paper presents the current views on the comparative risks and the importance of the various factors that influence the estimation of risk

  18. Cosmological Gamma-Ray Bursts and Hypernovae Conclusively Linked

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-06-01

    -ray radiation. The team concludes that it is likely to be due to the nearly instantaneous, non-symmetrical collapse of the inner region of a highly developed star (known as the "collapsar" model) . The March 29 gamma-ray burst will pass into the annals of astrophysics as a rare "type-defining event", providing conclusive evidence of a direct link between cosmological gamma-ray bursts and explosions of very massive stars . PR Photo 17a/03 : Image of the optical afterglow of GRB 030329 (VLT FORS1+2). PR Photo 17b/03 : A series of VLT spectra of the optical afterglow of GRB 030329. What are Gamma-Ray Bursts? One of the currently most active fields of astrophysics is the study of the dramatic events known as "gamma-ray bursts (GRBs)" . They were first detected in the late 1960's by sensitive instruments on-board orbiting military satellites, launched for the surveillance and detection of nuclear tests. Originating, not on the Earth, but far out in space, these short flashes of energetic gamma-rays last from less than a second to several minutes. Despite major observational efforts, it is only within the last six years that it has become possible to pinpoint with some accuracy the sites of some of these events. With the invaluable help of comparatively accurate positional observations of the associated X-ray emission by various X-ray satellite observatories since early 1997, astronomers have until now identified about fifty short-lived sources of optical light associated with GRBs (the "optical afterglows"). Most GRBs have been found to be situated at extremely large ("cosmological") distances. This implies that the energy released in a few seconds during such an event is larger than that of the Sun during its entire lifetime of more than 10,000 million years. The GRBs are indeed the most powerful events since the Big Bang known in the Universe, cf. ESO PR 08/99 and ESO PR 20/00 . During the past years circumstantial evidence has mounted that GRBs signal the collapse of massive

  19. Development of an EDV-supported decision instrument for site pre-selection of nuclear power plants. EDV-supported instrument for calculation of the space distribution of the collective dose rate and area contamination. Vol. 1. Radiation exposure through air- and water paths under authorized operating conditions and during incidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruessermann, K; Eschhaus, M; Kreymborg, A; Muenster, M; Schommer, N

    1980-01-01

    The collective dose rate and the area contamination form a basis for site criteria going beyond the individual considerations of distribution of the population, hydrology, meteorology etc. The possibilities of radio-ecological models on the radiation exposure through air- and water paths during operation and incidents are described by example of Biblis, Muelheim-Kaerlich and Esensham. Comparative evaluations were effected for Fessenheim.

  20. Risk analysis in radiation treatment: Application of a new taxonomic structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekaette, Edidiong U.; Lee, Robert C.; Cooke, David L.; Kelly, Karie-Lynn; Dunscombe, Peter B.

    2006-01-01

    Background and purpose: Radiation treatment (RT) for cancer is susceptible to clinical incidents resulting from human errors and equipment failures. A systematic approach to collecting and processing incidents is required to manage patient risks. We describe the application of a new taxonomic structure for RT that supports risk analysis and organizational learning. Materials and methods: A systematic analysis of the RT process identified five process domains. Within each domain we defined incident type groups. We then constructed a database reflecting this taxonomic structure and populated it with incidents from publicly available sources. Querying this database provides insights into the nature and relative frequency of incidents in RT. Results: There are relatively few reports of incidents in the Prescription domain compared with the Preparation and Treatment domains. There are also fewer reports of systematic and infrastructure incidents in comparison to sporadic and process incidents. Infrastructure incidents are mainly systematic in nature, while process incidents are more likely to be sporadic. Conclusions: The lack of a standard, systems-oriented framework for incident reporting makes it difficult to learn from existing incident report sources. A clear understanding of the potential consequences and relationships between different incident types will guide incident reporting, resource allocation, and risk management efforts

  1. Hypothesis, Prediction, and Conclusion: Using Nature of Science Terminology Correctly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastwell, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This paper defines the terms "hypothesis," "prediction," and "conclusion" and shows how to use the terms correctly in scientific investigations in both the school and science education research contexts. The scientific method, or hypothetico-deductive (HD) approach, is described and it is argued that an understanding of the scientific method,…

  2. Conclusion Chapters in Doctoral Theses: Some International Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trafford, Vernon; Leshem, Shosh; Bitzer, Eli

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated how candidates claimed to have made an original contribution to knowledge in the conclusion chapters of 100 PhD theses. Documentary analysis was used to discover how this was explained within theses at selected universities in three countries. No other documents were accessed and neither were candidates, supervisors or…

  3. Overview of human health in the Arctic: conclusions and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson, Shawn; Adlard, Bryan; Odland, Jon Øyvind

    2016-01-01

    This article is intended to provide an overview of the key conclusions, knowledge gaps and key recommendations based on the recent 2015 Arctic human health assessment under the Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Program. This assessment was based primarily on data from human health monitoring and research studies and peer-reviewed literature published since the last assessment in 2009.

  4. 20 CFR 901.48 - Proposed findings and conclusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Law Judge, before making his/her decision, shall give the parties a reasonable opportunity to submit... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Proposed findings and conclusions. 901.48 Section 901.48 Employees' Benefits JOINT BOARD FOR THE ENROLLMENT OF ACTUARIES REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE...

  5. Actual Problems of Conclusion and Discharge of Urgent Labour Contracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shevelyova A. A.

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This article is devoted to the consideration of the questions connected with the conclusion and the termination of the urgent labour contract. The author, analyzing judicial practice, allocates the problems of separate regulation of the RF labour legislation enforcement.

  6. [Skin cancer incidence in Zacatecas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinedo-Vega, José Luis; Castañeda-López, Rosalba; Dávila-Rangel, J Ignacio; Mireles-García, Fernando; Ríos-Martínez, Carlos; López-Saucedo, Adrián

    2014-01-01

    Skin cancer is the most frequent cancer related to ultraviolet radiation. The aim was to estimate the incidence of skin cancer type, melanoma and non-melanoma in Zacatecas, Mexico. An epidemiological study was carried out during the period from 2008 to 2012. The data were obtained from the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS), Instituto de Seguridad y Servicios Sociales de los Trabajadores del Estado (ISSSTE), Secretaría de Salud de Zacatecas (SSZ) and a private source, the Centro Médico Alameda. The incidence and the global prevalence were estimated. We studied 958 skin cancer cases, histopathologically confirmed. The cases were distributed as: 63.6 % basal cell carcinomas, 25.8 % squamous cell carcinomas, and 10.6 % melanoma. Significantly higher proportions were observed in women in the basal cell carcinomas (60.4 %) and squamous cell carcinomas (53.4 %). However, in the case of melanoma, the major proportion was observed in men (55.9 %). The more frequent skin cancer location was the face and for basal cell carcinoma was the nose (53 %); for squamous cell carcinomas were the lips (36 %), and for melanoma it was also the nose (40 %). The skin cancer incidence was estimated in 20 cases for each 100 000 inhabitants. Linear regression analysis showed that the skin cancer is increasing at an annual rate of 10.5 %. The anatomical location indicates that solar UV radiation is a risk factor, since the face is the zone with major exposure to solar radiation.

  7. Conclusion: imaging in strategy of endocrine diagnosis and therapeutics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mornex, R.

    1995-01-01

    Images in medicine have to help the doctor in a diagnostic or therapeutic aim. The choice must be made in function of pathology or organ as known (it is not necessary to ask for a computed tomography where we know that only an echography can give the answer to the question we ask ), the criteria must stay the best performance for the cheapest price, but the quality of interpretation is a more important thing. It is important to avoid a lot of examinations which do not give better informations but are heavy to endure for the patients. In conclusion, the aim of this kind of proceedings is to assure to the patients who come confidently to us, the best service at the less constraints price without forgetting that a conclusion depends on a given methodological situation and reminding of beside machines we have not to forget the men

  8. Conclusive identification of quantum channels via monogamy of quantum correlations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Asutosh; Singha Roy, Sudipto; Pal, Amit Kumar; Prabhu, R.; Sen, Aditi; Sen, Ujjwal

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the action of global noise and local channels, namely, amplitude-damping, phase-damping, and depolarizing channels, on monogamy of quantum correlations, such as negativity and quantum discord, in three-qubit systems. We discuss the monotonic and non-monotonic variation, and robustness of the monogamy scores. By using monogamy scores, we propose a two-step protocol to conclusively identify the noise applied to the quantum system, by using generalized Greenberger–Horne–Zeilinger and generalized W states as resource states. We discuss a possible generalization of the results to higher number of parties. - Highlights: • Monogamy score monotonically decays with noise for generalized GHZ state as input. • Non-monotonically decaying monogamy score with noise for generalized W state as input. • Characterizing the dynamics of monogamy score. • Dynamics terminal quantifying robustness of monogamy score against noise. • Conclusively identifying the type of noise using monogamy score.

  9. Conclusive identification of quantum channels via monogamy of quantum correlations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Asutosh; Singha Roy, Sudipto; Pal, Amit Kumar [Harish-Chandra Research Institute, Chhatnag Road, Jhunsi, Allahabad 211019 (India); Homi Bhaba National Institute, Training School Complex, Anushaktinagar, Mumbai 400094 (India); Prabhu, R. [Harish-Chandra Research Institute, Chhatnag Road, Jhunsi, Allahabad 211019 (India); Homi Bhaba National Institute, Training School Complex, Anushaktinagar, Mumbai 400094 (India); Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Patna, Bihta 801103, Bihar (India); Sen, Aditi, E-mail: aditi@hri.res.in [Harish-Chandra Research Institute, Chhatnag Road, Jhunsi, Allahabad 211019 (India); Homi Bhaba National Institute, Training School Complex, Anushaktinagar, Mumbai 400094 (India); Sen, Ujjwal [Harish-Chandra Research Institute, Chhatnag Road, Jhunsi, Allahabad 211019 (India); Homi Bhaba National Institute, Training School Complex, Anushaktinagar, Mumbai 400094 (India)

    2016-10-23

    We investigate the action of global noise and local channels, namely, amplitude-damping, phase-damping, and depolarizing channels, on monogamy of quantum correlations, such as negativity and quantum discord, in three-qubit systems. We discuss the monotonic and non-monotonic variation, and robustness of the monogamy scores. By using monogamy scores, we propose a two-step protocol to conclusively identify the noise applied to the quantum system, by using generalized Greenberger–Horne–Zeilinger and generalized W states as resource states. We discuss a possible generalization of the results to higher number of parties. - Highlights: • Monogamy score monotonically decays with noise for generalized GHZ state as input. • Non-monotonically decaying monogamy score with noise for generalized W state as input. • Characterizing the dynamics of monogamy score. • Dynamics terminal quantifying robustness of monogamy score against noise. • Conclusively identifying the type of noise using monogamy score.

  10. Biogeochemistry of uranium mill wastes program overview and conclusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dreesen, D.R.

    1981-05-01

    The major findings and conclusions are summarized for research on uranium mill tailings for the US Department of Energy and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. An overview of results and interpretations is presented for investigations of 222 Rn emissions, revegetation of tailings and mine spoils, and trace element enrichment, mobility, and bioavailability. A brief discussion addresses the implications of these findings in relation to tailings disposal technology and proposed uranium recovery processes

  11. Summary and Conclusions. Final chapter of Scholarly Communication for Librarians.

    OpenAIRE

    Morrison, Heather

    2008-01-01

    Summary and Conclusions of Scholarly Communication for Librarians, a book designed to provide librarians at all levels with the basics of how scholarly communication works, an understanding of the academic library as an essential support for scholarly communication, the impact of the decisions librarians make, and emerging roles for libraries and librarians in scholarly communication. Includes major points from all chapters, on: scholarship, scholarly journals, the scholarly publishing indus...

  12. Review conclusions by Ernst and Canter regarding spinal manipulation refuted

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evans Roni

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In the April 2006 issue of the Journal of Royal Society of Medicine, Ernst and Canter authored a review of the most recent systematic reviews on the effectiveness of spinal manipulation for any condition. The authors concluded that, except for back pain, spinal manipulation is not an effective intervention for any condition and, because of potential side effects, cannot be recommended for use at all in clinical practice. Based on a critical appraisal of their review, the authors of this commentary seriously challenge the conclusions by Ernst and Canter, who did not adhere to standard systematic review methodology, thus threatening the validity of their conclusions. There was no systematic assessment of the literature pertaining to the hazards of manipulation, including comparison to other therapies. Hence, their claim that the risks of manipulation outweigh the benefits, and thus spinal manipulation cannot be recommended as treatment for any condition, was not supported by the data analyzed. Their conclusions are misleading and not based on evidence that allow discrediting of a large body of professionals using spinal manipulation.

  13. Radiation-induced Pulmonary Damage in Lung Cancer Patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Su Mi; Choi, Ihl Bohng; Kang, Mi Mun; Kim, In Ah; Shinn, Kyung Sub

    1993-01-01

    alone and the group with radiation and chemotherapy, among the sequence of chemotherapy. No correlation was seen between incidence of radiation pneumonitis and age or sex. Conclusions: The occurrence cf radiation pneumonitis varies. The incidence of radiation pneumonitis depends on radiation total dose, nature of fractionation, duration of therapy, and modifying factors such as lobectomy or pneumonectomy

  14. It pays to be green. A premature conclusion?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Telle, K.

    2006-01-01

    It has been claimed that good environmental performance can improve firms' economic performance. However, because of e.g. data limitations, the methods applied in most previous quantitative empirical studies on effects of environmental performance on economic performance of firms suffer from several shortcomings. We discuss these shortcomings and conclude that previously applied methods are unsatisfactory as support for a conclusion that it pays for firms to be green. Then we illustrate the consequences of these shortcomings by performing several regression analyses of the effect of environmental performance on economic performance using a panel data set of Norwegian plants. A pooled regression where observable firm characteristics like e.g. size or industry are controlled for, confirms a positive effect of environmental performance on economic performance. However, the estimated positive effect could be due to omitted unobserved variables like management or technology. When the regression model controls for unobserved plant heterogeneity, the effect is generally no longer statistically significant. Hence, although greener plants tend to perform economically better, the analysis provides little support for the claim that it is because they are greener. These empirical findings further indicate that a conclusion that it pays to be green is premature

  15. Biological implications of radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bond, V.P.

    1977-01-01

    Some topics discussed are as follows: effects of diagnostic and therapeutic radiation on dividing cells, DNA, and blood cells; radiation sickness in relation to dose; early and late effects of radiation; effects of low dose irradiation; dose-effect curves; radioinduction of tumors in animals; and incidence of cancer in children following in utero exposure to diagnostic x rays

  16. Preventing radiation retinopathy with hyperfractionation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monroe, Alan T.; Bhandare, Niranjan; Morris, Christopher G.; Mendenhall, William M.

    2005-01-01

    steady increase in the incidence of retinopathy, with 25 of the 30 cases occurring after 60 Gy or more. Of the patients receiving more than 50 Gy to the retina, hyperfractionation was associated with a significantly lower incidence of radiation retinopathy (37% vs. 13%; p = 0.0037). On multivariate analysis, retinal dose (p < 0.0001), fractionation schedule (p = 0.0003), age (p = 0.0365), and prolonged overall treatment time (p = 0.0213) were significant predictors of radiation retinopathy. Conclusion: The incidence of ipsilateral radiation retinopathy after treatment of nasal cavity/paranasal tumors is 20% at 5 and 10 years. Retinal dose and fractionation schedule are the strongest predictors of retinopathy. Hyperfractionated radiotherapy is associated with a significant reduction in the incidence of radiation retinopathy, especially when the retina receives more than 50 Gy

  17. Conclusion of the I.C.T. benchmark exercise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giacometti, A.

    1991-01-01

    The ICT Benchmark exercise made within the RIV working group of ESARDA on reprocessing data supplied by COGEMA for 53 routines reprocessing input batches made of 110 irradiated fuel assemblies from KWO Nuclear Power Plant was finally evaluated. The conclusions are: all seven different ICT methods applied verified the operator data on plutonium within about one percent; anomalies intentionally introduced to the operator data were detected in 90% of the cases; the nature of the introduced anomalies, which were unknown to the participants, was completely resolved for the safeguards relevant cases; the false alarm rate was in a few percent range. The ICT Benchmark results shows that this technique is capable of detecting and resolving anomalies in the reprocessing input data to the order of a percent

  18. The no conclusion intervention for couples in conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migerode, Lieven

    2014-07-01

    Dealing with difference is central to all couple therapy. This article presents an intervention designed to assist couples in handling conflict. Central to this approach is the acceptance that most conflicts cannot be solved. Couples are in need of a different understanding of couples conflict. This understanding is found in the analysis of love in context and in relational dialectics. Couples are guided through different steps: deciding on the valence of the issue as individuals, helping them decide which differences can be resolved and which issues demand new ways of living with the inevitable, and the introduction in the suggested no conclusion dialogue. This article briefly describes the five day intensive couple therapy program, in which the no intervention is embedded. The theoretical foundation of the intervention, followed by the step by step description of the intervention forms the major part of the article. A case vignette illustrates this approach. © 2012 American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy.

  19. The European Food Consumption Validation Project: conclusions and recommendations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Boer, E. J.; Slimani, N.; van 't Veer, P.

    2011-01-01

    Background/Objectives: To outline and discuss the main results and conclusions of the European Food Consumption Validation (EFCOVAL) Project. Subjects/Methods: The EFCOVAL Project was carried out within the EU Sixth Framework Program by researchers in 11 EU countries. The activities focused on (1...... showed that two non-consecutive EPIC-Soft 24-HDRs are suitable to estimate the usual intake distributions of protein and potassium of European adult populations. The 2-day non-consecutive 24-HDRs in combination with a food propensity questionnaire also appeared to be appropriate to rank individuals...... according to their fish and fruit and vegetable intake in a comparable way in five European centers. Dietary intake of (young) children can be assessed by the combination of EPIC-Soft 24-HDRs and food recording booklets. The EPIC-Soft-standardized method of describing foods is useful to estimate dietary...

  20. Workshop on large molten pool heat transfer summary and conclusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The CSNI Workshop on Large Molten Heat Transfer held at Grenoble (France) in March 1994 was organised by CSNI's Principal Working Group on the Confinement of Accidental Radioactive Releases (PWG4) with the cooperation of the Principal Working Group on Coolant System Behaviour (FWG2) and in collaboration with the Grenoble Nuclear Research Centre of the French Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (CEA). Conclusions and recommendations are given for each of the five sessions of the workshops: Feasibility of in-vessel core debris cooling through external cooling of the vessel; Experiments on molten pool heat transfer; Calculational efforts on molten pool convection; Heat transfer to the surrounding water - experimental techniques; Future experiments and ex-vessel studies (open forum discussion)

  1. Jumping to conclusions and the continuum of delusional beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warman, Debbie M; Lysaker, Paul H; Martin, Joel M; Davis, Louanne; Haudenschield, Samantha L

    2007-06-01

    The present study examined the jumping to conclusions reasoning bias across the continuum of delusional ideation by investigating individuals with active delusions, delusion prone individuals, and non-delusion prone individuals. Neutral and highly self-referent probabilistic reasoning tasks were employed. Results indicated that individuals with delusions gathered significantly less information than delusion prone and non-delusion prone participants on both the neutral and self-referent tasks, (preferent task (p=.002). Those with delusions and those who were delusion prone reported higher confidence in their performance on the self-referent task than they did the neutral task (p=.02), indicating that high self-reference impacted information processing for individuals in both of these groups. The results are discussed in relation to previous research in the area of probabilistic reasoning and delusions.

  2. Snakebites in French Guiana: Conclusions of an international symposium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallel, Hatem; Hommel, Didier; Mehdaoui, Hossein; Megarbane, Bruno; Resiere, Dabor

    2018-05-01

    A workshop on epidemiology and management of snakebites in French Guiana was performed at Cayenne, French Guiana from September 15 to September 16, 2017, under the auspices of the French Regional Health Agency (ARS) and the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO). The activity was attended by experts from France (Angers, Martinique, French Guiana, Guadeloupe, and Paris), Costa Rica, Brazil, Saint Lucia, and Surinam. The epidemiology, clinical manifestations, clinical grading and the management of snakebite in French Guiana were discussed. The conclusions of this symposium illustrated the urgent need to ensure accessibility of effective and safe polyvalent viperid antivenom in French Guiana. Finally, the results of this symposium have forged ties based on mutual goals and objectives. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Conclusions regarding geotechnical acceptability of the WIPP site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weart, W.D.

    1983-01-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) was authorized by Congress in 1980 as an unlicensed research and development (R and D) facility to demonstrate the safe disposal of radioactive wastes arising from the defense activities and programs of the United States. WIPP is now being constructed in southeast New Mexico, using salt beds about 655 m below the surface of the ground. Construction of the full WIPP facility will not commence until a preliminary underground excavation phase, called Site and Preliminary Design Validation (SPDV), is satisfactorily concluded in the summer of 1983. This SPDV program permits confirmation of subsurface geology, in drifts at planned facility depth that extend for 1555 m in a north-south direction, and in the two vertical shafts that provide access to these drifts. The subsurface studies are nearing completion, and it is therefore appropriate to draw conclusions regarding the geotechnical acceptability of the WIPP site. Four geotechnical elements are discussed: dissolution, deformation, hydrologic regime, and natural resources

  4. Calibration of photographic dosemeters to evaluate the personal equivalent dose, Hp (10), irradiated by different radiation qualities and angles of incidence; Calibracao de dosimetros fotograficos para avaliar o equivalente de dose pessoal, Hp(10), irradiados por diferentes qualidades de radiacao e angulos de incidencia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santoro, Christiana; Antonio Filho, Joao, E-mail: chsantoro@gmail.com, E-mail: jaf@ufpe.br [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (DEN/UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Departamento de Energia Nuclear; Santos, Marcus Aurelio P.; Goncalves Filho, Luiz Carlos, E-mail: masantos@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: l.filho@cnen.gov.br [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, Pe (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    To use radiation detectors, should periodically perform tests and calibrations on instruments in order to verify its good functionality. One way to ascertain the quality of the instrument is to conduct a study of the angular dependence of the response of the radiation detectors. The photographic dosimetry has been used widely to quantify the radiation doses and to estimate levels of doses received by workers involved with X-and gamma radiation. Photographic dosimeters are used because provide wide range of exposure and good accuracy. One of the sources of error have been introduced by different irradiation geometries between calibration and measurement in radiation fields used in x-ray and gamma ray sources, therefore, there is a need for an evaluation of the sensitivity of dosimeters with variation of the angle of the incident beam. In this study were tested 190 photographic dosemeters in the Metrology Laboratory of the Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-NE) using the phantom H{sub p} (10), where the dosimeters are evaluated on the basis of the new operational magnitude for individual monitoring, the equivalent personal dose, H{sub p} (10). Angular dependence of these radiation detectors was studied in X radiation fields (in the range of 45 keV energy to 164 keV) and gamma radiation ({sup 137}Cs-662 keV e {sup 60}Co - 1250 keV)

  5. Radiation protection in radionuclide investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, D.M.

    1985-01-01

    The subject is covered in sections: introduction; radiation and radioactivity; alpha particles; beta particles; neutrons; electromagnetic radiation; units of radioactivity and radiation; biological effects of radiation; the philosophy of radiation protection (ALARA principle); practical aspects of radiation protection; work with unsealed radiation sources; radionuclide studies in experimental animals; radiation safety during clinical investigations; legislative control of radiation work; radioactive waste disposal; emergency procedures; conclusion. (U.K.)

