WorldWideScience

Sample records for incident probe beam

  1. Heavy ion beam probing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hickok, R L

    1980-07-01

    This report consists of the notes distributed to the participants at the IEEE Mini-Course on Modern Plasma Diagnostics that was held in Madison, Wisconsin in May 1980. It presents an overview of Heavy Ion Beam Probing that briefly describes the principles and discuss the types of measurements that can be made. The problems associated with implementing beam probes are noted, possible variations are described, estimated costs of present day systems, and the scaling requirements for large plasma devices are presented. The final chapter illustrates typical results that have been obtained on a variety of plasma devices. No detailed calculations are included in the report, but a list of references that will provide more detailed information is included.

  2. Heavy ion beam probing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hickok, R.L.

    1980-07-01

    This report consists of the notes distributed to the participants at the IEEE Mini-Course on Modern Plasma Diagnostics that was held in Madison, Wisconsin in May 1980. It presents an overview of Heavy Ion Beam Probing that briefly describes the principles and discuss the types of measurements that can be made. The problems associated with implementing beam probes are noted, possible variations are described, estimated costs of present day systems, and the scaling requirements for large plasma devices are presented. The final chapter illustrates typical results that have been obtained on a variety of plasma devices. No detailed calculations are included in the report, but a list of references that will provide more detailed information is included

  3. Grazing incidence beam expander

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akkapeddi, P.R.; Glenn, P.; Fuschetto, A.; Appert, Q.; Viswanathan, V.K.

    1985-01-01

    A Grazing Incidence Beam Expander (GIBE) telescope is being designed and fabricated to be used as an equivalent end mirror in a long laser resonator cavity. The design requirements for this GIBE flow down from a generic Free Electron Laser (FEL) resonator. The nature of the FEL gain volume (a thin, pencil-like, on-axis region) dictates that the output beam be very small. Such a thin beam with the high power levels characteristic of FELs would have to travel perhaps hundreds of meters or more before expanding enough to allow reflection from cooled mirrors. A GIBE, on the other hand, would allow placing these optics closer to the gain region and thus reduces the cavity lengths substantially. Results are presented relating to optical and mechanical design, alignment sensitivity analysis, radius of curvature analysis, laser cavity stability analysis of a linear stable concentric laser cavity with a GIBE. Fabrication details of the GIBE are also given.

  4. Development of Raman-shifted probe laser beam for plasma ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Optical diagnostics of laser-produced plasma requires a coherent, polarized probe beam synchronized with the pump beam. The probe beam should have energy above the background emission of plasma. Though the second harmonic probe beam satisfies most of the requirements, the plasma emission is larger ...

  5. Plasma diagnostic techniques using particle beam probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jennings, W.C.

    1980-07-01

    A brief overview is given of particle beam probing. The fundamental concepts common to all techniques are discussed as well as the design considerations for choosing a particular diagnostic technique. The capabilities of existing and proposed techniques, and the present status of the techniques in major magnetic confinement geometries is also presented. Techniques which involve the injection of a beam of neutral particles into the plasma are then considered. The techniques of beam attenuation, beam scattering, and active charge exchange using a beam of light particles such as hydrogen or helium are first presented. Optical measurements of the Zeeman splitting of the radiation from a neutral lithium beam is then discussed, including a new proposal for significantly improving this technique through the addition of a dye laser. Two techniques involving the injection of heavy neutral particles are then presented, and the section concludes with two proposed techniques for measuring the properties of the alpha particles produced from actual fusion reactions. The diagnostic techniques which are based upon the injection of a beam of charged particles into the plasma are next described. The advantages and limitations of these techniques in comparison with the neutral techniques are discussed, followed by a description of specific techniques

  6. Plasma diagnostic techniques using particle beam probes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jennings, W C

    1980-07-01

    A brief overview is given of particle beam probing. The fundamental concepts common to all techniques are discussed as well as the design considerations for choosing a particular diagnostic technique. The capabilities of existing and proposed techniques, and the present status of the techniques in major magnetic confinement geometries is also presented. Techniques which involve the injection of a beam of neutral particles into the plasma are then considered. The techniques of beam attenuation, beam scattering, and active charge exchange using a beam of light particles such as hydrogen or helium are first presented. Optical measurements of the Zeeman splitting of the radiation from a neutral lithium beam is then discussed, including a new proposal for significantly improving this technique through the addition of a dye laser. Two techniques involving the injection of heavy neutral particles are then presented, and the section concludes with two proposed techniques for measuring the properties of the alpha particles produced from actual fusion reactions. The diagnostic techniques which are based upon the injection of a beam of charged particles into the plasma are next described. The advantages and limitations of these techniques in comparison with the neutral techniques are discussed, followed by a description of specific techniques.

  7. The positioning device of beam probes for accelerator LUE-200

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becher, Yu.; Kalmykov, A.V.; Minashkin, M.F.; Sumbaev, A.P.

    2011-01-01

    The description of a device for the positioning of sliding beam probes which is the part of the beam diagnostic system for the LUE-200 electron linac of IREN installation is presented. The device provides remote control of input-output operation of beam probes of five diagnostic stations established in an accelerating tract and in the beam transportation channel of the accelerator

  8. Theoretical study of cylindrical energy analyzers for MeV range heavy ion beam probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujisawa, A.; Hamada, Y.

    1993-07-01

    A cylindrical energy analyzer with drift spaces is shown to have a second order focusing for beam incident angle when the deflection angle is properly chosen. The analyzer has a possibility to be applied to MeV range heavy ion beam probes, and will be also available for accurate particle energy measurements in many other fields. (author)

  9. Probing surface magnetism with ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winter, H.

    2007-01-01

    Ion beams can be used to probe magnetic properties of surfaces by a variety of different methods. Important features of these methods are related to trajectories of atomic projectiles scattered from the surface of a solid target and to the electronic interaction mechanisms in the surface region. Both items provide under specific conditions a high sensitivity for the detection of magnetic properties in the region at the topmost layer of surface atoms. This holds in particular for scattering under planar surface channeling conditions, where under grazing impact atoms or ions are reflected specularly from the surface without penetration into the subsurface region. Two different types of methods are employed based on the detection of the spin polarization of emitted or captured electrons and on spin blocking effects for capture into atomic terms. These techniques allow one to probe the long range and short range magnetic order in the surface region

  10. Metastable atom probe for measuring electron beam density profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockhart, J. M.; Zorn, J. C.

    1972-01-01

    Metastable atom probe was developed for measuring current density in electron beam as function of two arbitrary coordinates, with spatial resolution better than 0.5 mm. Probe shows effects of space charge, magnetic fields, and other factors which influence electron current density, but operates with such low beam densities that introduced perturbation is very small.

  11. Development of Raman-shifted probe laser beam for plasma ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    optical relays R-1, R-2 and R-3. The first two optical relays de-magnified the probe laser beam to a diameter of ~13 mm from initial beam diameter of 63 mm. Low- pass spatial filtering of the laser beam below 1.5 lines/cm was also done in R-1. Table 1 shows the focal lengths of the plano-convex lenses used in the relays, ...

  12. Characterization of the Li beam probe with a beam profile monitor on JET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedzelskiy, I S; Korotkov, A; Brix, M; Morgan, P; Vince, J

    2010-10-01

    The lithium beam probe (LBP) is widely used for measurements of the electron density in the edge plasma of magnetically confined fusion experiments. The quality of LBP data strongly depends on the stability and profile shape of the beam. The main beam parameters are as follows: beam energy, beam intensity, beam profile, beam divergence, and the neutralization efficiency. For improved monitoring of the beam parameters, a beam profile monitor (BPM) from the National Electrostatics Corporation (NEC) has been installed in the Li beam line at JET. In the NEC BPM, a single grounded wire formed into a 45° segment of a helix is rotated by a motor about the axis of the helix. During each full revolution, the wire sweeps twice across the beam to give X and Y profiles. In this paper, we will describe the properties of the JET Li beam as measured with the BPM and demonstrate that it facilitates rapid optimization of the gun performance.

  13. Probing of high density plasmas using the multi-beam, high power TiSa laser system ARCTURUS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willi, Oswald; Aktan, Esin; Brauckmann, Stephannie; Aurand, Bastian; Cerchez, Mirela; Prasad, Rajendra; Schroer, Anna Marie

    2017-10-01

    The understanding of relativistic laser plasma interaction at ultra-high intensities has advanced considerably during the last decade with the availability of multi-beam, high power TiSa laser systems. These laser systems allow pump-probe experiments to be carried out. The ARCTURUS laser at the University of Duesseldorf is ideally suited for various kinds of pump-probe experiments as it consists of two identical, high power beams with energies of 5J in 30 fs and a third beam for optical probing with energy of 30mJ in a 30fs pulse. All three beams are synchronised and have flexible time delays with respect to each other. Several different processes were studied where one of the beams was used as an interaction beam and the second one was incident on a thin solid gold foil to generate a proton beam. For example, thin foil targets were irradiated either with a linear or circular polarized pulse and probed with protons at different times. The expansion of foils for the two cases was clearly different consistent with numerical simulations. In addition, the interaction of gas targets was probed with protons and separately with an optical probe. With both diagnostics the formation of a channel was observed. In the presentation various two beam measurements will be discussed.

  14. Development of atomic beam probe for tokamaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berta, M., E-mail: bertam@sze.hu [Széchenyi István University, EURATOM Association, Győr (Hungary); Institute of Plasma Physics AS CR, v.v.i., Prague (Czech Republic); Anda, G.; Aradi, M.; Bencze, A.; Buday, Cs.; Kiss, I.G.; Tulipán, Sz.; Veres, G.; Zoletnik, S. [Wigner – RCP, HAS, EURATOM Association, Budapest (Hungary); Havlícek, J.; Háček, P. [Institute of Plasma Physics AS CR, v.v.i., Prague (Czech Republic); Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics (Czech Republic)

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: • ABP is newly developed diagnostic. • Unique measurement method for the determination of plasma edge current variations caused by different transient events such as ELMs. • The design process has been fruitfully supported by the physically motivated computer simulations. • Li-BES system has been modified accordingly to the needs of the ABP. -- Abstract: The concept and development of a new detection method for light alkali ions stemming from diagnostic beams installed on medium size tokamak is described. The method allows us the simultaneous measurement of plasma density fluctuations and fast variations in poloidal magnetic field, therefore one can infer the fast changes in edge plasma current. The concept has been worked out and the whole design process has been done at Wigner RCP. The test detector with appropriate mechanics and electronics is already installed on COMPASS tokamak. General ion trajectory calculation code (ABPIons) has also been developed. Detailed calculations show the possibility of reconstruction of edge plasma current density profile changes with high temporal resolution, and the possibility of density profile reconstruction with better spatial resolution compared to standard Li-BES measurement, this is important for pedestal studies.

  15. A new optical method for measuring surface temperature at large incident probe angles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, A. S.; Norris, P. M.

    1997-02-01

    A novel thermoreflectance technique has been developed for noncontact temperature measurements using laser light incident at large angles on solid materials and devices. The method involves measuring the differential reflectance from a polarization modulated laser beam. The polarization differential reflectance technique is demonstrated on single-crystal Si wafers and on a polycrystalline carbon thin film over a temperature range of 20-60 °C. The method is shown to be an extremely sensitive temperature probe for near grazing angle measurements, which could be useful for monitoring the surface temperature of closely stacked silicon wafers used in batch processing in the microelectronics industry.

  16. Heavy Neutral Beam Probe for Edge Plasma Analysis in Tokamaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castracane, J.

    2001-01-04

    The Heavy Neutral Beam Probe (HNBP) developed initially with DOE funding under the Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program was installed on the Tokamak de Varennes (TdeV) at the CCFM. This diagnostic was designed to perform fundamental measurements of edge plasma properties. The hardware was capable of measuring electron density and potential profiles with high spatial and temporal resolution. Fluctuation spectra for these parameters were obtained with HNBP for transport studies.

  17. Heavy Neutral Beam Probe for Edge Plasma Analysis in Tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castracane, J.

    2001-01-01

    The Heavy Neutral Beam Probe (HNBP) developed initially with DOE funding under the Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program was installed on the Tokamak de Varennes (TdeV) at the CCFM. This diagnostic was designed to perform fundamental measurements of edge plasma properties. The hardware was capable of measuring electron density and potential profiles with high spatial and temporal resolution. Fluctuation spectra for these parameters were obtained with HNBP for transport studies

  18. Behavior of obliquely incident vector Bessel beams at planar interfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Salem, Mohamed

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the behavior of full-vector electromagnetic Bessel beams obliquely incident at an interface between two electrically different media. We employ a Fourier transform domain representation of Bessel beams to determine their behavior upon reflection and transmission. This transform, which is geometric in nature, consists of elliptical support curves with complex weighting associated with them. The behavior of the scattered field at an interface is highly complex, owing to its full-vector nature; nevertheless, this behavior has a straightforward representation in the transform domain geometry. The analysis shows that the reflected field forms a different vector Bessel beam, but in general, the transmitted field cannot be represented as a Bessel beam. Nevertheless, using this approach, we demonstrate a method to propagate a Bessel beam in the refractive medium by launching a non- Bessel beam at the interface. Several interesting phenomena related to the behavior of Bessel beams are illustrated, such as polarized reflection at Brewster\\'s angle incidence, and the Goos-Hänchen and Imbert-Federov shifts in the case of total reflection. © 2013 Optical Society of America.

  19. Defects introduced by Ar plasma exposure in GaAs probed by monoenergetic positron beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uedono, Akira; Tanigawa, Shoichiro [Tsukuba Univ., Ibaraki (Japan). Inst. of Materials Science; Kawano, Takao; Wada, Kazumi; Nakanishi, Hideo

    1994-10-01

    Ar-plasma-induced defects in n-type GaAs were probed by a monoenergetic positron beam. The depth distribution of the defects was obtained from measurements of Doppler broadening profiles of the annihilation radiation as a function of incident positron energy. The damaged layer induced by the exposure was found to extend far beyond the stopping range of Ar ions, and the dominant defects were identified as interstitial-type defects. After 100degC annealing, such defects were annealed. Instead, vacancy-type defects were found to be the dominant defects in the subsurface region. (author).

  20. Recent beam probe measurements on EBT, TMX, and RENTOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hickok, R L

    1980-06-01

    It is noted that beam probe systems can provide accurate, reliable measurments of plasma space potential and nf(T/sub e/). Over some temperature range, at least, it should be possible to separate n and T/sub e/ by measuring the multiple ionization reaction products. It is also an ideal diagnostic for studying fluctuations since it provides a simultaneous measurement of phi and nf(T/sub e/) from the same point in the plasma and the measurements are continuous in time. Measurements can be made quasi-continuously in space by rapidly sweeping the beam. By using more than one detector it should be possible to make measurements simultaneously at two different observation points in the plasma.

  1. Recent beam probe measurements on EBT, TMX, and RENTOR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hickok, R.L.

    1980-06-01

    It is noted that beam probe systems can provide accurate, reliable measurments of plasma space potential and nf(T/sub e/). Over some temperature range, at least, it should be possible to separate n and T/sub e/ by measuring the multiple ionization reaction products. It is also an ideal diagnostic for studying fluctuations since it provides a simultaneous measurement of phi and nf(T/sub e/) from the same point in the plasma and the measurements are continuous in time. Measurements can be made quasi-continuously in space by rapidly sweeping the beam. By using more than one detector it should be possible to make measurements simultaneously at two different observation points in the plasma

  2. Development of a beam ion velocity detector for the heavy ion beam probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fimognari, P. J.; Crowley, T. P.; Demers, D. R.

    2016-01-01

    In an axisymmetric plasma, the conservation of canonical angular momentum constrains heavy ion beam probe (HIBP) trajectories such that measurement of the toroidal velocity component of secondary ions provides a localized determination of the poloidal flux at the volume where they originated. We have developed a prototype detector which is designed to determine the beam angle in one dimension through the detection of ion current landing on two parallel planes of detecting elements. A set of apertures creates a pattern of ion current on wires in the first plane and solid metal plates behind them; the relative amounts detected by the wires and plates determine the angle which beam ions enter the detector, which is used to infer the toroidal velocity component. The design evolved from a series of simulations within which we modeled ion beam velocity changes due to equilibrium and fluctuating magnetic fields, along with the ion beam profile and velocity dispersion, and studied how these and characteristics such as the size, cross section, and spacing of the detector elements affect performance.

  3. Dependance of sputtering yield on incident angle for ion beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanizaki, Hironori; Ooba, Hikaru; Masuhara, Kenichi

    1987-07-01

    The relationship between sputtering yeild (S/sub theta/) and the incident angle (theta) of an ion beam to some metals such as Fe, Ni, Zn and SUS304, was studied by Ion Micro Analyzer (IMA). It was confirmed that S/sub theta/ varied as a function of (costheta)/sup -f/. The value of f was differed with each sample, and ranged from 1.0 to 1.5 in this study. As theta increased, the surface roughness of the sputtered samples became greater, and the depth resolution of the depth profile became worse. It is necessary to pay attention to depth resolution, when various data concerning different incident angles are compared.

  4. Using a short-pulse diffraction-limited laser beam to probe filamentation of a random phase plate smoothed beam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kline, J L; Montgomery, D S; Flippo, K A; Johnson, R P; Rose, H A; Shimada, T; Williams, E A

    2008-10-01

    A short pulse (few picoseconds) laser probe provides high temporal resolution measurements to elucidate details of fast dynamic phenomena not observable with typical longer laser pulse probes and gated diagnostics. Such a short pulse laser probe (SPLP) has been used to measure filamentation of a random phase plate (RPP) smoothed laser beam in a gas-jet plasma. The plasma index of refraction due to driven density and temperature fluctuations by the RPP beam perturbs the phase front of a SPLP propagating at a 90 degree angle with respect to the RPP interaction beam. The density and temperature fluctuations are quasistatic on the time scale of the SPLP (approximately 2 ps). The transmitted near-field intensity distribution from the SPLP provides a measure of the phase front perturbation. At low plasma densities, the transmitted intensity pattern is asymmetric with striations across the entire probe beam in the direction of the RPP smoothed beam. As the plasma density increases, the striations break up into smaller sizes along the direction of the RPP beam propagation. The breakup of the intensity pattern is consistent with self-focusing of the RPP smoothed interaction beam. Simulations of the experiment using the wave propagation code, PF3D, are in qualitative agreement demonstrating that the asymmetric striations can be attributed to the RPP driven density fluctuations. Quantification of the beam breakup measured by the transmitted SPLP could lead to a new method for measuring self-focusing of lasers in underdense plasmas.

  5. Scaling of heavy ion beam probes for reactor-size devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hickok, R.L.; Jennings, W.C.; Connor, K.A.; Schoch, P.M.

    1984-01-01

    Heavy ion beam probes for reactor-size plasma devices will require beam energies of approximately 10 MeV. Although accelerator technology appears to be available, beam deflection systems and parallel plate energy analyzers present severe difficulties if existing technology is scaled in a straightforward manner. We propose a different operating mode which will use a fixed beam trajectory and multiple cylindrical energy analyzers. Development effort will still be necessary, but we believe the basic technology is available

  6. 2D potential measurements by applying automatic beam adjustment system to heavy ion beam probe diagnostic on the Large Helical Device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, A.; Ido, T.; Kato, S.; Hamada, Y.; Kurachi, M.; Makino, R.; Nishiura, M.; Nishizawa, A.

    2014-01-01

    Two-dimensional potential profiles in the Large Helical Device (LHD) were measured with heavy ion beam probe (HIBP). To measure the two-dimensional profile, the probe beam energy has to be changed. However, this task is not easy, because the beam transport line of LHD-HIBP system is very long (∼20 m), and the required beam adjustment consumes much time. To reduce the probe beam energy adjustment time, an automatic beam adjustment system has been developed. Using this system, required time to change the probe beam energy is dramatically reduced, such that two-dimensional potential profiles were able to be successfully measured with HIBP by changing the probe beam energy shot to shot

  7. Characteristics of off-waist incident anomalous vortex beams in highly nonlocal media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen-Feng Yang

    Full Text Available In this paper, we focus on the effect of the off-waist incident condition on the propagation characteristics of anomalous vortex beams (AVBs in nonlocal media. An expression is derived mathematically in order to describe the propagation dynamics of AVBs in nonlocal media under the off-waist incident condition. Typical propagation characteristics induced by the off-waist incident condition are illustrated numerically. It is found that the propagation characteristics under the off-waist incident condition are much different from those under the on-waist incident condition. Keywords: Off-waist incidence, Anomalous vortex beam, Nonlocal media

  8. Ion beam probe diagnostic system for the LITE experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stufflebeam, J.H.; Jennings, W.C.; Hickok, R.L.

    1974-11-01

    The problem of defocusing of the ion beam by the strong gradients in the magnetic field was discussed. It was shown this can be overcome by a linear field lens to shape the initial beam, or by proper selection of the size and position of the secondary ion detector. The results of the preliminary beam alignment were presented and the favorable comparison of the scaling formula and computer simulation was evident

  9. Polarimetry diagnostic on OMEGA EP using a 10-ps, 263-nm probe beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davies, A., E-mail: adavies@lle.rochester.edu; Haberberger, D.; Boni, R.; Ivancic, S.; Brown, R.; Froula, D. H. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14623 (United States)

    2014-11-15

    A polarimetry diagnostic was built and characterized for magnetic-field measurements in laser-plasma experiments on the OMEGA EP laser. This diagnostic was built into the existing 4ω (263-nm) probe system that employs a 10-ps laser pulse collected with an f/4 imaging system. The diagnostic measures the rotation of the probe beam's polarization. The polarimeter uses a Wollaston prism to split the probe beam into orthogonal polarization components. Spatially localized intensity variations between images indicate polarization rotation. Magnetic fields can be calculated by combining the polarimetry data with the measured plasma density profile obtained from angular filter refractometry.

  10. Polarimetry diagnostic on OMEGA EP using a 10-ps, 263-nm probe beam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, A; Haberberger, D; Boni, R; Ivancic, S; Brown, R; Froula, D H

    2014-11-01

    A polarimetry diagnostic was built and characterized for magnetic-field measurements in laser-plasma experiments on the OMEGA EP laser. This diagnostic was built into the existing 4ω (263-nm) probe system that employs a 10-ps laser pulse collected with an f/4 imaging system. The diagnostic measures the rotation of the probe beam's polarization. The polarimeter uses a Wollaston prism to split the probe beam into orthogonal polarization components. Spatially localized intensity variations between images indicate polarization rotation. Magnetic fields can be calculated by combining the polarimetry data with the measured plasma density profile obtained from angular filter refractometry.

  11. Polarimetry diagnostic on OMEGA EP using a 10-ps, 263-nm probe beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, A.; Haberberger, D.; Boni, R.; Ivancic, S.; Brown, R.; Froula, D. H.

    2014-01-01

    A polarimetry diagnostic was built and characterized for magnetic-field measurements in laser-plasma experiments on the OMEGA EP laser. This diagnostic was built into the existing 4ω (263-nm) probe system that employs a 10-ps laser pulse collected with an f/4 imaging system. The diagnostic measures the rotation of the probe beam's polarization. The polarimeter uses a Wollaston prism to split the probe beam into orthogonal polarization components. Spatially localized intensity variations between images indicate polarization rotation. Magnetic fields can be calculated by combining the polarimetry data with the measured plasma density profile obtained from angular filter refractometry

  12. SU-E-T-610: Phosphor-Based Fiber Optic Probes for Proton Beam Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darafsheh, A; Soldner, A; Liu, H; Kassaee, A; Zhu, T; Finlay, J [Univ Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To investigate feasibility of using fiber optics probes with rare-earth-based phosphor tips for proton beam radiation dosimetry. We designed and fabricated a fiber probe with submillimeter resolution (<0.5 mm3) based on TbF3 phosphors and evaluated its performance for measurement of proton beam including profiles and range. Methods: The fiber optic probe with TbF3 phosphor tip, embedded in tissue-mimicking phantoms was irradiated with double scattering proton beam with energy of 180 MeV. Luminescence spectroscopy was performed by a CCD-coupled spectrograph to analyze the emission spectra of the fiber tip. In order to measure the spatial beam profile and percentage depth dose, we used singular value decomposition method to spectrally separate the phosphors ionoluminescence signal from the background Cerenkov radiation signal. Results: The spectra of the TbF3 fiber probe showed characteristic ionoluminescence emission peaks at 489, 542, 586, and 620 nm. By using singular value decomposition we found the contribution of the ionoluminescence signal to measure the percentage depth dose in phantoms and compared that with measurements performed with ion chamber. We observed quenching effect at the spread out Bragg peak region, manifested as under-responding of the signal, due to the high LET of the beam. However, the beam profiles were not dramatically affected by the quenching effect. Conclusion: We have evaluated the performance of a fiber optic probe with submillimeter resolution for proton beam dosimetry. We demonstrated feasibility of spectral separation of the Cerenkov radiation from the collected signal. Such fiber probes can be used for measurements of proton beams profile and range. The experimental apparatus and spectroscopy method developed in this work provide a robust platform for characterization of proton-irradiated nanophosphor particles for ultralow fluence photodynamic therapy or molecular imaging applications.

  13. Influence of laser beam incidence angle on laser lap welding quality of galvanized steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Lifang; Yan, Dongbing; Chen, Genyu; Wang, Zhenhui; Chen, Shuixuan

    2017-11-01

    Based on the characteristics of laser welded structural parts of auto bodies, the influence of variation in laser beam incidence angle on the lap welding performance of galvanized auto-body sheets was studied. Lap welding tests were carried out on the galvanized sheets for auto-body application at different laser beam incidence angles by using the optimal welding parameters obtained through orthogonal experiment. The effects of incidence angle variation on seam appearance, cross-sectional shape, joint mechanical properties and microstructure of weldments were analyzed. In addition, the main factors influencing the value of incidence angle were investigated. According to the results, the weld seams had a good appearance as well as a fine, and uniform microstructure when the laser beam incidence angle was smaller than the critical incidence angle, and thus they could withstand great tensile and shear loads. Moreover, all tensile-shear specimens were fractured in the base material zone. When the laser beam incidence angle was larger than the critical incidence angle, defects like shrinkage and collapse tended to emerge, thereby resulting in the deteriorated weldability of specimens. Meanwhile, factors like the type and thickness of sheet, weld width as well as inter-sheet gap all had a certain effect on the value of laser beam incidence angle. When the sheet thickness was small and the weld width was narrow, the laser beam incidence angle could be increased appropriately. At the same time, small changes in the inter-sheet gap could greatly impact the value of incidence angle. When the inter-sheet gap was small, the laser beam incidence angle should not be too large.

  14. Consideration of magnetic field fluctuation measurements in a torus plasma with heavy ion beam probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, A.; Fujisawa, A.; Ohshima, S.; Nakano, H.

    2004-03-01

    The article discusses feasibility of magnetic fluctuation measurement with a heavy ion beam probe (HIBP) in an axisymmetric torus configuration. In the measurements, path integral fluctuation along the probing beam orbit should be considered as is similar to the density fluctuation measurements with HIBP. A calculation, based on an analytic formula, is performed to estimate the path integral effects for fluctuation patterns that have difference in profile, the correlation length, the radial wavelength, and the poloidal mode number. In addition, the large distance between the plasma and the detector is considered to lessen the path integral effect. As a result, it is found that local fluctuation of magnetic field can be properly detected with a heavy ion beam probe. (author)

  15. Heavy ion beam probe development for the plasma potential measurement on the TUMAN-3M tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Askinazi, L.G.; Kornev, V.A.; Lebedev, S.V.; Tukachinsky, A.S.; Zhubr, N.A.; Dreval, N.B.; Krupnik, L.I.

    2004-01-01

    The peculiarities of the heavy ion beam probe implementation on the small aspect ratio tokamak TUMAN-3M are analyzed. The toroidal displacement of beam trajectory due to the high I pl /B tor ratio is taken into account when designing the layout of the diagnostic. Numerical calculation of beam trajectories using realistic configuration of TUMAN-3M magnetic fields and parabolic plasma current profile resulted in proper adjustment of probing and detection parameters (probing ion material, energy, entrance angles, detector location, and orientation). Secondary ion energy analyzer gain functions G and F were measured in situ using neutral hydrogen puffed in the tokamak vessel as a target for secondary ions production. The detector unit featured split-plate design and had additional electrodes for secondary electron emission suppression. As a result, the diagnostic is now capable of plasma potential evolution measurement and is sensitive enough to trace the potential profile evolution at the L-H mode transition

  16. The effects of laser beam incident angle and intensity distribution on Fabry-Perot etalon spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Fahua; Wang, Yingying; Shi, Wenjuan; Chen, Ying; Liu, Mengling; Guo, Wenxin

    2017-11-01

    Fabry-Perot(F-P) etalon has important applications in laser detection, lidar and laser communication systems. In practical applications, the spectrum of the F-P etalon is affected by various factors, such as incident angle, divergence angle, spectral width, intensity distribution of the incident beam, absorption loss, surface defects of the plate and so on. The effects of the incident angle and the beam intensity distribution on F-P etalon spectrum are mainly analyzed. For the first time, taking into account both the beam incident angle and divergence angle, the precise analytical expression of the F-P etalon transmission spectrum is derived. For the Gaussian light intensity distribution, the precise analytical expression of the F-P etalon transmission spectrum is derived. The simulation analysis is carried out and the results are as follows. When the beam divergence angle is not zero, the incident angle increases, on the one hand, the center of the etalon spectrum is moved to the high frequency, and the frequency shift is linear with the square of the incident angle. The slope decreases with the increase of the divergence angle. On the other hand, resulting in peak reduction, spectral line broadening, and with the divergence angle increases, the more obvious the phenomenon. Considering the distribution of Gaussian light intensity, the spectrum of the etalon will be improved with the increase concentration of beam energy. On the one hand, the peak value is increased, the spectral line is narrowed and with the incidence angle increases, the degree of improvement is more obvious. On the one hand, the center of the spectrum moves toward the low frequency, but the larger the incident angle, the smaller the movement amount. The error of frequency discrimination or frequency locking by using the F-P etalon spectrum increases rapidly with the increase of the beam incident angle and beam divergence angle, and the Gaussian light intensity distribution beam can effectively

  17. Probing Neutrino Properties with Long-Baseline Neutrino Beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marino, Alysia [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2015-06-29

    This final report on an Early Career Award grant began in April 15, 2010 and concluded on April 14, 2015. Alysia Marino's research is focussed on making precise measurements of neutrino properties using intense accelerator-generated neutrino beams. As a part of this grant, she is collaborating on the Tokai-to-Kamioka (T2K) long-baseline neutrino experiment, currently taking data in Japan, and on the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE) design effort for a future Long-Baseline Neutrino Facility (LBNF) in the US. She is also a member of the NA61/SHINE particle production experiment at CERN, but as that effort is supported by other funds, it will not be discussed further here. T2K was designed to search for the disappearance of muon neutrinos (νμ) and the appearance of electron neutrinos (νe), using a beam of muon neutrino beam that travels 295 km across Japan towards the Super-Kamiokande detector. In 2011 T2K first reported indications of νe appearance, a previously unobserved mode of neutrino oscillations. In the past year, T2K has published a combined analysis of νμ disappearance and νe appearance, and began collecting taking data with a beam of anti-neutrinos, instead of neutrinos, to search for hints of violation of the CP symmetry of the universe. The proposed DUNE experiment has similar physics goals to T2K, but will be much more sensitive due to its more massive detectors and new higher-intensity neutrino beam. This effort will be very high-priority particle physics project in the US over the next decade.

  18. Probing Neutrino Properties with Long-Baseline Neutrino Beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marino, Alysia

    2015-01-01

    This final report on an Early Career Award grant began in April 15, 2010 and concluded on April 14, 2015. Alysia Marino's research is focussed on making precise measurements of neutrino properties using intense accelerator-generated neutrino beams. As a part of this grant, she is collaborating on the Tokai-to-Kamioka (T2K) long-baseline neutrino experiment, currently taking data in Japan, and on the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE) design effort for a future Long-Baseline Neutrino Facility (LBNF) in the US. She is also a member of the NA61/SHINE particle production experiment at CERN, but as that effort is supported by other funds, it will not be discussed further here. T2K was designed to search for the disappearance of muon neutrinos (? ? ) and the appearance of electron neutrinos (? e ), using a beam of muon neutrino beam that travels 295 km across Japan towards the Super-Kamiokande detector. In 2011 T2K first reported indications of ? e appearance, a previously unobserved mode of neutrino oscillations. In the past year, T2K has published a combined analysis of ? ? disappearance and ? e appearance, and began collecting taking data with a beam of anti-neutrinos, instead of neutrinos, to search for hints of violation of the CP symmetry of the universe. The proposed DUNE experiment has similar physics goals to T2K, but will be much more sensitive due to its more massive detectors and new higher-intensity neutrino beam. This effort will be very high-priority particle physics project in the US over the next decade.

  19. Novel probe for determining the size and position of a relativistic electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orzechowski, T.J.; Koehler, H.; Edwards, W.; Nelson, M.; Marshall, B.

    1984-01-01

    In order to determine the size and position of a relativistic electron beam inside the wiggler magnetic field of a Free Electron Laser (FEL), we have developed a new probe which intercepts the electron beam on a high Z target and monitors the resulting bremsstrahlung radiation. The probe is designed to move along the entire three meters of the wiggler. This FEL is designed to operate in the microwave region (2 to 8 mm) and the interaction region is an oversized waveguide with a cross section 3 cm x 9.8 cm. The axial probe moves inside this waveguide. The probe stops the electron beam on a Tantalum target and the resulting x-rays are scattered in the forward direction. A scintillator behind the beam stop reacts to the x-rays and emits visible light in the region where the x-rays strike. An array of fiber optics behind the scintillator transmits the visible light to a Reticon camera system which images the visible pattern from the scintillator. Processing the optical image is done by digitizing and storing the image and/or recording the image on video tape. Resolution and performance of this probe will be discussed

  20. Heavy ion beam probe plasma diagnostic system for the deep magnetic well LITE device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stufflebeam, J.H.; Jennings, W.C.; Hickok, R.L.

    1978-01-01

    A heavy ion beam probe plasma diagnostic system has been developed for the Laser Initiated Target Experiment (LITE) at UTRC. This is the first application of ion beam probing to a plasma confined by a strongly three dimensional magnetic field. The deep magnetic well, minimum-B field produced by the ''baseball'' magnet coil results in complex trajectories and severe defocusing of both the injected primary beam and detected secondary beam. Spatial resolution can be maintained by aperturing the entrance slit to the detector or installing compensating ion optics. The system is capable of space and time resolved measurements of plastic density and space potential near the central region of the mirror-confined plasma. 11 refs

  1. The PBX-M 80 kV neutral probe beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kugel, H.W.; Kaita, R.; Gammel, G.M.; Kozub, T.A.; Roberts, D.W.; Coupland, J.R.; Gray, I.L.S.; Mepham, J.W.

    1989-01-01

    The PBX-M Neutral Probe Beam Project was initiated to design, fabricate, acceptance-test, install, and commission an 80 kV, 2.7 A neutral probe beam for use in PBX-M q-profile measurements. The 100 ms, H 0 output beam is modulated at 1 kHz and has a pulse repetition rate of 3 min. The beam has a divergence of 0.5 0 and a focal length of 400 cm. The injection angle can be varied about 25 0 , from near perpendicular to outboard tangential. The beamline is shielded from magnetic fields and interfaces to the existing mechanical, electrical, and control systems of PBX-M. (orig.)

  2. The PBX-M 80 kV neutral probe beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kugel, H.W.; Kaita, R.; Gammel, G.M.; Kozub, T.A.; Roberts, D.W. (Princeton Univ., NJ (USA). Plasma Physics Lab.); Coupland, J.R.; Gray, I.L.S.; Mepham, J.W. (UKAEA Culham Lab., Abingdon)

    1989-04-01

    The PBX-M Neutral Probe Beam Project was initiated to design, fabricate, acceptance-test, install, and commission an 80 kV, 2.7 A neutral probe beam for use in PBX-M q-profile measurements. The 100 ms, H/sup 0/ output beam is modulated at 1 kHz and has a pulse repetition rate of 3 min. The beam has a divergence of 0.5/sup 0/ and a focal length of 400 cm. The injection angle can be varied about 25/sup 0/, from near perpendicular to outboard tangential. The beamline is shielded from magnetic fields and interfaces to the existing mechanical, electrical, and control systems of PBX-M. (orig.).

  3. Electron beam sounding rocket experiments for probing the distant magnetosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemzek, R. J.; Winckler, J. R.

    1991-01-01

    Electron accelerators on sounding rockets have injected 8-40-keV electrons on closed magnetospheric tail field lines near 250 km altitude in the northern auroral zone. These beams mirrored at the southern conjugate point ad returned as 'echoes' which were detected on the rocket system. The 20 percent of the beam that returned was sufficient to measure field line lengths and verify magnetospheric magnetic models, to measure fluctuating electric fields, and electron pitch angle scattering (6-10) R(E) distant, and to identify 10-100 V field-aligned potentials above the rocket. The experiment gives new insight into the motion of natural electrons in the outer Van Allen radiation belt.

  4. Development of a Pump-Probe System using a Non-Coated ZnSe Beam Splitter Cube for an MIR-FEL

    CERN Document Server

    Heya, Manabu; Horiike, Hiroshi; Ishii, Katsonuri; Suzuki, Sachiko

    2004-01-01

    A pump-probe technique is essential for a proper understanding of laser interaction with tissue and material. Our pump-probe system divides the incident mid-infrared Free Electron Laser (MIR-FEL) into two beams with equal intensity, and crosses simultaneously the two incoming beams at the same position. One is for a pump beam, another is for a probe beam. Time-resolved absorption spectroscopy involving this technique gives us information on the vibrational dynamics of molecules. We have developed this system for an MIR-FEL using a non-coating ZnSe beam splitter cube. The beam splitter cube is composed of two ZnSe prisms in the shape like a trapezoid. The two pulses with equal intensity are generated due to Fresnel reflection and transmission at the boundary between two prisms, then are reflected due to total reflection at other side boundaries between each prism and air, and illuminate simultaneously the same spot. We have conducted a proof-of-concept of experiment of this system using an MIR-FEL. We showed t...

  5. Probing the phase of the elastic pp scattering amplitude with vortex proton beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivanov, I. P. [IFPA, Universite de Liege, Allee du 6 Aout 17, batiment B5a, 4000 Liege, Belgium Sobolev Institute of Mathematics, Koptyug avenue 4, 630090, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    2013-04-15

    We show that colliding vortex proton beams instead of (approximate) plane waves can lead to a direct measurement of how the overall phase of the scattering amplitude changes with the scattering angle. In elastic pp scattering, this will open a novel way to measure the parameter {rho}(t) and probe the real part of the Pomeron.

  6. Preparation and Analysis of Atom Probe Tips by Xenon Focused Ion Beam Milling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estivill, Robert; Audoit, Guillaume; Barnes, Jean-Paul; Grenier, Adeline; Blavette, Didier

    2016-06-01

    The damage and ion distribution induced in Si by an inductively coupled plasma Xe focused ion beam was investigated by atom probe tomography. By using predefined patterns it was possible to prepare the atom probe tips with a sub 50 nm end radius in the ion beam microscope. The atom probe reconstruction shows good agreement with simulated implantation profiles and interplanar distances extracted from spatial distribution maps. The elemental profiles of O and C indicate co-implantation during the milling process. The presence of small disc-shaped Xe clusters are also found in the three-dimensional reconstruction. These are attributed to the presence of Xe nanocrystals or bubbles that open during the evaporation process. The expected accumulated dose points to a loss of >95% of the Xe during analysis, which escapes undetected.

  7. In situ magnetic compensation for potassium spin-exchange relaxation-free magnetometer considering probe beam pumping effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Jiancheng; Wang, Tao, E-mail: wangtaowt@aspe.buaa.edu.cn; Quan, Wei; Yuan, Heng; Li, Yang [School of Instrument Science and Opto-Electronics Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Zhang, Hong; Zou, Sheng [School of Instrument Science and Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China)

    2014-06-15

    A novel method to compensate the residual magnetic field for an atomic magnetometer consisting of two perpendicular beams of polarizations was demonstrated in this paper. The method can realize magnetic compensation in the case where the pumping rate of the probe beam cannot be ignored. In the experiment, the probe beam is always linearly polarized, whereas, the probe beam contains a residual circular component due to the imperfection of the polarizer, which leads to the pumping effect of the probe beam. A simulation of the probe beam's optical rotation and pumping rate was demonstrated. At the optimized points, the wavelength of the probe beam was optimized to achieve the largest optical rotation. Although, there is a small circular component in the linearly polarized probe beam, the pumping rate of the probe beam was non-negligible at the optimized wavelength which if ignored would lead to inaccuracies in the magnetic field compensation. Therefore, the dynamic equation of spin evolution was solved by considering the pumping effect of the probe beam. Based on the quasi-static solution, a novel magnetic compensation method was proposed, which contains two main steps: (1) the non-pumping compensation and (2) the sequence compensation with a very specific sequence. After these two main steps, a three-axis in situ magnetic compensation was achieved. The compensation method was suitable to design closed-loop spin-exchange relaxation-free magnetometer. By a combination of the magnetic compensation and the optimization, the magnetic field sensitivity was approximately 4 fT/Hz{sup 1/2}, which was mainly dominated by the noise of the magnetic shield.

  8. Recovering about 5 km of LHC Beam Vacuum System after Sector 3-4 Incident

    CERN Document Server

    Baglin, Vincent; Jenninger, Berthold; Jimenez, Jose; Mahner, Edgar; Schneider, Gerhard; Sinturel, Alexandre; Vidal, Alexis

    2010-01-01

    During the sec­tor 3-4 incident, the two apertures of the 3 km long cryogenic vacuum sectors of the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) were brutally vented to helium. A systematic visual inspection of the beam pipe revealed the presence of soot, metallic debris and super insulation debris. After four month of cleaning, the beam vacuum system was recovered. This paper describes the tools and methodologies developed during this period, the achieved performances and discusses possible upgrades

  9. Probing WWγ and WWγγ couplings with high energy photon beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, S.Y.; Schrempp, F.

    1992-01-01

    The potential of a 500 GeV 'Next Linear e + e - Collider' (NLC) for probing anomalous WWγ and WWγγ couplings in the γ(γ) mode is investigated. The γe - →W - ν and the γγ→W + W - processes are studied. Differential cross sections are given for polarized and unpolarized beams. CP violating couplings are also discussed. (K.A.) 13 refs., 6 figs

  10. Modern Focused-Ion-Beam-Based Site-Specific Specimen Preparation for Atom Probe Tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prosa, Ty J; Larson, David J

    2017-04-01

    Approximately 30 years after the first use of focused ion beam (FIB) instruments to prepare atom probe tomography specimens, this technique has grown to be used by hundreds of researchers around the world. This past decade has seen tremendous advances in atom probe applications, enabled by the continued development of FIB-based specimen preparation methodologies. In this work, we provide a short review of the origin of the FIB method and the standard methods used today for lift-out and sharpening, using the annular milling method as applied to atom probe tomography specimens. Key steps for enabling correlative analysis with transmission electron-beam backscatter diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and atom probe tomography are presented, and strategies for preparing specimens for modern microelectronic device structures are reviewed and discussed in detail. Examples are used for discussion of the steps for each of these methods. We conclude with examples of the challenges presented by complex topologies such as nanowires, nanoparticles, and organic materials.

  11. Ion beam probe plasma diagnostic system. Technical progress report, 1 February 1977--31 December 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hickok, R.L.; Jennings, W.C.; Woo, J.T.; connor, K.A.

    1979-01-01

    During this time, reliable operation of the research tokamak, RENTOR, has been established but thedischarge is characterized by a large runaway populaion producing a strong x-ray flux. An ion beam probe and a Thomson scattering diagnostic system have been installed on RENTOR, but no definitive results have been obtained due to the large noise signal generated by the x-ray flux. The ALICE baseball coil has been obtained on loan from LLL and is being set up as the ALEX mirror system. It will be used for particle beam diagnostic development in 3 dimensional magnetic well geometry. A heavy neutral beam diagnostic system has been designed and is under construction for measuring the space potential in ALEX. Improvements in the focusing properties of ion guns and in the sensitivity of the feedback controlled electrostatic energy analyzers have been obtained

  12. Density Fluctuation Measurements in the MST Reversed Field Pinch Using a Heavy Ion Beam Probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X.; Connor, K. A.; Demers, D. R.; Schatz, J. G.; Schoch, P. M.

    2002-11-01

    Localized measurements of density fluctuations in the hot core of the Madison Symmetric Torus (MST) reversed field pinch have been made with a Heavy Ion Beam Probe (HIBP). The density fluctuations are 10 - 20% in the region 0.25corruption, such as ion path effects and electronic noise. The HIBP on MST has 2 additional factors that are not common to most HIBPs. The small machine ports (2" injection port and 4.5" detection port) can result in vignetting of the beam and the constantly changing magnetic fields causes the beam's sample location to move. It is shown that such instrument effects can be accounted for and are small in selected data sets.

  13. Large-angle production of charged pions with incident pion beams on nuclear targets

    CERN Document Server

    Apollonio, M.; Bagulya, A.; Barr, G.; Blondel, A.; Bobisut, F.; Bogomilov, M.; Bonesini, M.; Booth, C.; Borghi, S.; Bunyatov, S.; Burguet-Castell, J.; Catanesi, M.G.; Cervera-Villanueva, A.; Chimenti, P.; Coney, L.; Di Capua, E.; Dore, U.; Dumarchez, J.; Edgecock, R.; Ellis, M.; Ferri, F.; Gastaldi, U.; Giani, S.; Giannini, G.; Gibin, D.; Gilardoni, S.; Gorbunov, P.; Gossling, C.; Gomez-Cadenas, J.J.; Grant, A.; Graulich, J.S.; Gregoire, G.; Grichine, V.; Grossheim, A.; Guglielmi, A.; Howlett, L.; Ivanchenko, A.; Ivanchenko, V.; Kayis-Topaksu, A.; Kirsanov, M.; Kolev, D.; Krasnoperov, A.; Martin-Albo, J.; Meurer, C.; Mezzetto, M.; Mills, G.B.; Morone, M.C.; Novella, P.; Orestano, D.; Palladino, V.; Panman, J.; Papadopoulos, I.; Pastore, F.; Piperov, S.; Polukhina, N.; Popov, B.; Prior, G.; Radicioni, E.; Schmitz, D.; Schroeter, R.; Skoro, G.; Sorel, M.; Tcherniaev, E.; Temnikov, P.; Tereschenko, V.; Tonazzo, A.; Tortora, L.; Tsenov, R.; Tsukerman, I.; Vidal-Sitjes, G.; Wiebusch, C.; Zucchelli, P.

    2009-01-01

    Measurements of the double-differential pi+/- production cross-section in the range of momentum 100 MeV/c <= p <= 800 MeV/c and angle 0.35 rad <= theta <= 2.15 rad using pi+/- beams incident on beryllium, aluminium, carbon, copper, tin, tantalum and lead targets are presented. The data were taken with the large acceptance HARP detector in the T9 beam line of the CERN PS. The secondary pions were produced by beams in a momentum range from 3 GeV/c to 12.9 GeV/c hitting a solid target with a thickness of 5% of a nuclear interaction length. The tracking and identification of the produced particles was performed using a small-radius cylindrical time projection chamber (TPC) placed inside a solenoidal magnet. Incident particles were identified by an elaborate system of beam detectors. Results are obtained for the double-differential cross-sections d2sigma/dpdtheta at six incident beam momenta. Data at 3 GeV/c, 5 GeV/c, 8 GeV/c, and 12 GeV/c are available for all targets while additional data at 8.9 GeV/...

  14. Measurement of the space potential of a high-temperature plasma by fast atomic beam scattering on an ion probe beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kabantsev, A. A.; Taskayev, S. Yu. [AN SSSR, Novosibirsk (USSR). Inst. Yadernoj Fiziki

    1988-06-01

    In this work we carry out an analysis of the possibility of measuring the potential distribution of a high-temperature plasma by scattering fast atoms on an ion probe beam. The proposed method is based on the idea of determining the energy of the ion beam, which depends on the plasma potential, from the energy spectrum of the scattered atoms. Application of this method allows one to avoid a number of fundamental difficulties characteristic of plasma potential measurements which make use of heavy-ion probe beams. 34 refs., 1 fig.

  15. Measurement of the space potential of a high-temperature plasma by fast atomic beam scattering on an ion probe beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kabantsev, A.A.; Taskayev, S.Yu.

    1989-01-01

    In this work we carry out an analysis of the possibility of measuring the potential distribution of a high-temperature plasma by scattering fast atoms on an ion probe beam. The proposed method is based on the idea of determining the energy of the ion beam, which depends on the plasma potential, from the energy spectrum of the scattered atoms. Application of this method allows one to avoid a number of fundamental difficulties characteristic of plasma potential measurements which make use of heavy-ion probe beams. 34 refs., 1 fig

  16. Study on laser welding of austenitic stainless steel by varying incident angle of pulsed laser beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Nikhil; Mukherjee, Manidipto; Bandyopadhyay, Asish

    2017-09-01

    In the present work, AISI 304 stainless steel sheets are laser welded in butt joint configuration using a robotic control 600 W pulsed Nd:YAG laser system. The objective of the work is of twofold. Firstly, the study aims to find out the effect of incident angle on the weld pool geometry, microstructure and tensile property of the welded joints. Secondly, a set of experiments are conducted, according to response surface design, to investigate the effects of process parameters, namely, incident angle of laser beam, laser power and welding speed, on ultimate tensile strength by developing a second order polynomial equation. Study with three different incident angle of laser beam 89.7 deg, 85.5 deg and 83 deg has been presented in this work. It is observed that the weld pool geometry has been significantly altered with the deviation in incident angle. The weld pool shape at the top surface has been altered from semispherical or nearly spherical shape to tear drop shape with decrease in incident angle. Simultaneously, planer, fine columnar dendritic and coarse columnar dendritic structures have been observed at 89.7 deg, 85.5 deg and 83 deg incident angle respectively. Weld metals with 85.5 deg incident angle has higher fraction of carbide and δ-ferrite precipitation in the austenitic matrix compared to other weld conditions. Hence, weld metal of 85.5 deg incident angle achieved higher micro-hardness of ∼280 HV and tensile strength of 579.26 MPa followed by 89.7 deg and 83 deg incident angle welds. Furthermore, the predicted maximum value of ultimate tensile strength of 580.50 MPa has been achieved for 85.95 deg incident angle using the developed equation where other two optimum parameter settings have been obtained as laser power of 455.52 W and welding speed of 4.95 mm/s. This observation has been satisfactorily validated by three confirmatory tests.

  17. Feasibility of a Heavy Ion Beam Probe for W7-X

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowley, T. P.; Demers, D. R.; Fimognari, P. J.; Grulke, O.; Laube, R.

    2017-10-01

    A feasibility study of a Heavy Ion Beam Probe (HIBP) diagnostic for the Wendelstein 7-X (W7-X) superconducting stellarator, incorporating the accelerator and energy analyzer (currently in Greifswald) from the 2 MeV TEXT-U HIBP, is being carried out. The study's results are positive: beam trajectory simulations in the W7-X standard magnetic configuration, with central densities up to 1020 m-3, predict that it will be possible to measure the equilibrium plasma potential and Er at all radii, and simultaneously measure temporally and spatially resolved fluctuations of ne and potential for r / a >0.5. This will provide a unique capability to advance understanding of neoclassical and turbulent particle and energy transport in W7-X. Within this feasibility study, the beam is injected and detected through the K11 and N11 ports respectively, and the toroidal magnetic field is in the ` + φ ' direction. Additional beam simulations reveal that most radii can be accessed in 7 other paradigm magnetic configurations. It's anticipated that electrostatic beam steering suitable for studying all these configurations is plausible; it will have plate dimensions comparable to TEXT-U's with smaller electric fields and higher voltages. Initial estimates of anticipated heat load from the W7-X plasma on the steering systems indicate it will be significant, but tractable. Our conclusion from these studies is that an HIBP diagnostic for W7-X is feasible. This work is supported by US DoE Award DE-SC0013918.

  18. Application of focused ion beam to atom probe tomography specimen preparation from mechanically alloyed powders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Pyuck-Pa; Al-Kassab, Tala'at; Kwon, Young-Soon; Kim, Ji-Soon; Kirchheim, Reiner

    2007-10-01

    Focused ion-beam milling has been applied to prepare needle-shaped atom probe tomography specimens from mechanically alloyed powders without the use of embedding media. The lift-out technique known from transmission electron microscopy specimen preparation was modified to cut micron-sized square cross-sectional blanks out of single powder particles. A sequence of rectangular cuts and annular milling showed the highest efficiency for sharpening the blanks to tips. First atom probe results on a Fe95Cu5 powder mechanically alloyed in a high-energy planetary ball mill for 20 h have been obtained. Concentration profiles taken from this powder sample showed that the Cu distribution is inhomogeneous on a nanoscale and that the mechanical alloying process has not been completed yet. In addition, small clusters of oxygen, stemming from the ball milling process, have been detected. Annular milling with 30 keV Ga ions and beam currents >or=50 pA was found to cause the formation of an amorphous surface layer, whereas no structural changes could be observed for beam currents

  19. Ion beam probe plasma diagnostic system. Annual progress report, 1 February 1976--31 January 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jennings, W.C.; Connor, K.A.; Hickok, R.L.

    1977-01-01

    The major thrust of this program has been to place the research tokamak facility, RENTOR, in operation and to develop the diagnostic systems to be used on this facility. Tokamak discharges lasting approx.1 msec are routinely produced, with the lifetime limited by magnetic field errors introduced by the large diagnostic boxes. Fine tuning of the fields is presently in progress. A complete heavy ion beam probe system has been constructed and is partially installed. A Thomson scattering experiment has also been developed and is scheduled for installation in the near future. The ten-channel data acquisition system has also been placed in operation with a completely designed computer interface system. In addition several improvements have been made in our minicomputer capabilities in terms of data processing and calculation of ion trajectories. The theory for measuring the magnetic vector potential with a beam probe has been developed and computer simulations have been performed. Finally our test stand operations have continued to lead to improvements in producing and controlling ion beams

  20. Defects in heavily phosphorus-doped Si epitaxial films probed by monoenergetic positron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uedono, Akira; Tanigawa, Shoichiro; Suzuki, Ryoichi; Ohgaki, Hideaki; Mikado, Tomohisa.

    1994-01-01

    Vacancy-type defects in heavily phosphorus-doped Si epitaxial films were probed by monoenergetic positron beams. Doppler broadening profiles of the annihilation radiation and lifetime spectra of positrons were measured for the epitaxial films grown on the Si substrates by plasma chemical vapor deposition. For the as-deposited film, divacancy-phosphorus complexes were found with high concentration. After 600degC annealing, vacancy clusters were formed near the Si/Si interface, while no drastic change in the depth distribution of the divacancy-phosphorus complexes was observed. By 900degC annealing, the vacancy clusters were annealed out; however, the average number of phosphorus atoms coupled with divacancies increased. The relationship between the vacancy-type defects probed by the positron annihilation technique and the carrier concentration was confirmed. (author)

  1. Defects in heavily phosphorus-doped Si epitaxial films probed by monoenergetic positron beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uedono, Akira; Tanigawa, Shoichiro [Tsukuba Univ., Ibaraki (Japan). Inst. of Materials Science; Suzuki, Ryoichi; Ohgaki, Hideaki; Mikado, Tomohisa

    1994-11-01

    Vacancy-type defects in heavily phosphorus-doped Si epitaxial films were probed by monoenergetic positron beams. Doppler broadening profiles of the annihilation radiation and lifetime spectra of positrons were measured for the epitaxial films grown on the Si substrates by plasma chemical vapor deposition. For the as-deposited film, divacancy-phosphorus complexes were found with high concentration. After 600degC annealing, vacancy clusters were formed near the Si/Si interface, while no drastic change in the depth distribution of the divacancy-phosphorus complexes was observed. By 900degC annealing, the vacancy clusters were annealed out; however, the average number of phosphorus atoms coupled with divacancies increased. The relationship between the vacancy-type defects probed by the positron annihilation technique and the carrier concentration was confirmed. (author).

  2. Innovation and optimization of a method of pump-probe polarimetry with pulsed laser beams in view of a precise measurement of parity violation in atomic cesium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chauvat, D.

    1997-10-01

    While Parity Violation (PV) experiments on highly forbidden transitions have been using detection of fluorescence signals; our experiment uses a pump-probe scheme to detect the PV signal directly on a transmitted probe beam. A pulsed laser beam of linear polarisation ε 1 excites the atoms on the 6S-7S cesium transition in a colinear electric field E || k(ex). The probe beam (k(pr) || k(ex)) of linear polarisation ε 2 tuned to the transition 7S-6P(3/2) is amplified. The small asymmetry (∼ 10 -6 ) in the gain that depends on the handedness of the tri-hedron (E, ε 1 , ε 2 ) is the manifestation of the PV effect. This is measured as an E-odd apparent rotation of the plane of polarization of the probe beam; using balanced mode polarimetry. New criteria of selection have been devised, that allow us to distinguish the true PV-signal against fake rotations due to electromagnetic interferences, geometrical effects, polarization imperfections, or stray transverse electric and magnetic fields. These selection criteria exploit the symmetry of the PV-rotation - linear dichroism - and the revolution symmetry of the experiment. Using these criteria it is not only possible to reject fake signals, but also to elucidate the underlying physical mechanisms and to measure the relevant defects of the apparatus. The present signal-to-noise ratio allows embarking in PV measurements to reach the 10% statistical accuracy. A 1% measurement still requires improvements. Two methods have been demonstrated. The first one exploits the amplification of the asymmetry at high gain - one major advantage provided by our detection method based on stimulated emission. The second method uses both a much higher incident intensity and a special dichroic component which magnifies tiny polarization rotations. (author)

  3. Low energy spin polarized radioactive beams as a probe of thin films and interfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Kiefl, R F; Amaudruz, P A; Arseneau, D; Baartman, R; Beals, T R; Behr, J; Brewer, J; Daviel, S; Hatakeyama, A; Hitti, B; Kreitzman, S R; Levy, C D P; Miller, R; Olivo, M; Poutissou, R; Morris, G D; Dunsiger, S R; Heffner, R; Chow, K H; Hirayama, Y; Izumi, H; Bommas, C; Dumont, E; Greene, L H

    2003-01-01

    A spectrometer for beta-detected nuclear magnetic resonance (beta-NMR) has been commissioned at the ISAC facility at TRIUMF. A beam of low energy highly spin polarized sup 8 Li sup + can be decelerated and implanted into ultra-thin structures 6-400 nm thick. beta-NMR provides local information on the electronic and magnetic properties of materials which is similar to conventional NMR but can be used as a sensitive probe of ultra-thin films, interfaces and other nanostructures. We report here on the status of the spectrometer and preliminary results on a simple metal film.

