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Sample records for incident lung cancer

  1. Air pollution and lung cancer incidence in 17 European cohorts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Andersen, Zorana Jovanovic; Beelen, Rob

    2013-01-01

    Ambient air pollution is suspected to cause lung cancer. We aimed to assess the association between long-term exposure to ambient air pollution and lung cancer incidence in European populations.......Ambient air pollution is suspected to cause lung cancer. We aimed to assess the association between long-term exposure to ambient air pollution and lung cancer incidence in European populations....

  2. Residential radon and lung cancer incidence in a Danish cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bräuner, Elvira Vaclavik; Andersen, Claus Erik; Sørensen, Mette

    2012-01-01

    High-level occupational radon exposure is an established risk factor for lung cancer. We assessed the long-term association between residential radon and lung cancer risk using a prospective Danish cohort using 57,053 persons recruited during 1993–1997. We followed each cohort member for cancer...... occurrence until 27 June 2006, identifying 589 lung cancer cases. We traced residential addresses from 1 January 1971 until 27 June 2006 and calculated radon at each of these addresses using information from central databases regarding geology and house construction. Cox proportional hazards models were used...... to estimate incidence rate ratios (IRR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for lung cancer risk associated with residential radon exposure with and without adjustment for sex, smoking variables, education, socio-economic status, occupation, body mass index, air pollution and consumption of fruit and alcohol...

  3. Lung cancer: Incidence and survival in Rabat, Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachgar, A; Tazi, M A; Afif, M; Er-Raki, A; Kebdani, T; Benjaafar, N

    2016-12-01

    Lung cancer is the most common cancer worldwide, but epidemiologic data from developing countries are lacking. This article reports lung cancer incidence and survival in Rabat, the capital of Morocco. All lung cancer cases diagnosed between 2005 and 2008 were analyzed using data provided by the Rabat Cancer Registry. The standardized rate was reported using age adjustment with respect to the world standard population, and the observed survival rates were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Three hundred fifty-one cases were registered (314 males and 37 females), aged 27-90 years (median, 59 years). The most common pathological type was adenocarcinoma (40.2%) followed by squamous cell carcinoma (31.9%); the majority of cases were diagnosed at stage IV (52%). The age-standardized incidence rate was 25.1 and 2.7 per 100,000 for males and females, respectively, and the overall observed survival rates at 1 and 5 years were 31.7% and 3.4%, respectively. The clinical stage of disease was the only independent predictor of survival. The survival rate of lung cancer in Rabat is very poor. This finding explains the need for measures to reduce the prevalence of tobacco and to improve diagnostic and therapeutic facilities for lung cancer. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  4. Tuberculosis, smoking and risk for lung cancer incidence and mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Seri; Mok, Yejin; Jeon, Christina; Jee, Sun Ha; Samet, Jonathan M

    2016-12-01

    Among the exposures associated with risk for lung cancer, a history of tuberculosis (TB) is one potentially important factor, given the high prevalence of TB worldwide. A prospective cohort study was conducted to evaluate the associations of preexisting pulmonary TB with lung cancer incidence and mortality. The cohort consisted of 1,607,710 Korean adults covered by the National Health Insurance System who had a biennial national medical examination during 1997-2000. During up to 16 years of follow-up, there were 12,819 incident cases of lung cancer and 9,562 lung cancer deaths. Using Cox proportional hazards models and controlling for age, cigarette smoking and other covariates, the presence of underlying TB was significantly associated with increased risk for lung cancer incidence (HR 1.37 in men with 95% CI 1.29-1.45; HR 1.49 in women with 95% CI 1.28-1.74) and mortality (HR 1.43 in men with 95% CI 1.34-1.52; HR 1.53 in women with 95% CI 1.28-1.83). We also observed a dose-response relationship between number of cigarettes smoked daily and lung cancer risk. There was no evidence for synergism between a history of TB and smoking. The elevation in risk is relatively modest, particularly in comparison to that from smoking, and a prior history of TB is not likely to be useful risk indicator for clinical purposes. In populations with high prevalence of TB, it can be considered for incorporation into models for lung cancer risk prediction. © 2016 UICC.

  5. Residential radon and lung cancer incidence in a Danish cohort

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bräuner, Elvira V.; Andersen, Claus E.; Sørensen, Mette; Jovanovic Andersen, Zorana; Gravesen, Peter; Ulbak, Kaare; Hertel, Ole; Pedersen, Camilla; Overvad, Kim; Tjønneland, Anne; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole

    2012-01-01

    High-level occupational radon exposure is an established risk factor for lung cancer. We assessed the long-term association between residential radon and lung cancer risk using a prospective Danish cohort using 57,053 persons recruited during 1993–1997. We followed each cohort member for cancer occurrence until 27 June 2006, identifying 589 lung cancer cases. We traced residential addresses from 1 January 1971 until 27 June 2006 and calculated radon at each of these addresses using information from central databases regarding geology and house construction. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate incidence rate ratios (IRR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for lung cancer risk associated with residential radon exposure with and without adjustment for sex, smoking variables, education, socio-economic status, occupation, body mass index, air pollution and consumption of fruit and alcohol. Potential effect modification by sex, traffic-related air pollution and environmental tobacco smoke was assessed. Median estimated radon was 35.8 Bq/m 3 . The adjusted IRR for lung cancer was 1.04 (95% CI: 0.69–1.56) in association with a 100 Bq/m 3 higher radon concentration and 1.67 (95% CI: 0.69–4.04) among non-smokers. We found no evidence of effect modification. We find a positive association between radon and lung cancer risk consistent with previous studies but the role of chance cannot be excluded as these associations were not statistically significant. Our results provide valuable information at the low-level radon dose range.

  6. Occupational Exposure to Pesticides and the Incidence of Lung Cancer in the Agricultural Health Study

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    Background: Occupational pesticide use is associated with lung cancer in some, but not all, epidemiologic studies. In the Agricultural Health Study (AHS), we previously reported positive associations between several pesticides and lung cancer incidence. Objective: We evaluated...

  7. Occupational Exposure to Pesticides and the Incidence of Lung Cancer in the Agricultural Health Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Occupational pesticide use is associated with lung cancer in some, but not all, epidemiologic studies. In the Agricultural Health Study (AHS), we previously reported positive associations between several pesticides and lung cancer incidence. Objective: We evaluated u...

  8. Estimation and Projection of Lung Cancer Incidence and Mortality in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaonong ZOU

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective The aim of this study is to analyze lung cancer epidemiological trend and estimate lung cancer burden in China. Methods Lung cancer age specific mortality and incidence rate ratios in different areas and sexes were obtained from national cancer registration database in 2004 and 2005. Cancer crude mortalities were retrieved from the database of the third national death survey, 2004-2005. Age specific incidence rates of lung cancer were calculated using mortality and M/I ratios. Annual percent change (APC was estimated by log regression model using Joint Point software by analyzing pooled lung cancer incidence data from 10 cancer registries from 1988 to 2005. Results The total estimated new cases and deaths of lung cancer in 2005 were 536 407 and 475 768 which were higher in male than in female. There was 1.63% increase of lung cancer incidence per year from 1988 to 2005, however, the trend showed a slowdown by 0.55% annually after adjusted by age. Conclusion Lung cancer is one of major health issues in China and the burden is getting serious. Ageing population is main cause for increasing incidence and mortality of lung cancer. Effective cancer prevention and control is imperative. Especially, tobacco control should be carried out in statewide.

  9. Sexual minority population density and incidence of lung, colorectal and female breast cancer in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehmer, Ulrike; Miao, Xiaopeng; Maxwell, Nancy I; Ozonoff, Al

    2014-03-26

    Risk factors for breast, colorectal, and lung cancer are known to be more common among lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) individuals, suggesting they may be more likely to develop these cancers. Our objective was to determine differences in cancer incidence by sexual orientation, using sexual orientation data aggregated at the county level. Data on cancer incidence were obtained from the California Cancer Registry and data on sexual orientation were obtained from the California Health Interview Survey, from which a measure of age-specific LGB population density by county was calculated. Using multivariable Poisson regression models, the association between the age-race-stratified incident rate of breast, lung and colorectal cancer in each county and LGB population density was examined, with race, age group and poverty as covariates. Among men, bisexual population density was associated with lower incidence of lung cancer and with higher incidence of colorectal cancer. Among women, lesbian population density was associated with lower incidence of lung and colorectal cancer and with higher incidence of breast cancer; bisexual population density was associated with higher incidence of lung and colorectal cancer and with lower incidence of breast cancer. These study findings clearly document links between county-level LGB population density and cancer incidence, illuminating an important public health disparity.

  10. Isolated lung events following radiation for early stage breast cancer: incidence and predictors for primary lung vs metastatic breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Buren, Teresa A; Harris, Jay R; Sugarbaker, David J; Schneider, Lindsey; Healey, Elizabeth A

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: 1) To define the incidence of isolated lung events in a cohort of women treated with conservative surgery (CS) and radiation therapy (RT) for early stage breast cancer. 2) Among such patients, to define the relative distribution of primary lung cancer, metastatic breast cancer, and indeterminate lesions; and to identify any predictors for a diagnosis of lung vs metastatic breast cancer. 3) To examine the cohort with respect to whether a higher than expected incidence of lung cancer is seen following breast irradiation. Materials and Methods: Between 1968 and 1986, 1865 patients with clinical stage I-II breast cancer were treated with CS and RT; the median follow-up for surviving patients is 129 months. The study population was limited to patients who developed a subsequent isolated lung event as the first site of distant disease. Isolated lung event was defined as disease limited to the thoracic cavity, without evidence of either uncontrolled local breast disease or metastatic disease elsewhere. Diagnosis of the lung event as a primary lung cancer, a metastatic breast lesion, or an indeterminate lesion was documented from the viewpoint of 1) the pathologic analysis and 2) the clinical impression at the time of the lung event. Results: Sixty six of the 1865 patients (3.5%) developed an isolated lung event. The relative distribution of the pathologic and clinical diagnoses is shown below: The 66 lung events were characterized either as a solitary pulmonary nodule (27), multiple nodules (23), pleural effusion alone (10), unknown (2), or miscellaneous other findings (4). Among the 47 patients for whom pathology was available, the diagnosis remained indeterminate for 24 (51%). For patients with a definitive pathologic diagnosis, 69% ((9(13))) of smokers had a new lung cancer compared to 20% ((2(10))) of non-smokers (p=0.036), and 67% ((10(15))) of patients with a solitary pulmonary nodule had lung cancer compared to 14% ((1(7))) for other lung presentations (p

  11. Secular trend analysis of lung cancer incidence in Sihui city, China between 1987 and 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Jin-Lin; Lin, Xiao; Zhang, Li-Fang; Li, Yan-Hua; Xie, Shang-Hang; Yang, Meng-Jie; Guo, Jie; Lin, Er-Hong; Liu, Qing; Hong, Ming-Huang; Huang, Qi-Hong; Liao, Zheng-Er; Cao, Su-Mei

    2015-07-31

    With industrial and econom ic development in recent decades in South China, cancer incidence may have changed due to the changing lifestyle and environment. However, the trends of lung cancer and the roles of smoking and other environmental risk factors in the development of lung cancer in rural areas of South China remain unclear. The purpose of this study was to explore the lung cancer incidence trends and the possible causes of these trends. Joinpoint regression analysis and the age-period-cohort (APC) model were used to analyze the lung cancer incidence trends in Sihui, Guangdong province, China between 1987 and 2011, and explore the possible causes of these trends. A total of 2,397 lung cancer patients were involved in this study. A 3-fold increase in the incidence of lung cancer in both sexes was observed over the 25-year period. Joinpoint regression analysis showed that while the incidence continued to increase steadily in females during the entire period, a sharp acceleration was observed in males starting in 2005. The full APC model was selected to describe age, period, and birth cohort effects on lung cancer incidence trends in Sihui. The age cohorts in both sexes showed a continuously significant increase in the relative risk (RR) of lung cancer, with a peak in the eldest age group (80-84 years). The RR of lung cancer showed a fluctuating curve in both sexes. The birth cohorts identified an increased trend in both males and females; however, males had a plateau in the youngest cohorts who were born during 1955-1969. Increasing trends of the incidence of lung cancer in Sihui were dominated by the effects of age and birth cohorts. Social aging, smoking, and environmental changes may play important roles in such trends.

  12. The association between lung cancer incidence and ambient air pollution in China: A spatiotemporal analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yuming; Zeng, Hongmei; Zheng, Rongshou; Li, Shanshan; Barnett, Adrian G; Zhang, Siwei; Zou, Xiaonong; Huxley, Rachel; Chen, Wanqing; Williams, Gail

    2016-01-01

    China is experiencing more and more days of serious air pollution recently, and has the highest lung cancer burden in the world. To examine the associations between lung cancer incidence and fine particles (PM2.5) and ozone in China. We used 75 communities' data of lung cancer incidence from the National Cancer Registration of China from 1990 to 2009. The annual concentrations of fine particles (PM2.5) and ozone at 0.1°×0.1° spatial resolution were generated by combing remote sensing, global chemical transport models, and improvements in coverage of surface measurements. A spatial age-period-cohort model was used to examine the relative risks of lung cancer incidence associated with the air pollutants, after adjusting for impacts of age, period, and birth cohort, sex, and community type (rural and urban) as well as the spatial variation on lung cancer incidence. The relative risks of lung cancer incidence related to a 10 µg/m(3) increase in 2-year average PM2.5 were 1.055 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.038, 1.072) for men, 1.149 (1.120, 1.178) for women, 1.060 (1.044, 1.075) for an urban communities, 1.037 (0.998, 1.078) for a rural population, 1.074 (1.052, 1.096) for people aged 30-65 years, and 1.111 (1.077, 1.146) for those aged over 75 years. Ozone also had a significant association with lung cancer incidence. The increased risks of lung cancer incidence were associated with PM2.5 and ozone air pollution. Control measures to reduce air pollution would likely lower the future incidence of lung cancer. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The incidence and mortality of lung cancer and their relationship to development in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakzad, Reza; Mohammadian-Hafshejani, Abdollah; Ghoncheh, Mahshid; Pakzad, Iraj; Salehiniya, Hamid

    2015-12-01

    Lung cancer is the deadliest cancer worldwide and the most common cancer in Asia. It is necessary to get information on epidemiology and inequalities related to incidence and mortality of the cancer to use for planning and further research. This study aimed to investigate epidemiology and inequality of incidence and mortality from lung cancer in Asia. The study was conducted based on data from the world data of cancer and the World Bank [including the Human Development Index (HDI) and its components]. The incidence and mortality rates, and cancer distribution maps were drawn for Asian countries. To analyze data, correlation test between incidence and death rates, and HDI and its components at significant was used in the significant level of 0.05 using SPSS software. A total of 1,033,881 incidence (71.13% were males and 28.87% were females. Sex ratio was 2.46) and 936,051 death (71.45% in men and 28.55% in women. The sex ratio was 2.50) recorded in Asian countries in 2012. Five countries with the highest standardized incidence and mortality rates of lung cancer were Democratic Republic of Korea, China, Armenia, Turkey, and Timor-Leste, respectively. Correlation between HDI and standardized incidence rate was 0.345 (P=0.019), in men 0.301 (P=0.042) and in women 0.3 (P=0.043); also between HDI and standardized mortality rate 0.289 (P=0.052), in men 0.265 (P=0.075) and in women 0.200 (P=0.182). The incidence of lung cancer has been increasing in Asia. It is high in men. Along with development, the incidence and mortality from lung cancer increases. It seems necessary to study reasons and factors of increasing the incidence and mortality of lung cancer in Asian countries.

  14. Association of arsenic exposure with lung cancer incidence rates in the United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph J Putila

    Full Text Available Although strong exposure to arsenic has been shown to be carcinogenic, its contribution to lung cancer incidence in the United States is not well characterized. We sought to determine if the low-level exposures to arsenic seen in the U.S. are associated with lung cancer incidence after controlling for possible confounders, and to assess the interaction with smoking behavior.Measurements of arsenic stream sediment and soil concentration obtained from the USGS National Geochemical Survey were combined, respectively, with 2008 BRFSS estimates on smoking prevalence and 2000 U.S. Census county level income to determine the effects of these factors on lung cancer incidence, as estimated from respective state-wide cancer registries and the SEER database. Poisson regression was used to determine the association between each variable and age-adjusted county-level lung cancer incidence. ANOVA was used to assess interaction effects between covariates.Sediment levels of arsenic were significantly associated with an increase in incident cases of lung cancer (P<0.0001. These effects persisted after controlling for smoking and income (P<0.0001. Across the U.S., exposure to arsenic may contribute to up to 5,297 lung cancer cases per year. There was also a significant interaction between arsenic exposure levels and smoking prevalence (P<0.05.Arsenic was significantly associated with lung cancer incidence rates in the U.S. after controlling for smoking and income, indicating that low-level exposure to arsenic is responsible for excess cancer cases in many parts of the U.S. Elevated county smoking prevalence strengthened the association between arsenic exposure and lung cancer incidence rate, an effect previously unseen on a population level.

  15. Lung cancer incidence and the strength of municipal smoke-free ordinances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Ellen J; Rayens, Mary Kay; Wiggins, Amanda T; Gan, Wenqi; Brown, Holly M; Mullett, Timothy W

    2018-01-15

    Smoke-free laws reduce disease prevalence. The impact of municipal smoke-free laws on lung cancer incidence in Kentucky was examined. The authors hypothesized that lung cancer incidence rates would be associated with the strength of smoke-free laws. This was a secondary analysis of 83,727 Kentucky residents aged ≥ 50 years who were newly diagnosed with lung cancer from 1995 to 2014. In 2014, 33 municipalities had 1 or more smoke-free laws. County-level characteristics included adult smoking rate, sex, race/ethnicity, income, physician supply, observed radon values, and rurality. Individuals living in communities with comprehensive smoke-free laws were 7.9% less likely than those living in communities without smoke-free protections to be diagnosed with lung cancer. The difference in lung cancer incidence between counties with moderate/weak laws and those without laws was not significant. Comprehensive smoke-free laws were associated with fewer new cases of lung cancer, whereas weak or moderate smoke-free laws did not confer the same benefit. One hundred percent smoke-free laws, covering all workers and the public with few or no exceptions, may be key in reducing new cases of lung cancer. Cancer 2018;124:374-80. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  16. Lung cancer incidence attributable to residential radon exposure in Alberta in 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grundy, Anne; Brand, Kevin; Khandwala, Farah; Poirier, Abbey; Tamminen, Sierra; Friedenreich, Christine M; Brenner, Darren R

    2017-06-28

    Radon is carcinogenic, and exposure to radon has been shown to increase the risk of lung cancer. The objective of this study was to quantify the proportion and number of lung cancer cases in Alberta in 2012 that could be attributed to residential radon exposure. We estimated the population attributable risk of lung cancer for residential radon using radon exposure data from the Cross-Canada Survey of Radon Concentrations in Homes from 2009-2011 and data on all-cause and lung cancer mortality from Statistics Canada from 2008-2012. We used cancer incidence data from the Alberta Cancer Registry for 2012 to estimate the total number of lung cancers attributable to residential radon exposure. Estimates were also stratified by sex and smoking status. The mean geometric residential radon level in Alberta in 2011 was 71.0 Bq/m3 (geometric standard deviation 2.14). Overall, an estimated 16.6% (95% confidence interval 9.4%-29.8%) of lung cancers were attributable to radon exposure, corresponding to 324 excess attributable cancer cases. The estimated population attributable risk of lung cancer due to radon exposure was higher among those who had never smoked (24.8%) than among ever smokers (15.6%). However, since only about 10% of cases of lung cancer occur in nonsmokers, the estimated total number of excess cases was higher for ever smokers (274) than for never smokers (48). With about 17% of lung cancer cases in Alberta in 2012 attributable to residential radon exposure, exposure reduction has the potential to substantially reduce Alberta's lung cancer burden. As such, home radon testing and remediation techniques represent important cancer prevention strategies. Copyright 2017, Joule Inc. or its licensors.

  17. History of periodontal disease diagnosis and lung cancer incidence in the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai, Xiaodan; LaMonte, Michael J; Hovey, Kathleen M; Nwizu, Ngozi; Freudenheim, Jo L; Tezal, Mine; Scannapieco, Frank; Hyland, Andrew; Andrews, Christopher A; Genco, Robert J; Wactawski-Wende, Jean

    2014-08-01

    While some evidence suggests that periodontal disease (PD) might be positively associated with lung cancer, prospective studies in women are limited. Previous findings may reflect residual confounding by smoking. The study aims to determine whether history of PD diagnosis is associated with incident lung cancer in a large cohort of postmenopausal women. Prospective analyses were conducted in a cohort of 77,485 postmenopausal women enrolled in the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study. History of PD (prevalence of 26.1 %) was self-reported, and 754 incident lung cancer cases occurred during an average 6.8 (SD ± 2.6) years of follow-up. Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs). Overall, PD was positively associated with lung cancer risk after adjusting for detailed smoking history including smoking status and pack-years of smoking (HR 1.24, 95 % CI 1.07-1.45). There was a positive additive interaction between PD with pack-years of smoking (p = 0.02), suggesting a potential synergistic effect between PD and smoking intensity on lung cancer. The association between PD and lung cancer was stronger in former smokers. When restricted to never-smokers, PD was not associated with lung cancer (HR 1.02, 95 % CI 0.68-1.53). Periodontal disease was not independently associated with lung cancer in non-smoking postmenopausal women. However, smoking and PD jointly increased lung cancer risk beyond that expected from the sum of the each effect separately. The potential synergism between PD and smoking on lung cancer warrants further examination.

  18. Trends in lung cancer incidence by histological type in Osaka, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyoda, Yasuhiro; Nakayama, Tomio; Ioka, Akiko; Tsukuma, Hideaki

    2008-08-01

    In Japan, an increase in age-adjusted incidence rates of lung adenocarcinoma (ADC) and a decrease in lung squamous cell carcinoma (SQCC) have been reported. The number of lung cancer incidence, age-adjusted rates, and age-specific rates by birth-cohort according to histological type were examined using the data from Osaka Cancer Registry. The numbers of lung cancer incidence among men and women have increased, particularly in ADC. The age-adjusted incidence rates of ADC among men and women have continuously increased, while those of SQCC and small cell carcinoma (SMCC) turned to decrease since 1990s. A trough of lung cancer incidence rates was observed among men in 1935-39 birth-cohorts. The declining trend appeared in 1955-59 birth-cohorts. Lung cancer incidence rates among women have increased since 1895-99 birth-cohorts, but those rates leveled off or decreased in 1950s birth-cohorts. Trends of ADC by birth-cohort were almost the same as those of all histological types. The SQCC among men peaked in 1915-19 birth-cohorts, and decreased in the subsequent birth-cohorts. The SMCC among men peaked in 1920s birth-cohorts, and decreased or leveled off in the subsequent birth-cohorts. Lung cancer incidence rates by birth-cohorts were almost parallel to the smoking prevalence. However, those for ADC among young women in 1950s birth-cohorts were not parallel to the smoking prevalence, which requires careful monitoring to confirm such findings.

  19. Familial aggregation of lung cancer in a high incidence area in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Y.T.; Xu, Y.C.; Yang, R.D.; Huang, C.F.; Xu, C.W.; He, X.Z. [Anhui Medical University, Anhui (China). School of Public Health

    2005-04-11

    To investigate whether lung cancer clusters in families in a high incidence county of China, an analysis was conducted using data on domestic fuel history and tobacco use for family members of 740 deceased lung cancer probands and 740 controls (probands' spouses). Lung cancer prevalence was compared among first-degree relatives of probands and of controls, taking into account various factors using logistic regression and generalised estimating equations. First-degree relatives of probands, compared with those of controls, showed an excess risk of lung cancer (odds ratio (OR) = 2.05, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.68 - 2.53). Overall, female relatives of probands had a greater risk than did their male counterparts, and the risk was 2.90- fold for parents of probands as compared with parents of spouses. Female relatives of probands had 2.67-fold greater risk than female controls. Lung cancer risk was particularly marked among mothers (OR = 3.78, 95% CI: 2.03 - 7.12). Having two or more affected relatives was associated with a 2.69 - 5.40-fold risk increase. The risk elevation was also found for other cancers overall. Results confirm previous findings of a genetic predisposition to lung cancer, and also imply that lung cancer may share a genetic background with other cancers.

  20. The Role of Smoking and Diet in Explaining Educational Inequalities in Lung Cancer Incidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Menvielle, Gwenn; Boshuizen, Hendriek; Kunst, Anton E.; Dalton, Susanne O.; Vineis, Paolo; Bergmann, Manuela M.; Hermann, Silke; Ferrari, Pietro; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Tjonneland, Anne; Kaaks, Rudolf; Linseisen, Jakob; Kosti, Maria; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Dilis, Vardis; Palli, Domenico; Krogh, Vittorio; Panico, Salvatore; Tumino, Rosario; Buchner, Frederike L.; van Gils, Carla H.; Peeters, Petra H. M.; Braaten, Tonje; Gram, Inger T.; Lund, Eiliv; Rodriguez, Laudina; Agudo, Antonio; Sanchez, Maria-Jose; Tormo, Maria-Jose; Ardanaz, Eva; Manjer, Jonas; Wirfalt, Elisabet; Hallmans, Goran; Rasmuson, Torgny; Bingham, Sheila; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Allen, Naomi; Key, Tim; Boffetta, Paolo; Duell, Eric J.; Slimani, Nadia; Gallo, Valentina; Riboli, Elio; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas

    2009-01-01

    Studies in many countries have reported higher lung cancer incidence and mortality in individuals with lower socioeconomic status. To investigate the role of smoking in these inequalities, we used data from 391 251 participants in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition

  1. Lung cancer incidence after exposure of rats to low doses of radon: influence of dose rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morlier, J.P.; Morin, M.; Monchaux, G.; Fritsch, P.; Lafuma, J.; Masse, R.; Chameaud, J.

    1994-01-01

    To study the effect on lung cancer incidence of a long exposure to low levels of radon, 500 male 3-months-old Sprague-Dawley rats, were exposed to a cumulative dose of 25 WLM of radon and its daughters, 6 hours a day, 5 days a week, during 18 months. Exposure conditions were controlled in order to maintain a defined PAEC: 42 x 10 6 J.m -3 (2 WL), in the range of domestic and environmental exposures. Animals were kept until they died or given euthanasia when moribund. Mean survival times were similar in both irradiated and control groups: 828 days (SD = 169) and 830 days (SD = 137), as well as lung cancer incidence, 0.60% at 25 WLM and 0.63% for controls. The incidence of lung lesions was compared statistically with controls and those previously obtained at cumulative exposures of 25 and 50 WLM delivered over a 4-6 month period, inducing a significant increase of lung cancer, 2.2% and 3.8% respectively. Such a comparison showed a decreased lung cancer incidence related to a decrease in the dose rate for low levels of radon exposure. (author)

  2. Lung cancer incidence after exposure of rats to low doses of radon: influence of dose rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morlier, J.P.; Morin, M.; Monchaux, G.; Fritsch, P.; Lafuma, J.; Masse, R. [CEA Centre d`Etudes Nucleaires de Fontenay-aux-Roses, 92 (France). Dept. de Protection Technique; Pineau, J.F. [ALGADE, Bessines (France); Chameaud, J. [Compagnie Generale des Matieres Nucleaires (COGEMA), 87 - Razes (France)

    1994-12-31

    To study the effect on lung cancer incidence of a long exposure to low levels of radon, 500 male 3-months-old Sprague-Dawley rats, were exposed to a cumulative dose of 25 WLM of radon and its daughters, 6 hours a day, 5 days a week, during 18 months. Exposure conditions were controlled in order to maintain a defined PAEC: 42 x 10{sup 6} J.m{sup -3} (2 WL), in the range of domestic and environmental exposures. Animals were kept until they died or given euthanasia when moribund. Mean survival times were similar in both irradiated and control groups: 828 days (SD = 169) and 830 days (SD = 137), as well as lung cancer incidence, 0.60% at 25 WLM and 0.63% for controls. The incidence of lung lesions was compared statistically with controls and those previously obtained at cumulative exposures of 25 and 50 WLM delivered over a 4-6 month period, inducing a significant increase of lung cancer, 2.2% and 3.8% respectively. Such a comparison showed a decreased lung cancer incidence related to a decrease in the dose rate for low levels of radon exposure. (author).

  3. Estimating the incidence of lung cancer attributable to occupational exposure in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mousavi-Jarrahi Yasaman

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective The aim of this study was to estimate the fraction of lung cancer incidence in Iran attributed to occupational exposures to the well-established lung cancer carcinogens, including silica, cadmium, nickel, arsenic, chromium, diesel fumes, beryllium, and asbestos. Methods Nationwide exposure to each of the mentioned carcinogens was estimated using workforce data from the Iranian population census of 1995, available from the International Labor Organization (ILO website. The prevalence of exposure to carcinogens in each industry was estimated using exposure data from the CAREX (CARcinogen EXposure database, an international occupational carcinogen information system kept and maintained by the European Union. The magnitude of the relative risk of lung cancer for each carcinogen was estimated from local and international literature. Using the Levin modified population attributable risk (incidence fraction, lung cancer incidence (as estimated by the Tehran Population-Based Cancer Registry attributable to workplace exposure to carcinogens was estimated. Results The total workforce in Iran according to the 1995 census identified 12,488,020 men and 677,469 women. Agriculture is the largest sector with 25% of the male and 0.27% of female workforce. After applying the CAREX exposure estimate to each sector, the proportion exposed to lung carcinogens was 0.08% for male workers and 0.02% for female workers. Estimating a relative risk of 1.9 (95% CI of 1.7–2.1 for high exposure and 1.3 (95% CI 1.2–1.4 for low exposure, and employing the Levin modified formula, the fraction of lung cancer attributed to carcinogens in the workplace was 1.5% (95% CI of 1.2–1.9 for females and 12% (95% CI of 10–15 for males. These fractions correspond to an estimated incidence of 1.3 and 0.08 cases of lung cancer per 100,000 population for males and females, respectively. Conclusion The incidence of lung cancer due to occupational exposure is low in

  4. Incidence rate of lung cancer in urban Shijiazhuang in 2012 with prevention implication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Denggui; Li, Shumei; Zhang, Min; Zhang, Nan; Wen, Xiaoduo; Yang, Yi; Fen, Cheng; Wang, Shijie; Shan, Baoen

    2016-03-01

    Pollution has been established as an environmental factor in the development of lung cancer; however, the incidence rate in Shijiazhuang, one of China's most heavily polluted cities, is unknown. As Chinese citizens are entitled to complete public medical insurance coverage, we estimated the lung cancer incidence rate among registered citizens of urban Shijiazhuang in 2012 using reimbursement records of first hospitalization. In Shijiazhuang, lung cancer was the most common cancer in men and the second most common cancer in women. The age standardized world incidence rate (ASRW) was 46.42 and 19.14/100 000, respectively, compared with 51.05 and 22.24/100 000, respectively, reported for 63 Chinese tumor registration cities in 2010 (the national level). However, age-specific rates for the 55-70 range in men and the 25-55 range in women were higher in Shijiazhuang than nationally. Compared with GLOBOCAN 2012 data, the lung cancer ASRW in Shijiazhuang was comparable to that of all industrialized countries (44.7 and 19.6/100 000), but higher than all developing countries (30.0 and 11.1/100 000), Japan (38.8 and 12.9/100 000), and Korea (45.5 and 16.2/100 000). The lung cancer incidence rate in Shijiazhuang matched the world's highest level in 2012. According to the experience of western countries, the incidence rate in China is expected to continue to rise over the next 40 years. Intervention is urgently required in order to reduce smoking prevalence by a third by 2025 and to take concrete legal action to reduce air pollution.

  5. The role of smoking and diet in explaining educational inequalities in lung cancer incidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Menvielle, Gwenn; Boshuizen, Hendriek; Kunst, Anton E.; Dalton, Susanne O.; Vineis, Paolo; Bergmann, Manuela M.; Hermann, Silke; Ferrari, Pietro; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Tjønneland, Anne; Kaaks, Rudolf; Linseisen, Jakob; Kosti, Maria; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Dilis, Vardis; Palli, Domenico; Krogh, Vittorio; Panico, Salvatore; Tumino, Rosario; Büchner, Frederike L.; van Gils, Carla H.; Peeters, Petra H. M.; Braaten, Tonje; Gram, Inger T.; Lund, Eiliv; Rodriguez, Laudina; Agudo, Antonio; Sánchez, Maria-José; Tormo, Maria-José; Ardanaz, Eva; Manjer, Jonas; Wirfält, Elisabet; Hallmans, Göran; Rasmuson, Torgny; Bingham, Sheila; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Allen, Naomi; Key, Tim; Boffetta, Paolo; Duell, Eric J.; Slimani, Nadia; Gallo, Valentina; Riboli, Elio; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Studies in many countries have reported higher lung cancer incidence and mortality in individuals with lower socioeconomic status. METHODS: To investigate the role of smoking in these inequalities, we used data from 391,251 participants in the European Prospective Investigation into

  6. The role of smoking and diet in explaining educational inequalities in lung cancer incidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Menvielle (Gwenn); H.C. Boshuizen (Hendriek); A.E. Kunst (Anton); S.O. Dalton (Susanne); P. Vineis (Paolo); M.M. Bergmann (Manuela); S. Hermann (Silke); P. Ferrari (Pietro); O. Raaschou-Nielsen (Ole); A. Tjønneland (Anne); R. Kaaks (Rudolf); J. Linseisen (Jakob); M. Kosti (Maria); A. Trichopoulou (Antonia); V. Dilis (Vardis); D. Palli (Domenico); V. Krogh (Vittorio); S. Panico (Salvatore); R. Tumino (Rosario); F.L. Büchner (Frederike); C.H. van Gils (Carla); P.H.M. Peeters; T. Braaten (Tonje); I.T. Gram (Inger); E. Lund (Eiliv); L. Rodriguez (Laudina); A. Agudo (Antonio); M.J. Sánchez; M.J. Tormo; E. Ardanaz (Eva); J. Manjer (Jonas); E. Wirfält (Elisabet); G. Hallmans (Göran); T. Rasmuson (Torgny); S. Bingham (Sheila); K-T. Khaw (Kay-Tee); N.E. Allen (Naomi); T. Key (Tim); P. Boffetta (Paolo); E.J. Duell (Eric); N. Slimani (Nadia); V. Gallo (Valentina); E. Riboli (Elio); H.B. Bueno-De-Mesquita (Bas)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Studies in many countries have reported higher lung cancer incidence and mortality in individuals with lower socioeconomic status. Methods: To investigate the role of smoking in these inequalities, we used data from 391 251 participants in the European Prospective

  7. Periodontal Disease and Incident Lung Cancer Risk: A Meta-Analysis of Cohort Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xian-Tao; Xia, Ling-Yun; Zhang, Yong-Gang; Li, Sheng; Leng, Wei-Dong; Kwong, Joey S W

    2016-10-01

    Periodontal disease is linked to a number of systemic diseases such as cardiovascular diseases and diabetes mellitus. Recent evidence has suggested periodontal disease might be associated with lung cancer. However, their precise relationship is yet to be explored. Hence, this study aims to investigate the association of periodontal disease and risk of incident lung cancer using a meta-analytic approach. PubMed, Scopus, and ScienceDirect were searched up to June 10, 2015. Cohort and nested case-control studies investigating risk of lung cancer in patients with periodontal disease were included. Hazard ratios (HRs) were calculated, as were their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using a fixed-effect inverse-variance model. Statistical heterogeneity was explored using the Q test as well as the I(2) statistic. Publication bias was assessed by visual inspection of funnel plots symmetry and Egger's test. Five cohort studies were included, involving 321,420 participants in this meta-analysis. Summary estimates based on adjusted data showed that periodontal disease was associated with a significant risk of lung cancer (HR = 1.24, 95% CI = 1.13 to 1.36; I(2) = 30%). No publication bias was detected. Subgroup analysis indicated that the association of periodontal disease and lung cancer remained significant in the female population. Evidence from cohort studies suggests that patients with periodontal disease are at increased risk of developing lung cancer.

  8. Variation in incidence of breast, lung and cervical cancer and malignant melanoma of skin by socioeconomic group in England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomson Catherine S

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cancer incidence varies by socioeconomic group and these variations have been linked with environmental and lifestyle factors, differences in access to health care and health seeking behaviour. Socioeconomic variations in cancer incidence by region and age are less clearly understood but they are crucial for targeting prevention measures and health care commissioning. Methods Data were obtained from all eight English cancer registries for patients diagnosed between 1998 and 2003, for all invasive cases of female breast cancer (ICD-10 code C50, lung cancer (ICD-10 codes C33-C34, cervical cancer (ICD-10 code C53, and malignant melanoma of the skin (ICD-10 code C43. Socioeconomic status was assigned to each patient based on their postcode of residence at diagnosis, using the income domain of the Index of Multiple Deprivation 2004. We analysed the socioeconomic variations in the incidence of breast, lung and cervical cancer and malignant melanoma of the skin for England, and regionally and by age. Results Incidence was highest for the most deprived patients for lung cancer and cervical cancer, whilst the opposite was observed for malignant melanoma and breast cancer. The difference in incidence between the most and the least deprived groups was higher for lung cancer patients aged under 65 at diagnosis than those over 65 at diagnosis, which may indicate a cohort effect. There were regional differences in the socioeconomic gradients with the gap being widest for lung and cervical cancer in the North (North East, North West and Yorkshire and Humberside and for malignant melanoma in the East and South West. There were only modest variations in breast cancer incidence by region. If the incidence of lung and cervical cancer were decreased to that of the least deprived group it would prevent 36% of lung cancer cases in men, 38% of lung cancer cases in women and 28% of cervical cancer cases. Incidence of breast cancer and melanoma was

  9. Histologic Lung Cancer Incidence Rates and Trends vary by Race/Ethnicity and Residential County.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston, Keisha A; Mitchell, Khadijah A; King, Jessica; White, Arica; Ryan, Bríd M

    2018-01-19

    Lung cancer incidence is higher among NH blacks compared with NH white and Hispanic populations in the U.S. However, national cancer estimates may not always reflect the cancer burden in terms of disparities and incidence in small geographic areas, especially urban-rural disparities. Moreover, there is a gap in the literature regarding rural-urban disparities in terms of cancer histology. Using population-based cancer registry data-Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) and National Program of Cancer Registries (NPCR)-we present age-adjusted histologic rates and trends by race/ethnicity, and residential county location at the time of first cancer diagnosis. Rate ratios were calculated to examine racial/ethnic differences in rates. Annual percent change (APC) was calculated to measure changes in rates over time. We find that declines in squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) are occurring fastest in metropolitan counties, while rates of adenocarcinoma increased fastest in counties non-adjacent to metropolitan areas. Further, while NH black men have increased lung cancer incidence compared with NH white and Hispanic men in all geographic locations, we find that the degree of the disparity increases with increasing rurality of residence. Finally, we report that among women diagnosed at less than 55 years of age, the incidence of SCC and adenocarcinoma was higher for NH blacks compared with NH whites. Our results highlight disparities among NH blacks in non-adjacent rural areas. These findings may have significant impact for the implementation of smoking cessation and lung cancer screening programs. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Lung Cancer Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cervical Colorectal (Colon) Ovarian Prostate Skin Cancer Home Lung Cancer Trends Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook ... in the United States, the incidence rate of lung cancer— Men Decreased significantly by 2.5% per year ...

  11. Coffee consumption and incidence of lung cancer in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guertin, Kristin A; Freedman, Neal D; Loftfield, Erikka; Graubard, Barry I; Caporaso, Neil E; Sinha, Rashmi

    2016-06-01

    Coffee drinkers had a higher risk of lung cancer in some previous studies, but as heavy coffee drinkers tend to also be cigarette smokers, such findings could be confounded. Therefore, we examined this association in the nearly half a million participants of the US NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study. Typical coffee intake and smoking history were queried at baseline. During 4 155 256 person-years of follow-up, more than 9000 incident lung cancer cases occurred. We used Cox proportional hazards regression to estimate hazard ratios (HRs)and 95% confidence intervals for coffee intake and subsequent incidence of lung cancer. We also comprehensively adjusted for tobacco smoking and examined associations by detailed strata of tobacco use. Coffee drinkers were far more likely to smoke than non-drinkers. Although coffee drinking was associated with lung cancer in age- and sex- adjusted models (HR for ≥ 6 cups/day compared with none: 4.56, 4.08-5.10), this association was substantially attenuated after adjusting for smoking (HR: 1.27, 1.14-1.42). Similar findings were observed for each different histological type of lung cancer, and for participants drinking predominantly caffeinated or decaffeinated coffee. Little evidence for an association was observed in our stratified analyses, either within never smokers or in most categories of tobacco use. Coffee drinking was positively associated with lung cancer in our study, although the association was substantially attenuated after adjustment for tobacco smoking. As our adjustment for lifetime tobacco use was imperfect, it is likely that the remaining association is due to residual confounding by smoking, although other explanations are possible. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association 2015. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  12. Coffee consumption and incidence of lung cancer in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guertin, Kristin A; Freedman, Neal D; Loftfield, Erikka; Graubard, Barry I; Caporaso, Neil E; Sinha, Rashmi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Coffee drinkers had a higher risk of lung cancer in some previous studies, but as heavy coffee drinkers tend to also be cigarette smokers, such findings could be confounded. Therefore, we examined this association in the nearly half a million participants of the US NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study. Methods: Typical coffee intake and smoking history were queried at baseline. During 4 155 256 person-years of follow-up, more than 9000 incident lung cancer cases occurred. We used Cox proportional hazards regression to estimate hazard ratios (HRs)and 95% confidence intervals for coffee intake and subsequent incidence of lung cancer. We also comprehensively adjusted for tobacco smoking and examined associations by detailed strata of tobacco use. Results: Coffee drinkers were far more likely to smoke than non-drinkers. Although coffee drinking was associated with lung cancer in age- and sex- adjusted models (HR for ≥ 6 cups/day compared with none: 4.56, 4.08-5.10), this association was substantially attenuated after adjusting for smoking (HR: 1.27, 1.14-1.42). Similar findings were observed for each different histological type of lung cancer, and for participants drinking predominantly caffeinated or decaffeinated coffee. Little evidence for an association was observed in our stratified analyses, either within never smokers or in most categories of tobacco use. Conclusions: Coffee drinking was positively associated with lung cancer in our study, although the association was substantially attenuated after adjustment for tobacco smoking. As our adjustment for lifetime tobacco use was imperfect, it is likely that the remaining association is due to residual confounding by smoking, although other explanations are possible. PMID:26082405

  13. Correlation Analysis of PM10 and the Incidence of Lung Cancer in Nanchang, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Zhou

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution and lung cancer are closely related. In 2013, the World Health Organization listed outdoor air pollution as carcinogenic and regarded it as the most widespread carcinogen that humans are currently exposed to. Here, grey correlation and data envelopment analysis methods are used to determine the pollution factors causing lung cancer among residents in Nanchang, China, and identify population segments which are more susceptible to air pollution. This study shows that particulate matter with particle sizes below 10 micron (PM10 is most closely related to the incidence of lung cancer among air pollution factors including annual mean concentrations of SO2, NO2, PM10, annual haze days, and annual mean Air Pollution Index/Air Quality Index (API/AQI. Air pollution has a greater impact on urban inhabitants as compared to rural inhabitants. When gender differences are considered, women are more likely to develop lung cancer due to air pollution. Smokers are more likely to suffer from lung cancer. These results provide a reference for the government to formulate policies to reduce air pollutant emissions and strengthen anti-smoking measures.

  14. Incidence of non-lung solid cancers in Czech uranium miners: A case-cohort study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulich, M.; Rericha, V.; Rericha, R.; Shore, D.L.; Sandler, D.P.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: Uranium miners are chronically exposed to radon and its progeny, which are known to cause lung cancer and may be associated with leukemia. This study was undertaken to evaluate risk of non-lung solid cancers among uranium miners in Pribram region, Czech Republic. Methods: A retrospective stratified case-cohort study in a cohort of 22,816 underground miners who were employed between 1949 and 1975. All incident non-lung solid cancers were ascertained among miners who worked underground for at least 12 months (n=1020). A subcohort of 1707 subjects was randomly drawn from the same population by random sampling stratified on age. The follow-up period lasted from 1977 to 1996. Results: Relative risks comparing 180 WLM (90th percentile) of cumulative lifetime radon exposure to 3 WLM (10th percentile) were 0.88 for all non-lung solid cancers combined (95% CI 0.73-1.04, n=1020), 0.87 for all digestive cancers (95% CI 0.69-1.09, n=561), 2.39 for gallbladder cancer (95% CI 0.52-10.98, n=13), 0.79 for larynx cancer (95% CI 0.38-1.64, n=62), 2.92 for malignant melanoma (95% CI 0.91-9.42, n=23), 0.84 for bladder cancer (95% CI 0.43-1.65, n=73), and 1.13 for kidney cancer (95% CI 0.62-2.04, n=66). No cancer type was significantly associated with radon exposure; only malignant melanoma and gallbladder cancer showed elevated but non-significant association with radon. Conclusions: Radon was not significantly associated with incidence of any cancer of interest, although a positive association of radon with malignant melanoma and gallbladder cancer cannot be entirely ruled out. - Research highlights: → Uranium miners are chronically exposed to radon. → We evaluate risk of non-lung solid cancers among uranium miners. → No cancer type was significantly associated with radon exposure. → Malignant melanoma and gallbladder cancer showed non-significant elevated risk.

  15. Effect of mustard gas exposure on incidence of lung cancer: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doi, Mihoko; Hattori, Noboru; Yokoyama, Akihito; Onari, Yojiro; Kanehara, Masashi; Masuda, Kenji; Tonda, Tetsuji; Ohtaki, Megu; Kohno, Nobuoki

    2011-03-15

    Sulfur mustard, an agent used in chemical warfare, is an alkylating substance with carcinogenic potential. However, the precise long-term carcinogenic effects of mustard gas are unclear. Since 1952, the authors have conducted health surveys of former workers who were employed from 1929 to 1945 in a poisonous gas factory in Okuno-jima, Hiroshima, Japan. This prospective study was undertaken from 1952 to 2005 to examine the incidence of lung cancer among the workers who were exposed to mustard gas (n=480), lewisite (n=55), and/or diphenylcyanarsine (n=178), as well as the incidence among unexposed workers (n=969). The stochastic relation between exposure and lung cancer was explored on the basis of multistage carcinogenesis by using an accelerated hazard model with a transformed age scale. Mustard gas exposure was found to transform the age scale for developing lung cancer. One year of exposure in subjects ≤18 or >18 years old at first exposure shifted the age scale down by 4.9 years and 3.3 years, respectively. On the basis of the long-term follow-up of former workers in the poisonous gas factory, the authors concluded that sulfur mustard decreased the age at which people were at risk of developing lung cancer and that the effect declined with aging. © The Author 2011. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved.

  16. A statewide investigation of geographic lung cancer incidence patterns and radon exposure in a low-smoking population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Judy Y; Fowler, Brynn; Ding, Qian; Kirchhoff, Anne C; Pappas, Lisa; Boucher, Kenneth; Akerley, Wallace; Wu, Yelena; Kaphingst, Kimberly; Harding, Garrett; Kepka, Deanna

    2018-01-31

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality in Utah despite having the nation's lowest smoking rate. Radon exposure and differences in lung cancer incidence between nonmetropolitan and metropolitan areas may explain this phenomenon. We compared smoking-adjusted lung cancer incidence rates between nonmetropolitan and metropolitan counties by predicted indoor radon level, sex, and cancer stage. We also compared lung cancer incidence by county classification between Utah and all SEER sites. SEER*Stat provided annual age-adjusted rates per 100,000 from 1991 to 2010 for each Utah county and all other SEER sites. County classification, stage, and sex were obtained from SEER*Stat. Smoking was obtained from Environmental Public Health Tracking estimates by Ortega et al. EPA provided low ( 4 pCi/L) indoor radon levels for each county. Poisson models calculated overall, cancer stage, and sex-specific rates and p-values for smoking-adjusted and unadjusted models. LOESS smoothed trend lines compared incidence rates between Utah and all SEER sites by county classification. All metropolitan counties had moderate radon levels; 12 (63%) of the 19 nonmetropolitan counties had moderate predicted radon levels and 7 (37%) had high predicted radon levels. Lung cancer incidence rates were higher in nonmetropolitan counties than metropolitan counties (34.8 vs 29.7 per 100,000, respectively). Incidence of distant stage cancers was significantly higher in nonmetropolitan counties after controlling for smoking (16.7 vs 15.4, p = 0.02*). Incidence rates in metropolitan, moderate radon and nonmetropolitan, moderate radon counties were similar. Nonmetropolitan, high radon counties had a significantly higher incidence of lung cancer compared to nonmetropolitan, moderate radon counties after adjustment for smoking (41.7 vs 29.2, p National studies should account for geographic and environmental factors when examining nonmetropolitan/metropolitan differences in lung

  17. Descriptive Study of the Environmental Epidemiology of High Lung CancerIncidence Rate in Qujing, Yunnan, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linlin ZHANG

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective Qujing, located in Southwest China, is an area with an extremely high lung cancer incidence. Combustion of coal has exposed local people to great health hazards. The aim of this study is to achieve a thorough understanding of the relationship between environmental pollution and the high incidence of lung cancer in Qujing, Yunnan Province, China. The results would provide a scientific basis and support for the etiology of lung cancer, as well as suggestions on improving the environmental conditions in the area. Methods A total of 280 rural villages were selected through stratified cluster random sampling. Environmental background and pollution were investigated, including details on fuel type, coking plant, metal smelting, and chemical plant, among others. Logistic regression analysis was used to analyze the investigated factors. Results Out of the total number of local villages studied, 78.1% of those with high incidence often use smoky coal and coking. On the other hand, 78.8% of the low-incidence areas use smokeless coal or wood. Logistic regression analysis indicated that the coal type used for everyday life was a main risk factor related to lung cancer (P<0.05. Using smoky and coking coals create an alarmingly high risk for developing lung cancer. Meanwhile, smokeless coals and wood seemed to have no significant relationship to the lung cancer incidence. Conclusion The fuel type used for everyday life is an important factor in the high incidence of lung cancer in Qujing. Evidently, the use of smoky coal and coke increased the incidence of lung cancer, whereas smokeless coal and wood seem to bring about the contrary.

  18. Expressed wishes and incidence of euthanasia in advanced lung cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardon, Koen; Deschepper, Reginald; Vander Stichele, Robert; Bernheim, Jan L; Mortier, Freddy; Schallier, Denis; Germonpré, Paul; Galdermans, Daniella; Van Kerckhoven, Willem; Deliens, Luc

    2012-10-01

    This study explores expressed wishes and requests for euthanasia (i.e. administration of lethal drugs at the explicit request of the patient), and incidence of end-of-life decisions with possible life-shortening effects (ELDs) in advanced lung cancer patients in Flanders, Belgium. We performed a prospective, longitudinal, observational study of a consecutive sample of advanced lung cancer patients and selected those who died within 18 months of diagnosis. Immediately after death, the pulmonologist/oncologist and general practitioner (GP) of the patient filled in a questionnaire. Information was available for 105 out of 115 deaths. According to the specialist or GP, one in five patients had expressed a wish for euthanasia; and three in four of these had made an explicit and repeated request. One in two of these received euthanasia. Of the patients who had expressed a wish for euthanasia but had not made an explicit and repeated request, none received euthanasia. Patients with a palliative treatment goal at inclusion were more likely to receive euthanasia. Death was preceded by an ELD in 62.9% of patients. To conclude, advanced lung cancer patients who expressed a euthanasia wish were often determined. Euthanasia was performed significantly more among patients whose treatment goal after diagnosis was exclusively palliative.

  19. Lung cancer incidence trends by gender, race and histology in the United States, 1973-2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Meza

    Full Text Available Lung cancer (LC incidence in the United States (US continues to decrease but with significant differences by histology, gender and race. Whereas squamous, large and small cell carcinoma rates have been decreasing since the mid-80s, adenocarcinoma rates remain stable in males and continue to increase in females, with large racial disparities. We analyzed LC incidence trends by histology in the US with an emphasis on gender and racial differences.LC incidence rates from 1973-2010 were obtained from the SEER cancer registry. Age-adjusted incidence trends of five major histological types by gender and race were evaluated using joinpoint regression. Trends of LC histology and stage distributions from 2005-2010 were analyzed.US LC incidence varies by histology. Squamous, large and small cell carcinoma rates continue to decrease for all gender/race combinations, whereas adenocarcinoma rates remain relatively constant in males and increasing in females. An apparent recent increase in the incidence of squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma since 2005 can be explained by a concomitant decrease in the number of cases classified as other non-small cell carcinoma. Black males continue to be disproportionally affected by squamous LCs, and blacks continue to be diagnosed with more advanced cancers than whites.LC incidence by histology continues to change over time. Additional variations are expected as screening becomes disseminated. It is important to continue to monitor LC rates to evaluate the impact of screening on current trends, assess the continuing benefits of tobacco control, and focus efforts on reducing racial disparities.

  20. Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lung cancer is one of the most common cancers in the world. It is a leading cause of cancer death in men and women in the United States. Cigarette smoking causes most lung cancers. The more cigarettes you smoke per day and ...

  1. Occupational exposures contribute to educational inequalities in lung cancer incidence among men: Evidence from the EPIC prospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Menvielle (Gwenn); H.C. Boshuizen (Hendriek); A.E. Kunst (Anton); P. Vineis (Paolo); S.O. Dalton (Susanne); M.M. Bergmann (Manuela); S. Hermann (Silke); F. Veglia (Fabrizio); P. Ferrari (Pietro); K. Overvad (Kim); O. Raaschou-Nielsen (Ole); A. Tjønneland (Anne); R. Kaaks (Rudolf); J. Linseisen (Jakob); D. Palli (Domenico); V. Krogh (Vittorio); R. Tumino (Rosario); L. Rodriguez (Laudina); A. Agudo (Antonio); M.J. Sánchez; J.M.A. Arozena; L. Cirera (Lluis); E. Ardanaz (Eva); S. Bingham (Sheila); K-T. Khaw (Kay-Tee); P. Boffetta (Paolo); E.J. Duell (Eric); N. Slimani (Nadia); V. Gallo (Valentina); E. Riboli (Elio); H. Bas Bueno-de-Mesquita

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThe aim of this study is to investigate to what extent occupational exposures may explain socioeconomic inequalities in lung cancer incidence after adjusting for smoking and dietary factors. Analyses were based on a subsampie of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and

  2. Occupational exposures contribute to educational inequalities in lung cancer incidence among men: Evidence from the EPIC prospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Menvielle, Gwenn; Boshuizen, Hendriek; Kunst, Anton E.; Vineis, Paolo; Dalton, Susanne O.; Bergmann, Manuela M.; Hermann, Silke; Veglia, Fabrizio; Ferrari, Pietro; Overvad, Kim; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Tjønneland, Anne; Kaaks, Rudolf; Linseisen, Jakob; Palli, Domenico; Krogh, Vittorio; Tumino, Rosario; Rodriguez, Laudina; Agudo, Antonio; Sánchez, Maria-José; Arozena, Jone Miren Altzibar; Cirera, Lluis; Ardanaz, Eva; Bingham, Sheila; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Boffetta, Paolo; Duell, Eric; Slimani, Nadia; Gallo, Valentina; Riboli, Elio; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate to what extent occupational exposures may explain socioeconomic inequalities in lung cancer incidence after adjusting for smoking and dietary factors. Analyses were based on a subsample of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC

  3. Identifying incident colorectal and lung cancer cases in health service utilisation databases in Australia: a validation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsbury, David; Weber, Marianne; Yap, Sarsha; Banks, Emily; O'Connell, Dianne L; Canfell, Karen

    2017-02-27

    Data from centralised, population-based statutory cancer registries are generally considered the 'gold standard' for confirming incident cases of cancer. When these are not available, or more current information is needed, hospital or other routinely collected population-level data may be feasible alternative sources. We aimed to determine the validity of various methods using routinely collected administrative health data for ascertaining incident cases of colorectal or lung cancer in participants from the 45 and Up Study in New South Wales (NSW), Australia. For 266,844 participants in the 45 and Up Study (recruited 2006-2009) ascertainment of incident colorectal or lung cancers was assessed using diagnosis and treatment records in linked administrative health datasets (hospital, emergency department, Medicare and pharmaceutical claims, death records). This was compared with ascertainment via the NSW Cancer Registry (NSWCR, the 'gold standard') for a period for which both data sources were available for participants. A total of 2253 colorectal and 1019 lung cancers were recorded for study participants in the NSWCR over the period 2006-2010. A diagnosis of primary cancer recorded in the statewide Admitted Patient Data Collection identified the majority of NSWCR colorectal and lung cancers, with sensitivities and positive predictive values (PPV) of 95% and 91% for colorectal cancer and 81% and 85% for lung cancer, respectively. Using additional information on lung cancer deaths from death records increased sensitivity to 84% (PPV 83%) for lung cancer, but did not improve ascertainment of colorectal cancers. Hospital procedure codes for colorectal cancer surgery identified cases with sensitivity 81% and PPV 54%. No other individual indicator had sensitivity >50% or PPV >65% for either cancer type and no combination of indicators increased both the sensitivity and PPV above that achieved using the hospital cancer diagnosis data. All specificities were close to 100

  4. Gene by Environment Investigation of Incident Lung Cancer Risk in African-Americans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean P. David

    2016-02-01

    Interpretation: These results suggest that chromosome 15q25.1 variants are robustly associated with CPD and lung cancer in African-Americans and that the allelic dose effect of these polymorphisms on lung cancer risk is most pronounced in lighter smokers.

  5. Diet and lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabricius, P; Lange, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. While cigarette smoking is of key importance, factors such as diet also play a role in the development of lung cancer. MedLine and Embase were searched with diet and lung cancer as the key words. Recently published reviews...... and large well designed original articles were preferred to form the basis for the present article. A diet rich in fruit and vegetables reduces the incidence of lung cancer by approximately 25%. The reduction is of the same magnitude in current smokers, ex-smokers and never smokers. Supplementation...... are only ameliorated to a minor degree by a healthy diet....

  6. Lung cancer incidence among A-bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, 1950 - 80

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Tsutomu; Kopecky, K.J.; Fujikura, Toshio; Tokuoka, Shoji; Monzen, Tetsuo; Nishimori, Issei; Nakashima, Eiji; Kato, Hiroo.

    1987-05-01

    The incidence of lung cancer during 1950 - 80 in a cohort of Japanese atomic bomb survivors and controls was investigated. A total of 1,057 cases were identified; 608 of these diagnoses were based on some form of histopathologic examination, and 442 were confirmed by the present investigators. The distributions of histological types varied significantly between the sexes (p < .001), with adenocarcinoma more frequent among women and epidermoid and small cell carcinoma more frequent among men. The distributions of primary sites did not differ significantly between the sexes. The relative risk (RR) of lung cancer increased significantly with A-bomb radiation dose (p < .0001); based on tentative 1965 dose estimates as revised in 1978 (T65DR) and a linear RR model, the estimated RR at 100 rad (± SE) is 1.41 ± 0.09. Among Hiroshima survivors the women experienced radiation-related excess RR nearly twice as great as men (p = .06). RR increased with decreasing age at the time of bombing (p = .07), and after allowing for this effect, there was no significant evidence that RR varied systematically with attained age. Small cell carcinoma displayed somewhat greater sensitivity to radiation than did adenocarcinoma or epidermoid carcinoma; however the variation between the histology-specific RR functions was not statistically significant (p = .44). (author)

  7. Incidence and survival from lung cancer in Greenland is comparable to survival in the Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gelvan, Allan; Risum, Signe; Langer, Seppo W

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Oncological treatment of lung cancer has been available in Greenland since 2004. We evaluated patient characteristics and survival rates for the first six years of local lung cancer treatment. METHODS: From September 2004 to August 2010, a total of 173 patients with lung cancer were...... referred to treatment at Queen Ingrid's Hospital. On 1 February 2014, treatment results, survival, and prognostic variables were analysed. RESULTS: The mean age at diagnosis was 63 years. Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) was diagnosed in 145 patients (84%); 56% had squamous cell carcinoma, 34% had...... adenocarcinoma, 2% had large cell carcinoma and 8% had NSCLC not otherwise specified (NOS). In all, 28 (16%) had small cell lung cancer. A total of 142 patients (82%) received treatment; 20 underwent surgery (ten stage Ib, one stage IIa, five stage IIb, four stage IIIa); palliative chemotherapy was given to 122...

  8. Lung Cancer Incidence and Long-Term Exposure to Air Pollution from Traffic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole Lundsgaard; Andersen, Zorana Jovanovic; Hvidberg, Martin

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND. Previous studies have shown associations between air pollution and risk for lung cancer. OBJECTIVE. To investigate whether traffic and the concentration of nitrogen oxides (NOx) at the residence are associated with risk for lung cancer. METHODS. We identified 592 lung cancer cases...... of stronger associations among non-smokers, among those with a relatively low fruit intake and among those with a longer school attendance; only length of school attendance modified the effect significantly. CONCLUSIONS. This study supports that risk for lung cancer is associated with different markers of air...... in the Danish Cancer Registry among 52 970 members of the Diet Cancer and Health cohort and traced residential addresses from 1 January 1971 in the Central Population Registry. We calculated the NOx concentration at each address by dispersion models, and calculated the time-weighted average concentration...

  9. Lung cancer incidence and long-term exposure to air pollution from traffic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Andersen, Zorana Jovanovic; Hvidberg, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Background: Previous studies have shown associations between air pollution and risk for lung cancer.Objective: We investigated whether traffic and the concentration of nitrogen oxides (NOx) at the residence are associated with risk for lung cancer.Methods: We identified 592 lung cancer cases...... of stronger associations among nonsmokers, among those with a relatively low fruit intake, and among those with a longer school attendance; only length of school attendance modified the effect significantly.Conclusions: This study supports that risk for lung cancer is associated with different markers of air...... in the Danish Cancer Registry among 52,970 members of the Diet, Cancer and Health cohort and traced residential addresses from 1 January 1971 in the Central Population Registry. We calculated the NOx concentration at each address by dispersion models and calculated the time-weighted average concentration...

  10. Diet and lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabricius, P; Lange, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. While cigarette smoking is of key importance, factors such as diet also play a role in the development of lung cancer. MedLine and Embase were searched with diet and lung cancer as the key words. Recently published reviews...... and large well designed original articles were preferred to form the basis for the present article. A diet rich in fruit and vegetables reduces the incidence of lung cancer by approximately 25%. The reduction is of the same magnitude in current smokers, ex-smokers and never smokers. Supplementation...... with vitamins A, C and E and beta-carotene offers no protection against the development of lung cancer. On the contrary, beta-carotene supplementation has, in two major randomised intervention trials, resulted in an increased mortality. Smoking remains the leading cause of lung cancer. The adverse effects...