  6. Regional comparison of cancer incidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obralic, N.; Gavrankapetanovic, F.; Dizdarevic, Z.; Duric, O.; Sisic, F.; Selak, I.; Balta, S.; Nakas, B.

    2004-01-01

    Background. Due to specific war and post-war situation in Balkan region, differences in the number, type, development, biological course, treatment of malignant tumours and its outcome are possible. In order to perceive the situation realistically, it is necessary to gather continuously exact data about malignant tumours and compare them with the data from other European and world countries.The aim of the study was to collect and analyse the data on cancer incidence in the region of Sarajevo city, which represents a symbol of difficult times in the recent past, and to compare it to the incidence in the neighbouring countries. Patients and methods. Data on all newly diagnosed cancer cases, permanent residents of Sarajevo Canton, in the years 1999 and 2000 were collected. Crude incidence rate has been calculated according to the years observed, gender and localizations of the disease The data were compared to the cancer registries of Slovenia and Croatia and were observed in the light of specific local situation. Results. The crude cancer incidence of all sites but skin was the highest in both years and by both genders in Croatia. The incidence of the most common tumours (lung and breast cancer) was similar in all three countries. The differences in the incidence between both genders in the Sarajevo canton were registered in laryngeal and urinary bladder cancer, as well as in bone and cartilage sarcoma. Cervical cancer had extremely high incidence and was high up on the incidence list in the Sarajevo canton, which correlates with the data in developing countries. The incidence of other tumours in the post-war period is reaching expected numbers. Conclusions. It is difficult to identify whether the war and post-war stress, irregular and insufficient nutrition during and after the siege of the city of Sarajevo or some other factor influenced the cancer incidence among exposed population. The prevalence of smoking in the whole region is extremely high, in Bosnia and

  7. Risk of occupational radiation-induced cataract in medical workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snezana, Milacic

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was determination of criteria for recognition of a pre senile cataract as a professional disease in health care personnel exposed to small doses of ionizing radiation. Method: The study included 3240 health workers in medical centers of Serbia in the period 1992-2002. A total of 1560 workers were employed in the zone (group A) and 1680 out of ionizing radiation zone (group B). Among group A, two groups had been selected: 1. Group A-1: Health workers in the ionizing radiation zone who contracted lens cataract during their years of service while dosimetry could not reveal higher absorbed dose (A-1=115); 2. Group A-2: Health workers in the ionizing radiation zone with higher incidence of chromosomal aberrations and without cataract (A-2=100). Results: More significant incidence of cataract was found in group A, χ 2 =65.92; p<0.01. Radiation risk was higher in health workers in radiation zone than in others, relative risk is 4, 6. Elevated blood sugar level was found in higher percentage with health workers working in radiation zone who developed cataract. Conclusion: Low doses of radiation are not the cause of occupational cataract as individual occupational disease. X-ray radiation may be a significant cofactor of cataract in radiological technicians. (author)

  8. Summary of the discussion, Conclusion of the meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crutzen, S.

    1997-01-01

    The discussion was organised in three major periods corresponding to the main themes developed by the programme of the meeting: the qualification approaches, the qualification experience accumulated so far, one particular frame or motivation of the ISI qualification: the risk based (or informed) ISI. The qualification approaches presented by national representatives raised few questions. More discussion was induced on the qualification concepts, responsibilities, need and writing of the technical justification, motivation for the open trials, similitude between concepts, benefit deriving from the qualification of inspection procedures and further motivation. the conclusion could be as the following: the evolution of qualification applications, even if issued from harmonised concepts, appears to be nationalistically based. It is a thought that emulation and harmonisation could actually produce both savings and improvements in this area. 'The wheel does not have to be re-invented in each country' and it is the declared objective of ENIQ. There seems to be a need for some international agreement in the setting of standards for qualification. One area which seems to continue to be of underlying concern is in the characterisation of defects. There seems to be a need for appropriate 'defected blocks' satisfying the criteria of representativeness, quality, low cost, reproducibility, etc. More specific cases of Technical Justification development are needed to serve as examples and incentive for the case of this element of inspection qualification

  9. Goiania incident case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petterson, J.S.

    1988-06-01

    The reasons for wanting to document this case study and present the findings are simple. According to USDOE technical risk assessments (and our own initial work on the Hanford socioeconomic study), the likelihood of a major accident involving exposure to radioactive materials in the process of site characterization, construction, operation, and closure of a high-level waste repository is extremely remote. Most would agree, however, that there is a relatively high probability that a minor accident involving radiological contamination will occur sometime during the lifetime of the repository -- for example, during transport, at an MRS site or at the permanent site itself during repacking and deposition. Thus, one of the major concerns of the Yucca Mountain Socioeconomic Study is the potential impact of a relatively minor radiation-related accident. A large number of potential impact of a relatively minor radiation-related accident. A large number of potential accident scenarios have been under consideration (such as a transportation or other surface accident which results in a significant decline in tourism, the number of conventions, or the selection of Nevada as a retirement residence). The results of the work in Goiania make it clear, however, that such a significant shift in established social patterns and trends is not likely to occur as a direct outcome of a single nuclear-related accident (even, perhaps, a relatively major one), but rather, are likely to occur as a result of the enduring social interpretations of such an accident -- that is, as a result of the process of understanding, communicating, and socially sustaining a particular set of associations with respect to the initial incident

  10. Cancers of the Brain and CNS: Global Patterns and Trends in Incidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortazavi, S M J; Mortazavi, S A R; Paknahad, M

    2018-03-01

    Miranda-Filho et al. in their recently published paper entitled "Cancers of the brain and CNS: global patterns and trends in incidence" provided a global status report of the geographic and temporal variations in the incidence of brain and CNS cancers in different countries across continents worldwide. While the authors confirm the role of genetic risk factors and ionizing radiation exposures, they claimed that no firm conclusion could be drawn about the role of exposure to non-ionizing radiation. The paper authored by Miranda-Filho et al. not only addresses a challenging issue, it can be considered as a good contribution in the field of brain and CNS cancers. However, our correspondence addresses a basic shortcoming of this paper about the role of electromagnetic fields and cancers and provides evidence showing that exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMFs), at least at high levels and long durations, can increases the risk of cancer.

  11. Plurihormonal cells of normal anterior pituitary: Facts and conclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrofanova, Lubov B.; Konovalov, Petr V.; Krylova, Julia S.; Polyakova, Victoria O.; Kvetnoy, Igor M.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction plurihormonality of pituitary adenomas is an ability of adenoma cells to produce more than one hormone. After the immunohistochemical analysis had become a routine part of the morphological study, a great number of adenomas appeared to be multihormonal in actual practice. We hypothesize that the same cells of a normal pituitary gland releases several hormones simultaneously. Objective To analyse a possible co-expression of hormones by the cells of the normal anterior pituitary of adult humans in autopsy material. Materials and methods We studied 10 pituitary glands of 4 women and 6 men with cardiovascular and oncological diseases. Double staining immunohistochemistry using 11 hormone combinations was performed in all the cases. These combinations were: prolactin/thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), prolactin/luteinizing hormone (LH), prolactin/follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), prolactin/adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), growth hormone (GH)/TSH, GH/LH, GH/FSH, GH/ACTH, TSH/LH, TSH/FSH, TSH/ACTH. Laser Confocal Scanning Microscopy with a mixture of primary antibodies was performed in 2 cases. These mixtures were ACTH/prolactin, FSH/prolactin, TSH/prolactin, ACTH/GH, and FSH/GH. Results We found that the same cells of the normal adenohypophysis can co-express prolactin with ACTH, TSH, FSH, LH; GH with ACTH, TSH, FSH, LH, and TSH with ACTH, FSH, LH. The comparison of the average co-expression coefficients of prolactin, GH and TSH with other hormones showed that the TSH co-expression coefficient was significantly the least (9,5±6,9%; 9,6±7,8%; 1,0±1,3% correspondingly). Conclusion Plurihormonality of normal adenohypophysis is an actually existing phenomenon. Identification of different hormones in pituitary adenomas enables to find new ways to improve both diagnostic process and targeted treatment. PMID:28418929

  12. Waste Handling Shaft concrete liner degradation conclusions and recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-10-01

    The primary function of the Waste Handling Shaft (WHS) at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is to permit the transfer of radioactive waste from the surface waste handling building to the underground storage area. It also serves as an intake shaft for small volumes of air during normal storage operations and as an emergency escape route. Part of the construction was the placement of a concrete liner and steel reinforced key in 1984. During a routine shaft inspection in May 1990, some degradation of the WHS concrete liner was observed between the depths of 800 and 900 feet below the ground surface. Detailed investigations of the liner had been carried out by Sandia National Laboratories and by Westinghouse Electric Corporation Waste Isolation Division (WID) through Lankard Materials Laboratory. Observations, reports, and data support the conclusion that the concrete degradation, resulting from attack by chemically aggressive brine, is a localized phenomena. It is the opinion of the WID that the degradation is not considered an immediate or near term concern; this is supported by technical experts. WID recommendations have been made which, when implemented, will ensure an extended liner life. Based on the current assessment of available data and the proposed shaft liner monitoring program described in this report, it is reasonable to assume that the operational life of the concrete shaft liner can safely support the 25-year life of the WIPP. Analysis of data indicates that degradation of the shaft's concrete liner is attributed to chemically aggressive brine seeping through construction joints and shrinkage cracks from behind the liner in and around the 834-foot depth. Chemical and mechanical components of concrete degradation have been identified. Chemical attack is comprised of several stages of concrete alteration. The other component, mechanical degradation, results from the expansive forces of crystals forming in the concrete pore space

  13. The Danish energy crop research and development project - main conclusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gylling, Morten

    2003-01-01

    Production of energy crops in Denmark is more or less non-existent in Denmark at the time being. However, the need for biomass on the other side of year 2005 exceeds the existing biomass resources and a substantial amount of energy crops will be necessary in order to fulfil the goals in Energy 21. The targeted share of the use of renewable energy sources by year 2030 is approximately 30%. Energy crops are seen as the most important new resource in order to create a balanced input mix of renewable in the energy system. The energy crops are mainly seen as fuel in small and medium sized CHP plants and in the big power plants. The Danish energy crop project consists of three main parts: a demonstration part, a research and development part, and an overall assessment part. Based on the results from the project the following overall conclusions can be made: Seen from a strictly market and production economic point of view energy crops will not be competitive in a foreseeable future, neither as a production for farmers nor as a fuel at the utility companies; The costs per GJ of energy crops are still higher than a GJ of straw; The cost difference between annual and perennial energy crops are slightly in favour of perennials, however the conditions on the individual farms should govern the choice between annual and perennial energy crops; Energy crops must be seen as part of an overall environmental scheme covering both agriculture and the energy sector; Given the right production scheme energy crops can be grown on environmental sensitive areas and on most ground water protection areas; Adding the potential sustainability benefits like reduced nutrient leakage and reduced CO 2 emissions energy crops seem to be a sensible and sustainable solution; Due to different handling, storage and fuel characteristics an all year delivery scheme of energy crops should include a mix of different energy crops to keep overall cost down. (BA)

  14. Radiation safety - an IAEA perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persson, L.

    1993-01-01

    The activities of the IAEA relating to radiation safety cover: The preparation of International Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources - it is expected that the new Basic Safety Standards will be adopted by the sponsoring organizations in 1994. The radiological consequences of the Chernobyl accident: the thyroid cancer controversy - the hypothesis that must be tested is whether the reported increased incidence of thyroid cancer due to exposure to radioactive iodine released in the Chernobyl accident, and there are several questions that must be answered before a firm conclusion can be reached. Emergency Response Services (ERS): In March 1993, at the request of Viet Nam, which invoked the Energency Assistance Convention, a medical team organized by the IAEA went to Hanoi and assisted in arranging for an overexposed person to be transferred from Viet Nam to Paris for specialized medical treatment. In April 1993, the ERS was used to inform Member States of the consequences of an explosion at the Tomsk 7 fuel reprocessing plant in Siberia, Russia, which caused a radiation leak. Reassessing the long range transport of radioactive material through the environment: Data from the Chernobyl accident have been used for model validation in the Atmospheric Transport Model Evaluation Study (ATMES). A follow-up programme, the European Tracer Experiment (ETEX) with experimental studies of long range atmospheric movements over Europe has been established in order to increase knowledge and prediction capability. As part of the programme, a non-toxic atmospheric tracer will be released under suitable conditions in 1994. The Radiation Protection Advisory Teams Service (RAPAT): In many of the developing countries visited, the lack of an adequate infrastructure for radiation protection is the main obstacle to improved radiation protection. Strengthening radiation and nuclear safety infrastructures in successor states of the USSR: The

  15. Implementation of severe accident management measures - Summary and conclusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    implemented in various ways in many plants, but not yet in all plants. A systematic approach, which is based upon a clearly defined decision-making process, is one of the features implemented in many cases. Available means are determined and priorities are set. This approach is made up of strategies intended to become an optimum approach to prevent or mitigate the consequences of beyond-design basis accidents. It is based upon a prepared information package about plant-specific behaviour to be expected in beyond design scenarios. The approaches followed in the different countries do not fit one single pattern. Harmonization, to the extent it is desirable, does not seem feasible at this stage. As a rule, the responsibility of the plant owner for the safety of his plant remains untouched. Also, safety goals may vary between countries. This report presents the general conclusion and recommendations of the workshop and the summaries of the sessions

  16. CSNI/NEA Rasplav seminar 2000. Summary and conclusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    various boundary conditions were investigated. The work involved a combination of integral and separate effect tests including molten-salt tests to investigate non-eutectic mixtures and the effects of stratification, extension of the material property database to allow interpretation and modelling of the experimental data. The CSNI decided to hold a seminar where the major outcome of the RASPLAV Project could be presented and discussed also in the context of other experienced activities on Severe Accidents. The objectives of the seminar are: - to review the experimental results of the RASPLAV Project; - to exchange information on complementary research; - to discuss the progress made on understanding severe accident progression; - to discuss the applicability to nuclear power plants and use of the results. The Seminar was intended to provide an in-depth review of the RASPLAV Project in terms of the technical capabilities, results and analyses produced during the project execution. The application of the results and their significance for power plant applications were addressed. Relevant results of the complementary research carried out at various laboratories were also presented. The seminar consisted of five sessions organised as follows: - Opening and overview; - Experimental results; - Theoretical Analyses; - Application and complementary research; - Conclusion

  17. CSNI/NEA Rasplav seminar 2000. Summary and conclusions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-01-15

    various boundary conditions were investigated. The work involved a combination of integral and separate effect tests including molten-salt tests to investigate non-eutectic mixtures and the effects of stratification, extension of the material property database to allow interpretation and modelling of the experimental data. The CSNI decided to hold a seminar where the major outcome of the RASPLAV Project could be presented and discussed also in the context of other experienced activities on Severe Accidents. The objectives of the seminar are: - to review the experimental results of the RASPLAV Project; - to exchange information on complementary research; - to discuss the progress made on understanding severe accident progression; - to discuss the applicability to nuclear power plants and use of the results. The Seminar was intended to provide an in-depth review of the RASPLAV Project in terms of the technical capabilities, results and analyses produced during the project execution. The application of the results and their significance for power plant applications were addressed. Relevant results of the complementary research carried out at various laboratories were also presented. The seminar consisted of five sessions organised as follows: - Opening and overview; - Experimental results; - Theoretical Analyses; - Application and complementary research; - Conclusion.

  18. Survey of malignant tumor incidence and mortality characteristics among the residents in Fuqing from 2007 to 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Tiehui; Peng Xian'e; Hu Zhijian; Xue Feng; Zeng Zhichang; Zhang Xiuxia; Shi Xishun; Xue Changgao; Sun Quanfu; Zhou Tianshu

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate distribution characteristics of malignant tumor incidence and mortality among the local residents before the operation of Fuqing nuclear power plant, in Fujian province. Methods: A retrospective survey of malignant tumor incidence and mortality in Fuqing residents from 2007 to 2009 was carried out. The incidence and mortality distribution characteristics of total malignant tumors and main malignant tumors associated with nuclear radiation was analyzed. Results: The annual malignant tumors incidence and mortality rates were 148.65/10"5 and 114.96/10"5, respectively. Liver cancer, stomach cancer, lung cancer, esophagus cancer and colorectal cancer ranked the top five. Leukemia incidence and mortality rates were 3.77/10"5 and 2.61/10"5, respectively. Thyroid cancer incidence and mortality rates were 6.95/10"5 and 0.46/10"5, respectively. Conclusions: Esophageal carcinoma and lung cancer are the main malignant tumors in Fuqing city before the operation of the nuclear power plant. Leukemia incidence and mortality rates are both lower in Fuqing city than the national average level, but thyroid cancer incidence and mortality rates are both higher than the national average level. Surveillance of malignant tumors and death causes should proceeding continuously in Fuqing city, in order to evaluate the operation of nuclear power plant on local population health. (authors)

  19. The Alaska earthquake, March 27, 1964: lessons and conclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckel, Edwin B.

    1970-01-01

    local waves. Better earthquake-hazard maps, based on improved knowledge of regional geology, fault behavior, and earthquake mechanisms, are needed for the entire country. Their preparation will require the close collaboration of engineers, seismologists, and geologists. Geologic maps of all inhabited places in earthquake-prone parts of the country are also needed by city planners and others, because the direct relationship between local geology and potential earthquake damage is now well understood. Improved and enlarged nets of earthquake-sensing instruments, sited in relation to known geology, are needed, as are many more geodetic and hydrographic measurements. Every large earthquake, wherever located, should be regarded as a full-scale laboratory experiment whose study can give scientific and engineering information unobtainable from any other source. Plans must be made before the event to insure staffing, funding, and coordination of effort for the scientific and engineering study of future earthquakes. Advice of earth scientists and engineers should be used in the decision-making processes involved in reconstruction after any future disastrous earthquake, as was done after the Alaska earthquake. The volume closes with a selected bibliography and a comprehensive index to the entire series of U.S. Geological Survey Professional Papers 541-546. This is the last in a series of six reports that the U.S. Geological Survey published on the results of a comprehensive geologic study that began, as a reconnaissance survey, within 24 hours after the March 27, 1964, Magnitude 9.2 Great Alaska Earthquake and extended, as detailed investigations, through several field seasons. The 1964 Great Alaska earthquake was the largest earthquake in the U.S. since 1700. Professional Paper 546, in 1 part, describes Lessons and Conclusions.

  20. Radiation epidemiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabrikant, J.I.; Lyman, J.T.; Alpen, E.L.

    1983-01-01

    The effect of latency periods on cancer risk estimation is under study in our laboratory. Insofar as cancer incidences and radiation doses are concerned, effort is made to ascertain these with the greatest reliability, although problems arise, particularly in attempts to reconstruct the events of exposure many years prevously. The matter of the long latent periods begs the important issue of how to project into the future the risk of cancer induced in individuals exposed at the present time, or depriving a projection model appropriate for predicting how induced cancers will express themselves in time following exposure. Two risk-projection models which are generally used by radiation epidemiologists are discussed

  1. Incident Information Management Tool

    CERN Document Server

    Pejovic, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    Flaws of\tcurrent incident information management at CMS and CERN\tare discussed. A new data\tmodel for future incident database is\tproposed and briefly described. Recently developed draft version of GIS-­‐based tool for incident tracking is presented.