  4. 2D electron density profile measurement in tokamak by laser-accelerated ion-beam probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y H; Yang, X Y; Lin, C; Wang, L; Xu, M; Wang, X G; Xiao, C J

    2014-11-01

    A new concept of Heavy Ion Beam Probe (HIBP) diagnostic has been proposed, of which the key is to replace the electrostatic accelerator of traditional HIBP by a laser-driven ion accelerator. Due to the large energy spread of ions, the laser-accelerated HIBP can measure the two-dimensional (2D) electron density profile of tokamak plasma. In a preliminary simulation, a 2D density profile was reconstructed with a spatial resolution of about 2 cm, and with the error below 15% in the core region. Diagnostics of 2D density fluctuation is also discussed.

  5. Study of plasma confinement in ELMO Bumpy Torus with a heavy-ion beam probe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bieniosek, F. M.

    1981-01-01

    Plasma confinement in ELMO Bumpy Torus (EBT) is generally strongly dependent on an ambipolar electric field. Spatially resolved measurements of the resulting electric space potential phi/sub sp/ have been made in a single plasma cross section by the heavy-ion beam probe. This diagnostic injects a 4-60-keV beam of (usually) Cs/sup +/ ions into the plasma. Measurement of the energy of Cs/sup 2 +/ secondary ions leaving the plasma gives a continuous monitor of the local space potential. In addition, the total detected Cs/sup 2 +/ ion current is proportional to the product of the local electron density and the ionization rate, which, in turn, is a function of the electron temperature. This signal, nf(T/sub e/), is sensitive to all three electron distributions found in EBT - those of the cold surface plasma, the warm core plasma, and the hot electron ring.

  6. Study of plasma confinement in ELMO Bumpy Torus with a heavy-ion beam probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bieniosek, F.M.

    1981-01-01

    Plasma confinement in ELMO Bumpy Torus (EBT) is generally strongly dependent on an ambipolar electric field. Spatially resolved measurements of the resulting electric space potential phi/sub sp/ have been made in a single plasma cross section by the heavy-ion beam probe. This diagnostic injects a 4-60-keV beam of (usually) Cs + ions into the plasma. Measurement of the energy of Cs 2+ secondary ions leaving the plasma gives a continuous monitor of the local space potential. In addition, the total detected Cs 2+ ion current is proportional to the product of the local electron density and the ionization rate, which, in turn, is a function of the electron temperature. This signal, nf(T/sub e/), is sensitive to all three electron distributions found in EBT - those of the cold surface plasma, the warm core plasma, and the hot electron ring

  7. Beam test measurements on GaAs pixel detectors at various angles of incidence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braunschweig, W.; Breibach, J.; Graessel, D.; Koenig, St.; Kubicki, Th.; Luebelsmeyer, K.; Rente, C.; Roeper, Ch.; Siedling, R.; Syben, O.; Tenbusch, F.; Toporowski, M.; Xiao, W.J

    1999-08-01

    A GaAs pixel detector constructed in Aachen has been tested in a 4 GeV electron beam at DESY. The experimental setup allowed tilting the detector with respect to the beam line with angles of incidence from 0 deg. to 45 deg. . The sensor-array consisted of 8 x 16 pixels with a size of 125 x 125{mu}m{sup 2} each. The detector was made of a 250{mu}m thick Freiberger SI-GaAs wafer. An improved contact was formed on the backside, allowing safe operation of the detector in the soft breakdown regime. A double metal technique allowed bonding the single pixels linearly to the readout-chip. Using the the fast PreMux128 preamplifier multiplexer chip ({tau}{sub p} = 40ns) a signal to noise ratio of 29 was obtained for a beam angle of incidence of 0 deg. increasing up to 38 for 45 deg. The spatial resolution obtained with an angle of incidence of 45 deg. was (9.0 {+-} 6.0){mu}m while the resolution of the untilted detector is equal to the digital one (36.1{mu}m). For these testbeam-measurements the detector was connected to the electronics via wire-bonds. For future experiments bump-bonding connections are required. The results of a process for the formation of bump-bond connections on GaAs pixeldetectors are shown.

  8. All-optical optoacoustic microscopy based on probe beam deflection technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saher M. Maswadi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Optoacoustic (OA microscopy using an all-optical system based on the probe beam deflection technique (PBDT for detection of laser-induced acoustic signals was investigated as an alternative to conventional piezoelectric transducers. PBDT provides a number of advantages for OA microscopy including (i efficient coupling of laser excitation energy to the samples being imaged through the probing laser beam, (ii undistorted coupling of acoustic waves to the detector without the need for separation of the optical and acoustic paths, (iii high sensitivity and (iv ultrawide bandwidth. Because of the unimpeded optical path in PBDT, diffraction-limited lateral resolution can be readily achieved. The sensitivity of the current PBDT sensor of 22 μV/Pa and its noise equivalent pressure (NEP of 11.4 Pa are comparable with these parameters of the optical micro-ring resonator and commercial piezoelectric ultrasonic transducers. Benefits of the present prototype OA microscope were demonstrated by successfully resolving micron-size details in histological sections of cardiac muscle.

  9. Tapered optical fiber tip probes based on focused ion beam-milled Fabry-Perot microcavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    André, Ricardo M.; Warren-Smith, Stephen C.; Becker, Martin; Dellith, Jan; Rothhardt, Manfred; Zibaii, M. I.; Latifi, H.; Marques, Manuel B.; Bartelt, Hartmut; Frazão, Orlando

    2016-09-01

    Focused ion beam technology is combined with dynamic chemical etching to create microcavities in tapered optical fiber tips, resulting in fiber probes for temperature and refractive index sensing. Dynamic chemical etching uses hydrofluoric acid and a syringe pump to etch standard optical fibers into cone structures called tapered fiber tips where the length, shape, and cone angle can be precisely controlled. On these tips, focused ion beam is used to mill several different types of Fabry-Perot microcavities. Two main cavity types are initially compared and then combined to form a third, complex cavity structure. In the first case, a gap is milled on the tapered fiber tip which allows the external medium to penetrate the light guiding region and thus presents sensitivity to external refractive index changes. In the second, two slots that function as mirrors are milled on the tip creating a silica cavity that is only sensitive to temperature changes. Finally, both cavities are combined on a single tapered fiber tip, resulting in a multi-cavity structure capable of discriminating between temperature and refractive index variations. This dual characterization is performed with the aid of a fast Fourier transform method to separate the contributions of each cavity and thus of temperature and refractive index. Ultimately, a tapered optical fiber tip probe with sub-standard dimensions containing a multi-cavity structure is projected, fabricated, characterized and applied as a sensing element for simultaneous temperature and refractive index discrimination.

  10. Electron Beam-Induced Deposition for Atom Probe Tomography Specimen Capping Layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diercks, David R; Gorman, Brian P; Mulders, Johannes J L

    2017-04-01

    Six precursors were evaluated for use as in situ electron beam-induced deposition capping layers in the preparation of atom probe tomography specimens with a focus on near-surface features where some of the deposition is retained at the specimen apex. Specimens were prepared by deposition of each precursor onto silicon posts and shaped into sub-70-nm radii needles using a focused ion beam. The utility of the depositions was assessed using several criteria including composition and uniformity, evaporation behavior and evaporation fields, and depth of Ga+ ion penetration. Atom probe analyses through depositions of methyl cyclopentadienyl platinum trimethyl, palladium hexafluoroacetylacetonate, and dimethyl-gold-acetylacetonate [Me2Au(acac)] were all found to result in tip fracture at voltages exceeding 3 kV. Examination of the deposition using Me2Au(acac) plus flowing O2 was inconclusive due to evaporation of surface silicon from below the deposition under all analysis conditions. Dicobalt octacarbonyl [Co2(CO)8] and diiron nonacarbonyl [Fe2(CO)9] depositions were found to be effective as in situ capping materials for the silicon specimens. Their very different evaporation fields [36 V/nm for Co2(CO)8 and 21 V/nm for Fe2(CO)9] provide options for achieving reasonably close matching of the evaporation field between the capping material and many materials of interest.

  11. From DNA Bases to Ultracold Atoms: Probing Ensembles Using Supersonic Beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Valoris Reid

    This thesis discusses two ensembles, the study of which was dependent upon the controllable production of cold gas-phase samples using supersonic beams. The experiments on DNA bases and base clusters were carried out in Germany at the Max Born Institute. The experiments anticipating the construction of a molecular beam slower were carried out in the United States at the University of Texas at Austin. Femtosecond pump-probe techniques were employed to study the dynamics and electronic character of DNA bases, pairs and clusters in the gas phase. Experimentsnon DNA base monomers confirmed the dominance of a particular relaxation pathway, the npi* state. Competition between this state and another proposed relaxation pathway was demonstrated through observations of the DNA base pairs and base-water clusters, settling a recent controversy. Further, it was determined that the excited state dynamics in base pairs is due to intramolecular processes rather than intermolecular processes. Finally, results from base-water clusters confirm that microsolvation permits comparison with biologically relevant liquid phase experiments and with ab initio calculations, bridging a long-standing gap. A purely mechanical technique that does not rely upon quantum or electronic properties to produce very cold, very slow atoms and molecules would be more generally applicable than current approaches. The approach described here uses supersonic beam methods to produce a very cold beam of particles and a rotating paddle-wheel, or rotor, to slow the cold beam. Initial experiments testing the possibility of elastic scattering from a single crystal surface were conducted and the implications of these experiments are discussed.

  12. Hard real-time beam scheduler enables adaptive images in multi-probe systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobias, Richard J.

    2014-03-01

    Real-time embedded-system concepts were adapted to allow an imaging system to responsively control the firing of multiple probes. Large-volume, operator-independent (LVOI) imaging would increase the diagnostic utility of ultrasound. An obstacle to this innovation is the inability of current systems to drive multiple transducers dynamically. Commercial systems schedule scanning with static lists of beams to be fired and processed; here we allow an imager to adapt to changing beam schedule demands, as an intelligent response to incoming image data. An example of scheduling changes is demonstrated with a flexible duplex mode two-transducer application mimicking LVOI imaging. Embedded-system concepts allow an imager to responsively control the firing of multiple probes. Operating systems use powerful dynamic scheduling algorithms, such as fixed priority preemptive scheduling. Even real-time operating systems lack the timing constraints required for ultrasound. Particularly for Doppler modes, events must be scheduled with sub-nanosecond precision, and acquired data is useless without this requirement. A successful scheduler needs unique characteristics. To get close to what would be needed in LVOI imaging, we show two transducers scanning different parts of a subjects leg. When one transducer notices flow in a region where their scans overlap, the system reschedules the other transducer to start flow mode and alter its beams to get a view of the observed vessel and produce a flow measurement. The second transducer does this in a focused region only. This demonstrates key attributes of a successful LVOI system, such as robustness against obstructions and adaptive self-correction.

  13. Technical Note: On the impact of the incident electron beam energy on the primary dose component of flattening filter free photon beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuess, Peter; Georg, Dietmar; Palmans, Hugo; Lechner, Wolfgang

    2016-08-01

    For commercially available linear accelerators (Linacs), the electron energies of flattening filter free (FFF) and flattened (FF) beams are either identical or the electron energy of the FFF beam is increased to match the percentage depth dose curve (PDD) of the FF beam (in reference geometry). This study focuses on the primary dose components of FFF beams for both kinds of settings, studied on the same Linac. The measurements were conducted on a VersaHD Linac (Elekta, Crawley, UK) for both FF and FFF beams with nominal energies of 6 and 10 MV. In the clinical setting of the VersaHD, the energy of FFFM (Matched) beams is set to match the PDDs of the FF beams. In contrast the incident electron beam of the FFFU beam was set to the same energy as for the FF beam. Half value layers (HVLs) and a dual parameter beam quality specifier (DPBQS) were determined. For the 6 MV FFFM beam, HVL and DPBQS values were very similar compared to those of the 6 MV FF beam, while for the 10 MV FFFM and FF beams, only %dd(10)x and HVL values were comparable (differences below 1.5%). This shows that matching the PDD at one depth does not guarantee other beam quality dependent parameters to be matched. For FFFU beams, all investigated beam quality specifiers were significantly different compared to those for FF beams of the same nominal accelerator potential. The DPBQS of the 6 MV FF and FFFM beams was equal within the measurement uncertainty and was comparable to published data of a machine with similar TPR20,10 and %dd(10)x. In contrast to that, the DPBQS's two parameters of the 10 MV FFFM beam were substantially higher compared to those for the 10 MV FF beam. PDD-matched FF and FFF beams of both nominal accelerator potentials were observed to have similar HVL values, indicating similarity of their primary dose components. Using the DPBQS revealed that the mean attenuation coefficient was found to be the same within the uncertainty of 0.8% for 6 MV FF and 6 MV FFFM beams, while for 10 MV

  14. Technical Note: On the impact of the incident electron beam energy on the primary dose component of flattening filter free photon beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuess, Peter; Georg, Dietmar; Lechner, Wolfgang; Palmans, Hugo

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: For commercially available linear accelerators (Linacs), the electron energies of flattening filter free (FFF) and flattened (FF) beams are either identical or the electron energy of the FFF beam is increased to match the percentage depth dose curve (PDD) of the FF beam (in reference geometry). This study focuses on the primary dose components of FFF beams for both kinds of settings, studied on the same Linac. Methods: The measurements were conducted on a VersaHD Linac (Elekta, Crawley, UK) for both FF and FFF beams with nominal energies of 6 and 10 MV. In the clinical setting of the VersaHD, the energy of FFF M (Matched) beams is set to match the PDDs of the FF beams. In contrast the incident electron beam of the FFF U beam was set to the same energy as for the FF beam. Half value layers (HVLs) and a dual parameter beam quality specifier (DPBQS) were determined. Results: For the 6 MV FFF M beam, HVL and DPBQS values were very similar compared to those of the 6 MV FF beam, while for the 10 MV FFF M and FF beams, only %dd(10) x and HVL values were comparable (differences below 1.5%). This shows that matching the PDD at one depth does not guarantee other beam quality dependent parameters to be matched. For FFF U beams, all investigated beam quality specifiers were significantly different compared to those for FF beams of the same nominal accelerator potential. The DPBQS of the 6 MV FF and FFF M beams was equal within the measurement uncertainty and was comparable to published data of a machine with similar TPR 20,10 and %dd(10) x . In contrast to that, the DPBQS’s two parameters of the 10 MV FFF M beam were substantially higher compared to those for the 10 MV FF beam. Conclusions: PDD-matched FF and FFF beams of both nominal accelerator potentials were observed to have similar HVL values, indicating similarity of their primary dose components. Using the DPBQS revealed that the mean attenuation coefficient was found to be the same within the uncertainty of

  15. Probing WWγ and WWγγ couplings with high energy photon beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, S.Y.; Schrempp, F.

    1991-12-01

    We examine the potential of a future 500 GeV linear e + e - collider for probing anomalous WW γ and WW γγ couplings in the so-called γ(γ)model, corresponding to colliding γe and γγ beams from Compton backscattering of laser light. We consider in detail the 'minimal' set (k γ , λ γ ) of CP conserving anomalous couplings and present first results for the CP violating 'partner' couplings (anti K γ , anti l γ ) as well. The reactions under consideration are γe → Wν, γγ → W + W - and, as a reference, also e + e - → W + W - . We discuss the impact of both circular polarization of laser photons and polarized e(anti e) beams. Photon 'beams' due to classical Bremsstrahlung are also studied for comparison. We analyze in detail, how changes of the assumed machine parameters, cuts and systematic errors affect the sensitivity to the anomalous couplings. (orig.)

  16. Optimum solution of dual-ring double-scattering system for an incident beam with given phase space for proton beam spreading

    CERN Document Server

    Takada, Y

    2002-01-01

    A systematic method is given for deriving optimum scatterer parameters for the dual-ring double-scattering system for the incident proton beam with the given phase space parameters. This is accomplished by relating it to the known optimum solution for zero-emittance beam. Limitations on the phase space parameters of the beam incident on the first scatterer have been clarified to obtain such valid solutions. It is shown that the dual-ring double-scattering method can be applied to an incident beam with emittance as large as 100-200 pi mm mrad. The effect of the change of phase space parameters on the lateral distribution has been investigated. It was found that the larger the emittance of the beam, the more sensitive the fluence distribution is to the change of phase space parameters. The effect of the different emittances of the incident beam in x-theta, y-phi spaces is discussed. It is shown that lateral distribution is sensitive to the misalignment of the beam.

  17. Self-powered detector probes for electron and gamma-ray beam monitoring in high-power industrial accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lone, M.A.

    1992-08-01

    A self-powered detector (SPD) is a simple passive device that consists of a coaxial probe with a metallic outer sleeve, a mineral oxide insulating layer, and a metallic inner core. SPDs are used in nuclear reactors for monitoring neutron and gamma ray fields. Responses of various SPDs to electron and gamma ray beams from industrial accelerators were investigated with Monte Carlo simulations. By judicious choice of transmission filters, threshold SPD probes were investigated for on-line monitoring of the beam energy spectrum of the high-power IMPELA industrial electron accelerator. (Author) (14 figs, 16 refs.)

  18. Argon Beam Coagulator in Breast Surgery: Effect on the Incidence of Breast Seroma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefemine, Valentina; Cornish, Julie A; Abou-Samra, Walid

    2011-12-01

    Although Argon Beam Coagulators (ABCs) are widely used in urological and gynecological procedures, there have been only two studies published so far on their use and benefits in breast surgery. This study compares the incidence of breast seroma following mastectomy upon the use of ABC versus standard monopolar diathermy. This is a retrospective cohort study, with data collected from January 2006 to August 2008 for all patients who underwent a simple mastectomy and axillary surgery. Outcomes included incidence of seroma, amount of drainage on day of discharge, and timing of seroma formation. Fifty-six patients were studied, with 30 undergoing simple mastectomy using ABC diathermy and 25 using simple diathermy. The incidence of postoperative breast seroma development was 30% (n = 9) in the former group and 36% (n = 9) in the latter. In the ABC group, a high postoperative drainage at discharge was predictive of developing a seroma; this was not observed in the monopolar group. The search for methods to reduce the incidence of seroma in breast surgery is ongoing worldwide. Despite a previous report, this study failed to show any significant difference between ABC and monopolar diathermy in the incidence of breast seroma formation following simple mastectomy and axillary surgery. ABC diathermy is more costly, and its use needs to be carefully considered in an era of a stretched National Health Service financial budget.

  19. Neutral Probe Beam q-profile measurements in PDX and PBX-M

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kugel, H.W.; Gammel, G.M.; Kaita, R.; Reusch, M.F.; Roberts, D.W.

    1988-06-01

    Using the Fast Ion Diagnostic Experiment (FIDE) technique, a Neutral Probe Beam (NPB) can be aimed to inject tangentially to a magnetic surface. The resultant ion orbit shifts, due to conservation of canonical toroidal angular momentum, can be measured with a multi-sightline charge-exchange analyzer to yield direct measurements of radial magnetic flux profiles, current density profiles, the radial position of the magnetic axis, flux surface inner and outer edges, q-profiles, and central-q time dependencies. An extensive error analysis was performed on previous PDX q-measurements in circular plasmas and the resulting estimated contributions of various systematic effects are discussed. Preliminary results of fast ion orbit shift measurements at early times in indented PBX-M plasmas are given. Methods for increasing the absolute experimental precision of similar measurements in progress on PBX-M are discussed. 4 refs., 3 figs

  20. Dispersion relations of density fluctuations observed by heavy ion beam probe in the TEXT tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, D.W.

    1990-09-01

    Wave numbers as functions of frequency for density fluctuations in the core of the TEXT tokamak are measured in Heavy Ion Beam Probe experiments by analyzing the relative phases of signals originating from nearby points in the plasma. The adjacent points are typically 2 cm apart, with their relative orientation (δr, δθ) depending on position (r,θ). for angular frequencies ω ≤ 10 6 /s the signals are quite coherent, leading to reasonably well-defined ''dispersion relations.'' These do not correspond to known modes of the drift wave type, i.e., ballooning or slab-like electron drift waves or ion temperature gradient modes. The effect of finite sample volume size does not significantly alter this conclusion. 25 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs

  1. A visualization method for probing grain boundaries of single layer graphene via molecular beam epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Linjie; Wan, Wen; Zhu, Zhenwei; Zhao, Zhijuan; Zhang, Zhenhan; Shih, Tien-Mo; Cai, Weiwei

    2017-07-01

    Graphene, a member of layered two-dimensional (2D) materials, possesses high carrier mobility, mechanical flexibility, and optical transparency, as well as enjoying a wide range of promising applications in electronics. Adopting the chemical vaporization deposition method, the majority of investigators have ubiquitously grown single layer graphene (SLG), which inevitably involves polycrystalline properties. Here we demonstrate a simple method for the direct visualization of arbitrarily large-size SLG domains by synthesizing one-hundred-nm-scale MoS2 single crystals via a high-vacuum molecular beam epitaxy process. The present study based on epitaxial growth provides a guide for probing the grain boundaries of various 2D materials and implements higher potentials for the next-generation electronic devices.

  2. Experimental investigation of a coherent flute instability using a heavy ion beam probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glowienka, J.C.; Jennings, W.C.; Hickok, R.L.

    1988-01-01

    A coherent, low-frequency instability found in a cylindrical, hollow cathode arc plasma has been investigated by using a heavy ion beam probe (HIBP). The energy density of the plasma was high enough to render it inaccessible to Langmuir probes, but the HIBP was able to provide measurements throughout the plasma cross section. The data clearly show that azimuthal symmetry does not exist. Radial profiles of steady-state density and space potential and of simultaneous n, phi amplitude and phase were obtained to allow detailed comparison between theory and experiment. Predictions from a cylindrically symmetric, small-perturbation theoretical model provide reasonably conclusive identification of the instability as a Kelvin--Helmholtz flute driven by and localized in a region of fluid shear. The most serious discrepancy was with regard to the oscillation frequency, which was consistently predicted to be three to four times lower than that observed experimentally. The reason for the discrepancy is not understood, but it is probably related to inadequacies in the theory caused by assumptions of azimuthal symmetry and of small linear perturbations

  3. Design of a Wien filter type heavy ion beam probe system for the measurement of plasma potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujita, Hideki; Adati, Keizo; Kumazawa, Ryuhei; Okamura, Shoichi; Sato, Teruyuki

    1987-05-01

    This paper describes the design of a Heavy Ion Beam Probe (HIBP) system to measure the two-dimensional plasma potential profile in the central mirror region of an open ended plasma confinement device (RFC-XX-M). This HIBP system incorporates three novel features. The first is a Wien filter-type guide field that reduces the required beam acceleration voltage. The second is a set of deflecting electrodes located at the exit position of the secondary ion beam that steers all secondary ions into the analyzer at the same angle. And the third is a new method of absolute calibration.

  4. Design of a Wien Filter Type Heavy Ion Beam Probe System for the Measurement of Plasma Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Hideki; Adati, Keizô; Kumazawa, Ryuhei; Okamura, Shoichi; Sato, Teruyuki

    1987-05-01

    This paper describes the design of a Heavy Ion Beam Probe (HIBP) system to measure the two-dimensional plasma potential profile in the central mirror region of an open ended plasma confinement device (RFC-XX-M). This HIBP system incorporates three novel features. The first is a Wien filter-type guide field that reduces the required beam acceleraltion voltage. The second is a set of deflecting electrodes located at the exit position of the secondary ion beam that steers all secondary ions into the analyzer at the same angle. And the third is a new method of absolute calibration.

  5. Recent progress of the Laser-driven Ion-beam Trace Probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaoyi; Xiao, Chijie; Chen, Yihang; Xu, Tianchao; Yu, Yi; Xu, Min; Wang, Long; Lin, Chen; Wang, Xiaogang

    2017-10-01

    The Laser-driven Ion-beam Trace Probe (LITP) is a new method to diagnose the poloidal magnetic field and radial electric field in tokamaks. Recently significant progresses have been made as follows. 1) The experimental system has been set up on the PKU Plasma Test (PPT) linear device and begun to validate the principle of LITP, including the ion source, the ion detector and the poloidal magnetic field cable. Preliminary experimental results matched the theoretical prediction well. 2) The reconstruction principle has been improved including the nonlinear effect. 3) Tomography methods have been applied in the reconstruction codes. Now the laser-driven ion-beam accelerator has been setup on the PPT device, and further test of LITP will start soon. After that a prototype of LITP system will be designed and setup on the HL-2A tokamak device. This work was supported by the CHINA MOST under 2012YQ030142, ITER-CHINA program 2015GB120001 and National Natural Science Foundation of China under 11575014 and 11375053.

  6. Development of highly polished, grazing incidence mirrors for synchrotron radiation beam lines at SSRL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tirsell, K.G.; Berglin, E.J.; Fuchs, B.A.; Holdener, F.R.; Humpal, H.H.; Karpenko, V.P.; Kulkarni, S.; Fantone, S.D.

    1987-08-01

    New platinum-coated grazing incidence mirrors with low surface roughnesses have been developed to focus bending magnet radiation from the SSRL/SLAC SPEAR storage ring on the entrance slits of two Beam Line VIII grating monochromators. The first mirror in the toroidal grating monochromator (TGM) branch is a cooled SiC cylinder capable of absorbing synchrotron radiation power levels of up to 260 watts without excessive distortion. This mirror deflects the beam vertically through a 12/degree/ angle and focuses it sagitally on the TGM entrance slit plane. The second TGM optical element is a fused-silica spherical mirror with a large radius of curvature that deflects the beam vertically through an additional 12/degree/ and focuses it tangentially with 3/1 demagnification. The first mirror in our spherical grating branch is a 5/degree/-vertically deflecting, cooled SiC toroid designed to focus tangentially on the monochromator entrance slits and sagitally in the exit slits. A 4/degree/-deflecting fused silica mirror is used after the exit sites in each beam line to refocus on to the sample. For this application a thin cylinder is bent to approximate an ellipsoid. The mirrors are now installed at SSRL and performance measurements are planned. Qualitatively the focus of the TGM optics at the entrance slit plane appears very good. In this paper we discuss considerations leading to the choice of SiC for each of the two first mirrors. We present highlights of the development of these mirrors with some emphasis on SiC polishing techniques. In addition, the specialized metrology developed to produce the more difficult figure of the toroid will be described. Measured surface roughness and figure results will be presented. 19 refs., 11 figs

  7. Development of highly polished, grazing incidence mirrors for synchrotron radiation beam lines at SSRL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tirsell, K.G.; Berglin, E.J.; Fuchs, B.A.; Holdener, F.R.; Humpal, H.H.; Karpenko, V.P.; Kulkarni, S.; Fantone, S.D.

    1987-08-01

    New platinum-coated grazing incidence mirrors with low surface roughnesses have been developed to focus bending magnet radiation from the SSRL/SLAC SPEAR storage ring on the entrance slits of two Beam Line VIII grating monochromators. The first mirror in the toroidal grating monochromator (TGM) branch is a cooled SiC cylinder capable of absorbing synchrotron radiation power levels of up to 260 watts without excessive distortion. This mirror deflects the beam vertically through a 12/degree/ angle and focuses it sagitally on the TGM entrance slit plane. The second TGM optical element is a fused-silica spherical mirror with a large radius of curvature that deflects the beam vertically through an additional 12/degree/ and focuses it tangentially with 3/1 demagnification. The first mirror in our spherical grating branch is a 5/degree/-vertically deflecting, cooled SiC toroid designed to focus tangentially on the monochromator entrance slits and sagitally in the exit slits. A 4/degree/-deflecting fused silica mirror is used after the exit sites in each beam line to refocus on to the sample. For this application a thin cylinder is bent to approximate an ellipsoid. The mirrors are now installed at SSRL and performance measurements are planned. Qualitatively the focus of the TGM optics at the entrance slit plane appears very good. In this paper we discuss considerations leading to the choice of SiC for each of the two first mirrors. We present highlights of the development of these mirrors with some emphasis on SiC polishing techniques. In addition, the specialized metrology developed to produce the more difficult figure of the toroid will be described. Measured surface roughness and figure results will be presented. 19 refs., 11 figs.

  8. Second crossover energy of insulating materials using stationary electron beam under normal incidence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rau, E.I. [Institute of Microelectronics Technology of Russian Academy of Science, 142432 Chernogolovka, Moscow District (Russian Federation)], E-mail: rau@phys.msu.ru; Fakhfakh, S. [LaMaCop, Faculte des Sciences, Route Soukra km 3, BP 802, CP 3018 Sfax (Tunisia); Andrianov, M.V.; Evstafeva, E.N. [Institute of Microelectronics Technology of Russian Academy of Science, 142432 Chernogolovka, Moscow District (Russian Federation); Jbara, O. [UTAP/LASSI, EA 3802, Faculte des Sciences, BP 1039, 51687 Reims Cedex 2 (France)], E-mail: omar.jbara@univ-reims.fr; Rondot, S.; Mouze, D. [UTAP/LASSI, EA 3802, Faculte des Sciences, BP 1039, 51687 Reims Cedex 2 (France)

    2008-03-15

    The purpose of this paper is to give some aspects of charging effects on dielectric materials submitted to continuous electron beam irradiation in a scanning electron microscope (SEM). When the dielectric is irradiated continuously, the so-called total yield approach (TYA) used to predict the sign of the charge appeared on electron irradiated insulators fails because the charge accumulated in the dielectric interferes with the electrons emission processes. Based on previous experimental and theoretical works found in the literature, an analysis of the evolution of the electron yield curves {sigma} = f(E{sub 0}) of insulators during irradiation is given. The aim of this work is firstly to determine experimentally the second crossover energy E{sub 2C} under continuous electron irradiation (charging conditions) and secondly to demonstrate that the charge balance occurs at this beam energy and not at E{sub 2} the energy deduced from non-charging conditions (pulse primary electron beam experiments) as commonly asserted. It is however possible to apply the TYA by substituting the critical energy E{sub 2} for E{sub 2C}. The experimental procedure is based on simultaneous time dependent measurements of surface potential, leakage current and displacement current. The study underlines the difference between the landing energy of primary electrons E{sub L} at the steady state and the second crossover energy, E{sub 2C}, for charged samples. Some preliminary results are also obtained concerning the influence of the incident beam density on the energy E{sub 2C}. The samples used for this study are PMMA, polycrystalline silicone dioxide (p-SiO{sub 2}), polycrystalline alumina (p-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) and soda lime glass (SLG)

  9. Second crossover energy of insulating materials using stationary electron beam under normal incidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rau, E.I.; Fakhfakh, S.; Andrianov, M.V.; Evstafeva, E.N.; Jbara, O.; Rondot, S.; Mouze, D.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to give some aspects of charging effects on dielectric materials submitted to continuous electron beam irradiation in a scanning electron microscope (SEM). When the dielectric is irradiated continuously, the so-called total yield approach (TYA) used to predict the sign of the charge appeared on electron irradiated insulators fails because the charge accumulated in the dielectric interferes with the electrons emission processes. Based on previous experimental and theoretical works found in the literature, an analysis of the evolution of the electron yield curves σ = f(E 0 ) of insulators during irradiation is given. The aim of this work is firstly to determine experimentally the second crossover energy E 2C under continuous electron irradiation (charging conditions) and secondly to demonstrate that the charge balance occurs at this beam energy and not at E 2 the energy deduced from non-charging conditions (pulse primary electron beam experiments) as commonly asserted. It is however possible to apply the TYA by substituting the critical energy E 2 for E 2C . The experimental procedure is based on simultaneous time dependent measurements of surface potential, leakage current and displacement current. The study underlines the difference between the landing energy of primary electrons E L at the steady state and the second crossover energy, E 2C , for charged samples. Some preliminary results are also obtained concerning the influence of the incident beam density on the energy E 2C . The samples used for this study are PMMA, polycrystalline silicone dioxide (p-SiO 2 ), polycrystalline alumina (p-Al 2 O 3 ) and soda lime glass (SLG)

  10. Development of a beam probe diagnostic system for the United Aircraft ''LITE'' program. Final report, 1 April 1974--31 March 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stufflebeam, J.H.; Jennings, W.C.; Connor, K.A.; Hickok, R.L.

    1975-07-01

    A heavy ion beam probe diagnostic system for the LITE plasma device has been designed, fabricated, tested and installed. The beam was aligned and slaved to the LITE magnetic field and the predicted defocusing of the beam was confirmed. A sophisticated Beam Trajectory Programmer to control the operation of the beam probe system was developed and placed into operation. The electrostatic energy analyzer detector system was installed and preliminary noise measurements were made. The system is now ready for final testing under full plasma operating conditions. (U.S.)

  11. Development of a beam probe diagnostic system for the United Aircraft ''LITE'' program. Final progress report, 1 April 1974--31 March 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stufflebeam, J.H.; Jennings, W.C.; Connor, K.A.; Hickok, R.L.

    1975-07-01

    A heavy ion beam probe diagnostic system for the LITE plasma device was designed, fabricated, tested and installed. The beam was aligned and slaved to the LITE magnetic field and the predicted defocusing of the beam was confirmed. A sophisticated Beam Trajectory Programmer to control the operation of the beam probe system was developed and placed into operation. The electrostatic energy analyzer detector system was installed and preliminary noise measurements were made. The system is now ready for final testing under full plasma operating conditions. (U.S.)

  12. Focussed ion beam thin sample microanalysis using a field emission gun electron probe microanalyser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubo, Y.

    2018-01-01

    Field emission gun electron probe microanalysis (FEG-EPMA) in conjunction with wavelength-dispersive X-ray spectrometry using a low acceleration voltage (V acc) allows elemental analysis with sub-micrometre lateral spatial resolution (SR). However, this degree of SR does not necessarily meet the requirements associated with increasingly miniaturised devices. Another challenge related to performing FEG-EPMA with a low V acc is that the accuracy of quantitative analyses is adversely affected, primarily because low energy X-ray lines such as the L- and M-lines must be employed and due to the potential of line interference. One promising means of obtaining high SR with FEG-EPMA is to use thin samples together with high V acc values. This mini-review covers the basic principles of thin-sample FEG-EPMA and describes an application of this technique to the analysis of optical fibres. Outstanding issues related to this technique that must be addressed are also discussed, which include the potential for electron beam damage during analysis of insulating materials and the development of methods to use thin samples for quantitative analysis.

  13. DEVICE FOR MEASURING OF THERMAL LENS PARAMETERS IN LASER ACTIVE ELEMENTS WITH A PROBE BEAM METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Zakharova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We have developed a device for measuring of parameters of thermal lens (TL in laser active elements under longitudinal diode pumping. The measurements are based on the probe beam method. This device allows one to determine sign and optical power of the lens in the principal meridional planes, its sensitivity factor with respect to the absorbed pump power and astigmatism degree, fractional heat loading which make it possible to estimate integral impact of the photoelastic effect to the formation of TL in the laser element. The measurements are performed in a linearly polarized light at the wavelength of 532 nm. Pumping of the laser element is performed at 960 nm that makes it possible to study laser materials doped with Yb3+ and (Er3+, Yb3+ ions. The precision of measurements: for sensitivity factor of TL – 0,1 m-1/W, for astigmatism degree – 0,2 m-1/W, for fractional heat loading – 5 %, for the impact of the photoelastic effect – 0,5 × 10-6 K-1. This device is used for characterization of thermal lens in the laser active element from an yttrium vanadate crystal, Er3+,Yb3+:YVO .

  14. Compensation of errors due to incident beam drift in a 3 DOF measurement system for linear guide motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Pengcheng; Mao, Shuai; Tan, Jiu-Bin

    2015-11-02

    A measurement system with three degrees of freedom (3 DOF) that compensates for errors caused by incident beam drift is proposed. The system's measurement model (i.e. its mathematical foundation) is analyzed, and a measurement module (i.e. the designed orientation measurement unit) is developed and adopted to measure simultaneously straightness errors and the incident beam direction; thus, the errors due to incident beam drift can be compensated. The experimental results show that the proposed system has a deviation of 1 μm in the range of 200 mm for distance measurements, and a deviation of 1.3 μm in the range of 2 mm for straightness error measurements.

  15. Dynamic grazing incidence fast atom diffraction during molecular beam epitaxial growth of GaAs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atkinson, P.; Eddrief, M.; Etgens, V. H.; Khemliche, H.; Debiossac, M.; Mulier, M.; Lalmi, B.; Roncin, P.; Momeni, A.

    2014-01-01

    A Grazing Incidence Fast Atom Diffraction (GIFAD) system has been mounted on a commercial molecular beam epitaxy chamber and used to monitor GaAs growth in real-time. In contrast to the conventionally used Reflection High Energy Electron Diffraction, all the GIFAD diffraction orders oscillate in phase, with the change in intensity related to diffuse scattering at step edges. We show that the scattered intensity integrated over the Laue circle is a robust method to monitor the periodic change in surface roughness during layer-by-layer growth, with oscillation phase and amplitude independent of incidence angle and crystal orientation. When there is a change in surface reconstruction at the start of growth, GIFAD intensity oscillations show that there is a corresponding delay in the onset of layer-by-layer growth. In addition, changes in the relative intensity of different diffraction orders have been observed during growth showing that GIFAD has the potential to provide insight into the preferential adatom attachment sites on the surface reconstruction during growth.

  16. Malfunctions of Implantable Cardiac Devices in Patients Receiving Proton Beam Therapy: Incidence and Predictors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez, Daniel R., E-mail: dgomez@mdanderson.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Poenisch, Falk [Department of Radiation Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Pinnix, Chelsea C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Sheu, Tommy [Department of Experimental Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Chang, Joe Y. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Memon, Nada [Department of Cardiology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Mohan, Radhe [Department of Radiation Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Rozner, Marc A. [Department of Anesthesiology and Perioperative Medicine, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Dougherty, Anne H. [Department of Cardiology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)

    2013-11-01

    Purpose: Photon therapy has been reported to induce resets of implanted cardiac devices, but the clinical sequelae of treating patients with such devices with proton beam therapy (PBT) are not well known. We reviewed the incidence of device malfunctions among patients undergoing PBT. Methods and Materials: From March 2009 through July 2012, 42 patients with implanted cardiac implantable electronic devices (CIED; 28 pacemakers and 14 cardioverter-defibrillators) underwent 42 courses of PBT for thoracic (23, 55%), prostate (15, 36%), liver (3, 7%), or base of skull (1, 2%) tumors at a single institution. The median prescribed dose was 74 Gy (relative biological effectiveness; range 46.8-87.5 Gy), and the median distance from the treatment field to the CIED was 10 cm (range 0.8-40 cm). Maximum proton and neutron doses were estimated for each treatment course. All CIEDs were checked before radiation delivery and monitored throughout treatment. Results: Median estimated peak proton and neutron doses to the CIED in all patients were 0.8 Gy (range 0.13-21 Gy) and 346 Sv (range 11-1100 mSv). Six CIED malfunctions occurred in 5 patients (2 pacemakers and 3 defibrillators). Five of these malfunctions were CIED resets, and 1 patient with a defibrillator (in a patient with a liver tumor) had an elective replacement indicator after therapy that was not influenced by radiation. The mean distance from the proton beam to the CIED among devices that reset was 7.0 cm (range 0.9-8 cm), and the mean maximum neutron dose was 655 mSv (range 330-1100 mSv). All resets occurred in patients receiving thoracic PBT and were corrected without clinical incident. The generator for the defibrillator with the elective replacement indicator message was replaced uneventfully after treatment. Conclusions: The incidence of CIED resets was about 20% among patients receiving PBT to the thorax. We recommend that PBT be avoided in pacing-dependent patients and that patients with any type of CIED receiving

  17. Malfunctions of Implantable Cardiac Devices in Patients Receiving Proton Beam Therapy: Incidence and Predictors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez, Daniel R.; Poenisch, Falk; Pinnix, Chelsea C.; Sheu, Tommy; Chang, Joe Y.; Memon, Nada; Mohan, Radhe; Rozner, Marc A.; Dougherty, Anne H.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Photon therapy has been reported to induce resets of implanted cardiac devices, but the clinical sequelae of treating patients with such devices with proton beam therapy (PBT) are not well known. We reviewed the incidence of device malfunctions among patients undergoing PBT. Methods and Materials: From March 2009 through July 2012, 42 patients with implanted cardiac implantable electronic devices (CIED; 28 pacemakers and 14 cardioverter-defibrillators) underwent 42 courses of PBT for thoracic (23, 55%), prostate (15, 36%), liver (3, 7%), or base of skull (1, 2%) tumors at a single institution. The median prescribed dose was 74 Gy (relative biological effectiveness; range 46.8-87.5 Gy), and the median distance from the treatment field to the CIED was 10 cm (range 0.8-40 cm). Maximum proton and neutron doses were estimated for each treatment course. All CIEDs were checked before radiation delivery and monitored throughout treatment. Results: Median estimated peak proton and neutron doses to the CIED in all patients were 0.8 Gy (range 0.13-21 Gy) and 346 Sv (range 11-1100 mSv). Six CIED malfunctions occurred in 5 patients (2 pacemakers and 3 defibrillators). Five of these malfunctions were CIED resets, and 1 patient with a defibrillator (in a patient with a liver tumor) had an elective replacement indicator after therapy that was not influenced by radiation. The mean distance from the proton beam to the CIED among devices that reset was 7.0 cm (range 0.9-8 cm), and the mean maximum neutron dose was 655 mSv (range 330-1100 mSv). All resets occurred in patients receiving thoracic PBT and were corrected without clinical incident. The generator for the defibrillator with the elective replacement indicator message was replaced uneventfully after treatment. Conclusions: The incidence of CIED resets was about 20% among patients receiving PBT to the thorax. We recommend that PBT be avoided in pacing-dependent patients and that patients with any type of CIED receiving

  18. Non-contact high resolution Bessel beam probe for diagnostic imaging of cornea and trabecular meshwork region in eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murukeshan, V. M.; Jesmond, Hong Xun J.; Shinoj, V. K.; Baskaran, M.; Tin, Aung

    2015-07-01

    Primary angle closure glaucoma is a major form of disease that causes blindness in Asia and worldwide. In glaucoma, irregularities in the ocular aqueous outflow system cause an elevation in intraocular pressure (IOP) with subsequent death of retinal ganglion cells, resulting in loss of vision. High resolution visualization of the iridocorneal angle region has great diagnostic value in understanding the disease condition which enables monitoring of surgical interventions that decrease IOP. None of the current diagnostic techniques such as goniophotography, ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM), anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT) and RetCam™ can image with molecular specificity and required spatial resolution that can delineate the trabecular meshwork structures. This paper in this context proposes new concepts and methodology using Bessel beams based illumination and imaging for such diagnostic ocular imaging applications. The salient features using Bessel beams instead of the conventional Gaussian beam, and the optimization challenges in configuring the probe system will be illustrated with porcine eye samples.

  19. Technical Note: Use of a beam width probe in an Aerosol Mass Spectrometer to monitor particle collection efficiency in the field

    OpenAIRE

    Salcedo, D.; Onasch, T. B.; Canagaratna, M. R.; Dzepina, K.; Huffman, J. A.; Jayne, J. T.; Worsnop, D. R.; Kolb, C. E.; Weimer, S.; Drewnick, F.; Allan, J. D.; Delia, A. E.; Jimenez, J. L.

    2007-01-01

    International audience; Two Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometers (Q-AMS) were deployed in Mexico City, during the Mexico City Metropolitan Area field study (MCMA-2003) from 29 March?4 May 2003 to investigate particle concentrations, sources, and processes. We report the use of a particle beam width probe (BWP) in the field to quantify potential losses of particles due to beam broadening inside the AMS caused by particle shape (nonsphericity) and particle size. Data from this probe show that no...

  20. Multiple scattering of a zero-order Bessel beam with arbitrary incidence by an aggregate of uniaxial anisotropic spheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Z.J.; Wu, Z.S.; Qu, T.; Shang, Q.C.; Bai, L.

    2016-01-01

    Based on the generalized multiparticle Mie theory, multiple scattering of an aggregate of uniaxial anisotropic spheres illuminated by a zero-order Bessel beam (ZOBB) with arbitrary propagation direction is investigated. The particle size and configuration are arbitrary. The arbitrary incident Bessel beam is expanded in terms of spherical vector wave functions (SVWFs). Utilizing the vector addition theorem of SVWFs, interactive and total scattering coefficients are derived through the continuous boundary conditions on which the interaction of the particles is considered. The accuracy of the theory and codes are verified by comparing results with those obtained for arbitrary plane wave incidence by CST simulation, and for ZOBB incidence by a numerical method. The effects of angle of incidence, pseudo-polarization angle, half-conical angle, beam center position, and permittivity tensor elements on the radar cross sections (RCSs) of several types of collective uniaxial anisotropic spheres, such as a linear chain, a 4×4×4 cube-shaped array, and other periodical structures consisting of massive spheres, are numerically analyzed. Selected results on the properties of typical particles such as TiO 2 , SiO 2 , or other particle lattices are calculated. This investigation could provide an effective test for further research on the scattering characteristics of an aggregate of anisotropic spheres by a high-order Bessel vortex beam. The results have important application in optical tweezers and particle manipulation. - Highlights: • Scattering of Bessel beam by an aggregate of uniaxial anisotropic spheres is studied. • The zero-order Bessel beam propagates and polarizes along arbitrary direction. • The accuracy of expansion coefficients, the scattering theory and codes is verified. • Effects of various parameters on scattering properties are numerically discussed. • Scattering properties of several type of periodical array are numerically analyzed.

  1. Thermal diffusivity measurement in thin metallic filaments using the mirage method with multiple probe beams and a digital camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, E.; Cifuentes, A.; Alvarado, S.; Cabrera, H.; Delgado, O.; Calderón, A.; Marín, E.

    2018-02-01

    Photothermal beam deflection is a well-established technique for measuring thermal diffusivity. In this technique, a pump laser beam generates temperature variations on the surface of the sample to be studied. These variations transfer heat to the surrounding medium, which may be air or any other fluid. The medium in turn experiences a change in the refractive index, which will be proportional to the temperature field on the sample surface when the distance to this surface is small. A probe laser beam will suffer a deflection due to the refractive index periodical changes, which is usually monitored by means of a quadrant photodetector or a similar device aided by lock-in amplification. A linear relationship that arises in this technique is that given by the phase lag of the thermal wave as a function of the distance to a punctual heat source when unidimensional heat diffusion can be guaranteed. This relationship is useful in the calculation of the sample's thermal diffusivity, which can be obtained straightforwardly by the so-called slope method, if the pump beam modulation frequency is well-known. The measurement procedure requires the experimenter to displace the probe beam at a given distance from the heat source, measure the phase lag at that offset, and repeat this for as many points as desired. This process can be quite lengthy in dependence of the number points. In this paper, we propose a detection scheme, which overcomes this limitation and simplifies the experimental setup using a digital camera that substitutes all detection hardware utilizing motion detection techniques and software digital signal lock-in post-processing. In this work, the method is demonstrated using thin metallic filaments as samples.

  2. Wideband converter of a charge of particle beam incident on a Faraday cylinder into a number of pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shchagin, A.V.; Lysenko, V.F.

    1985-01-01

    An electric circuit of a beam positive charge-pulse converter during beam incidence on a Faraday cylinder (conversion of Faraday cylinder current into F frequency, where F=10 10 J, where J - is the Faraday cylinder current) is described. Conversion ratio is 10 10 pulses/KP (10 10 Hz/A). Input current change limits are 10 -10 -10 -4 A. Conversion error is |ΔF| -3 F +0.1 Hz). ''Dead'' time is absent. Input resistance of the converter is close to zero

  3. Optical diagnostic suite (schlieren, interferometry, and grid image refractometry) on OMEGA EP using a 10-ps, 263-nm probe beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Froula, D. H.; Boni, R.; Bedzyk, M.; Craxton, R. S.; Ehrne, F.; Ivancic, S.; Jungquist, R.; Shoup, M. J.; Theobald, W.; Weiner, D. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, 250 E. River Rd., Rochester, New York 14616 (United States); Kugland, N. L.; Rushford, M. C. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, University of California, P. O. Box 808, Livermore, California 94551 (United States)

    2012-10-15

    A 10-ps, 263-nm (4{omega}) laser is being built to probe plasmas produced on the OMEGA EP [J. H. Kelly, L. J. Waxer, V. Bagnoud, I. A. Begishev, J. Bromage, B. E. Kruschwitz, T. E. Kessler, S. J. Loucks, D. N. Maywar, R. L. McCrory et al., J. Phys. IV France 133, 75-80 (2006)]. A suite of optical diagnostics (schlieren, interferometry, and grid image refractometry) has been designed to diagnose and characterize a wide variety of plasmas. Light scattered by the probe beam is collected by an f/4 catadioptric telescope and a transport system is designed to image with a near-diffraction-limited resolution ({approx}1 -{mu}m full width at half maximum) over a 5-mm field of view to a diagnostic table. The transport system provides a contrast greater than 1 : 10{sup 4} with respect to all wavelengths outside of the 263 {+-} 2 nm measurement range.

  4. Optical diagnostic suite (schlieren, interferometry, and grid image refractometry) on OMEGA EP using a 10-ps, 263-nm probe beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Froula, D. H.; Boni, R.; Bedzyk, M.; Craxton, R. S.; Ehrne, F.; Ivancic, S.; Jungquist, R.; Shoup, M. J.; Theobald, W.; Weiner, D.; Kugland, N. L.; Rushford, M. C.

    2012-10-01

    A 10-ps, 263-nm (4ω) laser is being built to probe plasmas produced on the OMEGA EP. A suite of optical diagnostics (schlieren, interferometry, and grid image refractometry) has been designed to diagnose and characterize a wide variety of plasmas. Light scattered by the probe beam is collected by an f/4 catadioptric telescope and a transport system is designed to image with a near-diffraction-limited resolution (~1 - μm full width at half maximum) over a 5-mm field of view to a diagnostic table. The transport system provides a contrast greater than 1 : 104 with respect to all wavelengths outside of the 263 ± 2 nm measurement range.

  5. Optical diagnostic suite (schlieren, interferometry, and grid image refractometry) on OMEGA EP using a 10-ps, 263-nm probe beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Froula, D. H.; Boni, R.; Bedzyk, M.; Craxton, R. S.; Ehrne, F.; Ivancic, S.; Jungquist, R.; Shoup, M. J.; Theobald, W.; Weiner, D.; Kugland, N. L.; Rushford, M. C.

    2012-01-01

    A 10-ps, 263-nm (4ω) laser is being built to probe plasmas produced on the OMEGA EP [J. H. Kelly, L. J. Waxer, V. Bagnoud, I. A. Begishev, J. Bromage, B. E. Kruschwitz, T. E. Kessler, S. J. Loucks, D. N. Maywar, R. L. McCrory et al., J. Phys. IV France 133, 75–80 (2006)]. A suite of optical diagnostics (schlieren, interferometry, and grid image refractometry) has been designed to diagnose and characterize a wide variety of plasmas. Light scattered by the probe beam is collected by an f/4 catadioptric telescope and a transport system is designed to image with a near-diffraction-limited resolution (∼1 −μm full width at half maximum) over a 5-mm field of view to a diagnostic table. The transport system provides a contrast greater than 1 : 10 4 with respect to all wavelengths outside of the 263 ± 2 nm measurement range.

  6. Optical diagnostic suite (schlieren, interferometry, and grid image refractometry) on OMEGA EP using a 10-ps, 263-nm probe beam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froula, D H; Boni, R; Bedzyk, M; Craxton, R S; Ehrne, F; Ivancic, S; Jungquist, R; Shoup, M J; Theobald, W; Weiner, D; Kugland, N L; Rushford, M C

    2012-10-01

    A 10-ps, 263-nm (4ω) laser is being built to probe plasmas produced on the OMEGA EP [J. H. Kelly, L. J. Waxer, V. Bagnoud, I. A. Begishev, J. Bromage, B. E. Kruschwitz, T. E. Kessler, S. J. Loucks, D. N. Maywar, R. L. McCrory et al., J. Phys. IV France 133, 75-80 (2006)]. A suite of optical diagnostics (schlieren, interferometry, and grid image refractometry) has been designed to diagnose and characterize a wide variety of plasmas. Light scattered by the probe beam is collected by an f/4 catadioptric telescope and a transport system is designed to image with a near-diffraction-limited resolution (~1 - μm full width at half maximum) over a 5-mm field of view to a diagnostic table. The transport system provides a contrast greater than 1 : 10(4) with respect to all wavelengths outside of the 263 ± 2 nm measurement range.

  7. Probing space–time structure of new physics with polarized beams ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. At the international linear collider large beam polarization of both the elec- tron and positron beams will enhance the signature of physics due to interactions that are beyond the standard model. Here we review our recently obtained results on a general model-independent method of determining for an arbitary ...

  8. A study for the installation of the TEXT heavy-ion beam probe on DIII-D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edmonds, P.H.; Solano, E.R.; Bravenec, R.V.; Wootton, A.J. [Fusion Research Center, University of Texas, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Schoch, P.M.; Crowley, T.P.; Hickok, R.L. [Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York 12180 (United States); West, W.P.; Leuer, J.; Anderson, P. [General Atomics, San Diego, California 92186 (United States)

    1997-01-01

    An assessment of the feasibility of installing the TEXT 2 MeV heavy-ion beam probe on the DIII-D tokamak has been completed. Detailed drawings of the machine cross section were imported into the CAD application AutoCAD. A set of programs written in AutoLisp were used to generate trajectories. Displays of the accessible cross section of the plasma, scan lines for the entire range of primary beam energy and injection angle ranges, and sample{endash}volume dimensions can be rapidly generated. Because of the large deflection between the primary input beam and the emergent secondary beam, either the analyzer needs to be tracked over a {plus_minus}20{degree} angle or secondary poloidal deflector plates need to be installed at the exit port. Toroidal deflector plates will be installed at both the injection and exit ports to compensate for toroidal displacements and deflections. The sample volumes generated by this procedure are within a few centimeters of the locations derived from a full three-dimensional calculation.{copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  9. A study for the installation of the TEXT heavy-ion beam probe on DIII-D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmonds, P. H.; Solano, E. R.; Bravenec, R. V.; Wootton, A. J.; Schoch, P. M.; Crowley, T. P.; Hickok, R. L.; West, W. P.; Leuer, J.; Anderson, P.

    1997-01-01

    An assessment of the feasibility of installing the TEXT 2 MeV heavy-ion beam probe on the DIII-D tokamak has been completed. Detailed drawings of the machine cross section were imported into the CAD application AutoCAD. A set of programs written in AutoLisp were used to generate trajectories. Displays of the accessible cross section of the plasma, scan lines for the entire range of primary beam energy and injection angle ranges, and sample-volume dimensions can be rapidly generated. Because of the large deflection between the primary input beam and the emergent secondary beam, either the analyzer needs to be tracked over a ±20° angle or secondary poloidal deflector plates need to be installed at the exit port. Toroidal deflector plates will be installed at both the injection and exit ports to compensate for toroidal displacements and deflections. The sample volumes generated by this procedure are within a few centimeters of the locations derived from a full three-dimensional calculation.

  10. A study for the installation of the TEXT heavy-ion beam probe on DIII-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edmonds, P.H.; Solano, E.R.; Bravenec, R.V.; Wootton, A.J.; Schoch, P.M.; Crowley, T.P.; Hickok, R.L.; West, W.P.; Leuer, J.; Anderson, P.

    1997-01-01

    An assessment of the feasibility of installing the TEXT 2 MeV heavy-ion beam probe on the DIII-D tokamak has been completed. Detailed drawings of the machine cross section were imported into the CAD application AutoCAD. A set of programs written in AutoLisp were used to generate trajectories. Displays of the accessible cross section of the plasma, scan lines for the entire range of primary beam energy and injection angle ranges, and sample endash volume dimensions can be rapidly generated. Because of the large deflection between the primary input beam and the emergent secondary beam, either the analyzer needs to be tracked over a ±20 degree angle or secondary poloidal deflector plates need to be installed at the exit port. Toroidal deflector plates will be installed at both the injection and exit ports to compensate for toroidal displacements and deflections. The sample volumes generated by this procedure are within a few centimeters of the locations derived from a full three-dimensional calculation.copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  11. Effect of an ultrafast laser induced plasma on a relativistic electron beam to determine temporal overlap in pump–probe experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scoby, Cheyne M., E-mail: scoby@physics.ucla.edu [UCLA Department of Physics, 475 Portola Plaza, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1547 (United States); Li, R.K.; Musumeci, P. [UCLA Department of Physics, 475 Portola Plaza, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1547 (United States)

    2013-04-15

    In this paper we report on a simple and robust method to measure the absolute temporal overlap of the laser and the electron beam at the sample based on the effect of a laser induced plasma on the electron beam transverse distribution, successfully extending a similar method from keV to MeV electron beams. By pumping a standard copper TEM grid to form the plasma, we gain timing information independent of the sample under study. In experiments discussed here the optical delay to achieve temporal overlap between the pump electron beam and probe laser can be determined with ∼1ps precision.

  12. Electrostatic probe diagnostics on the LBL 10 ampere neutral beam ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoenberg, K.F.

    1978-08-01

    The experimental results of electrostatic probe measurements on the LBL 10 ampere ion source are presented. Data is obtained via a pulsed acquisition system which digitally records a probe characteristic and its first and second derivatives. The latter are shown to be proportional to the projected electron energy distribution function, and the isotropic electron energy distribution function, respectively. System performance for distribution function measurement is compared to the established technique of harmonic analysis. A complete analysis of the data acquisition system and its experimental accuracy is presented

  13. Path integral effects in heavy ion beam probe density measurements: A comparison of simulation results and experimental data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heard, J.W.; Crowley, T.P.; Ross, D.W.; Schoch, P.M.; Hickok, R.L. Jr.; Zhang, B.Z.