  11. Lung Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment Lung Cancer Prevention Lung Cancer Screening Research Lung Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is screening? Go ... These are called diagnostic tests . General Information About Lung Cancer Key Points Lung cancer is a disease in ...

  12. Quartz in ash, and air in a high lung cancer incidence area in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Downward, George S|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/412435667; Hu, Wei; Rothman, Nat; Reiss, Boris|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/314119205; Tromp, Peter; Wu, Guoping; Wei, Fusheng; Xu, Jun; Seow, Wei Jie; Chapman, Robert S.; Lan, Qing; Vermeulen, Roel|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/216532620

    Exposure to crystalline silica (quartz) has been implicated as a potential cause of the high lung cancer rates in the neighbouring counties of Xuanwei and Fuyuan, China, where the domestic combustion of locally sourced "smoky" coal (a bituminous coal) is responsible for some of the highest lung

  13. Small area mapping of domestic radon, smoking prevalence and lung cancer incidence – A case study in Northamptonshire, UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denman, Antony R.; Rogers, Stephen; Ali, Akeem; Sinclair, John; Phillips, Paul S.; Crockett, Robin G.M.; Groves-Kirkby, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    Smoking and radon both cause lung cancer, and together the risk is significantly higher. UK public health campaigns continue to reduce smoking prevalence, and other initiatives identify houses with raised radon (radon-222) levels and encourage remedial action. Smoking prevalence and radon levels in the UK have been mapped at Primary Care Trust level. This paper extends that work, using a commercial socio-demographic database to estimate smoking prevalence at the postcode sector level, and to predict the population characteristics at postcode sector level for 87 postcode sectors in Northamptonshire. Likely smoking prevalence in each postcode sector is then modelled from estimates of the smoking prevalence in the different socio-economic groups used by the database. Mapping estimated smoking prevalence, radon potential and average lung cancer incidence for each postcode sector suggested that there was little correlation between smoking prevalence and radon levels, as radon potential was generally lower in urban areas in Northamptonshire, where the estimates of smoking prevalence were highest. However, the analysis demonstrated some sectors where both radon potential and smoking prevalence were moderately raised. This study showed the potential of this methodology to map estimated smoking prevalence and radon levels to inform locally targeted public health campaigns to reduce lung cancer incidence. - Highlights: • We use a commercial socio-demographic database to estimate smoking prevalence in small areas in Northamptonshire, UK. • We map the estimated smoking prevalence and average domestic radon levels in these small areas. • We estimate annual average lung cancer incidence in these small areas. • The methodology is useful to evaluate and plan localised public health campaigns to reduce lung cancer incidence.

  14. Lung cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... causing chemicals such as uranium, beryllium, vinyl chloride, nickel chromates, coal products, mustard gas, chloromethyl ethers, gasoline, and diesel exhaust Exposure to radon gas Family history of lung cancer ...

  15. Associations of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level with incidence of lung cancer and histologic types in Norwegian adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Yi-Qian; Langhammer, Arnulf; Wu, Chunsen

    2018-01-01

    Previous prospective studies have shown inconsistent associations between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] level and lung cancer incidence. The aim of the present study was to explore the associations of serum 25(OH)D levels with incidence of lung cancer overall and different histologic types...... were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence interval (CIs) for lung cancer overall or histologic types in relation to serum 25(OH)D levels. Compared with the fourth season-specific quartile of 25(OH)D (median 68.0 nmol/L), lower 25(OH)D levels were not associated with the incidence......)D with a reduced risk of adenocarcinoma were only observed in the overweight/obese subjects [HRs for second and third quartiles: 0.40 (0.22-0.72) and 0.50 (0.27-0.92)] but not in the normal weight subjects [HRs: 0.95 (0.52-1.75) and 0.60 (0.32-1.10)]. Serum 25(OH)D levels were not associated with the risk of lung...

  16. Lung, Laryngeal and Other Respiratory Cancer Incidence among Japanese Atomic Bomb Survivors: An Updated Analysis from 1958 through 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahoon, Elizabeth K; Preston, Dale L; Pierce, Donald A; Grant, Eric; Brenner, Alina V; Mabuchi, Kiyohiko; Utada, Mai; Ozasa, Kotaro

    2017-05-01

    The Life Span Study (LSS) of Japanese atomic bomb survivors is comprised of a large, population-based cohort offering one of the best opportunities to study the relationship between exposure to radiation and incidence of respiratory cancers. Risks of lung, laryngeal and other cancers of the respiratory system were evaluated among 105,444 LSS subjects followed from 1958 to 2009. During this period, we identified 2,446 lung, 180 laryngeal and 115 other respiratory (trachea, mediastinum and other ill-defined sites) first primary incident cancer cases. Ten additional years of follow-up, improved radiation dose estimates, revised smoking data, and updated migration information were used to investigate the joint effects of radiation and smoking using Poisson regression methods. For nonsmokers, the sex-averaged excess relative risk per Gy (ERR/Gy) for lung cancer (at age 70 after radiation exposure at age 30) was estimated as 0.81 (95% CI: 0.51, 1.18) with a female-to-male ratio of 2.83. There was no evidence of curvature in the radiation dose-response relationship overall or by sex. Lung cancer risks increased with pack-years of smoking and decreased with time since quitting smoking at any level of radiation exposure. Similar to the previously reported study, which followed cohort members through 1999, the ERR/Gy for lung cancer was significantly higher for low-to-moderate smokers than for heavy smokers, with little evidence of any radiation-associated excess risk in heavy smokers. Of 2,446 lung cancer cases, 113 (5%) could be attributed to radiation exposure. Of the 1,165 lung cancer cases occurring among smokers, 886 (76%) could be attributed to smoking. While there was little evidence of a radiation effect for laryngeal cancer, a nonsignificantly elevated risk of other respiratory cancers was observed. However, significant smoking effects were observed for both laryngeal (ERR per 50 pack-years = 23.57; 95% CI: 8.44, 71.05) and other respiratory cancers (ERR per 50

  17. Estimation of residential radon exposure and definition of Radon Priority Areas based on expected lung cancer incidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elío, J; Crowley, Q; Scanlon, R; Hodgson, J; Zgaga, L

    2018-05-01

    Radon is a naturally occurring gas, classified as a Class 1 human carcinogen, being the second most significant cause of lung cancer after tobacco smoking. A robust spatial definition of radon distribution in the built environment is therefore essential for understanding the relationship between radon exposure and its adverse health effects on the general population. Using Ireland as a case study, we present a methodology to estimate an average indoor radon concentration and calculate the expected radon-related lung cancer incidence. We use this approach to define Radon Priority Areas at the administrative level of Electoral Divisions (EDs). Geostatistical methods were applied to a data set of almost 32,000 indoor radon measurements, sampled in Ireland between 1992 and 2013. Average indoor radon concentrations by ED range from 21 to 338 Bq m -3 , corresponding to an effective dose ranging from 0.8 to 13.3 mSv y -1 respectively. Radon-related lung cancer incidence by ED was calculated using a dose-effect model giving between 15 and 239 cases per million people per year, depending on the ED. Based on these calculations, together with the population density, we estimate that of the approximately 2,300 lung cancer cases currently diagnosed in Ireland annually, about 280 may be directly linked to radon exposure. This figure does not account for the synergistic effect of radon exposure with other factors (e.g. tobacco smoking), so likely represents a minimum estimate. Our approach spatially defines areas with the expected highest incidence of radon-related lung cancer, even though indoor radon concentrations for these areas may be moderate or low. We therefore recommend that both indoor radon concentration and population density by small area are considered when establishing national radon action plans. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Radiation factors and smoking interaction at lung cancer incidence for workers at a nuclear enterprise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokarskaya, Z.B.; Khokhryakov, V.F.; Okladnikova, N.D.; Belyaeva, Z.D.; Zhuntova, G.V.

    1997-01-01

    It was shown on the basis of retrospective investigation of 500 workers at a nuclear enterprise (162 cases of lung cancer, 338 persons as matching control) that the interaction of external gamma-irradiation (> 2.0 Gy) and the body - burden of 239 Pu (> 9.3 kBq) at lung cancer is characterized as the multiplicative effect. Combined influence of smoking and radiation factors dependent on smoking index (SI): it changed from additive up to multiplicative and than to antagonistic with the increase of the smoking effect. The received results could be explained on the basis of a two - mutation model of radiation carcinogenesis

  19. Lung cancer - small cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer - lung - small cell; Small cell lung cancer; SCLC ... About 15% of all lung cancer cases are SCLC. Small cell lung cancer is slightly more common in men than women. Almost all cases of SCLC are ...

  20. Trends in Lung Cancer Incidence Rates by Histological Type in 1975-2008: A Population-Based Study in Osaka, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Fukuaki Lee; Ito, Yuri; Nakayama, Tomio

    2016-11-05

    Monitoring trends in lung cancer incidence and mortality is important for the evaluation of cancer control activities. We investigated recent trends in age-standardized incidence rates by histological type of lung cancer in Osaka, Japan. Cancer incidence data for 1975-2008 were obtained from the Osaka Cancer Registry. Lung cancer mortality data with population data in Osaka during 1975-2012 were obtained from vital statistics. We examined trends in age-standardized incidence and mortality rates for all histological types and age-standardized incidence rates by histological type and age group using a joinpoint regression model. The age-standardized incidence rate of lung cancer levelled off or slightly increased from 1975-2008, with an annual percentage change of 0.3% (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.1%-0.4%) for males and 1.1% (95% CI, 0.9%-1.3%) for females, and the mortality rate decreased by 0.9% (95% CI, 1.2%-0.7%) for males and 0.5% (95% CI, 0.8%-0.3%) for females. The incidence rates of squamous cell carcinoma (SQC) and small cell carcinoma (SMC) significantly decreased for both genders, whereas that of adenocarcinoma (ADC) significantly increased among almost all age groups in both genders. The incidence rates of SQC and SMC decreased with the decline in smoking prevalence, which probably explains the change in trends in the incidence rates of lung cancer from the mid-1980s. However, the reason for the increase in ADC remains unclear. Therefore, trends in incidence rates of lung cancer should be carefully monitored, especially for ADC, and the associations between ADC and its possible risk factors should be studied.

  1. Lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, H H; Rørth, M

    1999-01-01

    The results of the many clinical trials published in 1997 had only modest impact on the treatment results using either cytostatic agents alone or combined with radiotherapy in lung cancer. In SCLC, combination chemotherapy including platin-compounds (cisplatin, carboplatin) and the podophyllotoxins...

  2. Cancer Genes in Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Telbany, Ahmed

    2012-01-01

    Cancer is now known as a disease of genomic alterations. Mutational analysis and genomics profiling in recent years have advanced the field of lung cancer genetics/genomics significantly. It is becoming more accepted now that the identification of genomic alterations in lung cancer can impact therapeutics, especially when the alterations represent “oncogenic drivers” in the processes of tumorigenesis and progression. In this review, we will highlight the key driver oncogenic gene mutations and fusions identified in lung cancer. The review will summarize and report the available demographic and clinicopathological data as well as molecular details behind various lung cancer gene alterations in the context of race. We hope to shed some light into the disparities in the incidence of various genetic mutations among lung cancer patients of different racial backgrounds. As molecularly targeted therapy continues to advance in lung cancer, racial differences in specific genetic/genomic alterations can have an important impact in the choices of therapeutics and in our understanding of the drug sensitivity/resistance profile. The most relevant genes in lung cancer described in this review include the following: EGFR, KRAS, MET, LKB1, BRAF, PIK3CA, ALK, RET, and ROS1. Commonly identified genetic/genomic alterations such as missense or nonsense mutations, small insertions or deletions, alternative splicing, and chromosomal fusion rearrangements were discussed. Relevance in current targeted therapeutic drugs was mentioned when appropriate. We also highlighted various targeted therapeutics that are currently under clinical development, such as the MET inhibitors and antibodies. With the advent of next-generation sequencing, the landscape of genomic alterations in lung cancer is expected to be much transformed and detailed in upcoming years. These genomic landscape differences in the context of racial disparities should be emphasized both in tumorigenesis and in drug

  3. Prognostic Factors in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Less Than 3 Centimeters: Actuarial Analysis, Accumulative Incidence and Risk Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peñalver Cuesta, Juan C; Jordá Aragón, Carlos; Mancheño Franch, Nuria; Cerón Navarro, José A; de Aguiar Quevedo, Karol; Arrarás Martínez, Miguel; Vera Sempere, Francisco J; Padilla Alarcón, Jose D

    2015-09-01

    In TNM classification, factors determining the tumor (T) component in non-small cell lung cancer have scarcely changed over time and are still based solely on anatomical features. Our objective was to study the influence of these and other morphopathological factors on survival. A total of 263 patients undergoing lung resection due to stage I non-small cell lung cancer ≤3cm in diameter were studied. A survival analysis and competing-risk estimate study was made on the basis of clinical, surgical and pathological variables using actuarial analysis and accumulative incidence methods, respectively. A risk model was then generated from the results. Survival at 5 and 10 years was 79.8 and 74.3%, respectively. The best prognostic factors were presence of symptoms, smoking habit and FEV1>60%, number of resected nodes>7, squamous histology, absence of vascular invasion, absence of visceral pleural invasion and presence of invasion more proximal than the lobar bronchus. All these were statistically significant according to the actuarial method. The factor "age60%. Pleural invasion and vascular invasion determine survival or risk of death due to non-small cell lung cancer ≤3cm and can be used for generating a predictive risk model. Copyright © 2014 SEPAR. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  4. Impact of a smoking and alcohol intervention programme on lung and breast cancer incidence in Denmark: An example of dynamic modelling with Prevent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soerjomataram, Isabelle; de Vries, Esther; Engholm, Gerda

    2010-01-01

    Prevent v.3.01 to assess the changes in incidence as a result of risk factor changes. Incidence of lung and breast cancer until 2050 was predicted under two scenarios: ideal (total elimination of smoking and reduction of alcohol intake to maximum 1units/d for women) and optimistic (decreasing prevalence......PURPOSE: Among the known risk factors, smoking is clearly related to the incidence of lung cancer and alcohol consumption is to breast cancer. In this manuscript we modelled the potential benefits of reductions in smoking or alcohol prevalence for the burden of these cancers. METHOD: We used...... of risk factors because of a 10% increase in cigarette and alcohol beverage price, repeated every 5years). Danish data from the household surveys, cancer registration and Eurostat were used. RESULTS: Up to 49% less new lung cancer cases can be expected in 2050 if smoking were to be completely eliminated...

  5. Incidence of non-pulmonary cancer and lung cancer by amount of emphysema and airway wall thickness: a community-based cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aamli Gagnat, Ane; Gjerdevik, Miriam; Gallefoss, Frode; Coxson, Harvey O; Gulsvik, Amund; Bakke, Per

    2017-05-01

    There is limited knowledge about the prognostic value of quantitative computed tomography (CT) measures of emphysema and airway wall thickness in cancer.The aim of this study was to investigate if using CT to quantitatively assess the amount of emphysema and airway wall thickness independently predicts the subsequent incidence of non-pulmonary cancer and lung cancer.In the GenKOLS study of 2003-2005, 947 ever-smokers performed spirometry and underwent CT examination. The main predictors were the amount of emphysema measured by the percentage of low attenuation areas (%LAA) on CT and standardised measures of airway wall thickness (AWT-PI10). Cancer data from 2003-2013 were obtained from the Norwegian Cancer Register. The hazard ratio associated with emphysema and airway wall thickness was assessed using Cox proportional hazards regression for cancer diagnoses.During 10 years of follow-up, non-pulmonary cancer was diagnosed in 11% of the subjects with LAA pulmonary cancer and lung cancer. Airway wall thickness did not predict cancer independently.This study offers a strong argument that emphysema is an independent risk factor for both non-pulmonary cancer and lung cancer. Copyright ©ERS 2017.

  6. Quartz in ash, and air in a high lung cancer incidence area in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downward, George S; Hu, Wei; Rothman, Nat; Reiss, Boris; Tromp, Peter; Wu, Guoping; Wei, Fusheng; Xu, Jun; Seow, Wei Jie; Chapman, Robert S; Lan, Qing; Vermeulen, Roel

    2017-02-01

    Exposure to crystalline silica (quartz) has been implicated as a potential cause of the high lung cancer rates in the neighbouring counties of Xuanwei and Fuyuan, China, where the domestic combustion of locally sourced "smoky" coal (a bituminous coal) is responsible for some of the highest lung cancer rates in the nation, irrespective of gender or smoking status. Previous studies have shown that smoky coal contains approximately twice as much quartz when compared to alternative fuels in the area, although it is unclear how the quartz in coal relates to household air pollution. Samples of ash and fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) were collected from 163 households and analysed for quartz content by Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). Additionally, air samples from 12 further households, were analysed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to evaluate particle structure and silica content. The majority (89%) of household air samples had undetectable quartz levels (quartz in smoky coal went on to form part of the ash. These findings indicate that the quartz within smoky coal does not become adequately airborne during the combustion process to cause significant lung cancer risk, instead going on to form part of the ash. The identification of fibre-like particles in air samples is an interesting finding, although the clinical relevance of this finding remains unclear. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, H H; Rørth, M

    1999-01-01

    The results of the many clinical trials published in 1997 had only modest impact on the treatment results using either cytostatic agents alone or combined with radiotherapy in lung cancer. In SCLC, combination chemotherapy including platin-compounds (cisplatin, carboplatin) and the podophyllotoxi...... II trials, but results from large phase III trials are necessary in order to measure the impact of these new agents in the management of NSCLC. Major improvements of therapy for mesothelioma have not occurred within the last year....

  8. [Lung cancer in Avila province, Spain. Incidence rates, epidemiolgy of the year 2012 and trends in the last 20 years].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Hernández, J R; Moreno de Vega-Herrero, M B; Iglesias-Heras, M; García-García, R; Hernández-Terciado, F; Celdrán-Gil, J

    2015-10-01

    To determine the extent of lung cancer in Alvila. Its incidence rates and significant epidemiological aspects of the year 2012 were recorded, and the results of each 5-year period (up to 20 years) were compared with those of known studies conducted using the same methodology. A prospective study was conducted on all patients diagnosed with lung cancer in the Province of Avila throughout the year 2012. A total of 81 patients were diagnosed, of whom 70 were males and 11 females, with a mean age of 72.1 years (range: 44-91), and was higher than that found in previous studies. This gave gross, and adjusted to the standard world population, incidence rates in 2012 of 80.99 and 31.23 per 100,000, respectively, in males, and 12.97 and 5.68 per 100,000, respectively in females. These rates are lower in both sexes than those found in Alvila in 2002. In 2012, 80.25% had been smokers (90% of males and 18.18% of the women), although, on diagnosis, 68.75% had quit smoking. A clinical-radiological diagnosis was made in 9 (11.1%), with a histocytological diagnosis in 72 (88.9%). The histological types were: adenocarcinomas in 37.5%; squamous in 33.3%; microcytic in 13.8%; undifferentiated non-small cell in 11.1%; large cell in 2.77%, and carcinoid in 1.38%. The most frequent treatments were chemotherapy (50.6%), symptomatic (23.4%), and surgery (12.3%). The incidence of lung cancer in Avila has decreased in both sexes in the last 10 years. In 2012, the patients have been older, the majority with adenocarcinoma histology, and receiving chemotherapy. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. Shared susceptibility loci at 2q33 region for lung and esophageal cancers in high-incidence areas of esophageal cancer in northern China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Ke Zhao

    Full Text Available Cancers from lung and esophagus are the leading causes of cancer-related deaths in China and share many similarities in terms of histological type, risk factors and genetic variants. Recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS in Chinese esophageal cancer patients have demonstrated six high-risk candidate single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs. Thus, the present study aimed to determine the risk of these SNPs predisposing to lung cancer in Chinese population.A total of 1170 lung cancer patients and 1530 normal subjects were enrolled in this study from high-incidence areas for esophageal cancer in Henan, northern China. Five milliliters of blood were collected from all subjects for genotyping. Genotyping of 20 high-risk SNP loci identified from genome-wide association studies (GWAS on esophageal, lung and gastric cancers was performed using TaqMan allelic discrimination assays. Polymorphisms were examined for deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE using Х2 test. Bonferroni correction was performed to correct the statistical significance of 20 SNPs with the risk of lung cancer. The Pearson's Х2 test was used to compare the distributions of gender, TNM stage, histopathological type, smoking and family history by lung susceptibility genotypes. Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression analyses were carried out to evaluate the associations between genetic variants and overall survival.Four of the 20 SNPs identified as high-risk SNPs in Chinese esophageal cancer showed increased risk for Chinese lung cancer, which included rs3769823 (OR = 1.26; 95% CI = 1.107-1.509; P = 0.02, rs10931936 (OR = 1.283; 95% CI = 1.100-1.495; P = 0.04, rs2244438 (OR = 1.294; 95% CI = 1.098-1.525; P = 0.04 and rs13016963 (OR = 1.268; 95% CI = 1.089-1.447; P = 0.04. All these SNPs were located at 2q33 region harboringgenes of CASP8, ALS2CR12 and TRAK2. However, none of these susceptibility SNPs was observed to be significantly associated with gender, TNM stage

  10. Shared susceptibility loci at 2q33 region for lung and esophageal cancers in high-incidence areas of esophageal cancer in northern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xue Ke; Mao, Yi Min; Meng, Hui; Song, Xin; Hu, Shou Jia; Lv, Shuang; Cheng, Rang; Zhang, Tang Juan; Han, Xue Na; Ren, Jing Li; Qi, Yi Jun; Wang, Li Dong

    2017-01-01

    Cancers from lung and esophagus are the leading causes of cancer-related deaths in China and share many similarities in terms of histological type, risk factors and genetic variants. Recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in Chinese esophageal cancer patients have demonstrated six high-risk candidate single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Thus, the present study aimed to determine the risk of these SNPs predisposing to lung cancer in Chinese population. A total of 1170 lung cancer patients and 1530 normal subjects were enrolled in this study from high-incidence areas for esophageal cancer in Henan, northern China. Five milliliters of blood were collected from all subjects for genotyping. Genotyping of 20 high-risk SNP loci identified from genome-wide association studies (GWAS) on esophageal, lung and gastric cancers was performed using TaqMan allelic discrimination assays. Polymorphisms were examined for deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) using Х2 test. Bonferroni correction was performed to correct the statistical significance of 20 SNPs with the risk of lung cancer. The Pearson's Х2 test was used to compare the distributions of gender, TNM stage, histopathological type, smoking and family history by lung susceptibility genotypes. Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression analyses were carried out to evaluate the associations between genetic variants and overall survival. Four of the 20 SNPs identified as high-risk SNPs in Chinese esophageal cancer showed increased risk for Chinese lung cancer, which included rs3769823 (OR = 1.26; 95% CI = 1.107-1.509; P = 0.02), rs10931936 (OR = 1.283; 95% CI = 1.100-1.495; P = 0.04), rs2244438 (OR = 1.294; 95% CI = 1.098-1.525; P = 0.04) and rs13016963 (OR = 1.268; 95% CI = 1.089-1.447; P = 0.04). All these SNPs were located at 2q33 region harboringgenes of CASP8, ALS2CR12 and TRAK2. However, none of these susceptibility SNPs was observed to be significantly associated with gender, TNM stage, histopathological type

  11. Cancer incidence among firefighters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pukkala, Eero; Martinsen, Jan Ivar; Weiderpass, Elisabete

    2014-01-01

    .51), adenocarcinoma of the lung (SIR=1.90, 95% CI 1.34 to 2.62), and mesothelioma (SIR=2.59, 95% CI 1.24 to 4.77). By contrast with earlier studies, the incidence of testicular cancer was decreased (SIR=0.51, 95% CI 0.23 to 0.98). CONCLUSIONS: Some of these associations have been observed previously, and potential...

  12. Simulation model of lung cancer incidence related to smoking and radon daughter exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stolowijk, J.A.J.

    1990-01-01

    A mathematical model of lung cancer and radon daughter exposure is presented. It is aimed to provide a quantitative estimate in the form of dose-effect relationship. The nature of the cigarette smoking and radon exposure interaction it is shown to be a multiplicative or sub-multiplicative function rather than a simpler model in which the effect of the two exposures would be summed. The model was written in the SAS programming language. An annotated listing of the program is given. 4 refs

  13. Cancer incidence in Spain, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galceran, J; Ameijide, A; Carulla, M; Mateos, A; Quirós, J R; Rojas, D; Alemán, A; Torrella, A; Chico, M; Vicente, M; Díaz, J M; Larrañaga, N; Marcos-Gragera, R; Sánchez, M J; Perucha, J; Franch, P; Navarro, C; Ardanaz, E; Bigorra, J; Rodrigo, P; Bonet, R Peris

    2017-07-01

    Periodic cancer incidence estimates of Spain from all existing population-based cancer registries at any given time are required. The objective of this study was to present the current situation of cancer incidence in Spain. The Spanish Network of Cancer Registries (REDECAN) estimated the numbers of new cancer cases occurred in Spain in 2015 by applying the incidence-mortality ratios method. In the calculus, incidence data from population-based cancer registries and mortality data of all Spain were used. In 2015, nearly a quarter of a million new invasive cancer cases were diagnosed in Spain, almost 149,000 in men (60.0%) and 99,000 in women. Globally, the five most common cancers were those of colon-rectum, prostate, lung, breast and urinary bladder. By gender, the four most common cancers in men were those of prostate (22.4%), colon-rectum (16.6%), lung (15.1%) and urinary bladder (11.7%). In women, the most common ones were those of breast (28.0%), colon-rectum (16.9%), corpus uteri (6.2%) and lung (6.0%). In recent years, cancer incidence in men seems to have stabilized due to the fact that the decrease in tobacco-related cancers compensates for the increase in other types of cancer like those of colon and prostate. In women, despite the stabilization of breast cancer incidence, increased incidence is due, above all, to the rise of colorectal and tobacco-related cancers. To reduce these incident cancer cases, improvement of smoking control policies and extension of colorectal cancer screening should be the two priorities in cancer prevention for the next years.

  14. Lung cancer in younger patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abbasowa, Leda; Madsen, Poul Henning

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Lung cancer remains a leading cause of cancer-related death. The incidence increases with age and the occurrence in young patients is relatively low. The clinicopathological features of lung cancer in younger patients have not been fully explored previously. METHODS: To assess the age...... differences in the clinical characteristics of lung cancer, we conducted a retrospective analysis comparing young patients ≤ 65 years of age with an elderly group > 65 years of age. Among 1,232 patients evaluated due to suspicion of lung cancer in our fast-track setting from January-December 2013, 312 newly...... diagnosed lung cancer patients were included. RESULTS: Patients ≤ 65 years had a significantly higher representation of females (p = 0.0021), more frequent familial cancer aggregation (p = 0.028) and a lower incidence of squamous cell carcinoma (p = 0.0133). When excluding pure carcinoid tumours...

  15. A Novel Approach for Analysis of the Log-Linear Age-Period-Cohort Model: Application to Lung Cancer Incidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tengiz Mdzinarishvili

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A simple, computationally efficient procedure for analyses of the time period and birth cohort effects on the distribution of the age-specific incidence rates of cancers is proposed. Assuming that cohort effects for neighboring cohorts are almost equal and using the Log-Linear Age-Period-Cohort Model, this procedure allows one to evaluate temporal trends and birth cohort variations of any type of cancer without prior knowledge of the hazard function. This procedure was used to estimate the influence of time period and birth cohort effects on the distribution of the age-specific incidence rates of first primary, microscopically confirmed lung cancer (LC cases from the SEER9 database. It was shown that since 1975, the time period effect coefficients for men increase up to 1980 and then decrease until 2004. For women, these coefficients increase from 1975 up to 1990 and then remain nearly constant. The LC birth cohort effect coefficients for men and women increase from the cohort of 1890–94 until the cohort of 1925–29, then decrease until the cohort of 1950–54 and then remain almost unchanged. Overall, LC incidence rates, adjusted by period and cohort effects, increase up to the age of about 72–75, turn over, and then fall after the age of 75–78. The peak of the adjusted rates in men is around the age of 77–78, while in women, it is around the age of 72–73. Therefore, these results suggest that the age distribution of the incidence rates in men and women fall at old ages.

  16. Lung Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... experience complications from follow-up tests. For this reason, lung cancer screening is offered to people who are in ... is more likely to be cancerous. For that reason, you might be referred to a lung ... problems. Your lung cancer screening test may detect other lung and heart ...

  17. The Risk for Lung Cancer Incidence with Calcium Channel Blockers: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotshild, Victoria; Azoulay, Laurent; Zarifeh, Majd; Masarwa, Reem; Hirsh-Raccah, Bruria; Perlman, Amichai; Muszkat, Mordechai; Matok, Ilan

    2018-02-26

    There are conflicting findings regarding the association between the use of calcium channel blockers (CCBs) and the risk of lung cancer. Considering the public health importance of lung cancer prevention, and emerging evidence of a significant biologic role of calcium channel regulation in the development of lung cancer, we conducted a meta-analysis to assess the risk of lung cancer in CCB users compared with non-CCB users. We conducted a comprehensive systematic search of leading medical databases for observational studies published up to December 2017 that examined CCB use and the risk of lung cancer. We used random-effects models to pool results. The impact of duration of CCB use on the estimated effect size was explored using random effects meta-regression. Ten studies (six cohort and four case-control studies) that evaluated the overall cancer risk among 38,758 CCB users were included in the analysis. Overall risk ratio (RR) for CCB use and lung cancer was 1.15 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01-1.32). Subgroup analysis by duration of CCB use suggested that the observed increase in lung cancer risk was driven by the results of five studies with prolonged (≥ 4 years) exposure (RR 1.18; 95% CI 1.08-1.30). Our analysis suggests exposure to CCBs is associated with an increased risk of lung cancer. Considering their widespread use, and the paucity of data on the long-term effects of chronic exposure to CCBs, these results are reason for concern and warrant further investigation. The protocol for this study was registered at the PROSPERO registry of systematic reviews (registry number: CRD42017056362).

  18. A critical assessment of geographic clusters of breast and lung cancer incidences among residents living near the Tittabawassee and Saginaw Rivers, Michigan, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guajardo, Olga A; Oyana, Tonny J

    2009-01-01

    To assess previously determined geographic clusters of breast and lung cancer incidences among residents living near the Tittabawassee and Saginaw Rivers, Michigan, using a new set of environmental factors. Breast and lung cancer data were acquired from the Michigan Department of Community Health, along with point source pollution data from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The datasets were used to determine whether there is a spatial association between disease risk and environmental contamination. GIS and spatial techniques were combined with statistical analysis to investigate local risk of breast and lung cancer. The study suggests that neighborhoods in close proximity to the river were associated with a high risk of breast cancer, while increased risk of lung cancer was detected among neighborhoods in close proximity to point source pollution and major highways. Statistically significant (P cancer incidences were observed among residents living near the rivers. These findings are useful to researchers and governmental agencies for risk assessment, regulation, and control of environmental contamination in the floodplains.

  19. A Critical Assessment of Geographic Clusters of Breast and Lung Cancer Incidences among Residents Living near the Tittabawassee and Saginaw Rivers, Michigan, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guajardo, O.A.; Oyana, T.J.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives. To assess previously determined geographic clusters of breast and lung cancer incidences among residents living near the Tittabawassee and Saginaw Rivers, Michigan, using a new set of environmental factors. Materials and Methods. Breast and lung cancer data were acquired from the Michigan Department of Community Health, along with point source pollution data from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The datasets were used to determine whether there is a spatial association between disease risk and environmental contamination. GIS and spatial techniques were combined with statistical analysis to investigate local risk of breast and lung cancer. Results and Conclusion. The study suggests that neighborhoods in close proximity to the river were associated with a high risk of breast cancer, while increased risk of lung cancer was detected among neighborhoods in close proximity to point source pollution and major highways. Statistically significant (P=.001) clusters of cancer incidences were observed among residents living near the rivers. These findings are useful to researchers and governmental agencies for risk assessment, regulation, and control of environmental contamination in the flood plains.

  20. A Critical Assessment of Geographic Clusters of Breast and Lung Cancer Incidences among Residents Living near the Tittabawassee and Saginaw Rivers, Michigan, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga A. Guajardo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To assess previously determined geographic clusters of breast and lung cancer incidences among residents living near the Tittabawassee and Saginaw Rivers, Michigan, using a new set of environmental factors. Materials and Methods. Breast and lung cancer data were acquired from the Michigan Department of Community Health, along with point source pollution data from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The datasets were used to determine whether there is a spatial association between disease risk and environmental contamination. GIS and spatial techniques were combined with statistical analysis to investigate local risk of breast and lung cancer. Results and Conclusion. The study suggests that neighborhoods in close proximity to the river were associated with a high risk of breast cancer, while increased risk of lung cancer was detected among neighborhoods in close proximity to point source pollution and major highways. Statistically significant (P≤.001 clusters of cancer incidences were observed among residents living near the rivers. These findings are useful to researchers and governmental agencies for risk assessment, regulation, and control of environmental contamination in the floodplains.

  1. Dietary fiber intake and risk of colorectal cancer and incident and recurrent adenoma in the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunzmann, Andrew T; Coleman, Helen G; Huang, Wen-Yi; Kitahara, Cari M; Cantwell, Marie M; Berndt, Sonja I

    2015-01-01

    Background: Dietary fiber has been associated with a reduced risk of colorectal cancer. However, it remains unclear at which stage in the carcinogenic pathway fiber may act or which food sources of dietary fiber may be most beneficial against colorectal cancer development. Objective: The objective was to prospectively evaluate the association between dietary fiber intake and the risk of incident and recurrent colorectal adenoma and incident colorectal cancer. Design: Study participants were identified from the intervention arm of the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial. Participants received flexible sigmoidoscopy at baseline and 3 or 5 y after. Dietary fiber intake was measured by using a self-reported dietary questionnaire. The colorectal cancer, incident adenoma, and recurrent adenoma analyses were based on 57,774, 16,980, and 1667 participants, respectively. Unconditional logistic regression was used to assess the risk of incident and recurrent adenoma, and Cox proportional hazards models were used to assess the risk of colorectal cancer across categories of dietary fiber intake, with adjustment for potential confounders. Results: Elevated total dietary fiber intake was associated with a significantly reduced risk of incident distal colorectal adenoma (ORhighest vs. lowest tertile of intake: 0.76; 95% CI: 0.63, 0.91; P-trend = 0.003) but not recurrent adenoma (P-trend = 0.67). Although the association was not statistically significant for colorectal cancer overall (HR: 0.85; 95% CI: 0.70, 1.03; P-trend = 0.10), a reduced risk of distal colon cancer was observed with increased total fiber intake (HR: 0.62; 95% CI: 0.41, 0.94; P-trend = 0.03). Protective associations were most notable for fiber originating from cereals or fruit. Conclusions: This large, prospective study within a population-based screening trial suggests that individuals consuming the highest intakes of dietary fiber have reduced risks of incident colorectal adenoma and

  2. Dietary fiber intake and risk of colorectal cancer and incident and recurrent adenoma in the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunzmann, Andrew T; Coleman, Helen G; Huang, Wen-Yi; Kitahara, Cari M; Cantwell, Marie M; Berndt, Sonja I

    2015-10-01

    Dietary fiber has been associated with a reduced risk of colorectal cancer. However, it remains unclear at which stage in the carcinogenic pathway fiber may act or which food sources of dietary fiber may be most beneficial against colorectal cancer development. The objective was to prospectively evaluate the association between dietary fiber intake and the risk of incident and recurrent colorectal adenoma and incident colorectal cancer. Study participants were identified from the intervention arm of the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial. Participants received flexible sigmoidoscopy at baseline and 3 or 5 y after. Dietary fiber intake was measured by using a self-reported dietary questionnaire. The colorectal cancer, incident adenoma, and recurrent adenoma analyses were based on 57,774, 16,980, and 1667 participants, respectively. Unconditional logistic regression was used to assess the risk of incident and recurrent adenoma, and Cox proportional hazards models were used to assess the risk of colorectal cancer across categories of dietary fiber intake, with adjustment for potential confounders. Elevated total dietary fiber intake was associated with a significantly reduced risk of incident distal colorectal adenoma (ORhighest vs. lowest tertile of intake: 0.76; 95% CI: 0.63, 0.91; P-trend = 0.003) but not recurrent adenoma (P-trend = 0.67). Although the association was not statistically significant for colorectal cancer overall (HR: 0.85; 95% CI: 0.70, 1.03; P-trend = 0.10), a reduced risk of distal colon cancer was observed with increased total fiber intake (HR: 0.62; 95% CI: 0.41, 0.94; P-trend = 0.03). Protective associations were most notable for fiber originating from cereals or fruit. This large, prospective study within a population-based screening trial suggests that individuals consuming the highest intakes of dietary fiber have reduced risks of incident colorectal adenoma and distal colon cancer and that this effect of dietary

  3. Epidemiology of Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, Malcolm V.; Ford, Jean G.; Samet, Jonathan M.; Spivack, Simon D.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Ever since a lung cancer epidemic emerged in the mid-1900s, the epidemiology of lung cancer has been intensively investigated to characterize its causes and patterns of occurrence. This report summarizes the key findings of this research. Methods: A detailed literature search provided the basis for a narrative review, identifying and summarizing key reports on population patterns and factors that affect lung cancer risk. Results: Established environmental risk factors for lung cancer include smoking cigarettes and other tobacco products and exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke, occupational lung carcinogens, radiation, and indoor and outdoor air pollution. Cigarette smoking is the predominant cause of lung cancer and the leading worldwide cause of cancer death. Smoking prevalence in developing nations has increased, starting new lung cancer epidemics in these nations. A positive family history and acquired lung disease are examples of host factors that are clinically useful risk indicators. Risk prediction models based on lung cancer risk factors have been developed, but further refinement is needed to provide clinically useful risk stratification. Promising biomarkers of lung cancer risk and early detection have been identified, but none are ready for broad clinical application. Conclusions: Almost all lung cancer deaths are caused by cigarette smoking, underscoring the need for ongoing efforts at tobacco control throughout the world. Further research is needed into the reasons underlying lung cancer disparities, the causes of lung cancer in never smokers, the potential role of HIV in lung carcinogenesis, and the development of biomarkers. PMID:23649439

  4. Diet and lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabricius, P; Lange, Peter

    2003-01-01

    with vitamins A, C and E and beta-carotene offers no protection against the development of lung cancer. On the contrary, beta-carotene supplementation has, in two major randomised intervention trials, resulted in an increased mortality. Smoking remains the leading cause of lung cancer. The adverse effects......Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. While cigarette smoking is of key importance, factors such as diet also play a role in the development of lung cancer. MedLine and Embase were searched with diet and lung cancer as the key words. Recently published reviews...

  5. Incidence and Predictors of Pericardial Effusion After Chemoradiation Therapy for Locally Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Matthew S; Tang, Linglong; Gomez, Daniel R; Xu, Ting; Luo, Yangkun; Huo, Jinhai; Mouhayar, Elie; Liao, Zhongxing

    2017-09-01

    Findings from Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) 0617 suggested that collateral radiation to the heart may contribute to early death in patients receiving chemoradiation therapy for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC); however, reports of cardiac toxicity after thoracic radiation therapy (RT) remain limited. Because pericardial disease is the most common cardiac complication of thoracic RT, we investigated the incidence of and risk factors for pericardial effusion (PCE) in patients enrolled in a phase 2 prospective randomized study of intensity modulated RT versus proton therapy for locally advanced NSCLC. From July 2009 through April 2014, 201 patients were prospectively treated with proton beam therapy or intensity modulated RT to 60 to 74 Gy with concurrent chemotherapy. The primary endpoint (grade ≥2 PCE) was diagnosed on review of follow-up images. Clinical characteristics and cardiac dose-volume parameters associated with PCE were identified via Cox proportional hazards modeling and recursive partitioning analysis of null Martingale residuals. Reproducibility was evaluated in a separate retrospective cohort of 301 patients. The cumulative incidence rates of PCE among patients in the trial were 31.4% at 1 year and 45.4% at 2 years, with a median time to PCE of 8.9 months. Several cardiac dose-volume parameters (eg, V20 [volume receiving ≥20 Gy] to V65 [volume receiving ≥65 Gy]) predicted PCE, but heart volume receiving ≥35 Gy (HV35) was the most strongly associated, with a cutoff volume of 10%. On multivariate analysis, HV35 >10% independently predicted PCE (hazard ratio [HR], 2.14; P=.002), a finding that maintained reproducibility in the retrospective validation cohort. Other factors associated with PCE included receipt of adjuvant chemotherapy (HR, 2.82; P10% may identify patients at risk of development of this cardiac toxicity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Regional comparison of cancer incidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obralic, N.; Gavrankapetanovic, F.; Dizdarevic, Z.; Duric, O.; Sisic, F.; Selak, I.; Balta, S.; Nakas, B.

    2004-01-01

    Background. Due to specific war and post-war situation in Balkan region, differences in the number, type, development, biological course, treatment of malignant tumours and its outcome are possible. In order to perceive the situation realistically, it is necessary to gather continuously exact data about malignant tumours and compare them with the data from other European and world countries.The aim of the study was to collect and analyse the data on cancer incidence in the region of Sarajevo city, which represents a symbol of difficult times in the recent past, and to compare it to the incidence in the neighbouring countries. Patients and methods. Data on all newly diagnosed cancer cases, permanent residents of Sarajevo Canton, in the years 1999 and 2000 were collected. Crude incidence rate has been calculated according to the years observed, gender and localizations of the disease The data were compared to the cancer registries of Slovenia and Croatia and were observed in the light of specific local situation. Results. The crude cancer incidence of all sites but skin was the highest in both years and by both genders in Croatia. The incidence of the most common tumours (lung and breast cancer) was similar in all three countries. The differences in the incidence between both genders in the Sarajevo canton were registered in laryngeal and urinary bladder cancer, as well as in bone and cartilage sarcoma. Cervical cancer had extremely high incidence and was high up on the incidence list in the Sarajevo canton, which correlates with the data in developing countries. The incidence of other tumours in the post-war period is reaching expected numbers. Conclusions. It is difficult to identify whether the war and post-war stress, irregular and insufficient nutrition during and after the siege of the city of Sarajevo or some other factor influenced the cancer incidence among exposed population. The prevalence of smoking in the whole region is extremely high, in Bosnia and

  7. Lung Cancer Indicators Recurrence

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study describes prognostic factors for lung cancer spread and recurrence, as well as subsequent risk of death from the disease. The investigators observed that regardless of cancer stage, grade, or type of lung cancer, patients in the study were more

  8. Genetics Home Reference: lung cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and a history of lung disease such as tuberculosis, emphysema, or chronic bronchitis. A history of lung ... Cancer Society: Cancer Facts & Figures 2017 (PDF) Byers LA, Rudin CM. Small cell lung cancer: where do ...

  9. Screening for lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Infante, Maurizio V; Pedersen, Jesper H

    2010-01-01

    In lung cancer screening with low-dose spiral computed tomography (LDCT), the proportion of stage I disease is 50-85%, and the survival rate for resected stage I disease can exceed 90%, but proof of real benefit in terms of lung cancer mortality reduction must come from the several randomized...

  10. Spine Metastases in Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.Yu. Stolyarova

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose and the objectives of the study were to determine the incidence of metastatic lesions to various parts of the spine, the assessment of the association with other clinical signs of lung cancer (localization, form, histology, degree of differentiation, staging, nature of extraosseous metastasis, to investigate the effect of these parameters on the survi­val of the patients. Material and methods. The study included 1071 patients with lung cancer aged 24 to 86 years. None of the examined patients has been operated previously for lung cancer, and after arriving at a diagnosis, all patients received radiation therapy, 73 % of them — combined radiochemothe­rapy. Results. Metastasis in the vertebral bodies and vertebral joints occurs in 13 % of patients with lung cancer and in 61 % of patients with bone form of the disease, the ratio of the defeat of thoracic, sacral, lumbar and cervical spine was 6 : 4 : 2 : 1. The development of metastases in the spine is mostly associa­ted with the localization of the tumor in the upper lobe of the lung, the peripheral form of the disease, with non-small cell histologic variants (adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma. The number of metastases in the spinal column directly correlates with the degree of metastatic involvement of the inguinal lymph nodes, abdominal wall and the liver, has an impact on the invasion of lung tumor into the esophagus and the trachea. The life expectancy of the deceased persons with spine metastases is less than that of other patients with the lung cancer, but the overall survival rate in these groups of patients is not very different. Conclusions. Clinical features of lung cancer with metastases in the spine necessitate the development of medical technology of rational radiochemotherapy in such patients.

  11. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a complex comorbidity of lung cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Grose, Derek; Milroy, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a major burden throughout the world. It is associated with a significantly increased incidence of lung cancer and may influence treatment options and outcome. Impaired lung function confirming COPD is an independent risk factor for lung cancer. Oxidative stress and inflammation may be a key link between COPD and lung cancer, with numerous molecular markers being analysed to attempt to understand the pathway of lung cancer development. COPD negat...

  12. Lung cancer in the Kashmir valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koul Parvaiz

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lung cancer has been found to be the second commonest cancer according to a hospital-based data from Kashmir, India. However, no incidence studies are available. Objective: To ascertain the incidence of lung cancer in Kashmir. Materials and Methods: All newly histologically diagnosed cases of lung cancer seen in various hospital and private laboratories of the Kashmir valley were registered over a period of two years (January 1, 2004 to December 31, 2005. Also included were patients attending the various oncological service areas of the institute and those diagnosed from any other laboratory outside the state. The incidence rate was calculated using the January 2005 population as the reference population estimated using the census-based projected populations. Results: Four hundred and sixty-two incident cases of lung cancer were seen during the study period. The crude incidence rate, age standardized (world and truncated age adjusted (40-69 years, world incidence rates for lung cancer per 100 000 population were 4.01, 6.48 and 15.28 respectively (males 6.55, 10.09 and 23.94 respectively and females 1.19, 2.14 and 4.65. The age adjusted rates for males in district Srinagar was 19.34 per 100 000. One hundred and fifty nine (69.8% of the 221 had a history of Hukkah smoking. Conclusions: Even though Kashmir as a whole is a low incidence area for lung cancer (ASR of < 15, Srinagar district has the highest incidence of lung cancer among the males in Kashmir. The data presented is assumed to be the closest approximation to a population-based data registry and the geographical incidence maps of ICMR need appropriate updating

  13. Lung cancer imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Ravenel, James G

    2013-01-01

    This book provides a guide to the diagnosis, staging and overview of the management of lung cancer relevant to practicing radiologists so that they can better understand the decision making issues and provide more useful communication to treating physicians.

  14. The Danish Lung Cancer Registry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Erik; Rasmussen, Torben Riis

    2016-01-01

    AIM OF DATABASE: The Danish Lung Cancer Registry (DLCR) was established by the Danish Lung Cancer Group. The primary and first goal of the DLCR was to improve survival and the overall clinical management of Danish lung cancer patients. STUDY POPULATION: All Danish primary lung cancer patients since...... 2000 are included into the registry and the database today contains information on more than 50,000 cases of lung cancer. MAIN VARIABLES: The database contains information on patient characteristics such as age, sex, diagnostic procedures, histology, tumor stage, lung function, performance...... as a source for research regarding lung cancer in Denmark and in comparisons with other countries....

  15. African American health disparities in lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Pauline M; Guerrier-Adams, Suzy; Okunji, Priscilla O; Schiavone, Deborah; Smith, Joann E

    2013-04-01

    Lung cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the United States and globally. African Americans experience significant differences in lung cancer incidence and mortality. Smoking is the single greatest risk for lung cancer, making smoking cessation programs a potentially fruitful approach for reducing the risk of lung cancer. Despite clinical practice guidelines that prompt nurses to advise patients to quit smoking, only a small percentage of nurses do so. Minority patients are less likely than Whites to receive smoking cessation advice. This article discusses recent findings on the pathophysiology and risks for lung cancer. The literature on smoking cessation research is examined to determine the features of successful cessation interventions. Recommendations are offered for enhancing tobacco cessation efforts in nursing practice, education, and research.

  16. Lung cancer among Navajo uranium miners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gottlieb, L.S.; Husen, L.A.

    1982-01-01

    Lung cancer has been a rare disease among the Indians of the southwestern United States. However, the advent of uranium mining in the area has been associated with an increased incidence of lung cancer among Navajo uranium miners. This study centers on Navajo men with lung cancer who were admitted to the hospital from February 1965 to May 1979. Of a total of 17 patients with lung cancer, 16 were uranium miners, and one was a nonminer. The mean value of cumulative radon exposure for this group was 1139.5 working level months (WLMs). The predominant cancer type was the small cell undifferentiated category (62.5 percent). The low frequency of cigarette smoking in this group supports the view that radiation is the primary cause of lung cancer among uranium miners and that cigarette smoking acts as a promoting agent

  17. 6 Common Cancers - Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to the foreign antigens on the surface of cancer cells and help destroy them. Recent studies indicate this approach holds promise. Bevacizumab and chemotherapy: Last year, scientists announced a new development in treating advanced lung cancer. In a large study, people taking bevacizumab (Avastin) ...

  18. Cancer incidence among waiters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reijula, Jere; Kjaerheim, Kristina; Lynge, Elsebeth

    2015-01-01

    AIMS: To study cancer risk patterns among waiters in the Nordic countries. METHODS: We identified a cohort of 16,134 male and 81,838 female waiters from Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden. During the follow-up period from 1961 to 2005, we found that 19,388 incident cancer cases were...... diagnosed. Standardised incidence ratio (SIR) was defined as the observed number of cancer cases divided by the expected number, based on national age, time period and gender-specific cancer incidence rates in the general population. RESULTS: The SIR of all cancers in waiters, in the five countries combined......, was 1.46 (95% CI 1.41-1.51) in men and 1.09 (1.07-1.11) in women. In male waiters, the SIR decreased from 1.79 (1.63-1.96) in 1961-1975, to 1.33 (1.26-1.40) in 1991-2005, but remained stable among women. The SIR among male waiters was highest for cancers in the pharynx (6.11; 95% CI 5.02-7.37), oral...

  19. Lung cancer - non-small cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer - lung - non-small cell; Non-small cell lung cancer; NSCLC; Adenocarcinoma - lung; Squamous cell carcinoma - lung ... Smoking causes most cases (around 90%) of lung cancer. The risk depends on the number of cigarettes ...

  20. Lung Cancer Survivorship

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-10-20

    A lung cancer survivor shares her story about diagnosis, treatment, and community support. She also gives advice for other cancer survivors.  Created: 10/20/2016 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 10/20/2016.

  1. Staging of lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Groot, Patricia M; Carter, Brett W; Betancourt Cuellar, Sonia L; Erasmus, Jeremy J

    2015-06-01

    Primary lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer mortality in the world. Thorough clinical staging of patients with lung cancer is important, because therapeutic options and management are to a considerable degree dependent on stage at presentation. Radiologic imaging is an essential component of clinical staging, including chest radiography in some cases, computed tomography, MRI, and PET. Multiplanar imaging modalities allow assessment of features that are important for surgical, oncologic, and radiation therapy planning, including size of the primary tumor, location and relationship to normal anatomic structures in the thorax, and existence of nodal and/or metastatic disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Lung Cancer: Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mott, Timothy F

    2018-01-01

    Lung cancer management that is individualized for age, comorbidities, cancer type, cancer stage, and patient preference has long been a cornerstone of management. New to this realm of individualized management are the emerging biologic therapies, immunotherapies, and targeted therapies for non-small-cell lung cancer provided by advances in genetics and molecular medicine. These techniques have led to a new field of precision medicine based on the unique molecular characteristics of a specific patient and the specific cancer. However, standard management including surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy remains the most common management options for stage I through III lung cancers. Advancements in precision medicine are most relevant to patients with stage IV (ie, metastatic) lung cancers. Functional patient assessment and pulmonary function testing are keys to preoperative assessment. Early palliative care and a minimally invasive approach to surgery should be considered in patients who can tolerate surgery. Written permission from the American Academy of Family Physicians is required for reproduction of this material in whole or in part in any form or medium.

  3. Lung cancer screening: Update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyea Young

    2015-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide as well as in Korea. A recent National Lung Screening Trial in U.S. revealed that low-dose CT (LDCT) screening reduced lung cancer specific mortality by 20% in high risk individuals as compared to chest radiograph screening. Based on this evidence, several expert societies in U.S. and Korean multisociety collaborative committee developed guidelines for recommendation of lung cancer screening using annual LDCT in high risk populations. In most of the societies high risk groups are defined as persons aged 55 to 74 years, who are current smokers with history of smoking of more than 30 packs per year or ex-smokers, who quit smoking up to 15 or more years ago. The benefits of LDCT screening are modestly higher than the harms in high risk individuals. The harms included a high rate of false-positive findings, over-diagnosis and radiation-related deaths. Invasive diagnostic procedure due to false positive findings may lead to complications. LDCT should be performed in qualified hospitals and interpreted by expert radiologists. Recently, the American College of Radiology released the current version of Lung cancer CT screening Reporting and Data Systems. Education and actions to stop smoking must be offered to current smokers

  4. Cancer incidence study in Mesa County, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouimette, D.R.; Ferguson, S.W.; Zoglo, D.; Murphy, S.; Alley, S.; Bahler, S.

    1983-01-01

    In November of 1982 the Colorado Department of Health completed an epidemiologic investigation of leukemia, multiple myeloma, and cancers of the lung, stomach, pancreas and colon in Mesa County, Colorado for the years 1970 to 1979. This investigation was performed in response to a concern that the presence of uranium mill tailings in some Mesa County homes presents a potential cancer hazard. The results of the investigation show that the incidence of multiple myeloma, colon, stomach and pancreatic cancer are not above expected rates. The incidence of leukemia is not above expected rates for the entire study period, 1970 to 1979. The incidence of lung cancer appears elevated when compared to the The Third National Cancer Survey data for Colorado but lower than expected when compared to Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results data. To further examine the leukemia and lung cancer incidence findings, a case/control study was conducted. The controls consisted of colon, stomach and pancreatic cancer cases. The results of the leukemia case/control analysis show no association with the radiation exposure variables: occupational radiation exposure; uranium mining exposure; having ever lived in a type A home (uranium tailings home); and radiation therapy. The lung cancer case/control analysis shows a significant association with only the radiation exposure variable, uranium mining history, indicating cases were more likely to have been uranium miners than were controls. As with leukemia, the study found no association between lung cancer and living in a uranium mill tailings home. The relatively low radiation exposures typical of type A homes and the small number of persons exposed make it very difficult to establish, by epidemiologic methods, that a risk exists

  5. Cancer Incidence and Mortality in China, 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Hong-mei; Zheng, Rong-shou; Zhang, Si-wei; He, Jie

    2012-01-01

    Objective Cancer incidence and mortality data collected from population-based cancer registries were analyzed to present the overall cancer statistics in Chinese registration areas by age, sex and geographic area in 2007. Methods In 2010, 48 cancer registries reported cancer incidence and mortality data of 2007 to National Central Cancer Registry of China. Of them, 38 registries’ data met the national criteria. Incidence and mortality were calculated by cancer sites, age, gender, and area. Age-standardized rates were described by China and World population. Results The crude incidence rate for all cancers was 276.16/100,000 (305.22/100,000 for male and 246.46/100,000 for female; 284.71/100,000 in urban and 251.07/100,000 in rural). Age-standardized incidence rates by China and World population were 145.39/100,000 and 189.46/100,000 respectively. The crude mortality rate for all cancers was 177.09/100,000 (219.15/100,000 for male and 134.10/100,000 for female; 173.55/100,000 in urban and 187.49/100,000 in rural). Age-standardized mortality rates by China and World population were 86.06/100,000 and 116.46/100,000, respectively. The top 10 most frequently common cancer sites were the lung, stomach, colon and rectum, liver, breast, esophagus, pancreas, bladder, brain and lymphoma, accounting for 76.12% of the total cancer cases. The top 10 causes of cancer death were cancers of the lung, liver, stomach, esophagus, colon and rectum, pancreas, breast, leukemia, brain and lymphoma, accounting for 84.37% of the total cancer deaths. Conclusion Cancer remains a major disease threatening people’s health in China. Prevention and control should be enhanced, especially for the main cancers. PMID:23359628

  6. Prevention and management of lung cancer in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Qun-Ying; Wu, Guo-Ming; Qian, Gui-Sheng; Hu, Cheng-Ping; Zhou, Jian-Ying; Chen, Liang-An; Li, Wei-Min; Li, Shi-Yue; Wang, Kai; Wang, Qi; Zhang, Xiao-Ju; Li, Jing; Gong, Xin; Bai, Chun-Xue

    2015-09-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. In China, the incidence of lung cancer has grown rapidly, resulting in a large social and economic burden. Several researchers have devoted their studies to lung cancer and have demonstrated that there are many risk factors for lung cancer in China, including tobacco use, environmental pollution, food, genetics, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. However, the lung cancer incidence is still growing rapidly in China, and there is an even higher incidence among the younger generation. One explanation may be the triple-neglect situation, in which medical policies that neglect prevention, diagnosis, and supportive care have increased patients' mortality and reduced their quality of life. Therefore, it is necessary to enhance the efficiency of prevention and early diagnosis not only by focusing more attention on treatment but also by drawing more attention to supportive care for patients with lung cancer. © 2015 American Cancer Society.

  7. Cancer incidence and mortality in China, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wanqing; Zheng, Rongshou; Zhang, Siwei; Zeng, Hongmei; Xia, Changfa; Zuo, Tingting; Yang, Zhixun; Zou, Xiaonong; He, Jie

    2017-08-10

    National Central Cancer Registry of China (NCCRC) updated nationwide statistics of cancer incidence and mortality in China using population-based cancer registration data in 2013 from all available cancer registries. In 2016, 255 registries' data were qualified and included in this analysis. We estimated numbers of new cancer cases and deaths in China in 2013 using age-specific rates and corresponding national population stratified by area, sex, age group (0, 1-4, 5-9, 10-14…85+) and cancer type. The world Segi's population was applied for age-standardized rates. All rates were expressed per 100,000 person-year. A total of 3,682,000 new cancer cases and 2,229,300 cancer deaths were estimated in China in 2013. Cancers of lung, female breast, stomach, liver, colon-rectum and esophagus were the most common cancers, accounting for about half of all cancer new cases. Lung cancer, liver cancer, stomach cancer, esophageal cancer, colorectal cancer were the five leading causes of cancer death, accounting for about 60% of all cancer deaths. The cancer patterns showed differences not only between male and female, but also among different geographic regions in China. For overall cancers, the age-standardized incidence rates were stable during the past decades in male, but significantly increased by 2.2% per year in female. Cancer poses a major threat to public health and the cancer burden keep raising in China. The annual updated cancer statistics can provide scientific basis for cancer prevention and control. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Lung Cancer Precision Medicine Trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patients with lung cancer are benefiting from the boom in targeted and immune-based therapies. With a series of precision medicine trials, NCI is keeping pace with the rapidly changing treatment landscape for lung cancer.

  9. Lung Cancer Rates by State

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Both Men and Women” Stay Informed Rates by State for Other Kinds of Cancer All Cancers Combined ... Skin Uterine Cancer Home Lung Cancer Rates by State Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook ...

  10. Cancer incidence among Danish seafarers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kærlev, Linda; Hansen, Johnny; Lyngbeck Hansen, Hans

    2005-01-01

    .19 to 1.32) for men and 1.07 (95% CI 0.95 to 1.20) for women. This was mainly due to an excess of cancer of the larynx, lung, tongue, mouth, pharynx, oesophagus, pancreas, kidney, urinary bladder, colon, and bone as well as skin melanomas among men (the three latter borderline significantly increased...... extensively in ships. The aim of this study was to study cancer morbidity among Danish seafarers in relation to type of ship and job title. METHODS: A cohort of all Danish seafarers during 1986-1999 (33,340 men; 11,291 women) registered by the Danish Maritime Authority with an employment history was linked...... with the nationwide Danish Cancer Registry and followed up for cancer until the end of 2002. The number of person years at risk was 517,518. Standardised incidence ratios (SIR) were estimated by use of the corresponding national rates. RESULTS: The SIR of all cancers combined was higher than expected: 1.26 (95% CI 1...

  11. small Cell Lung Cancer

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hospital of Qiqihar Medical University Hospital. Inclusion criteria for the current study was histologically and cytologically confirmed NSCLC patients, patients with either lung cancer stage. IIIA, IIIB or IV, chemotherapy naïve, patients having evaluable and measureable disease,. WHO performance status (PS): 0 – 2, no active.

  12. Chemoprevention of Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabo, Eva; Mao, Jenny T.; Lam, Stephen; Reid, Mary E.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Lung cancer is the most common cause of cancer death in men and women in the United States. Cigarette smoking is the main risk factor. Former smokers are at a substantially increased risk of developing lung cancer compared with lifetime never smokers. Chemoprevention refers to the use of specific agents to reverse, suppress, or prevent the process of carcinogenesis. This article reviews the major agents that have been studied for chemoprevention. Methods: Articles of primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention trials were reviewed and summarized to obtain recommendations. Results: None of the phase 3 trials with the agents β-carotene, retinol, 13-cis-retinoic acid, α-tocopherol, N-acetylcysteine, acetylsalicylic acid, or selenium has demonstrated beneficial and reproducible results. To facilitate the evaluation of promising agents and to lessen the need for a large sample size, extensive time commitment, and expense, surrogate end point biomarker trials are being conducted to assist in identifying the most promising agents for later-stage chemoprevention trials. With the understanding of important cellular signaling pathways and the expansion of potentially important targets, agents (many of which target inflammation and the arachidonic acid pathway) are being developed and tested which may prevent or reverse lung carcinogenesis. Conclusions: By integrating biologic knowledge, additional early-phase trials can be performed in a reasonable time frame. The future of lung cancer chemoprevention should entail the evaluation of single agents or combinations that target various pathways while working toward identification and validation of intermediate end points. PMID:23649449

  13. Lung Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a radioactive gas that comes from the breakdown of uranium in rocks and soil. It seeps up through the ground, and leaks ... show that living in areas with higher levels of air pollution increases the risk of lung cancer. Beta carotene ...

  14. Chapter 7: Description of miscan-lung, the erasmus mc lung cancer microsimulation model for evaluating cancer control interventions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.W. Schultz (Frank); R. Boer (Rob); H.J. de Koning (Harry)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThe MISCAN-lung model was designed to simulate population trends in lung cancer (LC) for comprehensive surveillance of the disease, to relate past exposure to risk factors to (observed) LC incidence and mortality, and to estimate the impact of cancer-control interventions. MISCAN-lung

  15. Intersections of lung progenitor cells, lung disease and lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla F. Kim

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of stem cell biology approaches to study adult lung progenitor cells and lung cancer has brought a variety of new techniques to the field of lung biology and has elucidated new pathways that may be therapeutic targets in lung cancer. Recent results have begun to identify the ways in which different cell populations interact to regulate progenitor activity, and this has implications for the interventions that are possible in cancer and in a variety of lung diseases. Today's better understanding of the mechanisms that regulate lung progenitor cell self-renewal and differentiation, including understanding how multiple epigenetic factors affect lung injury repair, holds the promise for future better treatments for lung cancer and for optimising the response to therapy in lung cancer. Working between platforms in sophisticated organoid culture techniques, genetically engineered mouse models of injury and cancer, and human cell lines and specimens, lung progenitor cell studies can begin with basic biology, progress to translational research and finally lead to the beginnings of clinical trials.