  2. Evaluation of radiation protection educational level of professional exposed workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marinkovic, O.; Krstev, S.; Jovanovic, S.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: Serbia and Montenegro legislation concerning with radiation protection was upgrading after publication ICRP- 60 and B.S.S., No.115. Present Law on the Protection against Ionizing Radiation is in force from 1996. Among quite new issues in radiation protection regulations there was article relate to obligatory refresher training. Due to adverse political and economic situation through many years radiation protection regulations were not fulfill completely. The aim of this investigation was to get real view to education level of professional exposed workers. In Serbia and Montenegro the most of ionizing radiation sources are in medical use and the most exposed workers are radiographers and radiologists. The test was passed by 200 radiographers and 50 radiologists. Main groups of questions were: Radiation protection and safety; difference between safety and security; legislation: law and regulations; incidents, accidents and operational failures: recording, learning. Usually, knowledge from school pales. New quantities (as ambient and personal dose equivalent) are mostly unknown. It is easier to understand the real difference between safety and security than to understand linguistic differences. Discussing regulations workers are more interesting in syndicate regulations than radiation protection ones. Operational failures and incidents are hidden. Better to say: nobody dare to speak about them. The results imposed conclusion that regulatory body has to pay more attention to upraise safety culture and radiation protection education level of professional exposed workers. (authors)

  3. Lung cancer incidence and risk factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bairakova, A.

    1993-01-01

    The possibility of developing lung cancer (lc) as a consequence of inhaling hot particles from the Chernobyl accident is discussed. The risk from various factors is reviewed in order to assess the rate of contribution for any of them to carcinogenic process. The conclusions are based on data reported by National Centre of Oncology, Sofia (BG). A total of 2873 new cases have been recorded in 1990. The data for the period 1970-1990 show a crude increase for males and tend to stabilization for females. The similar pattern is obtained in other countries and geographic areas with steady rise of lc cases with about 0.5% per year. The contribution of particular risk factor and its interaction with other factors is assessed on the basis of large number of epidemiologic and experimental studies. The risk of cigarette smoking, as the principal cause for lc, is discussed in various aspects - age, duration, possible dropping the habit. The assessment of another risk factor - exposure to relatively high doses of natural radon daughter products - is more complicated. As an occupational hazard in uranium mines radon and its progeny reveals an increase in excess lc incidence. Regarding radon and its daughters as an environmental risk factor in dwellings, no clear positive relationship between exposure and lc incidence has been observed. In this case the assessment for population living in areas with higher concentration of radon products have to rely on data from uranium mines. Non radiation factors as asbestos, ethers, chromates, metallic iron, nickel, beryllium and arsenic, are also considered. The combined effect of all these factors, as well as of pathological cell processes, viruses, malfunctions of immune system, is mentioned as well. The possibility of interpreting the findings from epidemiological studies within the framework of theoretical multistage models of carcinogenic process is pointed out. (author)

  4. KiKK: An endless story or the long way to come to a conclusion?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michel, Rolf; Mueller, Wolfgang-Ulrich

    2009-01-01

    More than one year after the publication of the KiKK-Study (Epidemiological Study on Childhood Cancer in the Vicinity of Nuclear Power Plants), which reported a statistical correlation between the proximity of a person's residence to the nearest nuclear power plant, at the time of diagnosis, and the person's risk of contracting cancer (or leukaemia) prior to his or her fifth birthday, the SSK presented its assessment and the related scientific explanatory statement to the public on the occasion of an expert discussion in Bonn on February 26, 2009, This article describes the background of the SSK deliberations and gives a survey of its essential results and conclusions. In total, the results are unsatisfactory, since the SSK was not able to explain the findings of the KiKK-Study. However, this was not unexpected considering the international state of knowledge regarding the development of childhood cancer. Considering the fact, that the radiation exposure of members of the public, originating from the nuclear power plants even at the locations of the potentially highest exposures, is by orders of magnitude lower than the natural radiation exposures, the SSK was able to exclude the radiation from the nuclear power plants as cause of the observed increased relative risks. Any more far-reaching explanation attempts would be mere speculation. It is still a long way to know how childhood cancer develops and how the results of the KiKK-Study or other small-scale enhancements of the cancer risk can be explained. (orig.)

  5. Health effects in residents of regions with high background radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanson, G.P.

    1984-01-01

    Possible health problems created by high natural levels of background radiation are hard to detect, partly because the health problems involved would exist to some degree irrespective of radiation exposure, partly because other factors affect the incidence of such problems, and partly because the differences between normal background radiation levels and radiation levels found in most high-radiation areas are not extreme. Nevertheless, the need to know about such health effects is evident, and so various studies conducted over the past 30 years have sought to determine whether those effects exist and what they are. Overall, however, the fragmentary and uncertain nature of many of these findings makes it hard to draw firm conclusions about the health risks involved or the desirability of countermeasures. So despite considerable efforts and some progress over the past three decades, the need for a clear quantitative assessment of the consequences is as great as ever

  6. Committee on Medical Aspects of Radiation in the Environment (COMARE) 4. report. The incidence of cancer and leukaemia in young people in the vicinity of the Sellafield site, West Cumbria: Further studies and an update of the situation since the publication of the report of the Black Advisory Group in 1984

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bridges, B.A.

    1996-12-31

    The Fourth Report of the Committee on Medical Aspects of Radiation in the Environment (COMARE) updates the information on the incidence of cancer and leukaemia in young people in the vicinity of the Sellafield site since the publication of the Black Advisory Group report in 1984. Data are reviewed on radiation exposure and the risk of radiation-induced leukaemia and cancer in young people living in Seascale; possible effects of paternal preconception irradiation in cancer; exposure to chemicals used at and discharged from the Sellafield site and the risk to the general population and offspring of site workers; and the infectious aetiology of childhood cancer. The history of the Royal Ordnance Factories sited at Sellafield and Drigg in the 1940s and a historical review of childhood cancer in Seascale is also given. (UK).

  7. Committee on Medical Aspects of Radiation in the Environment (COMARE) 4. report. The incidence of cancer and leukaemia in young people in the vicinity of the Sellafield site, West Cumbria: Further studies and an update of the situation since the publication of the report of the Black Advisory Group in 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bridges, B.A.

    1996-01-01

    The Fourth Report of the Committee on Medical Aspects of Radiation in the Environment (COMARE) updates the information on the incidence of cancer and leukaemia in young people in the vicinity of the Sellafield site since the publication of the Black Advisory Group report in 1984. Data are reviewed on radiation exposure and the risk of radiation-induced leukaemia and cancer in young people living in Seascale; possible effects of paternal preconception irradiation in cancer; exposure to chemicals used at and discharged from the Sellafield site and the risk to the general population and offspring of site workers; and the infectious aetiology of childhood cancer. The history of the Royal Ordnance Factories sited at Sellafield and Drigg in the 1940s and a historical review of childhood cancer in Seascale is also given. (UK)

  8. 5. Conclusion

    OpenAIRE

    Beerli, Monique Jo

    2013-01-01

    Attracted by conflict and war, starvation and disease, natural disasters and underdevelopment, discrimination and injustice, solidarity organizations and their supporters engage themselves in struggles for the acquisition of benefits that they themselves will not receive. In the absence of political solutions addressing the demands of a given people, non-state actors are capable of appropriating functions and responsibilities upon themselves which the state is unwilling or unable to perform. ...

  9. Conclusion conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tubiana, M.

    1997-01-01

    Radioactive isotopes are the basis of spectacular advancements in biology, but also in medicine, not only indirectly with progress in disease and human body understanding, but also directly through nuclear medicine and radiotherapy. The important role of the Cea in the development of French radiotherapy, dosimetry and radioactive isotopes (especially cobalt) is reviewed

  10. Radiofrequency radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elder, J.A.; Czerski, P.A.; Stuchly, M.A.; Mild, K.H.; Sheppard, A.R.

    1989-01-01

    High-level radiofrequency radiation is a source of thermal energy that carries all of the known implications of heating for biological systems, including burns, temporary and permanent changes in reproduction, cataracts, and death. In general, no changes in chromosomes, DNA or the reproductive potential of animals exposed to RF radiation have been reported in the absence of significant rises in temperature, though there are limited data on DNA and chromosomal changes at non-thermal levels. Human data are currently limited and do not provide adequate information about the relationship between prolonged low-level RF radiation exposure and increased mortality or morbidity, including cancer incidence. In epidemiological studies and clinical reports of RF effects in man, the problems of quantification are numerous and include uncertainties about ''dose'', health effects, latent periods, dose-response relationships, and interactions with other physical or chemical agents. 228 refs, 6 figs, 2 tabs

  11. Ionizing radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    After having recalled some fundamental notions and measurement units related to ionizing radiations, this document describes various aspects of natural and occupational exposures: exposure modes and sources, exposure levels, biological effects, health impacts. Then, it presents prevention principles aimed at, in an occupational context of use of radiation sources (nuclear industry excluded), reducing and managing these exposures: risk assessment, implementation of safety from the front end. Some practical cases illustrate the radiation protection approach. The legal and regulatory framework is presented: general notions, worker exposure, measures specific to some worker categories (pregnant and breast feeding women, young workers, temporary workers). A last part describes what is to be done in case of incident or accident (dissemination of radioactive substances from unsealed sources, anomaly occurring when using a generator or a sealed source, post-accident situation)

  12. Nuclear radiation in warfare

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rotblat, J.

    1986-01-01

    The subject is covered in chapters, entitled: introduction; digest of nuclear weaponry (characteristics of nuclear weapons; effects of nuclear weapons other than ionizing radiation (fire-ball, fall-out, thermal radiation, blast wave, electromagnetic pulse); the nuclear arms race; war scenarios; biological effects of radiations on man (radiation doses; natural sources of radiation; acute effects of radiation; long-term somatic effects; genetic effects; factors affecting the biological response to radiation; internal exposure; synergistic effects; protection against radiation effects); radiations from nuclear explosions (initial radiation; fall-out; effects of fall-out on animal and plant life; contamination of water and food supplies by fall-out); radiation casualties in a nuclear war; effectiveness of civil defence; other warlike uses of radiation (attacks on civilian nuclear power installations; radiological warfare; terrorist activities); conclusion. (orig./HP) [de

  13. Nuclear radiation in warfare

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rotblat, J.

    1981-01-01

    The subject is covered in chapters, entitled: introduction; digest of nuclear weaponry (characteristics of nuclear weapons; effects of nuclear weapons other than ionizing radiation (fire-ball, fall-out, thermal radiation, blast wave, electromagnetic pulse); the nuclear arms race; war scenarios); biological effects of radiations on man (radiation doses; natural sources of radiation; acute effects of radiation; long-term somatic effects; genetic effects; factors affecting the biological response to radiation; internal exposure; synergistic effects; protection against radiation effects); radiations from nuclear explosions (initial radiation; fall-out; effects of fall-out on animal and plant life; contamination of water and food supplies by fall-out); radiation casualties in a nuclear war; effectiveness of civil defence; other warlike uses of radiation (attacks on civilian nuclear power installations; radiological warfare; terrorist activities); conclusion. (U.K.)

  14. Hazards of radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solomon, S.B.

    1982-01-01

    Radiation induced carcinogenesis and mutagenesis form the main risks to health from exposure to low levels of radiation. There is scant data on somatic and genetic risks at environmental and occupational levels of radiation exposure. The available data on radiation induced carcinogenesis and mutagenesis are for high doses and high dose rates of radiation. Risk assessments for low level radiation are obtained using these data, assuming a linear dose-response relationship. During uranium mining the chief source of radiation hazard is inhalation of radon daughters. The correlation between radon daughter exposure and the increased incidence of lung cancer has been well documented. For radiation exposures at and below occupational limits, the associated risk of radiation induced cancers and genetic abnormalities is small and should not lead to a detectable increase over naturally occurring rates

  15. Radiation injuries/ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gooden, D.S.

    1991-01-01

    This book was written to aid trial attorneys involved in radiation litigation. Radiologists and medical physicists will also find it helpful as they prepare for trial, either as a litigant or an expert witness. Two chapters present checklists to guide attorneys for both plaintiffs and defendants. Gooden titles these checklists Elements of Damages and Elements of Proof and leads the reader to conclusions about each of these. One section that will be particularly helpful to attorneys contains sample interrogatories associated with a case of alleged radiation exposure resulting in a late radiation injury. There are interrogatories for the plaintiff to ask the defendant and for the defendant to ask the plaintiff

  16. Indoor ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ericson, S.O.; Lindvall, T.; Maansson, L-G.

    1986-01-01

    Radiation in indoor air is discussed in the perspective of the effective dose equivalents from other sources of radiation. Estimates of effective doses equivalents from indoor radon and its contribution to lung cancer incidence are reviewed. Swedish experiences with cost effective remedial actions are presented. The authors present optimal strategies for screening measurements and remedial actions in cost-benefit perspective. (author.)

  17. SU-E-T-511: Inter-Rater Variability in Classification of Incidents in a New Incident Reporting System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pappas, D; Reis, S; Ali, A; Kapur, A

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To determine how consistent the results of different raters are when reviewing the same cases within the Radiation Oncology Incident Learning System (ROILS). Methods Three second-year medical physics graduate students filled out incident reports in spreadsheets set up to mimic ROILS. All students studied the same 33 cases and independently entered their assessments, for a total of 99 reviewed cases. The narratives for these cases were obtained from a published International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) report which included shorter narratives selected from the Radiation Oncology Safety Information System (ROSIS) database. Each category of questions was reviewed to see how consistent the results were by utilizing free-marginal multirater kappa analysis. The percentage of cases where all raters shared full agreement or full disagreement was recorded to show which questions were answered consistently by multiple raters for a given case. The consistency among the raters was analyzed between ICRP and ROSIS cases to see if either group led to more reliable results. Results The categories where all raters agreed 100 percent in their choices were the event type (93.94 percent of cases 0.946 kappa) and the likelihood of the event being harmful to the patient (42.42 percent of cases 0.409 kappa). The categories where all raters disagreed 100 percent in their choices were the dosimetric severity scale (39.39 percent of cases 0.139 kappa) and the potential future toxicity (48.48 percent of cases 0.205 kappa). ROSIS had more cases where all raters disagreed than ICRP (23.06 percent of cases compared to 15.58 percent, respectively). Conclusion Despite reviewing the same cases, the results among the three raters was widespread. ROSIS narratives were shorter than ICRP, which suggests that longer narratives lead to more consistent results. This study shows that the incident reporting system can be optimized to yield more consistent results

  18. SU-E-T-511: Inter-Rater Variability in Classification of Incidents in a New Incident Reporting System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pappas, D; Reis, S; Ali, A [Hofstra University, Hempstead, NY (United States); Kapur, A [Long Island Jewish Medical Center, New Hyde Park, NY (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose To determine how consistent the results of different raters are when reviewing the same cases within the Radiation Oncology Incident Learning System (ROILS). Methods Three second-year medical physics graduate students filled out incident reports in spreadsheets set up to mimic ROILS. All students studied the same 33 cases and independently entered their assessments, for a total of 99 reviewed cases. The narratives for these cases were obtained from a published International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) report which included shorter narratives selected from the Radiation Oncology Safety Information System (ROSIS) database. Each category of questions was reviewed to see how consistent the results were by utilizing free-marginal multirater kappa analysis. The percentage of cases where all raters shared full agreement or full disagreement was recorded to show which questions were answered consistently by multiple raters for a given case. The consistency among the raters was analyzed between ICRP and ROSIS cases to see if either group led to more reliable results. Results The categories where all raters agreed 100 percent in their choices were the event type (93.94 percent of cases 0.946 kappa) and the likelihood of the event being harmful to the patient (42.42 percent of cases 0.409 kappa). The categories where all raters disagreed 100 percent in their choices were the dosimetric severity scale (39.39 percent of cases 0.139 kappa) and the potential future toxicity (48.48 percent of cases 0.205 kappa). ROSIS had more cases where all raters disagreed than ICRP (23.06 percent of cases compared to 15.58 percent, respectively). Conclusion Despite reviewing the same cases, the results among the three raters was widespread. ROSIS narratives were shorter than ICRP, which suggests that longer narratives lead to more consistent results. This study shows that the incident reporting system can be optimized to yield more consistent results.

  19. WE-G-BRA-01: Patient Safety and Treatment Quality Improvement Through Incident Learning: Experience of a Non-Academic Proton Therapy Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Y; Johnson, R; Zhao, L; Ramirez, E; Rana, S; Singh, H; Chacko, M [Procure Proton Therapy Center, Oklahoma City, OK (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Incident learning has been proven to improve patient safety and treatment quality in conventional radiation therapy. However, its application in proton therapy has not been reported yet to our knowledge. In this study, we report our experience in developing and implementation of an in-house incident learning system. Methods: An incident learning system was developed based on published principles and tailored for our clinical practice and available resource about 18 months ago. The system includes four layers of error detection and report: 1) dosimetry peer review; 2) physicist plan quality assurance (QA); 3) treatment delivery issue on call and record; and 4) other incident report. The first two layers of QA and report were mandatory for each treatment plan through easy-to-use spreadsheets that are only accessible by the dosimetry and physicist departments. The treatment delivery issues were recorded case by case by the on call physicist. All other incidents were reported through an online incident report system, which can be anonymous. The incident report includes near misses on planning and delivery, process deviation, machine issues, work flow and documentation. Periodic incident reviews were performed. Results: In total, about 116 errors were reported through dosimetry review, 137 errors through plan QA, 83 treatment issues through physics on call record, and 30 through the online incident report. Only 8 incidents (2.2%) were considered to have a clinical impact to patients, and the rest of errors were either detected before reaching patients or had negligible dosimetric impact (<5% dose variance). Personnel training & process improvements were implemented upon periodic incident review. Conclusion: An incident learning system can be helpful in personnel training, error reduction, and patient safety and treatment quality improvement. The system needs to be catered for each clinic’s practice and available resources. Incident and knowledge sharing among

  20. WE-G-BRA-01: Patient Safety and Treatment Quality Improvement Through Incident Learning: Experience of a Non-Academic Proton Therapy Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Y; Johnson, R; Zhao, L; Ramirez, E; Rana, S; Singh, H; Chacko, M

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Incident learning has been proven to improve patient safety and treatment quality in conventional radiation therapy. However, its application in proton therapy has not been reported yet to our knowledge. In this study, we report our experience in developing and implementation of an in-house incident learning system. Methods: An incident learning system was developed based on published principles and tailored for our clinical practice and available resource about 18 months ago. The system includes four layers of error detection and report: 1) dosimetry peer review; 2) physicist plan quality assurance (QA); 3) treatment delivery issue on call and record; and 4) other incident report. The first two layers of QA and report were mandatory for each treatment plan through easy-to-use spreadsheets that are only accessible by the dosimetry and physicist departments. The treatment delivery issues were recorded case by case by the on call physicist. All other incidents were reported through an online incident report system, which can be anonymous. The incident report includes near misses on planning and delivery, process deviation, machine issues, work flow and documentation. Periodic incident reviews were performed. Results: In total, about 116 errors were reported through dosimetry review, 137 errors through plan QA, 83 treatment issues through physics on call record, and 30 through the online incident report. Only 8 incidents (2.2%) were considered to have a clinical impact to patients, and the rest of errors were either detected before reaching patients or had negligible dosimetric impact (<5% dose variance). Personnel training & process improvements were implemented upon periodic incident review. Conclusion: An incident learning system can be helpful in personnel training, error reduction, and patient safety and treatment quality improvement. The system needs to be catered for each clinic’s practice and available resources. Incident and knowledge sharing among

  1. Psychological Trauma in the Workplace: Variation of Incident Severity among Industry Settings and between Recurring vs Isolated Incidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GS DeFraia

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Psychologically traumatic workplace events (known as critical incidents occur within various work environments, with workgroups in certain industries vulnerable to multiple incidents. With the increasing prevalence of incidents in the USA, incident response is a growing practice area within occupational medicine, industrial psychology, occupational social work and other occupational health professions. Objective: To analyze a measure of incident severity based on level of disruption to the workplace and explore whether incident severity varied among different industry settings or between workgroups experiencing multiple vs single traumatic incidents. Methods: Administrative data mining was employed to examine practice data from a workplace trauma response unit in the USA. Bivariate analyses were conducted to test whether scores from an instrument measuring incident severity level varied among industry settings or between workgroups impacted by multiple vs isolated events. Results: Incident severity level differed among various industry settings. Banks, retail stores and fast food restaurants accounted for the most severe incidents, while industrial and manufacturing sites reported less severe incidents. Workgroups experiencing multiple incidents reported more severe incidents than workgroups experiencing a single incident. Conclusion: Occupational health practitioners should be alert to industry differences in several areas: pre-incident resiliency training, the content of business recovery plans, assessing worker characteristics, strategies to assist continuous operations and assisting workgroups impacted by multiple or severe incidents.

  2. Social Relations at Work and Incident Dementia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ishtiak-Ahmed, Kazi; Hansen, Åse Marie; Garde, Anne Helene

    2018-01-01

    Objective: We investigated whether social relations at work were associated with incident dementia in old age. Methods: One thousand five hundred seventy-two occupationally active men from the Copenhagen Male Study Cohort were followed from 1986 to 2014. Participants underwent a clinical examinat......Objective: We investigated whether social relations at work were associated with incident dementia in old age. Methods: One thousand five hundred seventy-two occupationally active men from the Copenhagen Male Study Cohort were followed from 1986 to 2014. Participants underwent a clinical....... Conclusions: Our data partially support that social relations at work are associated with incident dementia....

  3. Incidence of Incisional Hernia after Cesarean Delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aabakke, Anna J M; Krebs, Lone; Ladelund, Steen

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate the incidence of incisional hernias requiring surgical repair after cesarean delivery over a 10-year period. METHODS: This population- and register-based cohort study identified all women in Denmark with no history of previous abdominal surgery who had a cesarean delivery...... the inclusion period. The cumulated incidence of a hernia repair within 10 years after a cesarean delivery was 0.197% (95% CI 0.164-0.234%). The risk of a hernia repair was higher during the first 3 years after a cesarean delivery, with an incidence after 3 years of 0.157% (95% CI 0.127-0.187%). CONCLUSIONS...

  4. Cancer incidence in blood transfusion recipients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjalgrim, Henrik; Edgren, Gustaf; Rostgaard, Klaus

    2007-01-01

    of the observed to the expected numbers of cancers, that is, standardized incidence ratios (SIRs), using incidence rates for the general Danish and Swedish populations as a reference. All statistical tests were two-sided. RESULTS: During 5,652,918 person-years of follow-up, 80,990 cancers occurred......, the standardized incidence ratios for cancers of the tongue, mouth, pharynx, esophagus, liver, and respiratory and urinary tracts and for squamous cell skin carcinoma remained elevated beyond 10 years after the transfusion. CONCLUSIONS: The marked increase in cancer risk shortly after a blood transfusion may...

  5. Incidence of HACEK bacteraemia in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lützen, Lisbeth; Olesen, Bente; Voldstedlund, Marianne

    2018-01-01

    to an annual incidence of 0.44 per 100,000 population. The annual incidence for males and females was 0.56 and 0.31 per 100,000, respectively. The median age was 56 years (range 0-97 years) with variation among genera. One hundred and forty-three isolates were identified to the species level and six...... to the genus level: Haemophilus spp. n=55, Aggregatibacter spp. n=37, Cardiobacterium spp. n=9, Eikenella corrodens n=21, and Kingella spp. n=27. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study of incidence of HACEK bacteraemia in a large surveillance population and may inspire further studies of the HACEK group...

  6. Foam radiators for transition radiation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chernyatin, V.; Dolgoshein, B.; Gavrilenko, I.; Potekhin, M.; Romaniouk, A.; Sosnovtsev, V.

    1993-01-01

    A wide variety of foam radiators, potentially useful in the design of a transition radiation detector, the possible particle identification tool in collider experiments, have been tested in the beam. Various characteristics of these radiators are compared, and the conclusion is reached that certain brands of polyethylene foam are best suited for use in the detector. Comparison is made with a 'traditional' radiator, which is a periodic structure of plastic foils. (orig.)