    1993-01-01

    The heavy ion beam probe (HIBP) signal used to measure local density fluctuations in a plasma is also sensitive to modulation due to density fluctuations along the entire beam trajectory. A modulation model of the HIBP experiment on the Texas experimental tokamak (TEXT) is presented. The model includes profile information for equilibrium and fluctuating parameters, allows for differences in the radial and poloidal characteristics of the fluctuations, and uses realistic beam trajectories. It is shown that profile effects are important in understanding HIBP modulation and that modulation does not simply increase with line average density in TEXT. In addition, calculations of the modulation effects show that only the terms which correspond to in-phase signals at the two sample volumes are significant. Therefore, the modulation effects can be approximated with a real parameter. Under these assumptions, it is shown that only long correlation length, low wave number modes will contribute significantly to the corruption of the measured signal. The calculation of the modulation effects are consistent with the experiment. It is illustrated herein how the measured data can be used to set limits on the modulation signal without doing extensive model calculations. These limits show that there must be long wavelength fluctuations in the plasma

  14. Optical beam transport to a remote location for low jitter pump-probe experiments with a free electron laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Cinquegrana

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we propose a scheme that allows a strong reduction of the timing jitter between the pulses of a free electron laser (FEL and external laser pulses delivered simultaneously at the FEL experimental stations for pump-probe–type experiments. The technique, applicable to all seeding-based FEL schemes, relies on the free-space optical transport of a portion of the seed laser pulse from its optical table to the experimental stations. The results presented here demonstrate that a carefully designed laser beam transport, incorporating also a transverse beam position stabilization, allows one to keep the timing fluctuations, added by as much as 150 m of free space propagation and a number of beam folding mirrors, to less than 4 femtoseconds rms. By its nature our scheme removes the major common timing jitter sources, so the overall jitter in pump-probe measurements done in this way will be below 10 fs (with a margin to be lowered to below 5 fs, much better than the best results reported previously in the literature amounting to 33 fs rms.

  15. HOM electronics and code to probe beam centring on 3.9 GHz cavities

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, P

    2014-01-01

    The work within sub-task 10.5.1 was aimed at developing electronics for beam position monitoring (BPM) based on Higher-Order Modes (HOM) excited by electron beams in 3.9 GHz cavities in the FLASH linac at DESY, Hamburg, defining realistic specifications and proving that these signals can be used for beam centering. A series of measurements with devices like a fast oscilloscopes and a real-time spectrum analyzer, as well as with specially designed test electronics. These measurements in conjunction with the simulations made by the other 2 sub-tasks have enabled us to find two spectra regions suitable for use as BPM: modes with strong coupling to the beam around 5.4 GHz, enabling precise monitoring (resolution of ca 20 μm rms) within the whole 4-cavity module, and localized modes at ca.9 GHz for localized measurements in each cavity (resolution of ca 50 mm rms). Various data analysis approaches have been studied. Based on the EuCARD work the HOMBPM electronics has been designed and is now being built at FNAL. ...

  16. Probing space–time structure of new physics with polarized beams ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Introduction. At the international linear collider, the possibility of considerable beam polariza- tion has led to a series of investigations on using this as a diagnostic aid for ... scalar (P), scalar (S) and tensor (T) interactions could contribute. ... We now determine the forms of the matrices Γi and the tensors Hiµ in the various.

  17. LHC Report: Now it’s full speed ahead (still with probe beam)

    CERN Multimedia

    Mike Lamont

    2015-01-01

    Since the last report, the commissioning with beam was delayed after a short to ground appeared in the cold mass of the main dipole chain in sector 3-4. After a remarkable team effort coordinated by the Machine Protection group, a procedure to burn away the small piece of metallic debris that was causing the earth fault was conceived, prototyped, tested and deployed. The intervention was successfully completed on the afternoon of 31 March and the first beams circulated in the LHC on Sunday, 5 April. Just a few days later, at just past midnight on Friday, 10 April, beam was ramped up to 6.5 TeV.   "LHC page 1" shows the status of the LHC last night. The black line shows the beam energy increasing to 6.5 TeV. The intervention successfully conducted in sector 3-4 opened the way for the completion of quench training in the sector and the final qualification of the circuit. This marked the end of a long and arduous powering test campaign that has fully qualified all circuits for...

  18. A code to determine the energy distribution, the incident energy and the flux of a beam of light ions into a stack of foils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonzogni, A.A.; Romo, A.S.M.A.; Frosch, W.R.; Nassiff, S.J.

    1992-01-01

    The stacked-foil technique is one of the most used methods to obtain excitation functions of nuclear reactions using light ions as projectiles. The purpose of this program is the calculation of the energy of the beam in the stack, as well as to obtain the incident energy and the flux of the beam by using monitor excitation functions. (orig.)

  19. Radial space potential measurements in the central cell of the tandem mirror experiment with a heavy-ion-beam probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hallock, G.A.

    1983-01-01

    Spatial and temporal profiles of the space potential in the central-cell midplane of TMX have been obtained with a heavy-ion-beam probe. The absolute accuracy of measurements is +- 25 volts (with respect to the machine vacuum walls) with a resolution of approx. 2 volts. During moderate fueling with the gas boxes (i/sub gas/ approx. = 1200 Atom-Amperes D 2 ), the plasma potential is parabolic to at least 25 cm radius, with phi/sub e/ approx. = phi/sub max/[1-(r/32) 2 ] and 300 < phi/sub max/ <450 volts. With puffer-valve fueling, the space potential is relatively flat to at least 27 cm radius, with 250 < phi/sub e/ < 350 volts

  20. Radial space potential measurements in the central cell of the tandem mirror experiment with a heavy-ion-beam probe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallock, G.A.

    1983-04-11

    Spatial and temporal profiles of the space potential in the central-cell midplane of TMX have been obtained with a heavy-ion-beam probe. The absolute accuracy of measurements is +- 25 volts (with respect to the machine vacuum walls) with a resolution of approx. 2 volts. During moderate fueling with the gas boxes (i/sub gas/ approx. = 1200 Atom-Amperes D/sub 2/), the plasma potential is parabolic to at least 25 cm radius, with phi/sub e/ approx. = phi/sub max/(1-(r/32)/sup 2/) and 300 < phi/sub max/ <450 volts. With puffer-valve fueling, the space potential is relatively flat to at least 27 cm radius, with 250 < phi/sub e/ < 350 volts.

  1. Atom-probe field-ion microscopy investigation of CMSX-4 Ni-base superalloy laser beam welds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babu, S.S.; David, S.A.; Vitek, J.M.; Miller, M.K.

    1996-01-01

    CMSX-4 superalloy laser beam welds were investigated by transmission electron microscopy and atom probe field-ion microscopy (APFIM). The weld microstructure consisted of fine (10- to 50-nm) irregularly shaped γ' precipitates (0.65 to 0.75 volume fraction) within the γ matrix. APFIM compositions of the γ and γ' phases were found to be different from those in the base metal. Concentration profiles across the γ and γ' phases showed extensive variations of Cr, Co and Al concentrations as a function of distance within the γ phase. Calculated lattice misfits near the γ/γ' interface in the welds are positive values compared to the negative values for base metal. (orig.)

  2. System size and beam energy effects on probing the high-density behavior of nuclear symmetry energy with pion ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Ming; Xiao Zhigang; Li Baoan; Chen Liewen; Yong Gaochan; Zhu Shengjiang

    2010-01-01

    Based on the isospin-and momentum-dependent hadronic transport model IBUU04, we have investigated the π - /π + ratio in the following three reactions: 48 Ca+ 48 Ca, 124 Sn + 124 Sn and 197 Au + 197 Au with nearly the same isospin asymmetry but different masses, at the bombarding energies from 0.25 to 0.6 AGeV. It is shown that the sensitivity of probing the E sym (ρ) with π - /π + increases with increasing the system size or decreasing the beam energy, showing a correlation to the degree of isospin fractionation. Therefore, with a given isospin asymmetry, heavier system at energies near the pion threshold is preferential to study the behavior of nuclear symmetry energy at supra-saturation densities.

  3. Heavy ion beam probe investigations of plasma potential in ECRH and NBI in the TJ-II stellarator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melnikov, A.V.; Eliseev, L.; Perfilov, S.V.; Chmyga, A.A.; Dreval, N.; Khrebtov, S.M.; Komarov, A.D.; Kozachok, A.S.; Krupnik, L.; Alonso, A.; Pablos, J.L. de; Cappa, A.; Fernandez, A.; Fuentes, C.; Hidalgo, C.; Liniers, M.; Pedrosa, M.A.

    2005-01-01

    Direct measurements of electric potential and its fluctuations are of a primary importance in magnetic confinement systems. The Heavy Ion Beam Probe (HIBP) diagnostic is used in TJ-2 stellarator to study directly plasma electric potential profiles with spatial (up to 1cm) and temporal (up to 10 ∝s) resolution. The singly charged heavy ions Cs + with energies up to 125 keV are used to probe the plasma column from the edge to the core. Both ECRH and NBI heated plasmas (P ECRH = 200 - 400kW, P NBI = 400kW, E NBI = 28 kV) were studied. The significant improvement in the HIBP beam control system and the acquisition electronics leads us to increase the possibilities of the diagnostic. The most crucial one is the extension of the signal dynamic range, which allows us to have the reliable profiles from the plasma center to the plasma edge both in the high and low field side regions. Low density ECRH (n = 0.5-1.1.10 13 cm -3 ) plasmas in TJ-2 are characterised by core positive plasma potential of order of 500 - 1000 V and positive electric fields up to 50 V/cm. Edge radial electric fields remain positive at low densities and became negative at the threshold density that depends of plasma configuration. NBI plasmas are characterized by negative electric potential in the full plasma column and negative radial electric fields (in the range of 10 - 40 V/cm). The density rise during the NBI phase is accompanied by the decay of core plasma potential. When density is getting the level of n ∼ 2.0.10 13 cm -3 , the potential stops its evolution and remains constant. The evolution of plasma potential near density limit is under investigation. These observations, reported in different magnetic configurations, show the clear link between plasma potential and plasma density. (author)

  4. Laser-assisted atom probe tomography of semiconductors: The impact of the focused-ion beam specimen preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanowicz, J; Kumar, A; Fleischmann, C; Gilbert, M; Houard, J; Vella, A; Vandervorst, W

    2018-03-05

    This paper demonstrates the increased light absorption efficiency of semiconducting atom probe tips resulting from focused-ion-beam (FIB) preparation. We use transmission electron microscopy to show that semiconducting tips prepared with FIB are surrounded with an amorphized shell. Photomodulated optical reflectance measurements then provide evidence that FIB-induced damage leads to an increase in both sub- and supra-bandgap light absorption efficiency. Using laser-assisted atom probe tomography (La-APT) measurements, we finally show that, for a nanoscale tip geometry, the laser-induced heating of a tip during La-APT is enhanced by the FIB preparation. We conclude that, upon supra-bandgap illumination, the presence of a FIB-amorphized surface dramatically increases the light-induced heat generation inside semiconducting tips during La-APT. Furthermore, we also deduce that, in the intriguing case of sub-bandgap illumination, the amorphization plays a crucial role in the unexpected light absorption. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Electron-beam-induced-current and active secondary-electron voltage-contrast with aberration-corrected electron probes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Myung-Geun, E-mail: mghan@bnl.gov [Condensed Matter Physics & Materials Science, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Garlow, Joseph A. [Condensed Matter Physics & Materials Science, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Materials Science and Engineering Department, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794 (United States); Marshall, Matthew S.J.; Tiano, Amanda L. [Department of Chemistry, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11974 (United States); Wong, Stanislaus S. [Condensed Matter Physics & Materials Science, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Department of Chemistry, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11974 (United States); Cheong, Sang-Wook [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rutgers Center for Emergent Materials, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Walker, Frederick J.; Ahn, Charles H. [Department of Applied Physics and Center for Research on Interface Structures and Phenomena, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Zhu, Yimei [Condensed Matter Physics & Materials Science, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States)

    2017-05-15

    Highlights: • Electron-beam-induced-current (EBIC) and active secondary-electron voltage-contrast (SE-VC) are demonstrated in STEM mode combined with in situ electrical biasing in a TEM. • Electrostatic potential maps in ferroelectric thin films, multiferroic nanowires, and single crystals obtained by off-axis electron holography were compared with EBIC and SE-VC data. • Simultaneous EBIC and active SE-VC performed with atomic resolution STEM are demonstrated. - Abstract: The ability to map out electrostatic potentials in materials is critical for the development and the design of nanoscale electronic and spintronic devices in modern industry. Electron holography has been an important tool for revealing electric and magnetic field distributions in microelectronics and magnetic-based memory devices, however, its utility is hindered by several practical constraints, such as charging artifacts and limitations in sensitivity and in field of view. In this article, we report electron-beam-induced-current (EBIC) and secondary-electron voltage-contrast (SE-VC) with an aberration-corrected electron probe in a transmission electron microscope (TEM), as complementary techniques to electron holography, to measure electric fields and surface potentials, respectively. These two techniques were applied to ferroelectric thin films, multiferroic nanowires, and single crystals. Electrostatic potential maps obtained by off-axis electron holography were compared with EBIC and SE-VC to show that these techniques can be used as a complementary approach to validate quantitative results obtained from electron holography analysis.

  6. Probing a plasma with high-energy beams of atoms using threshold detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bocharov, V.N.; Konstantinov, S.G.; Kudryavtsev, A.M.; Myskin, O.K.; Panasyuk, V.M.; Tsel'nik, F.A.

    1984-06-01

    A method is described for a significant increase (to 10 4 ) of the signal/noise ratio during active corpuscular diagnostics of plasma by using a high-energy (to 80 keV) beam of helium atoms and a system of silicon semiconductor detectors with low registration threshold, approx. 15 keV. Amplification factors of detectors in the 10 to 70 keV range were measured, and the results of measurements of the radial profile of density and potential of a spinning plasma are given

  7. RadSensor: Xray Detection by Direct Modulation of an Optical Probe Beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowry, M E; Bennett, C V; Vernon, S P; Bond, T; Welty, R; Behymer, E; Petersen, H; Krey, A; Stewart, R; Kobayashi, N P; Sperry, V; Stephan, P; Reinhardt, C; Simpson, S; Stratton, P; Bionta, R; McKernan, M; Ables, E; Ott, L; Bond, S; Ayers, J.; Landen, O L; Bell, P M

    2003-01-01

    We present a new x-ray detection technique based on optical measurement of the effects of x-ray absorption and electron hole pair creation in a direct band-gap semiconductor. The electron-hole pairs create a frequency dependent shift in optical refractive index and absorption. This is sensed by simultaneously directing an optical carrier beam through the same volume of semiconducting medium that has experienced an xray induced modulation in the electron-hole population. If the operating wavelength of the optical carrier beam is chosen to be close to the semiconductor band-edge, the optical carrier will be modulated significantly in phase and amplitude. This approach should be simultaneously capable of very high sensitivity and excellent temporal response, even in the difficult high-energy xray regime. At xray photon energies near 10 keV and higher, we believe that sub-picosecond temporal responses are possible with near single xray photon sensitivity. The approach also allows for the convenient and EMI robust transport of high-bandwidth information via fiber optics. Furthermore, the technology can be scaled to imaging applications. The basic physics of the detector, implementation considerations, and preliminary experimental data are presented and discussed

  8. Ion beam probe diagnostic system. Technical progress report, 1 January 1979-30 June 1980. RPDL report No. 80-17

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hickok, R.L.; Jennings, W.C.; Woo, J.T.; Connor, K.A.

    1980-07-01

    Tokomak plasmas suitable for diagnostic development were produced during this period in RENTOR following technological improvements in the vacuum chamber and discharge cleaning systems. Secondary ion signals were obtained from the heavy ion beam probe on RENTOR leading to initial estimates of the plasma space potential, which appears to vary by several hundred volts during the plasma pulse. The principle of measuring space potential in a minimum-B geometry was established using an ion gun mounted at the center of the ALEX baseball coil. The neutral beam probe was installed for measuring the space potential using actual secondary ion signals from a hollow cathode arc in ALEX and preliminary tests have begun. The ion beam test stand was significantly altered to allow more flexibility in testing energy analyzers, ion guns, and ion focusing concepts

  9. Development and beam-shape analysis of an integrated fiber-optic confocal probe for high-precision central thickness measurement of small-radius lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutapun, Boonsong; Somboonkaew, Armote; Amarit, Ratthasart; Chanhorm, Sataporn

    2015-04-13

    This work describes a new design of a fiber-optic confocal probe suitable for measuring the central thicknesses of small-radius optical lenses or similar objects. The proposed confocal probe utilizes an integrated camera that functions as a shape-encoded position-sensing device. The confocal signal for thickness measurement and beam-shape data for off-axis measurement can be simultaneously acquired using the proposed probe. Placing the probe's focal point off-center relative to a sample's vertex produces a non-circular image at the camera's image plane that closely resembles an ellipse for small displacements. We were able to precisely position the confocal probe's focal point relative to the vertex point of a ball lens with a radius of 2.5 mm, with a lateral resolution of 1.2 µm. The reflected beam shape based on partial blocking by an aperture was analyzed and verified experimentally. The proposed confocal probe offers a low-cost, high-precision technique, an alternative to a high-cost three-dimensional surface profiler, for tight quality control of small optical lenses during the manufacturing process.

  10. Maximum dose angle for oblique incidence on primary beam protective barriers in the design of medical radiation therapy facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fondevila, Damian; Arbiser, Silvio; Sansogne, Rosana; Brunetto, Monica; Dosoretz, Bernardo

    2008-01-01

    Primary barrier determinations for the shielding of medical radiation therapy facilities are generally made assuming normal beam incidence on the barrier, since this is geometrically the most unfavorable condition for that shielding barrier whenever the occupation line is allowed to run along the barrier. However, when the occupation line (for example, the wall of an adjacent building) runs perpendicular to the barrier (especially roof barrier), then two opposing factors come in to play: increasing obliquity angle with respect to the barrier increases the attenuation, while the distance to the calculation point decreases, hence, increasing the dose. As a result, there exists an angle (α max ) for which the equivalent dose results in a maximum, constituting the most unfavorable geometric condition for that shielding barrier. Based on the usual NCRP Report No. 151 model, this article presents a simple formula for obtaining α max , which is a function of the thickness of the barrier (t E ) and the equilibrium tenth-value layer (TVL e ) of the shielding material for the nominal energy of the beam. It can be seen that α max increases for increasing TVL e (hence, beam energy) and decreases for increasing t E , with a range of variation that goes from 13 to 40 deg for concrete barriers thicknesses in the range of 50-300 cm and most commercially available teletherapy machines. This parameter has not been calculated in the existing literature for radiotherapy facilities design and has practical applications, as in calculating the required unoccupied roof shielding for the protection of a nearby building located in the plane of the primary beam rotation

  11. Peculiarities of the Self-Action of Inclined Wave Beams Incident on a Discrete System of Optical Fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litvak, A. G.; Mironov, V. A.; Skobelev, S. A.; Smirnov, L. A.

    2018-01-01

    Based on a discrete nonlinear Schrödinger equation (DNSE), we studied analytically and numerically the peculiarities of the self-action of one-dimensional quasi-optic wave beams injected into a spatially inhomogeneous medium consisting of a set of equidistant mutually coupled optical fibers. A variational approach allowing the prediction of the global evolution of localized fields with the initially plane phase front was developed. The self-consistent equations are obtained for the main parameters of such beams (the position of the center of mass, the effective width, and linear and quadratic phase-front corrections) in the aberrationless approximation. The case of radiation incident on a periodic system of nonlinear optical fibers at an angle to the axis oriented along them is analyzed in detail. It is shown that for the radiation power exceeding a critical value, the self-focusing of the wave field is observed, which is accompanied by the shift of the intensity maximum followed by the concentration of the main part of radiation only in one of the structural elements of the array under study. In this case, the beams propagate along paths considerably different from linear and the direction of their propagation changes compared to the initial direction. Asymptotic expressions are found that allow us to estimate the self-focusing length and to determine quite accurately the final position of a point with the maximum field amplitude after radiation trapping a channel. The results of the qualitative study of the possible self-channeling regimes for wave beams in a system of weakly coupled optical fibers in the aberrationless approximation are compared with the results of direct numerical simulations within the DNSE framework.

  12. Ion beam probe plasma diagnostic system. Annual progress report, 1 February 1975--31 January 1976. RPDL report No. 76-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jennings, W.C.; Connor, K.A.; Hickok, R.L.

    1976-01-01

    Significant progress has been made in the program to develop heavy ion beam probe diagnostic systems for high energy, magnetically confined plasmas. Refinements have been made in the techniques for making spatially resolved instability measurements by continuing the study of a Kelvin-Helmholtz mode in an energetic arc. The measurements of the amplitude and phase of both density and space potential fluctuations have been directly compared with theoretical predictions from a normal mode analysis. The agreement is excellent considering the limitations of the linear, symmetric model used to develop the radial wave equation. The data acquisition and electronics systems have been considerably improved. A complete 1 MHz data handling system using buffer storage has been developed for use with the Tokamak facility. In addition a beam trajectory programmer has been developed for controlling the position of the probing beam in the plasma, and the frequency response of the analyzer/detector systems has been improved. The concept of using a beam probe for mapping general magnetic fields has also been further developed. The technique has been placed on firmer theoretical grounds, and numerical simulations have been performed to return a known poloidal field from what we believe to be measureable parameters. The Rensselaer Tokamak, which will be the focus of our on-campus program in the immediate future, has been constructed and installed. The diagnostic equipment for use with the Tokamak is progressing and measurements will begin shortly. Finally, preliminary designs of ion beam probe systems have been performed for several existing or planned confinement devices, including the ELMO Bumpy Torus, the PDX Tokamak, and the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor

  13. Diagnosis of secondary caries in esthetic restorations: influence of the incidence vertical angle of the X-ray beam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Patrícia Lima; Messora, Michel Reis; Pereira, Stela Márcia; Almeida, Solange Maria de; Cruz, Adriana Dibo da

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy on the diagnosis of secondary caries-like lesions simulated on esthetic restorations of different materials, changing the incidence vertical angle (IVA) of the x-ray beam. Twenty human teeth received MOD inlay preparations. In the experimental group (n=10), a round cavity was made in the floor of the proximal box to simulate the caries-like lesion. All teeth were restored with 3 composite resins (Charisma, Filtek-Z250 and TPH-Spectrum) at 3 moments. Two radiographic images were acquired with 0º and 10º IVA. Ten observers evaluated the images using a 5-point confidence scale. Intra- and interobserver reliability was analyzed with the Interclass Correlation Coefficient and the diagnostic accuracy was evaluated using the area under the ROC curve (A(z)), Friedman test and Wilcoxon test (α=0.05). Higher accuracy values were obtained with 10º IVA (A(z)=0.66, Filtek-Z250>A(z)=0.56, TPH-Spectrum) compared to 0º (A(z)=0.55, Charisma>A(z)=0.37, TPH-Spectrum), though without statistically significant difference (p>0.05). The detection of secondary caries-like lesions simulated on esthetic restorations of different materials suffered no negative influence by changing the IVA of the x-ray beam.

  14. Optimal design and fabrication method for antireflection coatings for P-polarized 193 nm laser beam at large angles of incidence (68°-74°).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jingcheng; Jin, Chunshui; Li, Chun; Deng, Wenyuan; Chang, Yanhe

    2013-09-01

    Most of the optical axes in modern systems are bent for optomechanical considerations. Antireflection (AR) coatings for polarized light at oblique incidence are widely used in optical surfaces like prisms or multiform lenses to suppress undesirable reflections. The optimal design and fabrication method for AR coatings with large-angle range (68°-74°) for a P-polarized 193 nm laser beam is discussed in detail. Experimental results showed that after coating, the reflection loss of a P-polarized laser beam at large angles of incidence on the optical surfaces is reduced dramatically, which could greatly improve the output efficiency of the optical components in the deep ultraviolet vacuum range.

  15. Response-only method for damage detection of beam-like structures using high accuracy frequencies with auxiliary mass spatial probing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Shuncong; Oyadiji, S. Olutunde; Ding, Kang

    2008-04-01

    This paper proposes a new approach based on auxiliary mass spatial probing using spectral centre correction method (SCCM), to provide a simple solution for damage detection by just using the response time history of beam-like structures. The natural frequencies of a damaged beam with a traversing auxiliary mass change due to change in the inertia of the beam as the auxiliary mass is traversed along the beam, as well as the point-to-point variations in the flexibility of the beam. Therefore the auxiliary mass can enhance the effects of the crack on the dynamics of the beam and, therefore, facilitate the identification and location of damage in the beam. That is, the auxiliary mass can be used to probe the dynamic characteristic of the beam by traversing the mass from one end of the beam to the other. However, it is impossible to obtain accurate modal frequencies by the direct operation of the fast Fourier transform (FFT) of the response data of the structure because the frequency spectrum can be only calculated from limited sampled time data which results in the well-known leakage effect. SCCM is identical to the energy centrobaric correction method (ECCM) which is a practical and effective method used in rotating mechanical fault diagnosis and which resolves the shortcoming of FFT and can provide high accuracy estimate of frequency, amplitude and phase. In the present work, the modal responses of damaged simply supported beams with auxiliary mass are computed using the finite element method (FEM). The graphical plots of the natural frequencies calculated by SCCM versus axial location of auxiliary mass are obtained. However, it is difficult to locate the crack directly from the curve of natural frequencies. A simple and fast method, the derivatives of natural frequency curve, is proposed in the paper which can provide crack information for damage detection of beam-like structures. The efficiency and practicability of the proposed method is illustrated via numerical

  16. Second cancer incidence risk estimates using BEIR VII models for standard and complex external beam radiotherapy for early breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donovan, E. M.; James, H.; Bonora, M.; Yarnold, J. R.; Evans, P. M.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To compare organ specific cancer incidence risks for standard and complex external beam radiotherapy (including cone beam CT verification) following breast conservation surgery for early breast cancer.Method: Doses from breast radiotherapy and kilovoltage cone beam CT (CBCT) exposures were obtained from thermoluminescent dosimeter measurements in an anthropomorphic phantom in which the positions of radiosensitive organs were delineated. Five treatment deliveries were investigated: (i) conventional tangential field whole breast radiotherapy (WBRT), (ii) noncoplanar conformal delivery applicable to accelerated partial beast irradiation (APBI), (iii) two-volume simultaneous integrated boost (SIB) treatment, (iv) forward planned three-volume SIB, and (v) inverse-planned three volume SIB. Conformal and intensity modulated radiotherapy methods were used to plan the complex treatments. Techniques spanned the range from simple methods appropriate for patient cohorts with a low cancer recurrence risk to complex plans relevant to cohorts with high recurrence risk. Delineated organs at risk included brain, salivary glands, thyroid, contralateral breast, left and right lung, esophagus, stomach, liver, colon, and bladder. Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation (BEIR) VII cancer incidence models were applied to the measured mean organ doses to determine lifetime attributable risk (LAR) for ages at exposure from 35 to 80 yr according to radiotherapy techniques, and included dose from the CBCT imaging. Results: All LAR decreased with age at exposure and were lowest for brain, thyroid, liver, and bladder (<0.1%). There was little dependence of LAR on radiotherapy technique for these organs and for colon and stomach. LAR values for the lungs for the three SIB techniques were two to three times those from WBRT and APBI. Uncertainties in the LAR models outweigh any differences in lung LAR between the SIB methods. Constraints in the planning of the SIB methods ensured that

  17. Second cancer incidence risk estimates using BEIR VII models for standard and complex external beam radiotherapy for early breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donovan, E. M.; James, H.; Bonora, M.; Yarnold, J. R.; Evans, P. M. [Joint Department of Physics, Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust and Institute of Cancer Research, Sutton SM2 5PT (United Kingdom); Physics Department, Ipswich Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Ipswich IP4 5PD (United Kingdom); Department of Academic Radiotherapy, Institute of Cancer Research and Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, Sutton SM2 5PT, United Kingdom and School of Radiotherapy, University of Milan, Milan 20122 (Italy); Department of Academic Radiotherapy, Institute of Cancer Research and Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, Sutton SM2 5PT (United Kingdom); Centre for Vision Speech and Signal Processing, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom)

    2012-10-15

    Purpose: To compare organ specific cancer incidence risks for standard and complex external beam radiotherapy (including cone beam CT verification) following breast conservation surgery for early breast cancer.Method: Doses from breast radiotherapy and kilovoltage cone beam CT (CBCT) exposures were obtained from thermoluminescent dosimeter measurements in an anthropomorphic phantom in which the positions of radiosensitive organs were delineated. Five treatment deliveries were investigated: (i) conventional tangential field whole breast radiotherapy (WBRT), (ii) noncoplanar conformal delivery applicable to accelerated partial beast irradiation (APBI), (iii) two-volume simultaneous integrated boost (SIB) treatment, (iv) forward planned three-volume SIB, and (v) inverse-planned three volume SIB. Conformal and intensity modulated radiotherapy methods were used to plan the complex treatments. Techniques spanned the range from simple methods appropriate for patient cohorts with a low cancer recurrence risk to complex plans relevant to cohorts with high recurrence risk. Delineated organs at risk included brain, salivary glands, thyroid, contralateral breast, left and right lung, esophagus, stomach, liver, colon, and bladder. Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation (BEIR) VII cancer incidence models were applied to the measured mean organ doses to determine lifetime attributable risk (LAR) for ages at exposure from 35 to 80 yr according to radiotherapy techniques, and included dose from the CBCT imaging. Results: All LAR decreased with age at exposure and were lowest for brain, thyroid, liver, and bladder (<0.1%). There was little dependence of LAR on radiotherapy technique for these organs and for colon and stomach. LAR values for the lungs for the three SIB techniques were two to three times those from WBRT and APBI. Uncertainties in the LAR models outweigh any differences in lung LAR between the SIB methods. Constraints in the planning of the SIB methods ensured that

  18. Design of a low-temperature plasma (LTP) probe with adjustable output temperature and variable beam diameter for the direct detection of organic molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Jarquín, Sandra; Winkler, Robert

    2013-03-15

    The direct detection of organic molecules by mass spectrometry requires ionization methods which are compatible with ambient conditions. A relatively new strategy is the use of a free low-temperature plasma beam for ionization. The objective is to design a safe and adjustable plasma beam to enable optimal ionization and desorption parameters for specific molecules. A plasma probe based on a dielectric barrier discharge was designed, where the plasma is guided through an internal second tube. This setup permits different beam diameter settings and the control of the plasma temperature. The ionization and desorption of pure organic compounds, as well as their direct detection from roasted coffee beans, were tested. The presented plasma probe provides improved safety with respect to arcing, ozone generation and electric shock, compared with conventional designs. The functionality of previously reported devices is expanded. A defined plasma diameter can be set by choosing the appropriate insert, while the input voltage controls the plasma temperature. The variation of measurement parameters enables the optimized direct detection of target compounds from roasted coffee beans, such as caffeine, guaiacol and vanillin. The presented low-temperature plasma probe allows the fine-tuning of ionization and desorption parameters, according to the target molecules. Possible applications include: (1) The ambient ionization and desorption of organic compounds with different volatility and (2) The direct analysis of food products such as roasted coffee beans. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Development and Beam-Shape Analysis of an Integrated Fiber-Optic Confocal Probe for High-Precision Central Thickness Measurement of Small-Radius Lenses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boonsong Sutapun

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This work describes a new design of a fiber-optic confocal probe suitable for measuring the central thicknesses of small-radius optical lenses or similar objects. The proposed confocal probe utilizes an integrated camera that functions as a shape-encoded position-sensing device. The confocal signal for thickness measurement and beam-shape data for off-axis measurement can be simultaneously acquired using the proposed probe. Placing the probe’s focal point off-center relative to a sample’s vertex produces a non-circular image at the camera’s image plane that closely resembles an ellipse for small displacements. We were able to precisely position the confocal probe’s focal point relative to the vertex point of a ball lens with a radius of 2.5 mm, with a lateral resolution of 1.2 µm. The reflected beam shape based on partial blocking by an aperture was analyzed and verified experimentally. The proposed confocal probe offers a low-cost, high-precision technique, an alternative to a high-cost three-dimensional surface profiler, for tight quality control of small optical lenses during the manufacturing process.

  20. Molecular-beam epitaxy growth and structural characterization of semiconductor-ferromagnet heterostructures by grazing incidence X-ray diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satapathy, D.K.

    2005-12-19

    The present work is devoted to the growth of the ferromagnetic metal MnAs on the semiconductor GaAs by molecular-beam epitaxy (MBE). The MnAs thin films are deposited on GaAs by molecular-beam epitaxy (MBE). Grazing incidence diffraction (GID) and reflection high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED) are used in situ to investigate the nucleation, evolution of strain, morphology and interfacial structure during the MBE growth. Four stages of the nucleation process during growth of MnAs on GaAs(001) are revealed by RHEED azimuthal scans. GID shows that further growth of MnAs films proceed via the formation of relaxed islands at a nominal thickness of 2.5 ML which increase in size and finally coalesce to form a continuous film. Early on, an ordered array of misfit dislocations forms at the interface releasing the misfit strain even before complete coalescence occurs. The fascinating complex nucleation process of MnAs on GaAs(0 0 1) contains elements of both Volmer-Weber and Stranski-Krastanov growth. A nonuniform strain amounting to 0.66%, along the [1 -1 0] direction and 0.54%, along the [1 1 0] direction is demonstrated from x-ray line profile analysis. A high correlation between the defects is found along the GaAs[1 1 0] direction. An extremely periodic array of misfit dislocations with a period of 4.95{+-}0.05 nm is formed at the interface along the [1 1 0] direction which releases the 7.5% of misfit. The inhomogeneous strain due to the periodic dislocations is confined at the interface within a layer of 1.6 nm thickness. The misfit along the [1 -1 0] direction is released by the formation of a coincidence site lattice. (orig.)

  1. Fragmentation and direct transfer reactions for 40Ar incident beam on 27Al target at 1760 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cisse, Ousmane

    1985-01-01

    Peripheral collision studies performed with 40 Ar projectiles at 44 MeV/A and 27 Al target show that both fragmentation and transfer reactions can be discerned in this type of interaction. The experimental observation of fragments with masses charges and velocities close to those of the incident beam are the signature of transfer reactions and a detailed analysis of the energy spectra of such fragments has been carried out and interpreted in terms of a direct diffraction transfer model. On the other hand, for large mass transfer reactions, abrasion is the suitable mechanism. Inclusive fragment measurement together with the appropriate residual nuclei-fragment coincidence results then provides experimental data in good agreement with the theoretical predictions obtained from a participant spectator model. These investigations also indicate that the separation energies of the participant from the spectator nucleus, at least within the framework of the above model, can be interpreted in terms of a friction force which becomes more efficient as the projectile energy decreases. (author) [fr

  2. Technical Note: Use of a beam width probe in an Aerosol Mass Spectrometer to monitor particle collection efficiency in the field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Salcedo

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Two Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometers (Q-AMS were deployed in Mexico City, during the Mexico City Metropolitan Area field study (MCMA-2003 from 29 March–4 May 2003 to investigate particle concentrations, sources, and processes. We report the use of a particle beam width probe (BWP in the field to quantify potential losses of particles due to beam broadening inside the AMS caused by particle shape (nonsphericity and particle size. Data from this probe show that no significant mass of particles was lost due to excessive beam broadening; i.e. the shape- and size-related collection efficiency (Es of the AMS during this campaign was approximately one. Comparison of the BWP data from MCMA-2003 with other campaigns shows that the same conclusion holds for several other urban, rural and remotes sites. This means that the aerodynamic lens in the AMS is capable of efficiently focusing ambient particles into a well defined beam and onto the AMS vaporizer for particles sampled in a wide variety of environments. All the species measured by the AMS during MCMA-2003 have similar attenuation profiles which suggests that the particles that dominate the mass concentration were internally mixed most of the time. Only for the smaller particles (especially below 300 nm, organic and inorganic species show different attenuation versus particle size which is likely due to partial external mixing of these components. Changes observed in the focusing of the particle beam in time can be attributed, in part, to changes in particle shape (i.e. due to relative humidity and size of the particles sampled. However, the relationships between composition, atmospheric conditions, and particle shape and size appear to be very complex and are not yet completely understood.

  3. Probing the longitudinal electric field of Bessel beams using second-harmonic generation from nano-objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turquet, Léo; Kakko, Joona-Pekko; Karvonen, Lasse; Jiang, Hua; Kauppinen, Esko; Lipsanen, Harri; Kauranen, Martti; Bautista, Godofredo

    2017-08-01

    Non-diffractive Bessel beams are receiving significant interest in optical microscopy due to their remarkably large depth of field. For example, studies have shown the superiority of Bessel beams over Gaussian beams for volumetric imaging of three-dimensionally thick or extended samples. However, the vectorial aspects of the focal fields of Bessel beams are generally obscured when traditional methods are used to characterize their three-dimensional point-spread function in space, which contains contributions from all optical field components. Here, we show experimentally the three-dimensional spatial distribution and enhanced depth of field of the longitudinal electric field components of a focused linearly-polarized Bessel beam. This is done through second-harmonic generation from well-defined vertically-aligned gallium-arsenide nanowires, whose second-order response is primarily driven by the longitudinal fields at the beam focus.

  4. Long range heliostat target using array of normal incidence pyranometers to evaluate a beam of solar radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanbari, Cheryl M; Ho, Clifford K; Kolb, Gregory J

    2014-03-04

    Various technologies described herein pertain to evaluating a beam reflected by a heliostat. A portable target that has an array of sensors mounted thereupon is configured to capture the beam reflected by the heliostat. The sensors in the array output measured values indicative of a characteristic of the beam reflected by the heliostat. Moreover, a computing device can generate and output data corresponding to the beam reflected by the heliostat based on the measured values indicative of the characteristic of the beam received from the sensors in the array.

  5. Variables for probing neutrino oscillation at super-Kamiokande and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We propose several new variables, insensitive to the absolute flux of the incident solar or supernova neutrino beam, which probe the shape of the observed spectrum at super-Kamiokande and Sudbury Neutrino Observatory experiments and can sensitively signal neutrino oscillations. One class of such variables involve ...

  6. Reciprocal space XRD mapping with varied incident angle as a probe of structure variation within surface depth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Qiguang [Norfolk State University; Williams, Frances [Norfolk State University; Zhao, Xin [JLAB; Reece, Charles E. [JLAB; Krishnan, Mahadevan [AASC, San Leandro, California

    2013-09-01

    In this study, we used a differential-depth X-Ray diffraction Reciprocal Spacing Mapping (XRD RSM) technique to investigate the crystal quality of a variety of SRF-relevant Nb film and bulk materials. By choosing different X-ray probing depths, the RSM study successfully revealed evolution the of materials microstructure after different materials processes, such as energetic condensation or surface polishing. The RSM data clearly measured the materials crystal quality at different thickness. Through a novel differential-depth RSM technique, this study found: I. for a heteroepitaxy Nb film Nb(100)/MgO(100), the film thickening process, via a cathodic arc-discharge Nb ion deposition, created a near-perfect single crystal Nb on the surfaces top-layer; II. for a mechanically polished single-crystal bulk Nb material, the microstructure on the top surface layer is more disordered than that in-grain.

  7. Non-linear beam dynamics tests in the LHC: measurement of intensity decay for probing dynamic aperture at injection

    CERN Document Server

    Cettour Cave, S; Giovannozzi, M; Ludwig, M; MacPherson, A; Redaelli, S; Roncarolo, F; Solfaroli Camillocci, M; Venturini Delsolaro, W

    2013-01-01

    For a second year in a row dynamic aperture experiments have been performed at the LHC. These studies have been carried out by two teams following alternative techniques: On Beam 1 a novel approach has been tested which heats the beam until the emittance becomes large, and derives the dynamic aperture from beam losses assuming an inverse logarithm model for the time-dependence of the intensity. On Beam 2, the traditional approach of sampling the dynamic aperture with large amplitude kicks has been pursued [1]. In 2011, considerable progress was made and impressive results have been reported. In 2012 a further Machine Development (MD) session was scheduled during which both teams have benefited from an improved availability of the beams and more optimal performance of the instrumentation. Observations and analysis are presented as two MD reports of the LHC dynamic aperture experiment MD. This note describes the observations made on Beam 1, when the strength of the spool pieces have been varied. The key quantit...

  8. High spatial resolution and high brightness ion beam probe for in-situ elemental and isotopic analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Tao; Clement, Stephen W. J.; Bao, Zemin; Wang, Peizhi; Tian, Di; Liu, Dunyi

    2018-03-01

    A high spatial resolution and high brightness ion beam from a cold cathode duoplasmatron source and primary ion optics are presented and applied to in-situ analysis of micro-scale geological material with complex structural and chemical features. The magnetic field in the source as well as the influence of relative permeability of magnetic materials on source performance was simulated using COMSOL to confirm the magnetic field strength of the source. Based on SIMION simulation, a high brightness and high spatial resolution negative ion optical system has been developed to achieve Critical (Gaussian) illumination mode. The ion source and primary column are installed on a new Time-of-Flight secondary ion mass spectrometer for analysis of geological samples. The diameter of the ion beam was measured by the knife-edge method and a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Results show that an O2- beam of ca. 5 μm diameter with a beam intensity of ∼5 nA and an O- beam of ca. 5 μm diameter with a beam intensity of ∼50 nA were obtained, respectively. This design will open new possibilities for in-situ elemental and isotopic analysis in geological studies.

  9. Influence of Polarization of the Incident Beam on Integrated Intensities in X-Ray Energy-Dispersive Diffractometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, J. Staun; Buras, B.; Jensen, T.

    1978-01-01

    Polarization measurements of the primary X-ray beam produced by thick copper and tungsten anodes are reported and formulas derived for integrated intensities of Bragg reflections in energy-dispersive diffractometry with the polarization of the primary beam taken into account. It was found...

  10. Evaluation by dental cone-beam computed tomography of the incidence and sites of branches of the inferior dental canal that supply mandibular third molars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, A; Fukuta, Y; Nakasato, H; Nakasato, S

    2016-12-01

    Our aim was to assess the incidence and anatomical site of branches of the inferior dental canal that supply mandibular third molars using dental cone-beam computed tomography (CT). We evaluated the incidence and diameter of branches of the inferior dental canal using 272 cone-beam CT mandibular scans from 172 patients referred for imaging before the extraction of impacted mandibular third molars. We found three typical branching patterns from the inferior dental canal in the third molar region: the retromolar canal (in the retromolar triangle), the dental canal (that courses directly beneath the socket of the third molar), and the accessory canal (that courses through the socket and leads from the inferior dental canal to a bony ridge). The incidences of retromolar, dental, and accessory canals were 75 (28%), 223 (82%), and 21 (8%), respectively, with mean diameters of 0.9 (0.4), 0.7 (0.5), and 1.1 (0.4) mm, respectively. Operative injury to the neurovascular contents within the branches of the inferior dental canal can lead to excessive bleeding and postoperative paraesthesia, so identification of its branches on preoperative cone-beam CT images may prove useful during extraction of impacted mandibular third molars or when harvesting bone blocks from the region of mandibular third molars. We also describe two cases of branches detected on panoramic and cone-beam CT images that prompted this research. Copyright © 2016 The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Design of a High-Perveance Electron Gun for Electron Cooling in the Low Energy Ion Ring (LEIR) at CERN and Non-Interceptive Proton Beam Profile Monitors using Ion or Atomic Probe Beams

    CERN Document Server

    Dimopoulou, Christina

    2002-01-01

    For an efficient electron cooling of the low-energy Pb54+ ions in LEIR a high-perveance (at least 3.6microperv) electron gun had to be designed. The theoretical study of electron guns has shown that the required perveance can be achieved by using a convex cathode. The gun should be immersed in a strong magnetic field (B=2-6kG) in order to obtain a parallel beam with very low transverse energy (typically 0.1 eV). This idea was confirmed by experimental tests at Fermilab. An adiabatic magnetic expansion is foreseen after the gun in order to reduce the magnetic field to accpetable values (0.6-1 kG) in the cooling section. The internal geometry of a convex cathode gun for the LEIR electron cooler together with the parameters of the magnetic expansion are proposed. The scheme fulfils the requirements. In addition, the author has made an important contribution in the field of beam instrumentation for the LHC and other accelerators at CERN. A profile monitor has been developed that uses a Xe ion probe beam that inte...

  12. Incident neutron spectra on the first wall and their application to energetic ion diagnostics in beam-injected deuterium-tritium tokamak plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiyama, S.; Matsuura, H.; Uchiyama, D.

    2017-09-01

    A diagnostic method for small non-Maxwellian tails in fuel-ion velocity distribution functions is proposed; this method uses the anisotropy of neutron emissions, and it is based on the numerical analysis of the incident fast neutron spectrum on the first wall of a fusion device. Neutron energy spectra are investigated for each incident position along the first wall and each angle of incidence assuming an ITER-like deuterium-tritium plasma; it is heated by tangential-neutral-beam injection. Evaluating the incident neutron spectra at all wall positions and angles of incidence enables the selective measurement of non-Gaussian components in the neutron emission spectrum for energetic ion diagnostics; in addition, the optimal detector position and orientation can be determined. At the optimal detector position and orientation, the ratio of non-Gaussian components to the Gaussian peak can be two orders of magnitude greater than the ratio in the neutron emission spectrum. This result can improve the accuracy of energetic ion diagnostics in plasmas when small, anisotropic non-Maxwellian tails are formed in fuel ion velocity distribution functions. We focus on the non-Gaussian components greater than 14 MeV, where the effect of the background noise (i.e., slowing-down neutrons by scattering throughout the machine structure) can be ignored.

  13. Time-resolved spectroscopy of the probe fluorescence in the study of human blood protein dynamic structure on SR beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobretsov, G.E.; Kurek, N.K.; Syrejshchikova, T.I.; Yakimenko, M.N.; Clarke, D.T.; Jones, G.R.; Munro, I.H.

    2000-01-01

    Time-resolved spectroscopy on the SRS of the Daresbury Laboratory was used for the study of the human serum lipoproteins and human blood albumins with fluorescent probes K-37 and K-35, developed in Russia. The probe K-37 was found sensitive to the difference in dynamic properties of the lipid objects. Two sets of the parameters were used for the description of lipid dynamic structure: (1) time-resolved fluorescence spectra and (2) time-resolved fluorescence depolarization as a function of rotational mobility of lipid molecules. Each measured dynamic parameter reflected the monotonous changes of dynamic properties in the range: lipid spheres-very low density lipoproteins-low density lipoproteins-high density lipoproteins-phospholipid liposomes. The range is characterized by the increase of the ratio polar/ nonpolar lipids. Thus, time-resolved fluorescence could be used to detect some structural modifications in lipoproteins related to atherosclerosis and subsequent cardiovascular diseases development

  14. Synchronized delivery of Er:YAG-laser pulses into water studied by a laser beam transmission probe for enhanced endodontic treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregorčič, P.; Lukač, N.; Možina, J.; Jezeršek, M.

    2016-04-01

    We examine the effects of the synchronized delivery of multiple Er:YAG-laser pulses during vapor-bubble oscillations into water. For this purpose, we used a laser beam transmission probe that enables monitoring of the bubble's dynamics from a single shot. To overcome the main drawbacks of this technique, we propose and develop an appropriate and robust calibration by simultaneous employment of shadow photography. By using the developed experimental method, we show that the resonance effect is obtained when the second laser pulse is delivered at the end or slightly after the first bubble's collapse. In this case, the resonance effect increases the mechanical energy of the secondary bubble's oscillations and prolongs their duration. The presented laser method for synchronized delivery of Er:YAG-laser pulses during bubble oscillations has great potential for further improvement of laser endodontic treatment, especially upon their safety and efficiency.

  15. Fluctuations on the X-ray intensity beam using a portable X-ray probe based on {sup 6}LiI(Eu) crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, Geraldo P.; Oliveira, Arno H. [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (PCTN/UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencias e Tecnicas Nucleares; Carneiro, Andre C.; Carneiro, Clemente J.G.; Milian, Felix M.; Velasco, Fermin G., E-mail: fermin@uesc.b [Universidade Estadual de Santa Cruz (CPqCTR/UESC), Ilheus, BA (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisa em Ciencias e Tecnologias das Radiacoes

    2011-07-01

    X-rays are produced by accelerating electrons with a high voltage and allowing them to collide with a metal target. This high voltage presents fluctuations that define peak, minimum, and average voltages. Different voltages are applied to the X-ray tube depending on the radiographic applications. A rectifier circuit converts the alternating high voltage to unidirectional high voltage to accelerate electrons in this tube. The fluctuations on the energy in the electron beam depend on the mode of rectification. Both energy of the electrons and X rays intensity fluctuates. A portable probe built with a {sup 6}LiI(Eu) detector coupled to a 10 m light guide and a Hamamatsu photon counting head H9319 was used to measuring X ray intensities. This system is designed to collect up to 10000 counts in intervals of 10 ms to 1 s. Counts were accumulated in time intervals of 10 ms during 10 s. The system starts the count before activating the X-ray apparatus, which is on during a time interval of 100ms. During this period, counts may overflow in consequence high voltage was adjusted to be 40kV, in order to avoid such a problem. For each of these points dose was measured using an ionization chamber. The objectives of this work are to study fluctuations on the X-ray beam and to calibrate the portable probe for measuring radiation doses. Counting rates measured for each 10 ms presented strong variations due to high voltages fluctuations. Both dose and counting rate when correlated with distances between source and detector followed the inverse square law and presented values of R2 near of unit. A calibration curve of the portable system for dose measurements showed also R2 value near of unity. (author)

  16. Probing droplets with biological colloidal suspensions on smart surfaces by synchrotron radiation micro- and nano-beams

    KAUST Repository

    Marinaro, Giovanni

    2015-03-01

    Droplets with colloidal biological suspensions evaporating on substrates with defined wetting properties generate confined environments for initiating aggregation and self-assembly processes. We describe smart micro- and nanostructured surfaces, optimized for probing single droplets and residues by synchrotron radiation micro- and nanobeam diffraction techniques. Applications are presented for Ac-IVD and β-amyloid (1-42) peptides capable of forming cross-β sheet structures. Complementary synchrotron radiation FTIR microspectroscopy addresses secondary structure formation. The high synchrotron radiation source brilliance enables fast raster-scan experiments. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Molecular beam studies of unimolecular and bimolecular chemical reaction dynamics using VUV synchrotron radiation as a product probe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blank, David Andrew [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1997-08-01

    This dissertation describes the use of a new molecular beam apparatus designed to use tunable VUV synchrotron radiation for photoionization of the products from scattering experiments. The apparatus was built at the recently constructed Advanced Light Source at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, a third generation 1-2 GeV synchrotron radiation source. The new apparatus is applied to investigations of the dynamics of unimolecular reactions, photodissociation experiments, and bimolecular reactions, crossed molecular beam experiments. The first chapter describes the new apparatus and the VUV radiation used for photoionization. This is followed by a number of examples of the many advantages provided by using VUV photoionization in comparison with the traditional technique of electron bombardment ionization. At the end of the chapter there is a discussion of the data analysis employed in these scattering experiments. The remaining four chapters are complete investigations of the dynamics of four chemical systems using the new apparatus and provide numerous additional examples of the advantages provided by VUV photoionizaiton of the products. Chapters 2-4 are photofragment translational spectroscopy studies of the photodissociation dynamics of dimethyl sulfoxide, acrylonitrile, and vinyl chloride following absorption at 193 mn. All of these systems have multiple dissociation channels and provide good examples of the ability of the new apparatus to unravel the complex UV photodissociation dynamics that can arise in small polyatomic molecules.

  18. Single-beam integrating sphere spectrophotometer for reflectance and transmittance measurements versus angle of incidence in the solar wavelength range on diffuse and specular samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nostell, Per; Roos, Arne; Rönnow, Daniel

    1999-05-01

    A multipurpose instrument for the measurement of reflectance and transmittance versus angle of incidence for both specular and diffuse samples in the solar wavelength range has been constructed and evaluated. The instrument operates in the single-beam mode and uses a common light source for three experimental setups. Two integrating spheres, 20 cm in diameter, are used for diffuse transmittance and reflectance measurements. The transmittance sphere can be turned around an axis through the sample to vary the angle of incidence. The reflectance sphere uses a center mounted sample and a special feature is the position of the detector, which is mounted on the sample holder at the center of the sphere. This way the detector always sees the same part of the sphere wall and no light can reach the detector directly from the sample. The third setup is an absolute instrument for specular samples. It uses a small averaging sphere as a detector. The detector is mounted on an arm which rotates around the center of the sample, and it can thus pick up both the reflected and transmitted beams including all multiply reflected components. The averaging sphere detector is insensitive to small side shifts of the detected beams and no multiple reflections between detector and optical system occur. In this report a number of calibration procedures are presented for the three experimental setups and models for the calculation of correct transmittance and reflectance values from measured data are presented. It is shown that for integrating sphere measurements, the geometry of the sphere and the diffusivity of the sample as well as the sphere wall reflectance and port losses are important factors that influence the result. For the center mounted configuration these factors are particularly important and special emphasis is given to the evaluation of the reflectance sphere model. All three instrument setups are calibrated using certified reference materials and nonscattering mirrors and

  19. Counting probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Haruya; Kaya, Nobuyuki; Yuasa, Kazuhiro; Hayashi, Tomoaki

    1976-01-01

    Electron counting method has been devised and experimented for the purpose of measuring electron temperature and density, the most fundamental quantities to represent plasma conditions. Electron counting is a method to count the electrons in plasma directly by equipping a probe with the secondary electron multiplier. It has three advantages of adjustable sensitivity, high sensitivity of the secondary electron multiplier, and directional property. Sensitivity adjustment is performed by changing the size of collecting hole (pin hole) on the incident front of the multiplier. The probe is usable as a direct reading thermometer of electron temperature because it requires to collect very small amount of electrons, thus it doesn't disturb the surrounding plasma, and the narrow sweep width of the probe voltage is enough. Therefore it can measure anisotropy more sensitively than a Langmuir probe, and it can be used for very low density plasma. Though many problems remain on anisotropy, computer simulation has been carried out. Also it is planned to provide a Helmholtz coil in the vacuum chamber to eliminate the effect of earth magnetic field. In practical experiments, the measurement with a Langmuir probe and an emission probe mounted to the movable structure, the comparison with the results obtained in reverse magnetic field by using a Helmholtz coil, and the measurement of ionic sound wave are scheduled. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  20. Incidence of primary hypothyroidism in patients exposed to therapeutic external beam radiation, where radiation portals include a part or whole of the thyroid gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B A Laway

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Hypothyroidism is a known consequence of external-beam radiotherapy to the neck encompassing a part or whole of the thyroid gland. In this non-randomized prospective study, we have tried to evaluate the response of the thyroid gland to radiation by assessing thyroid function before irradiation and at regular intervals after irradiation. Aims and Objectives: The aim of this study were to assess in the cancer patients, who were exposed to the therapeutic external beam radiation, where radiation portals include a part or whole of the thyroid gland: the incidence of primary hypothyroidism, the time required to become hypothyroid, any relation between the total dose for the development of hypothyroidism, and whether there are any patient or treatment-related factors that are predictive for the development of hypothyroidism, including the use of concurrent chemotherapy. Materials and Methods: This non-randomized, prospective study was conducted for a period of 2 years in which thyroid function was assessed in 59 patients (cases of head and neck cancer, breast cancer, lymphoma patients and other malignancies, who had received radiotherapy to the neck region. 59 euthyroid healthy patients (controls were also taken, who had not received the neck irradiation. These patients/controls were assessed periodically for 2 years. Results: The incidence of hypothyroidism after external beam radiation therapy (EBRT to neck where radiation portals include part or whole of the thyroid gland was 16.94%, seven cases had subclinical hypothyroidism (11.86% and three cases had clinical hypothyroidism (5.08%. Mean time for development of hypothyroidism was 4.5 months. There was no effect of age, gender, primary tumor site, radiation dose and chemotherapy, whether neoadjuvant or concurrent with the development of hypothyroidism. Conclusion: In summary, we found that thyroid dysfunction is a prevalent, yet easily treatable source of morbidity in patients

  1. Improving x-ray fluorescence signal for benchtop polychromatic cone-beam x-ray fluorescence computed tomography by incident x-ray spectrum optimization: a Monte Carlo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manohar, Nivedh; Jones, Bernard L; Cho, Sang Hyun

    2014-10-01

    To develop an accurate and comprehensive Monte Carlo (MC) model of an experimental benchtop polychromatic cone-beam x-ray fluorescence computed tomography (XFCT) setup and apply this MC model to optimize incident x-ray spectrum for improving production/detection of x-ray fluorescence photons from gold nanoparticles (GNPs). A detailed MC model, based on an experimental XFCT system, was created using the Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) transport code. The model was validated by comparing MC results including x-ray fluorescence (XRF) and scatter photon spectra with measured data obtained under identical conditions using 105 kVp cone-beam x-rays filtered by either 1 mm of lead (Pb) or 0.9 mm of tin (Sn). After validation, the model was used to investigate the effects of additional filtration of the incident beam with Pb and Sn. Supplementary incident x-ray spectra, representing heavier filtration (Pb: 2 and 3 mm; Sn: 1, 2, and 3 mm) were computationally generated and used with the model to obtain XRF/scatter spectra. Quasimonochromatic incident x-ray spectra (81, 85, 90, 95, and 100 keV with 10 keV full width at half maximum) were also investigated to determine the ideal energy for distinguishing gold XRF signal from the scatter background. Fluorescence signal-to-dose ratio (FSDR) and fluorescence-normalized scan time (FNST) were used as metrics to assess results. Calculated XRF/scatter spectra for 1-mm Pb and 0.9-mm Sn filters matched (r ≥ 0.996) experimental measurements. Calculated spectra representing additional filtration for both filter materials showed that the spectral hardening improved the FSDR at the expense of requiring a much longer FNST. In general, using Sn instead of Pb, at a given filter thickness, allowed an increase of up to 20% in FSDR, more prominent gold XRF peaks, and up to an order of magnitude decrease in FNST. Simulations using quasimonochromatic spectra suggested that increasing source x-ray energy, in the investigated range of 81-100 ke

  2. Improving x-ray fluorescence signal for benchtop polychromatic cone-beam x-ray fluorescence computed tomography by incident x-ray spectrum optimization: A Monte Carlo study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manohar, Nivedh; Jones, Bernard L.; Cho, Sang Hyun

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To develop an accurate and comprehensive Monte Carlo (MC) model of an experimental benchtop polychromatic cone-beam x-ray fluorescence computed tomography (XFCT) setup and apply this MC model to optimize incident x-ray spectrum for improving production/detection of x-ray fluorescence photons from gold nanoparticles (GNPs). Methods: A detailed MC model, based on an experimental XFCT system, was created using the Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) transport code. The model was validated by comparing MC results including x-ray fluorescence (XRF) and scatter photon spectra with measured data obtained under identical conditions using 105 kVp cone-beam x-rays filtered by either 1 mm of lead (Pb) or 0.9 mm of tin (Sn). After validation, the model was used to investigate the effects of additional filtration of the incident beam with Pb and Sn. Supplementary incident x-ray spectra, representing heavier filtration (Pb: 2 and 3 mm; Sn: 1, 2, and 3 mm) were computationally generated and used with the model to obtain XRF/scatter spectra. Quasimonochromatic incident x-ray spectra (81, 85, 90, 95, and 100 keV with 10 keV full width at half maximum) were also investigated to determine the ideal energy for distinguishing gold XRF signal from the scatter background. Fluorescence signal-to-dose ratio (FSDR) and fluorescence-normalized scan time (FNST) were used as metrics to assess results. Results: Calculated XRF/scatter spectra for 1-mm Pb and 0.9-mm Sn filters matched (r ≥ 0.996) experimental measurements. Calculated spectra representing additional filtration for both filter materials showed that the spectral hardening improved the FSDR at the expense of requiring a much longer FNST. In general, using Sn instead of Pb, at a given filter thickness, allowed an increase of up to 20% in FSDR, more prominent gold XRF peaks, and up to an order of magnitude decrease in FNST. Simulations using quasimonochromatic spectra suggested that increasing source x-ray energy, in the

  3. Use of External Beam Radiotherapy Is Associated With Reduced Incidence of Second Primary Head and Neck Cancer: A SEER Database Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rusthoven, Kyle; Chen Changhu; Raben, David; Kavanagh, Brian

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Patients with head and neck cancer have a significant risk of developing a second primary cancer of the head and neck. We hypothesized that treatment with external beam radiotherapy (RT) might reduce this risk, because RT can eradicate occult foci of second head and neck cancer (HNCA). Methods and Materials: The data of patients with Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Historic Stage A localized squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity, larynx, and pharynx were queried using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database. For patients treated with or without RT, the incidence of second HNCA was determined and compared using the log-rank method. Cox proportional hazards analysis was performed for each site, evaluating the influence of covariates on the risk of second HNCA. Results: Between 1973 and 1997, 27,985 patients were entered with localized HNCA. Of these patients, 44% had received RT and 56% had not. The 15-year incidence of second HNCA was 7.7% with RT vs. 10.5% without RT (hazard ratio 0.71, p <0.0001). The effect of RT was more profound in patients diagnosed between 1988 and 1997 (hazard ratio 0.53, p <0.0001) and those with pharynx primaries (hazard ratio 0.47, p <0.0001). On multivariate analysis, RT was associated with a reduced risk of second HNCA for pharynx (p <0.0001) and larynx (p = 0.04) tumors. For oral cavity primaries, RT was associated with an increased risk of second HNCA in patients treated before 1988 (p <0.001), but had no influence on patients treated between 1988 and 1997 (p = 0.91). Conclusion: For localized HNCA, RT is associated with a reduced incidence of second HNCA. These observations are consistent with the eradication of microscopic foci of second HNCA with external beam RT

  4. Innovation and optimization of a method of pump-probe polarimetry with pulsed laser beams in view of a precise measurement of parity violation in atomic cesium; Innovation et optimisation d'une methode de polarimetrie pompe-sonde avec des faisceaux laser impulsionnels en vue d'une mesure precise de violation de la parite dans l'atome de cesium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chauvat, D

    1997-10-15

    While Parity Violation (PV) experiments on highly forbidden transitions have been using detection of fluorescence signals; our experiment uses a pump-probe scheme to detect the PV signal directly on a transmitted probe beam. A pulsed laser beam of linear polarisation {epsilon}{sub 1} excites the atoms on the 6S-7S cesium transition in a colinear electric field E || k(ex). The probe beam (k(pr) || k(ex)) of linear polarisation {epsilon}{sub 2} tuned to the transition 7S-6P(3/2) is amplified. The small asymmetry ({approx} 10{sup -6}) in the gain that depends on the handedness of the tri-hedron (E, {epsilon}{sub 1}, {epsilon}{sub 2}) is the manifestation of the PV effect. This is measured as an E-odd apparent rotation of the plane of polarization of the probe beam; using balanced mode polarimetry. New criteria of selection have been devised, that allow us to distinguish the true PV-signal against fake rotations due to electromagnetic interferences, geometrical effects, polarization imperfections, or stray transverse electric and magnetic fields. These selection criteria exploit the symmetry of the PV-rotation - linear dichroism - and the revolution symmetry of the experiment. Using these criteria it is not only possible to reject fake signals, but also to elucidate the underlying physical mechanisms and to measure the relevant defects of the apparatus. The present signal-to-noise ratio allows embarking in PV measurements to reach the 10% statistical accuracy. A 1% measurement still requires improvements. Two methods have been demonstrated. The first one exploits the amplification of the asymmetry at high gain - one major advantage provided by our detection method based on stimulated emission. The second method uses both a much higher incident intensity and a special dichroic component which magnifies tiny polarization rotations. (author)

  5. Multispectral imaging probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandison, David R.; Platzbecker, Mark R.; Descour, Michael R.; Armour, David L.; Craig, Marcus J.; Richards-Kortum, Rebecca

    1999-01-01

    A multispectral imaging probe delivers a range of wavelengths of excitation light to a target and collects a range of expressed light wavelengths. The multispectral imaging probe is adapted for mobile use and use in confined spaces, and is sealed against the effects of hostile environments. The multispectral imaging probe comprises a housing that defines a sealed volume that is substantially sealed from the surrounding environment. A beam splitting device mounts within the sealed volume. Excitation light is directed to the beam splitting device, which directs the excitation light to a target. Expressed light from the target reaches the beam splitting device along a path coaxial with the path traveled by the excitation light from the beam splitting device to the target. The beam splitting device directs expressed light to a collection subsystem for delivery to a detector.