  16. Diagnostic Imaging of Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kemal Kara

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer is the most common cause of cancer related death in men and women. It is frequently seen among men than in women and male-female ratio is 1.5:1. Common epidemiological factors that increase risk of lung cancer is smoking. Early age to start smoking, high number of smoking cigarettes per a day and depth of inhalation increase risk of lung cancer. 25% of patients with lung cancer are nonsmokers that passively exposed to cigarette smoke. Occupational exposure to substances such as asbestos, arsenic, nickel, beryllium, mustard gas increases the risk of lung cancer. The well defined risk factor is exposure to asbestos. In addition advanced age, diffuse pulmonary fibrosis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and genetic predisposition are the risk factors that increases lung cancer. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2012; 11(6.000: 749-756

  17. Cancer incidence among workers at the Los Alamos National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acquavella, J.J.; Wilkinson, G.S.; Wiggs, L.D.; Reyes-Waxweiler, M.; Key, C.R.; Tietjen, G.L.

    1985-01-01

    An analysis of cancer incidence among Los Alamos workers was reported at the Sixteenth Mid-Year Topical Symposium of the Health Physics Society. Cancer incidence was especially low among Anglo-American males for cancer of the lung and oral cancer, cancer sites commonly associated with cigarette smoking. No cases of cancer of the lung, oral cavity, pancreas, or bladder were observed among Anglo-American females in the population. Standardized incidence ratios for cancer of the breast and cancer of the uterine corpus exceeded one; however, these findings were not statistically significant. These findings are consistent with expectation for a population of high socioeconomic class, such as the Laboratory work force. Therefore, working conditions at the Laboratory do not appear to have affected cancer incidence in this population. 1 reference, 2 tables

  18. Cancer Incidence in Appalachia, 2004-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Reda J; Ryerson, A Blythe; Singh, Simple D; King, Jessica B

    2016-02-01

    Limited literature is available about cancer in the Appalachian Region. This is the only known analysis of all cancers for Appalachia and non-Appalachia covering 100% of the US population. Appalachian cancer incidence and trends were evaluated by state, sex, and race and compared with those found in non-Appalachian regions. US counties were identified as Appalachian or non-Appalachian. Age-adjusted cancer incidence rates, standard errors, and confidence intervals were calculated using the most recent data from the United States Cancer Statistics for 2004 to 2011. Generally, Appalachia carries a higher cancer burden compared with non-Appalachia, particularly for tobacco-related cancers. For all cancer sites combined, Appalachia has higher rates regardless of sex, race, or region. The Appalachia and non-Appalachia cancer incidence gap has narrowed, with the exception of oral cavity and pharynx, larynx, lung and bronchus, and thyroid cancers. Higher cancer incidence continues in Appalachia and appears at least in part to reflect high tobacco use and potential differences in socioeconomic status, other risk factors, patient health care utilization, or provider practices. It is important to continue to evaluate this population to monitor results from screening and early detection programs, understand behavioral risk factors related to cancer incidence, increase efforts to reduce tobacco use and increase cancer screening, and identify other areas where effective interventions may mediate disparities. Surveillance and evaluation of special populations provide means to monitor screening and early detection programs, understand behavioral risk factors, and increase efforts to reduce tobacco use to mediate disparities. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  19. Lung Cancer in Renal Transplant Recipients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jozicic Mirela

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Although the incidence of malignancy has increased after solid organ transplantation, data on lung cancer in this group of patients is scarce. The aim of this study was to determine clinical characteristics and outcome of patients who developed lung cancer after renal transplantation. Methods. Among a cohort of 1658 patients who received a transplant at our institution and were followedup between 1973 and 2014, five patients developed lung cancer. We analyzed risk factors, transplantation characteristics, treatment options and survival. Results. Lung cancer was diagnosed in 5 patients (0.3%. Time to diagnosis after the transplant procedure ranged from 26 to 156 months (mean 115 months. All of them had a smoking history. Tumors were classified as IIB (20%, IIIA (40%, and IV (40%. Histological types included adenocarcinoma (80% and there was one case of sarcomatoid carcinoma (20%. One patient had concomitant thyroid papillary carcinoma. Radiotherapy was applied in 2 patients, 2 underwent chemotherapy (erlotinib and combination of carboplatinum and etopozide in one patient each, and 2 died within one month after the diagnosis from disseminated malignant disease. Patients with stage IIIA survived 14 and 24 months after the diagnosis. The patient with sarcomatoid cancer underwent thoracotomy with a complete resection, lost his graft function and died 7 months after the diagnosis. Conclusion. Lung cancer is relatively rare malignancy in renal transplant recipients, but associated with high mortality. Smoking is a significant risk factor, thus smoking cessation should be promoted among renal transplant recipients, as well as regular screening for lung cancer.

  20. Bricklayers and lung cancer risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cremers, Jan

    2014-01-01

    The article ‘Lung cancer risk among bricklayers in a pooled analysis of case–control studies’ in the International Journal of Cancer publishes findings of an epidemiological study (in the frame of a SYNERGY-project) dedicated to the lung cancer risk among bricklayers. The authors conclude that a

  1. Invasive cancer incidence - Puerto Rico, 2007-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neil, Mary Elizabeth; Henley, S Jane; Singh, Simple D; Wilson, Reda J; Ortiz-Ortiz, Karen J; Ríos, Naydi Pérez; Torres Cintrón, Carlos R; Luna, Guillermo Tortolero; Zavala Zegarra, Diego E; Ryerson, A Blythe

    2015-04-17

    Cancer is a leading cause of morbidity and death in Puerto Rico. To set a baseline for identifying new trends and patterns of cancer incidence, Puerto Rico Central Cancer Registry staff and CDC analyzed data from Puerto Rico included in U.S. Cancer Statistics (USCS) for 2007-2011, the most recent data available. This is the first report of invasive cancer incidence rates for 2007-2011 among Puerto Rican residents by sex, age, cancer site, and municipality. Cancer incidence rates in Puerto Rico were compared with those in the U.S. population for 2011. A total of 68,312 invasive cancers were diagnosed and reported in Puerto Rico during 2007-2011. The average annual incidence rate was 330 cases per 100,000 persons. The cancer sites with the highest cancer incidence rates included prostate (152), female breast (84), and colon and rectum (43). Cancer incidence rates varied by municipality, particularly for prostate, lung and bronchus, and colon and rectum cancers. In 2011, cancer incidence rates in Puerto Rico were lower for all cancer sites and lung and bronchus, but higher for prostate and thyroid cancers, compared with rates within the U.S. Identifying these variations can aid evaluation of factors associated with high incidence, such as cancer screening practices, and development of targeted cancer prevention and control efforts. Public health professionals can monitor cancer incidence trends and use these findings to evaluate the impact of prevention efforts, such as legislation prohibiting tobacco use in the workplace and public places and the Puerto Rico Cessation Quitline in decreasing lung and other tobacco-related cancers.

  2. Lung cancer: principles and practice

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pass, Harvey I

    2005-01-01

    "A comprehensive review of lung cancer, from screening, early detection, and prevention, to management strategies including surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and multimodality therapy, as well...

  3. Cancer incidence in Italian contaminated sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietro Comba

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION. The incidence of cancer among residents in sites contaminated by pollutants with a possible health impact is not adequately studied. In Italy, SENTIERI Project (Epidemiological study of residents in National Priority Contaminated Sites, NPCSs was implemented to study major health outcomes for residents in 44 NPCSs. METHODS. The Italian Association of Cancer Registries (AIRTUM records cancer incidence in 23 NPCSs. For each NPCSs, the incidence of all malignant cancers combined and 35 cancer sites (coded according to ICD-10, was analysed (1996-2005. The observed cases were compared to the expected based on age (5-year period,18 classes, gender, calendar period (1996-2000; 2001-2005, geographical area (North-Centre and Centre-South and cancer sites specific rates. Standardized Incidence Ratios (SIR with 90% Confidence Intervals were computed. RESULTS. In both genders an excess was observed for overall cancer incidence (9% in men and 7% in women as well as for specific cancer sites (colon and rectum, liver, gallbladder, pancreas, lung, skin melanoma, bladder and Non Hodgkin lymphoma. Deficits were observed for gastric cancer in both genders, chronic lymphoid leukemia (men, malignant thyroid neoplasms, corpus uteri and connective and soft-tissue tumours and sarcomas (women. DISCUSSION. This report is, to our knowledge, the first one on cancer risk of residents in NPCSs. The study, although not aiming to estimate the cancer burden attributable to the environment as compared to occupation or life-style, supports the credibility of an etiologic role of environmental exposures in contaminated sites. Ongoing analyses focus on the interpretation of risk factors for excesses of specific cancer types overall and in specific NPCSs in relation to the presence of carcinogenic pollutants.

  4. Lung cancer, genetic predisposition and smoking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjelmborg, Jacob; Korhonen, Tellervo; Holst, Klaus

    2017-01-01

    Background: We aimed to disentangle genetic and environmental causes in lung cancer while considering smoking status. Methods: Four Nordic twin cohorts (43 512 monozygotic (MZ) and 71 895 same sex dizygotic (DZ) twin individuals) had smoking data before cancer diagnosis. We used time......-to-event analyses accounting for censoring and competing risk of death to estimate incidence, concordance risk and heritability of liability to develop lung cancer by smoking status. Results: During a median of 28.5 years of follow-up, we recorded 1508 incident lung cancers. Of the 30 MZ and 28 DZ pairs concordant...... compared with the cumulative incidence for both MZ and DZ pairs. This ratio, the relative recurrence risk, significantly decreased by age for MZ but was constant for DZ pairs. Heritability of lung cancer was 0.41 (95% CI 0.26 to 0.56) for currently smoking and 0.37 (95% CI 0.25 to 0.49) for ever smoking...

  5. Cancer genes in lung cancer: racial disparities: are there any?

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Telbany, Ahmed; Ma, Patrick C

    2012-07-01

    Cancer is now known as a disease of genomic alterations. Mutational analysis and genomics profiling in recent years have advanced the field of lung cancer genetics/genomics significantly. It is becoming more accepted now that the identification of genomic alterations in lung cancer can impact therapeutics, especially when the alterations represent "oncogenic drivers" in the processes of tumorigenesis and progression. In this review, we will highlight the key driver oncogenic gene mutations and fusions identified in lung cancer. The review will summarize and report the available demographic and clinicopathological data as well as molecular details behind various lung cancer gene alterations in the context of race. We hope to shed some light into the disparities in the incidence of various genetic mutations among lung cancer patients of different racial backgrounds. As molecularly targeted therapy continues to advance in lung cancer, racial differences in specific genetic/genomic alterations can have an important impact in the choices of therapeutics and in our understanding of the drug sensitivity/resistance profile. The most relevant genes in lung cancer described in this review include the following: EGFR, KRAS, MET, LKB1, BRAF, PIK3CA, ALK, RET, and ROS1. Commonly identified genetic/genomic alterations such as missense or nonsense mutations, small insertions or deletions, alternative splicing, and chromosomal fusion rearrangements were discussed. Relevance in current targeted therapeutic drugs was mentioned when appropriate. We also highlighted various targeted therapeutics that are currently under clinical development, such as the MET inhibitors and antibodies. With the advent of next-generation sequencing, the landscape of genomic alterations in lung cancer is expected to be much transformed and detailed in upcoming years. These genomic landscape differences in the context of racial disparities should be emphasized both in tumorigenesis and in drug sensitivity

  6. Drugs Approved for Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for lung cancer. The list includes generic names, brand names, and common drug combinations, which are shown in capital letters.

  7. Radiation Therapy for Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the lung cancer and your overall health. Radiation Therapy Radiation is a high-energy X-ray that ... surgery, chemotherapy or both depending upon the circumstances. Radiation therapy works within cancer cells by damaging their ability ...

  8. American Cancer Society Lung Cancer Screening Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wender, Richard; Fontham, Elizabeth T. H.; Barrera, Ermilo; Colditz, Graham A.; Church, Timothy R.; Ettinger, David S.; Etzioni, Ruth; Flowers, Christopher R.; Gazelle, G. Scott; Kelsey, Douglas K.; LaMonte, Samuel J.; Michaelson, James S.; Oeffinger, Kevin C.; Shih, Ya-Chen Tina; Sullivan, Daniel C.; Travis, William; Walter, Louise; Wolf, Andrew M. D.; Brawley, Otis W.; Smith, Robert A.

    2013-01-01

    Findings from the National Cancer Institute’s National Lung Screening Trial established that lung cancer mortality in specific high-risk groups can be reduced by annual screening with low-dose computed tomography. These findings indicate that the adoption of lung cancer screening could save many lives. Based on the results of the National Lung Screening Trial, the American Cancer Society is issuing an initial guideline for lung cancer screening. This guideline recommends that clinicians with access to high-volume, high-quality lung cancer screening and treatment centers should initiate a discussion about screening with apparently healthy patients aged 55 years to 74 years who have at least a 30-pack-year smoking history and who currently smoke or have quit within the past 15 years. A process of informed and shared decision-making with a clinician related to the potential benefits, limitations, and harms associated with screening for lung cancer with low-dose computed tomography should occur before any decision is made to initiate lung cancer screening. Smoking cessation counseling remains a high priority for clinical attention in discussions with current smokers, who should be informed of their continuing risk of lung cancer. Screening should not be viewed as an alternative to smoking cessation. PMID:23315954

  9. Resveratrol in lung cancer- a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yuan; Zhou, Jihing; Jiang, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Resveratrol, a phytochemical known for its anti- oxidative properties has been explored worldwide for anticancer potential. We performed this systematic review and meta-analysis in order to register the efficacy of resveratrol against lung carcinogenesis. We searched PubMed for preclinical studies reporting efficacy of resveratrol alone or in combination with drugs like curcumin, cisplatin etc. against lung carcinogenesis. The primary outcome of eligible studies included change in overall tumor incidence as well as tumor size. In all of the above studies involving either animal models or in vitro cancer cell experiments a statistically significant reduction in tumor incidence emerged as compared with the control groups, yielding a relative risk reduction of 0.64 (p=0.002). This meta- analysis confirmed the potential of resveratrol against lung carcinogenesis. It can be concluded that resveratrol holds a good potential for future use as a highly efficient therapeutic agent to deal with deadly lung carcinogenesis.

  10. Cancer incidence in atomic bomb survivors. Part IV: Comparison of cancer incidence and mortality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ron, E.; Preston, D.L.; Mabuchi, Kiyohiko; Thompson, D.E.; Soda, Midori

    1994-01-01

    This report compares cancer incidence and mortality among atomic bomb survivors in the Radiation Effects Research Foundation Life Span Study (LSS) cohort. Because the incidence data are derived from the Hiroshima and Nagasaki tumor registries, case ascertainment is limited to the time (1958-1987) and geographic restrictions (Hiroshima and Nagasaki) of the registries, whereas mortality data are available from 1950-1987 anywhere in Japan. With these conditions, there were 9,014 first primary incident cancer cases identified among LSS cohort members compared with 7,308 deaths for which cancer was listed as the underlying cause of death on death certificates. When deaths were limited to those occurring between 1958-1987 in Hiroshima or Nagasaki, there were 3,155 more incident cancer cases overall, and 1,262 more cancers of the digestive system. For cancers of the oral cavity and pharynx, skin, breast, female and male genital organs, urinary system and thyroid, the incidence series was at least twice as large as the comparable mortality series. Although the incidence and mortality data are dissimilar in many ways, the overall conclusions regarding which solid cancers provide evidence of a significant dose response generally confirm the mortality findings. When either incidence or mortality data are evaluated, significant excess risks are observed for all solid cancers, stomach, colon, liver (when it is defined as primary liver cancer or liver cancer not otherwise specified on the death certificate), lung, breast, ovary and urinary bladder. No significant radiation effect is seen for cancers of the pharynx, rectum, gallbladder, pancreas, nose, larynx, uterus, prostate or kidney in either series. There is evidence of a significant excess of nonmelanoma skin cancer in the incidence data, but not in the mortality series. 19 refs., 2 figs., 10 tabs

  11. Cancer incidence among Minnesota taconite mining industry workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Elizabeth M; Alexander, Bruce H; MacLehose, Richard F; Nelson, Heather H; Ramachandran, Gurumurthy; Mandel, Jeffrey H

    2015-11-01

    To evaluate cancer incidence among Minnesota taconite mining workers. We evaluated cancer incidence between 1988 and 2010 in a cohort of 40,720 Minnesota taconite mining workers used between 1937 and 1983. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated by comparing numbers of incident cancers with frequencies in the Minnesota Cancer Surveillance System. SIRs for lung cancer by histologic subtypes were also estimated. We adjusted for out-of-state migration and conducted a probabilistic bias analysis for smoking-related cancers. A total of 5700 cancers were identified, including 51 mesotheliomas and 973 lung cancers. The SIRs for lung cancer and mesothelioma were 1.3 (95% CI = 1.2-1.4) and 2.4 (95% CI = 1.8-3.2), respectively. Stomach, laryngeal, and bladder cancers were also elevated. However, adjusting for potential confounding by smoking attenuated the estimates for lung (SIR = 1.1, 95% CI = 1.0-1.3), laryngeal (SIR = 1.2, 95% CI = 0.8-1.6), oral (SIR = 0.9, 95% CI = 0.7-1.2), and bladder cancers (SIR = 1.0, 95% CI = 0.8-1.1). Taconite workers may have an increased risk for certain cancers. Lifestyle and work-related factors may play a role in elevated morbidity. The extent to which mining-related exposures contribute to disease burden is being investigated. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Lung cancer risks from residential radon among smokers and non-smokers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enflo, Anita

    2002-01-01

    Primary lung cancer occurs mainly among elderly smokers. Smoking and radon are generally considered to be the main causes of lung cancer. By simply studying the age dependence of all primary lung cancer incidences it seems plausible to suggest that the risk for obtaining lung cancer from domestic radon is low for children. In addition, as there are few non-smoking primary lung cancer cases at older ages, it seems plausible to suggest that most of the radon-induced lung cancer cases are to be found among the smoking population. Reduction of smoking habits would appear to be the most cost effective method to reduce lung cancer cases. (author)

  13. Early estimates of SEER cancer incidence, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Denise Riedel; Chen, Huann-Sheng; Cockburn, Myles G; Wu, Xiao-Cheng; Stroup, Antoinette M; Midthune, Douglas N; Zou, Zhaohui; Krapcho, Martin F; Miller, Daniel G; Feuer, Eric J

    2017-07-01

    Cancer incidence rates and trends for cases diagnosed through 2014 using data reported to the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) program in February 2016 and a validation of rates and trends for cases diagnosed through 2013 and submitted in February 2015 using the November 2015 submission are reported. New cancer sites include the pancreas, kidney and renal pelvis, corpus and uterus, and childhood cancer sites for ages birth to 19 years inclusive. A new reporting delay model is presented for these estimates for more consistent results with the model used for the usual November SEER submissions, adjusting for the large case undercount in the February submission. Joinpoint regression methodology was used to assess trends. Delay-adjusted rates and trends were checked for validity between the February 2016 and November 2016 submissions. Validation revealed that the delay model provides similar estimates of eventual counts using either February or November submission data. Trends declined through 2014 for prostate and colon and rectum cancer for males and females, male and female lung cancer, and cervical cancer. Thyroid cancer and liver and intrahepatic bile duct cancer increased. Pancreas (male and female) and corpus and uterus cancer demonstrated a modest increase. Slight increases occurred for male kidney and renal pelvis, and for all childhood cancer sites for ages birth to 19 years. Evaluating early cancer data submissions, adjusted for reporting delay, produces timely and valid incidence rates and trends. The results of the current study support using delay-adjusted February submission data for valid incidence rate and trend estimates over several data cycles. Cancer 2017;123:2524-34. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society. This article has been contributed to by US Government employees and their work is in the public domain in the USA.

  14. Polonium and Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Zagà

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The alpha-radioactive polonium 210 (Po-210 is one of the most powerful carcinogenic agents of tobacco smoke and is responsible for the histotype shift of lung cancer from squamous cell type to adenocarcinoma. According to several studies, the principal source of Po-210 is the fertilizers used in tobacco plants, which are rich in polyphosphates containing radio (Ra-226 and its decay products, lead 210 (Pb-210 and Po-210. Tobacco leaves accumulate Pb-210 and Po-210 through their trichomes, and Pb-210 decays into Po-210 over time. With the combustion of the cigarette smoke becomes radioactive and Pb-210 and Po-210 reach the bronchopulmonary apparatus, especially in bifurcations of segmental bronchi. In this place, combined with other agents, it will manifest its carcinogenic activity, especially in patients with compromised mucous-ciliary clearance. Various studies have confirmed that the radiological risk from Po-210 in a smoker of 20 cigarettes per day for a year is equivalent to the one deriving from 300 chest X-rays, with an autonomous oncogenic capability of 4 lung cancers per 10000 smokers. Po-210 can also be found in passive smoke, since part of Po-210 spreads in the surrounding environment during tobacco combustion. Tobacco manufacturers have been aware of the alpha-radioactivity presence in tobacco smoke since the sixties.

  15. Lung cancer in asbestos cement workers in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffn, E; Villadsen, E; Engholm, G; Lynge, E

    1996-06-01

    To study the relative and absolute risks of main types of lung cancer in a cohort of asbestos cement workers from Denmark. A cohort of 7887 men and 576 women employed between 1928 and 1984 was compiled from the personnel files of Danish Eternit Production. The cohort was followed up for deaths, emigrations, and incident cancer cases during the period 1943-90. The observed number of lung cancer cases in the cohort was compared with the expected number based on incidences for the Danish population. Internal comparison was made with Poisson modelling. A total of 226 lung cancer cases were observed (223 men and three women). The standardised incidence ratio (SIR) for all lung cancer among men was 1.7 (observed number 223, expected number 129.7, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.5-2.0). The SIRs were raised for all main types of lung cancer; adenocarcinoma 2.6, squamous cell carcinoma 1.7, and anaplastic carcinoma 1.5. The higher SIR for adenocarcinomas was found particularly with a latency period of 25 years or more. Among the 93 excess lung cancer cases, 36 were squamous cell carcinomas and 32 were adenocarcinomas. Asbestos cement work is associated with an increased risk of lung cancer of all main types. During the first 25 years after the start of employment this excess risk is shared almost equally between the different histological types of lung cancer, but the risk of adenocarcinomas is clearly higher after this point.

  16. VITAL: Vanguard Investigations of Therapeutic Approaches to Lung Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hong, Waun K; Lotan, Reuben; Stewart, David

    2006-01-01

    .... In addition, the clinical trials that will be conducted in the VITAL Research Program will demonstrate the true rate of lung cancer recurrence and second primary tumor incidence in patients at high...

  17. Report of incidence and mortality in China cancer registries, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Rongshou; Zhang, Siwei; Zhao, Ping; Li, Guanglin; Wu, Lingyou; He, Jie

    2013-01-01

    Objective The National Central Cancer Registry (NCCR) collected cancer registration data in 2009 from local cancer registries in 2012, and analyzed to describe cancer incidence and mortality in China. Methods On basis of the criteria of data quality from NCCR, data submitted from 104 registries were checked and evaluated. There were 72 registries’ data qualified and accepted for cancer registry annual report in 2012. Descriptive analysis included incidence and mortality stratified by area (urban/rural), sex, age group and cancer site. The top 10 common cancers in different groups, proportion and cumulative rates were also calculated. Chinese population census in 1982 and Segi’s population were used for age-standardized incidence/mortality rates. Results All 72 cancer registries covered a total of 85,470,522 population (57,489,009 in urban and 27,981,513 in rural areas). The total new cancer incident cases and cancer deaths were 244,366 and 154,310, respectively. The morphology verified cases accounted for 67.23%, and 3.14% of incident cases only had information from death certifications. The crude incidence rate in Chinese cancer registration areas was 285.91/100,000 (males 317.97/100,000, females 253.09/100,000), age-standardized incidence rates by Chinese standard population (ASIRC) and by world standard population (ASIRW) were 146.87/100,000 and 191.72/100,000 with the cumulative incidence rate (0-74 age years old) of 22.08%. The cancer incidence and ASIRC were 303.39/100,000 and 150.31/100,000 in urban areas whereas in rural areas, they were 249.98/100,000 and 139.68/100,000, respectively. The cancer mortality in Chinese cancer registration areas was 180.54/100,000 (224.20/100,000 in males and 135.85/100,000 in females), age-standardized mortality rates by Chinese standard population (ASMRC) and by world standard population (ASMRW) were 85.06/100,000 and 115.65/100,000, and the cumulative incidence rate (0-74 age years old) was 12.94%. The cancer mortality

  18. Breast cancer incidence in Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altantsetseg, Dalkhjav; Davaasambuu, Ganmaa; Rich-Edwards, Janet; Davaalkham, Dambadarjaa; Tretli, Steinar; Hoover, Robert N.; Frazier, A. Lindsay

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Data on international variation in breast cancer incidence may help to identify additional risk factors. Substantially lower breast cancer rates in Asia than in North America and Western Europe are established, but differences within Asia have been largely ignored despite heterogeneity in lifestyles and environments. Mongolia’s breast cancer experience is of interest because of its shared genetics but vastly different diet compared with other parts of Asia. Methods Age-standardized breast cancer incidence and mortality rates obtained from the International Association of Cancer Registries are presented for several Asian countries. Mongolian incidence rates obtained from its cancer registry describe incidence within the country. Results Breast cancer incidence in Mongolia (age standardized 8.0/100,000) is almost a third of rates in China (21.6/100,000), and over five times that of Japan (42.7/100,000) and Russia (43.2/100,000). Rates within Mongolia appear to have increased slightly over the last decade and are higher in urban than rural areas (annual percentage increase of age-standardized rates from 1998 to 2005 was 3.60 and 2.57%, respectively). The increase in breast cancer incidence with age plateaus at menopause, as in other Asian populations. Conclusions Mongolia’s low breast cancer incidence is of particular interest because of their unusual diet (primarily red meat and dairy) compared with other Asian countries. More intensive study of potential dietary, reproductive and lifestyle factors in Mongolia with comparison to other Asian populations may provide more clarity in what drives the international breast cancer rate differences. PMID:22543542

  19. Future initiatives to reduce lung cancer incidence in the United Kingdom: smoking cessation, radon remediation and the impact of social change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denman, Antony R; Rogers, Stephen; Timson, Karen; Phillips, Paul S; Crockett, Robin Gm; Groves-Kirkby, Christopher J

    2015-03-01

    Smoking and radon cause lung cancer, with smoking being the more significant risk factor. Although programmes to identify UK houses with raised radon levels and to encourage remedial action started in 1990, uptake has been limited and those most at risk, smokers and young families, are not being reached. The risks from smoking and radon are multiplicative. Public health campaigns have reduced smoking prevalence significantly. Since most radon-induced lung cancers occur in smokers, reducing the number of smokers will reduce the number of radon-induced lung cancers. This article considers the impact of reducing smoking prevalence on the effectiveness of radon remediation programmes, combining this with demographic trends and regional variations to assess implications for future public health. Results on cost-effectiveness of smoking cessation and radon remediation programmes were combined with government figures for smoking prevalence to estimate the number of cancers averted and the cost-effectiveness of such programmes, taking into account demographic changes, including increasing life expectancy. Regional variations in smoking prevalence and smoking cessation programmes were reviewed, comparing these to the geographic variation of radon. The continuing impact of smoking cessation programmes in reducing smoking prevalence will reduce the number of radon-induced lung cancers, but with a lag. Smoking cessation programmes are more cost-effective than radon remediation programmes, presenting an additional opportunity to reduce radon risk to smokers. Regional data show no correlation between smoking prevalence and radon levels. Reduced smoking prevalence reduces the effectiveness of radon remediation programmes. This, coupled with limited uptake of radon remediation, suggests that radon remediation programmes should be targeted, and that an integrated public health policy for smoking and radon is appropriate. Lack of correlation between smoking prevalence and radon

  20. Optical and Functional Imaging in Lung Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.H. van der Leest (Cor)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractLung cancer is the second most common cancer in men and women, and is the leading cause of cancer related death. In industrialized countries the mortality rate of lung cancer is higher than the mortality rate of breast, colorectal and prostate cancer combined 1. When lung cancer is

  1. Targeting apoptosis pathways in lung cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pore, Milind M.; Hiltermann, T. Jeroen N.; Kruyt, Frank A. E.

    2013-01-01

    Lung cancer is a devastating disease with a poor prognosis. Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and small cell lung cancer (SCLC) represent different forms of lung cancer that are associated with distinct genetic causes and display different responses to therapy in the clinic. Whereas SCLC is often

  2. Gallbladder Cancer Incidence and Death Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer Lung Cancer Survivors May Feel Blame Women’s Perceived and Actual Risk of Getting Cancer Colorectal Cancer ... cases) and death rates by sex, racial and ethnic group, age group, U.S. Census region, state, county-level ...

  3. Nutrition habits, physical activity, and lung cancer: an authoritative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutsokera, Alexandra; Kiagia, Maria; Saif, Muhammad W; Souliotis, Kyriakos; Syrigos, Kostas N

    2013-07-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Because of high incidence rates and low survival rates, it is important to study the risk factors that may help prevent the disease from developing. It has been well established that cigarette smoking is the most important risk factor for lung cancer. Nonetheless it is likely that there are other modifiable risk factors that would assist in the prevention of lung cancer. Research on factors such as nutrition and physical activity and their influence on lung cancer has been carried out for nearly 3 decades. A systematic review in the MEDLINE database of published studies was conducted, focusing on systematic reviews, meta-analyses, and large prospective studies. The association between physical activity and lung cancer has been conflicting. Among the researched studies, 10 showed an inverse association, whereas 11 reported no association. A meta-analysis that was conducted from 1996 to October 2003 showed that leisure physical activity (LPA) prevents lung cancer. Data from 11 cohort and case-control studies showed an inverse relationship between fruit and vegetable consumption and lung cancer. Evidence from case-control studies suggests a positive association between meat intake and risk of lung cancer, although several more recent studies have presented doubts about these findings. The possible association of physical activity, nutrition, and the risk of lung cancer development remains controversial. Further prospective studies should be conducted to determine the potential influence of these 2 risk factors. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Report of Incidence and Mortality in China Cancer Registries, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wan-qing; Zheng, Rong-shou; Zhang, Si-wei; Li, Ni; Zhao, Ping; Li, Guang-lin; Wu, Liang-you

    2012-01-01

    Objective Annual cancer incidence and mortality in 2008 were provided by National Central Cancer Registry in China, which data were collected from population-based cancer registries in 2011. Methods There were 56 registries submitted their data in 2008. After checking and evaluating the data quality, total 41 registries’ data were accepted and pooled for analysis. Incidence and mortality rates by area (urban or rural areas) were assessed, as well as the age- and sex-specific rates, age-standardized rates, proportions and cumulative rate. Results The coverage population of the 41 registries was 66,138,784 with 52,158,495 in urban areas and 13,980,289 in rural areas. There were 197,833 new cancer cases and 122,136 deaths in cancer with mortality to incidence ratio of 0.62. The morphological verified rate was 69.33%, and 2.23% of cases were identified by death certificate only. The crude cancer incidence rate in all areas was 299.12/100,000 (330.16/100,000 in male and 267.56/100,000 in female) and the age-standardized incidence rates by Chinese standard population (ASIRC) and world standard population (ASIRW) were 148.75/100,000 and 194.99/100,000, respectively. The cumulative incidence rate (0–74 years old) was of 22.27%. The crude incidence rate in urban areas was higher than that in rural areas. However, after adjusted by age, the incidence rate in urban was lower than that in rural. The crude cancer mortality was 184.67/100,000 (228.14/100,000 in male and 140.48/100,000 in female), and the age-standardized mortality rates by Chinese standard population (ASMRC) and by world population were 84.36/100,000 and 114.32/100,000, respectively. The cumulative mortality rate (0–74 years old) was of 12.89%. Age-adjusted mortality rates in urban areas were lower than that in rural areas. The most common cancer sites were lung, stomach, colon-rectum, liver, esophagus, pancreas, brain, lymphoma, breast and cervix which accounted for 75% of all cancer incidence. Lung

  5. Nutrition for Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to help prepare meals or do the grocery shopping for you. Most people you know want to ... Better Breathers Clubs Asthma Basics LUNG FORCE Expos Online Support Communities FUNDRAISERS Fight For Air Climb LUNG ...

  6. Raw Garlic Consumption and Lung Cancer in a Chinese Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myneni, Ajay A; Chang, Shen-Chih; Niu, Rungui; Liu, Li; Swanson, Mya K; Li, Jiawei; Su, Jia; Giovino, Gary A; Yu, Shunzhang; Zhang, Zuo-Feng; Mu, Lina

    2016-04-01

    Evidence of anticancer properties of garlic for different cancer sites has been reported previously in in vitro and in vivo experimental studies but there is limited epidemiologic evidence on the association between garlic and lung cancer. We examined the association between raw garlic consumption and lung cancer in a case-control study conducted between 2005 and 2007 in Taiyuan, China. Epidemiologic data was collected by face-to-face interviews from 399 incident lung cancer cases and 466 healthy controls. We used unconditional logistic regression models to estimate crude and adjusted ORs (aOR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI). Adjusted models controlled for age, sex, average annual household income 10 years ago, smoking, and indoor air pollution. Compared with no intake, raw garlic intake was associated with lower risk of development of lung cancer with a dose-response pattern (aOR for garlic consumption with indoor air pollution and with any supplement use in association with lung cancer. The results of the current study suggest that raw garlic consumption is associated with reduced risk of lung cancer in a Chinese population. This study contributes to the limited research in human population on the association between garlic and lung cancer and advocates further investigation into the use of garlic in chemoprevention of lung cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 25(4); 624-33. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  7. Radioimmunoscintigraphy in lung cancer diagnosing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadjikostova, H.

    1999-01-01

    As the lung cancer is the leading cause of death from cancer at males, the exact staging is essential. Monoclonal antibodies marked with radionuclides like 131 I, 111 In, 99m Tc, etc., allow detecting and staging the small cell lung cancer with sensibility 90%, specificity 45% and accuracy 85%. It is suggested this method to be applied simultaneously with computerized tomography. The diagnostic possibility of radioimmunoscintigraphy (RIS) in earlier detection, recurrence or metastasis as well as follow up the effect of therapy performed at patients with lung cancer are reviewed. RIS is performed with IODOMAB-R-2 (Sorin Biomedica) 131 I antiCEA Mob F(ab') 2 , dose 92.5-185 MBq. Planar images were performed 72 hours after i.v. injection. Four patients with epidermoid squamous cell cancer were examined. Positive results were obtained at 3 patients and one false negative. In general sensitivity of radioimmunoscintigraphy of lung cancer is 75-90%. However there are difficulties at its application linked with necessity of permanent availability of radiolabelled antibodies with high specific activity at the moment of their injection. Despite all radioimmunoscintigraphy is developing as an useful diagnostic method for evaluation and follow up of lung cancer patients

  8. Particulate matter air pollution components and risk for lung cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raaschou-Nielsen, O.; Beelen, R.; Wang, M.; Hoek, G.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/413650944; Andersen, Z. J.; Hoffmann, B.; Stafoggia, M.; Samoli, E.; Weinmayr, G.; Dimakopoulou, K.; Nieuwenhuijsen, M.; Xun, W. W.; Fischer, P.; Eriksen, K. T.; Sørensen, M.; Tjønneland, A.; Ricceri, F.; de Hoogh, K.; Key, T.; Eeftens, M.; Peeters, P. H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/074099655; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. B.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/06929528X; Meliefste, K.; Oftedal, B.; Schwarze, P. E.; Nafstad, P.; Galassi, C.; Migliore, E.; Ranzi, A.; Cesaroni, G.; Badaloni, C.; Forastiere, F.; Penell, J.; De Faire, U.; Korek, M.; Pedersen, N.; Östenson, C. G.; Pershagen, G.; Fratiglioni, L.; Concin, H.; Nagel, G.; Jaensch, A.; Ineichen, A.; Naccarati, A.; Katsoulis, M.; Trichpoulou, A.; Keuken, M.; Jedynska, A.; Kooter, I. M.; Kukkonen, J.; Brunekreef, B.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/067548180; Sokhi, R. S.; Katsouyanni, K.; Vineis, P.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Particulate matter (PM) air pollution is a human lung carcinogen; however, the components responsible have not been identified. We assessed the associations between PM components and lung cancer incidence. Methods: We used data from 14 cohort studies in eight European countries. We

  9. Particulate matter air pollution components and risk for lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raaschou-Nielsen, O.; Beelen, Rob; Wang, M.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Particulate matter (PM) air pollution is a human lung carcinogen; however, the components responsible have not been identified. We assessed the associations between PM components and lung cancer incidence. METHODS: We used data from 14 cohort studies in eight European countries. We ge...

  10. [Skin cancer incidence in Zacatecas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinedo-Vega, José Luis; Castañeda-López, Rosalba; Dávila-Rangel, J Ignacio; Mireles-García, Fernando; Ríos-Martínez, Carlos; López-Saucedo, Adrián

    2014-01-01

    Skin cancer is the most frequent cancer related to ultraviolet radiation. The aim was to estimate the incidence of skin cancer type, melanoma and non-melanoma in Zacatecas, Mexico. An epidemiological study was carried out during the period from 2008 to 2012. The data were obtained from the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS), Instituto de Seguridad y Servicios Sociales de los Trabajadores del Estado (ISSSTE), Secretaría de Salud de Zacatecas (SSZ) and a private source, the Centro Médico Alameda. The incidence and the global prevalence were estimated. We studied 958 skin cancer cases, histopathologically confirmed. The cases were distributed as: 63.6 % basal cell carcinomas, 25.8 % squamous cell carcinomas, and 10.6 % melanoma. Significantly higher proportions were observed in women in the basal cell carcinomas (60.4 %) and squamous cell carcinomas (53.4 %). However, in the case of melanoma, the major proportion was observed in men (55.9 %). The more frequent skin cancer location was the face and for basal cell carcinoma was the nose (53 %); for squamous cell carcinomas were the lips (36 %), and for melanoma it was also the nose (40 %). The skin cancer incidence was estimated in 20 cases for each 100 000 inhabitants. Linear regression analysis showed that the skin cancer is increasing at an annual rate of 10.5 %. The anatomical location indicates that solar UV radiation is a risk factor, since the face is the zone with major exposure to solar radiation.

  11. Incidence of second malignancies for prostate cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mieke Van Hemelrijck

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: There is a need to assess risk of second primary cancers in prostate cancer (PCa patients, especially since PCa treatment may be associated with increased risk of second primary tumours. METHODS: We calculated standardized incidence ratios (SIRs for second primary tumours comparing men diagnosed with PCa between 1980 and 2010 in the Canton of Zurich, Switzerland (n = 20,559, and the general male population in the Canton. RESULTS: A total of 1,718 men developed a second primary tumour after PCa diagnosis, with lung and colon cancer being the most common (15 and 13% respectively. The SIR for overall second primary cancer was 1.11 (95%CI: 1.06-1.17. Site-specific SIRs varied from 1.19 (1.05-1.34 to 2.89 (2.62-4.77 for lung and thyroid cancer, respectively. When stratified by treatment, the highest SIR was observed for thyroid cancer (3.57 (1.30-7.76 when undergoing surgery, whereas liver cancer was common when treated with radiotherapy (3.21 (1.54-5.90 and kidney bladder was most prevalent for those on hormonal treatment (3.15 (1.93-4.87. Stratification by time since PCa diagnosis showed a lower risk of cancer for men with PCa compared to the general population for the first four years, but then a steep increase in risk was observed. CONCLUSION: In the Canton of Zurich, there was an increased risk of second primary cancers among men with PCa compared to the general population. Increased diagnostic activity after PCa diagnosis may partly explain increased risks within the first years of diagnosis, but time-stratified analyses indicated that increased risks remained and even increased over time.

  12. Spirometry: a predictor of lung cancer among asbestos workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Świątkowska, Beata; Szeszenia-Dąbrowska, Neonila

    2017-01-01

    The significance of lung function as an independent risk factor for lung cancer remains unclear. The objective of the study is to answer the question if spirometry can identify patients at risk for lung cancer among people occupationally exposed to asbestos dust in the past. In order to identify a group of individuals with the highest risk of lung cancer incidence based on lung function levels of FEV 1 % predicted value, we examined 6882 subjects enrolled in the health surveillance program for asbestos related diseases over the years 2000-2014. We found a total of 110 cases confirmed as primary lung cancer. Using Cox's proportional hazards model after adjustment for age, gender, number of cigarettes, duration of smoking and cumulative asbestos exposure, we estimated that compared with the subjects with FEV 1 ≥90% pred, the HR of lung cancer was 1.40 (95%CI: 0.94-2.08) for the subjects with FEV 1 less than 90% and 1.95 (HR = 1.86; 95%CI: 1.12-3.08) for those with FEV 1 less than 70%. In addition, probability of the occurrence of lung cancer for FEV 1 spirometry and cancer diagnosis was three years or less. The results strongly support the hypothesis that spirometry can identify patients at a risk of lung cancer development. Regular spirometry should be offered to all patients with a history of asbestos exposure, at least once every three years.

  13. The role of yearly chest radiography in the early detection of lung cancer following oral cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stalpers, L. J.; van Vierzen, P. B.; Brouns, J. J.; Bruaset, I.; Manni, J. J.; Verbeek, A. L.; Ruys, J. H.; van Daal, W. A.

    1989-01-01

    In a study of 213 patients with oral cancer, we investigated the incidence and prognosis of lung malignancies in patients offered a yearly chest radiography in the follow-up. Three conclusions can be drawn. (1) Metastatic or primary lung cancer was diagnosed in 22 (10.3%) patients. The 2-year

  14. Lung Cancer Risk Prediction Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of developing lung cancer over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  15. Dietary fiber intake and risk of colorectal cancer and incident and recurrent adenoma in the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial12

    OpenAIRE

    Kunzmann, Andrew T; Coleman, Helen G; Huang, Wen-Yi; Kitahara, Cari M; Cantwell, Marie M; Berndt, Sonja I

    2015-01-01

    Background: Dietary fiber has been associated with a reduced risk of colorectal cancer. However, it remains unclear at which stage in the carcinogenic pathway fiber may act or which food sources of dietary fiber may be most beneficial against colorectal cancer development.

  16. Lung cancer in never smokers: disease characteristics and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallis, Athanasios G; Syrigos, Konstantinos N

    2013-12-01

    It is estimated that approximately 25% of all lung cancer cases are observed in never-smokers and its incidence is expected to increase due to smoking prevention programs. Risk factors for the development of lung cancer described include second-hand smoking, radon exposure, occupational exposure to carcinogens and to cooking oil fumes and indoor coal burning. Other factors reported are infections (HPV and Mycobacterium tuberculosis), hormonal and diatery factors and diabetes mellitus. Having an affected relative also increases the risk for lung cancer while recent studies have identified several single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with increased risk for lung cancer development in never smokers. Distinct clinical, pathology and molecular characteristics are observed in lung cancer in never smokers; more frequently is observed in females and adenocarcinoma is the predominant histology while it has a different pattern of molecular alterations. The purpose of this review is to summarize our current knowledge of this disease. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Alternative Splicing in Lung Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Pio, Ruben; Montuenga, Luis M.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract: Alterations in alternative splicing affect essential biologic processes and are the basis for a number of pathologic conditions, including cancer. In this review we will summarize the evidence supporting the relevance of alternative splicing in lung cancer. An example that illustrates this relevance is the altered balance between Bcl-xL and Bcl-xS, two splice variants of the apoptosis regulator Bcl-x. Splice modifications in cancer-related genes can be associated ...

  18. Cancer incidence in Canada: trends and projections (1983-2032

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Xie

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this monograph, we present historical and projected cancer incidence frequencies and rates for Canada, excluding non-melanoma skin cancers (i.e. basal and squamous carcinomas, in 1983 to 2032. The information is intended to help in planning strategy and allocating resources and infrastructure for future cancer control and health care. Projected changes in cancer incidence rates: From 2003-2007 to 2028-2032, the agestandardized incidence rates (ASIRs for all cancers combined are predicted to decrease in Canadian males by 5%, from 464.8 to 443.2 per 100 000 population, and increase in Canadian females by 4%, from 358.3 to 371.0 per 100 000. The overall decrease in cancer rates in males will be driven by the decrease in lung cancer rates in men aged 65Endnote * or older and in prostate cancer rates in men aged 75 or older. The overall increase in cancer rates in females reflects the predicted rise in lung cancer rates in women aged 65 or older. The increase also represents the expected increase in cancers of the uterus, thyroid, breast (in females under 45, leukemia, pancreas, kidney and melanoma. The largest changes in ASIRs projected over the 25-year forecasting horizon are increases in thyroid cancer (55% in males and 65% in females and liver cancer in males (43% and decreases in larynx cancer (47% in males and 59% in females, lung cancer in males (34% and stomach cancer (30% in males and 24% in females. The incidence rate of lung cancer in females is projected to continue to rise by 2% from 2003-2007 to 2008-2012 and then start to decrease in the last 20 projection years, by 18%. Breast cancer incidence is expected to change the least (an increase of less than 1% of all cancers in females. The predicted changes in the rates for colorectal cancer are below the medians in all cancers, with a decrease of 6% for both males and females during the entire projection period. The rates for prostate cancer are projected to be stable, based on an

  19. Lung Cancer and Tobacco: What Is New?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialous, Stella Aguinaga; Sarna, Linda

    2017-03-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Tobacco use remains the single most important preventable cause of cancer and is responsible for 80% of all cases of lung cancer. Implementation of tobacco control measures, including preventing initiation and treating dependence, are pivotal to address the lung cancer epidemic. New evidence continues to emerge on the significant positive impact of incorporating tobacco dependence treatment within all lung cancer treatment protocols. Evidence and guidelines on how to implement these strategies exist and present an opportunity for nurses to make a difference in reducing suffering and preventing deaths from lung cancer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Cancer incidence in the industrial corridor: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, V W; Andrews, P A; Wu, X C; Correa, C N; Fontham, E T

    1998-04-01

    Because of the high density of industries along the Lower Mississippi River, there is a concern about adverse impact on health, including cancer, among residents in these parishes. This study provides an update of cancer incidence in the Industrial Corridor for the period 1989-93. Age-adjusted cancer incidence rates were calculated for the seven-parish study area from Baton Rouge down to, but not including, New Orleans. Rates were also computed for the entire state of Louisiana and for the combined Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) program. Cancer incidence rates for the Industrial Corridor are either similar to, or lower than, the combined SEER rates for most of the common cancers as well as for rare tumors. The only two exceptions are lung cancer in white males and kidney cancer in white females that are significantly elevated when compared to the SEER averages. Significantly lower rates are found among white males for cancers of kidney, brain, and nervous system, and melanoma; among black males, cancers of all sites combined, oral cavity, stomach, rectum, and prostate, Hodgkin's disease, and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma; among white females, cancers of all sites combined, cervix, uterine corpus, ovary, bladder, and melanoma; and among black females, cancers of all sites combined, oral cavity, lung, breast, ovary, and melanoma. The persistent excess of lung cancer has led to the development of a multi-agency project to evaluate the impact of potential environmental exposures, genetic susceptibility, and their interactions on lung cancer risk. The findings also confirm the urgent need to include and strengthen tobacco prevention and cessation programs in our cancer control activities.

  1. PET in lung cancer staging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coleman, R. E. [Duke University Medical Center, Dept. of Radiology, Durham, NC (United States)

    2001-09-01

    The primary clinical application of FDG-PET is in the evaluation of patients with lung cancer and includes diagnosis, staging and restaging of non-small cell lung cancer. PET has a very high accuracy (sensitivity=97%, specificity=78%) for characterizing nodules that are indeterminate by chest radiograph and computed tomography. The major utility of PET in the evaluation of patients with lung cancer is the staging of the entire body. PET is more accurate than the conventional imaging modalities of CT and bone scans in the detection of metastatic disease. PET is accurate in the staging of the mediastinum, adrenal glands, and the skeletal system. PET is not as accurate in the detection of brain metastases because of their small size and the normal cortical accumulation.

  2. Risk Profiling May Improve Lung Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new modeling study suggests that individualized, risk-based selection of ever-smokers for lung cancer screening may prevent more lung cancer deaths and improve the effectiveness and efficiency of screening compared with current screening recommendations

  3. Laryngeal metastasis from lung cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalai, Umasankar; Madan, Karan; Jain, Deepali; Mohan, Anant; Guleria, Randeep

    2015-01-01

    Metastatic tumors of the larynx are rare. The most common tumors metastasizing to the larynx are melanoma and renal cell carcinoma. Bronchogenic carcinoma metastasizing to the larynx has been rarely described. Herein, we report the case of a 49-year-old, chronic smoker, who incidentally had a laryngeal growth detected during flexible bronchoscopy examination for evaluation of suspected lung cancer. Histopathological examination of the laryngeal nodule and the biopsy obtained from the main bronchus growth confirmed the diagnosis of metastatic squamous cell carcinoma to the larynx from primary lung cancer. PMID:25983415

  4. Laryngeal metastasis from lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umasankar Kalai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Metastatic tumors of the larynx are rare. The most common tumors metastasizing to the larynx are melanoma and renal cell carcinoma. Bronchogenic carcinoma metastasizing to the larynx has been rarely described. Herein, we report the case of a 49-year-old, chronic smoker, who incidentally had a laryngeal growth detected during flexible bronchoscopy examination for evaluation of suspected lung cancer. Histopathological examination of the laryngeal nodule and the biopsy obtained from the main bronchus growth confirmed the diagnosis of metastatic squamous cell carcinoma to the larynx from primary lung cancer.

  5. Nationwide quality improvement in lung cancer care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Erik Winther; Green, Anders; Oesterlind, Kell

    2013-01-01

    To improve prognosis and quality of lung cancer care the Danish Lung Cancer Group has developed a strategy consisting of national clinical guidelines and a clinical quality and research database. The first edition of our guidelines was published in 1998 and our national lung cancer registry...... was opened for registrations in 2000. This article describes methods and results obtained by multidisciplinary collaboration and illustrates how quality of lung cancer care can be improved by establishing and monitoring result and process indicators....

  6. Lung Cancer: Glossary

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... origin, usually the organ where it began. Locally Advanced Cancer: Cancer that has spread only to nearby ... to enjoy life. R Radiation: Energy carried by waves or a stream of particles. Radiation Field: The ...

  7. TP53 Mutations in Nonsmall Cell Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akira Mogi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The tumor suppressor gene TP53 is frequently mutated in human cancers. Abnormality of the TP53 gene is one of the most significant events in lung cancers and plays an important role in the tumorigenesis of lung epithelial cells. Human lung cancers are classified into two major types, small cell lung cancer (SCLC and nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC. The latter accounts for approximately 80% of all primary lung cancers, and the incidence of NSCLC is increasing yearly. Most clinical studies suggest that NSCLC with TP53 alterations carries a worse prognosis and may be relatively more resistant to chemotherapy and radiation. A deep understanding of the role of TP53 in lung carcinogenesis may lead to a more reasonably targeted clinical approach, which should be exploited to enhance the survival rates of patients with lung cancer. This paper will focus on the role of TP53 in the molecular pathogenesis, epidemiology, and therapeutic strategies of TP53 mutation in NSCLC.

  8. [Report of Cancer Incidence and Mortality in China, 2014].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, W Q; Li, H; Sun, K X; Zheng, R S; Zhang, S W; Zeng, H M; Zou, X N; Gu, X Y; He, J

    2018-01-23

    the cumulative incidence rate (0-74 age years old) was 12.00%. The cancer mortality and ASMRC in urban areas were 174.34/100, 000 and 103.49/100, 000, respectively, whereas in rural areas, those were 160.07/100, 000 and 111.57/100, 000, respectively. Lung cancer, gastric cancer, colorectal cancer, liver cancer, female breast cancer, esophageal cancer, thyroid cancer, cervical cancer, encephala and pancreas cancer, were the most common cancers in China, accounting for about 77.00% of the new cancer cases. Lung cancer, liver cancer, gastric cancer, esophageal cancer, colorectal cancer, pancreatic cancer, breast cancer, encephala, leukemia and lymphoma were the leading causes of death and accounted for about 83.36% of cancer deaths. Conclusions: The progression of cancer registry in China develops rapidly in these years, with the coverage of registrations is expanded and the data quality was improved steadily year by year. As the basis of cancer prevention and control program, cancer registry plays an important role in making the medium and long term of anti-cancer strategies in China. As China is still facing the serious cancer burden and the cancer patterns varies differently according to the locations and genders, effective measures and strategies of cancer prevention and control should be implemented based on the practical situation.

  9. Increased mean lung density: Another independent predictor of lung cancer?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sverzellati, Nicola, E-mail: nicola.sverzellati@unipr.it [Department of Department of Surgical Sciences, Section of Diagnostic Imaging, University of Parma, Padiglione Barbieri, University Hospital of Parma, V. Gramsci 14, 43100 Parma (Italy); Randi, Giorgia, E-mail: giorgia.randi@marionegri.it [Department of Epidemiology, Mario Negri Institute, Via La Masa 19, 20156 Milan (Italy); Spagnolo, Paolo, E-mail: paolo.spagnolo@unimore.it [Respiratory Disease Unit, Center for Rare Lung Disease, Department of Oncology, Hematology and Respiratory Disease, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Via del Pozzo 71, 44124 Modena (Italy); Marchianò, Alfonso, E-mail: alfonso.marchiano@istitutotumori.mi.it [Department of Radiology, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori, Via Venezian 1, 20133 Milan (Italy); Silva, Mario, E-mail: mac.mario@hotmail.it [Department of Department of Surgical Sciences, Section of Diagnostic Imaging, University of Parma, Padiglione Barbieri, University Hospital of Parma, V. Gramsci 14, 43100 Parma (Italy); Kuhnigk, Jan-Martin, E-mail: Jan-Martin.Kuhnigk@mevis.fraunhofer.de [Fraunhofer MEVIS, Universitaetsallee 29, 28359 Bremen (Germany); La Vecchia, Carlo, E-mail: carlo.lavecchia@marionegri.it [Department of Occupational Health, University of Milan, Via Venezian 1, 20133 Milan (Italy); Zompatori, Maurizio, E-mail: maurizio.zompatori@unibo.it [Department of Radiology, Cardio-Thoracic Section, S. Orsola-Malpighi Hospital, Via Albertoni 15, 40138 Bologna (Italy); Pastorino, Ugo, E-mail: ugo.pastorino@istitutotumori.mi.it [Department of Surgery, Section of Thoracic Surgery, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori, Via Venezian 1, 20133 Milan (Italy)

    2013-08-15

    Objectives: To investigate the relationship between emphysema phenotype, mean lung density (MLD), lung function and lung cancer by using an automated multiple feature analysis tool on thin-section computed tomography (CT) data. Methods: Both emphysema phenotype and MLD evaluated by automated quantitative CT analysis were compared between outpatients and screening participants with lung cancer (n = 119) and controls (n = 989). Emphysema phenotype was defined by assessing features such as extent, distribution on core/peel of the lung and hole size. Adjusted multiple logistic regression models were used to evaluate independent associations of CT densitometric measurements and pulmonary function test (PFT) with lung cancer risk. Results: No emphysema feature was associated with lung cancer. Lung cancer risk increased with decreasing values of forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV{sub 1}) independently of MLD (OR 5.37, 95% CI: 2.63–10.97 for FEV{sub 1} < 60% vs. FEV{sub 1} ≥ 90%), and with increasing MLD independently of FEV{sub 1} (OR 3.00, 95% CI: 1.60–5.63 for MLD > −823 vs. MLD < −857 Hounsfield units). Conclusion: Emphysema per se was not associated with lung cancer whereas decreased FEV{sub 1} was confirmed as being a strong and independent risk factor. The cross-sectional association between increased MLD and lung cancer requires future validations.

  10. Lung cancer epidemiology and risk factors in Asia and Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lam, W.K.; White, N.W.; Chan-Yeung, M.M. [University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China)

    2004-07-01

    In Industrialized Countries, lung cancer is the most common form of cancer among males and it is growing among females. For both sexes, rates reflect smoking behaviours. The pattern appears to be different in Asia, particularly in China, where lung cancer rates in men reflect high smoking rates but high rates among non-smoking women appear to be related to other factors. The incidence of lung cancer is low in most African countries, but it is increasing. In addition to tobacco smoking, a number of aetiological factors have been identified for lung cancer: indoor exposure to environmental tobacco smoke, cooking oil vapour, coal burning or radon, outdoor air pollution and occupational exposure to asbestos and other carcinogens. Recent studies have shown that dietary factors may be important, with high consumption of vegetables and fruits being protective, while preserved foods and fatty foods are harmful, and certain infections such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis, human papillomavirus and Microsporum canis are associated with a high risk of lung cancer. Among non-smokers, the probable role of genetic predisposition in lung cancer by increasing the individual's susceptibility to environmental carcinogens is currently being studied actively. As the single most important cause for lung cancer is tobacco smoke and, with increased sales, a major epidemic is predicted for both Asia and Africa, all health care professionals, government health authorities and national and international health organizations must join in a concerted effort against tobacco. 135 refs.

  11. Tuberculosis mimicking lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Hammen

    2015-01-01

    Our case report presents two patients, who were referred to the Thorax diagnostic centre at the Department of Respiratory Medicine, Odense University Hospital, with presumptive diagnosis of neoplasm and had proved lung TB with no evidence of malignancy instead. In the first case diagnosis was confirmed after thoracotomy, in the second case after bronchoscopy.

  12. Lung cancer mortality risk among breast cancer patients treated with anti-estrogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchardy, Christine; Benhamou, Simone; Schaffar, Robin; Verkooijen, Helena M; Fioretta, Gerald; Schubert, Hyma; Vinh-Hung, Vincent; Soria, Jean-Charles; Vlastos, Georges; Rapiti, Elisabetta

    2011-03-15

    The Women's Health Initiative randomized clinical trial reported that menopausal hormone therapy increases lung cancer mortality risk. If this is true, use of anti-estrogens should be associated with decreased lung cancer mortality risk. The authors compared lung cancer incidence and mortality among breast cancer patients with and without anti-estrogen therapy. Our study included all 6655 women diagnosed with breast cancer between 1980 and 2003 and registered at the Geneva Cancer Registry. Among these women, 46% (3066) received anti-estrogens. All women were followed for occurrence and death from lung cancer until December 2007. The authors compared incidence and mortality rates among patients with and without anti-estrogens with those expected in the general population by Standardized Incidence Ratios (SIRs) and Standardized Mortality Ratios (SMRs). After a total of 57,257 person-years, 40 women developed lung cancer. SIRs for lung cancer were not significantly decreased among breast cancer patients with and without anti-estrogens (0.63, 95% confidence intervals [CI], 0.33-1.10; and 1.12, 95% CI, 0.74-1.62, respectively) while SMR was decreased among women with anti-estrogens (0.13, 95% CI, 0.02-0.47, P<.001) but not for women without anti-estrogens (0.76, 95% CI, 0.43-1.23). Compared with expected outcomes in the general population, breast cancer patients receiving anti-estrogen treatment for breast cancer had lower lung cancer mortality. This study further supports the hypothesis that estrogen therapy modifies lung cancer prognosis. Copyright © 2011 American Cancer Society.

  13. [Lung cancer among asbestos-cement workers in Denmark].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffn, E; Villadsen, E; Engholm, G; Lynge, E

    1998-02-09

    A cohort of 7887 men and 576 women employed between 1928 and 1984 at a Danish asbestos cement factory Dansk Eternit Fabrik A/S was followed up for deaths, immigrations, and incident cancer cases during 1943-90. The observed number of lung cancer cases was compared with the expected number based on incidence rates for the Danish population. Internal comparison was made with Poisson modelling. A total of 226 lung cancer cases was observed; 223 cases among men and three among women. The standardised incidence ratio (SIR) for all lung cancer cases for men was 1.7; for adenocarcinoma 2.6, squamous cell carcinoma 1.7, and anaplastic carcinoma 1.5. Among the 93 excess lung cancer cases, 36 were squamous cell carcinomas, 32 adenocarcinomas and 17 anaplastic carcinomas. During the first 25 years after the start of employment the excess risk was shared almost equally between the different histological types of lung cancer, but the risk of adenocarcinomas was clearly higher after this point.

  14. Association between environmental quality and lung cancer survival in the United States, 2000-2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background/Aims Lung cancer remains one of the most prevalent and lethal cancers in the United States. Individual environmental exposures have been associated with lung cancer incidence. However, the impact of cumulative environmental exposures on survival is not well understood ...

  15. Yearly chest radiography in the early detection of lung cancer following laryngeal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelen, A. M.; Stalpers, L. J.; Manni, J. J.; Ruijs, J. H.; van Daal, W. A.

    1992-01-01

    In a retrospective study of 556 patients (505 men, 51 women) with laryngeal cancer the incidence and prognosis of lung malignancies was studied in patients who were examined yearly by chest radiography. In 69 patients (12.4%) a lung malignancy was diagnosed, with 28 having a histologically confirmed

  16. Chemoradiotherapy for youngster lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Tingfeng; Jiang Guoliang; Fu Xiaolong; Wang Lijuan; Qian Hao; Zhao Sen

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To define the clinico-pathologic characteristics and survival of young-robust patients ( 2 vs 70 mg/m 2 , P<0.001), and more cycles of chemotherapy 6 vs 4, P<0.001) were observed in the youngster group. There was no difference between the two groups in family history of cancer, cigarette smoking, weight loss, and KPS. The median survival intervals of all stages (10 months vs 12 months), and the 2-and 5-year survival rates (11.1% vs 23.1% and 3.1% vs 5.4%) were comparable (P=0.090) between them. For stage IIIb, there was a trend that young patients would give better outcome than the older ones with median survivals of 11 months to 9 months and the 2-year survivals of 3.8% to 0% (P=0.071). Conclusions: The different clinico-pathologic features of the young lung cancer patients are confirmed from that of old patients, but without any survival disparity. In order to enhance our understanding and reduce the mis-diagnosis rate, it is rational to define the lung cancer in relative young people as the youngster lung cancer, which may be beneficial to the clinical practice

  17. Gene therapy for lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toloza, Eric M; Morse, Michael A; Lyerly, H Kim

    2006-09-01

    Lung cancer patients suffer a 15% overall survival despite advances in chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and surgery. This unacceptably low survival rate is due to the usual finding of advanced disease at diagnosis. However, multimodality strategies using conventional therapies only minimally improve survival rates even in early stages of lung cancer. Attempts to improve survival in advanced disease using various combinations of platinum-based chemotherapy have demonstrated that no regimen is superior, suggesting a therapeutic plateau and the need for novel, more specific, and less toxic therapeutic strategies. Over the past three decades, the genetic etiology of cancer has been gradually delineated, albeit not yet completely. Understanding the molecular events that occur during the multistep process of bronchogenic carcinogenesis may make these tasks more surmountable. During these same three decades, techniques have been developed which allow transfer of functional genes into mammalian cells. For example, blockade of activated tumor-promoting oncogenes or replacement of inactivated tumor-suppressing or apoptosis-promoting genes can be achieved by gene therapy. This article will discuss the therapeutic implications of these molecular changes associated with bronchogenic carcinomas and will then review the status of gene therapies for treatment of lung cancer. (c) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  18. Estrogen, Estrogen Receptor and Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Han Hsu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Estrogen has been postulated as a contributor for lung cancer development and progression. We reviewed the current knowledge about the expression and prognostic implications of the estrogen receptors (ER in lung cancer, the effect and signaling pathway of estrogen on lung cancer, the hormone replacement therapy and lung cancer risk and survival, the mechanistic relationship between the ER and the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR, and the relevant clinical trials combining the ER antagonist and the EGFR antagonist, to investigate the role of estrogen in lung cancer. Estrogen and its receptor have the potential to become a prognosticator and a therapeutic target in lung cancer. On the other hand, tobacco smoking aggravates the effect of estrogen and endocrine disruptive chemicals from the environment targeting ER may well contribute to the lung carcinogenesis. They have gradually become important issues in the course of preventive medicine.