  7. Breast Cancer After Chest Radiation Therapy for Childhood Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskowitz, Chaya S.; Chou, Joanne F.; Wolden, Suzanne L.; Bernstein, Jonine L.; Malhotra, Jyoti; Friedman, Danielle Novetsky; Mubdi, Nidha Z.; Leisenring, Wendy M.; Stovall, Marilyn; Hammond, Sue; Smith, Susan A.; Henderson, Tara O.; Boice, John D.; Hudson, Melissa M.; Diller, Lisa R.; Bhatia, Smita; Kenney, Lisa B.; Neglia, Joseph P.; Begg, Colin B.; Robison, Leslie L.; Oeffinger, Kevin C.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The risk of breast cancer is high in women treated for a childhood cancer with chest irradiation. We sought to examine variations in risk resulting from irradiation field and radiation dose. Patients and Methods We evaluated cumulative breast cancer risk in 1,230 female childhood cancer survivors treated with chest irradiation who were participants in the CCSS (Childhood Cancer Survivor Study). Results Childhood cancer survivors treated with lower delivered doses of radiation (median, 14 Gy; range, 2 to 20 Gy) to a large volume (whole-lung field) had a high risk of breast cancer (standardized incidence ratio [SIR], 43.6; 95% CI, 27.2 to 70.3), as did survivors treated with high doses of delivered radiation (median, 40 Gy) to the mantle field (SIR, 24.2; 95% CI, 20.7 to 28.3). The cumulative incidence of breast cancer by age 50 years was 30% (95% CI, 25 to 34), with a 35% incidence among Hodgkin lymphoma survivors (95% CI, 29 to 40). Breast cancer–specific mortality at 5 and 10 years was 12% (95% CI, 8 to 18) and 19% (95% CI, 13 to 25), respectively. Conclusion Among women treated for childhood cancer with chest radiation therapy, those treated with whole-lung irradiation have a greater risk of breast cancer than previously recognized, demonstrating the importance of radiation volume. Importantly, mortality associated with breast cancer after childhood cancer is substantial. PMID:24752044

  8. Non-thyroid cancer incidence in Belarusian residents exposed to Chernobyl fallout in childhood and adolescence: Standardized Incidence Ratio analysis, 1997–2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostroumova, Evgenia; Hatch, Maureen; Brenner, Alina; Nadyrov, Eldar; Veyalkin, Ilya; Polyanskaya, Olga; Yauseyenka, Vasilina; Polyakov, Semion; Levin, Leonid; Zablotska, Lydia; Rozhko, Alexander; Mabuchi, Kiyohiko

    2016-01-01

    Background While an increased risk of thyroid cancer from post-Chernobyl exposure to Iodine-131 (I-131) in children and adolescents has been well-documented, risks of other cancers or leukemia as a result of residence in radioactively contaminated areas remain uncertain. Methods We studied non-thyroid cancer incidence in a cohort of about 12,000 individuals from Belarus exposed under age of 18 years to Chernobyl fallout (median age at the time of Chernobyl accident of 7.9 years). During 15 years of follow-up from1997 through 2011, 54 incident cancers excluding thyroid were identified in the study cohort with 142,968 person-years at risk. We performed Standardized Incidence Ratio (SIR) analysis of all solid cancers excluding thyroid (n=42), of leukemia (n=6) and of lymphoma (n=6). Results We found no significant increase in the incidence of non-thyroid solid cancer (SIR=0.83, 95% Confidence Interval [CI]: 0.61; 1.11), lymphoma (SIR=0.66, 95% CI: 0.26; 1.33) or leukemia (SIR=1.78, 95% CI: 0.71; 3.61) in the study cohort as compared with the sex-, age- and calendar-time-specific national rates. These findings may in part reflect the relatively young age of study subjects (median attained age of 33.4years), and long latency for some radiation-related solid cancers. Conclusions We found no evidence of statistically significant increases in solid cancer, lymphoma and leukemia incidence 25 years after childhood exposure in the study cohort; however, it is important to continue follow-up non-thyroid cancers in individuals exposed to low-level radiation at radiosensitive ages. PMID:26851723

  9. Advance in radiation hygiene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klener, V.

    1975-01-01

    The development is reviewed of radiation hygiene in Czechoslovakia during the past twenty years since the formation of the branch as an independent discipline. The responsibilities of individual radiation hygiene research institutes in the country are indicated and the main tasks that have been solved so far are briefly outlined, including the research into the incidence of pulmonary cancer in uranium miners in which Czechoslovak radiation hygiene ranks first in the world. (L.O.)

  10. A quantification of the effectiveness of EPID dosimetry and software-based plan verification systems in detecting incidents in radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bojechko, Casey; Phillps, Mark; Kalet, Alan; Ford, Eric C., E-mail: eford@uw.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Washington, 1959 N. E. Pacific Street, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States)

    2015-09-15

    Purpose: Complex treatments in radiation therapy require robust verification in order to prevent errors that can adversely affect the patient. For this purpose, the authors estimate the effectiveness of detecting errors with a “defense in depth” system composed of electronic portal imaging device (EPID) based dosimetry and a software-based system composed of rules-based and Bayesian network verifications. Methods: The authors analyzed incidents with a high potential severity score, scored as a 3 or 4 on a 4 point scale, recorded in an in-house voluntary incident reporting system, collected from February 2012 to August 2014. The incidents were categorized into different failure modes. The detectability, defined as the number of incidents that are detectable divided total number of incidents, was calculated for each failure mode. Results: In total, 343 incidents were used in this study. Of the incidents 67% were related to photon external beam therapy (EBRT). The majority of the EBRT incidents were related to patient positioning and only a small number of these could be detected by EPID dosimetry when performed prior to treatment (6%). A large fraction could be detected by in vivo dosimetry performed during the first fraction (74%). Rules-based and Bayesian network verifications were found to be complimentary to EPID dosimetry, able to detect errors related to patient prescriptions and documentation, and errors unrelated to photon EBRT. Combining all of the verification steps together, 91% of all EBRT incidents could be detected. Conclusions: This study shows that the defense in depth system is potentially able to detect a large majority of incidents. The most effective EPID-based dosimetry verification is in vivo measurements during the first fraction and is complemented by rules-based and Bayesian network plan checking.

  11. MO-G-BRE-06: Metrics of Success: Measuring Participation and Attitudes Related to Near-Miss Incident Learning Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyflot, MJ; Kusano, AS; Zeng, J; Carlson, JC; Novak, A; Sponseller, P; Jordan, L; Kane, G; Ford, EC

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Interest in incident learning systems (ILS) for improving safety and quality in radiation oncology is growing, as evidenced by the upcoming release of the national ILS. However, an institution implementing such a system would benefit from quantitative metrics to evaluate performance and impact. We developed metrics to measure volume of reporting, severity of reported incidents, and changes in staff attitudes over time from implementation of our institutional ILS. Methods: We analyzed 2023 incidents from our departmental ILS from 2/2012–2/2014. Incidents were prospectively assigned a near-miss severity index (NMSI) at multidisciplinary review to evaluate the potential for error ranging from 0 to 4 (no harm to critical). Total incidents reported, unique users reporting, and average NMSI were evaluated over time. Additionally, departmental safety attitudes were assessed through a 26 point survey adapted from the AHRQ Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture before, 12 months, and 24 months after implementation of the incident learning system. Results: Participation in the ILS increased as demonstrated by total reports (approximately 2.12 additional reports/month) and unique users reporting (0.51 additional users reporting/month). Also, the average NMSI of reports trended lower over time, significantly decreasing after 12 months of reporting (p<0.001) but with no significant change at months 18 or 24. In survey data significant improvements were noted in many dimensions, including perceived barriers to reporting incidents such as concern of embarrassment (37% to 18%; p=0.02) as well as knowledge of what incidents to report, how to report them, and confidence that these reports were used to improve safety processes. Conclusion: Over a two-year period, our departmental ILS was used more frequently, incidents became less severe, and staff confidence in the system improved. The metrics used here may be useful for other institutions seeking to create or evaluate

  12. MO-G-BRE-06: Metrics of Success: Measuring Participation and Attitudes Related to Near-Miss Incident Learning Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nyflot, MJ; Kusano, AS; Zeng, J; Carlson, JC; Novak, A; Sponseller, P; Jordan, L; Kane, G; Ford, EC [University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Interest in incident learning systems (ILS) for improving safety and quality in radiation oncology is growing, as evidenced by the upcoming release of the national ILS. However, an institution implementing such a system would benefit from quantitative metrics to evaluate performance and impact. We developed metrics to measure volume of reporting, severity of reported incidents, and changes in staff attitudes over time from implementation of our institutional ILS. Methods: We analyzed 2023 incidents from our departmental ILS from 2/2012–2/2014. Incidents were prospectively assigned a near-miss severity index (NMSI) at multidisciplinary review to evaluate the potential for error ranging from 0 to 4 (no harm to critical). Total incidents reported, unique users reporting, and average NMSI were evaluated over time. Additionally, departmental safety attitudes were assessed through a 26 point survey adapted from the AHRQ Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture before, 12 months, and 24 months after implementation of the incident learning system. Results: Participation in the ILS increased as demonstrated by total reports (approximately 2.12 additional reports/month) and unique users reporting (0.51 additional users reporting/month). Also, the average NMSI of reports trended lower over time, significantly decreasing after 12 months of reporting (p<0.001) but with no significant change at months 18 or 24. In survey data significant improvements were noted in many dimensions, including perceived barriers to reporting incidents such as concern of embarrassment (37% to 18%; p=0.02) as well as knowledge of what incidents to report, how to report them, and confidence that these reports were used to improve safety processes. Conclusion: Over a two-year period, our departmental ILS was used more frequently, incidents became less severe, and staff confidence in the system improved. The metrics used here may be useful for other institutions seeking to create or evaluate

  13. [Domestic elder abuse and neglect--conclusions from the evaluation of a model project].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Görgen, T; Nägele, B

    2005-02-01

    The main task of a federally funded model project in the German city of Hannover was to develop approaches for prevention and intervention in the field of domestic elder abuse. Over a three year period (1998-2001), different approaches--like a telephone helpline for senior citizens, and social workers operating as counsellors for elderly people and their relatives--were tested at a local level. The paper presents results from the evaluation of the project and draws conclusions for future prevention and intervention in the field. The authors argue that the explicit use of the conceptual framework of "violence"/"abuse" creates potentials for scandalizing the issue and is therefore supportive for media appearance, whereas it can impede the approach to the main target groups (elderly people and their relatives) and reduce accessibility of counselling services for potential clients. In the light of evaluation results the focus of the project ("domestic elder abuse" or "violence against elderly people in close relationships") was too narrow for a local project. Counselling services were used in a relatively small number of cases; analyses of cases show that incidents of domestic elder abuse are often embedded in complex problem constellations. Cases brought to the attention of the model project were multifaceted and not limited to incidents of neglect and abuse of elderly care recipients caused by caregiver overload. Cases of intimate violence in partnerships and of intergenerational violence without any of the participants being dependent on care show the need to develop a broader concept of domestic elder abuse. Integration of the concepts of domestic violence, violence against women, elder abuse/neglect and abuse/neglect in caregiving relationships is necessary on a conceptual level as well as on the level of interagency cooperation of institutions dealing with cases of "elder abuse".

  14. Cancer incidence among waiters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reijula, Jere; Kjaerheim, Kristina; Lynge, Elsebeth

    2015-01-01

    AIMS: To study cancer risk patterns among waiters in the Nordic countries. METHODS: We identified a cohort of 16,134 male and 81,838 female waiters from Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden. During the follow-up period from 1961 to 2005, we found that 19,388 incident cancer cases were...... diagnosed. Standardised incidence ratio (SIR) was defined as the observed number of cancer cases divided by the expected number, based on national age, time period and gender-specific cancer incidence rates in the general population. RESULTS: The SIR of all cancers in waiters, in the five countries combined...... INCIDENCE IN SOME CANCER SITES CAN LIKELY BE EXPLAINED BY HIGHER ALCOHOL CONSUMPTION, THE PREVALENCE OF SMOKING AND OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE TO TOBACCO SMOKE HOPEFULLY, THE INCIDENCE OF CANCER AMONG WAITERS WILL DECREASE IN THE FUTURE, DUE TO THE BANNING OF TOBACCO SMOKING IN RESTAURANTS AND BARS IN THE NORDIC...

  15. Radiological Cs-137 accidents/incidents in Estonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinisso, Mark

    1997-01-01

    Two radiological accidents/incidents in Estonia are reported. The first -21 October 1994, three brothers entered the Tammiku repository and stole a radioactive Cs-137 source and received dangerous doses of radiation. The other incident (early 1995) involved an abandoned source - a discarded metal cylinder containing Cs-137. Chronologies and factual data are considered for both events. Concise descriptions of the incidents, a medical overview of the fate of injured people and lessons learned are presented

  16. Radiological Cs-137 accidents/incidents in Estonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinisso, Mark [Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Tallin (Estonia)

    1997-12-31

    Two radiological accidents/incidents in Estonia are reported. The first -21 October 1994, three brothers entered the Tammiku repository and stole a radioactive Cs-137 source and received dangerous doses of radiation. The other incident (early 1995) involved an abandoned source - a discarded metal cylinder containing Cs-137. Chronologies and factual data are considered for both events. Concise descriptions of the incidents, a medical overview of the fate of injured people and lessons learned are presented

  17. Cancer incidence among Nordic airline cabin crew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pukkala, Eero; Helminen, Mika; Haldorsen, Tor; Hammar, Niklas; Kojo, Katja; Linnersjö, Anette; Rafnsson, Vilhjálmur; Tulinius, Hrafn; Tveten, Ulf; Auvinen, Anssi

    2012-12-15

    Airline cabin crew are occupationally exposed to cosmic radiation and jet lag with potential disruption of circadian rhythms. This study assesses the influence of work-related factors in cancer incidence of cabin crew members. A cohort of 8,507 female and 1,559 male airline cabin attendants from Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden was followed for cancer incidence for a mean follow-up time of 23.6 years through the national cancer registries. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) were defined as ratios of observed and expected numbers of cases. A case-control study nested in the cohort (excluding Norway) was conducted to assess the relation between the estimated cumulative cosmic radiation dose and cumulative number of flights crossing six time zones (indicator of circadian disruption) and cancer risk. Analysis of breast cancer was adjusted for parity and age at first live birth. Among female cabin crew, a significantly increased incidence was observed for breast cancer [SIR 1.50, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.32-1.69], leukemia (1.89, 95% CI 1.03-3.17) and skin melanoma (1.85, 95% CI 1.41-2.38). Among men, significant excesses in skin melanoma (3.00, 95% CI 1.78-4.74), nonmelanoma skin cancer (2.47, 95% CI 1.18-4.53), Kaposi sarcoma (86.0, 95% CI 41.2-158) and alcohol-related cancers (combined SIR 3.12, 95% CI 1.95-4.72) were found. This large study with complete follow-up and comprehensive cancer incidence data shows an increased incidence of several cancers, but according to the case-control analysis, excesses appear not to be related to the cosmic radiation or circadian disruptions from crossing multiple time zones. Copyright © 2012 UICC.

  18. Cancer incidence study in Mesa County, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouimette, D.R.; Ferguson, S.W.; Zoglo, D.; Murphy, S.; Alley, S.; Bahler, S.

    1983-01-01

    In November of 1982 the Colorado Department of Health completed an epidemiologic investigation of leukemia, multiple myeloma, and cancers of the lung, stomach, pancreas and colon in Mesa County, Colorado for the years 1970 to 1979. This investigation was performed in response to a concern that the presence of uranium mill tailings in some Mesa County homes presents a potential cancer hazard. The results of the investigation show that the incidence of multiple myeloma, colon, stomach and pancreatic cancer are not above expected rates. The incidence of leukemia is not above expected rates for the entire study period, 1970 to 1979. The incidence of lung cancer appears elevated when compared to the The Third National Cancer Survey data for Colorado but lower than expected when compared to Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results data. To further examine the leukemia and lung cancer incidence findings, a case/control study was conducted. The controls consisted of colon, stomach and pancreatic cancer cases. The results of the leukemia case/control analysis show no association with the radiation exposure variables: occupational radiation exposure; uranium mining exposure; having ever lived in a type A home (uranium tailings home); and radiation therapy. The lung cancer case/control analysis shows a significant association with only the radiation exposure variable, uranium mining history, indicating cases were more likely to have been uranium miners than were controls. As with leukemia, the study found no association between lung cancer and living in a uranium mill tailings home. The relatively low radiation exposures typical of type A homes and the small number of persons exposed make it very difficult to establish, by epidemiologic methods, that a risk exists

  19. Prevention of a wrong-location misadministration through the use of an intradepartmental incident learning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ford, Eric C.; Smith, Koren; Harris, Kendra; Terezakis, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: A series of examples are presented in which potential errors in the delivery of radiation therapy were prevented through use of incident learning. These examples underscore the value of reporting near miss incidents. Methods: Using a departmental incident learning system, eight incidents were noted over a two-year period in which fields were treated “out-of-sequence,” that is, fields from a boost phase were treated, while the patient was still in the initial phase of treatment. As a result, an error-prevention policy was instituted in which radiation treatment fields are “hidden” within the oncology information system (OIS) when they are not in current use. In this way, fields are only available to be treated in the intended sequence and, importantly, old fields cannot be activated at the linear accelerator control console. Results: No out-of-sequence treatments have been reported in more than two years since the policy change. Furthermore, at least three near-miss incidents were detected and corrected as a result of the policy change. In the first two, the policy operated as intended to directly prevent an error in field scheduling. In the third near-miss, the policy operated “off target” to prevent a type of error scenario that it was not directly intended to prevent. In this incident, an incorrect digitally reconstructed radiograph (DRR) was scheduled in the OIS for a patient receiving lung cancer treatment. The incorrect DRR had an isocenter which was misplaced by approximately two centimeters. The error was a result of a field from an old plan being scheduled instead of the intended new plan. As a result of the policy described above, the DRR field could not be activated for treatment however and the error was discovered and corrected. Other quality control barriers in place would have been unlikely to have detected this error. Conclusions: In these examples, a policy was adopted based on incident learning, which prevented several errors

  20. Police Incident Blotter (Archive)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — The Police Blotter Archive contains crime incident data after it has been validated and processed to meet Uniform Crime Reporting (UCR) standards, published on a...

  1. Prediction of Safety Incidents

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Safety incidents, including injuries, property damage and mission failures, cost NASA and contractors thousands of dollars in direct and indirect costs. This project...

  2. Marine Animal Incident Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Large whale stranding, death, ship strike and entanglement incidents are all recorded to monitor the health of each population and track anthropogenic factors that...

  3. Acute incidents during anaesthesia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    management of acute incidents and the prevention of ... High or total (complete) spinal blocks in obstetric .... Pain and opioid analgesics lead to delayed ... Step up postoperative care and use ... recognise suprasternal and supraclavicular.

  4. Trends in Incidence and Factors Affecting Survival of Patients With Cholangiocarcinoma in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukkamalla, Shiva Kumar R; Naseri, Hussain M; Kim, Byung M; Katz, Steven C; Armenio, Vincent A

    2018-04-01

    Background: Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) includes cancers arising from the intrahepatic and extrahepatic bile ducts. The etiology and pathogenesis of CCA remain poorly understood. This is the first study investigating both incidence patterns of CCA from 1973 through 2012 and demographic, clinical, and treatment variables affecting survival of patients with CCA. Patients and Methods: Using the SEER database, age-adjusted incidence rates were evaluated from 1973-2012 using SEER*Stat software. A retrospective cohort of 26,994 patients diagnosed with CCA from 1973-2008 was identified for survival analysis. Cox proportional hazards models were used to perform multivariate survival analysis. Results: Overall incidence of CCA increased by 65% from 1973-2012. Extrahepatic CCA (ECC) remained more common than intrahepatic CCA (ICC), whereas the incidence rates for ICC increased by 350% compared with a 20% increase seen with ECC. Men belonging to non-African American and non-Caucasian ethnicities had the highest incidence rates of CCA. This trend persisted throughout the study period, although African Americans and Caucasians saw 50% and 59% increases in incidence rates, respectively, compared with a 9% increase among other races. Median overall survival (OS) was 8 months in patients with ECC compared with 4 months in those with ICC. Our survival analysis found Hispanic women to have the best 5-year survival outcome ( P better survival outcomes compared with ICC ( P better survival outcomes compared with others ( P <.0001). Conclusions: This is the most up-to-date study of CCA from the SEER registry that shows temporal patterns of increasing incidence of CCA across different races, sexes, and ethnicities. We identified age, sex, race, marital status, income, smoking status, anatomic location of CCA, tumor grade, tumor stage, radiation, and surgery as independent prognostic factors for OS in patients with CCA. Copyright © 2018 by the National Comprehensive Cancer Network.

  5. Permutation entropy based time series analysis: Equalities in the input signal can lead to false conclusions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zunino, Luciano, E-mail: lucianoz@ciop.unlp.edu.ar [Centro de Investigaciones Ópticas (CONICET La Plata – CIC), C.C. 3, 1897 Gonnet (Argentina); Departamento de Ciencias Básicas, Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad Nacional de La Plata (UNLP), 1900 La Plata (Argentina); Olivares, Felipe, E-mail: olivaresfe@gmail.com [Instituto de Física, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso (PUCV), 23-40025 Valparaíso (Chile); Scholkmann, Felix, E-mail: Felix.Scholkmann@gmail.com [Research Office for Complex Physical and Biological Systems (ROCoS), Mutschellenstr. 179, 8038 Zurich (Switzerland); Biomedical Optics Research Laboratory, Department of Neonatology, University Hospital Zurich, University of Zurich, 8091 Zurich (Switzerland); Rosso, Osvaldo A., E-mail: oarosso@gmail.com [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal de Alagoas (UFAL), BR 104 Norte km 97, 57072-970, Maceió, Alagoas (Brazil); Instituto Tecnológico de Buenos Aires (ITBA) and CONICET, C1106ACD, Av. Eduardo Madero 399, Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Complex Systems Group, Facultad de Ingeniería y Ciencias Aplicadas, Universidad de los Andes, Av. Mons. Álvaro del Portillo 12.455, Las Condes, Santiago (Chile)

    2017-06-15

    A symbolic encoding scheme, based on the ordinal relation between the amplitude of neighboring values of a given data sequence, should be implemented before estimating the permutation entropy. Consequently, equalities in the analyzed signal, i.e. repeated equal values, deserve special attention and treatment. In this work, we carefully study the effect that the presence of equalities has on permutation entropy estimated values when these ties are symbolized, as it is commonly done, according to their order of appearance. On the one hand, the analysis of computer-generated time series is initially developed to understand the incidence of repeated values on permutation entropy estimations in controlled scenarios. The presence of temporal correlations is erroneously concluded when true pseudorandom time series with low amplitude resolutions are considered. On the other hand, the analysis of real-world data is included to illustrate how the presence of a significant number of equal values can give rise to false conclusions regarding the underlying temporal structures in practical contexts. - Highlights: • Impact of repeated values in a signal when estimating permutation entropy is studied. • Numerical and experimental tests are included for characterizing this limitation. • Non-negligible temporal correlations can be spuriously concluded by repeated values. • Data digitized with low amplitude resolutions could be especially affected. • Analysis with shuffled realizations can help to overcome this limitation.