  6. Characterization of ion beam sputtered deposited W/Si multilayers by grazing incidence x-ray diffraction and x-ray reflectivity technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhawan, Rajnish; Rai, Sanjay

    2016-05-01

    W/Si multilayers four samples have been deposited on silicon substrate using ion beam sputtering system. Thickness of tungsten (W) varies from around 10 Å to 40 Å while the silicon (Si) thickness remains constant at around 30 Å in multilayers [W-Si]x4. The samples have been characterized by grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXRD) and X-ray reflectivity technique (XRR). GIXRD study shows the crystalline behaviour of W/Si multilayer by varying W thickness and it is found that above 20 Å the W film transform from amorphous to crystalline phase and X-ray reflectivity data shows that the roughnesses of W increases on increasing the W thicknesses in W/Si multilayers.

  7. Effective energies and exposure determinations of two different energy X-ray beams incident on a personnel monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okuno, E.; Cruz, M.T. da

    1984-01-01

    The effective energy of one X or gamma ray beam can be determined by means of two thermoluminescent (TL) dosemeters mounted between suitable filters. However, it has been observed that personnel monitors exposed to two different energy ionizing radiations provide different effective energies depeding on the type of TL phosphor used. This fact could be a powerful tool for identifying exposures to radiation with quite different effective energies which are very common in practice. Two types of TL dosemeters were used : pellets of cold pressed natural fluoride and NaCl developed in our own laboratory, and LiF, TLD-100 from Harshaw Chemical Co.. Experimental results obtained with these combined dosemeters after irradiation with different sets of exposures and energy values of ionizing radiations are also presented. (Author) [pt

  8. Study of Hadronic Jets Produced by Charged Pion and Proton Beams Incident on Hydrogen and Aluminum Targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yung, Kar Woo [California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States)

    1979-09-19

    High transverse momentum ($P_T$) particles are thought to reflect the underlying parton (quark or gluon) mechanisms of hadron interactions. A particularly simple model by Feynman, Field and Fox (or FFF>, involves hard scattering of a pair of partons via gluon exchange (Quantum Chromodynamics or GCD) with subsequent fragmentation or the partons into hadrons. We present results from an experiment (E260 at Fermilab) on the production of Jets (groups of particles) and single charged particles, at both low and high $P_T$, in 200 Gev interactions. The experiment used a calorimeter triggered multiparticle spectrometer. Results are presented on the comparisons of cross sections and associated charged particle distributions for pion and proton beams and aluminium and hydrogen targets.

  9. Simplifying Electron Beam Channeling in Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy (STEM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ryan J; Mittal, Anudha; Odlyzko, Michael L; Mkhoyan, K Andre

    2017-08-01

    Sub-angstrom scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) allows quantitative column-by-column analysis of crystalline specimens via annular dark-field images. The intensity of electrons scattered from a particular location in an atomic column depends on the intensity of the electron probe at that location. Electron beam channeling causes oscillations in the STEM probe intensity during specimen propagation, which leads to differences in the beam intensity incident at different depths. Understanding the parameters that control this complex behavior is critical for interpreting experimental STEM results. In this work, theoretical analysis of the STEM probe intensity reveals that intensity oscillations during specimen propagation are regulated by changes in the beam's angular distribution. Three distinct regimes of channeling behavior are observed: the high-atomic-number (Z) regime, in which atomic scattering leads to significant angular redistribution of the beam; the low-Z regime, in which the probe's initial angular distribution controls intensity oscillations; and the intermediate-Z regime, in which the behavior is mixed. These contrasting regimes are shown to exist for a wide range of probe parameters. These results provide a new understanding of the occurrence and consequences of channeling phenomena and conditions under which their influence is strengthened or weakened by characteristics of the electron probe and sample.

  10. Detailed characterisation of focused ion beam induced lateral damage on silicon carbide samples by electrical scanning probe microscopy and transmission electron microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stumpf, F.; Abu Quba, A. A.; Singer, P.; Rumler, M.; Cherkashin, N.; Schamm-Chardon, S.; Cours, R.; Rommel, M.

    2018-03-01

    The lateral damage induced by focused ion beam on silicon carbide was characterized using electrical scanning probe microscopy (SPM), namely, scanning spreading resistance microscopy and conductive atomic force microscopy (c-AFM). It is shown that the damage exceeds the purposely irradiated circles with a radius of 0.5 μm by several micrometres, up to 8 μm for the maximum applied ion dose of 1018 cm-2. Obtained SPM results are critically compared with earlier findings on silicon. For doses above the amorphization threshold, in both cases, three different areas can be distinguished. The purposely irradiated area exhibits resistances smaller than the non-affected substrate. A second region with strongly increasing resistance and a maximum saturation value surrounds it. The third region shows the transition from maximum resistance to the base resistance of the unaffected substrate. It correlates to the transition from amorphized to defect-rich to pristine crystalline substrate. Additionally, conventional transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and annular dark-field STEM were used to complement and explain the SPM results and get a further understanding of the defect spreading underneath the surface. Those measurements also show three different regions that correlate well with the regions observed from electrical SPM. TEM results further allow to explain observed differences in the electrical results for silicon and silicon carbide which are most prominent for ion doses above 3 × 1016 cm-2. Furthermore, the conventional approach to perform current-voltage measurements by c-AFM was critically reviewed and several improvements for measurement and analysis process were suggested that result in more reliable and impactful c-AFM data.

  11. An attempt to correlate surface physics with chemical properties: molecular beam and Kelvin probe investigations of Ce1-xZrxO2 thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolekar, Sadhu K; Dubey, Anjani; Date, Kalyani S; Datar, Suwarna; Gopinath, Chinnakonda S

    2016-10-05

    What is the correlation between physical properties of the surfaces (such as surface potential, electronic nature of the surface), and chemical and catalysis properties (such as chemisorption, sticking probability of surface)? An attempt has been made to explore any correlation that might exist between the physical and chemical properties of thin film surfaces. Kelvin probe microscopy (KPM) and the molecular beam (MB) methods were employed to carry out the surface potential, and oxygen adsorption and oxygen storage capacity (OSC) measurements on Ce 1-x Zr x O 2 thin films. A sol-gel synthesis procedure and spin-coating deposition method have been applied to make continuous nanocrystalline Ce 1-x Zr x O 2 (x = 0-1) (CZ) thin films with uniform thickness (35-50 nm); however, surface roughness and porosity inherently changes with CZ composition. MB studies of O 2 adsorption on CZ reveal high OSC for Ce 0.9 Zr 0.1 O 2 , which also exhibits highly porous and significantly rough surface characteristics. The surface potential observed from KPM studies varied between 30 and 80 mV, with Ce-rich compositions exhibiting the highest surface potential. Surface potential shows large changes after reduction or oxidation of the CZ film demonstrating the influence of Ce 3+ /Ce 4+ on surface potential, which is also a key to catalytic activity for ceria-based catalysts. The surface potential measured from KPM and the OSC measured from MB vary linearly and they depend on the Ce 3+ /Ce 4+ ratio. More and detailed studies are suggested to arrive at a correlation between the physical and chemical properties of the surfaces.

  12. Incidence of Maxillary Sinus Disease Before Sinus Floor Elevation Surgery as Identified by Cone-Beam Computed Tomography: A Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Fabio; Emanuelli, Enzo; Robiony, Massimo

    2018-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to review the literature to assess the incidence of maxillary sinus disease before sinus floor elevation surgery (SFE) as identified by cone-beam computerized tomography (CBCT). Only studies in which CBCT was performed in patients for dental implant placement in the past 10 years were considered. Eleven studies were identified. A total of 1792 patients were collected. All the studies reviewed reported on thickening of the sinus mucosa as a criterion for sinus disease with different threshold values. All studies reported mucosal thickening (MT) ranging between 25.5% and 93.1%. The mean incidence of MT was 54.99%. Two studies examined the correlation of MT with clinical symptoms. Three studies reported evaluation of the ostiomeatal complex (OMC). There is a high probability of detecting a certain degree of MT in patients referred for SFE. There is no consensus regarding the threshold values beyond which MT is considered pathological. Independently from the threshold values or the type of MT, the studies lack correlation with clinical data regarding patients' sinusitis-related history or symptoms. CBCT with a large field of view to evaluate the OMC is appropriate in patients scheduled for SFE. Future studies should include a systematic correlation with clinical symptoms and the possible presence of OMC obstruction. A clinical assessment that includes nasal endoscopy is indicated when MT and obstruction of the OMC are identified. Surgical correction of OMC obstruction seems to be appropriate to increase the success rate and to avoid possible complication after SFE.

  13. Reduction of the divergence angle of an incident beam to enhance the demagnification factor of a two-stage acceleration lens in a gas ion nanobeam system of several tens of keV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Yasuyuki; Kojima, Takuji

    2018-04-01

    The demagnification factor of a two-stage acceleration lens in a gas ion nanobeam system that produces ion beams with energies in the order of 10 keV was enhanced in this study so that a hydrogen ion beam with a diameter of 115 nm could be produced. The reduction of the divergence angle of the incident beam into the two-stage acceleration lens is the effective method for enhancing the demagnification factor. The divergence angle has been gradually reduced by firstly introducing the preacceleration electrodes to control the divergence angle, namely divergence-angle-control electrodes, and secondly replacing an anode with a modified anode that possesses a Pierce electrode, both of which were in an ion source directly connected to the lens. In this study, the divergence angle of less than 3.6 × 10-4 rad that was previously used to produce a 160-nm hydrogen ion beam with the energy of 46 keV by the above procedure was numerically determined using an ion beam extraction simulation code. The determined minimum divergence angle of the incident ion beam was calculated to be 2.0 × 10-4 rad, which was about half of the previously obtained divergence angle; this was used to experimentally form a hydrogen beam with a diameter of 115 ± 10 nm and the energy of 47 keV. The demagnification factor was estimated to be 1,739 using the newly formed hydrogen beam, which was similar to the simulation result.

  14. Mobile Probing and Probes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duvaa, Uffe; Ørngreen, Rikke; Weinkouff, Anne-Gitte

    2012-01-01

    Mobile probing is a method, which has been developed for learning about digital work situations, as an approach to discover new grounds. The method can be used when there is a need to know more about users and their work with certain tasks, but where users at the same time are distributed (in time...... and space). Mobile probing was inspired by the cultural probe method, and was influenced by qualitative interview and inquiry approaches. The method has been used in two subsequent projects, involving school children (young adults at 15-17 years old) and employees (adults) in a consultancy company. Findings...... point to mobile probing being a flexible method for uncovering the unknowns, as a way of getting rich data to the analysis and design phases. On the other hand it is difficult to engage users to give in depth explanations, which seem easier in synchronous dialogs (whether online or face2face...

  15. Mobile Probing and Probes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duvaa, Uffe; Ørngreen, Rikke; Weinkouff Mathiasen, Anne-Gitte

    2013-01-01

    Mobile probing is a method, developed for learning about digital work situations, as an approach to discover new grounds. The method can be used when there is a need to know more about users and their work with certain tasks, but where users at the same time are distributed (in time and space......). Mobile probing was inspired by the cultural probe method, and was influenced by qualitative interview and inquiry approaches. The method has been used in two subsequent projects, involving school children (young adults at 15-17 years old) and employees (adults) in a consultancy company. Findings point...... to mobile probing being a flexible method for uncovering the unknowns, as a way of getting rich data to the analysis and design phases. On the other hand it is difficult to engage users to give in depth explanations, which seem easier in synchronous dialogs (whether online or face2face). The development...

  16. A comparison of simple and realistic eye models for calculation of fluence to dose conversion coefficients in a broad parallel beam incident of protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakhaee, Mahmoud; Vejdani-Noghreiyan, Alireza; Ebrahimi-Khankook, Atiyeh

    2015-01-01

    Radiation induced cataract has been demonstrated among people who are exposed to ionizing radiation. To evaluate the deterministic effects of ionizing radiation on the eye lens, several papers dealing with the eye lens dose have been published. ICRP Publication 103 states that the lens of the eye may be more radiosensitive than previously considered. Detailed investigation of the response of the lens showed that there are strong differences in sensitivity to ionizing radiation exposure with respect to cataract induction among the tissues of the lens of the eye. This motivated several groups to look deeper into issue of the dose to a sensitive cell population within the lens, especially for radiations with low energy penetrability that have steep dose gradients inside the lens. Two sophisticated mathematical models of the eye including the inner structure have been designed for the accurate dose estimation in recent years. This study focuses on the calculations of the absorbed doses of different parts of the eye using the stylized models located in UF-ORNL phantom and comparison with the data calculated with the reference computational phantom in a broad parallel beam incident of protons with energies between 20 MeV and 10 GeV. The obtained results indicate that the total lens absorbed doses of reference phantom has good compliance with those of the more sensitive regions of stylized models. However, total eye absorbed dose of these models greatly differ with each other for lower energies. - Highlights: • The validation of reference data for the eye was studied for proton exposures. • Two real mathematical models of the eye were imported into the UF-ORNL phantom. • Fluence to dose conversion coefficients were calculated for different eye sections. • Obtained Results were compared with that of assessed by ICRP adult male phantom

  17. Probing Anomalous WW γ and WWZ Couplings with Polarized Electron Beam at the LHeC and FCC-Ep Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Turk Cakir, I; Tasci, A T; Cakir, O

    2016-01-01

    We study the anomalous WWγ and WWZ couplings by calculating total cross sections of two processes at the LHeC with electron beam energy Ee=140 GeV and the proton beam energy Ep=7 TeV, and at the FCC-ep collider with the polarized electron beam energy Ee=80 GeV and the proton beam energy Ep=50 TeV. At the LHeC with electron beam polarization, we obtain the results for the difference of upper and lower bounds as (0.975, 0.118) and (0.285, 0.009) for the anomalous (∆κγ, λγ) and (∆κz, λz) couplings, respectively. As for FCC-ep collider, these bounds are obtained as (1.101, 0.065) and (0.320, 0.002) at an integrated luminosity of Lint=100 fb-1.

  18. Vacancy behavior in Cu(In{sub 1−x}Ga{sub x})Se{sub 2} layers grown by a three-stage coevaporation process probed by monoenergetic positron beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uedono, Akira; Islam, Muhammad M.; Sakurai, Takeaki [Division of Applied Physics, Faculty of Pure and Applied Science, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8573 (Japan); Hugenschmidt, Christoph [Physics Department E21 and Heinz Maier-Leibnitz Zentrum (MLZ), Technische Universität München, 85748 Garching (Germany); Egger, Werner [Universität der Bundeswehr München, Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, 85577 Neubiberg (Germany); Scheer, Roland; Krause-Rehberg, Reinhard [Department of Physics, Martin Luther University Halle, 06099 Halle (Germany); Akimoto, Katsuhiro [Division of Applied Physics, Faculty of Pure and Applied Science, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8573 (Japan)

    2016-03-31

    Vacancy-type defects in Cu(In{sub 1−x}Ga{sub x})Se{sub 2} (x ≅ 0.45 and 1) grown by a three-stage coevaporation process were probed using monoenergetic positron beams. Measurements of Doppler broadening spectra of the annihilation radiation and positron lifetime spectra showed that two different defect species coexist in the Cu(In{sub 1−x}Ga{sub x})Se{sub 2} layers, and these were identified as mono/divacancy-type defects and vacancy clusters, respectively. The vacancy clusters were mainly introduced during the third growth stage, and were located in the subsurface region. The concentration of the defects affected the short-circuit current density and the conversion efficiency of the solar cells. The defect concentration and their depth distributions varied depending on Se beam equivalent pressure, growth time, and post-growth annealing time. The behavior of the vacancy-type defects is discussed also with respect to results obtained using an electron probe micro-analyzer. - Highlights: • We applied positron annihilation to characterize Cu(In{sub 1−x}Ga{sub x})Se{sub 2}. • Defect species were identified as mono/divacancy-type defects and vacancy clusters. • The conversion efficiency increased with a decreasing vacancy concentration.

  19. Quantitative determination of lateral concentration and depth profile of histidine-tagged recombinant proteins probed by grazing incidence X-ray fluorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Körner, Alexander; Abuillan, Wasim; Deichmann, Christina; Rossetti, Fernanda F; Köhler, Almut; Konovalov, Oleg V; Wedlich, Doris; Tanaka, Motomu

    2013-05-02

    We have demonstrated that the complementary combination of grazing incidence X-ray fluorescence (GIXF) with specular X-ray reflectivity (XRR) can be used to quantitatively determine the density profiles of Ni(2)(+) ions complexed with chelator headgroups as well as S atoms in recombinant proteins anchored to lipid monolayers at the air/water interface. First, we prepared phospholipid monolayers incorporating chelator lipid anchors at different molar fractions at the air/water interface. The fine-structures perpendicular to the global plane of monolayers were characterized by XRR in the presence of Ni(2)(+) ions, yielding the thickness, roughness, and electron density of the stratified lipid monolayers. X-ray fluorescence intensities from Ni Kα core levels recorded at the incidence angles below and above the critical angle of total reflection allow for the determination of the position and lateral density of Ni(2)(+) ions associated with chelator headgroups with a high spatial accuracy (±5 Å). The coupling of histidine-tagged Xenopus cadherin 11 (Xcad-11) can also be identified by changes in the fines-structures using XRR. Although fluorescence intensities from S Kα level were much weaker than Ni Kα signals, we could detect the location of S atoms in recombinant Xcad-11 proteins.

  20. Uniformity of the soft-x-ray emissions from gold foils irradiated by OMEGA laser beams determined by a two-mirror normal-incidence microscope with multilayer coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seely, John F.; Boehly, Thomas; Pien, Gregory; Bradley, David

    1998-01-01

    A two-mirror normal-incidence microscope with multilayer coatings was used to image the soft-x-ray emissions from planar foils irradiated by OMEGA laser beams. The bandpass of the multilayer coatings was centered at a wavelength of 48.3 Angstrom (257-eV energy) and was 0.5 Angstrom wide. Five overlapping OMEGA beams, without beam smoothing, were typically incident on the gold foils. The total energy was 1500 J, and the focused intensity was 6x10 13 Wcm -2 . The 5.8x magnified images were recorded by a gated framing camera at various times during the 3-ns laser pulse. A pinhole camera imaged the x-ray emission in the energy range of >2 keV. On a spatial scale of 10 μm, it was found that the soft-x-ray images at 257 eV were quite uniform and featureless. In contrast, the hard-x-ray images in the energy range of >2 kev were highly nonuniform with numerous features of size 150 μm. copyright 1998 Optical Society of America

  1. Resonance scattering of a dielectric sphere illuminated by electromagnetic Bessel non-diffracting (vortex) beams with arbitrary incidence and selective polarizations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitri, F.G., E-mail: F.G.Mitri@ieee.org [Chevron, Area 52 Technology–ETC, 5 Bisbee Ct., Santa Fe, NM 87508 (United States); Li, R.X., E-mail: rxli@mail.xidian.edu.cn [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Engineering, Xidian University, Xi’an 710071 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Information Sensing and Understanding, Xidian University, Xi’an 710071 (China); Guo, L.X. [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Engineering, Xidian University, Xi’an 710071 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Information Sensing and Understanding, Xidian University, Xi’an 710071 (China); Ding, C.Y. [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Engineering, Xidian University, Xi’an 710071 (China)

    2015-10-15

    A complete description of vector Bessel (vortex) beams in the context of the generalized Lorenz–Mie theory (GLMT) for the electromagnetic (EM) resonance scattering by a dielectric sphere is presented, using the method of separation of variables and the subtraction of a non-resonant background (corresponding to a perfectly conducting sphere of the same size) from the standard Mie scattering coefficients. Unlike the conventional results of standard optical radiation, the resonance scattering of a dielectric sphere in air in the field of EM Bessel beams is examined and demonstrated with particular emphasis on the EM field’s polarization and beam order (or topological charge). Linear, circular, radial, azimuthal polarizations as well as unpolarized Bessel vortex beams are considered. The conditions required for the resonance scattering are analyzed, stemming from the vectorial description of the EM field using the angular spectrum decomposition, the derivation of the beam-shape coefficients (BSCs) using the integral localized approximation (ILA) and Neumann–Graf’s addition theorem, and the determination of the scattering coefficients of the sphere using Debye series. In contrast with the standard scattering theory, the resonance method presented here allows the quantitative description of the scattering using Debye series by separating diffraction effects from the external and internal reflections from the sphere. Furthermore, the analysis is extended to include rainbow formation in Bessel beams and the derivation of a generalized formula for the deviation angle of high-order rainbows. Potential applications for this analysis include Bessel beam-based laser imaging spectroscopy, atom cooling and quantum optics, electromagnetic instrumentation and profilometry, optical tweezers and tractor beams, to name a few emerging areas of research.

  2. Applications of focused MeV light ion beams for high resolution channeling contrast imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jamieson, D.N.; Breese, M.B.H.; Prawer, S.; Dooley, S.P.; Allen, M.G.; Bettiol, A.A.; Saint, A. [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia). School of Physics; Ryan, C.G. [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), North Ryde, NSW (Australia). Div. of Exploration Geoscience

    1993-12-31

    The technique of Nuclear Microscopy, utilizing a focused ion probe of typically MeV H{sup +} or He{sup +} ions, can produce images where the contrast depends on typical Ion Beam Analysis (lBA) processes. The probe forming lens system usually utilizes strong focusing, precision magnetic quadrupole lenses and the probe is scanned over the target to produce images. Originally, this imaging technique was developed to utilize backscattered particles with incident beam currents typically of a few nA, and the technique became known as Channeling Contrast Microscopy (CCM). Recently, the technique has been developed further to utilize the forward scattering of ions incident along a major crystal axis in thin crystals. This technique is known as Channeling Scanning Transmission Ion Microscopy (CSTIM). Since nearly all incident ions are detected, CSTIM is highly efficient and very low beam currents are sufficient for imaging, typically as low as a few fA. This allows probes as small as 50 nm to be used. In this paper we briefly review the recent applications of these emerging techniques to a variety of single crystal materials (authors). 13 refs., 5 figs.

  3. SU-E-T-526: On the Linearity, Stability and Beam Energy Dependence of CdSe Quantum Dots as Scintillating Probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delage, M-E; Lecavalier, M-E; Lariviere, D; Allen, C; Beaulieu, L

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Structure and energy transfer mechanisms confer colloidal quantum dots (cQDs) interesting properties, among them their potential as scintillators. CdSe multi-shell cQDs in powder were investigated under photons irradiation. The purpose of this work is to characterize signal to dose linearity, stability with time and to quantify the dependence of their light output with beam energy. Methods: The cQDs are placed at the extremity of a non-scintillating plastic collecting fiber, with the other extremity connected to an Apogee U2000C CCD camera. The CCD camera collects the fluorescence light from irradiated cQDs from which the delivered dose is extracted. This signal is corrected for Cerenkov contamination at MV energies using the chromatic technique. The detector was irradiated with two devices: Xstrahl 200 orthovoltage unit for 120, 180 and 220 kVp and a Varian Clinac iX for 6 and 23 MV. Results: Linear output response with varying dose is observed for all beam energies with R2 factors > 0,999. Reproducibility measurements were performed at 120 kVp: the same set-up was irradiated at different time intervals (one week and three months). The results showed only a small relative decrease of light output of 3,2 % after a combine deposited dose of approximately 95 Gy. CdSe nanocrystals response has been studied as a function of beam energy. The output increases with decreasing energy from 120 kVp to 6 MV and increase again for 23 MV. This behavior could be explained in part by the cQDs high-Z composition. Conclusion: The fluorescence light output of CdSe cQDs was found to be linear as a function of dose. The results suggest stability of the scintillation output of cQDs over time. The specific composition of cQDs is the main cause of the observed energy dependence. We will further look into particle beam dependence of the cQDs. Bourse d'excellence aux etudes graduees du CRC (Centre de Recherche sur le Cancer, Universite Laval) Bourse d'excellence aux

  4. Neutron–proton bremsstrahlung as a possible probe of high-momentum component in nucleon momentum distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Xue

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Neutron-proton bremsstrahlung in intermediate energy nucleus–nucleus collisions is proposed as a possible probe to study the high-momentum component in nucleon momentum distribution of finite nucleus. Based on the Boltzmann–Uehling–Uhlenbeck (BUU transport model, the effects of high-momentum component on the production of bremsstrahlung photons in the reaction of C12+12C collisions at different incident beam energies are studied. It is found that the high-momentum component increases the high-energy bremsstrahlung photon production remarkably. Furthermore, the ratio of photon production at different incident beam energies is suggested as a potential observable to probe the high-momentum component in nucleon momentum distribution of finite nucleus.

  5. Enhanced magnetic field probe array for improved excluded flux calculations on the C-2U advanced beam-driven field-reversed configuration plasma experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roche, T., E-mail: troche@trialphaenergy.com; Thompson, M. C.; Mendoza, R.; Allfrey, I.; Garate, E.; Romero, J.; Douglass, J. [Tri Alpha Energy, P.O. Box 7010, Rancho Santa Margarita, California 92688 (United States)

    2016-11-15

    External flux conserving coils were installed onto the exterior of the C-2U [M. W. Binderbauer et al., Phys. Plasmas 22, 056110 (2015)] confinement vessel to increase the flux confinement time of the system. The 0.5 in. stainless steel vessel wall has a skin time of ∼5 ms. The addition of the external copper coils effectively increases this time to ∼7 ms. This led to better-confined/longer-lived field-reversed configuration (FRC) plasmas. The fringing fields generated by the external coils have the side effect of rendering external field measurements invalid. Such measurements were key to the previous method of excluded flux calculation [M. C. Thompson et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83, 10D709 (2012)]. A new array of B-dot probes and Rogowski coils were installed to better determine the amount of flux leaked out of the system and ultimately provide a more robust measurement of plasma parameters related to pressure balance including the excluded flux radius. The B-dot probes are surface mountable chip inductors with inductance of 33 μH capable of measuring the DC magnetic field and transient field, due to resistive current decay in the wall/coils, when coupled with active integrators. The Rogowski coils measure the total change in current in each external coil (150 A/2 ms). Currents were also actively driven in the external coils. This renders the assumption of total flux conservation invalid which further complicates the analysis process. The ultimate solution to these issues and the record breaking resultant FRC lifetimes will be presented.

  6. Probing the density dependence of the symmetry energy by nucleon flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xiao-Hua; Yong, Gao-Chan; Zuo, Wei

    2018-03-01

    In the framework of the isospin-dependent Boltzmann-Uehling-Uhlenbeck transport model, sensitive regions of some nucleon observables to the nuclear symmetry energy are studied. It is found that the symmetry-energy-sensitive observable n /p ratio in the 132Sn+124Sn reaction at 0.3 GeV/nucleon in fact just probes the density-dependent symmetry energy below the density of 1.5 ρ0 and effectively probes the density-dependent symmetry energy around or somewhat below the saturation density. Nucleon elliptic flow can probe the symmetry energy from the low-density region to the high-density region when changing the incident beam energies from 0.3 to 0.6 GeV/nucleon in the semi-central 132Sn+124Sn reaction. And nucleon transverse and elliptic flows in the semi-central 197Au+197Au reaction at 0.6 GeV/nucleon are more sensitive to the high-density behavior of the nuclear symmetry energy. One thus concludes that nucleon observables in the heavy reaction system and with higher incident beam energy are more suitable to be used to probe the high-density behavior of the symmetry energy. The present study may help one to get more specific information about the density-dependent symmetry energy from nucleon flow observable in heavy-ion collisions at intermediate energies.

  7. Vacancy-type defects in InxGa1−xN grown on GaN templates probed using monoenergetic positron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uedono, Akira; Watanabe, Tomohito; Kimura, Shogo; Zhang, Yang; Lozac'h, Mickael; Sang, Liwen; Sumiya, Masatomo; Ishibashi, Shoji; Oshima, Nagayasu; Suzuki, Ryoichi

    2013-01-01

    Native defects in In x Ga 1−x N layers grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition were studied using monoenergetic positron beams. Measurements of Doppler broadening spectra of the annihilation radiation and lifetime spectra of positrons for a 200-nm-thick In 0.13 Ga 0.87 N layer showed that vacancy-type defects were introduced by InN alloying, and the major species of such defects was identified as complexes between a cation vacancy and nitrogen vacancies. The presence of the defects correlated with lattice relaxation of the In 0.13 Ga 0.87 N layer and the increase in photon emissions from donor-acceptor-pair recombination. The species of native defects in In 0.06 Ga 0.94 N layers was the same but its concentration was decreased by decreasing the InN composition. With the layer thickness increased from 120 nm to 360 nm, a defect-rich region was introduced in the subsurface region (<160 nm), which can be associated with layer growth with the relaxation of compressive stress

  8. Production of muon pairs in the continuum region by 39.5 GeV/c π+-, K+-, p and anti p beams incident on a copper target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corden, M.J.; Dowell, J.D.; Eastwood, D.; Garvey, J.; Homer, R.J.; Jobes, M.; Kenyon, I.R.; McMahon, T.J.; Vallance, R.J.; Watkins, P.M.; Wilson, J.A.; Gago, J.; Jung, M.; Sonderegger, P.; Treille, D.; Woodworth, P.L.; Eckardt, V.; Fent, J.; Pretzl, K.; Seyboth, P.; Seyerlein, J.; Perrin, D.; Sumorok, K.C.T.O.

    1978-01-01

    General features of the inclusive hadroproduction of muon pairs of mass greater than 1.5 GeV/c 2 are shown. For incident π - , the data extend up to M = 5.7 GeV/c 2 (i.e. M 2 /s approximately 0.4). The scaling cross section M 3 dsigma/dM for π - N reaction is much flatter than that for pN reactions and exceeds the latter by two to three orders of magnitude at large M 2 /s. (Auth.)

  9. Evidence for evanescent waves at interfaces in a high-index prism/liquid-crystal-Au-NPs/glass/air structure and effects of relative concentration of gold nanoparticles, wavelength, polarization, and incident angle of the laser beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Kunal; Singh, Ankit; Sharma, Suresh

    2011-10-01

    Incorporation of relatively small concentrations of gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) in a polymer-dispersed liquid crystal (PDLC) is known to lower the operating threshold voltage and increase optical transmission through the device.ootnotetextA. Hinojosa and S. C. Sharma, Applied Physics Letters, 97, 081114 (2010) In order to understand whether there is an interplay between the localized surface plasmon resonance at Au-NPs-dielectric interfaces and the electro-optical properties of PDLC devices, we have investigated propagation of light through a high-index prism/liquid-crystal-Au-NPs/glass/air structure by using Kretschmann geometry as functions of concentration of Au NPs in the liquid crystal, and the wavelength, polarization, and angle of incidence of the laser beam. We will discuss to what extent the results of these experiments support an interplay between the localized surface plasmon resonance at NPs/dielectric interfaces and optical propagation through the above-described structure.

  10. Cultural probes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jacob Østergaard

    The aim of this study was thus to explore cultural probes (Gaver, Boucher et al. 2004), as a possible methodical approach, supporting knowledge production on situated and contextual aspects of occupation.......The aim of this study was thus to explore cultural probes (Gaver, Boucher et al. 2004), as a possible methodical approach, supporting knowledge production on situated and contextual aspects of occupation....

  11. Nanobits: customizable scanning probe tips

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kumar, Rajendra; Shaik, Hassan Uddin; Sardan Sukas, Özlem

    2009-01-01

    We present here a proof-of-principle study of scanning probe tips defined by planar nanolithography and integrated with AFM probes using nanomanipulation. The so-called 'nanobits' are 2-4 mu m long and 120-150 nm thin flakes of Si3N4 or SiO2, fabricated by electron beam lithography and standard...... or dislocation of the tips of the nanobit after several scans. This approach allows an unprecedented freedom in adapting the shape and size of scanning probe tips to the surface topology or to the specific application....... silicon processing. Using a microgripper they were detached from an array and fixed to a standard pyramidal AFM probe or alternatively inserted into a tipless cantilever equipped with a narrow slit. The nanobit-enhanced probes were used for imaging of deep trenches, without visible deformation, wear...

  12. Recent status of the Kiev nuclear probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebed, S.; Tolmachov, M.; Kukharenko, O.; Veselov, O.

    2009-06-01

    The modified Van de Graaff accelerator with proton beam energy W ⩽ 3 MeV has been installed and put into operation at the TMM laboratory in Kiev. The laboratory incorporates the nuclear probe (NP) beam line, coupled to this accelerator. A short version of an optimized probe-forming system (PFS) has been developed for the Kiev NP. The system is based on divided triplet of the magnetic quadrupole lenses (MQLs). This PFS has two working regimes for the probe operations. The results of numerical calculations of the geometrical and ion-optical parameters of the PFS are presented. It is shown that this versatile PFS is a promising design for a modern nuclear nano-probe. A new precision adjustable MQL has been designed. Three lenses, the slit systems and target chamber are manufactured and installed at the Kiev probe beam line. Also a new data acquisition system for the Kiev NP is being developed.

  13. Recent status of the Kiev nuclear probe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lebed, S. [Research Laboratory ' Spectra' , TMM Ltd., ul. Chaadaeva 2b, 03148, Kiev (Ukraine)], E-mail: salmp1@ukr.net; Tolmachov, M.; Kukharenko, O.; Veselov, O. [Research Laboratory ' Spectra' , TMM Ltd., ul. Chaadaeva 2b, 03148, Kiev (Ukraine)

    2009-06-15

    The modified Van de Graaff accelerator with proton beam energy W {<=} 3 MeV has been installed and put into operation at the TMM laboratory in Kiev. The laboratory incorporates the nuclear probe (NP) beam line, coupled to this accelerator. A short version of an optimized probe-forming system (PFS) has been developed for the Kiev NP. The system is based on divided triplet of the magnetic quadrupole lenses (MQLs). This PFS has two working regimes for the probe operations. The results of numerical calculations of the geometrical and ion-optical parameters of the PFS are presented. It is shown that this versatile PFS is a promising design for a modern nuclear nano-probe. A new precision adjustable MQL has been designed. Three lenses, the slit systems and target chamber are manufactured and installed at the Kiev probe beam line. Also a new data acquisition system for the Kiev NP is being developed.

  14. Limitations due to strong head-on beam-beam interactions (MD 1434)

    CERN Document Server

    Buffat, Xavier; Iadarola, Giovanni; Papadopoulou, Parthena Stefania; Papaphilippou, Yannis; Pellegrini, Dario; Pojer, Mirko; Crockford, Guy; Salvachua Ferrando, Belen Maria; Trad, Georges; Barranco Garcia, Javier; Pieloni, Tatiana; Tambasco, Claudia; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2017-01-01

    The results of an experiment aiming at probing the limitations due to strong head on beam-beam interactions are reported. It is shown that the loss rates significantly increase when moving the working point up and down the diagonal, possibly due to effects of the 10th and/or 14th order resonances. Those limitations are tighter for bunches with larger beam-beam parameters, a maximum total beam-beam tune shift just below 0.02 could be reached.

  15. A device for measuring electron beam characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Andreev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a device intended for diagnostics of electron beams and the results obtained with this device. The device comprises a rotating double probe operating in conjunction with an automated probe signal collection and processing system. This provides for measuring and estimating the electron beam characteristics such as radius, current density, power density, convergence angle, and brightness.

  16. Chemical sensor with oscillating cantilevered probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Jesse D

    2013-02-05

    The invention provides a method of detecting a chemical species with an oscillating cantilevered probe. A cantilevered beam is driven into oscillation with a drive mechanism coupled to the cantilevered beam. A free end of the oscillating cantilevered beam is tapped against a mechanical stop coupled to a base end of the cantilevered beam. An amplitude of the oscillating cantilevered beam is measured with a sense mechanism coupled to the cantilevered beam. A treated portion of the cantilevered beam is exposed to the chemical species, wherein the cantilevered beam bends when exposed to the chemical species. A second amplitude of the oscillating cantilevered beam is measured, and the chemical species is determined based on the measured amplitudes.

  17. Beam Profile Measurement in MTA Beam Line for High Pressure RF Cavity Beam Test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jana, M.R.; Bross, A.; Chung, M.; Greer, S.; Johnstone, C.; Kobilarcik, T.; Koizumi, G.; Leonova, M.; Moretti, A.; Popovic, M.; Schwartz, T.

    2012-01-01

    Recent High Pressure RF (HPRF) cavity experiment at MuCool Test Area (MTA) has used 400 MeV Linac proton beam to study the beam loading effect. When the energetic proton beam passes through the cavity, it ionizes the inside gas and produces the electrons. These electrons consume RF power inside the cavity. Number of electrons produced per cm inside the cavity (at 950 psi Hydrogen gas) per incident proton is ∼ 1200. The measurement of beam position and profile are necessary. MTA is flammable gas (Hydrogen) hazard zone so we have developed a passive beam diagnostic instrument using Chromox-6 scintillation screen and CCD camera. This paper presents quantitative information about beam position and beam profile. Neutral density filter was used to avoid saturation of CCD camera. Image data is filtered and fitted with Gaussian function to compute the beam size. The beam profile obtained from scintillation screen shall be compared with multi-wire beam profile.

  18. Mobile probes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørngreen, Rikke; Jørgensen, Anna Neustrup; Noesgaard, Signe Schack

    2016-01-01

    to in an interview. This method provided valuable insight into the contextual use, i.e. how did the online resource transfer to the work practice. However, the research team also found that mobile probes may provide the scaffolding necessary for individual and peer learning at a very local (intra-school) community...... level. This paper is an initial investigation of how the mobile probes process proved to engage teachers in their efforts to improve teaching. It also highlights some of the barriers emerging when applying mobile probes as a scaffold for learning.......A project investigating the effectiveness of a collection of online resources for teachers' professional development used mobile probes as a data collection method. Teachers received questions and tasks on their mobile in a dialogic manner while in their everyday context as opposed...

  19. Photon collider beam simulation with CAIN

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    the laser pulse and the beam–beam interaction, is presented in figure 1. Energy flow obtained from the simulation was scaled to the average beam power. After the. Compton scattering, most of the incident electron beam power is transfered to the photon beam. However, the high-energy photons are very well-collimated ...

  20. DNA probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castelino, J.

    1992-01-01

    The creation of DNA probes for detection of specific nucleotide segments differs from ligand detection in that it is a chemical rather than an immunological reaction. Complementary DNA or RNA is used in place of the antibody and is labelled with 32 P. So far, DNA probes have been successfully employed in the diagnosis of inherited disorders, infectious diseases, and for identification of human oncogenes. The latest approach to the diagnosis of communicable and parasitic infections is based on the use of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) probes. The genetic information of all cells is encoded by DNA and DNA probe approach to identification of pathogens is unique because the focus of the method is the nucleic acid content of the organism rather than the products that the nucleic acid encodes. Since every properly classified species has some unique nucleotide sequences that distinguish it from every other species, each organism's genetic composition is in essence a finger print that can be used for its identification. In addition to this specificity, DNA probes offer other advantages in that pathogens may be identified directly in clinical specimens

  1. Controlling Second Harmonic Efficiency of Laser Beam Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Norman P. (Inventor); Walsh, Brian M. (Inventor); Reichle, Donald J. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A method is provided for controlling second harmonic efficiency of laser beam interactions. A laser system generates two laser beams (e.g., a laser beam with two polarizations) for incidence on a nonlinear crystal having a preferred direction of propagation. Prior to incidence on the crystal, the beams are optically processed based on the crystal's beam separation characteristics to thereby control a position in the crystal along the preferred direction of propagation at which the beams interact.

  2. Comparison of beam-position-transfer functions using circular beam-position monitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilpatrick, J.D.

    1997-01-01

    A cylindrical beam-position monitor (BPM) used in many accelerator facilities has four electrodes on which beam-image currents induce bunched-beam signals. These probe-electrode signals are geometrically configured to provide beam-position information about two orthogonal axes. An electronic processor performs a mathematical transfer function (TF) on these BPM-electrode signals to produce output signals whose time-varying amplitude is proportional to the beam's vertical and horizontal position. This paper will compare various beam-position TFs using both pencil beams and will further discuss how diffuse beams interact with some of these TFs

  3. Conductivity Probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    The Thermal and Electrical Conductivity Probe (TECP) for NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander took measurements in Martian soil and in the air. The needles on the end of the instrument were inserted into the Martian soil, allowing TECP to measure the propagation of both thermal and electrical energy. TECP also measured the humidity in the surrounding air. The needles on the probe are 15 millimeters (0.6 inch) long. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  4. Development of Atomic Beam Probe for tokamaks

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Berta, M.; Anda, G.; Aradi, M.; Bencze, A.; Buday, Cs.; Kiss, I.G.; Tulipán, Sz.; Veres, G.; Zoletnik, S.; Havlíček, Josef; Háček, Pavel

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 88, č. 11 (2013), s. 2875-2880 ISSN 0920-3796 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LM2011021 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : ABP * Plasma diagnostics * COMPASS tokamak * Current density * Plasma density profile measurement Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 1.149, year: 2013 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0920379613005048#

  5. Pollution Probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chant, Donald A.

    This book is written as a statement of concern about pollution by members of Pollution Probe, a citizens' anti-pollution group in Canada. Its purpose is to create public awareness and pressure for the eventual solution to pollution problems. The need for effective government policies to control the population explosion, conserve natural resources,…

  6. Probe specificity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laget, J.M.

    1986-11-01

    Specificity and complementarity of hadron and electron probes must be systematically developed to answer three questions currently asked in intermediate energy nuclear physics: what is nucleus structure at short distances, what is nature of short range correlations, what is three body force nature [fr

  7. Premature beam dumps in 2011

    CERN Document Server

    Albert, Markus

    2012-01-01

    The statistical analysis of all non-programmed beam dumps during the 2011 proton run is presented. The selection criteria of fills that got considered were that the beam intensity of each of the two beams exceeded at least 1e12 particles per beam in order to exclude all probe beam dumps and most of the MPS test dumps. A distribution of beam dump causes by system is shown, as well as the time it took to re-establish injection after a non-programmed dump for fills which made it into STABLE BEAMS. This was done in an attempt to evaluate the cost of those non-programmed dumps in terms of time.

  8. Operational beams for the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Papaphilippou, Y.; Rumolo, G.; Manglunki, D.

    2014-01-01

    The variety of beams, needed to set-up in the injectors as requested in the LHC, are reviewed, in terms of priority but also performance expectations and reach during 2015. This includes the single bunch beams for machine commissioning and measurements (probe, Indiv) but also the standard physics beams with 50 ns and 25 ns bunch spacing and their high brightness variants using the Bunch Compression Merging and Splitting (BCMS) scheme. The required parameters and target performance of special beams like the doublet for electron cloud enhancement and the more exotic 8b$\\oplus$4e beam, compatible with some post-scrubbing scenarios are also described. The progress and plans for the LHC ion production beams during 2014-2015 are detailed. Highlights on the current progress of the setting up of the various beams are finally presented with special emphasis on potential performance issues across the proton and ion injector chain.

  9. Plasma-edge studies using carbon resistance probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wampler, W.R.; Manos, D.M.

    1982-01-01

    A new experimental technique, the resistance probe, was used to study the plasma edge in the PLT and PDX tokamaks. This technique involves measuring the change in resistance of a thin carbon film due to bombardment by energetic particles escaping the plasma. The probes have been calibrated by measuring the resistance change caused by implantation of various ions at different energies. A model has been developed which can be used to determine the flux and energy of the incident particles from the measured resistance changes. For probes exposed in PDX and PLT near the wall resistance changes were observed due to charge exchange neutrals. Larger changes were observed in the ion scrape-off region closer to the plasma. In PLT the effect of ions at the plasma edge begins to dominate the neutral flux near the radius of the ring limiter. The energy of ions at the plasma edge was estimated to be low (less than or equal to 100 eV) in PDX during neutral beam heated discharges, but higher (greater than or equal to 300 eV) in PLT during ion cyclotron resonance heating

  10. Wheelchair incidents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drongelen AW van; Roszek B; Hilbers-Modderman ESM; Kallewaard M; Wassenaar C; LGM

    2002-01-01

    This RIVM study was performed to gain insight into wheelchair-related incidents with powered and manual wheelchairs reported to the USA FDA, the British MDA and the Dutch Center for Quality and Usability Research of Technical Aids (KBOH). The data in the databases do not indicate that incidents with

  11. Transverse beam shape measurements of intense proton beams using optical transition radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scarpine, Victor E.; /Fermilab

    2012-03-01

    A number of particle physics experiments are being proposed as part of the Department of Energy HEP Intensity Frontier. Many of these experiments will utilize megawatt level proton beams onto targets to form secondary beams of muons, kaons and neutrinos. These experiments require transverse size measurements of the incident proton beam onto target for each beam spill. Because of the high power levels, most beam intercepting profiling techniques will not work at full beam intensity. The possibility of utilizing optical transition radiation (OTR) for high intensity proton beam profiling is discussed. In addition, previous measurements of OTR beam profiles from the NuMI beamline are presented.

  12. Frequency-domain modelling of gain in pump-probe experiment by an inhomogeneous medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Minkyung; Oh, Sang Soon; Hess, Ortwin; Rho, Junsuk

    2018-02-01

    Introduction of a gain medium in lossy plasmonic metamaterials reduces and compensates losses or even amplifies an incident light often with nonlinear optical effect. Here, optical gain in a pump-probe experimental setup is effectively calculated in the frequency-domain by approximating a gain material as an inhomogeneous medium. Spatially varying local field amplitudes of the pump and probe beams are included in the model to reproduce the inhomogeneous gain effect, in which population inversion occurs most strongly near the surface and decays along the propagation direction. We demonstrate that transmission spectra calculated by this method agree well with finite-difference time-domain simulation results. This simplified approach of gain modelling offers an easy and reliable way to analyze wave propagation in a gain medium without nonlinear time-domain calculation.

  13. Coherent beam-beam effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chao, A.W.

    1992-01-01

    There are two physical pictures that describe the beam-beam interaction in a storage ring collider: The weak-strong and the strong-strong pictures. Both pictures play a role in determining the beam-beam behavior. This review addresses only the strong-strong picture. The corresponding beam dynamical effects are referred to as the coherent beam-beam effects. Some basic knowledge of the weak-strong picture is assumed. To be specific, two beams of opposite charges are considered. (orig.)

  14. Method and means for a spatial and temporal probe for laser-generated plumes based on density gradients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, E.S.; Chen, G.

    1990-05-01

    A method and means are disclosed for a spatial and temporal probe for laser generated plumes based on density gradients includes generation of a plume of vaporized material from a surface by an energy source. The probe laser beam is positioned so that the plume passes through the probe laser beam. Movement of the probe laser beam caused by refraction from the density gradient of the plume is monitored. Spatial and temporal information, correlated to one another, is then derived. 15 figs.

  15. Computational analysis of responses of a wedge-shaped-tip optical fiber probe in bubble measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, A; Saito, T

    2012-07-01

    Optical-fiber probing is widely employed in bubble/droplet measurement in gas-liquid two-phase flows. Several types of optical fiber probes with a very high S/N ratio and high performance have been developed, but further improvement in the probes' measurement accuracy and reliability for industrial applications is desired. We tried to eliminate optical noise in the probe measurements, and we found that the signals include some peak signs that have potential for advanced measurement with optical-fiber probing. We developed a ray-tracing numerical simulator and identified the mechanisms underlying the generation of the signals. In order to numerically simulate the optical probing signals, the simulator must use 3D frameworks composed of incident beams, the reflection and refraction on the surfaces of the optical elements (i.e., an optical fiber, a sensing tip, an air phase, and a water phase), and beams returning from the sensing tip to the other tip through the fiber. We used all of these in a simple rendering framework based on a ray-tracing algorithm with Fresnel's law, and we observed the mechanism of some promising signals that may be useful for extracting the hidden potential of optical-fiber probing. To verify the simulator's performance, we carried out three comparative experiments with fundamental setups using a wedge-shaped single-tip optical fiber probe, examining: (1) the beam trajectories and energy leaking out from the sensing tip into the surrounding air phase or water phase, (2) the probing signals throughout penetration of the sensing tip at the air-water free interface in light of the three-dimensional deformation, and (3) the probing signals throughout penetration of the sensing tip into a bubble in light of the three-dimensional bubble shape. As a result, (a) we found that an optical fiber probe with a wedge-shaped tip has particular characteristics of beam emissions from the tip, and the emitting angles switched depending on the phases covering

  16. Superresolution beams

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ngcobo, S

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available zones capable of introducing a phase shift of zero or p on the alternately out of phase rings of the TEMp0 beams into a unified phase and then focusing the rectified beam to generate a high resolution beam which has a Gaussian beam intensity distribution...

  17. Intense nonrelativistic cesium ion beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lampel, M.C.

    1984-01-01

    The Heavy Ion Fusion group at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory has constructed the One Ampere Cesium injector as a proof of principle source to supply an induction linac with a high charge density and high brightness ion beam. This is studied here. An electron beam probe was developed as the major diagnostic tool for characterizing ion beam space charge. Electron beam probe data inversion is accomplished with the EBEAM code and a parametrically adjusted model radial charge distribution. The longitudinal charge distribution was not derived, although it is possible to do so. The radial charge distribution that is derived reveals an unexpected halo of trapped electrons surrounding the ion beam. A charge fluid theory of the effect of finite electron temperature on the focusing of neutralized ion beams (Nucl Fus. 21, 529(1981)) is applied to the problem of the cesium beam final focus at the end of the injector. It is shown that the theory's predictions and assumptions are consistent with the experimental data, and that it accounts for the observed ion beam radius of approx.5 cm and the electron halo, including the determination of an electron Debye length of approx.10 cm

  18. Beam current sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuchnir, Moyses; Mills, Frederick E.

    1987-01-01

    A current sensor for measuring the DC component of a beam of charged particles employs a superconducting pick-up loop probe, with twisted superconducting leads in combination with a Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID) detector. The pick-up probe is in the form of a single-turn loop, or a cylindrical toroid, through which the beam is directed and within which a first magnetic flux is excluded by the Meisner effect. The SQUID detector acts as a flux-to-voltage converter in providing a current to the pick-up loop so as to establish a second magnetic flux within the electrode which nulls out the first magnetic flux. A feedback voltage within the SQUID detector represents the beam current of the particles which transit the pick-up loop. Meisner effect currents prevent changes in the magnetic field within the toroidal pick-up loop and produce a current signal independent of the beam's cross-section and its position within the toroid, while the combination of superconducting elements provides current measurement sensitivites in the nano-ampere range.

  19. Microwave generation and frequency conversion using intense relativistic electron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buzzi, J.M.; Doucet, H.J.; Etlicher, B.

    1977-01-01

    Some aspects of the microwave generation and frequency conversion by relativistic electron beams are studied. Using an electron synchrotron maser, the excitation of microwaves by an annular relativistic electron beam propagating through a circular wave guide immersed in a longitudinal magnetic field is analyzed. This theoretical model is somewhat more realistic than the previous one because the guiding centers are not on the wave guide axis. Microwave reflection is observed on a R.E.B. front propagating into a gas filled waveguide. The frequency conversion from the incident X-band e.m. waves and the reflected Ka band observed signal is consistent with the Doppler model for β = 0.7. This value agrees with the average beam front velocity as measured from time-of-flight using two B/sub theta/ probes. The reflection is found to occur during the current rise time. With a low impedance device (2 Ω, 400 keV) a GW X-band emission has been observed using thin anodes and a gas filled waveguide. This emission is probably due to the self-fields of the beam and could be used as a diagnostic

  20. Sparse sampling and reconstruction for electron and scanning probe microscope imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Hyrum; Helms, Jovana; Wheeler, Jason W.; Larson, Kurt W.; Rohrer, Brandon R.

    2015-07-28

    Systems and methods for conducting electron or scanning probe microscopy are provided herein. In a general embodiment, the systems and methods for conducting electron or scanning probe microscopy with an undersampled data set include: driving an electron beam or probe to scan across a sample and visit a subset of pixel locations of the sample that are randomly or pseudo-randomly designated; determining actual pixel locations on the sample that are visited by the electron beam or probe; and processing data collected by detectors from the visits of the electron beam or probe at the actual pixel locations and recovering a reconstructed image of the sample.

  1. Beam-beam and impedance

    CERN Document Server

    White, S.

    2014-07-17

    As two counter-rotating beams interact they can give rise to coherent dipole modes. Under the influence of impedance these coherent beam-beam modes can couple to higher order head-tail modes and lead to strong instabilities. A fully self-consistent approach including beam-beam and impedance was used to characterize this new coupled mode instability and study possible cures such as a transverse damper and high chromaticity.

  2. Nanowire assembly, e.g. for optical probes, comprises optically trapping high aspect ratio semiconductor nanowire with infrared single-beam optical trap and attaching nanowire to organic or inorganic structure

    OpenAIRE

    Pauzauskie, P.; Radenovic, A.; Trepagnier, E.; Liphardt, J.; Yang, P.

    2007-01-01

    NOVELTY - A nanowire assembly method comprises optically trapping a semiconductor nanowire with an infrared single-beam optical trap and attaching the nanowire to an organic or inorganic structure by laser fusing. The nanowire is further trapped in a fluid environment. The optical trap has a beam wavelength of 1064 nm. The nanowire has an aspect ratio greater than 100 and a diameter less than 100 (preferably less than 80) nm. The nanowire and the organic or inorganic structure form a heterost...