  19. Cryotherapy in Treating Patients With Lung Cancer That Has Spread to the Other Lung or Parts of the Body

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-25

    Advanced Malignant Mesothelioma; Extensive Stage Small Cell Lung Cancer; Lung Metastases; Recurrent Malignant Mesothelioma; Recurrent Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Recurrent Small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IV Non-small Cell Lung Cancer

  20. Cancer of lung in miners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolenic, J.; Jurgova, T.; Volckova, A.; Zimacek, J.

    1995-01-01

    In the period of 1983-1994 was registered at Clinic of occupational diseases 87 cases of professional cancer of lung. Mostly /85/ of cases was related to miners, by whom act as risk factor alpha ionisation from radon. Average age group was 60.2 y, average time of exposition was 21.6 y. Epidermoid carcinoma was the most frequent type of tumor /46.5 %/ of cases/. Smoking plays a supportive role. (authors)

  1. A Cohort Study on Risk Factors of Lung Cancer in Yunnan Tin Miners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong JIANG

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective Smoking is a major cause of lung cancer. Studies of lung cancer among miners have shown that occupational exposure also played an important role. The aim of this study is to investigate radon, cigarette use and other risk factors of lung cancer in Yunnan tin miners and to provide a scientific basis for the prevention and control of occupational lung cancer. Methods A prospective cohort study was conducted among Yunnan tin miners, the associations between potential risk factors for lung cancer were analyzed by multivariate Cox regression model. Effects of age at first radon exposure and radon exposure rate on lung cancer risk were analyzed. The relationship between cumulative working level month and lung cancer was analyzed according to smoking status. The joint effect of tobacco use and cumulative radon exposure was analyzed based on additive and multiplicative models. Results Increased risk of lung cancer was associated with age at enrollment, tobacco use, prior bronchitis, and cumulative arsenic and radon exposure, while higher education level was associated with decreased lung cancer risk. An inverse effect of radon exposure rate was observed. There was no significant association between lung cancer risk and first radon exposure age. There was a significant additive interaction between tobacco use and radon exposure on lung cancer risk. Conclusion Several risk factors may contribute to the high incidence of lung cancer in Yunnan tin miners. Further studies are warranted to evaluate joint effect of different risk factors.

  2. Bronchoplastic operations for lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cicenas, S.; Naujokaitis, P.; Jackevicius, A. and others

    2002-01-01

    Objective of our work was to evaluate efficacy of bronchoplastic operations for lung cancer and time to progression in combined treatment. From 1997 till 2001, 57pts were operated for early I-IIB stages of lung cancer. Operations were: tracheal resections in 3pts (5.2%), window right pneumonectomies in 5pts (8.7%), window left pneumonectomies in 2pts (3.5%), window right upper lobe in 22pts (38.5%), bifurcation resections 2pts (3.5%), sleeve right upper lobe resections 7pts (12.2%), sleeve left upper lobe resections in 11pts (19.2%). We had complications: in 7pts (12.2%) suture failure, 26pts (45.6%) obstructive pneumonia, 3pts (5.2%) kinking of anastomosis, 2pts (3.7%) bronchial bleeding, 6pts (10.5%) covered bronchial fistulas, 5pts (8.7%) died after operations. 32pts (56%) underwent radiation after surgery, 13pts (22.8%) radiation and chemotherapy. Three-year survival was in 82.4% (47pts), in 10pts (17.4%) disease progressed. Bronchoplastic operations are sufficient for early lung cancer treatment. Three-year was in survival 82.7% of pts. Seventeen percent of patients failed after combined treatment. (author)

  3. Lung cancer during pregnancy: an unusual case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, I; Mota, P C; Hespanhol, V P

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of pregnancy-associated cancer is relatively low, complicating only 0.02-0.1% of all pregnancies. The authors describe a case of a 36-year-old woman, a light smoker, who was admitted to the hospital at 27 weeks of pregnancy, with respiratory symptoms since second trimester. Chest-X ray showed total left lung opacity with contralateral mediastinal deviation, suggestive of pleural effusion, and the pleural biopsy revealed invasion by lung adenocarcinoma. EGFR mutation test was negative. After a multidisciplinary meeting, it was decided to start fetal lung maturation and cesarean section at 29 weeks gestation. The patient received two lines of chemotherapy and bone metastasis radiotherapy, but there was progression of the disease. An EML4-ALK translocation was identified in an additional genetic test. Crizotinib 250mg BID was started. The patient showed a progression-free survival of 9 months and died 19 months after lung adenocarcinoma was diagnosed. Copyright © 2013 Sociedade Portuguesa de Pneumologia. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  4. Biologically based analysis of lung cancer incidence in a large Canadian occupational cohort with low-LET low-dose radiation exposure, and comparison with Japanese atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazelton, W.D.; Curtis, S.B.; Moolgavkar, S.H.; Hutchinson, F.; Krewski, D.

    2003-01-01

    Lung cancer incidence is analyzed in a large Canadian National Dose Registry (CNDR) cohort with individual annual dosimetry for low-dose occupational exposure to gamma and tritium radiation using several types of multistage models. The primary analysis utilizes the two-stage clonal expansion model (TSCE), with sensitivity analyses using extensions of this model incorporating additional stages. Characteristic and distinct temporal patterns of risk are found for dose-response affecting early, middle, or late stages of carcinogenesis, e.g. initiation with one or more stages, clonal expansion, or malignant conversion. Fixed lag or lag distributions are used to model time from first malignant cell to incidence. Background rates are analyzed by gender, job classification and birth cohort. Lacking individual smoking data, surrogate doses based on US annual per capita cigarette consumption appear to account for much of the birth cohort effect. Males, with mean cumulative exposure for gamma and tritium of 11.5 mSv and 322 incident lung cancer cases have a significant dose-response with 33 cases attributable to radiation. Female dose-response, with mean cumulative exposure of 1.7 mSv and 78 incident cases, appears similar but is not statistically significant. Findings for males include an inverse-dose-rate effect (increased risk with protraction of a given dose) and dose-response effects on initiation, promotion and malignant conversion, although the effect on initiation is not statistically significant. The excess relative risk (ERR) and excess absolute risk (EAR) depend on age at exposure, duration, dose, and age at follow-up. The ERR increases with dose, tapering off at higher doses, making a plot of ERR against dose concave-downward, similar to apparent low-dose results seen below 1 Sv for solid tumor mortality of atomic bomb survivors. The concave-downward trend of ERR and the inverse-dose-rate effect are both counter to prevailing beliefs about effects of low

  5. RANK rewires energy homeostasis in lung cancer cells and drives primary lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Shuan; Sigl, Verena; Wimmer, Reiner Alois; Novatchkova, Maria; Jais, Alexander; Wagner, Gabriel; Handschuh, Stephan; Uribesalgo, Iris; Hagelkruys, Astrid; Kozieradzki, Ivona; Tortola, Luigi; Nitsch, Roberto; Cronin, Shane J; Orthofer, Michael; Branstetter, Daniel; Canon, Jude; Rossi, John; D'Arcangelo, Manolo; Botling, Johan; Micke, Patrick; Fleur, Linnea La; Edlund, Karolina; Bergqvist, Michael; Ekman, Simon; Lendl, Thomas; Popper, Helmut; Takayanagi, Hiroshi; Kenner, Lukas; Hirsch, Fred R; Dougall, William; Penninger, Josef M

    2017-10-15

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths. Besides smoking, epidemiological studies have linked female sex hormones to lung cancer in women; however, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Here we report that the receptor activator of nuclear factor-kB (RANK), the key regulator of osteoclastogenesis, is frequently expressed in primary lung tumors, an active RANK pathway correlates with decreased survival, and pharmacologic RANK inhibition reduces tumor growth in patient-derived lung cancer xenografts. Clonal genetic inactivation of KRas G12D in mouse lung epithelial cells markedly impairs the progression of KRas G12D -driven lung cancer, resulting in a significant survival advantage. Mechanistically, RANK rewires energy homeostasis in human and murine lung cancer cells and promotes expansion of lung cancer stem-like cells, which is blocked by inhibiting mitochondrial respiration. Our data also indicate survival differences in KRas G12D -driven lung cancer between male and female mice, and we show that female sex hormones can promote lung cancer progression via the RANK pathway. These data uncover a direct role for RANK in lung cancer and may explain why female sex hormones accelerate lung cancer development. Inhibition of RANK using the approved drug denosumab may be a therapeutic drug candidate for primary lung cancer. © 2017 Rao et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  6. Lung Cancer Screening: Optimization through risk stratification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. ten Haaf (Kevin)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractLung cancer is the leading cause of cancer related mortality worldwide. However, results from randomized controlled trials indicate that lung cancer mortality can be reduced by early detection through computed tomography screening. This thesis describes the development of a

  7. Lung Cancer Prognosis in Elderly Solid Organ Transplant Recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigel, Keith; Veluswamy, Rajwanth; Krauskopf, Katherine; Mehrotra, Anita; Mhango, Grace; Sigel, Carlie; Wisnivesky, Juan

    2015-10-01

    Treatment-related immunosuppression in organ transplant recipients has been linked to increased incidence and risk of progression for several malignancies. Using a population-based cancer cohort, we evaluated whether organ transplantation was associated with worse prognosis in elderly patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Registry linked to Medicare claims, we identified 597 patients aged 65 years or older with NSCLC who had received organ transplants (kidney, liver, heart, or lung) before cancer diagnosis. These cases were compared to 114,410 untransplanted NSCLC patients. We compared overall survival (OS) by transplant status using Kaplan-Meier methods and Cox regression. To account for an increased risk of non-lung cancer death (competing risks) in transplant recipients, we used conditional probability function (CPF) analyses. Multiple CPF regression was used to evaluate lung cancer prognosis in organ transplant recipients while adjusting for confounders. Transplant recipients presented with earlier stage lung cancer (P = 0.002) and were more likely to have squamous cell carcinoma (P = 0.02). Cox regression analyses showed that having received a non-lung organ transplant was associated with poorer OS (P transplantation was associated with no difference in prognosis. After accounting for competing risks of death using CPF regression, no differences in cancer-specific survival were noted between non-lung transplant recipients and nontransplant patients. Non-lung solid organ transplant recipients who developed NSCLC had worse OS than nontransplant recipients due to competing risks of death. Lung cancer-specific survival analyses suggest that NSCLC tumor behavior may be similar in these 2 groups.

  8. [Innovation in Surgery for Advanced Lung Cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Tomoyuki; Yasunori, Sohara; Endo, Shunsuke

    2016-07-01

    Thoracoscopic surgery can be one of less invasive surgical interventions for early stage lung cancer. Locally advanced lung cancer, however, cannot avoid aggressive procedures including pneumonectomy and/or extended combined resection of chest wall, aorta, esophagus, etc. for complete resection. Surgical approach even for advanced lung cancer can be less invasive by benefit from new anti-cancer treatment, innovated manipulations of bronchoplasty and angioplasty, and bench surgery( lung autotransplantation technique). We herein reviewed the strategy to minimize invasive interventions for locally advanced lung cancer, introducing 2 successful cases with advanced lung cancer. The 1st patient is a 62-year old man with centrally advanced lung cancer invading to mediastinum. Right upper sleeve lobectomy with one-stoma carinoplasty following induction chemoradiation therapy was successful. The operation time was 241 minutes. The performance status is good with no recurrence for 60 months after surgery. The 2nd is a 79-year old man with advanced lung cancer invading to the distal aortic arch. Left upper segmentectomy following thoracic endovascular aortic repair with stentgraft was successful with no extracorporeal circulation. The operation time was 170 minutes. The performance status is good with no recurrence for 30 months after surgery. The invasiveness of surgical interventions for local advanced lung cancer can be minimized by innovated device and new anti-cancer drugs.

  9. Cancer incidence and mortality in Hebei province, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yutong; Liang, Di; Li, Daojuan; Shi, Jin; Jin, Jing; Zhai, Jingbo; Wen, Denggui; Shan, Baoen

    2017-01-01

    .36/100,000, respectively. The cancer incidence and ASIRC were 225.49/100,000 and 173.84/100,000 in urban areas and 225.27/100,000 and 189.31/100,000 in rural areas, respectively. The cancer mortality rate was 145.46/100,000 (177.85/100,000 in males and 111.70/100,000 in females). Age-standardized mortality rates by Chinese standard population (ASMRC) and world standard population (ASMRW) were 119.09/100,000 and 118.73/100,000, respectively. The cancer mortality rate in rural areas (152.64/100,000) was higher than that in urban areas (135.71/100,000). The most common cancers were lung cancer, stomach cancer, esophageal cancer, liver cancer, breast cancer, and colorectal cancer. Lung cancer, stomach cancer, liver cancer, esophageal cancer, and colorectal cancer were the major causes of cancer death in Hebei province. The coverage of cancer registration population has rapidly increased and may reveal the cancer burden in Hebei province more comprehensively. The cancer burden in Hebei province is heavy, and prevention and control measures should be enhanced. PMID:28658129

  10. Lung Cancer Risk Following Detection of Pulmonary Scarring by Chest Radiography in the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ying-Ying; Pinsky, Paul F.; Caporaso, Neil E.; Chatterjee, Nilanjan; Baumgarten, Mona; Langenberg, Patricia; Furuno, Jon P.; Lan, Qing; Engels, Eric A.

    2010-01-01

    Background Fibrotic scars are frequently found in proximity to lung cancer at the time of cancer diagnosis. However, the nature of the relationship between pulmonary scarring and lung cancer remains uncertain. Our objective was to test whether localized pulmonary scarring is associated with increased lung cancer risk. Methods Cohort analysis of data from the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial. We included 66 863 cancer-free trial participants aged 55 to 74 years, who received a baseline chest radiographic examination and were followed up subsequently for up to 12 years. We used proportional hazards models to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) for lung cancer associated with scarring, adjusting for age, sex, race, and cigarette smoking, and in relation to laterality of scarring. The main outcome measure was incident lung cancer. Results Scarring was present on the baseline chest radiograph for 5041 subjects (7.5%). Scarring was associated with elevated lung cancer risk (809 lung cancer cases [HR, 1.5; 95% confidence interval {CI}, 1.2-1.8]). This association was specific for cancer in the lung ipsilateral to the scar (HR, 1.8; 95% CI, 1.4-2.4) and absent for contralateral cancer (HR, 0.9; 95% CI, 0.7-1.2). Ipsilateral lung cancer risk was elevated throughout the follow-up period (interval-specific HRs, 1.6, 2.0, 2.1, and 1.7 during 0.01-2.00, 2.01-4.00, 4.01-6.00, and 6.01-12.00 years after baseline chest radiography, respectively). Conclusions The relationship between pulmonary scarring and lung cancer was specific to the same lung and extended over time. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that localized inflammatory processes associated with scarring promote the subsequent development of lung cancer. PMID:19029496

  11. Curbing the burden of lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urman, Alexandra; Hosgood, H Dean

    2016-06-01

    Lung cancer contributes substantially to the global burden of disease and healthcare costs. New screening modalities using low-dose computerized tomography are promising tools for early detection leading to curative surgery. However, the screening and follow-up diagnostic procedures of these techniques may be costly. Focusing on prevention is an important factor to reduce the burden of screening, treatment, and lung cancer deaths. The International Agency for Research on Cancer has identified several lung carcinogens, which we believe can be considered actionable when developing prevention strategies. To curb the societal burden of lung cancer, healthcare resources need to be focused on early detection and screening and on mitigating exposure(s) of a person to known lung carcinogens, such as active tobacco smoking, household air pollution (HAP), and outdoor air pollution. Evidence has also suggested that these known lung carcinogens may be associated with genetic predispositions, supporting the hypothesis that lung cancers attributed to differing exposures may have developed from unique underlying genetic mechanisms attributed to the exposure of interest. For instance, smokingattributed lung cancer involves novel genetic markers of risk compared with HAP-attributed lung cancer. Therefore, genetic risk markers may be used in risk stratification to identify subpopulations that are at a higher risk for developing lung cancer attributed to a given exposure. Such targeted prevention strategies suggest that precision prevention strategies may be possible in the future; however, much work is needed to determine whether these strategies will be viable.

  12. Cumulative Incidence of Cancer After Solid Organ Transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Erin C.; Pfeiffer, Ruth M.; Segev, Dorry L.; Engels, Eric A.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Solid organ transplantation recipients have elevated cancer incidence. Estimates of absolute cancer risk after transplantation can inform prevention and screening. METHODS The Transplant Cancer Match Study links the US transplantation registry with 14 state/regional cancer registries. The authors used nonparametric competing risk methods to estimate the cumulative incidence of cancer after transplantation for 2 periods (1987–1999 and 2000–2008). For recipients from 2000 to 2008, the 5-year cumulative incidence, stratified by organ, sex, and age at transplantation, was estimated for 6 preventable or screen-detectable cancers. For comparison, the 5-year cumulative incidence was calculated for the same cancers in the general population at representative ages using Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results data. RESULTS Among 164,156 recipients, 8520 incident cancers were identified. The absolute cancer risk was slightly higher for recipients during the period from 2000 to 2008 than during the period from 1987 to 1999 (5-year cumulative incidence: 4.4% vs 4.2%; P =.006); this difference arose from the decreasing risk of competing events (5-year cumulative incidence of death, graft failure, or retransplantation: 26.6% vs 31.9%; P 50 years; range, 0.36%–2.22%). For recipients aged >50 years, the 5-year cumulative incidence was higher for colorectal cancer (range, 0.33%–1.94%) than for the general population at the recommended screening age (aged 50 years: range, 0.25%–0.33%). For recipients aged >50 years, the 5-year cumulative incidence was high for lung cancer among thoracic organ recipients (range, 1.16%–3.87%) and for kidney cancer among kidney recipients (range, 0.53%–0.84%). The 5-year cumulative incidence for prostate cancer and breast cancer was similar or lower in transplantation recipients than at the recommended ages of screening in the general population. CONCLUSIONS Subgroups of transplantation recipients have a high absolute risk

  13. CT screening for lung cancer. Update 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henschke, C.I.; Yip, R.; Yankelevitz, D.F.

    2009-01-01

    Screening for a cancer should be considered when the cancer is significant in terms of incidence and mortality, treatment of early stage disease is better than treatment of late stage disease, and there is a screening regimen that provides for earlier diagnosis rather than later, symptom-prompted diagnosis. Lung cancer qualifies as it kills more people than any other cancer worldwide. In the United States it kills more people than colon, breast, and prostate cancer combined and more women than breast cancer. The fundamental concepts of screening are presented. Screening for a cancer is a repetitive process, starting with the baseline round followed by repeat rounds of screening at set intervals. The regimen of screening defines the initial diagnostic test and the sequence of tests to be performed leading to a rule-in diagnosis of the cancer. The regimen should provide lead time of the diagnosis of the cancer. The regimen for the first, baseline round may be different from the regimen for the repeat rounds as the former is inherently different from the subsequent repeat rounds. Baseline screening identifies a greater proportion of cancers with a longer latent (asymptomatic) phase than repeat screening, called length bias. Length bias exists for any screening program, regardless of the design of the study or the cancer. Repeat rounds of screening identify the same proportion of cancer diagnoses found in absence of screening for people having the same risk of the cancer and these repeat rounds of screening can be pooled. It is also a consequence of length bias that cancers found in repeat rounds are earlier in their latent phase than those of the baseline round, a less frequently mentioned consequence. Overdiagnosis bias, another bias of screening, can occur in two ways: a cancer' detected by the screening, pathologically proven, that is not life-threatening even when not resected and a genuine life-threatening cancer that is diagnosed and treated but the person dies

  14. Fludeoxyglucose F-18-PET in Planning Lung Cancer Radiation Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-04-19

    Stage I Lung Cancer; Stage I Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IA Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma AJCC v7; Stage IB Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma AJCC v7; Stage II Lung Cancer; Stage II Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IIA Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma AJCC v7; Stage IIB Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma AJCC v7

  15. Recent declines in cancer incidence: related to the Great Recession?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Scarlett Lin; Canchola, Alison J; Nelson, David O; Keegan, Theresa H M; Clarke, Christina A; Cheng, Iona; Shariff-Marco, Salma; DeRouen, Mindy; Catalano, Ralph; Satariano, William A; Davidson-Allen, Kathleen; Glaser, Sally L

    2017-02-01

    In recent years, cancer case counts in the U.S. underwent a large, rapid decline-an unexpected change given population growth for older persons at highest cancer risk. As these declines coincided with the Great Recession, we examined whether they were related to economic conditions. Using California Cancer Registry data from California's 30 most populous counties, we analyzed trends in cancer incidence during pre-recession (1996-2007) and recession/recovery (2008-2012) periods for all cancers combined and the ten most common sites. We evaluated the recession's association with rates using a multifactorial index that measured recession impact, and modeled associations between case counts and county-level unemployment rates using Poisson regression. Yearly cancer incidence rate declines were greater during the recession/recovery (3.3% among males, 1.4% among females) than before (0.7 and 0.5%, respectively), particularly for prostate, lung, and colorectal cancers. Lower case counts, especially for prostate and liver cancer among males and breast cancer, melanoma, and ovarian cancer among females, were associated with higher unemployment rates, irrespective of time period, but independent of secular effects. The associations for melanoma translated up to a 3.6% decrease in cases with each 1% increase in unemployment. Incidence declines were not greater in counties with higher recession impact index. Although recent declines in incidence of certain cancers are not differentially impacted by economic conditions related to the Great Recession relative to pre-recession conditions, the large recent absolute declines in the case counts of some cancer may be attributable to the large declines in unemployment in the recessionary period. This may occur through decreased engagement in preventive health behaviors, particularly for clinically less urgent cancers. Continued monitoring of trends is important to detect any rises in incidence rates as deferred diagnoses come to

  16. Incidence of pancreatic cancer in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weble, Tanja Cruusberg; Bjerregaard, Jon Kroll; Kissmeyer, Peter

    2017-01-01

    standardization. We used absolute numbers from the Cancer Registry and the Pancreatic Cancer Database, including distribution of topography of cancers registered in 2012-2013, to compare registration in the two data sources. RESULTS: The incidence rates of pancreatic cancer among Danish men increased until 1968......BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to monitor the evolution of the incidence of pancreatic cancer in Denmark over 70 years. We also compared registrations of pancreatic cancer in a nationwide population-based database, the Danish Cancer Registry, and a clinical database, the Danish Pancreatic...... Cancer Database, in 2012-2013. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Registrations of pancreatic cancer from the Danish Cancer Registry over 1943-2012 were used to calculate age-specific incidence rates per 100 000 person years by sex and age in 5-year period, weighted by the Segi World Standard Population for age...

  17. [Development of the lung cancer diagnostic system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, You-Jiang; Yu, Shou-Yi

    2009-07-01

    To develop a lung cancer diagnosis system. A retrospective analysis was conducted in 1883 patients with primary lung cancer or benign pulmonary diseases (pneumonia, tuberculosis, or pneumonia pseudotumor). SPSS11.5 software was used for data processing. For the relevant factors, a non-factor Logistic regression analysis was used followed by establishment of the regression model. Microsoft Visual Studio 2005 system development platform and VB.Net corresponding language were used to develop the lung cancer diagnosis system. The non-factor multi-factor regression model showed a goodness-of-fit (R2) of the model of 0.806, with a diagnostic accuracy for benign lung diseases of 92.8%, a diagnostic accuracy for lung cancer of 89.0%, and an overall accuracy of 90.8%. The model system for early clinical diagnosis of lung cancer has been established.

  18. Lung cancer mutations and use of targeted agents in Hispanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cress, W Douglas; Chiappori, Alberto; Santiago, Pedro; Muñoz-Antonia, Teresita

    2014-01-01

    Hispanic/Latinos (H/L) are expected to grow to over 24% of the USA population by 2050 and lung cancer is the number one cause of cancer death among H/L men. Due to the information that is becoming available via genetic testing, lung cancer molecular profiling is allowing for increasing application of personalized lung cancer therapies. However, to benefit the most people, development of these therapies and genetic tests must include research on as many racial and ethnic groups as possible. The purpose of this review is to bring attention to the fact that the mutations driving lung cancer in H/Ls differ in frequency and nature relative to the non-Hispanic White (WNH) majority that dominate current databases and participate in clinical trials that test new therapies. Clinical trials using new agents targeting genetic alterations (driver mutations) in lung cancer have demonstrated significant improvements in patient outcomes (for example, gefitinib, erlotinib or crizotinib for lung adenocarcinomas harboring EGFR mutations or EML4-ALK fusions, respectively). The nature and frequencies of some lung cancer driver mutations have been shown to be considerably different among racial and ethnic groups. This is particularly true for H/Ls. For example, several reports suggest a dramatic shift in the mutation pattern from predominantly KRAS in a WNH population to predominantly EGFR in multiple H/L populations. However, these studies are limited, and the effects of racial and ethnic differences on the incidence of mutations in lung cancer remain incompletely understood. This review serves as a call to address this problem.

  19. Geographical Variations and Trends in Major Cancer Incidences throughout Korea during 1999-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, Young-Joo; Jung, Kyu-Won; Oh, Chang-Mo; Park, Eun-Hye; Kong, Hyun-Joo; Lee, Duk Hyoung; Lee, Kang Hyun

    2018-01-04

    We aimed to describe the temporal trends and district-level geographical variations in cancer incidences throughout Korea during 1999-2013. Data were obtained from the Korean National Cancer Incidence Database. We calculated the age-standardized cumulative cancer incidences according to sex and geographical region (metropolitan cities, provinces, and districts) for three 5-year periods (1999-2003, 2004-2008, and 2009-2013). Each quintile interval contained the same number of regions. Disease maps were created to visualize regional differences in the cancer incidences. Substantial differences in cancer incidences were observed according to district and cancer type. The largest variations between geographical regions were found for thyroid cancer among both men and women. There was little variation in the incidences of stomach, colorectal, and lung cancer according to geographical region. Substantially elevated incidences of specific cancers were observed in Jeollanam-do (thyroid); Daejeon (colorectum); Jeollanam-do, Gyeongsangbuk-do, and Chungcheongbuk-do (lung); Seocho-gu, Gangnam-gu, and Seongnam, Bundang-gu (breast and prostate); Chungcheong and Gyeongsang provinces (stomach); Ulleung-gun and the southern districts of Gyeongsangnam-do and Jeollanam-do (liver); and along the Nakdonggang River (gallbladder and biliary tract). Mapping regional cancer incidences in Korea allowed us to compare the results according to geographical region. Our results may facilitate the development of infrastructure for systematic cancer incidence monitoring, which could promote the planning and implementation of region-specific cancer management programs.

  20. [Diagnosis and management of lung cancer during pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerjouan, M; Jouneau, S; Corre, R; Le Ho, H; Pracht, M; Léna, H; Desrues, B

    2013-02-01

    The incidence of lung cancer during pregnancy is very low, but it is becoming more frequent in industrialized countries both because of the increase in smoking in young women and because women are becoming pregnant later in life. Usually, the cancer has a poor prognosis due to the presence of metastatic disease at the time of diagnosis. Diagnosis and management are delicate, and should deal with the gestational age, the maternal prognosis, the fetal toxicity of treatments, but also with the worsening of maternal prognosis and the risk of neoplastic cells being transmitted to the fetus in case of delayed treatment. Psychological and ethical considerations complicate the decision process. We present a review of the epidemiology, clinical characteristics, management, and prognosis concerning lung cancer during pregnancy. Finally, it is important to remember that young women with lung cancer should be advised to use a reliable form of contraception. Copyright © 2012 SPLF. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Ground-Glass Opacity Lung Nodules in the Era of Lung Cancer CT Screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jesper Holst; Saghir, Zaigham; Winkler Wille, Mathilde Marie

    2016-01-01

    The advent of computed tomography screening for lung cancer will increase the incidence of ground-glass opacity (GGO) nodules detected and referred for diagnostic evaluation and management. GGO nodules remain a diagnostic challenge; therefore, a more systematic approach is necessary to ensure...... that will yield improvements in both diagnosis and treatment. The standard-of-care surgical treatment of early lung cancer is still minimally invasive lobectomy with systematic lymph node dissection. However, recent research has shown that some GGO lesions may be treated with sublobar resections; these findings...

  2. Lung and stomach cancer associations with groundwater radon in North Carolina, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messier, Kyle P; Serre, Marc L

    2017-04-01

    The risk of indoor air radon for lung cancer is well studied, but the risks of groundwater radon for both lung and stomach cancer are much less studied, and with mixed results. Geomasked and geocoded stomach and lung cancer cases in North Carolina from 1999 to 2009 were obtained from the North Carolina Central Cancer Registry. Models for the association with groundwater radon and multiple confounders were implemented at two scales: (i) an ecological model estimating cancer incidence rates at the census tract level; and (ii) a case-only logistic model estimating the odds that individual cancer cases are members of local cancer clusters. For the lung cancer incidence rate model, groundwater radon is associated with an incidence rate ratio of 1.03 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.01, 1.06] for every 100 Bq/l increase in census tract averaged concentration. For the cluster membership models, groundwater radon exposure results in an odds ratio for lung cancer of 1.13 (95% CI = 1.04, 1.23) and for stomach cancer of 1.24 (95% CI = 1.03, 1.49), which means groundwater radon, after controlling for multiple confounders and spatial auto-correlation, increases the odds that lung and stomach cancer cases are members of their respective cancer clusters. Our study provides epidemiological evidence of a positive association between groundwater radon exposure and lung cancer incidence rates. The cluster membership model results find groundwater radon increases the odds that both lung and stomach cancer cases occur within their respective cancer clusters. The results corroborate previous biokinetic and mortality studies that groundwater radon is associated with increased risk for lung and stomach cancer. © The Author 2016; all rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association

  3. Risk factors associated with treatment refusal in lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Won Na; Kong, Kyoung Ae; Han, Yeji; Kim, Soo Jung; Lee, Su Hwan; Ryu, Yon Ju; Lee, Jin Hwa; Shim, Sung Shine; Kim, Yookyung; Chang, Jung Hyun

    2017-09-01

    The incidence of lung cancer is increasing with longer life expectancy. Refusal of active treatment for cancer is prone to cause patients to experience more severe symptoms and shorten survival. The purpose of this study was to define the factors related to refusal or abandonment of active therapy in lung cancer. We retrospectively reviewed the data of 617 patients from medical records from 2010 to 2014. Two groups were formed: 149 patients who refused anti-cancer treatment and allowed only palliative care were classified into the non-treatment group, while the remaining 468 who received anti-cancer treatment were classified into the treatment group. The groups differed significantly in age, employment, relationship status, number of offspring, educational status, body mass index, presence of chest and systemic symptoms, Charlson Comorbidity Index, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group score, and tumor node metastasis stage ( P refusal of cancer treatment. Individual factors, such as old age, low educational status, low weight, and poor performance status can influence refusal of cancer treatment in patients with lung cancer, and should be considered prior to consultation with patients. © 2017 The Authors. Thoracic Cancer published by China Lung Oncology Group and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  4. Radiation pneumonitis in non.small.cell lung cancer patients treated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Radiation pneumonitis in non.small.cell lung cancer patients treated with helical tomotherapy. B Yao, YD Wang, QZ Liu. Abstract. Objective: In this study, we investigated the incidence of radiation pneumonitis (RP) in non.small.cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients undergoing helical tomotherapy (HT) and the clinical and ...

  5. Radon in dwellings and lung cancer - a discussion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stranden, E.

    1980-01-01

    A discussion of the lung cancer risk associated with radon exposure inside dwellings is presented. The risk factors found for miners are discussed and modified according to the lower mean breathing rates inside dwellings and the differences in atmosphere. Statistical information on the lung cancer incidence in the Norwegian population indicates that a 'doubling exposure rate' of radon daughters inside dwellings may be about 2-3 WLM/yr. This corresponds to a radon concentration of about 10-15 pCi/l. These values are used in a discussion of the consequences of a future reduction of the mean ventilation rates in modern houses. (author)

  6. Lung Cancer Clinical Trials: Advances in Immunotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    New treatments for lung cancer and aspects of joining a clinical trial are discussed in this 30-minute Facebook Live event, hosted by NCI’s Dr. Shakun Malik, head of thoracic oncology therapeutics, and Janet Freeman-Daily, lung cancer patient activist and founding member of #LCSM.

  7. Transesophageal Ultrasonography for Lung Cancer Staging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Konge, Lars; Annema, Jouke; Vilmann, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Accurate mediastinal nodal staging is essential for patients with resectable non-small-cell lung cancer and is achieved by combined endobronchial ultrasound and transesophageal endoscopic ultrasound (EUS). Training requirements for EUS-guided fine-needle aspiration (FNA) for lung cancer staging...

  8. The IASLC Lung Cancer Staging Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chansky, Kari; Detterbeck, Frank C; Nicholson, Andrew G

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Revisions to the TNM stage classifications for lung cancer, informed by the international database (N = 94,708) of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer (IASLC) Staging and Prognostic Factors Committee, need external validation. The objective was to externally v...

  9. CT analysis of lung cancer and coexistent emphysema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noh, Kyung Hee; Chung, Myung Hee; Sung, Mi Sook; Yoo, Won Jong; Son, Kyung Myung; Son, Jung Min; Park, Seog Hee

    2004-01-01

    To evaluate the relation of the location and cell type of lung cancer to the location and degree in coexistent emphysema on high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) scans. Ninety-eight of 209 lung cancer patients having HRCT scans were retrospectively analyzed to assess the total lung emphysema and peritumoral regional emphysema. Single and primary lung cancers were included. The clinical data, including sex, age, smoking history and the pathologic cancer subtype, were recorded to correlate with the HRCT findings. The lobar distribution, central-peripheral predominance, surrounding parenchymal abnormality for cancer, cephalocaudal predominance, and subtype for emphysema were analyzed on HRCT. Using a CT scoring method, we scored the whole lung emphysema and peritumoral emphysema, and correlated the grading of emphysema with pulmonary functional values. Sixty-nine of 98 patients with lung cancer (71%) had emphysema. Lung cancer with emphysema was significantly higher in men than in women, and was significantly related to smoking. The mean age of cancer patients without emphysema was significantly lower than that of cancer patients with emphysema (68 yrs vs. 61 yrs, p= 0.0006). Emphysema of grade I (0-25%) was found in 52 cases, grade II (25-50%) in 15, and grade III (50-75%) in 2. Total emphysema score was paralleled to peritumoral emphysema score in 64.3%, while the remaining patients had a higher peritumoral emphysema score (grade II or III) than total emphysema score (grade 0 or I). There was no statistical correlation in the developmental location between the emphysema and the lung cancer (significant correlation was only noted in grade II group of total emphysema score). The incidence of non-small cell carcinoma tended to be higher than that of small cell carcinoma in the two groups. The possibility of lung cancer in patients with pulmonary nodule, coexisting emphysema, and especially in elderly patients having a history of smoking must be clarified on HRCT

  10. European position statement on lung cancer screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oudkerk, Matthijs; Devaraj, Anand; Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn

    2017-01-01

    Lung cancer screening with low-dose CT can save lives. This European Union (EU) position statement presents the available evidence and the major issues that need to be addressed to ensure the successful implementation of low-dose CT lung cancer screening in Europe. This statement identified...... specific actions required by the European lung cancer screening community to adopt before the implementation of low-dose CT lung cancer screening. This position statement recommends the following actions: a risk stratification approach should be used for future lung cancer low-dose CT programmes...... 200 mm3, should be managed in multidisciplinary teams according to this EU position statement recommendations to ensure that patients receive the most appropriate treatment; and planning for implementation of low-dose CT screening should start throughout Europe as soon as possible. European countries...

  11. Early diagnosis of early stage lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Debeljak

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: For the detection of premalignant changes of bronchial mucosa and early stages of lung cancer frequent chest X-ray, spiral low dose computed tomography, fluorescence bronchoscopy, sputum cytology (also with automated systems with genetic and molecular changes in the sputum cells and bronchial mucosa were used. These screening methods of the high-risk groups for lung cancer achieved: earlier diagnosis of lung cancer in lower stage, higher operability, longer 5-year survival, but without mortality reduction.Conclusions: In the clinical practice we can examine higher risk groups for lung cancer in randomised control trials with multimodality approach: frequent chest low-dose fast spiral computed tomography, sputum cytology with genetic and molecular examinations and fluorescence bronchoscopy. Smoking cessation remains the best means to achieve mortality reduction from lung cancer.

  12. [Combined-modality therapy for lung cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Satoru; Yamamoto, Nobuyuki

    2010-06-01

    Lung cancer is treated with surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy according to histology and clinical stage. Advanced stage lung cancer patients cannot be cured, but early and locally-advanced stage patients can be cured by intensive combined-modality therapy. Combined-modality therapy with surgery plus adjuvant chemotherapy is standard for resectable IB-IIIA non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and stage I small cell lung cancer (SCLC) patients. Chemoradiotherapy is standard for unresectable locally-advanced NSCLC and limited-stage SCLC patients. Recently, several new drugs, molecular targeted drugs, have become available for clinical use and trials. We reviewed standard and new strategy of combined-modality therapy for early and locally-advanced lung cancer patients.

  13. Incidence of cancer among bookbinders, printers, photoengravers, and typesetters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafnsson, V

    2001-08-01

    To to study the risk of cancer, particularly of lung cancer and bladder cancer, among workers in the printing industry according to different occupations. This is a population based retrospective cohort study. The cohort comprised 1332 men and 426 women employed in the printing industry in Iceland according to a published union registry. A computerised file of the cohort was record linked to the Cancer Registry by making use of personal identification numbers. Expected numbers of cases of cancer were calculated on the basis of number of person-years and specific incidences of cancer sites for men and women provided by the Cancer Registry. Among the men (36 217.5 person-years at risk) there were 125 observed cancers versus 123.66 expected, standardised incidence ratio (SIR) 1.01, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) was 0.84 to 1.20. The SIR (95% CI) for liver cancer was 1.97 (0.55 to 5.20) and the SIR for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma was 2.26 (0.96 to 4.41). No excess risk for cancer was found among women (8631.0 person-years at risk). The SIR (95% CI) for liver cancer was 4.21 (0.47 to 15.20) and for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma it was 4.99 (1.61 to 11.63) among the typesetters. A survey on smoking habits among active and retired union members showed that they smoked less than a random sample of the general population. The cancer site most often reported to show excess risk among printing industry workers has been the lung and the urinary bladder; however, this was not found in the present study. This may be explained by difference in smoking habits among union members compared with the general population. There is a high occurrence of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, particularly among typesetters, which warrants further studies.

  14. Clinicopathological Features and Outcome of Lung Cancer Patients with Hematological Malignancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoji, Fumihiro; Yamazaki, Koji; Kouso, Hidenori; Mori, Ryo; Takase, Ken; Okamura, Seiichi; Takeo, Sadanori

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to report the incidence of lung cancer in patients with hematological malignancy (HM), as well as patient characteristics and outcome. We investigated 1503 consecutive patients treated for HM and 1208 patients who underwent surgical resection for lung cancer. Lung cancer with HM was observed in 12 patients (0.8 % of HM cases and 1.0 % of lung cancer cases), including eight men who were smokers and four women who had never smoked. The average Brinkman index was 1010, which suggested heavy smokers. In synchronous cases, all four patients preceded to HM treatment; however, three patients died from HM. In metachronous cases, during a mean 52.7 months after treatment of lung cancer, three patients had HM. At a mean 41.4 months after HM treatment, five patients had lung cancer and underwent surgery without serious postoperative events. A second cancer tended to be detected within 5 years after treatment of the first cancer. Men with a history of heavy smoking might be at risk for combined lung cancer and HM. Careful follow-up is recommended within 5 years after treatment of the first cancer. Most lung cancer detected synchronously with HM had poor prognosis. In metachronous cases, surgical resection of lung cancer after treatment of HM was feasible and safe.

  15. Economic Burden for Lung Cancer Survivors in Urban China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xin; Liu, Shuai; Liu, Yang; Du, Jian; Fu, Wenqi; Zhao, Xiaowen; Huang, Weidong; Zhao, Xianming; Liu, Guoxiang; Mao, Zhengzhong; Hu, Teh-Wei

    2017-03-15

    With the rapid increase in the incidence and mortality of lung cancer, a growing number of lung cancer patients and their families are faced with a tremendous economic burden because of the high cost of treatment in China. This study was conducted to estimate the economic burden and patient responsibility of lung cancer patients and the impact of this burden on family income. This study uses data from a retrospective questionnaire survey conducted in 10 communities in urban China and includes 195 surviving lung cancer patients diagnosed over the previous five years. The calculation of direct economic burden included both direct medical and direct nonmedical costs. Indirect costs were calculated using the human capital approach, which measures the productivity lost for both patients and family caregivers. The price index was applied for the cost calculation. The average economic burden from lung cancer was $43,336 per patient, of which the direct cost per capita was $42,540 (98.16%) and the indirect cost per capita was $795 (1.84%). Of the total direct medical costs, 35.66% was paid by the insurer and 9.84% was not covered by insurance. The economic burden for diagnosed lung cancer patients in the first year following diagnosis was $30,277 per capita, which accounted for 171% of the household annual income, a percentage that fell to 107% after subtracting the compensation from medical insurance. The economic burden for lung cancer patients is substantial in the urban areas of China, and an effective control strategy to lower the cost is urgently needed.

  16. Primary lung cancer and extrapulmonary malignancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Hans-Stefan; Neef, Heinz; Schmidt, Peter

    2007-10-01

    The incidence of second primary malignancies seems to be increasing. The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence, treatment and outcome for patients with second primary lung cancer (SPLC). Between January 1996 and December 2005, 163 patients with SPLC, occurring after an extrapulmonary malignancy, were recruited by the Tumor Center of Halle (Saale), which represents a region of nearly 1.0 million inhabitants in Germany. The SPLCs were treated under curative aim (n=59), with palliative intend (n=76) or best supportive care (n=28). The incidence of SPLC was 1.6 per 100,000 inhabitants. The localization of the first tumor differed depending on the sex of the patients. The actuarial 5-year survival rate of all patients was 12.7% (median survival time 11.4 months). Univariate analysis revealed treatment strategy as a prognostic factor (p=0.0001). Patients with SPLC having undergone curative treatment turned out to have the best prognosis (median survival: 31.0 months). The Cox proportional hazards model demonstrated that only TNM-staging system was a multivariate and significant independent prognostic predictor for overall survival. The method of surgery, standard lung resection (e.g. lobectomy) versus limited resection had no considerable influence on overall survival (p=0.22), respectively recurrence-free survival (p=0.55). In cases of operability, standard resection must be the method of choice, because of its best survival rates. The results support the demand of an exact and short-term oncological care system to detect early stages of SPLC for patients operated upon for tumors at different sites.

  17. Solar ultraviolet irradiance and cancer incidence and mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, William B

    2014-01-01

    The solar ultraviolet-B (UVB)/vitamin D/cancer hypothesis was proposed by the brothers Cedric and Frank Garland in 1980. In 2002, the list was increased to 15 types of cancer using data in the 1999 version of the atlas of cancer mortality rates in the United States. Ecological studies of cancer incidence and/or mortality rates with respect to indices of solar UVB doses have also been reported for Australia, China, France, Japan, and Spain with largely similar findings. In addition, several studies using nonmelanoma skin cancer as the index of solar UVB dose have found reduced internal cancer incidence and/or mortality rates, especially in sunny countries. A study of cancer incidence with respect to 54 categories of occupation in five Nordic countries, using lip cancer less lung cancer as the UVB index, found this index inversely correlated with 14 types of internal cancers for males and four for females. Observational studies with respect to UVB doses and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations also support the hypothesis. Hill's criteria for causality in a biological system to assess whether solar UVB and vitamin D can be considered causal in reducing risk of cancer. The primary criteria for this analysis include strength of association, consistent findings in different populations, biological gradient, plausibility (e.g., mechanisms), and experimental verification (e.g., randomized controlled trials). The totality of evidence is judged to satisfy the criteria very well for breast and colorectal cancer, and moderately well for several other types of cancer.

  18. Cumulative incidence trends of selected cancer sites in a Philippine population from 1983 to 2002: a joinpoint analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, V M; Laudico, A; Mirasol-Lumague, M R; Brenner, H; Redaniel, M T

    2010-01-01

    Background: Few studies have investigated incidence trends in the Philippines. Methods: From the databases of the Manila Cancer Registry, cumulative cancer incidence rates were determined for the five most common cancers for both sexes combined. Using joinpoint analysis, incidence trends for 1983–2002 were estimated. Results: Among females, increasing trends were found for breast, 5% annual change, lung (0.5%) and colorectal (1.5%) cancers. Decreasing trends were found for cancers of the liver (−1.2%) and cervix (−1.9%). Among males, increasing trends were found for lung cancer (0.5%), whereas liver cancer rates have been decreasing (−1.0%). Colorectal cancer rates fluctuated. Conclusion: Certain sites showed declining incidence trends, but incidence trends for lifestyle-related cancers continue to rise. The prevention of infection-related cancers should also receive priority, particularly by vaccination programmes. PMID:20372152

  19. The Schneeberg lung cancer cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalthoff, J.

    1982-01-01

    47 cases of ''Schneeberg lung cancer'' are reported which received financial compensation in West Germany after 1945 after being officially acknowledged as occupational disease. With two exceptions, all patients had been occupied in the Saxonian and Bohemian uranium mines (or their extensions after World War II). The geotechnical fundamentals, industrial hygiene measures taken, the radiobiological situation and its effects are presented. Most patients had small-cell carcinomas or epitheliomas. Accompanying silicosis, usually in a mild form, was found in 35 cases. The mean exposure time was 10.3 years (in 11 cases, less than five years), the mean latency time 22 years (minimum: 8 years). The mean age at the time of death was 58.2 years, i.e. 10 years less than in a normal control group. (orig.) [de

  20. Lung cancer in Northern Portugal: A hospital-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hespanhol, V; Parente, B; Araújo, A; Cunha, J; Fernandes, A; Figueiredo, M M; Neveda, R; Soares, M; João, F; Queiroga, H

    2013-01-01

    Lung cancer is the deadliest cancer worldwide. In Portugal, the disease remains the main cause of cancer death in males. This study aims to evaluate the demographic and clinical characteristics of lung cancer patients diagnosed and treated in northern Portugal hospitals from 2000 to 2010. Twelve hospitals in the north of Portugal contributed to this study. The demographic and clinic characteristics of the patients registered in each hospital from 2000 to 2010 and the patterns of their occurrence were analyzed. During an 11-year period (2000-2010), 9767 lung cancer patients were registered in the participating hospitals. Comparing the number of the patients registered in the year 2000 to those registered during 2010, there was a significant increase in lung cancer cases. Females represent only 20% of the total registered lung cancer cases; however, during the study period, the number of female patients increased by 30%. A significant number of the patients, 3117 (48.6%), had poor performance status at presentation. The adenocarcinoma histology became more preponderant over the study period. Most of the patients were diagnosed as stages IIIB or IV: 7206 of 9267 (77.8%). Chemotherapy was the treatment of choice for 3529 (40.4%) patients, whereas surgical treatment was achieved in 1301 (14.9%) cases. A significant number of lung cancer patients have been diagnosed and treated in hospitals in northern Portugal, and the incidence of the disease among females has been increasing. The overwhelming majority of the tumors were diagnosed in advanced stage; nevertheless, surgical treatment was possible in 14.9% of the patients. Copyright © 2012 Sociedade Portuguesa de Pneumologia. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  1. Lung cancer during pregnancy: A narrative review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sotirios Mitrou

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer, the leading cause of cancer deaths in males for decades, has recently become one of commonest causes for women too. As women delay the start of their family, the co-existence of cancer and pregnancy is increasingly observed. Nevertheless, lung cancer during pregnancy remains a rather uncommon condition with less than 70 cases published in recent years. Non-small cell lung carcinoma is the commonest type accounting for about 85% of all cases. Overall survival rates are low. Chemotherapy and/or targeted treatment have been used with poor outcomes. The disease has been also found to affect the products of conception with no short- or long-term consequences for the neonate. This article is referring to a narrative review of lung cancers diagnosed in pregnant women around the world.

  2. Advances in combination therapy of lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Lan; Leng, Donglei; Cun, Dongmei

    2017-01-01

    Lung cancer is a complex disease caused by a multitude of genetic and environmental factors. The progression of lung cancer involves dynamic changes in the genome and a complex network of interactions between cancer cells with multiple, distinct cell types that form tumors. Combination therapy......, including small molecule drugs and biopharmaceuticals, which make the optimization of dosing and administration schedule challenging. This article reviews the recent advances in the design and development of combinations of pharmaceuticals for the treatment of lung cancer. Focus is primarily on rationales...... for the selection of specific combination therapies for lung cancer treatment, and state of the art of delivery technologies and dosage regimens for the combinations, tested in preclinical and clinical trials....

  3. Soluble CD163 predicts incident chronic lung, kidney and liver disease in HIV infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard-Klitbo, Ditte M; Mejer, Niels; Knudsen, Troels B

    2017-01-01

    .46] and incident chronic kidney disease (aHR, 10.94; 95% CI: 2.32; 51.35), when compared with lowest quartiles. Further, (every 1 mg) increase in plasma sCD163 was positively correlated with incident liver disease (aHR, 1.12; 95% CI: 1.05; 1.19). The sCD163 level was not associated with incident cancer......, cardiovascular disease or diabetes mellitus. CONCLUSION: sCD163 was independently associated with incident chronic kidney disease, chronic lung disease and liver disease in treated HIV-1-infected individuals, suggesting that monocyte/macrophage activation may be involved in the pathogenesis of non...

  4. Cancer incidence in men with Klinefelter syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasle, H.; Mellemgaard, A.; Nielsen, J.; Hansen, J.

    1995-01-01

    Many case reports have suggested an association between Klinefelter syndrome (KS) and cancer, but studies of the cancer incidence in larger groups of men with KS are lacking. A cohort of 696 men with KS was established from the Danish Cytogenetic Register. Information on the cancer incidence in the cohort was obtained from the Danish Cancer Registry and compared with the expected number calculated from the age, period and site specific cancer rates for Danish men. A total of 39 neoplasms were diagnosed (relative risk = 1.1). Four mediastinal tumours were observed (relative risk = 67); all four were malignant germ cell tumours. No cases of breast cancer or testis cancer were observed. One case of prostate cancer occurred within a previously irradiated field. No excess of leukaemia or lymphoma was found. An increased risk of cancer occurred in the age group 15-30 years (relative risk = 2.7). All six tumours in this group were germ cell tumours or sarcomas. The overall cancer incidence is not increased and no routine cancer screening seems to be justified. A considerably elevated risk of mediastinal germ cell tumours occurs in the period from early adolescence until the age of 30. PMID:7841064

  5. Trends in lung cancer and smoking behavior in Italy: an alarm bell for women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trama, Annalisa; Boffi, Roberto; Contiero, Paolo; Buzzoni, Carlotta; Pacifici, Roberta; Mangone, Lucia

    2017-11-23

    The epidemiology of lung cancer is changing worldwide, with smoking being the key driver of lung cancer incidence and mortality. Our aim is to analyze the incidence, survival and mortality trends in Italy in the framework of the 2017 survey on smoking behavior in Italy. AIRTUM 2017 reports on cancer survival and incidence; 2017 survey on smoking behavior in Italy. Men achieved progress in lung cancer control characterized by a decrease in incidence and mortality and an increase in survival. The decreasing use of tobacco in men (from 60% in the 1960s to 24% in 2017) was most likely responsible for the decreasing incidence and mortality. Women showed no progress: although survival improved slightly, the incidence and mortality were both on the rise. This was most likely due to the increasing smoking rates in women in the 1970s and 80s. Of major concern is the accelerated rise in the number of smoking women from 4.6 million in 2016 to 5.7 million in 2017 compared to the decrease observed in men (from 6.9 to 6 million). The incidence and mortality trends in males clearly demonstrate that primary prevention is the most effective way to reduce lung cancer mortality. By contrast, a 24% increase in the prevalence of smoking among women in just 1 year is extremely worrying for the future, and calls for immediate action by targeted strategies to reduce tobacco consumption in women and avert the dreadful prospect of a lung cancer epidemic in Italy.

  6. NO2 and Cancer Incidence in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid Al-Ahmadi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution exposure has been shown to be associated with an increased risk of specific cancers. This study investigated whether the number and incidence of the most common cancers in Saudi Arabia were associated with urban air pollution exposure, specifically NO2. Overall, high model goodness of fit (GOF was observed in the Eastern, Riyadh and Makkah regions. The significant coefficients of determination (r2 were higher at the regional level (r2 = 0.32–0.71, weaker at the governorate level (r2 = 0.03–0.43, and declined slightly at the city level (r2 = 0.17–0.33, suggesting that an increased aggregated spatial level increased the explained variability and the model GOF. However, the low GOF at the lowest spatial level suggests that additional variation remains unexplained. At different spatial levels, associations between NO2 concentration and the most common cancers were marginally improved in geographically weighted regression (GWR analysis, which explained both global and local heterogeneity and variations in cancer incidence. High coefficients of determination were observed between NO2 concentration and lung and breast cancer incidences, followed by prostate, bladder, cervical and ovarian cancers, confirming results from other studies. These results could be improved using individual explanatory variables such as environmental, demographic, behavioral, socio-economic, and genetic risk factors.

  7. Other cancers in lung cancer families are overwhelmingly smoking-related cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyao Yu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Familial risks of lung cancer are well-established, but whether lung cancer clusters with other discordant cancers is less certain, particularly beyond smoking-related sites, which may provide evidence on genetic contributions to lung cancer aetiology. We used a novel approach to search for familial associations in the Swedish Family-Cancer Database. This involved assessment of familial relative risk for cancer X in families with increasing numbers of lung cancer patients and, conversely, relative risks for lung cancer in families with increasing numbers of patients with cancers X. However, we lacked information on smoking. The total number of lung cancers in the database was 125 563. We applied stringent statistical criteria and found that seven discordant cancers were associated with lung cancer among family members, and six of these were known to be connected with smoking: oesophageal, upper aerodigestive tract, liver, cervical, kidney and urinary bladder cancers. A further novel finding was that cancer of unknown primary also associated with lung cancer. We also factored in histological evidence and found that anal and connective tissue cancers could be associated with lung cancer for reasons other than smoking. For endometrial and prostate cancers, suggestive negative associations with lung cancer were found. Although we lacked information on smoking it is prudent to conclude that practically all observed discordant associations of lung cancer were with cancers for which smoking is a risk factor.

  8. Basic and technical research on lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyamoto, Tadaaki

    2004-01-01

    In association with clinical study of carbon beam therapy for lung cancer, the basic research for lung cancer and the patients with this disease has been carried out for the past 10 years. With regard to lung damage by the carbon beams, firstly pulmonary function was measured and analyzed for the patients with stage I non-small cell lung cancer. Force expiratory volume in 1 second (FVE 1.0) and TLC (total lung capacity) was found to be reduced significantly at 6 and 12 months after therapy but the reduction rate was a little, which can support the safety of this treatment modality. Secondly, the regional lung damage by the beams was investigated by using correct fusion of CT images with carbon beam dose distribution, diagnostic follow-up CT images and blood flow and ventilation spect images. It demonstrated the graded decrease blood flow by dose and the compensatory increase of blood flow in the adjacent lobe of lung unexposed to irradiation. On the other hand, the biological study of carbon beam effects on lung cancer cells and tumors line was conducted. Firstly, by using 7 or 4 human lung cancer cell line, the radiosensitivity of carbon beams was compared with that of photons by different histological patterns. It was found that there was no essential difference in the sensitivity pattern for lung cancer histology between the carbon beams and photons though the former doubled the later in power. Secondly, by using IA cell lines among them, the dynamic of clonogenic cells (clonogen) in a nude tumor and the changes in its morphology following irradiation was investigated, clarifying that the clonogen proliferating under anoxic or hypoxic conditions played a pivotal role for tumor regrowth and stemmed from the different clone which had been genetically selected and developed under these conditions. The finding of clonogen becomes one of the evidence supporting the superiority of a single-dose radiotherapy to fractionated radiotherapy. (author)

  9. Cancer incidence among Nordic airline cabin crew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pukkala, Eero; Helminen, Mika; Haldorsen, Tor; Hammar, Niklas; Kojo, Katja; Linnersjö, Anette; Rafnsson, Vilhjálmur; Tulinius, Hrafn; Tveten, Ulf; Auvinen, Anssi

    2012-12-15

    Airline cabin crew are occupationally exposed to cosmic radiation and jet lag with potential disruption of circadian rhythms. This study assesses the influence of work-related factors in cancer incidence of cabin crew members. A cohort of 8,507 female and 1,559 male airline cabin attendants from Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden was followed for cancer incidence for a mean follow-up time of 23.6 years through the national cancer registries. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) were defined as ratios of observed and expected numbers of cases. A case-control study nested in the cohort (excluding Norway) was conducted to assess the relation between the estimated cumulative cosmic radiation dose and cumulative number of flights crossing six time zones (indicator of circadian disruption) and cancer risk. Analysis of breast cancer was adjusted for parity and age at first live birth. Among female cabin crew, a significantly increased incidence was observed for breast cancer [SIR 1.50, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.32-1.69], leukemia (1.89, 95% CI 1.03-3.17) and skin melanoma (1.85, 95% CI 1.41-2.38). Among men, significant excesses in skin melanoma (3.00, 95% CI 1.78-4.74), nonmelanoma skin cancer (2.47, 95% CI 1.18-4.53), Kaposi sarcoma (86.0, 95% CI 41.2-158) and alcohol-related cancers (combined SIR 3.12, 95% CI 1.95-4.72) were found. This large study with complete follow-up and comprehensive cancer incidence data shows an increased incidence of several cancers, but according to the case-control analysis, excesses appear not to be related to the cosmic radiation or circadian disruptions from crossing multiple time zones. Copyright © 2012 UICC.

  10. Cancer incidence in Arkhangelskaja Oblast in northwestern Russia. The Arkhangelsk Cancer Registry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tkatsjov Anatolij V

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Data concerning incidence and prevalence of cancer in the different regions of Russia have traditionally not been provided on a basis that facilitated comparison with data from countries in western parts of Europe. The oncological hospital in Arkhangelsk, in co-operation with Universitetet i Tromsø (Norway, has established a population based cancer registry for Arkhangelskaja Oblast (AO. AO is an administrative unit with 1.3 million inhabitants in northwestern Russia. The aim of this investigation was to assess the content and quality of the AO cancer registry (AKR, and to present the site-specific cancer-incidence rates in AO in the period 1993–2001. Methods The population in this study consisted of all individuals registered as residents of AO. All new cancer cases in the period 1993 – 2001, registered the AKR, were included in the study (ICD-10: C00-C95, except for C77-78. The annual gender and age-group-specific population figures were obtained from the AO statistics office. Results A total of 34 697 cases of primary cancers were included. The age-adjusted (world standard incidence rate for all sites combined was 164/100 000 for women and 281/100 000 for men. The highest incidence was for cancer of the trachea, bronchus and lung (16.3% of all cases, whereof 88.6 % of the cases were among men. Among women, cancer of the breast constituted 15.9 percent of all cases. The age-adjusted incidences of the most frequent cancer sites among men were: lung (77.4/100 000; stomach (45.9; rectum (13.4; oesophagus (13.0; colon (12.2; bladder (11.6; and prostate cancer (11.1. Among women they were: breast (28.5; stomach (19.7; colon (12.2; and ovary cancer (9.0. Conclusion Our findings confirm and strengthen the indication that the incidences of stomach, larynx, liver, pancreas, prostate, colon, bladder and melanoma cancer are quite different in male populations in Russia compared to many other European countries. Among women, most

  11. Endobronchial Tuberculosis Simulating Lung Cancer and Healing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Endobroncheal tuberculosis is defined as tuberculous infection of the tracheobronchial tree with microbial and histopathological evidence. The disease is usually mistaken for other lung diseases including lung cancer. Bronchial stenosis is a common complication of this type of tuberculosis despite the use of effective ...

  12. Surgery for nonsmall cell lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loïc Lang-Lazdunski

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Surgery remains the best curative option in patients with early stage lung cancer (stage I and II. Developments in minimally invasive techniques now allow surgeons to perform lung resections on elderly patients, patients with poor pulmonary function or significant cardiopulmonary comorbidities. New techniques, such as stereotactic radiotherapy and ablative procedures, are being evaluated in early-stage lung cancer and may represent an alternative to surgery in patients unfit for lung resection. Perioperative mortality rates have dropped significantly at most institutions in the past two decades and complications are managed more efficiently. Progress in imaging and staging techniques have helped cut futile thoracotomy rates and offer patients the most adequate treatment options. Large randomised trials have helped clarify the role of neoadjuvant, induction and adjuvant chemotherapy, as well as radiotherapy. Surgery remains an essential step in the multimodality therapy of selected patients with advanced-stage lung cancer (stage III and IV. Interventional and endoscopic techniques have reduced the role of surgery in the diagnosis and staging of nonsmall cell lung cancer, but surgery remains an important tool in the palliation of advanced-stage lung cancer. Large national/international surgical databases have been developed and predictive risk-models for surgical mortality/morbidity published by learned surgical societies. Nonetheless, lung cancer overall survival rates remain deceptively low and it is hoped that early detection/screening, better understanding of tumour biology and development of biomarkers, and development of efficient targeted therapies will help improve the prognosis of lung cancer patients in the next decade.