  6. GLERL Radiation Transfer Through Freshwater Ice

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Radiation transmittance (ratio of transmitted to incident radiation) through clear ice, refrozen slush ice and brash ice, from ice surface to ice-water interface in...

  7. Radiation sickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chin, A.; Leer, J.W.H.; Craandijk, M.; Feenstra, W.F.F.

    1990-01-01

    In a prospective inventory analysis of 169 irradiated patients concerning the incidence and course of Acute Radiation Sickness (fatigue, loss of appetite, nausea and vomiting), it was found that 2/3 of the patients had these complaints. The complaints started during the first week of treatment and mostly even within a few hours after each radiotherapy session. All complaints were progressive during the radiotherapy course, but disappeared spontaneously within one week after completion of the treatment. The possible occurrence of these symptoms soon after the start of radiotherapy should be kept in mind, especially since they can be reduced by simple retimens. (author). 14 refs.; 2 tabs

  8. Radiation Retinopathy: Case report and review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Lorna

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ocular damage from radiation treatment is a well established phenomenon. Many factors are now known to influence the incidence of radiation retinopathy, including total dosage and daily fraction size. Patients who are diabetic, hypertensive or received previous chemotherapy are more susceptible to radiation retinopathy. Case Presentation A 55 year old male was referred from the oncology department with epiphora. His medical history included Type 2 Insulin treated Diabetes Mellitus and hypertension. One year prior to presentation he had undergone a total rhinectomy with a 4 week course of post-operative radiotherapy for an aggressive sqaumous cell carcinoma of the nose. On examination the visual acuity was noted to be 6/36 left eye and 6/9 right eye. Posterior segment examination revealed marked retinal ischaemia present in the posterior pole and macular region of both eyes. The appearance was not thought to be typical of diabetic changes, radiation retinopathy being the more likely diagnosis especially in view of his history. Over the next four months the vision in both eyes rapidly deteriorated to 3/60 left eye and 1/60 right eye. Bilateral pan retinal photocoagulation was thought to be appropriate treatment at this point. Conclusion This case highlights the importance for ophthalmologists and oncologists to be aware of the close relationship between diabetes and radiation treatment and the profound rapid impact this combination of factors may have on visual function. Radiation is being used with increasing frequency for ocular and orbital disease, because of this more cases of radiation retinopathy may become prevalent. Factors which may potentiate radiation retinopathy should be well known including, increased radiation dosage, increased fraction size, concomitant systemic vascular disease and use of chemotherapy. Counselling should be offered in all cases at risk of visual loss. As no effective treatment currently exists

  9. Increasing incidence of thyroid cancer in the Nordic countries with main focus on Swedish data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlberg, Michael; Hedendahl, Lena; Ahonen, Mikko; Koppel, Tarmo; Hardell, Lennart

    2016-07-07

    Radiofrequency radiation in the frequency range 30 kHz-300 GHz was evaluated to be Group 2B, i.e. 'possibly' carcinogenic to humans, by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) at WHO in May 2011. Among the evaluated devices were mobile and cordless phones, since they emit radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF). In addition to the brain, another organ, the thyroid gland, also receives high exposure. The incidence of thyroid cancer is increasing in many countries, especially the papillary type that is the most radiosensitive type. We used the Swedish Cancer Register to study the incidence of thyroid cancer during 1970-2013 using joinpoint regression analysis. In women, the incidence increased statistically significantly during the whole study period; average annual percentage change (AAPC) +1.19 % (95 % confidence interval (CI) +0.56, +1.83 %). Two joinpoints were detected, 1979 and 2001, with a high increase of the incidence during the last period 2001-2013 with an annual percentage change (APC) of +5.34 % (95 % CI +3.93, +6.77 %). AAPC for all men during 1970-2013 was +0.77 % (95 % CI -0.03, +1.58 %). One joinpoint was detected in 2005 with a statistically significant increase in incidence during 2005-2013; APC +7.56 % (95 % CI +3.34, +11.96 %). Based on NORDCAN data, there was a statistically significant increase in the incidence of thyroid cancer in the Nordic countries during the same time period. In both women and men a joinpoint was detected in 2006. The incidence increased during 2006-2013 in women; APC +6.16 % (95 % CI +3.94, +8.42 %) and in men; APC +6.84 % (95 % CI +3.69, +10.08 %), thus showing similar results as the Swedish Cancer Register. Analyses based on data from the Cancer Register showed that the increasing trend in Sweden was mainly caused by thyroid cancer of the papillary type. We postulate that the whole increase cannot be attributed to better diagnostic procedures. Increasing exposure to ionizing

  10. The true incidence of cryptorchidism in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cortes, Dina; Kjellberg, Emma M; Breddam, Mette

    2008-01-01

    testes. Conclusions: In a small cohort of newborns the incidence of cryptorchidism in Denmark has not changed, and is similar to previous reports from the 1950s. The risk is higher in low birth weight singleton neonates but does not appear to be higher in twins, despite lower birth weight and prematurity...

  11. Late Toxicities after Conventional Radiotherapy for Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma: Incidence and Risk Factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siala, W.; Mnejja, W.; Elloumi, F.; Daoud, J.; Ghorbel, A.; Mnif, J.; Frikha, M.

    2014-01-01

    Background. To determine the incidence and analyze the factors affecting late toxicity for nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients treated with conventional radiotherapy. Patients and Methods. Retrospective analysis was performed on 239 NPC patients treated between 1993 and 2004 in our institution. One hundred and fifty-seven patients were treated with conventional fractionation (2 Gy per fraction, 5 fractions per week) and eighty-two patients with hyperfractionated radiotherapy (1.6 Gy per fraction twice a day, 5 days per week). One hundred fifty nine patients underwent neoadjuvant cisplatin based chemotherapy. Late toxicity was evaluated according to the RTOG/EORTC score. Results. Xerostomia was the most common related complication (98.7%). Neoadjuvant chemotherapy and hyperfractionated radiotherapy did not increase late toxicities. Multivariate analyses showed that radiation dose was a significant factor for hearing impairment, younger age for trismus, initial node status for neck fibrosis, and initial dental hygiene for dental complications. Female gender was associated with significantly higher incidence of trismus and hearing impairment. Conclusion. Conventional radiotherapy was associated with a high rate of late toxicities which affect patients’ quality of life. With the development of three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy and intensity modulated radiotherapy, a reduced incidence of radiation related complications could be expected.

  12. Radiation control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchida, Akira

    1981-01-01

    This paper describes on how the condition of radiation level in the ring (storage ring) experimentation room changes corresponding to the operating stage of SOR-ring (synchrotron radiation storage ring), and does not describe on the present radiation control in the SOR facility. The operating stage of SOR is divided into the following five: (1) 307 MeV electron injection, (2) 307 MeV electron storage (used for SOR experiments), (3) energy increase from 307 to 380 MeV, (4) 380 MeV electron storage, (5) re-injection and completion of operation. Gamma and X ray levels are shown when electron beam is injected from the electron synchrotron to the SOR-ring. Two main causes of the high level are reported. Spatial dose rate in storing 307 MeV electrons in also illustrated. This is sufficiently lower than that at electron incidence. The measurement of radiation level at the time of energy increase from 307 to 380 MeV has just started. Since the radiation level in 380 MeV storage, measured at the points about 20 cm apart from the electron orbit, showed several mR/h, the level seems to be negligible at the points where experiments are carried out, 1 m away from the measurement points. The radiation level in electron reinjection and completion of operation may be large during a short period (a few Roentgen) like the time of energy increase. Therefore, the beam shall be re-injected or decreased after confirming that all experimenters have retreated into the predetermined place. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  13. Workplace photon radiation fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgess, P.H.; Bartlett, D.T.; Ambrosi, P.

    1999-01-01

    The knowledge of workplace radiation fields is essential for measures in radiation protection. Information about the energy and directional distribution of the incident photon radiation was obtained by several devices developed by the National Radiation Protection Board, United Kingdom, by the Statens Stralskyddsinstitut, Sweden, together with EURADOS and by the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Germany. The devices are described and some results obtained at workplaces in nuclear industry, medicine and science in the photon energy range from 20 keV to 7 MeV are given. (author)

  14. [Occupational risk related to optical radiation exposure in construction workers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobba, F; Modenese, A

    2012-01-01

    Optical Radiation is a relevant occupational risk in construction workers, mainly as a consequence of the exposure to the ultraviolet (UV) component of solar radiation (SR). Available data show that UV occupational limits are frequently exceeded in these workers, resulting in an increased occupational risk of various acute and chronic effects, mainly to skin and to the eye. One of the foremost is the carcinogenic effect: SR is indeed included in Group 1 IARC (carcinogenic to humans). UV exposure is related to an increase of the incidence of basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma of the skin and cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM). The incidence of these tumors, especially CMM, is constantly increasing in Caucasians in the last 50 years. As a conclusion, an adequate evaluation of the occupational risk related to SR, and adequate preventive measures are essential in construction workers. The role of occupational physicians in prevention is fundamental.

  15. Hazmat Yearly Incident Summary Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Series of Incident data and summary statistics reports produced which provide statistical information on incidents by type, year, geographical location, and others....

  16. Nuclear incident monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, T.D.

    1979-01-01

    This report describes an improved instrument to detect radiation that would be emitted by the accidental assembly of a critical mass of fissionable material. The instrument is a solid-state model designed to supersede a vacuum-tube-circuit model that has been in use for several years. The new instrument provides audible and visible alarms within 4 seconds after exposure to gamma radiation exceeding 1 R/hr. The instrument alarms within 0.3 second after exposure to a 50 microsecond burst of radiation that induces a dose of 0.6 mR

  17. Incidence of pulmonary embolism and other chest findings in younger patients using multidetector computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heredia, Vasco; Ramalho, Miguel; Zapparoli, Mauricio; Semelka, Richard C.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) has become the first-line modality for imaging patients with suspected pulmonary embolism (PE). The disadvantages of MDCT, the use of ionizing radiation and iodinated contrast agents, are a reasonable cause of concern, especially in young patients, and therefore it is critical to understand the likelihood of PE in these patients to evaluate a risk benefit analysis. Purpose: To calculate the incidence of PE and other chest findings on MDCT in a young adult population investigated for PE. Material and Methods: 387 consecutive patients (age 31.5±13.5 years) underwent chest MDCT for clinically suspected PE between January 2004 and August 2006. Incidence of PE and other chest findings were calculated with a confidence interval of 95% using binomial distribution. Results: PE incidence was 5%; negative PE with other chest findings was 60%. In 89% of the patients with other chest findings, these included findings of the pleura and/or lung parenchyma. The main patterns of disease were lung opacification suggesting pneumonia (41%), atelectasis (12.4%), and nodular/mass findings (17.5%). In 34% of the patients, there was no PE and no other findings present. Conclusion: There is a low incidence of PE in young patients imaged for PE with MDCT

  18. Transperineal high-dose-rate interstitial radiation therapy in the management of gynecologic malignancies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itami, Jun; Hara, Ryuseke; Kozuka, Takuyou; Yamashita, Hideomi; Nakajima, Kaori; Shibata, Kouji; Abe, Yoshihisa; Fuse, Masashi; Ito, Masashi [International Medical Center of Japan, Tokyo (Japan). Dept. of Radiation Therapy and Oncology

    2003-11-01

    Background: High-dose-rate interstitial radiation therapy is a newly introduced modality, and its role in the management of gynecologic malignancies remains to be studied. Clinical experience in high-dose-rate interstitial radiation therapy was retrospectively investigated. Patients and Methods: Eight patients with primary and nine with recurrent gynecologic malignancies underwent high-dose-rate interstitial radiation therapy with/without external-beam irradiation. Fractional dose of the high-dose-rate interstitial radiation therapy ranged between 4 and 6 Gy with total doses of 15-54 Gy. Interstitial irradiation was performed twice daily with an interval of > 6 h. Results: 2-year local control rate was 75% for primary treatment and 47% for treatment of recurrence (p = 0.46). Maximum tumor size had a statistically significant impact on local control (p < 0.002). Grade 2 and 4 late complications were seen in five patients, and the incidence was significantly higher in patients with a larger volume enclosed by the prescribed fractional dose of high-dose-rate interstitial radiation therapy. The incidence of grade 2 and 4 complications at 18 months was 78% and 0% with a volume > 100 cm{sup 3} and {<=} 100 cm{sup 3}, respectively (p < 0.04). Conclusion: Although high-dose-rate interstitial radiation therapy is a promising modality, it must be applied cautiously to patients with bulky tumors because of the high incidence of serious complications. (orig.)

  19. Olsalazine is contraindicated during pelvic radiation therapy: results of a double-blind, randomized clinical trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martenson, James A.; Hyland, Glenn; Moertel, Charles G.; Mailliard, James A.; O'Fallon, Judith R.; Collins, Roger T.; Morton, Roscoe F.; Tewfik, Hamed H.; Moore, Randy L.; Frank, Albert R.; Urias, Rodolfo E.; Deming, Richard L.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: A randomized clinical trial from Great Britain suggested a possible beneficial effect of acetylsalicylate in the prevention of radiation-induced bowel toxicity. Olsalazine is an orally administered drug designed to deliver 5-aminosalicylate to the large bowel with minimal systemic absorption. A randomized clinical trial was undertaken to assess the effectiveness of olsalazine in preventing acute diarrhea in patients receiving pelvic radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: Patients receiving pelvic radiation therapy were randomized, in double-blind fashion, to olsalazine 250 mg, two capsules twice daily, or an identical appearing placebo, two capsules twice daily. Patients were then evaluated weekly during radiation therapy for the primary study endpoint, diarrhea, as well as rectal bleeding, abdominal cramping, and tenesmus. Results: The study was closed early, after entry of 58 evaluable patients, when a preliminary analysis showed excessive diarrhea in patients randomized to olsalazine. The incidence and severity of diarrhea were worse in patients randomized to olsalazine (p 0.0036). Sixty percent of the patients randomized to olsalazine experienced Grade 3 or 4 diarrhea compared to only 14% randomized to placebo. There was also a trend toward higher incidence and greater severity of abdominal cramping in patients who were randomized to olsalazine (p = 0.084). Conclusion: Administration of olsalazine during pelvic radiation therapy resulted in an increased incidence and severity of diarrhea. Olsalazine is contraindicated in patients receiving pelvic radiation therapy

  20. Naturally occurring and radiation-induced tumors in SPF mice, and genetic influence in radiation leukemogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasuga, T.

    1979-01-01

    The data obtained so far in this study point to a strong genetic influence not only on the types and incidence of naturally occurring and radiation-induced tumors but also on radiation leukemogenesis. (Auth.)

  1. Lightning incidents in Mongolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myagmar Doljinsuren

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This is one of the first studies that has been conducted in Mongolia on the distribution of lightning incidents. The study covers a 10-year period from 2004 to 2013. The country records a human death rate of 15.4 deaths per 10 million people per year, which is much higher than that of many countries with similar isokeraunic level. The reason may be the low-grown vegetation observed in most rural areas of Mongolia, a surface topography, typical to steppe climate. We suggest modifications to Gomes–Kadir equation for such countries, as it predicts a much lower annual death rate for Mongolia. The lightning incidents spread over the period from May to August with the peak of the number of incidents occurring in July. The worst lightning affected region in the country is the central part. Compared with impacts of other convective disasters such as squalls, thunderstorms and hail, lightning stands as the second highest in the number of incidents, human deaths and animal deaths. Economic losses due to lightning is only about 1% of the total losses due to the four extreme weather phenomena. However, unless precautionary measures are not promoted among the public, this figure of losses may significantly increase with time as the country is undergoing rapid industrialization at present.

  2. Incident users of antipsychotics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baandrup, Lone; Kruse, Marie

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: In Denmark, as well as in many other countries, consumption of antipsychotics is on the rise, partly due to increasing off-label use. The aim of this study was to analyze and quantify the extent of off-label use and polypharmacy in incident users of antipsychotic medication, and to examine...

  3. Limited-field radiation for bifocal germinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lafay-Cousin, Lucie; Millar, Barbara-Ann; Mabbott, Donald; Spiegler, Brenda; Drake, Jim; Bartels, Ute; Huang, Annie; Bouffet, Eric

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To report the incidence, characteristics, treatment, and outcomes of bifocal germinomas treated with chemotherapy followed by focal radiation. Methods and Materials: This was a retrospective review. Inclusion criteria included radiologic diagnosis of bifocal germinoma involving the pineal and neurohypophyseal region, no evidence of dissemination on spinal MRI, negative results from cerebrospinal fluid cytologic evaluation, and negative tumor markers. Results: Between 1995 and 2004, 6 patients (5 male, 1 female; median age, 12.8 years) fulfilled the inclusion criteria. All had symptoms of diabetes insipidus at presentation. On MRI, 4 patients had a pineal and suprasellar mass, and 2 had a pineal mass associated with abnormal neurohypophyseal enhancement. All patients received chemotherapy followed by limited-field radiation and achieved complete remission after chemotherapy. The radiation field involved the whole ventricular system (range, 2,400-4,000 cGy) with or without a boost to the primary lesions. All patients remain in complete remission at a median follow-up of 48.1 months (range, 9-73.4 months). Conclusions: This experience suggests that bifocal germinoma can be considered a locoregional rather than a metastatic disease. Chemotherapy and focal radiotherapy might be sufficient to provide excellent outcomes. Staging refinement with new diagnostic tools will likely increase the incidence of the entity

  4. Single walled carbon nanotubes on MHD unsteady flow over a porous wedge with thermal radiation with variable stream conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Kandasamy

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present work was to investigate theoretically the effect of single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs in the presence of water and seawater with variable stream condition due to solar radiation energy. The conclusion is drawn that the flow motion and the temperature field for SWCNTs in the presence of base fluid are significantly influenced by magnetic field, convective radiation and thermal stratification. Thermal boundary layer of SWCNTs-water is compared to that of Cu-water, absorbs the incident solar radiation and transits it to the working fluid by convection.

  5. Intracerebral cavernous hemangioma after cranial irradiation in childhood. Incidence and risk factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strenger, V.; Sovinz, P.; Lackner, H.; Dornbusch, H.J.; Moser, A.; Urban, C. [Graz Medical Univ. (Austria). Div. of Pediatric Hematology and Oncology; Lingitz, H. [Graz Medical Univ. (Austria). Dept. of Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology; Eder, H.G. [Graz Medical Univ. (Austria). Dept. of Neurosurgery

    2008-05-15

    Background and Purpose: Radiotherapy is an integral part of various therapeutic regimens in pediatric and adult oncology. Endocrine dysfunction, neurologic and psychiatric deficits, secondary malignancies and radiation-induced necrosis are well-known possible late effects of cranial irradiation. However, only sporadic cases of radiation-induced cavernous hemangiomas (RICH) have been reported so far. Patients and Methods: Pediatric patients who underwent cranial radiation therapy for malignant diseases between January 1980 and December 2003 were retrospectively analyzed. After the end of therapy they entered a detailed follow-up program. Results: Of 171 patients, eight (three patients with medulloblastoma, three patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia, and one patient each with ependymoma and craniopharyngioma) developed intracerebral cavernoma 2.9-18.4 years after irradiation representing a cumulative incidence (according to the Kaplan-Meier method) of 2.24%, 3.86%, 4.95%, and 6.74% within 5, 10, 15, and 20 years following radiation therapy, respectively. In patients treated in the first 10 years of life, RICH occurred with shorter latency and significantly more often (p = 0.044) resulting in an even higher cumulative incidence. Conclusion: These findings and previously published cases show that cavernous hemangiomas may occur after irradiation of the brain several years after the end of therapy irrespective of the radiation dose and type of malignancy. Particularly children < 10 years of age at the time of irradiation are at higher risk. Since patients with RICH frequently do not show symptoms but hemorrhage is a possible severe complication, imaging of the central nervous system should be performed routinely for longer follow- ups, particularly in patients who were treated as young children. (orig.)

  6. Estimating cardiovascular disease incidence from prevalence: a spreadsheet based model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Feng Hu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Disease incidence and prevalence are both core indicators of population health. Incidence is generally not as readily accessible as prevalence. Cohort studies and electronic health record systems are two major way to estimate disease incidence. The former is time-consuming and expensive; the latter is not available in most developing countries. Alternatively, mathematical models could be used to estimate disease incidence from prevalence. Methods We proposed and validated a method to estimate the age-standardized incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD, with prevalence data from successive surveys and mortality data from empirical studies. Hallett’s method designed for estimating HIV infections in Africa was modified to estimate the incidence of myocardial infarction (MI in the U.S. population and incidence of heart disease in the Canadian population. Results Model-derived estimates were in close agreement with observed incidence from cohort studies and population surveillance systems. This method correctly captured the trend in incidence given sufficient waves of cross-sectional surveys. The estimated MI declining rate in the U.S. population was in accordance with the literature. This method was superior to closed cohort, in terms of the estimating trend of population cardiovascular disease incidence. Conclusion It is possible to estimate CVD incidence accurately at the population level from cross-sectional prevalence data. This method has the potential to be used for age- and sex- specific incidence estimates, or to be expanded to other chronic conditions.