  3. Incidents analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francois, P.

    1996-01-01

    We undertook a study programme at the end of 1991. To start with, we performed some exploratory studies aimed at learning some preliminary lessons on this type of analysis: Assessment of the interest of probabilistic incident analysis; possibility of using PSA scenarios; skills and resources required. At the same time, EPN created a working group whose assignment was to define a new approach for analysis of incidents on NPPs. This working group gave thought to both aspects of Operating Feedback that EPN wished to improve: Analysis of significant incidents; analysis of potential consequences. We took part in the work of this group, and for the second aspects, we proposed a method based on an adaptation of the event-tree method in order to establish a link between existing PSA models and actual incidents. Since PSA provides an exhaustive database of accident scenarios applicable to the two most common types of units in France, they are obviously of interest for this sort of analysis. With this method we performed some incident analyses, and at the same time explores some methods employed abroad, particularly ASP (Accident Sequence Precursor, a method used by the NRC). Early in 1994 EDF began a systematic analysis programme. The first, transient phase will set up methods and an organizational structure. 7 figs

  4. IVVS probe mechanical concept design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossi, Paolo, E-mail: paolo.rossi@enea.it; Neri, Carlo; De Collibus, Mario Ferri; Mugnaini, Giampiero; Pollastrone, Fabio; Crescenzi, Fabio

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • ENEA designed, developed and tested a laser based In Vessel Viewing System (IVVS). • IVVS mechanical design has been revised from 2011 to 2013 to meet ITER requirements. • Main improvements are piezoceramic actuators and a step focus system. • Successful qualification activities validated the concept design for ITER environment. - Abstract: ENEA has been deeply involved in the design, development and testing of a laser based In Vessel Viewing System (IVVS) required for the inspection of ITER plasma-facing components. The IVVS probe shall be deployed into the vacuum vessel, providing high resolution images and metrology measurements to detect damages and possible erosion. ENEA already designed and manufactured an IVVS probe prototype based on a rad-hard concept and driven by commercial micro-step motors, which demonstrated satisfying viewing and metrology performances at room conditions. The probe sends a laser beam through a reflective rotating prism. By rotating the axes of the prism, the probe can scan all the environment points except those present in a shadow cone and the backscattered light signal is then processed to measure the intensity level (viewing) and the distance from the probe (metrology). During the last years, in order to meet all the ITER environmental conditions, such as high vacuum, gamma radiation lifetime dose up to 5 MGy, cumulative neutron fluence of about 2.3 × 10{sup 17} n/cm{sup 2}, temperature of 120 °C and magnetic field of 8 T, the probe mechanical design was significantly revised introducing a new actuating system based on piezo-ceramic actuators and improved with a new step focus system. The optical and mechanical schemes have been then modified and refined to meet also the geometrical constraints. The paper describes the mechanical concept design solutions adopted in order to fulfill IVVS probe functional performance requirements considering ITER working environment and geometrical constraints.

  5. Positronium reflection and positronium beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, M.; Tang, S.; Khatri, R.; Roellig, L.O.; Viescas, A.J.; Berko, S.; Canter, K.F.; Lynn, K.G.; Mills, A.P. Jr.

    1989-01-01

    We have observed specular reflection of positronium, Ps, and established that there is adequate intensity at higher energies to make further study worthwhile. The scattering appears to be restricted to the outermost surface with a mean free path of (0.75 ± 0.15)Angstrom for Ps in LiF(100). With a greater intensity Ps beam one should see higher order diffraction beams as the result of the periodicity of the surface. Ps diffraction thus offers the possibility of being a novel and valuable probe to study the outermost surface and to study adsorbents on it. Two methods for producing Ps beams are described. 29 refs., 11 figs

  6. Beam cooling

    OpenAIRE

    Danared, H

    2006-01-01

    Beam cooling is the technique of reducing the momentum spread and increasing the phase-space density of stored particle beams. This paper gives an introduction to beam cooling and Liouville’s theorem, and then it describes the three methods of active beam cooling that have been proven to work so far, namely electron cooling, stochastic cooling, and laser cooling. Ionization cooling is also mentioned briefly.

  7. Molecular beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pendelbury, J.M.; Smith, K.F.

    1987-01-01

    Studies with directed collision-free beams of particles continue to play an important role in the development of modern physics and chemistry. The deflections suffered by such beams as they pass through electric and magnetic fields or laser radiation provide some of the most direct information about the individual constituents of the beam; the scattering observed when two beams intersect yields important data about the intermolecular forces responsible for the scattering. (author)

  8. Grazing-incidence small-angle neutron scattering from structures below an interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouhi, Shirin; Hellsing, Maja S; Kapaklis, Vassilios; Rennie, Adrian R

    2017-08-01

    Changes of scattering are observed as the grazing angle of incidence of an incoming beam increases and probes different depths in samples. A model has been developed to describe the observed intensity in grazing-incidence small-angle neutron scattering (GISANS) experiments. This includes the significant effects of instrument resolution, the sample transmission, which depends on both absorption and scattering, and the sample structure. The calculations are tested with self-organized structures of two colloidal samples with different size particles that were measured on two different instruments. The model allows calculations for various instruments with defined resolution and can be used to design future improved experiments. The possibilities and limits of GISANS for different studies are discussed using the model calculations.

  9. Grazing incidence diffraction anomalous fine structure of self-assembled semiconductor nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grenier, S.; Letoublon, A.; Proietti, M.G.; Renevier, H.; Gonzalez, L.; Garcia, J.M.; Priester, C.; Garcia, J.

    2003-01-01

    We have studied self-organized quantum wires of InAs, grown by molecular beam epitaxy onto a InP(0 0 1) substrate, by means of grazing incidence diffraction anomalous fine structure (DAFS). The equivalent quantum wires thickness is 2.5 monolayers. We measured the (4 4 0) and (4 2 0) GIDAFS spectra, at the As K-edge, keeping the incidence and exit angles close to the InP critical angle. The analysis of both the smooth and oscillatory contributions of the DAFS spectrum, provide valuable information about composition and strain inside the quantum wires and close to the interface. We also show preliminary results on InAs wires encapsulated by a 40 A thick InP capping layer, suggesting the DAFS capability of probing different iso-strain regions of the wires

  10. Funnel cone for focusing intense ion beams on a target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bieniosek, F.M.; Henestroza, E.; Ni, P.

    2009-01-01

    We describe a funnel cone for concentrating an ion beam on a target. The cone utilizes the reflection characteristic of ion beams on solid walls to focus the incident beam andincrease beam intensity on target. The cone has been modeled with the TRIM code. A prototype has been tested and installed for use in the 350-keV K+ NDCX target chamber.

  11. Development of a High-Precision Touch-Trigger Probe Using a Single Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui-Jun Li

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available To measure various components with nano-scale precision, a new high-precision touch-trigger probe using a single low-cost sensor for a micro-coordinate measuring machine (CMM is presented in this paper. The sensor is composed of a laser diode, a plane mirror, a focusing lens, and a quadrant photo detector (QPD. The laser beam from the laser diode with an incident angle is reflected by the plane mirror and then projected onto the quadrant photo detector (QPD via the focusing lens. The plane mirror is adhered to the upper surface of the floating plate supported by an elastic mechanism, which can transfer the displacement of the stylus’s ball tip in 3D to the plane mirror’s vertical and tilt movement. Both motions of the plane mirror can be detected by respective QPDs. The probe mechanism was analyzed, and its structural parameters that conform to the principle of uniform sensitivity and uniform stiffness were obtained. The simulation result showed that the stiffness was equal in 3D and less than 1 mN/µm. Some experiments were performed to investigate the probe’s characteristics. It was found that the probe could detect the trigger point with uniform sensitivity, a resolution of less than 5 nm, and a repeatability of less than 4 nm. It can be used as a touch-trigger probe on a micro/nano-CMM.

  12. Hot ion buildup by low current neutron beam injection in LITE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomlinson, R.G.; Ard, W.B.; Fader, W.J.; Polk, D.H.; Mensing, A.E.; Stufflebeam, J.H.

    1976-01-01

    The laser produced target plasma confined in the LITE minimum-B mirror magnetic field is shown along with a drawing of the confinement field line configuration. The plasma is generated by two beam, 1.06 micron, Nd-glass laser irradiation of LiH particles approximately 100 microns in diameter producing a plasma of approximately 10 16 hydrogen and lithium ions which expands in and is captured by the ''baseball'' confinement field. The plasma luminosity displays a plasma configuration which corresponds to the magnetic field geometry and indicates a plasma volume of approximately 400 cm 3 . Probe and microwave measurements confirm the plasma distribution indicated by the luminosity photographs. Charge collector probes located at a series of positions over a 120 0 arc in the mirror fan permit simultaneous observations of the plasma decay along field lines which pass through the mid-plane at different radial distances from the magnetic field axis. Plasma flux is observed with these probes to field lines 6 cm from the axis. Microwave measurements have been made with a strongly focused, 75 GHz (lambda = 4 mm) beam passing through the mid-plane, orthogonal to the mirror axis. Cut-off of the microwave beam transmission early in the confined plasma time history indicates that the radial dimension of the high density plasma region exceeds 2 cm. Measurement of the line density via interferometric measurements of the phase shift of the transmitted beam when the density has fallen below cut-off indicates an ''effective'' diameter of approximately 5 cm and an axial extent of approximately 20 cm. Thus, the plasma presents approximately 100 cm 2 target area to an incident neutral beam and occupies approximately 400 cm 3 volume

  13. Photon beam position monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzay, Tuncer M.; Shu, Deming

    1995-01-01

    A photon beam position monitor for use in the front end of a beamline of a high heat flux and high energy photon source such as a synchrotron radiation storage ring detects and measures the position and, when a pair of such monitors are used in tandem, the slope of a photon beam emanating from an insertion device such as a wiggler or an undulator inserted in the straight sections of the ring. The photon beam position monitor includes a plurality of spaced blades for precisely locating the photon beam, with each blade comprised of chemical vapor deposition (CVD) diamond with an outer metal coating of a photon sensitive metal such as tungsten, molybdenum, etc., which combination emits electrons when a high energy photon beam is incident upon the blade. Two such monitors are contemplated for use in the front end of the beamline, with the two monitors having vertically and horizontally offset detector blades to avoid blade "shadowing". Provision is made for aligning the detector blades with the photon beam and limiting detector blade temperature during operation.

  14. Time-resolved optical probing of nanosecond laser-induced breakdown plasma in polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdieh, Mohammad Hossein; Jafarabadi, Marzieh Akbari; Katoozi, Delaram

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, laser-induced optical breakdown in a transparent dielectric was studied by pump-probe beam method. The breakdown was induced by Nd:YAG nanosecond laser beam in polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA). The main laser beam was separated by a splitter and used as probe beam. An appropriate optics used to direct the probe beam passing through the breakdown region perpendicularly to the pump laser beam. Using fast photodiodes and oscilloscope, the transmitted/ reflected signals (associated with the probe/ pump beam) were monitored. Analyzing these signals can be used to describe the breakdown process. The results show that the dynamics of transmissivity and reflectivity of the produced plasma depend on the pump laser intensity.

  15. Proximal Probes Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Proximal Probes Facility consists of laboratories for microscopy, spectroscopy, and probing of nanostructured materials and their functional properties. At the...

  16. Redesign of a Low Energy Probe Head

    CERN Document Server

    Rao, Yi-Nong; Ries, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    The present situation of the low energy probe LE2 in TRIUMF cyclotron is that the thickness of the finger 5 is uniform over a radial length of 3.25 inch and its weight which amounts to ~447 g is affecting its re-circulating ball mechanism and causing it to fall below the median plane over its range of movement. We therefore re-design it in order to reduce its weight. First, we made simulations and determined the optimum thickness of the probe head vs its radial length. These simulation results are found to be in good agreement with experimental measurements made. Finally, we calculated the temperature rise caused by the beam power dumped on the probe, and figured out the maximum current of beam that can be dumped on the finger.

  17. Beam diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogaty, J.; Clifft, B.E.; Zinkann, G.P.; Pardo, R.C.

    1995-01-01

    The ECR-PII injector beam line is operated at a fixed ion velocity. The platform high voltage is chosen so that all ions have a velocity of 0.0085c at the PII entrance. If a previous tune configuration for the linac is to be used, the beam arrival time must be matched to the previous tune as well. A nondestructive beam-phase pickup detector was developed and installed at the entrance to the PII linac. This device provides continuous phase and beam current information and allows quick optimization of the beam injected into PII. Bunches traverse a short tubular electrode thereby inducing displacement currents. These currents are brought outside the vacuum interface where a lumped inductance resonates electrode capacitance at one of the bunching harmonic frequencies. This configuration yields a basic sensitivity of a few hundred millivolts signal per microampere of beam current. Beam-induced radiofrequency signals are summed against an offset frequency generated by our master oscillator. The resulting kilohertz difference frequency conveys beam intensity and bunch phase information which is sent to separate processing channels. One channel utilizes a phase locked loop which stabilizes phase readings if beam is unstable. The other channel uses a linear full wave active rectifier circuit which converts kilohertz sine wave signal amplitude to a D.C. voltage representing beam current. A prototype set of electronics is now in use with the detector and we began to use the system in operation to set the arrival beam phase. A permanent version of the electronics system for the phase detector is now under construction. Additional nondestructive beam intensity and phase monitors at the open-quotes Boosterclose quotes and open-quotes ATLASclose quotes linac sections are planned as well as on some of the high-energy beam lines. Such a monitor will be particularly useful for FMA experiments where the primary beam hits one of the electric deflector plates

  18. Diffraction-free, self-reconstructing Bessel beam generation using thermal nonlinear optical effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Q.; Cheng, X. M.; Chen, H. W.; He, B.; Ren, Z. Y.; Zhang, Y.; Bai, J. T.

    2017-10-01

    We propose a method to generate a Bessel beam using cross-phase modulation based on the thermal nonlinear optical effect. The thermal nonlinear medium is shown to have the ability to vary a Gaussian beam (probe beam) into a hollow beam when the medium is illuminated with a counter-propagating Gaussian beam (pump beam). It is demonstrated that this method has no restriction to the probe beam wavelength. Moreover, the generated Bessel beam exhibits superior non-diffraction properties during propagation and self-healing after encountering an obstruction on the beam path. The parameters of the beam can be easily adjusted by both the pump beam power and the sample concentration. The merits of variable parameters, no requirement for input beam wavelengths, simple setup, and low-cost would make this method significant in a variety of applications, especially in those areas where the parameters of the Bessel beam need to be easily adjusted without changing the setup.

  19. Methods for measurement of electron emission yield under low energy electron-irradiation by collector method and Kelvin probe method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tondu, Thomas; Belhaj, Mohamed; Inguimbert, Virginie [Onera, DESP, 2 Avenue Edouard Belin, 31400 Toulouse (France); Onera, DESP, 2 Avenue Edouard Belin, 31400 Toulouse, France and Fondation STAE, 4 allee Emile Monso, BP 84234-31432, Toulouse Cedex 4 (France); Onera, DESP, 2 Avenue Edouard Belin, 31400 Toulouse (France)

    2010-09-15

    Secondary electron emission yield of gold under electron impact at normal incidence below 50 eV was investigated by the classical collector method and by the Kelvin probe method. The authors show that biasing a collector to ensure secondary electron collection while keeping the target grounded can lead to primary electron beam perturbations. Thus reliable secondary electron emission yield at low primary electron energy cannot be obtained with a biased collector. The authors present two collector-free methods based on current measurement and on electron pulse surface potential buildup (Kelvin probe method). These methods are consistent, but at very low energy, measurements become sensitive to the earth magnetic field (below 10 eV). For gold, the authors can extrapolate total emission yield at 0 eV to 0.5, while a total electron emission yield of 1 is obtained at 40{+-}1 eV.

  20. Methods for measurement of electron emission yield under low energy electron-irradiation by collector method and Kelvin probe method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tondu, Thomas; Belhaj, Mohamed; Inguimbert, Virginie

    2010-01-01

    Secondary electron emission yield of gold under electron impact at normal incidence below 50 eV was investigated by the classical collector method and by the Kelvin probe method. The authors show that biasing a collector to ensure secondary electron collection while keeping the target grounded can lead to primary electron beam perturbations. Thus reliable secondary electron emission yield at low primary electron energy cannot be obtained with a biased collector. The authors present two collector-free methods based on current measurement and on electron pulse surface potential buildup (Kelvin probe method). These methods are consistent, but at very low energy, measurements become sensitive to the earth magnetic field (below 10 eV). For gold, the authors can extrapolate total emission yield at 0 eV to 0.5, while a total electron emission yield of 1 is obtained at 40±1 eV.

  1. Advanced grazing-incidence techniques for modern soft-matter materials analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Hexemer

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The complex nano-morphology of modern soft-matter materials is successfully probed with advanced grazing-incidence techniques. Based on grazing-incidence small- and wide-angle X-ray and neutron scattering (GISAXS, GIWAXS, GISANS and GIWANS, new possibilities arise which are discussed with selected examples. Due to instrumental progress, highly interesting possibilities for local structure analysis in this material class arise from the use of micro- and nanometer-sized X-ray beams in micro- or nanofocused GISAXS and GIWAXS experiments. The feasibility of very short data acquisition times down to milliseconds creates exciting possibilities for in situ and in operando GISAXS and GIWAXS studies. Tuning the energy of GISAXS and GIWAXS in the soft X-ray regime and in time-of flight GISANS allows the tailoring of contrast conditions and thereby the probing of more complex morphologies. In addition, recent progress in software packages, useful for data analysis for advanced grazing-incidence techniques, is discussed.

  2. Nuclear reactions as structure probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, Bernard; Cugnon, Joseph; Roussel-Chomaz, Patricia; Sparenberg, Jean-Marc; Oliveira Santos, Francois de; Bauge, Eric; Poves, Alfredo; Keeley, Nicholas; Simenel, Cedric; Avez, Benoit; Lacroix, Denis; Baye, Daniel; Cortina-Gil, Dolores; Pons, Alexandre

    2007-09-01

    This publication gathers courses which aim at giving a view on new experiments which are performed by using radioactive beams, notably low intensity beams, in different accelerators, and allow the structure of very exotic nuclei to be characterized. Experimental as well as theoretical aspects are thus addressed. The contributions propose: a brief history of nuclear reactions and of instruments used to study them from the discovery of nucleus to the DWBA (Distorted Wave Born Approximation); an overview of nuclear reactions; experimental techniques; the theory of collisions at low energy; resonant elastic scattering, inelastic scattering and astrophysical reactions; to probe nuclear structure with nucleons; shell model and spectroscopic factors; analysis of transfer reactions and determination of spectroscopic factors; microscopic approaches of nuclear dynamics; theoretical aspects of dissociation reactions; experimental aspects of knockout reactions; research in oenology with the chemical characterisation of defective ageing of dry white wines

  3. Tunable third-harmonic probe for non-degenerate ultrafast pump ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-02-12

    Feb 12, 2014 ... Abstract. In this article, we report a method to achieve a precisely tunable highly stable probe beam generation for performing pump–probe experiment around a given wavelength by tilting a sum frequency generation (SFG) crystal angle. The width of the generated third-harmonic beam is of the order of 2 ...

  4. Tunable third-harmonic probe for non-degenerate ultrafast pump ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-02-12

    Feb 12, 2014 ... In this article, we report a method to achieve a precisely tunable highly stable probe beam generation for performing pump–probe experiment around a given wavelength by tilting a sum frequency generation (SFG) crystal angle. The width of the generated third-harmonic beam is of the order of 2 nm ...

  5. Elliptical beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandres, Miguel A; Gutiérrez-Vega, Julio C

    2008-12-08

    A very general beam solution of the paraxial wave equation in elliptic cylindrical coordinates is presented. We call such a field an elliptic beam (EB). The complex amplitude of the EB is described by either the generalized Ince functions or the Whittaker-Hill functions and is characterized by four parameters that are complex in the most general situation. The propagation through complex ABCD optical systems and the conditions for square integrability are studied in detail. Special cases of the EB are the standard, elegant, and generalized Ince-Gauss beams, Mathieu-Gauss beams, among others.

  6. Mixed beams for the nuclear microprobe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saint, A.; Breese, M.B.H.; Legge, G.L.F. [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia). School of Physics

    1996-12-31

    Recently the Micro-Analytical Research Centre (MARC) at Melbourne University has developed a technique to provide mixed beams of ions for a magnetically focussed nuclear microprobe. Such a mixed beam is defined as two (or more) beams of different species ions that can quickly and easily be made to have the same magnetic rigidity R{sub m} = (mE/q{sup 2}) and therefore be transported, focused and scanned the same in a magnetic nuclear microprobe. The production of mixed beams in an electrostatically focussed micro- probe have already been demonstrated. This paper will show how mixed beams can be produced on a single-ended accelerator. Indications of how to produce them on a tandem will also be given. Applications of these mixed beams in micro-lithography, scanning transmission ion microscopy (STIM) imaging and ion beam induced charge (IBIC) imaging will also be presented. 3 refs., 3 figs.

  7. The gluon beam function at two loops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaunt, Jonathan R.; Stahlhofen, Maximilian; Tackmann, Frank J.

    2014-08-01

    The virtuality-dependent beam function is a universal ingredient in the resummation for observables probing the virtuality of incoming partons, including N -jettiness and beam thrust. We compute the gluon beam function at two-loop order. Together with our previous results for the two-loop quark beam function, this completes the full set of virtuality-dependent beam functions at next-to-next-to-leading order (NNLO). Our results are required to account for all collinear initial-state radiation effects on the N -jettiness event shape through N3LL order. We present numerical results for both the quark and gluon beam functions up to NNLO and N3LL order. Numerically, the NNLO matching corrections are important. They reduce the residual matching scale dependence in the resummed beam function by about a factor of two.

  8. The gluon beam function at two loops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaunt, Jonathan R.; Stahlhofen, Maximilian; Tackmann, Frank J. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany). Theory Group

    2014-05-15

    The virtuality-dependent beam function is a universal ingredient in the resummation for observables probing the virtuality of incoming partons, including N-jettiness and beam thrust. We compute the gluon beam function at two-loop order. Together with our previous results for the two-loop quark beam function, this completes the full set of virtuality-dependent beam functions at next-to-next-to-leading order (NNLO). Our results are required to account for all collinear ISR effects to the N-jettiness event shape through N{sup 3}LL order. We present numerical results for both the quark and gluon beam functions up to NNLO and N{sup 3}LL order. Numerically, the NNLO matching corrections are important. They reduce the residual matching scale dependence in the resummed beam function by about a factor of two.

  9. Probing the surface microstructure of layer-by-layer self-assembly chitosan/poly(L-glutamic acid) multilayers: A grazing-incidence small-angle X-ray scattering study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Nie; Yang, Chunming, E-mail: yangchunming@sinap.ac.cn; Wang, Yuzhu; Zhao, Binyu; Bian, Fenggang; Li, Xiuhong; Wang, Jie, E-mail: wangjie@sinap.ac.cn

    2016-01-01

    This study characterized the surface structure of layer-by-layer self-assembly chitosan/poly(L-glutamic acid) multilayers through grazing-incidence small-angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS), X-ray reflectivity (XRR), and atomic force microscopy (AFM). A weakly long-period ordered structure along the in-plane direction was firstly observed in the polyelectrolyte multilayer by the GISAXS technique. This structure can be attributed to the specific domains on the film surface. In the domain, nanodroplets that were formed by polyelectrolyte molecules were orderly arranged along the free surface of the films. This ordered structure gradually disappeared with the increasing bilayer number because of the complex merging behavior of nanodroplets into large islands. Furthermore, resonant diffuse scattering became evident in the GISAXS patterns as the number of bilayers in the polyelectrolyte multilayer was increased. Notably, the lateral cutoff length of resonant diffuse scattering for these polyelectrolyte films was comparable with the long-period value of the ordered nanodroplets in the polyelectrolyte multilayer. Therefore, the nanodroplets could be considered as a basic transmission unit for structure propagation from the inner interface to the film surface. It suggests that the surface structure with length scale larger than the size of nanodroplets was partially complicated from the interface structure near the substrate, but surface structure smaller than the cutoff length was mainly depended on the conformation of nanodroplets. - Highlights: • The growth of ordered nanodroplets in PEMs was characterized by the GISAXS technique. • The basic transmission units for structure propagation within PEMs were nanodroplets. • High-performance of wave-guiding devices prepared by PEMs was predicted.

  10. Optical microscope using an interferometric source of two-color, two-beam entangled photons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dress, William B.; Kisner, Roger A.; Richards, Roger K.

    2004-07-13

    Systems and methods are described for an optical microscope using an interferometric source of multi-color, multi-beam entangled photons. A method includes: downconverting a beam of coherent energy to provide a beam of multi-color entangled photons; converging two spatially resolved portions of the beam of multi-color entangled photons into a converged multi-color entangled photon beam; transforming at least a portion of the converged multi-color entangled photon beam by interaction with a sample to generate an entangled photon specimen beam; and combining the entangled photon specimen beam with an entangled photon reference beam within a single beamsplitter. An apparatus includes: a multi-refringent device providing a beam of multi-color entangled photons; a condenser device optically coupled to the multi-refringent device, the condenser device converging two spatially resolved portions of the beam of multi-color entangled photons into a converged multi-color entangled photon beam; a beam probe director and specimen assembly optically coupled to the condenser device; and a beam splitter optically coupled to the beam probe director and specimen assembly, the beam splitter combining an entangled photon specimen beam from the beam probe director and specimen assembly with an entangled photon reference beam.

  11. Cone penetrometer fiber optic raman spectroscopy probe assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyle, Kevin R.; Brown, Steven B.

    2000-01-01

    A chemically and mechanically robust optical Raman spectroscopy probe assembly that can be incorporated in a cone penetrometer (CPT) for subsurface deployment. This assembly consists of an optical Raman probe and a penetrometer compatible optical probe housing. The probe is intended for in-situ chemical analysis of chemical constituents in the surrounding environment. The probe is optically linked via fiber optics to the light source and the detection system at the surface. A built-in broadband light source provides a strobe method for direct measurement of sample optical density. A mechanically stable sapphire window is sealed directly into the side-wall of the housing using a metallic, chemically resistant, hermetic seal design. This window permits transmission of the interrogation light beam and the resultant signal. The spectroscopy probe assembly is capable of accepting Raman, Laser induced Fluorescence, reflectance, and other optical probes with collimated output for CPT deployment.

  12. Single molecule mapping of the optical field distribution of probes for near-field microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veerman, J.A.; Garcia Parajo, M.F.; Kuipers, L.; van Hulst, N.F.

    1999-01-01

    The most difficult task in near-field scanning optical microscopy (NSOM) is to make a high quality subwavelength aperture probe, Recently we have developed high definition NSOM probes by focused ion beam (FIB) milling. These probes have a higher brightness, better polarization characteristics,

  13. Superresolution beams

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ngcobo, S

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available positions of p zeros of intensity distributions on the Gaussian beam, resulting to a generation of TEMp0 beams where there are minimum losses. The LGBs are well-known family of exact orthogonal solutions of free-space paraxial wave equation in cylindrical...

  14. The effect of laser beam size in a zig-zag collimator on transverse ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The effect of size of a cooling laser beam in a zig-zag atomic beam collimator on transverse cooling of a krypton atomic beam is investigated. The simulation results show that discreteness in the interaction between the cooling laser beam and atomic beam, arising due to finite size and incidence angle of the cooling laser ...

  15. Proton-beam writing channel based on an electrostatic accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapin, A. S.; Rebrov, V. A.; Kolin'ko, S. V.; Salivon, V. F.; Ponomarev, A. G.

    2016-09-01

    We have described the structure of the proton-beam writing channel as a continuation of a nuclear scanning microprobe channel. The problem of the accuracy of positioning a probe by constructing a new high-frequency electrostatic scanning system has been solved. Special attention has been paid to designing the probe-forming system and its various configurations have been considered. The probe-forming system that best corresponds to the conditions of the lithographic process has been found based on solving the problem of optimizing proton beam formation. A system for controlling beam scanning using multifunctional module of integrated programmable logic systems has been developed.

  16. Beam diagnostics

    CERN Document Server

    Raich, U

    2008-01-01

    Most beam measurements are based on the electro-magnetic interaction of fields induced by the beam with their environment. Beam current transformers as well as beam position monitors are based on this principle. The signals induced in the sensors must be amplified and shaped before they are converted into numerical values. These values are further treated numerically in order to extract meaningful machine parameter measurements. The lecture introduces the architecture of an instrument and shows where in the treatment chain digital signal analysis can be introduced. Then the use of digital signal processing is presented using tune measurements, orbit and trajectory measurements as well as beam loss detection and longitudinal phase space tomography as examples. The hardware as well as the treatment algorithms and their implementation on Digital Signal Processors (DSPs) or in Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) are presented.

  17. An Evanescent Field Optical Microscope. Scanning probe Microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hulst, N.F.; Segerink, Franciscus B.; Bölger, B.; Bölger, B.; Wickramasinghe, H. Kumar

    1991-01-01

    An Evanescent Field Optical Microscope (EFOM) is presented, which employs frustrated total internal reflection on a highly localized scale by means of a sharp dielectric tip. The coupling of the evanescent field to the sub-micrometer probe as a function of probe-sample distance, angle of incidence

  18. THE ORNL ATOM PROBE

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, M.

    1986-01-01

    The ORNL Atom Probe is a microanalytical tool for studies in materials science. The instrument is a combination of a customized version of the vacuum system of the VG FIM-100 atom probe, an ORNL-designed microcomputer-controlled digital timing system, and a double curved CEMA Imaging Atom Probe detector. The atom probe combines four instruments into one - namely a field ion microscope, an energy compensated time-of-flight mass spectrometer, an imaging atom probe, and a pulsed laser atom probe.

  19. Mobile Game Probes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borup Lynggaard, Aviaja

    2006-01-01

    This paper will examine how probes can be useful for game designers in the preliminary phases of a design process. The work is based upon a case study concerning pervasive mobile phone games where Mobile Game Probes have emerged from the project. The new probes are aimed towards a specific target...... group and the goal is to specify the probes so they will cover the most relevant areas for our project. The Mobile Game Probes generated many interesting results and new issues occurred, since the probes came to be dynamic and favorable for the process in new ways....

  20. Induced focusing and conversion of a Gaussian beam into an elliptic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Among several important findings, the finding that a very week probe beam can be guided and focused when power of both beams are well below their individual threshold for self-focusing, is a noteworthy one. It has been found that induced focusing is not possible for laser beams of any wavelength and beam radius.

  1. Measuring beam losses in the THI project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David, L.; Duneau, P.; Lecorche, E.; Lermine, P.; Lemaitre, E.; Ulrich, M.

    1997-01-01

    The goal of the THI project (High Intensity Transport) is to upgrade the GANIL facilities by increasing the beam by a factor of 15, at least for light ions. This higher intensity is required by the radioactive beam facility SPIRAL starting in September 1997, to generate the new nuclear species in the solid target-source (ISOL method). For the control system, the most important issues are now to tune the accelerators while minimizing the beam losses at each stage of acceleration and when not possible, to have a fast beam loss detection signal. This system is composed of probes which deliver a signal to stop the beam when there's too much intensity lost and when not, a logarithmic value of the beam intensity. These probes are linked to a front end VME crate on the network, and in the control room, on the workstations, a graphical user interface program displays the beam variations using logarithmic scales. This program is also used to center the beam while injecting in or ejecting from the main cyclotrons by tuning the steerers, the magnetic elements inside, and the electrostatic deflector to be able to separate and extract the last beam turn. (author)

  2. Study of probe-sample distance for biomedical spectra measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Lei

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fiber-based optical spectroscopy has been widely used for biomedical applications. However, the effect of probe-sample distance on the collection efficiency has not been well investigated. Method In this paper, we presented a theoretical model to maximize the illumination and collection efficiency in designing fiber optic probes for biomedical spectra measurement. This model was in general applicable to probes with single or multiple fibers at an arbitrary incident angle. In order to demonstrate the theory, a fluorescence spectrometer was used to measure the fluorescence of human finger skin at various probe-sample distances. The fluorescence spectrum and the total fluorescence intensity were recorded. Results The theoretical results show that for single fiber probes, contact measurement always provides the best results. While for multi-fiber probes, there is an optimal probe distance. When a 400- μm excitation fiber is used to deliver the light to the skin and another six 400- μm fibers surrounding the excitation fiber are used to collect the fluorescence signal, the experimental results show that human finger skin has very strong fluorescence between 475 nm and 700 nm under 450 nm excitation. The fluorescence intensity is heavily dependent on the probe-sample distance and there is an optimal probe distance. Conclusions We investigated a number of probe-sample configurations and found that contact measurement could be the primary choice for single-fiber probes, but was very inefficient for multi-fiber probes. There was an optimal probe-sample distance for multi-fiber probes. By carefully choosing the probe-sample distance, the collection efficiency could be enhanced by 5-10 times. Our experiments demonstrated that the experimental results of the probe-sample distance dependence of collection efficiency in multi-fiber probes were in general agreement with our theory.

  3. Fragmentation in Carbon Therapy Beams

    CERN Document Server

    Charara, Y M

    2010-01-01

    The state of the art Monte Carlo code HETC-HEDS was used to simulate spallation products, secondary neutron, and secondary proton production in A-150 Tissue Equivalent Plastic phantoms to investigate fragmentation of carbon therapy beams. For a 356 MeV/Nucleon carbon ion beam, production of charged particles heavier than protons was 0.24 spallation products per incident carbon ion with atomic numbers ranging from 1 through 5 (hydrogen to boron). In addition, there were 4.73 neutrons and 2.95 protons produced per incident carbon ion. Furthermore, as the incident energy increases, the neutron production rate increases at a rate of 20% per 10 MeV/nucleon. Secondary protons were created at a rate between 2.62-2.87 per carbon ion, while spallation products were created at a rate between 0.20-0.24 per carbon ion.

  4. Molecular beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramsey, N.F.

    1985-01-01

    This book is a timeless and rather complete theoretical and experimental treatment of electric and magnetic resonance molecular-beam experiments for studying the radio frequency spectra of atoms and molecules. The theory of interactions of the nucleus with atomic and molecular fields is extensively presented. Measurements of atomic and nuclear magnetic moments, electric multipole moments, and atomic fine and hyperfine structure are detailed. Useful but somewhat outdated chapters on gas kinetics, molecular beam design, and experimental techniques are also included

  5. High precision electron beam diagnostic system for high current long pulse beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Y J; Fessenden, T; Holmes, C; Nelson, S D; Selchow, N.

    1999-01-01

    As part of the effort to develop a multi-axis electron beam transport system using stripline kicker technology for DARHT II applications, it is necessary to precisely determine the position and extent of long high energy beams (6-40 MeV, 1-4 kA, 2 microseconds) for accurate position control. The kicker positioning system utilizes shot-to-shot adjustments for reduction of relatively slow (<20 MHz) motion of the beam centroid. The electron beams passing through the diagnostic systems have the potential for large halo effects that tend to corrupt measurements performed using capacitive pick-off probes. Likewise, transmission line traveling wave probes have problems with multi-bounce effects due to these longer pulse widths. Finally, the high energy densities experienced in these applications distort typical foil beam position measurements

  6. Beam transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    Considerable experience has now been gained with the various beam transport lines, and a number of minor changes have been made to improve the ease of operation. These include: replacement of certain little-used slits by profile monitors (harps or scanners); relocation of steering magnets, closer to diagnostic harps or profile scanners; installation of a scanner inside the isocentric neutron therapy system; and conversion of a 2-doublet quadrupole telescope (on the neutron therapy beamline) to a 2-triplet telescope. The beam-swinger project has been delayed by very late delivery of the magnet iron to the manufacturer, but is now progressing smoothly. The K=600 spectrometer magnets have now been delivered and are being assembled for field mapping. The x,y-table with its associated mapping equipment is complete, together with the driver software. One of the experimental areas has been dedicated to the production of collimated neutron beams and has been equipped with a bending magnet and beam dump, together with steel collimators fixed at 4 degrees intervals from 0 degrees to 16 degrees. Changes to the target cooling and shielding system for isotope production have led to a request for much smaller beam spot sizes on target, and preparations have been made for rearrangement of the isotope beamline to permit installation of quadrupole triplets on the three beamlines after the switching magnet. A practical system of quadrupoles for matching beam properties to the spectrometer has been designed. 6 figs

  7. A pencil beam algorithm for helium ion beam therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Hermann; Strobele, Julia; Schreiner, Thomas; Hirtl, Albert; Georg, Dietmar

    2012-11-01

    To develop a flexible pencil beam algorithm for helium ion beam therapy. Dose distributions were calculated using the newly developed pencil beam algorithm and validated using Monte Carlo (MC) methods. The algorithm was based on the established theory of fluence weighted elemental pencil beam (PB) kernels. Using a new real-time splitting approach, a minimization routine selects the optimal shape for each sub-beam. Dose depositions along the beam path were determined using a look-up table (LUT). Data for LUT generation were derived from MC simulations in water using GATE 6.1. For materials other than water, dose depositions were calculated by the algorithm using water-equivalent depth scaling. Lateral beam spreading caused by multiple scattering has been accounted for by implementing a non-local scattering formula developed by Gottschalk. A new nuclear correction was modelled using a Voigt function and implemented by a LUT approach. Validation simulations have been performed using a phantom filled with homogeneous materials or heterogeneous slabs of up to 3 cm. The beams were incident perpendicular to the phantoms surface with initial particle energies ranging from 50 to 250 MeV/A with a total number of 10(7) ions per beam. For comparison a special evaluation software was developed calculating the gamma indices for dose distributions. In homogeneous phantoms, maximum range deviations between PB and MC of less than 1.1% and differences in the width of the distal energy fall off of the Bragg-Peak from 80% to 20% of less than 0.1 mm were found. Heterogeneous phantoms using layered slabs satisfied a γ-index criterion of 2%/2mm of the local value except for some single voxels. For more complex phantoms using laterally arranged bone-air slabs, the γ-index criterion was exceeded in some areas giving a maximum γ-index of 1.75 and 4.9% of the voxels showed γ-index values larger than one. The calculation precision of the presented algorithm was considered to be sufficient

  8. The beam transport system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    The first proton beams have been transported along the transfer beamline and the diagnostic components have thus been used and tested under real operating conditions. The various electronic systems have been linked to the control system and the equipment can now be operated from the control console. The performance of the diagnostic system for the transfer beamline is satisfactory. The beam diagnostic components for the high-energy beamlines up to the isotope production and neutron therapy vaults and the first experimental target rooms have been installed. The high-energy slits have been delivered. The scanner and harp electronics have been installed and linked to their respective components in the beamlines. The pneumatic acuator control electronics has been manufactured, installed and is operational; provision has been made for special control features of the equipment in the therapy beamline. The high-voltage bias supply for the Faraday cups has been implemented. The installation of the beam current measurement system is nearing completion although part of it is already operational. A coaxial relay multiplexer for the capacitive phase probe signals has been manufactured and installed. The diagnostic equipment for the beamlines to isotope production and neutron therapy is thus ready for operation. 4 figs

  9. Doppler-shifted neutral beam line shape and beam transmission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamperschroer, J.H.; Grisham, L.R.; Kokatnur, N.; Lagin, L.J.; Newman, R.A.; O`Connor, T.E.; Stevenson, T.N.; von Halle, A.

    1994-04-01

    Analysis of Doppler-shifted Balmer-{alpha} line emission from the TFTR neutral beam injection systems has revealed that the line shape is well approximated by the sum of two Gaussians, or, alternatively, by a Lorentzian. For the sum of two Gaussians, the broad portion of the distribution contains 40% of the beam power and has a divergence five times that of the narrow part. Assuming a narrow 1/e- divergence of 1.3{degrees} (based on fits to the beam shape on the calorimeter), the broad part has a divergence of 6.9{degrees}. The entire line shape is also well approximated by a Lorentzian with a half-maximum divergence of 0.9{degrees}. Up to now, fusion neutral beam modelers have assumed a single Gaussian velocity distribution, at the extraction plane, in each direction perpendicular to beam propagation. This predicts a beam transmission efficiency from the ion source to the calorimeter of 97%. Waterflow calorimetry data, however, yield a transmission efficiency of {approximately}75%, a value in rough agreement with predictions of the Gaussian or Lorentzian models presented here. The broad wing of the two Gaussian distribution also accurately predicts the loss in the neutralizer. An average angle of incidence for beam loss at the exit of the neutralizer is 2.2{degrees}, rather than the 4.95{degrees} subtended by the center of the ion source. This average angle of incidence, which is used in computing power densities on collimators, is shown to be a function of beam divergence.

  10. Doppler-shifted neutral beam line shape and beam transmission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamperschroer, J.H.; Grisham, L.R.; Kokatnur, N.; Lagin, L.J.; Newman, R.A.; O'Connor, T.E.; Stevenson, T.N.; von Halle, A.

    1994-04-01

    Analysis of Doppler-shifted Balmer-α line emission from the TFTR neutral beam injection systems has revealed that the line shape is well approximated by the sum of two Gaussians, or, alternatively, by a Lorentzian. For the sum of two Gaussians, the broad portion of the distribution contains 40% of the beam power and has a divergence five times that of the narrow part. Assuming a narrow 1/e- divergence of 1.3 degrees (based on fits to the beam shape on the calorimeter), the broad part has a divergence of 6.9 degrees. The entire line shape is also well approximated by a Lorentzian with a half-maximum divergence of 0.9 degrees. Up to now, fusion neutral beam modelers have assumed a single Gaussian velocity distribution, at the extraction plane, in each direction perpendicular to beam propagation. This predicts a beam transmission efficiency from the ion source to the calorimeter of 97%. Waterflow calorimetry data, however, yield a transmission efficiency of ∼75%, a value in rough agreement with predictions of the Gaussian or Lorentzian models presented here. The broad wing of the two Gaussian distribution also accurately predicts the loss in the neutralizer. An average angle of incidence for beam loss at the exit of the neutralizer is 2.2 degrees, rather than the 4.95 degrees subtended by the center of the ion source. This average angle of incidence, which is used in computing power densities on collimators, is shown to be a function of beam divergence

  11. Winding light beams along elliptical helical trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Yuanhui; Chen, Yujie; Zhang, Yanfeng; Chen, Hui; Yu, Siyuan

    2016-07-01

    Conventional caustic methods in real or Fourier space produced accelerating optical beams only with convex trajectories. We developed a superposition caustic method capable of winding light beams along nonconvex trajectories. We ascertain this method by constructing a one-dimensional (1D) accelerating beam moving along a sinusoidal trajectory, and subsequently extending to two-dimensional (2D) accelerating beams along arbitrarily elliptical helical trajectories. We experimentally implemented the method with a compact and robust integrated optics approach by fabricating micro-optical structures on quartz glass plates to perform the spatial phase and amplitude modulation to the incident light, generating beam trajectories highly consistent with prediction. The theoretical and implementation methods can in principle be extended to the construction of accelerating beams with a wide variety of nonconvex trajectories, thereby opening up a route of manipulating light beams for fundamental research and practical applications.

  12. Electrical resistivity probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ki Ha; Becker, Alex; Faybishenko, Boris A.; Solbau, Ray D.

    2003-10-21

    A miniaturized electrical resistivity (ER) probe based on a known current-voltage (I-V) electrode structure, the Wenner array, is designed for local (point) measurement. A pair of voltage measuring electrodes are positioned between a pair of current carrying electrodes. The electrodes are typically about 1 cm long, separated by 1 cm, so the probe is only about 1 inch long. The electrodes are mounted to a rigid tube with electrical wires in the tube and a sand bag may be placed around the electrodes to protect the electrodes. The probes can be positioned in a borehole or on the surface. The electrodes make contact with the surrounding medium. In a dual mode system, individual probes of a plurality of spaced probes can be used to measure local resistance, i.e. point measurements, but the system can select different probes to make interval measurements between probes and between boreholes.

  13. Experimental study and theoretical modeling of bidimensional beam fanning: application to DPCM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mailhan, C.; Goetz, M.; Fressengeas, N.; Kugel, G.

    2001-10-01

    Features like efficiency and stability of the double phase conjugate mirror (DPCM) in BaTiO 3 obviously depend on the beam fanning (BF) experienced by each incident beam. We propose here a new approach to DPCM optimization which consists in studying the BF phenomenon for each interacting beam. This allows one to choose the best angular configuration of the incident beams in DPCM. The investigation is experimental, by recording the fanning patterns, and also theoretical, by interpreting numerically these patterns on the basis of the coupling gain maximization in the two-wave mixing theory. We focus on the influence of the incident beam width and incidence angle.

  14. Intense non-relativistic cesium ion beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lampel, M.C.

    1984-02-01

    The Heavy Ion Fusion group at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory has constructed the One Ampere Cesium Injector as a proof of principle source to supply an induction linac with a high charge density and high brightness ion beam. This is studied here. An electron beam probe was developed as the major diagnostic tool for characterizing ion beam space charge. Electron beam probe data inversion is accomplished with the EBEAM code and a parametrically adjusted model radial charge distribution. The longitudinal charge distribution was not derived, although it is possible to do so. The radial charge distribution that is derived reveals an unexpected halo of trapped electrons surrounding the ion beam. A charge fluid theory of the effect of finite electron temperature on the focusing of neutralized ion beams (Nucl. Fus. 21, 529 (1981)) is applied to the problem of the Cesium beam final focus at the end of the injector. It is shown that the theory's predictions and assumptions are consistent with the experimental data, and that it accounts for the observed ion beam radius of approx. 5 cm, and the electron halo, including the determination of an electron Debye length of approx. 10 cm

  15. Muon Beam Studies in the H4 beam line and the Gamma Irradiation Facility (GIF++)

    CERN Document Server

    Margraf, Rachel; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2018-01-01

    In this note, we present detailed simulation results for the trajectory of a muon beam, traversing beam zones PPE-134 and PPE-154, produced by a 150 GeV positive hadron beam incident on collimators 9 & 10 in the H4 beam line when these collimators are placed off-beam axis to stop all hadrons and electrons. Using G4Beamline, a GEANT-4 based Monte-Carlo program, the trajectory of the muon beam has been studied for several field strengths of the GOLIATH magnet, as well as for different polarities. The position of the beam at the Gamma Irradiation Facility (GIF++), located downstream the PPE-144 area, is also presented. In addition, two configurations of the two XTDV’s present in the line (XTDV.022.520 and XTDV.022.610) have been studied, with the purpose to simulate the pion contamination of the beam both in PPE134 and GIF++.

  16. Particle reflection and TFTR neutral beam diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamperschroer, J.H.; Grisham, L.R.; Kugel, H.W.; O'Connor, T.E.; Newman, R.A.; Stevenson, T.N.; von Halle, A.; Williams, M.D.

    1992-04-01

    Determination of two critical neutral beam parameters, power and divergence, are affected by the reflection of a fraction of the incident energy from the surface of the measuring calorimeter. On the TFTR Neutral Beam Test Stand, greater than 30% of the incident power directed at the target chamber calorimeter was unaccounted for. Most of this loss is believed due to reflection from the surface of the flat calorimeter, which was struck at a near grazing incidence (12 degrees). Beamline calorimeters, of a ''V''-shape design, while retaining the beam power, also suffer from reflection effects. Reflection, in this latter case, artificially peaks the power toward the apex of the ''V'', complicating the fitting technique, and increasing the power density on axis by 10 to 20%; an effect of import to future beamline designers. Agreement is found between measured and expected divergence values, even with 24% of the incident energy reflected

  17. Particle reflection and TFTR neutral beam diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamperschroer, J.H.; Grisham, L.R.; Kugel, H.W.; O`Connor, T.E.; Newman, R.A.; Stevenson, T.N.; von Halle, A.; Williams, M.D.

    1992-04-01

    Determination of two critical neutral beam parameters, power and divergence, are affected by the reflection of a fraction of the incident energy from the surface of the measuring calorimeter. On the TFTR Neutral Beam Test Stand, greater than 30% of the incident power directed at the target chamber calorimeter was unaccounted for. Most of this loss is believed due to reflection from the surface of the flat calorimeter, which was struck at a near grazing incidence (12{degrees}). Beamline calorimeters, of a ``V``-shape design, while retaining the beam power, also suffer from reflection effects. Reflection, in this latter case, artificially peaks the power toward the apex of the ``V``, complicating the fitting technique, and increasing the power density on axis by 10 to 20%; an effect of import to future beamline designers. Agreement is found between measured and expected divergence values, even with 24% of the incident energy reflected.

  18. Particle reflection and TFTR neutral beam diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamperschroer, J.H.; Grisham, L.R.; Kugel, H.W.; O' Connor, T.E.; Newman, R.A.; Stevenson, T.N.; von Halle, A.; Williams, M.D.

    1992-04-01

    Determination of two critical neutral beam parameters, power and divergence, are affected by the reflection of a fraction of the incident energy from the surface of the measuring calorimeter. On the TFTR Neutral Beam Test Stand, greater than 30% of the incident power directed at the target chamber calorimeter was unaccounted for. Most of this loss is believed due to reflection from the surface of the flat calorimeter, which was struck at a near grazing incidence (12{degrees}). Beamline calorimeters, of a V''-shape design, while retaining the beam power, also suffer from reflection effects. Reflection, in this latter case, artificially peaks the power toward the apex of the V'', complicating the fitting technique, and increasing the power density on axis by 10 to 20%; an effect of import to future beamline designers. Agreement is found between measured and expected divergence values, even with 24% of the incident energy reflected.

  19. Design - manufacturing and characterization of specific ultrasonic probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petit, J.

    1985-01-01

    Optimization of ultrasonic examinations requires essentially to determine precisely parameters used for manufacturing of probes and to check characteristics of beams used. The system presented permits an automatic determination of dimensions of beams in conditions which are totally representative of those of their use. In the field of ultrasonic examinations a good estimate or knowledge of sound beams is of great help to solve difficult examination problems. The FRAMATOME's Centre d'Etude et de Recherche en Essais Non Destructifs (CEREND) : (Study and Research Center in Non-Destructive Testing) has developed and elaborated various techniques in order to improve ultrasonic examinations with specific probes. These techniques concern design, manufacturing and characterization of these probes

  20. Quantum beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uesaka, Mitsuru

    2003-01-01

    Present state and future prospect are described on quantum beams for medical use. Efforts for compactness of linac for advanced cancer therapy have brought about the production of machines like Accuray's CyberKnife and TOMOTHERAPY (Tomo Therapy Inc.) where the acceleration frequency of X-band (9-11 GHz) is used. For cervical vein angiography by the X-band linac, a compact hard X-ray source is developed which is based on the (reverse) Compton scattering through laser-electron collision. More intense beam and laser are necessary at present. A compact machine generating the particle beam of 10 MeV-1 GeV (laser-plasma accelerator) for cancer therapy is also developed using the recent compression technique (chirped-pulse amplification) to generate laser of >10 TW. Tokyo University is studying for the electron beam with energy of GeV order, for the laser-based synchrotron X-ray, and for imaging by the short pulse ion beam. Development of advanced compact accelerators is globally attempted. In Japan, a virtual laboratory by National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS), a working group of universities and research facilities through the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, started in 2001 for practical manufacturing of the above-mentioned machines for cancer therapy and for angiography. Virtual Factory (Inc.), a business venture, is to be stood in future. (N.I.)

  1. A Southern African positron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Britton, D.T.; Haerting, M.; Teemane, M.R.B.; Mills, S.; Nortier, F.M.; Van der Walt, T.N.

    1997-01-01

    The first stage of a state of the art positron beam, being constructed at the University of Cape Town, is currently being brought into operation. This is the first positron beam on the African continent, as well as being the first positron beam dedicated to solid and surface studies in the southern hemisphere. The project also contains a high proportion of local development, including the encapsulated 22 Na positron source developed by our collaboration. Novel features in the design include a purely magnetic in-line deflector, working in the solenoidal guiding field, to eliminate unmoderated positrons and block the direct line of sight to the source. A combined magnetic projector and single pole probe forming lens is being implemented in the second phase of construction to achieve a spot size of 10 μm without remoderation

  2. Current density monitor for intense relativistic electron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiorito, R.B.; Raleigh, M.; Seltzer, S.M.

    1986-01-01

    We describe a new type of electric probe which is capable of measuring the time-resolved current density profile of a stable, reproducible, high-energy (>4-MeV) high-current (>1-kA) electron beam. The sensing element of this probe is an open-ended but capped-off 50-Ω coaxial line constructed of graphite. The graphite sensor is 4.3 mm in diameter, 6 cm long, and is range thin to the primary beam electrons. The probe produces a signal proportional to the intercepted beam current. When the sensor is scanned radially through the beam during repeated pulses, a curve of signal versus depth of insertion is produced from which the radial current density profile can be determined. Measurements are presented of the profile of the electron beam from the Experimental Test Accelerator (4.5 MeV, 10 kA) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Good agreement is shown between measurements made with this probe and the beam radius as predicted by transport codes. The advantage of the electric probe lies in its ruggedness, simplicity, inherent fast rise time, and low cost. In contrast to other systems it requires no radiation shielding, water cooling, or auxiliary support equipment to operate in an intense beam environment

  3. BEAM-BEAM SIMULATIONS FOR DOUBLE-GAUSSIAN BEAMS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MONTAG, C.; MALITSKY, N.; BEN-ZVI, I.; LITVINENKO, V.

    2005-05-16

    Electron cooling together with intra-beam scattering results in a transverse distribution that can best be described by a sum of two gaussians, one for the high-density core and one for the tails of the distribution. Simulation studies are being performed to understand the beam-beam interaction of these double-gaussian beams. Here we report the effect of low-frequency random tune modulations on diffusion in double-gaussian beams and compare the effects to those in beam-beam interactions with regular gaussian beams and identical tune shift parameters.

  4. BEAM-BEAM SIMULATIONS FOR DOUBLE-GAUSSIAN BEAMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MONTAG, C.; MALITSKY, N.; BEN-ZVI, I.; LITVINENKO, V.

    2005-01-01

    Electron cooling together with intra-beam scattering results in a transverse distribution that can best be described by a sum of two gaussians, one for the high-density core and one for the tails of the distribution. Simulation studies are being performed to understand the beam-beam interaction of these double-gaussian beams. Here we report the effect of loW--frequency random tune modulations on diffusion in double-gaussian beams and compare the effects to those in beam-beam interactions with regular gaussian beams and identical tune shift parameters

  5. Beam-Beam Simulations for Double-Gaussian Beams

    CERN Document Server

    Montag, Christoph; Litvinenko, Vladimir N; Malitsky, Nikolay

    2005-01-01

    Electron cooling together with intra-beam scattering results in a transverse distribution that can best be described by a sum of two Gaussians, one for the high-density core and one for the tails of the distribution. Simulation studies are being performed to understand the beam-beam interaction of these double-Gaussian beams. Here we report the effect of low-frequency random tune modulations on diffusion in double-Gaussian beams and compare the effects to those in beam-beam interactions with regular Gaussian beams and identical tuneshift parameters.

  6. High temperature probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swan, Raymond A.

    1994-01-01

    A high temperature probe for sampling, for example, smokestack fumes, and is able to withstand temperatures of 3000.degree. F. The probe is constructed so as to prevent leakage via the seal by placing the seal inside the water jacket whereby the seal is not exposed to high temperature, which destroys the seal. The sample inlet of the probe is also provided with cooling fins about the area of the seal to provide additional cooling to prevent the seal from being destroyed. Also, a heated jacket is provided for maintaining the temperature of the gas being tested as it passes through the probe. The probe includes pressure sensing means for determining the flow velocity of an efficient being sampled. In addition, thermocouples are located in various places on the probe to monitor the temperature of the gas passing there through.

  7. Microneurosurgical water probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogády, P; Wurm, G

    2005-04-01

    When constructing the micro-neurosurgical water ball probe, the authors have simply combined the properties of a ball probe with an irrigational function and the supportive role of water current to form a new irrigating ball dissector. The micro-instrument has an outlet mechanism with which the surgeon can regulate the flow of physiological solution into the operational field. Its point has the properties of a ball probe, and the overall bayonet shape facilitates surgical interventions in deep tissues under microscopic control. The water probe therefore enables the surgeon to perform precise mechanical preparation supported by a regulated current of water and a targeted irrigation in the operational field. The physiological solution in the pressure infusion cuff is under minimal pressure and directly connected to the probe. Due to the fact that one device can be used for various purposes the water ball probe represents an advantageous alternative to conventional micro-neurosurgical preparation.

  8. Dependence of extinction cross-section on incident polarization state and particle orientation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Ping; Wendisch, Manfred; Bi Lei; Kattawar, George; Mishchenko, Michael; Hu, Yongxiang

    2011-01-01

    This note reports on the effects of the polarization state of an incident quasi-monochromatic parallel beam of radiation and the orientation of a hexagonal ice particle with respect to the incident direction on the extinction process. When the incident beam is aligned with the six-fold rotational symmetry axis, the extinction is independent of the polarization state of the incident light. For other orientations, the extinction cross-section for linearly polarized light can be either larger or smaller than its counterpart for an unpolarized incident beam. Therefore, the attenuation of a quasi-monochromatic radiation beam by an ice cloud depends on the polarization state of the beam if ice crystals within the cloud are not randomly oriented. Furthermore, a case study of the extinction of light by a quartz particle is also presented to illustrate the dependence of the extinction cross-section on the polarization state of the incident light.

  9. The Gravity Probe B Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolodziejczak, Jeffrey

    2008-01-01

    This presentation briefly describes the Gravity Probe B (GP-B) Experiment which is designed to measure parts of Einstein's general theory of relativity by monitoring gyroscope orientation relative to a distant guide star. To measure the miniscule angles predicted by Einstein's theory, it was necessary to build near-perfect gyroscopes that were approximately 50 million times more precise than the best navigational gyroscopes. A telescope mounted along the central axis of the dewar and spacecraft provided the experiment's pointing reference to a guide star. The telescope's image divide precisely split the star's beam into x-axis and y-axis components whose brightness could be compared. GP-B's 650-gallon dewar, kept the science instrument inside the probe at a cryogenic temperature for 17.3 months and also provided the thruster propellant for precision attitude and translation control. Built around the dewar, the GP-B spacecraft was a total-integrated system, comprising both the space vehicle and payload, dedicated as a single entity to experimentally testing predictions of Einstein's theory.

  10. A beam energy measurement system at NIRS-930 cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hojo, S.; Honma, T.; Sakamoto, Y.; Miyahara, N.; Okada, T.; Komatsu, K.; Tsuji, N.; Yamada, S.