  13. History of Depression in Lung Cancer Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iachina, M; Brønserud, M M; Jakobsen, E

    2017-01-01

    AIMS: To examine the influence of a history of depression in the process of diagnostic evaluation and the choice of treatment in lung cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The analysis was based on all patients with non-small cell lung cancer who were registered in 2008-2014; in total, 27 234 patients....... To estimate the effect of depression on the diagnostic process and the choice of treatment in lung cancer we fitted a logistic regression model and a Cox regression model adjusting for age, gender, resection and stage. RESULTS: Depression in a patient's anamnesis had no significant effect on the delay...... that patients with a history of periodic depression need special attention when diagnosed with lung cancer....

  14. Trends in lung cancer in elderly in Denmark, 1980-2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Charlotte; Schytte, Tine; Holmskov, Karin

    2016-01-01

    Background Lung cancer is an increasing problem in the older patient population due to the improvement in life expectation of the Western population. In this study we examine trends in lung cancer incidence and mortality in Denmark from 1980 to 2012 with special focus on the elderly. Material...... Registry with follow-up for death or emigration until the end of 2013. Results In 2012, about 50% of lung cancers were diagnosed among persons aged 70 years or more. For men and women older than 75 years the incidence rates have been increasing and for those aged 80-84 years, the rates have doubled since...... 1980. Due to the poor survival, similar trends were seen in mortality rates. Over the period, the one-year relative survival rates almost doubled in patients aged 70 years or more, but still only 25% of the patients aged 80-89 years survived their lung cancer for one year. Conclusion The incidence...

  15. Cervical cancer incidence in elderly women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynge, Elsebeth; Lönnberg, Stefan; Törnberg, Sven

    2017-01-01

    was to determine whether this bipolar pattern in age-specific incidence of cervical cancer reflects underlying biology or can be explained by the fact that the data come from birth cohorts with different screening histories. Methods: Combination of historical data on cervical screening and population-based cancer...

  16. Cancer incidence in Dutch Balkan veterans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bogers, R.P.; Leeuwen, F.E. van; Grievink, L.; Schouten, L.J.; Kiemeney, L.A.L.M.; Schram-Bijkerk, D.

    2013-01-01

    Suspicion has been raised about an increased cancer risk among Balkan veterans because of alleged exposure to depleted uranium. The authors conducted a historical cohort study to examine cancer incidence among Dutch Balkan veterans. Male military personnel (n=18,175, median follow-up 11 years) of

  17. Lung cancer: diagnosis, treatment principles, and screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latimer, Kelly M; Mott, Timothy F

    2015-02-15

    Lung cancer is classified histologically into small cell and non-small cell lung cancers. The most common symptoms of lung cancer are cough, dyspnea, hemoptysis, and systemic symptoms such as weight loss and anorexia. High-risk patients who present with symptoms should undergo chest radiography. If a likely alternative diagnosis is not identified, computed tomography and possibly positron emission tomography should be performed. If suspicion for lung cancer is high, a diagnostic evaluation is warranted. The diagnostic evaluation has three simultaneous steps (tissue diagnosis, staging, and functional evaluation), all of which affect treatment planning and determination of prognosis. The least invasive method possible should be used. The diagnostic evaluation and treatment of a patient with lung cancer require a team of specialists, including a pulmonologist, medical oncologist, radiation oncologist, pathologist, radiologist, and thoracic surgeon. Non-small cell lung cancer specimens are tested for various mutations, which, if present, can be treated with new targeted molecular therapies. The family physician should remain involved in the patient's care to ensure that the values and wishes of the patient and family are considered and, if necessary, to coordinate end-of-life care. Early palliative care improves quality of life and may prolong survival. Family physicians should concentrate on early recognition of lung cancer, as well as prevention by encouraging tobacco cessation at every visit. The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommends lung cancer screening using low-dose computed tomography in high-risk patients. However, the American Academy of Family Physicians concludes that the evidence is insufficient to recommend for or against screening. Whether to screen high-risk patients should be a shared decision between the physician and patient.

  18. Predicting death from surgery for lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Dowd, Emma L; Lüchtenborg, Margreet; Baldwin, David R

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Current British guidelines advocate the use of risk prediction scores such as Thoracoscore to estimate mortality prior to radical surgery for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). A recent publication used the National Lung Cancer Audit (NLCA) to produce a score to predict 90day mortali...... of our summary tables that provide the real-life range of mortality for lobectomy and pneumonectomy....

  19. Lung cancer hormesis in high impact states where nuclear testing occurred.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehrer, Steven; Rosenzweig, Kenneth E

    2015-03-01

    Hormesis is a favorable biological response to low toxin exposure. In the case of radiation, large doses are carcinogenic, but low doses might be protective. In the current study, we analyzed lung cancer incidence in high-impact radiation states where nuclear testing occurred and compared it with lung cancer incidence in the remaining normal-impact radiation states and the District of Columbia. Lung cancer incidence data were from the American Cancer Society. Tobacco use 2012 data were from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The distribution of states grouped according to lung cancer incidence interval was from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Total background radiation measurements (terrestrial + cosmic + radon) were from Assessment of Variations in Radiation Exposure in the United States (2005). Data on high- and normal-impact states were from the National Radiation Exposure Screening & Education Program (RESEP). Congress passed the Radiation Exposure Compensation Act Amendments of 2000, creating RESEP, to help thousands of people diagnosed with cancer and other diseases caused by exposure to nuclear fallout or radioactive materials such as uranium. These people live in 12 high-impact states where nuclear testing had occurred. High-impact states were not designated according to measurements of background radiation. Lung cancer incidence is significantly lower in high-impact states in men (t = 5.4 for unequal variance; P impact states in the 2 lowest lung cancer incidence intervals (26.8-56.9 and 57.0-63.2) is statistically significant (P test, 2-tailed). Because cigarette smoking is ordinarily the most powerful risk factor for lung cancer, multivariate linear regression analysis of the effect of U.S. state group (normal-impact, high-impact, or extra high-impact for Nevada, Utah, and Arizona) on lung cancer incidence in men and women was performed. (In Nevada, Utah, and Arizona, men and women would have been downwind.) The U

  20. Lung Cancer of the Uranium Miners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiselev, M.F.; Shandala, N.K.; Gneusheva, G.I.; Seregin, V.A.; Kiselev, S.M.; Semenova, M.P.

    2012-01-01

    Full text: 'The Priargun Production Mining and Chemical Association' (hereinafter referred to as PPMCA) is the only world diversified mining company, which, in addition to underground mining of uranium ore, carries out refining of such ores in hydrometallurgical process to produce natural uranium oxide. The paper deals with the evaluation of the occupational morbidity of the PPMCA's miners depending on their work conditions. In order to evaluate radiological risks of the malignant neoplasm incidence, we used the available medical-dosimetry data being received over the Association life. Our study covers information of 584 miners. The main part of this group includes men (87%), involved in uranium mining (sinkers, timber-men, etc.). Women accounted 13%, being involved in subsidiary works. The highest mean external doses (20 - 40 mSv/year) got those, who worked in the mines over 1980-1983, but the number of this subgroup is small - 18 persons. Generally, mean doses over next years were about 5 mSv/year. However, almost each year, maximum doses above 20 mSv/year can be observed. Internal doses to men were 42.9 mSv on average, while those to women were 23.9 mSv. When generating the medical database, we collected data of 130 mail mines, employed to the PPMCA mines. Among all cases of the malignant neoplasm incidence of miners, the highest contribution is made by the lung cancer (46%); this is well above the national data (23.3 %). The second part is digestive tract cancer (the stomach, the lower lip, and pancreas), contributing 29 % in total, and the stomach cancer contributes 16 %. Depositions of these malignancies do not exceed the national data. The problem of the further work improvement of the miners to eliminate occupational lung disease in the uranium mining operations remains important to the present. Epidemiological and radio-ecological studies will help both regulators and operators to make more objective assessment of each specific situation and to determine

  1. Unmodifiable variables related to thyroid cancer incidence

    OpenAIRE

    Cornelia Nitipir; Lucian Alecu; Iulian Slavu; Raluca Tulin; Radu C. Jecan

    2018-01-01

    The incidence of thyroid cancer is significantly different between male and female patients. Thyroid cancer is also the only form of cancer where age can be considered a staging variable. Identifying biological prognostic factors such as age or sex is important as it helps select an optimal personalized therapy. The present analysis is an observational, prospective study that enrolled all patients with thyroid disease who were operated upon at a single center. The study aimed to determine the...

  2. Lung cancer risk at low doses of alpha particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmann, W.; Katz, R.; Zhang, C.X.

    1986-01-01

    A survey of inhabitant exposures arising from the inhalation of 222 Rn and 220 Rn progeny, and lung cancer mortality has been carried out in two adjacent areas in Guangdong Province, People's Republic of China, designated as the high background and the control area. Annual exposure rates are 0.38 working level months (WLM) per year in the high background, and 0.16 WLM/yr in the control area. In 14 yr of continuous study, from 1970 to 1983, age-adjusted mortality rates were found to be 2.7 per 10(5) living persons of all ages in the high background area, and 2.9 per 10(5) living persons in the control area. From this data, we conclude that we are unable to determine excess lung cancers over the normal fluctuations below a cumulative exposure of 15 WLM. This conclusion is supported by lung cancer mortality data from Austrian and Finnish high-background areas. A theoretical analysis of epidemiological data on human lung cancer incidence from inhaled 2 ]2'' 2 Rn and 220 Rn progeny, which takes into account cell killing as competitive with malignant transformation, leads to the evaluation of a risk factor which is either a linear-exponential or a quadratic-exponential function of the alpha-particle dose. Animal lung cancer data and theoretical considerations can be supplied to support either hypothesis. Thus we conclude that at our current stage of knowledge both the linear-exponential and the quadratic-exponential extrapolation to low doses seem to be equally acceptable for Rn-induced lung cancer risk, possibly suggesting a linear-quadratic transformation function with an exponential cell-killing term, or the influence of risk-modifying factors such as repair or proliferation stimuli

  3. Ground-Glass Opacity Lung Nodules in the Era of Lung Cancer CT Screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jesper Holst; Saghir, Zaigham; Winkler Wille, Mathilde Marie

    2016-01-01

    The advent of computed tomography screening for lung cancer will increase the incidence of ground-glass opacity (GGO) nodules detected and referred for diagnostic evaluation and management. GGO nodules remain a diagnostic challenge; therefore, a more systematic approach is necessary to ensure......, the National Comprehensive Cancer Network, and the British Thoracic Society. In addition, we discuss the management and follow-up of GGO nodules in the light of experience from screening trials. Minimally invasive tissue biopsies and the marking of GGO nodules for surgery are new and rapidly developing fields...... that will yield improvements in both diagnosis and treatment. The standard-of-care surgical treatment of early lung cancer is still minimally invasive lobectomy with systematic lymph node dissection. However, recent research has shown that some GGO lesions may be treated with sublobar resections; these findings...

  4. What is the minimum number of patients for quality control of lung cancer management in Norway?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skaug, Knut; Eide, Geir E; Gulsvik, Amund

    2016-11-01

    There are few data available on the optimal number of lung cancer patients needed to generate and compare estimates of quality between units managing lung cancer. The number of lung cancer patients per management unit varies considerably in Norway, where there are 42 hospitals that treated between 1 and 454 lung cancer patients in 2011. To estimate the differences in quality indicators that are of sufficient importance to change a pulmonary physician's lung cancer management program, and to estimate the size of the patient samples necessary to detect such differences. Twenty-six physicians were asked about the relative differences from a national average of quality indicators that would change their own lung cancer management program. Sample sizes were calculated to give valid estimates of quality of a management unit based on prevalence of quality indicators and minimally important differences (MID). The average MID in quality indicators that would cause a change in management varied from 18% to 24% among 26 chest physicians, depending on the indicator. To generate precise estimates for quality control of lung cancer care in Norway, the number of management units must be reduced. Given the present willingness of chest physicians to change their procedures for management of lung cancer according to the results of quality control indicators, we recommend a maximum of 10 units with a minimum of 200 incident lung cancer patients per year for each management center. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Lung cancer occurrence in never-smokers: an analysis of 13 cohorts and 22 cancer registry studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J Thun

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Better information on lung cancer occurrence in lifelong nonsmokers is needed to understand gender and racial disparities and to examine how factors other than active smoking influence risk in different time periods and geographic regions. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We pooled information on lung cancer incidence and/or death rates among self-reported never-smokers from 13 large cohort studies, representing over 630,000 and 1.8 million persons for incidence and mortality, respectively. We also abstracted population-based data for women from 22 cancer registries and ten countries in time periods and geographic regions where few women smoked. Our main findings were: (1 Men had higher death rates from lung cancer than women in all age and racial groups studied; (2 male and female incidence rates were similar when standardized across all ages 40+ y, albeit with some variation by age; (3 African Americans and Asians living in Korea and Japan (but not in the US had higher death rates from lung cancer than individuals of European descent; (4 no temporal trends were seen when comparing incidence and death rates among US women age 40-69 y during the 1930s to contemporary populations where few women smoke, or in temporal comparisons of never-smokers in two large American Cancer Society cohorts from 1959 to 2004; and (5 lung cancer incidence rates were higher and more variable among women in East Asia than in other geographic areas with low female smoking. CONCLUSIONS: These comprehensive analyses support claims that the death rate from lung cancer among never-smokers is higher in men than in women, and in African Americans and Asians residing in Asia than in individuals of European descent, but contradict assertions that risk is increasing or that women have a higher incidence rate than men. Further research is needed on the high and variable lung cancer rates among women in Pacific Rim countries.

  6. Epidemiology, aetiology, diagnosis and screening of lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berzinec, P.

    2006-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death globally. Smoking causes about 90 % of all lung cancer cases. Passive, i.e. involuntary smoking has been confirmed to enhance the risk of lung cancer in exposed people. Individual susceptibility is one of important factors in lung cancer formation. New knowledge in epidemiology and aetiology of lung cancer gives new possibilities in diagnostic and screening of this disease. Results of large randomised trials aimed at new technologies in lung cancer screening will be available in a few years. (author)

  7. Pleural mesothelioma and lung cancer risks in relation to occupational history and asbestos lung burden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilham, Clare; Rake, Christine; Burdett, Garry; Nicholson, Andrew G; Davison, Leslie; Franchini, Angelo; Carpenter, James; Hodgson, John; Darnton, Andrew; Peto, Julian

    2016-01-01

    Background We have conducted a population-based study of pleural mesothelioma patients with occupational histories and measured asbestos lung burdens in occupationally exposed workers and in the general population. The relationship between lung burden and risk, particularly at environmental exposure levels, will enable future mesothelioma rates in people born after 1965 who never installed asbestos to be predicted from their asbestos lung burdens. Methods Following personal interview asbestos fibres longer than 5 µm were counted by transmission electron microscopy in lung samples obtained from 133 patients with mesothelioma and 262 patients with lung cancer. ORs for mesothelioma were converted to lifetime risks. Results Lifetime mesothelioma risk is approximately 0.02% per 1000 amphibole fibres per gram of dry lung tissue over a more than 100-fold range, from 1 to 4 in the most heavily exposed building workers to less than 1 in 500 in most of the population. The asbestos fibres counted were amosite (75%), crocidolite (18%), other amphiboles (5%) and chrysotile (2%). Conclusions The approximate linearity of the dose–response together with lung burden measurements in younger people will provide reasonably reliable predictions of future mesothelioma rates in those born since 1965 whose risks cannot yet be seen in national rates. Burdens in those born more recently will indicate the continuing occupational and environmental hazards under current asbestos control regulations. Our results confirm the major contribution of amosite to UK mesothelioma incidence and the substantial contribution of non-occupational exposure, particularly in women. PMID:26715106

  8. Polymorphisms in innate immunity genes and lung cancer risk in Xuanwei, China.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shen, M.; Vermeulen, R.C.H.; Rajaraman, P.; Menashe, I.; He, X.; Chapman, R.S.; Yeager, M.; Thomas, G.; Burdett, L.; Hutchinson, A.; Yuenger, J.; Chanock, S.; Lan, Q.

    2009-01-01

    The high incidence of lung cancer in Xuanwei County, China has been attributed to exposure to indoor smoky coal emissions that contain polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The inflammatory response induced by coal smoke components may promote lung tumor development. We studied the association

  9. Thyroid cancer incidence in Corsica. 1998 - 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pascal, Laurence; Lasalle, Jean-Luc

    2012-07-01

    In France, Corsica appears to be one of the most exposed regions to the fallout from the Chernobyl accident. Taking into account the scientific knowledge at that time, it was decided to focus studies on thyroid cancers. A study was carried out in order to estimate thyroid cancer incidence in Corsica for the periods 1998-2001 and 2002-2006. The study identified incident thyroid cancer cases between 1998 and 2006 among residents in Corsica. Data were collected using information from the hospitals (PMSI) and the local health insurance funds (ALD). Cases were validated through medical records before inclusion in the study. Over the period of study, 342 cases of thyroid cancer, rather women and relatively young patients, were identified in Corsica. Incidence rate of the thyroid cancer was high, but stable among men, and with a slight increase among women, particularly between 2002 and 2006. However, incidence rate and clinical characteristics of thyroid cancer in Corsica are not exceptional and are similar to those in other French districts. (authors)

  10. Checkpoint Blockade in Lung Cancer and Mesothelioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lievense, Lysanne A; Sterman, Daniel H; Cornelissen, Robin; Aerts, Joachim G

    2017-08-01

    In the last decade, immunotherapy has emerged as a new treatment modality in cancer. The most success has been achieved with the class of checkpoint inhibitors (CPIs), antibodies that unleash the antitumor immune response. After the success in melanoma, numerous clinical trials are being conducted investigating CPIs in lung cancer and mesothelioma. The programmed death protein (PD) 1-PD ligand 1/2 pathway and cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated protein 4 are currently the most studied immunotherapeutic targets in these malignancies. In non-small cell lung cancer, anti-PD-1 antibodies have become part of the approved treatment arsenal. In small cell lung cancer and mesothelioma, the efficacy of checkpoint inhibition has not yet been proven. In this Concise Clinical Review, an overview of the landmark clinical trials investigating checkpoint blockade in lung cancer and mesothelioma is provided. Because response rates are around 20% in the majority of clinical trials, there is much room for improvement. Predictive biomarkers are therefore essential to fully develop the potential of CPIs. To increase efficacy, multiple clinical trials investigating the combination of cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated protein 4 inhibitors and PD-1/PD ligand 1 blockade in lung cancer and mesothelioma are being conducted. Given the potential benefit of immunotherapy, implementation of current and new knowledge in trial designs and interpretation of results is essential for moving forward.

  11. Evaluating the impacts of screening and smoking cessation programmes on lung cancer in a high-burden region of the USA: a simulation modelling study

    OpenAIRE

    Tramontano, Angela C; Sheehan, Deirdre F; McMahon, Pamela M; Dowling, Emily C; Holford, Theodore R; Ryczak, Karen; Lesko, Samuel M; Levy, David T; Kong, Chung Yin

    2016-01-01

    Objective: While the US Preventive Services Task Force has issued recommendations for lung cancer screening, its effectiveness at reducing lung cancer burden may vary at local levels due to regional variations in smoking behaviour. Our objective was to use an existing model to determine the impacts of lung cancer screening alone or in addition to increased smoking cessation in a US region with a relatively high smoking prevalence and lung cancer incidence. Setting: Computer-based simulation m...

  12. Arsenic in drinking water and lung cancer: A systematic review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Celik, Ismail; Gallicchio, Lisa; Boyd, Kristina; Lam, Tram K.; Matanoski, Genevieve; Tao Xuguang; Shiels, Meredith; Hammond, Edward; Chen Liwei; Robinson, Karen A.; Caulfield, Laura E.; Herman, James G.; Guallar, Eliseo; Alberg, Anthony J.

    2008-01-01

    Exposure to inorganic arsenic via drinking water is a growing public health concern. We conducted a systematic review of the literature examining the association between arsenic in drinking water and the risk of lung cancer in humans. Towards this aim, we searched electronic databases for articles published through April 2006. Nine ecological studies, two case-control studies, and six cohort studies were identified. The majority of the studies were conducted in areas of high arsenic exposure (100 μg/L) such as southwestern Taiwan, the Niigata Prefecture, Japan, and Northern Chile. Most of the studies reported markedly higher risks of lung cancer mortality or incidence in high arsenic areas compared to the general population or a low arsenic exposed reference group. The quality assessment showed that, among the studies identified, only four assessed arsenic exposure at the individual level. Further, only one of the ecological studies presented results adjusted for potential confounders other than age; of the cohort and case-control studies, only one-half adjusted for cigarette smoking status in the analysis. Despite these methodologic limitations, the consistent observation of strong, statistically significant associations from different study designs carried out in different regions provide support for a causal association between ingesting drinking water with high concentrations of arsenic and lung cancer. The lung cancer risk at lower exposure concentrations remains uncertain

  13. Latent period and temporal aspects of lung cancer among miners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Shiquan; Yang Xiaoou; Yang Lan; Meng Xianyu; Liu Shengen; You Zhanyun

    1984-01-01

    Data of lung cancer happened in the miners of this reported mine area is of great value to investigate the temporal aspects of miner's lung cancer, owing to its plenty of cases, longterm follow up and mining as child miners in early years before liberation of China. This preliminary analysis showed that the induction-latent period increased with the decrease of age at the year-of-first-employment in this mine and the protraction of follow up. In other words, even they were exposed since childhood, the excess of lung cancer never appeared until certain age for carcinogenesis. Therefore, the long-term follow up and comprehensive analysis of induction-latent period, underground duration-of-employment, time and age at start of mining would be helpful to properly estimating risk level, discovering the cause and predicting the trend of lung cancer incidence. There is no evidence to show whether child miners are more sensitive than adult miners working at the same exposure conditions

  14. Population-based cancer incidence analysis in Beijing, 2008-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lei; Yuan, Yannan; Sun, Tingting; Li, Huichao

    2015-01-01

    Objective To analyze the incidence of cancer during 2008-2012 in Beijing, China, and compare the cancer spectrum with that during 1998-1999. Methods Data from the Beijing Cancer Registry (BCR), which covered 12 million residents and 16 administrative regions in Beijing, were checked and evaluated on basis of the criteria of data quality from the National Central Cancer Registry (NCCR) of China. Incidences were calculated stratified by cancer type, sex, areas (urban/rural), and age. The Chinese census population in 1982 and the world Segi’s population were used for calculating the age-standardized incidences. Results A total of 177,101 new cancer cases were diagnosed in Beijing between 2008 and 2012. The crude incidence rate (CR) of all cancers was 282.64/100,000 (290.71/100,000 in males and 274.45/100,000 in females). The age-standardized rates by Chinese standard population (ASR-China) and by world standard population (ASR-world) were 124.46/100,000 and 161.18/100,000, respectively. Female breast cancer was the most common cancer, followed by lung cancer, colorectal cancer, liver cancer, and stomach cancer, with the CR of 59.87/100,000, 59.21/100,000, 32.49/100,000, 19.81/100,000 and 17.96/100,000, respectively. In urban areas, female breast cancer (68.50/100,000) was still the most common cancer, followed by lung cancer (61.23/100,000), colorectal cancer (37.23/100,000), prostate cancer (20.49/100,000) and stomach cancer (20.07/100,000). In rural areas, lung cancer (55.94/100,000) was the most common cancer, followed by female breast cancer (45.87/100,000), colorectal cancer (24.77/100,000), liver cancer (20.68/100,000) and stomach cancer (14.52/100,000). Great changes of the cancer spectrum were found from the period of 1998-1999 to the period of 2011-2012 in Beijing. Conclusions The cancer burden in Beijing was heavier than the national average level. Cancer prevention and control strategies, especially for lung, colorectal, prostate and female thyroid

  15. Cancer incidence in the vicinity of nuclear power plants in Taiwan: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shiow-Ing; Yaung, Chih-Liang; Lee, Long-Teng; Chiou, Shang-Jyh

    2016-01-01

    Numerous antinuclear demonstrations reveal that the public is anxious about the potential health effects caused by nuclear power plants. The purpose of this study is to address the question "Is there a higher cancer incidence rate in the vicinity of nuclear power plants in Taiwan?" The Taiwan Cancer Registry database from 1979 to 2003 was used to compare the standardized incidence rate of the top four cancers with strong evidence for radiation risks between the "plant-vicinity" with those "non-plant-vicinity" groups. All cancer sites, five-leading cancers in Taiwan, and gender-specific cancers were also studied. We also adopted different observation time to compare the incidence rate of cancers between two groups to explore the impact of the observation period. The incidences of leukemia, thyroid, lung, and breast cancer were not significantly different between two groups, but cervix uteri cancer showed higher incidence rates in the plant-vicinity group. The incidence of cervical cancer was not consistently associated with the duration of plant operation, according to a multiyear period comparison. Although there was higher incidence in cervix cancer in the plant-vicinity group, our findings did not provide the crucial evidence that nuclear power plants were the causal factor for some cancers with strong evidence for radiation risks.

  16. Lack of association between the BIM deletion polymorphism and the risk of lung cancer with and without EGFR mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebi, Hiromichi; Oze, Isao; Nakagawa, Takayuki; Ito, Hidemi; Hosono, Satoyo; Matsuda, Fumihiko; Takahashi, Meiko; Takeuchi, Shinji; Sakao, Yukinori; Hida, Toyoaki; Faber, Anthony C; Tanaka, Hideo; Yatabe, Yasushi; Mitsudomi, Tetsuya; Yano, Seiji; Matsuo, Keitaro

    2015-01-01

    The BIM deletion polymorphism in intron 2 was found in a significant percent of the Asian population. Patients with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutant lung cancers harboring this BIM polymorphism have shorter progression free survival and overall response rates to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors. However, the association between the BIM deletion polymorphism and lung cancer risk is unknown. The BIM deletion polymorphism was screened by polymerase chain reaction in 765 lung cancer cases and 942 healthy individuals. Carriers possessing one allele of the BIM polymorphism were observed in 13.0% of control cases and 12.8% of lung cancer cases, similar to incidence rates reported earlier in healthy individuals. Homozygote for the BIM polymorphism was observed in four of 942 healthy controls and three of 765 lung cancer cases. The frequency of the BIM deletion polymorphism in lung cancer patients was not related to age, sex, smoking history, or family history of lung cancer. The BIM deletion polymorphism was found in 30 of 212 patients with EGFR wild type lung cancers and 16 of 120 patients with EGFR mutant lung cancers. The frequency of the BIM polymorphism is similar between cancers with wild type EGFR and mutated EGFR (p = 0.78). The BIM deletion polymorphism was not associated with lung cancer susceptibility. Furthermore, the BIM polymorphism is not associated with EGFR mutant lung cancer.

  17. Phase II study of photodynamic therapy (PDT) with Photofrin II for Hilar type early lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furuse, K.

    1992-01-01

    Recently, an increase in lung cancer incidence has been recognized internationally, and more early stage cases of lung cancer are being detected as a result of improvements in survey and diagnostic techniques, including flexible bronchofiberscope. However, some early stage cases that are inoperable due to age, poor pulmonary function, etc. are generally treated with conventional modalities, such as radiation therapy and/or chemotherapy. Modality to curatively treat such inoperable early stage lung cancers has still not been established. PhotoDynamic Therapy is a newly developed local therapeutic modality which has been shown to be able to obtain complete response and cure in those early stage lung cancers with carcinoma in situ. The objective of this study is, first, to evaluate the activity and toxicity of PDT with Photofrin II in hilar type of early lung cancer, and second, to determine the complete response rate as primary end-point. (author). 5 tabs

  18. 28 CFR 79.54 - Proof of primary lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Proof of primary lung cancer. 79.54... cancer. (a) In determining whether a claimant developed primary lung cancer following pertinent... conclusion that a claimant developed primary lung cancer must be supported by medical documentation. To prove...

  19. 28 CFR 79.64 - Proof of primary lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Proof of primary lung cancer. 79.64... cancer. (a) In determining whether a claimant developed primary lung cancer following pertinent... claimant. A conclusion that a claimant developed primary lung cancer must be supported by medical...

  20. 28 CFR 79.45 - Proof of primary lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Proof of primary lung cancer. 79.45... cancer. (a) In determining whether a claimant developed primary lung cancer following pertinent... conclusion that a claimant developed primary lung cancer must be supported by medical documentation. To prove...

  1. Estrogen Signaling in Lung Cancer: An Opportunity for Novel Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baik, Christina S., E-mail: cbaik2@u.washington.edu; Eaton, Keith D. [Division of Medical Oncology, Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98109 (United States); Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA 98109 (United States)

    2012-09-25

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in U.S. and represents a major public health burden. Epidemiologic data have suggested that lung cancer in women may possess different biological characteristics compared to men, as evidenced by a higher proportion of never-smokers among women with lung cancer. Emerging data indicate that female hormones such as estrogen and progesterone play a significant role in lung carcinogenesis. It has been reported that estrogen and progesterone receptors are expressed in lung cancer cell lines as well as in patient-derived tumors. Hormone related risk factors such as hormone replacement therapy have been implicated in lung carcinogenesis and several preclinical studies show activity of anti-estrogen therapy in lung cancer. In this review, we summarize the emerging evidence for the role of reproductive hormones in lung cancer and implications for lung cancer therapy.

  2. Estrogen Signaling in Lung Cancer: An Opportunity for Novel Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith D. Eaton

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in U.S. and represents a major public health burden. Epidemiologic data have suggested that lung cancer in women may possess different biological characteristics compared to men, as evidenced by a higher proportion of never-smokers among women with lung cancer. Emerging data indicate that female hormones such as estrogen and progesterone play a significant role in lung carcinogenesis. It has been reported that estrogen and progesterone receptors are expressed in lung cancer cell lines as well as in patient-derived tumors. Hormone related risk factors such as hormone replacement therapy have been implicated in lung carcinogenesis and several preclinical studies show activity of anti-estrogen therapy in lung cancer. In this review, we summarize the emerging evidence for the role of reproductive hormones in lung cancer and implications for lung cancer therapy.

  3. Role of lymphangiogenesis in lung cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Jankowska

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer represents one of the most frequent causes of death due to neoplastic disease in Poland and around the world. The high mortality which accompany neoplastic diseases used to be ascribed mainly to dissemination of cancerous cells. Studies on animal models suggest that tumour lymphangiogenesis represents the principal factor in the process of metastases formation. Lymphangiogenesis involves a process of formation of new lymphatic vessels from already existing lymphatic capillaries. Lymphangiogenesis is stimulated by vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGF and other, recently reported factors, such as, e.g., cyclooxygenase 2, fibroblast growth factor 2, angiopoetin-1 and the insulin-resembling growth factor. In lymphangiogenesis a key role is played by neutropilin 2 or podoplanin and this promoted development of studies on lymphangiogenesis. Activation of VEGF-C/VEGF-D/VEGFR-3 axis increases motility and invasiveness of neoplastic cells, promotes development of metastases in several types of tumours such as, e.g., lung cancer, mammary carcinoma, cancers of the neck, prostate and large intestine. In recent years lymphangiogenesis provided topic of many studies. A positive correlation was detected between expressions of VEGF-C/D and VEGFR-3 in non-small cell lung cancer. In patients with lung cancer with high expression of VEGF-C a markedly abbreviated survival was noted. Positive correlation was detected between expression of VEGF-C and VEGF-D on one hand and expression of LYVE-1 on the other in sentinel lymph nodes with metastases of neoplastic cells in patients with non-small cell lung cancer. Also, high density of lymphatic vessels and high density of intraneoplastic microvessels proved to be independent poor prognostic indices in patients with non-small cell lung cancer. Extensive hope is linked to studies on inhibitors of lymphangiogenesis, which may improve results of treatment also in tumour patients.

  4. Expression and clinical significance of SALL4 and LGR5 in patients with lung cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    GAUTAM, AJAY KUMAR; WANG, CHANGMING; ZENG, JINRONG; WANG, JIYING; LU, JINGYAN; WEI, JIANGHONG; HUANG, GUOJIN; MO, BIFAN; LUO, MIAO; MO, BIWEN

    2015-01-01

    Lung cancer is the most frequent cancer worldwide, in terms of incidence and mortality. Due to challenges in the diagnosis of the disease, the 5-year overall survival rate is only ~16%. Previous studies have suggested that malignant transformations originate from adult stem cells, and malignant lesions may therefore express stem-cell-associated markers. The purpose of the present study is to investigate the expression and clinical significance of the stem cell-associated markers Sal-like protein 4 (SALL4) and leucine-rich repeat-containing G-protein coupled receptor 5 (LGR5) in lung cancer, and to provide novel diagnostic markers and targets for the treatment of lung cancer. The expression of the stem cell-associated markers SALL4 and LGR5 was analyzed by immunohistochemistry performed on 135 human lung cancer tissue specimens and 10 non-cancer lung tissue specimens. The clinical significance of the expression of these markers and correlation between their expression and clinical parameters was also assessed. SALL4 expression was highly upregulated in lung cancer tissues, but was not present in non-cancerous lung tissues, and the sensitivity and specificity of SALL4 reached 88% and 100%, respectively. By contrast, LGR5 demonstrated 97% sensitivity, but the specificity was poor. Therefore, SALL4 may be an extremely useful diagnostic marker for lung cancer, but LGR5 is not as useful. PMID:26788181

  5. [Landscape of Lung Cancer with Oligometastasis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Yasushi; Sato, Jun

    2017-10-01

    Lung cancer with a few to several metastases is so-called oligometastatic disease. Patient with recurrence only to limited site is also known as oligo-recurrence, and may be included as oligometastatic disease. From biological aspect, any existence of metastases is a sign of systemic disease. Due to the reports of long survival with only local treatment and without systemic disease in oligometastatic lung cancer, word of oligometastasis is used with fascinating expectation of cure to advanced lung cancer. Most of the previous reports are retrospective and no comprehensive data exists for selecting patient for local treatment to oligometastasis. Recent positive result of randomize phase II study is followed up with phase III study. Progress in treatment of advanced non-small cell lung cancer with targeted therapy to oncogenic-driver(EGFR, ALK, ROS1 and others) and immune-checkpoint inhibitor(PD-1 pathway inhibitors)makes it difficult to define the appropriate indication of local treatment to oligometastatic lung cancer.

  6. Isolating and Testing Circulating Tumor DNA and Soluble Immune Markers During the Course of Treatment for Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-08

    Lung Cancer; Lung Neoplasms; Cancer of Lung; Cancer of the Lung; Neoplasms, Lung; Neoplasms, Pulmonary; Pulmonary Cancer; Pulmonary Neoplasms; Carcinoma, Non-small-cell Lung; Adenocarcinoma; Squamous Cell Carcinoma

  7. Cancer incidence in ethnic German migrants from the Former Soviet Union in comparison to the host population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Volker; Holleczek, Bernd; Stegmaier, Christa; Becher, Heiko

    2014-02-01

    To investigate cancer incidence patterns among ethnic German migrants (Aussiedler) from the Former Soviet Union, a large migrant group in Germany, in comparison to autochthonous Saarland population over a 20 year observation period. Data were obtained from a cohort of Aussiedler residing in the federal state of Saarland (n=18,619). Cancer incidence and vital status were ascertained through record linkage with the Saarland Cancer Registry and local population registries. During the follow up period from 1990 to 2009 we observed 638 incident diagnoses of malignant neoplasms (except non-melanoma skin cancer). The overall standardized incidence ratio (SIR) was 0.98 (95% confidence interval 0.92, 1.04). However, site-specific SIRs revealed great variation. Stomach cancer incidence was significantly higher among Aussiedler. Lung cancer was elevated for males, but lower among females. Additionally, diagnoses for colorectal cancer among males were significantly lower. Age-standardized rates (ASRs) over time show not all cancer rates of Aussiedler attenuate as expected to Saarland rates. For example, lung and prostate cancer incidence rates show increasing disparity from Saarland rates and female breast cancer incidence develops in parallel. Furthermore, ASR for overall cancer incidence of Aussiedler shows a yearly decrease (p=0.06) whereas Saarland rates remain stable. Aussiedler incidence rates reflect incidence pattern observed in their countries of origin. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Cancer incidence in blood transfusion recipients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjalgrim, Henrik; Edgren, Gustaf; Rostgaard, Klaus

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Blood transfusions may influence the recipients' cancer risks both through transmission of biologic agents and by modulation of the immune system. However, cancer occurrence in transfusion recipients remains poorly characterized. METHODS: We used computerized files from Scandinavian...... blood banks to identify a cohort of 888,843 cancer-free recipients transfused after 1968. The recipients were followed from first registered transfusion until the date of death, emigration, cancer diagnosis, or December 31, 2002, whichever came first. Relative risks were expressed as ratios......, the standardized incidence ratios for cancers of the tongue, mouth, pharynx, esophagus, liver, and respiratory and urinary tracts and for squamous cell skin carcinoma remained elevated beyond 10 years after the transfusion. CONCLUSIONS: The marked increase in cancer risk shortly after a blood transfusion may...

  9. Pulmonary toxicity in radiotherapy for lung cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shikaura, Sachiko (Kansai Medical School, Kyoto (Japan). Rakusei New-Town Hospital); Harima, Keizo; Murata, Takashi; Kawa, Sokichi; Tanaka, Yoshimasa; Shikata, Nobuaki

    1994-01-01

    Among 158 lung cancer patients at our hospital during past six years, 9 patients developed pulmonary toxicity. Elderly patients, patients with high dose radiation, or inclusion of the hilar mediastinum in the radiation field were more likely develop pulmonary toxicity. There were no significant differences in baseline pulmonary function tests between the pulmonary toxicity group and the control group. On histological examination, lung specimens outside the radiation field demonstrated interstitial pneumonitis or fibrosis. (author).

  10. Uranium mining and lung cancer among Navajo men in New Mexico and Arizona, 1969 to 1993.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilliland, F D; Hunt, W C; Pardilla, M; Key, C R

    2000-03-01

    Navajo men who were underground miners have excess risk of lung cancer. To further characterize the long-term consequences of uranium mining in this high-risk population, we examined lung cancer incidence among Navajo men residing in New Mexico and Arizona from 1969 to 1993 and conducted a population-based case-control study to estimate the risk of lung cancer for Navajo uranium miners. Uranium mining contributed substantially to lung cancer among Navajo men over the 25-year period following the end of mining for the Navajo Nation. Sixty-three (67%) of the 94-incident lung cancers among Navajo men occurred in former uranium miners. The relative risk for a history of mining was 28.6 (95% confidence interval, 13.2-61.7). Smoking did not account for the strong relationship between lung cancer and uranium mining. The Navajo experience with uranium mining is a unique example of exposure in a single occupation accounting for the majority of lung cancers in an entire population.

  11. A case control study on the lung cancer risk factors in north of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimzadeh, Laleh; Koohdani, Fariba; Siassi, Fereydoon; Mahmoudi, Mahmoud; Moslemi, Dariush; Shokrzadeh, Mohammad; Safari, Farid

    2011-01-01

    In this case control study, the risk factors of lung cancer was assessed in the north of Iran. Two groups were matched for gender and age (+/- 5 years). Data were collected from 40 cases and 40 controls attending to hospitals. A public information questionnaire was used for data collection. Incidence odds ratios (OR) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals calculated using logistic regression analyses. Results showed that in adjusted odd ratio positive family history of cancer (OR = 0/19, 95% CI: 0/04-0/8) was associated with a reduction, and consumption of baked bread in traditional oven (OR = 22/6, 95% CI: 1/9-270), was associated with increase in lung cancer risk. Based on the results, smoking was not correlated with lung cancer. In conclusion, the data offers consumption of traditional oven-baked bread may enhance the risk of lung cancer but positive family history of cancer may reduce it.

  12. Disparities in Cancer Incidence, Stage, and Mortality at Boston Health Care for the Homeless Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baggett, Travis P.; Chang, Yuchiao; Porneala, Bianca C.; Bharel, Monica; Singer, Daniel E.; Rigotti, Nancy A.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Homeless people have a high burden of cancer risk factors and suboptimal rates of cancer screening, but the epidemiology of cancer has not been well described in this population. We assessed cancer incidence, stage, and mortality in homeless adults relative to general population standards. Methods We cross-linked a cohort of 28,033 adults seen at Boston Health Care for the Homeless Program in 2003–2008 to Massachusetts cancer registry and vital registry records. We calculated age-standardized cancer incidence and mortality ratios (SIRs and SMRs). We examined tobacco use among incident cases and estimated smoking-attributable fractions. Trend tests were used to compare cancer stage distributions with those in Massachusetts adults. Analyses were conducted in 2012–2015. Results During 90,450 person-years of observation, there were 361 incident cancers (SIR=1.13, 95% CI=1.02, 1.25) and 168 cancer deaths (SMR=1.88, 95% CI=1.61, 2.19) among men, and 98 incident cancers (SIR=0.93, 95% CI=0.76, 1.14) and 38 cancer deaths (SMR=1.61, 95% CI=1.14, 2.20) among women. For both sexes, bronchus and lung cancer was the leading type of incident cancer and cancer death, exceeding Massachusetts estimates more than twofold. Oropharyngeal and liver cancer cases and deaths occurred in excess among men, whereas cervical cancer cases and deaths occurred in excess among women. About one third of incident cancers were smoking-attributable. Colorectal, female breast, and oropharyngeal cancers were diagnosed at more-advanced stages than in Massachusetts adults. Conclusions Efforts to reduce cancer disparities in homeless people should include addressing tobacco use and enhancing participation in evidence-based screening. PMID:26143955

  13. Socioeconomic position and survival after lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalton, Susanne O.; Steding-Jessen, Marianne; Jakobsen, Erik

    2015-01-01

    conditions and socioeconomic information (education, income and cohabitation status) from nationwide population-based registers. Associations between SEP and receipt of first-line treatment were analysed in multivariate logistic regression models and those with overall mortality in Cox regression models......BACKGROUND: To address social inequality in survival after lung cancer, it is important to consider how socioeconomic position (SEP) influences prognosis. We investigated whether SEP influenced receipt of first-line treatment and whether socioeconomic differences in survival could be explained...... by differences in stage, treatment and comorbidity. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In the Danish Lung Cancer Register, we identified 13 045 patients with lung cancer diagnosed in 2004-2010, with information on stage, histology, performance status and first-line treatment. We obtained age, gender, vital status, comorbid...

  14. Diabetes but not insulin increases the risk of lung cancer: a Taiwanese population-based study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin-Hsiao Tseng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The trend of lung cancer incidence in Taiwan is unknown, and the association between type 2 diabetes/insulin use and lung cancer is rarely studied. METHODS: The trends of lung cancer incidence in 1979-2007 in the Taiwanese general population were calculated. A random sample of 1,000,000 subjects covered by the National Health Insurance in 2005 was recruited. A total of 494,002 men and 502,948 women and without lung cancer were followed for the annual cumulative incidence of lung cancer in 2005, with calculation of the risk ratios between diabetic and non-diabetic subjects. Logistic regression estimated the adjusted odds ratios for risk factors. RESULTS: The trends increased significantly in both sexes (P<0.0001. The sex-specific annual cumulative incidence increased with age in either the diabetic or non-diabetic subjects, but the risk ratios attenuated with age. In logistic regressions, diabetes was associated with a significantly higher risk, with odds ratios (95% confidence interval for diabetes duration <1, 1-3, 3-5 and ≥5 years versus non-diabetes of 2.189 (1.498-3.200, 1.420 (1.014-1.988, 1.545 (1.132-2.109, and 1.329 (1.063-1.660, respectively. Such an association was not related to a higher detection with chest X-ray examination. Insulin use and medications including oral anti-diabetic drugs, statin, fibrate, and anti-hypertensive agents were not significantly associated with lung cancer. Age, male sex, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease were positively; but dyslipidemia, stroke and higher socioeconomic status were negatively associated with lung cancer. CONCLUSIONS: Diabetes is significantly associated with a higher risk of lung cancer, but insulin use does not increase the risk.

  15. Cancer incidence of A-bomb survivors in Nagasaki City, 1973 - 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, Takayoshi; Shimokawa, Isao; Iwasaki, Keisuke; Matsuo, Takeshi; Mori, Hiroyuki; Mine, Mariko

    1988-01-01

    Subjects were residents older than 30 years ascertained through the population-based cancer registry in Nagasaki City during a ten-year period from 1973 to 1982. The total number of cancer patients was 6,243 (3,456 men and 2,787 women), 2,626 of whom were A-bomb survivors. Stomach cancer was the most common, irrespective of sex, in both exposed and non-exposed groups. Crude incidence of cancer of any organ was higher in the exposed group, especially the group of people entering the city early after the bombing, than the non-exposed group. In the groups exposed at <2,000 m and at 2,000 - 10,000 m from the hypocenter, the incidence of stomach, lung, and thyroid cancers and malignant lymphoma; and the incidence of stomach, breast, and thyroid cancers were radiation-dose dependent in men and women, respectively. Age-adjusted relative risks of breast and thyroid cancers were significantly higher in the exposed group of women than the non-exposed group. Comparing cancer incidence during the first and latter five years, the incidence of thyroid cancer and malignant lymphoma tended to decrease or remain unchanged in both men and women. The incidence of colorectal cancer showed a tendency to increase. An increased incidence of stomach and lung cancers was restricted to the exposed group of women. As for breast cancer, the exposed group of women had a tendency for decrease, as opposed to the non-exposed group with the increased incidence. There was no significant difference in histologic types between the exposed and non-exposed groups. (Namekawa, K.)

  16. New genes linked to lung cancer susceptibility in Asian women

    Science.gov (United States)

    An international group of scientists has identified three genes that predispose Asian women who have never smoked to lung cancer. The discovery of specific genetic variations, which have not previously been associated with lung cancer risk in other popul

  17. Estrogen and colorectal cancer incidence and mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavasani, Sayeh; Chlebowski, Rowan T; Prentice, Ross L; Kato, Ikuko; Wactawski-Wende, Jean; Johnson, Karen C; Young, Alicia; Rodabough, Rebecca; Hubbell, F Allan; Mahinbakht, Ali; Simon, Michael S

    2015-09-15

    The preponderance of observational studies describe an association between the use of estrogen alone and a lower incidence of colorectal cancer. In contrast, no difference in the incidence of colorectal cancer was seen in the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) randomized, placebo-controlled trial with estrogen alone after a mean intervention of 7.1 years and cumulative follow-up of 13.2 years. This study extends these findings by providing detailed analyses of the effects of estrogen alone on the histology, grade, and stage of colorectal cancer, relevant subgroups, and deaths from and after colorectal cancer. The WHI study was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial involving 10,739 postmenopausal women with prior hysterectomy. Participants were assigned to conjugated equine estrogen at 0.625 mg/d (n = 5279) or a matching placebo (n = 5409). Rates of colorectal cancer diagnoses and deaths from and after colorectal cancer were assessed throughout the study. Colorectal cancer rates in the estrogen-alone and placebo groups were comparable: 0.14% and 0.12% per year, respectively (hazard ratio [HR], 1.13; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.83-1.58; P = .43). Bowel screening examinations were comparable between the 2 groups throughout the study. The grade, stage, and location of colorectal cancer did not differ between the randomization groups. There were more colorectal cancer deaths in the estrogen-alone group (34 [0.05%] vs 24 [0.03%]; HR, 1.46, 95% CI, 0.86-2.46; P = .16), but the difference was not statistically significant. The colorectal cancer incidence was higher for participants with a history of colon polyp removal in the estrogen-alone group (0.23% vs 0.02%; HR, 13.47; nominal 95% CI, 1.76-103.0; P colorectal cancer or deaths from or after colorectal cancer. A possibly higher risk of colorectal cancer in women with prior colon polyp removal who use estrogen alone requires confirmation. © 2015 American Cancer Society.

  18. Nuclear medicine procedures in lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiti, A.; Crippa, F.; Bombardieri, E.; Schreiner, F.A.G.; Pauwels, E.K.J.

    1999-01-01

    Although radiography, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging are still the methods of choice for the study of lung cancer, they have certain limitations in the determination of the nature of suspicious lung nodules, the evaluation of mediastinal involvement, the assessment of the viability of previously treated lesions and the diagnosis of tumour relapse. There is a wide range of current oncological requirements related to lung cancer: detection of malignant lesions at the earliest stage and in the most effective way; the definition of the biological characteristics of a lesion (proliferation, aggressiveness, differentiation, etc.); the need to define the operability of the patient (function of residual lung and staging); and the need to evaluate the behaviour of the tumour (response to therapy, early detection of recurrences, metastatic spread). Most of the efforts of the nuclear medicine community have been focussed on diagnosis, staging, restaging and therapy monitoring of lung cancer. Many radiopharmaceuticals have been employed for this, including gallium, monoclonal antibodies, somatostatin analogues, lipophilic cations and positron emission tracers. There is ample evidence that nuclear medicine techniques may provide complementary information with respect to anatomical imaging, for example in the assessment of preoperative function by means of ventilation and perfusion scintigraphy, or in tumour localisation by means of specific tumour-seeking agents. However, clinical data suggest that, when properly used, nuclear medicine procedures in some cases may be not only complementary to radiology but essential for the clinical management of lung cancer. An example of such a procedure is fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG PET) the introduction of which has greatly contributed to confirmation of the clinical value of nuclear medicine in this field. FDG PET has proved of great help in lung cancer management and its cost-effectiveness in

  19. [Adenocarcinoma of lung cancer with solitary metastasis to the stomach].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Sung Ae; Lee, Kyung Hee

    2014-09-25

    Although hematogenous metastasis of cancer to the gastrointestinal track is rare, it sometime has been reported in patients with malignant melanoma and breast cancer. However, it is extremely rare for lung cancer to metastasize to the stomach, not to mention solitary gastric metastasis. Herein, the authors report a case of a 69-year-old man who was initially diagnosed with lung cancer with synchronous primary gastric cancer which proved to be lung cancer with solitary gastric metastasis after the operation.

  20. Is personality associated with cancer incidence and mortality? An individual-participant meta-analysis of 2156 incident cancer cases among 42,843 men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokela, M; Batty, G D; Hintsa, T; Elovainio, M; Hakulinen, C; Kivimäki, M

    2014-04-02

    The putative role of personality in cancer risk has been controversial, and the evidence remains inconclusive. We pooled data from six prospective cohort studies (British Household Panel Survey; Health and Retirement Study; Household, Income, and Labour Dynamics in Australia; Midlife in the United Survey; Wisconsin Longitudinal Study Graduate; and Sibling samples) for an individual-participant meta-analysis to examine whether personality traits of the Five Factor Model (extraversion, neuroticism, agreeableness, conscientiousness, and openness to experience) were associated with the incidence of cancer and cancer mortality in 42,843 cancer-free men and women at baseline (mean age 52.2 years, 55.6% women). During an average follow-up of 5.4 years, there were 2156 incident cancer cases. In random-effects meta-analysis adjusted for age, sex, and race/ethnicity, none of the personality traits were associated with the incidence of all cancers or any of the six site-specific cancers included in the analysis (lung, colon, breast, prostate, skin, and leukaemia/lymphoma). In the three cohorts with cause-specific mortality data (421 cancer deaths among 21,835 participants), none of the personality traits were associated with cancer mortality. These data suggest that personality is not associated with increased risk of incident cancer or cancer-related mortality.

  1. Chernobyl fallout and cancer incidence in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auvinen, Anssi; Seppä, Karri; Pasanen, Kari; Kurttio, Päivi; Patama, Toni; Pukkala, Eero; Heinävaara, Sirpa; Arvela, Hannu; Verkasalo, Pia; Hakulinen, Timo

    2014-05-01

    Twenty-five years have passed since the Chernobyl accident, but its health consequences remain to be well established. Finland was one of the most heavily affected countries by the radioactive fallout outside the former Soviet Union. We analyzed the relation of the estimated external radiation exposure from the fallout to cancer incidence in Finland in 1988-2007. The study cohort comprised all ∼ 3.8 million Finns who had lived in the same dwelling for 12 months following the accident (May 1986-April 1987). Radiation exposure was estimated using data from an extensive mobile dose rate survey. Cancer incidence data were obtained for the cohort divided into four exposure categories (the lowest with the first-year committed dose fallout [excess rate ratio per increment in exposure category 0.06, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.02-0.11]. No such effect was observed for men, or other cancer sites. Our analysis of a large cohort over two decades did not reveal an increase in cancer incidence following the Chernobyl accident, with the possible exception of colon cancer among women. The largely null findings are consistent with extrapolation from previous studies suggesting that the effect is likely to remain too small to be empirically detectable and of little public health impact.

  2. 1st ESMO Consensus Conference in lung cancer; Lugano 2010: small-cell lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stahel, R; Thatcher, N; Früh, M

    2011-01-01

    , the expert panel prepared clinically relevant questions concerning five areas as follows: early and locally advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), first-line metastatic NSCLC, second-/third-line NSCLC, NSCLC pathology and molecular testing, and small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) to be addressed through......The 1st ESMO Consensus Conference on lung cancer was held in Lugano, Switzerland on 21st and 22nd May 2010 with the participation of a multidisciplinary panel of leading professionals in pathology and molecular diagnostics and medical, surgical and radiation oncology. Before the conference...

  3. MRI in lung cancer: a pictorial essay

    OpenAIRE

    Hochhegger, B; Marchiori, E; Sedlaczek, O; Irion, K; Heussel, C P; Ley, S; Ley-Zaporozhan, J; Soares Souza, A; Kauczor, H-U

    2011-01-01

    Imaging studies play a critical role in the diagnosis and staging of lung cancer. CT and 18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography CT (PET/CT) are widely and routinely used for staging and assessment of treatment response. Many radiologists still use MRI only for the assessment of superior sulcus tumours, and in cases where invasion of the spinal cord canal is suspected. MRI can detect and stage lung cancer, and this method could be an excellent alternative to CT or PET/CT in the inv...

  4. Spirometry, rapid FEV1 decline, and lung cancer among asbestos exposed heavy smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Jason W; Au, David H; Barnett, Matt J; Goodman, Gary E

    2007-12-01

    We assessed whether spirometric measurements are associated with the development of accelerated FEV(1) decline and lung cancer among active and previous smokers with a wide range of lung function. Bivariate and multivariate analyses that adjusted for age, intervention arm, smoking status at enrollment and smoking history, years exposed to asbestos, and evidence of asbestosis were used to assess whether baseline FEV(1) and FEV(1)/FVC ratio were associated with accelerated FEV(1) decline and incident lung cancer. The 3,041 participants enrolled from 1985 to 1994 were followed through April 30, 2005. Baseline FEV(1)/FVC ratio80%. Lung cancer risk among participants with baseline airflow obstruction and FEV(1)80% (psmokers. These data indicate an FEV(1)/FVCsmokers is significantly associated with faster airflow loss, and an increased risk for developing lung cancer, even among those individuals with a normal FEV(1).

  5. Dietary patterns associated with male lung cancer risk in the Netherlands Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balder, H.F.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Brandt, P.A. van den

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this article was to study the association between dietary patterns and lung cancer incidence in the Netherlands Cohort Study on Diet and Cancer. The baseline measurement of this prospective case cohort study that was completed by 58,279 men in 1986 included a self-administered

  6. Cancer Stem Cells and the Ontogeny of Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peacock, Craig D.; Watkins, D. Neil

    2013-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in the world today and is poised to claim approximately 1 billion lives during the 21st century. A major challenge in treating this and other cancers is the intrinsic resistance to conventional therapies demonstrated by the stem/progenitor cell that is responsible for the sustained growth, survival, and invasion of the tumor. Identifying these stem cells in lung cancer and defining the biologic processes necessary for their existence is paramount in developing new clinical approaches with the goal of preventing disease recurrence. This review summarizes our understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms operating within the putative cancer-initiating cell at the core of lung neoplasia. PMID:18539968

  7. Results from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition Link Vitamin B6 Catabolism and Lung Cancer Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Hui; Ueland, Per M; Midttun, Øivind; Vollset, Stein E; Tell, Grethe S; Theofylaktopoulou, Despoina; Travis, Ruth C; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Fournier, Agnès; Severi, Gianluca; Kvaskoff, Marina; Boeing, Heiner; Bergmann, Manuela M; Fortner, Renée T; Kaaks, Rudolf; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Kotanidou, Anastasia; Lagiou, Pagona; Palli, Domenico; Sieri, Sabina; Panico, Salvatore; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Peeters, Petra H; Grankvist, Kjell; Johansson, Mikael; Agudo, Antonio; Garcia, Jose Ramon Quiros; Larranaga, Nerea; Sanchez, Maria-Jose; Chirlaque, Maria Dolores; Ardanaz, Eva; Chuang, Shu-Chun; Gallo, Valentina; Brennan, Paul; Johansson, Mattias; Ulvik, Arve

    2018-01-01

    Circulating pyridoxal-5'-phosphate (PLP) has been linked to lung cancer risk. The PAr index, defined as the ratio 4-pyridoxic acid/(pyridoxal + PLP), reflects increased vitamin B6 catabolism during inflammation. PAr has been defined as a marker of lung cancer risk in a prospective cohort study, but analysis of a larger numbers of cases are needed to deepen the significance of this study. Here, we conducted a nested case-control study within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC, n = 521,330), which included 892 incident lung cancer cases and 1,748 controls matched by center, gender, date of blood collection, and date of birth. The association of PAr with risk of lung cancer was evaluated by using conditional logistic regression. Study participants with elevated PAr experienced higher risk of lung cancer in a dose-response fashion, with a doubling in PAr levels associated with 52% higher odds of lung cancer after adjustment for tobacco smoking, serum cotinine levels, educational attainment, and BMI [OR, 1.52; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.27-1.81; P < 0.001]. Additional adjustment for intake of vegetables and fruits and physical activity did not materially affect risk association. The association of PAr with lung cancer risk was similar in both genders but slightly stronger in former smokers and in participants diagnosed with squamous cell carcinoma. This study provides robust evidence that increased vitamin B6 catabolism is independently associated with a higher risk of future lung cancer. Significance: This large cohort study firmly establishes an association between an index of vitamin B6 levels with lung cancer risk. Cancer Res; 78(1); 302-8. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  8. Radiation Therapy, Chemotherapy, and Soy Isoflavones in Treating Patients With Stage IIIA-IIIB Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-23

    Adenocarcinoma of the Lung; Adenosquamous Cell Lung Cancer; Bronchoalveolar Cell Lung Cancer; Large Cell Lung Cancer; Recurrent Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Squamous Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIA Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIB Non-small Cell Lung Cancer

  9. Low-Dose Acetylsalicylic Acid in Treating Patients With Stage I-III Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-29

    Adenocarcinoma of the Lung; Recurrent Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IA Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IB Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIA Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIB Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIA Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIB Non-small Cell Lung Cancer

  10. Unmodifiable variables related to thyroid cancer incidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia Nitipir

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of thyroid cancer is significantly different between male and female patients. Thyroid cancer is also the only form of cancer where age can be considered a staging variable. Identifying biological prognostic factors such as age or sex is important as it helps select an optimal personalized therapy. The present analysis is an observational, prospective study that enrolled all patients with thyroid disease who were operated upon at a single center. The study aimed to determine the most frequent age at presentation, the predominance of one sex over the other, the incidence of malignant thyroid disease, and the relative risk for each sex to develop thyroid carcinoma. The incidence of thyroid carcinoma was higher for women than for men, with a higher relative risk in the female subgroup. Incidence was also highest in the 50-60-year-old group. Given that studies show better survival for women and for younger patients, even when presenting with advanced disease, compared with older, male patients, such prognostic indicators should be a factor in the treatment decision.

  11. Prostate cancer incidence rates in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Lisa W; Ritchey, Jamie; Devesa, Susan S; Quraishi, Sabah M; Zhang, Hongmei; Hsing, Ann W

    2011-01-01

    African American men have among the highest prostate cancer incidence rates in the world yet rates among their African counterparts are unclear. In this paper, we compared reported rates among black men of Sub-Saharan African descent using data from the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) and the National Cancer Institute Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program for 1973-2007. Although population-based data in Africa are quite limited, the available data from IARC showed that rates among blacks were highest in the East (10.7-38.1 per 100,000 man-years, age-adjusted world standard) and lowest in the West (4.7-19.8). These rates were considerably lower than those of 80.0-195.3 observed among African Americans. Rates in Africa increased over time (1987-2002) and have been comparable to those for distant stage in African Americans. These patterns are likely due to differences between African and African American men in medical care access, screening, registry quality, genetic diversity, and Westernization. Incidence rates in Africa will likely continue to rise with improving economies and increasing Westernization, warranting the need for more high-quality population-based registration to monitor cancer incidence in Africa.

  12. Adjustment to Life with Lung Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czerw, Aleksandra I; Religioni, Urszula; Deptała, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    In Poland, lung cancer is the most common type of cancer in males (20% of all cases) and third most common type of cancer in females (9% of all cases), right behind breast and colorectal cancers. Recently, 28,000 new cases of lung cancer per year were reported in both genders. The objective of the study was to asses coping strategies, pain management, acceptance of illness and adjustment to cancer in patients diagnosed with pulmonary carcinoma and the effect of socioeconomic variables on the abovementioned issues. The study included 243 patients diagnosed with lung cancer during outpatient chemotherapy (classical chemotherapy and molecularly targeted therapies) at the Center of Oncology, Maria Skłodowska-Curie Institute in Warszawa. We applied the Paper and Pencil Interview (PAPI) technique. The questionnaire interview was composed of demographic questions and the following four psychometric tests: BPCQ measuring the influence of factors affecting pain management in patients, CSQ designed to evaluate pain coping strategies, AIS questionnaire, measuring disease acceptance, and the mini-Mac scale, assessing psychological adjustment to disease. The highest mean score recorded in the BPCQ was recorded in the powerful doctors subscale (16.79) and the lowest in the internal factors section (15.64). Education, professional status and income were the variables which differentiated the scores. We recorded the top average score in CSQ in the coping self statements subscale (mean = 19.64), and the lowest score in the reinterpreting pain sensations subscale (mean score = 10.32). The results of the test were differentiated by education and income. Patients had the highest Mini-MAC scale scores in the fighting spirit section (21.91). In the case of patients affected with lung cancer, education and professional status affect the way patients treat doctors in the disease process. These variables are also critical in patients' approach to disease and methods of coping with it.

  13. Lung cancer following therapy for Hodgkin's disease

    OpenAIRE

    Oliphant, Lawrie; McFadden, Robin G.

    1985-01-01

    We describe a patient in whom lung cancer developed several years after he had received combined-modality therapy for Hodgkin's disease. The literature concerning second malignant diseases, particularly thoracic tumours, that occur following combined-modality therapy for cancer is reviewed. It is important to recognize these entities, because chest symptoms or findings on x-ray films may be misinterpreted as representing late recrudescence of the first neo-plastic disease.