  7. Factors Predictive of Symptomatic Radiation Injury After Linear Accelerator-Based Stereotactic Radiosurgery for Intracerebral Arteriovenous Malformations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herbert, Christopher, E-mail: cherbert@bccancer.bc.ca [Department of Radiation Oncology, British Columbia Cancer Agency, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Moiseenko, Vitali [Department of Medical Physics, British Columbia Cancer Agency, Vancouver, BC (Canada); McKenzie, Michael [Department of Radiation Oncology, British Columbia Cancer Agency, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Redekop, Gary [Division of Neurosurgery, Vancouver General Hospital, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Hsu, Fred [Department of Radiation Oncology, British Columbia Cancer Agency, Abbotsford, BC (Canada); Gete, Ermias; Gill, Brad; Lee, Richard; Luchka, Kurt [Department of Medical Physics, British Columbia Cancer Agency, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Haw, Charles [Division of Neurosurgery, Vancouver General Hospital, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Lee, Andrew [Department of Neurosurgery, Royal Columbian Hospital, New Westminster, BC (Canada); Toyota, Brian [Division of Neurosurgery, Vancouver General Hospital, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Martin, Montgomery [Department of Medical Imaging, British Columbia Cancer Agency, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2012-07-01

    Purpose: To investigate predictive factors in the development of symptomatic radiation injury after treatment with linear accelerator-based stereotactic radiosurgery for intracerebral arteriovenous malformations and relate the findings to the conclusions drawn by Quantitative Analysis of Normal Tissue Effects in the Clinic (QUANTEC). Methods and Materials: Archived plans for 73 patients who were treated at the British Columbia Cancer Agency were studied. Actuarial estimates of freedom from radiation injury were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazards models were used for analysis of incidence of radiation injury. Log-rank test was used to search for dosimetric parameters associated with freedom from radiation injury. Results: Symptomatic radiation injury was exhibited by 14 of 73 patients (19.2%). Actuarial rate of symptomatic radiation injury was 23.0% at 4 years. Most patients (78.5%) had mild to moderate deficits according to Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 4.0. On univariate analysis, lesion volume and diameter, dose to isocenter, and a V{sub x} for doses {>=}8 Gy showed statistical significance. Only lesion diameter showed statistical significance (p < 0.05) in a multivariate model. According to the log-rank test, AVM volumes >5 cm{sup 3} and diameters >30 mm were significantly associated with the risk of radiation injury (p < 0.01). The V{sub 12} also showed strong association with the incidence of radiation injury. Actuarial incidence of radiation injury was 16.8% if V{sub 12} was <28 cm{sup 3} and 53.2% if >28 cm{sup 3} (log-rank test, p = 0.001). Conclusions: This study confirms that the risk of developing symptomatic radiation injury after radiosurgery is related to lesion diameter and volume and irradiated volume. Results suggest a higher tolerance than proposed by QUANTEC. The widely differing findings reported in the literature, however, raise considerable uncertainties.

  8. Factors Predictive of Symptomatic Radiation Injury After Linear Accelerator-Based Stereotactic Radiosurgery for Intracerebral Arteriovenous Malformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herbert, Christopher; Moiseenko, Vitali; McKenzie, Michael; Redekop, Gary; Hsu, Fred; Gete, Ermias; Gill, Brad; Lee, Richard; Luchka, Kurt; Haw, Charles; Lee, Andrew; Toyota, Brian; Martin, Montgomery

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate predictive factors in the development of symptomatic radiation injury after treatment with linear accelerator–based stereotactic radiosurgery for intracerebral arteriovenous malformations and relate the findings to the conclusions drawn by Quantitative Analysis of Normal Tissue Effects in the Clinic (QUANTEC). Methods and Materials: Archived plans for 73 patients who were treated at the British Columbia Cancer Agency were studied. Actuarial estimates of freedom from radiation injury were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazards models were used for analysis of incidence of radiation injury. Log–rank test was used to search for dosimetric parameters associated with freedom from radiation injury. Results: Symptomatic radiation injury was exhibited by 14 of 73 patients (19.2%). Actuarial rate of symptomatic radiation injury was 23.0% at 4 years. Most patients (78.5%) had mild to moderate deficits according to Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 4.0. On univariate analysis, lesion volume and diameter, dose to isocenter, and a V x for doses ≥8 Gy showed statistical significance. Only lesion diameter showed statistical significance (p 5 cm 3 and diameters >30 mm were significantly associated with the risk of radiation injury (p 12 also showed strong association with the incidence of radiation injury. Actuarial incidence of radiation injury was 16.8% if V 12 was 3 and 53.2% if >28 cm 3 (log–rank test, p = 0.001). Conclusions: This study confirms that the risk of developing symptomatic radiation injury after radiosurgery is related to lesion diameter and volume and irradiated volume. Results suggest a higher tolerance than proposed by QUANTEC. The widely differing findings reported in the literature, however, raise considerable uncertainties.

  9. Radiation chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodgers, F.; Rodgers, M.A.

    1987-01-01

    The contents of this book include: Interaction of ionizing radiation with matter; Primary products in radiation chemistry; Theoretical aspects of radiation chemistry; Theories of the solvated electron; The radiation chemistry of gases; Radiation chemistry of colloidal aggregates; Radiation chemistry of the alkali halides; Radiation chemistry of polymers; Radiation chemistry of biopolymers; Radiation processing and sterilization; and Compound index

  10. The American Society for Radiation Oncology's 2015 Core Physics Curriculum for Radiation Oncology Residents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burmeister, Jay; Chen, Zhe; Chetty, Indrin J.; Dieterich, Sonja; Doemer, Anthony; Dominello, Michael M.; Howell, Rebecca M.; McDermott, Patrick; Nalichowski, Adrian; Prisciandaro, Joann; Ritter, Tim; Smith, Chadd; Schreiber, Eric; Shafman, Timothy; Sutlief, Steven; Xiao, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) Physics Core Curriculum Subcommittee (PCCSC) has updated the recommended physics curriculum for radiation oncology resident education to improve consistency in teaching, intensity, and subject matter. Methods and Materials: The ASTRO PCCSC is composed of physicists and physicians involved in radiation oncology residency education. The PCCSC updated existing sections within the curriculum, created new sections, and attempted to provide additional clinical context to the curricular material through creation of practical clinical experiences. Finally, we reviewed the American Board of Radiology (ABR) blueprint of examination topics for correlation with this curriculum. Results: The new curriculum represents 56 hours of resident physics didactic education, including a 4-hour initial orientation. The committee recommends completion of this curriculum at least twice to assure both timely presentation of material and re-emphasis after clinical experience. In addition, practical clinical physics and treatment planning modules were created as a supplement to the didactic training. Major changes to the curriculum include addition of Fundamental Physics, Stereotactic Radiosurgery/Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy, and Safety and Incidents sections, and elimination of the Radiopharmaceutical Physics and Dosimetry and Hyperthermia sections. Simulation and Treatment Verification and optional Research and Development in Radiation Oncology sections were also added. A feedback loop was established with the ABR to help assure that the physics component of the ABR radiation oncology initial certification examination remains consistent with this curriculum. Conclusions: The ASTRO physics core curriculum for radiation oncology residents has been updated in an effort to identify the most important physics topics for preparing residents for careers in radiation oncology, to reflect changes in technology and practice since

  11. Health of radiation workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, D.K.

    1979-11-01

    Radiation workers are healthier than the average person in the general population and appear to be as healthy as workers in other ΣsafeΣ industries. It is, however, assumed that there is no safe dose of radiation and that any exposure to radiation will cause a small increase in the incidence of cancer, this increase being directly proportional to the total radiation dose. On the basis of the risk estimates given by ICRP, radiation exposures up to 1 rem per year for 47 years are predicted to cause fewer work-related deaths than expected for the average worker in Canadian industry. Radiation exposures of 5 rem per year from age 18 to 65 would result in predicted risk which is about four times higher than that for most workers in Canada and might increase the chances of death before age 75 to nearly the same level as for the average member of the general public. (auth)

  12. The ''Cobalt 60 Case'' in Taiwan. Conclusions; Das Kobalt-60 Ereignis von Taiwan. Und was ist daraus zu schliessen?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niemann, Lutz

    2017-08-15

    The ''Cobalt 60 Case'' in Taiwan gives an opportunity for check of the thesis of radiation hormesis. Apartment residents have been exposed to cobalt-60 contaminated steel buildings. The results of a study strongly suggest that whole-body chronic irradiation, in the dose rate range that the apartment residents received, caused no symptomatic adverse health effects, such as radiation sickness, or the increased cancer or increased congenital disease that are predicted by ICRP theories. On the contrary, those who were exposed had lower incidences of cancer mortality and congenital malformations.

  13. Ultraviolet radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faber, M.

    1989-01-01

    Although UV radiation can arise from a large number of man-made sources, the sun is the main source and both the general public and people working out of doors will be exposed to it. This natural background radiation and the variations in its magnitude must be taken into account when exposure limits are discussed. The full extent to which UV affects human well-being is difficult to quantify. Artificially produced UV has, however, been used in mines and cellars and in far northern latitudes as a supplement to combat functional impairment among people. Many of the observed effects, such as a decrease in the incidence of infectious diseases and in absenteeism, may be due to the bactericidal nature of the radiation. On the other hand, large doses of UV have an acute destructive effect on the skin and eye. Doses so low that they give rise only to normally acceptable or even desirable acute effects can, if repeated, induce changes resulting in late effects such as elastosis of the skin, keratosis and skin cancers. These effects will be of greater significance in people with lightly pigmented skin. 130 refs, 13 figs, 2 tabs

  14. High background radiation area: an important source of exploring the health effects of low dose ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Luxin

    1997-01-01

    Objective: For obtaining more effective data from epidemiological investigation in high background radiation areas, it is necessary to analyze the advantages, disadvantages, weak points and problems of this kind of radiation research. Methods: For epidemiological investigation of population health effects of high background radiation, the author selected high background radiation areas of Yangjiang (HBRA) and a nearby control area (CA) as an instance for analysis. The investigation included classification of dose groups, comparison of the confounding factors in the incidence of mutation related diseases, cancer mortalities and the frequencies of chromosomal aberrations between HBRA and CA. This research program has become a China-Japan cooperative research since 1991. Results: The confounding factors above-mentioned were comparable between HBRA and CA, and within the dose groups in HBRA, based on a systematic study for many years. The frequencies of chromosomal aberrations increased with the increase of cumulative dose, but not for children around or below 10 years of age. The relative risks (RR) of total and site-specific cancer mortalities for HBRA were lower or around 1.00, compared with CA. The incidence of hereditary diseases and congenital deformities in HBRA were in normal range. The results were interpreted preliminarily by the modified 'dual radiation action' theory and the 'benefit-detriment competition' hypothesis. Conclusions: The author emphasizes the necessity for continuing epidemiological research in HBRA, especially for international cooperation. He also emphasizes the importance of combination of epidemiology and radiobiology

  15. Radioactive-waste ocean dumping will have negligible enviromental impact. Conclusion of draft assessment of NSB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-11-01

    This draft report is the result of extensive studies based on the best available information in the field of oceanography, marine radiobiology and health physics. On various basic considerations, assessment was undertaken, and the following conclusion was reached. The quantity of radioactivity to be dumped at one time is assumed to be 500 Ci in the case of test dumping, and 10/sup 5/ Ci/year in the case of full-scale dumping. The conditions required for the dumping sea area are that the bottom water flow and upwelling amount are limited, and that the sea bottom is flat. The horizontal dispersion coefficient of 10/sup 7/ cm/sup 2//sec and the vertical dispersion coefficient of 2 x 10/sup 2/ cm/sup 2//sec are assumed. It is assumed that the radionuclides in the disposed package would leached out as soon as it reaches the sea bottom, and would not show any physicochemical behavior. Typycal radionuclides are classified into 5 groups in terms of their half lives, and their estimated concentrations at 1 km depth are tabulated. The maximum level of individual dose and the magnitude of population dose were assessed on the fishermen working in the dumping sea area, and the adults, children and infants who were expected to receive higher dose on account of the larger intake of fish products than average. The dose level given with the dose assessment model and various panamentors under the dumping conditions is much lower than natural radiation and the permissible level recommended by ICRP.

  16. Severe accident management (SAM), operator training and instrumentation capabilities - Summary and conclusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The Workshop on Operator Training for Severe Accident Management (SAM) and Instrumentation Capabilities During Severe Accidents was organised in collaboration with Electricite de France (Service Etudes et Projets Thermiques et Nucleaires). There were 34 participants, representing thirteen OECD Member countries, the Russian Federation and the OECD/NEA. Almost half the participants represented utilities. The second largest group was regulatory authorities and their technical support organisations. Basically, the Workshop was a follow-up to the 1997 Second Specialist Meeting on Operator Aids for Severe Accident Management (SAMOA-2) [Reports NEA/CSNI/R(97)10 and 27] and to the 1992 Specialist Meeting on Instrumentation to Manage Severe Accidents [Reports NEA/CSNI/R(92)11 and (93)3]. It was aimed at sharing and comparing progress made and experience gained from these two meetings, emphasizing practical lessons learnt during training or incidents as well as feedback from instrumentation capability assessment. The objectives of the Workshop were therefore: - to exchange information on recent and current activities in the area of operator training for SAM, and lessons learnt during the management of real incidents ('operator' is defined hear as all personnel involved in SAM); - to compare capabilities and use of instrumentation available during severe accidents; - to monitor progress made; - to identify and discuss differences between approaches relevant to reactor safety; - and to make recommendations to the Working Group on the Analysis and Management of Accidents and the CSNI (GAMA). The Workshop was organised into five sessions: - 1: Introduction; - 2: Tools and Methods; - 3: Training Programmes and Experience; - 4: SAM Organisation Efficiency; - 5: Instrumentation Capabilities. It was concluded by a Panel and General Discussion. This report presents the summary and conclusions: the meeting confirmed that only limited information is needed for making required decisions

  17. Effect of radiation environment on radiation use efficiency and growth of sunflower

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bange, M.P.; Hammer, G.L.; Rickert, K.G.

    1997-01-01

    The level of incident radiation and the proportion of radiation that is diffuse affects radiation use efficiency (RUE) in crops. However, the degree of this effect, and its importance to growth and yield of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) have not been established. A field experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of radiation environment on RUE, growth, and yield of sunflower. A fully irrigated crop was sown on an alluvial-prairie soil (Fluventic Haplustoll) and was exposed to three distinct radiation environments. In two treatments, the level of incident radiation was reduced by 14 and 20% by suspending two different types of polyethylene plastic films well above the crop. In addition to the reductions in incident radiation, the proportion of radiation that was diffuse was increased by about 14% in these treatments. Lower incident radiation and increased proportion of diffuse radiation had no effect on total biomass, phenology, leaf area, and the canopy light extinction coefficient (k = 0.89). However, yield was reduced in shaded treatments due to smaller grain size and lower harvest index. Although crop RUE measured over the entire crop cycle (1.25 g/MJ) did not differ significantly among treatments, there was a trend where RUE compensated for less intercepted incident radiation. Theoretical derivations of the response of RUE to different levels of incident radiation supported this finding. Shaded sunflower crops have the ability to produce biomass similar to unshaded crops by increasing RUE, but have lower harvest indices

  18. Maximum Credible Incidents

    CERN Document Server

    Strait, J

    2009-01-01

    Following the incident in sector 34, considerable effort has been made to improve the systems for detecting similar faults and to improve the safety systems to limit the damage if a similar incident should occur. Nevertheless, even after the consolidation and repairs are completed, other faults may still occur in the superconducting magnet systems, which could result in damage to the LHC. Such faults include both direct failures of a particular component or system, or an incorrect response to a “normal” upset condition, for example a quench. I will review a range of faults which could be reasonably expected to occur in the superconducting magnet systems, and which could result in substantial damage and down-time to the LHC. I will evaluate the probability and the consequences of such faults, and suggest what mitigations, if any, are possible to protect against each.

  19. Incidence Probability of Delayed Health Consequences of the Chernobyl Accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Ghani, A.H.; El-Naggar, A.M.; El-Kadi, A.A.

    2000-01-01

    During the first international Conference on the long -term consequences of the Chernobyl disaster in 1995 at Kiev, and also during the 1996 International Conference at Vienna, Summing up the consequences of the Chernobyl accident, the data regarding the delayed health consequences were mainly related to thyroid cancer, hereditary disorders, general morbidity, mortality and psychological disturbances. Contrary to expectations, the incidences of Leukemia and Soft Tissue tumors were similar to the spontaneous incident. The expected delayed effects, however, among the accident survivors, the liquidators and populations resident in contaminated areas would show higher incidence probability to Leukemia. These population groups have been continuously exposed to low level radiation both externally and internally. Application of the new ICRP concept of radiation-induced Detriment, and the Nominal Probability Coefficient for Cancer and hereditary effects for both workers and populations are used as the rationale to calculate the incidence probability of occurrence of delayed health effects of the Chernobyl accidents

  20. Effect of gene time on acute radiation mucositis and dermatitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Suyan; Gao Li; Yin Weibo; Xu Guozhen; Xiao Guangli

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effect of recombinant human epidermal growth factor (Gene Time) on acute mucositis and dermatitis induced by radiation. Methods: 120 head and neck cancer patients were randomized into 3 groups: 1. Mucositis prophylactic application (MPA) group with control, 2. Mucositis therapeutic application (MTA) group with control and 3. Dermatitis therapeutic application (DTA) group with control. Prophylactic application of drug consisted of spraying the Gene Time preparation on the irradiated skin or mucous membrane as radiotherapy was being carried out. This was compared with control patients who received routine conventional skin care. Therapeutic application was started as grade I radiation mucositis or dermatitis appeared. The evaluation of acute radiation mucositis and dermatitis was done according to the systems proposed by RTOG or EORTC. Results: The results showed that in the MPA group, the rate of radiation mucositis at ≤10 Gy was 20% (4/20) as compared to the 70% (14/20) of the control (P = 0.004). During the course of radiation, the incidences of grade III, IV acute radiation mucositis and dermatitis were always lower than the control. In therapeutic application of Gene Time, the response rate of acute radiation mucositis was also better than the control (90% vs 50%) (P = 0.016) and that of acute dermatitis was similar (95% vs 50%) (P = 0.005). Moreover, the ≤3 d rate of healing of grade III dermatitis in the application group was 3/7 as compared to the 0/14 of the control. Conclusion: Prophylactic application of recombinant human epidermal growth factor is able to postpone the development of radiation mucositis. This preparation is also able to lower the incidence of grade III, IV mucositis and dermatitis both by therapeutic and prophylactic application in addition to the hastened healing of grade III dermatitis

  1. Significance of studies of low-dose radiation fallout in the western United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothman, K.J.

    1984-01-01

    The sum of evidence from these studies about the effects of nuclear testing is extremely modest. Lack of good dose information precluded any valuable scientific conclusions. The evidence indicating excesses of leukemia incidence beyond what would already be accepted as the leukemogenic effect of ionizing radiation is fragile. Similarly, the evidence presumed to indicate the absence of thyroid effects is unpersuasive, actually showing a weak but positive effect

  2. Regularities of radiation heredity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skakov, M.K.; Melikhov, V.D.

    2001-01-01

    One analyzed regularities of radiation heredity in metals and alloys. One made conclusion about thermodynamically irreversible changes in structure of materials under irradiation. One offers possible ways of heredity transmittance of radiation effects at high-temperature transformations in the materials. Phenomenon of radiation heredity may be turned to practical use to control structure of liquid metal and, respectively, structure of ingot via preliminary radiation treatment of charge. Concentration microheterogeneities in material defect structure induced by preliminary irradiation represent the genetic factor of radiation heredity [ru

  3. Radiation and radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landfermann, H.H.; Solbach, C.

    1992-11-01

    The brochure explains the major types of radiation, the radiation sources, effects, uses, and risks, as well as the regulatory system adopted by the government in order to keep the risks as low as possible. (orig./DG) [de

  4. Incidence, treatment, and survival patterns for sacral chordoma in the United States, 1974-2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Yu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionSacral chordomas represent one half of all chordomas, a rare neoplasm of notochordal remnants. Current NCCN guidelines recommend surgical resection with or without adjuvant radiotherapy, or definitive radiation for unresectable cases. Recent advances in radiation for chordomas include conformal photon and proton beam radiation. We investigated incidence, treatment, and survival outcomes to observe any trends in response to improvements in surgical and radiation techniques over a near 40 year time period.Materials and Methods345 microscopically confirmed cases of sacral chordoma were identified between 1974 and 2011 from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER program of the National Cancer Institute. Cases were divided into three cohorts by calendar year, 1974-1989, 1990-1999, and 2000-2011, as well as into two groups by age less than or equal to 65 versus greater than 65 to investigate trends over time and age via Chi-square analysis. Kaplan-Meier analyses were performed to determine effects of treatment on survival. Multivariate Cox regression analysis was performed to determine predictors of overall survival.Results5-year overall survival for the entire cohort was 60.0%. Overall survival correlated significantly with treatment modality, with 44% surviving at 5 years with no treatment, 52% with radiation alone, 82% surgery alone, and 78% surgery and radiation (p<.001. Age greater than 65 was significantly associated with non-surgical management with radiation alone or no treatment (p<.001. Relatively fewer patients received radiation between 2000 and 2011 compared to prior time periods (p=.03 versus surgery, for which rates which did not vary significantly over time (p=.55. However, 5-year overall survival was not significantly different by time period. Age group and treatment modality were predictive for overall survival on multivariate analysis (p<.001. ConclusionSurgery remains an important component in the

  5. General conclusions arising from a field evaluation of the Agency's RAPAT and WAMAP programmes in the Asia and Pacific region 1984-1993. Special evaluation review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, G.A.; Fitch, J.; Cooley, C.; Saire, D.E.; Colombo, P.; Palacios, E.