    2005-01-01

    A beam energy measurement system employing a set of capacitive probes has been developed at NIRS-930 cyclotron. Principle of the measurement is applying a modified-TOF method, so that the two proves are installed at one of the straight section in the beam transport line. Usually they are separated about 5.8 m, which is equivalent to the almost final path length of the beam extracted in the cyclotron. In the measurement, two beam signals are superimposed by adjusting a position of the downstream-probe along the beam direction with watching an oscilloscope screen roughly. In order to determine the beam energy accurately the signals are processed by MCA with suitable electric module. (author)

  11. A prototype cavity beam position monitor for the CLIC Main Beam

    CERN Document Server

    Cullinany , F; Joshi, N; Lyapin, A; Bastard, D; Calvo, E; Chritin, N; Guillot-Vignot, F; Lefevre, T; Søby, L; Wendt, M; Lunin, A; Yakovlev, V P; Smith, S

    2012-01-01

    The Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) places unprecedented demands on its diagnostics systems. A large number of cavity beam position monitors (BPMs) throughout the main linac and beam delivery system (BDS) must routinely perform with 50 nm spatial resolution. Multiple position measurements within a single 156 ns bunch train are also required. A prototype low-Q cavity beam position monitor has been designed and built to be tested on the CLIC Test Facility (CTF3) probe beam. This paper presents the latest measurements of the prototype cavity BPM and the design and simulation of the radio frequency (RF) signal processing electronics with regards to the final performance. Installation of the BPM in the CTF3 probe beamline is also discussed.

  12. Active beam spectroscopy for ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Von Hellermann, M.; Giroud, C.; Jaspers, R.; Hawkes, N.C.; Mullane, M.O.; Zastrow, K.D.; Krasilnikov, A.; Tugarinov, S.; Lotte, P.; Malaquias, A.; Rachlew, E.

    2003-01-01

    The latest status of 'Active Beam' related spectroscopy aspects as part of the ITER diagnostic scenario is presented. A key issue of the proposed scheme is based on the concept that in order to achieve the ultimate goal of global data consistency, all particles involved, that is, intrinsic and seeded impurity ions as well as helium ash ions and bulk plasma ions and also the plasma background data (e.g. magnetic and electric fields, electron density and temperature profiles) need to be addressed. A further sensible step in this direction is the decision of exploiting both a dedicated low-energy, low-power diagnostic beam (DNB, 2.2 MW 100 keV/amu) as well as the high-power, high-energy heating beams (HNB, 17 MW 500 keV/amu) for maximum diagnostic information. The authors report some new aspects referring to the use of DNB for motional Stark effect (MSE) where the main idea is to treat both beams (HNB and DNB) as potential diagnostic tools with complementary roles. The equatorial ports for the DNB promise excellent spatial resolution, however, the angles are less favourable for a polarimetric MSE exploitation. HNB can be used as probe beam for diagnosing slowing-down fusion alpha with a birth energy of 3,5 MeV

  13. Probe tests microweld strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    1965-01-01

    Probe is developed to test strength of soldered, brazed or microwelded joints. It consists of a spring which may be adjusted to the desired test pressure by means of a threaded probe head, and an indicator lamp. Device may be used for electronic equipment testing.

  14. Plane waves as tractor beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forgács, Péter; Lukács, Árpád; Romańczukiewicz, Tomasz

    2013-12-01

    It is shown that in a large class of systems, plane waves act as tractor beams: i.e., an incident plane wave can exert a pulling force on the scatterer. The underlying physical mechanism for the pulling force is due to the sufficiently strong scattering of the incoming wave into another mode carrying more momentum, in which case excess momentum is created behind the scatterer. This tractor beam or negative radiation pressure (NRP) effect, is found to be generic in systems with multiple scattering channels. In a birefringent medium, electromagnetic plane waves incident on a thin plate exert NRP of the same order of magnitude as optical radiation pressure, while in artificial dielectrics (metamaterials), the magnitude of NRP can even be macroscopic. In two dimensions, we study various scattering situations on vortices, and NRP is shown to occur by the scattering of heavy baryons into light leptons off cosmic strings, and by neutron scattering off vortices in the XY model.

  15. Probe method of measuring the electron energy distribution in plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amemiya, Hiroshi

    1984-01-01

    The function for the velocity distribution of electrons in plasma in a basic function associated with various phenomena. The probe method gives the distribution by a simple technique to insert a micro-electrode into plasma, and has good spatial resolution. It is specifically useful for weakly ionized, low temperature plasma. The purpose of this paper is to assist experimenters so that they can easily use this method for various phenomena by starting at its basic principle and explaining the scope of application and actual measuring techniques. The scope of application is considered by dividing it into the problems of sheath thickness, collision effect, the energy distribution of beam, the influence of probe end, probe surface phenomenon, magnetized plasma, the measurement of high energy tail, etc. For sheath thickness, it is accepted if the difference between sheath radius and probe radius is shorter than mean free path, and this is a measure for the application limit. The probe method is applicable as far as the beam density is far smaller than plasma density, and the symmetry of positive ion sheath is not disturbed. The surface area of a counter electrode should be 10 4 .Rc/lambda times or more of the probe surface area, where Rc is the radius of a counter electrode. The differentiation method of the probe characteristics includes A.C. method, high speed sweep measurement or digital method, and some applications are described. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  16. Beam transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The beam diagnostic components for both the transfer and the high-energy beamlines perform well except for some of the scanners whose noise pick-up has become a problem, especially at low beam intensities. This noise pick-up is primarily due to deterioration of the bearings in the scanner. At some locations in the high-energy beamlines, scanners were replaced by harps as the scanners proved to be practically useless for the low-intensity beams required in the experimental areas. The slits in the low-energy beamline, which are not water-cooled, have to be repaired at regular intervals because of vacuum leaks. Overheating causes the ceramic feedthroughs to deteriorate resulting in the vacuum leaks. Water-cooled slits have been ordered to replace the existing slits which will later be used in the beamlines associated with the second injector cyclotron SPC2. The current-measurement system will be slightly modified and should then be much more reliable. 3 figs

  17. Closed form formula for Mie scattering of nonparaxial analogues of Gaussian beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Nicole J; Alonso, Miguel A

    2008-04-14

    A closed form formula is found for the Mie scattering coefficients of incident complex focus beams (which are a nonparaxial generalization of Gaussian beams) with any numerical aperture. This formula takes the compact form of multipoles evaluated at a single complex point. Included are the cases of incident scalar fields as well as electromagnetic fields with many polarizations, such as linear, circular, azimuthal and radial. Examples of incident radially and azimuthally polarized beams are presented.

  18. Ion beam sputter deposition of Ag films: Influence of process parameters on electrical and optical properties, and average grain sizes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bundesmann, C.; Feder, R.; Gerlach, J.W.; Neumann, H.

    2014-01-01

    Ion beam sputter deposition is used to grow several sets of Ag films under systematic variation of ion beam parameters, such as ion species and ion energy, and geometrical parameters, such as ion incidence angle and polar emission angle. The films are characterized concerning their thickness by profilometry, their electrical properties by 4-point-probe-measurements, their optical properties by spectroscopic ellipsometry, and their average grain sizes by X-ray diffraction. Systematic influences of the growth parameters on film properties are revealed. The film thicknesses show a cosine-like angular distribution. The electrical resistivity increases for all sets with increasing emission angle and is found to be considerably smaller for Ag films grown by sputtering with Xe ions than for the Ag films grown by sputtering with Ar ions. Increasing the ion energy or the ion incidence angle also increases the electrical resistivity. The optical properties, which are the result of free charge carrier absorption, follow the same trends. The observed trends can be partly assigned to changes in the average grain size, which are tentatively attributed to different energetic and angular distributions of the sputtered and back-scattered particles. - Highlights: • Ion beam sputter deposition under systematic variation of process parameters. • Film characterization: thickness, electrical, optical and structural properties. • Electrical resistivity changes considerably with ion species and polar emission angle. • Electrical and optical data reveal a strong correlation with grain sizes. • Change of film properties related to changing properties of film-forming particles

  19. Design of cantilever probes for Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Niels Leergaard

    2000-01-01

    A cantilever beam used in an Atomic Force Microscope is optimized with respect to two different objectives. The first goal is to maximize the first eigenfrequency while keeping the stiffness of the probe constant. The second goal is to maximize the tip angle of the first eigenmode while again...... keeping the stiffness constant. The resulting design of the beam from the latter optimization gives almost the same result as when maximizing the first eigenfrequency. Adding a restriction on the second eigenfrequency result in a significant change of the optimal design. The beam is modelled with 12 DOF...

  20. Molecular beam photoionization and gas-surface scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceyer, S.T.

    1979-09-01

    The energetics of the ethylene ion-molecule reactions was investigated in more detail than previously possible in two body collision experiments by photoionization of the neutral van der Waals ethylene dimer. The stability of the (C 2 H 4 ) + C 2 H 4 ion-molecule collision complex has been determined to be 18.2 +- 0.5 kcal. The highest potential barriers along the reaction coordinate for decomposition of this collision complex into C 4 H 7 + + H and C 3 H 5 + + CH 3 have been determined to be 0 +- 1.5 and 8.7 +- 1.5 kcal. In a similar manner, the energetics of the solvated ethylene dimer ion was investigated by the photoionization of the ethylene trimer. The absolute proton affinity of NH 3 (203.6 +- 1.3 kcal/mole) and the proton solvation energies by more than one NH 3 have been determined by molecular beam photoionization. In addition, the NH 3 + -NH 3 interaction energy (0.79 +- 0.05 eV) was measured by photoionization of the neutral van der Waals dimer. These experiments have shown that photoionization of van der Waals clusters is a very powerful method of determining the energetics of gas phase proton solvation. The scattering of helium atomic beams from a high Miller index platinum surface that exhibits ordered, periodic steps on the atomic scale to probe the effect of atomic steps on the scattering distribution is explored. Rainbow scattering is observed when the step edges are perpendicular to the incident helium atoms. The design, construction and operation of a beam-surface scattering apparatus are described. The first data obtained in this apparatus are presented and the interesting dynamical aspects of the oxidation of D, D 2 and CO are discussed. 75 references

  1. Organo Luminescent semiconductor nanocrystal probes for biological applications and process for making and using such probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Shimon; Bruchez, Jr., Marcel; Alivisatos, Paul

    1999-01-01

    A luminescent semiconductor nanocrystal compound is described which is capable of linking to an affinity molecule. The compound comprises (1) a semiconductor nanocrystal capable of emitting electromagnetic radiation (luminescing) in a narrow wavelength band and/or absorbing energy, and/or scattering or diffracting electromagnetic radiation--when excited by an electromagnetic radiation source (of narrow or broad bandwidth) or a particle beam; and (2) at least one linking agent, having a first portion linked to the semiconductor nanocrystal and a second portion capable of linking to an affinity molecule. The luminescent semiconductor nanocrystal compound is linked to an affinity molecule to form an organo luminescent semiconductor nanocrystal probe capable of bonding with a detectable substance in a material being analyzed, and capable of emitting electromagnetic radiation in a narrow wavelength band and/or absorbing, scattering, or diffracting energy when excited by an electromagnetic radiation source (of narrow or broad bandwidth) or a particle beam. The probe is stable to repeated exposure to light in the presence of oxygen and/or other radicals. Further described is a process for making the luminescent semiconductor nanocrystal compound and for making the organo luminescent semiconductor nanocrystal probe comprising the luminescent semiconductor nanocrystal compound linked to an affinity molecule capable of bonding to a detectable substance. A process is also described for using the probe to determine the presence of a detectable substance in a material.

  2. Behavior of Triple Langmuir Probes in Non-Equilibrium Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polzin, Kurt A.; Ratcliffe, Alicia C.

    2018-01-01

    The triple Langmuir probe is an electrostatic probe in which three probe tips collect current when inserted into a plasma. The triple probe differs from a simple single Langmuir probe in the nature of the voltage applied to the probe tips. In the single probe, a swept voltage is applied to the probe tip to acquire a waveform showing the collected current as a function of applied voltage (I-V curve). In a triple probe three probe tips are electrically coupled to each other with constant voltages applied between each of the tips. The voltages are selected such that they would represent three points on the single Langmuir probe I-V curve. Elimination of the voltage sweep makes it possible to measure time-varying plasma properties in transient plasmas. Under the assumption of a Maxwellian plasma, one can determine the time-varying plasma temperature T(sub e)(t) and number density n(sub e)(t) from the applied voltage levels and the time-histories of the collected currents. In the present paper we examine the theory of triple probe operation, specifically focusing on the assumption of a Maxwellian plasma. Triple probe measurements have been widely employed for a number of pulsed and timevarying plasmas, including pulsed plasma thrusters (PPTs), dense plasma focus devices, plasma flows, and fusion experiments. While the equilibrium assumption may be justified for some applications, it is unlikely that it is fully justifiable for all pulsed and time-varying plasmas or for all times during the pulse of a plasma device. To examine a simple non-equilibrium plasma case, we return to basic governing equations of probe current collection and compute the current to the probes for a distribution function consisting of two Maxwellian distributions with different temperatures (the two-temperature Maxwellian). A variation of this method is also employed, where one of the Maxwellians is offset from zero (in velocity space) to add a suprathermal beam of electrons to the tail of the

  3. Note: Folded optical system for narrow forward looking probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou, Hsuan-Chao; Hah, Dooyoung; Kim, Jeonghwan; Feldman, M.

    2014-01-01

    An optical system is described in which a laser beam makes three passes through a single graded index lens, forming a focus along the optic axis. It has important applications in endoscopic probes, where the forward looking characteristic permits the avoidance of obstacles and the narrow structure makes it minimally invasive

  4. High sensitivity probe absorption technique for time-of-flight ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We report on a phase-sensitive probe absorption technique with high sensitivity, capable of detecting a few hundred ultra-cold atoms in flight in an observation time of a few milliseconds. The large signal-to-noise ratio achieved is sufficient for reliable measurements on low intensity beams of cold atoms. We demonstrate the ...

  5. High sensitivity probe absorption technique for time-of-flight ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. We report on a phase-sensitive probe absorption technique with high sen- sitivity, capable of detecting a few hundred ultra-cold atoms in flight in an observation time of a few milliseconds. The large signal-to-noise ratio achieved is sufficient for reliable measurements on low intensity beams of cold atoms.

  6. Beam divergence scaling in neutral beam injectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmes, A.J.T.

    1976-01-01

    One of the main considerations in the design of neutral beam injectors is to monimize the divergence of the primary ion beam and hence maximize the beam transport and minimize the input of thermal gas. Experimental measurements of the divergence of a cylindrical ion beam are presented and these measurements are used to analyze the major components of ion beam divergence, namely: space charge expansion, gas-ion scattering, emittance and optical aberrations. The implication of these divergence components in the design of a neutral beam injector system is discussed and a method of maximizing the beam current is described for a given area of source plasma

  7. Beam screens for the LHC beam pipes

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    1997-01-01

    Cross-section of LHC prototype beam pipes showing the beam screens. Slits in the screens allow residual gas molecules to be pumped out and become frozen to the walls of the ultra-cold beam pipe. Beam screens like these have been designed to line the beam pipes, absorbing radiation before it can hit the magnets and warm them up, an effect that would greatly reduce the magnetic field and cause serious damage.

  8. Beam geometry selection using sequential beam addition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popple, Richard A; Brezovich, Ivan A; Fiveash, John B

    2014-05-01

    The selection of optimal beam geometry has been of interest since the inception of conformal radiotherapy. The authors report on sequential beam addition, a simple beam geometry selection method, for intensity modulated radiation therapy. The sequential beam addition algorithm (SBA) requires definition of an objective function (score) and a set of candidate beam geometries (pool). In the first iteration, the optimal score is determined for each beam in the pool and the beam with the best score selected. In the next iteration, the optimal score is calculated for each beam remaining in the pool combined with the beam selected in the first iteration, and the best scoring beam is selected. The process is repeated until the desired number of beams is reached. The authors selected three treatment sites, breast, lung, and brain, and determined beam arrangements for up to 11 beams from a pool comprised of 25 equiangular transverse beams. For the brain, arrangements were additionally selected from a pool of 22 noncoplanar beams. Scores were determined for geometries comprised equiangular transverse beams (EQA), as well as two tangential beams for the breast case. In all cases, SBA resulted in scores superior to EQA. The breast case had the strongest dependence on beam geometry, for which only the 7-beam EQA geometry had a score better than the two tangential beams, whereas all SBA geometries with more than two beams were superior. In the lung case, EQA and SBA scores monotonically improved with increasing number of beams; however, SBA required fewer beams to achieve scores equivalent to EQA. For the brain case, SBA with a coplanar pool was equivalent to EQA, while the noncoplanar pool resulted in slightly better scores; however, the dose-volume histograms demonstrated that the differences were not clinically significant. For situations in which beam geometry has a significant effect on the objective function, SBA can identify arrangements equivalent to equiangular

  9. Beam geometry selection using sequential beam addition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popple, Richard A., E-mail: rpopple@uabmc.edu; Brezovich, Ivan A.; Fiveash, John B. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Alabama at Birmingham, 1720 2nd Avenue South, Birmingham, Alabama 35294 (United States)

    2014-05-15

    Purpose: The selection of optimal beam geometry has been of interest since the inception of conformal radiotherapy. The authors report on sequential beam addition, a simple beam geometry selection method, for intensity modulated radiation therapy. Methods: The sequential beam addition algorithm (SBA) requires definition of an objective function (score) and a set of candidate beam geometries (pool). In the first iteration, the optimal score is determined for each beam in the pool and the beam with the best score selected. In the next iteration, the optimal score is calculated for each beam remaining in the pool combined with the beam selected in the first iteration, and the best scoring beam is selected. The process is repeated until the desired number of beams is reached. The authors selected three treatment sites, breast, lung, and brain, and determined beam arrangements for up to 11 beams from a pool comprised of 25 equiangular transverse beams. For the brain, arrangements were additionally selected from a pool of 22 noncoplanar beams. Scores were determined for geometries comprised equiangular transverse beams (EQA), as well as two tangential beams for the breast case. Results: In all cases, SBA resulted in scores superior to EQA. The breast case had the strongest dependence on beam geometry, for which only the 7-beam EQA geometry had a score better than the two tangential beams, whereas all SBA geometries with more than two beams were superior. In the lung case, EQA and SBA scores monotonically improved with increasing number of beams; however, SBA required fewer beams to achieve scores equivalent to EQA. For the brain case, SBA with a coplanar pool was equivalent to EQA, while the noncoplanar pool resulted in slightly better scores; however, the dose-volume histograms demonstrated that the differences were not clinically significant. Conclusions: For situations in which beam geometry has a significant effect on the objective function, SBA can identify

  10. Neutrons as a probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iizumi, Masashi

    1993-01-01

    As an introduction to the symposium a brief overview will be given about the features of neutrons as a probe. First it will be pointed out that the utilization of neutrons as a probe for investigating the structural and dynamical properties of condensed matters is a benign gift eventuated from the release of atomic energy initiated by Enrico Fermi exactly half century ago. Features of neutrons as a probe are discussed in accordance with the four basic physical properties of neutrons as an elementary particle; (1) no electric charge (the interaction with matter is nuclear), (2) the mass of neutron is 1 amu, (3) spin is 1/2 and (4) neutrons have magnetic dipole moment. Overview will be given on the uniqueness of neutrons as a probe and on the variety in the way they are used in the wide research area from the pure science to the industrial applications. (author)

  11. Molecular beam study of dissociative sticking of methane on Ni(100)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmblad, Peter Mikal; Wambach, Jørg; Chorkendorff, Ib

    1995-01-01

    This paper reports a detailed molecular beam study of the dissociative sticking of methane incident on clean Ni(100). It is demonstrated that the sticking coefficient depends strongly on the translational energy of the molecule. It is also observed that an increase in the vibrational energy...... of the methane leads to a dramatic enhancement of the sticking, emphasizing that the initial vibrational state is of crucial importance. These results are consistent with a mechanism of direct activated dissociative chemisorption where the dynamics is dominated by a barrier in the potential energy surface mainly......(Ei), considering only the vibrational C–H stretch modes of methane as relevant for the sticking, gives a good description of the data. These sticking curves enables a calculation of the thermal sticking coefficient which is found to be in excellent agreement with bulb experiments directly probing this. ©1995...

  12. Noninvasive ultrasonic probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, S.R.; Galer, D.R.; Leard, R.S.

    1987-01-01

    An ultrasonic probe is described for insonifying the ascending aorta of a supine or reclining human patient from a location within the suprasternal notch of the patient. The probe comprises: a transducer head and an elongated handle; housing propagates ultrasonic energy and for intercept-frequency-shifted, reflected radiant energy; the handle has a proximate portion and a distal portion and a non-circular cross-sectional configuration with at least one longitudinal edge which furnishes a gripping surface; this facilitates tactile positioning of the probe; the transducer head is integral with the handle of the probe at the exposed end of the proximate portion; the transducer head has a generally arcuate cross-sectional configuration and a generally trapezoidal profile; the transducer head is oriented at right angles to the proximate portion of the handle and has an exposed, patient contacting end in which the transducer means are located; this facilitates the orientation of the transducer means housed in the head relative to the ascending aorta of the patient; and the distal end portion of the elongated probe handle is integral with and immovably oriented at a severe angle relative to the proximate end of that handle, and lies in the same plane as the proximate end of the handle; the transducer head of the probe is placed with facility within the suprasternal notch of the patient by an operator positioned behind the head of the patient

  13. Stable beams

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    Stable beams: two simple words that carry so much meaning at CERN. When LHC page one switched from "squeeze" to "stable beams" at 10.40 a.m. on Wednesday, 3 June, it triggered scenes of jubilation in control rooms around the CERN sites, as the LHC experiments started to record physics data for the first time in 27 months. This is what CERN is here for, and it’s great to be back in business after such a long period of preparation for the next stage in the LHC adventure.   I’ve said it before, but I’ll say it again. This was a great achievement, and testimony to the hard and dedicated work of so many people in the global CERN community. I could start to list the teams that have contributed, but that would be a mistake. Instead, I’d simply like to say that an achievement as impressive as running the LHC – a machine of superlatives in every respect – takes the combined effort and enthusiasm of everyone ...

  14. Optics with an Atom Laser Beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bloch, Immanuel; Koehl, Michael; Greiner, Markus; Haensch, Theodor W.; Esslinger, Tilman

    2001-01-01

    We report on the atom optical manipulation of an atom laser beam. Reflection, focusing, and its storage in a resonator are demonstrated. Precise and versatile mechanical control over an atom laser beam propagating in an inhomogeneous magnetic field is achieved by optically inducing spin flips between atomic ground states with different magnetic moment. The magnetic force acting on the atoms can thereby be effectively switched on and off. The surface of the atom optical element is determined by the resonance condition for the spin flip in the inhomogeneous magnetic field. More than 98% of the incident atom laser beam is reflected specularly

  15. rf beam-current, -phase, and -position monitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, L.

    1984-01-01

    A prototype rf beam monitor has been tested on the Racetrack Microtron's (RTM) 100 kV injector beam line at the National Bureau of Standards (NBS). This beam monitor is capable of measuring the current, the relative phase, and the position of the beam. The beam is bunched at 2380 MHz for acceleration by the linac in the injector beam line. This train of beam bunches passing through the beam monitor cavities excites the cavities at this resonance frequency of 2380 MHz. Probes in the cavities couple some of the beam-excited rf power out of the cavities. This rf power can be amplified if necessary and then analyzed by a double balanced mixer (DBM). The DBM can also be used as a phase detector. The effective shunt impedance of the cavities was measured with the CW beam. For the position monitor cavity, the shunt impedance is proportional to the displacement from the axis. The measured response of the prototype rf beam current monitor setup is a linear function of beam current. Response of the rf beam-position monitor is also shown

  16. Carbon sputtering yield measurements at grazing incidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolasinski, Robert D.; Polk, James E.; Goebel, Dan; Johnson, Lee K.

    2008-01-01

    In this investigation, carbon sputtering yields were measured experimentally at varying angles of incidence under Xe + bombardment. The measurements were obtained by etching a coated quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) with a low energy ion beam. The material properties of the carbon targets were characterized with a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and Raman spectroscopy. C sputtering yields measured under Ar + and Xe + bombardment at normal incidence displayed satisfactory agreement with previously published data over an energy range of 200 eV-1 keV. For Xe + ions, the dependence of the yields on angle of incidence θ was determined for 0 o ≤ θ ≤ 80 deg. Over this range, an increase in C sputtering yield by a factor of 4.8 was observed, with the peak in yield occurring at 70 o . This is a much higher variation compared to Xe + → Mo yields under similar conditions, a difference that may be attributed to higher scattering of the incident particles transverse to the beam direction than in the case of Xe + → C. In addition, the variation of the yields with θ was not strongly energy dependent. Trapping of Xe in the surface was observed, in contrast to observations using the QCM technique with metallic target materials. Finally, target surface roughness was characterized using atomic force microscope measurements to distinguish between the effects of local and overall angle of incidence of the target

  17. Confocal retinal imaging using scanning laser opthalmoscopy with annular beams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vohnsen, Brian; Lochocki, Benjamin; Vela-Garcia, Carmen; Rativa, Diego

    2012-01-01

    The human retina has been imaged in-vivo using scanning laser ophthalmoscopy employing annular incident beams adapted for resolution optimization. The pros and cons of the approach are discussed and the importance of coherence is explored.

  18. Electronic probe microanalyzer. Annual report 1963

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirianenko, Alexis; Maurice, Francoise; Seguin, Remy; Zemskoff, Anne; Adda, Yves

    1964-09-01

    This annual report presents the highlights of the fifth year of operation of the CEA Saclay's electronic probe microanalyzer. It provides a list of the analyses performed during the year with some illustrations and mentions the improvements given to the apparatus and its new analysing possibilities (crystallographic analysis using divergent X beams, 'electronic' image formation with respect to the atomic number). Highlights in the development of this analytical technique are presented as well as a new device designed by R. Castaing: the secondary ion emission microanalyser. A list of all laboratories equipped with the French microanalyser is provided

  19. Transport of a relativistic electron beam through hydrogen gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haan, P. de.

    1981-01-01

    In this thesis the author describes the transport properties of an electron beam through vacuum and through hydrogen gas with pressure ranging from 25 to 1000 Pa. Maximum beam energy and current are 0.8 MeV and 6 kA, respectively. The pulse length is around 150 ns. A description is given of the experimental device. Also the diagnostics for probing the beam and the plasma, produced by the beam, are discussed, as well as the data acquisition system. The interaction between the beam and hydrogen gas with a pressure around 200 Pa is considered. A plasma with density around 10 19 m -3 is produced within a few nanoseconds. Measurements yield the atomic hydrogen temperature, electron density, beam energy loss, and induced plasma current and these are compared with the results of a model combining gas ionization and dissociation, and turbulent plasma heating. The angular distribution of the beam electrons about the magnetic field axis is discussed. (Auth.)

  20. Manipulations of Double Electron Beams within One RF Period for Seeded SM-LWFA Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Zhou, Feng; Cline, David B; Kimura, Wayne D; Yakimenko, Vitaly

    2005-01-01

    Although seeded SM-LWFA only requires one electron beam to initiate the laser wakefield, it would be highly desirable to have a second electron beam traveling after the first one to probe the accelerated electrons. To create and preserve significant amount of wakefield in the STELLA SM-LWFA experiment, the first e-beam needs to be tiny (<40 microns FWHM) in size and short in length within the plasma. To probe the wakefield which is damped within 10 ps for certain plasma density, the separation between the first and second beams needs to be within one RF period and the second e-beam must have smaller energy spread and smaller size. Design of double beams in one RF period to meet the strict requirements and the preliminary beam study at BNL-ATF facility are presented. The scheme of double beams with ATF bunch compressor is also discussed.

  1. MCFRS Incidents by Station

    Data.gov (United States)

    Montgomery County of Maryland — This dataset contains the monthly summary data indicating incident occurred in each fire station response area. The summary data is the incident count broken down by...

  2. Police Incident Reports Written

    Data.gov (United States)

    Town of Chapel Hill, North Carolina — This table contains incident reports filed with the Chapel Hill Police Department. Multiple incidents may have been reported at the same time. The most serious...

  3. Beam-beam effects in the Tevatron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiltsev, V.; Alexahin, Y.; Lebedev, V.; Lebrun, P.; Moore, R.S.; Sen, T.; Tollestrup, A.; Valishev, A.; Zhang, X.L.; /Fermilab

    2005-01-01

    The Tevatron in Collider Run II (2001-present) is operating with 6 times more bunches, many times higher beam intensities and luminosities than in Run I (1992-1995). Electromagnetic long-range and head-on interactions of high intensity proton and antiproton beams have been significant sources of beam loss and lifetime limitations. We present observations of the beam-beam phenomena in the Tevatron and results of relevant beam studies. We analyze the data and various methods employed in operations, predict the performance for planned luminosity upgrades, and discuss ways to improve it.

  4. Crystalline beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schiffer, J.P.

    1989-01-01

    Ions in a storage ring are confined to a mean orbit by focusing elements. To a first approximation these may be described by a constant harmonic restoring force: F = -Kr. If the particles in the frame moving along with the beam have small random thermal energies, then they will occupy a cylindrical volume around the mean orbit and the focusing force will be balanced by that from the mutual repulsion of the particles. Inside the cylinder only residual two-particle interactions will play a significant role and some form of ordering might be expected to take place. The results of some of the first MD calculations showed a surprising result: not only were the particles arranged in the form of a tube, but they formed well-defined layers: concentric shells, with the particles in each shell arranged in a hexagonal lattice that is characteristic of two-dimensional Coulomb systems. This paper discusses the condense layer structure

  5. Dynamics of trapped atoms around an optical nanofiber probed through polarimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solano, Pablo; Fatemi, Fredrik K; Orozco, Luis A; Rolston, S L

    2017-06-15

    The evanescent field outside an optical nanofiber (ONF) can create optical traps for neutral atoms. We present a non-destructive method to characterize such trapping potentials. An off-resonance linearly polarized probe beam that propagates through the ONF experiences a slow axis of polarization produced by trapped atoms on opposite sides along the ONF. The transverse atomic motion is imprinted onto the probe polarization through the changing atomic index of refraction. By applying a transient impulse, we measure a time-dependent polarization rotation of the probe beam that provides both a rapid and non-destructive measurement of the optical trapping frequencies.

  6. Model for resonant plasma probe.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warne, Larry Kevin; Johnson, William Arthur; Hebner, Gregory Albert; Jorgenson, Roy E.; Coats, Rebecca Sue

    2007-04-01

    This report constructs simple circuit models for a hairpin shaped resonant plasma probe. Effects of the plasma sheath region surrounding the wires making up the probe are determined. Electromagnetic simulations of the probe are compared to the circuit model results. The perturbing effects of the disc cavity in which the probe operates are also found.

  7. Incident Information Management Tool

    CERN Document Server

    Pejovic, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    Flaws of\tcurrent incident information management at CMS and CERN\tare discussed. A new data\tmodel for future incident database is\tproposed and briefly described. Recently developed draft version of GIS-­‐based tool for incident tracking is presented.

  8. Convective heat flow probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, James C.; Hardee, Harry C.; Striker, Richard P.

    1985-01-01

    A convective heat flow probe device is provided which measures heat flow and fluid flow magnitude in the formation surrounding a borehole. The probe comprises an elongate housing adapted to be lowered down into the borehole; a plurality of heaters extending along the probe for heating the formation surrounding the borehole; a plurality of temperature sensors arranged around the periphery of the probe for measuring the temperature of the surrounding formation after heating thereof by the heater elements. The temperature sensors and heater elements are mounted in a plurality of separate heater pads which are supported by the housing and which are adapted to be radially expanded into firm engagement with the walls of the borehole. The heat supplied by the heater elements and the temperatures measured by the temperature sensors are monitored and used in providing the desired measurements. The outer peripheral surfaces of the heater pads are configured as segments of a cylinder and form a full cylinder when taken together. A plurality of temperature sensors are located on each pad so as to extend along the length and across the width thereof, with a heating element being located in each pad beneath the temperature sensors. An expansion mechanism driven by a clamping motor provides expansion and retraction of the heater pads and expandable packer-type seals are provided along the probe above and below the heater pads.

  9. Reflection and transmission of normally incident full-vector X waves on planar interfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Salem, Mohamed

    2011-12-23

    The reflection and transmission of full-vector X waves normally incident on planar half-spaces and slabs are studied. For this purpose, X waves are expanded in terms of weighted vector Bessel beams; this new decomposition and reconstruction method offers a more lucid and intuitive interpretation of the physical phenomena observed upon the reflection or transmission of X waves when compared to the conventional plane-wave decomposition technique. Using the Bessel beam expansion approach, we have characterized changes in the field shape and the intensity distribution of the transmitted and reflected full-vector X waves. We have also identified a novel longitudinal shift, which is observed when a full-vector X wave is transmitted through a dielectric slab under frustrated total reflection condition. The results of our studies presented here are valuable in understanding the behavior of full-vector X waves when they are utilized in practical applications in electromagnetics, optics, and photonics, such as trap and tweezer setups, optical lithography, and immaterial probing. © 2011 Optical Society of America.

  10. Transmission X-ray scattering as a probe for complex liquid-surface structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukuto, Masafumi; Yang, Lin; Nykypanchuk, Dmytro; Kuzmenko, Ivan

    2016-01-28

    The need for functional materials calls for increasing complexity in self-assembly systems. As a result, the ability to probe both local structure and heterogeneities, such as phase-coexistence and domain morphologies, has become increasingly important to controlling self-assembly processes, including those at liquid surfaces. The traditional X-ray scattering methods for liquid surfaces, such as specular reflectivity and grazing-incidence diffraction, are not well suited to spatially resolving lateral heterogeneities due to large illuminated footprint. A possible alternative approach is to use scanning transmission X-ray scattering to simultaneously probe local intermolecular structures and heterogeneous domain morphologies on liquid surfaces. To test the feasibility of this approach, transmission small- and wide-angle X-ray scattering (TSAXS/TWAXS) studies of Langmuir films formed on water meniscus against a vertically immersed hydrophilic Si substrate were recently carried out. First-order diffraction rings were observed in TSAXS patterns from a monolayer of hexagonally packed gold nanoparticles and in TWAXS patterns from a monolayer of fluorinated fatty acids, both as a Langmuir monolayer on water meniscus and as a Langmuir–Blodgett monolayer on the substrate. The patterns taken at multiple spots have been analyzed to extract the shape of the meniscus surface and the ordered-monolayer coverage as a function of spot position. These results, together with continual improvement in the brightness and spot size of X-ray beams available at synchrotron facilities, support the possibility of using scanning-probe TSAXS/TWAXS to characterize heterogeneous structures at liquid surfaces.

  11. All-fiber probe for laser-induced thermotherapy with integrated temperature measurement capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y.; Chen, W.; Yu, H.; Gassino, R.; Braglia, A.; Olivero, M.; Perrone, Guido; Vallan, A.

    2015-03-01

    The paper presents our recent results towards the development of a miniaturized all-fiber probe for laser induced thermal ablation of tumor cells, which combines the optimal delivery of a near-infrared high power ablating beam, a low power visible aiming beam and fast Bragg grating (FBG) temperature sensors. Specific combiner and probe end-cap based on dual cladding fibers have been developed to allow the simultaneous handling of the laser beams and of the signal that feeds the temperature sensor. Moreover, a very fast FBG interrogation system has been implemented to track abrupt temperature variations during medical treatment.

  12. Improvements in or relating to electron beam deflection arrangements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bull, E.W.

    1979-01-01

    This relates to the deflection of ribbon-like electron beams in X-ray tubes particularly in radiographic equipment. The X-ray tubes includes a source of a ribbon-shaped beam of electrons relatively narrow in a direction orthogonal to the direction of the beam and relatively wide in a second orthogonal direction. An elongated target projects X-rays about a chosen direction in response to the incident beam. There is a means (toroidal former, deflection coils or plates) for deflecting the electron beam to scan the region of incidence along the target and correction means for changing the shape of the electron beam depending on the deflection so that the region of incidence of the deflected beam remains a linear region substantially parallel to the region of incidence of the undeflected beam. The apparatus for this, and variations, are described. A medical radiography unit (computerise axial tomography) including the X-ray tube described is also detailed. (U.K.)

  13. Nanofabrication of magnetic scanned-probe microscope sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Chong, B K

    2001-01-01

    experiments were carried out under ambient conditions. The experiments required no extra preparation to be done to the specimen before imaging and measurements were carried out under ambient conditions. These probes offer the prospect of direct magnetic field measurement, non- invasiveness, very close proximity, possible local manipulation, better control over the tip- specimen interaction distance and topographic imaging. It is hoped that these magnetic microscope probes will be of great interest and general utility for academic and industrial magneticians. This thesis presents the development of novel magnetic sensor combined with Atomic Force Microscope probe (AFM) using conventional semiconductor processing techniques and Electron Beam Lithography (EBL). The fabrication of these magnetic sensors was performed on a common micromachined silicon substrate using a generic batch fabrication technique. Sub-micron Hall bar for Scanning Hall probe Microscopy (SHPM) and electromagnetic force coil magnet for Scanni...

  14. Experimental validation of a method characterizing bow tie filters in CT scanners using a real-time dose probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKenney, Sarah E.; Nosratieh, Anita; Gelskey, Dale; Yang Kai; Huang Shinying; Chen Lin; Boone, John M.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Beam-shaping or ''bow tie'' (BT) filters are used to spatially modulate the x-ray beam in a CT scanner, but the conventional method of step-and-shoot measurement to characterize a beam's profile is tedious and time-consuming. The theory for characterization of bow tie relative attenuation (COBRA) method, which relies on a real-time dosimeter to address the issues of conventional measurement techniques, was previously demonstrated using computer simulations. In this study, the feasibility of the COBRA theory is further validated experimentally through the employment of a prototype real-time radiation meter and a known BT filter. Methods: The COBRA method consisted of four basic steps: (1) The probe was placed at the edge of a scanner's field of view; (2) a real-time signal train was collected as the scanner's gantry rotated with the x-ray beam on; (3) the signal train, without a BT filter, was modeled using peak values measured in the signal train of step 2; and (4) the relative attenuation of the BT filter was estimated from filtered and unfiltered data sets. The prototype probe was first verified to have an isotropic and linear response to incident x-rays. The COBRA method was then tested on a dedicated breast CT scanner with a custom-designed BT filter and compared to the conventional step-and-shoot characterization of the BT filter. Using basis decomposition of dual energy signal data, the thickness of the filter was estimated and compared to the BT filter's manufacturing specifications. The COBRA method was also demonstrated with a clinical whole body CT scanner using the body BT filter. The relative attenuation was calculated at four discrete x-ray tube potentials and used to estimate the thickness of the BT filter. Results: The prototype probe was found to have a linear and isotropic response to x-rays. The relative attenuation produced from the COBRA method fell within the error of the relative attenuation measured with the step-and-shoot method

  15. Beam halo in high-intensity beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wangler, T.P.

    1993-01-01

    In space-charge dominated beams the nonlinear space-charge forces produce a filamentation pattern, which in projection to the 2-D phase spaces results in a 2-component beam consisting of an inner core and a diffuse outer halo. The beam-halo is of concern for a next generation of cw, high-power proton linacs that could be applied to intense neutron generators for nuclear materials processing. The author describes what has been learned about beam halo and the evolution of space-charge dominated beams using numerical simulations of initial laminar beams in uniform linear focusing channels. Initial results are presented from a study of beam entropy for an intense space-charge dominated beam

  16. Incident spectrum determination for time-of-flight neutron powder diffraction data analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodges, J. P.

    1998-01-01

    Accurate characterization of the incident neutron spectrum is an important requirement for precise Rietveld analysis of time-of-flight powder neutron diffraction data. Without an accurate incident spectrum the calculated model for the measured relative intensities of individual Bragg reflections will possess systematic errors. We describe a method for obtaining an accurate numerical incident spectrum using data from a transmitted beam monitor

  17. Laser Incident Lessons Learned and Action List

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yarotski, Dmitry Anatolievitch [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-02-29

    On Thursday November 19, 2015, LANL postdoc received an eye injury from a reflected, nonvisible laser beam (Class 4, pulsed, wavelength 800 nanometer). The setup is configured to split the laser output into two work areas in which qualified operators conduct research experiments. During this incident, the laser output beam was being projected to both experimental work areas, although only one experimental area was actively being used. The second laser beam directed to the second work area was blocked by an inappropriate device (Plexiglas, reflective, non-normal incidence) that reflected substantial portion of the beam toward the first setup. In preparation for the measurements, worker stepped on the stepstool and decided to remove the laser goggles to better see the micrometer readings which were difficult to see due to insufficient lighting. Immediately, he noticed a flash of light in his eye. The operator quickly replaced the laser eye-wear and then, using an infrared viewer, located a stray laser beam being reflected from the plexiglas beam block. The operator did not think he had sustained any injury and continued working. Later that day, however, he noticed a blurry spot in the vision of his left eye. He notified his supervisor on Friday morning, November 20, 2015, and was taken by CINT management to Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) medical facility for evaluation. SNL Medical did not find any abnormalities, but referred the operator to a local ophthalmologist for further evaluation. Further evaluations by the ophthalmologist on November 21 and November 23 identified a small spot of inflammation near the fovea on the retina in his left eye. The ophthalmologist stated that this spot would most likely heal on its own and that the blurry spot on the operator's vision would go away. A follow-up visit was scheduled. The employee was released back to work without restrictions.

  18. Semi-analytical solution to arbitrarily shaped beam scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenjie; Zhang, Huayong; Sun, Yufa

    2017-07-01

    Based on the field expansions in terms of appropriate spherical vector wave functions and the method of moments scheme, an exact semi-analytical solution to the scattering of an arbitrarily shaped beam is given. For incidence of a Gaussian beam, zero-order Bessel beam and Hertzian electric dipole radiation, numerical results of the normalized differential scattering cross section are presented to a spheroid and a circular cylinder of finite length, and the scattering properties are analyzed concisely.

  19. Photoacoustic imaging probe for detecting lymph nodes and spreading of cancer at various depths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yong-Jae; Jeong, Eun-Ju; Song, Hyun-Woo; Ahn, Chang-Geun; Noh, Hyung Wook; Sim, Joo Yong; Song, Dong Hoon; Jeon, Min Yong; Lee, Susung; Kim, Heewon; Zhang, Meihua; Kim, Bong Kyu

    2017-09-01

    We propose a compact and easy to use photoacoustic imaging (PAI) probe structure using a single strand of optical fiber and a beam combiner doubly reflecting acoustic waves for convenient detection of lymph nodes and cancers. Conventional PAI probes have difficulty detecting lymph nodes just beneath the skin or simultaneously investigating lymph nodes located in shallow as well as deep regions from skin without any supplementary material because the light and acoustic beams are intersecting obliquely in the probe. To overcome the limitations and improve their convenience, we propose a probe structure in which the illuminated light beam axis coincides with the axis of the ultrasound. The developed PAI probe was able to simultaneously achieve a wide range of images positioned from shallow to deep regions without the use of any supplementary material. Moreover, the proposed probe had low transmission losses for the light and acoustic beams. Therefore, the proposed PAI probe will be useful to easily detect lymph nodes and cancers in real clinical fields.

  20. Revealing the radial modes in vortex beams

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Sephton, Bereneice C

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available is neglected in this generation approach. Here, we show that a consequence of this is that vortex beams carry very little energy in the desired zeroth radial order, as little as only a few percent of the incident power. We demonstrate this experimentally...

  1. Relativistic Current Dynamics Investigations By Proton Probing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borghesi, M.; Quinn, K.; Wilson, P. A.; Cecchetti, C. A.; Ramakrishna, B.; Romagnani, L.; Sarri, G.; Lancia, L.; Fuchs, J.; Pipahl, A.; Toncian, T.; Willi, O.; Carroll, D. C.; Gallegos, P.; Quinn, M. N.; Yuan, X. H.; McKenna, P.; Clarke, R. J.; Evans, R. G.; Neely, D.; Notley, M.; Macchi, A.; Lyseikina, T. V.; Nazarov, W.

    2009-07-01

    The proton probing technique has been used to investigate the incidence of a mid-1019 W cm-2 pulse with metallic wire and laminar foam targets. Electric fields ˜1010 Vṡm-1 are measured on the surface of the 125 μm-diameter wire in the wake of the laser interaction as it charges and discharges within a 20 ps temporal window, whilst the employment of a novel experimental technique permits the observation of the propagation of a charging front at ˜c away from the point of interaction. In the foam shots, meanwhile, the behaviour of the hot electrons generated by the interaction pulse is probed inside the target. Evidence of electric inhibition effects and filamentation is found.

  2. EGR distribution and fluctuation probe based on CO2 measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, II, James E.; Partridge, Jr., William P.; Yoo, Ji Hyung

    2015-06-30

    A diagnostic system having a laser, an EGR probe, a detector and a processor. The laser may be a swept-.lamda. laser having a sweep range including a significant CO.sub.2 feature and substantially zero absorption regions. The sweep range may extend from about 2.708 .mu.m to about 2.7085 .mu.m. The processor may determine CO.sub.2 concentration as a function of the detector output signal. The processor may normalize the output signal as a function of the zero absorption regions. The system may include a plurality of EGR probes receiving light from a single laser. The system may include a separate detector for each probe. Alternatively, the system may combine the light returning from the different probes into a composite beam that is measured by a single detector. A unique modulation characteristic may be introduced into each light beam before combination so that the processor can discriminate between them in the composite beam.

  3. Mechanical design control and implementation of a new movable diagnostic probe for the TRIUMF cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ries, T.C.

    1993-11-01

    A new movable probe has been installed into the TRIUMF H - cyclotron. It is intended to measure the distribution of betatron amplitudes, in the vertical plane, of the circulating beam and to scrape halo. The probe, however, may also be scanned in the radial direction. The head may be positioned vertically and horizontally to an accuracy of .002 in. The device is mechanically modular to facilitate fast and easy handling for maintenance in a radioactive area. The beam sensor on the probe head is a 1.25 in. x 3 in. x 0.003 in. tantalum foil and its overall coverage is 3.00 in. X 7.25 in. in a vertical plane orthogonal to, and crossing through the beam orbit plane. Presently its radial centre line location corresponds to a proton beam energy of about 430 MeV at radius 296 in., however, the probe device may be easily relocated to operate from any 4 in. port, and, with an adaptor port flange, may be installed into any port in the cyclotron vacuum tank. A stationary catcher below the probe path collects those electrons stripped from the H - beam and scattered out from the probe head. The probe axis is vertical and the tank aperture is narrow so a worm gear arrangement combined with a modified 'Evans' - parallel linkage mechanism is used to transform vertical rotary motion into horizontal linear motion. The actuators are dc servo motors with tachometers driven by pulse width modulated servo amplifiers. Position sensing is done by variable reluctance type absolute rotary encoders and the higher level positioning is performed by TRIMAC based control software. The precision of movement and jitter was measured in the laboratory. Examples will be given of the probe use with beam. (author). 5 refs., 3 figs

  4. Design and fabrication of an actively cooled Langmuir probe for long pulse applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paterson, J.A.; Biagi, L.A.; Ehlers, K.W.; Koehler, G.W.

    1985-11-01

    The details of the mechanical design and fabrication for a Langmuir Probe for the continuous monitoring of plasma density are given. The probe was designed for use as a diagnostic tool in the development of long pulse positive ion plasma sources for use on neutral beam systems. The essential design feature of this probe is the incorporation of two electrically isolated cooling water circuits which actively cool the probe tip and probe jacket. The electrical isolation is required to prevent drain currents from the probe body disturbing the measurement of the probe tip current and thereby the plasma density measurement. The successful realization of the design requires precision components and vacuum tight ceramic to refractory metal brazes. To date this design has successfully operated in steady-state in plasma densities up to 250 mA/cm 2 and surface heat fluxes of 25 W/cm 2

  5. Possibility of high efficient beam extraction from the CERN SPS with a bent crystal. Simulation results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scandale, W. [CERN, European Organization for Nuclear Research, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Laboratoire de l' AccelerateurLineaire (LAL), Universite Paris SudOrsay, Orsay (France); INFN Sezione di Roma, Piazzale Aldo Moro 2, 00185 Rome (Italy); Kovalenko, A.D.; Taratin, A.M. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, 141980 Dubna, Moscow Region (Russian Federation)

    2017-03-11

    The extraction of the SPS beam of 270 GeV/c protons assisted by a bent crystal was studied by simulation. Two methods for delivering the SPS beam onto a crystal were considered: transverse diffusion and orbit bump of the beam. It was shown that the main condition for high efficient beam extraction with a bent crystal, which is a small divergence of the incident beam, can be fulfilled. Extraction efficiency up to 99% can be reached for both methods of the beam delivering. The irradiation of the electrostatic septum wires during the beam extraction can be considerably reduced.

  6. Safe Laser Beam Propagation for Interplanetary Links

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Keith E.

    2011-01-01

    Ground-to-space laser uplinks to Earth–orbiting satellites and deep space probes serve both as a beacon and an uplink command channel for deep space probes and Earth-orbiting satellites. An acquisition and tracking point design to support a high bandwidth downlink from a 20-cm optical terminal on an orbiting Mars spacecraft typically calls for 2.5 kW of 1030-nm uplink optical power in 40 micro-radians divergent beams.2 The NOHD (nominal ocular hazard distance) of the 1030nm uplink is in excess of 2E5 km, approximately half the distance to the moon. Recognizing the possible threat of high power laser uplinks to the flying public and to sensitive Earth-orbiting satellites, JPL developed a three-tiered system at its Optical Communications Telescope Laboratory (OCTL) to ensure safe laser beam propagation through navigational and near-Earth space.

  7. Probing intruder configurations in $^{186, 188}$Pb using Coulomb excitation

    CERN Multimedia

    Columb excitation measurements to study the shape coexistence, mixing and quadrupole collectivity of the low-lying levels in neutron-deficient $^{188}$Pb nuclei are proposed with a view to extending similar studies to the $^{186}$Pb midshell nucleus. The HIE-ISOLDE beam of $^{186,188}$Pb nuclei will be delivered to MINIBALL+SPEDE set-up for simultaneous in-beam $\\gamma$-ray and conversion electron spectroscopy. The proposed experiment will allow the sign of the quadrupole deformation parameter to be extracted for the two lowest 2$^{+}$ states in $^{188}$Pb. Moreover, the advent of SPEDE will allow probing of the bandhead 0$^{+}$ states via direct measurements of E0 transitions. Beam development is requested to provide pure and instense $^{186}$Pb beam.

  8. Probing the Solar Interior

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 3; Issue 3. Probing the Solar Interior Hearing the Heartbeats of the Sun. Ashok Ambastha. General ... Author Affiliations. Ashok Ambastha1. Joint In-Charge Udaipur Solar Observatory Physical Research laboratory P.O. Box No. 198 Udaipur 313 001, India ...

  9. Probing the Solar Interior

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 3; Issue 3. Probing the Solar Interior Hearing the Heartbeats of the Sun. Ashok Ambastha. General Article Volume 3 Issue 3 March 1998 pp 18-31. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  10. Terahertz scanning probe microscope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klapwijk, T.M.

    2014-01-01

    The invention provides aterahertz scanning probe microscope setup comprising (i) a terahertz radiation source configured to generate terahertz radiation; (ii) a terahertz lens configured to receive at least part of the terahertz radiation from the terahertz radiation source; (iii) a cantilever unit

  11. One-Probe Search

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Östlin, Anna; Pagh, Rasmus

    2002-01-01

    We consider dictionaries that perform lookups by probing a single word of memory, knowing only the size of the data structure. We describe a randomized dictionary where a lookup returns the correct answer with probability 1 - e, and otherwise returns don't know. The lookup procedure uses an expan...

  12. Probing the Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, John

    2013-01-01

    Humans have always had the vision to one day live on other planets. This vision existed even before the first person was put into orbit. Since the early space missions of putting humans into orbit around Earth, many advances have been made in space technology. We have now sent many space probes deep into the Solar system to explore the planets and…

  13. Thermal conductivity probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navickas, J.

    1969-01-01

    Low-mass probe accurately measures the thermal conductivity of polyurethane foam /and other thermal insulating materials/ while exposed to either hydrogen of helium permeation in temperature ranges from ambient to cryogenic. The thermal conductivity of a specimen is determined from an experimentally determined increase in temperature.

  14. Electron beam control for barely separated beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douglas, David R.; Ament, Lucas J. P.

    2017-04-18

    A method for achieving independent control of multiple beams in close proximity to one another, such as in a multi-pass accelerator where coaxial beams are at different energies, but moving on a common axis, and need to be split into spatially separated beams for efficient recirculation transport. The method for independent control includes placing a magnet arrangement in the path of the barely separated beams with the magnet arrangement including at least two multipole magnets spaced closely together and having a multipole distribution including at least one odd multipole and one even multipole. The magnetic fields are then tuned to cancel out for a first of the barely separated beams to allow independent control of the second beam with common magnets. The magnetic fields may be tuned to cancel out either the dipole component or tuned to cancel out the quadrupole component in order to independently control the separate beams.

  15. Literature in Focus Beta Beams: Neutrino Beams

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    By Mats Lindroos (CERN) and Mauro Mezzetto (INFN Padova, Italy) Imperial Press, 2009 The beta-beam concept for the generation of electron neutrino beams was first proposed by Piero Zucchelli in 2002. The idea created quite a stir, challenging the idea that intense neutrino beams only could be produced from the decay of pions or muons in classical neutrino beams facilities or in future neutrino factories. The concept initially struggled to make an impact but the hard work by many machine physicists, phenomenologists and theoreticians over the last five years has won the beta-beam a well-earned position as one of the frontrunners for a possible future world laboratory for high intensity neutrino oscillation physics. This is the first complete monograph on the beta-beam concept. The book describes both technical aspects and experimental aspects of the beta-beam, providing students and scientists with an insight into the possibilities o...

  16. Beam Techniques - Beam Control and Manipulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minty, Michiko G

    2003-04-24

    We describe commonly used strategies for the control of charged particle beams and the manipulation of their properties. Emphasis is placed on relativistic beams in linear accelerators and storage rings. After a brief review of linear optics, we discuss basic and advanced beam control techniques, such as transverse and longitudinal lattice diagnostics, matching, orbit correction and steering, beam-based alignment, and linac emittance preservation. A variety of methods for the manipulation of particle beam properties are also presented, for instance, bunch length and energy compression, bunch rotation, changes to the damping partition number, and beam collimation. The different procedures are illustrated by examples from various accelerators. Special topics include injection and extraction methods, beam cooling, spin transport and polarization.

  17. Underling modification in ion beam induced Si wafers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazra, S.; Chini, T.K.; Sanyal, M.K.; Grenzer, J.; Pietsch, U.

    2005-01-01

    Subsurface (amorphous-crystalline interface) structure of keV ion beam modified Si(001) wafers was studied for the first time using non-destructive technique and compared with that of the top one. Ion-beam modifications of the Si samples were done using state-of-art high-current ion implanter facility at Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics by changing energy, dose and angle of incidence of the Ar + ion beam. To bring out the underlying modification depth-resolved x-ray grazing incidence diffraction has been carried out using synchrotron radiation facility, while the structure of the top surface was studied through atomic force microscopy

  18. Beam test of CSES silicon strip detector module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Da-Li; Lu, Hong; Wang, Huan-Yu; Li, Xin-Qiao; Xu, Yan-Bing; An, Zheng-Hua; Yu, Xiao-xia; Wang, Hui; Shi, Feng; Wang, Ping; Zhao, Xiao-Yun

    2017-05-01

    The silicon-strip tracker of the China Seismo-Electromagnetic Satellite (CSES) consists of two double-sided silicon strip detectors (DSSDs) which provide incident particle tracking information. A low-noise analog ASIC VA140 was used in this study for DSSD signal readout. A beam test on the DSSD module was performed at the Beijing Test Beam Facility of the Beijing Electron Positron Collider (BEPC) using a 400-800 MeV/c proton beam. The pedestal analysis results, RMSE noise, gain correction, and intensity distribution of incident particles of the DSSD module are presented. Supported by the XXX Civil Space Programme

  19. Electric field and temperature measurement using ultra wide bandwidth pigtailed electro-optic probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernier, Maxime; Gaborit, Gwenaël; Duvillaret, Lionel; Paupert, Alain; Lasserre, Jean-Louis

    2008-05-01

    We present pigtailed electro-optic probes that allow a simultaneous measurement of high frequency electric fields and temperature using a unique laser probe beam. This has been achieved by the development of a novel probe design associated with a fully automated servo-controlled optical bench, initially developed to stabilize the electric field sensor response. The developed electro-optic probes present a stable response in outdoors conditions over a time duration exceeding 1 h, a frequency bandwidth from kHz to tens of GHz with a sensitivity of 0.7 Vm(-1)Hz(-(1/2)), and a temperature accuracy of 40 mK.

  20. ISR beam scrapers

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1972-01-01

    Beam scrapers seen in the direction of the beam. The two horizontal scraper foils are near the centre of the beam pipe andthe two scrapers for protection of the vacuum chamber are further outside. In the lower part of the beam pipe is the vertical halo scraping blade.

  1. Telecommunication using muon beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, R.C.

    1976-01-01

    Telecommunication is effected by generating a beam of mu mesons or muons, varying a property of the beam at a modulating rate to generate a modulated beam of muons, and detecting the information in the modulated beam at a remote location

  2. Analysis of orthotropic beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jen Y. Liu; S. Cheng

    1979-01-01

    A plane-stress analysis of orthotropic or isotropic beams is presented. The loading conditions considered are: (1) a concentrated normal load arbitrarily located on the beam, and (2) a distributed normal load covering an arbitrary length of the beam. exhibit close agreement with existing experimental data from Sitka spruce beams. Other loading conditions can similarly...

  3. Telecommunication using muon beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Richard C.

    1976-01-01

    Telecommunication is effected by generating a beam of mu mesons or muons, varying a property of the beam at a modulating rate to generate a modulated beam of muons, and detecting the information in the modulated beam at a remote location.

  4. Monte Carlo calculations for beam dump shield design for K-130 cyclotron at VECC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatterjee, S.; Banerjee, K.; Roy, Pratap; Bhattacharya, C.; Bhattacharya, S.; Bandyopadhyay, T.