  14. Baseline C-reactive protein is associated with incident cancer and survival in patients with cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allin, Kristine H; Bojesen, Stig E; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE: We tested the hypothesis that baseline plasma levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) are associated with risk of incident cancer in the general population and early death in patients with cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 10,408 individuals from the Danish general population who had C...... with increased risk of cancer of any type, of lung cancer, and possibly of colorectal cancer. Moreover, elevated levels of baseline CRP associate with early death after a diagnosis of any cancer, particularly in patients without metastases.......PURPOSE: We tested the hypothesis that baseline plasma levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) are associated with risk of incident cancer in the general population and early death in patients with cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 10,408 individuals from the Danish general population who had CRP...... CRP levels were 1.3 (95% CI, 1.0 to 1.6), 2.1 (95% CI, 1.2 to 3.8), 1.7 (95% CI, 0.8 to 3.2), and 0.9 (95% CI, 0.5 to 1.7), respectively. Multifactorially adjusted hazard ratios for early death in patients with cancer were 1.8 (95% CI, 1.2 to 2.7) for CRP more than 3 versus less than 1 mg/L and 1...

  15. Radiation-induced Pulmonary Damage in Lung Cancer Patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Su Mi; Choi, Ihl Bohng; Kang, Mi Mun; Kim, In Ah; Shinn, Kyung Sub

    1993-01-01

    Purpose: A retrospective analysis was performed to evaluate the incidence of radiation induced lung damage after the radiation therapy for the patients with carcinoma of the lung. Method and Materials: Sixty-six patients with lung cancer (squamous cell carcinoma 27, adenocarcinoma 14, large cell carcinoma 2, small cell carcinoma 13, unknown 10) were treated with definitive, postoperative or palliative radiation therapy with or without chemotherapy between July 1987 and December 1991. There were 50 males and 16 females with median age of 63 years(range: 33-80 years). Total lung doses ranged from 500 to 6,660 cGy (median 3960 cGy) given in 2 to 38 fractions (median 20) over a range of 2 to 150 days (median 40 days) using 6 MV or 15 MV linear accelerator. To represent different fractionation schedules of equivalent biological effect, the estimated single dose(ED) model, ED=D·N-0.377·T-0.058 was used in which D was the lung dose in cGy, N was the number of fractions, and T was the overall treatment time in days. The range of ED was 370 to 1357. The endpoint was a visible increase in lung density within the irradiated volume on chest X-ray as observed independently by three diagnostic radiologists. Patients were grouped according to ED, treatment duration, treatment modality and age, and the percent incidence of pulmonary damage for each group was determined. Result: In 40 of 66 patients, radiation induced change was seen on chest radiographs between 11 days and 314 days after initiation of radiation therapy. The incidence of radiation pneumonitis was increased according to increased ED, which was statistically significant (p=0.001). Roentgenographic charges consistent with radiation pneumonitis were seen in 100% of patients receiving radiotherapy after lobectomy or pneumonectomy, which was not statistically significant. In 32 patients who also received chemotherapy, there was no difference in the incidence of radiation induced charge between the group with radiation

  16. CT imaging of coexisting pulmonary tuberculosis and lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lv Yan; Xie Ruming; Zhou Xinhua; Zhou Zhen; Xu Jinping; He Wei; Guo Lifang; Ning Fenggang

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To study the CT characteristics of coexisting pulmonary tuberculosis and lung cancer. Methods: One hundred and four patients of coexisting pulmonary tuberculosis and lung cancer proved by histology, cytology or clinical underwent CT examination. All patients were divided into two groups, group Ⅰ were the patients with the lung cancer after tuberculosis or both found simultaneously (group Ⅰ a with peripheral lung cancer and group Ⅰ b with central lung cancer), group Ⅱ with tuberculosis during lung cancer chemotherapy (group Ⅱ a with peripheral lung cancer and group Ⅱ b with central lung cancer). Imaging characteristics of tuberculosis and lung cancer were compared. χ 2 test and t test were used for the statistical analysis. Results: Of 104 patients, there were 92 patients (88.5%) in group Ⅰ and 12 patients (11.5%) in group Ⅱ. Seventy patients (76.1%) of lung cancer and tuberculosis were located in the same lobe and 22 patients (23.9%) in the different lobes in group Ⅰ. There was no significant difference in distribution of tuberculosis between group Ⅰ and group Ⅱ (χ 2 = 4.302, P = 0.507). The fibrous stripes, nodules of calcification and pleural adhesion of tuberculosis were statistically significant between the two groups (χ 2 = 22.737, 15.193, 27.792, P < 0.05). There were 33 central lung cancers and 71 peripheral lung cancers. In group Ⅰ a (64 patients of peripheral lung cancers), 39 patients (60.9%) had typical manifestations and most of the lesions were ≥ 3 cm (n = 49, 76.6%), solid lesions showed variable enhancement. Conclusions: Secondary tuberculosis during lung cancer chemotherapy has the same CT characteristics with the common active tuberculosis. The morphology, enhancement pattern of lesion and follow-up are helpful for the diagnosis of lung cancer after tuberculosis. (authors)

  17. Cancer incidence among mild steel and stainless steel welders and other metal workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, K S; Lauritsen, J M; Skytthe, A

    1996-01-01

    The cancer incidence in a historical cohort of 10,059 metal workers employed during the period 1964-1984 was investigated. Standardized incidence ratios (SIR) were calculated based on registry extracts from the Danish Cancer registry. Lifetime exposure data (occupational and other) were obtained...... by a postal questionnaire in living cohort members and interviews by proxy for deceased and emigrated subjects. The incidence of lung cancer was increased among workers ever "employed as welders" (SIR = 1.38, 95% C.I. 1.03-1.81). There was a significant excess risk of lung cancer among "mild steel (MS) only...... welders" (SIR = 1.61, 95% C.I. 1.07-2.33) and "nonwelders" (SIR = 1.69, 95% C.I. 1.23-2.26) (indicating carcinogenic exposures other than welding), a borderline significant lung cancer excess among "MS ever welders" (SIR = 1.32, 95% C.I. 0.97-1.76), and a nonsignificant excess risk of lung cancer among...

  18. Cumulative Incidence of Cancer among People with AIDS in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simard, Edgar P.; Pfeiffer, Ruth M.; Engels, Eric A.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND As people with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) live longer due to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART, widely available since 1996), the overall burden of cancer may increase. METHODS A population-based record linkage study identified cancers in 472,378 people with AIDS (1980–2006). Using non-parametric competing risk methods, we estimated cumulative incidence of cancer across 3 calendar periods (AIDS onset in 1980–1989, 1990–1995, and 1996–2006). RESULTS Measured at 5-years after AIDS onset, cumulative incidence of AIDS-defining cancer (ADC) declined sharply across AIDS calendar periods (from 18% in 1980–1989, to 11% in 1990–1995, to 4.2% in 1996–2006 [i.e., HAART era]). Cumulative incidence of Kaposi sarcoma declined from 14.3% during 1980–1989 to 6.7% during 1990–1995 to 1.8% during 1996–2006. Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) cumulative incidence declined from 3.8% during 1990–1995 to 2.2% during 1996–2006; during the HAART era, NHL was the commonest (53%) ADC. Cumulative incidence of non-AIDS-defining cancer (NADC) increased from 1.1% to 1.5% with no change thereafter (1.0%, 1996–2006), in part due to declines in competing mortality. However, cumulative incidence increased steadily over time for specific NADCs (anal cancer, Hodgkin lymphoma, and liver cancer). Lung cancer cumulative incidence increased from 0.14% during 1980–1989 to 0.32% during 1990–1995, with no change thereafter. CONCLUSIONS We noted dramatically declining cumulative incidence of 2 major ADCs (Kaposi sarcoma and NHL) and increases in some NADCs (specifically cancers of the anus, liver, and lung, and Hodgkin lymphoma). As HIV/AIDS is increasingly managed as a chronic disease, greater attention should be focused on cancer screening and prevention. PMID:20960504

  19. Lung Cancer: Clinical Presentation and Diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latimer, Kelly M

    2018-01-01

    In the absence of screening, most patients with lung cancer are not diagnosed until later stages, when the prognosis is poor. The most common symptoms are cough and dyspnea, but the most specific symptom is hemoptysis. Digital clubbing, though rare, is highly predictive of lung cancer. Symptoms can be caused by the local tumor, intrathoracic spread, distant metastases, or paraneoplastic syndromes. Clinicians should suspect lung cancer in symptomatic patients with risk factors. The initial study should be chest x-ray, but if results are negative and suspicion remains, the clinician should obtain a computed tomography scan with contrast. The diagnostic evaluation for suspected lung cancer includes tissue diagnosis, staging, and determination of functional capacity, which are completed simultaneously. Tissue samples should be obtained using the least invasive method possible. Management is based on the individual tumor histology, molecular testing results, staging, and performance status. The management plan is determined by a multidisciplinary team consisting of a pulmonology subspecialist, medical oncology subspecialist, radiation oncology subspecialist, and thoracic surgeon. The family physician should remain involved with the patient to ensure that patient priorities are supported and, if necessary, to arrange for end-of-life care. Written permission from the American Academy of Family Physicians is required for reproduction of this material in whole or in part in any form or medium.

  20. Implementation and organization of lung cancer screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jesper Johannes Holst; Ashraf, Haseem

    2016-01-01

    CT screening for lung cancer is now being implemented in the US and China on a widespread national scale but not in Europe so far. The review gives a status for the implementation process and the hurdles to overcome in the future. It also describes the guidelines and requirements for the structure...

  1. Lung cancer following exposure to ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blot, W.J.

    1985-01-01

    A case-control study of lung cancer was conducted in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan, to evaluate risk factors for this common neoplasm, with special attention given to assessing the potentially interactive roles of cigarette smoking and atomic radiation. The investigation involved interviews with 428 patients with primary lung cancer and 957 matched controls, or with their next of kin in the event of death or disability. The interview information was supplemented by data on atomic bomb radiation exposure for each individual and on smoking and other factors from prior surveys of subsets of the population studied. Separate effects of smoking and high dose (greater than 100 rad) radiation were found, with the two exposures combining to affect lung cancer risk in an approximate additive fashion. The additive rather than multiplicative model was favored whether the smoking variable was dichotomized (ever vs. never smoked), categorized into one of several groups based on amount smoked, or treated as a discrete variable. The findings are contrasted with those for Colorado uranium miners and other cohorts occupationally exposed to radon and its daughter products, where smoking and radiation have been reported to combine multiplicatively to enhance lung cancer risk

  2. Access to Lung Cancer Screening Services: Preliminary Analysis of Geographic Service Distribution Using the ACR Lung Cancer Screening Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charkhchi, Paniz; Kolenic, Giselle E; Carlos, Ruth C

    2017-11-01

    Lung cancer has the highest mortality rate among all types of cancer in the United States. The National Lung Screening Trial demonstrated that low-dose CT for lung cancer screening decreases both lung cancer-related mortality and all-cause mortality. Currently, the only CMS-approved lung cancer screening registry is the Lung Cancer Screening Registry (LCSR) administered by the ACR. The aims of this study were to assess access to lung cancer screening services as estimated by the number and distribution of screening facilities participating in the LCSR, by state, and to evaluate state-level covariates that correlate with access. The ACR LCSR list of participating lung cancer screening facilities was used as a proxy for the availability of lung cancer screening facilities in each state. Additionally, we normalized the number of facilities by state by the number of screening-eligible individuals using Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System data. State-level demographics were obtained from the 2015 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System: poverty level, insured population, unemployed, black, and Latino. State-specific lung cancer incidence and death rates, number of active physicians per 100,000, and Medicare expenditure per capita were obtained. Linear regression models were performed to examine the influence of these state-level covariates on state-level screening facility number. QGIS, an open-source geographic information system, was used to map the distribution of lung cancer screening facilities and to estimate the nearest neighbor index, a measure of facility clustering within each state. As of November 18, 2016, 2,423 facilities participated in the LCSR. When adjusted by the rate of screening-eligible individuals per 100,000, the median population-normalized facility number was 15.7 (interquartile range, 10.7-19.3). There was a positive independent effect (coefficient = 12.87; 95% confidence interval, 10.93-14.8) between state-level number of screening

  3. Impact of Preexisting Interstitial Lung Disease on Acute, Extensive Radiation Pneumonitis: Retrospective Analysis of Patients with Lung Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozawa, Yuichi; Abe, Takefumi; Omae, Minako; Matsui, Takashi; Kato, Masato; Hasegawa, Hirotsugu; Enomoto, Yasunori; Ishihara, Takeaki; Inui, Naoki; Yamada, Kazunari; Yokomura, Koshi; Suda, Takafumi

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the clinical characteristics and predictive factors for developing acute extended radiation pneumonitis with a focus on the presence and radiological characteristics of preexisting interstitial lung disease. Of 1429 irradiations for lung cancer from May 2006 to August 2013, we reviewed 651 irradiations involving the lung field. The presence, compatibility with usual interstitial pneumonia, and occupying area of preexisting interstitial lung disease were retrospectively evaluated by pretreatment computed tomography. Cases of non-infectious, non-cardiogenic, acute respiratory failure with an extended bilateral shadow developing within 30 days after the last irradiation were defined as acute extended radiation pneumonitis. Nine (1.4%) patients developed acute extended radiation pneumonitis a mean of 6.7 days after the last irradiation. Although preexisting interstitial lung disease was found in 13% of patients (84 patients), 78% of patients (7 patients) with acute extended radiation pneumonitis cases had preexisting interstitial lung disease, which resulted in incidences of acute extended radiation pneumonitis of 0.35 and 8.3% in patients without and with preexisting interstitial lung disease, respectively. Multivariate logistic analysis indicated that the presence of preexisting interstitial lung disease (odds ratio = 22.6; 95% confidence interval = 5.29-155; p acute extended radiation pneumonitis (odds ratio = 6.14; 95% confidence interval = 1.0-37.4); p = 0.038). Pretreatment computed tomography evaluations of the presence of and area size occupied by preexisting interstitial lung disease should be assessed for safer irradiation of areas involving the lung field.

  4. [Experience and Progress Processing Policy of Simultaneous Multiple Primary 
Lung Cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Liankui; Gao, Shugeng; Tan, Fengwei; Zhao, Ziran; Song, Peng

    2018-03-20

    Simultaneity multiple primary lung cancer always is a rare disease, but in recent years due to the progress of the diagnosis and treatment means detection rate increased. This study summarized the clinical data of 31 cases of synchronous multiple primary lung cancer (sMPLC) analysis, further to explore the diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of MPLC. Sum up the clinical data of 31 cases of simultaneous multiple primary lung cancer, the diagnostic method, surgical methods, pathology, were retrospectively analyzed. All the patients are thoracoscope surgery, no deaths. Thin high resolution computed tomography (CT) in preoperative found multiple lung nodules. Lesions located in the same side of the same period surgical treatment, the operation method is given priority to with under the thoracoscope lung + the lobectomy; Lesions located in bilateral, all staged operation, the time interval for 3 months-4 months. Thin layer distinguish CT preoperative diagnosis is the best way to simultaneous multiple primary lung cancer. Multiple primary lung cancer incidence of ipsilateral lung at the same time higher than that of bilateral lung (23:8), type, around 94%, the most common histology to adenocarcinoma, 80.6% (25/31). Primary lesions under thoracoscope lobectomy plus the lobectomy of secondary lesions is the most commonly used.

  5. Relationship of cancer incidence to terrestrial radiation and population density in Connecticut, 1935-1974

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walter, S.D.; Meigs, J.W.; Heston, J.F.

    1986-01-01

    The relationship of cancer incidence to terrestrial radiation and population density was investigated. Cancer incidence was obtained using 40 years of age-standardized data from the Connecticut Tumor Registry, and environmental radiation was estimated using data from an airborne gamma radiation survey of the entire state. These variables were examined ecologically, using the 169 towns of the state as the analytic units in a weighted regression analysis. The study design involves a large population base in a state having relatively high terrestrial radiation exposure levels overall and reasonable variation in exposure between towns. For all cancer combined, only one of the eight sex-specific analyses by decade yielded a significant radiation regression coefficient, and this was negative. In the sex- and site-specific analyses, almost all the coefficients for radiation were not significantly different from zero. In contrast, significant positive relationships of cancer incidence with population density were found for all cancer, for cancer of the lung for both sexes, for stomach, colonic, and prostatic cancer for males, and for lymphomas, thyroid, breast, and ovarian cancer for females. Both the radiation and population density relationships were adjusted for socioeconomic status. Socioeconomic status was significantly negatively associated with stomach and lung cancer in males and with cervical cancer in females; it was also positively associated with lymphomas and breast cancer in females. A power calculation revealed that, despite the relatively large size of this study, there was only a small probability of detecting a radiation effect of the strength anticipated from previous estimates

  6. [Lung cancer and COPD - growing clinical problem].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyl, Michal; Domagała-Kulawik, Joanna

    2017-07-21

    A spread of the addiction of tobacco smoking is valued on near 1 billion of people in the world, that involves growing number of morbidity and mortality by the reason of smoke related diseases. Lung cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are the most serious and incurable diseases which are leading to a permanent disability as well as to premature death. There are factors that naturally increase the vulnerability of an individual on the coincidence of above disorders, such as pathophysiological conditions, systemic inflammation, bronchitis, emphysema, respiratory obstructive disease and precise genetic predispositions for COPD and lung cancer. The harmful substances of the tobacco smoke are the causes of the development of diseases outside the group of respiratory disorders which affects the greater scope of comorbidity among this patient group in comparison to the normal population. The similarity of the clinical picture of lung cancer and COPD may cause numerous problems for a proper and prompt diagnosis and the implementation of the appropriate treatment. On the other hand, it is evident that the patients with COPD are carefully examined and often diagnosed with cancer while those who already suffer from cancer and undertake additional function testing are in 40-50% diagnosed with COPD. The coexistance of these two diseases influences the therapeutic procedure: COPD limits the possibilities of a radical lung cancer treatment which is determined by the general health condition and the respiratory system insufficiency as far as COPD patients are concerned. The knowledge of common pathogenesis both of cancer and COPD and the mutual relations between them shall positively affect the diagnostic and therapeutic process in the high-risk patient groups.

  7. Lung cancer, pulmonary emphysema and pleural effusion: An autopsy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marel, Miloslav; Koubkova, Leona; Kovarikova, Zuzana; Grandcourtova, Alzbeta; Petrik, Frantisek; Hroudova, Hana; Capkova, Linda; Kodet, Roman; Fila, Libor

    2015-12-01

    To determine the exact incidence of lung cancer, pulmonary emphysema and pleural effusion we decided to carry out an autopsy study. In this autopsy study carried out over two years, we compared the results of autopsy findings with the clinical data in accompanying records of the deceased. Among the 708 deceased subjects, there were 398 males and 310 females with a median age of 71 years. At autopsy, 55 cases of lung carcinoma (BCA) were found, of which 24 have not been identified during life (44%). Among the deceased with BCA, emphysema was also observed at autopsy in 40% of the cases. Pulmonary emphysema was described macroscopically in 28% of the full set of 708 deceased, whereas the accompanying records of the deceased described this condition in only 12% of the cases. Microscopic changes compatible with emphysema were identified in 54% of the examined lungs. Pleural effusions were described in the accompanying records of 13% of the deceased, while the autopsies showed this condition in 33% of the deceased. BCA was accompanied by effusion in 25% of the cases. The obtained results show that the studied conditions are present in more cases than are reported by clinicians. The study confirms the commonly accepted association between lung cancer and emphysema.

  8. Variation in Cancer Incidence among Patients with ESRD during Kidney Function and Nonfunction Intervals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanik, Elizabeth L; Clarke, Christina A; Snyder, Jon J; Pfeiffer, Ruth M; Engels, Eric A

    2016-05-01

    Among patients with ESRD, cancer risk is affected by kidney dysfunction and by immunosuppression after transplant. Assessing patterns across periods of dialysis and kidney transplantation may inform cancer etiology. We evaluated 202,195 kidney transplant candidates and recipients from a linkage between the Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients and cancer registries, and compared incidence in kidney function intervals (time with a transplant) with incidence in nonfunction intervals (waitlist or time after transplant failure), adjusting for demographic factors. Incidence of infection-related and immune-related cancer was higher during kidney function intervals than during nonfunction intervals. Incidence was most elevated for Kaposi sarcoma (hazard ratio [HR], 9.1; 95% confidence interval (95% CI), 4.7 to 18), non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (HR, 3.2; 95% CI, 2.8 to 3.7), Hodgkin's lymphoma (HR, 3.0; 95% CI, 1.7 to 5.3), lip cancer (HR, 3.4; 95% CI, 2.0 to 6.0), and nonepithelial skin cancers (HR, 3.8; 95% CI, 2.5 to 5.8). Conversely, ESRD-related cancer incidence was lower during kidney function intervals (kidney cancer: HR, 0.8; 95% CI, 0.7 to 0.8 and thyroid cancer: HR, 0.7; 95% CI, 0.6 to 0.8). With each successive interval, incidence changed in alternating directions for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, melanoma, and lung, pancreatic, and nonepithelial skin cancers (higher during function intervals), and kidney and thyroid cancers (higher during nonfunction intervals). For many cancers, incidence remained higher than in the general population across all intervals. These data indicate strong short-term effects of kidney dysfunction and immunosuppression on cancer incidence in patients with ESRD, suggesting a need for persistent cancer screening and prevention. Copyright © 2016 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  9. Incidence estimation of stomach cancer among Koreans.

    OpenAIRE

    Ahn, Y. O.; Park, B. J.; Yoo, K. Y.; Kim, N. K.; Heo, D. S.; Lee, J. K.; Ahn, H. S.; Kang, D. H.; Kim, H.; Lee, M. S.

    1991-01-01

    A series of incidence estimation studies of cancers among Koreans through a nationwide survey has been undertaken by authors since 1988. The medical records were studied of inpatients with diagnoses of either ICD-9 151 (malignant neoplasm of the stomach), or 197 (secondary malignant neoplasm of the respiratory and digestive systems), or 211 (benign neoplasm of other parts of the digestive system) in claims sent in by medical care institutions throughout the country to the Korea Medical Insura...

  10. Primary lung cancer in Assiut University Hospitals: Pattern of presentation within four years (January 2011: December 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amany Omar

    2017-10-01

    Conclusions: Knowing that the incidence of lung cancer increased globally in both male and female, the relatively lower male to female ratio when compared with other studies, may reflect at least an increasing in the lung cancer rates among female. Smoking still remains the major risk factor in pathogenesis of primary lung cancer. COPD could be considered an important respiratory disorder that tied to bronchogenic carcinoma risk. Interestingly, the incidence of adenocarcinoma surpassed that of squamous cell carcinoma. Unfortunately, presentation of the patient at later stages of illness was common.

  11. Impact of HIV Infection on Medicare Beneficiaries with Lung Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J. Y.; Moore, P. C.; Lensing, S. Y.

    2012-01-01

    The incidence of lung cancer among individuals infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is elevated compared to that among the general population. This study examines the prevalence of HIV and its impact on outcomes among Medicare beneficiaries who are 65 years of age or older and were diagnosed with non small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) between 1997 and 2008. Prevalence of HIV was estimated using the Poisson point estimate and its 95% confidence interval. Relative risks for potential risk factors were estimated using the log-binomial model. A total of 111,219 Medicare beneficiaries met the study criteria. The prevalence of HIV was 156.4 per 100,000 (95% CI: 140.8 to 173.8) and has increased with time. Stage at NSCLC diagnosis did not vary by HIV status. Mortality rates due to all causes were 44%, 76%, and 88% for patients with stage I/II, III, and IV NSCLC, respectively. Across stages of disease, there was no difference between those who were HIV-infected and those who were not with respect to overall mortality. HIV patients, however, were more likely to die of causes other than lung cancer than their immunocompetent counterparts.

  12. Risk factors of postoperative pneumonia after lung cancer surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ji Yeon; Jin, Sang-Man; Lee, Chang-Hoon; Lee, Byoung Jun; Kang, Chang-Hyun; Yim, Jae-Joon; Kim, Young Tae; Yang, Seok-Chul; Yoo, Chul-Gyu; Han, Sung Koo; Kim, Joo Hyun; Shim, Young Soo; Kim, Young Whan

    2011-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate risk factors of postoperative pneumonia (POP) after lung cancer surgery. The 417 lung cancer patients who underwent surgical resection in a tertiary referral hospital were included. Clinical, radiological and laboratory data were reviewed retrospectively. Male and female ratio was 267:150 (median age, 65 yr). The incidence of POP was 6.2% (26 of 417) and in-hospital mortality was 27% among those patients. By univariate analysis, age ≥ 70 yr (P pneumonia (P = 0.020), forced expiratory volume in 1 second/forced vital capacity (FEV(1)/FVC) risk of POP. Multivariate analysis showed that age ≥ 70 yr (OR = 3.563, P = 0.014), intraoperative RBC transfusion (OR = 4.669, P = 0.033), the presence of postoperative complications other than pneumonia (OR = 3.032, P = 0.046), and FEV(1)/FVC risk factors of POP. In conclusion, patients with advanced age, intraoperative RBC transfusion, postoperative complications other than pneumonia and a decreased FEV(1)/FVC ratio have a higher risk for pneumonia after lung cancer surgery.

  13. Factors influencing the decline in lung density in a Danish lung cancer screening cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaker, Saher B.; Dirksen, Asger; Lo, Pechin Chien Pau

    2012-01-01

    Lung cancer screening trials provide an opportunity to study the natural history of emphysema by using CT lung density as a surrogate parameter.In the Danish Lung Cancer Screening Trial, 2,052 participants were included. At screening rounds, smoking habits were recorded and spirometry was performed...

  14. The Azygous Lobe of the Lung: in the Case of Lung Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darlong, L M; Ram, Dharma; Sharma, Ashwani; Sharma, Anil Kumar; Iqbal, Sayed Assif; Nagar, Anand; Hazarika, Dibyamohan

    2017-06-01

    The azygous lobe of the lung is an uncommon developmental anomaly. Its surgical importance is hardly being described in literature. Here, we are presenting a case of lung cancer with incidental azygous lobe, with its surgical relevance during lung cancer surgery.

  15. Molecular genetics and prognosis of lung cancer in young patients: Research highlights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong SONG

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Differed from the elderly patients with lung cancer, the younger patients with lung cancer, less than 50 years old, present unique clinical features. Recently, the incidence of lung cancer in young people has shown a rising trend, making the research on this field more valuable. At present, molecular targeted therapy is one of the most popular areas of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC, and researches are focused on the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR and echinoderm microtubule associated protein like4-anaplastic lymphoma kinase (EML4-ALK. In addition, the previous researches revealed the differences between the young and elderly patients with lung cancer on molecular genetics and prognosis, so the researches on prognostic factors for young patients with lung cancer are of great clinical significance. The present paper will focus on the aspects of pathogenesis, molecular genetics and prognosis in young patients with lung cancer. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2017.03.01

  16. MHC class II expression in lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yayi; Rozeboom, Leslie; Rivard, Christopher J; Ellison, Kim; Dziadziuszko, Rafal; Yu, Hui; Zhou, Caicun; Hirsch, Fred R

    2017-10-01

    Immunotherapy is an exciting development in lung cancer research. In this study we described major histocompatibility complex (MHC) Class II protein expression in lung cancer cell lines and patient tissues. We studied MHC Class II (DP, DQ, DR) (CR3/43, Abcam) protein expression in 55 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines, 42 small cell lung cancer (SCLC) cell lines and 278 lung cancer patient tissues by immunohistochemistry (IHC). Seven (12.7%) NSCLC cell lines were positive for MHC Class II. No SCLC cell lines were found to be MHC Class II positive. We assessed 139 lung cancer samples available in the Hirsch Lab for MHC Class II. There was no positive MHC Class II staining on SCLC tumor cells. MHC Class II expression on TILs in SCLC was significantly lower than that on TILs in NSCLC (P<0.001). MHC Class II was also assessed in an additional 139 NSCLC tumor tissues from Medical University of Gdansk, Poland. Patients with positive staining of MHC Class II on TILs had longer regression-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS) than those whose TILs were MHC Class II negative (2.980 years, 95% CI 1.628-4.332 vs. 1.050 years, 95% CI 0.556-1.554, P=0.028) (3.230 years, 95% CI 2.617-3.843 vs. 1.390 years, 95% CI 0.629-2.151, P=0.014). MHC Class II was expressed both in NSCLC cell lines and tissues. However, MHC Class II was not detected in SCLC cell lines or tissue tumor cells. MHC Class II expression was lower on SCLC TILs than on NSCLC TILs. Loss of expression of MHC Class II on SCLC tumor cells and reduced expression on SCLC TILs may be a means of escaping anti-cancer immunity. Higher MHC Class II expression on TILs was correlated with better prognosis in patients with NSCLC. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Lung cancer risk and cancer-specific mortality in subjects undergoing routine imaging test when stratified with and without identified lung nodule on imaging study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez-Saez, Noemi [Miguel Hernandez University, Public Health, History of Science and Ginecology Department, Alicante (Spain); Hernandez-Aguado, Ildefonso; Pastor Valero, Maria; Parker, Lucy Anne; Lumbreras, Blanca [Miguel Hernandez University, Public Health, History of Science and Ginecology Department, Alicante (Spain); CIBER en Epidemiologia y Salud Publica, Madrid (Spain); Vilar, Jose; Domingo, Maria Luisa [Peset Hospital, Radiodiagnostic Department, Valencia (Spain); Gonzalez-Alvarez, Isabel; Lorente, Maria Fermina [San Juan Hospital, Radiodiagnostic Department, San Juan de Alicante (Spain)

    2015-12-15

    To assess the risk of lung cancer and specific mortality rate in patients with and without solitary pulmonary nodules (SPN) on chest radiograph and CT. This prospective study included 16,078 patients ≥35 years old (893 of them had an SPN detected with either chest radiograph or CT) and 15,185 without SPN. Patients were followed up for 18 months or until being diagnosed with lung cancer. Risk and mortality lung cancer were calculated in both groups with Poisson regression. In patients with SPN, incidence of lung cancer was 8.3 % (95 % CI 6.0-11.2) on radiograph and 12.4 % (95 % CI 9.3-15.9) on CT. A chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in patients with radiographs (odds ratio 2.62; 95 % CI 1.03, 6.67) and smoking habit (odds ratio 20.63; 95 % CI 3.84, 110.77) in patients with CT were associated with a higher probability of lung cancer. Large nodule size and spiculated edge were associated with lung cancer on both CT and radiograph. Lung cancer-specific mortality was lower in patients with SPN than in those without SPN (1.73/1000 person-years, 95 % CI 1.08-2.88 vs. 2.15/1000 person-years, 95 % CI 1.25-3.96). The risk of lung cancer for patients with SPN is higher in clinical populations than in screening studies. Moreover, patients with SPN showed lower mortality than those without SPN. (orig.)

  18. Lung cancer risk and cancer-specific mortality in subjects undergoing routine imaging test when stratified with and without identified lung nodule on imaging study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez-Saez, Noemi; Hernandez-Aguado, Ildefonso; Pastor Valero, Maria; Parker, Lucy Anne; Lumbreras, Blanca; Vilar, Jose; Domingo, Maria Luisa; Gonzalez-Alvarez, Isabel; Lorente, Maria Fermina

    2015-01-01

    To assess the risk of lung cancer and specific mortality rate in patients with and without solitary pulmonary nodules (SPN) on chest radiograph and CT. This prospective study included 16,078 patients ≥35 years old (893 of them had an SPN detected with either chest radiograph or CT) and 15,185 without SPN. Patients were followed up for 18 months or until being diagnosed with lung cancer. Risk and mortality lung cancer were calculated in both groups with Poisson regression. In patients with SPN, incidence of lung cancer was 8.3 % (95 % CI 6.0-11.2) on radiograph and 12.4 % (95 % CI 9.3-15.9) on CT. A chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in patients with radiographs (odds ratio 2.62; 95 % CI 1.03, 6.67) and smoking habit (odds ratio 20.63; 95 % CI 3.84, 110.77) in patients with CT were associated with a higher probability of lung cancer. Large nodule size and spiculated edge were associated with lung cancer on both CT and radiograph. Lung cancer-specific mortality was lower in patients with SPN than in those without SPN (1.73/1000 person-years, 95 % CI 1.08-2.88 vs. 2.15/1000 person-years, 95 % CI 1.25-3.96). The risk of lung cancer for patients with SPN is higher in clinical populations than in screening studies. Moreover, patients with SPN showed lower mortality than those without SPN. (orig.)

  19. New data for venous thromboembolism in patients with small cell lung cancer: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimakakos, Evangelos; Livanios, Konstantinos; Gkiozos, Ioannis; Charpidou, Adriani; Ntalakou, Eleutheria; Kainis, Llias; Syrigos, Konstantinos

    2017-01-01

    Malignancy is an important predisposing factor for thromboembolic disease. Patients with malignancy display 4 to 10 times greater risk than the general population. As for lung cancer, that risk seems to further increase and become up to 20 times higher. The aim of this article is to review the International literature in order to highlight for the first time, the correlation between thromboembolic disease and small cell lung cancer. PubMed, Medline and Embase databases were searched from 1990 up to 2016, for retrospective and prospective studies that investigate the correlation between thromboembolic disease and small cell lung cancer. The incidence rate of thromboembolic disease found in these studies ranged between 6.8% and 11.5%. Thromboembolic disease is associated with a reduced survival in patients with small cell lung cancer and six factors seemed to increase the risk of thromboembolism: chemotherapy, cisplatin treatment, smoking, extensive disease, the infiltration of the superior vena cava and multiple concomitant diseases. Thromboembolic disease shows an increased incidence in patients with small cell lung cancer and more research with well-designed studies is required in order to study in detail the anticoagulation treatment and the survival in small cell lung cancer patients.

  20. [Analysis of cancer incidence and mortality in elderly population in China, 2013].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, W Q; Zheng, R S; Zhang, S W; Zeng, H M; Zou, X N; He, J

    2017-01-23

    Objective: To estimate the cancer incidence and mortality in elderly Chinese population in 2013 based on the data from local cancer registries submitted to National Central Cancer Registry (NCCR). Methods: Data from 255 cancer registries submitted to NCCR with qualified data after checked and evaluated, were selected for this estimation. Cancer incidence and mortality were stratified by areas, sex, age groups and cancer site, combined with population data of the year 2013 to estimate cancer epidemiology in older people in China. Chinese population census in 2000 and Segi's population were used for the estimation of age-standardized incidence/mortality rates. Results: All the 255 cancer registries (88 in urban and 167 in rural areas) were selected for this estimation, covered 37 407 728 elderly subjects, accounting for 17.73% of the entire national elderly population. It was estimated about 2 171.0 thousand new cancer cases in older people in China, accounting for 58.96% of all cancer incidence, with the crude incidence rate of 1 029.16/100 000 (1 297.96 per 100 000 in male, 777.18 per 100 000 in female), and the age-standardized incidence rate by Chinese standard population (ASIRC, 2000) was 1 019.25 per 100 000. It was estimated about 1 600.5 thousand deaths in older people in China, accounting for 67.70% of all cancer deaths, with the crude mortality of 758.72/100 000 (988.37 per 100 000 in males, 543.44 per 100 000 in females), and the age-standardized incidence rate by Chinese standard population (ASIRC, 2000) was 730.78 per 100 000. Lung cancer, stomach cancer, colorectal cancer, liver cancer and esophageal cancer were the most common cancers, accounting for about 67.70% of all cancer cases in China. Those cancers are also the most common cancers in China, accounting for about 73.45% of all cancer deaths. Conclusions: The cancer burden of elderly population in China is very serious. The major cancer incidence and mortality in urban and rural areas are similar

  1. Disseminated lung cancer presenting as a rectal mass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noergaard, Mia M; Stamp, Inger M H; Bodtger, Uffe

    2016-01-01

    Primary lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths globally, and approximately 50% had metastatic disease at the time of diagnosis. A rectal mass and unintended weight loss are common manifestations of rectal cancer. Our case presented with a rectal mass, but workup revealed...... a metastatic lesion from lung cancer. Lung cancer metastases to the lower gastrointestinal tract imply reduced survival compared with the already poor mean survival of stage IV lung cancer. Despite relevant therapy, the patient died 5 months after referral....

  2. Sex-specific incidence of EGFR mutation and its association with age and obesity in lung adenocarcinomas: a retrospective analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hye-Ryoun; Kim, Seo Yun; Kim, Cheol Hyeon; Yang, Sung Hyun; Lee, Jae Cheol; Choi, Chang-Min; Na, Im Il

    2017-11-01

    Age and obesity are well-known risk factors for various cancers, but the potential roles of age and obesity in lung cancer, especially in those with activating EGFR mutations, have not been thoroughly evaluated. The aim of this retrospective study is to evaluate the associations between the sex-specific incidence of EGFR mutations and age and obesity. We conducted a retrospective study based on the data from 1378 lung adenocarcinoma cases. The degree of obesity was categorized by body mass index (BMI). The associations between EGFR mutational status and clinical factors, including stage, smoking history, age group (≤45 years, 46-55, 56-65 and >65), and BMI group (obesity (adjusted OR for BMI group = 1.23, p-trend = 0.04). In contrast, in women, the incidence of EGFR mutation was positively associated with age (adjusted OR for age group = 1.19, p-trend = 0.02). However, the incidence of EGFR mutation was not statistically associated with obesity (adjusted OR for BMI group = 1.03, p-trend = 0.76). Our data suggests that age and obesity may contribute to the sex-specific incidence of EGFR mutation in lung adenocarcinoma in different manners.

  3. PPARGC1A is upregulated and facilitates lung cancer metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jin-Dong; Feng, Qing-Chuan; Qi, Yu; Cui, Guanghui; Zhao, Song

    2017-10-15

    Lung cancer remains a leading cause of cancer-related mortality, with metastatic progression remaining the single largest cause of lung cancer mortality. Hence it is imperative to determine reliable biomarkers for lung cancer prognosis. We performed quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis to explore epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) inducers that regulate EMT process in three patients with advanced lung cancer disease. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARGC1A) was uniformly the topmost overexpressed gene in all three human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patient samples. Further evaluation in human normal lung and metastatic lung cancer cell lines revealed that the expression of PPARGC1A was upregulated in metastatic lung cancer cell lines. Metagenomic analysis revealed direct correlation among PPARGC1A, zinc-finger transcription factor snail homolog 1 (SNAI1), and metastatic lung disease. Upregulation of PPARGC1A transcript expression was independent of a differential upregulation of the upstream AMP-dependent protein kinase (AMPK) activation or steady state expression of the silent mating type information regulation 2 homolog 1 (SIRT1). Xenograft tail vein colonization assays proved that the high expression of PPARGC1A was a prerequisite for metastatic progression of lung cancer to brain. Our results indicate that PPARGC1A might be a potential biomarker for lung cancer prognosis. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Fabry disease and incidence of cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Sarah; Hadjimichael, Efthymios; Mehta, Atul; Ramaswami, Uma; Hughes, Derralynn

    2017-09-06

    Fabry disease is an X-linked lysosomal storage disorder caused by deficient activity of α-galactosidase A and the resulting accumulation of the glycosphingolipid globotriaosylceramide (Gb3) and its derivatives, including globotriaosylsphingosine (Lyso-Gb3). Increased cellular and plasma levels of Gb3 and Lyso-Gb3 affect multiple organs, with specific clinical consequences for the kidneys, heart and brain. There is growing evidence that alterations in glycosphingolipids may have an oncogenic role and this prompted a review of cases of cancer and benign lesions in a large single centre cohort of Fabry patients. We also explored whether there is a difference in the risk of cancer in Fabry patients compared to the general population. Our results suggest that Fabry patients may have a marginally reduced rate of all cancer (incidence rate ratio 0.61, 95% confidence interval 0.37 to 0.99) but possibly increased rates of melanoma, urological malignancies and meningiomas. Greater knowledge and awareness of cancer in patients with Fabry disease may help identify at-risk individuals and elucidate cancer mechanisms in this rare inherited disease, which may potentially be relevant to the wider cancer population.

  5. Cancer incidence among Danish brewery workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thygesen, Lau Caspar; Johansen, Christoffer; Grønbaek, Morten

    2005-01-01

    high daily consumption of beer is associated with increased risk of cancer, particularly cancer of colon and rectum. The cohort has previously been followed until 1972, but with our study we add further 27 years of follow-up. The cohort comprises all male members of BWU employed for 6 months or longer...... cavity, the digestive organs, the respiratory system and the urinary system. Members of the cohort were at a slightly but highly significant increased risk of both colon cancer (O/E, 1.26; 1.11-1.42) and rectum cancer (O/E, 1.31; 1.14-1.49). Our study shows that a high beer consumption is related...... in a brewery between 1939 and 1963. From the original cohort of 14,313 workers, it was possible to identify 13,051 brewery workers (91.2%). The identified brewery workers were linked to the Danish Cancer Registry for any cancer diagnoses during 1943-1999. The incidence rate of all Danish men was applied...

  6. Desired Turbulence? Gut-Lung Axis, Immunity, and Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rea Bingula

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The microbiota includes different microorganisms consisting of bacteria, fungi, viruses, and protozoa distributed over many human body surfaces including the skin, vagina, gut, and airways, with the highest density found in the intestine. The gut microbiota strongly influences our metabolic, endocrine, and immune systems, as well as both the peripheral and central nervous systems. Recently, a dialogue between the gut and lung microbiota has been discovered, suggesting that changes in one compartment could impact the other compartment, whether in relation to microbial composition or function. Further, this bidirectional axis is evidenced in an, either beneficial or malignant, altered immune response in one compartment following changes in the other compartment. Stimulation of the immune system arises from the microbial cells themselves, but also from their metabolites. It can be either direct or mediated by stimulated immune cells in one site impacting the other site. Additionally, this interaction may lead to immunological boost, assisting the innate immune system in its antitumour response. Thus, this review offers an insight into the composition of these sites, the gut and the lung, their role in shaping the immune system, and, finally, their role in the response to lung cancer.

  7. Incidence Rate and Distribution of Common Cancers among Iranian Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salman Khazaei

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Geographic differences in the incidence of cancers may suggest unique genetic or environmental exposures that impact the risk of acquiring cancer. This research aims to determine the incidence rate and geographical distribution of common cancers among Iranian children. Methods: In this ecological study, we extracted data that pertained to the incidence rate of common cancers among children from reports by the National Registry of Cancer and Disease Control and Prevention in 2008. A map of the cancer incidence rates was designed by using geographic information system. Results:The most common cancer sites among children were the hematology system, brain and central nervous system, and lymph nodes. The central provinces had the lowest cancer incidences. Conclusion: The considerable variation in incidence of childhood cancers in Iran suggests a possible potential environmental risk factor or genetic background related to this increased risk among children.

  8. The functional role of exosome microRNAs in lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Jia

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer causes the highest incidence and mortality rates of cancer disease worldwide. Despite obvious advances in lung cancer research, a better understanding of the disease is urgently needed to improve early detection and correct diagnoses. Exosomes are released from cancer cells and modulate cell-cell communication. Exosomes transfer a wide variety of molecules including microRNAs. MicroRNAs (miRNAs are single-stranded, small noncoding RNAs that regulate gene expression. Accumulating evidence indicates that miRNA expression patterns represent the status of physiology and disease. The focus of this review is to provide an update on the progress of miRNAs of cancer-derived exosome as potential biomarkers for lung cancer.

  9. The Study of Lung Cancer Personalized Medicine Through Circulating Cell Free DNA Test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ye, Mingzhi

    Dels, CNVs, and SV in 145 genes with FFPE clinical specimens. While, couple with relatively geological distributions of different subtypes, tumor microenvironment might contribute more to genetic instability and thus tumor evolutions. As for the therapy and rejection monitoring of lung cancer patients, cell...... mutation and clonal expansion in human blood was prevalent in cancer patients and cf-DNA somatic mutation seems to be ideal cancer early diagnosis biomarkers due to its advantages. By using cell-free tumor DNA and peripheral nodule ultra-deep sequencing (>10,000 fold), mutations from nodule tissues had......According to the serious situation of lung cancer in Chinese cancer incidence and mortality, better prognosis and early diagnosis are the key problems. These works are around of lung cancer genetic profiling, pathway signaling and tumor evolution, targeted therapy and transplant monitoring...

  10. Development and Validation of Risk Models to Select Ever-Smokers for CT Lung Cancer Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katki, Hormuzd A; Kovalchik, Stephanie A; Berg, Christine D; Cheung, Li C; Chaturvedi, Anil K

    2016-06-07

    The US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommends computed tomography (CT) lung cancer screening for ever-smokers aged 55 to 80 years who have smoked at least 30 pack-years with no more than 15 years since quitting. However, selecting ever-smokers for screening using individualized lung cancer risk calculations may be more effective and efficient than current USPSTF recommendations. Comparison of modeled outcomes from risk-based CT lung-screening strategies vs USPSTF recommendations. Empirical risk models for lung cancer incidence and death in the absence of CT screening using data on ever-smokers from the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial (PLCO; 1993-2009) control group. Covariates included age; education; sex; race; smoking intensity, duration, and quit-years; body mass index; family history of lung cancer; and self-reported emphysema. Model validation in the chest radiography groups of the PLCO and the National Lung Screening Trial (NLST; 2002-2009), with additional validation of the death model in the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS; 1997-2001), a representative sample of the United States. Models were applied to US ever-smokers aged 50 to 80 years (NHIS 2010-2012) to estimate outcomes of risk-based selection for CT lung screening, assuming screening for all ever-smokers, yield the percent changes in lung cancer detection and death observed in the NLST. Annual CT lung screening for 3 years beginning at age 50 years. For model validity: calibration (number of model-predicted cases divided by number of observed cases [estimated/observed]) and discrimination (area under curve [AUC]). For modeled screening outcomes: estimated number of screen-avertable lung cancer deaths and estimated screening effectiveness (number needed to screen [NNS] to prevent 1 lung cancer death). Lung cancer incidence and death risk models were well calibrated in PLCO and NLST. The lung cancer death model calibrated and discriminated well for US

  11. Inflammation in the development of lung cancer: epidemiological evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engels, Eric A

    2008-04-01

    The lung is a site for repeated or chronic inflammatory insults. Epidemiologic research has provided evidence to support the hypothesis that tissue damage caused by inflammation can initiate or promote the development of lung cancer, possibly in conjunction with tobacco use. For example, some studies suggest an increased risk of lung cancer among persons with lung infections, such as tuberculosis, bacterial pneumonia, or inflammatory lung diseases. Elevated serum levels of C-reactive protein, an inflammation marker, are associated with heightened lung cancer risk. Recent studies also demonstrate increased lung cancer risk among immunosuppressed individuals infected with HIV. Other research indicates an association between genetic polymorphisms in the inflammation pathway, which might modulate the inflammatory response and lung cancer risk.

  12. Uncovering growth-suppressive MicroRNAs in lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Xi; Sempere, Lorenzo F; Galimberti, Fabrizio

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE: MicroRNA (miRNA) expression profiles improve classification, diagnosis, and prognostic information of malignancies, including lung cancer. This study uncovered unique growth-suppressive miRNAs in lung cancer. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: miRNA arrays were done on normal lung tissues...... and adenocarcinomas from wild-type and proteasome degradation-resistant cyclin E transgenic mice to reveal repressed miRNAs in lung cancer. Real-time and semiquantitative reverse transcription-PCR as well as in situ hybridization assays validated these findings. Lung cancer cell lines were derived from each......-malignant human lung tissue bank. RESULTS: miR-34c, miR-145, and miR-142-5p were repressed in transgenic lung cancers. Findings were confirmed by real-time and semiquantitative reverse transcription-PCR as well as in situ hybridization assays. Similar miRNA profiles occurred in human normal versus malignant lung...

  13. Indigenous Australians with non-small cell lung cancer or cervical cancer receive suboptimal treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whop, Lisa J; Bernardes, Christina M; Kondalsamy-Chennakesavan, Srinivas; Darshan, Deepak; Chetty, Naven; Moore, Suzanne P; Garvey, Gail; Walpole, Euan; Baade, Peter; Valery, Patricia C

    2017-10-01

    Lung cancer and cervical cancer are higher in incidence for Indigenous Australians and survival is worse compared with non-Indigenous Australians. Here we aim to determine if being Indigenous and/or other factors are associated with patients receiving "suboptimal treatment" compared to "optimal treatment" according to clinical guidelines for two cancer types. Data were collected from hospital medical records for Indigenous adults diagnosed with cervical cancer and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and a frequency-matched comparison group of non-Indigenous patients in the Queensland Cancer Registry between January 1998 and December 2004. The two cancer types were analyzed separately. A total of 105 women with cervical cancer were included in the study, 56 of whom were Indigenous. Indigenous women had higher odds of not receiving optimal treatment according to clinical guidelines (unadjusted OR 7.1; 95% CI, 1.5-33.3), even after adjusting for stage (OR 5.7; 95% CI, 1.2-27.3). Of 225 patients with NSCLC, 198 patients (56% Indigenous) had sufficient information available to be analyzed. The odds of receiving suboptimal treatment were significantly higher for Indigenous compared to non-Indigenous NSCLC patients (unadjusted OR 1.9; 95% CI, 1.0-3.6) and remained significant after adjusting for stage, comorbidity and age (adjusted OR 2.1; 95% CI, 1.1-4.1). The monitoring of treatment patterns and appraisal against guidelines can provide valuable evidence of inequity in cancer treatment. We found that Indigenous people with lung cancer or cervical cancer received suboptimal treatment, reinforcing the need for urgent action to reduce the impact of these two cancer types on Indigenous people. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  14. Uranium miner lung cancer study. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saccomanno, G.

    1986-06-01

    This study on uranium miners was started in 1957 and extended through June 30, 1986. It consisted of the routine screening of sputum from uranium miners of the Colorado Plateau, and collection of surgical and autopsy material from uranium miners who developed lung cancer. The projects resulted in: (1) Proof, for the first time, that cancer takes from 10 to 15 years to develop from the maximum accumulated carcinogenic insult and can be demonstrated through progressive cellular changes of the bronchial tree; (2) Development of a method for preserving, concentrating, and processing sputum samples. This is known as the Saccomanno Technique, and is used worldwide in diagnosing lung cancer; (3) Publication of the 1st and 2nd editions of a full-color textbook entitled ''Diagnostic Pulmonary Cytology;'' (4) Presentation of conclusive data on the effects of cigarette smoking and alpha progeny radiation on uranium miners, and information on safe radiation exposure levels; (5) Development of a brush-wash tube for collecting, concentrating, and preparing bronchial brushings and washings; (6) Development of cytological criteria which has improved sensitivity from 30% to about 60%; (7) Development of criteria for cytologic identification of carcinoma in situ, making it possible to diagnose lung cancer before it can be detected on chest x-ray

  15. Interleukin-6 blockade attenuates lung cancer tissue construction integrated by cancer stem cells

    OpenAIRE

    Ogawa, Hiroyuki; Koyanagi-Aoi, Michiyo; Otani, Kyoko; Zen, Yoh; Maniwa, Yoshimasa; Aoi, Takashi

    2017-01-01

    In the present study, we successfully generated lung cancer stem cell (CSC)-like cells by introducing a small set of transcription factors into a lung cancer cell line. In addition to properties that are conventionally referred to as CSC properties, the lung induced CSCs exhibited the ability to form lung cancer-like tissues in vitro with vascular cells and mesenchymal stem cells, which showed structures and immunohistological patterns that were similar to human lung cancer tissues. We named ...

  16. High affective risk perception is associated with more lung cancer-specific distress in CT screening for lung cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bunge, Eveline M.; van den Bergh, Karien A. M.; Essink-Bot, Marie-Louise; van Klaveren, Rob J.; de Koning, Harry J.

    2008-01-01

    Screening for cancer can cause distress. People who perceive their risk of cancer as high may be more vulnerable to distress. This study evaluated whether participants of a lung cancer Computed Tomography (CT) screening trial with a high affective risk perception of developing lung cancer had a

  17. Lung cancer risks in the vicinity of uranium tailings sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, V.C.; Sandquist, G.M.

    1982-04-01

    Lung cancer mortality data have been assembled for many counties of interest to the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Program (UMTRAP). The counties generally either contain UMTRAP tailings sites or are adjacent to them. The lung cancer rates of nearly all counties are less than the US average rate. In addition, some of the many factors associated with lung cancer are identified as are cancer risk estimators for radon daughters. 17 refs., 19 figs., 1 tab

  18. Erlotinib Resistance in Lung Cancer: Current Progress and Future Perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, Joy; Salama, Rasha; Gadgeel, Shirish M.; Sarkar, Fazlul H.; Ahmad, Aamir

    2013-01-01

    Lung cancer is the most common cancer in the world. Despite modern advancements in surgeries, chemotherapies, and radiotherapies over the past few years, lung cancer still remains a very difficult disease to treat. This has left the death rate from lung cancer victims largely unchanged throughout the past few decades. A key cause for the high mortality rate is the drug resistance that builds up for patients being currently treated with the chemotherapeutic agents. Although certain chemotherap...

  19. Radon, smoking and HPV as lung cancer risk factors in ecological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinovsky, Georgy; Yarmoshenko, Ilia; Zhukovsky, Michael

    2018-01-01

    Cohen's ecological analyses revealed negative correlation between the lung cancer mortality and average indoor radon concentration in the US counties, that contradicts to linear non-threshold (LNT) model and is inconsistent with results of case-control studies. The aim of this study was to analyze dependence between radon exposure and lung cancer mortality rate taking into account more complete data on smoking and new findings on association of the lung cancer with human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. Information on the cancer rates in the US counties and Russian oblasts, smoking prevalence and indoor radon concentration was found in literature. The cervix cancer incidence rate was used as surrogate of the HPV infection prevalence. The analysis included calculation of the coefficients of linear dependence between radon exposure and lung cancer mortality rate with adjustment to smoking and HPV infection prevalence. After adjustment for the most relevant data on smoking and HPV infection, correlation between the lung cancer mortality and indoor radon was found to be consistent with results of the case control studies. Analysis of geographically aggregated data on the lung cancer mortality and radon concentration in dwellings with adjustment to the significant risk factors confirms both the linear non-threshold dependency and results obtained in studies with individual accounting for the smoking and radon.

  20. Computed tomography for the diagnosis of solitary thin-walled cavity lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Xin-Ying; Liu, Yu-Xia; Wang, Kai-Fei; Zang, Xue-Feng; Sun, Jun-Ping; Zhang, Ming-Yue; Yang, Bing; Ao, Ting; Wang, Jian-Xin

    2015-10-01

    Lung cancer is the most commonly diagnosed neoplasm and the leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Despite the high incidence of lung cancer, the diagnosis of solitary thin-walled cavity lung cancer is rare. The aim of this review is to explore the potentials of computed tomography (CT) as diagnostic tool for solitary thin-walled cavity lung cancer. The literature search was made in electronic databases including PudMed, Ovid SP, Embase, Web of Sciences, EBSCO and Wiley online by using relevant key terms. Because of the rarity of the subject, no precise exclusion or inclusion criteria were used for article selection and the outcome dissemination was decided to be more descriptive rather than quantitative. The detection of cavitation in lungs is frequently done utilizing chest radiographs CT scans. However, the diagnostic challenge remains the accurate detection of solitary thin-walled cavity lung cancer among the prevalence of cavitary lung lesions in multiple thoracic disorders including benign disorders, infectious disease and malignant tumors. Moreover, an accurate diagnosis of solitary thin-walled cavity lung cancer is further complicated by its subjective classification within the literature. In order to facilitate early diagnosis of this disease and circumvent the need for more invasive tests that may not be warranted, the overarching goal is to establish definitive radiological features of lung cavities that are indicative of malignancy. Herein, we describe the benefits of using CT to identify and diagnose solitary thin-walled cavity lung cancer, as well as explore the underlying mechanisms that contribute to thin-walled cavity formation in oncology patients. CT is the best modality for the noninvasive differentiation between malignant and nonmalignant cavities as it provides reliable information regarding the morphology and density of lesions. Besides, CT densitometry can efficiently detect the calcifications in lesions. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons

  1. Integrating pulmonary rehabilitation into the multidisciplinary management of lung cancer: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas-Perez, Hiram; Nana-Sinkam, Patrick

    2015-04-01

    Lung cancer is the number one cause of cancer related deaths. It is increasingly recognized that a multidisciplinary approach to the diagnosis and management of patients with lung cancer represents the ideal model for health care delivery. Given the high incidence of comorbid lung disease in lung cancer patients, strategies targeted at improving or optimizing these conditions may improve outcomes. Pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) has proven to be a useful management strategy for patients with chronic lung diseases including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, interstitial lung disease and pulmonary hypertension. PR improves both exercise capacity and dyspnea. The effects of PR have also been studied in patients with lung cancer prior to and following surgical resection. Investigators have demonstrated significant improvements in six minute walk distance and lower extremity strength. In addition, patient recovery time is shorter when inpatient pulmonary rehabilitation is integrated prior to or following surgery. There are also positive reports regarding the benefits of exercise training in lung cancer patients receiving definite chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Pilot studies have demonstrated improvement in dyspnea scores as well as exercise capacity objectively measured by six minute walk distance. PR also offers an educational component in which patients have the opportunity to be educated regarding management of their disease as well as discuss goals of care. PR can be included as the standard of care for patients with advanced lung cancer with the goal of optimizing quality of life. Here, we provide a review of the current knowledge regarding PR in the management of patients with lung cancer. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. BARD1 serum autoantibodies for the detection of lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilyugin, Maxim; Descloux, Pascaline; André, Pierre-Alain; Laszlo, Viktoria; Dome, Balazs; Hegedus, Balazs; Sardy, Sylvain; Janes, Samuel; Bianco, Andrea; Laurent, Geoffrey J; Irminger-Finger, Irmgard

    2017-01-01

    Currently the screening for lung cancer for risk groups is based on Computed Tomography (CT) or low dose CT (LDCT); however, the lung cancer death rate has not decreased significantly with people undergoing LDCT. We aimed to develop a simple reliable blood test for early detection of all types of lung cancer based on the immunogenicity of aberrant forms of BARD1 that are specifically upregulated in lung cancer. ELISA assays were performed with a panel of BARD1 epitopes to detect serum levels of antibodies against BARD1 epitopes. We tested 194 blood samples from healthy donors and lung cancer patients with a panel of 40 BARD1 antigens. Using fitted Lasso logistic regression we determined the optimal combination of BARD1 antigens to be used in ELISA for discriminating lung cancer from healthy controls. Random selection of samples for training sets or validations sets was applied to validate the accuracy of our test. Fitted Lasso logistic regression models predict high accuracy of the BARD1 autoimmune antibody test with an AUC = 0.96. Validation in independent samples provided and AUC = 0.86 and identical AUCs were obtained for combined stages 1-3 and late stage 4 lung cancers. The BARD1 antibody test is highly specific for lung cancer and not breast or ovarian cancer. The BARD1 lung cancer test shows higher sensitivity and specificity than previously published blood tests for lung cancer detection and/or diagnosis or CT scans, and it could detect all types and all stages of lung cancer. This BARD1 lung cancer test could therefore be further developed as i) screening test for early detection of lung cancers in high-risk groups, and ii) diagnostic aid in complementing CT scan.

  3. Lung cancer: atypical brain metastases mimicking neurocysticercosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota, Patrícia Caetano; Reis, Carina; Pires, Nuno Filipe; Sousa, Graça; Chamadoira, Clara; Guimarães, Marcos; Castro, Lígia; Marques, Margarida; Gomes, Isabel

    2011-12-01

    The authors describe a case of a 47-year-old male smoker with a 3-month history of hearing loss, tinnitus and dizziness. Physical examination revealed neurosensory hearing loss. Small rounded hypodensities without mass effect were evident in a computed tomography scan of the head, confirmed by brain magnetic resonance imaging as multiple cystic lesions in both cerebral and cerebellar hemispheres, without perilesional edema or gadolinium enhancement, suggestive of neurocysticercosis. Extraparenchymal involvement was also noted. Albendazole and dexamethasone were started. As a chest radiograph showed a bilateral reticulonodular pattern, a bronchoscopy was performed showing normal results. However, transbronchial biopsy revealed lung adenocarcinoma. Thoracoabdominopelvic computed tomography scan showed secondary lung and bone lesions. Since brain lesions were not suggestive of secondary tumor lesions, a brain biopsy was performed confirming metastatic disease. This case illustrates some peculiar imagiological features of brain metastases in lung cancer, indicating that sometimes invasive procedures are required to establish a definitive diagnosis.

  4. Incidence of colorectal cancer in young patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FÁBIO GUILHERME C. M. DE CAMPOS

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Sporadic colorectal cancer (CRC is traditionally diagnosed after de sixth decade of life, although a small percentage of cases are diagnosed in patients under 40 years of age, and incidence is increasing. There exists a great volume of controversy regarding clinical outcome of young patients diagnosed with colorectal cancer (CRC when compared to elder counterparts. Our aims were to evaluate the rate of CRC in young patients, to review the pertaining literature and to discuss outcomes and clinical prognosis. A retrospective review involving patients with CRC was undertaken, focusing on age at diagnosis. The information extracted from this literature review showed a trend towards a decreased incidence in older people with an opposite effect among adolescents and young adults. Moreover, biological aggressiveness in young adults diagnosed with CRC has not been fully recognized, although it is usually diagnosed later and in association with adverse histological features. Besides that, these features don't affect outcome. These apparent increase in CRC incidence among young patients during the last decades raises the need for a greater suspicious when evaluating common symptoms in this group. Thus, educational programs should widespread information for both population and physicians to improve prevention and early diagnosis results.

  5. Lung dose and lung cancer risk by inhalation of radon daughters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobi, W.

    1983-01-01

    The inhalation of short-lived radon daughters constitutes the most important occupational radiation exposure in mines, particularly in uranium mines. Among some groups of miners exposed in the past to relatively high radon levels, an excess lung cancer incidence has been observed. In addition to this occupational hazard, the observed radon levels in domestic houses indicate that the inhalation of short-lived radon daughters seems to be the most important component of the radiation exposure of the population from natural sources. For the quantification and judgment of the radiological impact by inhalation of radon daughters in mines as well as in houses, it is necessary to estimate the relationships between the inhaled activity or potential alpha (α) energy of these radionuclides, the dose to target tissues in the lung, and the possible associated lung cancer (LC) risk. It is the purpose of this paper to give a condensed review of our present knowledge in this field and to indicate the main gaps and uncertainties where future research seems necessary

  6. Factors influencing the decline in lung density in a Danish lung cancer screening cohort

    OpenAIRE

    Shaker, Saher; Dirksen, Asger; Lo, Pechin; Skovgaard, Lene; Bruijne, Marleen; Pedersen, Jerry

    2012-01-01

    textabstractLung cancer screening trials provide an opportunity to study the natural history of emphysema by using computed tomography (CT) lung density as a surrogate parameter. In the Danish Lung Cancer Screening Trial, 2,052 participants were included. At screening rounds, smoking habits were recorded and spirometry was performed. CT lung density was measured as the volume-adjusted 15th percentile density (PD15). A mixed effects model was used with former smoking males with,30 pack-yrs and...

  7. Lung cancer in Hodgkin's disease: association with previous radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    List, A.F.; Doll, D.C.; Greco, F.A.