    1994-01-01

    In support of the assistance provided to the developing Member States of IAEA in the areas of radiation protection and radioactive waste management, two advisory programmes were established by IAEA. The radiation Protection Advisory Teams (RAPATs) in 1984, and the Radioactive Waste Management Programme (WAMAP) in 1987. This report summarizes general achievements, finding, conclusions and recommendations regarding these two programmes in Indonesia, Thailand, Bangladesh, and Philippines

  6. Low dose radiation and plant growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sung Jae; Lee, Hae Youn; Park, Hong Sook

    2001-03-01

    Ionizing radiation includes cosmic radiation, earth radiation, radionuclides for the medical purpose and nuclear industry, fallout radiation. From the experimental results of various radiation effects on seeds or seedlings, it was found that germination rate, development, respiration rate, reproduction and blooming were accelerated compared with the control. In mammal, hormesis phenomenon manifested itself in increased disease resistance, lifespan, and decreased rate of tumor incidence. In plants, it was shown that germination, sprouting, growth, development, blooming and resistance to disease were accelerated

  7. Low dose radiation and plant growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sung Jae; Lee, Hae Youn; Park, Hong Sook

    2001-03-01

    Ionizing radiation includes cosmic radiation, earth radiation, radionuclides for the medical purpose and nuclear industry, fallout radiation. From the experimental results of various radiation effects on seeds or seedlings, it was found that germination rate, development, respiration rate, reproduction and blooming were accelerated compared with the control. In mammal, hormesis phenomenon manifested itself in increased disease resistance, lifespan, and decreased rate of tumor incidence. In plants, it was shown that germination, sprouting, growth, development, blooming and resistance to disease were accelerated.

  8. The hazards of low-level radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blackith, R.

    1979-01-01

    Safety standards are questioned, particularly in relation to the risk of inducing cancer at low doses of radiation. Statements are made on the following topics: incidence of leukaemia among children around reactors, general aging effect due to radiation, leukaemia among radiation workers in a shipyard repairing nuclear submarines, official withdrawal of funds from research workers in the field of radiation hazards, discrepancies between different measurements of radiation near nuclear power plants. (U.K.)

  9. Psoriasis and ultraviolet radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farber, E.M.; Nall, L.

    1993-01-01

    Prevention and detection screening programs as a public health service in curtailing the ever-increasing incidence of all forms of skin cancer are reviewed. The effect of solar and artificial ultraviolet radiation on the general population and persons with psoriasis is examined. 54 refs

  10. Incidence and epidemiology of tibial shaft fractures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Peter; Elsøe, Rasmus; Hansen, Sandra Hope

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The literature lacks recent population-based epidemiology studies of the incidence, trauma mechanism and fracture classification of tibial shaft fractures. The purpose of this study was to provide up-to-date information on the incidence of tibial shaft fractures in a large....... The mean age at time of fracture was 38.5 (21.2SD) years. The incidence of tibial shaft fracture was 16.9/100,000/year. Males have the highest incidence of 21.5/100,000/year and present with the highest frequency between the age of 10 and 20, whereas women have a frequency of 12.3/100,000/year and have...... frequency of fractures while participating in sports activities and walking. Women present the highest frequency of fractures while walking and during indoor activities. Conclusion: This study shows an incidence of 16.9/100,000/year for tibial shaft fractures. AO-type 42-A1 was the most common fracture type...

  11. Analysis of a radiological incident and lessons to be learned: a case of industrial radiographic incident in great Britain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Croft, J.; Lefaure, Ch.

    2000-01-01

    This note describes a case study to provide feedback analysis and lessons to be learned from a radiological incident. This one occurred in the UK. It has been published in the European ALARA Newsletter no. 2 (January 1997) and has been selected from the IRID database (Ionising Radiation Incident Database) managed by the Health and Safety Executive, National Radiological Protection Board and Environmental Agency. (authors)

  12. Radiation measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Go, Sung Jin; Kim, Seung Guk; No, Gyeong Seok; Park, Myeong Hwan; Ann, Bong Seon

    1998-03-01

    This book explains technical terms about radiation measurement, which are radiation, radiation quantity and unit such as prefix of international unit, unit for defence purposes of radiation, coefficient of radiation and interaction, kinds and principles of radiation detector, ionization chamber, G-M counter, G-M tube, proportional counter, scintillation detector, semiconductor radiation detector, thermoluminescence dosimeter, PLD, others detector, radiation monitor, neutron detector, calibration of radiation detector, statistics of counting value, activation analysis and electronics circuit of radiation detector.

  13. Studies of leukaemia incidence in Scotland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urquhart, J.

    1989-01-01

    Scottish Cancer Registration Data and the Small Area Population Data provided by the General Register Office for Scotland offer unique opportunities for carrying out analyses of the incidence of cancer in precisely defined areas. The paper will explore some of the problems of drawing conclusions about the distribution of a rare disease such as childhood cancer and of interpreting results relating to specific sites. Scottish Cancer Registration Data will be used to provide specific examples to illuminate these problems. (author)

  14. Safety-related incidents at the Finnish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehtinen, P.

    1985-01-01

    This report contains detailed descriptions of operating incidents and other safety-related matters at the Finnish nuclear power plants regarded as significant by the regulatory authority, the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety. In this connection, an account is given of the practical actions caused by the incidents, and their significance to reactor safety is evaluated. The main features of the incidents are also described in the general Quartely Reports, Operation of Finnish Nuclear Power Plants, which are supplemented by this report intended for experts. (author)

  15. Safety-related incidents at the Finnish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehtinen, P.

    1986-03-01

    This report contains detailed descriptions of operating incidents and other safety-related matters at the Finnish nuclear power plants regarded as significant by the regulatory authority, the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety. In this connection, an account is given of the practical actions caused by the incidents, and their significance to reactor safety is evaluated. The main features of the incidents are also described in the general Quartely Reports, Operation of Finnish Nuclear Power Plants, which are supplemented by this report intended for experts. (author)

  16. Predicting Radiation Pneumonitis After Stereotactic Ablative Radiation Therapy in Patients Previously Treated With Conventional Thoracic Radiation Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Hui; Zhang Xu; Vinogradskiy, Yevgeniy Y.; Swisher, Stephen G.; Komaki, Ritsuko; Chang, Joe Y.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the incidence of and risk factors for radiation pneumonitis (RP) after stereotactic ablative radiation therapy (SABR) to the lung in patients who had previously undergone conventional thoracic radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: Seventy-two patients who had previously received conventionally fractionated radiation therapy to the thorax were treated with SABR (50 Gy in 4 fractions) for recurrent disease or secondary parenchymal lung cancer (T 10 and mean lung dose (MLD) of the previous plan and the V 10 -V 40 and MLD of the composite plan were also related to RP. Multivariate analysis revealed that ECOG PS scores of 2-3 before SABR (P=.009), FEV1 ≤65% before SABR (P=.012), V 20 ≥30% of the composite plan (P=.021), and an initial PTV in the bilateral mediastinum (P=.025) were all associated with RP. Conclusions: We found that severe RP was relatively common, occurring in 20.8% of patients, and could be predicted by an ECOG PS score of 2-3, an FEV1 ≤65%, a previous PTV spanning the bilateral mediastinum, and V 20 ≥30% on composite (previous RT+SABR) plans. Prospective studies are needed to validate these predictors and the scoring system on which they are based.

  17. Results of the implementation of a learning system with incidents in an radiotherapy department

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radicchi, Lucas Augusto; Vilela, Ellen Pedroso Severino; Faustino, Fabio de Lima C.; Rodrigues, Fernanda Arantes C.; Gomes, Franciele N.; Souza, Guilherme Vicente de; Silva, Rose Marta S.; Toledo, Jose Carlos de

    2016-01-01

    An incident learning system (ILS) is an important tool for improving aspects of patient and staff safety. In radiation oncology, ILS has been implemented both at the institutional level as at the national level, allowing to share lessons learned from incidents that have already occurred. The objective of this study is to present the preliminary results of the ILS implemented in a radiation oncology department. In total, 128 incidents were reviewed by a multidisciplinary committee, and the professional groups that registered more were medical physicists, radiation oncologists and radiation therapists. In addition, incidents have occurred and have been detected mainly in the treatment step. The incident learning system proved to be an important process improvement tool, according to the results shown,the improvement actions proposed and the perception of the people involved. (author)

  18. Cancer incidence rate after diagnostic X-ray exposure in 1976-2003 among patients of a university children's hospital; Inzidenz von Kinderkrebs nach Roentgendiagnostik im Patientenkollektiv der Jahre 1976-2003 einer Universitaets-Kinderklinik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammer, G.P.; Zeeb, H.; Blettner, M. [Mainz Univ. (DE). Inst. fuer Medizinische Biometrie, Epidemiologie und Informatik (IMBEI); Seidenbusch, M.C.; Schneider, K. [Klinikum der Univ. Muenchen, Dr. von Haunersches Kinderspital (Germany). Abt. Radiologie; Regulla, D. [Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen - Deutsches Forschungszentrum fuer Gesundheit und Umwelt, Neuherberg (Germany). Inst. fuer Strahlenschutz; Spix, C. [Mainz Univ. (Germany). Deutsches Kinderkrebsregister

    2010-05-15

    Purpose: Although the carcinogenic effect of ionizing radiation is well known, knowledge gaps persist on the health effects of low-dose radiation, especially in children. The cancer incidence rate in a cohort of 92,957 children diagnosed using X-rays in the years 1976-2003 in the radiology department of a large university clinic was studied. Materials and Methods: Individual radiation doses per examination were reconstructed using an algorithm taking into account the dose area product and other exposure parameters together with conversion factors computed specifically for the equipment and protocols used in the radiology department. Incident cancer cases in the period 1980-2006 were identified via record linkage to the German Childhood Cancer Registry using pseudonymized data. Results: A total of 87 cancers occurred in the cohort between 1980 and 2006: 33 leukemia, 13 lymphoma, 10 brain tumors, and 31 other tumors. The standardized incidence ratio (SIR) for all cancers was 0.99 (95 % CI: 0.79 1.22). A dose-response relationship was not observed for all cancers, leukemia and lymphoma or solid tumors. The cancer risks for boys and girls did not differ. Conclusion: No increase in the cancer incidence risk in relation to very low doses of diagnostic ionizing radiation was observed in this study. However, the results are compatible with a broad range of risk estimates. (orig.)

  19. Prevalence Incidence Mixture Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    The R package and webtool fits Prevalence Incidence Mixture models to left-censored and irregularly interval-censored time to event data that is commonly found in screening cohorts assembled from electronic health records. Absolute and relative risk can be estimated for simple random sampling, and stratified sampling (the two approaches of superpopulation and a finite population are supported for target populations). Non-parametric (absolute risks only), semi-parametric, weakly-parametric (using B-splines), and some fully parametric (such as the logistic-Weibull) models are supported.

  20. Significant incidents in nuclear fuel cycle facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    In contrast to nuclear power plants, events in nuclear fuel cycle facilities are not well documented. The INES database covers all the nuclear fuel cycle facilities; however, it was developed in the early 1990s and does not contain information on events prior to that. The purpose of the present report is to collect significant events and analyze them in order to give a safety related overview of nuclear fuel cycle facilities. Significant incidents were selected using the following criteria: release of radioactive material or exposure to radiation; degradation of items important to safety; and deficiencies in design, quality assurance, etc. which include criticality incidents, fire, explosion, radioactive release and contamination. This report includes an explanation, where possible, of root causes, lessons learned and action taken. 4 refs, 4 tabs.

  1. Significant incidents in nuclear fuel cycle facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-03-01

    In contrast to nuclear power plants, events in nuclear fuel cycle facilities are not well documented. The INES database covers all the nuclear fuel cycle facilities; however, it was developed in the early 1990s and does not contain information on events prior to that. The purpose of the present report is to collect significant events and analyze them in order to give a safety related overview of nuclear fuel cycle facilities. Significant incidents were selected using the following criteria: release of radioactive material or exposure to radiation; degradation of items important to safety; and deficiencies in design, quality assurance, etc. which include criticality incidents, fire, explosion, radioactive release and contamination. This report includes an explanation, where possible, of root causes, lessons learned and action taken. 4 refs, 4 tabs

  2. Grazing incidence optics; Proceedings of the Meeting, Orlando, FL, Apr. 3, 4, 1986

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osantowski, John F. (Editor); Van Speybroeck, Leon (Editor)

    1986-01-01

    Papers are presented on the diffraction-limited performance of grazing incidence optical systems; transverse ray aberrations of Wolter type 1 telescopes; hybrid X-ray telescope systems; surface characterization of grazing incidence optics in the extreme UV and X-ray regions; and the surface roughness properties of synchrotron radiation optics. Topics discussed include the simulation of free-abrasive grinding of grazing incidence mirrors with vertical-honing and flexible blades; mirrors for the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer; the design and development of conical X-ray imaging mirrors; thermal loading considerations for synchrotron radiation mirrors; and grazing incidence optics for synchrotron radiation insertion-device beams. Consideration is given to the interpretation of glancing incidence scattering measurements; damage processes in short wavelength coated FEL optics; the replication of grain incidence optics; and the assembly and alignment of the Technology Mirror Assembly.

  3. Improving freight crash incident management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the most effective way to mitigate the effect of freight : crash incidents on Louisiana freeways. Candidate incident management strategies were reviewed from : practice in other states and from those publi...

  4. Lundby revisited: first incidence of mental disorders 1947-1997

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogren, Mats; Mattisson, Cecilia; Horstmann, Vibeke

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate how first incidence of various mental disorders changed between the periods of 1947-1972 to 1972-1997 in the Lundby cohort. METHOD: First-incidence rates of mental disorders were calculated for two 25 year periods and ten 5 year periods. RESULTS: From 1947-1972 to 1972......-1997 a decrease in almost all age- and sex-specific incidences of neurotic and organic brain disorders was observed, whereas incidence rates of psychotic disorders increased consistently in male subjects but decreased in most age intervals in female subjects. For both sexes the age-standardized 5 year period...... incidences of neurotic disorders decreased after 1972, fluctuated for psychotic disorders 1947-1997 and decreased steadily for organic disorders 1947-1997. CONCLUSIONS: The reduction in neurotic and organic brain disorder incidences may be linked to structural changes in society and medical advances...

  5. Incidence Rate and Distribution of Common Cancers among Iranian Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salman Khazaei

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Geographic differences in the incidence of cancers may suggest unique genetic or environmental exposures that impact the risk of acquiring cancer. This research aims to determine the incidence rate and geographical distribution of common cancers among Iranian children. Methods: In this ecological study, we extracted data that pertained to the incidence rate of common cancers among children from reports by the National Registry of Cancer and Disease Control and Prevention in 2008. A map of the cancer incidence rates was designed by using geographic information system. Results:The most common cancer sites among children were the hematology system, brain and central nervous system, and lymph nodes. The central provinces had the lowest cancer incidences. Conclusion: The considerable variation in incidence of childhood cancers in Iran suggests a possible potential environmental risk factor or genetic background related to this increased risk among children.

  6. A Study on the Interaction Mechanism between Thermal Radiation and Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dehong XIA; Tao YU; Chuangu WU; Qingqing CHANG; Honglei JIAO

    2005-01-01

    From the viewpoint of field synergy principle and dipole radiation theory, the interaction between the incident thermal radiation wave and materials is analyzed to reveal the mechanism of selective absorption of incident thermal radiation. It is shown that the frequency of the incident thermal radiation and the damping constant of damping oscillators in materials are of vital importance for the thermal radiation properties (reflectivity, absorptivity, transmissivity, etc.) of materials.

  7. INCIDENCE OF AMPUTATION IN EMERGENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Rojaramani Kumbha

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Advanced Technology and early detection of disease by recent improvements in investigation modalities lead to decreased incidents of amputations while Road Traffic Accidents (RTA increase. Furthermore, it leads to variation and decreased morbidity, mortality and accidents (crush injuries, and better equipped and trained staff, specialist services, diabetic food, rehabilitation centres, and giving good support physically and psychologically for Amputated patients. OBJECTIVE To know incidence rates of Emergency Amputation who attended causality with advanced disease and severe Trauma. METHODOLOGY The study is done over a period of one year i.e. between June 2015 to June 2016 who attended causality with advanced and severe disease affecting the limbs either due to diabetes, trauma or vascular diseases. RESULTS During one-year period, total 6,371 patients attended for general surgery OP. In those, 187 patients needed emergency surgery which included both major and minor operations. Among those, 81 patients were amputated. CONCLUSION As per our available records and observation, even though there is increased literacy and access to advanced technology, there is still increased incidence of patients undergoing amputations due to diseases. Therefore, there is a need to improve awareness and importance of early detection of diabetes, hazards of smoking, and regular general health checkups for patients at root level. With that we can treat diabetes and/or any disease in time. So there must be awareness in peripheral health staff i.e. PHC, subcentres, and community health centres about early detection of disease which in turn improves the quality of life of the patient. Due to diabetes slight injury to the glucose laden tissue may cause chronic infection and ulcer formation.(1 The tumours are seen commonly in the age group of 20-40 years after bone fusion, bones affected commonly are those around the knee (lower end of knee, upper end of tibia. A lytic

  8. Light scattering reviews 8 radiative transfer and light scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Kokhanovsky, Alexander A

    2013-01-01

    Light scattering review (vol 8) is aimed at the presentation of recent advances in radiative transfer and light scattering optics. The topics to be covered include: scattering of light by irregularly shaped particles suspended in atmosphere (dust, ice crystals), light scattering by particles much larger as compared the wavelength of incident radiation, atmospheric radiative forcing, astrophysical radiative transfer, radiative transfer and optical imaging in biological media, radiative transfer of polarized light, numerical aspects of radiative transfer.

  9. Comparação de produtos de radiação solar incidente à superfície para a América do Sul Product comparison of solar radiation incident surface for South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucía Iracema Chipponelli Pinto

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Para algumas aplicações meteorológicas, o conhecimento da radiação solar incidente à superfície (Sin é muito importante. Métodos convencionais de medida deste fluxo são pontuais e, portanto, representativos de pequenas áreas. Por outro lado, os satélites meteorológicos possibilitam uma cobertura regular de todo o globo terrestre, proporcionando estimativas de fluxos radiativos sobre grandes áreas com resolução espacial do sensor (apenas alguns quilômetros. Além disso, produtos de reanálise fornecem estimativas alternativas de Sin, que precisam ser adequadamente validadas. Este trabalho compara quatro bancos de dados de radiação solar incidente para a América do Sul: três produtos provenientes de reanálise (NCEP/NCAR, ERA-40 e Eta/CPTEC e o produto gerado pelo algoritmo GL1.2, que produz estimativas da Sin a partir do conjunto de imagens do satélite GOES. Os resultados mostram que os campos de radiação solar incidente dos produtos de reanálise do NCEP/NCAR, ERA-40 e as estimativas do satélite GOES apresentam valores médios mensais bem próximos para todos os biomas e bacias estudados. Já a reanálise do Eta/CPTEC apresentou valores bem mais elevados para à radiação sobre a América do Sul, tanto para a média anual como nas médias mensais analisadas.For some meteorological applications, knowledge of incoming solar radiation at surface level (Sin is very important. Conventional measurements of this flux by individual sensors are representative of small areas only. On the other hand, meteorological satellites allow a regular cover of the entire globe, providing estimates of radiative fluxes over wide areas, within the spatial resolution of the sensor (a few km. In addition, reanalysis products provide alternative Sin estimates that must be adequately validated. This work compares four long-term Sin databases for South America: three reanalysis products (NCEP/NCAR, ERA-40 e Eta/CPTEC and the database produced by

  10. Effect of contamination on gynecological disease incidence in women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agamova, K.A.; Sotnikova, E.N.; Gladunova, Z.D.; Novikova, E.G.; Aleksandrova, L.M.

    1995-01-01

    Epithelial tissues of neck of the womb, cervical canal and endometritis in women residing on the territories with increased radiation background after the Chernobyl accident have been examined. The cytologic diagnosis method employed demonstrated a high information content. Incidence of background, precancer and inflammatory processes has been ascertained in compliance with cytological classification. Cytomorphological signs of possible radiation-induced injury of cells have been studied

  11. Gulf War Illnesses: DOD's Conclusions about U.S. Troops' Exposure Cannot Be Adequately Supported

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rhodes, Keith

    2004-01-01

    ... (MOD) conclusions about troops' exposure. The GAO found that DoD's and MOD's conclusions about troops' exposure to CW agents, based on DoD and CIA plume modeling, cannot be adequately supported...

  12. Increasing incidence of pyogenic spondylodiscitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kehrer, Michala; Pedersen, Court; Jensen, Thøger G

    2014-01-01

    Smaller studies indicate that the incidence of pyogenic spondylodiscitis is increasing, possible related to a growing elderly population. Data supporting this is sparse, and we therefore studied patient characteristics and changes in spondylodiscitis incidence 1995-2008.......Smaller studies indicate that the incidence of pyogenic spondylodiscitis is increasing, possible related to a growing elderly population. Data supporting this is sparse, and we therefore studied patient characteristics and changes in spondylodiscitis incidence 1995-2008....