    2013-01-01

    In any accelerator based nuclear physics experiment most of incident beam passes through the target material and stopped in the beam dump. So the beam dump becomes the major source of neutron and γ-radiations. This contribution is much larger than that of actual neutron and γ-rays produced from the nuclear reactions with target nuclei

  5. Acoustic beam splitting in a sonic crystal around a directional band gap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cicek Ahmet; Kaya Olgun Adem; Ulug Bulent

    2013-01-01

    Beam splitting upon refraction in a triangular sonic crystal composed of aluminum cylinders in air is experimentally and numerically demonstrated to occur due to finite source size, which facilitates circumvention of a directional band gap. Experiments reveal that two distinct beams emerge at crystal output, in agreement with the numerical results obtained through the finite-element method. Beam splitting occurs at sufficiently-small source sizes comparable to lattice periodicity determined by the spatial gap width in reciprocal space. Split beams propagate in equal amplitude, whereas beam splitting is destructed for oblique incidence above a critical incidence angle

  6. LANSCE beam current limiter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallegos, F.R.

    1996-01-01

    The Radiation Security System (RSS) at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) provides personnel protection from prompt radiation due to accelerated beam. Active instrumentation, such as the Beam Current Limiter, is a component of the RSS. The current limiter is designed to limit the average current in a beam line below a specific level, thus minimizing the maximum current available for a beam spill accident. The beam current limiter is a self-contained, electrically isolated toroidal beam transformer which continuously monitors beam current. It is designed as fail-safe instrumentation. The design philosophy, hardware design, operation, and limitations of the device are described

  7. Device Fabrication and Probing of Discrete Carbon Nanostructures

    KAUST Repository

    Batra, Nitin M

    2015-05-06

    Device fabrication on multi walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) using electrical beam lithography (EBL), electron beam induced deposition (EBID), ion beam induced deposition (IBID) methods was carried out, followed by device electrical characterization using a conventional probe station. A four-probe configuration was utilized to measure accurately the electrical resistivity of MWCNTs with similar results obtained from devices fabricated by different methods. In order to reduce the contact resistance of the beam deposited platinum electrodes, single step vacuum thermal annealing was performed. Microscopy and spectroscopy were carried out on the beam deposited electrodes to follow the structural and chemical changes occurring during the vacuum thermal annealing. For the first time, a core-shell type structure was identified on EBID Pt and IBID Pt annealed electrodes and analogous free standing nanorods previously exposed to high temperature. We believe this observation has important implications for transport properties studies of carbon materials. Apart from that, contamination of carbon nanostructure, originating from the device fabrication methods, was also studied. Finally, based on the observations of faster processing time together with higher yield and flexibility for device preparation, we investigated EBID to fabricate devices for other discrete carbon nanostructures.

  8. Calibration Fixture For Anemometer Probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Charles R.; Nagel, Robert T.

    1993-01-01

    Fixture facilitates calibration of three-dimensional sideflow thermal anemometer probes. With fixture, probe oriented at number of angles throughout its design range. Readings calibrated as function of orientation in airflow. Calibration repeatable and verifiable.

  9. Recent improvements of the JET lithium beam diagnostic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brix, M; Dodt, D; Dunai, D; Lupelli, I; Marsen, S; Melson, T F; Meszaros, B; Morgan, P; Petravich, G; Refy, D I; Silva, C; Stamp, M; Szabolics, T; Zastrow, K-D; Zoletnik, S

    2012-10-01

    A 60 kV neutral lithium diagnostic beam probes the edge plasma of JET for the measurement of electron density profiles. This paper describes recent enhancements of the diagnostic setup, new procedures for calibration and protection measures for the lithium ion gun during massive gas puffs for disruption mitigation. New light splitting optics allow in parallel beam emission measurements with a new double entrance slit CCD spectrometer (spectrally resolved) and a new interference filter avalanche photodiode camera (fast density and fluctuation studies).

  10. The beam dump tunnels

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2002-01-01

    In these images workers are digging the tunnels that will be used to dump the counter-circulating beams. Travelling just a fraction under the speed of light, the beams at the LHC will each carry the energy of an aircraft carrier travelling at 12 knots. In order to dispose of these beams safely, a beam dump is used to extract the beam and diffuse it before it collides with a radiation shielded graphite target.

  11. Ion beam diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strehl, P.

    1994-04-01

    This report is an introduction to ion beam diagnosis. After a short description of the most important ion beam parameters measurements of the beam current by means of Faraday cups, calorimetry, and beam current transformers and measurements of the beam profile by means of viewing screens, profile grids and scanning devices, and residual gas ionization monitors are described. Finally measurements in the transverse and longitudinal phase space are considered. (HSI)

  12. Volumetric Measurement of Vorticity Vectors by Optical Probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-05-27

    particle at a known Z position within the incident beam. In this way many individual reflections were measured and catalogued as the motor shaft was...8217 t. , 186 M. B. Fiah and W. W. Webb (i) Zero flow velocity limit. Since R, -* 0 and Ra -. Rj as v -. 0, (3.5) shows that t lim Rm = R exp (- 4ajR(o

  13. Acute incidents during anaesthesia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Incidents can occur during induction, maintenance and emergence from anaesthesia. The following acute critical incidents are discussed in this article: • Anaphylaxis. • Aspiration ..... Already used in South Africa and Malawi, a scale-up of the technique is under way in Tanzania, Rwanda and Ghana. The report found that.

  14. Gravity Probe B Inspection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    The space vehicle Gravity Probe B (GP-B) is the relativity experiment developed at Stanford University to test two extraordinary predictions of Albert Einstein's general theory of relativity. The experiment will measure, very precisely, the expected tiny changes in the direction of the spin axes of four gyroscopes contained in an Earth-orbiting satellite at a 400-mile altitude. So free are the gyroscopes from disturbance that they will provide an almost perfect space-time reference system. They will measure how space and time are very slightly warped by the presence of the Earth, and, more profoundly, how the Earth's rotation very slightly drags space-time around with it. These effects, though small for the Earth, have far-reaching implications for the nature of matter and the structure of the Universe. GP-B is among the most thoroughly researched programs ever undertaken by NASA. This is the story of a scientific quest in which physicists and engineers have collaborated closely over many years. Inspired by their quest, they have invented a whole range of technologies that are already enlivening other branches of science and engineering. In this photograph, engineer Gary Reynolds is inspecting the inside of the probe neck during probe thermal repairs. GP-B is scheduled for launch in April 2004 and managed for NASA by the Marshall Space Flight Center. Development of the GP-B is the responsibility of Stanford University along with major subcontractor Lockheed Martin Corporation. (Image credit to Russ Leese, Gravity Probe B, Stanford University)

  15. Novel Eddycurrent Probe Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-12-01

    oVCut MVc AVu inc F C -- -(1)(-jlOOO AZC (23)0 --2--M F1 (23) If the Thevenin source voltages, V0, are adjusted so that Vinc is the same for both the...as small as 1.2 cm. The differential probe assembly was spring loaded about a pivot post (see Figure 12) so it could scan noncircular or eccentric

  16. Induced current heating probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thatcher, G.; Ferguson, B.G.; Winstanley, J.P.

    1984-01-01

    An induced current heating probe is of thimble form and has an outer conducting sheath and a water flooded flux-generating unit formed from a stack of ferrite rings coaxially disposed in the sheath. The energising coil is made of solid wire which connects at one end with a coaxial water current tube and at the other end with the sheath. The stack of ferrite rings may include non-magnetic insulating rings which help to shape the flux. (author)

  17. Atom probe crystallography

    OpenAIRE

    Gault, Baptiste; Moody, Michael P.; Cairney, Julie M.; Ringer, Simon P.

    2012-01-01

    This review addresses new developments in the emerging area of “atom probe crystallography”, a materials characterization tool with the unique capacity to reveal both composition and crystallographic structure at the atomic scale. This information is crucial for the manipulation of microstructure for the design of both structural and functional materials with optimized mechanical, electric, optoelectronic, magnetic, or superconducting properties that will find application in, for example, nan...

  18. Probing gravitation with pulsars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Michael

    2013-03-01

    Radio pulsars are fascinating and extremely useful objects. Despite our on-going difficulties in understanding the details of their emission physics, they can be used as precise cosmic clocks in a wide-range of experiments - in particular for probing gravitational physics. While the reader should consult the contributions to these proceedings to learn more about this exciting field of discovering, exploiting and understanding pulsars, we will concentrate here on on the usage of pulsars as gravity labs.

  19. Nanoscale thermal probing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanan Yue

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Nanoscale novel devices have raised the demand for nanoscale thermal characterization that is critical for evaluating the device performance and durability. Achieving nanoscale spatial resolution and high accuracy in temperature measurement is very challenging due to the limitation of measurement pathways. In this review, we discuss four methodologies currently developed in nanoscale surface imaging and temperature measurement. To overcome the restriction of the conventional methods, the scanning thermal microscopy technique is widely used. From the perspective of measuring target, the optical feature size method can be applied by using either Raman or fluorescence thermometry. The near-field optical method that measures nanoscale temperature by focusing the optical field to a nano-sized region provides a non-contact and non-destructive way for nanoscale thermal probing. Although the resistance thermometry based on nano-sized thermal sensors is possible for nanoscale thermal probing, significant effort is still needed to reduce the size of the current sensors by using advanced fabrication techniques. At the same time, the development of nanoscale imaging techniques, such as fluorescence imaging, provides a great potential solution to resolve the nanoscale thermal probing problem.

  20. Einstein Inflationary Probe (EIP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinshaw, Gary

    2004-01-01

    I will discuss plans to develop a concept for the Einstein Inflation Probe: a mission to detect gravity waves from inflation via the unique signature they impart to the cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarization. A sensitive CMB polarization satellite may be the only way to probe physics at the grand-unified theory (GUT) scale, exceeding by 12 orders of magnitude the energies studied at the Large Hadron Collider. A detection of gravity waves would represent a remarkable confirmation of the inflationary paradigm and set the energy scale at which inflation occurred when the universe was a fraction of a second old. Even a strong upper limit to the gravity wave amplitude would be significant, ruling out many common models of inflation, and pointing to inflation occurring at much lower energy, if at all. Measuring gravity waves via the CMB polarization will be challenging. We will undertake a comprehensive study to identify the critical scientific requirements for the mission and their derived instrumental performance requirements. At the core of the study will be an assessment of what is scientifically and experimentally optimal within the scope and purpose of the Einstein Inflation Probe.

  1. Reflectors Made from Membranes Stretched Between Beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dooley, Jennifer; Dragovan, Mark; Tolomeo, Jason

    2009-01-01

    Lightweight cylindrical reflectors of a proposed type would be made from reflective membranes stretched between pairs of identically curved and identically oriented end rails. In each such reflector, the curvature of the two beams would define the reflector shape required for the intended application. For example, the beams could be curved to define a reflector of parabolic cross section, so that light incident along the axis of symmetry perpendicular to the cylindrical axis would be focused to a line. In addition, by applying suitable forces to the ends of the beams, one could bend the beams to adjust the reflector surface figure to within a precision of the order of the wavelength of the radiation to be reflected. The figure depicts an example of beams shaped so that in the absence of applied forces, each would be flat on one side and would have a radius of curvature R on the opposite side. Alternatively, the curvature of the reflector-membrane side could be other than circular. In general, the initial curvature would be chosen to optimize the final reflector shape. Then by applying forces F between the beam ends in the positions and orientations shown in the figure, one could bend beams to adjust their shape to a closer approximation of the desired precise circular or noncircular curvature.

  2. Radiological incidents in radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hobzova, L.; Novotny, J.

    2008-01-01

    In many countries a reporting system of radiological incidents to national regulatory body exists and providers of radiotherapy treatment are obliged to report all major and/or in some countries all incidents occurring in institution. State Office for Nuclear Safety (SONS) is providing a systematic guidance for radiotherapy departments from 1997 by requiring inclusion of radiation safety problems into Quality assurance manual, which is the basic document for obtaining a license of SONS for handling with sources of ionizing radiation. For that purpose SONS also issued the recommendation 'Introduction of QA system for important sources in radiotherapy-radiological incidents' in which the radiological incidents are defined and the basic guidance for their classification (category A, B, C, D), investigation and reporting are given. At regular periods the SONS in co-operation with radiotherapy centers is making a survey of all radiological incidents occurring in institutions and it is presenting obtained information in synoptic communication (2003 Motolske dny, 2005 Novy Jicin). This presentation is another summary report of radiological incidents that occurred in our radiotherapy institutions during last 3 years. Emphasis is given not only to survey and statistics, but also to analysis of reasons of the radiological incidents and to their detection and prevention. Analyses of incidents in radiotherapy have led to a much broader understanding of incident causation. Information about the error should be shared as early as possible during or after investigation by all radiotherapy centers. Learning from incidents, errors and near misses should be a part of improvement of the QA system in institutions. Generally, it is recommended that all radiotherapy facilities should participate in the reporting, analyzing and learning system to facilitate the dissemination of knowledge throughout the whole country to prevent errors in radiotherapy.(authors)

  3. Characterization of low energy radioactive beams using direct reactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, J.G.; Fraser, M.A.; Bildstein, V.

    2013-01-01

    of an accelerated radioactive beam produced at ISOLDE. We use data from an experiment with an 11Be beam incident on a deuteron target producing 10Be from a (d,t) reaction. The T-REX Si detector array was used for particle detection, but the technique is applicable for other setups.......We demonstrate a new technique to determine the beam structure of low energy radioactive beams using coincidence events from a direct reaction. The technique will be described and tested using Geant4 simulations. We use the technique to determine for the first time the width, divergence and energy...

  4. Nine New Fluorescent Probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tsung-I.; Jovanovic, Misa V.; Dowben, Robert M.

    1989-06-01

    Absorption and fluorescence spectroscopic studies are reported here for nine new fluorescent probes recently synthesized in our laboratories: four pyrene derivatives with substituents of (i) 1,3-diacetoxy-6,8-dichlorosulfonyl, (ii) 1,3-dihydroxy-6,8-disodiumsulfonate, (iii) 1,3-disodiumsulfonate, and (iv) l-ethoxy-3,6,8-trisodiumsulfonate groups, and five [7-julolidino] coumarin derivatives with substituents of (v) 3-carboxylate-4-methyl, (vi) 3- methylcarboxylate, (vii) 3-acetate-4-methyl, (viii) 3-propionate-4-methyl, and (ix) 3-sulfonate-4-methyl groups. Pyrene compounds i and ii and coumarin compounds v and vi exhibit interesting absorbance and fluorescence properties: their absorption maxima are red shifted compared to the parent compound to the blue-green region, and the band width broadens considerably. All four blue-absorbing dyes fluoresce intensely in the green region, and the two pyrene compounds emit at such long wavelengths without formation of excimers. The fluorescence properties of these compounds are quite environment-sensitive: considerable spectral shifts and fluorescence intensity changes have been observed in the pH range from 3 to 10 and in a wide variety of polar and hydrophobic solvents with vastly different dielectric constants. The high extinction and fluorescence quantum yield of these probes make them ideal fluorescent labeling reagents for proteins, antibodies, nucleic acids, and cellular organelles. The pH and hydrophobicity-dependent fluorescence changes can be utilized as optical pH and/or hydrophobicity indicators for mapping environmental difference in various cellular components in a single cell. Since all nine probes absorb in the UV, but emit at different wavelengths in the visible, these two groups of compounds offer an advantage of utilizing a single monochromatic light source (e.g., a nitrogen laser) to achieve multi-wavelength detection for flow cytometry application. As a first step to explore potential application in

  5. Beam diagnostics for low energy beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Harasimowicz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Low-energetic ion and antimatter beams are very attractive for a number of fundamental studies. The diagnostics of such beams, however, is a challenge due to low currents down to only a few thousands of particles per second and significant fraction of energy loss in matter at keV beam energies. A modular set of particle detectors has been developed to suit the particular beam diagnostic needs of the ultralow-energy storage ring (USR at the future facility for low-energy antiproton and ion research, accommodating very low beam intensities at energies down to 20 keV. The detectors include beam-profile monitors based on scintillating screens and secondary electron emission, sensitive Faraday cups for absolute intensity measurements, and capacitive pickups for beam position monitoring. In this paper, the design of all detectors is presented in detail and results from beam measurements are shown. The resolution limits of all detectors are described and options for further improvement summarized. Whilst initially developed for the USR, the instrumentation described in this paper is also well suited for use in other low-intensity, low-energy accelerators, storage rings, and beam lines.

  6. Revisit of combined parallel-beam/cone-beam or fan-beam/cone-beam imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Gengsheng L

    2013-10-01

    This aim of this paper is to revisit the parallel-beam/cone-beam or fan-beam/cone-beam imaging configuration, and to investigate whether this configuration has any advantages. Twenty years ago, it was suggested to simultaneously use a parallel-beam (or a fan-beam) collimator and a cone-beam collimator to acquire single photon emission computed tomography data. The motivation was that the parallel-beam (or the fan-beam) collimator can provide sufficient sampling, while the cone-beam collimator is able to provide higher photon counts. Even with higher total counts, this hybrid system does not give significant improvement (if any) in terms of image noise and artifacts reduction. If a conventional iterative maximum-likelihood expectation-maximization algorithm is used to reconstruct the image, the resultant reconstruction may be worse than the parallel-beam-only (or fan-beam-only) system. This paper uses the singular value decomposition (SVD) analysis to explain this phenomenon. The SVD results indicate that the parallel-beam-only and the fan-beam-only system outperform the combined systems. The optimal imaging system does not necessary to be the one that generates the projections with highest signal-to-noise ratio and best resolution.

  7. Determination of weld defect characteristics using focused probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saglio, Robert; Touffait, A.-M.; Prot, A.-C.

    1977-01-01

    A method is described which allows, by means of an experimentally discovered law, the determination of the geometrical characteristics of the detected defects. This determination is based on the properties of focused probes, and particularly on what is called their 'effective ultrasonic beam'. The main result is the ability to describe a defect with a given and known accuracy. Examples are given which show practical applications of the method [fr

  8. Reactions probing effects of quark clusters in nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lassila, K.E.; Sukhatme, U.P.

    1988-01-01

    We study signatures of quark clusters in reactions which probe quarks in nuclei. We examine the EMC effect and use physical arguments to establish features of valence and ocean parton distributions in multiquark clusters. We predict from these distributions ratios of structure functions and cross sections measured with neutrino, antineutrinos and proton beams. It appears that a unique determination of the source of the EMC effect will be possible. 6 refs., 4 figs

  9. Development of Mackintosh Probe Extractor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Noor Khazanah A.; Kaamin, Masiri; Suwandi, Amir Khan; Sahat, Suhaila; Jahaya Kesot, Mohd

    2016-11-01

    Dynamic probing is a continuous soil investigation technique, which is one of the simplest soil penetration test. It basically consist of repeatedly driving a metal tipped probe into the ground using a drop weight of fixed mass and travel. Testing was carried out continuously from ground level to the final penetration depth. Once the soil investigation work done, it is difficult to pull out the probe rod from the ground, due to strong soil structure grip against probe cone and prevent the probe rod out from the ground. Thus, in this case, a tool named Extracting Probe was created to assist in the process of retracting the probe rod from the ground. In addition, Extracting Probe also can reduce the time to extract the probe rod from the ground compare with the conventional method. At the same time, it also can reduce manpower cost because only one worker involve to handle this tool compare with conventional method used two or more workers. From experiment that have been done we found that the time difference between conventional tools and extracting probe is significant, average time difference is 155 minutes. In addition the extracting probe can reduce manpower usage, and also labour cost for operating the tool. With all these advantages makes this tool has the potential to be marketed.

  10. Development of a novel nanoindentation technique by utilizing a dual-probe AFM system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eyup Cinar

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A novel instrumentation approach to nanoindentation is described that exhibits improved resolution and depth sensing. The approach is based on a multi-probe scanning probe microscopy (SPM tool that utilizes tuning-fork based probes for both indentation and depth sensing. Unlike nanoindentation experiments performed with conventional AFM systems using beam-bounce technology, this technique incorporates a second probe system with an ultra-high resolution for depth sensing. The additional second probe measures only the vertical movement of the straight indenter attached to a tuning-fork probe with a high spring constant and it can also be used for AFM scanning to obtain an accurate profiling. Nanoindentation results are demonstrated on silicon, fused silica, and Corning Eagle Glass. The results show that this new approach is viable in terms of accurately characterizing mechanical properties of materials through nanoindentation with high accuracy, and it opens doors to many other exciting applications in the field of nanomechanical characterization.

  11. Low current beam techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saint, A.; Laird, J.S.; Bardos, R.A.; Legge, G.J.F. [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia). School of Physics; Nishijima, T.; Sekiguchi, H. [Electrotechnical Laboratory, Tsukuba (Japan).

    1993-12-31

    Since the development of Scanning Transmission Microscopy (STIM) imaging in 1983 many low current beam techniques have been developed for the scanning (ion) microprobe. These include STIM tomography, Ion Beam Induced Current, Ion Beam Micromachining and Microlithography and Ionoluminense. Most of these techniques utilise beam currents of 10{sup -15} A down to single ions controlled by beam switching techniques This paper will discuss some of the low beam current techniques mentioned above, and indicate, some of their recent applications at MARC. A new STIM technique will be introduced that can be used to obtain Z-contrast with STIM resolution. 4 refs., 3 figs.

  12. Dipole γ-ray emission in fusion heavy-ion reactions: beam energy dependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, B.; Pierroutsakou, D.; Inglima, G.; Boiano, A.; De Rosa, A.; Di Pietro, M.; La Commara, M.; Romoli, M.; Sandoli, M.; Agodi, C.; Alba, R.; Cardella, G.; Colonna, M.; Coniglione, R.; De Filippo, E.; Del Zoppo, A.; Di Toro, M.; Maiolino, C.; Pagano, A.; Pellegriti, N.; Piattelli, P.; Pirrone, S.; Santonocito, D.; Sapienza, P.; Baran, V.; Glodariu, T.; Mazzocco, M.; Signorini, C.

    2006-04-01

    We investigated the prompt dipole γ-ray emission, related with entrance channel charge asymmetry effects, in the 40Ar + 92Zr and 36Ar + 96Zr fusion reactions at Elab= 15 and 16 MeV/nucleon, respectively, with the aim to probe its evolution with incident energy. These reactions populate, through entrance channels having different charge asymmetries, the 132Ce compound nucleus at an average excitation energy of 304 MeV with identical spin distribution. Fusionlike events were selected by detecting high-energy γ-rays in coincidence with evaporation residues. By studying the differential γ-ray multiplicity spectra of the considered reactions, it was shown that the dipole γ-ray intensity increases by ˜14% for the more charge asymmetric system. This result, associated with those reported for the 32,36S + 100,96Mo reaction pair at lower beam energies, implies a "rise and fall" trend of the prompt dipole γ-ray emission in the studied beam energy range with a maximum value at 9 MeV/nucleon.

  13. Dipole γ-ray emission in fusion heavy-ion reactions: beam energy dependence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, B.; Inglima, G.; De Rosa, A.; La Commara, M.; Sandoli, M.; Pierroutsakou, D.; Boiano, A.; Di Pietro, M.; Romoli, M.; Agodi, C.; Alba, R.; Colonna, M.; Coniglione, R.; Del Zoppo, A.; Di Toro, M.; Maiolino, C.; Pellegriti, N.; Piattelli, P.; Santonocito, D.; Sapienza, P.

    2006-01-01

    We investigated the prompt dipole γ-ray emission, related with entrance channel charge asymmetry effects, in the 40Ar + 92Zr and 36Ar + 96Zr fusion reactions at Elab= 15 and 16 MeV/nucleon, respectively, with the aim to probe its evolution with incident energy. These reactions populate, through entrance channels having different charge asymmetries, the 132Ce compound nucleus at an average excitation energy of 304 MeV with identical spin distribution. Fusionlike events were selected by detecting high-energy γ-rays in coincidence with evaporation residues. By studying the differential γ-ray multiplicity spectra of the considered reactions, it was shown that the dipole γ-ray intensity increases by ∼14% for the more charge asymmetric system. This result, associated with those reported for the 32,36S + 100,96Mo reaction pair at lower beam energies, implies a 'rise and fall' trend of the prompt dipole γ-ray emission in the studied beam energy range with a maximum value at 9 MeV/nucleon

  14. Studies on normal incidence backscattering in nodule areas using the multibeam-hydrosweep system

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Pathak, D.; Chakraborty, B.

    The acoustic response from areas of varying nodule abundance and number densities in the Central Indian Ocean has been studied by using the echo peak amplitudes of the normal incidence beam in the Multibeam Hydrosweep system. It is observed...

  15. Comprehensive proton dose algorithm using pencil beam redefinition and recursive dynamic splitting

    OpenAIRE

    Gottschalk, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    We compute, from first principles, the absolute dose or fluence distribution per incident proton charge in a known heterogeneous terrain exposed to known proton beams. The algorithm is equally amenable to scattered or scanned beams. All objects in the terrain (including collimators) are sliced into slabs, of any convenient thickness, perpendicular to the nominal beam direction. Transport is by standard Fermi-Eyges theory. Transverse heterogeneities are handled by breaking up pencil beams (PBs...

  16. Spatial modifications of three-dimensional elliptic Gaussian beam scattered by two-dimensional periodic array.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Gribovsky

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The diffraction problem of a three-dimensional elliptic p- polarized Gaussian beam on an aperture array of rectangular holes is solved. The new algorithm for the solution of three-dimensional scattering problems of linearly polarized wave beams on two-dimensional periodic structures is offered. The given algorithm allows exploring of wave beams with any allocation of a field on cross section. The case of oblique incidence of linearly polarized elliptic Gaussian wave beam on two-dimensional periodic structure is viewed. As structure the rectangular waveguides phased antenna array is chosen. The elliptic shape of a beam cross section gives the chance to proportion energy of an incident field in a plane of an antenna array in the chosen direction. The frequency dependence of the reflection coefficient intensity for the Gaussian beam is calculated. For the analysis of patterns of the reflected and transmitted beams in a far zone the frequencies on which the strongest interaction between next waveguides channels is observed have been chosen. Dynamics of patterns transformation of the reflected and transmitted beams depending on the form of cross-section and a polarization direction of an incident beam on different frequencies is investigated. It is determined that shape of the pattern of reflected and transmitted beams (symmetry, asymmetry, bifurcation, amplitude, width depends on chosen spatial orientation of the ellipse axes of the cross section in the incident beam. Frequency ranges, in which the form of the reflected and transmitted beams is not Gaussian, are defined. The nature of transformation of the patterns of scattered beams was examined. Narrowing effect of the pattern of transmitted beam and deformation of the pattern of reflected beam is detected. A physical explanation of these effects is given. The results are presented in the form of two- and three-dimensional patterns of the scattered field of beams in the far field.

  17. High resolution laser spectroscopy as a diagnostic tool in beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergmann, K.; Hefter, U.; Hering, P.

    1977-01-01

    The combination of high resolution laser spectroscopy with the technique of molecular beams allows a very detailed beam research since molecules or atoms in specific quantum states can be sampled yielding previously unavailable sources of data. In these experiments a Na/Na 2 beam emerges from a 0.2 mm nozzle and is collimated by a 2 mm wide slit 50 cm downstream. To probe the molecules a single mode Ar + -laser was used which can be tuned within the gain profile of the laser line (8 GHz) to several transitions between specific levels in the ground state and second electronically excited state of the Na 2 molecule. (Auth.)

  18. Beam Dynamics and Beam Losses - Circular Machines

    CERN Document Server

    Kain, V

    2016-01-01

    A basic introduction to transverse and longitudinal beam dynamics as well as the most relevant beam loss mechanisms in circular machines will be presented in this lecture. This lecture is intended for physicists and engineers with little or no knowledge of this subject.

  19. T10 Beam Studies & Beam Simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Bergmann, Michael Georges; Van Dijk, Maarten; CERN. Geneva. EN Department

    2017-01-01

    In order to test detector components before their installation in actual experiments, one uses test beams in which one can control particle typ, momentum and size to high degree. For this project the focus of a secondary beam at T10 in the East Area at CERN was analysed using an AZALEA telescope from DESY.

  20. Mobile Probing Kit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jakob Eg; Sørensen, Lene Tolstrup; Sørensen, J.K.

    2007-01-01

    Mobile Probing Kit is a low tech and low cost methodology for obtaining inspiration and insights into user needs, requirements and ideas in the early phases of a system's development process. The methodology is developed to identify user needs, requirements and ideas among knowledge workers...... characterized as being highly nomadic and thus potential users of mobile and ubiquitous technologies. The methodology has been applied in the 1ST MAGNET Beyond project in order to obtain user needs and requirements in the process of developing pilot services. We report on the initial findings from applying...... this methodology in the early phases of this large scale research and development process....

  1. Incorporating prior knowledge into beam orientation optimization in IMRT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pugachev, Andrei M.S.; Lei Xing

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: Selection of beam configuration in currently available intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) treatment planning systems is still based on trial-and-error search. Computer beam orientation optimization has the potential to improve the situation, but its practical implementation is hindered by the excessive computing time associated with the calculation. The purpose of this work is to provide an effective means to speed up the beam orientation optimization by incorporating a priori geometric and dosimetric knowledge of the system and to demonstrate the utility of the new algorithm for beam placement in IMRT. Methods and Materials: Beam orientation optimization was performed in two steps. First, the quality of each possible beam orientation was evaluated using beam's-eye-view dosimetrics (BEVD) developed in our previous study. A simulated annealing algorithm was then employed to search for the optimal set of beam orientations, taking into account the BEVD scores of different incident beam directions. During the calculation, sampling of gantry angles was weighted according to the BEVD score computed before the optimization. A beam direction with a higher BEVD score had a higher probability of being included in the trial configuration, and vice versa. The inclusion of the BEVD weighting in the stochastic beam angle sampling process made it possible to avoid spending valuable computing time unnecessarily at 'bad' beam angles. An iterative inverse treatment planning algorithm was used for beam intensity profile optimization during the optimization process. The BEVD-guided beam orientation optimization was applied to an IMRT treatment of paraspinal tumor. The advantage of the new optimization algorithm was demonstrated by comparing the calculation with the conventional scheme without the BEVD weighting in the beam sampling. Results: The BEVD tool provided useful guidance for the selection of the potentially good directions for the beams to incident and was used

  2. Critical incident stress management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, J J; Childs, J; Gonsalves, K

    2000-10-01

    Recent studies have indicated implementation of the CISM Program has impacted and reduced the cost of workers' compensation claims for stress related conditions and the number of lost work days (Ott, 1997; Western Management Consultants, 1996). Occupational health professionals need to be ready to develop and implement a comprehensive critical incident stress management process in anticipation of a major event. The ability to organize, lead, or administer critical incident stress debriefings for affected employees is a key role for the occupational health professional. Familiarity with these concepts and the ability to identify a critical incident enhances value to the business by mitigating the stress and impact to the workplace. Critical Incident Stress Management Systems have the potential for decreasing stress and restoring employees to normal life function--a win/win situation for both the employees and the organization.

  3. Marine Animal Incident Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Large whale stranding, death, ship strike and entanglement incidents are all recorded to monitor the health of each population and track anthropogenic factors that...

  4. Police Incident Blotter (Archive)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — The Police Blotter Archive contains crime incident data after it has been validated and processed to meet Uniform Crime Reporting (UCR) standards, published on a...

  5. Prediction of Safety Incidents

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Safety incidents, including injuries, property damage and mission failures, cost NASA and contractors thousands of dollars in direct and indirect costs. This project...

  6. 2011 Japanese Nuclear Incident

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA’s RadNet system monitored the environmental radiation levels in the United States and parts of the Pacific following the Japanese Nuclear Incident. Learn about EPA’s response and view historical laboratory data and news releases.

  7. BEAMS3D Neutral Beam Injection Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazerson, Samuel

    2014-04-14

    With the advent of applied 3D fi elds in Tokamaks and modern high performance stellarators, a need has arisen to address non-axisymmetric effects on neutral beam heating and fueling. We report on the development of a fully 3D neutral beam injection (NBI) model, BEAMS3D, which addresses this need by coupling 3D equilibria to a guiding center code capable of modeling neutral and charged particle trajectories across the separatrix and into the plasma core. Ionization, neutralization, charge-exchange, viscous velocity reduction, and pitch angle scattering are modeled with the ADAS atomic physics database [1]. Benchmark calculations are presented to validate the collisionless particle orbits, neutral beam injection model, frictional drag, and pitch angle scattering effects. A calculation of neutral beam heating in the NCSX device is performed, highlighting the capability of the code to handle 3D magnetic fields.

  8. Successful Beam-Beam Tuneshift Compensation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bishofberger, Kip Aaron [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2005-01-01

    The performance of synchrotron colliders has been limited by the beam-beam limit, a maximum tuneshift that colliding bunches could sustain. Due to bunch-to-bunch tune variation and intra-bunch tune spread, larger tuneshifts produce severe emittance growth. Breaking through this constraint has been viewed as impossible for several decades. This dissertation introduces the physics of ultra-relativistic synchrotrons and low-energy electron beams, with emphasis placed on the limits of the Tevatron and the needs of a tuneshift-compensation device. A detailed analysis of the Tevatron Electron Lens (TEL) is given, comparing theoretical models to experimental data whenever possible. Finally, results of Tevatron operations with inclusion of the TEL are presented and analyzed. It is shown that the TEL provides a way to shatter the previously inescapable beam-beam limit.

  9. Information Security Incident Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. I. Persanov

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The present report highlights the points of information security incident management in an enterprise. Some aspects of the incident and event classification are given. The author presents his view of the process scheme over the monitoring and processing information security events. Also, the report determines a few critical points of the listed process and gives the practical recommendations over its development and optimization.

  10. High spatial resolution Kelvin probe force microscopy with coaxial probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Keith A; Westervelt, Robert M; Satzinger, Kevin J

    2012-01-01

    Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) is a widely used technique to measure the local contact potential difference (CPD) between an AFM probe and the sample surface via the electrostatic force. The spatial resolution of KPFM is intrinsically limited by the long range of the electrostatic interaction, which includes contributions from the macroscopic cantilever and the conical tip. Here, we present coaxial AFM probes in which the cantilever and cone are shielded by a conducting shell, confining the tip–sample electrostatic interaction to a small region near the end of the tip. We have developed a technique to measure the true CPD despite the presence of the shell electrode. We find that the behavior of these probes agrees with an electrostatic model of the force, and we observe a factor of five improvement in spatial resolution relative to unshielded probes. Our discussion centers on KPFM, but the field confinement offered by these probes may improve any variant of electrostatic force microscopy. (paper)

  11. Grazing Incidence Neutron Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubarev, Mikhail V. (Inventor); Ramsey, Brian D. (Inventor); Engelhaupt, Darell E. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    Neutron optics based on the two-reflection geometries are capable of controlling beams of long wavelength neutrons with low angular divergence. The preferred mirror fabrication technique is a replication process with electroform nickel replication process being preferable. In the preliminary demonstration test an electroform nickel optics gave the neutron current density gain at the focal spot of the mirror at least 8 for neutron wavelengths in the range from 6 to 20.ANG.. The replication techniques can be also be used to fabricate neutron beam controlling guides.

  12. Lithium beam diagnostic system on the COMPASS tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anda, G.; Bencze, A. [Wigner – RCP, HAS, Budapest (Hungary); Berta, M., E-mail: bertam@sze.hu [Institute of Plasma Physics AS CR, Prague (Czech Republic); Széchenyi István University, Győr (Hungary); Dunai, D. [Wigner – RCP, HAS, Budapest (Hungary); Hacek, P. [Institute of Plasma Physics AS CR, Prague (Czech Republic); Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University in Prague, Prague (Czech Republic); Krbec, J. [Institute of Plasma Physics AS CR, Prague (Czech Republic); Faculty of Nuclear Sciences and Physical Engineering, Czech Technical University in Prague, Prague (Czech Republic); Réfy, D.; Krizsanóczi, T.; Bató, S.; Ilkei, T.; Kiss, I.G.; Veres, G.; Zoletnik, S. [Wigner – RCP, HAS, Budapest (Hungary)

    2016-10-15

    Highlights: • Li-beam diagnostic system on the COMPASS tokamak is an improved and compact system to allow testing of Atomic Beam Probe. • The possibility to measure background corrected density profiles on the few microseconds time scale. • First Li-beam diagnostic system with recirculating neutralizer. • The system includes the redesigned ion source with longer lifetime. - Abstract: An improved lithium beam based beam emission spectroscopy system – installed on COMPASS tokamak – is described. The beam energy enhanced up to 120 keV for Atomic Beam Probe measurement. The size of the ion source is doubled, using a newly developed thermionic heater instead of the conventionally used heating (tungsten or molybdenum) filament. The neutralizer is also improved. It produces the same sodium vapor in a cell but minimize the loss condensing the vapor on a cold surface which is led back (in fluid state) into the sodium oven. This way we call it recirculating neutralizer. The observation system consists of a CCD camera and an avalanche photodiode array.

  13. Beam Loss in Linacs

    CERN Document Server

    Plum, M.A.

    2016-01-01

    Beam loss is a critical issue in high-intensity accelerators, and much effort is expended during both the design and operation phases to minimize the loss and to keep it to manageable levels. As new accelerators become ever more powerful, beam loss becomes even more critical. Linacs for H- ion beams, such as the one at the Oak Ridge Spallation Neutron Source, have many more loss mechanisms compared to H+ (proton) linacs, such as the one being designed for the European Spallation Neutron Source. Interesting H- beam loss mechanisms include residual gas stripping, H+ capture and acceleration, field stripping, black-body radiation and the recently discovered intra-beam stripping mechanism. Beam halo formation, and ion source or RF turn on/off transients, are examples of beam loss mechanisms that are common for both H+ and H- accelerators. Machine protection systems play an important role in limiting the beam loss.

  14. Beam scanning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enge, H.A.

    1977-01-01

    A system for deflecting a beam of particles having different momenta, preferably through a 90 0 angle, so as to cause the beam to impinge upon a moving target and to scan across the target is described. The system includes a means responsive to a beam from a suitable source for causing the beam to periodically scan in a scanning plane and further means for deflecting the periodically scanned beam through the desired angle in a deflection plane so that the deflected beam impinges on the target. Means are included in the system for reducing the momentum dispersion at the target in both the deflection and the scanning planes and for spatially focussing the beam so as to produce a desired beam diameter at the target

  15. Testing fundamental symmetries using radioactive ion beams at ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The ISAC Facility at TRIUMF, Canada's national laboratory for particle and nuclear physics, provides rare isotope beams for a diverse research program. In this paper we summarize some recent experimental developments at TRIUMF pertaining to fundamental symmetry tests. These tests use the atomic nucleus as a probe ...

  16. Crossed beam experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolder, K.T.

    1976-01-01

    Many natural phenomena can only be properly understood if one has a detailed knowledge of interactions involving atoms, molecules, ions, electrons or photons. In the laboratory these processes are often studied by preparing beams of two types of particle and observing the reactions which occur when the beams intersect. Some of the more interesting of these crossed beam experiments and their results are discussed. Proposals to extend colliding beam techniques to high energy particle physics are also outlined. (author)

  17. Design, Assembly, and Testing of a Photon Doppler Velocimetry Probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malone, Robert M.; Cata, Brian M.; Cox, Brian C.; Daykin, Edward P.; DeVore, Douglas O.; Esquibel, David L.; Frayer, Daniel K.; Frogget, Brent C.; Gallegos, Cenobio H.; Kaufman, Morris I.; McGillivray, Kevin D.; Romero, Vincent T.; Briggs, Matthew E.; Furlanetto, Michael R.; Holtkamp, David B.; Pazuchanics, Peter; Primas, Lori E.; Shinas, Michael A.; Sorenson, Danny S.

    2011-01-01

    A novel fiber-optic probe measures the velocity distribution of an imploding surface along many lines of sight. Reflected light from each spot on the moving surface is Doppler shifted with a small portion of this light propagating backwards through the launching fiber. The reflected light is mixed with a reference laser in a technique called photon Doppler velocimetry, providing continuous time records. Within the probe, a matrix array of 56 single-mode fibers sends light through an optical relay consisting of three types of lenses. Seven sets of these relay lenses are grouped into a close-packed array allowing the interrogation of seven regions of interest. A six-faceted prism with a hole drilled into its center directs the light beams to the different regions. Several types of relay lens systems have been evaluated, including doublets and molded aspheric singlets. The optical design minimizes beam diameters and also provides excellent imaging capabilities. One of the fiber matrix arrays can be replaced by an imaging coherent bundle. This close-packed array of seven relay systems provides up to 476 beam trajectories. The pyramid prism has its six facets polished at two different angles that will vary the density of surface point coverage. Fibers in the matrix arrays are angle polished at 8 o to minimize back reflections. This causes the minimum beam waist to vary along different trajectories. Precision metrology on the direction cosine trajectories is measured to satisfy environmental requirements for vibration and temperature.

  18. SU-F-J-197: A Novel Intra-Beam Range Detection and Adaptation Strategy for Particle Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, M; Jiang, S; Shao, Y; Lu, W [UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: In-vivo range detection/verification is crucial in particle therapy for effective and safe delivery. The state-of-art techniques are not sufficient for in-vivo on-line range verification due to conflicts among patient dose, signal statistics and imaging time. We propose a novel intra-beam range detection and adaptation strategy for particle therapy. Methods: This strategy uses the planned mid-range spots as probing beams without adding extra radiation to patients. Such choice of probing beams ensures the Bragg peaks to remain inside the tumor even with significant range variation from the plan. It offers sufficient signal statistics for in-beam positron emission tomography (PET) due to high positron activity of therapeutic dose. The probing beam signal can be acquired and reconstructed using in-beam PET that allows for delineation of the Bragg peaks and detection of range shift with ease of detection enabled by single-layered spots. If the detected range shift is within a pre-defined tolerance, the remaining spots will be delivered as the original plan. Otherwise, a fast re-optimization using range-shifted beamlets and accounting for the probing beam dose is applied to consider the tradeoffs posed by the online anatomy. Simulated planning and delivery studies were used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed techniques. Results: Simulations with online range variations due to shifts of various foreign objects into the beam path showed successful delineation of the Bragg peaks as a result of delivering probing beams. Without on-line delivery adaptation, dose distribution was significantly distorted. In contrast, delivery adaptation incorporating detected range shift recovered well the planned dose. Conclusion: The proposed intra-beam range detection and adaptation utilizing the planned mid-range spots as probing beams, which illuminate the beam range with strong and accurate PET signals, is a safe, practical, yet effective approach to address range

  19. Angular dependence of EEDF in ion-beam plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dudin, S.V.

    1995-01-01

    In a previous paper the results of measurements of electron energy distribution function (EEDF) in ion-beam plasma created by low energy broad ion beam had been presented regardless of the angular dependence of the electron distribution. The present work is specifically aimed towards elucidating the spatial structure of the EEDF in the ion-beam plasma. To solve this problem combination of the techniques of cylindrical probe, large plate probe (5 x 5 mm) and two-grid enegoanalyzer was used. Directional operation of the probes makes possible measurement of angular dependence of electron distribution function which is anisotropic in high energy region. To optimize the construction of the probe-analyzer, experiments with grids were performed, which had different size, mesh, and transparency, under different potentials, and with different distances between grids. Numerical simulation of the analyzer was performed too. It is derived that optimal design for measurements in isotropic plasma is the most plate, thin two-grid probe with maximum angular covering. Investigation of angular dependence of EEDF has shown that the distribution of trapped electrons is completely isotropic, whereas in the energy range of var-epsilon > e var-phi pl (var-phi pl - plasma potential) a strong anisotropy of the EEDF is observed

  20. An Electromagnetic Beam Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    The present invention relates to an electromagnetic beam converter and a method for conversion of an input beam of electromagnetic radiation having a bell shaped intensity profile a(x,y) into an output beam having a prescribed target intensity profile l(x',y') based on a further development...

  1. Beams 92: Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosher, D.; Cooperstein, G.

    1993-01-01

    This report contains papers on the following topics: Ion beam papers; electron beam, bremsstrahlung, and diagnostics papers; radiating Z- pinch papers; microwave papers; electron laser papers; advanced accelerator papers; beam and pulsed power applications papers; pulsed power papers; and these papers have been indexed separately elsewhere

  2. Radiation produced by electrons incident on molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moehlman, G.R.

    1977-01-01

    The work described in this thesis deals with light intensity measurements of emission spectra (1850-9000 A) produced by a continuous or pulsed beam of monoenergetic electrons (0 - 2000 eV) incident on a variety of molecular gases like H 2 , D 2 , H 2 O, HCl, NH 3 and several hydrocarbons. The emission spectra are dominated by fluorescence from excited fragments produced via dissociative excitation, besides fluorescence from excited parent molecules themselves. The experimental results thus obtained are expressed in terms of emission cross sections and lifetimes

  3. The quark beam function at two loops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaunt, Jonathan R.; Stahlhofen, Maximilian; Tackmann, Frank J.

    2014-01-01

    In differential measurements at a hadron collider, collinear initial-state radiation is described by process-independent beam functions. They are the field-theoretic analog of initial-state parton showers. Depending on the measured observable they are differential in the virtuality and/or transverse momentum of the colliding partons in addition to their usual longitudinal momentum fractions. Perturbatively, the beam functions can be calculated by matching them onto standard quark and gluon parton distribution functions. We calculate the inclusive virtuality-dependent quark beam function at NNLO, which is relevant for any observables probing the virtuality of the incoming partons, including N-jettiness and beam thrust. For such observables, our results are an important ingredient in the resummation of large logarithms at N 3 LL order, and provide all contributions enhanced by collinear t-channel singularities at NNLO for quark-initiated processes in analytic form. We perform the calculation in both Feynman and axial gauge and use two different methods to evaluate the discontinuity in the two-loop Feynman diagrams, providing nontrivial checks of the calculation. As part of our results we reproduce the known two-loop QCD splitting functions and confirm at two loops that the virtuality-dependent beam and final-state jet functions have the same anomalous dimension.

  4. The quark beam function at two loops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaunt, Jonathan R.; Stahlhofen, Maximilian; Tackmann, Frank J.

    2014-04-01

    In differential measurements at a hadron collider, collinear initial-state radiation is described by process-independent beam functions. They are the field-theoretic analog of initial-state parton showers. Depending on the measured observable they are differential in the virtuality and/or transverse momentum of the colliding partons in addition to the usual longitudinal momentum fraction. Perturbatively, the beam functions can be calculated by matching them onto standard quark and gluon parton distribution functions. We calculate the inclusive virtuality-dependent quark beam function at NNLO, which is relevant for any observables probing the virtuality of the incoming partons, including N -jettiness and beam thrust. For such observables, our results are an important ingredient in the resummation of large logarithms at N3LL order, and provide all contributions enhanced by collinear t-channel singularities at NNLO for quark-initiated processes in analytic form. We perform the calculation in both Feynman and axial gauge and use two different methods to evaluate the discontinuity of the two-loop Feynman diagrams, providing nontrivial checks of the calculation. As part of our results we reproduce the known two-loop QCD splitting functions and confirm at two loops that the virtuality-dependent beam and final-state jet functions have the same anomalous dimension.

  5. The quark beam function at two loops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaunt, Jonathan R.; Stahlhofen, Maximilian; Tackmann, Frank J.

    2014-01-15

    In differential measurements at a hadron collider, collinear initial-state radiation is described by process-independent beam functions. They are the field-theoretic analog of initial-state parton showers. Depending on the measured observable they are differential in the virtuality and/or transverse momentum of the colliding partons in addition to their usual longitudinal momentum fractions. Perturbatively, the beam functions can be calculated by matching them onto standard quark and gluon parton distribution functions. We calculate the inclusive virtuality-dependent quark beam function at NNLO, which is relevant for any observables probing the virtuality of the incoming partons, including N-jettiness and beam thrust. For such observables, our results are an important ingredient in the resummation of large logarithms at N{sup 3}LL order, and provide all contributions enhanced by collinear t-channel singularities at NNLO for quark-initiated processes in analytic form. We perform the calculation in both Feynman and axial gauge and use two different methods to evaluate the discontinuity in the two-loop Feynman diagrams, providing nontrivial checks of the calculation. As part of our results we reproduce the known two-loop QCD splitting functions and confirm at two loops that the virtuality-dependent beam and final-state jet functions have the same anomalous dimension.

  6. The quark beam function at two loops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaunt, Jonathan R.; Stahlhofen, Maximilian; Tackmann, Frank J. [Theory Group, Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY),D-22607 Hamburg (Germany)

    2014-04-16

    In differential measurements at a hadron collider, collinear initial-state radiation is described by process-independent beam functions. They are the field-theoretic analog of initial-state parton showers. Depending on the measured observable they are differential in the virtuality and/or transverse momentum of the colliding partons in addition to the usual longitudinal momentum fraction. Perturbatively, the beam functions can be calculated by matching them onto standard quark and gluon parton distribution functions. We calculate the inclusive virtuality-dependent quark beam function at NNLO, which is relevant for any observables probing the virtuality of the incoming partons, including N-jettiness and beam thrust. For such observables, our results are an important ingredient in the resummation of large logarithms at N{sup 3}LL order, and provide all contributions enhanced by collinear t-channel singularities at NNLO for quark-initiated processes in analytic form. We perform the calculation in both Feynman and axial gauge and use two different methods to evaluate the discontinuity of the two-loop Feynman diagrams, providing nontrivial checks of the calculation. As part of our results we reproduce the known two-loop QCD splitting functions and confirm at two loops that the virtuality-dependent beam and final-state jet functions have the same anomalous dimension.

  7. The diagnostic neutral beam system for text

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammond, D.P.; Burgin, D.; Coupland, J.R.; DeVere, A.P.C.; Green, T.S.; Klein, H.H.

    1986-01-01

    The detection of highly stripped impurity ions in a Tokamak plasma by means of charge exchange with a probing neutral beam is an interesting and developing technique. Such a beam system is being designed and manufactured by the Culham Laboratory under contract to the University of Texas at Austin. The specification is for a high brightness beam of hydrogen atoms of 30-50 keV energy with a current density of 30 mA/cm/sup 2/ in the target plane. The pulse length is 100 mS, and the beam has to be capable of being modulated at high frequency (≥ 1 KHz) to improve the overall detection capability of the diagnostic system. The total extracted current at 50 KV is 7.2A. The design has been based on a ''bucket'' type plasma source with a four-electrode extraction array of circular apertures. Low perveance extraction is used to obtain both high brightness and freedom from high voltage breakdown, in view of the high degree of reliability needed. Details of performance of the beam line measured during commissioning tests at Culham are given

  8. Measurement of beam energy spectrum and impurity content in high-power neutral beam injectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langley, R.A.; Ryan, P.M.; Tsai, C.C.; Menon, M.M.; Botnick, E.M.; Magee, C.W.

    1985-01-01

    The energy spectrum and impurity content of a high-power neutral beam are measured by implanting the beam into high-purity silicon crystals. The depth distribution of the beam particles is then measured by secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS); the penetration depth is a function of the incident particle energy. This is one of the few measurement techniques that can determine neutral beam energy components directly. From the results, percentages of atomic and molecular ions in the source plasma can be inferred. Use of deuterium as the source gas provides insight into the role of residual hydrogen in the ion source and accelerating grids and in the SIMS analysis. The principal impurities are carbon and oxygen. Preliminary data indicate that carbon can originate from both methane and carbon monoxide, while oxygen can come from molecular oxygen, carbon monoxide, and water. Results are given and future plans are discussed

  9. Proton probing of ultra-thin foil dynamics in high intensity regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Rajendra; Aktan, Esin; Aurand, Bastian; Cerchez, Mirela; Willi, Oswald

    2017-10-01

    The field of laser driven ion acceleration has been enriched significantly over the past decade, thanks to the advanced laser technologies. Already, from 100s TW class systems, laser driven sources of particles and radiations are being considered in number of potential applications in science and medicine due to their unique properties. New physical effects unearthed at these systems may help understand and conduct successful experiments at several PW class multi-beam facilities with high rep rate systems, e.g. ELI. Here we present the first experimental results on ultra-thin foil dynamics irradiated by an ultra-high intensity (1020 W/cm2) , ultra-high contrast (10-12) laser pulse at ARCTURUS laser facility at HHU Duesseldorf. By employing the elegant proton probing technique it is observed that for the circular polarization of laser light, a 100nm thin target is pushed forward as a compressed layer due to the radiation pressure of light. Whereas, the linear polarization seems to decompress the target drastically. 2D particle-in-cell simulations corroborate the experimental findings. Our results confirm the previous simulation studies investigating the fundamental role played by light polarization, finite focus spot size effect and eventually electron heating including the oblique incidence at the target edges.

  10. A plasma amplifier to combine multiple beams at NIF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkwood, R. K.; Turnbull, D. P.; Chapman, T.; Wilks, S. C.; Rosen, M. D.; London, R. A.; Pickworth, L. A.; Colaitis, A.; Dunlop, W. H.; Poole, P.; Moody, J. D.; Strozzi, D. J.; Michel, P. A.; Divol, L.; Landen, O. L.; MacGowan, B. J.; Van Wonterghem, B. M.; Fournier, K. B.; Blue, B. E.

    2018-05-01

    Combining laser beams in a plasma is enabled by seeded stimulated Brillouin scattering which allows cross-beam energy transfer (CBET) to occur and re-distributes the energy between beams that cross with different incident angles and small differences in wavelength [Kirkwood et al. Phys. Plasmas 4, 1800 (1997)]. Indirect-drive implosions at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) [Haynam et al. Appl. Opt. 46, 3276-3303 (2007)] have controlled drive symmetry by using plasma amplifiers to transfer energy between beams [Kirkwood et al., Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 55, 103001 (2013); Lindl et al., Phys. Plasmas 21, 020501 (2014); and Hurricane et al. Nature 506, 343-348 (2014)]. In this work, we show that the existing models are well enough validated by experiments to allow a design of a plasma beam combiner that, once optimized, is expected to produce a pulse of light in a single beam with the energy greatly enhanced over existing sources. The scheme combines up to 61 NIF beams with 120 kJ of available energy into a single f/20 beam with a 1 ns pulse duration and a 351 nm wavelength by both resonant and off-resonance CBET. Initial experiments are also described that have already succeeded in producing a 4 kJ, 1 ns pulse in a single beam by combination of up to eight incident pump beams containing <1.1 kJ/beam, which are maintained near resonance for CBET in a plasma that is formed by 60 pre-heating beams [Kirkwood et al., Nat. Phys. 14, 80 (2018)].

  11. The Galaxy Evolution Probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, Jason; Galaxy Evolution Probe Team

    2018-01-01

    The Galaxy Evolution Probe (GEP) is a concept for a far-infrared observatory to survey large regions of sky for star-forming galaxies from z = 0 to beyond z = 3. Our knowledge of galaxy formation is incomplete and requires uniform surveys over a large range of redshifts and environments to accurately describe mass assembly, star formation, supermassive black hole growth, interactions between these processes, and what led to their decline from z ~ 2 to the present day. Infrared observations are sensitive to dusty, star-forming galaxies, which have bright polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission features and warm dust continuum in the rest-frame mid infrared and cooler thermal dust emission in the far infrared. Unlike previous far-infrared continuum surveys, the GEP will measure photometric redshifts commensurate with galaxy detections from PAH emission and Si absorption features, without the need for obtaining spectroscopic redshifts of faint counterparts at other wavelengths.The GEP design includes a 2 m diameter telescope actively cooled to 4 K and two instruments: (1) An imager covering 10 to 300 um with 25 spectral resolution R ~ 8 bands (with lower R at the longest wavelengths) to detect star-forming galaxies and measure their redshifts photometrically. (2) A 23 – 190 um, R ~ 250 dispersive spectrometer for redshift confirmation and identification of obscured AGN using atomic fine-structure lines. Lines including [Ne V], [O IV], [O III], [O I], and [C II] will probe gas physical conditions, radiation field hardness, and metallicity. Notionally, the GEP will have a two-year mission: galaxy surveys with photometric redshifts in the first year and a second year devoted to follow-up spectroscopy. A comprehensive picture of star formation in galaxies over the last 10 billion years will be assembled from cosmologically relevant volumes, spanning environments from field galaxies and groups, to protoclusters, to dense galaxy clusters.Commissioned by NASA, the

  12. Energy spectrum control for modulated proton beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsi, Wen C.; Moyers, Michael F.; Nichiporov, Dmitri; Anferov, Vladimir; Wolanski, Mark; Allgower, Chris E.; Farr, Jonathan B.; Mascia, Anthony E.; Schreuder, Andries N.

    2009-01-01

    In proton therapy delivered with range modulated beams, the energy spectrum of protons entering the delivery nozzle can affect the dose uniformity within the target region and the dose gradient around its periphery. For a cyclotron with a fixed extraction energy, a rangeshifter is used to change the energy but this produces increasing energy spreads for decreasing energies. This study investigated the magnitude of the effects of different energy spreads on dose uniformity and distal edge dose gradient and determined the limits for controlling the incident spectrum. A multilayer Faraday cup (MLFC) was calibrated against depth dose curves measured in water for nonmodulated beams with various incident spectra. Depth dose curves were measured in a water phantom and in a multilayer ionization chamber detector for modulated beams using different incident energy spreads. Some nozzle entrance energy spectra can produce unacceptable dose nonuniformities of up to ±21% over the modulated region. For modulated beams and small beam ranges, the width of the distal penumbra can vary by a factor of 2.5. When the energy spread was controlled within the defined limits, the dose nonuniformity was less than ±3%. To facilitate understanding of the results, the data were compared to the measured and Monte Carlo calculated data from a variable extraction energy synchrotron which has a narrow spectrum for all energies. Dose uniformity is only maintained within prescription limits when the energy spread is controlled. At low energies, a large spread can be beneficial for extending the energy range at which a single range modulator device can be used. An MLFC can be used as part of a feedback to provide specified energy spreads for different energies.

  13. Preparation of nanowire specimens for laser-assisted atom probe tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumtritt, H; Isheim, D; Senz, S; Seidman, D N; Moutanabbir, O

    2014-10-31

    The availability of reliable and well-engineered commercial instruments and data analysis software has led to development in recent years of robust and ergonomic atom-probe tomographs. Indeed, atom-probe tomography (APT) is now being applied to a broader range of materials classes that involve highly important scientific and technological problems in materials science and engineering. Dual-beam focused-ion beam microscopy and its application to the fabrication of APT microtip specimens have dramatically improved the ability to probe a variety of systems. However, the sample preparation is still challenging especially for emerging nanomaterials such as epitaxial nanowires which typically grow vertically on a substrate through metal-catalyzed vapor phase epitaxy. The size, morphology, density, and sensitivity to radiation damage are the most influential parameters in the preparation of nanowire specimens for APT. In this paper, we describe a step-by-step process methodology to allow a precisely controlled, damage-free transfer of individual, short silicon nanowires onto atom probe microposts. Starting with a dense array of tiny nanowires and using focused ion beam, we employed a sequence of protective layers and markers to identify the nanowire to be transferred and probed while protecting it against Ga ions during lift-off processing and tip sharpening. Based on this approach, high-quality three-dimensional atom-by-atom maps of single aluminum-catalyzed silicon nanowires are obtained using a highly focused ultraviolet laser-assisted local electrode atom probe tomograph.