    1985-01-01

    Seven cases of lung cancer were observed in patients with Hodgkin's disease (HD) since 1970. The risk ratio for the development of lung cancer among HD patients was 5.6 times that expected in the general population. The pertinent clinical data from these patients are described and compared to 28 additional patients reported from other institutions. Small-cell lung cancer represented the predominant histologic type of lung cancer encountered in both smoking and nonsmoking patients with HD, accounting for 42% of cases overall and greater than 55% of cases reported in reviews of second malignancies. Tobacco use was noted in only 53% of patients. Twenty-eight (94%) of 30 patients developing metachronous lung cancer received supradiaphragmatic irradiation as primary therapy for HD. Nineteen (68%) of these patients received subsequent chemotherapy salvage. The median age at diagnosis of HD and lung cancer was 39 and 45 years, respectively. The interval between diagnosis of HD and metachronous lung cancer averaged seven years but appeared to vary inversely with age. HD patients treated with supradiaphragmatic irradiation or combined modality therapy may be at increased risk for developing lung cancer. The high frequency of in-field malignancies that the authors observed and the prevalence of small-cell lung cancer in both smoking and nonsmoking patients suggests that chest irradiation may influence the development of metachronous lung cancer in these patients. The finding of a mean latent interval in excess of seven years emphasizes the need for close long-term observation

  8. [Determination of volatile organic compounds in lung cancer cell lines and lung cancer tissue].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yan-jie; Qiu, Yuan-hua; Chen, En-guo; Ying, Ke-jing; Yu, Jin; Wang, Ping

    2010-05-01

    To identify the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in lung cancer tissue and lung cancer cell lines. The lung cancer tissue samples from 18 patients were cultured and 4 lung cell lines (A549, NCI-H446, SK-MES-1, BEAS-2B) were also included in the study. Air samples in the headspace of culture flasks were analyzed for VOCs with solid-phase micro-extraction and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy technique (SPME-GC/MS). Two kinds of VOCs 2-pentadecanone and nonadecane were detected in lung cancer cell lines A549, NCI-H446 and SK-MES-1. The concentration of 2-pentadecanone were (1.382 + or -0.171) X 10(-5)mg/L, (1.681 + or - 0.190) X 10(-4)mg/L and (2.835 + or - 0.401) X 10(-6)mg/L, respectively; the concentrations of nonadecane were (8.382 + or - 0.606 ) X 10(-6)mg/L, (1.845 + or - 0.130) X 10(-5)mg/L and (6.220 + or - 0.362) X 10(-6)mg/L), respectively. The eicosane was detected in A549 and NCI-H446 with the concentration of (8.313 + or - 1.130) X 10(-6)mg/L and (1.020 + or - 0.141) X 10(-5)mg/L), respectively. All the 3 VOCs were not detected in cell line BEAS-2B. The concentrations of 12 VOCs including decane, 2- pentadecanone, nonadecane and eicosane were high in 18 lung cancer tissue samples; the concentrations of 2-pentadecanone were 5.421 X 10(-6)mg/L-3.621 X 10(-5)mg/L,those of nonadecane were 5.805 X 10(-6)mg/L-1.830 X 10(-5)mg/L, those of eicosane were 2.730 X 10(-6)mg/L-2.343 X 10(-5)mg/L. There were no differences of VOCs levels among patients with different cancer differentiation (P>0.05). The concentration of eicosane in the non-squamous carcinoma was higher than that in squamous carcinoma, the same results were confirmed in the lung cancer cell lines. This study has identified VOCs produced by lung cancer tissue, which may support to use breath test as a complementary noninvasive diagnostic method for lung cancer.

  9. Molecular Markers of Lung Cancer in MAYAK Workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven A. Belinsky, PhD

    2007-02-15

    The molecular mechanisms that result in the elevated risk for lung cancer associated with exposure to radiation have not been well characterized. Workers from the MAYAK nuclear enterprise are an ideal cohort in which to study the molecular epidemiology of cancer associated with radiation exposure and to identify the genes targeted for inactivation that in turn affect individual risk for radiation-induced lung cancer. Epidemiology studies of the MAYAK cohort indicate a significantly higher frequency for adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) in workers than in a control population and a strong correlation between these tumor types and plutonium exposure. Two hypotheses will be evaluated through the proposed studies. First, radiation exposure targets specific genes for inactivation by promoter methylation. This hypothesis is supported by our recent studies with the MAYAK population that demonstrated the targeting of the p16 gene for inactivation by promoter methylation in adenocarcinomas from workers (1). Second, genes inactivated in tumors can serve as biomarkers for lung cancer risk in a cancer-free population of workers exposed to plutonium. Support for this hypothesis is based on exciting preliminary results of our nested, case-control study of persons from the Colorado cohort. In that study, a panel of methylation markers for predicting lung cancer risk is being evaluated in sputum samples from incident lung cancer cases and controls. The first hypothesis will be tested by determining the prevalence for promoter hypermethylation of a panel of genes shown to play a critical role in the development of either adenocarcinoma and/or SCC associated with tobacco. Our initial studies on adenocarcinoma in MAYAK workers will be extended to evaluate methylation of the PAX5 {alpha}, PAX5 {beta}, H-cadherin, GATA5, and bone morphogenesis 3B (BMP3B) genes in the original sample set described under Preliminary studies. In addition, studies will be initiated in SCC

  10. Lung cancer-a fractal viewpoint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennon, Frances E; Cianci, Gianguido C; Cipriani, Nicole A; Hensing, Thomas A; Zhang, Hannah J; Chen, Chin-Tu; Murgu, Septimiu D; Vokes, Everett E; Vannier, Michael W; Salgia, Ravi

    2015-11-01

    Fractals are mathematical constructs that show self-similarity over a range of scales and non-integer (fractal) dimensions. Owing to these properties, fractal geometry can be used to efficiently estimate the geometrical complexity, and the irregularity of shapes and patterns observed in lung tumour growth (over space or time), whereas the use of traditional Euclidean geometry in such calculations is more challenging. The application of fractal analysis in biomedical imaging and time series has shown considerable promise for measuring processes as varied as heart and respiratory rates, neuronal cell characterization, and vascular development. Despite the advantages of fractal mathematics and numerous studies demonstrating its applicability to lung cancer research, many researchers and clinicians remain unaware of its potential. Therefore, this Review aims to introduce the fundamental basis of fractals and to illustrate how analysis of fractal dimension (FD) and associated measurements, such as lacunarity (texture) can be performed. We describe the fractal nature of the lung and explain why this organ is particularly suited to fractal analysis. Studies that have used fractal analyses to quantify changes in nuclear and chromatin FD in primary and metastatic tumour cells, and clinical imaging studies that correlated changes in the FD of tumours on CT and/or PET images with tumour growth and treatment responses are reviewed. Moreover, the potential use of these techniques in the diagnosis and therapeutic management of lung cancer are discussed.

  11. Oligometastatic non-small-cell lung cancer: current treatment strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard PJ

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Patrick J Richard, Ramesh Rengan Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA Abstract: The oligometastatic disease theory was initially described in 1995 by Hellman and Weichselbaum. Since then, much work has been performed to investigate its existence in many solid tumors. This has led to subclassifications of stage IV cancer, which could redefine our treatment approaches and the therapeutic outcomes for this historically “incurable” entity. With a high incidence of stage IV disease, non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC remains a difficult cancer to treat and cure. Recent work has proven the existence of an oligometastatic state in NSCLC in terms of properly selecting patients who may benefit from aggressive therapy and experience long-term overall survival. This review discusses the current treatment approaches used in oligometastatic NSCLC and provides the evidence and rationale for each approach. The prognostic factors of many trials are discussed, which can be used to properly select patients for aggressive treatment regimens. Future advances in both molecular profiling of NSCLC to find targetable mutations and investigating patient selection may increase the number of patients diagnosed with oligometastatic NSCLC. As this disease entity increases, it is of utmost importance for oncologists treating NSCLC to be aware of the current treatment strategies that exist and the potential advantages/disadvantages of each. Keywords: oligometastatic, non-small-cell lung cancer, oligoprogressive, treatment

  12. Danshen improves survival of patients with advanced lung cancer and targeting the relationship between macrophages and lung cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ching-Yuan; Cherng, Jong-Yuh; Yang, Yao-Hsu; Lin, Chun-Liang; Kuan, Feng-Che; Lin, Yin-Yin; Lin, Yu-Shih; Shu, Li-Hsin; Cheng, Yu-Ching; Liu, Hung Te; Lu, Ming-Chu; Lung, Jthau; Chen, Pau-Chung; Lin, Hui Kuan; Lee, Kuan-Der; Tsai, Ying-Huang

    2017-01-01

    In traditional Chinese medicine, Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge (danshen) is widely used in the treatment of numerous cancers. However, its clinical effort and mechanism in the treatment of advanced lung cancer are unclear. In our study, the in vivo protective effort of danshen in patients with advanced lung cancer were validated using data from the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan. We observed in vitro that dihydroisotanshinone I (DT), a bioactive compound in danshen, exerts anticancer effects through many pathways. First, 10 μM DT substantially inhibited the migration ability of lung cancer cells in both macrophage and macrophage/lung cancer direct mixed coculture media. Second, 10 μM DT repressed the phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), the protein expression of S-phase kinase associated protein-2 (Skp2), and the mRNA levels of STAT3-related genes, including chemokine (C–C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2). In addition, 10 μM DT suppressed the macrophage recruitment ability of lung cancer cells by reducing CCL2 secretion from both macrophages and lung cancer cells. Third, 20 μM DT induced apoptosis in lung cancer cells. Furthermore, DT treatment significantly inhibited the final tumor volume in a xenograft nude mouse model. In conclusion, danshen exerts protective efforts in patients with advanced lung cancer. These effects can be attributed to DT-mediated interruption of the cross talk between lung cancer cells and macrophages and blocking of lung cancer cell proliferation. PMID:29207614

  13. Hypo fractionated radiotherapy in advanced lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade Carvalho, Heloisa de; Saito, Newton Heitetsu; Gomes, Herbeni Cardoso; Aguilar, Patricia Bailao; Nadalin, Wladimir

    1996-01-01

    Patients with advanced lung cancers have bad prognosis and, many times, are submitted to prolonged and not always efficient treatments. We present a study where 51 patients were treated with hypo fractionated radiotherapy, based on two distinct schemes, according to the performance status and social conditions of each patient: continuous treatment: 30 Gy, 10 fractions of 3 Gy, 5 days/week (37 cases); weekly treatment: 30 Gy, 6 fractions of 5 Gy, once a week (14 cases). Symptoms relief and impact in survival were evaluated. In both groups, we observed improvement of symptoms in about 70% of the occurrences with a medium survival of three months. We conclude that hypo fractionation is an effective palliative treatment for lung cancers, in patients with short life-expectancy and must be considered as a option in advanced cases, in patients with short life-expectancy that deserve some kind of treatment. (author). 37 refs., 2 tabs

  14. Smoking cessation and lung cancer screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jesper Johannes Holst; Tønnesen, Philip; Ashraf, Haseem

    2016-01-01

    Smoking behavior may have a substantial influence on the overall effect of lung cancer screening. Non-randomized studies of smoking behavior during screening have indicated that computer tomography (CT) screening induces smoking cessation. Randomized studies have further elaborated that this effect...... has to do with participation in screening alone and not dependent on the CT scan. Participants in both CT and control arm in randomized screening trials had higher smoking abstinence rate compared to that of the general population. A positive screening test seems to further promote smoking cessation...... and decrease smoking relapse rate. Also low smoking dependency and high motivation to quit smoking at baseline predicted smoking abstinence in screening trials. Lung cancer screening therefore seems to be a teachable moment for smoking cessation. Targeted smoking cessation counselling should be an integrated...

  15. National and Subnational Population-Based Incidence of Cancer in Thailand: Assessing Cancers with the Highest Burdens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shama Virani

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In Thailand, five cancer types—breast, cervical, colorectal, liver and lung cancer—contribute to over half of the cancer burden. The magnitude of these cancers must be quantified over time to assess previous health policies and highlight future trajectories for targeted prevention efforts. We provide a comprehensive assessment of these five cancers nationally and subnationally, with trend analysis, projections, and number of cases expected for the year 2025 using cancer registry data. We found that breast (average annual percent change (AAPC: 3.1% and colorectal cancer (female AAPC: 3.3%, male AAPC: 4.1% are increasing while cervical cancer (AAPC: −4.4% is decreasing nationwide. However, liver and lung cancers exhibit disproportionately higher burdens in the northeast and north regions, respectively. Lung cancer increased significantly in northeastern and southern women, despite low smoking rates. Liver cancers are expected to increase in the northern males and females. Liver cancer increased in the south, despite the absence of the liver fluke, a known factor, in this region. Our findings are presented in the context of health policy, population dynamics and serve to provide evidence for future prevention strategies. Our subnational estimates provide a basis for understanding variations in region-specific risk factor profiles that contribute to incidence trends over time.

  16. Imaging and screening in lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Giaj Levra

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer is the main cause of death for neoplasia in the world. Hence it’s growing the necessity to investigate screening tests to detect tumoral lesions at the early stages: several trials have been performed to establish the best method, target and frequence of the screening to offer. CT, X-ray, PET, sputum citology and CAD software are here analyzed, together with the associated statistics and bias.

  17. [Lung Cancer as an Occupational Disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baur, X; Woitowitz, H-J

    2016-08-01

    Lung cancer is one of the most frequently encountered cancer types. According to the latest WHO data, about 10 % of this disease are due to occupational exposure to cancerogens. Asbestos is still the number one carcinogen. Further frequent causes include quarz and ionizing radiation (uranium mining). Probable causes of the disease can be identified only with the help of detailed occupational history taken by a medical specialist and qualified exposure assessment. Without clarifying the cause of the disease, there is neither a correct insurance procedure nor compensation for the victim, and furthermore, required preventive measures cannot be initiated. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  18. Czech studies of lung cancer and radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomasek, L.

    2002-01-01

    According to the International Agency for Research on Cancer, there is a significant evidence to classify radon as a carcinogen. Using extrapolations from occupational studies, it can be shown that for some countries environmental exposure to radon is the second most important cause of lung cancer in the general population after cigarette smoking. Czech studies among uranium miners, established in 1970 by Josef Sevc, and in the general population aim to contribute to knowledge on the risk from radon, particularly by evaluating temporal factors and interaction of radon exposure and smoking

  19. Bullous lung diseases as a risk factor for lung cancer: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagorni-Obradović Ljudmila

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. A possible association between lung cancer and bullous lung disease has been suggested and recently supported by the results of genetic studies. Case report. A previously healthy 43-year-old man, smoker, was diagnosed with bullous lung disease at the age of 31 years. He was followed up for 12 years when lung cancer (adenocarcinoma was found at the site. In the meantime, he was treated for recurrent respiratory infections. Conclusion. There is the need for active approach in following up the patients with pulmonary bulla for potential development of lung cancer.

  20. [Right lung cancer with right aortic arch].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaguchi, Yasuo; Noriyuki, T; Kuroda, Y; Kuranishi, F; Nakahara, M; Fukuda, T; Ishizaki, Y; Hotta, R; Akimoto, E; Mori, H

    2008-02-01

    An abnormal shadow was detected on chest X-ray mass screening in an asymptomatic 63-year-old man. The further examinations revealed the shadow to be primary lung cancer (Rt. S6. adenocarcinoma, cT2N0M0, c-stage IB) with right aortic arch. We used 3 dimentional-computed tomography (3D-CT) to assess an anatomical feature of vessels in detail. The right lower lobectomy and the dissection of medi astinal lymph nodes was performed. We confirmed no abnormal anatomy of pulmonary artery and vein at surgery, and it was possible to perform right lower lobectomy with the common procedure. Since lymph node was found by intraopetrative pathological examination, since no metastasis from interlobar to subcarinal lymph node was found, we did not perform dissection of upper mediastinal dissection, which was equivalent to ND2a lymph nodes dissection of the left lung cancer in General Rule for Clinical and Pathological Record of Lung Cancer. The patient with right aortic arch is known to have variant anatomy of other intrathoracic vessels occasionally. 3D-CT was quite useful in assessing anatomical feature, and enabled us to perform safe operation.

  1. Cancer incidence among Finnish male cobalt production workers in 1969-2013: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauni, Riitta; Oksa, Panu; Uitti, Jukka; Linna, Asko; Kerttula, Raimo; Pukkala, Eero

    2017-05-18

    There is inadequate evidence for the carcinogenicity of cobalt and cobalt compounds in humans. Consequently, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has evaluated cobalt metal without tungsten carbide as possibly carcinogenic to humans (Group 2B). The aim of the study was to assess the risk of cancer among workers employed in a Finnish cobalt plant since the beginning of production in 1968. The study cohort consisted of all males employed by the Finnish cobalt plant for at least a year during 1968-2004. The follow-up for cancer was performed by studying the files of the Finnish Cancer Registry, using personal identity codes as a key. The cohort was divided into subcohorts by exposure levels. Standardised incidence ratios (SIRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were calculated as ratios of the observed numbers of cancer cases and the numbers expected on the basis of incidence rates in the population of the same region. The follow-up cohort consisted of 995 men with 26,083 person-years. During the follow-up period, 92 cases of cancer were diagnosed (SIR 1.00, 95% CI 0.81-1.22), six of which were lung cancer cases (SIR 0.50; 95% CI 0.18-1.08). The only cancer type with increased incidence was tongue cancer (three cases, SIR 7.39; 95% CI 1.52-21.6). We observed no dose-response effect across the different exposure levels and the incidence of any cancer type. The results suggest that occupational exposure to cobalt is not associated with an increased overall cancer risk or lung cancer risk among cobalt workers. Because of the small number of cancer cases the results must be interpreted with caution.

  2. Ground-Glass Opacity Lung Nodules in the Era of Lung Cancer CT Screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jesper Holst; Saghir, Zaigham; Wille, Mathilde Marie Winkler

    2016-01-01

    The advent of computed tomography screening for lung cancer will increase the incidence of ground-glass opacity (GGO) nodules detected and referred for diagnostic evaluation and management. GGO nodules remain a diagnostic challenge; therefore, a more systematic approach is necessary to ensure...... correct diagnosis and optimal management. Here we present the latest advances in the radiologic imaging and pathology of GGO nodules, demonstrating that radiologic features are increasingly predictive of the pathology of GGO nodules. We review the current guidelines from the Fleischner Society......, the National Comprehensive Cancer Network, and the British Thoracic Society. In addition, we discuss the management and follow-up of GGO nodules in the light of experience from screening trials. Minimally invasive tissue biopsies and the marking of GGO nodules for surgery are new and rapidly developing fields...

  3. Cancer incidence in Holocaust male survivors-An Israeli cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keinan-Boker, Lital; Goldbourt, Uri

    2016-12-01

    Previous studies, often using proxy exposure assessment and not controlling for individual risk factors, suggested higher cancer risk in Holocaust survivors. We have used individual-level data from a male cohort of Israeli civil servants recruited in 1963 to investigate cancer incidence in Holocaust survivors, controlling for potential confounders. The analysis included 4,669 Europe-born subjects; 689 exposed = E (immigrated to Israel after 1939 and reported of being in Nazi camps during World War II); 2,307 potentially exposed = PE (immigrated to Israel after 1939 and reported of not being in Nazi camps); and 1,673 non-exposed = NE (immigrated to Israel prior to 1939). Vital status and cancer incidence in the cohort were determined based on national registries. Socioeconomic level, health behaviors and cancer incidence were compared between the groups and Cox proportional hazards regression models adjusting for potential confounders assessed hazard risk ratios for cancer by exposure status. All-cause mortality was studied as a competing risk. In total, 241, 682, and 522 cancer cases were diagnosed in the E, PE, and NE, respectively. Compared with the NE, all-site cancer incidence was higher in the E (HR = 1.13, 95%CI 0.97-1.32) but not in the PE. All-cause mortality competed with all-site invasive cancer incidence in the E group (HR = 1.18, 95%CI 1.02-1.38). Colorectal and lung cancer seemed to be positively though non-significantly associated with the exposure while prostate cancer was not. Male Holocaust survivors may be at a weakly increased risk for all-site, colorectal and lung cancer. The role of age at exposure and residual confounding should be further investigated. © 2016 UICC.

  4. Radiotherapeutic Management of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer in the Minimal Resource Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodin, Danielle; Grover, Surbhi; Xu, Melody J; Hanna, Timothy P; Olson, Robert; Schreiner, L John; Munshi, Anusheel; Mornex, Francoise; Palma, David; Gaspar, Laurie E

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer is the most common cancer worldwide and the fifth most common cause of death globally. Its incidence continues to increase, especially within low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), which have limited capacity to address the growing need for treatment. The standard of care for lung cancer treatment often involves radiation therapy (RT), which plays an important therapeutic role in curative-intent treatment of early-stage to locally advanced disease, as well as in palliation. The infrastructure, equipment, and human resources required for RT may be limited in LMICs. However, this narrative review discusses the scope of the problem of lung cancer in LMICs, the role of RT technologies in lung cancer treatment, and RT capacity in developing countries. Strategies are presented for maximizing the availability and impact of RT in settings with minimal resource availability, and areas for potential future innovation are identified. Priorities for LMICs involve increasing access to RT equipment and trained health care professionals, ensuring quality of care, providing guidance on priority setting with limited resources, and encouraging innovation to increase the economic efficiency of RT delivery. Several international initiatives are currently under way and represent important first steps toward scaling up RT in LMICs to treat lung cancer. Copyright © 2015 International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Bioinformatics of non small cell lung cancer and the ras proto-oncogene

    CERN Document Server

    Kashyap, Amita; Babu M, Naresh

    2015-01-01

    Cancer is initiated by activation of oncogenes or inactivation of tumor suppressor genes. Mutations in the K-ras proto-oncogene are responsible for 10–30% of adenocarcinomas. Clinical Findings point to a wide variety of other cancers contributing to lung cancer incidence. Such a scenario makes identification of lung cancer difficult and thus identifying its mechanisms can contribute to the society. Identifying unique conserved patterns common to contributing proto-oncogenes may further be a boon to Pharmacogenomics and pharmacoinformatics. This calls for ab initio/de novo drug discovery that in turn will require a comprehensive in silico approach of Sequence, Domain, Phylogenetic and Structural analysis of the receptors, ligand screening and optimization and detailed Docking studies. This brief involves extensive role of the RAS subfamily that includes a set of proteins, which cause an over expression of cancer-causing genes like M-ras and initiate tumour formation in lungs. SNP Studies and Structure based ...

  6. Impact of Preexisting Interstitial Lung Disease on Acute, Extensive Radiation Pneumonitis: Retrospective Analysis of Patients with Lung Cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuichi Ozawa

    Full Text Available This study investigated the clinical characteristics and predictive factors for developing acute extended radiation pneumonitis with a focus on the presence and radiological characteristics of preexisting interstitial lung disease.Of 1429 irradiations for lung cancer from May 2006 to August 2013, we reviewed 651 irradiations involving the lung field. The presence, compatibility with usual interstitial pneumonia, and occupying area of preexisting interstitial lung disease were retrospectively evaluated by pretreatment computed tomography. Cases of non-infectious, non-cardiogenic, acute respiratory failure with an extended bilateral shadow developing within 30 days after the last irradiation were defined as acute extended radiation pneumonitis.Nine (1.4% patients developed acute extended radiation pneumonitis a mean of 6.7 days after the last irradiation. Although preexisting interstitial lung disease was found in 13% of patients (84 patients, 78% of patients (7 patients with acute extended radiation pneumonitis cases had preexisting interstitial lung disease, which resulted in incidences of acute extended radiation pneumonitis of 0.35 and 8.3% in patients without and with preexisting interstitial lung disease, respectively. Multivariate logistic analysis indicated that the presence of preexisting interstitial lung disease (odds ratio = 22.6; 95% confidence interval = 5.29-155; p < 0.001 and performance status (≥2; odds ratio = 4.22; 95% confidence interval = 1.06-20.8; p = 0.049 were significant predictive factors. Further analysis of the 84 patients with preexisting interstitial lung disease revealed that involvement of more than 10% of the lung field was the only independent predictive factor associated with the risk of acute extended radiation pneumonitis (odds ratio = 6.14; 95% confidence interval = 1.0-37.4; p = 0.038.Pretreatment computed tomography evaluations of the presence of and area size occupied by preexisting interstitial lung

  7. Adverse childhood experiences are associated with the risk of lung cancer: a prospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwards Valerie J

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Strong relationships between exposure to childhood traumatic stressors and smoking behaviours inspire the question whether these adverse childhood experiences (ACEs are associated with an increased risk of lung cancer during adulthood. Methods Baseline survey data on health behaviours, health status and exposure to adverse childhood experiences (ACEs were collected from 17,337 adults during 1995-1997. ACEs included abuse (emotional, physical, sexual, witnessing domestic violence, parental separation or divorce, or growing up in a household where members with mentally ill, substance abusers, or sent to prison. We used the ACE score (an integer count of the 8 categories of ACEs as a measure of cumulative exposure to traumatic stress during childhood. Two methods of case ascertainment were used to identify incident lung cancer through 2005 follow-up: 1 hospital discharge records and 2 mortality records obtained from the National Death Index. Results The ACE score showed a graded relationship to smoking behaviors. We identified 64 cases of lung cancer through hospital discharge records (age-standardized risk = 201 × 100,000-1 population and 111 cases of lung cancer through mortality records (age-standardized mortality rate = 31.1 × 100,000-1 person-years. The ACE score also showed a graded relationship to the incidence of lung cancer for cases identified through hospital discharge (P = 0.0004, mortality (P = 0.025, and both methods combined (P = 0.001. Compared to persons without ACEs, the risk of lung cancer for those with ≥ 6 ACEs was increased approximately 3-fold (hospital records: RR = 3.18, 95%CI = 0.71-14.15; mortality records: RR = 3.55, 95%CI = 1.25-10.09; hospital or mortality records: RR = 2.70, 95%CI = 0.94-7.72. After a priori consideration of a causal pathway (i.e., ACEs → smoking → lung cancer, risk ratios were attenuated toward the null, although not completely. For lung cancer identified through hospital

  8. Ecological studies of cancer incidence in an area interested by dumping waste sites in Campania (Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Fazzo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancer incidence was investigated in an area which has been affected by the illegal practices of dumping hazardous waste and setting fire to mismanaged waste. For the 35 municipalities of this area that are served by a Cancer Registry, municipal standardized incidence ratios (SIR and hierarchical Bayesian estimators (BIR were computed. Moreover, municipal spatial clustering and a Poisson regression by municipality index of waste-related exposure were performed for 10 cancer types. Increased municipality SIRs were found for some cancer types. The BIRs confirmed the increases for liver cancer in two municipalities. Statistically significant clusters were detected for liver, lung, leukaemia and soft tissue sarcomas. In the regression analysis, testis cancer showed significant trend with the index of waste-related exposure (RR = 1.18.

  9. Lung cancer trends: smoking, obesity, and sex assessed in the Staten Island University’s lung cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta S

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Shilpi Gupta,1 Samer Hassan,1 Vijaya R Bhatt,2 Houssein Abdul Sater,1 Asma Dilawari31Hematology-Oncology, Staten Island University Hospital, Staten Island, NY, USA; 2Hematology-Oncology, Nebraska Medical Ctr, Omaha, NE, USA; 3Hematology-Oncology, MedStar Georgetown University Hospital, Olney, Maryland, USAIntroduction: The incidence of lung cancer in the United States decreased by 1.8% from 1991 to 2005 while it increased by 0.5% in females. We assessed whether nonsmokers afflicted with lung cancer at Staten Island University Hospital are disproportionately female in comparison to national averages. We also evaluated different factors including race, histology, and body mass index (BMI in correlation with smoking history.Methods: A retrospective chart review was conducted from 2005 to 2011 on 857 patients. Patients were divided into two groups according to their smoking status: current or ever-smokers, and former or never-smokers. A chi-square test for categorical data and multivariate logistic regression analyses was used to study the relation between BMI and the other clinical and demographic data.Results: Forty-nine percent of patients were men and 51% were women with a mean age at diagnosis of 67.8 years. Current smokers were most common (50.2% followed by ever-smokers (18.2%, former smokers (15.8% and never-smokers (15.6%. Forty eight percent had stage IV lung cancer upon presentation. Never-smokers with lung cancer were 24 times more likely to be females. However, the proportion of female former smokers (31.6% was lower than the proportion of male former smokers (68.4% (P=0.001. There was no significant association between American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC stage, sex, race, and histological type in the two smoking groups. Current/ever-smokers tended to be younger at age of diagnosis (P=0.0003. BMI was lower in the current/ever-smokers (26.8 kg/m2 versus former/never-smokers (28.8 in males (P=0.0005. BMI was significantly higher in

  10. Advanced Lung Cancer Screening: An Individualized Molecular Nanotechnology Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    Award Number: W81XWH-12-1-0323 TITLE: Advanced Lung Cancer Screening: An Individualized Molecular Nanotechnology Approach PRINCIPAL...SUBTITLE Advanced Lung Cancer Screening: An Individualized Molecular Nanotechnology Approach 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT...increasing its sensitivity and specificity through nanotechnology . Hypothesis: Detection of DNA methylation from individuals with cancer can be used to

  11. Lung Cancer Screening May Benefit Those at Highest Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    People at the highest risk for lung cancer, based on a risk model, may be more likely to benefit from screening with low-dose CT, a new analysis suggests. The study authors believe the findings may better define who should undergo lung cancer screening, as this Cancer Currents blog post explains.

  12. Death Concerns among Individuals Newly Diagnosed with Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehto, Rebecca; Therrien, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    Confronting the reality of death is an important challenge for individuals facing life-threatening illness such as lung cancer, the leading cause of cancer death. Few studies, however, document the nature of death-related concerns in individuals newly diagnosed with lung cancer. The aims of this exploratory study were to examine unsolicited…

  13. ESR/ERS white paper on lung cancer screening.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kauczor, H.U.; Bonomo, L.; Gaga, M.; Nackaerts, K.; Peled, N.; Prokop, M.; Remy-Jardin, M.; Stackelberg, O. von; Sculier, J.P.

    2015-01-01

    Lung cancer is the most frequently fatal cancer, with poor survival once the disease is advanced. Annual low dose computed tomography has shown a survival benefit in screening individuals at high risk for lung cancer. Based on the available evidence, the European Society of Radiology and the

  14. Optimization of nodule management in CT lung cancer screening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuvelmans, Marjolein Anne

    2015-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cancer-related cause of death. Through computed tomography (CT) screening, cancer can be detected at the earliest stage, with a much greater probability of cure. After the positive outcome of the US National Lung Screening Trial (NLST), screening with low-dose CT in heavy

  15. Variation in lung cancer resources and workload: results from the first national lung cancer organisational audit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cusworth, K; O'Dowd, E; Hubbard, R; Beckett, P; Peake, M D; Woolhouse, I

    2015-10-01

    We report the findings of the first national lung cancer organisational audit. The results demonstrate marked variation in service provision and workload of some lung cancer specialists. For example, over half of the clinical nurse specialists report case volumes over recommended numbers. Some trusts have no access to key treatments such as video assisted thoracoscopy (VAT) lobectomy and stereotactic radiotherapy. Multivariate regression analysis demonstrated an association between higher surgical resection rates and the on-site availability of advanced staging and therapeutic modalities, for example, PET scan and VAT lobectomy. We conclude by making a number of recommendations to address the variation in lung cancer care. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  16. The preparation and characterization of peptide's lung cancer imaging agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jianfeng; Chu Liping; Wang Yan; Wang Yueying; Liu Jinjian; Wu Hongying

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To screen in vivo lung cancer specific binding seven peptides by T7 phage display peptide library, so as to prepare peptide's lung cancer early diagnostic agent. Methods: Use phage display in vivo technology, the 7-peptide phage that binding the lung cancer specifically was obtained, then the DNA sequence was measured and the seven peptide was synthesized. After labeled by 125 I, the seven peptide was injected into mice via vein and the distribution was observed. Results: One peptide was obtained by four rounds screening, and the peptide can bind lung cancer tissue specifically. Two hours after injection get the best imaging of lung cancer, metabolism of peptide in mice is fast, the distribution in vivo is decrease six hours and almost disappear 20 hours after injection. Conclusion: The peptide can image and diagnose lung cancer better. (authors)

  17. Surgical management of non-small-cell lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bamousa Ahmed

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Surgery plays a major role in the management of patients with lung cancer. Surgery is not only the main curative treatment modality in patients with early-stage lung cancer but it also has a significant role in the initial workup for the diagnosis and staging of lung cancer. This article describes the surgical management of patients with lung cancer. Surgical resection for lung cancer is still regarded as the most effective method for controlling the primary tumor, provided it is resectable for cure and the risks of the procedure are low. The 5-year survival rare following complete resection (R0 of a lung cancer is stage dependent [Table 1]. [1-3] Incomplete resection (R1, R2 rarely, if ever, cures the patient.

  18. The European initiative for quality management in lung cancer care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blum, Torsten G; Rich, Anna; Baldwin, David

    2014-01-01

    . The Task Force undertook four projects: 1) a narrative literature search on quality management of lung cancer; 2) a survey of national and local infrastructure for lung cancer care in Europe; 3) a benchmarking project on the quality of (inter)national lung cancer guidelines in Europe; and 4) a feasibility...... study of prospective data collection in a pan-European setting. There is little peer-reviewed literature on quality management in lung cancer care. The survey revealed important differences in the infrastructure of lung cancer care in Europe. The European guidelines that were assessed displayed wide...... variation in content and scope, as well as methodological quality but at the same time there was relevant duplication. The feasibility study demonstrated that it is, in principle, feasible to collect prospective demographic and clinical data on patients with lung cancer. Legal obligations vary among...

  19. Lactose intolerance and risk of lung, breast and ovarian cancers: aetiological clues from a population-based study in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, J; Sundquist, J; Sundquist, K

    2015-01-06

    Individuals with lactose intolerance are recommended to avoid milk or dairy products, which may affect the development of cancer. We identified individuals with lactose intolerance from several Swedish Registers linked to the Swedish Cancer Registry to calculate standardised incidence ratios (SIRs) for cancers in the breast, lung, and ovary. A total of 22,788 individuals with lactose intolerance were identified, and their risks of lung (SIR=0.55), breast (SIR=0.79), and ovarian (SIR=0.61) cancers were significantly decreased. Cancer incidences in the siblings and parents of individuals with lactose intolerance were similar to those in the general population. In this large cohort study, people with lactose intolerance, characterised by low consumption of milk and other dairy products, had decreased risks of lung, breast, and ovarian cancers, but the decreased risks were not found in their family members, suggesting that the protective effects against these cancers may be related to their specific dietary pattern.

  20. Vegetable and fruit consumption and lung cancer risk in the Netherlands : cohort study on diet and cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voorrips, L.E.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Verhoeven, D.T.H.; Poppel, G.A.F.C. van; Sturmans, F.; Hermus, R.J.J.; Brandt, P.A. van den

    2000-01-01

    Objective: The purpose was to study the association between vegetable and fruit consumption and lung cancer incidence using 1074 cases after 6.3 years of follow-up in the Netherlands Cohort Study. Methods: Dietary intake was assessed using a 150-item food-frequency questionnaire. Multivariate models

  1. Cancer incidence in Australian Vietnam veterans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, E.; Horsley, K. [Australian Government Department of Veterans' Affairs (Australia); Hoek, R. van der [Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (Australia)

    2004-09-15

    Australian Defence Force (ADF) personnel participated in the Vietnam Conflict from 1962 to 1973, involving nearly 60,000 personnel, of whom over 500 died during service and 3131 were severely physically wounded. Service in the Vietnam conflict presented distinct health challenges. Besides the hazards of combat conditions for extended periods, herbicides and other toxic chemicals were used extensively. The United States military sprayed more than 76,000,000L of herbicide over Vietnam in their Air Force Ranch Hand and Operation Trail Dust programs. The most heavily used herbicide was Agent Orange, contaminated with 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-pdioxin. Since the Vietnam conflict, ex-Service organisations (ESOs) have maintained that Vietnam service adversely affected the health of veterans. Initial studies showed no excess risk attributable to their service. However, more recent studies have shown that Vietnam veterans have excess incidence and mortality rates from several conditions such as cancers and heart disease. This paper describes the first cancer incidence study for all ADF Vietnam veterans.

  2. Lung scintigraphy in differential diagnosis of peripheral lung cancer and community-acquired pneumonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krivonogov, Nikolay G.; Efimova, Nataliya Y.; Zavadovsky, Konstantin W.; Lishmanov, Yuri B.

    2016-08-01

    Ventilation/perfusion lung scintigraphy was performed in 39 patients with verified diagnosis of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and in 14 patients with peripheral lung cancer. Ventilation/perfusion ratio, apical-basal gradients of ventilation (U/L(V)) and lung perfusion (U/L(P)), and alveolar capillary permeability of radionuclide aerosol were determined based on scintigraphy data. The study demonstrated that main signs of CAP were increases in ventilation/perfusion ratio, perfusion and ventilation gradient on a side of the diseased lung, and two-side increase in alveolar capillary permeability rate for radionuclide aerosol. Unlike this, scintigraphic signs of peripheral lung cancer comprise an increase in ventilation/perfusion ratio over 1.0 on a side of the diseased lung with its simultaneous decrease on a contralateral side, normal values of perfusion and ventilation gradients of both lungs, and delayed alveolar capillary clearance in the diseased lung compared with the intact lung.

  3. Lung scintigraphy in differential diagnosis of peripheral lung cancer and community-acquired pneumonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krivonogov, Nikolay G., E-mail: kng@cardio-tomsk.ru [Research Institute of Cardiology, Kievskaya Street 111a, Tomsk, 634012 (Russian Federation); Efimova, Nataliya Y., E-mail: efimova@cardio-tomsk.ru; Zavadovsky, Konstantin W.; Lishmanov, Yuri B. [Research Institute of Cardiology, Kievskaya Street 111a, Tomsk, 634012 (Russian Federation); Tomsk Polytechnic University, Lenin Avenue 30, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation)

    2016-08-02

    Ventilation/perfusion lung scintigraphy was performed in 39 patients with verified diagnosis of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and in 14 patients with peripheral lung cancer. Ventilation/perfusion ratio, apical-basal gradients of ventilation (U/L(V)) and lung perfusion (U/L(P)), and alveolar capillary permeability of radionuclide aerosol were determined based on scintigraphy data. The study demonstrated that main signs of CAP were increases in ventilation/perfusion ratio, perfusion and ventilation gradient on a side of the diseased lung, and two-side increase in alveolar capillary permeability rate for radionuclide aerosol. Unlike this, scintigraphic signs of peripheral lung cancer comprise an increase in ventilation/perfusion ratio over 1.0 on a side of the diseased lung with its simultaneous decrease on a contralateral side, normal values of perfusion and ventilation gradients of both lungs, and delayed alveolar capillary clearance in the diseased lung compared with the intact lung.

  4. Rice consumption and cancer incidence in US men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ran; Zhang, Xuehong; Wu, Kana; Wu, Hongyu; Sun, Qi; Hu, Frank B; Han, Jiali; Willett, Walter C; Giovannucci, Edward L

    2016-02-01

    While both the 2012 and 2014 Consumer Reports concerned arsenic levels in US rice, no previous study has evaluated long-term consumption of total rice, white rice and brown rice in relation to risk of developing cancers. We investigated this in the female Nurses' Health Study (1984-2010), and Nurses' Health Study II (1989-2009), and the male Health Professionals Follow-up Study (1986-2008), which included a total of 45,231 men and 160,408 women, free of cancer at baseline. Validated food frequency questionnaires were used to measure rice consumption at baseline and repeated almost every 4 years thereafter. We employed Cox proportional hazards regression model to estimate multivariable relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs). During up to 26 years of follow-up, we documented 31,655 incident cancer cases (10,833 in men and 20,822 in women). Age-adjusted results were similar to multivariable-adjusted results. Compared to participants with less than one serving per week, the multivariable RRs of overall cancer for individuals who ate at least five servings per week were 0.97 for total rice (95% CI: 0.85-1.07), 0.87 for white rice (95% CI: 0.75-1.01), and 1.17 for brown rice (95% CI: 0.90-1.26). Similar non-significant associations were observed for specific sites of cancers including prostate, breast, colon and rectum, melanoma, bladder, kidney, and lung. Additionally, the null associations were observed among European Americans and non-smokers, and were not modified by BMI. Long-term consumption of total rice, white rice or brown rice was not associated with risk of developing cancer in US men and women. © 2015 UICC.

  5. Disparities in cancer incidence and mortality by area-level socioeconomic status: a multilevel analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastert, Theresa A; Beresford, Shirley A A; Sheppard, Lianne; White, Emily

    2015-02-01

    Disparities in cancer incidence and mortality have been observed by measures of area-level socioeconomic status (SES); however, the extent to which these disparities are explained by individual SES is unclear. Participants included 60 756 men and women in the VITamins And Lifestyle (VITAL) study cohort, aged 50-76 years at baseline (2000-2002) and followed through 2010. We constructed a block group SES index using the 2000 US Census and fit Cox proportional hazards models to estimate the association between area-level SES (by quintile) and total and site-specific cancer incidence and total cancer mortality, with and without household income and individual education in the models. Lower area-level SES was weakly associated with higher total cancer incidence and lower prostate cancer risk, but was not associated with risk of breast cancer. Compared with the highest-SES areas, living in the lowest-SES areas was associated with higher lung (HR: 2.21, 95% CI 1.69 to 2.90) and colorectal cancer incidence (HR: 1.52, 95% CI 1.11 to 2.09) and total cancer mortality (HR: 1.68, 95% CI 1.47 to 1.93). Controlling for individual education and household income weakened the observed associations, but did not eliminate them (lung cancer HR: 1.43, 95% CI 1.07 to 1.91; colorectal cancer HR: 1.35, 95% CI 0.97 to 1.88; cancer mortality HR: 1.28, 95% CI 1.11 to 1.48). Area-level socioeconomic disparities exist for several cancer outcomes. These differences are not fully explained by individual SES, suggesting area-level factors may play a role. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  6. Risk assessment of nickel carcinogenicity and occupational lung cancer.

    OpenAIRE

    Shen, H M; Zhang, Q F

    1994-01-01

    Recent progress in risk assessment of nickel carcinogenicity and its correlation with occupational lung cancer in nickel-exposed workers is reviewed. Epidemiological investigations provide reliable data indicating the close relation between nickel exposure and high lung cancer risk, especially in nickel refineries. The nickel species-specific effects and the dose-response relationship between nickel exposure and lung cancer are among the main questions that are explored extensively. It is als...

  7. Snail acetylation by histone acetyltransferase p300 in lung cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Rui; Zhang, Yinjie; Zhang, Peng; Zhou, Qinghua

    2017-01-01

    Background Epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a complex and dynamic molecular event in lung cancer metastasis that has not yet been thoroughly investigated. EMT transcriptional factors, such as Snail, play a central role in regulation of the EMT process. In this study, we sought to identify an association between p300 and Snail in lung cancer, as well as the engagement of p300 in Snail acetylation. Methods We transfected p300 small interfering RNA into lung cancer cells to detect S...

  8. Screening and Biosensor-Based Approaches for Lung Cancer Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Lulu Wang

    2017-01-01

    Early diagnosis of lung cancer helps to reduce the cancer death rate significantly. Over the years, investigators worldwide have extensively investigated many screening modalities for lung cancer detection, including computerized tomography, chest X-ray, positron emission tomography, sputum cytology, magnetic resonance imaging and biopsy. However, these techniques are not suitable for patients with other pathologies. Developing a rapid and sensitive technique for early diagnosis of lung cance...

  9. Genetic evidence linking lung cancer and COPD: a new perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crapo JD

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Robert P Young1,4, Raewyn J Hopkins1, Gregory D Gamble1, Carol Etzel2, Randa El-Zein2, James D Crapo31Department of Medicine and School of Biological Sciences, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand; 2Department of Epidemiology, UT MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USA; 3National Jewish Health, Denver, CO, USA; 4Synergenz Biosciences Ltd, Auckland, New ZealandAbstract: Epidemiological studies indicate that tobacco smoke exposure accounts for nearly 90% of cases of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and lung cancer. However, genetic factors may explain why 10%–30% of smokers develop these complications. This perspective reviews the evidence suggesting that COPD is closely linked to susceptibility to lung cancer and outlines the potential relevance of this observation. Epidemiological studies show that COPD is the single most important risk factor for lung cancer among smokers and predates lung cancer in up to 80% of cases. Genome-wide association studies of lung cancer, lung function, and COPD have identified a number of overlapping “susceptibility” loci. With stringent phenotyping, it has recently been shown that several of these overlapping loci are independently associated with both COPD and lung cancer. These loci implicate genes underlying pulmonary inflammation and apoptotic processes mediated by the bronchial epithelium, and link COPD with lung cancer at a molecular genetic level. It is currently possible to derive risk models for lung cancer that incorporate lung cancer-specific genetic variants, recently identified “COPD-related” genetic variants, and clinical variables. Early studies suggest that single nucleotide polymorphism-based risk stratification of smokers might help better target novel prevention and early diagnostic strategies in lung cancer.Keywords: lung cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, association study, single nucleotide polymorphism, risk model

  10. Reduced Expiratory Flow Rate among Heavy Smokers Increases Lung Cancer Risk. Results from the National Lung Screening Trial-American College of Radiology Imaging Network Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Raewyn J; Duan, Fenghai; Chiles, Caroline; Greco, Erin M; Gamble, Greg D; Aberle, Denise; Young, Robert P

    2017-03-01

    Although epidemiological studies consistently show that chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is associated with an increased risk of lung cancer, debate exists as to whether there is a linear relationship between the severity of airflow limitation and lung cancer risk. We examined this in a large, prospective study of older heavy smokers from the American College of Radiology Imaging Network subcohort of the National Lung Screening Trial (ACRIN). Airflow limitation was defined by prebronchodilator spirometry subgrouped according to Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) grades 1-4. In the National Lung Screening Trial-ACRIN cohort of 18,473 screening participants, 6,436 had airflow limitation (35%) and 12,037 (65%) had no airflow limitation. From these groups, 758 lung cancer cases were prospectively identified. Participants with airflow limitation were stratified according to GOLD groups 1 (n = 1,607), 2 (n = 3,528), 3 (n = 1,083), and 4 (n = 211). Lung cancer incidence at study end (mean follow-up, 6.4 yr) was compared between the GOLD groups and those with no airflow limitation (referent group). Compared with those with no airflow limitation, where lung cancer incidence was 3.78/1,000 person years, incidence rates increased in a simple linear relationship: GOLD 1 (6.27/1,000 person yr); GOLD 2 (7.86/1,000 person yr); GOLD 3 (10.71/1,000 person yr); and GOLD 4 (13.25/1,000 person yr). All relationships were significant versus the reference group at a P value of 0.0001 or less. In a large prospective study of high-risk cigarette smokers, we report a strong linear relationship between increasing severity of airflow limitation and risk of lung cancer.

  11. Mindfulness-based stress reduction teachers, practice characteristics, cancer incidence, and health: a nationwide ecological description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robb, Sara Wagner; Benson, Kelsey; Middleton, Lauren; Meyers, Christine; Hébert, James R

    2015-02-14

    Studies have demonstrated the potential of the Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) program to improve the condition of individuals with health outcomes such as hypertension, diabetes, and chronic pain; improve psychological well-being; reduce stress levels; and increase survival among cancer patients. To date, only one study has focused on the effect of long-term meditation on stress, showing a positive protective relationship. However, the relationship between meditation and cancer incidence remains unexplored. The objective of this study was to describe the state-level relationship between MBSR instructors and their practices and county-level health outcomes, including cancer incidence, in the United States. This ecologic study was performed using geospatial mapping and descriptive epidemiology of statewide MBSR characteristics and overall health, mental health state rankings, and age-adjusted cancer incidence rates. Weak to moderate state-level correlations between meditation characteristics and colorectal and cervical cancer incidence were detected, with states with more meditation (e.g., more MBSR teachers per population) correlated with a decreased cancer incidence. A negative correlation was detected between lung & bronchus cancer and years teaching MBSR only. Moderate positive correlations were detected between Hodgkin's Lymphoma and female breast cancer in relation to all meditation characteristics. Statistically significant correlations with moderate coefficients were detected for overall health ranks and all meditation characteristics, most strongly for total number of years teaching MBSR and total number of years of general meditation practice. Our analyses might suggest that a relationship exists between the total number of MBSR teachers per state and the total number of years of general meditation practice per state, and colorectal and cervical cancer incidence. Positive correlations were observed with overall health rankings. Despite this study

  12. Improving the quality of lung cancer care in Ontario: the lung cancer disease pathway initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, William K; Ung, Yee C; Assouad, Nathalie; Chyjek, Anna; Sawka, Carol

    2013-07-01

    Before 2008, Cancer Care Ontario (CCO) undertook provincial cancer control quality-improvement initiatives on a programmatic basis. CCO has now added Disease Pathway Management (DPM) to its quality improvement strategy, with the intent of achieving high-quality care, processes, and patient experience across the patient pathway for specific cancers. The three goals of DPM are: to describe and share evidence-based best practice along the cancer continuum for specific cancers; identify quality-improvement priorities for specific cancers and catalyze action; monitor performance against best practice for specific cancers. The objective of this article is to describe the process by which the CCO lung cancer (LC) DPM was initiated and some of its early successes. In 2009, LC DPM began with a draft LC disease pathway map and the establishment of five multidisciplinary working groups, each focused on a phase of the LC patient journey: prevention, screening, and early detection; diagnosis; treatment; palliative care, end-of-life care, and survivorship; and patient experience. The working groups held 25 meetings of 2-hour duration and developed concepts for 17 quality-improvement projects across the patient journey. Eight were selected for detailed discussion at a provincial consensus conference, which provided input on priorities for action. A report on the priorities for action was prepared and widely circulated, and regional roadshows were held in all 14 regions of the province of Ontario. Region-specific data on incidence, stage, treatment compliance, and wait times among other issues relevant to LC, were shared with the regional care providers at these roadshows. Funding was provided by CCO to address opportunities for regional improvement based on the data and the priorities identified. The LC disease pathways were refined through substantial multidisciplinary discussion, and the diagnostic pathway was posted on CCO's Web site in February 2012. The treatment pathways

  13. Bisphosphonate use in patients with lung cancer and bone metastases: recommendations of a European expert panel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Marinis, Filippo; Eberhardt, Wilfried; Harper, Peter G

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Bisphosphonates (BPs) are effective in preventing, reducing the incidence, and delaying the onset of skeletal-related events in patients with bone metastases in a variety of solid tumors, including lung cancer. The purpose of this article is to review the current evidence for the use...

  14. The distribution of lung cancer mortality in Cape Town and related ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The cartographic representation of standardised mortality ratios shows that the incidence of lung cancer mortality in Cape Town is appreciably higher in men than women, and in coloured people than in white people. Coloured men are the group most at risk. Despite the important role smoking habits play in the aetiology of ...

  15. [The Argument and Consensus of Lymphadenectomy on Lung Cancer Surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lanjun

    2018-03-20

    Lymph node metastasis is an important route of metastasis of lung cancer. Lymphadenectomy has become the standard surgical procedure for lung cancer. The way of intraoperative lymph node assessment also affects the prognosis and treatment strategy of lung cancer. In clinical practice, the way of intraoperative lymph node assessment ranges from selected lymph node biopsy to extended lymph node dissection. The advantages and disadvantages of different lymph node assessment are still controversial. In this article, the argument and consensus of lymphadenectomy on lung cancer operation are summarized.

  16. Invasive thymoma associated with lung cancer: report of a case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, T; Terashima, H; Shimizu, T; Hirayama, K

    2001-01-01

    We report herein a case of invasive thymoma simultaneously associated with lung cancer. A 64-year-old man presented with a cough and anterior chest pain, and preoperative examinations revealed an anterior mediastinal tumor as well as lung cancer. The patient underwent a total thymectomy, partial resection of the right lung, left lower lobectomy, and mediastinal lymph node dissection, followed by radiotherapy. Although it is well known that thymomas may be accompanied by nonthymic cancers, invasive thymomas occurring coincidentally with lung cancer are rarely reported in Japan. This case is very interesting in its relation to the oncogenesis of thymomas.

  17. Risk prediction models for selection of lung cancer screening candidates: A retrospective validation study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Ten Haaf

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Selection of candidates for lung cancer screening based on individual risk has been proposed as an alternative to criteria based on age and cumulative smoking exposure (pack-years. Nine previously established risk models were assessed for their ability to identify those most likely to develop or die from lung cancer. All models considered age and various aspects of smoking exposure (smoking status, smoking duration, cigarettes per day, pack-years smoked, time since smoking cessation as risk predictors. In addition, some models considered factors such as gender, race, ethnicity, education, body mass index, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, emphysema, personal history of cancer, personal history of pneumonia, and family history of lung cancer.Retrospective analyses were performed on 53,452 National Lung Screening Trial (NLST participants (1,925 lung cancer cases and 884 lung cancer deaths and 80,672 Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial (PLCO ever-smoking participants (1,463 lung cancer cases and 915 lung cancer deaths. Six-year lung cancer incidence and mortality risk predictions were assessed for (1 calibration (graphically by comparing the agreement between the predicted and the observed risks, (2 discrimination (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve [AUC] between individuals with and without lung cancer (death, and (3 clinical usefulness (net benefit in decision curve analysis by identifying risk thresholds at which applying risk-based eligibility would improve lung cancer screening efficacy. To further assess performance, risk model sensitivities and specificities in the PLCO were compared to those based on the NLST eligibility criteria. Calibration was satisfactory, but discrimination ranged widely (AUCs from 0.61 to 0.81. The models outperformed the NLST eligibility criteria over a substantial range of risk thresholds in decision curve analysis, with a higher sensitivity for all models and a

  18. Risk prediction models for selection of lung cancer screening candidates: A retrospective validation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ten Haaf, Kevin; Jeon, Jihyoun; Tammemägi, Martin C; Han, Summer S; Kong, Chung Yin; Plevritis, Sylvia K; Feuer, Eric J; de Koning, Harry J; Steyerberg, Ewout W; Meza, Rafael

    2017-04-01

    Selection of candidates for lung cancer screening based on individual risk has been proposed as an alternative to criteria based on age and cumulative smoking exposure (pack-years). Nine previously established risk models were assessed for their ability to identify those most likely to develop or die from lung cancer. All models considered age and various aspects of smoking exposure (smoking status, smoking duration, cigarettes per day, pack-years smoked, time since smoking cessation) as risk predictors. In addition, some models considered factors such as gender, race, ethnicity, education, body mass index, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, emphysema, personal history of cancer, personal history of pneumonia, and family history of lung cancer. Retrospective analyses were performed on 53,452 National Lung Screening Trial (NLST) participants (1,925 lung cancer cases and 884 lung cancer deaths) and 80,672 Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial (PLCO) ever-smoking participants (1,463 lung cancer cases and 915 lung cancer deaths). Six-year lung cancer incidence and mortality risk predictions were assessed for (1) calibration (graphically) by comparing the agreement between the predicted and the observed risks, (2) discrimination (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve [AUC]) between individuals with and without lung cancer (death), and (3) clinical usefulness (net benefit in decision curve analysis) by identifying risk thresholds at which applying risk-based eligibility would improve lung cancer screening efficacy. To further assess performance, risk model sensitivities and specificities in the PLCO were compared to those based on the NLST eligibility criteria. Calibration was satisfactory, but discrimination ranged widely (AUCs from 0.61 to 0.81). The models outperformed the NLST eligibility criteria over a substantial range of risk thresholds in decision curve analysis, with a higher sensitivity for all models and a slightly

  19. Cancer incidence in North West Algeria (Mascara) 2000-2010: results from a population-based cancer registry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benarba, Bachir; Meddah, Boumedienne; Hamdani, Houria

    2014-01-01

    Cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide accounting for 7.4 million deaths. Cancer has become a major public health concern in Algeria. The aim of the present study was to estimate cancer incidence in Mascara Province based on the population-based cancer registry. We analyzed data from the cancer registry of Mascara covering all cancer cases diagnosed by all methods and included in the registry from 1st January 2000 to 31st December 2010. The results are presented as incidence rates of cases by site, sex, age, and crude rate. Age-standardized rates per 100,000 person-years (ASRs) were calculated, using the direct method of standardization to the world population. A total of 1875 cases of invasive cancer were recorded. The mean age of diagnosis for all cancers was 52.66 ± 0.5 in men and 59.18 ± 0.6 in women. The ASR for all cancers in females was 27.8 per 100,000, and that for males was 23.6 per 100,000. The most important finding of the present study was the high incidence of liver cancer among males and females in Mascara. Among females, breast cancer was the most frequently reported followed by Cervix uteri, liver and colon. The most frequent cancer types in males were lung, colon, esophagus and stomach and liver. Cancer incidence in Mascara province was lower than that reported in other national and regional registries. Findings of the present study revealed high incidence of liver cancer in the province, the highest in Algeria, suggesting high prevalence of risk factors. PMID:26417294

  20. Molecular pathways and therapeutic targets in lung cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shtivelman, Emma; Hensing, Thomas; Simon, George R.; Dennis, Phillip A.; Otterson, Gregory A.; Bueno, Raphael; Salgia, Ravi

    2014-01-01

    Lung cancer is still the leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Both histologically and molecularly lung cancer is heterogeneous. This review summarizes the current knowledge of the pathways involved in the various types of lung cancer with an emphasis on the clinical implications of the increasing number of actionable molecular targets. It describes the major pathways and molecular alterations implicated in the development and progression of non-small cell lung cancer (adenocarcinoma and squamous cancer), and of small cell carcinoma, emphasizing the molecular alterations comprising the specific blueprints in each group. The approved and investigational targeted therapies as well as the immune therapies, and clinical trials exploring the variety of targeted approaches to treatment of lung cancer are the main focus of this review. PMID:24722523

  1. Environmental tobacco smoke and breast cancer incidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gammon, M.D.; Eng, S.M.; Teitelbaum, S.L.; Britton, J.A.; Kabat, G.C.; Hatch, Maureen; Paykin, A.B.; Neugut, A.I.; Santella, R.M.

    2004-01-01

    To evaluate whether environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) influences breast cancer incidence, data from a population-based case-control study were analyzed. Respondents with available ETS information assessed by in-person questionnaires included 1356 newly diagnosed cases and 1383 controls. Relative to nonsmokers who reported no residential ETS exposure throughout the life course, the odds ratios (OR) for breast cancer were not substantially elevated in relation to ETS exposure, active smoking, or a joint measure of active and passive smoking (OR, 1.15, 95% CI, 0.90, 1.48). An increased OR, however, was noted among nonsmokers who lived with a smoking spouse for over 27 years (2.10, 95% CI, 1.47, 3.02), although no dose-response was evident. Also, among women with hormone-receptor-positive tumors only, the OR for both active and passive smoking was increased (1.42 for ER + PR + , 95% CI, 1.00, 2.00). Our data suggest that if there is an effect for ETS on breast cancer, that effect is restricted to selected subgroups of women, such as those with long-term exposure from a smoking spouse

  2. Low tobacco-related cancer incidence in offspring of long-lived siblings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jacob K; Skytthe, Axel; McGue, Matt

    2015-01-01

    , observed numbers of cancers were compared with expected numbers based on gender-, calendar period-, and age-specific incidence rates in the general population. RESULTS: During the 41-year-follow-up period, a total of 423 cancers occurred in 397 individuals. The standardized incidence ratios (95% confidence......PURPOSE: Familial clustering of longevity is well documented and includes both genetic and other familial factors, but the specific underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. We examined whether low incidence of specific cancers is a mechanism for familial clustering of longevity. METHODS...... interval) for offspring of long-lived individuals were 0.78 (0.70-0.86) for overall cancer; 0.66 (0.56-0.77) for tobacco-related cancer; 0.34 (0.22-0.51) for lung cancer; 0.88 (0.71-1.10) for breast cancer; 0.91 (0.62-1.34) for colon cancer. CONCLUSIONS: The low incidence of tobacco-related cancers in long...

  3. Cancer incidence in an area contaminated with radionuclides near a nuclear installation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, C.J.

    1981-01-01

    Exposures of a large population in the Denver area to plutonium and other radionuclides in the exhaust plumes from the Rocky Flats (nuclear weapons) plant date back to 1953. Anglo cancer incidence in 1969-1971 was evaluated in census tracts with and without contamination in the Denver area (1970 pop. 1 019 130). Cancer incidence in males was 24% higher, and in females, 10% higher in the suburban area(pop. 154 170) with most contamination nearest the plant, compared to the unexposed area (pop. 423 870), also predominantly suburban, which had virtually the same age-adjusted incidence rate for all cancer as the state. Excess cases of cancer were due to more cases than expected of leukemia, lymphoma and myeloma and cancer of the lung, thyroid, breast, esophagus, stomach and colon, a pattern similar to that obs- erved in the survivors of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The ratio of these cancers to all other cancer was 17.6% higher in males and 11.9% higher in females in the area near the plant. Cancer of the gonads (especially the testes), liver, and, in females, pancreas and brain contributed to the higher incidence of all cancer in areas near the plant. (Auth.)

  4. Cancer incidence among Arab Americans in California, Detroit, and New Jersey SEER registries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmans, Rachel; Soliman, Amr S; Ruterbusch, Julie; Meza, Rafael; Hirko, Kelly; Graff, John; Schwartz, Kendra

    2014-06-01

    We calculated cancer incidence for Arab Americans in California; Detroit, Michigan; and New Jersey, and compared rates with non-Hispanic, non-Arab Whites (NHNAWs); Blacks; and Hispanics. We conducted a study using population-based data. We linked new cancers diagnosed in 2000 from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program (SEER) to an Arab surname database. We used standard SEER definitions and methodology for calculating rates. Population estimates were extracted from the 2000 US Census. We calculated incidence and rate ratios. Arab American men and women had similar incidence rates across the 3 geographic regions, and the rates were comparable to NHNAWs. However, the thyroid cancer rate was elevated among Arab American women compared with NHNAWs, Hispanics, and Blacks. For all sites combined, for prostate and lung cancer, Arab American men had a lower incidence than Blacks and higher incidence than Hispanics in all 3 geographic regions. Arab American male bladder cancer incidence was higher than that in Hispanics and Blacks in these regions. Our results suggested that further research would benefit from the federal recognition of Arab Americans as a specified ethnicity to estimate and address the cancer burden in this growing segment of the population.