  13. Mapping of the seasonal dynamic properties of building walls in actual periodic conditions and effects produced by solar radiation incident on the outer and inner surfaces of the wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazzeo, D.; Oliveti, G.; Arcuri, N.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Dynamic thermal behaviour of building walls subjected to actual periodic loadings. • Dynamic parameters of wall in terms of energy and of heat flux are defined. • Different solar absorption coefficients and orientations of wall are considered. • On the internal surface is present or absent a shortwave radiant field. • Seasonal thermal characteristics for different plant operating regime are provided. - Abstract: In this work, the dynamic characteristics of the external walls of air-conditioned buildings subject to the joint action of periodic non-sinusoidal external and internal loadings are determined. The dynamic parameters used are the energy decrement factor, which is evaluated by means of the fluctuating heat flux in a semi-period exiting and entering the wall, the decrement factor of the maximum peak and minimum peak of the heat flux in a period and the relative time lags. The fluctuating heat flux in the wall in steady periodic regime conditions is determined with an analytical model obtained by resolving the equivalent electrical circuit. The preceding parameters are used for a study of the influence of solar radiation on the dynamic characteristics of the walls in summer and winter air-conditioning. Solar radiation is considered as operating on the external surface and on the internal surface due to the presence in the indoor environments of a shortwave radiant field. The absorbed solar heat flux by the external surface varies, modifying the solar absorption coefficient and wall orientation. Indoors, we considered a continuous operating regime of the plant and a regime with nocturnal attenuation. The results obtained, relating to 1152 different boundary conditions, were used for the construction of maps of dynamic characteristics, different on variation of the plant functioning regime and of the shortwave radiant load on the internal surface. The maps show the dependence of the decrement factors and of the time lags on variation of

  14. Hyperbaric oxygen treatment for radiation proctitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woo, Tony Choon Seng; Joseph, David; Oxer, Harry

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: Our objective was to assess, retrospectively, the efficacy of hyperbaric oxygen treatment in radiation proctitis in all patients who have completed treatment for this disease at the Fremantle Hyperbaric Oxygen Unit. This unit is the only one of its kind in Western Australia. Methods and Materials: Patients were assessed by a review of hospital records, blood bank records, and clinic review (if this was convenient), and all patients responded to a telephone survey. Patients were questioned regarding radiation proctitis symptoms and the degree to which each had improved. Results: Most patients had previously been treated with radiotherapy for prostate carcinoma. Patients with proctitis mainly suffered from bleeding, diarrhoea, incontinence, and pain. In more than half of these patients, symptoms partially or completely resolved after hyperbaric oxygen treatment. Conclusion: Radiation-induced proctitis is a difficult clinical problem to treat and will probably become more significant with the rising incidence of diagnosis of prostate cancer. Hyperbaric Oxygen should be considered in the treatment of radiation-induced proctitis. Further prospective trials with strict protocol guidelines are warranted

  15. Chromosome aberrations in Japanese fishermen exposed to fallout radiation 420-1200 km distant from the nuclear explosion test site at Bikini Atoll: report 60 years after the incident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Kimio; Ohtaki, Megu; Hoshi, Masaharu

    2016-08-01

    During the period from March to May, 1954, the USA conducted six nuclear weapon tests at the "Bravo" detonation sites at the Bikini and Enewetak Atolls, Marshall Islands. At that time, the crew of tuna fishing boats and cargo ships that were operating approximately 150-1200 km away from the test sites were exposed to radioactive fallout. The crew of the fishing boats and those on cargo ships except the "5th Fukuryu-maru" did not undergo any health examinations at the time of the incident. In the present study, chromosome aberrations in peripheral blood lymphocytes were examined in detail by the G-banding method in 17 crew members from 8 fishing boats and 2 from one cargo ship, 60 years after the tests. None of the subjects examined had suffered from cancer. The percentages of both stable-type aberrations such as translocation, inversion and deletion, and unstable-type aberrations such as dicentric and centric ring in the study group were significantly higher (1.4- and 2.3-fold, respectively) than those in nine age-matched controls. In the exposed and control groups, the percentages of stable-type aberrations were 3.35 % and 2.45 %, respectively, and the numbers of dicentric and centric ring chromosomes per 100 cells were 0.35 and 0.15, respectively. Small clones were observed in three members of the exposed group. These results suggest that the crews were exposed to slightly higher levels of fallout than had hitherto been assumed.

  16. Chromosome aberrations in Japanese fishermen exposed to fallout radiation 420-1200 km distant from the nuclear explosion test site at Bikini Atoll: report 60 years after the incident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Kimio [Hiroshima University, Research Institute for Radiation Biology and Medicine, Hiroshima City, Hiroshima (Japan); Institute for Environmental Sciences, Kakimita, Aomori (Japan); Ohtaki, Megu; Hoshi, Masaharu [Hiroshima University, Research Institute for Radiation Biology and Medicine, Hiroshima City, Hiroshima (Japan)

    2016-08-15

    During the period from March to May, 1954, the USA conducted six nuclear weapon tests at the ''Bravo'' detonation sites at the Bikini and Enewetak Atolls, Marshall Islands. At that time, the crew of tuna fishing boats and cargo ships that were operating approximately 150-1200 km away from the test sites were exposed to radioactive fallout. The crew of the fishing boats and those on cargo ships except the ''5th Fukuryu-maru'' did not undergo any health examinations at the time of the incident. In the present study, chromosome aberrations in peripheral blood lymphocytes were examined in detail by the G-banding method in 17 crew members from 8 fishing boats and 2 from one cargo ship, 60 years after the tests. None of the subjects examined had suffered from cancer. The percentages of both stable-type aberrations such as translocation, inversion and deletion, and unstable-type aberrations such as dicentric and centric ring in the study group were significantly higher (1.4- and 2.3-fold, respectively) than those in nine age-matched controls. In the exposed and control groups, the percentages of stable-type aberrations were 3.35 % and 2.45 %, respectively, and the numbers of dicentric and centric ring chromosomes per 100 cells were 0.35 and 0.15, respectively. Small clones were observed in three members of the exposed group. These results suggest that the crews were exposed to slightly higher levels of fallout than had hitherto been assumed. (orig.)

  17. Rating of transport and radiation source events. Draft additional guidance for the INES national officers for pilot use and feedback; Echelle de classement des incidents de radioprotection: document d'application du systeme international propose par l'AIEA pour les sources radioactives et les transports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-09-15

    The International Nuclear Event Scale (INES) is a means for promptly communicating to the public in consistent terms the safety significance of any reported event associated with radioactive material and/or radiation and to any event occurring during the transport of radioactive material. As described in the 2001 Edition of the INES User.s Manual, events are classified on the scale at seven levels: the upper levels (4-7) are termed accidents. and the lower levels (1-3) incidents. Events which have no safety significance are classified below scale at Level 0 and termed deviations. An overview of the principles for the rating under INES together with flow charts summarizing the rating process is provided in Appendix I. The 2001 Edition of the INES User.s Manual provides some guidance for the rating of transport and radiation source events. At the technical meeting held in 2002 the INES National Officers requested the IAEA/NEA Secretariat to prepare additional guidance. Progress was reported at the Technical Meeting of the INES National Officers in March 2004 where preparation of this draft additional guidance was requested for pilot use. This note provides additional guidance on the rating of transport and radiation source events. It is for pilot use and feedback and is broadly consistent with the INES User.s Manual. It provides more detailed information and an expanded approach for the rating based on actual exposure of workers and members of the public. It is designed to be used as a self-standing document with limited need for reference to the INES User Manual. (author)

  18. Incident Management: Process into Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaac, Gayle; Moore, Brian

    2011-01-01

    Tornados, shootings, fires--these are emergencies that require fast action by school district personnel, but they are not the only incidents that require risk management. The authors have introduced the National Incident Management System (NIMS) and the Incident Command System (ICS) and assured that these systems can help educators plan for and…

  19. Move Analysis of the Conclusion Sections of Research Papers in Persian and English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamani, Gerannaz; Ebadi, Saman

    2016-01-01

    The structure of the conclusion sections in Research Papers (RPs) is of significance in academic writing. The conclusion section in spite of providing an outline of the article, states other essential components, such as recommendations, implications and statements of possible lines of future research. This paper analyses the conclusion parts of…

  20. Radiation-Induced Esophagitis is Mitigated by Soy Isoflavones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew D Fountain

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Lung cancer patients receiving radiotherapy present with acute esophagitis and chronic fibrosis, as a result of radiation injury to esophageal tissues. We have shown that soy isoflavones alleviate pneumonitis and fibrosis caused by radiation toxicity to normal lung. The effect of soy isoflavones on esophagitis histopathological changes induced by radiation was investigated. Methods: C57BL/6 mice were treated with 10 Gy or 25 Gy single thoracic irradiation and soy isoflavones for up to 16 weeks. Damage to esophageal tissues was assessed by H&E, Masson’s Trichrome and Ki-67 staining at 1, 4, 10, 16 weeks after radiation. The effects on smooth muscle cells and leukocyte infiltration were determined by immunohistochemistry using anti-αSMA and anti-CD45 respectively. Results: Radiation caused thickening of esophageal tissue layers that was significantly reduced by soy isoflavones. Major radiation alterations included hypertrophy of basal cells in mucosal epithelium and damage to smooth muscle cells in muscularis mucosae as well as disruption of collagen fibers in lamina propria connective tissue with leukocyte infiltration. These effects were observed as early as one week after radiation and were more pronounced with a higher dose of 25 Gy. Soy isoflavones limited the extent of tissue damage induced by radiation both at 10 and 25 Gy.Conclusions: Soy isoflavones have a radioprotective effect on the esophagus, mitigating the early and late effects of radiation injury in several esophagus tissue layers. Soy could be administered with radiotherapy to decrease the incidence and severity of esophagitis in lung cancer patients receiving thoracic radiation therapy.

  1. Public knowledge and attitudes towards the 60Co incident in Qixian County, Henan Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lei Cuiping; Cheng Xiaojun; Zhang Qinfu

    2011-01-01

    of the local government, whereas the elite public placed themselves between the students and the mass public. The reasons why the local people left their homes to evade risk included rumors (67.2%), lack of radiation knowledge(61.9%), group psychology (59.2%), and failure of the government to inform the truth to the public in time (42.3%). Conclusions: The public still fails to know enough about radiation and nuclear power. Although they trust the government, they are dissatisfied with the performance of the local government in dealing with the incident. The negative evaluation of the students is worth concerning. (authors)

  2. Modern Radiation Therapy and Cardiac Outcomes in Breast Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boero, Isabel J.; Paravati, Anthony J.; Triplett, Daniel P.; Hwang, Lindsay; Matsuno, Rayna K.; Gillespie, Erin F.; Yashar, Catheryn M.; Moiseenko, Vitali; Einck, John P.; Mell, Loren K. [Department of Radiation Medicine and Applied Sciences, Moores Cancer Center, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California (United States); Parikh, Sahil A. [University Hospitals Case Medical Center, Harrington Heart and Vascular Institute, and Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Murphy, James D., E-mail: j2murphy@ucsd.edu [Department of Radiation Medicine and Applied Sciences, Moores Cancer Center, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California (United States)

    2016-03-15

    Purpose: Adjuvant radiation therapy, which has proven benefit against breast cancer, has historically been associated with an increased incidence of ischemic heart disease. Modern techniques have reduced this risk, but a detailed evaluation has not recently been conducted. The present study evaluated the effect of current radiation practices on ischemia-related cardiac events and procedures in a population-based study of older women with nonmetastatic breast cancer. Methods and Materials: A total of 29,102 patients diagnosed from 2000 to 2009 were identified from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results–Medicare database. Medicare claims were used to identify the radiation therapy and cardiac outcomes. Competing risk models were used to assess the effect of radiation on these outcomes. Results: Patients with left-sided breast cancer had a small increase in their risk of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) after radiation therapy—the 10-year cumulative incidence for these patients was 5.5% (95% confidence interval [CI] 4.9%-6.2%) and 4.5% (95% CI 4.0%-5.0%) for right-sided patients. This risk was limited to women with previous cardiac disease. For patients who underwent PCI, those with left-sided breast cancer had a significantly increased risk of cardiac mortality with a subdistribution hazard ratio of 2.02 (95% CI 1.23-3.34). No other outcome, including cardiac mortality for the entire cohort, showed a significant relationship with tumor laterality. Conclusions: For women with a history of cardiac disease, those with left-sided breast cancer who underwent radiation therapy had increased rates of PCI and a survival decrement if treated with PCI. The results of the present study could help cardiologists and radiation oncologists better stratify patients who need more aggressive cardioprotective techniques.

  3. Modern Radiation Therapy and Cardiac Outcomes in Breast Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boero, Isabel J.; Paravati, Anthony J.; Triplett, Daniel P.; Hwang, Lindsay; Matsuno, Rayna K.; Gillespie, Erin F.; Yashar, Catheryn M.; Moiseenko, Vitali; Einck, John P.; Mell, Loren K.; Parikh, Sahil A.; Murphy, James D.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Adjuvant radiation therapy, which has proven benefit against breast cancer, has historically been associated with an increased incidence of ischemic heart disease. Modern techniques have reduced this risk, but a detailed evaluation has not recently been conducted. The present study evaluated the effect of current radiation practices on ischemia-related cardiac events and procedures in a population-based study of older women with nonmetastatic breast cancer. Methods and Materials: A total of 29,102 patients diagnosed from 2000 to 2009 were identified from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results–Medicare database. Medicare claims were used to identify the radiation therapy and cardiac outcomes. Competing risk models were used to assess the effect of radiation on these outcomes. Results: Patients with left-sided breast cancer had a small increase in their risk of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) after radiation therapy—the 10-year cumulative incidence for these patients was 5.5% (95% confidence interval [CI] 4.9%-6.2%) and 4.5% (95% CI 4.0%-5.0%) for right-sided patients. This risk was limited to women with previous cardiac disease. For patients who underwent PCI, those with left-sided breast cancer had a significantly increased risk of cardiac mortality with a subdistribution hazard ratio of 2.02 (95% CI 1.23-3.34). No other outcome, including cardiac mortality for the entire cohort, showed a significant relationship with tumor laterality. Conclusions: For women with a history of cardiac disease, those with left-sided breast cancer who underwent radiation therapy had increased rates of PCI and a survival decrement if treated with PCI. The results of the present study could help cardiologists and radiation oncologists better stratify patients who need more aggressive cardioprotective techniques.

  4. Non-thyroid cancer incidence in Belarusian residents exposed to Chernobyl fallout in childhood and adolescence: Standardized Incidence Ratio analysis, 1997–2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostroumova, Evgenia; Hatch, Maureen; Brenner, Alina; Nadyrov, Eldar; Veyalkin, Ilya; Polyanskaya, Olga; Yauseyenka, Vasilina; Polyakov, Semion; Levin, Leonid

    2016-01-01

    Background: While an increased risk of thyroid cancer from post-Chernobyl exposure to Iodine-131 (I-131) in children and adolescents has been well-documented, risks of other cancers or leukemia as a result of residence in radioactively contaminated areas remain uncertain. Methods: We studied non-thyroid cancer incidence in a cohort of about 12,000 individuals from Belarus exposed under age of 18 years to Chernobyl fallout (median age at the time of Chernobyl accident of 7.9 years). During 15 years of follow-up from1997 through 2011, 54 incident cancers excluding thyroid were identified in the study cohort with 142,968 person-years at risk. We performed Standardized Incidence Ratio (SIR) analysis of all solid cancers excluding thyroid (n=42), of leukemia (n=6) and of lymphoma (n=6). Results: We found no significant increase in the incidence of non-thyroid solid cancer (SIR=0.83, 95% Confidence Interval [CI]: 0.61; 1.11), lymphoma (SIR=0.66, 95% CI: 0.26; 1.33) or leukemia (SIR=1.78, 95% CI: 0.71; 3.61) in the study cohort as compared with the sex-, age- and calendar-time-specific national rates. These findings may in part reflect the relatively young age of study subjects (median attained age of 33.4 years), and long latency for some radiation-related solid cancers. Conclusions: We found no evidence of statistically significant increases in solid cancer, lymphoma and leukemia incidence 25 years after childhood exposure in the study cohort; however, it is important to continue follow-up non-thyroid cancers in individuals exposed to low-level radiation at radiosensitive ages. - Highlights: • We monitor cancers in a Belarusian cohort of exposed as children due to Chernobyl. • No increase in solid cancer rates was found as compared to the national rates. • An elevation of leukemia rates was detected, although statistically insignificant. • Results are consistent with those in a cohort of exposed as children in Ukraine. • Further monitoring of cancer situation

  5. Non-thyroid cancer incidence in Belarusian residents exposed to Chernobyl fallout in childhood and adolescence: Standardized Incidence Ratio analysis, 1997–2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ostroumova, Evgenia, E-mail: ostroumovae@iarc.fr [Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services, 9609 Medical Center Drive, MSC 9776, Bethesda, 20892 MD (United States); Hatch, Maureen, E-mail: hatchm@mail.nih.gov [Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services, 9609 Medical Center Drive, MSC 9776, Bethesda, 20892 MD (United States); Brenner, Alina, E-mail: brennera@mail.nih.gov [Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services, 9609 Medical Center Drive, MSC 9776, Bethesda, 20892 MD (United States); Nadyrov, Eldar, E-mail: nadyrov2006@rambler.ru [The Republican Research Center for Radiation Medicine and Human Ecology, 290 Ilyicha Street, Gomel 246040 (Belarus); Veyalkin, Ilya, E-mail: veyalkin@mail.ru [The Republican Research Center for Radiation Medicine and Human Ecology, 290 Ilyicha Street, Gomel 246040 (Belarus); Polyanskaya, Olga, E-mail: polyanskaya@tut.by [The Republican Research Center for Radiation Medicine and Human Ecology, 290 Ilyicha Street, Gomel 246040 (Belarus); Yauseyenka, Vasilina, E-mail: yaus@mail.ru [The Republican Research Center for Radiation Medicine and Human Ecology, 290 Ilyicha Street, Gomel 246040 (Belarus); Polyakov, Semion, E-mail: spolyakov@belcmt.by [State Institution “Republican Scientific and Practical Center for Medical Technologies, Informatization, Administration and Management of Health”, 7-a Petrus Brovka Street, Minsk 220600 (Belarus); Levin, Leonid, E-mail: llevin@omr.med.by [Cancer Registry, State Establishment “N.N.Alexandrov National Cancer Center of Belarus for Oncology and Medical Radiology”, P.O., Lesnoy 223040 (Belarus); and others

    2016-05-15

    Background: While an increased risk of thyroid cancer from post-Chernobyl exposure to Iodine-131 (I-131) in children and adolescents has been well-documented, risks of other cancers or leukemia as a result of residence in radioactively contaminated areas remain uncertain. Methods: We studied non-thyroid cancer incidence in a cohort of about 12,000 individuals from Belarus exposed under age of 18 years to Chernobyl fallout (median age at the time of Chernobyl accident of 7.9 years). During 15 years of follow-up from1997 through 2011, 54 incident cancers excluding thyroid were identified in the study cohort with 142,968 person-years at risk. We performed Standardized Incidence Ratio (SIR) analysis of all solid cancers excluding thyroid (n=42), of leukemia (n=6) and of lymphoma (n=6). Results: We found no significant increase in the incidence of non-thyroid solid cancer (SIR=0.83, 95% Confidence Interval [CI]: 0.61; 1.11), lymphoma (SIR=0.66, 95% CI: 0.26; 1.33) or leukemia (SIR=1.78, 95% CI: 0.71; 3.61) in the study cohort as compared with the sex-, age- and calendar-time-specific national rates. These findings may in part reflect the relatively young age of study subjects (median attained age of 33.4 years), and long latency for some radiation-related solid cancers. Conclusions: We found no evidence of statistically significant increases in solid cancer, lymphoma and leukemia incidence 25 years after childhood exposure in the study cohort; however, it is important to continue follow-up non-thyroid cancers in individuals exposed to low-level radiation at radiosensitive ages. - Highlights: • We monitor cancers in a Belarusian cohort of exposed as children due to Chernobyl. • No increase in solid cancer rates was found as compared to the national rates. • An elevation of leukemia rates was detected, although statistically insignificant. • Results are consistent with those in a cohort of exposed as children in Ukraine. • Further monitoring of cancer situation

  6. Self-powered radiation detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Playfoot, K.C.; Bauer, R.F.; Goldstein, N.P.

    1980-01-01

    This invention relates to a self powered radiation detector requiring no excitation potential to generate a signal indicating a radiation flux. Such detectors comprise two electrically insulated electrodes, at a distance from each other. These electrodes are made of conducting materials having a different response for neutron and/or gamma ray radiation flux levels, as in nuclear power stations. This elongated detector generates an electric signal in terms of an incident flux of radiations cooperating with coaxial conductors insulated from each other and with different radiation reaction characteristics. The conductor with the greatest reaction to the radiations forms the central emitting electrode and the conductor with the least reaction to the radiations forms a tubular coaxial collecting electrode. The rhodium or cobalt tubular emitting electrode contains a ductile central conducting cable placed along the longitudinal axis of the detector. The latter is in high nickel steel with a low reaction to radiation [fr

  7. Ultraviolet radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawk, J.

    1986-01-01

    Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) from the sun or artificial sources is reflected or transmitted at the surface of the skin, about 5% of normally incident rays being directly reflected. The transmitted fraction is scattered, photochemically absorbed or dissipated as heat within the skin, or passes from it to contribute to the variable total amount of reflected and transmitted radiation. The UVR absorbers in skin are not definitely known, but DNA is a definite target and probably lipoprotein membranes, RNA, proteins, mucopolysaccharides, elastin and collagen. Photochemical or free radical damage to absorber or nearby organelles leads to pharmacological, ultrastructural, histological and clinical changes. Most frequent DNA damage is pyrimidine dimer formation, apparently inhibiting cell function and replication. This is largely enzymatically repaired in man in the dark by excision repair, post-replication repair and possible other enzymatic mechanisms, and at least in some organisms by light-induced photoreactivation repair. UVR exposure causes well recognized acute and chronic clinical syndromes in man. These are discussed in this paper

  8. Radiological incidents in industrial gamma radiography in the Philippines, 1979-1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borras, A.M.

    1994-01-01

    Among the many practices of radiation sources, the practice of industrial gamma radiography in the country has the most number of reported radiological incidents. During the past fourteen (14) years, from 1979-1993, twenty (20) incidents that have occurred were reported to the Institute. This paper presents the nature and extent of the 20 reported incidents as well as the results of the analysis of why these incidents happened. The results of the analysis showed that the causes of these incidents are mainly human error and equipment failure. Hence, the factors that can minimize or prevent the chance of occurrence and/or recurrence of incidents and in minimizing the hazard in case of radiological incidents are: a) proper training and re-training of personnel; b) proper and regular inspection and maintenance of equipment; c) adequate radiation survey; and d) proper storage and inventory of the radiography sealed sources. (author). 3 refs.; 5 figs.; 1 tab

  9. Conclusions and recommendations of the European ORAMED project for practical interventional radiology and nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikodemova, Denisa; Fueloep, Marko; Cabanekova, Helena

    2012-01-01

    The results of the recently published doses obtained by medical staff working in pulsed radiation fields, and performing interventional radiology (IR) or interventional cardiology (IC) procedures, as well as applications of radionuclides in nuclear medicine (NM), have shown significantly high levels of exposure, mainly to the hands and other parts of their bodies uncovered by protective equipment. The coordinated project ORAMED (Optimization of Radiation Protection of Medical Staff) was set-up by participation of 12 European countries and 34 IR/IC and NM departments, with the 5 main tasks: (i) optimization of radiation protection in IR and IC,with the aim to standardize a unified method of extremities and eye lens doses estimation, for 3 cardiac and 5 interventional diagnostic and therapeutic examinations; (ii) verification of the possibilities to use active personal dosemeters for typical pulsed radiation fields used in IR and IC; (iii) contribution to the extremities and eye lens dose reduction in nuclear medicine; (iv) development and application of a suitable eye lens dosemeter; and (v) elaboration of training materials and guidelines for