  14. Cosmological Probes for Supersymmetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxim Khlopov

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The multi-parameter character of supersymmetric dark-matter models implies the combination of their experimental studies with astrophysical and cosmological probes. The physics of the early Universe provides nontrivial effects of non-equilibrium particles and primordial cosmological structures. Primordial black holes (PBHs are a profound signature of such structures that may arise as a cosmological consequence of supersymmetric (SUSY models. SUSY-based mechanisms of baryosynthesis can lead to the possibility of antimatter domains in a baryon asymmetric Universe. In the context of cosmoparticle physics, which studies the fundamental relationship of the micro- and macro-worlds, the development of SUSY illustrates the main principles of this approach, as the physical basis of the modern cosmology provides cross-disciplinary tests in physical and astronomical studies.

  15. Convex probe endobronchial ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bade, Brett; Furukawa, Brian; Tanner, Nichole T

    2014-12-01

    Convex probe endobronchial ultrasound (EBUS) is a minimally invasive diagnostic technique that allows real-time sampling of mediastinal and hilar lymph nodes and central pulmonary lesions. Its utility in diagnosing both malignant and nonmalignant diseases has led to an increased uptake and use by pulmonologists over the past decade. Because of the robust evidence supporting its safety and diagnostic yield, EBUS is now the first guideline recommended test for staging in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). It has also a role in providing tissue for molecular analysis, thereby guiding in the selection of agents in the new era of personalized chemotherapies in the treatment of NSCLC. The following review highlights the evidence for EBUS in diagnosing mediastinal pathology and addresses technique, training, and competency and future directions for this technology. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  16. The X-ray-fluorescence facility at ANKA, Karlsruhe: Minimum detection limits and micro probe capabilities

    CERN Document Server

    Simon, R; Hagelstein, M

    2003-01-01

    At the recently constructed synchrotron radiation facility ANKA at Karlsruhe, Germany, a beamline partially dedicated to X-ray fluorescence has been constructed where TXRF and micro probe SRXRF experiments can be performed. The beam line with its retractable double multilayer monochromator is described. First measurements on reference samples allow a preliminary characterization of beam line parameters like exploitable energy range and the energy resolution as well as the sensitivity of the set-up in means of minimum detection limits.

  17. Focused ion beam milling of carbon fibres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huson, Mickey G.; Church, Jeffrey S.; Hillbrick, Linda K.; Woodhead, Andrea L.; Sridhar, Manoj; Van De Meene, Allison M.L.

    2015-01-01

    A focused ion beam has been used to mill both individual carbon fibres as well as fibres in an epoxy composite, with a view to preparing flat surfaces for nano-indentation. The milled surfaces have been assessed for damage using scanning probe microscopy nano-indentation and Raman micro-probe analysis, revealing that FIB milling damages the carbon fibre surface and covers surrounding areas with debris of disordered carbon. The debris is detected as far as 100 μm from the milling site. The energy of milling as well as the orientation of the beam was varied and shown to have an effect when assessed by Raman spectroscopy. - Highlights: • Focused ion beam (FIB) milling was used to mill flat surfaces on carbon fibres. • Raman spectroscopy showed amorphous carbon was generated during FIB milling. • The amorphous debris is detected as far as 100 μm from the milling site. • This surface degradation was confirmed by nano-indentation experiments.

  18. Radiation incidents in dentistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lovelock, D.J.

    1996-01-01

    Most dental practitioners act as their own radiographer and radiologist, unlike their medical colleagues. Virtually all dental surgeons have a dental X-ray machine for intraoral radiography available to them and 40% of dental practices have equipment for dental panoramic tomography. Because of the low energy of X-ray equipment used in dentistry, radiation incidents tend to be less serious than those associated with other aspects of patient care. Details of 47 known incidents are given. The advent of the 1985 and 1988 Ionising Radiation Regulations has made dental surgeons more aware of the hazards of radiation. These regulations, and general health and safety legislation, have led to a few dental surgeons facing legal action. Because of the publicity associated with these court cases, it is expected that there will be a decrease in radiation incidents arising from the practice of dentistry. (author)

  19. Extension of filament propagation in water with Bessel-Gaussian beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaya, G.; Sayrac, M.; Boran, Y.; Kolomenskii, A. A.; Kaya, N.; Schuessler, H. A.; Strohaber, J.; Amani, M.

    2016-01-01

    We experimentally studied intense femtosecond pulse filamentation and propagation in water for Bessel-Gaussian beams with different numbers of radial modal lobes. The transverse modes of the incident Bessel-Gaussian beam were created from a Gaussian beam of a Ti:sapphire laser system by using computer generated hologram techniques. We found that filament propagation length increased with increasing number of lobes under the conditions of the same peak intensity, pulse duration, and the size of the central peak of the incident beam, suggesting that the radial modal lobes may serve as an energy reservoir for the filaments formed by the central intensity peak.

  20. Risk factors for radiotherapy incidents: a single institutional experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishiyama, Hiromichi; Shuto, Nobuaki; Terazaki, Tsuyoshi; Noda, Shigetoshi; Ishigami, Minoru; Yogo, Katsunori; Hayakawa, Kazushige

    2018-01-30

    We aimed to analyze risk factors for incidents occurring during the practice of external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) at a single Japanese center. Treatment data for EBRT from June 2014 to March 2017 were collected. Data from incident reports submitted during this period were reviewed. Near-miss cases were not included. Risk factors for incidents, including patient characteristics and treatment-related factors, were explored using uni- and multivariate analyses. Factors contributing to each incident were also retrospectively categorized according to the recommendations of the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM). A total of 2887 patients were treated during the study period, and 26 incidents occurred (0.90% per patient). Previous history of radiotherapy and large fraction size were identified as risk factors for incidents by univariate analysis. Only previous history of radiotherapy was detected as a risk factor in multivariate analysis. Identified categories of contributing factors were human behavior (50.0%), communication (40.6%), and technical (9.4%). The incident rate of EBRT was 0.90% per patient in our institution. Previous history of radiotherapy and large fraction size were detected as risk factors for incidents. Human behavior and communication errors were identified as contributing factors for most incidents. Copyright © 2018 American Association of Medical Dosimetrists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Pulling cylindrical particles using a soft-nonparaxial tractor beam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novitsky, Andrey; Ding, Weiqiang; Wang, Maoyan

    2017-01-01

    In order to pull objects towards the light source a single tractor beam inevitably needs to be strongly nonparaxial. This stringent requirement makes such a tractor beam somewhat hypothetical. Here we reveal that the cylindrical shape of dielectric particles can effectively mitigate...... the nonparaxiality requirements, reducing the incidence angle of the partial plane waves of the light beam down to 45 degrees and even to 30 degrees for respectively dipole and dipole-quadrupole objects. The optical pulling force attributed to the interaction of magnetic dipole and magnetic quadrupole moments...... of dielectric cylinders occurs due to the TE rather than TM polarization. Therefore, the polarization state of the incident beam can be utilized as an external control for switching between the pushing and pulling forces. The results have application values towards optical micromanipulation, transportation...

  2. Design and Calibration Tests of an Active Sound Intensity Probe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Kletschkowski

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an active sound intensity probe that can be used for sound source localization in standing wave fields. The probe consists of a sound hard tube that is terminated by a loudspeaker and an integrated pair of microphones. The microphones are used to decompose the standing wave field inside the tube into its incident and reflected part. The latter is cancelled by an adaptive controller that calculates proper driving signals for the loudspeaker. If the open end of the actively controlled tube is placed close to a vibrating surface, the radiated sound intensity can be determined by measuring the cross spectral density between the two microphones. A one-dimensional free field can be realized effectively, as first experiments performed on a simplified test bed have shown. Further tests proved that a prototype of the novel sound intensity probe can be calibrated.

  3. Solar Power System Design for the Solar Probe+ Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.; Schmitz, Paul C.; Kinnison, James; Fraeman, Martin; Roufberg, Lew; Vernon, Steve; Wirzburger, Melissa

    2008-01-01

    Solar Probe+ is an ambitious mission proposed to the solar corona, designed to make a perihelion approach of 9 solar radii from the surface of the sun. The high temperature, high solar flux environment makes this mission a significant challenge for power system design. This paper summarizes the power system conceptual design for the solar probe mission. Power supplies considered included nuclear, solar thermoelectric generation, solar dynamic generation using Stirling engines, and solar photovoltaic generation. The solar probe mission ranges from a starting distance from the sun of 1 AU, to a minimum distance of about 9.5 solar radii, or 0.044 AU, from the center of the sun. During the mission, the solar intensity ranges from one to about 510 times AM0. This requires power systems that can operate over nearly three orders of magnitude of incident intensity.

  4. Nonequilibrium dynamics of probe filaments in actin-myosin networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladrow, J.; Broedersz, C. P.; Schmidt, C. F.

    2017-08-01

    Active dynamic processes of cells are largely driven by the cytoskeleton, a complex and adaptable semiflexible polymer network, motorized by mechanoenzymes. Small dimensions, confined geometries, and hierarchical structures make it challenging to probe dynamics and mechanical response of such networks. Embedded semiflexible probe polymers can serve as nonperturbing multiscale probes to detect force distributions in active polymer networks. We show here that motor-induced forces transmitted to the probe polymers are reflected in nonequilibrium bending dynamics, which we analyze in terms of spatial eigenmodes of an elastic beam under steady-state conditions. We demonstrate how these active forces induce correlations among the mode amplitudes, which furthermore break time-reversal symmetry. This leads to a breaking of detailed balance in this mode space. We derive analytical predictions for the magnitude of resulting probability currents in mode space in the white-noise limit of motor activity. We relate the structure of these currents to the spatial profile of motor-induced forces along the probe polymers and provide a general relation for observable currents on two-dimensional hyperplanes.

  5. Probing solids and liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, D.H.

    1977-01-01

    The wide application of scattering experiments in the study of the structures of solids and liquids is surveyed. Part 1 of the review (Martin. Contemp. Phys.;vol. 18, No. 1: Jan. 1977:pp. 81-98) showed how the angular distribution of a scattered beam of photons or neutrons is related by Fourier transform to the space and time-dependent distributions of electrons and nuclei in the scattering target. The use of x-rays and of neutrons in determining time-averaged density distributions was examined. In this part the time-dependent aspects of the distributions for solids and liquids, including helium, are discussed. The dynamical distributions of magnetism (or angular momentum) density are considered, and the present limitations and future possibilities of scattering experiments are examined. (U.K.)

  6. Asymmetric-cut variable-incident-angle monochromator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smither, R K; Graber, T J; Fernandez, P B; Mills, D M

    2012-03-01

    A novel asymmetric-cut variable-incident-angle monochromator was constructed and tested in 1997 at the Advanced Photon Source of Argonne National Laboratory. The monochromator was originally designed as a high heat load monochromator capable of handling 5-10 kW beams from a wiggler source. This was accomplished by spreading the x-ray beam out on the surface an asymmetric-cut crystal and by using liquid metal cooling of the first crystal. The monochromator turned out to be a highly versatile monochromator that could perform many different types of experiments. The monochromator consisted of two 18° asymmetrically cut Si crystals that could be rotated about 3 independent axes. The first stage (Φ) rotates the crystal around an axis perpendicular to the diffraction plane. This rotation changes the angle of the incident beam with the surface of the crystal without changing the Bragg angle. The second rotation (Ψ) is perpendicular to the first and is used to control the shape of the beam footprint on the crystal. The third rotation (Θ) controls the Bragg angle. Besides the high heat load application, the use of asymmetrically cut crystals allows one to increase or decrease the acceptance angle for crystal diffraction of a monochromatic x-ray beam and allows one to increase or decrease the wavelength bandwidth of the diffraction of a continuum source like a bending-magnet beam or a normal x-ray-tube source. When the monochromator is used in the doubly expanding mode, it is possible to expand the vertical size of the double-diffracted beam by a factor of 10-15. When this was combined with a bending magnet source, it was possible to generate an 8 keV area beam, 16 mm wide by 26 mm high with a uniform intensity and parallel to 1.2 arc sec that could be applied in imaging experiments.

  7. Study of polarization properties of fiber-optics probes with use of a binary phase plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alferov, S V; Khonina, S N; Karpeev, S V

    2014-04-01

    We conduct a theoretical and experimental study of the distribution of the electric field components in the sharp focal domain when rotating a zone plate with a π-phase jump placed in the focused beam. Comparing the theoretical and experimental results for several kinds of near-field probes, an analysis of the polarization sensitivity of different types of metal-coated aperture probes is conducted. It is demonstrated that with increasing diameter of the non-metal-coated tip part there occurs an essential redistribution of sensitivity in favor of the transverse electric field components and an increase of the probe's energy throughput.

  8. Non-inductive current probe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Christen Kjeldahl

    1977-01-01

    The current probe described is a low-cost, shunt resistor for monitoring current pulses in e.g., pulsed lasers. Rise time is......The current probe described is a low-cost, shunt resistor for monitoring current pulses in e.g., pulsed lasers. Rise time is...

  9. Gene probes: principles and protocols

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Aquino de Muro, Marilena; Rapley, Ralph

    2002-01-01

    ... of labeled DNA has allowed genes to be mapped to single chromosomes and in many cases to a single chromosome band, promoting significant advance in human genome mapping. Gene Probes: Principles and Protocols presents the principles for gene probe design, labeling, detection, target format, and hybridization conditions together with detailed protocols, accom...

  10. Phase imaging quality improvement by modification of AFM probes' cantilever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skibinski, J; Rebis, J; Kaczmarek, L; Wejrzanowski, T; Plocinski, T; Rozniatowski, K

    2018-03-01

    Imaging of the surface of materials by atomic force microscopy under tapping and phase imaging mode, with use of modified probes is addressed. In this study, the circularly shaped holes located in varying distance from the probe base, were cut out by focused ion beam. Such modification was a consequence of the results of the previous experiments (probe tip sharpening and cantilever thinning) where significant improvement of image quality in tapping and phase imaging mode has been revealed. The solution proposed herein gives similar results, but is much simpler from the technological point of view. Shorter exposition time of the tip onto gallium ions during FIB processing allows to reduce material degradation. The aim of this modification was to change harmonic oscillators' properties in the simplest and fastest way, to obtain stronger signal for higher resonant frequencies, which can be advantageous for improving the quality of imaging in PI mode. Probes shaped in that way were used for AFM investigations with Bruker AFM nanoscope 8. As a testing material, titanium roughness standard sample, supplied by Bruker, was used. The results have shown that the modifications performed within these studies influence the oscillation of the probes, which in some cases may result in deterioration of the imaging quality under tapping mode for one or both self-resonant frequencies. However, phase imaging results obtained using modified probes are of higher quality. The numerical simulations performed by application of finite element method were used to explain the results obtained experimentally. Phenomenon described within this study allows to apply developed modelling methodology for prediction of effects of various modifications on the probes' tip, and as a result, to predict how proposed modifications will affect AFM imaging quality. © 2017 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2017 Royal Microscopical Society.

  11. A high resolution hand-held focused beam profiler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapata-Farfan, J.; Garduño-Mejía, J.; Rosete-Aguilar, M.; Ascanio, G.; Román-Moreno, C. J.

    2017-05-01

    The shape of a beam is important in any laser application and depending on the final implementation, there exists a preferred one which is defined by the irradiance distribution.1 The energy distribution (or laser beam profile) is an important parameter in a focused beam, for instance, in laser cut industry, where the beam shape determines the quality of the cut. In terms of alignment and focusing, the energy distribution also plays an important role since the system must be configured in order to reduce the aberration effects and achieve the highest intensity. Nowadays a beam profiler is used in both industry and research laboratories with the aim to characterize laser beams used in free-space communications, focusing and welding, among other systems. The purpose of the profile analyzers is to know the main parameters of the beam, to control its characteristics as uniformity, shape and beam size as a guide to align the focusing system. In this work is presented a high resolution hand-held and compact design of a beam profiler capable to measure at the focal plane, with covered range from 400 nm to 1000 nm. The detection is reached with a CMOS sensor sized in 3673.6 μm x 2738.4 μm which acquire a snap shot of the previously attenuated focused beam to avoid the sensor damage, the result is an image of beam intensity distribution, which is digitally processed with a RaspberryTMmodule gathering significant parameters such as beam waist, centroid, uniformity and also some aberrations. The profiler resolution is 1.4 μm and was probed and validated in three different focusing systems. The spot sizes measurements were compared with the Foucault knife-edge test.

  12. Strong-strong beam-beam simulation on parallel computer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiang, Ji

    2004-08-02

    The beam-beam interaction puts a strong limit on the luminosity of the high energy storage ring colliders. At the interaction points, the electromagnetic fields generated by one beam focus or defocus the opposite beam. This can cause beam blowup and a reduction of luminosity. An accurate simulation of the beam-beam interaction is needed to help optimize the luminosity in high energy colliders.

  13. Strong-strong beam-beam simulation on parallel computer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiang, Ji

    2004-01-01

    The beam-beam interaction puts a strong limit on the luminosity of the high energy storage ring colliders. At the interaction points, the electromagnetic fields generated by one beam focus or defocus the opposite beam. This can cause beam blowup and a reduction of luminosity. An accurate simulation of the beam-beam interaction is needed to help optimize the luminosity in high energy colliders

  14. Incidents in nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franzen, L.F.; Wienhold, W.

    1976-09-01

    With reference to the incident list of the Ministry for the period 1971-74, Prof. Bechert has expressed a lot of questions and statements in a letter to the Government. The letter is quoted in full. Inadequate conclusions drawn by Prof. Bechert in connection with quotations from daily newspapers and other documents are put right. (HP) [de

  15. Lightning incidents in Mongolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myagmar Doljinsuren

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This is one of the first studies that has been conducted in Mongolia on the distribution of lightning incidents. The study covers a 10-year period from 2004 to 2013. The country records a human death rate of 15.4 deaths per 10 million people per year, which is much higher than that of many countries with similar isokeraunic level. The reason may be the low-grown vegetation observed in most rural areas of Mongolia, a surface topography, typical to steppe climate. We suggest modifications to Gomes–Kadir equation for such countries, as it predicts a much lower annual death rate for Mongolia. The lightning incidents spread over the period from May to August with the peak of the number of incidents occurring in July. The worst lightning affected region in the country is the central part. Compared with impacts of other convective disasters such as squalls, thunderstorms and hail, lightning stands as the second highest in the number of incidents, human deaths and animal deaths. Economic losses due to lightning is only about 1% of the total losses due to the four extreme weather phenomena. However, unless precautionary measures are not promoted among the public, this figure of losses may significantly increase with time as the country is undergoing rapid industrialization at present.

  16. Fire Incident Reporting Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-02-01

    the result of an incident that requires (or should require) treatment by a practitioner of medicine , a registered emergency medical technician, or a...UNANNOUNCED AIRCRAFT EMERGENCYS ~~PRIOR TO TAKE OFF OR AFTERLADN 5 FUEL OPERATIONS REQUIRING 1AREING G A FIRE10 ARRESTING GEAR’BARRIER FR . ENGAGEMENTS AND

  17. Water cooled static pressure probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagen, Nicholas T. (Inventor); Eves, John W. (Inventor); Reece, Garland D. (Inventor); Geissinger, Steve L. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    An improved static pressure probe containing a water cooling mechanism is disclosed. This probe has a hollow interior containing a central coolant tube and multiple individual pressure measurement tubes connected to holes placed on the exterior. Coolant from the central tube symmetrically immerses the interior of the probe, allowing it to sustain high temperature (in the region of 2500 F) supersonic jet flow indefinitely, while still recording accurate pressure data. The coolant exits the probe body by way of a reservoir attached to the aft of the probe. The pressure measurement tubes are joined to a single, larger manifold in the reservoir. This manifold is attached to a pressure transducer that records the average static pressure.

  18. Electrophoresis-mass spectrometry probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andresen, Brian D.; Fought, Eric R.

    1987-01-01

    The invention involves a new technique for the separation of complex mixtures of chemicals, which utilizes a unique interface probe for conventional mass spectrometers which allows the electrophoretically separated compounds to be analyzed in real-time by a mass spectrometer. This new chemical analysis interface, which couples electrophoresis with mass spectrometry, allows complex mixtures to be analyzed very rapidly, with much greater specificity, and with greater sensitivity. The interface or probe provides a means whereby large and/or polar molecules in complex mixtures to be completely characterized. The preferred embodiment of the probe utilizes a double capillary tip which allows the probe tip to be continually wetted by the buffer, which provides for increased heat dissipation, and results in a continually operating interface which is more durable and electronically stable than the illustrated single capillary tip probe interface.

  19. Mobile Probes in Mobile Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørngreen, Rikke; Blomhøj, Ulla; Duvaa, Uffe

    In this paper experiences from using mobile probes in educational design of a mobile learning application is presented. The probing process stems from the cultural probe method, and was influenced by qualitative interview and inquiry approaches. In the project, the mobile phone was not only acting...... as an agent for acquiring empirical data (as the situation in hitherto mobile probe settings) but was also the technological medium for which data should say something about (mobile learning). Consequently, not only the content of the data but also the ways in which data was delivered and handled, provided...... a valuable dimension for investigating mobile use. The data was collected at the same time as design activities took place and the collective data was analysed based on user experience goals and cognitive processes from interaction design and mobile learning. The mobile probe increased the knowledge base...

  20. Wearable probes for service design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mullane, Aaron; Laaksolahti, Jarmo Matti; Svanæs, Dag

    2014-01-01

    by service employees in reflecting on the delivery of a service. In this paper, we present the ‘wearable probe’, a probe concept that captures sensor data without distracting service employees. Data captured by the probe can be used by the service employees to reflect and co-reflect on the service journey......Probes are used as a design method in user-centred design to allow end-users to inform design by collecting data from their lives. Probes are potentially useful in service innovation, but current probing methods require users to interrupt their activity and are consequently not ideal for use......, helping to identify opportunities for service evolution and innovation....

  1. Selective coupling of HE11 and TM01 modes into microfabricated fully metal-coated quartz probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tortora, P.; Descrovi, E.; Aeschimann, L.; Vaccaro, L.; Herzig, H.-P.; Daendliker, R.

    2007-01-01

    We report computational and experimental investigations on injection and transmission of light in microfabricated fully Aluminum-coated quartz probes. In particular, we show that a selective coupling of either the HE 11 or the TM 01 mode can be carried out by injecting focused linearly or radially polarized beams into the probe. Optical fields, emitted by the probe after a controlled injection, are characterized in intensity and phase with the help of an interferometric technique. With the help of near-field measurement, we finally demonstrate that a longitudinally polarized spot localized at the tip apex is actually produced when the TM 01 mode is coupled into the probe

  2. Acoustics of finite asymmetric exotic beams: Examples of Airy and fractional Bessel beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitri, F. G.

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of this investigation is to examine the properties of finite asymmetric exotic scalar (acoustic) beams with unusual properties using the angular spectrum decomposition in plane waves. Such beams possess intrinsic uncommon characteristics that make them attractive from the standpoint of particle manipulation, handling and rotation, and possibly other applications in particle clearing and separation. Assuming a specific apodization function at the acoustic source, the angular spectrum function is calculated and used to synthesize the radiated pressure field (i.e., excluding evanescent waves that decay away from the source) in the forward direction of wave motion (i.e., away from the source). Moreover, a generalized hybrid method combining the angular spectrum approach with the multipole expansion formalism in spherical coordinates is developed, which is applicable to any finite beam of arbitrary wavefront. The improved approach allows adequate computation of the resonance scattering, radiation force, and spin torque components on an object of arbitrary shape, located on or off the axis of the incident beam in space. Considering the illustrative example of a viscous fluid sphere submerged in a non-viscous liquid and illuminated by finite asymmetric beams such as the Airy and the Bessel vortex beam with fractional order, numerical computations for the scattering, radiation force, and torque components are performed with an emphasis on the distance from the source, the arbitrary location of the particle ,and the asymmetric nature of the incident field. Moreover, beamforming calculations are presented with supplementary animations for the pressure field distribution in space, with an emphasis on the intrinsic properties of the selected beams. The numerical predictions illustrate the scattering, radiation force, and spin torque properties depending on the beam parameters and the distance separating the sphere from the source. This study provides a generalized

  3. Laser beam shaping techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DICKEY,FRED M.; WEICHMAN,LOUIS S.; SHAGAM,RICHARD N.

    2000-03-16

    Industrial, military, medical, and research and development applications of lasers frequently require a beam with a specified irradiance distribution in some plane. A common requirement is a laser profile that is uniform over some cross-section. Such applications include laser/material processing, laser material interaction studies, fiber injection systems, optical data image processing, lithography, medical applications, and military applications. Laser beam shaping techniques can be divided into three areas: apertured beams, field mappers, and multi-aperture beam integrators. An uncertainty relation exists for laser beam shaping that puts constraints on system design. In this paper the authors review the basics of laser beam shaping and present applications and limitations of various techniques.

  4. Beam induced RF heating

    CERN Document Server

    Salvant, B; Arduini, G; Assmann, R; Baglin, V; Barnes, M J; Bartmann, W; Baudrenghien, P; Berrig, O; Bracco, C; Bravin, E; Bregliozzi, G; Bruce, R; Bertarelli, A; Carra, F; Cattenoz, G; Caspers, F; Claudet, S; Day, H; Garlasche, M; Gentini, L; Goddard, B; Grudiev, A; Henrist, B; Jones, R; Kononenko, O; Lanza, G; Lari, L; Mastoridis, T; Mertens, V; Métral, E; Mounet, N; Muller, J E; Nosych, A A; Nougaret, J L; Persichelli, S; Piguiet, A M; Redaelli, S; Roncarolo, F; Rumolo, G; Salvachua, B; Sapinski, M; Schmidt, R; Shaposhnikova, E; Tavian, L; Timmins, M; Uythoven, J; Vidal, A; Wenninger, J; Wollmann, D; Zerlauth, M

    2012-01-01

    After the 2011 run, actions were put in place during the 2011/2012 winter stop to limit beam induced radio frequency (RF) heating of LHC components. However, some components could not be changed during this short stop and continued to represent a limitation throughout 2012. In addition, the stored beam intensity increased in 2012 and the temperature of certain components became critical. In this contribution, the beam induced heating limitations for 2012 and the expected beam induced heating limitations for the restart after the Long Shutdown 1 (LS1) will be compiled. The expected consequences of running with 25 ns or 50 ns bunch spacing will be detailed, as well as the consequences of running with shorter bunch length. Finally, actions on hardware or beam parameters to monitor and mitigate the impact of beam induced heating to LHC operation after LS1 will be discussed.

  5. Craft Stick Beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karplus, Alan K.

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this exercise is to provide a phenomenological 'hands-on' experience that shows how geometry can affect the load carrying capacity of a material used in construction, how different materials have different failure characteristics, and how construction affects the performance of a composite material. This will be accomplished by building beams of a single material and composite beams of a mixture of materials (popsicle sticks, fiberboard sheets, and tongue depressors); testing these layered beams to determine how and where they fail; and based on the failure analysis, designing a layered beam that will fail in a predicted manner. The students will learn the effects of lamination, adhesion, and geometry in layered beam construction on beam strength and failure location.

  6. Transient Astrophysics Probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camp, Jordan; Transient Astrophysics Probe Team

    2018-01-01

    The Transient Astrophysics Probe (TAP) is a wide-field multi-wavelength transient mission proposed for flight starting in the late 2020s. The mission instruments include unique “Lobster-eye” imaging soft X-ray optics that allow a ~1600 deg2 FoV; a high sensitivity, 1 deg2 FoV soft X-ray telescope; a 1 deg2 FoV Infrared telescope with bandpass 0.6-3 micron; and a set of 8 NaI gamma-ray detectors. TAP’s most exciting capability will be the observation of tens per year of X-ray and IR counterparts of GWs involving stellar mass black holes and neutron stars detected by LIGO/Virgo/KAGRA/LIGO-India, and possibly several per year X-ray counterparts of GWs from supermassive black holes, detected by LISA and Pulsar Timing Arrays. TAP will also discover hundreds of X-ray transients related to compact objects, including tidal disruption events, supernova shock breakouts, and Gamma-Ray Bursts from the epoch of reionization.

  7. Steerable Doppler transducer probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fidel, H.F.; Greenwood, D.L.

    1986-01-01

    An ultrasonic diagnostic probe is described which is capable of performing ultrasonic imaging and Doppler measurement consisting of: a hollow case having an acoustic window which passes ultrasonic energy and including chamber means for containing fluid located within the hollow case and adjacent to a portion of the acoustic window; imaging transducer means, located in the hollow case and outside the fluid chamber means, and oriented to direct ultrasonic energy through the acoustic window toward an area which is to be imaged; Doppler transducer means, located in the hollow case within the fluid chamber means, and movably oriented to direct Doppler signals through the acoustic window toward the imaged area; means located within the fluid chamber means and externally controlled for controllably moving the Doppler transducer means to select one of a plurality of axes in the imaged area along which the Doppler signals are to be directed; and means, located external to the fluid chamber means and responsive to the means for moving, for providing an indication signal for identifying the selected axis

  8. Improving the viability and versatility of the E × B probe with an active cooling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lihui; Cai, Guobiao; You, Fengyi; Ren, Xiang; Zheng, Hongru; He, Bijiao

    2018-04-01

    A thermostatic E × B probe is designed to protect the probe body from the thermal effect of the plasma plume that has a significant influence on the resolution of the probe for high-power electric thrusters. An active cooling system, which consists of a cooling panel and carbon fiber felts combined with a recycling system of liquid coolants or an open-type system of gas coolants, is employed to realize the protection of the probe. The threshold for the design parameters for the active cooling system is estimated by deriving the energy transfer of the plasma plume-probe body interaction and the energy taken away by the coolants, and the design details are explained. The diagnostics of the LIPS-300 ion thruster with a power of 3 kW and a screen-grid voltage of 1450 V was implemented by the designed thermostatic E × B probe. The measured spectra illustrate that the thermostatic E × B probe can distinguish the fractions of Xe+ ions and Xe2+ ions without areas of overlap. In addition, the temperature of the probe body was less than 306 K in the beam region of the plasma plume during the 200-min-long continuous test. A thermostatic E × B probe is useful for enhancing the viability and versatility of equipment and for reducing uneconomical and complex test procedures.

  9. Beam Extraction and Transport

    CERN Document Server

    Kalvas, T.

    2013-12-16

    This chapter gives an introduction to low-energy beam transport systems, and discusses the typically used magnetostatic elements (solenoid, dipoles and quadrupoles) and electrostatic elements (einzel lens, dipoles and quadrupoles). The ion beam emittance, beam space-charge effects and the physics of ion source extraction are introduced. Typical computer codes for analysing and designing ion optical systems are mentioned, and the trajectory tracking method most often used for extraction simulations is described in more detail.

  10. Mechanical beam isolator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Post, R.F.; Vann, C.S.

    1996-10-01

    Back-reflections from a target, lenses, etc. can gain energy passing backwards through a laser just like the main beam gains energy passing forwards. Unless something blocks these back-reflections early in their path, they can seriously damage the laser. A Mechanical Beam Isolator is a device that blocks back-reflections early, relatively inexpensively, and without introducing aberrations to the laser beam

  11. Cyclotron radiation beam control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dominke, P.

    1983-01-01

    This patent application describes an apparatus for attenuating a beam of particulate radiation comprising a series of modules, each module being constituted by a sphere having a passage, a cupola covering said sphere and a base supporting said sphere, and means for causing movement of the spheres for aligning said passages with an axis of a beam line and arranging said passages out of alignment so as to attenuate the beam. (author)

  12. Chilled beam application guidebook

    CERN Document Server

    Butler, David; Gräslund, Jonas; Hogeling, Jaap; Lund Kristiansen, Erik; Reinikanen, Mika; Svensson, Gunnar

    2007-01-01

    Chilled beam systems are primarily used for cooling and ventilation in spaces, which appreciate good indoor environmental quality and individual space control. Active chilled beams are connected to the ventilation ductwork, high temperature cold water, and when desired, low temperature hot water system. Primary air supply induces room air to be recirculated through the heat exchanger of the chilled beam. In order to cool or heat the room either cold or warm water is cycled through the heat exchanger.

  13. Who needs hyperon beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipkin, H.J.

    1976-01-01

    Hyperon beams can provide new interesting information about hadron structure and their strong, electromagnetic and weak interactions. The dependence of hadron interactions on strangeness and baryon number is not understood, and data from hyperon beams can provide new clues to paradoxes which arise in the interpretation of data from conventional beams. Examples of interesting data are total and differential cross sections, magnetic moments and values of Gsub(A)/Gsub(V) for weak semileptonic decays. (author)

  14. Formation of oxygen-related defects enhanced by fluorine in BF{sub 2}{sup +}-implanted Si studied by a monoenergetic positron beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uedono, Akira; Moriya, Tsuyoshi; Tanigawa, Shoichiro [Tsukuba Univ., Ibaraki (Japan). Inst. of Materials Science; Kawano, Takao; Nagai, Ryo; Umeda, Kazunori

    1995-12-01

    Defects in 25-keV BF{sub 2}{sup +}- or As{sup +}-implanted Si specimens were probed by a monoenergetic positron beam. For the As{sup +}-implanted specimen, the depth profile of defects was obtained from measurements of Doppler broadening profiles as a function of incident positron energy. The major species of the defects was identified as divacancies. For ion-implanted specimens after annealing treatment, oxygen-related defects were found to be formed. For the BF{sub 2}{sup +}-implanted specimen before annealing treatment, such defects were formed in the subsurface region, where oxygen atoms were implanted by recoil from oxide films. This was attributed to enhanced formation of oxygen-related defects by the presence of F atoms. (author)

  15. Profiling hydrogen in materials using ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziegler, J.F.; Wu, C.P.; Williams, P.

    1977-01-01

    Over the last few years many ion beam techniques have been reported for the profiling of hydrogen in materials. Nine of these were evaluated using similar samples of hydrogen ion-implanted into silicon. When possible the samples were analyzed using two or more techniques to confirm the ion-implanted accuracy. The results of this analysis which has produced a consensus profile of H in silicon which is useful as a calibration standard are reported. The analytical techniques used have capabilities ranging from very high depth resolution (approximately 50 A) and high sensitivity (less than 1 ppM) to deep probes for hydrogen which can sample throughout thin sheets

  16. Neutron beams: a new tool for industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Windsor, C.; Wright, C.

    1980-01-01

    The ability of neutron probes to penetrate substances gives industrial researchers a unique tool to investigate the inside of completed components or a large bulk of material. The quality control of material containing defects can be undertaken with neutron beams using one of the following methods; neutron radiography which reveals structural flaws of millimetre sizes, small angle scattering which picks out fluctuations in density and composition that are in the pico-to-nanometre size range (10 -12 - 10 -9 m), or neutron diffraction which shows up structures on the sub-nanometre scale of atomic spacings. The three techniques are considered and specific examples of their use described. (U.K.)

  17. Experiment of bias probe method at NIRS-18 GHz ECR ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jincho, Kaoru; Yamamoto, Mitsugu; Okada, Takanori; Takasugi, Wataru; Sakuma, Tetsuya; Miyoshi, Tomohiro; Kitagawa, Atsushi; Muramatsu, Masayuki; Biri, Sandor

    2000-01-01

    An 18 GHz ECR ion source (NIRS-HEC) has been developed to produce highly charged heavy ions from Ar to Xe. In order to increase the beam intensity of highly charged ion, we tried a technique of supplying cold electrons into the ECR plasma. In this paper, enhancement of the beam intensity is discussed in detail. The bias voltage is applied on the probe to repel cold electrons which flow from a plasma. The output beam current is 130 eμA for Ar 11+ . (J.P.N.)

  18. A simple approach to atom probe sample preparation by using shadow masks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felfer, Peter; McCarroll, Ingrid; Macauley, Chandra; Cairney, Julie M

    2016-01-01

    Here, we present a new method that utilises shadow masks in a broad ion beam system to prepare atom probe samples. It is particularly suited to non-conductors and materials with surface layers such as surface oxides, implanted layers or thin films. This new approach bypasses the focused ion beam (FIB) lift-out step, increasing the sample throughput, dramatically reducing the required FIB beam time and decreasing the complexity of sample preparation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Precision scans of the Pixel cell response of double sided 3D Pixel detectors to pion and X-ray beams

    CERN Document Server

    Mac Raighne, A; Crossley, M; Alianelli, L; Lozano, M; Dumps, R; Fleta, C; Collins, P; Rodrigues, E; Sawhney, K J S; Tlustos, L; Pennicard, D; Buytaert, J; Stewart, G; Parkes, C; Eklund, L; Campbell, M; Marchal, J; Akiba, K; Pellegrini, G; Llopart, X; Plackett, R; Maneuski, D; Gligorov, V V; Tartoni, N; Nicol, M; Bates, R; Gallas, A; Gimenez, E N; van Beuzekom, M; John, M

    2011-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) silicon sensors offer potential advantages over standard planar sensors for radiation hardness in future high energy physics experiments and reduced charge-sharing for X-ray applications, but may introduce inefficiencies due to the columnar electrodes. These inefficiencies are probed by studying variations in response across a unit pixel cell in a 55 m m pitch double-sided 3D pixel sensor bump bonded to TimePix and Medipix2 readout ASICs. Two complementary characterisation techniques are discussed: the first uses a custom built telescope and a 120GeV pion beam from the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) at CERN; the second employs a novel technique to illuminate the sensor with a micro-focused synchrotron X-ray beam at the Diamond Light Source, UK. For a pion beam incident perpendicular to the sensor plane an overall pixel efficiency of 93.0 +/- 0.5\\% is measured. After a 10 degrees rotation of the device the effect of the columnar region becomes negligible and the overall efficiency rises ...

  20. Generation and application of bessel beams in electron microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grillo, Vincenzo, E-mail: vincenzo.grillo@cnr.it [CNR-Istituto Nanoscienze, Centro S3, Via G Campi 213/a, I-41125 Modena (Italy); CNR-IMEM, Parco Area delle Scienze 37/A, I-43124 Parma (Italy); Harris, Jérémie [Department of Physics, University of Ottawa, 25 Templeton St., Ottawa, Ontario, Canada K1N 6N5 (Canada); Gazzadi, Gian Carlo [CNR-Istituto Nanoscienze, Centro S3, Via G Campi 213/a, I-41125 Modena (Italy); Balboni, Roberto [CNR-IMM Bologna, Via P. Gobetti 101, 40129 Bologna (Italy); Mafakheri, Erfan [Dipartimento di Fisica Informatica e Matematica, Università di Modena e Reggio Emilia, via G Campi 213/a, I-41125 Modena (Italy); Dennis, Mark R. [H.H. Wills Physics Laboratory, University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 1TL (United Kingdom); Frabboni, Stefano [CNR-Istituto Nanoscienze, Centro S3, Via G Campi 213/a, I-41125 Modena (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica Informatica e Matematica, Università di Modena e Reggio Emilia, via G Campi 213/a, I-41125 Modena (Italy); Boyd, Robert W.; Karimi, Ebrahim [Department of Physics, University of Ottawa, 25 Templeton St., Ottawa, Ontario, Canada K1N 6N5 (Canada)

    2016-07-15

    We report a systematic treatment of the holographic generation of electron Bessel beams, with a view to applications in electron microscopy. We describe in detail the theory underlying hologram patterning, as well as the actual electron-optical configuration used experimentally. We show that by optimizing our nanofabrication recipe, electron Bessel beams can be generated with relative efficiencies reaching 37±3%. We also demonstrate by tuning various hologram parameters that electron Bessel beams can be produced with many visible rings, making them ideal for interferometric applications, or in more highly localized forms with fewer rings, more suitable for imaging. We describe the settings required to tune beam localization in this way, and explore beam and hologram configurations that allow the convergences and topological charges of electron Bessel beams to be controlled. We also characterize the phase structure of the Bessel beams generated with our technique, using a simulation procedure that accounts for imperfections in the hologram manufacturing process. - Highlights: • Bessel beams with different convergence, topological charge, visible fringes are demonstrated. • The relation between the Fresnel hologram and the probe shape is explained by detailed calculations and experiments. • Among the holograms here presented the highest relative efficiency is 37%, the best result ever reached for blazed holograms.

  1. Instability of compensated beam-beam collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenzweig, J.B.; Autin, B.; Chen, Pisin.

    1989-01-01

    The beam-beam disruption phenomena in linear colliders are increasingly seen as a source of serious problems for these machines. A plasma compensation scheme, in which the motion of the plasma electrons in the presence of the colliding beams provides neutralizing charge and current densities, has been proposed and studied. But natural alternative to this scheme is to consider the overlapping of nearly identical high energy e + and e/sup /minus// bunches, and the collision of two such pairs - in other words, collision of two opposing relativistic positronium plasmas. It should be noticed that while the luminosity for all collisions is increased by a factor of four in this scheme, the event rate for e + e/sup /minus// collisions is only increased by a factor of two. The other factor of two corresponds to the addition of e + e + and e/sup /minus//e/sup /minus// collisions to the interaction point. This beam compensation scheme, which has been examined through computer simulation by Balakin and Solyak in the Soviet Union, promises full neutralization of beam charges and currents. These numerical investigations have shown that plasma instabilities exist in this nominally neutral system. Although the implementation of this idea seems technically daunting, the potential benefits (beamstrahlung and disruption suppression, relaxation of final focus system constraints) are such that we should consider the physics of these collisions further. In the remainder of this paper, we theoretically analyze the issues of stability and bunch parameter tolerances in this scheme. 11 refs

  2. Design and operation of a bunched-beam , phase-spread measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilpatrick, J.D.; Marquez, H.; Power, J.; Yuan, V.

    1992-01-01

    A bunch-length monitor system has measured the relative changes in the temporal beam-bunch length of an 2.5 MeV H - beam. This system includes a non-interceptive electromagnetic probe, associated RF-processing electronics, and a system-software algorithm. The probe is an axially-symmetric capacitive pickup with output signals proportional to the bunched-beam image currents traveling through its bore. The RF electronics processes the beam-induced signal to obtain the ratio of its fundamental and fifth-harmonic Fourier components and provides a time-varying output voltage proportional to the phase length of the beam bunch. This paper reviews the measurement hardware, software algorithm, and operational experience. (Author) 5 figs., 5 refs

  3. Dual-beam CRT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    A dual-beam cathode-ray tube having a pair of electron guns and associated deflection means disposed side-by-side on each side of a central axis is described. The electron guns are parallel and the deflection means includes beam centering plates and angled horizontal deflection plates to direct the electron beams toward the central axis, precluding the need for a large-diameter tube neck in which the entire gun structures are angled. Bowing control plates are disposed adjacent to the beam centering plates to minimize trace bowing, and an intergun shield is disposed between the horizontal deflection plates to control and correct display pattern geometry distortion

  4. GANIL beam profile detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tribouillard, C.

    1997-01-01

    In the design phase of GANIL which started in 1977, one of the priorities of the project management was equipping the beamlines with a fast and efficient system for visualizing the beam position, thus making possible adjustment of the beam transport lines optics and facilitating beam control. The implantation of some thirty detectors was foreseen in the initial design. The assembly of installed detectors (around 190) proves the advantages of these detectors for displaying all the beams extracted from GANIL: transfer and transport lines, beam extracted from SISSI, very high intensity beam, secondary ion beams from the production target of the LISE and SPEG spectrometers, different SPIRAL project lines. All of these detectors are based on standard characteristics: - standard flange diameter (DN 160) with a standard booster for all the sensors; - identical analog electronics for all the detectors, with networking; - unique display system. The new micro-channel plate non-interceptive detectors (beam profile and ion packet lengths) make possible in-line control of the beam quality and accelerator stability. (author)

  5. ALFA beam halo

    CERN Document Server

    Komarek, Tomas

    2014-01-01

    This note serves as a final report about CERN Summer Student Programme 2014 project. The beam halo is an undesired phenomenon for physics analyses on particle accelerators. It surrounds the beam core and constitutes an important part of background for signal measurements on some detectors, eg. in the forward region. In this study, the data from the ALFA detector were used, specifically from the run 191373 ($\\beta^*=90\\unit{m}$) and the run 213268 ($\\beta^*=1\\unit{km}$). Using the ROOT framework, a software for beam halo events selection was created and beam halo properties were examined. In the run 213268, excessive beam halo is suspected to be the reason for multiple beam scrapings that occurred. A kinematic reconstruction of beam halo particles is attempted in order to understand beam halo properties in the interaction point. Some further simulations are employed to find constraints for beam halo particles in order to survive in the accelerator for a longer time/many revolutions. This work represents a st...

  6. Measurement system with high accuracy for laser beam quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Yi; Zeng, Ciling; Xie, Peiyuan; Jiang, Qingshan; Liang, Ke; Yang, Zhenyu; Zhao, Ming

    2015-05-20

    Presently, most of the laser beam quality measurement system collimates the optical path manually with low efficiency and low repeatability. To solve these problems, this paper proposed a new collimated method to improve the reliability and accuracy of the measurement results. The system accuracy controlled the position of the mirror to change laser beam propagation direction, which can realize the beam perpendicularly incident to the photosurface of camera. The experiment results show that the proposed system has good repeatability and the measuring deviation of M2 factor is less than 0.6%.

  7. Formation of focused laser beams with a hollow metal cone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Pinghui; Pan, Quanjun; Wei, Kaihua; Wu, Bo; Jiang, Peipei; Li, Jia; Peng, Xuefeng

    2015-01-01

    A hollow metal cone is designed to focus a laser beam into a tiny highly localized beam spot. The finite difference time domain method has been introduced to investigate the beam focusing effect along the propagation direction. Without considering the laser–plasma nonlinear interaction, the numerical calculation results show that a focal spot with a full width at half maximum of ∼0.7λ at greatly enhanced intensity and a depth of focus of ∼3λ can be achieved. In addition, the influences of cone angle, cone tip size, metal materials, sidewall thickness and incident wavelength on the focusing properties are analyzed in detail. (letter)

  8. Direct Application of the INNO-LiPA Rif.TB Line-Probe Assay for Rapid Identification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex Strains and Detection of Rifampin Resistance in 360 Smear-Positive Respiratory Specimens from an Area of High Incidence of Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viveiros, Miguel; Leandro, Clara; Rodrigues, Liliana; Almeida, Josefina; Bettencourt, Rosário; Couto, Isabel; Carrilho, Lurdes; Diogo, José; Fonseca, Ana; Lito, Luís; Lopes, João; Pacheco, Teresa; Pessanha, Mariana; Quirim, Judite; Sancho, Luísa; Salfinger, Max; Amaral, Leonard

    2005-01-01

    The INNO-LiPA Rif.TB assay for the identification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex strains and the detection of rifampin (RIF) resistance has been evaluated with 360 smear-positive respiratory specimens from an area of high incidence of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB). The sensitivity when compared to conventional identification/culture methods was 82.2%, and the specificity was 66.7%; the sensitivity and specificity were 100.0% and 96.9%, respectively, for the detection of RIF resistance. This assay has the potential to provide rapid information that is essential for the effective management of MDR-TB. PMID:16145166

  9. Simulation of Beam-Beam Background at CLIC

    CERN Document Server

    Sailer, Andre

    2010-01-01

    The dense beams used at CLIC to achieve a high luminosity will cause a large amount of background particles through beam-beam interactions. Generator level studies with GuineaPig and full detector simulation studies with an ILD based CLIC detector have been performed to evaluate the amount of beam-beam background hitting the vertex detector.

  10. Simulation of Beam-Beam Background at CLIC

    CERN Document Server

    Sailer, A

    2010-01-01

    The dense beams used at CLIC to achieve a high luminosity will cause a large amount of background particles through beam-beam interactions. Generator level studies with GUINEAPIG and full detector simulation studies with an ILD based CLIC detector have been performed to evaluate the amount of beam-beam back- ground hitting the vertex detector.

  11. Final design of kaon beam K2 at KEK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurokawa, Shin-ichi; Yamamoto, Akira.

    1977-09-01

    Final design of the 2.3 GeV/c kaon beam K2 is given. The K2 beam starts from the production target in slow extracted beam. Momentum range is 1 GeV/c through 2.3 GeV/c. Nominal total beam length is 27.9 m and solid-angle momentum acceptance is 6.25 msr%ΔP/P. Using a platinum target of diameter 3 mm and length 6 cm, 2.0 GeV/c beam fluxes of 1.0 x 10 6 K + and 5.2 x 10 5 K - per 10 12 13 GeV/c incident protons are expected at the final focus. (auth.)

  12. Measurement with hadron beams at COMPASS

    CERN Document Server

    Ferrero, Andrea

    2005-01-01

    The physics program of the COMPASS experiment at CERN focuses on the investigation of the hadron structure and spectroscopy, using both leptonic and hadronic probes. The COMPASS experiment has collected so far mostly data with polarized muon beams of 160 GeV, but also a pilot data taking with negative hadron beams of 190 GeV has been successfully completed at the end of the 2004 run. The main physics objectives of this pilot run are the study of soft pion-nuclei interactions. The predictions of the Chiral Perturbation Theory for the electric and magnetic polarizabilities of the pion will be verified through the study of the Primakoff scattering of 190 GeV pions on thin lead targets. A sample corresponding to an integrated beam flux of more than 10$^{11}$ pions has been collected for this purpose, and an equivalent sample with the muon beam of 190 GeV has been collected in the same experimental conditions to correct possible systematic effects. In parallel to the polarizability measurements, first data have al...

  13. Timoshenko beam model for chiral materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, T. Y.; Wang, Y. N.; Yuan, L.; Wang, J. S.; Qin, Q. H.

    2017-12-01

    Natural and artificial chiral materials such as deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), chromatin fibers, flagellar filaments, chiral nanotubes, and chiral lattice materials widely exist. Due to the chirality of intricately helical or twisted microstructures, such materials hold great promise for use in diverse applications in smart sensors and actuators, force probes in biomedical engineering, structural elements for absorption of microwaves and elastic waves, etc. In this paper, a Timoshenko beam model for chiral materials is developed based on noncentrosymmetric micropolar elasticity theory. The governing equations and boundary conditions for a chiral beam problem are derived using the variational method and Hamilton's principle. The static bending and free vibration problem of a chiral beam are investigated using the proposed model. It is found that chirality can significantly affect the mechanical behavior of beams, making materials more flexible compared with nonchiral counterparts, inducing coupled twisting deformation, relatively larger deflection, and lower natural frequency. This study is helpful not only for understanding the mechanical behavior of chiral materials such as DNA and chromatin fibers and characterizing their mechanical properties, but also for the design of hierarchically structured chiral materials.

  14. SU-E-J-205: Monte Carlo Modeling of Ultrasound Probes for Real-Time Ultrasound Image-Guided Radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hristov, D; Schlosser, J; Bazalova, M; Chen, J

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To quantify the effect of ultrasound (US) probe beam attenuation for radiation therapy delivered under real-time US image guidance by means of Monte Carlo (MC) simulations. Methods: MC models of two Philips US probes, an X6-1 matrix-array transducer and a C5-2 curved-array transducer, were built based on their CT images in the EGSnrc BEAMnrc and DOSXYZnrc codes. Due to the metal parts, the probes were scanned in a Tomotherapy machine with a 3.5 MV beam. Mass densities in the probes were assigned based on an electron density calibration phantom consisting of cylinders with mass densities between 0.2–8.0 g/cm 3 . Beam attenuation due to the probes was measured in a solid water phantom for a 6 MV and 15 MV 15x15 cm 2 beam delivered on a Varian Trilogy linear accelerator. The dose was measured with the PTW-729 ionization chamber array at two depths and compared to MC simulations. The extreme case beam attenuation expected in robotic US image guided radiotherapy for probes in upright position was quantified by means of MC simulations. Results: The 3.5 MV CT number to mass density calibration curve was found to be linear with R 2 > 0.99. The maximum mass densities were 4.6 and 4.2 g/cm 3 in the C5-2 and X6-1 probe, respectively. Gamma analysis of the simulated and measured doses revealed that over 98% of measurement points passed the 3%/3mm criteria for both probes and measurement depths. The extreme attenuation for probes in upright position was found to be 25% and 31% for the C5-2 and X6-1 probe, respectively, for both 6 and 15 MV beams at 10 cm depth. Conclusion: MC models of two US probes used for real-time image guidance during radiotherapy have been built. As a Result, radiotherapy treatment planning with the imaging probes in place can now be performed. J Schlosser is an employee of SoniTrack Systems, Inc. D Hristov has financial interest in SoniTrack Systems, Inc

  15. Constipation and Incident CKD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumida, Keiichi; Molnar, Miklos Z; Potukuchi, Praveen K; Thomas, Fridtjof; Lu, Jun Ling; Matsushita, Kunihiro; Yamagata, Kunihiro; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar; Kovesdy, Csaba P

    2017-04-01

    Constipation is one of the most prevalent conditions in primary care settings and increases the risk of cardiovascular disease, potentially through processes mediated by altered gut microbiota. However, little is known about the association of constipation with CKD. In a nationwide cohort of 3,504,732 United States veterans with an eGFR ≥60 ml/min per 1.73 m 2 , we examined the association of constipation status and severity (absent, mild, or moderate/severe), defined using diagnostic codes and laxative use, with incident CKD, incident ESRD, and change in eGFR in Cox models (for time-to-event analyses) and multinomial logistic regression models (for change in eGFR). Among patients, the mean (SD) age was 60.0 (14.1) years old; 93.2% of patients were men, and 24.7% were diabetic. After multivariable adjustments, compared with patients without constipation, patients with constipation had higher incidence rates of CKD (hazard ratio, 1.13; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.11 to 1.14) and ESRD (hazard ratio, 1.09; 95% CI, 1.01 to 1.18) and faster eGFR decline (multinomial odds ratios for eGFR slope constipation associated with an incrementally higher risk for each renal outcome. In conclusion, constipation status and severity associate with higher risk of incident CKD and ESRD and with progressive eGFR decline, independent of known risk factors. Further studies should elucidate the underlying mechanisms. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  16. Cancer incidence among firefighters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pukkala, Eero; Martinsen, Jan Ivar; Weiderpass, Elisabete

    2014-01-01

    .51), adenocarcinoma of the lung (SIR=1.90, 95% CI 1.34 to 2.62), and mesothelioma (SIR=2.59, 95% CI 1.24 to 4.77). By contrast with earlier studies, the incidence of testicular cancer was decreased (SIR=0.51, 95% CI 0.23 to 0.98). CONCLUSIONS: Some of these associations have been observed previously, and potential...

  17. Probe for detection of denting in PWR steam generator tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerardin, J.P.; Germain, J.L.; Nio, J.C.

    1994-07-01

    In certain types of PWR steam generator, oxide deposits can lead to embedding, and subsequently to deformation of a tube (the phenomenon of ''denting''). Such embedding changes the vibratory behavior of the tubes and can result in fatigue cracking. This type of cracking can also be worsened in the event of improper assembly of the anti-vibration spacer bars supporting the U-bends. To prevent such incidents and provide for effective preventive condition-directed maintenance of its PWR steam generators, EDF has undertaken the study and development of a probe to detect this type of phenomenon. The studies began in 1990 and led to the building of an initial prototype probe. The principle behind the probe consists in inducing vibration in the U-bend and determining the main resonance modes of the tube. Measurements of frequency and amplitude and calculation of damping enable characterization of the mechanical behavior of the U-bend. The most important parameter is damping, for which the value must be sufficiently high to ensure that the tube is not subjected to major vibratory amplitudes during operation. Numerous tests have been performed with the first prototype version of the probe, on a mock-up in the test area and on one of the demounted steam generators on the Dampierre site. These different tests have enabled validation of the operating principle, fine-tuning the process, pinpointing certain mechanical problems in the probe design, and obtaining the first indications as to the real vibratory behavior of U-bends on a steam generator. On the basis of these preliminary tests, the specifications were drawn up for an industrial version of the probe. Following a call for bids and the choice of a manufacturer, work began on fabrication of a new probe model in 1993. This version was delivered at the end of 1993 and testing began in 1994. (authors). 5 figs., 2 tabs

  18. Probing the Probes: Fitness Factors For Small Molecule Tools

    OpenAIRE

    Workman, Paul; Collins, Ian

    2010-01-01

    Chemical probes for interrogating biological processes are of considerable current interest. Cell permeable small molecule tools have a major role in facilitating the functional annotation of the human genome, understanding both physiological and pathological processes, and validating new molecular targets. To be valuable, chemical tools must satisfy necessary criteria and recent publications have suggested objective guidelines for what makes a useful chemical probe. Although recognizing that...

  19. Exploiting cellophane birefringence to generate radially and azimuthally polarised vector beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalwe, Johnston; Ominde, Calvine; Rurimo, Geoffrey; Neugebauer, Martin; Leuchs, Gerd; Banzer, Peter

    2015-01-01

    We exploit the birefringence of cellophane to convert a linearly polarised Gaussian beam into either a radially or azimuthally polarised beam. For that, we fabricated a low-cost polarisation mask consisting of four segments of cellophane. The fast axis of each segment is oriented appropriately in order to rotate the polarisation of the incident linearly polarised beam as desired. To ensure the correct operation of the polarisation mask, we tested the polarisation state of the generated beam by measuring the spatial distribution of the Stokes parameters. Such a device is very cost efficient and allows for the generation of cylindrical vector beams of high quality. (paper)

  20. Cancer incidence among waiters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reijula, Jere; Kjaerheim, Kristina; Lynge, Elsebeth

    2015-01-01

    AIMS: To study cancer risk patterns among waiters in the Nordic countries. METHODS: We identified a cohort of 16,134 male and 81,838 female waiters from Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden. During the follow-up period from 1961 to 2005, we found that 19,388 incident cancer cases were...... diagnosed. Standardised incidence ratio (SIR) was defined as the observed number of cancer cases divided by the expected number, based on national age, time period and gender-specific cancer incidence rates in the general population. RESULTS: The SIR of all cancers in waiters, in the five countries combined......, was 1.46 (95% CI 1.41-1.51) in men and 1.09 (1.07-1.11) in women. In male waiters, the SIR decreased from 1.79 (1.63-1.96) in 1961-1975, to 1.33 (1.26-1.40) in 1991-2005, but remained stable among women. The SIR among male waiters was highest for cancers in the pharynx (6.11; 95% CI 5.02-7.37), oral...