  5. Cancer Incidence Among Arab Americans in California, Detroit, and New Jersey SEER Registries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmans, Rachel; Ruterbusch, Julie; Meza, Rafael; Hirko, Kelly; Graff, John; Schwartz, Kendra

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We calculated cancer incidence for Arab Americans in California; Detroit, Michigan; and New Jersey, and compared rates with non-Hispanic, non-Arab Whites (NHNAWs); Blacks; and Hispanics. Methods. We conducted a study using population-based data. We linked new cancers diagnosed in 2000 from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program (SEER) to an Arab surname database. We used standard SEER definitions and methodology for calculating rates. Population estimates were extracted from the 2000 US Census. We calculated incidence and rate ratios. Results. Arab American men and women had similar incidence rates across the 3 geographic regions, and the rates were comparable to NHNAWs. However, the thyroid cancer rate was elevated among Arab American women compared with NHNAWs, Hispanics, and Blacks. For all sites combined, for prostate and lung cancer, Arab American men had a lower incidence than Blacks and higher incidence than Hispanics in all 3 geographic regions. Arab American male bladder cancer incidence was higher than that in Hispanics and Blacks in these regions. Conclusions. Our results suggested that further research would benefit from the federal recognition of Arab Americans as a specified ethnicity to estimate and address the cancer burden in this growing segment of the population. PMID:24825237

  6. Cancer incidence predictions in the North of Portugal: keeping population-based cancer registration up to date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Clara; Antunes, Luís; Lunet, Nuno; Bento, Maria José

    2016-09-01

    Decision making towards cancer prevention and control requires monitoring of trends in cancer incidence and accurate estimation of its burden in different settings. We aimed to estimate the number of incident cases in northern Portugal for 2015 and 2020 (all cancers except nonmelanoma skin and for the 15 most frequent tumours). Cancer cases diagnosed in 1994-2009 were collected by the North Region Cancer Registry of Portugal (RORENO) and corresponding population figures were obtained from Statistics Portugal. JoinPoint regression was used to analyse incidence trends. Population projections until 2020 were derived by RORENO. Predictions were performed using the Poisson regression models proposed by Dyba and Hakulinen. The number of incident cases is expected to increase by 18.7% in 2015 and by 37.6% in 2020, with lower increments among men than among women. For most cancers considered, the number of cases will keep rising up to 2020, although decreasing trends of age-standardized rates are expected for some tumours. Cervix was the only cancer with a decreasing number of incident cases in the entire period. Thyroid and lung cancers were among those with the steepest increases in the number of incident cases expected for 2020, especially among women. In 2020, the top five cancers are expected to account for 82 and 62% of all cases diagnosed in men and women, respectively. This study contributes to a broader understanding of cancer burden in the north of Portugal and provides the basis for keeping population-based incidence estimates up to date.

  7. MET and Small-Cell Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Gelsomino

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Small-cell lung cancer (SCLC is one of the most aggressive lung tumors. The majority of patients with SCLC are diagnosed at an advanced stage. This tumor type is highly sensitive to chemo-radiation treatment, with very high response rates, but invariably relapses. At this time, treatment options are still limited and the prognosis of these patients is poor. A better knowledge of the molecular biology of SCLC allowed us to identify potential druggable targets. Among these, the MET/HGF axis seems to be one of the most aberrant signaling pathways involved in SCLC invasiveness and progression. In this review, we describe briefly all recent literature on the different molecular profiling in SCLC; in particular, we discuss the specific alterations involving c-MET gene and their implications as a potential target in SCLC.

  8. MET and Small-Cell Lung Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gelsomino, Francesco, E-mail: francesco.gelsomino@istitutotumori.mi.it [Medical Oncology Unit 1, Medical Oncology Department, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale Tumori, Via G. Venezian 1, 20133 Milano (Italy); Rossi, Giulio [Operative Unit of Pathology, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria Policlinico, Via del Pozzo 71, 41124 Modena (Italy); Tiseo, Marcello [Medical Oncology Unit, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria, Viale A. Gramsci 14, 43126 Parma (Italy)

    2014-10-13

    Small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) is one of the most aggressive lung tumors. The majority of patients with SCLC are diagnosed at an advanced stage. This tumor type is highly sensitive to chemo-radiation treatment, with very high response rates, but invariably relapses. At this time, treatment options are still limited and the prognosis of these patients is poor. A better knowledge of the molecular biology of SCLC allowed us to identify potential druggable targets. Among these, the MET/HGF axis seems to be one of the most aberrant signaling pathways involved in SCLC invasiveness and progression. In this review, we describe briefly all recent literature on the different molecular profiling in SCLC; in particular, we discuss the specific alterations involving c-MET gene and their implications as a potential target in SCLC.

  9. [THE ROLE OF ESTROGENS IN THE CARCINOGENESIS OF LUNG CANCER].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchikova, E; Uchikov, A; Dimitrakova, E; Uchikov, P

    2016-01-01

    Morbidity and mortality from lung cancer has dramatically increased in women as compared to men over the past few years. Historically, smoking has been considered the major risk factor for lung cancer regardless of gender. Several recent lines of evidence implicate gender differences in the observed differences in prevalence and histologic type which cannot be explained based on the carcinogenic action of nicotine. Several recent studies underscore the importance of reproductive and hormonal factors in the carcinogenesis of lung cancer Lung cancer morbidity and mortality in Bulgaria was 16.2/100000 women and 14.6/ 100000 women, resp. Lung cancer morbidity in Europe was 39/100000 women. Lung cancer is extremely sensitive to estrogens. The latter act directly or as effect modifiers for the relationship between smoking and lung cancer. Further research examining the relationship between serum estrogen levels and the estrogen receptor expression in normal and tumor lung tissue samples can help elucidate the importance of reproductive and hormonal (exogenous and endogenous) factors in the carcinogenesis of lung cancer.

  10. Primary non-small cell lung cancer in a transplanted lung treated with stereotactic body radiation therapy. A case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oskan, F.; University Hospital of Saarland, Homburg; Ganswindt, U.; Belka, C.; Manapov, F.

    2014-01-01

    The first case of primary lung cancer in a transplanted lung was described in 2001. Since then, only 5 cases of lung cancer in donated lung have been reported. We present one more patient with non-small cell cancer in the transplanted lung treated with stereotactic body radiation therapy. In most cases of primary lung cancer in transplanted lung, rapid progression of the cancer was reported. Occurrence of the locoregional failure in our case could be explained by factors related to the treatment protocol and also to underlying immunosuppression.

  11. Cannabis Use, Lung Cancer, and Related Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Emily; Jett, James; Warren, Graham; Cummings, K Michael

    2018-01-24

    The cannabis plant and its derivatives have been exploited for centuries for recreational and medicinal purposes with millions of regular users around the world. The recreational use of cannabis is reflective of its neuropsychiatric effects such as anxiolysis and euphoria. However, cannabis appears to have an emerging therapeutic role, especially in chronic disease and as an adjunct to cancer treatment. Increasing evidence supports cannabis in the management of chemotherapy induced nausea and vomiting and for pain management, but studies are limited particularly by difficulties associated with standardized dosing estimates and inability to accurately assess biologic activities of compounds in cannabis and derivative products. Smoking cannabis has not been proven to be a risk factor in the development of lung cancer but the data are limited by small studies, misclassification due to self-reporting of usage, small numbers of heavy cannabis smoking and confounding of risk associated with known causative agents for lung cancer such as parallel chronic tobacco use. Cannabis and its biologically effective derivatives warrant additional research, ideally controlled trials where the CBD and the THC strength and usage are controlled and documented. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Radon and lung cancer: an epidemiological study in Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stranden, E.; Strand, T.; Magnus, K.; James, A.C.; Green, B.M.R.

    1988-01-01

    The objectives and strategy of an epidemiological study on the effects of exposure to radon in Norwegian dwellings is presented. The study is a cooperation between the National Institute of Radiation Hygiene and the Norwegian Cancer Registry in Norway and the National Radiological Protection Board of the United Kingdom, with funding by the Norwegian Cancer Society. Measurements of radon are being made in 10,000 dwellings representing all Norwegian municipalities. The potential for detecting an effect of radon exposure by such a study in Norway is unique because: (1) Radon concentrations are high and there are large regional variations. (2) Data from the Norwegian Cancer Registry is of high quality: all cancers have been subject to compulsory reporting since 1955. These data can be broken down according to municipality, sex and age. (3) In 1964/1965 a large scale survey of smoking habits was carried out in Norway. These data can also be broken down according to municipality, sex and age, and by types of smoking and smoking rate. It is intended to examine the correlation between lung cancer incidence and geographical variation in radon levels after making allowance for smoking habits. Radon measurements were started in early 1987 and the results of the study are expected to be published in 1989. (author)

  13. [Assessment of nutritional status in patients with primary lung cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chermiti Ben Abdallah, Fatma; Ben Saïd, Hanène; Chamkhi, Najiba; Ferchichi, Marwa; Chtourou, Amel; Taktak, Sofia; Ben Kheder, Ali

    2013-10-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. Malnutrition is a common problem among patients with cancer, affecting up to 85% of patients with certain cancers and represents a risk factor for poor prognosis. aim: evaluate nutritional status in patients with lung cancer before and during treatment using nutritional risk index. it's a prospective study conducted in pneumology IV department in Abderahman Mami hospital, from January to May 2011. 30 male patients with a lung cancer were included. Nutritional status was assessed before and during treatment based on anthropometric measures, biological markers and nutritional risk index (NRI). Mean age of patients was 58 ± 12 years, ranging from 19 to 82 years. 29 patients had non small cell lung cancer and one patient had small cell cancer. Malnutrition was noted in 14 patients (47%) before treatment according to the NRI. It was noted in 23 patients (77%) after three cycles of chemotherapy with severe malnutrition in 8 patients. Relationship between body mass index (BMI) and the NRI was linear, but NRI tends to evaluate more objectively risk of malnutrition in patients with lung cancer. Nutritional assessment in patient with lung cancer should be performed systematically, early and repeatedly. Several markers can be used such as BMI and NRI. Nutritional support will reduce morbidity and improve quality of life in patients with lung cancer.

  14. Prostate cancer in Denmark. Incidence, morbidity and mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brasso, K; Iversen, Peter

    1999-01-01

    Prostate cancer incidence and mortality rates in Denmark are reviewed for a 50-year period from 1943 to 1992. The prostate cancer incidence rate nearly tripled and prostate cancer mortality rate increased during this period. Until recently in Denmark the routine management of prostate cancer has...... been by deferred hormonal therapy. Morbidity and mortality associated with prostate cancer are analysed in a group of 1459 patients aged 55-74 years, who were diagnosed as having clinically localized prostate cancer in the 5-year period 1983 to 1987. In this group of patients prostate cancer...

  15. The Role of Proteasome Inhibition in Nonsmall Cell Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Escobar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer therapy with current available chemotherapeutic agents is mainly palliative. For these and other reasons there is now a great interest to find targeted therapies that can be effective not only palliating lung cancer or decreasing treatment-related toxicity, but also giving hope to cure these patients. It is already well known that the ubiquitin-proteasome system like other cellular pathways is critical for the proliferation and survival of cancer cells; thus, proteosome inhibition has become a very attractive anticancer therapy. There are several phase I and phase II clinical trials now in non-small cell lung cancer and small cell lung cancer using this potential target. Most of the trials use bortezomib in combination with chemotherapeutic agents. This paper tends to make a state-of-the-art review based on the available literature regarding the use of bortezomib as a single agent or in combination with chemotherapy in patients with lung cancer.

  16. Lymphopenia after mediastinal irradiation in lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Yoon Kyeong; Park, Hee Chul; Lee, Seung Il; Ryu, So Yeon; Kee, Keun Hong; Jeon, Ho Jong; Ha, Chul Soo

    2002-01-01

    This study was undertaken to retrospectively evaluate white blood cell kinetics, especially lymphocyte depression after different treatment, and to find the correlation between immunosuppression and large blood volume and dynamic blood flow within the mediastinal radiotherapy (RT) field in lung cancer. Thirty-four patients with lung cancer were retrospectively evaluated: 10 patients had only radiotherapy (RT group), 8 had chemotherapy (CT group) and 16 had chemotherapy and radiotherapy (RT/CT group). The mean follow-up periods of the RT-including groups (RT group and RT/CT group) and the RT-excluding group (CT group) were 6 and 8 months, respectively. Complete blood cell count including lymphocyte percentage (%) were checked weekly during RT but less frequently during CT and after RT. Changes in total white blood cell counts were not significantly different among the three groups. The lymphocyte count and lymphocyte % were much lower in the RT-including groups than in the RT-excluding group. The difference between pre-treatment and final lymphocyte count and the difference between pre-treatment and final lymphocyte % were significant (ρ = 0.044 and ρ = 0.037) between the RT-including groups and the RT-excluding group. Lymphopenia was more marked after treatment containing RT than CT only. Lymphopenia may be one cause of a compromised immune system after mediastinal irradiation in lung cancer. We suggest cautiously that previous studies showing evidence of lymphocyte apoptosis after low-dose irradiation and large blood volume and dynamic blood flow within the RT fields could be somewhat related to lymphopenia after mediastinal irradiation

  17. Public Preferences for Lung Cancer Screening Policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broekhuizen, Henk; Groothuis-Oudshoorn, Catharina G M; Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn; Groen, Harry; IJzerman, Maarten J

    Because early detection of lung cancer can substantially improve survival, there is increasing attention for lung cancer screening. To estimate public preferences for lung cancer screening and to identify subgroups in preferences. Seven important attributes were selected using the literature, interviews, and a panel session. Preferences were elicited using a swing weighting questionnaire. The resulting attribute weights indicate the relative importance of swings from the worst to the best level between attributes. Hierarchical clustering was used to identify subgroups with different attribute weights. One thousand thirty-four respondents from a representative Dutch panel aged between 40 and 80 years were included. The identified attributes were location of screening (weight = 0.18 ± 0.16), mode of screening (weight = 0.17 ± 0.14), sensitivity (weight = 0.16 ± 0.13) and specificity (weight = 0.13 ± 0.12) of the screening modality, waiting time until results (weight = 0.13 ± 0.12), radiation burden (weight = 0.13 ± 0.12), and duration of screening procedure (weight = 0.10 ± 0.09). Most respondents preferred breath analysis (45%) to giving blood samples (31%) or going through a scanner (24%) as screening modality; 59% preferred screening at the general practitioner's office instead of at the hospital. There was a significant difference in education between the five identified preference subgroups (P screening. Different screening policies and implementation strategies may be appropriate for particular preference subgroups. Our results indicate that people prefer breath analysis and that they are more likely to attend screening modalities that can be used at a primary care facility. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Incidence of colorectal cancer in young patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Fábio Guilherme C M DE; Figueiredo, Marleny Novaes; Monteiro, Mariane; Nahas, Sérgio Carlos; Cecconello, Ivan

    2017-01-01

    Sporadic colorectal cancer (CRC) is traditionally diagnosed after de sixth decade of life, although a small percentage of cases are diagnosed in patients under 40 years of age, and incidence is increasing. There exists a great volume of controversy regarding clinical outcome of young patients diagnosed with colorectal cancer (CRC) when compared to elder counterparts. Our aims were to evaluate the rate of CRC in young patients, to review the pertaining literature and to discuss outcomes and clinical prognosis. A retrospective review involving patients with CRC was undertaken, focusing on age at diagnosis. The information extracted from this literature review showed a trend towards a decreased incidence in older people with an opposite effect among adolescents and young adults. Moreover, biological aggressiveness in young adults diagnosed with CRC has not been fully recognized, although it is usually diagnosed later and in association with adverse histological features. Besides that, these features don't affect outcome. These apparent increase in CRC incidence among young patients during the last decades raises the need for a greater suspicious when evaluating common symptoms in this group. Thus, educational programs should widespread information for both population and physicians to improve prevention and early diagnosis results. RESUMO O câncer colorretal (CCR) esporádico é tradicionalmente diagnosticado após a sexta década de vida, embora uma pequena porcentagem de casos seja diagnosticada em doentes abaixo dos 40 anos de idade, e a incidência está aumentando. Existe uma grande controvérsia a respeito da evolução clínica de doentes jovens portadores de CCR em comparação aos mais idosos. Os objetivos deste estudo foram avaliar a prevalência de CCR em doentes jovens, rever a literatura pertinente e discutir suas características mais importantes nesta faixa etária. Para tanto realizou-se revisão da literatura envolvendo doentes com CCR com foco na

  19. Serial HRCT lung changes after 3-field radiation treatment of breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ooi, G.C.; Kwong, D.L.W.; Chan, K.N.; Ngan, H.; Lock, D.T.W.; Lam, W.K.; Chan, F.L.; Au, G.; Tsang, K.W.T

    2000-11-01

    AIMS: To document serial high resolution computed tomography (HRCT) features of lung injury after 3-field radiotherapy for breast cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty women who received opposing tangential chest wall and supraclavicular field (SCF) irradiation after breast surgery were recruited. Thoracic HRCT was performed before and at 1, 3, 6 and 12 months after radiotherapy (RT). Lung injury at 3 months was quantified by applying a scoring system to each HRCT section. Findings were correlated with spirometric lung function tests. RESULTS: There was HRCT evidence of lung injury in 27 (90%) women at 1 month and in all 30 patients at 3 months. Spirometric lung function declined post-RT (P < 0.05), correlating with an increased SCF acute lung injury score at 3 months [r = -0.54 and -0.46, P 0.01 and 0.03 for forced expiratory volume in 1st (FEV{sub 1}) and forced vital capacity (FVC), respectively]. Lung injury on HRCT progressed from ground glass opacification at 1 month to nodular consolidation (3 months), increasing linear densities (6 months), and finally to residual subpleural linear and dense opacities (12 months). CONCLUSION: There is a high incidence of lung injury associated with 3-field radiotherapy for breast cancer, with concurrent SCF irradiation increasing the risk of lung damage and functional impairment. A characteristic sequence of HRCT changes is seen in most patients receiving this type of radiotherapy. Ooi, G.C. (2000)

  20. A Case-control Study on Non-smoking Primary Lung Cancers in Sichuan, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feifei LIU

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective The incidence of lung cancer in non-smokers is increasing in recent years. The aim of this investigation is to explore main risk factors of non-smoking primary lung cancers in Sichuan province in order to provide more accurate data for clinical. Methods One hundred and fourty-five non-smoking pairs of cases and 145 of controls were matched by age and sex. The patients were newly-diagnosed definitely as primary lung cancer at West China Hospital of Sichuan University from March to December 2009. Results Seventeen exposure factors were explored as epidemic agents for non-smoking lung cancer in Sichuan by using univariate analysis; mutivariate conditional Logistic regression analysis showed that passive smoking, moved into newly renovated homes over the past 10 years, family cancer history from second/third-degree relatives, lack of emotion regulation, heavy work pressure and poor quality of sleep were main risk agents for the non-smoking lung cancer incidence with OR 2.267 (95%CI: 1.231-4.177, 5.080 (95%CI: 1.632-15.817, 7.937 (95%CI: 1.815-34.705, 2.491 (95%CI: 1.230-4.738, 5.769 (95%CI: 2.030-16.396, 2.538 (95%CI: 1.277-4.861, respectively. While higher body mass index, eating fruit and vegetable and regular participating in physical exercise might be protective factors with OR 0.419 (95%CI: 0.226-0.779, 0.344 (95%CI: 0.155-0.762, 0.507 (95%CI: 0.274-0.937, respectively. Conclusion The occurrence of non-smoking primary lung cancer associated with a variety of exposure factors including passive smoking, history of exposure to harmful environmental, family cancer history, mental and psychological factors in Sichuan Province.

  1. Psychosocial consequences of allocation to lung cancer screening: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggestrup, Louise Mosborg; Hestbech, Mie Sara; Siersma, Volkert; Pedersen, Jesper Holst; Brodersen, John

    2012-01-01

    To examine the psychosocial consequences of being allocated to the control group as compared with the screen group in a randomised lung cancer screening trial. The Danish Lung Cancer Screening Trial, a randomised controlled trial, ran from 2004 to 2010 with the purpose of investigating the benefits and harms of lung cancer screening. The participants in Danish Lung Cancer Screening Trial were randomised to either the control group or the screen group and were asked to complete the questionnaires Consequences Of Screening and Consequences Of Screening in Lung Cancer (COS-LC). The Consequences Of Screening and the COS-LC were used to examine the psychosocial consequences of participating in the study, by comparing the control and the screen groups' responses at the prevalence and at the incidence round. There was no statistically significant difference in socio-demographic characteristics or smoking habits between the two groups. Responses to the COS-LC collected before the incidence round were statistically significantly different on the scales 'anxiety', 'behaviour', 'dejection', 'self-blame', 'focus on airway symptoms' and 'introvert', with the control group reporting higher negative psychosocial consequences. Furthermore, the participants in both the control and the screen groups exhibited a mean increase in negative psychosocial consequences when their responses from the prevalence round were compared with their responses from the first incidence round. Participation in a randomised controlled trial on lung cancer screening has negative psychosocial consequences for the apparently healthy participants-both the participants in the screen group and the control group. This negative impact was greatest for the control group.

  2. Treatment of initially metastatic small-cell lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohutek, F.; Bystricky, B.; Tamasova, M.

    2013-01-01

    Lung cancer (LC) is the most common cause of death associated with neoplasms. The incidence of LC in 2007 was 71.3/100,000 men and 18.6/100,000 women in Slovakia. Small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) includes 15 - 18% of all cases. The diagnosis of LC is based on patient's history, physical examination, basic laboratory tests, x-ray imaging and computed tomography (CT) imaging and histology. The material required for histology can be obtained by means of endoscopy or surgery. Ultrasonography (USG) and/or CT of abdomen is commonly performed as a part of staging process, along with CT or MRI of brain. Bone scan is performed in case of suspicion of bone involvement. According to TNM classification, seventh edition, the same classification can be used for SCLC and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Chemotherapy and radiotherapy are available for treatment of initially metastatic SCLC. First-line chemotherapy regimen should be based on combination of cisplatin or carboplatin with etoposide (PE). Alternatively, CAV regimen (cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine) can be used. Newer regimens did not provide benefit when compared to standard regimens. If progression occurs later than 3 months after finishing first-line chemotherapy, the same regimen may be used in second-line chemotherapy. If progression occurs earlier than 3 months after finishing first-line chemotherapy, topotecan-based regimen is an option for second-line line chemotherapy. Despite promising outcomes of amrubicin-based second-line chemotherapy in Japan, amrubicin is not available in countries of E U. Standard therapy schedules do not include radiotherapy targeted on primary tumor and affected lymph-nodes. According to American and European guidelines, prophylactic cranial irradiation is recommended for patients with extensive disease-SCLC with good performance status after achieving complete or partial response to first-line chemotherapy. (author)

  3. Genetic Variation in GSTP1, Lung Function, Risk of Lung Cancer, and Mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørskov, Marianne S.; Dahl, Morten; Tybjærg-Hansen, Anne

    2017-01-01

    66,069 individuals from the white general population for two common functional variants in the glutathione S-transferase pi 1 gene (GSTP1)—amino acid isoleucine 105 changed to a valine (Ile105Val) and amino acid alanine 114 changed to a valine (Ala114Val)—and recorded lung function, lung cancer......, tobacco-related cancer, and death as outcomes. Results Lung function was increased stepwise with the Ile105Val genotype overall (p smokers separately (p

  4. Linking the generation of DNA adducts to lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceppi, Marcello; Munnia, Armelle; Cellai, Filippo; Bruzzone, Marco; Peluso, Marco E M

    2017-09-01

    Worldwide, lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death. DNA adducts are considered a reliable biomarker that reflects carcinogen exposure to tobacco smoke, but the central question is what is the relationship of DNA adducts and cancer? Therefore, we investigated this relationship by a meta-analysis of twenty-two studies with bronchial adducts for a total of 1091 subjects, 887 lung cancer cases and 204 apparently healthy individuals with no evidence of lung cancer. Our study shows that these adducts are significantly associated to increase lung cancer risk. The value of Mean Ratio lung-cancer (MR) of bronchial adducts resulting from the random effects model was 2.64, 95% C.I. 2.00-3.50, in overall lung cancer cases as compared to controls. The significant difference, with lung cancer patients having significant higher levels of bronchial adducts than controls, persisted after stratification for smoking habits. The MR lung-cancer value between lung cancer patients and controls for smokers was 2.03, 95% C.I. 1.42-2.91, for ex-smokers 3.27, 95% C.I. 1.49-7.18, and for non-smokers was 3.81, 95% C.I. 1.85-7.85. Next, we found that the generation of bronchial adducts is significantly related to inhalation exposure to tobacco smoke carcinogens confirming its association with volatile carcinogens. The MR smoking estimate of bronchial adducts resulting from meta-regression was 2.28, 95% Confidence Interval (C.I.) 1.10-4.73, in overall smokers in respect to non-smokers. The present work provides strengthening of the hypothesis that bronchial adducts are not simply relate to exposure, but are a cause of chemical-induced lung cancer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Environmental determinants of lung cancer in Shenyang, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Z Y; Blot, W J; Li, G; Fraumeni, J F; Zhao, D Z; Stone, B J; Yin, Q; Wu, A; Henderson, B E; Guan, B P

    1991-01-01

    To investigate determinants of the high rates of lung cancer in Shenyang, an industrial city in north-eastern China, a case-control study was conducted. Interviews with 1249 lung cancer patients and 1345 population-based controls revealed that cigarette smoking was the main cause of lung cancer. Smoking accounted for 55% of the lung tumours in men and 37% in women. In addition, air pollution from coal-burning heating and cooking devices was significantly linked to lung cancer, with risks rising in proportion to duration of exposure to indoor pollutants. Measurement of benzo[a]pyrene revealed average wintertime levels in air that were nearly 60 times the recommended upper limit for US cities, with even higher concentrations indoors in traditional single-storey homes using coal-burning kang (stoves). Occupational factors were also involved, the risk being elevated by three fold among smelter workers. Soil levels of arsenic and other metals rose with increasing proximity to the Shenyang copper smelter, and elevated risks of lung cancer were found among men, but not women, living within 1 km of its central stacks. Prior nonmalignant lung disease was common and was reported more often among the lung cancer patients than among controls. The findings suggest that cigarette smoking and environmental pollutants combine to account for most of the excess risk of lung cancer in this population.

  6. Lung cancer probability in patients with CT-detected pulmonary nodules : a prespecified analysis of data from the NELSON trial of low-dose CT screening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horeweg, Nanda; van Rosmalen, Joost; Heuvelmans, Marjolein A.; van der Aalst, Carlijn M.; Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn; Scholten, Ernst Th; ten Haaf, Kevin; Nackaerts, Kristiaan; Lammers, Jan-Willem J.; Weenink, Carla; Groen, Harry J.; van Ooijen, Peter; de Jong, Pim A.; de Bock, Geertruida H.; Mali, Willem; de Koning, Harry J.; Oudkerk, Matthijs

    2014-01-01

    Background The main challenge in CT screening for lung cancer is the high prevalence of pulmonary nodules and the relatively low incidence of lung cancer. Management protocols use thresholds for nodule size and growth rate to determine which nodules require additional diagnostic procedures, but

  7. Role of SOX4 on DDP Resistance in Non-small Cell Lung Cancer Cell of A549

    OpenAIRE

    Wei LI; Xu LIU; Guoqian ZHANG; Linlin ZHANG

    2017-01-01

    Background and objective Lung cancer is one of the most serious disease and the incidence of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the highest in lung cancer. The main reason for the failure of chemotherapy is the tolerance to cisplatin. Transcriptional regulator SOX4 plays an important role in the occurrence and development of many tumors, and regulates Wnt signaling pathway by regulating the expression of β-catenin. We aimed to investigate the role of SOX4 on cisplatin-resistance in NSCLC c...

  8. Advanced Research of Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor 
in Non-small Cell Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan PU

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer is severely threatening human health. In recent years, the treatment for lung adenocarcinoma has made a great progress, targeted therapy has been widely applied in clinic, and benefits amount of patients. However, in squamous cell lung cancer, the incidence of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR gene mutant and ALK fusion gene are low,and targeted therapy like Tarceva and crizotinib, can hardly work. Since the fibroblast growth factors (fibroblast growth factor, FGF pathway is considered to be related to tumor cell proliferation, metastasis and angiogenesis, more and more researches proved the amplification of fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR in squamous cell lung cancer. Experiments in vivo and in vitro found that blocking FGF pathway could reduce the proliferation of tumor cells and inhibit metastasis. The FGF pathway might be a new target for treatment of squamous cell lung cancer. This article reviews the effect of FGFR in tumorigenesis,as well as the prospect as a therapeutic target in non-small cell lung cancer.

  9. Females\\' esophagus cancer incidence in Golestan Province, Iran ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Esophagus cancer is one of the most common cancers in women and therefore represents a major problem in public health. The main aim of this study was to find and describe province-specific estimates of incidence in females by age groups for esophagus cancer. The data used in this study were collected in a cancer ...

  10. Cervical cancer incidence and mortality in Fiji 2003-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuehn, Rebecca; Fong, James; Taylor, Richard; Gyaneshwar, Rajanishwar; Carter, Karen

    2012-08-01

    Previous studies indicate that cervical cancer is the second most frequent cancer and most common cause of cancer mortality among women in Fiji. There is little published data on the epidemiology of cervical cancer in Pacific countries. To determine the incidence 2003-2009 of, and mortality 2003-2008 from, cervical cancer by ethnicity and period in Fiji, identify evidence of secular change and relate these data to other Pacific countries, Australia and New Zealand. Counts of incident cervical cancer cases (2003-2009) and unit record mortality data (2003-2008) from the Fiji Ministry of Health were used to calculate age-standardised (to the WHO World Population) cervical cancer incidence and mortality rates, and cervical or uterine cancer mortality rates, by ethnicity, with 95% confidence intervals. On the basis of comparison of cervical cancer mortality with cervical or uterine cancer mortality in Fiji with similar populations, misclassification of cervical cancer deaths is unlikely. There is no evidence of secular change in cervical cancer incidence and mortality rates for the study period. For women of all ages and ethnicities, the age-standardised incidence rate of cervical cancer (2003-2009) was 27.6 per 100,000 (95% CI 25.4-29.8) and the age-standardised mortality rate (2003-2008) was 23.9 per 100,000 (95% CI 21.5-26.4). The mortality/incidence ratio was 87%. Fijians had statistically significant higher age-standardised incidence and mortality rates than Indians. Fiji has one of the highest estimated rates of cervical cancer incidence and mortality in the Pacific region. Cervical cancer screening in Fiji needs to be expanded and strengthened. © 2012 The Authors ANZJOG © 2012 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  11. Prediction of cancer incidence in Tyrol/Austria for year of diagnosis 2020.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberaigner, Willi; Geiger-Gritsch, Sabine

    2014-10-01

    Prediction of the number of incident cancer cases is very relevant for health planning purposes and allocation of resources. The shift towards elder age groups in central European populations in the next decades is likely to contribute to an increase in cancer incidence for many cancer sites. In Tyrol, cancer incidence data have been registered on a high level of completeness for more than 20 years. We therefore aimed to compute well-founded predictions of cancer incidence for Tyrol for the year 2020 for all frequent cancer sites and for all cancer sites combined. After defining a prediction base range for every cancer site, we extrapolated the age-specific time trends in the prediction base range following a linear model for increasing and a log-linear model for decreasing time trends. The extrapolated time trends were evaluated for the year 2020 applying population figures supplied by Statistics Austria. Compared with the number of annual incident cases for the year 2009 for all cancer sites combined except non-melanoma skin cancer, we predicted an increase of 235 (15 %) and 362 (21 %) for females and males, respectively. For both sexes, more than 90 % of the increase is attributable to the shift toward older age groups in the next decade. The biggest increase in absolute numbers is seen for females in breast cancer (92, 21 %), lung cancer (64, 52 %), colorectal cancer (40, 24 %), melanoma (38, 30 %) and the haematopoietic system (37, 35 %) and for males in prostate cancer (105, 25 %), colorectal cancer (91, 45 %), the haematopoietic system (71, 55 %), bladder cancer (69, 100 %) and melanoma (64, 52 %). The increase in the number of incident cancer cases of 15 % in females and 21 % in males in the next decade is very relevant for planning purposes. However, external factors cause uncertainty in the prediction of some cancer sites (mainly prostate cancer and colorectal cancer) and the prediction intervals are still broad. Therefore

  12. Lung cancer patients frequently visit the emergency room for cancer-related and -unrelated issues

    OpenAIRE

    KOTAJIMA, FUTOSHI; KOBAYASHI, KUNIHIKO; SAKAGUCHI, HIROZO; NEMOTO, MANABU

    2014-01-01

    Lung cancer patients visit the emergency room (ER) for cancer-related and -unrelated reasons more often compared to patients with other types of cancer. This results in increased admissions and deaths in the ER. In this study, we retrospectively reviewed the characteristics of lung cancer patients visiting the ER in order to optimize the utilization of emergency medical services and improve the patients’ quality of life. Lung cancer patients visiting the ER of a single institution over a 2-ye...

  13. Socioeconomic inequalities in lung cancer mortality in 16 European populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heyden, J. H. A.; Schaap, M. M.; Kunst, A. E.; Esnaola, S.; Borrell, C.; Cox, B.; Leinsalu, M.; Stirbu, I.; Kalediene, R.; Deboosere, P.; Mackenbach, J. P.; van Oyen, H.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This paper aims to describe socioeconomic inequalities in lung cancer mortality in Europe and to get further insight into socioeconomic inequalities in lung cancer mortality in different European populations by relating these to socioeconomic inequalities in overall mortality and smoking

  14. aetiopathology and management challenges of lung cancer in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-04-01

    Apr 1, 2011 ... Background: There are newer diagnostic and therapeutic armamentaria for primary lung cancer. Application of molecular genetics in lung cancer management is evolving rapidly. However, the traditional knowledge and practices that were applicable before the 1980s still hold sway in most developing ...

  15. Coincidence of lung cancer and silicosis in Czechoslovak uranium miners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urban, S.; Urbanova, S.

    1988-01-01

    27 patients with established coincidence of lung cancer and silicosis from a group of 1607 cases of lung cancer from radioactive compounds, and 166 cases of pneumoconiosis were reported by the Occupational Diseases Ward of the works Institute of National Health in Uranium Industry in the 1962 to 1986 years. Lung cancer was found in 16% of reported silicosis patients, in 81% it was simple silicosis, in 50% of cases in was an epidermoid type of cancer. In two cases the malignant process originated in the silicotic node, in one case from a tuberculoma. Lung cancer occurred most frequently in the right lower lung region. The mean age of the silicosis group was 48.6 years and 56.0 years for the lung cancer group. No difference was thus seen from the mean age of patients with lung cancer from radioactive compounds diagnosed in the years 1976 to 1980 but it was significantly lower that the reported average age of patients with coincidence of lung cancer and pneumoconiosis in the population not exposed to ionizing radiation. (author). 2 figs., 1 tab., 18 refs

  16. Occupational lung cancer risk among men in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Preller, L.; Balder, H.F.; Tielemans, E.; Brandt, P.A. van den; Goldbohm, R.A.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: To assess male lung cancer risks for industrial sectors in the Netherlands and to estimate the proportion of lung cancer attributed to working in specific industrial sectors. Methods: Associations were studied among men aged 55-69 years (n = 58 279) from the prospective Netherlands

  17. Improving lung cancer survival: Time to move on

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.E. Heuvers (Marlies)

    2013-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ In 1761, lung cancer was first described as a distinct disease based on autopsies by Giovanni Morgagni. In 1810, Gaspard Laurent Bayle described lung cancer in more detail in his book entitled Recherches sur la phthisie pulmonaire. At that time it was an extremely

  18. Choroidal metastases as the initial presentation of lung cancer: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Clinical reports of symptomatic intraocular metastasis as the initial presentation of lung cancer are rare. We report the case of a 49-year-old female patient who presented with loss of vision due to choroidal metastases as the initial manifestation of her disseminated lung cancer. This particular patient was referred to us from ...

  19. SCREENING FOR LUNG CANCER BY IMAGING : THE NELSON STUDY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oudkerk, M.; Heuvelmans, M. A.

    2013-01-01

    The NELSON trial is the first randomised lung cancer screening trial in which pulmonary nodule management is based on volumetry. This led to considerably less false-positive referrals compared to other lung cancer screening trials, with very high negative predictive values found in the first and

  20. Aetiopathology and Management Challenges of Lung Cancer in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: There are newer diagnostic and therapeutic armamentaria for primary lung cancer. Application of molecular genetics in lung cancer management is evolving rapidly. However, the traditional knowledge and practices that were applicable before the 1980s still hold sway in most developing countries. Objective: ...

  1. Queensland Lung Cancer Screening Study: rationale, design and methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, H M; Bowman, R V; Crossin, J; Lau, M A; Slaughter, R E; Passmore, L H; McCaul, E M; Courtney, D A; Windsor, M N; Yang, I A; Smith, I R; Keir, B J; Hayes, T J; Redmond, S J; Zimmerman, P V; Fong, K M

    2013-02-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality in Australia. Screening using low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) can reduce lung cancer mortality. The feasibility of screening in Australia is unknown. This paper describes the rationale, design and methods of the Queensland Lung Cancer Screening Study. The aim of the study is to describe the methodology for a feasibility study of lung cancer screening by LDCT in Australia. The Queensland Lung Cancer Screening Study is an ongoing, prospective observational study of screening by LDCT at a single tertiary institution. Healthy volunteers at high risk of lung cancer (age 60-74 years; smoking history ≥30 pack years, current or quit within 15 years; forced expiratory volume in 1s ≥50% predicted) are recruited from the general public through newspaper advertisement and press release. Participants receive a LDCT scan of the chest at baseline, year 1 and year 2 using a multidetector helical computed tomography scanner and are followed up for a total of 5 years. Feasibility of screening will be assessed by cancer detection rates, lung nodule prevalence, optimal management strategies for lung nodules, economic costs, healthcare utilisation and participant quality of life. Studying LDCT screening in the Australian setting will help us understand how differences in populations, background diseases and healthcare structures modulate screening effectiveness. This information, together with results from overseas randomised studies, will inform and facilitate local policymaking. © 2012 The Authors; Internal Medicine Journal © 2012 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  2. Smoking habits in lung cancer patients: a hospital based case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This retrospective, hospital based case-control study was designed to investigate the cigarette smoking history, the relationship between cigarette smoking and the risk of lung cancer in KHMC-Jordan. Six hundred cases with lung cancer (576 males, 24 females) and 600 controls were included in the study. The majority of ...

  3. Urban-rural differences in male cancer incidence and mortality in the Umbria region of Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Stracci

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study is to verify the existence of different rates of cancer incidence and mortality in males in the urban and rural populations of Umbria and to formulate hypotheses as to why this occurs. Methods: Directly age-adjusted incidence rates (AAIR and age-adjusted death rates (AADR were calculated for 1998-2002 and the expected number of rural cases (standardized incidence ratios-SIRs and standardized mortality ratios-SMRs was determined by indirect standardization using urban incidence and mortality. Results: Urban zones have higher AAIR’s for the most common cancer sites. Significantly lower SIRs, in rural areas, were shown for skin melanoma, prostate and bladder cancers and a significantly lower SIR was also determined for the combination of all cancer sites. Lower AADRs in rural areas were demonstrated for the most common cancer sites and significant low SMRs were shown for lung cancer and skin melanoma. Prostate cancer incidence is significantly higher in urban areas whereas the mortality rate is slightly higher in rural municipalities probably due to the effects of the opportunistic screening widely available in Umbria, particularly in zones near diagnostic services. A very similar pattern was found for urinary bladder cancer; this could be related to the association between prostate and bladder cancer sites. Both incidence and mortality from melanoma are significantly lower in rural areas, this may be due to the difficulty in accessing diagnostic services or/and to different occupational exposure patterns. Conclusion: It would appear in Umbria that differences in health services utilization continue to exist. In particular, our results are compatible with a lower diffusion of preventive activities for prostate cancer and skin melanoma in rural areas.

  4. On Academician Behounek's paper ''Lung cancer induced by ionizing radiation''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, J.

    1979-01-01

    The significance and scientific contribution are discussed of the paper ''Lung Cancer Induced by Ionizing Radiation'' submitted by Academician Frantisek Behounek to the nation-wide workshop of the Czechoslovak Society of Pneumology and Oncology in Prague, October 3 and 4, 1952 and published in the Proceedings in 1953. The paper discussed the problem which still remains topical, ie., lung exposure to radon daughters, which Academician Behounek considered to be the true cause of lung cancer in Jachymov miners. (B.S.)

  5. Perfusion lung scintigraphy in primary broncho-pulmonary cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lapergue, Paul.

    1976-01-01

    Research on primary broncho-pulmonary cancer has called extensively on scintigraphy and it seemed interesting to weigh up the pros and cons of the technique in this particular case. Our intention is to sum up objectively from recent documents the applications of scintigraphy in the study of primary broncho-pulmonary cancers and to attempt, on the basis of the results compiled, to show what benefits have been gained from this technique and to find out whether it has any pre-surgical value and of what kind. The technique was invariable; the tracer consists of human albumin macro-aggregates labelled with technetium 99m which by its short half-life and slight penetration enables four exposures to be taken during the same examination (front, back, right and left profiles), thus reducing the risks of mistaken diagnoses due to the use of a single incidence. Similarly the detection method was always the scintillation camera which explores the whole organ at once, considerably shortening the examination time. Lung scintigraphy by perfusion of labelled human albumin macro-aggregates offers the great advantage of being simple to use and harmless. It is easy to understand the important place it has taken in the range of methods available for lung circulation exploration [fr

  6. The Changing Landscape of Lung Cancer Research and Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Along with the Lung Cancer Social Media (#LCSM) community, the National Cancer Institute will be co-hosting a lively and interactive Google Hangout on Air about the changing landscape of lung cancer research and treatment. During the chat, viewers will have the opportunity to pose questions to a panel of lung cancer experts including NCI's Dr. Shakun Malik, the head of thoracic oncology therapeutics, Roy S. Herbst, MD, PhD, Chief of Medical Oncology, Yale Cancer Center and Smilow Cancer Hospital at Yale-New Haven and David Tom Cooke MD FACS, Head, Section of General Thoracic Surgery University of California, Davis. You can also learn more and follow along on the #LCSM Chat page. The chat will be moderated by lung cancer advocate and #LCSM co-founder, Janet Freeman-Daily. To ask questions of our experts, simply use the #LCSM hashtag during the chat.

  7. Incidence of Cancer in Shenzhen, Guangdong Province during 2001–2015: A Retrospective Population-Based Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongyu Xu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Cancer is a serious public health issue and the leading cause of death around the world. This article aimed to estimate the cancer incidence and the trend in standardized cancer incidence in Shenzhen, Guangdong province, South China during 2001–2015 by analyzing the cancer data of the population-based cancer registry in Shenzhen. Data were collected from the cancer registry in Shenzhen, which was conducted during 2001–2015. In this registry, the crude incidence rates, age-specific incidence rates, age-standardized incidence rates and cumulative incidence rates were calculated in every five years. Trends for standardized incidence rates of cancers were analyzed by using the joinpoint regression analysis. In total, 33,374.3 thousand person-years (17,593.9 thousand for males and 15,780.4 thousand for females were monitored over this time period. The number of new cancer cases during 2001–2015 was 59,218 (30,144 and 29,074 for males and females, respectively. The crude incidence during 2001–2005 was 136.44 per 100,000 persons, while the age-standardized rates by Chinese standard population (ASR-China and by world standard population (ASR-world were 165.13 and 212.48 per 100,000 persons, respectively. The crude incidence during 2006–2010 was 179.01 per 100,000 persons, while the ASR-China and ASR-world were 168.08 and 214.44 per 100,000 persons, respectively. The crude incidence during 2011–2015 was 196.53 per 100,000 persons, while the ASR-China and ASR-world were 171.44 and 219.99 per 100,000 persons, respectively. During 2001 and 2015, the joinpoint regression analysis showed that the ASR-China of cancer had an overall increase of 0.96% per year and 0.84% per year for males and females respectively, although both of these values (males and females were non-significant increases. The leading cancer types during 2011–2015 were lung, colorectal, thyroid gland, breast, liver, stomach, cervix, nasopharynx, leukemia and lymphoma. For males

  8. Lung cancer and occupation in New Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerchen, M L; Wiggins, C L; Samet, J M

    1987-10-01

    The association between occupation and lung cancer risk was examined in a population-based, case-control study of 506 patients (333 males and 173 females) and 771 control (499 males and 272 females) subjects in New Mexico. A personal interview was used to obtain lifetime occupational and smoking histories and self-reported history of exposures to specific agents. High-risk jobs were identified in advance of data analysis and linked with industrial and occupational codes for hypothesis testing. For females, lung cancer risk was not associated with employment history, but power was limited. For males, elevated risks were found for the uranium mining industry [odds ratio (OR) = 1.9; 95% confidence internal (CI) = 0.8-4.9], underground miners (OR = 2.1; 95% CI = 1.1-3.7), painters (OR = 2.7; 95% CI = 0.8-8.9), and welders (OR = 3.2; 95% CI = 1.4-7.4). For self-reported exposure to any of 18 agents, only the OR for exposure to "other metals" was elevated. The population attributable risk in males was estimated as 14% for employment in any high-risk industry or occupation with an OR above 1 in this study.

  9. Screening and Biosensor-Based Approaches for Lung Cancer Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lulu Wang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Early diagnosis of lung cancer helps to reduce the cancer death rate significantly. Over the years, investigators worldwide have extensively investigated many screening modalities for lung cancer detection, including computerized tomography, chest X-ray, positron emission tomography, sputum cytology, magnetic resonance imaging and biopsy. However, these techniques are not suitable for patients with other pathologies. Developing a rapid and sensitive technique for early diagnosis of lung cancer is urgently needed. Biosensor-based techniques have been recently recommended as a rapid and cost-effective tool for early diagnosis of lung tumor markers. This paper reviews the recent development in screening and biosensor-based techniques for early lung cancer detection.

  10. Graphic Evolution Witness the Development of Lung Cancer Translational Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao ZHANG

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer treatment has altered from conventional chemotherapy to targeted treatment, which now has been turned to the immunotherapy. Translational research has played an irreplaceable role during this progression which graphic evolution has witnessed. The evolution has gone through forest plot, KM-curve, waterfall plot, spider plot and timeline-area, showing us the refining concept and gradual process of lung cancer treatment undergoing from community towards individual. Even though the latest immunotherapy is getting increasingly hot, the result isn’t quite expected. Meanwhile, the limitations of conventional treatment still exist which require further research. This article will primarily illustrate the development of translational research of lung cancer via the aspect of curve evolution and analysis some abortive clinical trials in lung cancer surgery for inspiring the next graphic style and lung cancer treatment.

  11. Collagenolytic Matrix Metalloproteinases in Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease and Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denzel Woode

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and lung cancer result in significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. In addition to the role of environmental smoke exposure in the development of both diseases, recent epidemiological studies suggests a connection between the development of COPD and lung cancer. Furthermore, individuals with concomitant COPD and cancer have a poor prognosis when compared with individuals with lung cancer alone. The modulation of molecular pathways activated during emphysema likely lead to an increased susceptibility to lung tumor growth and metastasis. This review summarizes what is known in the literature examining the molecular pathways affecting matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs in this process as well as external factors such as smoke exposure that have an impact on tumor growth and metastasis. Increased expression of MMPs provides a unifying link between lung cancer and COPD.

  12. Collagenolytic Matrix Metalloproteinases in Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease and Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woode, Denzel; Shiomi, Takayuki; D’Armiento, Jeanine, E-mail: jmd12@cumc.columbia.edu [Department of Anesthesiology, Columbia University, College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, NY 10033 (United States)

    2015-02-05

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and lung cancer result in significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. In addition to the role of environmental smoke exposure in the development of both diseases, recent epidemiological studies suggests a connection between the development of COPD and lung cancer. Furthermore, individuals with concomitant COPD and cancer have a poor prognosis when compared with individuals with lung cancer alone. The modulation of molecular pathways activated during emphysema likely lead to an increased susceptibility to lung tumor growth and metastasis. This review summarizes what is known in the literature examining the molecular pathways affecting matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in this process as well as external factors such as smoke exposure that have an impact on tumor growth and metastasis. Increased expression of MMPs provides a unifying link between lung cancer and COPD.

  13. Lung cancer risk in welders and foundry workers with a history of heavy smoking in the USA: The National Lung Screening Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Jason Y Y; Bassig, Bryan A; Seow, Wei Jie; Hu, Wei; Ji, Bu-Tian; Blair, Aaron; Silverman, Debra T; Lan, Qing

    2017-06-01

    Foundry work is a risk factor for lung cancer; however, the association with welding is unclear, as smoking is common among metalworkers and may mask the relationship. We evaluated whether history of welding and foundry work, independently and jointly, and employment duration were associated with lung cancer risk in heavy smokers. We analysed data from the National Lung Screening Trial, a prospective randomised trial of 53 454 heavy smokers (>30 pack-years) in the USA. Cox regression models were used to estimate the HRs and 95% CIs of medically/histologically confirmed incident lung cancer during the follow-up period (2002-2009) in relation to history and duration of welding and foundry work assessed via questionnaires, adjusted for screening arm, component study, sex, age, race/ethnicity, education, smoking status and pack-years, body mass index and personal/family medical history. There were 2034 incident lung cancer cases throughout the follow-up. Increasing years of employment in welding (p-trend =0.039) and foundry work (p-trend =0.005) were related to increased lung cancer risk among heavy smokers. Having ever been employed (≥1 yr) as either a welder or foundry worker alone was associated with non-significant increased risks of lung cancer (HR=1.12 (95% CI 0.91 to 1.37) and HR=1.09 (95% CI 0.85 to 1.39), respectively). Further, there was a joint-effect in that those who were ever employed in both occupations had significantly increased risks (HR=1.48 (95% CI 1.08 to 2.04)). Our findings provide further evidence that exposure to welding/metal fumes may be associated with elevated lung cancer risk. NCT00047385. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  14. Effects of long-term exposure to traffic-related air pollution on mortality and lung cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beelen, R.M.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/30483100X

    2008-01-01

    We assessed the association between long-term exposure to air pollution and cause-specific mortality and lung cancer incidence using data from an ongoing cohort study: the Netherlands Cohort Study on Diet and Cancer (NLCS). The NLCS study was initiated in September 1986 with the enrollment of

  15. Cancer incidence and mortality in populations living near uranium milling and mining operations in grants, New Mexico, 1950-2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boice, John D; Mumma, Michael T; Blot, William J

    2010-11-01

    In a previous cohort study of workers engaged in uranium milling and mining activities near Grants, Cibola County, New Mexico, we found lung cancer mortality to be significantly increased among underground miners. Uranium mining took place from early in the 1950s to 1990, and the Grants Uranium Mill operated from 1958-1990. The present study evaluates cancer mortality during 1950-2004 and cancer incidence during 1982-2004 among county residents. Standardized mortality (SMR) and incidence (SIR) ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were computed, with observed numbers of cancer deaths and cases compared to expected values based on New Mexico cancer rates. The total numbers of cancer deaths and incident cancers were close to that expected (SMR 1.04, 95% CI 1.01-1.07; SIR 0.97, 95% CI 0.92-1.02). Lung cancer mortality and incidence were significantly increased among men (SMR 1.11, 95% CI 1.02-1.21; SIR 1.40, 95% CI 1.18-1.64) but not women (SMR 0.97, 95% CI 0.85-1.10; SIR 1.01, 95% CI 0.78-1.29). Similarly, among the population of the three census tracts near the Grants Uranium Mill, lung cancer mortality was significantly elevated among men (SMR 1.57; 95% CI 1.21-1.99) but not women (SMR 1.12; 95% CI 0.75-1.61). Except for an elevation in mortality for stomach cancer among women (SMR 1.30; 95% CI 1.03-1.63), which declined over the 55-year observation period, no significant increases in SMRs or SIRs for 22 other cancers were found. Although etiological inferences cannot be drawn from these ecological data, the excesses of lung cancer among men seem likely to be due to previously reported risks among underground miners from exposure to radon gas and its decay products. Smoking, socioeconomic factors or ethnicity may also have contributed to the lung cancer excesses observed in our study. The stomach cancer increase was highest before the uranium mill began operation and then decreased to normal levels. With the exception of male lung cancer, this study provides no

  16. Dietary intake of B vitamins and methionine and risk of lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassett, J K; Hodge, A M; English, D R; Baglietto, L; Hopper, J L; Giles, G G; Severi, G

    2012-02-01

    B vitamins and related enzymes involved in one-carbon metabolism are necessary for DNA replication, DNA repair and regulation of gene expression. Disruption of one-carbon mechanism may affect cancer risk. We investigated prospectively the relationship between dietary intakes of methionine, B vitamins associated with one-carbon metabolism and risk of lung cancer. The Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study recruited 41,514 men and women aged 40-69 years between 1990 and 1994. During follow-up of 14,595 men and 22,451 women for an average of 15 years, we ascertained 348 incident lung cancers. Dietary intake of B vitamins and methionine was estimated from a 121-item food frequency questionnaire. Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using Cox regression. In current smokers, dietary intake of riboflavin was inversely associated with lung cancer risk (HR=0.53; 95% CI: 0.29-0.94, fifth versus first quintile; P-linear trend=0.01). No associations were found for former or never smokers or for dietary intake of any of the other B vitamins or methionine. Overall, we found little evidence of an association between B vitamins or methionine and lung cancer risk. The weak inverse association between riboflavin and lung cancer risk in current smokers needs further investigation.

  17. Opium could be considered an independent risk factor for lung cancer: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masjedi, Mohammad Reza; Naghan, Parisa Adimi; Taslimi, Shervin; Yousefifard, Mahmoud; Ebrahimi, Seyyed Meisam; Khosravi, Adnan; Karimi, Shirin; Hosseini, Mostafa; Mortaz, Esmaeil

    2013-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide, and half of all incident lung cancers are believed to occur in the developing countries, including Iran. We investigated the association of opium with the risk of lung cancer in a case-control study. We enrolled 242 cases and 484 matched controls in this study. A questionnaire was developed, containing questions on basic demographic characteristics, as well as lifelong history of smoking cigarettes, exposure to passive smoking, opium use and alcohol consumption. For smoking cigarettes and opium and also oral opium intake frequency, duration and cumulative use were categorized into three groups: no use, low use and high use. Conditional logistic regression was used to calculate the odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Multivariate analysis in men showed that after adjusting for the effect of ethnicity, education and pack years of smoking cigarettes, smoking opium remained as a significant independent risk factor with an OR of 3.1 (95% CI 1.2-8.1). In addition, concomitant heavy smoking of cigarettes and opium dramatically increased the risk of lung cancer to an OR of 35.0 (95% CI 11.4-107.9). This study demonstrated that smoking opium is associated with a high risk of lung cancer as an independent risk factor. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. The Impact of Adjustment for Socioeconomic Status on Comparisons of Cancer Incidence between Two European Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David W. Donnelly

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Cancer incidence rates vary considerably between countries and by socioeconomic status (SES. We investigate the impact of SES upon the relative cancer risk in two neighbouring countries. Methods. Data on 229,824 cases for 16 cancers diagnosed in 1995–2007 were extracted from the cancer registries in Northern Ireland (NI and Republic of Ireland (RoI. Cancers in the two countries were compared using incidence rate ratios (IRRs adjusted for age and age plus area-based SES. Results. Adjusting for SES in addition to age had a considerable impact on NI/RoI comparisons for cancers strongly related to SES. Before SES adjustment, lung cancer incidence rates were 11% higher for males and 7% higher for females in NI, while after adjustment, the IRR was not statistically significant. Cervical cancer rates were lower in NI than in RoI after adjustment for age (IRR: 0.90 (0.84–0.97, with this difference increasing after adjustment for SES (IRR: 0.85 (0.79–0.92. For cancers with a weak or nonexistent relationship to SES, adjustment for SES made little difference to the IRR. Conclusion. Socioeconomic factors explain some international variations but also obscure other crucial differences; thus, adjustment for these factors should not become part of international comparisons.

  19. Evaluation of cancer incidence among employees at the Los Alamos National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acquavella, J.F.; Wilkinson, G.S.; Wiggs, L.D.; Tietjen, G.L.; Key, C.R.

    1983-01-01

    As part of the National Plutonium Workers Study, cancer incidence for 1969 to 1978 among employees of the Los Alamos National Laboratory was investigated. Incident cancers were identified by a computer match of the Los Alamos employed roster against New Mexico Tumor Registry files. The resulting numbers of total and site-specific cancers were compared to the numbers expected based on incidence rates for the State of New Mexico, specific for age, sex, ethnicity, and calendar period. For Anglo males, significantly fewer cancers than expected (SIR = 0.60, 95% CI 0.44 to 0.79) were found. This resulted from marked deficits of smoking-related cancers, particularly lung (2 observed, 19.4 expected) and oral (1 observed, 6.5 expected) cancer. Similarly, no smoking-related cancers were detected among Anglo females, though they had a slight nonsignificant excess of breast cancer (14 observed, 9.1 expected) and a suggestive excess of cancer of the uterine corpus (2 observed, 0.25 expected). The pattern of cancerincidence among Anglo employees is typical of high social class populations and not likely related to the Los Alamos working environment

  20. Effects of 500-year mercury mining and milling on cancer incidence in the region of Idrija, Slovenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zadnik, Vesna; Pompe-Kirn, Vera

    2007-09-01

    The aim of the study was to determine whether the 500-year of mercury mining and milling in the Idrija region in Slovenia and the resulting environmental pollution with mercury and smelting wastes containing radon, has caused an increased cancer risk of the inhabitants. The polluted and the non-polluted parts of the region were defined. Cancer incidence from the two regions was compared. Cancer incidence among miners was investigated separately. In the polluted area male and female cancer incidence was higher than in the non-polluted area. Miners had an excess of incidence of total cancer, of oral and pharyngeal cancers and of lung cancer. As indicated by multivariate analysis the increased risk of miners could be assigned to their smoking and alcohol drinking habits. Higher estimated cumulative exposure to inorganic mercury seems to contribute to their risk as well. Most of the excess cancer incidence of the population from the polluted area could be explained by an unhealthy life style. In the case of lung cancer radon exposure contributes to the increased risk as well. Therefore, a well planed health promotion program and further sanitation of old houses is proposed.

  1. Incidental renal tumours on low-dose CT lung cancer screening exams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinsky, Paul F; Dunn, Barbara; Gierada, David; Nath, P Hrudaya; Munden, Reginald; Berland, Lincoln; Kramer, Barnett S

    2017-06-01

    Introduction Renal cancer incidence has increased markedly in the United States in recent decades, largely due to incidentally detected tumours from computed tomography imaging. Here, we analyze the potential for low-dose computed tomography lung cancer screening to detect renal cancer. Methods The National Lung Screening Trial randomized subjects to three annual screens with either low-dose computed tomography or chest X-ray. Eligibility criteria included 30 + pack-years, current smoking or quit within 15 years, and age 55-74. Subjects were followed for seven years. Low-dose computed tomography screening forms collected information on lung cancer and non-lung cancer abnormalities, including abnormalities below the diaphragm. A reader study was performed on a sample of National Lung Screening Trial low-dose computed tomography images assessing presence of abnormalities below the diaphragms and abnormalities suspicious for renal cancer. Results There were 26,722 and 26,732 subjects enrolled in the low-dose computed tomography and chest X-ray arms, respectively, and there were 104 and 85 renal cancer cases diagnosed, respectively (relative risk = 1.22, 95% CI: 0.9-1.5). From 75,126 low-dose computed tomography screens, there were 46 renal cancer diagnoses within one year. Abnormalities below the diaphragm rates were 39.1% in screens with renal cancer versus 4.1% in screens without (P cancer cases versus 13% of non-cases had abnormalities below the diaphragms; 55% of cases and 0.8% of non-cases had a finding suspicious for renal cancer (P cancers. The benefits to harms tradeoff of incidental detection of renal tumours on low-dose computed tomography is unknown.

  2. Emerging roles of RAC1 in treating lung cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, T; Mao, X; Yin, J; Li, X; Chen, J; Zhu, T; Li, Q; Zhou, H; Liu, Z

    2017-04-01

    The Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1 (RAC1), a member of the Rho family of small guanosine triphosphatases, is critical for many cellular activities, such as phagocytosis, adhesion, migration, motility, cell proliferation, and axonal growth. In addition, RAC1 plays an important role in cancer angiogenesis, invasion, and migration, and it has been reported to be related to most cancers, such as breast cancer, gastric cancer, testicular germ cell cancer, and lung cancer. Recently, the therapeutic target of RAC1 in cancer has been investigated. In addition, some investigations have shown that inhibition of RAC1 can reverse drug-resistance in non-small cell lung cancer. In this review, we summarize the recent advances in understanding the role of RAC1 in lung cancer and the underlying mechanisms and discuss its value in clinical therapy. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Endobronchial Ultrasound Changed the World of Lung Cancer Patients: A 11-Year Institutional Experience.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Hung Chen

    Full Text Available The role of advanced bronchoscopic diagnostic techniques in the detection and staging of lung cancer has increased sharply in recent years. The development of endobronchial ultrasound (EBUS improved minimally invasive mediastinal staging and diagnosis of peripheral lung lesions (PLLs. We investigated the impact of using EBUS as a diagnostic method for tissue acquisition in lung cancer patients.In a single center observational retrospective study, 3712 subjects were diagnosed with lung cancer from 2003 to 2013 (EBUS was introduced in 2008. Thus, we divided the data into two periods: the conventional bronchoscopy period (2003 to 2007 and the EBUS period (2008 to 2013.A total of 3712 patients were included in the analysis. Comparing the conventional bronchoscopy period with the EBUS period data, there has been a significant reduction in the use of diagnostic modalities: CT-guided biopsy (P < 0.0001 and pleural effusion cytology (P < 0.0001. The proportion of subjects diagnosed using bronchoscopy significantly increased from 39.4% in the conventional period to 47.4% in the EBUS period (P < 0.0001. In the EBUS period, there has also been a significant increase in the proportion of patients proceeding directly to diagnostic surgery (P < 0.0001. Compared to bronchoscopy, the incidence of complications was higher in those who underwent CT guide biopsy. The incidence of iatrogenic pneumothorax significantly decreased in the EBUS period.Advanced bronchoscopic techniques are widely used in the diagnosis of lung cancer. At our institution, the increasing use of EBUS for providing lung cancer diagnosis has led to a significant reduction in other diagnostic modalities, namely CT-guided biopsy and pleural effusion cytology. These changes in practice also led to a reduction in the incidence of complications.

  4. Endobronchial Ultrasound Changed the World of Lung Cancer Patients: A 11-Year Institutional Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chia-Hung; Liao, Wei-Chih; Wu, Biing-Ru; Chen, Chih-Yu; Chen, Wei-Chun; Hsia, Te-Chun; Cheng, Wen-Chien; Tu, Chih-Yen; Hsu, Wu-Huei

    2015-01-01

    The role of advanced bronchoscopic diagnostic techniques in the detection and staging of lung cancer has increased sharply in recent years. The development of endobronchial ultrasound (EBUS) improved minimally invasive mediastinal staging and diagnosis of peripheral lung lesions (PLLs). We investigated the impact of using EBUS as a diagnostic method for tissue acquisition in lung cancer patients. In a single center observational retrospective study, 3712 subjects were diagnosed with